Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the Queen's County"

See other formats










3 1833 00725 7956 




BY vr ) 






oui-:i':x's county, i^y act of 



ID u b I i u : 
S K A L Y , B R Y E R S & W A L K E R 



./// ri-ii/s rewrved. 






VOL. I, 






< 2 




L), fe.* 


»-> . •• 













/ ^ 



. (1 



H ■'■ 

-^ N 1 1 



J?" E - 








•■ "1 















'P, ^' 



C' ' 














k— '' 




ANiiouARiAK Map 


uEEX's County. 

Thb Ai '•) hors . 

^V'' 'Clfnifl^ic 

■'_-:»; ^Bn^.iMo ":'kj4l.S2»,»oA,// I, """„ -l ., ' ^ 




c'h'ni/.yyooDS s 

/lno(f//r, i'' Criiiltlown "'j'/''-; 

> An r<I«mpuM 

■ ■■-j.'-.icCiaf'-- 

■■.„ . ,^ /ji. - ->:;••••; / 

V \ I ■ i'l 

^ -f ,^ j^-.-,.__ .-„p,^,,„ 


£-:^:: Z_ ^_.j 


:l.Cli)Oin Otin<a ch 1 

'If ,S a"" 



>^-H"^ . ... 



"Porterlingron 5 
\ Leo bhu'c 


LnruUiMCoi ;)o/i r.V.ANi.VCir S 

,' BoU,,b..tla-, V I 

" ^J/-^'\_CU(ni^tiin)_innia(D)Ul Id^tilCT. 




<■ !rri'Ai>l!.\u.r 11^^°^°'^ : Rfg.iv? 

f -■■■■■■ ' -^'^K 

\ ' 

I'RIXT];i) \\\ 

MiDDij-. Ar.i;i:v sti<f.i;t, 



P R E F A C E 

AIanv }'cars Iia\'c now passed since tlie pr()ject. of writin;^ tlie 1 listory 
oftlie Queen's C(iunt_\- was seriouslx-entertained. ]^ut altlioug'h materials 
for a work of tliis kind hail been collected and prepared at intervals 
b}^ the Author, other literar)' en^ai^^enients and still more pressing 
occupations prevetited the accomplishment of such a task and almost 
precluded the hope of time and opportunic)' bemg afforded to 
complete it. Not alone was it required to glean from manuscript and 
printed sciurces those rec()rds which serve to illustrate the subject 
and to arrange the topics and chronological sequence of events in a 
s)'stematic form, but it was found to be most desirable to examine 
and describe those monuments remaining — man)' from a pre-historic 
[period — that the arch.eological problems of each locality might have 
a more scientilic distinctness for the consideration of antiquaries. 
This independent investigation has been made at various times, and 
with the greatest exactness within the power (jf the author. 

]^ersonall\' and at frequent intervals its uKjnuments remaining in 
their varii)us localities have been examined and described, as also 
sketched on the spot. 

The want for a IIist(jr/of the Queen's ('(junty has long been 
complained of, and fearing tliat no more competent person was likely 
to engage on the labour and research requisite to su[)[.>l\' that deficiency, 
the i^resent writer for man\- past years had conceived the project of 
collecting and procuring materials for the pre[xu-ation of such a 
work'. A native of the count)' himself, and familiar from birth with 
its scenes, people, and associations, the subject had f(jr him an interest 
altogether special, and oi)portunities were affcjrdcd by a long-continued 
residence in and near IJublin for constant and read)- access to all its 
public libraries. J'Tom their numerous manuscript and printed 
sources have been gleaned the records and information that mainl)- 
serve to illustrate its archccology, topograph)', and clironological 

Vl I'Kl^KACI-: 

sequence of events, from the earliest l-:no\\n peril id clown to the 
present day. 

To render the study of topoc^-raphy and archaeology interesting 
and satisfactory to the general reader, it is necessary to present fairly 
accurate maps of ancient territorial divisions in connection with the 
natural features of a localit)- where no material changes of depression 
or elevation have occurred — at least within historic times. This task 
lias been accomyjlished in the present histor\' ol the Oueen's County. 
Before the close ^A' tlie fourteenth centur)- sufficient dcscrii)tions of 
tlistricts have been furnished to determine the chief boundaries of the 
tribe lands at that jieriod. Accordingl)- a ma() has been prepared to 
show their relative situations, and drawn t(» a scale in its general 
outlines, which corresponds with the measurements on the Ordnance 
Survey maps. And as those tribe lands are not known t(.) have 
greatl}' changed their bounds for man\' centuries pi,^evioiis to that 
time, so ma\' we reasonabl)' C(jnclude they preser\-e a fairly correct rejjre- 
sentation of the ancient Irish tricha-ced or cantred, which has been 
obscured or \'aried C(jnsiderably in the modern distribution of local 

The different topics introduced are treated as far as possible in a 
natural sequence and with scientific arrangement, and the author has been 
fortunate to secure for his assistants in the Natural Ilistor)' Di\'ision 
gentlemen of the highest scientific and scholarl)' attainments, to wh(nn 
respectively he has the honour of acknowledging his deej) obligations. 
Among those he particularl)' desires to distinguish are the following in 
the Division of Natural I listory :— the late Mr. Joseph W O'Reilly, 
M.R.I. A., and formerly Secretary to the College of Science, Dublin ; I\Tr. 
Alexander M'llenry, Geological Survey u{ Ireland; Dr. lulward 
Perceval Wright, M.R.I. A., formerlx' J'rofessor of J-Jotan)- in Trinity 
College, Dublin; Mr. Robert Llo>d Praeger, M.R.I. A., Assistant 
Librarian in the National Library of Ireland ; Dr. Robert \\ Scharff, 
B.Sc, Keeper of the Natural History Collections in the Science and 
Art Museum, Kildare Street, Dublin ; Mr. Arthur M'.ALUion, Colt Stud 
Farm, Abbeyleix ; and Mr. James A. Mulhall, Pass House, Maryborough. 
Without the co-operation of these gentlemen, so eminent in their various 
walks of science, the Natural I listory section of this work could not 
have been well untlertaken and accomplished by the i)resent writer, 
owing to his deficienc)' of knowledge for the treatment of these 
special subjects. In this connection also his acknowledgments are 



<ii:r .lU'l ;.ralefiill_\- U-iidcrcil lu Dr. Tatrick W. jnyce, M.R.I. A., and Mr. 
I'.ilrii.k ()'K\aii tor lludr a^-sihlaiicc in <lcfinin;_; tlic derivation and 
nu.Miiiii.; "\ \:'\>h naino of ])lac(js in the count)' an.d the Irish 
Maim;-' ;.;i\'n in t)M!.an\' to trees and sliruhs, as lil<;e\vise to animals 
under t!ie liead < .i '/.'^"Irj^y. 

In ti'.e l•■.ecI(■■>ia^tieal, Dioce-^.m, and Parochial 1 1 ist<3r\' those local 
in. !<ifn'o alone are nventie)ned that have special reference to these 
tli'i i-i.'n . , other jjarticulars that ha\'c a i^eneral application to more 
inr^-rtanl e\e!its are reserved for the subsequent narrative. Under 
:h'- paridies are included nearl)- all that refers to their condition, 
"r,;ani/.atioii, description, townland denominations, chief [)laces and 
ohjciN of interest, e^])eciall)' their ecclesiastical and civil arran^^e- 
nvnl->. h'or further details the reader is referred to the Right Rev. 
JM-hop C'omerford's \aluable work, "Collecticjns relating to the 
Oiocese-^ of Kildare and Leighlin," which contains a great amount 
of .iddiiioual and valuable information, and to the waluablc and 
«;\Iiauslive work of the V. Rev. \V. Carrigan, DA)., " The Mistory and 
Anliijuities of the I )iocese of Ossory." " ddie (ieneral View of the 
A;.,ri' uiinre ,i!.d Manufictures of the Queen's Count)'," by Sir 
< Ii..r!c. i'<,'>[r Hart., compiled at the instcmce ^A the Dublin Society, 
!■> oj' ur.d' 'ubled autiioritN' on the-^e particular subjects towards the 
clo-.c "f iiu- ciglueenth and beginning of the nineteenth century ; but 
t!i(.: h!^t'.:i<al milter is defecti\'e and s(jmetimes inaccurate. It 
tlirows !;);;c!i light, however, on the s(.»cial state of the various classes 
ol' mli.i'ui.uils at the period in question. I'he biograi^hical sketch of 
U.r bi- 1. .p> an 1 the account of diocesan affairs is necessaril)' much 
.d»l»r<;'.ialed. a> otherwise this work should be enlarged to undue 
pri'porli •!,•. N'ct the sources for ku-ther investigation are generally 
.tlUuicd lo ill ti)e notes. 


M. M.\KV'>. .>i\K Ol nil-. .^l.A, 

.•-^ \N n^M< >rN i, 
1 Xi.i.ix. 

After a long life of intellectual labour the venerable author was, 
at its clo-,e. but midwa)' through the [M'eseut W(jrk. hdlled with 
appn-liendoii f,)!- its future comi)letion, he made an apjieal tome for 
liclp, grounding his claim on a lifelong friendship. The circumstances 

Vlll PRKl ACE 

were sufficientl}' touching to oblij^e mc to accept the respoiisibiHty 
which ni_\' friend laid upon mc, and take up the work where he laid it 
down. J5ut it was the fear alone that his labours should remain 
unfinished which could induce me to undertake such a i;rave oblii^a- 
tion, unequipped as I was for such a tasl-:. h'or the rest I can trul\' 
say that I have endeavoured to carr)' out the work in complete 
harmon\' with the views of the author, and in strict obedience to the 
instructions which he communicated from his death bed. 

A second map has been pro\'ided for the w(_)rk — an exact co[)}' (j. 
the rare and ancient maj) of Leix and ( )fral)\ n(jw preserved in the 
]h-itish Museum. It is hoiked that this will prove hel[3ful to the 
student, and also that the illustrations scattered thrtai^^h the work 
will assist him to form a C()rrect idea of the historical remain.s existing 
in the count}'. 

With all diffidence I beg to present to the readepCanon O'Hanlon's 
History of the Queen's County. 


St IMiciiakl's, Portarlington, 
Alliens/, 1907. 

C O N T E N T S 



f^'- 3. 

line ]() 

, for ' 


,, -y. 


■• 23 


,, " 





., 30. 



,. 31, 





1 10 


for " 

., 150 

., 18, 


.. 17Q 

,. 10, 


.. 222 


,, " 

., 285 


,, " 

.. 303 



-> 353 

,, 15. 



„ 25, 

for " 

.. 3^)0 

,, 14. 


.. 105 

" 3i' 



















Shreiil " read " Slirule." 
nislies " read " Ivuslies." 
as " read " tliou^di." 
Diinro]l\' " re;id " Diinrallv." 
had " read " ha\'e." 
" were." 
to " after " sujiposed." 
' coiniuendom " read 
' ever " read " even." 
race " read " trace." 
' anentire " read " an entire." 
Ei)hraims " read " R]4n':iim." 
' Ballylchane " read " Ball 
anil " after " foun(ler>." 
Leixy " read " Leix." 
ehar,L;e " read " of." 
for " afler " ] >i rp.ii ed." 










Att.\n.V(;ii, I'ari.sii of 
Ballvad.\ms, Parish of 
Ballykoan, Parish of 
BoRDWELL, Parish of 
Borris, Parish of 
Castlf-brack, Parish of 
Clonenagh and Ci.onaghei 

Parishes of 
CLOYDAL-.H, Parish of 
Cooi.ranac.her, Parish of 
C.'ooLKiuHo , Parish of 
Curraclone or Corclonic, p.' 
donaghmore, parish of.. 
DuRRow, Parish of 
Dysart Enos, Parish of 
Dysert Galen, Parish of 
Erkic 01^ I'.iKKi;, Parish of 











\ V ■ ^ , 



- ? 






I Ci 1 



' * 


5 y J 






, for " Shrcul " read " Sl>nilt.'." 
,, " rushes " read " Kuslit-s." ^ 

,, " as " read " tliou^di." 
,, " Duiirolly " re;id " Dinirallv." 
,, " luid " read " have." 
omit " were," 

read "to" after "supposed." 
for " comiuendom " read " coniuiendani. 
e\'er " read " even." 
race " reatl " trace." 
auentire " read " an entire." 
Ej)liraims " read " [^)iliraini." 
Ballylehane " read " IS.dlylclune." 
(jniit " antl " after " founcU'i'-." 
for " Leix}' " read " Leix." 
alter " charge " reail " ol." 
omit " lor " after " pie]i.ired." 

C O iN T E N T S 

CiiAiTER Vac.e 

1. — Geography, Boi'ndakii s, Exti;nt and Divisions . . i 

II. — CiEOLOtiY, Minerals, 1'al.eontoi.ogy and I>"ossils . . 4 
I[l. — Climate, Si3IL, Suri-ace, Boc.s, Eskers, Ali.un'ial Teats, 

Scenery and Natl'ral Curiosities .. .. 14 

IV. — Mountains and Miles .. .. .. .. 20 

V. — Rivers, Bakes and Water Courses .. .. .. 24 

\T. — Botany — Trees and Shrues .. .. .. .. 2.S 

VII. — I30TANY — Flora .. .. .. .. .. 35 

VIII. — Zoology, Fauna — \Vild Animals .. .. .. jS 

IX. — Zoology, — Domesticated Animals * .. .. 45 


I. — Monumi;nts and Antiquities . . . . . . . . 54 

II. — Local L1',gends of the I're-IIi.->toric Period . . . . Oi 

III. — Ancient Clanships, Land Deno.minations and Old Roads 63 

IV. — Ancient Tribes and Tribal Divisions . . . . . . G(^ 

V. — Pagan Incidents of Queen's County History .. .. 81 


I. — Early Bishops and Sees Within the Queen's County 

and Subsequent Ecclesiastical Distributions . . 90 

IF — The Queen's County Portion of Kildare Diocese 93 

HI. — The Queen's County Portion of Leighlin Diocese .. 117 

IV. — The Queen's County Portion of Ossory Diocese .. 130 

V. — Parochial Divisions : Abueylei.x, Parish of . . . . 149 

VI. ,, ,, ■ Aghaboi:, Parish of .. .. 156 


VIII. ,, ,, Ardica OR Arpri.a, Parish of 17S 

IX. ,, ,, Attanagh, Parish of .. .. 180 

X. ,, ,, Bally.\dams, Parish of . . .. 181 

XL ,, ,, • Ballyroan, Parish of . . .. 1S6 

XII. ,, ,, Bordwell, Parish of . . . . 190 

XIII. ,, ,, BoRRis, Parish of . . . . 191 

XIV. ,, , Castlebrack, Parish of . . 198 

XV. ,, ,, Clonenagii and Clonagheen, 

Parishes of . . . . 200 

XVF ,, ,, Cloydagh, Parish of . . . . 216 

XVII. ,, ,, Coolbanagher, Parish of . . 21S 

XVIII. ,. .. Cll(lLKl:RI;^ , Parish of .. .. 222 

XIX. ,, ,, t.'uRRACLONE or CoRCLONi', Parish OF 222 

XX. ,, ,, DONAGHMORE, PaRISII OF.. .. 224 

XXI. ,, ,, DURROW, Parish of .. 225 

XXTI. ,, ,, Dysart Enos, Parish of . . 227 

XXIIF ,, ,, Dysert Galen, Parish of .. 231 

XXIV. ,, ,, Erke or ICiRKE, Parish of . . 23(3 



XX\ II. 

-Parochial Divisiuns 



Parish of . . . . . . 246 

killabban, parish or . . . . 247 

KiLUHLLiG, Parish of . . . . 252 

KiLLENNY, Parish of . . . . 254 


KiLLESHiN, Parish of . . . . ' 2'^j 

KiLMANMAN, PaRISH OF . . . . 200 

KiLTEAL, Parish oi' . . . . 269 

Kyle of Clonfert IMolua, Parish of 277 

Lea, Parish of . . . . 280 

^Monksgrange, Parish of . . 2S9 

MoYANNA, Parish of . . . . 291 

Offerlane, ]\\rish of . . . . 294 

Rathaspick, Parish of . . . . 300 

Rathdowney, Parish of . . 304 

Rathsaran, Parish of . . . . 30-, 

Rearymore or Rer'i'more, Parish of 306 

ROSCONNELL, PaRISII OF . . 30:^, Parish of . . . . 309 

Shrule, Parish of .. .. 314 

Skirk or Skeirke, Parish of .. 310 

Sleaty or Sletty, Parish of . . 317 

Straboe, Parish of .. « .. 321 

Stradbally, Parish of . . . . 323 

Tankardstown, Parish of . . 336 

Tecolm, Parish of . . . . ^li? 

Timogue, Parish of . . . . 33S 

Tullovvmoy, Parish of . . . . 340 



— Annai.s 








— .Vnn'als 








— Ankals 




— Annai.s 




— Annai s 








— Annai.s 


r 1 1 !•; 


— Annai.s 




— Annals 




— Annals 




— Annals 




— Annals 



Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Clntur 
RiGHTH and Ninth Centuries 
Tenth Centcky. 
Elevf.nth Centi'ry 
Twelfth Ci':ntur\' 
Thirteenth Century 

FOUKTICENTH Ci;NTI'RY, 1350 Tfl 1401 

I'"ii'"Ti';i:.NTii (TiNTURY, 140010 144S . 
Fifteenth Century, 1449 to 1500 . 
Sixteenth Century, 1500 to 1547 . 
Sixteenth Century, 1547-S 
Sixteenth Century, 1549-1552 
Sixteenth Century, 1553-1557 


30 S 
43 5 


I III N'oHJ ^T PiKkfuv 

1 iij V.^. >. 'ii I>iN,\M \*i: 

i MS. \ %-.■•• Mam. IK 

I ((> !>«' H's \i T \i; 

l!r-!(,)l <)'1>1 I \NV's TdMli, JlKIlilNT AliHr.V 

Mil m,m; \\ O'MuOKKs TuMii AT .\i;i!i:vf.i;ix 
\.,i(\:'.<; (Am II. ST Pauish Ciipkch, Kimns, Ai'.bev CnuKrn, 
I'k! I w's CuAi'i : 

A'.i' v!'.'ii. (I'ki>m I.I ii\'.I(1i"s .1 ).'/;;/;(.'//c <. kSu4) 

I 111. < K J .-. \wllAl.nI. 

\s.t!". I <'Mri.:cii 'I (IV, 11-. A'.llAl'.dl 

!».. a:-,\ \v '>:■ < una 11 Tuv.iK, A(.n\r.oi-: 

\m vv :'.:■■ \',t}L\\'-. < !i Ml I. Hid-.'. Ai;i;r.v Cini;! ii 

A . I { :■ V . \ SI : 

Jvi- \t •,:•.,! VI !';■:■ •.i;v 

1 »>3 !i- • •. 1 N N'l -a V!I M 

^! tt •.!••' 'I .,kr 

}{i i'»t» !) < V :: J J V \, K t nrivi II 

'••::r < f • *• ;i ! ;•>» V* K ('avti i: 

>: I :-i ;*•.'•»< lit K<:!!. <i '>%< va(,ii 

<«:it i» \ t < • :; I 

t, t ■ / V : ! V • . i« C H r K i H 

< 1 »« >.■ I (r^r. rurtK If 

( < -.: ji 1*. *.,M» w C'\sTil 

i'.vi: m*. i..tii »' ("iicia 11 

J »\ •.«»:!!•.<.>. ('ini;(!i 

In •» '.» : 1. v: : » ■. < ir ;-u ;i 


15^1 t,Vt % '> \N <"lMKCl( 

Vni.s <H!iun (Tjs \i riNir.s) 

Ki'. ! Si I'^N Cm Kill 
KmiMUN I>(K>>-.VAV 

K:t V %SM \s CniKMi 

♦ ■(>KHIf,!I N 

K'.'.i y^\ ( iii.Kt II 
Km tiki •in kcii 

Km MlkKAY ('llIK( H 

( \iii!t-NAc;>)r)'i i.'s ll'irsi; 

■~ I, M'! •■a\ CfHAVI, 




] 06 
I (j(' 







-7 3 
27 S 


Site of St. jNIolua's Arbey 
Lea Church 

Lea Castle from the East 


Ballvaddan Church from the South 

Tierhogar Church 

Cloneyhurke ('asti.e and Church 

Monksgrange Church 

Monyanna Church and Graveyaud 


P.kidge icrectkd i;Y James, son of IIfxrv C.rattan, 

St. Kavan's W'eel and Stone, Anatrim 

Ancient Stone-roofed Building in Anatrim Churchy 

Barony Church, Lisdowney 

Churchtown Church, South \'ie\v 

Site of St. Kieran's "Monastery. Errill 

Errill Cross 

Errill Church from South-west 

Rearymore Church 

St. Finian's Well 


The Moate of Skirkf. 
Sleaty Cross 
Straboe Church 
Tankardstown Church 
Tecolm Church 
Clopook Church 








iHAr ri-'.R I.— Gkogkapiiv, I^oundaries, Extent and 


Tut yu->i:nl Oncfirs (^ounty is inland, bounded on the north by 
tJ.r Kinj:'s County, and largely by the River Barrow, along that line ; 
«•:» ! !k- iMst, tlif- ^anic ri\'er also separates it from the County of 
KsM-irc, ••\c-«-i)i in a small north-eastern portion, where that county 
|':«»?nj(li'd iH-y.tnd it towards the west ; still lower, on the east and south- 
east, i". till- County of Carlow, lieyond the River Barrow ; on the south, 
»l b K>und«<! by the County of Kilkenny ; while on the west, the County 
"l lies towards its south-western line, and the King's 
County more iviithorniy bounds it — the range of Slieve Blocm 
>!-ns!;!.Kns s;><.'cially marking the latter di\'ision as a natural boundary. 
Thr OiuH-n\ County extends from 52^^ 45" to 53° 13" north latitude, 
•irxi It u.\> li' s from d"" 54" to j''' 47" west longitude from Greenwich 
o}r,rr".'.itory.' As in the ancient times of Leix and Offally, so at 

jvrr'si-iit, tl.i- loniity i- attached to the province of Leinster. 

Thr •'li-ijic (tf this entire district is very compact and regular ; 
|}i« ra>{, M.uth and west boundary lines being nearly equal to one 
4mjth«'T, w!iil«- the north line is considerably smaller— thus presenting 
llirr Ji^'UTc of an irregular square. The longest straight line, that 
«4nJ«' duxwn within its limits, extends 36^ miles south-westward; 
l!*<; n<-\t K)ni,'c>t extends 35I miles south-eastward ; the longest that 
rjin l«c dr.iwM cast to west is 32 miles ; while the longest that can be 
»!;av.n tluc s^'ujlhward extends 26.I miles. 2 

To-.*.ird> tlie close- of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
iuiH!ri-j;t}j c<-ntury, the superfices was estimated to contain 235,300 
afrrt..* Iri^h |)lantation measure, including bogs, mountains, and 
\*.« Since then, the whole has been most accurately and 
^iK-ntili* ally surveytd, but on the scale of English acreage. Ihe of the whoir district has been found to cover an extent of 

» .S<r " Thr .\a!ion:il G.-uettccr," vol. iii., Churches, Monastic Buildings, Antiquities 
IK i(i7 l>.f^i!..i>, i.VjS. Svo. and Natural Curiosities," p. 127. Dublin, 

* .S-r *' l'.irlt.ii!K-ntiiry (iazcitccr of Ire- 1815, 8vo. 

IxrA." vol. iii., p. 97. Dublin, London, ■* According to the statement which is con- 

aad litliuburvjh, 1^46, loyal iivo. tained in the Rev. Dr. Daniel Augustus 

* .Scr "The Tr.ivciler's New Guide Beaufort's "Memoir of a Map of Ireland, 
thro;:t;h Ireland, containing a New and illustrating the Topography of that kingdom, 
trcxtitc DcM;ription of the Ro.ids, with and containing a short Account of its present 
r.\riiculars of all the dilTerent Towns, State, Civil and Ecclesiastical," &c., p. 58. 
Vina^;r>, Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Seats, Dublin, 1792, 410. 


2 ■ HISTORY OF THE qukrn's couxtv 


664 square miles. The area of tlie entire county contained 542,422 
acres of arable land ; 69,289 of uncultivatctl land, 1 1,630 of continuous 
plantations, 1,117 i-"itler towns, and 396 acres are under water. ^ In 
all, the county comprises 424,854 acres. '^ 

For civil purposes the County at present is di^-ided into eleven 
baronies : viz. Ballyadams, Clandonagli, Clarmallagh, Cullenagh, 
Maryborough East, Maryborough West, Portnahinch, Slievemargy, 
Stradball}', Tinnehinch and Upperwoocls. Ecclesiastically, it takes in 
the greater part of the existing Diocese of Lcighlin, as also of a con- 
siderable portion belonging to Ossory, and a small area of the Dioceses 
of Kildare and Killaloe. The parishes or parts of parishes are fifty-three 
in number ; and under the heading of the Baronies are thus distributed. 
Ballyadams," includes two whole parishes, and part of six other parishes ; 
thus it comprehends the whole of the parishes of Grange and Tecolm, 
and part of the parishes of Ballyadams, Killabin, Rathaspeck, St. 
John's of Athy, Tankardstown, and Tullymo)'. Clandonagli^ takes 
in four whole parishes, and part of five other parishes. It contains 
the whole of the parishes of Donaghmore, K\'le, Rathsaran, and 
Skirk, with part of the parishes of Aghaboe, Bordwell, Coolkerry, 
Eirkc, and Rathdowney. Its towns and villages are Borris-in-Ossory, 
Donaghmore, and Rathdowney. Clarmallagh v lias tlnee entire jxuishcb 
and part of five other parishes. This baron}- contains the whole of 
the ]:)arishes of Aghmacart, Kildellig, and Killermogh. with part of the 
parishes of Abbcyleix, Aghaboe, Aharney, Attanagh, Bordwell, Cool- 
kerry, Durrow, Eirke, Glashare, Rathdowney and Rosconnell. The 
chief scats of population are Ballycolla and Durrow. Cullenagh^*' 
has three whole parishes and part of five other parishes. This barony 
contains part of the parishes of Abbeyleix, Clonenagh, Fossy, Kil- 
colemanbane, and Rosconnell ; and the whole of the parishes of 

' At the present time allowance must up 235,300 or 367 square miles, but onlv 

be made for the incidental alterations which 164,526 of these acres pay county cess, and 

have taken place, and especially in the are rated as profitable ground in the county 

general surface features, since the Re[)ort book ; so that there would remain 70,774 

had been furnished. acres of bog, mountain, and waste lands, 

^ Such is the actual measurement accord- hut this being the old estimate we may 

ing to the Report of William Donnell}', l.iirly conclude, tliat 30,000 acres would be 

Rugistrar-General of the Agricultural and too higli a calculation of waste, or lands now 

Immigration Statistics Office, 12th December, remaining unprofitable ; such rapid strides 

1S61. Census of Ireland. " General Alpha- towards improvement have steadily been 

betical Index to the Townlands and Towns, made here of late years, and the value of 

Parishes and Baronies of Ireland, showing reclaimed bog is now so generally under- 

the Number of the Sheet in which they stO(.)d." — " General ^'iew of the Agriculture 

appear; the Areas of the Townlands, and Manufictures of the Queen's Cmnitv," 

Parishes, and Baronies ; the County, Barony, chap, i., sect, i., pp. i, 2, Dublin, iSoi, Svo. 
Parish, and Poor Law Union in which the ■ "^ Ballyadams contains 24,oSi(i zr. i ^p. 

Townlands are situated ; and the Volume statute measure, including ijia. 2r. 24/. of 

and Page of the Townland Census of 1S51, water. 

which contains the Population and Number ^ Clandonagh contains 43; 733a. ir. c^p. 

of Houses in 1S41 and 1S51, and the Poor statute measure, including i8a. 3r. Op. of 

Law Valuation in 1S51." Presented to both water. 

Houses of Parliament by Command of Her " Clarmallagh contains 43,533f. 3'". IQP- 

Majesty. Dublin : Printed by Alexander statute measure, including 27^7. in 20/. of 

Thorn, 87 and S8 Abbey-street, for Her water. 

Majesty's Stationery Office, 1S61. P'olio. ^^ Cullanagli contains 44,094(1. 2/-. [4/). 

It is evident, Sir Charles Coote, who wrote statute measure, including 13a. ir. 26/. of 

in the beginning of the last century, under water. 

estimates the area, even taking the Irish ^^ Maryborough East contains 25,160a. 

measurement which then prevailed: "The or. ijp. statute measure. 

gross number of acres in this countj' make ^- Maryborough West contains 41,914a. 



ltali>T<xiii, Dyscil-riallcn, riiul KilcDlL'uianbrack. The towns are 
AbU-yicix, ]ii!i> and Balliuakill. .Mar)'borough East ^^ includes 
lv.<) entire }JaI■i^hc.s and part of li\c other parislics. The barony of 
N!.ir> I.H.rdUj^h Jia^t contains the whole of Mar)-borough and Straboe 
|>.iris!.cs, a-, also parts of Cloncnagh, D\'sart Enos, I-'ossey, Kilcol- 
lu.iiihaiic, and Kiltcale i^arishcs. The only town in it is Maryborous^h 
- -thf cij^ of tiie (JuLx-n'b County. Maryborough West ^- has only 
a jkirt of two jjaribhci. The barony of ^Maryborough West 

r:ul.;,uc>. the chicl portion of Clonenagh parish, and a small part of 
AitlK-^I'-i-x jxiiish. Mountrath is the only town within it. Port- 
r.»h::;<.:. '^ takes in three whole parishes ; thus within this barony 
l^ .''.f.ic.i. C(K»!banagher and Lea parishes. It also includes a 
j«n: '.! rorlarlington town, as likewise a portion of Alountmellick. 
Jv.dl>i»rittas aiid Irishtown are its chief villages. Slievemargy 1* includes 
ti.trc whole parishes, and part of three other parishes; so that this 
in"iintaiiious barony contains part of the parishes of Cloydagh, Killabin, 
and K.ilhas|K'ck, with the whole of the parishes of Killeshin, Shruel 
auil .S!eat>-. Stradbally^^ has five whole parishes, and part of live 
other i)arishes. The whole of the following parishes are included 
wit):in it : viz. Stradbally, Moyanna, Corclone, Tiniogue, and Killecuiy ; 
t!ic following parishes are only partially contained in it : viz., TuUow- 
tnoy, Ih'sirt Enos, Kiltcale, ISallyadams and an ancient parish called 
l'..iriy(|uillane. ^ The only town within it is Stradbally, and a small 
viH.ige Called Vicarstown. Tinnahinch ^^ contains four whole parishes ; 
.itid the 1 \lcnt of this barony embraces the whole of the parishes of 
Cistlcl-rack. Kilmaninan, Rearymore, and Rosenallis. The only town 
!>. .1 j'lrt (.1 .Mountmellick ; and the principal villages are Clonaslee and 
Kesc-i.tliis. Upperwoods 1^ comprises only one commensurate parisli, 
«-i!K-d Ouerlane, and it includes the villages of Castletown andCoolrain. 
■^ii•i:^ !t may be inferred, that the diocesan and parochial arrange- 
jia-nts were anterior to the baronial ; and as they now exist, most 
pruh.thly their formation may be referred, in general, to the divisions 
tr.Ailc alter the Synod of Kells, held in the year 1152. Some of the 
|».irj>yjcs may date from a much later period; while it is likely, 
tiU'Jcovcr, that their arrangement and boundaries m:iy have undergone 
various changes and modifications, to suit the exigencies or of former ecclesiastical possessors. Under separate 
I'.r.Kin ;{,'>, however, tlieir history, antiquities, statistics, state and 
condition are re-crved for subsequent detailed treatment. 

J'. }op. »iilatc tDr.\surc, includiiiL; 2Ga. or. ^"^ Tinnahinch contains 54, iS7a. or 15^/ 

t/. of w.i!rr. statute measure, including loStz. 2r. 20/. of 

" r^ri:..i;.:!K]» cv.>ir..i;n-i :>5,SJ5'(. H-. ijp. water. 
vU'.utc t:;cj,sur'.-, iiicludi)i- .\^a. T,r. i2p. of " Upperwoods contains 48,926a. 2r. I4;j. 

**'<^'- statute measure. This barony and that 

»• S:je\c::uri7 o 'I. t.iins 55,490a. 2r. 25/). of Marlborough East have only small 

»'.j:u;e meay.uc, inrludin^ 5217. 2r. 30/. of streams, and measured in with the adjoin- 

'"-•'^■'- inij lands, as being simply louyhs ; wiiile the 

" ^•Ia<lt.'al!y cont.iiiis 27,895,7. -^r. 34;;. lar<,re River Barrow has been taken into 

v*a!-.;:c n-.«LSuro, includmg iSa. \r. 30/. of account for the water measurements in other 

*-'cf. baronies. 


CHAPTER II.— Geology, Minerals, Palaeontology, and Fossils 

Until the last century, although some imperfect descriptions of 
the Geology of the Queen's County had been published ; yet, no 
attempt was made to obtain a detailed and truly scientific survey 
and examination of the constituent parts. However, this work has 
been undertaken since by men of acknowledged abilities and attain- 
ments, and their labours must here be briefly noticed. 

In the year 1814, Sir Richard GrifBth produced a very admirable 
Report on the Leinster Coal District^ — mainly confined to the Queen's 
County and County of Kilkenny — and in 1836, he prepared a General 
Map of Ireland- to accompany a Report of the Railway Commissioners. 
This Map was elegantly engraved, contoured, and mounted on fine 
vellum paper of a large size, so that it presents the principal physical 
features and geological structure of all Ireland. It has been geologically 
coloured by hand, moreover, and for all practical purposes, the student 
may find on that portion representing the Queen's County sufficient 
to arrest his intelligent curiosity. On this Map is marked, likewise, 
a Synoptical View of the principal fossils of Irish strata, with numerous 
fossiliferous and mineral localities arranged, as also with reference 
to the Post Towns adjacent.^ Nevertheless, for a much more accurate 
and detailed picture of the geological formation of the Queen's 
County, those Ordnance Survey 5laps, drawn on the scale of one 
inch to a statute mile, and geologically coloured with intelligible 
references to the various districts, are most of all to be preferred.* 
Accompanying those Maps are tracts, containing explanations under 
the head of " Memoirs of the Geological Survey." ^ These have been 
prepared from tlie Reports and descriptions of the surveyors in their 
various districts.'' 

^ Published in Dublin, 1S14. In compiling portion; and Slieets 136, 137 — the .southern 

the present chapter, chietlv writien in the portion, and bordering on the County of 

College of Science, St. Stephen's Green, Kilkenny. 

Dublin, the writer has to acknowledge his * Published by order of the Lords Commis- 

great obligations for the direction and assist- sioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, and 

ance affouied by tlie Secretary, Joseph P. printed in Dublin, by Alexander Thorn, 87 

O'Reilly, M.R.I. A., so eminently conversant and S8 Abbey Street, from iSjSto 1881. 

with Geological Science, and to Ale.vander ^ Thus the Tract for Sheet i iS was written 

McHenry, M.R.I. A., Geologist of the by Joseph O'Kelly, MA. ; the Tract for 

Geological Survey of Ireland, who has care- Sheet liq by J. Beete Jukes, Cieorge V. Du 

fully revised it, and added o'..servations of Noyer, W. H. Baily, W. L. Wilson, Joseph 

his own, especially on the colliery district of O'Kelly, A. B. Wynne ; the Tract for Sheet 

the Queen's County, the late subject of his 126 was written by A. B. Wynne ; the Tract 

personal examination for Government for .Sheet 127, etc., is a valuable " Explana- 

purposes. tory Memoir of the Geology of the Leinster 

^ This was engraved in 1S37-S, and pub- Coal Fickls to accompany Parts of Sheets 

lished by Ilodges, Smith, and Co., Dublin. 127, 128, 136, 137, 145, 146, 147, 155, 156, 

•* Sir Richard J. Griffith, Bart., stated that and 166 of the Maps of the Geological Survey 

it had always been his intention to publish a of Ireland," tiy Edward T. Ilardman, F.C.I., 

Geology of Ireland, but his official duties with l'al?eontological Notes by W. II. Baily, 

pressed so heavily on him that the time to F.G.S. ; the Tract for Sheet 12S was written 

accomplish such a task was never at his dis- by J. Beete Jukes, George H. Kinahan, and 

posal. Lender these circumstances it devolved \V. H. Baily; the Tract for Sheet 136 was 

on G. Henry Kinahan, M.R.I. A., to attempt written by F. J. Foot and J. Beete Jukes; 

it. See Preface to his "Manual of the the Tract for Sheet 137 was written by J. 

Geologyof Ireland," p. V. London, 187S, 8vo. Beete Jukes, G. Henry Kinahan, W. H. 

* The Queen's County is fully shown on Baily, G. V. Du Noyer, and also Notes by 

Sheets 118, 119 — the northern portion; Messrs. W. W.Smyth, W. L. Wilson, and 

Sheets 126, 127, 12S — the major and middle A. Wyley. 


The Lower Silurian — Bala and Llandeilo beds — appear on the 
hi(^ht*r eastern slopes of the Slieve Bloom Mountains, in the Barony 
of Tinnahmch and in that of Portnahinch ; but this formation is not 
wry extensive over the surface of the Queen's County. This Lower 
Silurian also is the most ancient underlying stratum there discovered. 
Ne.xt to it, in the order of time, must be classed the Old Red Sandstone 
formation, which extends along the upper ridges and lower eastern slopes 
of tiie same mountains.' It has a far wider range than the Silurian 
rock. Partial sections of Lower Silurian are found in the Slieve Bloom 
lIi^trict. Tiiese show strong gray and greenish gray grits, inter- 
strati tied with dark gray slates, tiags, and fine olive grits. There are 
also strong greenish and bluish calcareous grits, with bands of dark 
yra)' slate. The Old Red Sandstone of Slieve Bloom consists of coarse 
yellow, gra)', and purplish sandstones, often more or less conglo- 
lueritic. They are interstratilied occasionally with beds of red shale 
and thin red sandstone. Some of the yellow sandstones split readily 
into fligs of excellent quality, and are quarried, being taken from 
their beils in fine slabs. 

Mountain Limestone is the chief substratmn '^ in the Queen's 
("ouiUy. 'i'hcre seems to be a three-fold division in this County 
of limestone formations. There arc bedded limestones below, 
more or less like the lower shaly limestones. Those, when 
followed upwards, lose their bedded character, and take on that 
(jf the- Lenestella t)-pc between the groups. Between such, 
lla-rc m.'iv l)e a distinct boundary ; Init, on account of the Ik. id of drift or bog, this problem cannot vv'ell be proved.^ 
'Ihe Lo\'. iT LinRst()i^,e strata may be found prevailing very exten- 
.^ul■'.>^ ai.d (hietly in a direction running from the north-eastern to 
the vj^'vitii-wc-stern angle of the Queen's County; but, it has a very 
It ri-^ expansion on the Geological Maps.^*^ The Lower Limestone 
vh.ile .ij{K-irs to skirt the Old Ived Sandstone of Slieve Bloom, and 
It hcs chi. ii\" at the lower levels of the mountain. The 3>Iiddle Lime- 
stojic or (,.ilp is not very extensive ; but, it reaches in a narrow stripe 
frouj tlie north of Alibeyleix to near the town of Portarlington. 

Tlie Lov. i-r Limestone shale is mixed with blue calcareous sand- 
^tone^ and earthy limestones, but containing a band of pure limestone 
• •cc.ivioiiaily, with fossils appearing in abundance. The Lower Lime- 
"-tonc cont.iins dark bluish gray crj'stalline beds, often divided by their 
1)1. ick sh.ile, while cherty bands are found in it. The upper part 
con.MSts of ma'---ive gray crystalline limestone, in which the bedding 

' This is s}i >\vn Oil the ncologicil Map ot graphy of Ireland;' by Edward Hull, M.A.,, f'iundoM on the .Maps of the Geo- F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey ot 

lo^ ."survey of .^ir Kich.inl (jritiilh and of Ireland, and Professor of (jeology in the 

I'r.ifcsM'f J. Hcf'.c Jukc-%. l-iy I'Jlward Hull, Royal College of Science, Dublin. With two 

M..\., F.K.S., l*irfi:tor of H. M. Geological coloured maps and twenty-six wood engrav- 

.^ II rvcy of Ireland. ings. The contents are : Parti , Geological 

'.See John 15art!iolomcw's "Gazetteer of Formation of Ireland, in six chapters; Part 

ihc Iliilish Isles, .Sl.iti'.ticil and Topogra[jhi- ii., Physical Geography of Ireland, chapter i. 

CAl,"p. 65v Edinburgh: .\dam and Charles to chajjter xvi. ; Part iii., The Glaciation of 

Black, liSSj, imp. Svo. Ireland, chapter i. to chapter vi., with ap- 

• See G. llinr)' Kinahan's "Manual of the pendix i, List of Authors quoted ; Appendix 

Geology of Ireland," sect, i., chap, v., pp. ii., List of the Characteristic Fossils of the 

75. 76. Geological Formations of Ireland ; Appendix 

" For fuller information on this subject, iii., Geological Maps of Ireland. London, 

the reader in referred to that very interesting 1S78, Svo. 
*ork, "The Physical Geology and Geo- 


is frequently very obscure. However, it is an excellent building stone, 
and well adapted for burning into lime. The Middle Limestone .or 
Calp consists of black, earthy, impure limestones, interstratiiied with 
bands of black shale, as also with layers and nodules of chert. Generally, 
the beds are thin and regular, while sometimes they assume a flaggy 
character. Fossils are very scarce in most of those beds. The Calp 
is not usually well adapted for building purposes, except in the laying 
or filling in of foundations ; and it is quite unsuited for burning into 
lime, formerly a great factor as a manure used by the farmers, '\ and 
owing to material so readily accessible, it was manufactured and 
exported in large quantities. 

Alagnesian Limestone is to be found in a few isolated positions, 
but chiefly in a narrow stripe of land running from the south of 
Maryborough and extending south-westwardly into the County of 
Kilkenny. Comparatively, it is slowly soluble in dilute acids, and in 
this respect unlike the common limestone. Geologically, it occupies 
a deflnite position among the newest palaeozoic rocks. ^'- 

The Carboniferous Limestone, however, is the prevailing geological 
formation of the greater proportion in the Queen's County .^^ The 
plain that occupies the principal portion of the Slieve Bloom district 
has for its imderlying rock the Carboniferous Limestone. Although 
occupying the highest ground there, the Old Red ^Sandstone dips 
underneath the surrounding limestone, both being deposited in con- 
formable succession. The Old Red Sandstone, however, rests quite 
conformably on the Lower Silurian rocks. These had been tilted into a 
highly inclined position and were greatly denuded, before the deposition 
of the Old Red Sandstone, and both had been subsequently upheaved.^' 
The form of those mountains, as they now appear, is not due to that 
upheaval, however, because at the time it occurred, the <31d Red Sand- 
stone was covered by the Carboniferous Limestone. This had been 
subsequently removed by denudation from the high ground, while it 
still remains concealing the Old Red Sandstone which extends beneath 
the plain. The Old Red Sandstone itself also suflered from this 
wasting action, which occasionally was sufficient to renew it com- 
pletely from the underlying Silurian, leaving portions of that rock 
exposed in several places. The Yoredale Carboniferous shales are 
presented in a narrow and an irregular ambit, bordering the super- 
imposed Millstone Grit, which also presents an irregular circuit, over 
which are the Coal Pleasures, to be found chiefly in the south-eastern 
section of the Queen's County. These are confined to portions of the 
Baronies of Ballyadams, Slievemargy and Cullenagh. 

The Upper Limestone formation is pretty extensive, especially 
in the district surrounding Stradbally, and it is of a gray, blueish, or 

. ■'^ As a fertilizer of soil, it is stated by " Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art," 
Boate, that having seen in sundry parts ot vol. ii., p. 424. London, 1S66. 
England and Wales, especially in Perabroke- ^-^ The carboniferous limestone "was, 
shire, tliat lime had been used by the inhabit- doubtless, at one time covered by the coal- 
ants for the manuring and enriching their measures with, perhaps, good beds of coal in 
grounds, the Lnglish living in the Queen's their upper parts." — Professor J. Beete Jukes' 
County began the practice in the early part ot "School ^Llnual of Geology," chap, .wii., 
the seventeenth century of liming their tields, p. 229. Edinburgh, rS63. 
so that the use of it became very common "Joseph O'Kelly's "Explanation to 
among them. See " Ireland's Natural His- accompany Sheets 1 17 and 1 18 of the Maps 
tory,"' chap, xi., sect. 6, pp. 96, 97. of the Geological Survey of Ireland," sect. 3, 
'■ See W. T. Brande's and Geo. W. Cox's p. S. Dublin, 1866, 8vo 


whitish colour. The lowest beds next tlie Calp are not in any place 
exposed to view ; but, generally above these, the limestone is of a 
liS'ht gra}' or blue sliadc, usually massive, but sometimes thin-bedded, 
with layers and nodules of chert, which generall}' lie between the 
bcd^. Vet, in some places, in the centre of a bed ma}' be seen a layer 
of chert, which suddenly comes to an end — that which lirst appeared 
as if it were two smaller beds becoming obviously one large bed. These 
chert layers are sometimes so frequent, that they malce the rock 
nearly an entire mass of chert. This is noticeable in the Dysart Hills. 
In the upper beds, and near the Coal ^Measures, the limestone is often 
of a dark blue colour, being more argillaceous than below, and dis- 
tinctly crystalline. The beds immediately next to the Coal Measure 
shales are nearl)' an entire mass of chert. The sub-strata of the Queen's 
County is generally limestone of a superior quality, and carboniferous. 
It supj)lies line material for building purposes, or for conversion into 
lime. Sand-pits and limestone gravel beds are very numerous, and 
the\' are utilized for various purposes. 

Underneath and around the Coal Pleasures is to be found the 
Upper Limestone formation, and extending in a vcrv extensive belt, 
t-i{)eciall\- northwards, and from Carlow onwards to j\lar3.'borough. 
Over all these strata are distributed tracts of bog and drift, yet not 
very extensive in any single district. The Upper Limestone is known 
to be cellular. Large spheroids in shales are found in the Cuts of 
Kille^hin,'^ near Carlow. The D_\'sart Hills consist chiefly of a series 
ol isolated eminences,''^ and the peculiar character of their limestone 
Co-.npcj-'ition is ewry where ver\' clearly disclosed over their rocky 
s;ir!,tce-^. The Slicve Mloom. .Moimtains chietl)' comprise sandstone, 
V. nil tlieir linls ot limestone and coal. Silurian slate is found in the 
u;)p'-r p.irts.'' 

The .^iradbally Hills are comprised of Carboniferous or Mountain 
Lii!.e>U)iie, wliich comes out to the surface from underneath the Coal 
Mc.isurc-s. Tiie country around Stradbally somewhat resembles parts 
i«t I )erb\-.shire and other English districts, where the Mountain Lime- 
."tonc forms lofty ground, although in the south of Ireland it is 
generally found in the valleys and lowlands. Even here, this hilly 
cljaracter of the limestone ground is confined to the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Stradbally, and to the upper beds of the limestone, as 
the lower portions of the formation are occupied by the valle}/ of the 
River I'.irrow. A very fine description of grey marble, interspersed 
with while shells, is taken from quarries in the neighbourhood of 
Stradbally, and it most durable properties. It admits of a high 
polish, and it is exceedingly smooth-grained. It is hirgely used for 
toml)s and headstones, as also for mullions, lintels, and the dressings 
of public and private buildings. It can be procured in large masses, 
^vithout flaw or break ; yet, strangely too, notwithstanding its proxi- 
mity to the Grand Canal, this fine marble limestone is almost neglected 
for purposes of distant exportation. The sumniit of the Black Moimtain, 
the highest of the Cullenagh range, is 1,045 ft. above sea level. It 

" See Engravinp; in " Memoirs or the " These were rudely-fashioned boats of 

Geological Survey," Sheet 127, p. 12. oblong shape, and put together by the '^ountry 

]'' StiQ "The Imperial Gazelecr," etc., carpenters for the purpose of ciossin,' or 

€dil_edby\V. G. Blackie, Ph. D., vol. ii.,p. 704. navigating the Nore and Barrow rivers, or 

'" See " The National G;izeteer," etc., vol. other deep streams. Wiicre bruises are 

iii., ]). 267. wanting, they are still in use. 



is composed of black shales and dark sandstones, which belong to the 
series of rocks known as Coal Measures, from their occasionally con- 
taining beds of CO il. Iron ore or clay ironstone is to be found in various 
places throughout the Queen's County. The niaterial was smelted early 
in the seventeenth century at Mountrath ; and with considerable proht 
by the local proprietor, who used the little cots'^of the peasants to bring 
the products down the River Nore to Watcrford, whence they were 
exported to England for manufacturing purposes. ^^ Thus, clay iron- 
stone is said to have been obtained at CuUenagh, and it is supposed 
to have been the mineral used at Sir Charles Cootc's former works. 
In a division of Graceheld demesne, near Aries, the " iron park " — so 
called froni tinie immemorial — abounds with iron stones of a strong 

Other minerals to be found are copper and manganese ; yet, 
no smelting works have been established, nor is it probable that from 
them an}' profits can be realised. Slate is anotlier production of the 
Slieve Bloom Mountains. Near Clonaslee, also, there is a fine sand- 
stone quarry-i ; and at Boley, in the neighbourhood of Aries, there 
is a flag quarry.-- Shale is to be met with in nearly all the higher 
elevations of the Queen's Comity. Millstone grit, marl, and a fine 
description of sandstone, with freestone and ochre, are known. Besides, 
Fuller's earth and fine clays, useful for the manufactitrc of all kinds 
of pottery, and earth suitable for making brick, abound. The Slieve- 
margy range of table-land is composed of argillaceous earth, argil- 
laceous and terruginous stone-slate, basalts, iron-ore, besides its coals. 
The dilierent strata are bedded at various depths, and lie in irregular 
and broken masses. Fire and brick clays of the best description 
exist in unlimited quantities in the coal district. They only require 

'" Such is the nrrount given us, in chnp. 
xvii., sci'L 5, |)ii. 135 lo 137, of a very valu- 
able little 12111(1. Volume written by Gerard 
lioate, late Doetor of I'livsick to the State in 
Ireland, and as set forth on the title page 
published by Samuell Ilartlib, Esq,, for the 
common j^ood of all Ireland, and more 
especially for the benefit of the Adventurers 
and I'lanters therein. This \\a^ entitled 
"Ireland's Natural 1 listory." lieing a true 
and ample Description of its Situation, Great- 
ness, .Shape, and Nature, Of its Hills, 
Woods, Heaths, Bogs ; Of its FruitfuU Parts 
and profitable Grounds, with the severall 
Avay of Manuring and Improving the same; 
With its llr;uls or Promontories. Harbours, 
Roades and IJayes ; Of its Springs and 
l''i)imtaines, Brookes, Rivers, Loghs ; Of its 
^fetalis, MLneralls, Freestone, Marble, Sea- 
C'lal, Turf, and other things that are taken 
out of the ground. And lasth', of the Nature 
and Temperature of ils Air and Season, and 
what diseases it is free from, or subject unto, 
('onducing to the Advancement of Naviga- 
tion, Husbandry, anrl other profitable Arts 
and Professions. Imprinted at London for 
/olin /(';•/>//,!' at the AV/ziz-i- Hcad'm the Old 
I'aylcy 1652. This was dedicated to His 
Excellency Oliver Cromwell, Captain Gener.d 
of the Connuo)i7veaIt!is Army in luii^land, 
■SVo/'/and and Ire/and, a.n6 Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford, and to tile Right 
Honorable Charles Meetwood, C'oinmander 
in Chief {under the Lord Genera// Cronnvell') 
of all the I'orces in Ireland. In the _\ear 
1664, it was puf)lished in a French trans- 
laticm at Paris by Robert de Ninville, au bout 
du Pont S. Michel, au coin de la Rue de la 
Iluchette a rFscu de France et de Nauarre, 
iSmo. Its short title is, " Ilistoire Naturelle 
d'Irkmde." The original was re-printed in 
Dublin, under its short title, "A Natural 
History of Ireland," with other tracts, in 
1754, small 4to. Later still with its full 
original title it has beeri printed in " A Col- 
lection of Tracts and Treatises illustrative of 
the Natural History, Antiquities, and the 
Political and Social State of Ireland, at 
various Periods prior to the present Century." 
In two volumes. Vol. i., Treatises by Boate, 
Ware, Spenser, and Davis. Dublin, 1S60. 

-" Sir J. Norris Brewer's " Beauties of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., (Jucen's County, p. loS. 

-' From tills, handsome chimney-pieces 
were largely manufactured, and tney are 
still to be seen in the parlours of well-to-do- 
larmers in the a-'.joining districts. 

■-"-' From tliis, flags have been raised thirteen 
fcL-l in length by six in breath ; and formerly 
thev wore exported to Dublin in considerable 


to be developed, and to have facilities afforded for exportation and 
use of their products ; so that local manufactures and industries might 
become largely promoted in various localities, by intelligent and 
enterprising individuals or companies. 

According to G. Henry Kinahan,-^ the ascertained minerals of 
the Queen's County are to be found thus distributed : In Dysart 
district, iron and lead ; in Cullinagh, coal and clay-ironstone ; near 
Crettyard, Coal Measure Hills and clay-ironstone ; at Coolbaun and 
Ballickmoyler, lead ; at Wolf Hill, coal and clay-ironstone ; at 
-Moyadd, near Ballickmoyler, coal and clay-ironstone.-'^ The 
chief uiinerals of this district are anthracite coal or carbon, 
which is chielly to be found in the Slievemargy range of hills, and 
bordering on the County of Kilkenny.-'^ It is found in seams of con- 
siderable depth, while it is both hard and heavy when taken out in 
large blocks. It burns without flame or smoke, and it is strongly im- 
pregnated witli sulphur. The coal is difficult to ignite, but, when lighted, 
it burns with intense heat, and retains this property for a long time. 
It is employed in hop and malt-drying, and also in lime-burning to 
grccit advantage ; but its chief use is in the manufacture of iron.-'" 
Its heating power and durability in furnaces renders it far preferable 
to bituminous coal. A similar species of coal, but of an inferior de- 
scription, has been found in small ([uantities on the Cullenagh 
Mountains. Also, on the Slieve Bloom range, in rocks of Silurian 
age, thin layers of coal have been met with, but in such small pro- 
fjorticiis and \alue as to be hardh' worth the expense of mining.-'' 
The t'oal ot the (Queen's Count \- is made up of grits and dark, 
soip.etiuies black, Nliales, with tine clay and coal occasionally, as also 
with ^oine seams and nodules of cki)- ironstone. Those beds are inter- 
strat'.lieil with >aiid.^tones and flagstones having various shades of 
yjvy. l-'runi its occasionally containing beds of Coal, this confirmation 
!s coi:ceti\cly described as " The Coal ^Measures." 

I-"rom llie western banks of the River Barrow, near Carlow Graigue, 
the ground slopes upwards rather steeply to Killeshin old church, 
close to which there is a j)icturesque cave, in which very line black 
I'lssi'c sh.ile, co\ered with thick micaceous grits, is to be seen. In 
that direction, the mountain road ascends towards the coal district 
of Ttnvlerton and Newtown. When viewed from a distance, the 
general appearance of this region is that of a very steep ridge of high 
land, rumiing in a direct line for many miles, rising from 800 to 1,000 
ft. abo\e its l)a-e, and apparently flat on its summit.'-^ When viewed 

'•^ See" uf the- Cioolo^y of Ireland," by land was considered to be too chargeable. 

^ect. v., I'roducts, chap. x.\i., p. See " Ireland's Natural History," chap, .xix., 

.570- ^ sect. 7, pp. 152. 

-'The Ironmill-. River, near Itallynakill, '-"^ See James Wylde's "Circle of the 

is tloubtless so c.illed Irotn old wurkinj.^s in Sciences," etc., vol. ii., Division ii.. Natural 

that locality, althcu;^ti at picscnt, there are Science, Sub-Division iii., The Mineral Kin-- 

no exposures of s'lal-.-s in it. dom, sect, ix., Geology, p. 1014 — London. 

'■^ The account of its accidental discovery — -''At chapter xxviii., in reference to the 
apparently in the early part (if the seven- Carboniferous Rocks of Ireland, I'rofessor 
teenth century— is given by Koate. An iron- Hull gives a brief description of the coal beds 
mine discovered by Mr. Christopher Waiuls- in the Queen's County, and especially of 
worth, having been worked for a long time, those about Castlecomber. See "The Coal- 
on sinking deeper for that ore, coal was dis- Fields of Great Britain, etc., by Edward 
covered, enough to furnish a whole country ; Hull, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., with Maps and 
but no use had been made of it except by the Illustrations, pp. 326 to 329. Fourth edition 
neighbouring inhabitants, as transportation revised. London, iSSi, 8vo. 


from the eminence itself, it resembles a great barren table-land, rising 
precipitately above a flat and highly cultivatetl country.'--' The 
Coal Fields of this elevated district lie chicHy in the soutli 
eastern part, and west of the River Barrow. ^'^ They extend, likewise, 
into the County of Kilkenny, and especially pre\ail in the neigh- 
bourhood of Castlecomer. They have, more or less, a basin-shaped 
arrangement, resting on the Upper Limestone, beneath which is the 
Middle Limestone, then the Lower Limestone, resting on the Granite. 
The depth of the Limestone in the centre of that district is about 
1S50 ft., or more than 1000 ft. below tiie sea-lcvcl, while on the outer 
slopes of the table-land it rises to an elevation of some 250 ft. above 
the sea-level. ^^ In this region JNIullaghmore Collier)^ had a number of 
pits sunk several years ago, but the layers of coal were found to be 
thin, and the workings have been abandoned. "- 

One of tlie seven coal lields in Irehuid commences in the Slieve- 
marg\' Ihlls, and those formations extend into the adjoining Counties 
of Carlow and Kilkenny.^'' The area of the coal held in this district 
has been estimated to l^e over 200 square nulcs^'' ; but the beds are 
much disturbed by faults. Of the two lower seams, comparatively 
little has been ascertained, although they extend over the entire area.-'' 
On the eastern declivity of the ridge formerly called Brennan by 
inhabitants of the district, 2*^ a number of coal mines lie from twenty- 
seven feet to twelve fathoms below the surface ; they are covered by 
argillaceous and yellow ferruginous rock, on a bed of black micaceous 
slate. Gale's Hill has onl>- been worked a little about the outcrop, and 
there seems no likelihood of its ever being utilised, except, perhaps, 
round the verges, owing to its great depth. This is evident from the 
sections. The same observations apply in reference to Kingscote in a great 
measure. However, Coal must exist under the rushes at about 40U 
ft. from the surface, also at Courlane about the same, and at Ardentagle. 

^ See Sir Robert Kane's "Industrial I\e- 
sources of Ireland," chap, i., p. S. Dublin, 
1S45, Svo. Second edition. 

-■^ See Sir Richard Griffith's '" Report on 
the Leinster Coal District,'' p. 2. 

"* The Leinster coal dcjiosit is bounded 
on the east, west, and south by the two i^reat 
rivers, the Barrow and the Nore, which run 

at the base of the Colliery Hills. See Sir "1 i','""'r'^"i" / : '" " ' 1 

Robert Kane's "Industrial Resources of -^^^°^^^'' ^'''''^ ^''? '""''', ^' ^'''' 

Ireland," chap, i., p. S. worl<ed. There are several more known to 

' ^ exist, lachuiniL; a lew coals. 1 he 

^^See " Transactions of the Royal Irish latter are all worked out. Between 5 and 6 

Academy," Vol. xxiv., Part 1., Science. Dr. there is a ' crow' coal, called Jarrow crow, 

K Perceval Wright's Paper read January S, whicli is an indication of the Tarrow below. 

1S66, pp. 351, 352. Similarly, there is a 'crow'' .Modubeagh 

^■^- It^ is marked on the Geological Sheet, between 4 and 5. la the above list Nos. 6 

■<\ c- ^'^'^ 7 may also be considered worked out, 

See "The National Gazeteer," etc., although still partially existing. The series, 

'^'"li i"' ' ^' ~ T ■ '•'^'^"' I to 5, is all that practically has to be 

By :\Ir. Henry V. White. taken into account in estimating the amount 

•*^ "It appears to be generally admitted of coal commercially av.iilable." — Paper 011 

that the classification laid down by Meadows the Development of the Leinster Coal Field, 

in 1874, an<l subsequently by Sutcliffe, By .Air. Henry V. White. Read at Institu- 

following in the main Grilfith's old arrange- tion of Civil Engineers of Ireland, on ijtli 

ment, must be adopted. ot April, 1SS7. 

The loUowing are the lists of main coals, ""^ Now known as Clogrennan, and lacing 

commencing witli the lowest : — the town of Carlow. 


ot .Strata. 



I I 3.0 feet 

iviii^scute, one f^ot co;il 
Moilubeaijh or Rushes, two 


-' 1 -16 „ 

toot coal 
Ward's Scam, or foul coal .. 


3]-y.K ,. 

One foot coal wiih Jarrow 

■^4^.3 „ 

channel, or Jarrow coal ... 
Old colliery, or tliree foot coal 
D.iuble seam 


5 \ 1 iSo „ 


The Modubeagh Colliery^^ is valuable on account of its quality 
and tliickncss ; wliile it is good for household and other purposes. 
It was formerly worked for a considerable extent, while first and 
hccond coal was obtained from its beds. The large extent for which 
this is conunercially available gives it a special importance. The 
l.i)cr \aric-s from 15 in. to about 30 in. thick. The Modubeagh is a 
IjDod, clean coal, but it is soft and flaky. It has been partially 
worketl at the Ruslies, Towlerton, Bilboa, Skehanna, Firoda, and 
.M<xhil)eagh, but inconsiderably in proportion to its exLeni/'"^ 
Ward's Scam Coal appears generally either to have been swept 
away b>- denudation or to exist at sucii a depth as to be practically 
up.reaciiable. It was found at the Rushes 12 in. thick, but unprotit- 
ahlL-, also at .Mayo. The seam probably can never be of commercial 

The jarrow Coal, for quality, is superior to any in the field. It 
is a hard, stouelike, compact, pure anthracite, giving out very intense 
.111(1 ladling heat. It iias been, and is, extensively worked, having been 
nroved at Garrendenny, Ivilgorey, Newtown, Doonane,^' Monteen, 
Nl:is>-ford, Cioneen, Clough, Cionbrock, and Broompark. It is known 
as the one-foot with Jarrow channel. Of the centre basin it 
C'):npri-c-> a large .ire.i not far from the surface.'^ The general thickn.ess 
is abor.l ij in., but ihe thickest and best portion^is that known as 
the Jarrow chaune!, averaging :; ti;. thief: tor about 200 yards witle, 
tlicnce'.ially (hniKushing. Tliis cii.mnel does not rest on hre-clay, 
.IS do li.'.- <»i1kt (.'mI-,. and undoiibte<IK' it was, at one time, the l:)e(l oi 
a rp.'t-r. i:i w.wcii the lluck tormatiun \s'as deposited. The Jarrow 
ch.iy.r.fl (.'••.ir-e, .*.:■> p;"'i\-cd, jirMC'cded Irom Geneva, south-west on 
ti.:'-;;;;'.; I'lonl.'r^'C"; . !).>'n,uiL-, Cioneen, Alassford, and the Rock, 
liii-.itc :;'r:ii-ri't lo M inteen and Kilgorey, and northward probably 
to (i.irrrM'ii-iiny lojiid hill towards Geneva, taking a circular course. 
H'l'.vc. cr. '.l has h'.jI been prcned from Monteen to Geneva. For so 
r.r.sth ..s has Ix-cn proved, some 10 miles in lengtli, y-l- miles of coal 
rcri.isn to l-c worked, which may be estimated at full thickness of 
3 (t. !'...- :<X} yard- -.vuit.-." At the Wolfhill Colliery, south of Lugga- 
Cirrca, t'.c bcC'jnd cod has apparently been worked out; and, if 
t;.rrc 1 ->• c^Xi] tiiere, it has not as yet been discovered. A 
vczy fc:!i..irk.ib!c te.ilure in the district, app.arently not generally 
kr-o-A-.j. IS tliC existence of a great fault, extending northward from 
K:!^; *rcy to.v.irds W'ohhill, through the summit of the hill next 
C'Kihr'Kk. The (l:s:>!ace;nent must be very great at this hill, as the 

*' S-;t :r.r " (tcilf,;!'-..! .Si'.ott oftheOrd- Mr. Meadows estimates it to be profitably 

aaacr S^ncT u/ IrrU:!'!." No. 12S. workable for an area of 10 square miles ; the 

** Mr. !i''-A.-'.»»-j c.;a:i.i:i:'. I'-S available area " Janow" is at present being worked at 

a: »!«/.;t i> vjJAie snii'.-i, tht: depths of the Clonbroek, iQueen's County), and in Kil- 

va:u j.'i^-tciti;..; toAjiiis centre of basin, kenny at Rock, Monteen, and Massford South. 
vhcic the in.Witoui'.i i!e;i'.'i should be from ''^ It has lieeii stated, that in his evidence 

250 !j 3'>j yjrdv It ii t ) i e regretted, that before the Select Committee of Industries 

»«!:iricr.t l-<jtii!,;i have ;i'it been made to (Ireland), 1SS5, Professor Hull gives the area 

riulilish i'.i Workable e\'- :u with more of the field at 61,440 statute acres, and the 

ac<*<jr.n-y. workable coal at 118,000,000 tons. 

* In ;hc- ^oulhcnj rid[;c Ir^jm iJjonane, no ■^- This was pointed out by Mr. ICdf^e, a 

oals have \<fn d;sruv?red, but on the gentleman connected with that district. Mr. 

western or Margie ridge, helonging to the .Meatlows' statement would appear to confirm 

'.•.ri!»hi[) ofC.LSilcciimer, co.ds arc lound from this, as he found the displacement (an up- 

MX feet 10 lour fathoms below the surface. throw to tlie west), amounting to 160 yard-, 

•■' With regard to tlie Jarrow dial generally, at Modubeigh, in a pit sunk 167 yartls. 



Ward's scam comes to the surface, and a bore-liole a little to the east 
proved to be Jarrovv Coal at a depth of 216 ft.'- 

The Anthracite Coal Measures are largely developed in the South 
of the Queen's County, and these are extensively worked.*^ This coal, 
liovvever, is not so well suited for domestic purposes ; but it suits 
well the purposes of maltsters and distillers living in the neigh- 
bouring districts. 1' In the Queen's County portion of the 
Castlecomer tableland, and in the Newtown Colliery, an intra-glacial 
peat was found by Mr. B. B. Edge, which is probably 
estuarine, as the gravel associated with it contained marine fossils.'''^ 
The present annual yield of all the collieries is about 80,000 tons 
of coal and culm. In former times it appears to have been much 
greater. ^'^ Still, a large amount of coal and culm^'' is sent annually 
from the Colliery District. ^'^ 

The most numerous Fossils of the Upper Carboniferous Limestone 
are Zoophyta or Corals. To the south of the ruined church that lies 
south-cast'of Stradbally, there is a thick-bedded, pale and light-bluish 
gi'ay limestone, thickly bedded, and having in it little chert. Here 
there are Fossils, which are principally Product. e and Spirifers. To 
the west of the same church are thick-bedded pale limestones. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of Aries, various specimens of 
shell-like stones have been discovered ; some of " these fossils 
are pieces of cornel, cockle, and oyster shcUs.''-' The black 
shales in the Colliery district generally contam Fossils belong- 
ing to such genera as Aviculopecten, Euomphalus, Goniatites, 
Bellcrophon, &c. ; but the beds interstratitied with the Coal are found 
to contain plants belonging to Lepidodendron, Calamites, Sigillaria, 

*•* See "The Imperial Gazetteer," etc., 
edited by W. G. lU.ickie, Ph. D., vol ii., p. 
704. Gla'ifjow, I'^dinburgh, and London, 
i860, imp. 8vo. 

■'^ See " The National Gazetteer : a Topo- 
t^raphical Dictionary of the British Islands, 
Compiled from the latest and best sources, 
and illustrated with a complete County Atlas, 
and numerous Maps," vol. iii., p. 267. Lon- 
don : Virtue and Co., 1S6S, 3V0IS., imp. 8vo. 
** See G. Henry Kinahan's " Manual of 
the Geology of Ireland," sect. iii. ; Superhcial 
Accumulations, chap. xix. , p. 231. 

■*® Sir Richard Griililh, in his report on the 
coal field in 1814, uses the following words: 
— " The annual output may be on an average 
about 70,000 tons of hard coal, and about 
100,000 of soft or culm — the principal mar- 
kets being Kilkenny, Carlow, and Athy— in 
distant places the coal being used for malting, 
for which purposes it is peculiarly adapted, 
the culm or soft coal being chiefly used for 
burning lime, being sent for by the farmers 
of all the surroundmg counties, particularly 
from Wicklow and Wexford." It appears 
by the evidence given before the Royal Coal 
Commission in 1872, that the available yield 
was estimatetl at 75,000,000 tons. 

■*'' This is a local term for the crumbling 
refuse of the pits, and applied to anthracite 
mineral carbon, glance and columnal coal. 
It is largely used tor the burning of lime. 

^3 It is estimated, that about 11,000 tons 
reach Athy, and 16,000 to 17,000 tons reach 
Carlow. A great deal of the culm going to 
Athy is used for the manufacture of bricks, 
and of the fuel going to Carlow a consider- 
able proportion is conveyed by road to the 
south of the county, and to the counties of 
Wicklow and Wexford. The value of the 
coal and culm at the pit's mouth varies from 
about IS. Sd. to 20s. per ton — the average is 
about 9s. ; but, weight for weight, its heating 
and lasting powers are greater than that of 
any English, Scotch, or Welsh fuel. A large 
amount is used for malting purposes. The 
actual cost of carriage to Athy varies from 
Ss. 6d. to 6s. 8d., and to Carlow from 4s. to 
5s. per ton. This coal ha^ been largely used 
on the Great Southern and Western Railway 
mixed with Welsh steam coal, and Mr. 
Aspinall says that to use it by itself it is only 
necessary to have a special fire-grate with 
the bars placed very close, to avoid waste. 
See paper on the Development of the 
Leinster Coal Field, by Mr. Henry V. White, 
read at the Institution of Civil Engineers of 
Ireland, April 13th, 18S7. 

*^ See T- Norris Ihewer's " Beauties of Ire- 
land," Vol. ii., Queen's County, pp. 107, 108. 
^'^ See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Vol. x\iv., Part i., Science. Dr. 
E. Percival Wright's Paper read January S, 


rfc«»5>tcri5, Splicnoini-ris, etc.. etc.''' Several new species of these 
Ultrr ^'cruT.i h:i\o \<vi\ dc-'cribcd from the Coal of this district.''^ 

<>vtrr Uniy )"> .i^^o, many .species of fossil re[)tiles were discovered 
it\ tl'.c il^ilc lx:i!> .ivvKiatcxl with these coal seams. Respecting these 
rrj'tjlui i>T NaVir'vKjtr.uhi.iii remains the late Mr. W. H. Baily fur- 
nut. aJ A tuitsi ifitcrolin^ account.'- Late in the season of 1864, in 
*»»{;i; i: »hc <.'o!lirr»rs, Nlr. W. H. Brownrigj; had his attention drawn 
tt» »»fTi*c toviwivc! t.iud.d \crlcbr.e, which had been taken from a recent 
»«»-Vu'.u Kri.-j^niMf.j^ ihe interest of the discover)', he, with the 
ttA'ly ji*o:»tj>r,vc o! .Mr. Dobbs, the aijent of the proj^erty, and with 
Uk A|»5*uv4l oi the Ic^-see, Mr. .Samuel Bradley, had a collection 
t■^.*.•^r of ill ib.c t>>\>jl remains. In 1865, a grant of money was 
jn*lc t'V t5;c I5riti"«h .Vssociation to aid in the sj^ecicd digging out of 
th<< 1<»*»4! rTm.iins. v.hich occurred m a "sole" that was too foliated 
tT.* l«r w- rkrvl tor c<xil. Mr. Galvan, ot the .Survey, on a visit to the 
i>.«[acf>c^. h.»(J !"uiul a very complete siveleton of a small reptile, 
*.f whuh a <lr.i\\u\g by .^Ir. Baily was forwarded by Professor 
|u*iO !i» rr<>!e--v,.r liuimas II. Iluxle)', who at once returned the 
«».clt.h '.\'A]\ the n;f(irmalion. that it rejiresented a new Labyrintho- 
tJ-'ijl AmpiubiatJ wluch he called Kcyntcr pcton Galvani. At this 
ti:tvc. l»y .sy>teinatn..dly working in tliat part of the pit which 
v-.r!'!*^! t};c|^e*>t amount of fossil remains, a vary large series of 
«})»v-Mn;c!-.s been l)r<>U|^ht tor;cther ; these packed in cases were 
»i.nvr)Txl !■> I)ubln» lice of charge bv the Clreat Southern and 
Wntrtn Kail'A.iv fomp.iny, and pi. iced in the charge of Dr. 
1%'wAril I' Wright by Mr. W. B. Brownrigg. binding that 
^f•.«V^.t-.f Huxley h u|;cd the six-cimen found by Mr. Galvan, 
IH. \V{!,;j'.t ur..!c !«> him to the ellect, that he hoped he would 
*!»> ii.-»«.»il>c *'wc MTics which bad been sent to him by Mr. 
Ui'.j-wfijij^t;. A\A j;!vui^ a liNi of the six-cimens, Professor Muxley 
iTj**c«i. i«v A\ c»:.(.c *'>ming over to Dublin and spending some 
ftft^c sn ?c;cv!iJii: i!ir clucf Jorms to be dr.iwn by Mr. Dinkel. In a 
Vtfir*'-f4:;iSu:{i '•' kn.'iiy coimnunicated in reference 'to the foregoing 
«ttl»|«;. I).r. I-."d\v,jrd IVrceval Wright adds: "The importance of 
llx «J<Vi»Acnr> lluj-» made in these coal seams may be estimated 
l»t-«jj l^jiT ixKl, they had yielded more genera than were known 
rn jSf<'» {r»>fi> ail tlie .\merican coal fields and nearly as many as 
\'^ l*ccti ol>:-unt:J from luirojx' generally. They also furnished a 
v*rvk !\-tc o( I-ibr>"mthi>dont, Ophidcrpeton Broivnriggii, having a 
»fiaWc-lii«.c UkIv. I'Ik" illustrations of these fossil reptiles by Mr. 
Djj.'kcI jrc ucll Worthy of notice, more especially because the 
OMi^wuJ sjx'') procnted to the Museum of Trinity College, 

* Hj W. |( lUlV, i.T ■■ l^vpUn.i'.ion of like impressions, wbicli by tlicm^clves were 

SJx*: xy: iii Jto N{ap» of t!ic (icoloj^icil obscure. Sub-sci|ui.iiily, however, alter a 

^cf■.^■r < MfcU;-, I." |>. 14. new pit was sunk, Samuel Bradley, Esq., 

*» !lr lK-_'t »n!ri : "In \\\t yenr 1S5S, then manager and owner of the pit, found 

»h.*n •■« X \\si\ to \\.f ( r.jiriis in tliis dis- what ap[XMred to be similar reptilia, which 

KK'.. »:!N my ct>!Ifi;:uc, .^!f. (J. II. Kinalian, were brought into public notice by W. B. 

Mr I'at Fi:.Un, <A Ot-^h, informed us that Brownri^;^, M..\., in a Paper read before 

<.»i.!«, likr Urge lLr.wds and snakes with the Royal Geological Society of Ireland." 

Ut'.."* «c\.ifcd in the kclvej and ih.iles over See their Transactions, Vol. I., New Series, 

!!j« ckaI in the fifil jarrow I'lt. The work- p. 14=;. 

ir.^> *cfc then filled up \*ith rubbish, and " L)ated 5 Trinity College, Dublin, 15th 

^ inU.i could not produce any of the si)eci- February, 1903. 
tMn* he \ji<\ picker! up, except a few ring- 


Dublin, have in great measure disappeared by a cliemical change in 
the sulphur pyrites, which formed a great portiuu of the matrix in 
wliich the remains were embedded. It was anticipated, that a 
second Memoir from the same authors would have appeared, 
describing some ec[ually interesting new forms, but the owner of 
the collection disposed of them to the Trustees of the British 
Museum. There they find a place among their treasures in the great 
Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, South Kensington, London." 
The newly discovered Lab)'rinthodont forms were subsequently described 
in a joint paper, by Dr. Thomas Huxley and Professor E. Perceval 
Wright.^* Illustrations of those Vertebrate l\.emains, with minute 
descriptions of their constituent parts have been furnished by 
Professor Huxley in live lithographic plates, executed under his 
inspection by Mr. Dinkel, and which are perfectly trustworthy repre- 
sentations of all the well-delined features of the specimens. ^^ Associated 
with the reptilia were also found numerous well-preserved fossil ferns 
and other plants, as well as very remarkable lish remains.^'-' 

CHAPTER III.— Climate, Soil, Surface, Bogs, Eskers, Alluvial 
Flats, Scenery and Natural Curiosities. 

Its inland situation and its general elevation over the sea-level 
procure a free circulation of air for all parts of the Queen's County ; 
while, especially on the West and towards the South, it is greatly 
sheltered by the Slieve Bloom mountain range against the winds and 
rains that so frequently visit it from those directions. As happens in 
the rest of Ireland, its climate is variable in temiierature and degixe at 
diiierent seasons of the year ; and considerable ch.mgcs have taken place, 
not alone in past historic times, but even within the memory of its 
oldest living inhabitants. During the first half of the eighteenth 
century, its Soring seasons were more genial, and not so much affected 
with eastern winds as at present ; the Summers were much 
warmer ; the Autumns generally moister ; and the Winters prevailingly 
colder, as heavy snows often covered the groimd, and hard frost or 
hoar was to be regarded as more penetrating and keener felt than now 
come within our experience. But under all the foregoing conditions, 
as stated, the air was salubrious, temperate, and much more enjoyable 
and bracing, than that contemporaneously experienced in the adjoining 
islands of Great Britain and on the European Continent. Not alone 
for healthy but even for delicate constitutions, it is admirably suited. 
Since the last two hundred years, its dense woods have wholly and its 
bogs have mostly disappeared ; so that fogs and exhalations are seldom 
to be seen and in few districts. For greater warmth and shelter, as 
also to promote the fertility of the numerous fields, not alone the roads, 

^■^ This was published vinder the title, " On — "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

a. Collection of Fossil Vcrtebrata, from the Academy," Vol. xxiv., Part i., Scienec. 

Jarrovv Colliery, County of Kilkenny, Ire- Read January S, 1866 ; pp. 351 to 369. 

land. By Thomas H. Ilu.xley, F.R.S., *^ See idi'd., pp. 350, 351. 

Professor of Natural History at the Royal ^'' See in connexion with this subject, 

School of Mines, Jermyn Street ; and E. " Explanatory Memoir on the Geology 

Perceval Wright, A.M., M.D., F.L.S., of the Leinster Coal Fields," H.M., 

Lecturer on Zoology, Dublin University." Geological Survey of Ireland. 






MilLstone^ Grih, 


'Ybrc-cUHe Shales. 



Olct-Jledy Scuulstone 

ccrui. slate,. 


(^ Reduced from 






[*^i*-.l Coat J^feasLaes . 
Millstone. GrU>, 


\ore<icCLe Shales. 


Old^HeA' SoJidstone. 

(To face page 14) 

(Reduced from Geological Survey Maps) 


but the ditclies that entlost- the pa>^turcs and arable lands ought to be 
extensively planted with lart^c torest and branchinij trees. These, 
however, should be kept apart from the hedi^e-rows to prevent gaps 
in the latter. Not alone should sucli grcnvths be ornamental and add 
picturesque beauties to the land<cape, hut their deciduous leaves 
imperceptibly and gradually dee[)en and enrich the soils extending 
beneath them; while by jutlicious trimming of their branches most 
useful fire-wood might be cblained, and liy seasonable renewal of the 
plants congenial to the location, even tree-farming as practised in other 
countries could be rendered profitable to the landed proprietor.* The 
moistures and white mists that arise from the bogs are not alone free 
from germs of disease, but their constituent elements are antiseptic 
and invigorating, as pro\'ed b)' the ca-^es of inhabitants living in 
districts around them, who are generallv healthy and robust ; while 
instances of remarkable longevity are occasionally furnished in such 
situations, by the pea>^antry occujiied in turf-cutting or in cultivating 
reclaimed bog-lands. The (Jueen's County climate is usually temperate, 
and rarely in the extremes of cold in Winter or of heat in Summer. 

The variations of natural s(jil in the (Jueen's County are very great, 
and chiefly owing to the circumstcUices of situation, of geological sub- 
strata, and of accidental changes brought by time and treatment. In 
many instances, the earth j>roduces a stiff clay ; more generally it is a 
sandy loam ; while a strong gravelly admixtui'c, very favourable 
however to the growth of grain, is most commonly prevalent. In 
some cases, the layers of earth are deep ; but large tracts, in particular 
districts, are shallow, and these mostly rest on limestone sub-strata. 
The greater portion of the County is admirabl)' suited for arable lands, 
and has been so cultivated ; while, owing to long-continued tillage and 
manuring with farm-}-ard composts, their natural fertility has been 
vastly improved. For man)- ])ast \-cars, however, tillage has greatly 
lessened. On the hills ami mount. lin elevations where grass is chiefly 
produced, pastures most aliound, and the herbage is nutritious, even 
on very light soils. Naturally, there is a considerable amount of heathy 
and barren mountain surlaee, with several tracts of bog, marsh and 
waste lands, yet for tlie most part capable of partial reclamation. In 
suitable positions, meadov/s and artiticial grasses flourish, and are sure 
to reward t1io agriculturists' care and prnteclion. On the whole, 
the area of waste land, bears but a very small degree of comparison 
with that which is fertile a.nd productive. 

The great central plain of the Queen's County is comparatively 
level, although covered with gentle undulations of surface. In several 
places, isolated hills of moderate eminence are to be seen ; but the moun- 
tain ranges that bound it towards the West and South form its greatest 

The soil of the Slicvc-Bloom mountains on the Queen's County side 
and the lower declivities is, on the whole, very good ; on the King's 
County side at the extremity it is a cold grit, and this takes a great deal of 
lime to make it arable. Argillaceous in composition, it is also inter- 
spersed thickly with freestone on the King's County exposure. The 
upper stratum is also pretty deep, and in few places it is less than two 

An Act of Parliament applicable to Ire- own farm, and afterwards to claim them at 
land enables the limited renter of land to any time as his own property or convert them 
register trees planted by himself, and on I is to his own use. 



spades from the surface, while a silicious siibslratuni covers the whole 
summit range. The centre has various soils, it being of a light sandy 
loam, a stiff yellow clay, or gritty shallow gravel, and a deep brown 
earth, which is by far the best. The bottom line is a cold, spongy, deep 
clay, and only productive, where the loam is so dry as to check the 
springs above ; at the foot, where the declivity vanishes, there is a deep, 
irreclaimable bog, and only to be approached in very dry seasons. This 
is a general description of the Slieve Bloom range on the King's County 
side. However, towards the centre of those mountains, the land is 
very fertile in pasture, and it is grazed the whole year throughout with 
numerous flocks of sheep and young cattle. Tlie soil is often of limestone 
c|uality, and large rocks of that mineral are thickly interspersed ; 
neither is the bottom range boggy, but it produces a stiff clay, from 
which abundant crops of corn can be procured. On the mountain of 
Knocknaman such is the case, and also on the range of Castletown, 
Cumber, and down to Lett}'brook, some of the best land is to be found, 
On the western side towards the King's County the mountain land is 
generally barren, and is of very little value. In most places the uplands 
are only nutritious as pasture for cattle in very dry seasons. Yet 
along the declivities, and chiefly those approaching the lower extended 
plain, on the eastern face of Slieve Bloom, the lands are mostly of very 
superior quality. 

The bogs, which spread over some districts, contain large tracts, 
especially in the northern and niiddle parts ; but, they have been of 
late years so much cut away for cheap and useful fuel, while the remainder 
has been reclaimed for meadow or tillage, that their limits have been 
greatly circumscribed, while their dun and heath-covered surfaces are 
by no means dreary or monotonous to the eye of the traveller. It 
has been remarked, moreover, that they are quite free from the malaria 
arising from the fens and marshes of England. The strongly- 
astringent quality of those bogs is a proof of their being antiseptic 
and non-putrescent. Trees have been iound beneath them at a great 
depth,- and for ages the bogs have been gradually growing over them ; 
still the trees are in a high state of preservation, and the timber is 
perfectly sound. ^ Moreover, the remains of human beings and of 
irrational animals, that have been buried there in times unknown, 
have )-et retained their shape and features, but embrowned from the 
action ot the bog water.' Exhalations arise from the bogs occasionally, 

" The trunks and branches of decayed missioners on the Bni^< of Ireland, published 

iices are very generally found in most of the now over seventy years ago. 
Irish bogs; however, although the wood be ^ Their antiseptic cjuality is indisputable ; 

perfectly sound, the bark of the timber has for animal and vegetable substances, even 

uniformly disappeared. The decomposition tlie products of man's nidustry, are frequently 

<if this bark forms a considerable part of those found, and at a great depth in bogs, without 

nutritive substances wiiich helped growth in their seeming to have sufiered any decay, 

ihe morasses; still, notwithstanding this Many of those substances have been deposited 

circumstaance, tan is not to be obtained in ihem at a very remote period. Uuder the 

when analysing bogs. Such is the statement surface of a bog, and at a depth of 17 ft., a 

of the disiinguisheci Irish mineralogist and woollen coat of coarse but even network was 

scientist, Richard Kirwan. found in 17S6; a razor with a wooden 

^ Some of the Irish bogs are evidently of handle, some iron beads of arrows, large 

very ancient formation. There are three wooden bowls, some only half made, with 

distinct growths of timber which have been the remains of turning tools. These are 

covered by three distinct masses of bog, as thought to have been the wreck of a work- 

discovereil by a careful and scientific examina- shop, which might have been situated on the 

tion, acccjrding to the Report of the Com- borders of that bog. 


owing to the warm rays of the sun, and especially towards evening ; 
yet, these affect not the health of natives living in the vicinity. 

Within the last century, a considerable portion of bog has been 
reclaimed and converted chielly into wet or badly drained pasturage. 
The largest tracts of moorland now remaining are those extending 
from Monasterevin towards Portarlington and Emo Park along the 
western banks of the River Barrow, and that moor between Mary- 
borough and Mountrath, reaching moreover towards Baliyroan and 
Abbeyleix. Between Maryborough and Stradbally, on either side 
of the high road, there is a tract covering some acres called jMonejwaugh 
much of it having been reclaimed. Between Mary^borough and 
Mountmellick a considerable amount of bogland still supplies turf to 
the country-people and to the towns. West and south of Rathdowney 
the bogs are extensive. Throughout the barony of Tinnahinch the 
moors greatly prevail, and in Upper Ossory are bog-lands and mountain 
moors to a very considerable extent. 

The drift-ridges, known as Eskers, are to be met with in the Queen's 
County.^ South of Maryborough is one of the most remarkable, and 
tending in a northerly direction, until it ends in an alluvial flat east 
of Mountmellick. This, known as the Ridge of ?\Iaryborough, is 
generally narrow at its base, being sometimes not one hundred yards 
wide, and sloping upwards very steeply ; yet sulliciently broad on 
the top to admit the construction of an old roadway, which is even 
yet travelled, except near Rathleague, where it is now terminated by 
a wood, through which, however, the Esker continues. On either 
side of this embankment, there is an alku'ial Hat, through which a 
small brook Hows. These brooks make a curious gap in the Esker 
about half-way between Maryborough and ]\Iountmellick, where they 
unite their streams, flowing northwardly into the River Barrow, 
However, the Esker continues on the western side in a sinuous but 
narrow line. An Esker, probablv- a continuation of the foregoing, 
although a gap of more than a mile intervenes, commences north of is first seen on the south side of the River Barrow, 
about 300 yards long and 30 ft. in height. It runs north-west and 
south-east. It is separated from one about 300 yards further to the 
north-west, by the alluvial flats of the River Barrow. The Esker now 
forms a very regular ridge along the north-east bank of the Barrow, 
from 15 ft. to 25 ft. above the flat. It is about one mile and a-half 
long. It terminates rather abruptly west of White Hill. There a 
section is exposed in a gravel pit, where it shows a confused mass of sand 
and gravel, principally composed of limestone debris. To the west of 
where the last Esker terminates, and north of Rosenallis, some curious 
drift mounds and short Eskers niay be seen about Nut Grove and the 
Glebe House. There is an Esker opposite Pass House, near Baliyroan, 
while it extends in a westerly and northerly direction. A very large 
portion of this had been removed, when the new coach-road from 
Dublin to Cork was formed towards the closeof the Eighteenth Century. 
Since that time its bed of gravel has been drawn on repeatedly for 
repairs of that road. Probabl\' the Pass Esker had a former connexion 
with the Ridge of JMaryboroiigh. The great Esker or central gravel 

^ For an account of their supposed forma- G. Henry Kinahan's " Manual of the Gcolo;;y 
tion, and of otiier interesting particulars of Ireland," sect, iii., Su[)eificiul Accumul.i 
regaiding them, the rcailer is referred to tions, cliap. xiv. 




mound is traceable near Timahoc ; and there is one of very consider- 
able length, commencing- at Rathleaguc, extending to Maryborough, 
and continuing to Mountmellick, which is especially remarkable, for its 
extension and continuity. An Esker runs from Stradbally 'to the 
south-west, and it is fully three miles long. It passes near Timogue 
church, and onwards towards Timahoe. ^ Where this ridge comes a 
little to the north of the latter place, it is almost cut in two by the little 
River Bauteoguc. Hie ridge is thence continued to the north for 
about a mile, when it turns round to the west, widens out, and ends. 
To the north-west of Timahoe, there runs a north and south Esker 
ridge, to be .seen on the road that leads to Cullinagh. 

Alluvial Flats are to be found along the River Barrow and some 
of its tributaries. In many instances, those tracts are extensive. All 
have been formed from the silt and other matters carried down by 
the river during floods. After heavy rains, especially in the northern 
Slieve Bloom mcnm tains, the waters oftentimes overflow the banks 
and sometimes cover the adjoining fields to a very wide extent, 
remaining for a considerable time on the callow meadows before 
they return to their natural channels. As a consequence, the grass 
of those meadows becomes coarse and sour, in most summer seasons, 
when it is fit to be mowed ; but it is largely used with more nutritious 
hay and fodder for cattle, by the farming classes in Hie country around. 
The soil of those flats is usually marshy, cold and full of rushes. Nearly 
at the point of the Little Barrow, entering the County of Kildare, 
the Feagile River, which drains the Bog of Allen, and flows through 
a desolate-looking tract of country, contributes largely to the Barrow 
floods. It would be a work of national importance, and tend to reclaim 
thousands of acres, if a« large and judicious employment of capital, 
skill and labour were extended to those alluvial districts. Elsewhere 
the marshy lands arc not very numerous, and they are usually small 
in area. 

The chief mountain ranges are those of Slieve Bloom, extending 
from the north to the south, and on the western boundary, as also 
Slieve Marigue along the extreme south-western line. These are of 
irregular width and bearing, but on the Queen's County side their 
surfaces, although broken and uneven , are for the most part productive. 
The contrary is the case on the King's County or western side, where 
the escarpments are very numerous and abrupt. They have extensions, 
likewise, of lesser altitude, and from nearly all the upper points of 
vantage on the eastern slopes, there is a far stretch of vision, not only 
over the great central plain of the Queen's County and its diversified 
prospects, but over various parts of the adjoining counties, and 
reaching to vast distances, north, east and south. In the heart of the 
mountains themselves are many delightful lonely valleys and dells, 
especially near the banks of the several streams that have their source 
on the upper eminences. The northern and western slopes of the 
Slieve Bloom mountains are indented by many deep glens, the principal 
of which are : Glenbarrow — whence the River Barrow draws its head 
water ; two glens which run upwards from Clonaslee ; and two 
remarkable glens to the west of Wolltrap mountain, one of which 
opens into Cadam^town and the other into Kinnitty. There are two 
passes across tlie range, traversed by a main road— one called " The 
Cut," south of Clonaslee, and the summit of which is about 1,350 ft. 
above the sea ; while the other^ two miles westwards, has a height of 


i,;«K) ft. ii) tlif Wfst (it till' I\i\cr I'-.irrow, iicir Carlow, tlie ground 
nvi.«- >lu\\l\- al 111 >l, 1)111 atlci wards ii forms a lonj^ line having; nearly level 
lifijdus ot alxnil i/kkjU. in al)->olulc elexatioii to the table-land of 
(".4>tlc«.«>iiK-r. 1 he views from .some points on tlie east and north are 
niDsl c.vti-nsive ; .uid. troin the heii^hts above Killcshin, the prospect 
of llic li-rtilf and wcll-wcKxied valle)- around Carlow, backed by the 
r.m^c of W'uklow mountains, willi their centre-piece Lugnaquilla, 
!•. ji.if !u iil.iriy iH-auliful. I'Vom the northern slopes of the Slieve 
'•l.iiij;wc^;c, the view over a vast champaign country presents a 
most cnth.mtinj,' prospect, while its diversit)' in lines of walled dqniesnes 
.t:i«I hcd^*f-row enclosures .u-oiwul numerous farm-houses and cottages 
i\ uunsl V harming, until .such objects seem to fade far away to indis- 
liniUirss. 1 lie distant summits of Wicklow mountains close the view. 
'I he tcrr.ico-road leading from Stradball)' to Carlow and stretching 
•ilo:;^ thr breast oi that range at a considerable elevation forms a 
i5c!i^,'i.tful route, and has always afforded the tourist of taste and 
v:i-.;bihly the highest gratification. Almost equally enjoyable is the 
• lirc«.l high-roail drive between Stiadbally and Athy, by way of Bally- 
k'.l«..i\au demesne and Blackf(,)rd. The ce)ntours of the country around 
Str.idhally. i'imahoe and Ballynakill have an agreeable diversity of 
outline, aufl are nuich adniired for views they present. Several minor 
r.iii^^c-' of hills and of isol.ited limestone eminences, with the vales and 
«ivlK lH-!iiMth. gi\e an appearance of picturesc[ueness to the scenery. 
i'rom tlie smnmits of tliose p^rojections are man)' charming prospects ; 
and, u\ »r\ in-^lances, the \iews (.'xteiul to vast distances over the 
^,'rr.»l tn:dl.ind j)lains cjf Ireland. 1 he scenery throughout the Queen's 
Cou;v*>' <l:stMtt is jileasing and diversified ; as, on the whole, the land 
li.o Uvn krj)l in .1 g<KKl ^tate of cultivation, while several beautiful 
::..UiM(>us and «lciiusnc-s are to be seen, with a variety of improved 
JAf:u•h<>^J^<•'» aiid thi-ir out-ot'ticcs. E.xccpt when relieved by artifical 
ii;;.;m,''.c:iirnl"> and planting, the innnediate vicinity of the travelled 
{•M'l^ t*n th.r r.iiiil.uid plain, reaching from north-east to south-west, 
^ifc-^nt-t few Ic.ilurcs of scenic interest ; although for the most part 
\iu;!v»l.»t»nj;. and o|K-ning piclures(]ue vistas of more distant mountains 
<»r hi!N, (iivcn the advantage of favourable weather, and facilities 
Uff jr.akmjj cwufsions, rarely is the tourist through any part of the 
<ounU- <Ji>apjM)mic<l. or not greatl)- pleased, with his drive, or ride, 
of jK-tk~»tn.«n cwriisi-. 

.\ti."jiii ihic natural curiosities of the Queen's County may be 
jt.c:it:<>r.ctj ll»r .S.';/;-i'.'<i, a vorte.x within a small glen, near the rock 
0} I liirre an inconsiderable stream, almost dry in warm 
\%c.ithrr. trickles through the narrow ravine, and disappears from 
view \siiliiii the limestone rocks. .\fter heav)' rain, a considerable 
]vA is JurinrtJ over the aperture, before it is swallowed down through 
the siihtcrr.mean passage. Its further course has not been traced, 
r)or is it known wIktc the stream emerges to light, after it has thus 
iny.ttrrHJUsIy <lisapjH.-.ire<l. However, as the source appears to flow 
lt«>m tlic Killealc and I )ysart Hills, which are well-known to be 
t.ivcrnous beneath their surfaces, so it seems very probable, that 
springs of water percolate through the rocks and form pools or courses, 
wjjicli tind .subterranean ducts for their outfall. 

Near tl)c vertex of Killone, a conical hill, near the Great Heath of\lK)r(»ugh, the oj)ening to a cavern was discovered before the close 
ci the eif^htecnth cenlur)-. This cavern slopes towards the centre of that 


hill. The cleft at its entrance is narrow^ but at some distance, there 
is a steep descent into a large saloon, about 20 ft. or 30 ft. in height, 
and somewhat more in diameter.*^ On one side there is a dark and 
dreadful percipice ; and when stones are thrown down into it, these 
are heard about fifty or sixty fathoms deep splashing in a subter- 
raneous lake or river, which is supposed to communicate with water 
under the Great Heath of Maryborough.'^ When lighted only by a 
few candles or torches, the cavern appears darlv and dismal, studded 
with pendant and projecting rocks, which seem to threaten the spec- 
tator with instant destruction ; yet, on being fully illuminated, those 
horrors vanish, and give place to a most brilliant scene. Under sucli 
conditions, the sides, roof, and every pointed rock, seem instantly 
covered witli festoons and bouquets of pearls, diamonds, and rubies, 
with every other kind of precious stone. Such appearance is caused 
by drops of water issuing from the upper calcareous rocks, although 
no incrustations are to be seen.^ 

The Dun of Clopooke, surmounted by a stone circumvallation on 
top, is of limestone ; and the form is nearly circular. On one of its 
sides is a large cavity, which diminishes in size, at some distance from 
its entrance, and then a narrow fissure is said to lead into a cavern, 
the branches of which have not yet been fully explored. Near this, 
on the Dun of Luggacurran, it is said there is a cav<?6 ft. high by 4 ft. 
at bottom and top.'-* Smaller clefts and cavities are known to exist 
in other limestone districts throughout the county. 

CIIAPTP:R IV.— Mountains and Hills. 

The mountain range of Slieve-Bloom, formerly called Sliabh- 
Bladhma, is on the boundary line between the King's and Queen's 
Counties. Its gradual ascent, from the southern vicinity of Clonaslee 
village in the barony of Tinnehinch, reaches for over thirteen miles, 
chietiy bearing south-south-westward, towards the northern vicinity 
of Roscrea town, at the northern extremity of the County of Tipperar\'. 
It partly takes in the barony of Ballybrit in the King's County ; but 
chiefly is it contained within the baronies of Tinnehinch, Upperwoods, 
and Clandonagh, in the Queen's County. It occupies in part the 
parishes of Letterluna, Kinnetty, Roscomroe, and Roscrea, in the 
King's County. Within it also are the parishes of Kilmanman, 
Rearymore, Rosenallis, Offerlane, and Kyle, in the Queen's County! 
The respective altitudes of its chief elevations over the sea-level are 
Spink, in the parish of Letterluna, 1,087 feet; CarroU's-Hill, in the 
parish of Kinnetty, i ,584 feet ; a height on the boundary line JDetween 

® See a description of this natural curiosity entrance into the first desccndinjj chamber 

given in the " Anthologia Ilibernica," vol. and by llie light ofa candle had an opportunity 

iii., in an ariicle on the Physical Geography of witnessing some of the phenomena 

of Ireland, by a writer wlio signs himself described in the text ; yet the gloom was 

Anibularius, January, No., 1794, p. 4. too great fully to realize all itsinteresting 

' See Wm. Wenman Seward's " Topo- features, without mure sulhcient illuminatin'" 

graph.ia Hibernica," at the word, Killone- appliances. 

Hill. "See Daniel O'Byrne's " History of the 

^ In his youthful days, the writer made his Queen's County," chap, v., p. 12 

M"I-\T,\IN^ AND HILLS. 21 

sJw {Mri^i.c o! Ixtrftiia\.i and OiR-rKmc is i,0(;j tect. On the line of 
«J:\j^H:ri !»ct'.\tvri tf'.r jmi ;-!if^ »it KiiuicUy and (3llcrlane are Arderin 
i»r*<! :»rv<j!l;rr ^vKIl:n!l n ^]<Htivfly 1,73 ^ and i/)'>i feet; P\'irbreague, 
«,!.') tJw Ixuntd.irv \)i\c Ui-t-Atn-:! tin- ]).irishes of RDsconiroe and Oiferlane, 
nvcAvviro J ,.;i J frrt J!'. .k!:it\ide ; .it the junelion o\ Robcomroe, Roserea, 
;»;>! (,.):!rrl.i:ic r.i:j%V.«-s, l;;t:rc i>^ a lu-ii^ht of 1,3,^2 teet ; Knocknastumba 
acvj a'.v>'A,(t Ur.j^'jiX. rr-^tKx lively 1,350 and i,2f)i feet, are in 
K<-.-.ry:i» ■jr j».5mh , .\n!<«nian is in tlie parish of Rosenallis, and 1,114 
i-ir'. , K-*-.'4:iTr.»,;}icon^ rssc-s on the boundary line between Rearyniore 
jkjcj c>;;r;;.t;>r j.,irt>5^r> to a hei}j;ht of i ,()J0 feet; there is a height, 
»n tliK- trj.trc oi l!ic of Kilmanman, whieh attains an altitude 
ti t X'^Jk Uri I ;i Isri'^ht is also on the boundary line between the 
j«f'.»hc-» oJ and Kyle, reaching to 1,007 feet ; in the parish 
i~i K<»*-<rrA tJ'.rrt* js an elevation rising to y^y feet. The Cones and 
!?< K;«!i^*c of Capp.ird are two elongated heights, which extend 
fc-jj^^'ivcly towards the cast, and along the boundary line between 
iCrAfVfiunc .i:i<l OiYcrlane parishes • while they reach north-eastwardly 
lxr;wrrn Ke.iryinorc and Rosenallis parishes ; the highest parts of 
iL-cur r!<li.:y >ununiLs are respectively Bawnreaghcong and Antonian. 
'I he r-uis^c is r><j cmitinvious and proportionately narrow, that it is 
ir.ivcr«>cd or crossed only by two roads ; both of these lead through 
1 >'\y rlev.itions or through very steep gaps ; the whoJje screen forms 
a MTu-s <>! striking features and noble backgrounds for the great 
ct.'i'.jal jt'ain wluch stretches far away from their base towards the 
caNi. I-"ro:ii .Mountrath, and from various other localities on the Queen's 
OnKity sjdi- ill their vicinity, the ascent is gradual and their summits 
arc t-asil'.' rcaclu-d. From the Cones, the heights of Arderin, and 
Tii.i:i\' <>;lu-r vantage-grounds, the\' command extensive and most 
%aricil views of tlie lower l>'ing country beneath, and over which they 
h.i\c a grand elevation, liven on the upper ridges are many fine views 
0} solitary valleys within them. The Gap of Glendine, immediately 
to tile north of Arderin, is the principal defile to afford a good road 
Jx-tween the King's and Queen's Counties. This passage is difficult of 
ajiproach.and the rise is a steep one; formerly it was not five feet wide 
ii}H>n tlie bridle-path, but at present the road is sufficiently broad to 
admit of travelling with ease. Owing to tlieir great extent and height, 
tlie le.iding features of this district are possessed of every natural 
Ix-auty peculiar to mountains ; in the variety of their conformation 
and winding surfaces their scenery is calculated to excite pleasurable 
emotions and admiration ; while their botany is well worth attention 
hy the naturalist, and their varied strata still require investigation by 
the geologist.^ 

Tlie mountain range which is denominated Slieve ^larague or 
Sheve Margy is situated in the south and south-east of the Queen's 
County. It is said to comprehend the ancient districts of Dunane, 
Clogh, Shean Oghragh, Maragheigh, and Brenan. Their hills rather than 
mountains have generally no extraordinary elevation. Three distinct 

' Sir Charles Coote very prDpeily observes : of the Agriculture and Manufictures of 

" A iiiiiiutc inspection of this great range of the King's County, with Observations on 

inouDt.iin wouUl permit ample matter for the the Means of their Improvement, drawn up 

»!lention of a professed mineralogist, and in the Year 1801. For the Consideration, 

ilirow a liglit on that science in this country, and under the Direction of the Dublin 

(i( what riches we may possess without Society." chap, i., sect 4, p. 10. Dublin, 

knowing their value." " General View iSoi, 8vo. 



ridges enclose in the northern extremities a plain considerably below 
the vertex of the hills, yet much above the level parts of the adjacent 
countries towards the north and east. The northern ridge, said ta 
have been anciently denominated the Shean Oghragh, is composed of 
calcareous stone, towards the vertex, on which is a moorish soil, 
producing rushes and turf. Somewhat lower, towards the south, the 
soil changes to a vegetable earth, fruitful in grass, meadow, and corn,, 
intermixed with watery bog producing rushes, but no great quantity 
of good turf. On this part stood an ancient forest traditionally called 
Choille Oghragh.- The roots and trunks of trees unearthed lend 
probabilit}' to that tradition. Between the site of that forest and the 
moory land called Carragh, a kind of slate stratum is found, indicating 
coals at no great depth. The coal stratum is found about six feet 
beneath the surface, and it bears in the direction of the hill declivity. 
However, it is not of a good quality, and in depth it is shallow. The 
eastern district of Slievemargy is a rich and beautiful Ij.iclv-ground 
portion receding from the valley of the Barrow, and it comprises 
the parallel vale of the rivulet Fishoge ; but the middle and western 
districts arc a series of uplands, so fused into their respective bases 
as to make a tumulated tableau of from 500 to 830 feet of elevation 
above sea-level. Clogrennan, from which most extensive views are 
presented, rises to an altitude of 1,032 feet.^ The lijghest grounds on 
the western border are two elevations of respectively 885 and Sgq 
feet of altitude ; while on the southern border there is a mountain 
reaching to 1,102 feet. Most of the uplands are of the coal formation, 
and generally they have seams and beds of coal having such positions 
and thickness, that they can be profitably turned to account by miners. 
They constitute an important part of the great Leinster coalfield. 

Beyond the site of Choille Oghragh, the stratum of coal dips from 
six feet to five and eight fathoms, and in thicl-cness it varies from 
twelve to twenty inches. It is covered with argillaceous eartli, and a 
kind of argillaceous rockstone, with black slate and earth. Entering 
on the lands of Clogh and Doonane, the ground is fertile, and tl-.e 
coal dips to about twenty or twenty-eight fathoms. It varies from 
twenty inches to over three feet in thickness, and it runs in a direction 
nearly parallel with the horizon. Here, at about twelve fathoms beneath 
the surface, a rock of whinstone has been discovered, and it rests on a 
stratum of columnar basalt, which is perpendicular to the horizon. 
The columns are from two to six feet in length, while the articulations 
vary from three to six inches. They form both convex and concave 
joints of an irregular pentagonal figure ; the sides in different joints 
being plain convex and concave in shape. In several places, these 
columns rest on a light grey and ferruginous rock or whinstone, and 
on a slaty rock ; a vein of rich iron ore, parallel to the h.orizon, and 
from one to three inches in thickness, extends beneath. Under the 
iron a stratum of slate is found, and then a coal bed. A soft micaceous 
slate stratum, ten or twelve fathoms deep, is under the coal-bed. A 
hard rock through which no excavation has been attempted lies still 
lower. Miners think that the great and principal coal-bed sinks 
beneath this rock, and about fifty fathoms from the surface. In the 
eastern ridge of Slievemarigue, called Brennan, a number of rich iron 

' See the " Anthologia Ilibernica," vol. ii., ^ -St-e J^nies Fraser's "Hand I^uok fcr 

July, 1793, P' 37- Travellers in Ireland," N(i. 12, p. i 1 1. 

.\!.. TNT A INS AND illl.l> 23 

iiiinrs iiavc Inxn <lis. ovcrcd 'll>c remains oi various shafts make it 
c\Kir:U tl.c->c iJuncs had been wroui^ht m some remote period, 
4» 1.0 tradition rcinamcd even towards the close ol the eighteenth 
triiUiry ot tlu-ir having l)ecn oix-ncd at any tormer time. It is probable 
the ofc u.»'' not MTalted on the s[X)t, when extr.ielcd, but that it had 
l^crii rcrr.ovcd to some more distant place, as no remains ot any furnace 
I.A\«nn \Kci\ crtxli-d there can be found. Ownig to the (]uantity and 
«>;i,»ii!v i.A the ore these mines .seem, uiuloubtediy, to merit the attention 
^•j the ji.i:;c.'.ii<»j;i">l,' and the enterprise of the manufacturer and 
uj>;t -li'- 't .... 

|'i>.:;i the Sheveinar^fy range of mountain extends a chain of hills 
in d t. -flh-wotwardly direction towards Stradbally and Ballykilcavan. 
Ukx' K.i\c ^^raduai ascents and are of subdued altitude; but their 
|-fous--.rj^' >» intersected with valleys of gentle undulation, and varied 
Ihfou^'fiovit their whole extent. Belts of woodland occasionally inter- 
%viic. .'«ful lend a .special feature of interest to the scenery. Towards 
the south-west those hills form a connexion with what is known as 
the Ih-x-^v and Timahoe chain, which swells out into many pleasing 
i.:o«-jx-cts, enlivened by the slopes and surfaces dotted by numerous 
l.^rm-hou^es and ruraf cottages. The picturesque hills in the parish 
..', Jjy-.irt-gallen and around Ballynakill are ot minor elevation, and 
l.^r the most part capable of held cultivation. Their^declivitics usually 
retire to banks of the l;eautiful Owenbeg River, or to tlie streams that 
form its manv aftUients. 

The rugged chain of Dysart Hills commences at the Rock of Duna- 
iiiase and'^continues in a southward course to Lamberton Demesne, 
wliere they terminate at Crosby Duff Plill. Their broken and irregular 
outlines are studded with furze and thorn brakes, the natural products 
()! their lime-stone formation ; and while the traveller on the high-road 
iKlwecn Dublin and Cork admires the diversity of view they present 
on the western side, nearly in a parallel direction but at a still greater 
distance towards the east, the line of vision is closed by the far-reaching 
and gracefully declining slopes of the Fossey mountain chain. The 
intermediate spaces are covered with well-cultivated farms and com- 
fortable homesteads. The Cullinagh Mountains— hardly deserring 
this popular nomenclature owing to their secondary height and gradual 
.^^^;^.,^t^_.^I-e a link of three well-distinguished summ;ts, yet united b\- 
elevated connecting grounds. From Sliabh Dubh or the BlacK 
Mountain in the east, they take partly an eastern direction towards 
Kilwhelan, and terminate at the Rock of Cashel— a lime-stone crag, 
and locally known by that name. 

The celebrated Rock of Dunamase, with its crowning ruins, stands 
quite isolated from the opposing range of Kilteale hills, covered with 
copse-wood on the east. Fine pasturage is to be found for cattle and 
sheep, even on the upper grounds, and the ascent is gradual ; while 
thickets of hazel and hawthorn prevail to an extent, which renders 
the passage of way-farers difhcult except through tlie paths opened 
by flocks and herds. To the west and extending northwards is a chain 
of curiously detached hills, which terminate at the double-coned 1 1 ill 

*Thc writer in llie "Anthologia Ililjernica," tends witliin six miles of the place, whereby 

witli very just observation, adds tliat " if the an easy conveyance nii-Iit be had, not only 

neighbouring turf and coal could not be for the produce of the mines, but for such 

cliaried to answer tlie purpose ot materials as would be necessary for their 

smelting, a branch of the Grand Canal e\- manufacture."— Vol. ii., July, 1793. I'- 3^- 


of Killonc. This latter was once delightfully ccvcrcd with plantations 
over a great part of its extent, to those who recollect the scene — not 
many years remote froni our time — but the present bald and naked 
appearance of the scrubby surfaces presents only a scene of desolation 
and a feeling of deep regret for the destroyed Sylvan coronet. 

In the parish of Aughmacart, and in the extreme southern part 
of the Queen's County is the Cullohill range — so called from the name 
of that village — and it separates Kilkenny County along that frontier. 
Swelling out over a very considerable distance, the eminences are all 
easy of access and the gradients are never very steep throughout that 
district. Some small hUls south of Portarlington have summits rising 
from 300 to 400 ft., but large portions of the district around — especially 
south and west of the Barrow— are flat and covered with peat bog, 
the dreary surface of which is somewhat relieved by tracts of wood 
about Emo, Shane, and Ballybrittas. Many other beautiful eminences, 
which hardly deserve the name of hills, may be seen scattered here 
and there throughoi.ft various districts of the Queen's County, 

CHAPTER v.— Rivers, Lakes, and Water Courses, 
The Barrow is the longest, widest, and deepest river in the county ; 
while, for a considerable portion of its course, lumber boats carrying 
heavy freights ply on its waters, ^ especially from Athy to Carlow, and 
downwards to New Ross, where steamers and sloops arc found to 
reach Waterford.- A small brook, which is fed by some springs^ north 
of Barna, and at a height of 1,500 ft. over the sea-level, may be considered 
the head water of the River Barrow, which gradually increases in size, 
fed by several small streams which fall into Glenbarrow. At the foot 
of the hills, and near Rathcoft'ey bridge, the Glenlahan River falls into 
the Barrow. Thence it runs in a northerly direction to the east side 
of Monettia Bog, where it curves round to the south-east, leaving the 
district north-east of Mountmellick. Gathering its confluents in the 
barony of Tinnehinch, the Barrow takes a sinuous eastward course in 
the plains beneath the Slievc Bloom mountains, and a little north of 
Mountmellick it receives, at a height of 235 ft., the Ovvenass stream, 
which flows through that town. The Owenass rises east of Baunreagh- 
cong, at a height of 1,450 ft., and runs down the east sideofSlieve Bloom. 
Near that point, also, the Barrow forms the boundary line between 
the King's and the Queen's County, flowing through a level district 
of country on towards Portarlington, until it enters the County of 
Kildare and onwards to Monasterevan ; it thence turns southwards 
and proceeds through a flat surface of country, through callow meadows 
and marshes, which are often greatly flooded, especially in the winter 
months, or when heavy rains prevail m the Slieve Bloom mountains. 

' The Barrow Nnvi(^;ition Company, char- the amount of tolls £4,666. During late 

tered by an Act of the Irish Parliament, years, the iniflic and tolls have very consider- 

expended nearly £42,000 before the year ably diininishcd. 

iSil in building locks and dams, as also in ^ The well of Sliabli Bladhma, or Slieve 

cutting short canals to improve llie naviga- Bloom, was regarded as the river Barrow's 

tion of the river, and up to 1(538, the sum source. A legend states that if any person 

expended was £177,852. In the year iSoo, touched, or even gazed upon it, the sky 

the tonnage was 19,828 tons, and the amount poured down torrents of rain, until the tutelary 

of tolls was £1,405. spirit of the spring had been propitiated. See 

" In 1S55, the tonnage was £66,084, and the " Dublin Illustrated Journal," No. 4, p. 5^. 






.-,'*"^/. r'i3*'fe>rtu^wl;v''-:^srnS^E5fci>ii\'i 

\'m1. I. 


(l''riuii (''s Aiili.jiii/i, i). 

'■^U^- 7: 


In the upper glens and water-courses, the waters are precipitated over 
rugged beds of sandstone rocks and boulders, and sometimes through 
steep gorges over limestone gravel. Afterwards, the waters spread 
out and move slowly through the level plains, where they become 
sinuous, and in places they are deep, while in others ordinarily they 
are fordable. However, along the champaign courses are high banks 
and hills, woods and demesnes, as also cultivated and pasture fields, to 
form a succession of highly-pleasing and beautiful landscapes. The 
Little Barrow and its tributary the Feagile ioin in the vicinity of 
Monasterevan, and various other streams unite as the Barrow flows 
southward. From Monasterevan to Athy, the Grand Canal from 
Dublin continues along the west side of the River Barrow, and near 
its banks, with some slight deflections from their sinuosity. After 
leaving Athy, the Barrow still bounding the Counties of Kildare and 
the Queen's County takes its course southwardly to Carlow, where it 
has a height of 152 ft. above the sea-level.'* Thence this river cotinues to 
Leighlin Bridge, Bagnalstown, Graiguenamanagh and New Ross, 
di\'iding the County of Kilkenny from the Counties of Carlow and 
Wexford, and it receives the Suir below Waterford, entering the sea at 
the opening of Waterford Harbour.^ It abounds in tish, esi^ecially 
salmon, towards its mouth ; but, of late years, the supply of hsh has 
been greatly diminished, and this is stated to hate been occasioned, 
chiefly owing to an increase of pike in its waters, and that species is 
well known to anglers, as being most destructive among the more 
valuable products of the finny tribe. 

The next longest and most considerable river and running for a 
considerable distance wathin the Queen's County is the Nore, formerly 
called the Neure, or Oure.^ Its rise is from a small spring in the barony 
of Ikerrin, County of Tipperary, and thence it flows in a north-east 
course through a level tract of country. Near its source, a little south- 
ward from Roscrea, the River Nore passes through a waste tract of 
bog — which had been formerly an extensive lake — and from which 
ancient boats have been dug up by turf-cutters. Some portions of it still 
remain constantly under shallow water. It enters the Queen's County 
near Borris in Ossory, and afterwards receives as its first chief affluent 
the Tonet River, rising on the southern slopes of the Slieve Bloom 
Mountains ; thence it proceeds in a devious course to the village of 
Castletown, below which it receives the Shannon — sometimes called 
the Mountrath — River, as passing through that town. This latter 
has its source in the Slieve Bloom Mountains. Thence the Nore flows 
southwards through the city of Kilkenny, and ioins the River Barrow 
above New Ross, in the County of Wexford. 

The Tonet River takes a solitary and rapid course thi-ough the 
mountain glens and valleys of southern Slieve Bloom. The Tonet 
rushes through lonely dells uncommonly romantic, and passing 
Annatrina's ancient cemetery, it unites with the River Nore, about a 
mile below the small village of Coolrain. Notwithstanding the wild 
scenery along its banks, seldom does the tourist wander to its solitary 
sources, although the excursion must afford delight and enjoyment to 
the lover of nature in her most lonely haunts. The River Tonet gathers 

■•See Geological Sheet, No. 137. denomination llirLjus or Brigus. 

* On I'tolomy's ancient Map of Ireland, the "^ According to lioate's " Ireland's Natural 

Barrow is supposed to be described by the History," Cliaj). viii., Sect. 2, p. 63. 



some smaller rills from the south-western summits of the Slievc Bloom 
Mountains, while it rolls throut^^h several pretty valleys and ^lens in 
an easterly direction, until it joins the Delour River below Coolrain 
village, in the parish of Offerlane. The district around is mostly 
broken and pastoral, and the scenery along its banks is remarkable 
for variety and beauty. Although in tine seasons of the year, the 
stream is inconsiderable, yet after heavy rains, it pours along in deep 
and rapid torrents. The Mena stream is a clear mountain rivulet, 
which after a short course joins the River N()re. Hence a townland 
bears the name Menadrochid, which signilies " Mcna-bridge," as 
doubtless one had crossed the stream in ancient times. The Delour 
River and its various branches, coming from the upper middle heights 
of the Slieve Bloom Mountains, through some picturesque defiles and 
scenery along its course, falls into the River Tonet a little below Coolrain. 
Some of the atlluents of the .Silver River, which flows into the great 
River Shannon, have their rise on Slieve Bloom Mountains, in the 
north-western angle of the Queen's Cc^unty. 

The Rix'cr li^rkina, collecting various streams which unite west of 
Rathdowney, Hows tlience eastwardly towards Castle Durrow, and 
passing this town, it falls into the River Nore, near Ball)'ragget. Its 
course lies through an interesting and a fertile but level country ; 
while it presents a beautiful appearance, especially in the deniesne 
near Castle Durrow, and through the County of Kilkenny. The River 
Goul, coming from Aghmacart southwards, joins it on the right bank. 
The River Gully rises in the low-lying bogs near Aghaboe, and after- 
wards it takes a southern course, until it unites with the River Erkina, 
about one mile east of Castle Durrow. Some pleasing scenery may be 
found, especially along its lower bed. 

The streams of less considerable volume and course are the Douglas 
Rjver, which takes its rise in the Slievemarigue range of mountains ; 
and running eastwardl}' it falls into the River I^arrow, about two 
miles north of Carlow town. In a south-east course the Fuer stream 
joins it. The Fishoge River also comes from the .Slievemarigue hills- 
and take a south-easterly course falling into the River Barrow about 
three miles south of Carlow. The Bautcogue River rises in the moun- 
tains near Timahoe, and, joined by a stream coming from Luggacurran, 
i:)assing northwards through Stradbally, it thence turns eastwards, and 
falls into the Barrow, about three miles north of Athy town. The 
Knocklead River rises in a small stream on the south side of Fossey 
Hill, and in a succession of small cascades, it takes a southern direction 
to join the River Nore. The Trilogue River rises in low marshy ground 
south of r^laryborough, and passmg northwards through that town, 
it joins the Owcnass River, about one mile east of Mountmellick town. 
From the northern slopes of the Collieries Mountains, dividing the 
Queen's County from the County of Kilkenny, several small streams 
tiow down their respective deep channels in a succession of tiny water- 
falls, and then unite to form the picturesque and rapid current, known 
as the Owenbeg or Avonbeg, the English rendering of which means 
" The Little River," This stream flows through a deep and charming 
valley, on all sides shaded with aged hawthorn liedges and trees, 
sending forth a delicious fragrance, especially in the May month, 
when their bloom is at the full, and when primroses in fine blow enamel 
all the banks. One of the most romantic of mountain rivers is the 
Owenbeg, as it flows in rapid courses through the valley in which 


the ruined church of D\'sart Gallon may still be seen. Afterwards, it 
llcjws southwards through the beautiful demesne of Heywood," near 
Hallinakill, and by the old church of Kilcronan, until it joins the 
River Xore, near Rosconncll, in the County of Kilkenny. The little 
Derryvarragh River rises near the great heath of Maryborough, and, 
taking aii eastern course by Morett Castle, it flows through a flat 
couutiA' and joins the River Barrow beside the remarkable Fort of 
Dunroily. Many of the minor streams, tributary to the foregoing, 
.ire hardly deserving of special description or notice. ^Minnows and 
Miiall li^h are common enough in all of those water-courses. In many 
ol tho-^e streams, and especially in the larger rivers, the fresh water 
tmut abounds, and eels are numerous, especially in the deep pools, 
and along t!ie sedgy banks, where the current is slow or nearly stagnant. 

The on!)- natural sheet of water, which includes many acres, is 
Aimaghmore Lough, on the northern boundary of Tinnehinch barony, 
and tlirough the centre of which passes the dividing line between the 
King's and Queen's Counties. It has a measured area of 207a. ir. 
•mrl i.;p. It lies about seven miles north-west from Mountmellick. 
It re(.ei\cs the (h'ainage of about 4,000 acres of swamp and bog-land ; 
but, tiir the ini)>t pari, it is very shallow, and there was a crannoge on 
.iti I-! ind \sithin the lough. On the northern side of this island, over 
I'i'.e liu;;dred pili-s of timber were dri\-en down artit"icially and in regular 
lnif> II. to the ^otl mould or mud beneath, and st)nre ol these lound 
iijirootfd --howeil the ends had l)een pointed by some sharp instru- 
!;u-:it j"/--;b]\- with ^mall iron hatchets, uhuh ha\'e been ioimd near 
ti.i: ^;'"t. I lie a\rra;,.;e di.iinrter o! thi- ])ik-^ was only about 5 in., and 
^;A.l<(•■. "1 .itxuit J !t. were b-.t\seen each jmiU-. 1 here is a half-submerged 
■<;.«'»• U-'tv.e-ii ti.e and the ^hore, >tiewn with stones and broken 
ip;'.::.', v. i,;le .1 Sew pik> were to be seen among this debris. Closel}' 
^'ij<-;:i:j.f.;. "-i::-.': uiil-bui in. d l)ricks, both whole and broken, were 
r.i!ni;i(.! \\:\\\ tlie stones." Kcinains ot .ui oak traming o\er the piles 
Kavc Wtt. cl:s< Kivcrcd. hkewi-e, on that inland. 

t h-«r!frol l»y an Act ol the \x\s\\ Parliament, towards the close of 
the I-j^.'};lrci!Th Crnliiry, the (Irand Canal Company was formed to 
j>fo;u<?:r i!,!.i:id n.ivigation. and as a means to develop local resources 
.«Jul tr.i<lr. "^'t^x .liter il leaves Mona^terewan, the Grand Canal takes 
.« ?«iu!kcr:! i;i)urM.-, .uid cros-ing the Ri\er Harrow b\' a handsome and 
\\t!l-!»wjl{ .iiju.idvul NU])iwnted on several arches, it enters the Queen's 
Cotjjiiy, following \er_\' clo>el)' tlie direction of the River Barrow's flow, 
.in<l ujth icw .Nimiosities along its western bank, to the tt)wn of Athy. 
Il'.e tt.ui through which it passes is almost a tlead level, and the soil 
!•> A br.iiieli of the Grand Canal extends to Mountmellick. 

'liic (-i.-.e.Iy ai'.;iiifc<! ilcinr^nc of I ley- was ihe compliincnUiry soubriquet liestowcd 

v»i«h|, \»l,:cli (.iiiu-fly U-!..i;t;ol to M. K. upon the cicML^noi- in I lie u.u licr p.iii of tlic last 

I'fci.c.'i, Kvj., mwl \*lii,li rc'ltcl.-, .so much Cfiilury. .V huaiuilully-illiisiiatol work, 

. iiclit uii ;!,c t.ire atnl .>kill tii-iil.vvcii in iis cniiiloi, "Ticncli's \'iL-ws of Ilrywuoil, 

l-riu.ition. is vit;i.i;ctl ..ri the ri^;lii lank of the (Juccn'h Cr>uiuy," contains twcnty-loiir ex- 

' ivsniU-j;; Ki\cr. Its ch.imuiig hi'-.-.-lrts ai\(i (|ui>itc plates, cLchoil by tliu cekhralcd 

ishmds aic due lo artilinal arrran^^cincnt, eni;r.ivir, Ihocas. Within the demesne there 

whde v.iii 'Us works of art had Ix-cii .set u|) in is a chalylje.Ue sprin;.,', and this lovely spot is- 

proiiiini-m j)ositi.)nM l^y the former propiie- fre(nienliy resorted to by jileasure j'ai 1 i. s. 

lor, wlio contrived to brint; every adjiuu t of ^ See Lie ulenanl-Coloiiel W. (i. Wood- 

.1 naturally pictures>jue .siirl'.i'-e-soil into pro- Martin's "Lake U\vcllinL;s of lielarul; or 

mincnt rehe!. The UiM«liatid.-, and their aiiciciU Lacustrine Habitations of lirin, 

)iroduc!s, as i^roiijied, add no sni.dt .iltr.iclion commonly called Crannoijs," pari ii., pp. 

to llir varied i;roun<is. The " classic TrenciT' 20^, 200. 


CHAPTER YL— Botany— Trees and Shrubs. 

In prc-historic times, nearly the whole surface of the Queen's 
County was covered with woods and forests ; and down to the middle 
of the sixteenth century, their growth was dense in most of the districts. 
Of those primeval woods few^ traces now remain, except in the demesnes 
and pleasure-grounds of large proprietors. Some considerable tracts 
at Ballykillcavan, near Stradbally, and in the demesnes of Lord 
De Vesci, near Abbeyleix, of Lord Portarlinglon, Lmo Park, and of 
Sir Algernon Coote, Ballyfm, are yet covered with a natural growth 
of trees, sprung from the primeval forests, and never artificially planted. 
To these have been added, at later periods, ornamental forest-trees 
and shrubs, especially in the pleasure grounds of enclosed demesnes 
and gardens. 

An old map is to be found in the British Museum, which pourtrays 
the principal features of Leix and Ophaly, as these territories appeared, 
?bout the middle of the sixteenth century. Among the few ancient 
maps, which serve to elucidate the topography of the dilTerent places 
in Ireland, and which exist in various libraries and depositories of 
records, not one — so far as our knowledge extends — ec]uals this in 
point of completeness, and of interest to Irish topogrq,phical students 
and archajologists. It presents the picture — although not an exact 
one — representing a region, almost in a state of nature, inhabited 
chiefly by the pastoral aboriginal husbandmen, or clans and wood- 
kerne. The broad features of this chart are the natural ones, such as 
the huge and wide movmtains of Slievebloom and Slievecomar or 
Slievemarigue. Primeval forests, like those denominated, " the Great 
Wood," and extensive heaths, or morasses, such as those called Frugh- 
more, or " the Great Heath," near Mar)'borough, are found inter- 
spersed on the surface of the Leix portion. The courses of the principal 
rivers and streams seem depicted with a considerable approach to 
accuracy, and at a time, too, when geological and topographical surveys 
were in their mfancy. It is sufficiently apparent, from internal and 
other evidence, that this Cottonian Chart had been compiled about the 
year 1563. The map-designer does not seem to have penetrated 
within those almost virgin forests, which might well be regarded as 
tlie " backwoods " of the Pale. The sylvan condition of that whole 
extensive region of country is somewhat remarkable, and it indicates 
the want of a sufficient population. Several notices of " the great 
wood of Ofaly " could be cited. The traveller Moryson, mentions it 
as singularly vast and wild. The entire region of Iregan is found 
almost in a condition of waste ; and traditionally, it is said to have 
been a continuous forest of oak, of wild pine, and of yew trees. A 
glance at the chart, preserved in the British IMuseum, shows that in 
this instance popular report, over three centuries ago, had not been 
erroneous. The bottom of Lough Anna, a mountain lake on the 
side of Slieve Bloom, is nearly covered with oak and yew, l>'ing there 
horizontally, and with many roots or stumps yet adhering to the 
moory and soft soil.^ 

^ See the Rev. John Baldwin's " -Stai islical Account, or Parocliial Survey of Ireland." 
Account of Roscnallis," sec. i., p. 314, in vol. This last volume was published in the yoar 
iii of Wilham Shaw Mason's " Statistical 1819 at Dublin. 



In a \'a!uablc conlribuliun to tliis chapter, by Dr. Edward Perceval 
\Vrit;ht, Professor of liotanyiii Trinity Collet;e, Dublin, he remarks, "it is 
probable that in pre-historic tinies the siu'tace of the Queen's County, 
like the rest of Ireland not under water, was covered with vegetation. 
The mountain tops were clad in a garment of golden furze (^U/cx 
EiirofHVHs) and ]3ur]:)le heather (Ciilluiui), mixed with brambles and 
" fraechans " (l\i<bi 0/ I ' iUciiiiuDi >nyr(illus). The sides of the hills 
v.ere cl.ui with forests of oak (Ouerrus rob/n), elm (Ul-nius canipcstris), 
ash 'i'raxinus (Jtnns, and bn-ch (Inttthi d lb a), with, here and there 
llie ■' rowan tree " (Scibu\ u.:, :i /\:> I'a}. Down in the valleys and along 
the ri\i.r .side-i were tangled ma--es ot Hazel, SalUnvs, Plawthorn and 
l-.\ik-v l)Ushes. lloll)- and 1\\- ;id(.led to the verdure of the scene. 
There s,e-ins little dt)ubt. but tliat here and there groups of Fir trees 
il' S\h(S,'n's) lined the si,k-> ot the shallow loughs^ but although 
nuuu-ioro slumps ot tln'-- lives iiave been dug up from bogs, yet, 
Di . ji';.i.e nienti<)i>_ this liee has not gi\en name to many places 
in luiind, tr'.ni \\ ir.ih it is fair to as-,inne, that m ancient times it U' .1 \er)- al)un< < )t all the other trees above enumerated, 
tittui- i..ti!u-s arc not only \i\ existence, but these have become incor- 
}>'r.iti'(i Hito place-ii.inirs. as may be strikingly seen in Dr. P. Joyce's 
It tsh n.i:nrs of I'laics."* 

In x\iV «'l IrinitS' ColIeLje,^ Dublui, then^ is a copy, appar- 
cnlK' di.iun (io!n a ;;uij> of I,cix, Ulaly, Irry, Clanmalier, Iregan, and 
^Iu-\ :i;.n ^.;%\ lias l.itter xfins lo Ix: of a more ancient date than that 
iiNlr.cIU' !"iirid mthc (.'"Uoni.iM l.'"llevti(iniif the ihilish .Musevun. Besides 
Xhc or.r j:j Inm'y ("<'!!t"^^c Library exhibits some local denominations, 
y.i ;oj» r, .»;:'i whuis it. id l>feii tra<.ed in the lime of Queen Elizabeth.'^ 
it-i r.-^jj i!» i.oluu:c>i. while the denominations are more clearly and 
i»f firstly '.ur;!;.:!}, arc liioNC on that preserved in the great London 
|{.f ;.»/'..!; :v* Uv-i! ,i:4>H-i»t map, likewise, is significantly and appro- 
|/ti-»!'-Iv Ju/.rJ. ihc iiiouutauis are represented by a brown hue; 
U*c tr.r:» j'*>.r}\c .» l'!iu- tin^e ; the woods are light green ; the arable 
"f M ;;> t«r,ir{r»^ l.uaL arc a greenish \-ellow ; the bogs are coloured 
vii:h A !;»;';.: purple; lisc pastures are uncoloured ; while the passes 
or tv;i!:c T'l-uuS arc r:i.iikcil b_v short straight lines, which are cast in 

' ** !< «» ]'~'^iyZ^. l.-at iciy much of il.L- iiiarc;e, inhabited alsoe by the O' Mores, Glen- 

{wvoriil »r;^i:u.;i ,<i <nt:cJ m th': Qutcn's lualire O'Dcmsic's country, p.irt wliereof is 

t'..'»f.:ii ! 1 ihc Kiwiilir of the sixUciilh cen- in the King's County, Irogan and O'Doync's 

Jaty. 1/ t", ii.»_T l<r ;-.;jl,;r.! ir .!;i jti .MuiL-nt map countrye." 

it) ji-r O-!'. MAJ> cn/llcctturi in the British ■* Sec a description of it in "Transactions 
Mavf-L,;.i. . T^.u. CrilUtr.! -.iitha cujiy in tlie of tlie Royal Irish Academy," vol. xiv., a.d. 
I.j!.i.uv .4 Tiir.-.iv Conc,;c, Dublin, by the 1S25. Anliiiuilies. James Ilardiman's paper, 
Ia:c n-il<ft K. l( ic, ua* publi-ihetl in jfjc- " .\ Catalugue of Jvlaps, Charts, and Plans, 
j:"ii.'e ill the "J"-.u.".a1 of th.; Royal .Swclety relating to Ireland, preserved among the 
of Air.i'j'.utio •-•f Ircbind," new seiies, vui. manuscripts, in the Library of Trinity College, 
iv., p. 545>. Ti.c ^[►>;^ iuh.ibu-'d \vere Dublin, with Preliminary Observations," p. 64. 
mere ?i;'cc'k-> in a d- :iic o! wood. ^ The late Herbert F. Hore, Esq., has 
Iui;;libh axes m.idc an uiicctsing warfare publislied a facsiniili of this ancient map, 
a-.iinbt his!) trees, t!u- fur Iri>h oak collated with the one in Trinity College 
being ver\' great. The in^nwurks ol the Library, with accom[)anving valuable notes, 
W.'.ndeifordc.i used up Wix^-Js of consider.djle in " The Journal of the Kilkenny and South- 
extent, which at one time existed in the neigh- East of Ireland Archaiological Society," vol. 
lx)urhood of Durrow." iv.. New Series, pp. 345 to 372. 

•■ It belongs to the manuscript deixirtment '^ \ facsimile was kept in the Museum of 

of the Library. To nia|) this note is the Kilkenny Arch:eologicaI Society, which 

.ippcndcd : "The Queen's County consists has Ijeen so laudably and creditably arranged 

oi Lca\-, anryentlve O'Mme's land-,, Slew- in t!ie city just named. 


L^rcy.'' Among- the most dangerous tleliles, lor an invader of this 
territor}', were two passes in P'ecmore, wliich was situated within 
O'Morye's country, towards the commencement of the sixteenth 
century." Fiadh-mor signifies the " great wood." If the value of 
this rudely-formed chart to chorograpliers of those countries it depicts 
could be questioned, we need only cite the elaborate "Annals of the 
Four Masters," so ably edited by the late Dr. O'Donovan. By tlie 
frequency of reference, that eminent topograplicr makes to it, we 
may well imagine, how useful he considered it, as serving to illustrate 
historical records. 

On the old map of Leix and Ophaly, preserved in Trinity College, 
and made before Ely O'Carroll was reduced to shire ground, the 
territory of Leix is represented as extending in length, from the river 
which rises at Morett and falls into the Barrow, opposite the fort of 
Dunrally, onwards to the River Douglas, which empties into the 
Barrow, a short distance to the south of Grange or Monksgrange, 
near Carlow. In breadth, Leix extended from the River Barrow, 
separating it from the counties of Kildare and Carlow, to the River 
Nore, which divided it from Ossory, the territory of MacGiolla Patrick. 
The principality of Leix, therefore, must have comprised the present 
baronies of Maryborough, East and West, Stradbally, Cullenagh, and 
Ballyadams.*^ On this map, the barony of Slievemarigue does not 
appear to have been included in Leix, according to Dr. O'Donovan ;'■' 
t)Ut I must confess, I am at a loss to discover his grounds for this 
opinion. On referring to the copy, traced from the Trinity College 
map, and appended to the manuscript volume, as also to the succeeding 
sketch by Dr. O'Donovan himself, I hnd no indication of any 
intention to exclude .Slievemarigue from Leix on the plan, but cjuite 
the reverse. ^^ Dr. O'Donovan also states, tliat the statute 3 and 4 of 
Philip and Mary seems to separate Slievemarigue from the district of 
Leix. liowever, Slievemarigue was incorporated within the present 
Queen's County, although it is said to have been a lordship, situated 
in the County of Carlow, A.D. 1553," wlicn llie king's title to the lands 
of Killishen was sought to be proved.'-' That hne district, formerly 
called Laeighs or Leix, and including the greater part of the present 
Queen's County, has a claim on our notice, being endowed by nature 
with a fruitful soil, and forming, as English colonists thought it, in 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, and even earlier, an 
" exceedingly pleasant " tract, " well sorted with woodes and playnes."'^ 

In the seventeenth century, many of the Queen's County woods were 
deforested, while in the beginning of the eighteenth century, leases 

" Sec the description in Chief Baron Fin- " See Incjuisitions. T.agenia. 

ylas' " Breviatc of Ireland," written in I i;2g. '- Prior to llie Englisli invasion, Slieve- 

** The barony of Portnaliinch, formei ly a marigue or Shevcmargio, was called Ily- 

district belonging to the O'Dunnes, and the Mairche. See Grace's "Descriptive and 

liarony of Tinnahinch, the country of the Architectural Sketch of the Grace Mausoleum 

(J'Dcmpsies, were a portion of the territory in the (Queen's County," note ]). 7. 

of Ui Failghe — at least in medi;uval times. 1^ See in the "Tracts relating to Ireland," 

" See his Letter, among the Ordnance vol. ii. John Dymniok's " Treatise of lie- 
Survey Manuscripts, relating to the Queen's land, written about A.D. 1600, and edited 
County, in vol. ii., at p. 112. with notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, 

'"The initial large letter of Leix, charac- A.B., M.K.I. A., for the Irish Arciiaiological 

teiising the division, falls within the boundary Society. The original is preserved in the 

lines of Slievemarigue, in the Ordnance Sur- British Museum. 
vey Manuscript trace. 


were rrrantcd on many propcrlies, it bcin<^ stipulated, that the tenants 
shciukl cut, burn, or destroy several acres of wood, to clear their lands 
for tlie plou<;h. Oak was the natural growth of the mountains and 
uplands ;" lirs and alders studded the bogs and marshes ; in the most 
barren and rocky sjx:)ts heaths and briars grew in abundance ; yet, 
nearlv ever)- species of tree known in these temperate regicjns seems 
to have been indigenous, as roots and trunks of all descriptions have 
been foimd. Towards the close of the eighteenth century, several of 
the local gentry re^olved on making amends lor the bare appearance 
ot v.irious siie> (july valuable lor planting ; but still, large ranges of 
landscajK- are unlurnished with the shelter and ornament of trees, 
allh()i:gii uuol ot the fields are surrounded by excellent ditches and 
hl■dge-r(>w■^, the litter usually composed of hawthorn. ^^ Dr. Wright 
■>t.ile--. that " iii the seventeenth century many trees and shrubs were 
intnxhiced into Ireland and were planted in the pleasure grounds of 
the wealth)- proprietftrs, among them the Larch, Spruce, and Chestnut. 
l*"lowering Slirubs, such as Lilac and Laburnum, were eilso planted, 
but these recent importations left no marked impress on the features 
of the country. .Among fruit trees there was but a small selection, 
.Apple orchards aboimded and the Irish name for Apple enters largely 
uito local names. Hazel nuts abounded and were stored as an article 
of |cx)d. '1 he absence of Squirrels may be noticed. Cerries of many 
kinds were to be gathered, among which the " frochans and black- 
lH.Tries formed a great part." To Mr. James Mulhall, Pass House, 
Marylxirough, the writer is indebted for the following list of the best- 
known trees and shrubs in the Queen's County, to which Dr. Edward 
!*crccval Wright has appended, in the most obliging manner, the 
Latin scientific names, and the dates for introduction of some species ; 
while the learned and researchful work^*^ of the Rev. Edmund Hogan, 
.S.J., lately published, has supplied the equivalent terms and in varied 
forms from the Irish language.^" 

'* T!ic riHits of oak trees havf fVeqiicntly have been cut down ; nor have these beer. 

Ix'cn dug (roin the sub-soil of the SHeve re])l iced even by cnpse-wood. 

Muri^;ue mountain range, as also from the ^'' See ttiibLe<.\b|UMi : " Irish and Scottish 

v.irious bo-',. The deiKJsiis of deal orpine Gaelic Names of Herbs, Plants, Trees,"' etc., 

trees arc also veiy numerous— and in many by Fr. Edmund IIoL;an, S.I. , K.R.U.I., D. 

ca,ses well preserved — as fuimd in the Litt., John Iloi^an, 15. A., |ohn C. MacErlean, 

peat. S.J. Dublin, 1900, Svo. 

" In 1841, it has been ascertained, tliat in '^ The first to present the Irish-Gaelic 

the Queen's County there were 1,413 acres names of trees and plants for the study of 

of continuous woods, and 11,488 detached botanists and the public was Caleb Threlkekl, 

trees of oak ; 95 acres and 121,959 detached born in Cumberland, Ent^land, in 1676. He 

trees of ash; 2 acres and 21,323 detached became a Dissenting Minister and a Medical 

trees of elm ; 40 acres and 33,030 detached ■ Doctor in 1712. A lover of Natural History, 

trees of beech ; 1,536 acres and 46,690 he removed to Dublin, and published by 

dctaclied trees of fir. Besides those of mixed subscription, " Synopsis Stir])ium lliberni- 

planiations, there were 8,123 acres and carum, alphabetice dispositarum, sive Com- 

134,663 detached trees, together with 421 mentatio de Plantis Indigenis, pncscrtim 

acres and 3,862 detached trees of orchards. DuMiniensibus, Instituta," 1727, Dublin, 

In all, there were 1 1,630 acres of continuous i2nio. He died in 1728, and was interred 

woods and 373,015 detached trees, equivalent in the new burial ground belonging to St. 

to 2,331 acres. The firegoing summary Patrick's Cathedral. His materials were 

makes a total of growing timber comprising drawn chiefly from a manuscript in his pos- 

13,961. Of later years, no return has been session, which seemed to him written before 

procured; but, it is safe lo state, the the war of 1641, and containing about 407 

quantity of timber now remaining has con- Irish and Latin or English names of trees, 

siderably diminished, while numbers of shrubs, plants, herbs and flowers, distin- 

forest trees, and even whole plantations, guishing the Ulster, Leinsler, Connacht, 


Aider (Alnus glutinosa), j\uAim, ve'»^r'i. peA(\no5, cn*.\nn pe^jinSige. 

Almond (Amygdalus communis), introduced about middle of Six- 
teenth Century, ^Almoin, AMiniintie65. 

Apple (Pyrus Malus), xibAll, Cjic\nn iibAll, cuAob uGlAnn, uIjaLI. 

Aspen (Populus tremula), cjuNnn C]uc, ciiAnn chici'acIi, C]\.\nn C]vicif\. 

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), pumnfe, puninfe.\ii, |.Hinini'eu5, oiniij^e^ln, 
oinnfcOg, uinniup, unin]'tvAnn, unin]^enn. 

Ash-mountain (Pyrus aucuparia), cjiAnn CAOi\c*Mnn. 

Beech and varieties (Fagus sylvatica and varieties), tie^ACoj, beit n*.\ 
ineA]^ C|\Aiin |:Ar6tJiLe, CjA^nn i^LeA.\ni.\ni; ciu\ob p.MDiLe, |-V\gbAipcne, 
•j.v\ii)5il,e, ^'e^xjvX. 

Birch (Betula alba), be^t-^, be^\tA5, beic, beiceo5, ci\^\nn beice, cuAOb 
beice, o]\uni, 

Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), Dpif, -Diiipeog, r^eAcb c.\ln'K'>n, luf n^ 

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), •oiiAije^in, T))u\ij;neACli, X)i\.M5ne».An, 

•on^Mjtiebj, fgeACb "onb 
Buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula and Rhamnus cathartica), jiAiii-unoi- 

ge.\ti, bi\eAn^\T)]UMn, b]\en-tib<.\lL, humdc buen. 
Chestnut-Horse (Aesculus Hippocastanum), introduced about 1629 

from Asia, c^^nn cno-CAxpuiLl, ciu\nn Ciio ]:iu\ncAjcii, cjuMin 

Chestnut-Sweet (CastaneaVesca), introduced about 1548, Asia Minor. 
Deal-Scotch (Pinus Sylvestris), 5uib*A]^, giiif ci\Ann guibAif. 
Elder (Sambucus nigra) ci\Ann ^'eA.\|in*.\, C]\Ann ciAonuun, C|\ann ci\uniim, 

C]\o^ob •|:e*^1^nA.^. 
Elm-witch (Ulmus montana), xMlm, ^Mlniebj, coll, le^Atii, le^Mtian, 

le^\nu\nti, lem, ylS, fl^MiiA^n, i^le^rriAn, cuilm. 
F"urze (Ulex europaeus), A.\ice*.\nii, Acenn, comiAfg, con.rpj, oip, onn, 

Hav/thorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), -dhaijo.mi 5e^\l, fce<^cb, i^ceicee^, 

■pcTog, fjCACh j^caI. 
Hazel (Corylus avellana), cjvAnn coilcin, CjUMin cuill, ci;o.ob cl^<^lculnI1, 

Heather (Calluna vulgaris and species of Erica), ppAoch, p|\«Mchne, up, 

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) ciuleAtm, C|\Ann cuilnin, cpAOb chuiUnn. 
Hornbeam (Carpinus Betula), cpAnn fleiivAin, PeAnu\ntib05. 
Ivy (Hedera helix), Ait)iieAn, eA"OAn, eA-oiiAU, eibCAn, eit)eAn, eninebg, 

f-Aij^loA-O, pAicleAg, 5oi\c, 50PCI05. 
Juniper (Juniperus communis, var. Hibernica), aicioI, beAniu\n bpig-oe, 

bio-nA Le^\C|\A, nibAi\ bcmne, nib^p C|\Ai5e, uij\ caIiIumi. 
Laburnum (Cytisus Laburnum), be^lATO pivAucAcli, introduced about 

Munslcr iiliiucs, and even those of counties, Ireland, in English, Irish and Latin, with a 

such as Wicklow, Carlovv, Kildare, Leix, etc. true description of them and their medicinal 

Again, in 1735, John K'Etigh, A.B., Chaplain virtues." Various otlier collections and 

to Lord Kingston, issued a work " Printed sources, mentioned in the Preface, have sup- 

and sold by Harrison, at the corner of plied the Rev. Father Hogan with materials 

Meeting-house Lane, Cork. A General to compile the most extensive Irish vocabulary 

Irish Herbal, an Account of the Herbs, of botanic names that has hitherto appeared, 

Shrubs, and Trees naturally produced in andfromthe^cthewriter hasexclusivelydiawn. 



Larch (Larix Eiiropaea), lAipeAg, introduced about 1630. 

Lilac (S\'ringa vul^^aris), C|v\ot:) liAtjoivm -oiicvivui, introduced 

about 1597- 
Liine (Tilia Europaea), cju\nn ceile, cp^nn ceilcoije, ciA.\ot3 teile, 

ceiLe, coiLooj;. 
Oak (Ouercus robur and varieties), t)ai|\, eite^cli, omn^\, i\J\il, -pi ua 

coille, cp.Mi?! TiApA, C|\.\nn -o^paig cp^otj -OxApAcU, pApcNn, ]:univAn. 
Peach (Amyi;dakis Persica), peicfeog, c^uxun peirpeoise, introduced 

about the middle of the Sixteenth Century. 
Pear (Pyrus commiuiis), cpAnn piopp^i-o, petpe. 
Pegwood ? (Euonymus Europaeus), peopup. 
Plum (Prunus communis and varieties not indigenous), cpAun buUcvip- 

ci'{')e, cp<\nii pLuiriAig, T)<\uui'eo5, cp<.\otJ pLunil)ip, pluinog. 
Poplar (Populus alba), cp^nn cpiceACli, cpann poibiL, cp^nn pobuil, 

cp..\olJ clipioc^vun, poibleo^. 
Raspberry (Rubus Idaeus), nr.\ocan conAip>e, ppe.rp pugchjiAoibe, potJ^\ 


Sallow (Salix nigra), p^Ml, pliocApnACVi, ge^AtpeiloAch, cpAun pAilij. 
Spruce-black (Abies nigra), introduced about 1700 from Nortli America. 
Spruce-common (Abies communis), giup lochl,MiiK\cli. » 
Sycamore (Acer campestre), picmin, cp^Mui L).\n, cp^\nn piotin, cp.Nun 

pcice, pijAClipAun 
\' e\v (.Taxus baccata), cpAnn mb.Mp, cp.\ot) gp^\in-ui;).\ll, epAob uibAip, 

The topot^rapbical denomination of places in the Queen's County, 
and drawn troni a remote period, indicates tlie existence of special 
]-:inds of woods, which seem to have been the prevailing growth in 
their respective localities. Other evidences remain to illustrate this 
inference. Thus, the Irish word for " hazel " is Cull, Cole or Coll, and 
that product gave name to the elevated range of the Cullohill district, 
near Durrow. The Irish form of Cullion or Cullen, meaning " holly," 
enters into the local denomination of Cullenagh, formerly a well- 
wooded district of the Queen's County, as popular ti'adition still preserves 
the remembrance ; and it had its derivation from the circumstance of 
that tree there abounding, as still in stunted fnmi it appears frc(]ucntly 
in the local hedge-rows. AnotherdistrictcalledCullenagh is in the Barony 
of Ballyadams, and the origin of its name is similar. But surpassing 
all others in number are the townland denominations of 1 Jerry, ^=* 
meaning " oak " or '' oakwood/' and Derrin,^'' " little oak-wood '" with 

'^ Four distinct townlands bear this name Upperwoods barony, Dcrrybeg (the little oak- 

on the Ordnance Survey Map ; lwi> of these wood) in the barony of Maryborougli West, 

are within the barony of Maryborough East, Derrybrock (oak-\\(jod of badgeis ) in the 

and two others, still more e.\tcnsive, are in barony of Stradbally, Derrycanlon (Canton's 

tlie barony of Tinnahinch. or Cantoun's or Condon's dcrry) and Derry- 

I'j Dcrrin is a townland in the barony of carrow (rough oak-wood) in the barony of 

Clandonagh ; The compound woidi Dcrrin- Upperwoods, 1 )errycloney (oak-wood ol the 

duft" (the black oak-wood), Derrinoliver meadow) in the l)arony of J'ortnahinch, 

(Oliver's little dciry), Derrinsallagh (miry ]Jerrycon (oak-wood of grcyhountls) in the 

or puddley oak-wood) are in the barony of barony of Upperwoods, l3eriytlavy (Dathi's 

Clandonagh, and Dcrrintray (the little oak- or Davy's iLrry), in the barony of I'orlna- 

wood of the mill race), is in the barony of lunch. Derryfore (cold rA/v^') in the barony 

Tinnahinch. (jf Cullenagh, Dcrrygarran (of the shrubbery) 

'-'" Thus there are the following townlands, in the barony of I\b\ryborough East, Derry- 

Dcrryarrow (the oak-wood of the corn), in gile in the Ijirony of Porlnahincii, Derrvhay 



their compounds ;"^ which enable us to uiulcrstand how prevalent and 
extensive had been that species of timber in former times, and in places 
where at present hardly a single tree of it now exists. From the 
additional compound word we arc enabled frequently to determine 
the characteristics of trees themselves, their species, and the size of 
the woods in which they grew The Ordnance Survey Maps of Ireland 
are notably deficient in giving thousands of local etymons, which should 
be regarded as distinct townlands, but which have been omitted in the 
existing large scale sheets, although many have a historic interest and 
are noted in accessible records.-^ To the writer's knowledge, there 
are several other spots locally called Derry, or with a compound word 
annexed, that are not to be found on those Maps. Moreover, it may 
be observed, that from forest trees down to the smallest shrubs and 
plants, all the principal native species arc -commemorated in local 
names, and to the present day those places to which they refer produce 
in great abundance that very growth, which many hundred }-ears 
ago gave them their distinctive denominations."- Hence the necessity 
for a knowledge of the Irish language to guide a student's researches 
in the various branches of Irish natural hi-^te n-y. 

In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Queen's County, 
as well as the King's County and Wicklow County, was full of woods, 
some of these being many miles long and broad. -^, However, as else- 
where, before the close of that century, the woods in the Ouccn's 
County had rapidly disappeared, having been cut down to supply 
timber for building, and charcoal for founderies established by the 
Earl of Mountrath, as also firewood for household purposes. Wherefore, 
an Act was passed in i69S,ioth of William HI., in the Irish Parliament, 
for the planting of 260,600 trees in Ireland ; the number to be planted in 
the Queen's County was fixed at 3,950. Since that time, and especially 
in the eighteenth century, many fruit trees had been introduced 
and orchards were cultivated on the old farm-steads ; but few of the 
latter trees are now to be seen, while some plantations of the landed 
proprietors at that period remain. But of late years, the felling and sale 
of trees has greatly diminished their number; and in very few instances 
have eilorts been made to supply by replanting the denudation caused 
by the wood-man's axe on several estates throughout the county. 

O'llea's Derry) in the barony of Ujiper- Dcrryroe (red oak-wood) in the barony of 

woods, Derrykearn (of the kerns or lii;bt Maryborou|^h West, Derrytrasna (.cross or 

foot-soldiets), in the barony of Maryborough transverse dt-)-ry) in tlie barony of Slradball}-, 

West, Derrylahan (broad ^t^r;-;/) in the barony Derryvorrigan (Muireagan's or Morgan's 

of Cullenns:;!!, Derrylahan (broad deny) in the oak-wood) in the barony of Clandonagh. 

barony of Upperwoods, Derrylemoge (^'oung "^ Yet it should have been possible to re- 

WilUam's derry) whicli is to be found move such deficiency, by obtaining a trans- 

in the barony of Tinnahinch, Derrylinneen cript of the names of the agricultural 

(O'Luinin's derry) in the barony of Tinna- tenements on the rent-rf)l]s of the landlortis 

hinch, Derrylusk (burnt derry) in the barony or their agents, if not iVoni the larmers and 

of Maryborough West, Derrymore (the great peasantry who occupy the lands in question, 

oak-wood), barony of Maiyborough West, "- Sec Dr. Patrick W. Joyce's " Origin ai.d 

Derrymoyle (bare derry) in the barony of History of Irish Names of Places, " Part iv., 

Slievemargy, DerrymuUen (Mullin's Derry) chap, viii., Plants pp. 473, 474. 

in the barony of Tinnahinch, Derryiia- '-^ See Dr. Gerard Boate's *' Natural 

funshion (of the ash-trees) — i.e., mixed with History of Ireland," chap, xv., sec. v., p. 6S, 

ash — Derr)i.aseera (the oak-wood of the second edition, Dublin, 17-6, 4to. 
freemen) in the barony of Upperwoods, 



CHAPTER VII.— Botany.— Flora. 

The botany of the Queen's County seems to have been undescribed 
— if at all scientifically and partially examined — until the publication 
of the Cybclc Hibcrnica^ in 1866.^ In the introduction to this work, 
(.Second Edition), and according to the arrangement of the editors, 
the Third Botanical District of Ireland includes the Barrow, Kilkenny, 
Carlow and Queen's County, and it embraces an area of 1805 square 
miles. For this district, 641 species and sub-species of Flora have been 
enumerated by the editors.- This list has been greatly added to,^ by 
Robert Lloyd Praeger, Assistant-Librarian in the National Library of 
Ireland. Later still, the same distinguished Naturalist has issued a 
more complete and truly researchful work, "I rishTopographical Botany."^ 
' The exploration of Queen's County botany was chiefly Mr. Praeger's 
own work in various parts of the area. We are told, moreover, that no 
portion of it now remains altogether unexplored, but excepting the 
neighbourhood of Maryborough, there is no part that ought not bear 
further exploration.^ To that gentleman the writer has to render his 
most grateful acknowledgments for the following very complete 
description of the Flora of Queen's County, printed in the form in 
which it has been received. 

" In viewing the native vegetation of the County, its physical and 
geological features must not be lost sight of. Queen's County forms a 
characteristic portion of the great Central Plain of Ireland. Though 
the main watershed of Ireland runs along the western and northern 
edges of the county, the elevation of the greater portion is but slight, 
between 250 and 500 feet. This low ground is formed of a slightly 
undulating drift-covered floor of carboniferous limestone, with occa- 
sional great peat-bogs and sinuous esker-ridges, and extensive woods. 
In the south-east the northern end of the Kilkenny coal-field forms a 
fertile upland of from 500 to looo feet elevation. In the north-west 
an ancient crumpling of the surface has formed the Slieve Bloom 
range, which now presents a series of broad heathery ridges formed 
of Devonian and Silurian slates and sandstones, which attain a maxi- 
mum elevation of 1733 feet. Rising on the southward continuation 
ot this ridge, the River Nore flows across the plain as a pleasant rippling 
stream. The River Barrow, rising on the eastern slopes of Slieve 
Bloom, pursues a more sluggish course through great bogs and 
marshes along the northern and eastern boundaries. The whole 
county is drained by these two rivers ; lakes are practically absent, 
but canals supply a habitat for many lake-plants. With this brief 
description of the conditions under which the flora exists, we pass on 

^ In this year was issued the first edition of ' See " Iri-,li Naturalist," vol. ii., Queen's 

" Contributions Towards a Cybele I libernica, County Plants, p. 321. 

being Outlines of the GeoLjraphical Uistribu- '•This most valuable Treatise has appeared 

tion of Plants in Irelaml," Ijy David Moore. in " Proceed ini;s of the Royal Irish 

Ph.D., RLR.I.A., Director of the Botanic Academy," Third Series, vol. vii., pp. i to 

Gardens, Glasnevin, and Alexander Good- 410. Witii an Introduction, pp. i. to clxxxviii., 

man More, F.L.S., M.R.I.A. Dublin, Svo. and six finely engraved and coloured Maps 

A second edition of this work, edited by exiiibiting Ireland in Forty IJotanical 

Nathaniel Colijan, M.R.I.A., and Rej^inald Divisions. 

W. Scully, F.L.S., was published in Dublin, 'See Introduction, under the heading of 

189S, Svo. "The Sutxlivision of Ireland." No. 14, 

"See pp. Ix., Ixi. <Jueen's County, p.' 1<-. * 


lO consider its characters. The total flora of tlie county (PlTancro<::^am3 
and X'ascular Cryptogams), as at i)resenL known, niunbcrs n'earlv 
600 species ; and as the county has been fairly well explored, no s^rea't 
addition to this number need be expected ; lill_v s]X'cies certainly 
represent the total which may eventually be added to the llora. 
Comparing the Queen's County totrd with that ot the surrounding- 
counties (cdl of which are, generally speaking, similar in cliaracterj, 
we obtain the following result : — 

Queen's County 588 species 

Kildare :;6-i. 

iving's County c;c;8 

North Tipperar}' 580 

Kilkenn)' 621 ,, 

Carlow qjg 

It will be seen that among these Queen's County is surpassed by 
Kilkenny alone, and this is large!)- accoimted for bv the fact that a 
number of maritime plants grow on the Suir and Barrow estuaries, 
and swell the Kill-cenny list. 

It has been pointed out that Queen's County is ph)'sically a typical 
portion of the great Central I'hun of Ireland. Its botanical charac- 
teristics correspond likewise with those of the Central Plain. 
Analysing its flora according to the se\-en " tj'pcs of distribution " 
recently proposed for Ireland ^ we lind that the ]:)lants of " Central " 
type are far more largely represented than those of any of the other 
groups. These plants are largely water and marsh species, and ones 
whicli like a limy soil ; they form an essentially lowland group. 

To ccMiie now to the rarer jdants which grow within the county. 
Many of these may be grouped according to the habitat which the)' 
affect : — 

Plants of Tin^: Rf.'frs and Canals : — luniKiicuhis circinains 
(Circinate \Vater-Crowfo(^t), and Glycerin lUjiKdicd (Reed Meadow- 
grass) are freciuent along the canals. V>y the Barrow are found 
Ranuncitliis L'nigna (Great Spearwort), Stcllaria palnstris (Marsh 
Stitchwort), the rare Spcr'^ularia rnbya (Red Sand-.Spurre\0, RIia))i>iiis 
catharticus (Common Buckthorn), anrl several rare Pondweeds 
{Pota))wgcton yiifcstois^ P. iiiiois, inid P. -Ilahcllatiis") ; Scir pus sylvcilictis 
(Wood Club-rush)^ and near Monettia Bog Cnrcx dxillaris ,3. very rare 
species of Sedge. By both the Ivarrow and the Nore two of the rarest 
plants of the County, N asturli iiiii svtvcslrc (Narrow-podded Marsh' 
Cress) and Cnjiipajiitla Trachdiiini (Xettle-leaved .Bell-flower) grow 
sparingly. In the canal near Grattan Aqueduct grow Glnniithc 
fistulosd (Common Water Drop wort) and Pota))iogcton doisus (Opposite- 
leaved Pondwced). 

Plants of the Marshes and Boos : — In marshy ground Jinicus 
obtiisiflonts (Bluntilowered Rush) is often abundant, and in \'cr\' 
wet ground two of the rarer Sedges, Caret terctiiiscula and C. filiforiiiis. 
Tlialictriiui fhwitm (Meadow Rue) grows amid the INIearlow-sweet and 
Purple Loosestrife, and in wet pastures ma\' be found the beautiful 
orchid li pi partis palustris (Marsh Helleborine). The ]Deat bogs yiekl 
Audrounda Polifolia (Marsh Andromeda) and V acci )ii loii Oxycoccus 
(Cranberry). The \'ery rare Saxifraga Ilircnliis (V'ellow Mountain 

** See RoVjcrt Lloyd Prae^cr's accnunt witli " Proceeding's of the Royal Irish Acadein\'," 
the observations \\hich arc puiilibhed in vol. .wiv., 1902. 

l^tJAW. — 1 I.I i|<A. 


S^\:ix.\,:- «,.»•► l«:<-n !..ii:,.| .in .i 1)..- Mounlratli, aiKl Droscra 
%K;i*mi.i:.x lv.!ci:!;oiJ:.i:t- >i;ii.:.-\v .ii JK-l).i-r()l C"ullciia_<'h .Mountain. 
k'.^i'H.-.t.'Mt i-t ,.Hf-*l.t -.M-itT Mu. ',■.:!. on I , ,i laic shrul), was recorded 
Jfi"*;; '»' usvt.^.c'.'ai '., ;:» :;;.•. la:t La- iidt 1k\ii loinid M'uce. 

i'i..v'«;> ♦'» «ii..\»JMV i*l,\UN: li.i- t -l-.rr-i id-e al Maryborough 
»* :?^ ?*w:i;c ^.} r.-uiny j4.i:i'.H I'»vf a >.an(l\- or j;ra\cll\- ^(iil. Mere 
m4V !.f J.^ /^;;,i;^r J;. ;,/»/:</,,• :|...ii- ' IvJoui^h-luMded Toppy), 
/,.4j*«wi t~*.'.' .».• i^VijA-}\ !?i-. ;■- -sv . ('ii!.iiiin:!/i,i .{(inas v I'asil 'rh)-nie)' 
<* a/v .- / .• I ,' ;v'*.'n,wr . I .-i: ^:»-.;t<i\vire<l 1 Ieinj)-.\ct t le ; l.diiiinin a)i;plcxi- 
t-^,mJe Mtt.Xni- a!i(| H-* tcl.Uion ! .. It\it ulu»i ^ luiUoid //ii^ra (Black 
i {..;•»??■, ..;?>!j Ihr i;r.i\clly c.\i>anH- (.t the (Ireat Meath of .Mary- 
J*.,-«f«-'i.i,, i'j %>rj U oi Ant/i.ntis iiohilis (Chainoiiiile) and in 
ii:i:s.*esi.j l>;^*='-»!i I'.Iy ^>>n!drn tt:ntu.\ . Narni\\-lea\ed Persicaria). The 
«jtiis»A) (jjAci^,* ys«"I'l luo plants u!ii(ii aie anionic the newest arrivals 
m lh"» i*.'Ufv!ry— /,j/;.;m<; /;//;/,-;• i I .e-^er 'Inad-llax) in ])r()[u,sion, and 
^} m;^;> ^f tffOiy Af(H.iH(i (,itu{foli<i ^.^l^■nder-lea\■ed SaufJwort). On 
f*i,^«»^v J>..»f,K» r..jtailin^;ton two doubllul natives are abundant 
'■■ ft.'J\-Mtn M.I'hco (iu-af Ihdqe Ik'dstraw) and I'icris Jiicracioidcs 

J't \M^ «-j iHj .Moi M.MNs : — Tlx- siiiootli bog-covcred slopes of 
Sis.^'vr iC;*»!n .in- n.iturall)- vei"\- poor m mountain j^lants, which love 
l»» h^u.-.t n-ti^N and Mills, and i^realer Me\alions tbi^n tliese liills afford. 
ihr J<->t j;:.»injii is (ilendnie Map. on the north side of .\rderin. Mere 
tn^y t«r \'y.;vA llu- U-autilul M lanifi'si s nn>ibnc(i (Welsh Poppy), and 
t,-»M r.i:c icrr.'>. }\'.;;.\lium pHt.'o;:i>is MU'ech Fern; and llyniow- 
fi;<i:-*">i uHi. .:.■>.;!< { ):)<:-^i^l<.-,] ,<v \\'\\<<)]]\ I'llnu- I'Vrn). On the summit 
(*i .StUixr. t].'.- iu:;>-us httlc or. hid /./\/,;,/ ,-,.)t!(i/a (Lesser Tway-blade) 
l.i* 'U-r:; S-.i.-i'l u::<1.-t rhc Iie.;i'.rr. and ni ( ilnidine another rare Orchid, 
//',?>«?;/?.; a;,*;;'.; VMatc Moanlam OiMiidj. (Millenagh .Mountain 
»» *4 k'--ri r:r',.i!-..'!i (U\]s !eel< than Sliexe Bloom, but yields one 
intrefi::.'.^ «j*'.ir.'l pLu-.t, J-'/^/iutt .sy/rti/na (Wood hY-scue-grass). 

.'V nuriil-cr «'f rarer juant-. remain luunentioned, wliich grow in 
Kr*ff.Tj»,ut*k». J.cM'', Ui*-,!',. ftc. 'riioe ma\' be listed as follows : — 
Aftii.'fy't.t iu'^atti ('oiiiiidijru").— Not connnon. 
,S<i»r«-^Ms-/« J'.isniutti .,'Miaie CVessV— Mountrath, ^Maryborough. 
l:.if I.i ln'f i Uslii .NhLinoiiette.-.Xtlu-. 

Ittt.iiium U'tfi'rttu Slender \'e!low IVefoir). — Near Durrow 
I'tttnui /'.i/wi (I'lrd ("l!err\'\ — Woods at Maryborough. 
K-stm s n.t:-Jti ■-.''lone I'ramble'i. --Maryborough and (ilenbarrow. 
f\\^tii t>:<iln St!l-Ica\ed Ko^e .- I'hiio. 

A' rh.''s(it!.s.t (^.^\M-et -briar;. — .\bbe\leix and ^Maryloorougb. 
/'imfttUi'Li m:;t.'«(;(("ircater lUirnet-Saxifrage'). — Lisdufi and .Abbeyleix. 
C /:<'■/, >p/r.!It4tfi {,mulum (Rough Chervil). — l-Vetpient on the eastern 

inargjn o! llu- county. 
V,i!,,!Lt Auniulii ."^harp-fruited Corn-.'^alad).— I-^mo. 
< ,ndii;i\ {rispuK 'Wtlted '1 histle). — Freciuent. 
Cinltiurtd St(il>ios<t ((ireater Knapweed). — l-'recjucnt in the south- 

ea>-trrn hall of the county. 
Rrythru-a pulchdla (Dwart Centaury). — Emo. 
( vnoiilossuni officinale I lound's-tongue). — Timahoc. 
Jl yi>S( ymnu^ Ni'i^rr M lenbam- ). --Dunmore and Mar\'borough. 
()rol)ituc/ic )>iiuor (Lester P<room-rape). — Rathdowney — very rare. 
('•■thof^sis Ladfunoii (Red 1 lemp-Xettle). — Rare. 
J'olyi^i'inan lustotta C.Snakeweed). — .Maganey and Stradbalh". 



Carcx vinricata (Prickly Sedge). — Graiguc and Slirule. 

C. diviilsa {Grey Sedge). — Durrow and Graigue. 

C. strigosa (Loose-flowered Sedge). — Recorded trom Dunmore by Dr. 

^Nlackay many years ago. 
Bronms ercctiis (Upright Brome-grass). — Portarlington. 
Eqiiisetum Jiyemale (Dutch rush). — Frequent. 
IL. variegation (Variegated Horsetail). — Rare." 

CHAPTER VHI.— Zoology, Fauna.— Wh.d Ammat.s. 

Zoology teaches the nature and classification of animals, as also 
their order, succession and distribution oxer the earth. Those 
animals peculiar to a country constitute its jaioia, the term being 
derived from the Fauni of Roman M^'tholog}'. This most 
interesting branch of study, in its fullest extent, has been treated by 
many distinguished naturalists in various languages, and in different 
countries. The term Zoology, practically restricted to a knowledge 
of the nature, organization, properties, characteristics, habits, and uses 
of living animals, is in the present case conlined to those wild ones, 
known to visit or exist in the Queen's County. On this subject, the 
author's partial and imperfect knowledge should avail him very little, 
were it not that he received most cordial and generous aid from gentle- 
men of the highest scientific qualifications and accurate observation, 
combined with local residence and a familiarity acquired by their 
.-■tudies and experience. When, in reference to the dil'ticulties pre- 
sented in engaging on the present chapter, the author applied to 
Robert F. ScharlT, B.Sc. Ph.D., keeper of the Natural History Col- 
lections in the Science and Art ]\Iuseum, Kildare Street, Dublin, 
in the kindest and most obliging manner, that gentleman undertook to 
furnish what was desirable for the general reader to learn, and what 
must prove to be most interesting for residents and those more 
immediately connected with the Queen's County. The following 
synopsis of its wild Fauna is presented in the very words and order of his 
preparation and subsequent revision ; so that, among the foremost 
authorities in Ireland and in countries still more distant, we have 
an assurance that the writer has given us the most reliable information 
on the subject, combined with a scientific and popular treatment: 

" In the limited space at my disposal, it is impossible to give more 
than a very brief sketch of the animal inhabitants found wild in 
the County. No thorough investigation of it has ever been made by 
a resident Zoologist, nor has any general account of its Natural 
History been published, but it has frequently been visited by Zoologists 
from Dublin, and local Naturalists like the Rev. B. J. Clarke, the Rev. 
J. M. Browne, INIr. James A. IMulhall of Pass House, Maryborough, 
and Mr. J. W. Webber, of Kelly ville, Athy, to whom I am greatly 
indebted for much valuable information ; these gentlemen have all 
contributed to give us a fair knowledge of its fauna. 

We may roughly divide all the animal forms we meet w^ith in the 
County into Vertebrates, that is to say into those provided with a back- 
bone, such as the hare, the rook, and the trout, and into Invertebrates, 
which include creatures without a back-bone, such as the snail. 


tH:;trrli\-, beetle and worm. Each of these i;reat divisions of the 
jinunal kingdom contains a number of classes distinguished from 
t ne another by well-niarked characters. Thus the first-class — 
llic Ik-ast.s or Mammals — are at once discriminated from the second 
t^l^^, ihe \)irds, by their covering of hair, whereas the latter are clothed 
xmOa'ners. The third class again — the reptiles — possess an armour 
c'J v.»l(-> instead of hair or feathers. In a similar way we can readily 
v:j*.iratr from each other, by their external features, the various Classes 
uj Invertebr.ites. 

VnMi.l'.KATF.S — Mammals. These constitute the highest class of the 
Vertebrate animals, but although the Giant Deer (the so-called IrishElk), 
rc.'.n-p.'.t) eipAiiiu\C, the Reindeer, pust) UiuMfCiiiu, Wild Boar, CofAC 
Vui<).Mii, \\'('h\ inA-oiiA-u-^Nil.Mt), and Bear, tlUxcj.MiuMn were probably 
tf>t:ir.'a"n at a time when earl)- man had already made his appearance 
%'.\ the count}', most of the larger members of our Fauna have long 
^i^a vanislu'd from Ireland, and only the Red Deer, "puxt) TDe-Af^, and 
Icwot the less conspicuous Wild Mammals are still represented in the 
t»»untry. The Red Deer, piAt) "ocp^, used to occur in the County, 
.ind !.ir.;e deer parks were fornicrly established, such as the one 
Al Ihm.imaisc, for the reception of wild examples of this noble 
•.•ic<.!cx. An^.ong the larger ?\Iammals which remain more or 
lrv-» i'tinlined to the wooded j)arts of the County ni:\.y be mentioned 
the na(l^;cr. l)H()c, \\hich still exists, according to Mr. Webber, at 
Ua!lyl;i!ta\an, v.hile the l'"ox, ]Mor,n.'.('-, nK\T))\.\'0 niK\t), is more 
tuniu-r* ';;•.. 'I'hc smaller Marten is becoming A-cr\- scarce now 

.ind -o In the ()ttiT, nu'TjjuM'i-THinn. m.\-oi\AT'>-in]'T:;e, but the Irish 
Mt!.»t, r.-.j-o^;— t-rroneou^h' called weasel in lrelai:tl — occurs in 
dinurn-hmg numbers in tiu- larger estates. The-e are the only members 
of tlu- lu-i;<Mti;ig or carnivorous Mammals. The Gnawing or Rodent 
.M.i!!.::: 1!^ aic rcproented by the ubajuitous Rabbit, comin, and by 
tLr Ir;-.:j 1 i.i:e, vij-.jvf-KU"), the Field Mouse, luC i'c\]\, and Squirrel, eAfCj, 
j.p.\ pM.r.,-^. Whether thclatter, which occurs near Portarlington is 
^ Xxv.'- ::.i*.i\c. is vvnewhat doubtful. Certain it is, that in several 
jMs'.H i.i Irrl.iUil it ha-s Ixren artilicially introduced, and has spread 
tajw.'t''. . •■■a:::iMo tl'C iiuii'^criminate slaughter of its natural enemies. '^ 
Aji j.)::. ■•• M.ivk variety of the Irish Ilare — a unique specimen — was shot 
a! lUlliJ-ikjiJ, an'} •' acquired by the National Museum from the Rev. 
rj,/ Uj:;.)!n. n.c Hou'^c-Mousc, luc^, and the Brown !Rat, tut niofi, and 
jilv>;h.c Bl.ick Kat, ;-ii.iiic<\0, are supposed to have been introduced, though 
ur {>rrr.-,.riit no direct evidence of such an introduction. There is, however, 
arvo'.ivcr Ivat — tiow recognised as a melanic form of the Brown Rat — 
wliKh IS pri.-U.i.bly indigenous. This was first described by W. Thompson 
as iSic In^h Kat." (Mas. Hibcrniais) ; and differs from the Brown Rat 
ilucfly by its d.irk grey fur. It has not yet been recorded from the 
• 'oun'ty but it is almost certain to occur there. Only two species of 
Mammals belonging to the insectivorous group are known to occur 
in Ireland, and lx>th of these, viz., the Shrew-]\Iouse and the Hedge-hog, 
5;j\»\in«'05;, liavc been met with in the County. Lastly we haveto consider 
the B.its, lAlcO.s le<\t.Mii. whose forclimbs are modified as organs 
lor flight. A very valuable account of the Irish Bats has been written 

'See K. M. r.arririf^'ton, on " Tlie Intro- '^ See " Transnctions of the Royal Irish 

«luc;ion of llic Squirrel into Irchuul." Acailcniy," vol. xviii., 1S35-183S. Also 

Scientific Proceedings of Royal Dublin llie Dissertation of W. Thompson on " 'l"he 

."^'•cieiv, New Series, vol. ii., 18S0. Irisli Marc." 



by Dr. Jameson ;•' and the volumes of the " Irish Naturalist' contain 
also articles on the habits of these interestin;^- creatures by Dr. Alcock 
and others. Strange to say, however, no bats from the Queen's 
County have as \'ct been recorded, though it is almost certain that 
such species as the long-cared Bat and the small Pipistrclle are to be 
found there. 

Bixls. — In speaking of ' Irish Birds,' we mean such birds as have 
been observed in this country in the wild state. But among the many 
different kinds which have been brought under the notice of Naturalists, 
we must clearly discriminate between ' rcsidcut birds,' that is to say, 
those ^vhich are fountl in this country both summer and winter, and 
' visitors! Again we have to distinguish among the latter the summer 
and winter and also the accidental visitors. Tliere are also species 
whose breeding grounds are further north than Ireland and whose 
wintcr-ciuarters are further south, and which consefiucntl\' inhabit our 
island lor a few daws or weeks only dinang migration in spring and 
autumn. These are known as spring and autumn Migrants. 

The foUowmg 84 species are known to \\:\vq bred in Queen's 
County •} 


Song-Thrush — SmolAc 

Blackbird — lotTOub 

Stoncchat — CA.Mpin /Aicinn 

Redbreast — Spi-oeo^ 

White throat 


Goldencrested Wren — "Diieoilln 

eA-p iDoi]:; 

Wood- Wren — T)^ief3iUn coillo 
Grasshopper Warbler 
I ledge-Sparrow — IxiAtJiJj^ 
Dipper — CumA-ooin 
Long-tailed Titmouse 
Great Titmouse 
Coal Titmouse 
Blue Titmouse 
Wren — '0]\o6ilin 
Tied Wagtail — 5;i,\-o5 
Grey Wagtail 
Meadow Tipit — Ci]\ein stufc 

Spotted BlycatclKM- 

Swallow — pAuilrrig, xXmLeo^, 

"P^Ltos " 

House ^lartin 
Sand Martin 

Goldfinch — Cumin O'fi 
House Sparrow — ^Ce^ltiAn, ■^Aliin 
Chatilnch — l^jieAC au Cf iL 
Linnet — ^CAliu'm lion ^leoifeAC 
Lesser Red[joll 
Cornbunting — 5^^^!^^^'^^''' ■^^ b'-''^ 

Yellow Bunting — lTtiiT)e65 

Reed Bunting — geAlli.xu .\n guib 

Starling — 'Opuro, T)|\ui-oe65 

Jay — Sc|\eA(J(35 

jMapgie — ^OiogAix) 

Jackdaw — Ca^, Catjoj, Cai?; 

Hooded Crow — pionnog, j-'e^no^ 

Rook — piu'v\(iAn 

•* Sec "The Iii^h Naturalist,'' vol. vi., 1S97. 
,1. L. fanieson on '■ The ISats of Ireland.'' 

■* The infniniatiiin has been derived from 
"The r.irds i>f hi-land, an account of the 
Distribution, ?*Ii<^iaiion and Ilabil.sof Birds 
as observed in Ireland, will) all additions to 
the Irish List," compiled by R. J. Ussher and 
Robert Warren, London, 1900. Svo The 
list of Irish names occurs after the Preface, 

pp. xii to XV, yet it is only partial. In this 
work the scientific names and the names 
and the hal.ils of those birds to be found 
in the <^)uecn's County are particularly 
described ; w hile lor fuller general inform- 
ation, and rclercnce, the writers recommend 
the reader to consult Mr. Howard Saunders' 
" Illustrated Manual of British Rirds." 
Second Edit ion, 1899. 

/OOI.O ;V. l/aWA. — WILD AXIMAI.S. 4I 

Ni,;ht;.tr — ruiuiA I in L.mdrail 

Kiiv;i!-iiLT — C"iuiict,v\n W'ater-rail — Cluvr titj^ce 

("u'KMo — CvK'C Mour-hcn — C(.'.n|\i; Uij^se;i ()\\1 — rr^Mimniir Cucit — (,"i'x\|\c iiipct' 

L«>n;._,'-car(:(l Owl — 11.\Ic,'>()c;,mi RiiiL^ccl I'hner 

M.irsli ilarric;- — ].)iir'Ac.Mi v^Cca^ic Golden lMo\er — 'pcATx'ij;, yi-nio^ 

Ilcn Harrier LapwiiiL^ — piLbiii, puibin, ]3iLbin, 

Sparrow Hawk — Uiu\-u*\n pilibin 

Merlin — nicin|\Liun Woodcock — Ci\eAVK\]\, Ci\o^\1)ai|\ 

Ke-i:el — |.\\bcuii Common Snij^e — lK\op5, nAo)-"- 

(.'■»:n:n')n llerun — CoiiiK'pv; 5^6, llAOij-'ge 

Maliard — L).\|\T)v\L Common Sandpipe — '^obA-oJvn 

SiKAelier — UAO]^coiTie l\.edshank 

I'inlail Curlew — Chocac, CuipLun 

Tea! — C']\,rnnL.\C J)lack-headcd Gull ■ — ]-\\oileAn, 

Ivin,^ I)')\c — Culurn, Colup Culiu\c, ColbAC 

>ti,CK l)o\-e Little Grebe 

Red Gnui--c — Ce.']',e ]-';u\oic Great Crested Grebe 

I'hca-ant — ]3i.<]n'in 

.\niiin;4 a lew, sucb as tbe llen-I larrier, the Pintail, 
and <Jnail, ba\-e :\pv: re; rd\- ceased In breed in Oueen's County at the 
JJre^ent tune, thou'.;,i ibex- were known to do so fornierh'. Several 
others are exeeed;;v_.;l\- rare, >ueb as tbe iJlacbLap, \\'ood-wren, 
TJluM'niiii Cdiit..', k: M^;-ii-ber. CiMiirtvMi, i*erc;^"rine Falcon, Se^bAC 
jNMtc;.', Sloel-: 1 )o\c and liie Great Crested ( b'ebe. The Blackcap has been 
(/'^•^',•r\•ed to jjreed at C'appard, Portarlini^ton. and R_\'nn, while Mr. 
John \'onn;4!onnd tbene-tand ei^ijsotthe wood-wren at lirockley Park. 

We told b\ M;-. C>>her that be saw three Marsh Harriers at a 
considerable bei;^iit ~oarin;_; in circles over the extensive marshes of 
Lord C.i-detM-.Mi .1: (bantston ; and that the Slieve Bloom Range 
U'-cd to 1 e tlu- chiei borne ot tbe I len-1 larrier in central Ireland. 
It Is nitere-t:n;^, too. to note that the inlandd:)reeding Black-headed 
Gull p.MM'. c.Mi, rear- its \-oung in vast numbers on Monettia Bog near 
Cionad( 0. Mo-'t o! tbe above-mentioned birds are true resitlents; others, 
liowewr are only \ i-itor-;, and leave tbe countr)' again alter ha\'ing 
reare 1 tbeir yoi'.ng. Some of the rarer visitors which have been 
."-b^'t 1:1 ti'.i- (juei.n'-> County have been sent to tbe National Museum 
in 1 lub'.m tor ideiitiiication and are no^v preserved there. Thus a J31ack 
Kobt.tri .md a gre.ii >potted Woodpecker, SnA>; coiLle, which are ir- 
rf|^u!ar r.. re winter \i-iiors, have both been once obtained in this County. 

1 here arc a lew birtls too, which though exceedingl}' rare, possess 
claims to \k- called " re-idents." The Wood-lark, for example, which 
has once Ikx-h obnT\ed by Mr. Croasdaile, near Rynn, belongs to 
this cate^.;ory. Tiie lieautilul Hoopoe, often to be seen on the shores 
of the -Meiiiterranean, has once visited the Comity ; and several specimens 
of tbe rare winter \-i-nor, the Smew, were shot at Grantston and on 
Lough .Annagb. .\n a(Lidental visitor — the Red-breasted Snipe— 
nAOfc*\ j\iK\t), a nati\e ot North -America, has only twice been obtained 
in Ireland, one of the.-e specimens, from Mar^'borough, is now in the 
National Museum. 


RcpNlcs and AvipJiibians. — Only a sin^^le species of Reptile pi<\fc, 
the viviparous Lizard, eA.\ticltu\ci\A inhabits Ireland. As everyone 
knows, no snakes have ever been met with in this country^ except such 
as have escaped from confinement. The Lizard, though nowhere 
common is widely distributed, and occurs in Queen's County in small 
numbers. Of Amphibians two different kinds ai'e known to inhabit the 
County, viz.: — the Frog, lofc^ui, {Rtina tciii pordiia), and the Newt, 
GAfCltiACiuA, {i\Iolge vulgaris). The latter is regarded by country 
people with unfeigned dread, and many are the stories one hears as 
to its propensities of attacking man. So much so that it is often 
spoken of as the ' vian-eater^ but the term ' diivk-lcHkcr ' is more 
commonly heard in country parts, and is probably a corruption of 
the Irish ' dcarc-lnacJiair^ It is needless to remark, tJiat this animal 
is perfectly inoltensive. and lives entirely on small insects and worms. 

Fishes. — One of the commonest species \vhich frequents every 
little sti-eam and brook is the Three-spined Stickleback, often called 
' Pinkeen,' by boys, but besides this there is another much rarer 
kind of Stickleback which possesses ten spines on its back instead of 
the usual three. The latter was discovered near La Bergerie House, 
(Queen's Count}^, by the Rev. B. J. Clarke, and specimens sent by 
Iiim to William Thompson were described by the latter as the largest 
he had ever sccn.^ " 

The Gudgeon, 5UT)a.\, bAoc^Mfe, has been noticed in the River 
Barrow, and I am informed by ]\Ir. Webber that the Tench occurs in 
the lake at Kellyville. We are not certain, however, whether the 
latter is an indigenous species. It would be interesting to know 
whether the Minnow occurs in the County. It has certainly not been 
recorded, and its distribution in Ireland is ver)' local. The Loach, the 
Pike, j;.Mll-uAf5, and the Eel, e^xfcii, have been taken in the tribu- 
taries of the Barrow, and are probably widely distributed. The Perch, 
ci\eAj;^\^-iiil^T5e, and Rudd are more partial to lakes and slowly moving- 
waters, and are also frequently met with. The latter is known in 
Ireland as the ' Roach,' but differs from the true ' Roach ' in the 
position of the dorsal fm. 

FinalU', the Trout, buoAC, is to be met with in every stream in the 
county, while its near relation, the Salmon, l)i\>\TK\n, has been taken 
in the Barrow and the Nore and their tributaries. On the border- 
land of fishes — differing in many respects from true fishes — we have the 
River Lamprey, e^AfCu fiiiLe^\C, which is often found adhering to 
stones and sometimes to other fishes by means of its sucker-like 

Invertebrates. — Molluscs. — Some of these are found in fresh- 
water, others on land, familiar examples of the former being the fresh 
water Mussel, "piAi^c^n, and of the latter the Slug, Ciai\65, and Garden 
Snail, ]^eiLi*oe, feilmroe, flmiroe, flitroe. 

One of the most noteworthy papers which has been written on 
Irish Slugs was published by a clergyman, the Rev. B. J. Clarke,*" 
resident in the Queen's County ; and as all his observations were made 
in the county the}- are of particular interest to us in connection with 

•'' See W. Thompson's " Natural History of History," vol. xii., 1S43. Rev. B. J. Clarke 
Ireland," vol. iv., p. S9, 1S56. on "The Species of Limax Found in Ire- 

•^ See "Annals and Magazine of Natural land." 



this work. He kept slugs in confinement in order to note clown their 
food and method of reproduction, and has given us many valuable 
huits on their habits. Many of the slugs arc decidedly destructive 
to crops, but while some confine their attention more or less to the 
leaves, others do injury underground to the roots of plants. Perhaps 
the most injurious to the farmer is the small gre}^ slug {Agriolifiiax 
(igrestis), which abounds everywhere. Other species like the lar-'c 
black slug {Arlon afer), and the smaller kinds belonging to the sanle 
genus do then" share of destruction in a less open manner, and confine 
their attention more to decaying vegetable substances. I have published 
a fuller account more recently of all the species occurring in Ireland 
and m it are dealt with some forms also to be met with in the 
County," but not described by Clarke. 

Besides the slugs, a large number of species of snails have been 
collected in the County, principally by Edward Waller in the neigh- 
bourhood of La Bergerie House. A single specimen of tlie rare Ildix 
/>isaiui—a large white shell faintly banded with brown, whose home is 
on the shores of the Mediterranean— was discovered there, and is now 
m the National Museum. It would lead Ub too far to nieiition all the 
species which have been noticed in the Count\-, and I would refer 
those who wish to acquaint themselves with the different kinds of 
land snails to the account of the Irish speucs published in the • Irish 
Naturalist.' » 

In the same list the fresh-water forms are also dealt with, and one of 
the rarest and at the same time the most conspicuous Irish species 
[Planorbis corncus), \\as first discovered near Monasterevan, on tlie 
borders of the Queen's Count}-. It has since been taken in a fe\s- 
other localities, but the only area in Ireland where it can be said 
to be common is in the ditches between Portarlington and Monas- 

I)iscits._ — Various groups of insects are recognised among Naturalists,all 
characterised by easily distinguishable features. Thus the Beetles, CK^no?;, 
have the fore pair of wings modified into hard coverings for the hinder 
pair w'hich alone are used for flight. Then again we divide these into a 
number of difierent families, such as ground-beetles, rove-beetles, 
click-beetles, weevils, lady-birds, and others. The latter, since they 
feed on the small Aphis, or green fly, are c.xtremeh' useful/while man)- 
of the other kinds cause mucli destruction to our fruit trees and crops. 
A very exhaustive account of the beetles of Ireland has recentl_\' been 
published, '' m which the various kinds occurring in the County are 
recorded. Further detailed references to the local species have been 
given by the Rev. J. ]M. Browne in an interesting article.^"^ 

Butterflies and Moths, -peilioc^Mi, ha\-e not been very extensivelv 
collected m the County as far as I know, and the few species whicli 
have been recorded seem to have been taken by Dublin Naturalists. 
I lie Wood white, which has once been observed at Borris-in-Ossory is 
almost the only rare Butterflv known from the County, but more 
diligent search would probably yield a more promising harvcU. 

'.Sec -Tninsarlions of tlic Royal DuMin '^ S,.- •■ r,occcdinqs of llic Rovaf lii^h 

- '-^f ^'^, r t'^'V ^^V- 1^- !'• Sella. tl, Aradcnnv' vol. vi., s". 3, looi. Jnlmsm, and 

the Slii-s of Ircfamf.; ll.dlct,'" A List of the Lcelles of Iicland.- 
hee lusli Naturalist," Vof i., 1S92, R. '"Sec Kcv. J. M. Browne, "The Irish 

l-.bchartfon ' Tlic Irish Land and Lresh- NauuaHst," vol. x., 1901. " K ntoniol<.L.i<-al 

water Mollusca." ■ Xotes from Alj!,cvleix." 

44 HISTORY OF THE queen's county. 


An excellent catalogue of the Irish Bu'terllies, ircilCACAn, and 
Moths. llViol C|\i()nn, was puhlished a few }'cars ago by ^h'. W. F. 
cle V. Kane.'^ Of the remaining groups of Insects, viz. : the Bees 
bcAC, Wasps, t)CAC C\\pAiU, and Ants, SeAii^Aii, the ordinar\- Flies, 
Cuileoj, th.e Grasshoppers, 'Ooj\i\\ti, and allied forms, tlic Dragon-llies, 
Cinleox; "Oii.vj^An, and Bugs, Sce.\i\r.\ii, we know practically nothing 
so far as the (jueen's County is concerned, though a few records may 
be found scattered among the volumes of the ' Irish Naturalist.' 

Spidt-rs, T)ubAtiAll.\. No doubt large numbers of different kinds of 
Spiders, and their near relations the Harvest-men, and .Mites, occur in 
the Count}\but these also haveunfortunatel)- not been found sulhciently 
attractive b_\' local Nalurcdists to be collected, and we are at present 
unable to indicate what species ma\' be found tlu're. To those who 
wish to actjuaint thrmselves with tlie Spiders llu'_\' may be likel\' 
tt) come across in their rambles, I eannot do l)clter ihaii recommend 
the j)erusal of Mr. Carpenter's intei'csling account o\ 4 he lri>h Si)iders.'- 

CiJ////Y(/i-s,Cuu\u) CeAT)-6op.\L;.--In his Ir-t ol the Irish Centipedes 
and Millipedes, Mv. Pocock refers to over Jo .-pecies wliich are known 
to him from this country, and several of tlu-c certainly iniiabit the 
Oueen's County.-'^ 

C) iis/(ui(iiis. — A search inider stones in tlie lield or garden will 
yield almost certain!}' a nuniber of wood-lice, illioL c]\ionn, and these, 
together with the h'esh-water shrimpdike creatures, and also the 
crayfish ruid the marine crabs, jJopcAu iu\ in.\i\.\, anrl lobsters, ■J^liom,\('; 
are classed under the term ' Cruslciccci.' 'llie Irish Wood-lice have 
been dealt with in a paper jniblished a few )-ears ago in the " Irish 
Naturalist," and I am assured b}' ?\Ir. T. W. Webber that there are 
plenty of Crayhsh, Ci\Obo^, in the Banteiigue River, wliich flows 
past Stradbally. On the Continent these cra\-lisli are greatly relished 
by the inhabitants, and are exported in quantities from" there to 
London Hotels and Restaurants, though I have not heard of them 
as being nuicli eaten in this country, or sent to England, as they 
might easily be. 

\Vo>-)>is, piApc peij^c, — The W\n"ms constitute a \'Ci-\' large anddiver- 
silied group of Invertebrates. In the first [:)!ace, we have the division 
to wdiich the Earthworms belong, creatures whieli, owing to their habit of 
burrowing in the soil, and thereby breaking up and loosening the cartj-i, 
arc of such immense benefit to the farmer. The\' have been describecl 
in a series of valuable articles which appeared in the ' Irish Naturalist.'''^ 
Other kinds of worms inhabit our ponds and streams, and scr\e 
as food for many of our fresh- water hshes. Then, again, a\ e have several 
divisions of worms which live ]):'.rasitically in the bodies of other 
animals, and frequently produce serious ailments, such as the much- 
dreaded fluke, which inhabits the liver of sheep. Of the exact dis- 
tribution of .all these worms in Ireland we know as yet but little, and 
much investigation is still needed to enable us to publish county lists. 

'' See " A Calalof^ue of the I.epidoptera of "Notes upmi soiiie Irisli Mviinpod:!., p. pQ." 

Ireland," Eci.dnii, 1901. n .See K. V . Schailf on "'The Irish \Vo,k1- 

^'- See G. I 1. (,'arpenter, in " rri)eeedini:;s of lii-e," ni "The Irish Naliuahsl," vol. iii., 

the l\oyal Iri-h Academy," voh v. Third pp. 4, 2^, KSop 

Series, 189S. G. 1 1. ("arpeiUer, " A List of '''See ihe Uev. llilderic Friend on " The 

the S])iders of Ireland." I'.anhvM inii.s of Ireland," "Tlie Irish 

■" See an interestiiit^ article in "The Irish X.mualisi," \'(il. ii., pp. 6.39,89, 121,188, 

Naturalist," vol. ii., 1893. K. I. I'(Kock's 21 6, 238, 272, 288, published in 1393. 

zuui.oc.v, i'ArN\. — wii.ii A.\i> noMi - rn.'.M i;ii animals. 45 

TiuTc arc, inoi\'()\'cr, iiriuitc wonn-lilvc oriNinisins like the Rotifers 
•uiil I' with which NaUiralisls in this country have not made 
liirnivclwN \-cr_\' familiar. l-'mally, there are tlie I^eeches, 'Ooll6>;, 
si«.\K- 111 whicli live entirely in fresh-water, while others are able to 
Mih-i^t for a while in damp earth, and which have also been de- 
.'•(.ribedin the u^ehil journal already relerred to.'" 

.S".'v;/-r.v ,i>i./ l'ro!u:ou. — d"he Irish fresh-waters are also inhabited 
b\- a lew >f)ecies ot .Sixm^es, 111 upe An, allied to our Bath- .Sponge, 
and 1)\- an exceediiii^K' large number of microscopic organisms known 
as I'n.'.o/oa, whieh it will not be i)o>sible to deal with adec^uately 
in ih:^ brief sur\-e\'." ''' 

f. ll.\l'ri'd\ IX.- Z(i )i.(K^.v, Fauxa. — D()Mi;sTic.\Tr,!) Animals. 

It 1- now o\cr one hundred \-ears ag(^, since Sir Charles Coote made 
... .■.;:< ml and \e!A' ;idinirahle in\'e>ligalioii regarding the varieties 
.-iij.i hi. rd oi hor>c>, Cattle and othci' tarniiiig stock in the Queen's 
(,,»iiit\.' .\s sU' h iclrreiices are usualh' in connexion with different 
distil- ?>, and not * la--i'd under an\' griirial heading; it is liardh' jieces- 
•s.i:\ t-. do n ;..!.• th.m n-W. r to In-- \\orl<. tor an ai ciMint of the domesticated >--r\rd \\:r pui|(i-. -. ot the L^ciitiA' and farmers of his day, 
and to t "M. ;•.•.:</ tiieir cou'liti^n and u-tinlne>^ with tho>e which are at 
!•:(-•■:;: .v:.d \\.<\v to he louihi. In maii\' ie--pect>. great im}n"ovements 
hi'..- t.'j.e:'. J l,e ••. .ii.d in the l.,ili ANuig i"epiirt> of experienced gentlemen 
.,.s>.i ^s;: ,,■ lull op;.'! iwmtier. ..!al iapacit\- for ac(iniiing local information 
*'* A ;. I;.d !'• ih.iia. t< : . the d<.-ci iption L;i\en .aid tlie accounts furnished 
r.i-i'.l 1 1- "1 '■p''' :,d K.teirst t(ir oui' readers, and claim the grateful 
4* ■«.!."■.(. !• '.Knients !■; ti.e writei- for that laliour they ha\-c so kindly 
iij.d'!tak»!i. .'.-.A ability they have manifested in dealing with their 
:oj« t:N<r Mibj'< {>. 

Ai h.i\tr.i,' !uid a LUeal exjXTience in the rearing and keejiing of horses, 
.1* ai"in 'Xtrusivo dea!ini,'> and purchases, with a study of their different 
'ijoju-iti- s. f.'/t .'.lone toutined to the ("(uuit\- ; the \vriter applied to Mr. 
AillitJi .^!■t- M liion ot ("oh Stud l-'ann. .\l)])e\ieix. for information on tlie 
topic *.\Uli v'.iiicli he i^ so con\Ai>ant, and oltlained from him the 
lollousi.g inti-:«-~ting ji;!'. ticiilar>, which are here submitted for the 

in^tllK (IOI» ol the le.ider.- 

" In thr K-gniinng of the last century, the breed of horses in the 
Oue<':4\ ('(/.jiitv was j)rincij>ally that which is still known as the old 
Iii>h cartdioi--'-. -o uiii\-eisall_\' .Jirized for sound constitution and en- 
durance, a> ai-o adapted to cairy hea\-y wei,L;hts for long distances, and 
living' on very little loeid. That breed was known in the County from 
tinie'inunemoiial. (".eiieialK' ilistributed throughout the whole country, 
when the mare was cro>-ed with a thorouglnhred sire, we have lieen 
indebted to it for the lri>h hunter — an animal famous for its strcngtli, 

'■'.Sec " 'I'll 'J Irisli X.i'.\a..'U;," V1.1l. vii., pi-tcnl Iii>h scholar, .Mr. I'atrick D'Uyan, 

iSoS. K. 1-'. Scluirlf, "The Iii-^h l''r<.--h- Trilmu ilK-, Sandymouiil.] Author's nhik 
w.uer Lccclics." ' I'l his " (General \'ic\v of tlic .'\j;i iculture 

'"[111 the text of this cliap'icr, the Irish and .MaiuifacliirL's of the (^)ucen's County. " 
names of Animals, with some .iililiii'iin 111 -'Communicated, to the anllior in the 

the libt of liirds, have been noted by a com- meiuli of pily, 1903. 


spirit and flcetness over the whole world. ^Moreover, it was a breed 
good for all general j'jurposes, produeing <.'xccllent carriage, riding and 
driving horses, sure-looted, while most serviceable for the farmer's use 
imder the common cart or in ploughing. It was an animal of good 
frame, bony, sinewy and muscular, with well and cleanly proportioned 
limbs, having smooth hair, and the prevalent colour being bay, brown 
or sorrel. About sixty or seventy years ago, English thorough-bred 
sires were introduced into the County, with good results for producing 
excellent hunters, when crossed with the okl Irish breed of mares. 

About fifty years ago, Clydesdale sires for draft and agricultural 
purposes were introduced, and a first cross with the native brood-mares 
was apparently attended with good results ; but a continuation of that 
mode of breeding has caused undoubted deterioration, in our losing 
by degrees the old hard}? and good type of Irish horses. Instead, we 
are left with strong and large, but soft in flesh and coarsely-haired 
animals, which, although fairly serving for heavy cartage and brewers' 
drays, are altogether unlit for riding, hunting or carriage use, not to 
speak about general farming operations. About twenty years ago, 
another English breed, known as Shire sires, were brought into the 
County, with much the same results as the Clydesdale ; both breeds 
are slow in motion and heavy-looking, their chief recommendation 
being their size, although their muscular development is not nearly so 
serviceable in proportion. Somewhat about the same date, another 
J{nglish breeder, called the Suffolk Punch Sire, was introduced, but 
this animal was not in request, and was found to be most unsuitable, 
l)eing slow and inactive in movement, and not fitted for trotting ; in- 
variably the breed is of a whole chesnut colour. All of these breeds are 
utterly unsuitable for agriculturists in the Queen's County, nor should 
farmers for their own special wants favour the propagation of those 
animals. Moreover, within the last fifteen years, Yorksliire or Hackney 
coach horses have crept into the County ; but as they have not {proved 
satisfactorj' in keep or action, they are no longer in request. 

Thirty years have passed, since excellent hunters were bred and 
trained by the gentry and large farmers, as hunting was then a favourite 
])astime. Those animals then reared were not excelled by any in 
most other Irish counties. At present, they are much fewer in number, 
many having been sold by their former owners, but as good prices are 
realized for them, especally in England, there is still a prospect of 
increase in the breeding of hunters by adopting the requisite methods. 

At the present time, a strong desire prevails among experienced 
horse-breeders and practical agriculturists, that some effective measures 
be taken to reviv^e and propagate the old Irish breed of horses. For 
this purpose, a Stud Book of that particular species should be formed , 
and kept with careful registration of such animals by the Royal Dublin 
Society. It seems to be very strange, and it is certainly much to be 
deplored, that a valuable strain of blood and bone should be allowed 
to become almost extinct, owing to the ill-judged caprice of former 
importers and the distribution of their fancied animals. It is the universal 
opinion of Queen's County horse-breeders and farmers, that owing 
to our mares having been mated with the Scotch Clydesdales, and 
the English Shire Stallions, more injury has been done to hunter-breeding 
than can well be imagined. After so many years of trial, and still without 
a correct knowledge prevailing on the subject, imported draught horses, 
instead of improving have deteriorated largely the old l)reed ; while 

;^ooLor.v, i-atna— ni)Mi-;sruAri;i) animals. 47 

tlie idea now prevailing is to revive it, ami thus to |)iocuie an animal 
of that good tvpe, free as can be obtained from either Shire or Clydesdale 
blood. ' Dinang the last fifty \-ears, we had still good thorough-bred 
sires standing in the County, and when mated with the old Irish 
brood-mares, their offsprings were invarialily animals of rare excellence. 
There can be no tioubt, it is to the thorough-bred ^ire we have 
to loolc. so that we ma\- be able tn counteract the bad effects 
tile Shire and Clydesdale blood has jirodvuetl in our native breed of 
horses. At present, the standani of our brood-mares has so deteriorated, 
that it is onlv in exceptional ra-es we can find one fitted to mate with 
a thorough-bred sire, so as to hav<- .any reasonable hope of producing 
a lirst class animal. Now it ought to be the special care of the Agricultural 
and Teclmical Department, to engage their Inspectors to report and 
select as many good sires and mares of the recogni'^ed type as possible 
throughout Ireland, and register them in a special Stud Book of the 
breed. Siutalile m--aMiie-, sIkuiM be taken, while it is possible to do 
V), lor tl;e proi)agation and revival of a l)reed, endued with such charac- 
fen^^tic and desirable pro;x-nie.>. If .iction of this sort were effected, the 
hi-h hoi.M-bieedrrs and f.irnieis might secure large prices for animals 
<>!' thrii leaiHi:', au-i Ix-coj!!.- nwiieis of mares that should supply the 
I'nited Kin.;dom and ir.ore di-tant countries with the best hunters 
in the woild. 

l'(.r th<- l.i-.t two ienturi<-<«. g<K><l :,r^\ swift race hor^ls were bred and 
kept 1:1 il.-- County, ( lu. :lv !<'r the -poning gfnti\-. Among these were 
v-.T.-: i<-:::.;:i..ible st< •■j'!e-< h.»^-er->. In ;<< eiit veais also, many were not 
.il(.iie sU' . '--Irjlonli!.-!! .i:.<l l-;r.gU>!j, but even on tlie Continent 
prj/' s v.<:i- \\i'.\ \>v w among them. I'or ^ome of those racers 
.11. d *-;■• J !'■■»!;. k'<-:b i.Hfic jiurs have Ix-en obtained. 

n.'- j.w;i;rs of I.-i.Jj fxtfattion have been found useful animals for 
lAiu,r:.s ::; the Gjumv, an'l they are very numerous. They are easily 
{".i. ii hj:-.!y cor.NlJtntion, of sliajely form, and of different colours, 
.!•:;». tttAtu .'I lay prcvajimg. Dealers" are constantly engaged iri buying 
'■: utII::-.^' t'.rjn. 'ami many of those animals are imported, principally 
tu.isn i'vf.KJKuiihl. Tliey arc of much greater value than some others of 
tifirjr <U\^, \\]'.uh have U-cn recently imported from Iceland and Shetland. 
Ih" A^'K-^ v: iX^nkies in the County are kept mostly by the cottiers 
iivt! v:;;jil f.i:rn<TS for drawing light loads of turf, manure, field and 
Ka:d«-n vct:r!abl<^ ; they are also found to be useful for market and 
fair riT;-.)jr(n-.cnts. They are very hardy, useful animals, and feed on 
coarse ((<xl, which is readily procurable, and almost without cost to 
t.K-ir <;\vf.ers. The Genet, a cross between a sire Pony and a female 
Ass. is also pretty numerous ; but the Mule, a cross between a sire Ass 
and a mare, is now seldom met with in the Queen's County." 

Mr. James A. Mulhall of Pass House, Maryborough, has furnished 
the following very detailed and accurate account of the cattle and stock, 
native and imported, which are most in request, and he has thus noticed 
their distribution among the gentry and farming classes : — ^ 

Cattle. — " The Queen's County is notable for raising and rearing 
good cattle, principally of the Shorthorn breed, that were introduced 
into it, over fifty 3'ears ago.* The Shorthorn is remarkable for its size, 

■' In a comimmicatiou ilated Pass House, Granstown Manor, Ballacolla ; John Loftus 

Maryborough, June, 1903. Bhind, Esq., J. P., Blandsfort, Abbeyleix ; the 

* IJy the following well known breeders late \Vm. Rowe, Esq., Mountrath, and the 

an. 1 gentlemen — Right Hon. Lord Castletown, late IIuin[)hrey Smith, Esq., Mountmellick. 



symmetry and its ilrsli-producing qualities. It i-^ ol'ckcp red, white, or 
roan Colour. It has been crossed with the old lii>h breed of dairy cattle 
that are now nearly extinct in the County. The old Irish cow was a 
low, lenL;lhy animal, of narrow shaj-e, with lar^'c turnt'd up horns, 
of a light red colour, often found with white stripe along thu back from 
shoulder to tail, and sometimes found ha\'ing streaks of black with 
light red. It is known as a brindled cow. The old Irish cattle weie 
more remarkable for milk production than for that of beef. Their 
cross with the shorthorn breed helped to improve cattle very much 
in the County. The local cattle fairs ar'> much irctiuented, jxarticukarly 
those of Kathdownc}' and Ballinakill, which arc usually fully stocked 
with well-shaped and growthy store-cattle. Large numbers of gentlemen, 
graziers and buyers attend those fairs and make numerous purchases 
to stock and fatten on the rich lands of the midland counties.^ A great 
number of the well-to-do tenant farmers throughout the Countv purchase 
from 3'ear to year pure bred shorthorn sires, at the Royal Dublin Societ\' 
Spring Show, and bring them to th(>ir farms, where their service greath' 
influences the impro\'ement of cattle among die neighbouring small 
farmers. Aberdeen Angus cattle are also raisetl in the County. The\' 
are of a deep red or black colour, with great length and depth of body ; 
they have short legs and are hornless ; they are more intended for beef- 
production than for dairy purposes; consequently they afenot a favourite 
breed with the farmers, as they are not suitable for his immediate and 
several requirements.'' The Hereford breed is of a red colour with 
white face, mane and throat ; the beef of the Hereford is peculiarly 
tender and fine grained, but it is often deficient in the quantity of in- 
ternal fat, and therefore it is not jirofitable butclier's meat. A cross 
with the pure Hereford sire, and the old comriion cow of the County, 
gives a progen^', which forms splendid butter producers." The Kerry 
breed is small in size, of a black or red colour. V(M"v hardv, producing a 
rich milk, and \'aluable for its suital)leness to certain localities throughout 
the County. It is very suitable for cottagers who can afford to keej) 
one cow.^ 

SiiKEP. — The Queen's County is notalde for the raising of first class 
sheep and of different breeds. The sheep flocks throughout the County 

'^.\t the i)icscnt time there are a y;ood l)reei1('rs of ihi- Alicrdccn Ant;ns cattle in llie 

mam' lueeders nf the pure shorthorn, cmnilv, and t-\en in the United Kingdom,!-, 

AmonL^st the t;entry are to be luund the ful- Arthur j. Owen, list]., J. P., Shanvai^hey, 

li'wiiiL; — Lorti de Vesci, iVbbeyleix ; Miss llalkacolla, anil also of hlessiinHon, Couniy of 

.Staples, Dunniore, Durrow ; and Captain J. \Vicklo\v. Other breeders oi the Aberdeen 

L. liland, Dlandsford, liallyroan. Many Animus stock are I, oid Castletown, Oranstown 

larcje i'arniers have also taken to the raising Manor, liallacolla ; K. F. II. While, l^si]., 

and rearing of the pure shorlhorn. Amongst. Aghalioe, llillacolla, and Captain J. L. 

these may be named — Alfred Smith, Escp, Bland, blandsioit, Hallyroan. 
]\lountmellick ; T. L. Hodgins, Ksq. , Brook- '^Colonel C. M. Kennnis, C.M.G., Killeeii, 

vale, M.iryborough ; (icorge N. Je'ssop, Esq., Mountmellick, is the only recognised breeder 

Maryborough, etc., etc., and are doing so of the pure Hereford cattle in the county who 

with great credit and success, Ijy carrying off goes in for them extensively, and who carries 

prizes with their exhil'ils of the pure shorthorn off |)rizes for his exhibits of the Hereford at 

at the l\0)'al Dublin Society Siunv, at Queen's the Koval I'ulihn Society S]iring SImw. 
County Agricultural Society Show, and at -"^ We had a large breeiler of the pnrc 

other local county Shows. Some of those Kerry cattle m the former Lord de 

exhibits and prize-winners are bought at Vesci, Abtieyleix, ■who kept a large 

long prices for the Argentine Repulilic, South hertl, and carried away many prizes 

America, to improve the native breed of \\ith them at the Royal Dnblin Society 

cattle. Show, as also at the local shows held in the 

'"One of the most notable and successful fhieen's Countv. 



lia\-e improved much within the past tifty years. Several of the gentry 
and many well-to-do large farmers have introduced from time to' time, 
to their respective flocks, sheep of a distinct and jnne breed. At presi'ut 
(lie following different breecls are to be found, viz. : — The ' Border 
Leicester,' ' Lincoln,' ' Shropshire,' ' Cheviot,' ' Roscommon,' ' Oxford 
Down," ' Dorset Horned,' ' Kerry,' ' Wicklow,' or mountain sheep. 
The Border Leicester was first introduced into the County in iSby or 
I.S68, by Wilham Davidson, Esq., Esker Lodge, Timahoe. The ISorder 
Leicester is a large white-faced sheep, with a neat frame, a good fleece of 
wool, and great aptitude to fatten. The mutton has however too 
large a proportion of fat, and it is therefore not so saleable as the mutton 
of other breeds/-' The Lincoln or long wool sheep is noted for the great 
weight and lustrous peculiarity of its fleece. It has a glossiness which 
is much prized, as that is retained when manufactured mto various 
fabrics. Instances of fleeces weighing as much as thirty-four lbs. have 
been clipped off from Lincoln sheep, in tlie Jlocks of some of the exten- 
sive farmers near Maryborough, who are now amongst the largest and 
most successful breeders of the Lincoln shec]> in the County, and who 
have also introduced, in 1902, the Oxford Down sheep, that heretofore 
were little known in the County. A specially careful breeder of tliis 
class of sheep in the county was WilHam Young, Esq., J. P., Brockley 
Park, Stradbally. The Oxford Down is a fine sheep, ^\ith a large hand- 
some frame, having a black or grey face, close wool and firm mutton. 
'I'he ewes are moderately prolific, one of the chief merits of their lambs 
l)eing their size and maturity at an early age. 

Numerous flocks of Shropshire sheep and of the pure breed 
are in the County. I'J The Shropshire sheep has a fine fleece of thick 
wool and a well-covered head, a carcase long, wide and deep, with plenty 
of lean flesli. They have robustness of constitution and aptitude to 
fatten. The colour of their face and legs is black or grev. The ewes 
are good nurses and very prolific. The rams of this breed are in great 
demand by many farmers of the County to cross with Kerry, Wicklow, 
or mountain ewes, and they generallv insure a good progeny of lambs 
that fatten early for the markets. The large Roscommon class of sheep 
is very scarce in the County. It is the largest of all breeds, while the 
sheep have shapely and handsome frames, well covered with flesh, and 
having a great propensity to fatten, but fur grazing they require the 
best of warm limestone land. They handle soft, and their mutton 
is large but coarse-grained. 11 The Cheviot is also very scarce in the 
County, although a very useful white-faced sheep. The e\\-es are re- 
markably good sucklers. Cheviots have not a heav\' fleece, but it is 
very fine in quality, while their mutton is excellent'-. The Dorset horned 
sheep are very few in the County, although very prolific, as having two 
births of lambs in the year, viz., in the spring and autumn. The Kerry, 

" At the present time the following large Robert Hamilton Stubber, Esq., Movne, 

:iii(l successful breeders of the pure-border Durrow ; R. F. H. White, lvs(j., Aghaboc, 

l.eiceslcr sheep are— Miss Staples, Dunmore, Ballacolla. These gentlemen take pii.-es 

I )arrow; Sir Algernon Coote, Ballyfin ; Right with tlieir sheep at all the noted sliows 

Hon. Viscount Ashbrook, Durrow Castle, and tlirougliout Ireland and England. 

.Matthew II. Frank-,, Esip, J. P., Westficld, "William Del.mey, Esq.', M.P., is one of 

.Mountrath. the largest and most successful breeders of 

'"These are chielly bred by Colonel Robert the Roscommon stock in the county. 

Ashworlh Godolphin Cosby, Esq., Stradbally '-Robert Onions, Esq., Borris, Mary- 

Ilall; Sir Hunt Walsh, Bart , Ballykilcavan, boiough, is a large breeder of the Ciieviot 

Slr.ulb.dly ; b'lin L. Bland, I'sci., Blandsfort; sheep in tlie countV. 



Wicklow and j\Iountain Sheep are very small. Large flocks of them 
pass through the County every year, aliout July and August, driven 
by dealers. They are disposed of at the rates of 7s. to 15s. to farmers 
in the County who keep them for a year or two, for breeding purposes, 
crossed with a pure bred ram of the Shropshire, Lincoln, or Border- 
Leicester. They are very prolific and great sucklers ; moreover, they 
thrive where other sheep of the pure breed should perish. 

Goats.— The County is well stocked with goats, particularly in 
the mountain and hilly districts. Their fleece is usually of a black, brown 
or white colour. Several of them are hornless goats, and of a black, brown 
or grey colour. Their milk is most nutritious, especially for children, 
and as their feeding requires little care, their keeping is usually favoured 
by the cottagers and small farmers ; but if allowed to range at large 
along the road-sides, as they often are found browsing on the hedge- 
rows and especially on the young hawthorn buds, they are very destructive 
to fences, and therefore not much in request by the large farmers. 

SwiXE.— Large numbers of swine are raised and fattened, while 
nearly every town in the County has a monthly pig-market, where 
buyers attend, man\' from Limerick, Waterford and Dublin. Like the 
cattle, swine have also improved greatly within the past thirty years. 
Previous to that time, the country pig was a long flat-ribbed animal 
with good shoulders, rather narrow back, tail placed low, good hams, 
thick bristly coat, and all placed on long legs. THeir colour was white 
with grey spots, and they never fattened until they were twelve months 
old or more. Afterwards, however, they reached an enormous weight, 
sometimes going to thirty or forty stone. During latter years many 
new breeds from England have been introduced, viz., the Berkshire, 
which are very hardy, particularly when young, and they require less 
care than other imported breeds. They are of a black colour, with a 
star or white flash down the forehead, "their feet and tip end of tail 
white ; the neck is muscular, the shoulders are wide, and the ribs flat ; 
they have somewhat narrow loins and hind quarters, a drooping rumj) ; 
the bone of their legs is thick and coarse. Moreover, the coat is very 
coarse, and they are rather hard to fatten. Consequently, they are not 
favourites now-a-days, and they are very scarce. The Tamworth or 
red pigs are bred in the County, but in one corner of it only, at Emil, 
on the borders of Tipperary. They are of a red colour, having long head, 
body and legs, with deep flat ribs, and they scarcely ever fatten until 
they are twelve months old. 

The principal breeds of swine now in the County are the small 
Yorkshire and the large white Yorkshire pigs. The small white Yorker 
IS short, with upturned snout, and the lower jaws are dished ; these 
animals have prick ears, with heavy jowls or cheeks ; their necks are 
somewhat long, but notably padded with flesh. Their shoulders are 
well apart and well joined to hoop-like ribs ; their hind quarters are 
long and square, with flesh down to the hocks ; the tail is very slender ; 
the legs are short and placed well apart ; their whole carcase is covered 
with soft and silky hair. They are easily fattened, and weigh about 
twelve to thirteen stone at seven months old. Still on account of 
their small size and ugly faces they are not general favourites with the 
people, who prefer the large York breed. These animals grow into 
pigs of twelve to si.xteen stone weight at the age of eight or nine 
months.i3 The large Yorkshire pig is purely white, with short square 
head, and having somewhat drooping ears. It'is rather slight in the neck 


it has good shoulders, a long back, good hams, a thick wavy coat, and 
large bony legs. 

Dogs. — The Queen's County cannot boast of any i)articular breed 
or variety of dogs. Attached to all the farmers' homes in the 
("ounty is found the useful, faithful and intelligent collie or sheep-dog, 
iNualJy black and tan in colour, and of medium size. Irish 
ii-rriers and English or fox terriers are very numerous, and are very 
Useful for killing rats, mice and rabbits. Greyhounds are to be found 
in the districts of Maryborough, Mountrath, Ballinakill, Portarlington, 
Hallyhnn, W'olfhill and colliery districts, where many sportsmen and 
'■(unsing nifn reside. Bull terriers, are very scarce and rarely seen 
in the ilistricts ; they are generally kept about towns. Mastiffs 
a:c \-er\- lew, and only to be found about Stradbally and Carlow Graigue. 
I cann(jt saN' if anyone in the County has an Irish Wolf-dog. I made 
inquirifs. and could not find one. 

At present there are no P"oxliounds in the County. R. Hamilton 
Mulilvr, Ksq., J. P., and also Colonel Robert Cosby, of Stradbally Hall, 
KM-d to krc]) a ])ack of Foxhounds that hunted the County for many 
\car>. :\[ this ]ir(.si'nt time, the County is hunted by the Castlecomer 
Hound-", owned by Prior W'andesforde, Esq., J. P., D.L., who has a 
^J'l•■^did pack of En,L;li>h Foxhounds. During the Hunting season, the 
(..'astleccMuer hounds meet one da\- in the week, at \he following places ; 
In t!ie I.eix di\-iMon of the Connt\-, they meet at Pdandst'ort and di'aw 
l)v:r\loie .md CuU-iiagh cov^m's : they meet at Swan and draw Wolf- 
hill and Mov.idd co\-ers; at TinKihoe tlie\' draw Sling, Fosse\' and 
Kiibiide'> (ik-n ; at I.;ini!ierton, tlie\- draw the Croshyduff and 
"^J'.t fTi' Id (Dveis; at I'.ilhkilr.iwin, the\' dr.iw the woods surrounding 
It. 1 ii'- Kind's ("ounty h(nin(b hunt the ()ssor\' division of the 
<'o:;!i5v.'' S'e\t:al ol the i.;'^''!^'}' '" ^he County keej) Pointers. 
Vttr:> (In-"!.) ;i!id a few l-'ngli^h Setter> are to be found, but verv 
vjd'ni A < r •:d<'U S<tter. Tlieie .lie Keti ie\c'rs, Irish Water Spaniels, 
(«xk<r >p.ij.jrU, li<.ai;K-.*., l'.i>M;t Houiid>, Dachshunds, Skye Terriers, 
T'-e,' I>v ,:>, rutjur.isa.ins, r<)».ili<->, Dandy Diiunont and Airedale Terriers, 
l»-n!'<'* vutjaii.* lirt-t-ds of l.idu>' laj)-dogs, and of foreign extraction. 
I v./iK! rvil ]ir.AT ♦>! .1 >inf;l<' I'lood Hound or Newfoundland Dog to be 
j;-^! wv'.h jM tho ('«'Uijty ; but I l>elieve, there are some St. Bernards, 
A->i fitr*! |)aiic I>-">i:> to In.' fouiul. We have a nasty lot of mongrels 
to itp t^rru III c\cry {^-.isanl's cabin in the County, crosses between 
»|j«-<j^ it-x^-s, ?<nirr> and f.;ie\ hounds, ill-bred, ill-fed and ill-used. 

< .\t» " M,r (^'.-jirral brrcd (if cats, which are good mousers, does not 
wrn» Uj ad::vs! o{ iiiucli varietv, and they ar.' of the old Irish species, 
»n r^rts varjrlv of colour, .^omc of a foreign extraction and as " pets" 
arc to }?c foiiiul. cJ.ifliy in tlu' houses of the gentry, and chiefly prized 
ift tl.rjr jK-cuii.iritv o( shajx.- and characteristics. 

iVti'MKV. — I'nlil in rrccnt years, there was no particular class of 
Poultry in the County, but only a mixed gathering of barn-door fowl 
t i a ^^^'<K^ laying; strain. In later years, however, several distinct varieties 
Lave U-vn iiitruducvd I'y many enterprising fowl fanciers, amongst 

•' .\t the pfr-rti! litur. the I)ci>ar!uu-r\t <if uinlcil to cnco\iragL' the improvement of the 

.\^fi( u'.iufc *n<i Ti-itmiral Invtructinri oiler liree'l of ]iii;s throughout the coimtry. 

j'lrijii-m* of £5 cmU, !hroii^;li the t'ovimy ^* Mr. ^loore f)f Creniorgan keeps a 

< •uiicils. and j^t.inl thcv ten ^'5 orrmiums pack of harriers for his own private use 

!•■: iJistriliution to the ten ownrfb olliu.-iis uf in huiuirif^ hares over his property, 

ihc tM;c Ijrgc Yorkshire hreed. Tins is in- and on tlie adjoining estates. 


the gentry and farmers throughout the County, for their own use and 
profit. The sale of their eggs at 3s. to 5s. per setting to their neighbours 
was rather excessive, and with such prices for twel\'e or thirteen eggs, 
it was scarcely possible for new breeds to liourish and multiply amongst 
tlie peasantry, the chief persons who suj^plv the local markets with 
fresh eggs and early chickens. However, thanks to the Department 
of Agriculture, and with the approval of the County Council, they have 
established several egg stations or poultry farms, where incubators are 
to be found. Also, by offering and giving premiums of £$ each, to people 
who undertake the keeping of one pure breod of fowl in their yard or on 
their farm, and by their distributing the eggs of these purely bred fowl of a 
distinct breed at one shilling per dozen to their neighbours or to any 
resident of the County, much practical encouragement has been gi\'en 
to the breeding of barn-door fowl amongst the farmers and peasantrj-. 
Already the Committee of Agricultural and Technical Education 
have appointed and sent a qualihed instructress on poultry to lecture 
in the National Schools during the evenings, in several of the rural 
districts throughout the County, the people Ix'ing admitted free to all 
of those lectures. In 1903 five poultry farms had been established 
in the County ; and one of these was placed in each union district, viz., 
of Abbeyleix, of Mountmellick, of Roscrea, of Athy, and of Slie\'emargy, 
respectively ; and thus they were lately stocked with thirty-three pure bred 
fowl of Buff Orpington and Black filinorca breed. The Buff Orpington 
is a large and buff-coloured fowl, and it is one selected for general purposes. 
It is equally good for laying and for table use, and especiaUy it is a great 
winter layer. The Black Minorca is a small black fowl, and it is prized 
principally for laying.'^ 

Turkeys. — These birds are raised and reared extensively throughout 
the County. Nearly every farmer rears from ten to thirty young turkeys 
each year. Some very industrious wives or daughters of farmers are 
known to rear over one hundred turkeys in the year, and to dispose of 
them in local markets at Christmas, from los. to 22s. a pair. Turkeys' eggs 
are eaten, but are looked on more or less as a luxury, because the good 
housewife does not like to use a turkey egg, that possibly might pro- 
duce a bird worth los. or 12s. 

Geese.— These also arc very generally reared, and their eggs are often 
eaten, but these are not thought so much about as duck eggs. However, 
geese are getting to be scarce in the County, owing to the fact, that 
farmers do not like to have them on their land, as they are thought to 
damage it much in a variety of ways. Ducks arc very numerous, and 
particularly the breed known as the Indian Runner. These birds areof small 
size and of graceful appearance, while they are wonderful layers. Also 
the Queen's County Canadian duck is a species peculiar to the County. i" 

'"' All of these departmental fowl were im- became tame, such as partridge, 

ported from England. Other breeds of im- pheasant, and wild duck, with a croas- 

ported fowl in the county are the Plymouth ing of the wild drake and the Indian 

Rock, White and Bruwn Leghorn, the Runner duck. He produced by this 

Dorkings, the Black Spanish, Blue Andalu- method the wonderfulhardy, graceful biril, 

sian, Wvaiidotte, etc., etc. which proved such an extraordinary 

i** This Inced is supposed to have been layer, and that he called the Canadian Duck, 

first introrluced by the late Rick At present wc often see advertised lor 

Ivennedy, Esq., when residing at Pass sale in the Weekly FreentaiCs Journal (\wvV 

House, Man,'borough. He was a great fowl eggs of tiie (Queen's Countv Canadian breed, 

and bird fancier. He used to keep and they are greatly in rei|tiest. 
wild birtls in capitivity, until the}- 


We have also 'the Aylesbury, Pekin and Roweii cluck ; tliesc arc more 
adapted for table use than for laying purposes. ^^ 

Bees. — Formerly in almost every comfortable farmstead throughout 
the County, and frequently in the smaller holdings, the hives of domesti- 
cated bees, as distinguished from honey-bees that in a wild state built 
their nests in the meadows, were to be seen. At the j^resent time, 
nevertheless, the bee or honey-industry is greatly neglected, and you 
might travel from north to south, from east to west, over the County, 
and not notice in a score of gardens, attached to dwelling-houses, any 
stock of bee-hives. '^ It is expected, that instructors in the Bee in- 
dustry shall soon be appointed by the departmental Committee of 
Agricultural and Technical Education, to instruct the people of the 
C()n]it\' in this profitable occupation of bee-keeping. In reference to 
this subject, I cannot specify an^^ distinct class or variety of those most 
industrious, useful and valuable insects." 

«" The following breeds of Poultry are at JNIaryborougli on tlie Asylum 

be found in the County : — ^rounds. 

(i) Dorkings (scarce.) ^-^ A small farmer lives near tlie Rock of 

{-} Plymouth Rocks (plentiful.) Ca.shel in the barony of Cullenngh) and a near 

(5) P.rahmas (scarce.) neighbour of mine), lias ihi-, present xear. i()f)^, 

(4) Black Minorcas (plentiful) tliiiiy hives of busy bees wnrkm^^r ^viUi all 

(c) White Leghorns (numerous) their miglit, going back and Inrv.ard d.iily to 

{')) Old Irish^Game (verv scarce) the Ca^hel and Callenagh bog-., bringing 

(7) liuff Orpington (verV plentiful) their sweet stores from the heather and wik] 

(>S) Wyandottes (scarce)' flowers. NUjreover, all of those thirty _ hives 

(9) Indian Came (numerous) resulted from a swarm that came to him by 

(10) ]''avorelles (scarce.) accident about four years ago. He has a 

.\11 these varieties of domesticated fowl numerous and young fannly, who are doubt- 

w. rr e.\!nt>ited bv the gentry and farmers less regaled with it, and the farmer in ques- 

at the f'ue'-a'b C'liuiilv (Lv rr-ir',.n;^ of tioii slated, that he never sells any of the 

li.e County) .Xg'u idt ,i:..l Show, lield honey. 



Chapter I. — Monuments and Antiquities. 

The Pre-historic remains in Ireland are considered to have Iteen those 
which existed previous to, or within a Hmited period after, the intro- 
duction of Christianity in the fifth century, and they consist chiefiy of 
cromlechs, oghams, cairns, tumuh, stone forts, stone circles, beehive stone- 
huts, pillar-stones, rock-markings, urns, weapons, and other ancient 
instruments. "■ 

The surface of the Queen's County is very thickly strewed with 
different Forts or Raths, which are shown on the Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps, and many of these are remarkable in size and con- 
struction. For the most part, they seem to have been erected as en- 
closures for former strongholds or houses of individuals. They are usually 
circular in shai)e, and outlined by an embankment covered with a thick 
growth of hawthorn or briars, and having a deep circumvallation as the 
outer boundary. The peasantry had aprevailng superstition, that thev 
were habitations or ]:)laces for fairy resort, and, that ill-luck was sure to 
betide those who should seek to remove them. It is probably owing to 
this popular belief, that so many still remain ; but nevertheless, a great 
number of the liclcl-raths have been levelled within the last century, and 
chiefiy to enlarge the area for pasturage or agriculture. 

The remarkable Duns- or Forts^ and truncated cones, so marked as 
features of a very remote age in Ireland, are to be met with in certain 
parts. In some instances, those are primarily of natural formation, and. 
when of stone, artificial surroundings of escarpment have been wrought, 
as in the case of the very remarkable old Forts of Dunamase, of Clopoke 
and of Luggacurren. In like manner, where rounded earthen elevations 
had been formed, these were shaped into higher truncated cones by 
digging the soil around their lower sides and piling it on the top. Generally 
mounds and circumvallations are to be found enclosing very old ceme- 
teries and church sites ; but, it is greatly to be regretted, that in many 
instances, the poor-law guardians when enlarging several of the rural 
grave-yards have also destroyed those ancient remains. At Aghaboe, 
towards the north of the church, there is a very remarkable truncated 
cone, and it is surrounded by a deep fosse. At top, it is about forty-five feet 
in diameter. A wall ran round its summit, and tlie ascent to it was by an 
undulating pathway. It probably served as a fort, to protect the inmates 

1 See Wal^eman's " Handbook of antiquarian sense, it is usually applicil 

Irish Antiquities," Third edition, by to a lortilied hill. 

John Cooke, M.A. (Dub.), chap, i., ^ They were small protected places, 

p. 2. Dublin. 1903, Xvo. surrounded with a ditch, rampart or 

-An old Celtic word, meaning paraj^et. In Ireland, where they are ex- 

" hillock." whence comes the Latin, ceedmgly numerous. Moats had nearly 

dnmnii, and the l-'reiicli ihi>tc. In an the ^anie meanini;. 


of the monastery or the townspeople about it, durin.c; the Northmen in- 
vasions, ii indeed it liad not a still earlier origin. An ancient lorlitica- 
tion, called the Rath of Lara, or otherwise the Moat of Monacoghlan,* 
is within the parish of Aghaboe, and its circumvallations are very curious. 
On the highest point of the Boley Hills, and not far from the woods of 
(iracefield, there is an extensive and elevated earthwork mound called 
Dundrum, " the fort of the ridge." The summit is 130 yards in diameter, 
and it is enclosed by a high bank. Within this enclosure, there is a well 
of fine water. At the base, a fosse thirty feet wide at the bottom surrounds 
the Dun, from which there is an uncommonly vast range of view.^ 

The Cashels or strong stone-built forts were numerous, and usually 
they gave name to the townlands in which they had been situated. A 
specimen is still to be seen in the parish of Offerilane, and which has a 
large fort named Cashel.'^ Near the old church of Killeshin, there is a 
very remarkable elevated mound, the ascent to the top of which from the 
lower ground-level is exceedingly steep. It was surrounded by a deep 
losse, but at present it is much reduced in de])th. A very remarkable 
moat and cone shaped is to be seen at Ballyroan. This is circular in form 
and flat on the top. A winding pathway is carried round the sides, from 
the lower level to the topmost stage. It j^resented a picturesque appear- 
ance beside the town, as finely grown trees had been planted around 
the sides. 

Towards the close of the early Stone Age, the custom of burning the 
bodies of the dead s<'ems to have been practised by the inhabitants of 
the British Isles. The dead were also disposed ol by ordinary burial, 
and by j^lacing the bodv in a hori>:ontal, sitting, or per])endicuiar posi- 
tion. Such methods wne jiractised throughout the whole succeeding 
a!(h;eoloL;ical ]iciio(l, or Bron/e age, as numerous remains testify. When 
ru-niated, the ( .tl( nud remains were [)laced in an urn, and tlicn deposited, 
often as stated v.ilh a small food ver-sel. within an artificial chamber, 
tailed a Ci-i or Kistwe:;. This was usually a small rectangular chamber 
111. '.lie ot fi.u''^ or lude stones. ()\'er those chambers it was customary 
to co\.r with eaitheii mounds or to laise a cairn of stones. However, 
the ("i-t has l>ecn frequently found in oj^en fields and in other unex- 
|-i'ct'.d pi.i' es.* In ihc townland of Cirange and jiarish of Dysart Enos, 
.*•!:. I>.in;el lUine (Icsciibed a sei)ul(dn"e of unusual shape,* and jiresented 
».».«•!< !;<•> <){ It to the Kilkenny Arclux'ological Society. The iiionument 
l.>v al-^nst t\v(i lect K-nenth the surface, and in sandy earth. It was formed 
I't tl u: Ii.'f.r >to!ies. which were set on their edges, and covered over with 
ftnullcr itoiifs. Tills sepulchre contained a great quantit\- of ashes, oak, 
» jt) stii.dl jx)rtions. and some few bones. Fire seemed to have had 
f; fi.rco uithin this chamber, as the stones comi)Osiiig it appeared 
rrustct! with June. In his very complete and learned work, "The Dol- 
mens ol Ireland." William Coi^eland Borlase mentions a supposed 
l>ohiK-u, in the tow of Manger, adjoinmg that of Coolrush. and in the 

* ("opjH-r-pl.itc rn^:r.i\ui:;s <>i its ap- " See '■ Walunum's Handbook of Irisli 

j> aii'l a Kr<"i'»il plan, .ixc j^ivcn .Vntuiuities," Third edition, edited [ly 

l>> Krv. Dr. Lcdwich. m a Memoir wliich John Cooke, M..\. (IJub.). chap, ii., p. 

has apiH-an-d lu li:-> " .\tilupiitus of 40. 

Ircl.ind." •'* Said to reseml)le the print of a shoe 

•In the ye;ix 179H, a J'arty of in- for the ri;;ht foot. That part answering 

biir>;tnts cKcupied this as a {xjsition, but to the lieel of the slioe was made by 

• •nlv fur a short time. small stones set one over the other. 

•See " Ordii.uue Siirve>' TownLuui The cireular part of this tomb was al)out 

M.ips fjir the Oiieen's County." Sheet 22. nine feet in circumference. 


parish of Tullomoy.'-* It is marked Ass's Manger on t])c Ordnance Survey 
Townland INIap.^*^ In the townland of Monamanry and parish of Tullomoy, 
about a mile and a-quarter west from the Ass's Manger, there is a Dohiien 
marked Druid's Altar on the Ordnance Survey Townland IMap.^^ The 
Cromleac on the top of Coolrus Hill, in the parish of Ballyadams has been 
described by Mr. Daniel Byrne. The removal of earth from the south 
side of "this Cromleac caused the upper stone to slip from its original 
position, and it now rests with its southern edge on the roadside, the 
other end being supported by two upright stones measuring respectively 
four and five feet in height. Many rectangular Cists containing 
burned bones were opened near that Cromleac, but in them was 
no trace of urns, arms or ornaments.^- At no time could the 
upper stone, in Mr. Byrne's opinion, have been more than one 
foot six inches above the surface of the hill. Underneath it how- 
ever, was a square pit sunk about five feet, faced with large 
flags and dry masonry. The upper edges of the' flags which formed 
this pit were level with the surface of the hill^ and when the upper 
stone was in its original position, about two feet of the pit was left un- 
covered to the north. The upper stone measured eight feet by six feet 
and a half, and it was twelve inches thick. To the cast, a passage like 
a sewer, and about three feet square, extended nine feet in an easterly 
direction from the pit, and opened on the hill's surfac(?. It was formed 
by flags and dry masonry, well built and covered over, and had not any 
communication with the pit, being separated therefrom by the large flag 
which formed the east side of it. Adjoining the west side of the pit, two 
flags about three feet high were firmly fixed in the earth in a chair-like 
fashion. Close to these were discovered the calcined remains of a con- 
siderable quantity of bones belonging to some large animals. At a radius 
of about one hundred and fifty feet from this monument, formerly stood a 
circle of upright stones, now removed. ^^ Mr. Borlase, who regards this 
monument as of a most instructive character, thinks that itself and that of 
Grange already described had been burning places, in which bodies were 
consumed, rather than Dolmens. ^^ He also compares the Coolrus monu- 
ment to a crcniatorium he had examined at Tregiffian in West Corn- 
wall, and in which fire had been kindled for the burning of dead bodies. i'' 
The pagan custom in Ireland of interment in Kistvaons or Cists 
has been proved by several discoveries of these in the Queen's County.'^ 
As the word cist signifies a box or chest, those receptacles generally 

9 See vol. ii.,p. 374. Mainsair Asal, i.e. cinders or ashes, from the ash-heaps that 

Asses' Manner, is also the name of a he around them. See Alex, du Met^a, 

dohnen at Gahvay in Ivilkenny. " ArcheoL Pyreneennes," voL iii., p. 

1" Sheet 25. ' and n. p. 20. 

^^ See sheet 25. is See "The Dolmens of Ireland: 

'- Sec " Transactions of the Ki'lkenny their Distribution, Structural Charac- 

Archaological Society for the year 1850," teristics, and Atiinities, m other Countries 

vol. i. part ii., pp. 131, 132. together with the folk-lore attaching to 

12 An old man, and a resident on the them; supplemented by ConsideratK>ns 

spot, assured Mr. Byrne, that he had on the Anthropology, Ethnology, and 

found and opened to the south-east of the Traditions of the Irish People," vol. 11., 

structure many small rectangular cists, pp. 374, ;75, 446, 447. This valuable 

formed of six flags, and containing work has been published in three royal 

burnt bones, but no urns, or arms, or octavo volumes, and it is furnished with 

ornaments. Four Maps and Eight hundred illus- 

" In some parts of France, as for trations, including two coloured plates, 

instance near Toulouse, dolmens are London, Chapman and Hall, 1807. 
termed cibouyjiies, meaning piles of >'' In any that have been hitherto 


•*;;^<j.v>y;;; ; 

l^|*■/~TR>^* ^ 'MlJif^,^ 

', '-vn-V 






I'ji.'i,'. I, 

VlWi ASS'S ,MA.N<iKk. 

/•:. (n:. 

\'..i. I. 

I a re |.Mi:c =;()■ 



had been formed by iijnight stones, in the former Celtic times, and dis- 
posed in the shape of an elongated box, or as sometimes happened, they 
have been found cut into a harder material than ordinar}' earth. Flags 
or flat stones are usually placed transversely over tliem as a covering. 
There were formerly many hillocks or mounds of earth, usually of cir- 
cular form and artificially constructed in a cone-like shape. ^'' Several of 
these have been removed, but it is to be regretted, as human remains 
have been found buried beneath, that no anticuiarian investigation 
regarding their appearance or position has taken place, or that even a 
record of the facts survived their removal. However, in one instance, 
early in the last century, when the proprietor of the lands of Cuffsborough, 
in the parish of Aghaboe, had determined on levelling a mound then 
existing in one of his fields, the labourers having cleared away a con- 
siderable portion of earth came to a beehive-shaped structure of rough 
stones. Three or four of these being removed gave entrance to a 
sepulchral chamber. This measured about five feet in diameter, and it 
was formed by placing a circle of large stones on edge, at the back of 
which clay and small stones had been carefully rammed down ; these 
stones were about three and a half feet in height from the floor of the 
chamber. On the u})per edge of that circle, and with a slight ]:»rojection 
over its inner face, another circle of large flat stones was laid horizontally ; 
above these another row had the same projection over the former ; and 
this arrangement continued upwards, until the dome was closed at the 
apex with a single large stone. The floor of this chamber perfectly dry 
was covered by about an inch of very fine dust ; and, lying confusedly 
in the centre were the bones of two human skeletons. When the chamber 
was first opened the bones were quite perfect, but when exposed to 
atmos]-)heric action for a short time they crumbled away. It seemed 
as if the bodies had been placed in a sitting jwsture, and that during 
the process of decay, the bones had promiscuously fallen. 1=^ One of the 
skulls, considerably smaller than the other, was supposed to have been 
that of a female. -As no door or other aperture appeared in that sepul- 
chral chamber, whereby the bodies could have been introduced, it was 
supposed to have been built over them after interment. The bones 
showed no trace of cremation, and that impalpable dust covering the 
chamber-floor proved, that in the first instance, the bodies had been 
placed there entire, and after sepulture had undergone the process of 
decay. Subsequently to the completion of the rude stone-work already 
described, a mound of earth was heaped up over all ; thus forming a 
sepulchral iuDiuIasP Such is substantially the account given by 
the learned antiquary, the Rev. James Graves, A.B., on the yth of 

opened, no emblems of Christianity posture. See William Grcenwell's 

were discovered, and they have been " British Barrows, a Record of the 

found apart from Chris tian cemeteries. Examination of Sepulchral Mounds in 

"In Irish, these sepulchral, hillocks various parts of Engand," Introduction, 

are known as Tulachs. and whether pp. 24, 25. 

simply or in composition they give i^ All trace of that interesting 

names to many Irish localities. sepulchral chamber above described 

^^In the barrows of Britain, corres- is now oI)literated. Soon after its 

ponding in use and origin with the discovery, some persons, expecting to 

iii/(((7/s- of Ireland, bodies are said to find a ' crock " of gold, began t(/ 

have been found buried in a sitting excavate beneath the upright stone.-T 

position, as also in the chambered which formed t!ie sides, ami this causeii 

barrows of Scandinavir', wluic m the a subsidence, which at once reduced (he 

Channel Islands, liudies were in some whole structure to a mass of un 

cases found interred in a kneeling distinguishable ruin. 


January, 1853, at a meeting of the Kilkenny Arcli;eological Society.-*^ 
Those iiiniuli and death-chambers are referable to the pagan period, 
and are of remote antiquity. 

In 1784 a Cist or stone coffin was found at Clonaslce. It had a covering 
stone or flag of enormous size and shaped like a lozenge : in length it 
was 8 ft. and in breadth 5 ft. 4 in. ; in some })ortions it was 11 in. in 
thickness, a small portion at one end only 7 in. The side stones or flags 
were from 8 in. to 10 in. in thickness. On oj)ening it, a very old skeleton 
was discovered, the skull being placed eastwards.'-^ About the year 
1840, Mr. James Lalor discovered, while ploughing on his farm near the 
rock of Dunamase, an ancient grave, formed by stones placed upright, 
and covered over with flat ones. These were nearly on a level with the 
furrow. On removing some of the top stones, the skull and bones of a 
human skeleton were found beneath. This rude se[)ulchre was thought 
to have been formed in remote pagan times, and it served to illustrate 
the ordinary mode of interment at a period now unknown. It seems 
probable, however, that when persons of distinction had been interred, 
iiilaclii — lueaning burial-places — or tuviuli had been erected over 
the " fearts " or graves. On the 7th of October, 1849, Mr. Richard 
Lalor unearthed a curious sepulchre of an irregiflar shape, at Clash 
Field, in the townland of Grange, about two miles from Stradbally. 
Its length was about twenty-one feet, \rith a breadth and depth varying 
from about one foot and a-half to two feet. It contained oak, charcoal, 
ashes, aiid only a few remnants of bones.-- 

The Cromlech was another form of tumular erection, and underneath 
its massive upright stones and rude covering have often been found 
curiously-sha])ed urns, containing human calcined bones and ashes. -^ On 
the Marquis of Lansdowne's estate at Luggacurran there are the remains 
of a Cromlech, consisting of five upright pillar-stones over 4 feet in height 
with a table-stone 8^- feet in length by 7 feet in width, it being 2^- feet in 
thickness. Formerly it was supposed, the Cromlechs had been used as 
Altars for sacrifices of the Druids ; but since it has been ascertained, they 
were erected as sejiulchral monuments, and it seems i:)robable, the size 
and shape of the earth-covering over them indicated the distinction of 
the individual they were intended to commemorate. It is thought, 
moreover, that the ]-)illar stones, many of which are still standing, were 
erected as mon'umen ts. Thus, on Froghney Hill, near the Dun of Clopooke, 
there is a pillar stone,-' and it is known as Cloughleeken, and in Slat, 
there is another near the Wolf's Hill road. Both are on the estate of the 
Marquis of Lansdowne. In Dysart Gallen there are eight pillar stones at 
a place called Cluain-ach, interpreted the Field of Misfortune.-^ Two 

-'J See " Transactions of the Kilkenny nsed from earliest times to mark the 

ArchicoloRical Society," vol. ii., 1852- graves of distini^uished persons. In 

53. Part ii., p. 35S. very earlv times, it is related, that Tea, 

-1 See Michael Carey's " Antiquities the daughter of LuLrhaidh, son of Ith, 

of Queen's County and County Kildare," and who was married to Heremon in 

p. 8. Spain, requested as her dower a place 

'-- See Mr. Daniel Byrne's account she should chose, that she mi,i,dit be 

in " Transactions of the Kilkenny interred tiiere. and that a mound and a 

Archaeological Society for the year grave stone should be raised thereon. 

iS^o," vol. i., part 11., p. 139. The place she selected was Druini- 

-^ These remains serve to show, that Caoin or the Hill of Caen, and after her 

cremation of the body after death was interment it was designated Teamhair. 

a usual practice of our ancestors at See Dr. O' O'Donovan's " .\nnals of the 

a remote ])agan period. Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 30, 31, and 

-■* It is said, that the pillar stones were nn. (l;, h,) ihid. 


stone circles are near the stones, one of tliose on the summit of a heathy 
hill. The other is on Knockbawn, and it has three concentric circles. 
Also on a high hill in Skeirk, there is a circular area surrounded with a 
stone rampart, and in the centre, there is a pillar stone six feet in height.-*^ 
Certain curious traditions remained in reference to the retreat of the 
Munster Army, a.d. 138, when vanquished by Cu-Corb, King of 
Leinster and Lugaidh Laighis ; and it was asserted, that wherever 
they made a stand and fought a battle, pillar stones marked the graves 
of heroes that fell in it.-'' 

As a specimen of an ancient dwelling, and among the antiquities of 
the Queen's County, it may be observed, that on the side of Fossey Moun- 
tain, about one mile and a-half from Timahoe, there is a valley, which 
contained a tract known as the White Bog, and which formerly was 
many feet deep in its centre. The neighbouring people got their fuel 
from that bog, which is now almost cut away. About the year 1830, 
while some turf-cutters were taking sods from it, having got to the 
very bottom layer, and to a considerable depth, they came upon a square 
structure, about 10 feet by 8 feet, and made of oak poles, reseml:)ling stakes, 
closely set one after the other, and all of equal height, about 7 feet, and so 
resting as to allow those who constructed the work to interweave switches. 
The turfy substance was then carefully cut from the outside and inside of 
the structure, without disturbing the wooden staked. When the turf 
had been thus carefully removed, the wooden building remained in as 
])erfect a state as the decay of ages permitted. A further examination 
.found, that the poles were sunk about 2 feet in a stratum of solid earth, 
which lay beneath the bog. Rising on the original surface, with a wooden 
frame work, and resting upon it, a beam of oak was discovered, with 
a wooden wedge sticking in one of its ends. A mallet not i)erforated 
and originally jiart of a tree, its handle having been a branch growing 
at right angles from the strm. was found beside the the old erection, and 
it bore marks of having Ihtu nuich used. Smce the time of that occur- 
rence, these most interesting antuiuities have been lost or destroyed.-"^ 

In dei'i'ening the River Xore near Borris-in-Ossory,-'-* the remnants of 
an cM <i.ik liridge, about tweh-c feet below the modern channel of the river. 
wc-ie di^'i A'ered. Near Shanagoonah Bridge were also found four or five 
ancient liton/e .>wurds double edged, with a jx'culiar leaf-shaped enlarge- 
im-nt <•( i!:e M.ide towards the point, logviher with the remains of a iiiin hcluK-t, and a skull of verv peculiar shape, much ILattened 
.it [].'■ .i;e\ and puxiuci-d posteriorly.^^ £e\eral iron s])ear-heads also 
tuu.ed u]) iiuiing the work. At Rathaspiek and under the site of its 
ar.'i'T.t < J;urch, three vaulted chamber.-, were found and there also was 
diMuvcud a well. Moreover two large ke\s. with curiously constructed 
wards, an ill-!i.ipcd diinking cup,' a dagger of brass, a pin with a chased 

=> .\ ti.v!iti..;i c.M.ils. th.U ;i 1 .ittle was -■'Si.l- tlic account furnished on the 

fcHiKht licrc. and whicli Ic! to the fure-oing subjects, in Dr. P. W. Joyce's 

ru.-vrnnf,' of Ossory (lom the kmyduni " Social Hi^>tery of Ancient Ireland," 

of l.ciiistcr. vol. 11., chap. .\xxi, pp. 539 to 579, 

■■* Sic Michavl Cirey's " .\nti.iuitu.-, I )anul Byrne of Timahoe in " Proceed- 

of Oucen's County and County m^^ of the Kilkenny Arch;coloyical 

Kildare," p. .19. Society, 1S52." Vol, "1., pp. 207, 208. 

■■^ See Mr. Daniel Byrne's paper read '-^ This operation was carried on by 

at a nieetmi^ of March (>th, and pub- the Board of Public Works in deepening 

ll^lu■d in the "Transactions of the the river-bed for drainaj^e purposes. 

Kilkenny Arch;coU)>4ical Society for so See " Transactions of the Kilkenny 

the year 1S50," vol. i., part, ii., pp. Archa'ological Society, for the )'ear 

IJ3 to 136. Also pp. 207, 20.S. 1^49," vol. i., part i., p 30 


broach of brass, and adorned with yellow stones, as also some coins, were 
found near the old church. ^i At CuUohill were found a curious bronze 
pin, a bronze belt, and a silver coin of Queen Elizabeth, with some liuman 
bones. Numbers of such objects have been discovered in the fields, and 
many old coins especially are in the keeping of individuals. A very curious 
specimen of bog-l)utter was found, nine feet below the surface in Grallagh 
bog, near Abbey leix.^- It was enclosed in a single-piece wooden vessel 
considerably broken. This find was presented to the ]\Iembers of the 
Royal Irish Academy, by a former Lord de Vesci, and at present, it is to 
be seen in their collection in the National I\Iuseum. Tliat bog-butter 
has a rancid taste resembling that of spermacetti, and owing to long 
immersion in bog-water, it has been converted into a hard yellowish- 
white substance."^ A curious collection of jet beads was exhibited,^^ at 
the great Dublin Exposition of 1S53. These were found, during the 
s])ring of 1S4S, at the depth of seven feet below the surface in ]\Ioyne 
Bog, Queen's County. ■^^ 

Of a much later date, but as interesting memorials of an extinct pro- 
cess of manufacture, are yet to be seen, along the course of the River Nore, 
and at the base of the Slieve Bloom Mountains not far from IMountrath, 
the waste or slag of the former iron furnaces there erected iir the seventeenth 
century."*^ We learn, that wooden scoops were found in an old working ^'' 
lor bog-iron in the Queen's County. Three of the Irish Round Towers 
are known to have existed in former times : one of these was at Rose- 
nallis, and the other at Killeshin ; this latter fell in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. Another hne specimen was erected at Timahoe, and 
still it is in a good state of preservation. Before the end of the eighteenth 
century, the Rev. Dr. Ledwich was able to reckon the remains of eighty 
ruined castles in the Queen's County, and he was sure there were more.^'' 
A closer examination should be certain largely to extend that enumera- 
tion ; and more esp^^cially, if we take into account the ruined mansion 
houses of proprietors or occupiers, who formerly dwelt in them, even 
dov.'n to the earlier part of the nineteenth century. The vestiges of 
church ruins, ancient or medieval, are also very considerable, and the 
grave-yards on which such churches formerly stood are still more numerous. 
However, we reserve for subsequent and detailed mention, under the 
heading of their respective parishes where found, such notices as may 
be necessary to invest those various objects with a special interest for the 
student of antiquities and for the general reader. 

^1 See Michael Carey's " Antiquities butter, p. 369. 

of Queen's County and County Kildare," ^-i By John Francis Shearman, Esq., 

p. 37. Kilkenny. 

^- See Sir William R. Wilde's ^5 gee "Transactions of the Kilkenny 

"Descriptive Catalogue of the Anti- ArchrEological Society " for 1S49, ^'ol. i-, 

quities in the Museum of the Royal p. 32. 

Irish Academy," vol. i.. Class iv. Animal ^^ gee "Proceedings of the Dublin 

Materials, &c., p. 26S. Society," 1S86. Tart iv., October, 

^^ See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish Metal Mining, by G. tl. Kinahan, 

Irish Academy," vol. vi. Paper read M.R.I. A. 

by W. R. Wilde, Monday, May 26th, '•^^ Some of these are now preserved 

1856. Introduction and General Use in the Royal Irisli Academy's Collection 

of the Potatoe in Ireland, with some in the National Museum. 

notice of the substance called Bog- ^'^ See " Antupiities ot Ireland," p. 197. 


CHAPTER II.— Local Legends of the Pke-Historic Period. 

However strange it may appear, not alone the doubtful but even the 
manifestly fabulous traditions of every country have some interest and 
importance, with a direct or an indirect bearing on the true facts of its 
history. Although we may not be able to ascertain their origin, or the 
cause that first gave them circulation, the imaginative and credulous 
people of generations long past have received mythical reports without 
any disposition to deny or criticise their accuracy. Many of those recorded 
fables, if not the actual inventions of bards and chroniclers, have probably 
l)een transmitted to thcui from times very remote, and when historic 
credence, for a primitive jx^ople, did not require genuine historical 
material or evidence. To account for the names of various places in 
Ireland, and some of which are still in vogue, a very old tract known as 
the Diudsenchas ^ professes to gi\'e the derivation of some localities 
within the Queen's County. In a legend for the name given the River' 
IJarrow, the story goes, that three serpents were in the heart of Mechi, 
son of the Great Queen Berba ; Diancecht, a magician, killed them ; 
afterwards they were burnt, and their ashes Uiiaitli) Hung into the 
river, so that it boiled (co ro-m-Z'tv/)) and dissolved yvery animal within 
it. Thence, as we are told, came the names of t\^■o plains — Mag I\Iechi 
and I\Iag Luadat — as also the name Berba, for the river.- However, a 
different version is given m the Book of Ball\-mote, where it is wTitren 
Bir-balb : the word Bir being glossed to mean zvatcr, and " balb "^ 
'm just as rendered in O'Davoren's Glossary. An ancient Poem is also 
contained in tlie Dind^enchas, which relates to the river Barrow.-^ 

There is a Diudseiiciias of legendary story which states, that the 
mountain of SHab IHadina was so called from Bladma or Blod Mac Con, 
the son (jf Cai^r, Chlothai-h. Having killed one Bregmael, he took ship 
and tlril from Alh Cliath m Galway to Ath Chath in Wicklow. After- 
waid-, he lied to' th-' range of mountains that subsequently bore his 
n.inio.-' Thriv i^ al-o a Dmdsenchas for Belach Gabran,*^ said to have 
Im;< !i ^wWtX lioin the « oiu>ing of a famous hound, that went in pursuit 
of a ;;:..Mt ludl-blnu] pi<, wliich disappeared under ground. Nevertheless, 
i: w.i- iolluwfd by the dog, and Imally he killed it, but on his return he 
■ lit •) .ti i Innied there. Belach Gabrvin seems to have been the former 
iLiin-- !■■: a road al-nig tin- Mde of Slie\'e Bloom." In the Diudsenchas,^ 
:l.f n.-.:r.e .'->!:fVc Mairge is d. lived from Margg. steward to t])e King of 
!!." l--.::.''':e, wlio » aine lo Iielaiid in the time ot Eochu ^lunisti, King of 
I. <■»!;'•.< t. \i Mek till utes due to liis niasirr. Having become half-mad 
wjth tliitsf, M.ii>:,s' Ihuig l.i-> head. on a rock there, and died of the blow. 
Two .iSK irnl iKK-:us in Iii>Ii, and having rekrence to Sliabh Mairge, are 
to Ix: foutid in »lie H(.>ok of ]-eiiister.' 

Airamg our e!d Iii.'^.h manusciipts, we have various accounts of the origin 

' I In^ Irish \\ h.i-. \\w niiMiKii:; Book of Lcinster, Avlule the end of this 

of I'opular Tradition or M..;y. Puna is at the bj;,'inning of p. loi a. 

^Sco the VcTMoii of It 1:1 th..- " Book -Sec ihc account giveu in IJook of 

of Lcinsti-r," edited by IvuL). rt .\ikin^>.ii, Lein^tcr, ]>. iqj <(. 

M..\..LI..I)., p. I.;y^. "^ ll he-uis inmoan, b.ini m 5.\bi!An 5tAn 

^ Ilie uliole word in In>!i i-, sot down '" Book of Lemsler," p. 190. 

as lnT)cjibA,^b.\ilbe 8 Sec that version in the "Book of 

* Tlub iM-miis with the hne mtice Lemster," at p. i SQ l>- 

b.'lbe, at p. 159 h. of the pubhsiied '^ \\. p. Ji6 b./ibiJ. 


of names oi places near the Barrow and Nore. Likewise, have we siniihir 
statements regarning Sleumargie and Lcix.^" Also about Magh-Raighne. 
a district situated in the present Queen's County. ^^ There is a story told 
of one Raigne Romanacli, wlio came from Italy to Gallia Narbonensis 
with three implements, his " bacc," his " rama " and his " tuag." The 
people of Gallia imposed on liim the task of clearing the ]~>lains from forests 
andalso otherlabour, all of which he is said to have accomplished in three 
days. Afterwards, he is related to have gone to Ireland, and there too he 
cleared the woods from a district, that from him bore the name of Mag 
Raigne, a portion of wliich was within the jjresent Queen's County. 
Among the fables of Irish tradition is an account of a celebrated hero of 
romance named Goll, who killed Cumhall, the father of the still more 
renowned Finn, in a battle at Cnucha,^- near Dublin, and who is said to 
have been buried in ]\Iagh Raighne ; but whether this interment was in 
the Queen's County or Kilkenny portion of it has not been determined.''' 
There is a legendary account of Lege, now Lea in Offaly, in the Dind- 
senchas,^^ and which derives its denomination from Liag,^^ the sister of 
More, son of Dela the Fomorian chief, who is celebrated in connexion 
with Conand's Tower. She seems to have requested of Fergus, that her 
name should be imposed on the territory, where the decisive battle was 
fought. A prose legend at the end, however, refers the origin of the 
name to Lege Mac Scandail, the former owner of the lancj, and who had 
here died. The legendary account^'^ for the original denomination of 
Straboe is, that a mighty man of Daire Leith, in Offaly, and who was 
named Liath Lurgan, having heard during his travels a cow bellowing 
as it came out of Loch Sithgail, followed it, until he came to Scriib B6, in 
the west of Mag Rochet.'''' There he came u]) with the anmial and killed 
it. The owner, who is called Sithgal, followed in ]:)ursuit, and he arrived 
after this occurrence. Liath was worsted in an encounter that 
ensued, and he was brought back bound to the loch. A great terror 
then seized on Liath, who feared he was to l)e drowned ; but, making a 
mighty effort, he burst the bond that was around his arms. He then 
attacked Sithgal, who flung the cow's carcase before him into the loch. 
Sithgal and Liath renewed their struggle, but the former was vanquished 
and his body was thrown into the loch. The j^jcople of Sithgal then en- 
deavoured to pull the cow by the tail and into the loch ; but Liath held 
it by the head. The carcase was torn in two parts, but the strength of 
Liath availed him to carry off the cow's head. He then returned to the 
place where it had been killed, and there he left the head as a memorial 
of his strength. This preternatural incident is said to have given name 
to the place. '^ 

'" Sec F.uf^'one O'Curry's " Catalogue ^^ That version in the Book of 

of Irish Manuscripts in the Royal Irish Leinster," fol. 2oq. 

Academy," vol. hi., pp. 852, ct seq. '^ Her pedigree is traced up to Noah, 

" See ibid., p. S54. the son of Laniech. 

1- Now Castleknock. ^*j Contained in the Dindsenchas of 

" See Euf^ene O'Curry s " Lectures on the "Book of Leinster," fol. 160 a, 

the Manuscript Materials of Ancient ^' Now Morett. 

Irish History." Lect. xiv. p. .302, and '^ The term sjuib bo means " the cow's 

App. No. xcii., p. 594. snout." 



CHAPTER III. — Ancient Clanships, Land Denominations and 

Old Roads. 

In the succeeding pages we shall have occasion, especially in the earlier 
ages, to use historic terms applicable to those chiefs and tribes that 
originally occupied the Queen's County, as also to the different divisions 
of land, which retained their denominations even to a much later period. 
Therefore some previous explanation is required the better to elucidate 
our narrative. The tribal system of Ireland, aristocratically formed, 
was composed of families related by blood, and having a" common 
genealogical origin, but owning allegiance and submission to chiefs of 
their race, and also of their selection. The tribes had an Eponymus 
or hero as an ancestor, of whose valour and merits they preserved tra- 
ditional accounts, and to whom thev felt proud of being related even 
in a remote degree. Their tribal names are derived from a distinguished 
common ancestor. Thus in nearly all cases, the names of Irish territories, 
and of the tribes inhabiting them, were identical. Their families were 
Usually known as the inhabitants of a certain Tuath or Territory, in 
which they lived ; and as the Cinel or Cineal, n;eaning " people," ' 
they gave name to it - They were generally closely connected by 
kinshi}) and social ties, while boasting of their respectable pedigrees. 
With them also lived clients, retainers and dependents, who were devoted 
to their interests and service ; the union of all forming what was re- 
cognised as the Clann,^ meaning " the children " of their Tuath.' This 
genealogical and geograj^hical term was ajiplird to a jieople occupying 
a district which had a complete jjolitical and legal administration, under 
a Rigli or Chiu'', who could bring into the field a battalion of six or seven 
hundred aruu'd nun. .Moreo\'er, it was apjjlied to a larger division 
(if tcriitoiA', ((insisting of three or four, or even more Tuaths called 
a M< r I'u.ith or great Tuath, associated for purposes of policy, and 
t!i>- trwps (jf wiiich wvw united in war under one commander. ^ The 
una i-"(;an, i:i<-uiiing "land," was Likewise applied to the sept names 

'• \ J.: ■ ', i". . , ■■'»,!. '.ir!." " latc," " (Icscen- 
•l..: 1 ' Vf I >i Ol>';u*i:ri ililfovi ii< limi 
I * 1)^ I ;• •4;i»; hivil l'i>cms of lohii 
« » i*.' >.:^h.tix:A G^lft n* NA"n.!i U'IIulllh- 
'.. .• P 6 

* lt-» shr (.' K- •'^ tn(r4n> ihc " r.icc 
'i K.' ■gli*.'* " ; l^^ t"»r.c;I ('.'liaH, iikai.s iKc 
'* tx<t oi L\/<-»Ji " ; CA<:)i iiilf dcminj^ Un 
tfiij'.a (l< m *o ar.C'-vlor to i.iii.rd. 

*^It »lv«> »:^:.:;i^ti mcx <•! J tir^cnv ; thus 

whiih »j,> •.!.et«i!<-riA;nf of titc U'.Mcla^lilins 
0/ .Mrarh. 

•-•src tlic vcr*- leatnt^J am! indicious uLscr- 
vations iit» this iubjcci Liv \V. K., 
I'h.D., in his lntHMluc:ion to Kii^^t ac 
O'Curry's jjosthuriK^us w.nk, "On ihc .NJaii- 
ncrs and Customs of the Ancicni Irish," 
sol. i., pp. Ixxviii, Ixxix., Ixxx. 

'•" .\s appHc.-xble to the Irisli Tritxrs or Clan», 
wc also have the terms Ccrr, or fVr. j, " a 
race," or " prot^cny," as the Corca I'.haisciun, 
" the race of lihaischiim," in the County of 

Clare; \.\\e Diil, "a tribe," or " pruLjeiu'," 
as tlic Dal Cais, in Munstcr ; the JAui/, 
" sons," in old Manuseripi-, as Dubthach 
Macu Luj^air, " Dubiacli of the sons of 
Lu^air " ; the A/iiDifir, "laiuil)-," or '' jieu- 
ple," as Muinlir Maoilmardlia, '' people of 
the 0'Keil!ys<if luiht I-!refni y " ; S/c'/, "seed," 
or " descerid.uitv," as the Sijil Muireadhaij^h, 
the tribc-naiiic of the O'Cunors and their co- 
relativc? in the County of Roscommon ; 
Sli.'iht, " prot;eny." as Sliocht Aedha Slaine, 
" the jirogcny of Acdh .Slaine," in Mcalh ; 
7ealac/i, " family," as Tealach Eachdhach, 
tiie tribe name of the Ma<^aurans in the 
county of Cavan ; Ua, " i^randson," or 
"descendant," plural Ui, dative or ablative, 
Uil'h., as in the in'itance Ui Neill, the descen- 
dants of Niall, the tribe name of families des- 
cended from Niall of the Nine Hostages. See 
on this subject Dr. John O'Donovan's intro- 
duction to " The Topographical Poems of 
John C»'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 
(J'Uuidhrin," [)j). 6 to S, 



or families who occupied it, and this was especially used m tlie Queen's 
County medieval denominations. ^ 

The different old civil denominations of Irish tribal land divisions 
are thus distinguished : viz., the Tuath, also known as the Tricha-ced "^ 
or Cantred ; ^ the Bailebetaich ^ or Ballybetagh, meaning Victuallers- 
town, sometimes simply Baile or Bally, a town ; the Seisreach '-* or 
Ploughland ; ^^ the Baileboe^i or Ballyboe, meaning " Cow-land " 
literally, but usually denominated Townland, and it^- was the lowest sub- 
division, yet not defined by any fixed number of acres.^s Likewise, 
the designation Bally m Irish, has the signification of " a town " in 
English, and this latter term has been derived from the Saxon word 
" ton, "or " tun," originally meant to indicate a settlement. i' In the 
country districts of northern England and of southern Scotland, it 
meant a farm-steading or inhabited enclosure, frecjuently consisting 
of only two or three houses.^s it was a place usually surrounded by 
a hedge or a rudely formed fort and trench. The term township naturally 
had its nucleus from the town itself, and included a portion of the ad- 
joining lands. At a very early period, the to\\nshii:) became an area of 
local government, and it was used for the purposes of opening and main- 
taining roads, and for combining the efforts of the peoj^lc for necessary 
and useful local improvements.^'^ However, as among all early nations, 

•'This word is Latinised " Treuca " by 
O'Sullivan and O'Fahcrly ; while cc'd' is ren- 
dcreil " ccnturia" by the hitter. See " Ogy- 
i;ia," [)ars. i., p 24. The word means 
" tlurty-hundreds,"and sometimes it is to be 
fijund simply a!> " Tricha," or Thirty, as one 
Tricha contained thirty lJallybetaL;hs. (Jiral- 
dus Cambrcnsis states, that in the twelfth 
century, the number of Cantre(is in all Ire- 
land was one hundred arid seventy-si.\. See 
''Topographia llibernica," Lib. iii., cap. v. 
It was supposed to contain one hundred villas 
ur towns. Even Colgan translates Triucha- 
ccd by Cantercdiis or L'ciUivilUiria Rfi^'is, as 
if each (jcathramhadli or quarter of land con- 
stituted a villa. See ''Trias Tluiumaturga," 
i'rima Vita S. Patricii, n. 5., p. 19. Each 
Tricha-ced was composed of thirtj' Ijally- 
betaghs, of three Imndred and sixty Seis- 
reaghs, while it was estimated to contain 
43,200 acres. 

" Sir James Ware remarks that the Cantred 
was both varied and uncertain in its measure- 
ment. See " De Hibernia et Antiquitatibus 
ejus," cap. iii., p. 13. 

^The baile biataii^h was an established de- 
nomination in Ireland in tlie twelfth century, 
and allusion is made to it in Dr. O'Donovan's 
" Annals of the Four ^Masters," vol. iii., at 
A.D., 1 1 76. Accoiding to an ancient cus- 
tom, the Biataig, or purveyor, was obliged to 
keep a house of hospitality, subject to certain re- 
gulations, for the acconunodation of strangers 
and travellers, at a time when inns were not 
known, and his land was held subject to such 
conditions. The term seems to have an 
analogy with the Saxon Hundred, although 
not derived from it. 

"This word is supposed to iiavc been de- 
rived Irom Scisear, "six," and eaJi, "a 

horse" ; and it was underst(jod to denote the 
extent of ground a six-horse plough could 
turn up in a year at so much per day. How- 
ever, this derivation requires further examina- 
tion. The number of Sehreachs, or plough- 
lands, in Ireland is slated to be 66,600 ; and 
it is a remark.ible approximation to that 
sum, especially in such high figures, when 
the number of tuwnlands as now defined, 
named, and laid down on the Irish Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps is found described 
as 62,205. The Scivcach was represented by 
the carrucate, or hide of land among the 

^'•'Twelve plough-lands it is said were in 
each Baile iJietucli. 

"It appears to be analogous in meaning 
to the Latin Uovala, and to the Sa.xoii 

^- To Ollimh Fodhla, monarch of Ireland 
from A.M. 3883 to A.M. 3922, has been 
attributed the placing of a Chieftain over 
every cantred, and a Brughaidh, or "farmer," 
over every townland, who were to serve the 
King of Ireland. See Dr. O'Donovaii'.-, 
"Annals of the Four .Masters," vol. i., pp. 
52 to 55. 

'•^The etymon Bally, Bailie, or Bal, which 
enters so largely into ihc names of jjlaces in 
Ireland, ha^ the understood meaning of 

i-'See the Rev. Isaac Taylor's "Words 
and Places, or Etymological Illustrations 
of History, Ethnology, and Geography," p. 

^^ Formerly in Ireland, such small groups 
were frequently united in close proxiniiiv 
for pur})oscs of nnitual assistance, con- 
venience, and protection, and the custom has 
come down even to our own times. 


I. Hid in Ireland was estimated and measured more by quality of soil !)y area.i' As elsewhere remarked, formerly there were more town- 
i iiul denominations known in the Queen's County than at present ; 
I lie number now being only 1154, wiTh an average extent of 36S acres 
for the whole. ^^ 

The most ancient historic account we have of a road passing 
throu-h Lcix, is that of one running southwards from the Hill of Tara 
in Meath towards Ballaghmore, on the southern slope of the Slieve 
liloom Mountains, and which extended westwards from the latter 
i;in.L;e. It may be premised, that this was merely an opening through 
the woods or the cultivated spots, but rendered somewhat smooth and 
K-vcIied for the passage of the primitive chariots and carts, as well as 
for horsemen and pedestrians. At what jiarticular northern point 
the road from Tara entered Leix does not appear to have been determined, 
as lew traces of its original simple construction could now be expected 
to nniam, after the lapse of so many ages. That it crossed the River 
I'.irrc.w at some fordable pass on its up})cr course seems probable, and 
within the modern barony of Tinnahinch. It passed through Upper 
O.-./ry, which was formerly a portion of Leix. It also continued in 
a southern direction north of the Nore, and afterwards it bent west- 
w.itdiy towards Koscrea and through the territory ..of Ely O'Carroll. 
AKordini,' to an ancient tradition, on the night of the birth of Conn 
iii the Hiin<iied Ixittles. the following live great roads extending in 
v.t:i(ni-. diicctuHis from tlii* Hill of Tara aic recorded to have been found 
or j-!h.i]'S made; vi/., tlie Slighe-asuil, Slighe-midhluachra, Slighe- 
«, Sl;.:h'.--in!i'i; .1'' and the Sli^he-dhal.i. According to the 

DinijMa:.' hus, the .^i::^! was dibCo\cre(l by Sctna Serc-derg, the 
vi.'i (,i Dii:l'.i:ih'-, lufore the Druids of Irmumliain, on their way to 
Tt.rr.v::. '•: 1: v'..f, D.ii.i himself that watched for him.-'^ It is stated, 
\>\ In }'• ■.::-•. ti,.it :!.'.• Sliiihe Dala letl from (he southern side of the 
1(jU ui l^:.\ m th'- d reetion of Ossory and East Munster ; and, it is 
MVi>i: ; :..'.4l:c tl..-,t the track at its junction with Tara is still preserved 
n; iLc ■■■■.■.:'•. <-:'.\ iiom (he llill.-' Hut, whether the meeting of 
t!;c I'...: K ..1.1 i>y the !Sii;.;Iu--Mur meant continuing in its course or 

^ St^ »";.?j«.M rj(R/r»* •' V..»kthixc, I'jist inj;f of Land in Ireland." Soe (he Carew 

^.ul t^ti^rtf. t, ll.xr tf iA:l * <if 5<:tii>iion of (^)lIection, No. 614, p. 197, In 1S46 it was 

t^« TV-« Kti.-ji ■<-i Jh* Circj! Cuntr of copied Ijv Dr. Juhn O'Dondvan, and it was 

\'im%. «t:..' *U 1 , <iii^ Tu-. {>j». 5X4. ',85. primed by Captain Larconi as an Appendix 

**AA<» !"•«■ A;<»> N>.<!i»Aii Ii.»iis:->n, a to his valuaMe "Memorandum" on the 

tmatt'i** ^ '.»T.'w;.» •,y./>."^ t-;* rr.c»%u:rn)cn!i Territorial Divisions of Ireland. 

<i U*-<1» wf.-T »-•:*'» J i-Trl Arnc.ii; (I'.oc "Sec the valuable and learned paper of 

«E4*» l« <r.i!R.ntj'r! the (Jr:'.''i. «vf Inwn- the Kev. W'ilh.un Reeves, D.D. On the 

U.T.!. «T;SKj,tr»l a: U<itu 0:> to l^*.- a- trs ; Distribution of Ireland, read before 

l^,* ^4'i^A.'f. c* t^'re.. tf.r }.|f »4:lii'^; con- the K(i\.il Iri-h Academy on .Monday, April 

»«•&•.» '( nb^r.H »eff it It <»j t'» 12J .iCrts; 22, iS'jI. " I'loceedings of the Royal Irish 

•uj. ••'•.'.: HA/, ifit .V.'/-.j»J.', AvA ffntt\ Lir.Ji, Ac.idcinv." 

K«ti.-vj • <fit*!f> fv.nvcn't'jriAl mrinin^ not ''To ibis is added the observation, "ubi 

• rJl uryJcf r -ml ; ^>t.trlfrj, ciuivAlrnt to Kskirrinl.i se obviuni oflert."' — Roderick 

tw»r.ur.'.\ ; t.hc .'j.V, ui tj:k ', *.;/,•// /.j»;./j ; U'l l.ihci i\ 's " ( )f;\L;ia," pars, iii., p. 314. 

r».'.> ; :j.'Vj.'r; Aj-rj.V//; -:c;«.;^-i'/, cnsist- '* Sucli is tile account in that copy con- 

i.-.g of 4 dwrl!if.p,huu»e. wr.h .n kmall piition tained in the "Book of Leacan," fob 239, p. 

<A \An<\ .t'.tjchctl : fM.'Jj,;>i, corm^^l^.;J of a (ii, cnl. i. 

|.lwr.I.^n.l and a lliiid o( it; a horsfC^tJ, or -'See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

Jk.-rif:njii's /ci/, c>in!.iinin^ 20 or t;o airei u{ Academy," vliI. xviii. Antiquities. No. iii. 

ihc wcllkn'iwr division ^:rf. There is an On the History and Antiquities of Tara 

i.-.tfiesJii.;; .^IS. in the I-aiiil>clh Library on Ilill. By George I'etric, Esq., R.II.A., 

*'T1.c Sundry Denomin. . lions ol the .Mtasiur- M.Is I A., p. J30. 



crossing it, does not seem to be a matter of easy solution.'-- ]\Ierely 
indications of passes through the woods, and very partially displayed, 
are to be found on the most ancient map of Leix we now possess ; but 
so incorrect and irregular is the outline of country traversed, that no 
accurate idea is afforded to trace their direction and connexions. 
Ballaghmore was one of the ancient highways of Ireland, and 
leading from Lei.x into the territory of Ely O'Carroll. An ancient castle 
may be seen near it, and alongside the modern road leading from Borris- 
in-Ossory to Roscrea. The ruined church of Dysart-Gallcn and its 
surrounding cemetery are situated beside the Owenbeg, the ford of which 
at this spot is crossed by a bridge imiting two very ancient roads. These 
are again crossed by four other old roads, and all radiating in different 
directions from the church up and down the river's course. 

An ancient road led from Athy to Blackford, and it seems to have 
been rejilaced by the modern one, which takes the direction of Strad- 
bally. From this latter town, or at least from Noughval onwards in the 
direction of Carlow, an old steep road led over the Wmdy gap towards 
Tecolm, and yet i: remains, but now almost disused, as it runs nearly parallel 
with the present high-road, which has been better engineered ; at the eastern 
side of the gap, its course is in part traceable over the fields, but it is 
no longer travelled. A very ancient road extended southwards from 
near Mountmeliick over the Esker to Maryborough, and thence througli 
Lamberton demesne to the Pass of Cashel, and onwards to Balh'roan, 
whence it proceeded to Kilkenny. From this diverged two old branch 
roads ; one of these led to the old grave-yard of Kilvahan, and doubtless 
to the old church, which it is probable had been built within it, while 
the other old road led towards Kilwhclan, on the western slope of the 
Cullenagh IMountains. An ancient road likewise led from Clonenagh to 
Crcmogue, and it has been utilized to form a more improved modern one 
across a moory surface. Although entirely removed or greatly obliter- 
ated at present, traces of ancient roads are yet discoverable in various 
localities, and the investigation of their structure and bearings should be 
a curious and an interesting subject for the antiquary's investigation. 

CHAPTER IV. — Anxient Tribes and Tribal Divisions. 

The present Queen's County has been formed chiefly from the whole 
or from parts of four distinctive and very ancient territories, viz. : 
Osraighe, Laioghse, Clannmalugra and Ui Regain. To trace its anthro- 
pological history, so far as recorded in chronicles and bardic stories, it 
may be desirable to begin with the mythic period. However, the judicious 
and learned Tighernach remarks, that the annals of Ireland to the time of 
Cimbaoth^ are uncertain.^and therefore not wholly reliable as authorities. 

" Facini^ p. 152 is an engraving, plate 7, deacon Lynch 's " Canibrensis Eveisus," 
showing the Monuments of Tara liill, re- vol. i., cap. viii., p. 443, Rev. Dr. 
stored from ancient Documents. On this, Matthew Ivelly's edition. However, 
too, is shown the position of the five roads, Dr. O'Conor, who has examined tlie 
that of the Sli^e ■OAt-..\ alone, extending list of ancient kings, arrives at the con- 
southwards. The Stije mofi is represented elusion, that Cimbaoth's reign cannot 
as taking a western direction. See tdzd. be carried back to a remoter date 

^ This monarch of Ireland is stated than two hundred years before our 

by some Irish chronologists to have era. See Moore's " History of Ireland," 

flourished three hundred and fifty years vol. i., chap, vii., p. 106. 
before the Christian era. See .\rch- 


But where it is not possiljle to authenticate their accuracy, yet difficult 
to pomt out their misrepresentations, or to reconcile their divergencies 
of statement, we can only follow the f^encrally received accounts of Irish 
historians, regarding the original inliabitants and their tribal distribution 
Ihe celebrated monarch of Ireland, Ugain.; Mor,^ who nourished 
according to our annals, more than hve hundred years before the 
Incarnation of our Lord,-* was of the Heremonian line, and he left two 
remarkal)le sons; his elder son named Cobhthach,^ from wliom descend all 
the chief families of Connaught, as also the O'Donnells, O'Neills, and 
others of Ulster; while from his second son, Laeghaire," are derived 
the chief families of Leinster. Ugaine M6r is said to have married 
( .e^area, a Gaulish lady, who bore him no fewer than twenty-two sons 
naimd respectively, with their territorial grants :— i. Cobthach Coel, of 
iJregia; j. Cobtliach Murthemn, of Murthemne ; 3. Roigne, of Mov- 
Kaigue ; 4. Laoghaire, of the Lilly ; 5. Fulleus of Feibh ; 6. Cuan, of 
Airgrtros ; 7. Nar, of Moy-Nair ; 8. Norba, of IMoy-Norba ; g. Fafeus' of 
Moy-Femhin ; 10. Tarra, of I\Ioy-Tarra ; 11. Triath, of Moy-Tretherne • 
12. :\hul, of Cliu-Mail ; 13. Sineus, of Luachair ; 14. Bard,"^of Corcaf-ia | 
15. heigus (^lai, of the Southern Desics ; i(). Aidne, of Aidnea ; ^17' 
Mo-iius. of .^hu•n-^h)y ; 18. Saiib, of .Moy-.F:oii-dric 'in the Northern 
Dr. 10 of Mi-ath ; 19. Carbre, of Corann ; 20. Laoghaire Line, of Linea • 
jr. Lath, of Latharne ; 22. Manius, of ."ilcath. The following are the 

n.imts givru to the daughters, with their si-\-eral places: i/Aiiea, of 

Muy-u AiJe ; 2. Muresca, of Moy-Muii>kc ; ]. Albea, of Moy-n Ailbe." 
I-rom the lor. jwing stateih-ut it may be srrn, that for the most part 
w.-ll-kuown an. !.-iit dir,tncts in various parts of Ireland have been called 
aitt-: To on.- or other of ihr^v, all the later Leinster families trace 
their j".h ;i.e-/ Aiuoul; the ^U()ngest ol their fortresses was that on t!ie v..>teMi h.tnk ol the Kiv.r liarrow in the County of 
' .irl.jA. .in>i .ieiiu-ninated b\- our oldest chroni. lers Dinrigh or " the 
H:il >.i the Kin->." It is nvntioned by U'Huidhrin, after describing 
iLc i.i-;ets a:.<l di^tn.-ts of Lei\.'^ This was one of the most ancient palaces 
^'t U^'iv'^r, U-!(Jiii;ing to the kings of Leinster.^"^ 

•■"«•■.;;.» :!•... n-.i::ic;Ua S...)t.)ruin on th-' Manuscript iMaterials of Ancient 

t.t.-yc t;r:,tA..;h ja.>crt.i rraiit." — Dr. Irish History," lect. x., pp 207 ^08 
«>*.*».<■» ^ ••I(cf>i:ti Hit...Tinc.irurn Ma las Chrono-ranliicaj p,u-m we 

V/i;!*'5- Ion>u» li.. ri;;criiach rca.l ; — 

l!r 1.41 %. n to l-.-.-h.i: .h Hua.lh.ich, on cp ioctirii.i,i> vnt.meAl.Mi:, 

*.'.! tw- \Un liiroTjc ,\.M. .J567, O -DinD 1,105 co mA.pcm ihni 

ui.l U r.'-jT^'-^l i^'^i'^' ''-'fty vi-.u-s to thu "Do -oioL m' Aipcin ^'> a n-u.\irLiB 

rr,.l u5 A w. ^'..-i. Src Dr. 0'Dun^jv.ia's It is thus translated into JCn -hsh • 

* .\nuiS ^,i tlic Four ilujlcrs," vol. 1., "Paas across the B6arL>ha of tlie cattle 

Si* T* »■» ;'• borders, 

*lhr Hcv. Dr. JorJry Kcatinj,' places Fr.)in the land of corn and rich 

h:5 .»tcc^^Mn to tlic cr.-wn, al a.m. t,^S(k honey, 

Sre •• Gcucral Hi»t,-ty of Ireland," From Di'nnrigh to Maistin the stronq 

j.iTl i.. p. 1S5. ^ My journey is paid for by their 

» I renounced nearly " COv-a." now nobility." 

Mij.fK^^nltobcrct.reicntcd in the family "The Topot;raphical Poems of John 

niincolLotlcy. He waa also suruaraed O'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 

Coc or "the Slcn.lcr." UHuidhnn," edited from the orimnal 

•Pronounced nearly " Lca-ry." He Insii, by John O'Donovan LL D 

was hk.-wise surname.! Lore, meaning M.R.I. A., pp 88 89 " ' 

"-.^'"'n' ,*""■ J^'n*;'-,"' . ,^ "'I'l'^" remains' are" in the townland 

•bcc Roderick O Maherty s " Ogygia," of Ballykaockan, on the west side 

pais 111. cap. x.xxviM.. pp. ;6o, 261. of the River Barrow, about a quarter 

"^r-e l-,uRene O Curry's "Lectures of a mile to the south of Leighhn Bridge 


After a long reign, Ugaine Mor was slain b}- his brother Badhchadh, 
son of Eocliaidh Buaidhaigh ^^ but Loighaire Lore his own son immedia- 
tely suceeeded him as monarch of Ireland. Nor did he enjoy this 
distinction for more than two years/'-^ when his brother Cobhthach 
treacherously killed him and his son Oilill Anye. The latter is said to liave 
reigned for many years/^ and to have resided m his stronghold at Dun 
Righ until Maoin — also called Labhradh Loinseacli,'^ the grandson of 
Laoighaire Lore — raised a force of Munstermen with whom he landed 
in the harbour of Wexford. Thence he marched towards the River 
Barrow, and by a sur])risc he captured that fortress, i)utting the old 
usurper, and his own uncle, to the sword with all his retinue. 

According to the Rev. Dr. Jeoffry Keating, all those princes that 
governed the province of Leinster were lineal descendants of the Irish 
monarch Labhradh Loingseach, except O'Xuallain who descended from 
Cobhthach Caolmbreagh.^'^ The people of Laigin or Leinster, who are also 
calledGalion and Domnand, are said to have taken their name Lagin from, 
the lagiii or long lances, which were borne by the troops who followed 
Labhradh Longseach, when he returned to conquer his patrimony from 
Cobthach, whom he killed at Dind Righ. The pedigree of Laljraidh is 
traced in the Book of Leinster,i<^ back to ililidh of Spain, and up to Adam. 
The tribes of Leinster and their branches are also recorded.^'' 

In Ireland, about one hundred and fifty years befor^ the Christian 
era, a chieftain called Bresal, surnamed Breac or the Speckled, lived. 
He had tw(j sons, respectively named Lughaidh Lothfmn, the Eponymus 
of the Lageniarjs or men of Leinster,^^ and Connla, progenitor of the 
Ossorians or men of Ossory.^'-' Previous to the establishment of Leix 
as a separate territory, a renowned son of Crimthan ]\Ior-*^ and known 
as Aengus,-^ surnamed Osraighe, a quo Ossory, had dis]nited the right 
of the Munstermen to possession or sul^jjection of that territory, supposed 
then to have been bounded by the River Suir on the west and south, 
aiid by the River Barrow on the north and east.--' It has been said that 
it comprised three extensive plains separated from each other by parallel 
ridges of mountains.-^ However, besides the questionable historic 

1' AccordiiiLj; to some accounts, he cinbracinL; the whole of Kilkenny 

reit;ued as a usurper for rme day and a- Coui\tv. 

halt. See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals -"lie was eighth in descent from Connla 

of the Four Masters," vol. i., j^p. 70, 77. — the patriarch of the aboriginal 

^■- These were a.m. 4607 and 4608. Ossorians — sou of Bresal Brec or the 

See ibid. Speckled. 

1^ From A.M. 4609 to a.m. 465.S. See -illis mother was Cingit or Kingit, 

ibid. daughter to the famous chief Daire the 

i-* He was sou of OlioU Anye, and he Plunderer, and descended in the seventh 

was carried away to Munster when degree from Aengus Tuirmeach, who 

young, to save him from the death died monarch of Ireland, a.m. 3819. 

Cohhtach had designed for tliis prince. --The derivation of Uiscreaghdha, 

^'^ See " General History of Ireland," pronounced Ossory, is said to have been 

part i., p. 189. derived horn the Irish words iiisc, 

1'^ Edited by Robert Atkinson, JNI.A., '' water," and ri-a^i^hda "kingdom," 

LL.D., ]!. 311. owing to its ancient water boundaries, 

''See ibid, pp. 311 to 341. by the rivers Barrow, Suir and Nore. 

18 These are said originally to have -•'See "Journal of the Royal, 

occupied the country eastwards from Institution of Cornwall," No. xlviii, 

the River Barrow to the Irish Sea. A catalogue of saints connected with 

1^ They are stated to have planted Cornwall, with an l-lpitome of their 

themselves as early settlers in that Lives, and List of Churches and 

tract of country, lying between the Chapels dedicated to them, by the Rev. 

Barrow and the Suir, and at present S. 13aring-Gould, M.A., Part iv., St. 

Kieran, Abbot, Confessor. 


accuracy of that statement and name derivation, the geographical 
position is both undefnied and incorrect. -^ Aengus incited his tabesmen 
to resist that encroachment, and to throw oil tlie Munster yoke. Where- 
upon, Feimhin, from wliom Ahigh Fcimhin in that ])rovince is said to 
iiave derived its denominaticjn, appeared ni arms to oi)pose tliem. 
However, Aengus engaged his army at the battle of Magh Reighna, and 
having slain their leader,-^ he drove the Munster forces over the l^iver 
Suir. This decisive engagement enabled Aengus to recover the plains 
known as Magh Feimhin and Magh I^eighna. Afterwards, he formed that 
i:atirc tract of country between the Barrow and the Suir into a distinct 
jirincipality, ahke independent of Leinster and Munster. These events are 
thought to have occurred during the latter half of the hrst century of 
the Cluistuin era. According to the Book of Leinster, the grave of 
.\cngus Osraighe is on the height over Cill Culind. This valiant founder 
of princijKdity was succeeded by other rulers, who long maintained 
u-> triritorial independence.-^ 

So lar back as the time of St. Patrick, and in the okk'st of his Lives, 
the territory of Ossory is described as having been in the western part 
of Leinster.-' But it would appear, that the kings of .Munster claimed 
luii-iiii tion over Ossory, so far as (iowran ;-^ while on the other hand, 
ill'- ()-MMiaiis conteiuK-d, that their country of Osraighe should comprise 
.ill the 1.111(1- extending Iroiii the Rivw Suir to the lower River Barrow, 
.'.:i'l nwni the mount. lins ot Slieve Bkjoin to the meeting of the Three 
\\'.it<i-^ in W.iterlord H.n bour. bv virtue of the conquest made by their 
.;:u('>!or .I-.ngus ()>r;iiL;he owr Magh Feimhin. 1 lowever, this claim never e>t.ibli>lie(i ; .uid the teiriloiy d(Je^ not a])pear to have com- 
i'M-ed more than that iiiehuled within the present diocese of Ossory, 
.a l-.i-t ^inc- the time of St. I'.itrick.-' 

An. lent iN-..r\- vr<Mns to li.i\e comprised the former barony of 
Lpj-ei ( >-.'.i;. -• lio-.\- divided into the ii.iionies of I'pperwoods, of Clan- 
do:). ii;':i .i!id of Ci.iun.dl.i.i^h in the Queen's County — as also nearly the 
r.-itirr o! ti.e i':.-v.-iit Cotint\- ol Kilkenny, -''^ before the Anglo-Norman 
l!-.v.»^i..:i/i ^-iitc tiii> l.itle! period, the O'Dubhshlaine, O'Dullany or 

•I". -.1 * ; r 1 ■■ N r:!-.-n):u'/Nt I.S the t)ut, tlu-y were aflcrwardy exi-elled 

M^.tU iiUi:->>. Sir^ft !<.<>. <-.\ti-!i>liiiK' In' CiKorLj, ihe kin.i.; of that prt>\incc, 

•-.i»iN !.. !•-.<• I). Ju!.A-»i i-h.iin. 1 he ank-d by Laoii^hscach LY-aii Mur, son 

te*ii-'-« ylua u Mji,;!» Kr;»;ti!i.i. lx>iin<li-il to C'oiin.iri Cc.iriKich. Sec Rev. Dr. 

i4» IV ».'-j!U }»v l!.'- DunJci^ r.m^c. Jeoltry Kc.itin,L;'s " History of Ireland," 

i«-<J*-r »ilc% l-ci..* KiUcnnv. .M.i::li under the rei^n of Corniac Mac Airt. 

i-'n-^ «» iJ.c iJ.s:.! ox -^ Sec l.)r. Jolin O'Donovin's l,v\h1iA'i 

pi.a»f», *n5 tj;:?' "r i i-. :: ii liic Ko^k ol tia ^-C.'.njic, or il.iok of KiLjhts, u. 

l'^»-'l (a). ].]>. i;-i,S. 

^ U i» <t;L.. ,•.'. !•. i.!j 1 ih'- I. r ■" li 1-, tlnis ih'scribcd tiy O'Hui'llinn : 

'•• • cvfoi, ^ nijc .sioLlApACjiuicc piMtic t:)pe.i5, 

* 'vr* J.khn II. .:.t.'»'» " St.," Uc Opii.ii^^e .if -oo .\p -uUjeA-o, 

l'Atr..n v.J VKvu-y . lli» I.ifr aii.J 'riini.--." o bL.iTjmA .\i)iac ^up An muiji, 

I'.irt II . thjp. 111., pi>, 5 ; \<t'>. Kilkenny, CilmA a c.\c op n^ co>cuit). 

!<;(>. 6\o. lo .Mac GioUaphatraic ol tlie Bregian 

' I h-.w : — " < K ^ ii'.alls I-i;;in' nMuni tort, 

j'l.i.:.!." — .\r^.ht•l^!lo;» 1:>!,!it '5 "Hrit- The land of Osraiqhe is due. 

ta.'inic.tnin) {CcclcM.uurii .\ntiipnt.itf>.' l-roni Bladluna out to the sea, 

s.ip. xvii., hcc Pi>. S05. '/►>. I>ul..lin L' Hravc is his battle over the battles. 

vjI K'V). 4to. ^' After tins period, the Butlers 

^ .MkuiI two hundred vt-ars after wrested a preat portion of Kilkenny 

t!ic birth of Chri.^t, the '.Momoni.uis from the ^iaG Giolla Phadraigs and 

lu.i.Ji- inroads on Leinster, and arc said formed it into a new territory, known 

ti) h.ivc tonqiiered a jjreat part of it ; as Oriiioiul. 



Delany ^- was a sub-chief o\'cr the cantred ^-^ of Coill Uach toracli, now 
the barony of Upi)erwoods. Two other sub-chieftains were under him,^^ 
O'Cearbhaill or Carroll ^^ and O'Donnchadha ^'' or O'Dempsey. These 
leading families, with the tribes of Leix, constituted the chief former 
inhabitants of the present Queen's County. 

Before the Christian era, the territory of Leix had no separate 
existence, but it formed a part of the Kingdom of Leinster, apparently 
inhabited l)y a people under the immediate jurisdiction of its chief rulers. 
At times, it is thought to ha\e been subject, at least in great part, to 
tlie kings of Munster. The circumstances that gave origin to the jn'in- 
cipality of Leix, we shall endeavour to relate, as they are found in ancient 
Irish story. Although necessarily obscured by distance of time, and 
])0ssibly ]:)y bardic fictions accepted as authentic narratives ; on the 
whole, the ancient annals and genealogies of Leix are not often incon- 
sistent with the general traditions and known facts of Irish history. 
The antiquities and monuments still remaining prove sufficienth^ how 
remote most have been the period, smce its aboriginal inhabitants 
occupied and cultivated its agricultural lands, or hunted through its 
dense and ]:)rimeval woods. The people of Leix trace their early origin 
from a northern stem to Ruidhrigh Mor,^'' descended from the line of Ir, 
and he was remarkable for his warlike prowess.''^ From him the Clann 
Ruidhrigh descended. Before and after the Christian era, the princes 
who belonged to that line for the most part occupied the Royal Fort of 
Emania. They held an extensive sway for a long period in Ulster, until 
Colla Uais, or Colla the Noble, restricted their power.^''^ Afterwards, 
many of the Clann Ruidlirigh left Ulster, and settled in other parts of 
Ireland. Among these, not the least remarkable were the warriors who, 
under the leadership of Lug Laighseach, transferred themselves to the 
territory of Laighis in Leinster."-* 

■'-Thus noticed by O'lliiullinn : — ■ 
A.\\\X) CAOifej;ch cuAice An rojtAix), 
On ClioilL Aoibmn UAcbcotu\i5, 
C'DnftflAine, pu\L An feA]!, 
On rpLiAB Af AiLle inbeA5. 
The liigh chief of the fruuful cantred, 
Of the\lelightful Coill Uaclitoradi, 
Is O'Dubhshlaine, hospitable the man, 
From the mountain of most beauteous 

'•' Girakhis Cambrensis states, that 
this division of land was supposed to 
contain one hundred " villas," and 
that its name was derived from the com- 
pound word in the British and Irish 
language, "Cant," meaning centu»i, 
and '' Tref," villas. See ' Itinerarium 
Cambria^," T-ib. ii., cap. 7., p. 867, 
and Cambruc Descriptio," cap. iv., 
p. 884. Edition of Camden. According 
to this, the Irish compound should be 

••^ Thus described by O'Huidhrin : — 
O'CeAiiftAiit •OAft coiiCfiA-o ciioinn, 
©'"OonnchA-DA 'ojieAC ■oi05hoinn, 
SI015 li-ij Ap x)on v\\\ ronAi-Q, 
"Oa -1115 lAX) A hAonchonAt]!. 
O'Cearbhaill for whom trees are ruddy, 
O'Donnchadha of honest aspect. 

Whose rock-like hosts possess the 
fruitful land, 

Are two Icings of the same territory. 

'■^■' He is said to have l)een a descenclant 
of the celebrated Cearbhall, chief lord of 
Ossory from 845 to 885. The O'CarroU 
of ttiis district is to be distinguished from 
O'Carroll, of Ely O'CarroIl, seated at the 
other side of the Slieve Bloom JMoun tains. 
lie belonged to a different race. 

'•''^ This name is sometimes incorrectly 
rendered O'Donoghue. The Ui Dou- 
chadha were also a tribe on the Dodder, 
near Dubhn. 

27 According to Rev. Dr. Jeoilry 
Keating's ' Ceneral History of Ireland," 
book 1., he filled tne throne of Ireland, 
A.M. 3850, and reigned for thirty years, 
some writers giving him a reign of seventy 
years. Seeparti.,p. 195, Duffy's edition. 

2Ji See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four IMasters," vol. i., pp. 84, 85, 
and notes. 

^'^ See Roderick O'Flaherty's " Ogy- 
gia," part lii., cap. Ixxv., Ix.wi., 
pp. 359 to 366. 

*J Lioseach Lannmor, son of Conall 
Cearnach, and brother of trial 
Glunmhar, is said to have been the head 


Among the Ultonian champions of Irish heroic times, and largely 
blended with the bardic and romantic literatnre of Ireland, few are more 
celebrated than Conall Cearnach.-*^ He nourished about tlie time of the 
Christian era ; and he was renowned among the Craebh Ruadh, or the 
Red Branch Knights, lie was also leader of Conor Mac Nessa's army, 
and he conducted the war against Kmg Oilioll and Queen Meave of 
Connaught. This contest lasted for seven years. The Knights of the 
ived Branch had engaged with the men of Leinster at the battle of 
Kos-na-Righ, and had defeated them there ; so that afterwards, the 
conquerors extended the bounds of the northern province beyond the 
Ri\-er Boyne, and southwards to the River Rye.'- They had also made 
an irruption into the Province of Munster, where they destroyed the 
ancient fort of Teamhair Luachra. There is an account of a northern 
poet Aithirne Ailghesach having embroiled Mesgedhra, the King of 
North Leinster, who lived at Naas, with the Ultonians. The siege of 
these latter at Howth, and the death of his brothers ]\Iesdeadad and 
Laeghaire brought Conall Cearnach on the scene, with his Knights of the 
ived Branch. "^The Leinster men then f^ed, the hero Conall Cearnach 
went in pursuit of them to avenge his dead brothers, Mesdead and 
Lie'^aire, and at Claen, a ford on the Liffey, he slew Mesgegra/-^ King 
ut Leinster.'* 

A renowned potentate of Leinster was Cuchorb. c-^nd he is said to have 
been married to Meadhbh Leithdherg, or " Mca\e the half-red," daughter 
to Conaii ol Cualann. It is stated, that Ik; fougfit no less than seven 
l).ittlrs for his iiiimipality ; tlure of these at a jilaee called Ath Finn 
ImiI,*-' and aLi) a l)attl'' at a j^lace called Ath an Sc:\il,''" one at Fossud,^^ 
one 'at .Maeji Maeui.''-^ and one at (.lais'- Crielic.'' According to a poem 
or drath el- l^v, .ittributrd to his Qui'en Meave, he also fought a battle 
at i-'.-rnas/ ' while he lai-rd a content to conquer Gailian.'^' When 
("u-Cm:;.!i, the i>oi\ vi Mui^-Coibh,^- wa^ kmg of Leinster ^^ — owing 

I.! ^:.;^ :..:.'.;%. S' c J-lm O'llart's from it to a place called ITada in Leighis 

•• Iriih 1''. .li.rcos." jMtt VI., c..ii>, 1., (Lcix), iu the present Queen's County. 

V, V J ;. J.. ;',?. 1h\u\ '.dition. Fortius he quotes the Book of Lecain, 

♦^ ^--c an j..<. .:nt ol Imn m Kodenck fol. 93, 109. 
«• rUi-rrf. '» *' (.)f;\ .;u," {.loxt Ut., caj). ^ Bcrnas (ubi Laighes RetaMor).- — 

kivu.. i);*. 37S t'> jM. Bernas means literally a nap in i hill. 

** V..r U iUi'.A.'v t.-f.vtcn the present Keta Mor in Laiglies, or Magh Reta 

«.. •4r;!;r» <.J Mcath 3.u\ Kildarc. is said to have been the plain about 

■»-«■<• Lustrnc O'Curry'i. " Lectnn-s Morett, near the Great Heath of 

trt» •.;*<' .M.»nj^<Mpt M.itcn.iLs of AncK-nt Maryboroimh, in the Queen's County. 

\ti\U Hutury." Icct., xn.. I>i). -'-"> Sec Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

(., ,•;<», ' Four Masters," vol i., a.m., 3529, note. 

"'Mil* .>.w>uut Is*..un'- 1 m "The "'An ancient name for Leinster. 

11 *>Vc o( I..ruistcr." V)mctiinei called the accordms to Professor O'Curry. But 

H>)k of G!'|.:!i. f.lite<l by Robert within the territory of Leix itself there 

AtkinviO, .M.A., LI..!)., fol. 116 b. is a tract yet called Guiken, while there 

"This is interpreted the f.iir or whilt was another district near BallinakiU 

/I'rJ 0/ /-"jj/. Its situation is unknown. called Galien. 

*• Interpreted the jord of thf cluim- ;■•! In " The H lok ot Leinster," aUol. 44, 

pun. h. 23, there is a tract descriptive of 

*' .\ j:loss has ponjiu-o T)A 5;utic «.<•- .tin what is here stated. 
ctimf) or residence uf the 'tMO fields. "According to the Irish Annals, 

*» Or the plain of Mafn. when Ederscel, or Eidersceal — otherwise 

** It means the boundary itnam. called Feargus Scannel, Ard-Righ or 

Professor O'Curry states, that this High King of Erin — son of Eoghan, 

stream was in the County of Kildare. son of Oilioll, had reigned from a.m. 

and that it formed the eastern boundary 50S5 to A.M. 5089. he was slain by 

ol an ancient territory, which extended Nuadha Neacht at the Hill of Allen, 



perhaps to his refusal to pay them tribute ^^ — the people of Munster 
declared war against him.^^ This happened during the reign of the 
monarch Fcidlimidh Reachtmar over Ireland. ^"^ 

From tlie powerful monarch Cathair Mor,'" his son, Ros Failge, or 
Ros of the Rings, ^"^ inherited that extensive territory, which after him 
was called Ui Failge, or the descendants of Failge. He is described as 
a valiant warrior and of impetuous temperament, in that composition 
said to have been the Will or Testament of his father Cathair Mor.-''-' 
yVccording to the Irish genealogists, the latter had three 
wives ^'^ and thirty sons ; but only the ten mentioned in his 
will left issue. *^i These are severall}/ named in the following 

order : — i. Ros Failge/'- the eldest, from whom the O'Conors 
of Hy Failgc,'^3 O'Dempseys, chiefs of Clann Maolughra, or 

in the County of Kildare. But Nuadha 
Neacht did not long enjoy his triumph, 
lor he was slain at the battle of Cliach, 
m the Barony of Idrone, in the County 
of Carlow, A.M. 5090, by Conaire Mor, 
son to Ederscel, and who afterwards 
ruletl for seventy years, from a.m. 5091 
to A.M. 5i(3o. After the fall of Nuadha 
and the defeat of his people, Conaire INIor 
levied a fine off the Leinstermen, ani.l 
there resigned, by a solemn treaty 
to the kings of Munster, that tract 
of Ossory extending from Gowran to 
Grian. See Dr. O' Donovan's " Annals 
of the Four Masters," vol. 1 , pp. SS to 
91, and nn. (x, y, z.) 

^Besides the cession of part of Ossnry, 
which formerly appears to have been 
included within the jurisdiction of the 
kings of Lcinster, they entered into other 
engagements, binding themselves to 
atone for the murder of Ederscel, 
and this they swore to observe by the 
air, earth, sea, land, sun, and moon. 
See Roderick O'Flaherty's " Ogygia," 
pars lii., cap. xUv., pp. 271, 2/2. 
However the Ossorians and Leinstermen 
appear to have resisted successfully, 
the imposition of such a tax, while they 
carried encroachments into the Munster 
province on various subsequent 

^5 It wou^d seem that he had carried 
battle over Cliu INIail. which Professor 
O'Curry states to be Cliu, an ancient 
district in the barony of Coslea, 111 the 
County of Limerick. It received the 
additional name of Mail, from Mai, son 
of Ugaine Mor, having been there slain. 

^ He reigned nine years over Ireland, 
from A.D. Ill to A.D. 119. See Dr. 
O' Donovan's " Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol. i., pp. 102, 103. 

*'' He flourished in the second century 
of the Christian era, and was recognised 
as monarch of Erinn from a.d. i :!0 ; 
but after a reign of three years, he was 
slain by the celebrated Conn of the 
Hundred Battles and the Luaighni 

of Teamhair m the battle of Magh 
h-Agda. The victor then succeeticd 

lum as sovereign. 

^^ It IS diflicult to ascertain, wliy he 
was so called, unless we regard the 
suffix to Ross' name as having had some 
reference to tlie Ring-money, which has 
fieen thought by antiquaries to have 
been a metallic circulating medium 
of value in ancienf times. A great 
number of tine golden rings ol 
much intrinsic value has been recovered 
from time to time, and these are to be seen 
in the collections of our museums. 

^^ There are no less than three copies 
of the UimnA ChArliAiii tnlion extant on 
vellum in our Irish libraries, besides 
another in the book of Leinster, as also 
two copies used by Dr. John O'Donovau 
when he was engaged in editing the 
te<ibh<.\n rA j-Ce^jir, or Book of 
Rights, for the Celtic Society of Dublin. 
In that ancient compilation, the Will 
of Cathair Mor is included and annotated 
at pp. 192 to 203. 

^^ These are said to have been Marnia, 
daughter to IMorand, a Pictish prince ; 
Manila, the daughter of Bressal, and 
mother of Ros Failge, of Daire Barrach. 
Eochaidh Timine and Bressal Enach- 
glas ; as also Crimanda, daughter to 
Achaius Dentiniger, or Eochy ot the 
Black To(5th and ot the Ultonians. 

"1 See Roderick O'Flaherty's ''C'gygia;'' 
pars, iii., ca]>. lix., p. 31 ;. 

"■- The O'Conors of this race are to be 
distinguished from those of Silmurray, 
in Connaught, and from various other 
families who bore the same name, 
but who were from totally different 
stocks, such as O'Conor of Kerry, 
O'Conor Corcomroe, O'Conor of Glen 
gevin, etc. See Dr. O'Donovan's 

note 407, to the '' Topographical Poems 
of John O'Dubhagain and GioUa na 
Noamh O'lluidhrin," p. 1. 

63 According to the O'Clerys, St. 
Diarmaid, founder of the Church of 
Gleann Uissen, was sixth in descent 



Clanmalire, and O'Dunnes of Hy Regan, derive their descent. 2. Daiie 
Barrach/'' from whom spring the O'Gormans, or MacGormons. 3. 
Crimthann, from whom are the Hy Crimthann,''^ 4. Bressal Enachglas."" 
5. Achaias, or Eochaidh Timine.*^'' 6. Oihll Ketach/^'^ from whom the 
country called Crioch-na-Ketach takes its name. 7. Fergus Loscan.''-' 
8. Dearcmaiseach, whose posterity occupied the country near Dublin. 
(). /Eneas Niger,"*^ or /Engus Nic ; and, 10. Fiacha Bah-Aidh, Latinized 
Fiachus Bacchus. The latter was youngest of his sons.'^ 

The territory of Ui Failghe, usually anglicized Offaly or Ophaly, 
formed a large level tract of land in Leinster, comprising the present 
baronies of East and West Offaly in the County of Kildare, as also those 
of Portnahinch and Tinnahinch in the Queen's County, with that portion 
of the King's County, comprised within the present diocese of Kildare 
and Leighlin. While the O'Conor Faly was head chief over this territory,-"- 
lie had suliject to him O'Duinn or O'Dunne, chief of Ui Regan, which is 
now Anglicised Iregan. Oregan and Dooregan. It still retains the ancient 
name,'^ and it is co-extensive with the present barony of Tinnahinch, in 
the north-western part of the Queen's County. 

In like manner, the sub-chief of Clann Maoilughra"-^ or Clanmaliere, 
named O'Diomasaigh or O'Dempsey, was tributar\' to O'Conor, chief of 
11 V I'^ailge. His territory of Clanmalire extended on both sides of the 
Kiver Barrow, north and south. It contained the barony of Portnahinch, 
on the south side, in the Queen's County, and the barony of Upper 
Pliihpslown, on the north side, m the King's County. The ancient 
tcrntory of Leghe '■' was commensurate witli the present l^arony of 

from him, and St. F\n.c of Slnbhtc is 
s.i;>l 3<) h.ivi- l.r.-n las ;;r<.Ml j^rainl-bun. 

'■• Chi. I, <.t I'l IJaiiLh-. 

" (Jccwpyiii.; the tnUc lands, .iSo\it 
Pdn.vm.i-;;-. ».Huch'3 Cuiinty. Hi- is 

r..ii 1 t.)>- Ir.cii iincc-jtor to St. Colam 
r.i C ri!uhlh.i!:iii. Vf.-.r.itt 1 (Hi the 13th 

"If'.ta hi:ii arc d- nvcd the Ui 
li:r.<-af h-k:'' I v '.*r l-'j I •, \v)\o 
mcir v-4t. i in the jirsent barotiy of 
A;*.:.*. Ill the G.i-.i:ity «.>( Wn klow. 

** llc<! '^» fi't Ajij^'^.ir to Isavc inherited 

•• lh;» t* i«'\.v;!.\y tlic Co.itliach.. after 
»t> .'51 !j»o iJi!>'.rKt ur i'.iroiiy of Ui 
C'jktAi^tU. of Krathy. in the north of 
KiIIajc. *IA» Cuilrd. 

• He «» »;•', Wrj iwrt, ai haviii.; ac- 
quired tfsl-' U.'i I 

>» .Mxi KA.ll A.r.zM of the lilack- 
lo>t!» —A jwr-vjual deforraily. He did 
unt oStain trilT larn'.. 

" K(xlcrick (riUJi-ny add" — " Cui 
rx Iiresi,iho HcUch fiho Krin-us Nia i!i 
L.iuradius Hy Kcii^ahoru::i sator i.\\.io 
iii-|«jtr5 stcuti>-» L.\;;iinr re^ei 

Viiiueriint." — ""p^yi^ia," i>ars. in., cap. 
lix., pj). 310. 311. 

~^ In the In->h poem of OHaidliiin, 
it !•> thus described : — 

Cpi-ic O bp^ilje ^n fuinn caIIai5 

ni h-.iirij:pip e 1)' rileAiJAib, 

0'Coticot).MIt cuin5 jn elvMn 

A]\ v^o)imcuL.Mt; cui-p CfiuAcliAin. 
Lortl 01 Ui-Faiii;he the land ot cattle — 
It IS not unknown to poets ; 
O'Conchobhair is hero of the plain 
On the green round hill of Cruachan. 
" It IS thus described liy O'Huidhnn ; 
^t' l!'^ rvi.ij50iin DA HUA3: rcjtom, 
5;..ipH.i me..\]i liiunJeap coiriLonn, 
oTDuinn, CAOifOdc nA cojIa, 
Cu)n5 DA cciiAoireAC c<\cofni)4. 
0\'er Ui Kiac;ain of heavy routs, 
A viL;iirous tribe who conquer in 

Is 0'l>u:nn, chief of demolition, 
Hero ot the golden bat tle-spears. 
"•' It is thus de-.cnbed by O'Huidhnn : 
ClAnn mAOiliijpA op 5AC pci-OAin 
ll.ipAl, ceini A ccine.i'DhAi 5;, 
Clv^Jl win .in cujn ■00 co]'»\in, 
Ci)! Af ■ou.iL X)' 0'X)ioiiiop<ii j. 
The Clanu-Maoilughra over every 

Noble the degree of their race ; 
A smoothplain this septhavedefendcd. 
The l.ind is hereditary to 

"O'Huidhnn thus describes it: — 
AOibinn An cpt'och, ci..\n ](o clop, 
CuAch lejiO nA Ie4]i5 polop, 
0'CeLlAi5 Lei5e, on C]tAi^ cAiji, 
CeiLe All cl.Mtt eAn;;Ai5 lubpAij. 
Delightful the territory, long since it 

was heard. 
The cautred of Leghe of bright slopes 


Western Ofl'aly in the King's Countj' and it tool; in a small portion 
of the present barony of Portnahinch in the Queen's County. In this 
latter district, the great castle of Leighe, Lea or Ley, on the south bank 
of the River Bariow, was situated, and in it the chief of that cantred, 
named O'Kelly, seems to have resided. 

The Ui Bairche are descended from Daire Barrach, the second son of 
the Irish monarch, Cathair Mor. Originall3^ they were probably exempt 
from the jurisdiction of the Kings of Leix, although subsccjuently, they 
became incorporated with his clansmen and extended territory. They 
possessed the present barony of Slieveraargy, in the Queen's County, and 
lying west of the River Barrow. They are said, also, to have held a 
district extending from Ath Truistean, a ford on the River Greece, near 
the hill of Mullaghmast, six miles east of Athy, in the County of Kildare, 
to the ford at Cill Corbnatan — where this lattir was has not been 

The Ui-Foircheallain were anciently seated in a plain, known as Magh- 
Tuathat, and they are alluded to in the Irish Annals. Whether or 
not they had been exempt from the ancient territury of Leix, and the 
rule of its kmgs at some former period, seems to be matter of great 
uncertainty. In after times, they belonged to Leix, and according 
to an ancient Irish usage, they gave name to the parish of Offerrilan, 
extending along the eastern slopes of the Sheve Bloom Mountains, 
in the Barony of Uperwoods, Queen's County. Another district Ui- 
Ikiidhe, now Ballyadams barony, lay within the Ixunids of Leix, and 
it is not'ced in the Irish Annals. 

The sept, or seven-partite system,"*^ was a curious pcculiaritv of Irish 
civil life, and it appears inwoven, likewise, with the ecclesiastical customs 
of division. \\'e have only to instance those numerous entries of seven 
churches and of seven bishops, connected with jiarticular localities, as 
found in the pages of our Calendars and Annals. The word " sept " has 
been derived from the Latin " se]itum " by Dr. Jolmson, who considers 
the term as being peculiarly Irish."'' Tins term is thought by others, 
however, not to be exclusively Gaelic, but to have been derived from the 
French cep, " a stock," "scion," or" plant," more especially employed as 
referring to a vine sucker or shoot. Besides the instance of seven septs 
in Leix and Offaly, it is worthy of remark, that the Fermanagh terri- 
torial extension was also di\ided into seven " tuatha," or people- 

This great territory of Leix was originally distributed into seven 
tribe-lands, and its l:)Ounds are said to have met at a stone, denominated 
Leac Riada, on the plain of Magh Riada."^ For purposes of descrijition, 
this is not only inaccurate, but it is likewise unintelligible. The plains of 
Magh Reicheat — said to be Morctt ^'^ — and of Magh Riada are mentioned in 
the Irish x\nnals, at a.m. j^io. The latter is stated to have been a plain in 

O'Ccallaigh of Lcylie, of the eastern "^ See Or. O'Donovnn's "Annals of 

bank, the Four Ma^iters," n'oI. i., at A.n. 648. 

Is siib-chief of the plain of deUs and '-'This hiv about tlie pre.S(.'nt old 

yews. Castle of Murett. See notes to Dr. 

'•'The seven-partite, or seven-fold 0'Dono\-an's " Annals of the Four 

division, is also a peculiarity in the Masters," at A.>r. 2520, vol. i., and at 

British and Caledonian Heptarchies. a.d., 1106, vol. lii. 

'''He derives the word '' heptarchy," ""According to Dr. O'Donovan. 

however, from the Greek epta, seven, si \ very ancient iioem in tlie " Book 

in his Fnghsh Dictionary. of Lt-in'^ter " mentions "' I'lrnas, ubi 


Leix, and which contained the forts of Lec-Reda and Rath-Bacain^ where 
the chiefs of Leix resided, while the church there was called Domnachmor. 
From Magh-Riada also the chiefs of Leix were styled Kings of Riada.*^ 
This Celtic Heptarchy was under the government of seven subordinate 
and petty chiefs, who were subject in turn to the jurisdiction of an arch- 
king called the Righ Riada or Reta. Over these septs, for centuries, the 
O'Moores ruled, and these were chief seigneurs or patriarchal and powerful 
dvnasts. The Archon of Leix — at least during mediaeval times — 
had his customary chief residence at Dun IMasc,^' now that re- 
markable castled crag, where the ruined fortress of Dunamase may still 
be seen. 

The seven original divisions of Laoighis, Latinized Lagisia, and now 
Anglicized into Leix, probably continued for centuries without much 
change of boundary. In the beginning of the hfteenth century,^^ the 
whole territory was comprised within seven cantrcds, and they are dis- 
tinguished, by Giolla na Noamh O'Huidrin,^' he having previously 
• lescnbed the district of Ophaly.^^ 

1. Laoighis Reta. This sub-division of the territory was probably 
till; portion retained in possession of O'More, the Ard-Righ, and his clans- 
men. Besides the territorial possession of Laoighis Reta,*^^ it would seem 
that the Chief Tanist had a certain tribute paid him from the subordinate 
cli\'isions of ancient Leix.''' The territory of Lauigliis Reta was com- 
mensurate with the northern half of the barony of Maryborough West, 
and the north-western half of the barony of ^r;u-\-l)orough East. This was 
the most distinguished cantred of the sewn districts, constituting the 
f(.)riner prinripalit\- of Leix. Hrre, tm), was prul)al)ly the chief fortress, 
known as Dunamase.'^ Aci^drding to the Dindsenchas,^^ Cainen Masc 

I,;ii^hcs Iveta M'ir." I'roUs^ur Alter L'i-Kail;^he of the anticnt lands, 

luigfiic O'l'uirv, in his " Lo lui'i.-s Let us api^roacli Laoi^'his of Leinster. 

ou the .M.inusv ript Maten^K ol Browu-haireJ heroes for whom shosvers 

Ancient In-Ii Hi-t-ry," Appendix li. tall, 

]'\i. .i'l. .;;j. ni'te-^, '• bern.ib " We shall devote some time to their 

iiuMii". a i.i]> la ;i lul! \'.h.r.e '";his " history. 

:.fjtu!:. s l.-iv. aiid •' Kcta M-.r," is t<3 o'Huidhrin thus alludes to it : — 

i-' uith tile jjrosent Murett. 

«.\ec.::diat; to l»uald Mac Firbis" tn6iicuo>ch tAOi^i-e tia lAnti |-Ln7i, 

(■..■:■.■ .li...-;.^. .md under Uic head of L.\ei5ir UeAca, .ip in-^ r-^^''u'"i, 

l.,ij. !.■.■. I ..; ihr.m. Oniup-OA CO ccleich CACA, 

•-•.i.Ka lui No.imh O'llnidhnn or -in pcctc 6hx)a AOiTOAchA. 

O'llc-iuj. a, I'-.irnrd Irish hi-.l'.)Man and The great territory of LaoiLjhis of slender 
r.j...;:^; ;.• :. x» alv > n iHH.-t, has left as a swords, 

»»} ; l'r.'.'-:it i> tlic I oiKi^rapliieal Poem T.uoiyhis Rcata, of it I speak, 

..( J. !.ti O'Du; h.i.^.iin or John O'Du-an, Belongs to O'Mordha with bulwark of 
wliilr hi* .id'.-d {>>jrtion deals cluell\- battle, 

with the pruK-ipal tubes and tern'ories Qf the golden shield of one colour. 

of Ltiiistcr and .Muiister, O'lluidhrin «- t t •• „ ^( t\.^ r^;,.tu,,- 

,,._,. ^ , . ,^,^ "' In an Inquisition of the nmth year 

died al an advanced age in 14-0. ^ ,-, 11 , .1 • 4. 1 „, „<. 

*'Sec " The Topographical Poems of ° '-^"^--^ h.hzabeth s reign takeu a 

John OT)ut;hag:!.u*' and G.olla na Maryborougn, on Hie 17th of J"ne ^ve 

Noamh O'llnidhnn." edited by John ^"^' ^^ account of the lands, customs, 

U-lJonovan, LL.D.. and published by ^"^^es, perquisites^ and prohts be- 

the lush Arch and Ceitic ^^"^T^ r^' ^'^'''^ S^T' Td n W o 

Society, m 180J. Dubhn, Svo. his chieftainry. We also find a 1st of 

^ Tiie following is O'Huidhnn's Irish ^he town ands. which he held of his own 

text, with the Enghsh translation :- V^^'P'"' inheritance, and not as captc.n. 

•D'eip O bp.MljenA yyonu pcAn, ^ It is said to have derived this name 

•Diumn'jtn iie\^oi5,p L^M^eAn, from Mase, son of Augen I'rgnaidh, 

lAochjiAi-6 bAnn-uonn tja VKeAji Ft^Af, the fourth son of Sedna Siolhbhaic, an- 

C.^BIlonl pe<\l ^]\ a fCAncAi-. cestor of the people of Leinster. See iJr. 



one of Ugen Urgnaid's sons,'"' gave name to Dun M.-isc, wliere he built a 
fort. It IS a lofty isolated rock, on which fornierlv was a large fort 
or stone cathair, l)ut which the English crowned with a strong castle, 
now in ruins. This division contained the fort of Ivath Bacain,''i and 
the rock originally known as Leac Reda.'-'- J lere too, the 0'^h'u-dha■'' 
had its chief residence. 

II. Kinel Criffan, the division in which, according to some, " the 
Castle Crag " of Dunamase was situated, received also die denomination 
Ui Crinithainn. or Hy-Criffan.'" The sub-chieftain O'Duff was ruler of 
the Kinel-Crimthainn.^=' These were the inhabitants of this tcrritorw 
comprising probably at present the greater part of the barony of 
Maryborough East. 

III. Tuath Fiodhbhuidhe belonged to tlie clan O'Deevy,^'' sometimes 
called Devoy.'''' The name is yet common in this part of the Oueen's 
County. This territory contained the northern part of CuUinagh Barony 
and the southern half of Maryborough West Barony. 

IV. Magh Druchtain was the country of O' Kelly. It would appear to 
be identical with the district marked Feran OTvellv on the old map of 
Leix and Ophaly.^« ]\iagh Druchtain in now identical with the barony 
of Stradbally.'''' In the earlier part of the last century this territory 
was locally known by its traditional name ; and it is considered the most 
fertile district in the whole Queen's County, extending from the ford of 
Athbaiteoige and the ford of Ath-fuiseoige to near Luggacurren. Mr 

O' Donovan's " Annals of the I'\jur 
Masters," at a.d. 843, vol. i. n. (a). 

"^See that version in the " Buuk of 
Leinster," edited bv Robert Atkinson, 
M.A.. LL.D., fol. lOo a. 

s" Accortluif; to a brief note in '"The 
Book of Lcmster," p. \Gz h. — Ugen Urg- 
naid was son of Setnu Sitlibacc, and 
he had six sons : viz., Ladru, Noe, 
Finteng, Luad, Guar and Alb. All of 
these names have entered into a separate 
topogra]ihical combination. Yet, the 
iKiiuc- I.A C";iin/iii M;ise is here omitted. 

'" it iiKiv lie (incslioncd, if tliis be tlie 
K.ilhn M.nlhi granted to \)r C'nnsi;ni- 
tnie, alter (he /\iiglo-N<inn,ui liuMsidii. 

'^- See Dr. O'Donovau's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., a.m. 3529, 
and vol. ii. at a.d. 9 58, n. (a.) 

"^ This name is usually Anglicized 
O'Moore or O'More, at present ; however, 
the pret^ix O' is generally omitted, and 
Moore only retained. 

''^ This IS stated by O'Huidhrin : — 

■p<\ 'Oun niAfCC Ay mi'n puinn. 

0'T)uib yo]\ CbeneL cCnioiiic<\mn, 

C]iiAch An ■c\\\e pA to|iA-6, 

lAcli Af mine meAfiio^AX). 
Under iJun Mase ot smooth land, 
O'Duibh IS over Cinel-Criomthaiim, 
Lord of the territory which is under fruit, 
Land of smoothest mast-fruit. 

"5 Their territory is said to have been 
near the fortress of Dunamase. 

'"' O'Huidhrin thus characterises its 
soil and inhabitants : — 

SeAncuAc pto-otjunje An jlnimn 51L, 

fllAich An cij;eA|mup CAOipi.^ ; 

lllinncin ■pio-oliuiTJe -xy •duaL x>\, 

SliiAt; fionn bin-oe iia -ptl-li. 
The oUi Tuath-l'-iodhhhuidhe of fair land 
Is a good lordship ior a chief ; 
The Muintir Fiodhbhuidhe are its in- 

The yellow-haired host of hospitality. 

^' Such was 'the opinion of Mr. 
O'Donovan, at the time when he was 
engaged on the antiquarian department 
of the Ordnance Survey for the Queen's 
County. But at a subsequent period of 
hie, he asserts, that the situation of the 
Muintir h^iodhbhuidhe had not been 
determined. Their name means, 

" The People of the Yellow Wood," 
and is one of man}' instances, in which 
clans had other than patronymic de- 
nominations, such as " The Old Evil 
Children of the VVooil," near the City of 
Limerick ; and the Clan Ceitherne, 
or " Children of the Kerne or Caterans," 
in Ulster. 

9' Now preserved in the library of 
Trinity College. 

S9 O'Huidhrin thus speaks of it : — 

Op 1111115 TDiiuAchcAin ah 'ouin 51L, 

0'CeAlLAi5 An cIaiji eijnij, 

x\f f AtiiAii tiiin An niui5e, 

Vie x:\\\ CAitAfu ccA^uijuqie. 
Over Magh-bruchtain ot the fair fortress, 
Is O'Ceallaigh of the salmon-full river. 
Similar is the smooth surface of the 

To the fruitful l.iiid of promise. 



O'Donovaii idcntilics it with tlie district — on the map now published 

called Feranokelle,!^"-' as extending from Ballymaddock southward? to the 
hills of Slewmargie, and as comprising the Park near Stradbally, the 
churches of Grange and Oghteoge, and Craogh Castle. The words of 
O'Heerin clearly show, that he was well acquainted with the fertility, 
beauty and local features of this territory."'^ 

V. Gailine, now Gallen,^'-"- or Dysart-Gallen, in the barony of Cullenagh, 
was also the territory of another O'lveUy.^"^ It extended from near Abbey- 
Icix to the boundary of Slievemarigue, and it is marked Galin on the old 
inaji of Leix and Ophaly. 

VL Crioch O'Muighe, the country of O'Caolluidhe,^"^-^ lay along the 
River Barrow. In the old Life of St. Abban, iniblished by Colgan, the 
Church of Kill-Abban is mentioned as being situated within this territory. 
The scholiast on St. Aenghus, however, places that same church within the 
territory of Hy-Muireadhaigh. Dr. OTJonovan hesitates in accepting the 
latter account, preferring the testimony of St. Abban's Life. O'Heerin 
describes the river Bearbha or Barrow as the boundary line dividing the 
territories of Laoigliis and Hy-Muireadhaigh. The topographer and poet, 
1 laving treated on the territories of Oft'aly and Leix, says, that he will cross 
t'lie river ikirrow to Maistean, now Mullamast, to give a description of 
( )'Toole's country, Hy-Muireadhaig. Thus, it would seem from O'Heerin's 
Imes, that tins territory of O'Kelly extended along the west bank of the 
l^carbha'"'^ in Leix, and that il contained the church of Kill-Abban. Dr. 
()'Dono\'an is of opinion, that it must luwe comprised the barony of 
liallyadanib, and thatpoitiun of the County Kildare, which extended 
wt-stward of the liwT Barrow.'"-' 

Vll. Clinch ()'mdjartha >ignitit's tlie countr\' of the Il\'-Barrtha 
or Hn'-I '.ail n 111-, ihc (it -11 iid.iiit> (it M.uie Barracli,''''' the son ot Cathaoir 
Mor, Kui-' ol l.ciii^trr, and uf all Ireland, m the second century 
ot the ( hii-tiaii era. The Abbe Mac Geoghegan and other 
Iri-li hi-^tou.iiis \\AW pl.iecd tlii^ trilie in the baronv of 
^l:e\^.•!n,^!l,L;uc.'-' Accuidiiig • to the- Will of Cathair ]\Ior,iO'-> 

'■'• Frfan'.K' :! • Hi' .»!is !lr or '"■■> 'I"he J^ivcr Barrow, winch flows 

(:-. 'Tr t.j.vv •,;;.-. \\:- nu-:i ul D'Kclly. bctwci-n this territory, and that of 

'I ; r t :::•.. r rc;v;tvi J. -a.! ..1 l.iiuiiy l'i-Muirea(lhaiL;h, which latter is called 

n •.,.: t'. .'-.vNc Uvii .Mr. I' Kel!_\-, of O'Murethi by GiraUlus, and it the 

<,*■.■:••; a:\ I'ci.ry. tribe name of the O'Tuathails, or 

*'* I J..- ot,-t.l•u^ ua-.tiii.," Ill till- drme>,ne O' i'onles. 

• ■! ^!f A ll>.»llv H.v'.l. .iml tin- nv<r liiiwiiiL^ '"'Thus writes OTIuidhrin reyardin^ 

l(»rQ<)r to !;,r If..i;f ,)\v, .lb mil 1 \\\ trout, tins territory: — 

rrJ, ah! liiSlcxcul u'.h' r ^'-ixus ot Ire^^h Cinoch O'tnm.^e aw f-oitj pnnci^, 

v«Atrj ',.\\\. l)eoijibA biiij; bnAoinlmncii; 

»'"U'lluidhnn oV.orvi-s jo^MidiiiL; it: T) 0'CAoLLAn'>e .\p cAotii <\ii cinoch, 

,s-''l<nc n.s j-jicifj i-<ju'-l«'.ri\ A(j5;oi]ic tii]! vwoiii ei]'|-ioc. 

"t> i> chc.ll.n.- Tii cuii'.uisjlicfjt, Croicli U-inbiiulhe of the lair sod, 

C]!om ^5 fi.\v.u:h .-.n f""'" -Moni^ the Bearbha of the bright pools, 

t\li ponn ns;;iijr..-.i li n5|;-Mt ir.f. To O'Caoillaidhe the territory is fair, 

(.;iiline of the j.lea-.iiil .itie.ini>, A shepherd prepared to encounter 

To 0'Ceall.iii;li is not uuh'.re litary, enemies. 

.Mii^hty IS the tribe at huiitin- '"' See Dr. O'Donovan's Loabhar na 

On the sunny land of Gailine. g-Ceart, or " Book of liights." pp. 212, 

"^ Sec Dr. O'Donovan's ''Annals of 213 n. (in.) 

the I'our Masters," at .\. I). 13.49, vol. iii., '"^ Dr. O'Donovaii inclines to the 

!>. 733. n. (s.). opinion, that they maj' be correct in 

10' This name has been .\nL;lici/,e(l this statement, although he is convinced 

O'Cayley or O'Keely, and it is still the name Hy-Bairche bears no analogy 

c<iinmon in the ])rovince of Leinster. with Sliabh Mange. 

I' has been incorrectly .\m;licizcdO'l\elly 1 '->'■* Of this dcicument, three copies 
or Kelly. 


it woultl seem, that there had been se\er;il families ot the Ui P)airche 
seated about Cloncurry, Kill and Kilossy, m the County of Kildare."^ 
However, the great antiquity of that composition has been questioned ;"i 
while it is supposed in its present form, to ha^•c been drawn up S(jme cen- 
tupcs after the death of Cathair Mor, and when tlic race of his sons had 
more definite territories in heinster.ii- Accordiiit; to the Dinnseanchus, 
the apiK^lation of Mairt^v is derived from I\Iarga, the son of Giustan] 
Lawgiver of the Fomorjans, who was killed on this mountain. The 
exact situation of the Hv-Barrtha has not betii clearly dehned.^'* After 
the establishment of Irish surnames, the chief family there took the name 
of O'Gorman or MacGorman.i^* However, it seems rather doubtful if this 
latter territory belonged to Leix, as originally constituted ; but, in course 
of time, it is certain, that it became annexed to the principality of Ui 
■Mordha or the O'Moores. 

The Ui-Duach of Argad-Ros, n''- people known as living in the territory 
of Idough, also written Odach. — supposed to have been co-extensive 
with the present barony of Fassadunn,!!*^ County Kilkenny — had a 
part possession of the Queen's County ; namely, that in which the town 
of Durrow is situated. Nevertheless, the district was formerly much 
more extensive, ^^" and it was a lordshij-) under Calhal, son of Dubhan, 
whe died a.d. S50 "^ or 851.11'^ It was likewise the territory of the 
O'Braoinains or O'Brennans, descended from Cathair IMor, King of 
Leinster, and afterwards monarch of Ireland. Carrol", the twelfth in 
descent from Bresal Breac, the son of Catliair Mor, was the great- 
grandfather of Giolla-Padruig, Prince of Ossory, We learn through 
Keating,!-" that from Bryan, the son of Carroll, are descended the 
OT^iaonain of Uibh Duach, distinguished by their irrilitary achievements, 
and who were some of the most renowned cham])ions of the times in 

on vcUnni exist, besides two copies 
\iSL'd liy 1 >r. joim O'Donovan in editing 
the toAbliAti r)<\ j-CeA^c, , or the Book 
of Riyhts. See Introduction, pp. xxxiii 
to XXXV. 

1'" See Rev. I^lmiis Murphy's article 
on KiUashee Church, in the " Journal 
of the County Kildare Archxological 
Society," vol. i., No. i. p. 17. 

^^1 It is certain, there are great 
differences in the texts of those copies 
we now possess ; while another cojiy, 
differing from any known, seems to 
have been consulted by Rodenclc 
O'Flaherty, in his " Ogygia," pars, 
iii., cap. lix. 

11- See the Irish of Cathair Rlor's 
Testament, with the Enghsii translation 
and notes of Dr. O'Donovan in t,eAblK\|i 
5-CeAHc, or the Book of Jiights, 
pp. 192 to 203. 

113 O'Huidhrin treats of the territory, 
in the following quatrain : — • 

C]n'ocli O nibAHprhA An buoJA 5toin, 

■Do fid 'Ooitue buTO bAjiitAij, 

0'5o|inK\ni Tjo 5bAC nA puinn, 

bA pjiAp 1 coniTJAib coriiLiitnn. 
The territory of the Ui-Barrtha of Hv 

line glebe. 
Of the race of the melodious Dairc 

Barrach ; 

O'Gorman received the lands, 
Rajjid was he in the battle meeting. 

^'■•This family was driven from their 
territory here after the Anglo-Ncjrman 
invasion, and the chief of them 
ultimately fixed his residence in the 
Barony of Ibrickan, in Thomond, Clare 

^'^ Rendered the Silver Wood, a district on 
the River Nora. In it was erected the Fort 
of R.Tth-Bc-otliaigh, by Ileremon and Ileber, 
the sons of jMilidh or Milcsius, a.m., 3,01. 
It is still known as I\.athbeagh, on the Nuie, 
and in a paiish of the same name, in the 
Harony of Gahnoy, County Kilkenny. See 
Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four Mas- 
ter," vol. i., pp. 26, 27, and nn. (g, h.). 

"^The Irish name, pAppAcli "Omeen, 
mean^ the dcbcrt or wilderness bordering on 
tlie (river) Dinan. 

"' Ry O'h-Uidhrin, the Ui Diiach-Osraighe 
is alluded teas the "fair wide plain of tlie 
Feior or Noie." See Dr. O'Donovan's edi- 
tion of " The 'Fopographical Rciems of John 
O'Dubhagain and Giujla na Naoinh O'Huidh- 
rin," pp., 94, 95. 

"*See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 4S2 to 4S5, and 
n. (c). 

'''■• A second entry. Sec iii)/., and n, (1:.). 

'-" See p. I 12. i;diti(>n of 1 725. 



which they lived. From Ruman Duacli.'-'' descended from Aen^us 
Osraighe/-- tlie territory and tribe of Ui Duach derive their name.^-'^ 
There are several references to those various districts, into which 
Leix had been formerly divided, by our chronograjihers. Besides the 
territory of Ui Creamhthann, in Leix, and which lay in and around 
Dunamase, there was another territory so called in Meath.^-* Therefore, 
owing to the similarity of denominations, but in different places, it 
becomes difficult sometimes to determine the exact locality connected 
with names, persons and incidents, which are noticed in our Irish Annals. 
However, from the circumstances of names and position, this inference 
of place can sometimes be fairly conjectured. Thus the battle of Sliabh 
Beatha,^-'^ in Ui-Creamthainn, fought by Conmael, who died a.m., 3579,^-'^ 
has undoubtedly reference to a territory so called, and distinguished 
iVom that in Leix. Lough Aenbeithe 1-^ — whicli has been Anglicized 
" ],ake of the one Birch Tree " — in Ui-Cremthainn, broke out in the 
reign of Aengus Olmucadha, who was killed, a.m. 3790. In a.d. 650 
was fought the battle of Fleascach,i-s by CrnnmaL-l, Chief of Kind 
Owen, in which Cumascach, son of Oilioll, Chief of Ui-Creamthannan,'-'* 
was killed. Flaun Sifnna Ua-Colla, Abbot of Clonmacnoise, one of 
the Ui-Creamhthainn, died a.d. 726.120 in 738, Maenach, son of Connalach, 
lord of Ui-Creamhthann, was killed in the battle of ilagh-Scirigh, said 
U) be near Kells.^^^ Most probably, this Ui-Crcainhthann was in Meatli. 
In 832, Ruaidhri,^'" son of Maelfothartach, half-chieftain of Ui-Crimh- 
thaum,'-'-' died. In 84S, Braen,!^^ and his two brothers, Fogartach ami 
Bruadar, sons of Ru.idhi acli, lord of Ui-Crenihthainn.i"'^ were slain bv 
tluir own tribe-^. Muircadhach, son of Cathal, lord of Ui-Cremhthainn,^"'' 
dird ot paraly-is. a.d. .^05.^^'' Cumascach, son of Muireadhach, lord 
of the Ui-Crenihthainn ' ^^ was slain by the Ulidians, a.d. S75.i^'j Maclcaere 
lord (it ri-Creuuhainn,'" died a.d. SyG.^'^ Anrothan, son of Murchadh, 
Imd of lT-CiimhtIi,i!n:i.''-' died A.D. 885. Ful>hthadli, son of Murchadh, 
lord of ri-Cnmhthaui!!."' di'd a.d. 8(jfj."' Cclc, son of Anrothan^ 

'■•'• Tl Iv V;;:j o ui ! I'. I,..'.,- ! e -n a r.>^ >", '"'' Xot idcniificcl. 

a:;h - :^;> !.i- v-.rtt ■»- .:.\ i..i . r (.ri-t) vt-nciatcd ^■"' Tlii.s lia:^ Lscn identified with the terri- 

».% **■..•!. ^'.x )iu (.: ;i,:r-7 III j .r.n I l.-.^in'i tory in Meath hy William M. Ilcnne.ssy in 

•• M. < .i!A.-., l-:!(.:i •) <i.v,:y." I'art i., " Ciitonicum Scuioruni." See pp. 94, 95^ and 

-.'..*,. ■>; , J. 35. ■»- i \-it: I., ci.ap. X., p. Index, p. 4iij. 

• 5^ '■•'■'See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

''*Hf ] i-l »a fr.c tin', .v.-.-.aty of ih- Four M.istcrs," \^ol. i., pp. 322, 323, and 

( ■i.»'.tf»»3 cfv n. (a.) 

■"• Ti-.» u«ni ijr tl li.ii> .:'.>cii;-'.d by ' ' •'^'■e ;'/7, jip. 33S, 339. 

Cltv-If-' - ■^- See ;:'/./, p[). 44S, 44<;, and n. (t.). 

h Ui X>«ji; Orr*-,^« ■»" »-'"'^ f'- ^^Allhough Dr. O'j)onovan .si,\ifs ihat 

fso*^*!- ff.^r r*'rr''.S ''•* V'^'^M <"i ''''^ tcrriMry was in .Meatli, we may question, 

n> rj^.ttr4 yrA<t A'> {\ :<;•> .iKo, it it not been in Leix. 

r^Jr * l'*r.lTa O" l>,«>/.o'^.Mr. '"See iln/, [ip. 4S0, 4.S1. 

Ill ' >-v-h <•; < ^-..-iY'-* ' ' ■•■'^ ".iiiii io^il, ' ■* It seems doubtful if this were in Me.uh 

The iji't nuir {j^j>::).'f \':.r tt ::i, or I.iix. 

Not cinly piiv»jMe u the w.^ »J >.f t.'.t? p!«)n, "'' T lie exact locality has not been ascer- 

III pr-^tccfint; chief i» (Jlw* .r.a:r.. l.'Mnnl. 

'■•* N'.jw ln«»n d.1 iliC l.a.K.iny of SLm-. '-■ Sec tin/, pp. 502, ^03. 

**Not iJcntitied. SliiU) lif*;).! wj-. on '^ Its [lOiition as a district is not deter- 

I he borders of Mot; a^hin And Kcrm^ru^h. mined. 

'■^ Sec Dr. O'Donovan's " /Viu.ils ol the ^^ See ?'/./, jip. 522, 523. 

Four Mav.eti," vol. i., pp. 3S, 39, and '" Its ixjbiiiun has not been determined. 

n. (d.). '*^ Sec ibiJ, pp. 522, 523. 

'=^ Not identified. Possibly, IlclUhcc '^- In the Index to Dr. O'Donovan's " An- 

Louf^h, on the confmesof Meathand .Nlonaj;- nals of the Four Masters," it is set down as 

ban ; but this is a doub'.ful cunjcclute. belonging to .Meatli. 



and of Ui-Crimhthannain, died 921. ^'^^ If this latter belonged to Leix, 
so most probably did the former, to which allusion has been made. 
Flaithchius, son of Scorachan, lord of Ui-Crimhthannain, i"' died 923.^^" 
Entries more pertinent to the territory of Ui-Creamthann in Leix shall 
subsequently appear, as the foregoing have a doubtful localization. 

Great changes of boundary took place during the lapse of ages in 
the extent of Leix, and after its first formation as a distinctive territory. 
Thus, Ancient Ossory is said to have comprised the three districts 
called the Three Comauns.i'"^ If so, they appear to have formed a 
considerable part of Leix in afterlimos. However, we know not on 
what authority it is stated, that those extended northwards to 
Ballydavis, in the parish of Straboe, barony of ^Maryborough, Queen's 
County, until the beginning of the ninth century, when they were 
united to Leix.^''^ Nevertheless, our Annals throw some light on 
their position, and especially our Ecclesiastical Records ; for we 
single instance allusion made to the deaths of the 
over Tegh ]\Iocliua and the Comauns. Again, 
we know from allusions to the chiefs of Leix before the close of the ninth 
century, that they ruled also over the Comauns. Thus the death of 
Cinneidigh, son of Gaeithin, lord of Laighis and of the Comauns,'-'" 
is chronicled at the year 898. ^^^ Hence it would appear, that his 
jurisdiction extended beyond the limits of Leix propter, and that he 
likewise governed the district known as the Comauns. Through man\' 
subsequent generations, the tanists of Leix ruled over the Comauns. 
Where this latter district was exactly situated may admit of question. 1^- 
To us, the Comauns appear to have extended along the hills eastward 
from Timahoe and Fossey ; and it is likely enough they were to be found 

find in more than a 
Bishops who ruled 

■''*■' Its exact position not determined. 

^" At 916, l''eiij;us, son of Muiiit;en, with 
many others, were slain at Loch-Dachacch. 
He was chief of Ui-Crimthainn, in the barony 
of.Slane, Meath. See William M. Ilennessy's 
'' Chronicum Scotorum," pp. iSS, 189. 

'■'^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 60S, 609. 

^■*" Position not determined. 

^■*^ See ibid, pp. 612, 613. 

"** See Dr. O'Donovan's tract "On the 
Tribes and Territories of Ancient Ossory," 
published in the "Transactions of the Kil- 
Icenny and South-east of Ireland Archaio- 
lorrical Society." 

^■''■^Sce ]\ev. Michael J. O'Farrell's " Popu- 
lar Life of St. Patrick, Apostle and Patron 
of Ireland," chap, xiv., p. 200, note. 

"''' At the year 870, the lords of the foreigners 
are stated to have plundered the men of tlie 
Three Plains, and of the Comauns, as far as 
Sliabh lUadhma, during the snow of Bridget- 
mas. This happened about the 1st of 
February, St. Bridget's Day. See Dr. 
O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four Masters," 
vol. i., pp. 516, 517, Now, Dr. O'Donovan 
states, that these Three Plains of Magh 
Airbh, of Magh-Sedna, and of Magh-Tuathat, 
were situated in the baronies of Cranaghand 
Galmoy, in the county of Kilkenny, as also 
in the barony of Upper Ossory, in the 
Queen's County. l\I;igh Tuathat, he says, is 

at the foot (.f Sliabh Bladhma, nr Slievc 
Bloom, lie also states, that the Three 
Comauns were three septs seated in the 
north of the present county of Kilkenn)'. 
See ibid, nil. ^k, 1). To the writer it would 
seem the 'I'hree Plains are distinguished from 
the Coni.uins in the aunalistic passage re- 
ferred to, while other evidences apfjcar to 
establish the conclusion, that the Comauns 
had not been within any considerable 
portion of Kilkenny County, but rather that 
they must be sought for mostly — if n<jt 
altogether — within the southern limits of the 
present Queen's County. 

^^^See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 558, 559. This 
entry is preceded in Dr. O'Connor's edition 
by two tjuotati(Mis, referring to a chief of 
Taeighis ; but, Dr. O'Donovan has omitted 
them, as being irrelevant to the connection 
in which they have been placed. 

^^- At the year 931, the death of Cosgrach, 
son of Maelochoirghi, Bishop of Teach- 
ISlochua (Timahoe), and of the Comauns, is 
recorded. See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals 
of the J'our Masters," vol. ii., pp. 626, 627. 
The name of such a bishcjp does not appear 
among the bishops of Seir-kieran, of Aghavoe, 
or of Kilkenny ; and, consequently, it dues 
not seem that the Comauns should be placed 
within the ancient diocese of Ossory, in the 
tenth centurv. 


within the present barony of Cullinagh, possibl}' separating Leix proper 
of the tenth century from tlie territory of Ui Bairche, along the borders 
of which they lay. Besides, the Commons of Fossey was a term applied 
very generally in the late century to a large tract of freehold land 
(ormerl)' held there in commonage, and lying among the mountains. 

CHAPTER V. — -Pagan Incidents of Queen's County History. 

In Pagan tunes, among the several allusions to individuals and to old 
jilaces, few notices of the territories comprised within the present Queen's 
County are to be found in our Irish Annals. Nor can the following, 
in reference to particular persons or localities at such remote dates, be 
regarded as sufficiently authenticated. According to the Chronology of 
tlic Four Masters,^ in the Age of the World 35JO, the plain of Magh- 
Reicheat - is stated to have been cleared, during the reign of Irial Faidh 
iivvv Ireland." By this, we are to understand, tliat it must have been 
pirparcd for ])urposes of cultivation.'^ Durnig the reign of Eithrial,'' 
\\\u) succeeded hnn, among the plains cleared for cultivation in Ireland 
i.-. mrntioned Magh-Gcisille, in Hy-Failge, said to be represented 
at presL-nt by Geashill, in the King's County. '^' In tlio pre-historic period, 
also, A.M. j54'j, it is related, that a battle was fought at Raeire," thought 
to have been the jn-escnt Rearymore,^ where fell Eithrial, son of Irial 
and monarch of Ireland, in the twentieth year of his reign. The victor 
was Conmhael, son of I'lmer, who succeeded him. a.m. 3550. Among 
the plains cleared by Eochaidh Faebhar-glas." or Achaius Foebarglas, 
^ou of Conmai.'l, is mentioned Magh-Smeathrach,'^ or ]Mo}' Smethrech," 

' 'I'h' u I Minj'Ut.i'ii 111 IS fwrmcil from lias lullnwc-ii in " .\nnali,-s X'ctcns ct 

the S'.pi'.i.i^inl, .ir; ;,.\vM l'\ M. Jiicimc Ndvi 'l\'^,i;mii. nil." This calcuhiUon has 

III lu.i i-,li;'"ii ..I i-.'.t '.: .:i^' i^/i)'>>:i(.^<ii. Iiecii ai|i)j'te<l \i,ry closely by Rev. Dr. 

svliich [i!,'.- ' •- tli>- 1 )i,!iil;<.- ;it ihc .X^i-- ul Gcoltrcy i\catin|;, Roderick O'Flahert}' 

t!io \\\ rhl j.-.;j. 1 !..-.\(.Ai;r, the Cdin- and other inoilerii Irish writers. On the 

ji'.it.ili":) I'l the !!• Lr(',\> imin the general subject of Chronology the reader 

(, le.kiinn to tin- l-i'i-;i I'.co ye.irs, and is referred to that most learned work of 

tl.i> h.i> b- l:i ( 'ILAiifl by the " .\nnals Pelavius or IVtau, " Opus de Doctrina 

o! ("!i,:im.icii'.a-.e." .ui.l by v.trious Irish Tcmjioruni ; " 3 Tomi folio, Antwerp, 

la .t>..'!( .d ti.ii is. See Dr. ("harles 1703, bditio no\a. Also, " L'Art de 

«>i.;n,:» rt..Ir.;.i!;;iii.i .1 1 .\un.iles, in Wretiei di > I'ates." 

" i(<:fu!:i Hibff:iK.iru:n Scnptorcs," ^lle is said to have ruled twenty 

I 'rnu^ I . p. h. a:i.l j.p, txwii. lo ..WW. years over Ireland, from a.m. 35JO to 

' liy 1';. l.c -rircy Kr.itui^ the date 3540. 
\ w i,">'> i» K''^<->. i'» liJi " History ot '' See Dr. O'Donovan's " .\nnals of 

ltl»:, J." A:.i rr^-ar.ling M.igli-Keitl- the l-'our M.isters," vol. 1., pp. 30 to 39, 

v;.v»Jli, it u jIai"-,; uj La^.i^hib or I.eix. and 11. (!■)■ 

Ai-A «i.» k. ■;■.■* :i ».■> l.rx Mai.;h Nciliu 111 " Koihiulc ()'rdaherty places his 

I irjr.»'.rT.i:)}.:» ti;!ir iJy Dr. O'Doiiovan, nii^n .it a.m. jo''I to jqSi, and states, 

It b-».« l,frn idcntiljol with .Morett, .1 th.U K.n ir the name of a hill in 

inanif in l!ir I .Uwny <A I'.irtn.ihnu li, Hyl.ilma. See " Ogyi;ia," pars, ii., 

ad)'>ir.i:ig the Gnat Heath of ilary- p. ^o. 

liorou.;h. Sec " .\uiiaU uf the l-'mir » Hv Dr. O' Donovan. See " Annals of 

.\I.l^t^■r^." \\>\. I., j>p. 34. 3;. and ii. (jd- the bour ^bl^ters," vol. i., pp. 36 to 39, 

* He 11 c.died tfic son of biemoiJ, the and n. (r). 

Non of Miledh or .Milisius. In.d i.s said to " He is said to have ruled over Ireland 

have been King over lor ten for twenty ycirs. 

ye.irs. 10 This place has not been clearly iden- 

• .Xccordini; to the Chronology of titled, nor is it known to have been within 
Archbi.-vhop fssher, about .yKX) years the Queen's County portion of Ui-Fail^e. 
intervened between tile Creation of the '• See " Ogyf^ia," pars, iii., cap. .xxiv., 
WorKl and th<' LJirlh of Christ. This he p. 205. 




in Ui-Failghe, a.m. j'/2yy- Roderick O'FIaherty has his rcigu at a.m. 
30S5. A battle is said to have been gained over the jMartini and Ernai 
at Moin-Foichnigh,!^ in Ui-Failge, a.m. 4169, by Sirna Saeghlach,i^ 
son of Dian, and monarch of Ireland. ^-^ Sedna Siothbac,^*^ the forty- 
fourth King of Ireland in descent from j\Iilcdh, is said to have built 
Dunn Ailhnn. He had thirteen sons,^^ and one among them named 
Masg is said to have built, in Ua Crimtliannan, Dunmaisg ^^ — called 
after him, and now known as Dunamase. Again, Setnu Sithbacc is 
called the father of Ugen Urgnaid.^'^ He had six sons, according to 
one account ; viz., Ladru, Noe,-° Finteng,-i Luad, Guar,-- and Alb. 
The chronology of Irish history becomes less confused when we arrive 
at the opening of the Christian era. The celebrated Boruinha or Tribute 
imposed on the Leinster province by Tuathal Tcchtmar, King of Ireland, -^ 
led to various wars in aftertime ; and, as the ])eople of Leix owed alle- 
giance to the Kings of Leinster, they were no douht involved in those 
contests, although their race was of Ultonian origin. However, among 
the battles ^^ fought l\v the race of Neill against the Leinstermen, who 
opposed payment of the Borumean tribute, from the period of Oilioll 
Molt's death -^ to the reign of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach,-'" is 
mentioned tlie battle of Dun-RIasc, now Dunamase. There exists a tract, 
known as "Duan Eireannach," which was an ancient legendary poem 
on the early colonization of Ireland, It was composed, as would seem, 
in the ninth century.-'' From this we learn, that ''' The seven Laigse 
of Leinster the wealthy " were originally Picts. The bard declares, 
that Eri "^ " is full of the race of Ir." He then proceeds to enumerate 

12 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 44 to 46, 
and n. (1). 

13 No such bog is now known bearing 
this name in the territory of Offiily. 

11 By Rev. Dr. Geoffrey Keating he 
is said to have reigned from a.m. 3212 
fo 3233. Sec " General History of 
Ireland," book i., pp. 171, 172. Duffy's 

IS See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 5S, 59, 
and n. (g). 

1'' This must have been intended for 
Seadhna lunarraigh, said to have Ixen 
in the sovereignty of Ireland from a.m. 
4271 to A..M. 4290. See Dr. O'Donovan's 
" Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., 
pp. 62, 63 and n. (a). The chronology of 
Roderick O'FIaherty is from a.m. 3453 
to 3467. See " Ogygia," pars, iii., pp. 
447. 448. 

i'^ Others of them are thus named in 
McFirbis's Pedigrees, at p. 186 : Lagra 
of Ard Lagrain, now said to be Ard 
Latran, or Ardcamhan, at Wexford 
Harbour, Nui of Rathnew, in Hy- 
Garrchon, Nar of Duunair, Ucha, the 
father of Gabhran, a quo Beallach 
Gabhrain, and Roigen Ruadh a quo 
Magh Roigne in Ossory. See Rev. John 
Francis Shearman's " Loca Patriciana," 
No. ii., with the Genealogical Table, 
No. I., of the Dal Messingcor Tribe, 

and some of the older Feinster 

1" According to jMaciarbis's Pedigrees, 
p. 346. IManuscript in the Royal Irish 
Academy, Dublin. 

i'-* See the version of the Dintlsenchas, 

in the " Book of Leinster," edited by 

Robert Atkinson, M.A., LL.D., fol. 162 b. 

-" He is said to have given name to 

Rath Niii. 

21 He is said to have given name to 
Dun Finteign. 

-- He is said to have given name to 
Dun Chuair. 

23 He reigned thirty years from a.d. 
76 to a.d. 106. See Dr. O'Donovan's 
" Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., 
pp. 98 to lOI. 

2* These are noticed in the ancient 
historical tale called the Borumha 

2" He was killed in the battle of Ocha. 
fought a.d. 482 or 483, according to the 
Annals of Ulster. 

2" He began to reign a.d. 504, and 
his term lasted twenty-four years, until 
A.D. 527 ; he was burned in his house 
at Cleiteach. See Dr. O'Donovan's 
" Annals of the Four Masters," voL i., 
pp. 164 to 177. 

27 See the " Irish Version of Nennius," 
edited ,by Dr. Todd and the Hon. 
Algernon Herbert, p. 265, n. 9. 
-'' The name of Trt_-land. 



those clans, wliosc d^'^'X^nt is traced from that i^atriarch. Regarding 
the name " Ir," it is suj^posed by some to have been purely mythical, 
and to have been invented as the name of a pseudo-patriarch of the Irish, 
just as " Brito " was said to have been progenitor of the Britons. Other 
similarl}^ suppositious ap])ellatives have been assigned to the ]ircsumcd 
originators of various nations. There is a poem -^ on the Kings and 
Families of Leinstcr descended from Catliair Mor, and his thirty sons, 
in the Book of By Edward O'Reilly this has been ascribed 
to the famous antiquary John O'Dugan, who died in 1372 ; "^ but it is 
evidently older in date, by at least two centuries. The Irish historians 
state, that Conall Cearnach^- of the Ultonian Clan Rury family was 
chief of the Craebh Ruadh or Red Branch warriors, in Ulster, during 
tlic first century of the Christian era.^^ This prince, distinguished for 
his valour in several battles, then bore swa\' in that provincial realm. 
At this time, however, the men of ]Munster resolved on the invasion of 
L' iiistcr, over which ])rovince Cucorb ^* then ruled. The monarch 
iM-idlimidlr'"' Rcachtmluu- or Felim the Law-giver was then Ard-Righ. 
1 hen also lived a warrior named Eochaidh Fionn Fuathairtj^ii brother 
to Conn of the Hundred Battles,^" and to him Cucorb appealed in his 
ilistress fur assistance against the invaders.''"^ Complying with his 
vntreatit's, Cuct)rb also inomised a grant of lands in return for such 
service. ■'■' Ivjchaidh Fionn summoned his friends and allies to muster a 
iai'ge nuinlH'r of troops to engage with him in this expedition."-' Now 
('MMall Cearnach had two renowned sons, Irial (ihmmhar and LaoiseacJi 
( aennior." sometimes written Lannmor. The latter had received his 
• ■ducation with I^oeliaidli Fionn,''- and had been in\-ited as a volunteer 
lo joii! his Idler-;. Cucorb also rallied to his standard the men of Leinster, 
.iiid when all were united, such reliance was placed on the military 

:> It ].,..■ 

I I,.l>., fo!. 
J' Sv i 

!, .•!■■. i! A... 

n-; \vitl> tin- \v. ir.!s 
I .M.^cii I'l .Mill c:.-.c.\otn 
!,v" Kuinr: .\lkins<,n, M..\., 

!'.>.. irJ (.)'K'i!Iv's "I'lifiino- 
-init ut ii'.irlv l-\jur lluiulred 

:v" p. 

•'■II 'Ir.iNsn in the 

.:■ ; .'cir lt"!a Ir. the bun of 

: I l:> hivc h.i'l 'onr <litlt 
'.•.-.'.•■.x \x : i. \ .\'a\Ak'.t\: 


■■• Hcis - 
T\\'\ — l. I - :;:: 

** AiTtajtuini; to J>r O P's 
r'i!i .n oi iJjc " Arin.iit of the 1-our 
?>EAit'-:-»." ;^i^ in.^:JArch Ikt^mii to roicn 
A t». M I., an I he ilic<l A.I>. 119. Stc vil. 
i., T'j>. loj, JOJ. However. 1:1 01"l.ih<r:.ys 
'■ <JK-»;ia." »t t» Matrt!, hi- <Iil ivt 
cijnu:ieiicc hii rci^;n tmlil A.f. I'-.j. .in 1 
It is there s.ii'l his nil-- continuc<l to the 
tenth year. viz.. to a.d. 174. Sec pars. 
111., cap. Ivi., pp. 306 to 30,S. 

^* He haci been banished from Midhe 
or M'-.ath by Art, monarch of Ireland, 
\s\\o reigned from A.D. 166 to A.D. 195. 
Serr Dr. O'Douovan's work, vol. i, pp. 
1(j6 ot III. 

'^Monarch of Ireland from a.d. 123 
to A.n. 157. See Dr. O'Donovan's 

" Annals of tlie I'niir Masters," vol. i., 

pp. lOJ to K)5. 

^^ See LoaBah 11A 5-ce<\nc the Book of, 
l\i'-;hts, edited hy John CyDonovan, Esq., 
M.K.I. A., Bariister-at-I^a\v, jip. 214 21 q, 
n. (p.) 

^" These lands, afterwards known as 
the Fotharta, seem to have been distri- 
buted in localities ayiart from each other. 

*" l-^ochaid hinn h^iathart took 
rcfu.L;e m L( inster, wliere himself and his 
descend. mts c.dled Fothart,i, acquired 
consider. d)le territories. The liarony of 
l-'orth, in the Count v of Cailow, still 
let, 11ns its name in the ]iresent modified 
lurm, and it \', li)rinerl\- called I'^utharta 
(.)>nadhai;^h, fruin its chief church, Cill 
Omi.uIIki, now Kellistown, but more 
frequently Fotharta Fea, from the plain 
of .Ma).h Fea, in which that church was 
MUiated. Sec " The Book of Ballymote," 
l<i|. yy b. In like manner, the barcmy of 
l-'iirth. in the C\)unty of Wexford, was 
one ot their possesions. 

*' Ilis mother was Lonncada, and he 
is sometimes called Lagisius — .\n!^licized 
Lewis — Lannmore. See O'Flaherty's 
" ORy^^ia," jiars. iii., cap. xlvii., p. 278. 

*- See Rev. Dr. Geoffrey Keating's 
" General History of Ireland," book i., 
p. 271. Duffy's edition, 1854. 8vo. 

84 HISTORY or thi: queen's count".. 

qualifications of Laoiseacli Lannmor, that lie was a]~)pointcd Commander- 
in-chief of the whole army. Other accounts Ikwc it. that Lughaidh 
Laoighis or Laciseach.-''Uhe great grandson to the celebrated hero Conall 
Cearneach, was the chief leader," who procured Leix by his valour ; 
yet, his father Lioseach Lannmorc— otherwise Laoighise Cean Mor — 
was recognised as head of the famous Leinster tribe, the Ui Mordha or 
O'Mores of Leix.'^^ Meantime, the men of ]Munster had advanced so 
far as Athtruistean,^'' said to have been a ford near T^Iullaghmast.'^'' 
As the Leinster forces marched to meet them, the IMimstermen took 
up a position on that liill. hioth armies soon engaged, and a bloody battle 
was fought with great bravery and determination on both sides, so that 
it was difficult to decide for some time who had the advantage. At 
length victory inclined to the confederate arm\^ when the ranks of 
their enemies were broken, and they were pursued with terrible slaughter 
from the top of Maistean to the River Bearl)ha.-'^ This ]ilace is said to 
have deri\ed its name from the circumstance of Oi or h'o, the son of 
Dergabal, a Leinster hero, having been there slain. Tlu' memory of 
this event caused it to be perpetuated in the etxiuon Ath-0i-I5erbha. 
" Oi's ford on the Barrow." Animated by that success, the Lagenians 
continued the pursuit. A strong body of tlie enemy having rallied, 
drew up in order at Cainthine on ]\Iagh Riada ; but the victors fell upon 
them with fury and again put them to liight. Afterwaixls, they were 
pursued to Slighe Dala, or Ballaghmore in Ossory, where the forces of 
Leinster made such a dreadful slaughter of the Momonians, that few 
escaped destruction. This series of victories settled the state of Leinster, 
and so discouraged the men of Munster, that they ne\'er attempted 
subsequently to enlarge their boundaries, but were glad to conline 
tliemseb'es within their own territories. Being thus restored to his 
dominions through the assistance obtained from T"^ocliaidh Fionn, 
Cucorb out oi gratitude bestowed on him the seven Fothortuaths, and 
confirmed this donation in jieri^etuity to his ]:)Osterity.-'''' According to 
an ancient Tract,''" it was Cucorb's queen, Meadhbh, that divided the 
Loigsi and the Fotharta into seven divisions respectively, as she did not 
desire those tribes to be united, so that their power against the King ol 
Leinster might be weaker. Her strength and influence over the men 
of Frin were very great ;''^ and we are informed that she would not 

■•■' Among the Genealogies of the referred to the transhuion by Mac 

Leinsternien or people of Laigin, tJie Geoghegan of the Annals of Clonmac 

genealogies of the tribes of Leix may be noise, at the reign of l-Y'lym Reghtwar, 

found, in " Tlie Book of Leinster," some- and to Keating's "General History of 

time called the Book of Glendalougli, Irehind," at the reign of Cormac Mac Art. 

edited by Robert Atkinson, M.A., LL.D., or tlic bardic account of this acquisition 

iSrc, fol. 31S. This most interesting of of the territory. 

Irish Codices has been published in ^^ According to Keating, this battle 

elephant folio, Dublin, iSSo. was fought at Athtrodam, which he 

^*See I.ady Ferguson's "Story of identilies as the present Athy on the 

Ireland beiorc the Conquest," chayj. iii.. River Barmw. 
p. III. Dublin, iSoo ; second edition, S\o. -I'J See Lady l'\Tguson's "Story of 

''■'■' See Jdhn llogan's " St. Ciaran, Ireland belore tlie Coucpiest," chap, in.. 

Patron of Ossory ; a Memoir of his Bile p. iii. 
and Times." ]iart ii., cha]). iv., pp. 57, 5S. ^'^ Beginning UIacc 1"no5A-Conl)b celAp 

*'"' On the Iviver Griese, now written Clu in "The Book ol Lem,-.ter," at 

Greece. fol. 44. 

*" See O'Donovan's " leAb.\n nA ^^ See Professor Eugene O'Curry's 

jj-CcAiic, or Book of Rights," p. 215, and " Lectures on the Manuscript IMaterials. 

" Annals of the Four Masters," vol. iii., of Ancient Irish History," appendix ii. 

pp. 105, iu6, n. (f). The reader is also p. 480. 


pennil any king in Teamair or Tara withont liis liavin;- lursi'lf for wifc.''- 
Stiil,,isit wasacknowledt^cd, tliat the success ot tlie exjieclition was chieHy 
owing to the valour and skill of the general whose military ex])erience 
gave him such advantages over the enemy, an extensive territory was 
l)estowed on him as a reward for that assistance he afforded in ex])elling 
the men of Munster, who had invaded and seized on Leinster. Froin 
him it derived the subsequent denomination of Laoighis, usually 
Anglicized Leix and pronounced Lease. Whatever ma3' have been its 
original extent, this territory, in its later inde])endent existence, com- 
prised the eastern and southern baronies of the ]:)resent Queen's County, 
wliile it excluded those of Upperwoods, Clarmallagh, Claiidonagh, Port- 
iKihinch, and Tinnahinch.''^ At the earliest period of its organisation, 
its boundaries were more enlarged in a direction extending westwards, 
while they changed at different times. I\'Ioreo\'er, this concession was to 
be enjoyed for ever by Laoiseach Lannmor and his heirs, with the title 
of Kings of Leise or Leix, and certain other pri\'ileges and dignities,''^ 
which were to receive a return in fealt^' and service to the Kings of 

We have no means for ascertaining the original boundaries of Leix as 
these had been fixed in the time of Lughaidh Laoghseach, and conjecture 
has b(-en emjiloyed in vain to detine its exact extent and area. I'erhaj).-, 

■'■- SIk' is sniil to have erected tlie his ]i1;ice nt all puMic assemblies and 

Ktiyal Kath by the side of Teniair, enttTtainmenls in tlie loiirth di^'^ree, 

kniivMi as Kaith IMeidhbhe or ]\Iaeve's only three being adniittetl to sit above 

iuitli. Within that rath she built a him nearer the King. He was to enjoy 

hmi-^e, in which kings and the chief the chief ollice in the treasury, and to 

masters of every art nsed to assemble. distribute the King's bounty to tlie 

'"■' According to Sir Charles Coote, the chiefs, the anti(iuaries, the poets, the 

whide of the present Queen's County musicians, and to those learned in the 

was originally called Leix territory. Ko arts and professions, whose abihties 

iionbt, howe\-er, nearh' all, or the vastly entitled them to a reward. It was 

gre.itii I'.irt, ot that shire, at one ])enotl regulated, that whatever presents or 

or <.tln 1 , was included within the domin- acknowledgments were sent to the King 

i..ns ..f 1.1 i\. 'I'he same authority most sh(Hild pass through his iiands. It was 

m> • irei !l\- st.itrs, that aliout the close further decreed, that seven of the Leix 

<il ilu- -i\th cMitiiry I. fix had its name royal family should constantly attend 

-• .,cit.viid\- 111. I Imi ihr iii,-,t tiiiir — and on the Leinster J-iing's ]ierson as a lixi.'il 

\\.\l n v..i^ th'U .dl tliiinh lands. See bod\'-guard, lor wliich service they were 

i.!-. '■ >!.i'.:> e, il Survey nl the (Jueen's to be lionourably maintained at the 

(..:ii.!\." chi>. VI., sec. 4., ]•>. oj. charge of the Leinster Crown. Seethe 

li* .■..;.': 1 I . !,iv- H .il SI lH)(iIm,i-,trr, who Kev. Dr. Geollrey Keatnig's "C.eneral 

hv<! s!s \:!.\ ■ .iiid (.u-neial \'.i!lancey, History of Ireland," JCeign of Cormac 

^rr li. ...,:.: tu h.ive led Sir Charles I'lfada, .v.D. 2 1 3, jiji. jjc; to 372. Duhy's 

i^''.<- a->::.v\. wh'ti d'.nning the buun- edition. 

i1.'.:;<-» <! .ii.irjit l.<i\. ^' 'Ihe King of Leix was bound to 

'• Jt v..>.> l:^!l-!.• d bv dei ree. m, lint. iin at his o\vn expense one hundred ihc KissK* <•*• I':\. m uiemury <if and iiliv stout soldier.--, to serve in the 

ihr M-r\-»c<r% rc<fjved l.-w-n Lam^iaeli Kirg <>t 1. cluster's army. Those were 

I^mum r. should !;.ivr .1 )u>{ tl.iini lur boi nd to execute the most diilicult and 

t vrr l(> .1 iirl'iiii of c\iry 1 < ex e was ilanuerous commands; to force the 

kdlid in the r<>\,il .Nl.r.uhttrdKaise fcjr enemy's lines though with tlie utmost 

ih'- ir.c o( the LcuiMcr K:!U-s ; iwu- h.t/.trd ; to them out of their 

of ihf f;.dlt .^d.iclis or rtciiver.s of the ipKirters, and to distinguish themselves 

Lfln^tcr King .nIiouUI attcn<l in his court in the hottest part of the battle. He had 

v.tth a salary allowe<i to supervise and the ]irivilege to lead the van in the army 

I'lllcct such tribute for tlie King of Leix. of Leinster, when entering an enemy's 

Moreover, it was ord.iiiud, that the country, and to holil in battle the ^rrtr;/a 

Kin.g of I civ f< r tie time being should Imc^hnil or " gap of danger." See Lady 

I e allowed a place at the council-board I-"er^^Ubon's " Story of Ireland before the 

of th.e Leinster King, and should take Conipiest," /;han. iii., p. 112. 


the nearest approach to that jiroblcm might be a supposition, that the 
River Barrow from near its source among the Slieve j^loom ^Mountains 
formed the northern boundary and thence drew its increasing course on 
the eastern side towards the south, until it received the River Douglas, 
or perchance the Fishoge River, a little below the present site of Carlow. 
Thence, an irregular line, over the summits of the Slievemargue range 
of mountains towards the River Xore, and along the upper waters of 
its course to the Slieve Bloom I\Iountains, formed the southern and 
south-western boundary of Lcix,^" in all probability ; while the highest 
crests of the Slieve Bloom Mountains were undoubtedly the separating 
features of its division from the territory of hLly O'Carroll. By some 
the old barony of Upper Ossory bounds have been excluded altogether 
from Leix ; ^' but, suflicient historic evidence i"emains to prove, that the 
Ossorians made inroads on the Leixians' ancient i)ossessions, centuries 
after their earliest foi"ination, and thus contracted the territory, at least 
towards the north and west, in subsequent ages. It is related, that the 
first division of Leix was four-partite ; and that Lug Laisach had it 
divided into Dubh-Laighis, Tulach Breogain, Laighis-Lethnada and 
Fuinncle-Laighis.^^ Were this even so, at the present time, it is im- 
possible to define their respective limits. It is related also, that Cucorb was 
killed in a battle fought in the second century, somewhere in Leinster,''-* 
but probably at the mountain called Sliabh Suidhe Chonchorb^"'*^ — 
otherwise Sliabh Uighe Chonchorb''^ — where he was buried. Fcidh- 
limidh Rechtmhar is said to have been his slayer ; but of the battle 
itself our Annals preserve no account.*^- His wife Meave bears a very 
bad character. She is said to have given poison-drink to Lugaid Laigse, 
son of Laigseach Cendmore, and to have eloped from her husband, 
Cucorb, with the man who aftenvards slew liini.'''^ 

Thus, according to the bardic accounts, the Ua-Laeighis formed a 
tribe, which gave denomination to the country of Laeighis, Laeis, or Leix. 
These people are said to have descended from Laeighseach, or Lewis 
Ceannmhor, who was the son of Conall Cearnach.'^'^ As in most of the 

t^* Thus, in the sixth century, the 6° The former name of Mount Lcinster, 

Dynast of Leix bestowed the site of between the counties of Carlow and 

Clonfert I\h-)hia, a httle north of the Xore, Wexford, and also called Suidhe 

on St. jMohui, in the sixth ccntnrv ; Lai^hen, interpreted " the seat of 

while Mena Drochit, on the River Men, the Leinster people." Professor O'Curry 

is placed within Leix, by the commen- thinks it may be identical with Shabh 

tator on the Calendar of St. ^'Lngus, as Suidhe Chonchorb. > 

found in the Book of Lecain. See ''^ Literpreted " the IVIountain of 

" Transactions of the Royal Trisli Concorb's Fate " or " Death." 

Academy." Irish Manuscript Series, vol. ^- See Professor Eugene O'Curry's 

i.. part 1., on the Calendar of Oengus, "Lectures on the Manuscript Materials 

by Wliitley Stokes, LL.D., p. cxlvi. of Ancient Irish History," appendix ii., 

^'' See John's Hogan's " St. Ciaran, p. 480. 

Patron of Ossory : a Memoir of his Life ^''-^ She is said, however, to have 

and Times," part ii., chap, iv., p. 5S. composed some elegiac and eulogistic 

58 Three other divisions are also stanzas in Irish on the death of her 

named, according to the Rev. Patrick husband, Cucorb, at Raith Maidhbhe, 

M'Loughlin's " Epitome of the Leabhar and which are to be found in " The 

Lecain," p. 156. Book of Leiiister," fol. 44. That poem 

^'■^ According to the Rev. John Francis was composed at the setting up of the 

Shearman, Cucorb was slain at Cliu, stone which was over the grave of 

at rhe base of Mount Leinster, which Cuchorb at Sliabh Uidhe Chonchorb. 

is crowned with a sepulchral chair, "■* This ascribed descent from a hero 

that probably marks the grave of who nourished in the first century, 

the Toparch. See " Loca Patriciana," was always a matter of family belief 

No. viii.. p. 143, n. 2. among the O'lMnores. 



tribal traditions of Ireland, their origin and authenticity are uncertain ; 
and as the family pedigrees — especially in the more remote times — are 
confused, unchronological, and sometimes apparently irreconcilable ; so 
must we premise, that the following attempt in reference to our par- 
ticular branch of enquiry should be received with some distrust, as many 
of the names given do not appear in our Annals that are accessible. Yet, 
proceeding according to the order of pedigree in the kings of Leix, we are 
informed, that Lug or Lugha-Laoghscach or Lugaid Laighse, already 
mentioned, had a son named Lug or Lugha-Longach. He flourished 
towards the close of the first or beginning of the second century of the 
Christian era. He, too, was regarded as a common ancestor of the seven 
tribes that branched from him and from the Archon who in course of ages 
was named More or 0'I\Ioore. The genealogy of Laigis Laigean, from 
Lugaid Laighscach, son of Conal Cearnach, of Ultoman origin, is given 
in the I:5ouk of Lecain, a manuscript belonging to the Royal Irish 
Acadcmy.^^ There seems to be a gaj) in the line of Leixian succession 
as preserved for us by the genealogists ; for we cannot accept the 
statement, that Luglia-Longach was the immediate progenitor of a son, 
who, by some it is said, flourished in the fifth century. However, we are 
tnld, that the foregoing Lugha-Longach had a son named Baccan, who 
was renowned in his day. But it is likely, the acts qf a later Baccan in 
succession have been attributed to lum. A Baccan seems to have 
nourished in the time of St. Patrick; lor when the Irish Apostle passed 
through this part ot Leix on his way to Ossory, a work was in course of 
ciertioii. near which the Church of Donuiachmore afterwards stood. 
Tiiib Baccan, it is said, built the Fort of RatliTjacain,*^'^ in Magh-Reda, 
and its ioundations were being laid at tliat period. St. Patrick 
riideavoiireil to di>-n;i(le the king and ])eu]jle from erecting that 
hlructure as inttiwlrd lor tlic royal residence. Tlie legend relates, that 
in the spirit oi i>i(jp:u e\ the Irish Apostle declared an evil s])irit should 
h.iimi It.'' It app•.ll^ piobable, that Bacc;i,n lived and died a pagan. 
1 h'' e II hi r b'.u i\iii h.i 1 a son. who is called K:\vc or Eric, and he had a 
viu n. lined Cjuaire. Ine son of (luau'c is called Eoghan or Uwen. Eoghan 

« I a!) -: O'KtIiy. chi'-i of the Collo^e 
tit I • Ui\ ..:At II! r.ui . jri'Oircd the 
l.-'-Al'Jt.o: I.r.i. .in lor v;<- oi tlie Kev. 
raUi<:Vi M l.<.i:.-.'.ha, <>i Iniihoucn, who 
*<x» J\»:: .;.:Nr',; !.y disuilKuishcd 
€.;liir;» t! {he Iriih lUu:.i'Ic. Oi this 
l*" t:iiii'3 a tiiK'-st. r.iiliT a traiis- 
Ustiin. A1.I tl.i» t:..l!•.;l^^ ri[)t is now 

Inrvrivc"! i:\ tJ.c Koy.ii linh Ac.idcmy. 
►i»Mii>. cl.^.^^c'J ;-t C 13-3-4, cat. p. 18. 
NVc h.wc no d.i'.c lift us to a-^ct-rtain 
wliru tins K)a!Ui*.<rij''. had Ix-cii com- 
piled, but It \\.is fjf..:- tin;<- in the 
cu'litccnth ct-ntury. After ttus Wcrk ben i.jiupli-tcd, l-"athir Ml-ouKhhn 
rctiirncd to Jnland, and he waa I'.iii^h 
I'ncbt in Ini^houen. He was ollcred 
t!ie Irish Profesborbliij) in the College 
of Maynocith, but he would not accept 
of it. Note by Jnhn O'Donovan, 

dated January 27, 1S35, and prcnxed 
to this manuscript. 

•' At i^resent, tJure is no place bear- 
irn^ this name about Morett in the 

Queen's County ; but, there are several 
large l\aths to be found in the lands 
adjoinin,^'. Magh-Rccliet or j\Ia,i;h- 

iviada was in Oilaly, according to the 
Prefa.ce of the Feilire-Aengus ; 5'et, 
in the earlier ceuturii's, it seems to 
have been m the principality of Leix. 
lb.wc\cr, lioth statements are perfectly 
reconc ilable ; since the plain of i\Iorett 
took m the boundar\- line between 
ancient Olfaly and Leix, while it 
formed a part of both territories. 

"' Tlu- acce)unt as given in Colgan's 
" Trias Thaumaturga," adds : " nisi 
singulis dielnis Missa' in ea celcbretur 
oUicium nee ab ullo inhabitabitur 
donee ventus u.b inlerno exortus ad- 
veniet." lie alluded to Goithan 

the son of Kmaid, who, while Fedhh- 
mid and Conchovar ruled at Tara 
restored that fortress. For, according to 
the Irish word, Goithin means " windy" 
or " stormy." See " Se[)tima Vita, S. 
Patncii," 111), iii., cap. xxvi., j). 155. 



liad a son named Lu^;;iia. Lupia's son is called Canrc. It is also stated, 
that Lugna, son of Eogan, and the sixth descendant Ironi Laigsech, hacl 
seven sons, to whom he distribnted his fcariUi, or land. To the three 
eldest — Ruadan, Garban and Colum — he gave Rath Ruadan, Rath 
Coluim, Ceall Mcthne, and Ard mbruchais.'''' The fourth, Nise, had 
Bile methis and Cluain mac Nis. The fifth, Laignech, from whom 
O'Baith and O'Brocam, had Loch Lainig and Cluain Conaid. Ere, the 
sixth, from whom O'Diamrain, O'ForandIa and O'Cormac, had as a 
fearan Teach Declain, Domnach finchon and Cealbothar, and Cluain da 
fiach, and Cluain Dartada, and the estates of OT'oranla.*^'' Cuirc, the 
son of Lugna, we are told, had a son named Cormac. Cormac had a son 
called Carthann. The son of Carthann is named Seirbealagh. Seir- 
bealagh was lather of Bearrach. He is also called Barr, and he is said to 
have been the first Christian King of Leix. From this latter ancestor, 
the O'Moores were denominated the Sil-Bearaigh, or the people of 

The author of the " Duan Eireannach " mentions, among other 
descendants of " L-," those seven se]->ts who inhabited I^eix, or 
" Laigse of Leinster." According to a note, by the editor of the poem, 
this tribe comprised the seven septs, bearing this name, which agreeably 
to tradition, after the establishment of surnames, were denominated the 
O'Mores or O'Moores,"" CTvellys, O'Lalors, O'Devoys,* or O'Deevys, 
MacEvoys, O'Dorans, and O'Dowlings.^i Their descendants are still 
ver}^ numerous in and adjoining the Queen's County. Their heptipartite 
condition is thought to form a strong proof, establishing their Pictish 
origin. This is likewise affirmed, by a paragraph in the Book of Lecan.'- 
This account enumerates " the seven Laighsi " among " the Cruithnians 
of Eri," who are synonymous with the Picts. Some writers believe, 
that these people retained their appellation of Picts, because thej^ con- 
tinued a practice wliich had originally caused their race to be known by 
such name. A continuance of painting their bodies probabl}^ distinguished 
them from other tribes of Celtic race. Besides the Leix heptarchy, 
among the Cruithnian caste, " The seven Soghans," are enumerated.'^ 
A tribe, inhabiting part of Mcath and Connaught, the Ualaraid, or 
aborigines of Ulster, the Conailli, and numerous other clans in the five 
j^rovmces, are mentioned. Like this tmder view, the last named tribe 
sprung from that hero of romance, Conall Cearnach. In order to conceal 
the Pictish extraction of those clans, it is thought an unworthy device 
was resorted to by Gaelic genealogists. They appear to have been 
unaware, that the words Pictish and British are synonymous, while they 
fancied, that some disgrace attached to the British origin of Irish families. 

'^^ At present, it beems impossible is to be fuuiul, An Account of the 

to identify those places. Settlement of Lei.x, at p. 933 ; the 

'''■> According to the Rev, Patrick Genealogies and l^edigrees of Leix, at p. 

McLoughlin's " Summary of the 947 ; the History of Magli Leige, 

Leabhar Lecain," p. 156. or Plain of Leix, Queen's County, at 

■"J This chief family of Leix is said p. 1019 ; and the History and Genea- 

to have taken its surname Ivoiw Alordh, logics of Families of I-eix, at p. 1075. 

i.e., " the great " or " big." A peiligree These refer to tlie original documents 

of the O'Moores is to be found among on the subject matter in the "Book 

the MSS. belonging to the Royal of Lecain." 

Irish Academy. See Lu-cne O'Curry's ■- See the " Irisii W'rsiou of Nenuius." 

Catalogue, Vol. i., \\ _'0 ^ " Additional notis p. Ixxui. 

'1 In Eugene O'Curry's "Catalogue, " Ol these, llie M.igenis clan was 

Descriptive of Irish .MSS. lielonging most renowned in Liter limes, 
to the Roval Irish Acadeinv," \'ol. iii., '^ See an a.linirable paper writter, 


Therefore, tiiey particularize a certain woman named " Loinccadlia." 
Her they feigned to have been daughter to a Caledonian Pict, and to 
have been espoused by several patriarchs. From such a circumstance, 
those perverters of history stated, that their offspring were called 
Cruithnians." ' 

by Herb'jr I'\ llore, Esq. "Notes on a Museum." It was published in "The 

Facsimile of an Ancient Map cif Leix, Journal of the Kilkenny and South- 

Olaly, Irry, Clanmalier, Ire-an, and East of Ireland Arch.rolooical Society," 

Slievemuiyy, preserved in the ijrilish Vol. iv., new series, pp. 349, 350. 



CHAPTER I. — Early Bishops and Sees within the Queen's County, 
AND Subsequent Ecclesiastical Distributions. 

At an early period after the introduction of Christianity, St. Patrick 
IS related to have sought the territory of Leix for the conversion of its 
pagan inhabitants. In the Latin Lives of that saint, ^ there is a confused 
narrative of his journey thither, after he had engaged on his Leinster 
Mission and visited Naas,- about the middle of the hfth centur3^3 fhe 
people, however, were addicted to their Gentile superstitions, and are 
related to have -at first resisted his entrance there, and to have even 
formed a plot against the saint and his disciples destined for their des- 
truction.^ This account, however, is largely blended with fable. Nor 
would it seem very certain that the Irish Apostle, although it might 
have been his original purpose to visit Leix, ever set foot upon its ancient 
territory. It seems to be more credible, that immediately after leaving 
Naas, St. Patrick went to visit his former friend, Dubhtach Mac Ui- 
Lugair, the arch-poet of King Laeghire, who had been present when 
he preached at Tara, and who had been already baptised. Dubhtach 
then resided at Domhnach Mor,^ of IMagh-Criathar, in Ui-Cinnselaigh. 
The King of this district at the time was Crnnthann, who received the 
saint and Iiis discii)les most willingly, and he became a zealous convert 
to Christianity. L'nder the patronage of Crim.thann which extended 
to Slieve Mairge, St. Patrick was enabled to establish a church and 
congregation at Sletty,® over which he placed St. Fiach.'' We are told, 
that seven of St. Patrick's disciples were left with Fiadi.^ These were 
all men of distinction in the Calendars of the early Irish Church — viz., 

* See Colgan's " Trias Thanma- not only blessed herself, her father, 

turqa." Septima Vita S. Patricii, and her brotlicrs, but likewise all the 

Pars, iii., cap. xix., xx., p. 152. tribe of Ui-Ercain, and he said they 

- Then said to have been the seat should never be without distinguished 

of Leinster's King. laics and clerics. 

3 See this subject more fully treated ^ In the " Leabhar na g-Ceart," or 

in " Lives of the Irish Saints." by the " Book of Rights," Dr. O'Donovan 

author. Vol. iii. March, xvii. Life of places Domhnach Mor near Sletty, 

St. Patrick, Apostle and chief Patron m Ui-Cinnselaigh, p. 208. 

of Ireland, chap, xviii., pp. 689 to * About two miles north of Carlow, 

697. and on the western bank of the River 

■* The story runs, that water-pits L)arr<^\v. 

had been prepared by the sons of 'His feast is kept on the 12th of 

Laighis on the road leading to their October. See his acts in the author's 

territory. It is stated, that Brig, " Lives of the Irish Saints," Vol. x., 

the daughter of Fcrgnad, son of Cobtach, October xii. Life of St. Fiach. 

had reported to the saint the male- ** See more on this subject, in Rev. 

volence of those youths. She belonged John Francis Shearman's " Loca 

to the Ui-Ercain tribe, which seems Patriciana," No. V., Dubhtach Mac 

to have been seated in the .south of Ui Lugair, and his Sons, p. 76 to p. 

the present County of Kildare. Patrick, 90. 


St. ]\Iochatoc, of Inisfail, — thought to be not different from Cadoc, 
who is honoured as an Apostle in Wales and Britanny ; St. Augustin 
of Inis-Bec, who was one of Palladius' companions ; St. Tecan who 
is venerated on the gth of Se]:)tember ; St. Diarmait, on the loth o*' 
January ; St. Nainnid or Nennidh, who was surnamed the jMU'e-handed, 
and who administered the Holy Viaticum to St. Biigid ; Paul, who is 
said to have retired to a desert island, where St. Brendan afterwards 
visited him ; while Feidilmidh was venerated as the patron of Kilmore, 
where his feast is kept on the gth of August.^ Again, we hnd an account 
of St. Patrick having visited Magh-I^eta ^^ or Magh-Reicheat — supposed 
to have been identical with Morett, near the Great Heath of ^Maryborough — 
and wliere the people of that district had laid the foundations of a royal 
fort called Rath-Bacain, but of which no traces have been found. In 
after time, it is stated, that the church of Domnachmore or the great 
ehurcli had been there erected. On leaving Laoighis and on his way 
to iMunster, St. Patrick is said to have ])assed through the territory of 
li-Duach. In his acts, there is but a scanty account of the success 
that attended his preaching and labours within the Queen's Comity. 
NrW'rtlieless, the Christian religion was early established there, by other 
missionaries ; but to enter upon details of its rise and progress must 
be referred to the accounts given of its various localities. 

Within the limits of the present Queen's County in the early Christian 
ages, there seem to have been several sees or i)laces where bisho]is,i* — 
whom we may chiefly regard as Chore-episco])i '- — had been stationed, 
and who have been mentioned as bishops in the Irish annals.'^ Among 
those placus mav be enumerated Sleibte or Sletty, Teach ]\Iochua or 
Timahoi-, Achadh-boe or Aghaboe, Coollxmagher, and Rath na n-Epscop 
or Ratha^pick. Their boimds and the nature of the jurisdiction 
cxcrei^fd :\\v left in ohscuntw but where and when our records refer 
to them, th(,-\' ^hall be treated undur the several j^arochial divisions 
that were sul -<-,|nenllv formed. In the year a.d. nil, when the 

Svnnd of I'alh mil- AenL;hu^a " had l)ei,'n convened during the reign 
of Miiii. h' in.f. h >hir O'Brian ^^ over Ireland, and afterwards wlien 
a gi-neial Ssiicd ,.[ the Iri>!i ]irelates and clergy had been assembled. 
A I). iii>. at K.itli r.iesail,'" the bishojis and sees in Leix acknowledged 
th'- .\:«hb;-!i"p ol Ca^hel for Metro})t)litan. Then the numerous sinaU 

''-'■•■ Mr-. M. V. C"i!«.uk's "Life of subileacons, and conjointly with the 

>•.. l'.i;:i fc A;- ■>:!'.• i.f li'.-lan<L" Cliap. dioccsaa bishop confer deaconship and 

ji.. 5';>. .;'•. :,-. a'.'.\ pp. 462, 40;. the priesthood. AIL of those chore- 

•* l-'r.'fi x\.:^ .1-11 -:uiii.itiun has been cjnscopi, however, had not recei\-ed 

dcrivtvl t!.c dui-iia of Laoitjhis-Kela, episcopal consecration, luit tliey had 

rxt<-ii!i:;/ a.-..;:i:vi t':..- Kwck of only some degree of jurisdicticjn over 

Diiii.iT;;.isc. oihiT llri^■^,ts. See L'Abbc Bcrgier's 

»' Ihcir nti!:d><*r .e.-.d the cp.i-i.ipal *' nictionn.iire de Thcologie," Tome i., 

iwrcs fstablishrd in lr<!.i:;d durini^ the C/jjrj'fi^/Kt;, pp. 412, 41 3, Lille, 1844, Svo. 

lifc-timc of St. r.itrutk cannot now be '^ .\ccordinf^ to Dr. Lanigan the 

satisfactordy detcrniMu-d. Aftir his Irish had only this name for Bishops 

death, the opiscop.d ^f•<•s wcrt- at and Chorepiscoj:)!. See " Ecclesiastical 

(liferent pirin^'s aiumentrd in nundrr. History of Ireland," Vol. ii., chap, xi.. 

See Rev. P. J. C.arcw's " l•:l-cU•^ia^tical suct. ix., n. 104. P- i-9- 

History of Irelaml," chaji. iv., p. i _•■>. '♦ This is said to have been a place 

'2 Tiiis title was forim-rly nud-rred near the Hill of Uisneach, County of 

on priests, who exercised sutiu' episcopal Wistnieath. 

functions in districts and vill.e^es, and '^ tin-at grandson to the celebrated 

who were regardeil as vicars of the Monarch Hrian Boroimhe. 

bishop. Some of them r.nild ortlain '" The site of this place has not been 

clergy in the minor orders an-i as identilied. 



sees,^'^ wliich had i^reviously existed in Ireland, wcie rcMluccd in number 
to twentv-six. rearranged and consolidated. ^"^ W'c learn in a j^eneral 
way, that a diocese of which Kilkenny became the hiMd. i-eaehed from 
Sliabh Bladma or Slicve 13Iooni to Miledach or W'aUrUjrd Ilailwur, 
and from Grian Arib or C^reane in Crannayh baron\', County Ivillcenuy, 
to Sliabh Margi or vSlicve l\bu"gy in the southern part of the Queen's 
County ; another diocese of which Leighlin was the head reached from 
Sliabh Bladma to Sliabh Uighe of Leinster, from Sliabh Alargi to Belach 
Carerach, and from Belach Mughna or Ballaghmoon to Tigh 3.Ioling 
or St. INIullin's, m the Countv of Carlow and its Termons ; another diocese 
of which Kildare was the head extended from Ros Finn-glasi or Rose- 
nallis to Nas or Xaas of Leinster, and from Naas to the Cumei- of Clonard 
on the southern borders of ancient ]\Ieath. But \'/lien a Synod under 
the Papal Legate Cardinal Baparo had been held at Kells m 1152, 
a new arrangenient of the Irish dioceses took pku-e, and it was decreed, 
that the number of sees should be ]M"operl\- designated and lixed at 
thirty-eight. At present, within the Queen's Countv there are fifty 
])arishes, or parts of parishes ; and of these se\'en ]xii"ishes belong to 
the Diocese of Kildare ; twenty-seven belong to the Diocese of Leighlin ; 
fourteen belong to the Diocese of Ossoi-y ; one parish I)elongs to the 
Diocese of Killaloc ; and part of one ]iarish belongs to the Diocese of 
Dublin.^'' As the chief dioceses, that cover the extent* of the Queen's 
County since that period, are Kildare, Leighlin, and Ossory ; before 
treating of the parishes and tlieir churches, we shall commence with 
the succession of bishops that ruled over them, so far as can be traced 
from the Irish annals and archives. 

The Queen's County is estimated to contam, so far as the suffragan 
See of Kildare is concerned, about 49,000 acres of it ; the suh'ragan 
See of Leighlin extended over 122,000 — by far the largest division ; '-'" while 
the suffragan See of Ossory extended over 60,000 acres of its soil.-^ 
The County contains about 600 acres, lying within the IMetropolitan 
Diocese of Dublin ; and lil:e\vise the parish of Kyle, which belongs to 
the Diocese of Killaloe. 

I'' In Iiis Vita Sancti ]\Ialaihi,i-, 
St. Bernard complains in the sU'on'^L'St 
terms of the inconvenience that re- 
sulted from the extraordinary number 
of ecclesiastics who in his time exercised 
the functions of bishops in Ireland. See 
cap. X., col. O73. " Opera Omnia," 
Vol. i. Editio Johannis Mabillon, 

I'arisiis, 1719, iol. 

11^ The princi]:)al affairs enacted in 
this Synod were related in the " I3ook 
of Clonena.Ljh," to which the Rev. 
Geoilry locating had access, but which 
has been unfortunately lost. 

19 See Kiv. Dr. Daniel AuLjustus 
Beaufort's " Memoir of a Map of Ireland, 
illustrating the To]iop;raphy ol that 
Kingdom, antl containing a short 
account of its present State, Civil 
and Ecclesiastical," p. 59, Dublin, 1792, 
4to. The linely-engraved and coloured 
map accompanying, mounted on linen, 
and folded in a case, shows the respective 
boundaries of all the Irish Counties, 
Baronies, and Dioceses at that time. 

2" Thr diocese of LeiLjlilin is of a 
very irregular form, \'arying Irom 
eight to sixteen English miles in breadth, 
and extentling fifty in length. Its 

estimateil superlicies amounts to 
318,900 acres, comprehending the entire 
of Carlow County, a very considerable 
portion — more than half — of the 
Oueen's County, aii«l smjil portions 
of the counties of Kilkenny and 
Wick low. 

-1 According to the statement in 
Rev. John C. Erclc's " Ecclesiastical 
Register," containing the names of 
the Dignitaries and i\irochial Clergy 
of Irelaml ; as also of their Parishes, 
and their rcsj^ective Patrons, ami an 
Account of monies granted for building 
Churches and Glebe-Houses, with 
iilcclesiastical .\nnals, annexed to each 
Diocese ; and Appendi.xes, among other 
things several cases of "Quaie Im- 
pedit." Edited under the sanction of 
the Board of First Fruits, Dublin, 1827, 


CHAPTER II. — The Queen's County Portion of Kildare Diocese. 

The Diocese of Kildare is about forty-six I^n^lish miles in length, and 
twenty-nine in breadth. It contains an esliniated superi'icies of 332,200 
acres. 1 The See had been formerly in the town of Kildare, and attached 
to the Cathedral were seventy-two acres and three roods of episcopal 
mcnsal lands, and three acres adjoined the Cathedral precincts. ^ These 
latter were denominated the palace ; but for a long period no episcopal 
residence stood there. Pre\'iously to the restraining statute for tithes, 
the Protestant Bisho}) Craik had alienated tlie see-lands ; and so small 
was the income of the Protestant Bishops of Kildare, that they were 
[)crmittcd to hold other i^referments with this See. The constitution 
of their chapter was singular. It consisted of a Dean, PrecenU)r, 
Chancellor, Treasurer, and four Canons, who had no more distinctive 
titles than those of first, second, third, and fourth. The deanery was 
elective, and no other person than one of the Canons was eligible for 
that office. The Archdeacon and eight Prebendaries had a voice in 
the election of a Dean ; \et, they formed no constituent part of the 
Chapter.-^ The Queen's County parishes of Kildare Diocese are situated 
within the Baronies of Tinnahinch and of Portnahincla. Those parishes 
are Rosenalis, Rervmore. Kilmanman, Castlebrack, Lea, Ardee, Cool- 
banagher, and Clonaslec' At a very early period after the introduction 
of Christianitv, there was a bishop who seems to have had a residence 
in the tenitorv around Kildare. even before a religious establishment 
had \)K.'vn formed there f^y St. Brigid,^ its first Al)l)ess. The Red Book 
of the \vdv\ ol Kildare has it, that one Lony or Lonius was the first 
bishop of the See ; and this too is stated. b\' Richard Stanihurst,*^ but 
(111 ihr >anic aiithorilw 1 Ii-^ jieriod and liii acts, however, are alike un- 
known.' 1 lir li-t <jt Kildait' liisliops given b\' Stanihurst is quite 
ii:<'onip'ictr ; but I'loli.dily, it was the fullest that he was enabled to 
hn ni^li. 

'1 he second liishoj) of Kildare, in like manner, is said to have been 

' Ale i!.:ii.; to t'p- r.i:!i,iin';iit,ny Scuilaiulc. an.l Irolaiuk'." This inter- 

Ktiuiii-, 1 : '.'■\, ]>. I^'•. c^tiiiL; work Nvas first ])ulilishcd iu 1577, 

• A".' . I':::;.; r • '.he l<.''-;.:i-iti\- m1 thi> S-'-. in twu lulio volumes, having curious 
^ .Xci'-i'iiut; t > thi- I'r. i'.i ^l,lIlt ,iir.\iiL'r- cnL;ra\in;^~, (mm wood. These are not to 

i!.i :»t I \: '.;;:,• li.iort- ihc I )i -•■ -l,iMi-h- be found in tile Second ecUtion, publislu'd 

i;.< :i'. •■: '.l.ii >r.r. in i^^~. and alter tlie author's deatli. 

' "^T I 'm C. r.f i;*> " I'cclc-i.isth .d ' The Kev. J nhn Francis Sliearman con- 

li'..:i;rr ■ A- . < .I;!' 1 r.ii Ii 1 i!i'- s.iiu ti- .n siders he ni.iy have been the same as 

• •{ <;.•- I-Ard 1.1 1 lr^t l-riiH-. j'j). loi X" L<in,'.n, .i niniled scjii of I'ulditacli ]\Iac 

i-'i • t'i l,UL;h,in, ,md he thinks it as not 

• Hrf <rjii! Incurs (>n Uic iM of I"i o- unlikely, J.oiian hail lor a time the 
tiiicy. She >»a.> N>r:j .il-nit t!i'- n.iddle ,i;uatdianshii) of St. lirigitl's 
of the ii'.lU n-!itiiry ; ^hi- rr* i-ivcd th' nuin.ister\- until a ]ierinancnt pastor liad 
r«-lit;>oii>i UaXiH lr-:u St. Mel. Ihsli->ji .>t liren app.unted. The Martyrologies of 
.\ri!.!;:h. .«n>l a du*.i]'U- of St. r.itnck ; Talla^li .ind Donegal have a feast for a 
sh.r founded a nunurrv at Kdd.>r>: pr.)- I. on of Cill CaMir.i, and tlie Rev. jMr. 
l> lx-t\Mcn A.I). 4.'''o and .\.i>. .jiyo ; Shearman thinks he is ])robably the 
shf (!<•;. .ated this hfr alH)ut A.l>. ? - ?. same ,e> Lonius, Bishoj^ of Kildare. And, 
S..-.' Kcv. Dr. L<ii'.i.;a!i's " as ("ill Cial'hra %vas located iu Slieve 
l^l^t.>ry ot Irel.uul," v..l. 1. M.iirghe, in the neighbourhood of Sletty, 

" He llotirishcd m the beginnim; of the Lon or Lonius might be identified with 

sixteenth century. He wrote a <loscrip- L(jnan, the son of Dubhtach, who had 

ti' n of Ireland, m which this ac>'ount is been as-,i)ciated f(jr some time with his 

cint, lined, and it is to be found in cousin, St. ITach. See " Loca Patri- 

I b ■lini;slied's "Chronicles of I'n-l.inde, ciaiia," No. v., pp. 83, 84. 



Ivorius, more usually called Ibhar or Ixov by tlie Irish. ^ The twelve 
sons of Barr, dynast of Leix, and the tenth in descent from Laighseach, 
are said to have been baptized by a bishop named Ibar — possibly the 
same, yet distuict from St. Ibar,^ Bishop of Beg-Erin, although tlie 
supposition has been that an identity is probable. St. Brigid had re- 
lations with a St. Ibarus, a bishop,^*^ who lived in the plain of Gesill.^^ 
Jt need not necessarily follow, that he was, on that account, a bishop 
over Kildare. ^'-' The first celebrated and authenticated bishop over 
this See appears to have been a recluse named St. Conlath or Conlaeth, 
who was chosen for that office by St. Brigid herself. ^^ His previous 
name is said to have been Ronnchenn, and he w'as called, likewise 
Mochanna-I^aire, of the Dal-^Iessincorb tribe. He is related to have 
been a skilled artificer in gold and silver.^' Having been appointed 
bishop in or after a.d. 490,^^ he governed the See for about twenty 
years, and departed this life on the 3rd of Ma^',^" a.d. 519. ^^ After 
die death of St. Conlaeth, the succession of bishops in the See of 
Kildare ap])ears to have been lost, although Peter Walsh'^ mentions 
one Maelcoba as Bishop of Kildare, under the date a.d. 610. However, 
Sir James Ware thinks, ^'Hhat he has been mistaken for another bearing 
the same name, and who had been Bishop of Clogher. 

There is great difficulty in tracing the succession of the Kildare 
bisho]:is or abbots, as sometimes they seem to have been iudiscriminatel}' 
styled in the Irish Annals.-" It is cpiite reasonable to suppose, that 
man}' — if not most- — of the abbots at Kildare had l)een invested with the 
episcopal oflice. This was usual also, whenever bishops had monasteries 
annexed to their cathedrals. However, Cogitosus, who lived it is said in 
the sixth century, has a statement, that the episcopal succession had not 
been interrupted until that time when he wrote. -^ After St. Aedh, 

** Hammer copies from Standihurst's 
account the following list of the early 
bishops of Kildare, viz. : Lony, Ivor, 
Coliiie, Donatus, David, Magnus, Ixichard 
John, Symon, Nicliolas, Walter, Richard, 
Thomas, Robert, Boniface, IMadogg, 
William, Galfride, Richard, James, 
Wale, Barret. Edmund, Lane. See 
" Chronicle of Ireland," p. 90. 

'-' His feast is held on the 23rd of April. 

1° See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga." 
Tertia Vita St. Brigidar-, cap. liv., pp. 
532, 533- Also Ouarta Vita S. Brigidie, 
lib. ii., cap. xxiii., p. 553. 

11 Now Geashill, a parish in the King's 

'- See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, 
viii., sect, xi., n. 134, pp. 411, 412. 

13 According to Cogitosus, to whom 
is attributed the Second Life of St. 
Brigid, See Colgan's " Trias Thauma- 
turga." Secunda Vita S. Brigid;e. 
Prologus, p. 518. 

1* A very ancient crozier, said to have 
belonged to St. Finnbharr of Termon- 
barry, in Connaught, and believed to 
have been made by Conlaedh, the 
artificer of St. Brigid of Kildare, is still 
to be seen among the Irish Antiquities 
belonging to the Royal Irish Academy. 

See Professor Eugene O'Curry's " Lec- 
tures on the Manuscript Materials of 
Ancient Irish History," lect. xv., p. 33S. 

1^ See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland," vol i., chaji. 
viii., sect, xi., p. 410. 

i*^ This is the tlate for his festival. 

I'' See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 170, 171. 

18 In his " Prospect of the State of 
Ireland from the year of the World 
1756 to the year of Christ 1652," part i., 
p. 224. 

1^ See Bishop Comerford's " Collec- 
tions relating to the Dioceses of Kildare 
and Leighhn," V(5l. i., p. 4. 

-° See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesi;e Hibernic;e," vol. 11., 
Diocese of Kildare, p. 225. 

21 The name of Archbishops is even 
conferred on the prelates of Kildare ; 
but this is probably to be taken in a 
wide sense, as only indicating some 
pre-eminence of rank or station as con- 
trasted with that of other bishops. 
" Quam semper Archiepiscopus Hiber- 
niensium Episcoporum, felici saccessione, 
et ritu perpetuo dominantur." Colgan's 
" Trias Thaumaturga," Secunda Vita S. 
Brigida;, Pra^facio, p. 518. See also n. 
7, p. 525, ibid. 


who is said to have been at first a king of Leinster, and having quitted 
his royal state to have become a monk ; subsequently both Abbot and 
Bisho]) of Kildare ; -'- the next who appears on the list is Lochen, sur- 
named IMeann j\Iaenns, " the silent," -^ styled Abbot, but supposed 
have been also a Bishop of Kildare. His feast is set down in the 
■\Iartyrology of Tallagh at the 12th of January, and again at the I2tli 
of June. He died on the 12th of June, a.d. 004, accordmg to the Four 
Masters ; or a.d. 695, according to the Annals of Ulster. By the latter 
it is stated, that he met with a violent death.-' Farannan, Abbot, and 
perhaps Bishop of Kildare, died in 697.-'' His memory is celebrated 
on the 15th of January, in the Calendars, -'^ and this was probably tlie 
day of his death. Maeldoborchon, bishop of Kildare, died, according 
to one account a.d. 704 ; -'' according to another calculation, on the 
19th of February, a.d. yoS.-"^ In the Annals of Ulster, his death is placed 
in the year following ; some writers record it, at a.d. 704. Tola, Bishop 
of Kildare, and thought to have been identical with the Abbot of 
Desert-Tola, and Bishop of Clonard,-'-^ died on the jrd of March, a.d. 
732.^*^ However, the Rev. Dr. Lanigan does not believe that St. Tola 
was Bishop of Kildare. ^^ A St. Diman or ]\Io-l)imoc, styled Abbot of 
Kildare and Clonard, died March 3rd, a.d. 743. ■'- By Colgan, he is 
styled Dodimocus and Modimocus, and he is said to have been an 
anchoret. ^^ His being styled Bishop in the annalistic entry affords 
strong grounds for concluding that he was Bishop of Kildare.^' In 
the year 747, St. Cathald, the son of Forannan and Abbot of Kildare. 
died.^'' Eichtingius was Bishop of Kildare. As he was celebrating 
.Mass at St. Brigid's altar, he was killed by a priest, a.d. 762. This 
murder took place between the altar and the Crocaingel, or latticed 
partition between the clergy and laity. Afterwards a priest w-as pro- 
hit 'ited from celcln"ating Mass in Kildare, in presence of a bishop.^'' 
The Annals of Ulster have this event at the vear 761 ; while those of 
the Four M.Lstors record it at a.d. 755, and those of Clonmacnoise at 
A.D. y^(K'' 

I.onituile or Laniwill, Ihshop of Kildare, died a.d. 7S2, according 
to tlie .\nn.ds (;l tl,- I'our Masters, but rcc/c a.d. 787, according to 

" Hww, •. 'T. It 1-. t!'.u'.i.;':it iimre \>ra- his " .'Vcta Sanctoriiin Ililicrni.c," JM:irt e 

I .ill'-, h'" n 't K::u; ol l.cin^'<T, \n\\ iii.. [) 79^. 

»!;aI I.' -A.i-. .,( rlir IJlxvl Sn- J'-* See Archdeacon Cott(;n's " Fasii 

.Mfiit K'-v. Hi>!..p Co:nrr!ord's " Ciill'T Ecclesi.-t lliljernic.e," voL ii., p. 2^5. 
u^ :i» trUv-r.^" t^» the Diivccsc of Kikhin; ■■" J lis reasons for such an opinitni are 

a::\ I .<•:,;!. '..n." Viil. I. pp. A. ?• stated, in the " Eccle■^ia^^tR■aI History of 

'» I., V ;:.r .i.-..-un!,, h- IS calk\l Iifland," vol. iii. See chap. xi.K., sect. 

I>.-.V';i •.'.-• Vli^^ vin., n. 108, ]>. iy.\. 

»' V--- l<<-v. l»r. O'Or.'.'ir's " Hcnim '-Sec .\rchde.icon Cotton's "Fasti 

Hji<; ;;i» S. fip'.orc*." TotiMis iv. . l-'rcle>ia:- IIit)ernica'," vol. li., p. 225. 
Ai-.n^Iri I Uon!r:Jvr^ .X.P. IX"X( \'. ^^ See " Trias TliaiiinaiurLja." Appen- 

•lolsms b,i:;ti:3. .\P. ai Cille-daio. di.x C.Jinnta ad .\cta S. Bri;..;icLc, cap. 2, 

Hu*L»!jktw» r»t.' p. ')2>t. 

•* Src Mivk's " Kcclcij.iitical Kr^Mstcr." ^' See Hr. O'Donovan's "Annals ot 

p. ;;=;. tlie l-'c^nr Masters," vol. i. 

'• Sic H.irns's W.irc. vol. 1., " Hit>h')ps ^^ .Vccording to the Annals of Tigher 

of K!l!.irc." p. )-j. nach, and this is said to have been the 

*■ S'-c ArilHliMK.n Cotton's "Fasti true year. 
I\i:clr->i.L' HiheriiKa-." vol. ii., p. ^^ See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 

rJ5. Ecclesut Ilibernic.e," vol. ii., p. 225. 

J'Sf-r Harris's Ware, vol. i., " Hi>hops ^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

of Kild.ire," p. jSj. the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 358, 359, 

" Col'^^.m an account of him in and note (y), ibiil. 


Dr. O'Donovan,^* or in the year 7S5, according to others.-'''' His name 
has been Latinized Lomtuhns.^'^ In 7S2 is also recorded the death 
of ]\Iuireadhach, son of Cathal, and Abbot of KiKlare.-'i Bisho]> 
Lomtuile was succeeded by Snedbran, who did not long survive, but 
died A.D 782, the year of his accession.-*- Tlie Irish Annahsts make 
no exjM-ess reference to a bishop of Kildare, between the years following 
to A.D. 833. Eudus Ua Dicholla, or Eudocins O'DiocholIa, Abbot of 
Kildare, died a.d. 793, or more correctly, as it is stated, in 798.'' 
Foclan Mac Ceallach or Kellach, Abbot of Kildare, died a.d. 799 ; -^^ 
or as stated more correctly, a.d. 804.''^ Colgan has it, that his festival 
was celebrated on the 2Sth of May, or on the 9th of June.-**^ Whether 
or not, the foregoing individuals, or any one of them, represent the 
episco]-)al succession in this See must remain a matter of uncertaint}'.'' 
According to Harris's Ware, Muredach O'Cathald, called Abbot of 
Kildare, died a.d. 782.'*'^ Lactan O'Mucligern — also called Lasran 
M'Moctigern — Bishop of Kildare. is said to ha\'e died a.d. 813 or 814.'-' 
In the year Si(), Airbheartach of Cill-dara, died. What particular 
rank or station he occupied in Kildare is unrecorded ; Init we may fairlv 
assume he was an ecclesiastic, and a person of distinction. According 
to the Annals of the Four Masters, ^<^ Laisren of Cill-dara died. a.d. S17. 
Harris thinks it probable, that this is the Lasran MacMoctigern, Bishop 
of Kildare, whose death is I'ccorded at a.d. 874, and he \vould account 
for the discrepancy, by sup]:)osing a change of figures to have occurred 
while copying MSS.^^ However, the Most Rev. Bishop Comerford 
suj)poses it to be much more probable, if a mistake did take place, that 
it was in assigning the death of Lasrcn to S74, in which year a Bishop 
of Kiklare, but bearing another name, is statcil to have died." In 
Harris's Ware, as IMurtogh or Murtach O'Kellach, this Abbot's death 
is placed at a.d. 820. ^^ At A.D. 821 is entered the death of Mnireadhach, 
son of Ceallach, Abbot of Cill-dara, in the Anna's of the Four Masters.^' 
In 826 died Aedh, son of Ceallach, Abbot of Cill-dara.''"' 

In the year 82S died Siadhal, son of Fearadliach, also styled Siedhuil 

38 See his edition, vol. i., pp. 3S8, 380- ''^ See vol. i., " Bislu)])s of Kildare," 

^3 See Archdeacon Cotton's " l'';isii p. v"-^-- 

Ecclesia) Hibernica;," vol ii., p. 225. ■''' Ik- is named .igain as having die<] 

"^ See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturi;a." in S74 ; but Archdeacon Henry Cotton 

He is referred to as by some called thinks, that probably there is a mistake 

Bishop of Kildare. Appemlix Quinta in a lignrc, and that the same person is 

ad Acta, S. Brigidas, cap. 2, p. 629. meant in both statements. See " Fasti 

•'1 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of EcclesicC Hib' rnic:e," vol. ii., Diocese of 

the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 388, Kiklare, p. 22:,. 

389. °" See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. 

■•- See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti i., pp. 42S, 429. 

Ecclesia3 Hibernicce," vol. ii., p. 225. °^ See Harris's Ware, \'ol. i., " Bishops 

*^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of of Kildare," pp. ;^i',2, 383. 

the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 400, ^- See " Collections relating to the 

4GI. Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin," vol, i., 

*^ See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti pp. 6, 7. 

Ecclesise Hibernicae," vol. ii., p. 224. ^^ See vol. i., " Bishops of Kiklare," 

^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of p. 383. Also Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

the Four Masters," vol. 1., pp. 406, 407. " Fasti Ecclesiie Hibernic;e," vol. ii., 

^^ See " Trias Thaumaturga." Appen- Diocese of Kildare, ]). 226. 

dix Quinta ad Acta S. Brigidae, cap 2. ^* See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i, 

p. 629. pp. 43-, 433- 

■•^ See Most Rev. Bishop Comerford's ^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

" Collections relating to the Diocese of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 440, 

Kildare and Leighlin," vol. i., p. 6. 441. 



O'Feradacli or ^M'Ferag.-'^ Abbot of Cill-dara/'' This Abbot's nanu' 
has been Latinized Seduhus by Harris, and it has become the Irish 
laniih- name of Shiel. We are informed, that ]]c was the autlior ol 
Annntations on tlie Epistles of St. Paul, and wliirh are still extant. ''^ 
He is not to be confounded with a still more renowned man bearing 
the same name, who flourished in the fifth century, and who was a poet 
ami theologian. ^^ It is probable, however, that the present Siadhal 
was not a bishop. Tuathchar or Tuadcar, Bishoi") and Scribe of Cill- 
(iara, died, a.d. S30 ^^ or 833. •'^ In the year 837, 839, or 840, as 
variedly stated,*'- Orthanach, Bishop of Cill-dara, died.*'^ .'lidgene, 
surnamed Biito, and also called Owen Britt, indicating that he was a 
Briton In' birth, styled a scribe, a Bishop and an Anchoret of Kildare, 
(lird A.D. 862, having nearly attained the very advanced age of 116 
yt:iis>' He is also called Aeidhgenbrit.*'^ This venerable Prelate de- 
]i. 11 till this life on the i8th of December.*^'' at which date we find in 
the Martyrology of Tallagh the entry of an Acdgein Arda Lonain'^'^ 
—most ]n-obably the present Bishop. 

In l]i(_; year 868, Cobhthach,''^ Abbot of Kildare, who was a wise 
man and a learned doctor, died. He was commemorated in some 
Irish I'oet, of which the following is a literal English 

ti an 

|i\- an 
ation : 

Cobhthach of the Cuirreach ''■* of races, 
KiuLT ot Liphthe of tunics. 


" Alas ! for the great son of I\luireadhach, Ah, grief ! 

the descendant of tlu^ comelv, fair Ccallagli ; 
" Chii.'t of Scholastic Leiuster, a perfect, comely, 

jirudnit sage, 
" A brilliant shining star, was Cobluhach, 

tlie successor of Conladh." '^ 

The Ai'.nals ol Ulster style him Covhach JMacMureai, and prince of 

I . . :. ... 
lu! l.a« 

\ 1)1. U., DuKlbC ul 

in'.t " ,\iui,ilb of 

Dr. (Jlh:\ 
' * Src .\! Krv. H^^l.ol> Coim I l'iiir> 

•■ ( ■li-N'.i 'U-. trl.ll!!.< to t!lC DlOCLM- ol 

Ki; tjic an-.l I^ii,;hiirt." v 1. 1., j). 7. 

*» ii.e Urv. Dr. I^r.i^du gives s.itis- 
jji, t'Uy x<--kvd i T iirivtatt at the con- 
<!»« us tJ^t l.c XV A» an Inslinidii. II'.- 
• A.» tJ,.c Aut!; r of f .;fw:/»» l'.i, 
•-.'■vfSjkJ l-cjuMul I.a'.in }iy:;ins, wliicli 
Ui^r t-<<ra suti •; I'.rl jn the l>iviiu- 
•>«.i<-» S« " ^;<^^k^.;.l^!^;tI History of 
llfl^nd." voL I., chaj). i . i ;> l~. (t ify. 

** Vr*: Archii'-.iC-jM i -.ttint " Fasti 
I -fj irujc IIjJktjuc*:," vol. u.. Dioccbc of 
Ki\ '..trc. t>. 22'j. 

" Src I>r. O''s " .\nnals of 
dir r\,iir .\!.istcrs." Vol. i., pj'. 4-}i>, .?4'>- 

*' See Archi'racoii Henry C^)ttuii'3 
*■ l-'a^ti Ivctl'-i.f Hil'tniico.-." vol. ii., 
I'UKrsr of KlM.irc, p. Zib. Al>o Most 
Kcv. Coim-rford's " Colkctiuiis 
ril.itini: to the niocises of Kildaro and 
LciKhlin," \ol. 1., p. 7. 

* ' hce 1 )r. O'I'onuvan's "Annals of 

the h'uur I\histers," vol. i., pp. 460, 

"'' Si-c Arcluli'acon Cotton's " I'^i^ti 
h".cclcbi;e Ililieraicx'," vol. 11., Bisho]is of 
]\ililaro, p 225. 

"'■' Sec Most Rev. Bisiio)"! Comerford's 
" Collections relalin" to the Dioceses of 

lin, vol. 1., p. 7. 
Trias Thaumaturga," 
ad Acta S. Brigida;, 

Iviid.irc and Lei,L;l 

■^^ See Col'-jan's ' 
-Vppendix (.juintti 
cai>. 2, p. 0J9. 

«7 See Ivev.' Dr. Kelly's "Calendar of 
Irish Saints," p. x.x.wiii. 

«s Called Col)tliach O'Muredach, by 
Archdeacon Cotton. See " h'asti Ecclesia; 
Hibernica;," vol. ii.. Diocese of Kildare, 
p. 226. 

"" A larRC plain near the town of 
Kddare. The ancient Irish had chariot 
races here, according to Cormac's 
Glossary. In that work, it is conjectnred 
that Coipnech is derived a curribus. 
This plain has been celebrated from 
times remote for its horse-races, which 
are still continued at difierent seasons 
of the year. 

"" The first Bishop and patron of 
Kildare, venerated on the 3rd of May. 




Kildare '^ placing his death at a.d. 809.'- According to Harris's WareJ^ 
Moengal, Bishop of Cill-dara, died a.d. S70.'' This entry at the same 
year, is not touad in the pubhshed Annals of the Four Masters. In 
the year of Christ 873 died, according to the Four Masters and Colgan, 
Robhertach Mac Ua-Cearta, from whom the Island known ar, Inis- 
Robertaigh ^^ was named. "t^ He was a Bishop of Kildare, Scribe and 
Abbot of Ci]l-Ach:)idli.'^ According to Harris' " Ware," '^ he was 
Abbot of Achonry— but this is evidently a mistake for Cill-Achaidh. 
The same authority places his death at a.d. 874 ; and it has thus been 
copied by Archdeacon Cotton, as he states, that Robertach M'Xaserda, 
who was a Scribe and Abbot of Achonry, became Bishop of Kildaiw 
He died a.d. 873, or 874.''-' Sir James Ware calls this prelate Robertac 
MacNaserda, and states, that he died on tlie 15th of January. C'u 
the same day is an entry of a festival for Robertaigh in Inis More.'^'^ 
This very same year is" recorded the death of Lachtman, son of 
Moichtigiiearn, Bishop of Cill-dara and Abbot of Fearna. By Colgan, 
he is called the Abbot Lasran M'Moetigern, and in another place lie 
is styled the Bishop of Kildare. However, this entry may refer to the 
Lasran, whose death is recorded to have taken place a.d. 817, ^^^ and 
inserted at the year 873, through an error of the copyist.'^- 

In the year '878, Suibne Ua Finnachta, Bishop of Kildare, died, 
according to the Aimals of the Four Masters ^^ and^ Colgan,"^ on the 
27th of Septeml)er. On that day, he is registered among the saints 
of Ireland in the Martyrology of Tallagh.^^ According to Harris':: 
" Ware " ^''' and Archdeacon Cotton, Suibne O'Fianachta died a.d. 
878 or 8S0.-' Scannal, Scannail, or Scandalus, Bishop of Kildare, 
died in 881, according to the Annals of the Four Masters ^^ and 
Colgan, ^'■^ but in 884, according to the Annals of Ulster. His festival 
is set down in the Mirtyrology of Tallagh,'^'^ at the 27th of June.'-'i 

''I Thus " Coohach mac Murcai, Prince 
of Kildare." — Cod. Tom. 40. 

" See Dr. O'lJoiiovan'.-, " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. 1., pp. 512 to 515, 
and nn. (a, b, e). 

73 See vol', i., " Bishojis of Kildare," 

P- 3S3. 

7* See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
Ecclesia; Hibernica^/' vol. li., Diocese of 
Kildare, p. 226. 

'■"• Supposed by Dr. 0'Drmu\an to have 
been in the Bog of .'Vllan. Probably from 
it,Robertsto\vn,in the County of Kildare, 
has taken its name. See " Annals of the 
Four ^Masters," vol. i., Dr. O'Donovan's 
edition, pp. 518 to 521, and n. (u) ibid. 

78 See Most Rev. Bishop Comerford's 
" Collections relating to the Dioceses of 
Kildare and Leighliu," vol. i., " Bishops 
of Kildare," p. 8. 

77 Now Killeigh, in the Kind's County. 

78 See vol. i., " Bishops ot Kildare," 

p. 383- 

7^ See " Fasti Ecclesia; Hibernicai," 
vol. ii.. Diocese of Kildare, p. 226. 

8« See " Martyrology of Tallagh," in 
Rev. Dr. Kelly's " Calendar of Irish 
Saints," p. xii. 

"1 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the iMjur Masters," vol. i., pp. 520, 521. 

8- See j\Iost Rev. Bisliop Comerford's 
" Ci>l lections relation to the Difjceses 
of Kill hire and Leighlin," vol. i., Bishoj^s 
of KUdare, p. S. 

8^ See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 
pp. 526, 527. 

s* See " Trias Thaumaturga." Appen- 
dix; Quinta ad Acta S. Biigida-, cap. 2, 
p. 629. 

85 This must have been an addition to 
the original .Martyrology of Tallagli, 
supposed to have been compiled by St. 
M(?lruan and St. /Engus, the Cukhe 
before this date. 

8" See vol. i., " Bishops of Kildare," 

P- 3«3. 

87 See ,-\rchdeacon Cotton's "Fasti 
Ecclesi.e Hibernic;e," vol. ii.. Diocese of 
Kildare, p. 226. 

88 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 
pp. S30, 531. 

80 See " Trias Tliaumaturga." .\p]X'n- 
dix; Ouinta ad Acta S. Brigi(hn, cap 2, 
p. '.-•<>. 

'■*." See Rev. Dr. Kelly's edition. 

01 See Harris's " Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 383. .Also 
Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti Iicclesi;e 
Hiberr.icx'," vol. ii., Diocese of Kildare, 
p. 220. 


The next successor appears to have been Lari;is or Largisius Mac 
Cionin, Bishop of Kildare.-'- During his term, we hnd recorded the 
deaths of St, Muredach, the son of Brian, King of Leinster and Abbot 
ot Kilclare, a.d. 8S2 ; of Tulelatia, daughter to Iluargalach, Abbess 
ol Kildare, this same year ; and of Tuetahus, Abbot of Kildare, a.d. 
SSj.'-'^ During his period, also, the Danes were formidable enemies 
to the princes and people of Ireland ; and a battle was gained over Flann, 
son to the monarch, by the Danes of Ath-Cliath or Dublin, in which 
fell Aedh, Iving of Connaught ; and Lerghus, or Largisius j\Iac Cronin,'" 
l')ishop of Kildare, who was slain in this battle by the Danes, a.d. 8^5. '■'■'' 
'Ihe Annals of Innisfallen assign this event to a.d. 888. About this 
lime, Suibhne, son of Dubhdabhoireann, the Prior of Kildare, and 
jN'o persons were made captives b}^ the Northmen invaders, who 
c.'rried them off to their ships '-"^—probably with the view of hax'ing 
.! lansom ])aid lor their release. In the year fjoo, Dubhan, Abbot of 
Cih-dara, died, according to the Annals of the Four Masters.''^ Various 
r,;ids of the ioreigners are recorded as having talvcn place in 8S7, 889, 

> ,5, and ()_'<). '-'^ \A'hether or not a Bisho]) had been in Kildare during 
thi-Mj troubled tunes may be questioned, for such account is not found 
ui (iur Amials. \n 903, the death of Suibhne, son of Duljhdaljhoireann 
.ii.d I'liitr of Cill-dara, is recorded. '■"■' Flanagan O'Regan, Prince of 
I ■ iMstrr and heu"-api)arent, Abbot of Kildare, died a.d. qzo.'^^'-' 
( ninnmhael, liishop of Cill-dara, or Criunnocl, surnamcd Boeth, 
i\r<\ Drcniiber iitli, a.d. n-')-''^ ^^u this daw his feast is celebrated 
jr. the Iri.-h Calendars. ]\hil!inneoiius sueccrded as Bi'-lioj) ot Kildare. 
.. eoidiii'.; to the stalrnient of Sir Jaiut-s Ware.'"-' ilow^'X'er, we do 
::<){ liud the eulrv ol hir, death in Dr. O'Donovan's Annals of the Four 
^! . t'l-. W'- aie uit'oniud, that Marltuian dio'I a.d. ()4'),'"''^ or 950. ^'J' 
!i'- l'>i h";' <'l Ivildare. In ()2.\. the Dams of Waterlord plundered 
tins iihice, a:id uj f.iv 1 tli'-ir outrage in <i2b, carrving away numerous 

> .iptui--^ .lU'l the n. lut bi'ot\- ; v.hile the Danes of Dublin pillagcl 
;bc ti.v. n in u-J.--' In the vear os.v the town of Kildare was again 
: !ll.i.:< d bv P»l.'.'Mr, tl.e son ol (iiKllrrd, at the head of the Danes of 
i)'.:^ !;ii • "■ It IS ili"i:.;lit, Culenuis or Ciilean MacKellach, Abbot 
..( Kil i.t:-'. ■k\.s:> ;-'..iin on this occasion liy the Dain'S, a.d. 953.^"'' Such 

'CO See ILiiiis's •' War.'," vol. i., 

" r.i-hdpsol K'llil.iu-," p. 38 ^ and Arcli- 

clu.icun t'<atiiu's " i'".isli JucK-sLc Ilihur- 

ui'' r," \(.l. li., I )i. iccSL- uf Kililarc, p. 22O. 

'"' Sli: I'r. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

tlu: l'"our M.i.stcr.^," vol. i., pp. OJ4, 623. 

< ijx ?. :- f.;> ami CMl,;an's "Trias Thauniaturga." 

"I:>in' <.»'Iv .-.; ,v An'» " An;i.ili of thv Appendix Ouint.i ad Acta S. Brigidze, 

J Vif StisiTj-*," 1.C ;> ca".' 1 !.c;^!.a-». in. n cap. li., p. o io. 

iCtu.ia-Ua. S« \. :. i . J p. c 30. U7. ''-'^ Sec «7//. 

♦• Sv* Arvh'!riv«,rti <"-:■.•.:»■» " l"'dsti "'^ This \LMr is a-^siqncd for liis death, 

F-c«T'<*jr Mil^-ciitcjc." viJ. u , D:c«:c5c o( in the Ann.ilsof L'l.itcT, Codc.K Clarendon, 
KiVtirf, p. ;;r.. Tianc .}Q. 

••• v<-^l'..;^An*>«" T::.k%n:aa::.atiirg;a," »"• Seu Harris's "Ware," vol. i.. 

Npjwnii* OinnM ad Av'.ji S. IIri^;ul.i-. " IJisliops of Kildare," p. SS3. 
i*p .'. }» 6;o. '°^ bee " The Irish Penny Magazine," 

*• v-r !>.'. O'Donovan's cdiliou, vol. i., vol. i.. No. 35, p. 274. 
5 j> «;'''>, "•:. '"'Sec Col,u;an's "Trias Thauma- 

•• Srr Mr. Jnhn D'.Mton's nrlicie in tnrtia," Ajjpendi.x Qninta ad Acta S. 
•• Tlic Irl^h Tcuny ilafjazine." vol. 1., HriKida.*, caj). 2, p O30. 
N<i It. p. 274. '"■'See Archdeacon Cotton's "Fasti 

»» N.-c Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of Ecck-^ia.- llil)ernica'," vol. ii.. Dice se 
tri" F.Mir Masters," vol. ii., pp. i;')4, 56;. of Kililar<-, ]>. 22O. 

1 : 

l^^, > 

:.vh .p f.. 
{., the D 


UK ' MS ol 

h.ilif- ;,;. 

J I. 

." Vul. 1., 

, I'a-Iiops 

. { h..:-^< 

t ' 


*» *Vr«-« , 

' t 4 .' 

.•»■• I; 

;i%'l;.,i .1) 


\i.;<s^;.» ' 

1 1^: 

:.t^ i. '. 

A.:. I s. 




repeated outrages must lia\'e eaused uearl\' the ruin of those rehj^ious 
estabhshnients there, with great loss ot hie and property to the 

It was a custom very common witli the Irisli annahsts to designate 
their bishops under the title of Abbots."'"* The Irish Church having 
been originally constructed on a monastic model, the bishops frequently 
combined the abbatial v/ith the episcopal oftice, and hence as the annalists 
were for the most part monks, they often chronicled the death of the 
Inshop as that of their al)bot, since it wns in Ins abbatial capacity that 
he was more intimately connected ^vlth them."''' Wherefore, it may 
fairly be considered, that a long lapse of time, without record of a 
bishop's existence in several Irish dioceses, nuist not lead to the in 
ference of the See having been continuously vacant during such })eriod. 
This must be borne in inind as the following notices "occur. The 
next superior we read of was Mured Mac-Foclan, Abbot of Kildarc. 
and he belonged to the Royal Family of Leinster. ^^^ He was killed 
during an incuision by the Danes, a.d. 965 ; ^^^ while the Confederates on 
this occasion .were Amlave, their king, and Kerbal JMacLorcan.""-' 
The next bishop of ICildare is variously styled St. Anmclia, or 
Aumchad, Latinized Annicliadius and Animosus. He was a ver\' h()l\- 
man, and to him is ascribed the authorship of a Life of St. Brigul.''' 
He is also called Amucaidor Ancmaid, Bisho]^ of KildaTe. He lived. to 
a good old age, and died a.d. 9S0 i"i or 981. ^'^ At this latter date. Sir 
James Ware, who styles him Amuchaid, places his death. ^^^ Murchad 
or jMuireadlnch MacFlann, stvled Comorlian of Conlaeth,"'^ or 
Bishop of Kildare,i^8 died a.d". gSs.^"-* The Abbot of Ivildaie,"-" 
or Bishop, as called by Sir James Ware, and who was named Moel 
Martin, or Ma'lmartan, died a.d. 1028, "-^ or 1030."-"- 

Through reverence for the Patroness of Kildare Diocese, St. Brigid,'-' 
we may assume the following name to have been taken — Moel Ihigid 
Moelbrigde, or Brigidian,^--^ meaning " the servant of St. Brigid," and 

^^^ All instance may be fonnd, wliere 
the Annals of Ulster when recordin'^ 
the death of Celsus or Cealach, Arch- 
iMshop of Armagh at a.d., 1129, state 
that he died in the twenty-fourth 
year of his abbotship. 

^°^ See the Very Rev. James 
O'Laverty's valuable and very learned 
work, " Historical Account of the 
Diocese of Down and Connor, Ancient 
and Modern," vol. v., p. 73, n. 

11'' See Ci-^lgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernia\" xvi. Januani, n. 6, p. 

m See " Fasti Ecclesiai Hibernicae," 
vol. ii., Diocese of Kildare, p. 226. 

112 See Colgan's " Trias Thauma- 
turga." Appendix Quinta ad Acta 
S. 15rigida3, cap. 2, p. <'~<30. 

113 See Bishop Comerford's " Col- 
lections relating to the Dioceses of 
Kildare and Leighlin," vol. i., "Bishops 
of Kildare," pp. 9. lo. 

ii-* According to Colgan. See " Trias 
Thaumaturga." Appendix Quinta ad 
Acta S. Brigida?, cap. 2, p. 630. 

115 See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 

Ecclesi.c I Iiliurnicns," vol. ii., Diocese 
of Kildare, ]). 2ji). 

^i''See " De rra^sulibus Lagenia_^ " 
Episcopi Darenses, p. .1.3. 

I'^See Dr. O'DoiKjv.iii's "Annals 
of the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 
718, 719. 

lis See Colgan's " Trias Thauma- 
turga." Appendix Quinta ad Aet.i 
S. i'>rit;ida?, cap. 2, p. 630. 

11'' See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
Ecclesiai Hibernica?," vol. ii.. Diocese 
of Kildare, p. 226. 

12" See Colgan's " Trias Thauma- 
turga," Appendix Quinta ad Acta S. 
Brigidai, cap. 2, p. 630. 

1-1 See " De Prcesulibus Lagenia'." 
Episcopi Darenses, p. 43. 

'-- See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
Ecclesi;e Hibernicae," vol. 11., Diocese 
of Kildare, p. 226. 

1-3 See Harris's "Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 383. 

12* See Bishop Comerford's " Col- 
lections relating to the Dioceses of 
Kildare and LeighUn," Bishops of 
Kildare, p. 10. 


who died 1042.^-^ Colgan calls him bishop of that See as also Sir James 
Ware."'-''' Again, at the vcar 1076, we fmd recorded in onr Annals the 
'leatli of Kelius, son to D(jneg"an, Bishop of lA'inster : and tliat such a 
title at tliis period had been attached to the See of Kildare cannot be 
questioned. Kelius, altliough not mentioned by Colgan in his list 
oi the Kildare I^ishops, is represented as a distinguished elder among 
ihe ecclesiastics of Ireland, and he died in the reputation of sanctity at 
<"deudalough, in the year already mentioned. ^-^ It would seem, 
ihat some near connection had existed at this period, and at times 
I'revious, between the monastery of Killachaid, or Killeigh, in 
the King's County, and the See of Kildare ; for we are informed, 
that a Itishop of the latter See named Finn IM'Gussan, called M'Gorman, 
died at the hjrmer })lace. Through mistake, however, Colgan, Sir James 
Ware, and after them other writers, state, that he died at Achonry, 
-V.D. io!>5.^-^ Xevertheless, it has been pointed out, that there is 
inanifeslh' a mistake or confusion in such an entr}', because at a.d. 1160, 
a liishoj) of Kildare, bearing the same name, is recorded, and who died 
at Killeigh, where he was interred. As, at the latter date, there was 
undoubtedlv a bisho]) of Kildare sinnlarlv nametl. it appears most 
I'robable, that liis name and deatli liad l-een twice entei'ed through 
->iurie e-rror of a copyisi, and wrongh', at tin; year 1085.'--' 

The next IJishop of Kildare appears to havt' beun F('rdomnach, 
who assisted at a council held in Ireland, a.d. kh/), l)y Iving i"\Ioriertach 
O'l^rien, together with Idunaii, Bishop of Meath, Samuel, Bishop 
of Down, and other Prelates. ^^'-' All of these subscribed an Epistle 
t'l T.aiifranc. Arrhbi^hi)]i of ('anterl)Ui'\'. reconnnending for consecration 
Mal( has, tlie tn'si lli^lmp of Watealord. It is thought hY'rdomnach 
n-siL'ued the See ef Kiid.iri' this same \'ear, a- he lived until iioi, while 
m the itm;,!-' the (K-ath of :\l,u Ibriuhda Mac Antire O'lirolchan, 
.1 leaiaied Portor. lli^li'ip of Kildare and of Le-mster died, and in the 
\rar iioo. All! ( I'lhrt nion, Bi-iiop of Kildare, are stated to have died. 
.^Ie.!:lv.l!i^• ;! i> s'ljipo-d. that Ferdomnach retained the title, without 
:. Auig r<-.suined t!!-: .idwiinistration of the I^iocese.^'-'- In iioS, j\Iac- 
ii.:. -Douiuhail. I)i-h.ip o! Kildare, died.''- In ii40,Cormac O'Cathsuigh, 
-i\led r-:-h--p of <iird.' ' In 114S, Ta Diubhin. Bishop of 
K'.M.iM-, dir(l.' ' lie IS called Abbot by (A)lgan.'^'-' IIis successor 

'•■ ^>-; \;< !. I. .ii.<.:» C•.i^l'n'^> " l'\i3ti iiicaruiu licclesi iruiii Ant ii|uitates," 

i 1. .;j ilil ■::■.:. .1 ." vol. n. L'i'K(.-bc liulex Chroneilo^iciis, ad An. MXCVI., 

.! K:l.;.n-. t>. ,•-•''. .\l .\.\). I"};. p. 54;. 

l-:.;.*!! l:j.i j,:» r-.r.Ty J. T tlic ili'.ith i.! '-'i AcconlniL,' lo the Annals of Ulster 

u!. -iJ.i-f v.iu::!.! " .\!.-l-bri'.^iduis. .,nd tli(i-,o ot the Kmir Masters. The 

j.-:ir«.;.iicr Kj'.'.ari'-n. oliit." tunia r it\ie him Arch-pnest or Bisliop 

"* Sr-c " l*c I'rjNu'ahiis La^jiu.c." of KilJare, and of all Leinster. The 

l';;>"pi I'.ii»-ii%r-,. ji. .; ;. le.iioii lor this added title appears 

•*' Sc-c C<ilv;.iirs "'liLi,-, Th.e.n.ia- {<> have beeu, that Ivildare had been 

«uri:.i." Apjxivhx Ouitita .id Act.i i.msidcred, at that period, to have 

>. ISri^Mil.r. c..p. 2. p. 0!u. .\1-.. i':.i.. been the most respectable or dis- 

^cpiiiiKi Api'endix ad Acta S. l',itruii, tinRuished Src in Leinster. 
J..»t^. III., jt. 30.S. '^-'See l\ev. Dr. Lani^:;an's " Ec- 

••' Sec .Archdeacon Cotton's " l'"asti elesiastical lli-.tory of Ireland," vol. iii., 

Mci.If'' Ilibcrnic.f," vol. 11., Diocese chaj). xxiv., sect, v., n. 51, p. 454. 
of Kildare, p. 226. ''-Tins very year, also, the death 

'5' Sec Itishop Comcrford's " Col- of Maeltunien, Archbishop of Leinster, 

I'-ctioub rclaiinc; to the Dioceses ot is announced in Dr. O'Donovan's 

Kildare and Lcighlin," Bishops of " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. ii., 

Kild.ire, p. 10. pp. 9S6, 9S7. 

= ■" See .\rchbishop L'ssher's " Britan- i''* See ibit/., pp., loSo, 1081. 



appears to have been Finn MacGorniian, who had been Abliot 
over the monks of Tnbhair-chinn-trachta. 'I'his monastery has 
been variedly called iMonasterium Nevorensc, I)ul)liar-chinn-Triagh, 
and Monasterium de viride Ligno, or Greenwood, ^^^ and it is now known 
as Newry, County of Down. This prelate assisted at the Synod of 
Kehs, or Melhfont, in 1152. He is supposed to have been the tutor 
of Dermod Mac-Murrough, for \vliom he coiupilcd the celebrated Manu- 
scri])t, still preserved, and now known as the Book of Leinster.^^^ He 
died A.D. iibo.i^'' Malachy O'Birn, or O'Brin, succeeded. To him allusion 
is made in the Life of St. Laurence O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin. It is 
stated by Giraldus Cambrensis,^^" that when FitzStephen had been besieged 
in Carrig, near Wexford, a.d. 1171, this prelate and OTdethe, Bisliop 
of Ferns, made oath to him of Dublin having surrendered to the Irisli, 
which caused him and his party likewise to surrender. ^^ This 
aj)parently groundless fabrication has been omitted b}' Sir James Ware,^*- 
in his account of both prelates '■'^ ; but Harris did not neglect to foist 
the slanderous tale into his edition of that honest writer's works. i"*^ 
We are told, by Harris, that O'Brin is called Bishop O'Brien 
in the Annals of Leinster, and that liis death is placed in the \car 
1175.^-^^ Other accounts ha\'e it, that he died on the ist of Januarv, 

In the year 1177, Nehemiah was promoted to the S^e of Kildare', which 
he governed about eighteen years. ''^' We have no account afterwards of 
a bishop in that See, until the appointment^of Cornehus IMacGelan,^^^ 
which is assigned by Sir James Ware to a.d. 1206. It is thought, that 
the death of Nehemiah must have occurred about 1195 ; ^^'-^ although 
Sir James Ware could find nothing certain regarding the date.^^*^ There 

I"'' See ibid., pji. 10S4, 10S5. 
1"° See " Trias Tliauniaturya," Ap- 
pendix Quinta ad Ada S. Brigida?, cap. 
2, p., 630. 

^'■^"^ Na juar is another name given to 
it in Archdall's " Monasticon lliberni- 
cum," p. 126, u. (2). 

138 Xhis MS., preserved in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, had been 
called the Book of Gleudalough, until 
Professor Eugene O'Curry ascertained 
that in reality, it was the Book of 
Leinster, while he fixed the age of its 
composition and the name of the writer. 
This MS. contains 205 loose folios 
in its present state, while these 
embrace historical tracts, tales, 

poems, and genealogies. It has lately 
iDcen ]3ublished in fac-simile lithograph, 
and it was edited by Dr. Atkinson, 
T.C.D., who has prepared an explana- 
tory introduction. See Rt. Rev. 

Or. Comerford's " Collections relating 

to the Diocese of Kildare and Leighhn." 

Bishops of Kildare, p. 12. 

'^'■* See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

the Four IMasters," vol. ii., pp. 11 36, 

II 37. 

1*" See Giraldi Camljrensis' " Opera," 

edited by James F. L)imock, M.A., 

vol. v., Expugnatio Hibernica, lib., i., 

cap. XXV., jip. 270, 271. 

1*^ Regan seems to tell more correctly 
the story, that after FitzStephen had 
sent thirty-six of his men to aid Earl 
Richard, the traitors attacked him, 
killed most of his men, taking himself 
and \\\<i other ca\'aliers prisoners. 
Ife lias nothing regarding the bishops 
ill his account of this transaction. 
See Harris' " flibernica,"p. 85. 

''-In his " jVnnals of Ireland," 
A.i). I 171. 

' '■' In his wor 

'*' See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's 
clesiastical History of Ireland, 
iv., chaii. xxix., sect, xi., n. 7 
231, 232. 

'*^ See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 384. 

^■"' See Sir James Ware, " De Pra;suli- 
bus Lagenia;," Episcopi Darenses, p. 43. 

'*' See Harris' " Ware,'.' vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 384. 

'■•^ At first he was Rector of Cloncurry, 
and afterwards Archdeacon of Kildare. 
See Sir James Ware, " De Pra;sulibus 
Lagenia'," Episcopi Darenses, p. 44. 

'•"' See Rt. Rev. Bishop Comerford's 
" Collections relating to the Dioceses 
of Kildare nnil Leighlin," p. 13. 

'5'J See " De Prj_sulibus Lageniaj." 
Episc(jpi Darenses, p. 43. 


De Pra^sulibus 

' Ec- 


Till': nui':i;N' s county portion oi' kudakl diui i.^i;. 103 

is evidence in the Close Rolls, that Cornelius .AiacGi'lan'^' was living 
on the 2gth of Julv, a.d. 1222, since his name occurs in a Papal Decree 
c)t Honorius III. of that date. ^^^ He did not Ion;; survive ; for we find, 
that on the 12th of March, 1223, the King of England, Henry III., 
empowers the Archbishop of Dublin to approve of his successor in the 
See, Ralph of Bristol, so called, probably, because he had been a native 
of that city. He is thought^^^ to have been Treasurer of St. Patrick's, 
l)al)lin, at the time of his appointment. Ralph of Bristol underwent 
great expense in repairing and beautifying the Cathedral of Kildare. 
Some ancient sculptures still exist, which are supposed to date from 
this restoration. 1^^ To him has been attributed a Life of St. Laurence 
O'Toolc, a manuscript copy of which is still extant among the Manu- 
scri]-)ts of Archbishop Ussher, in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
I'iall^h of Bristol died in the year 1232.^^^ 

In November, 1232, a licence was sent for the chapter of St. Brigid, 
Kildare, by their messengers, to elect a Bislio]) in their church to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Ralph, their late prelate. John 
de Tanton,i^<^ Canon of St. Patrick's, was elected, and on the 6th of 
August, 1233. the Royal assent was given. On the loth of November 
following, a Mandate issued to Maurice Fitzgerald, Justiciary, to give 
the P.ishop seizin of the See and of all lands and tenements thereto 
belonging, whereof ]^ali)h, his predecessor, had been seized at the time 
of his death. Mandate was also given to the knights,* free tenants and 
others of the See, to be intentive and respondent to the bishop as their 
jciiil.'^' During the episcopacy of this John. .a.d. 1254, the Earl of 
Kildare founded the Green (Hrey ? ) Monastery at Kildare; and in its 
(iLqiel ol the iilessed \'irgin ^Marv, a superb tomb was erected for that 
noble fainilw'^' Bishoj) J nhn died about the beginning of summer, 1258, 
and he wus buried in In.-, own church.'^'-' One oi the Canons of Kildare, 
Sunem of Kilkeiniy, and so called, liecause ]irobably he had been 
|.oin in citv, was now elected successor, and he obtained the Royal 
a--ent un the jist of ()etol)er, 125S. It seems to be doubtful whether he 
died in .\!>iil. I272.1--' or m the vear 1275.'''^^ The See remained vacant 
lui some \'.-,u^ .liter the d-ath ol this pielate.'^'-' 

'«! ^;v< K:. K--V. Hi-.!i(i],> (\>iiuii.)i\l'.s I'-'See Ilarri'^' "Ware," vol. i., 

*■ t 11' < ?! >:;■> rcl.i'.iiu: t'- tlie Dioccses "Bishops ol Kildare," ]>. 3S5. 
..; lu; Uir a:..\ I.'i.;liiia." \'ih 13. 14. '"o yi^i^ j^ stated in a short Chrouicl.i 

•" .\t. :.;•.:».: t.>'th'.- Clusi.- Rolls of of the Dominicans. 
Hit H':.:.- 111. "^' Harris stales, that he found by 

>»» }»v >.i jATi'.n W.iro, in " De the accounts of John de Samford, 

r**-:.jU* ;.> Ls:"-iAr" ICpiscojn I-~scheator of Ireland, in the Cliief 

l'ii:rat.^j 5' 4.t Keinemt)ranccr's Office, that he ac- 

••• Iliui'.fi'.iia» ol iJi'- -c remains are .-.lunli-tl f^r the proiits of the Sec of 

t'j b* to-r. J J.v 5{fv. 1:. O'Lc.irv. m • Kildare milv ironi tlie Vied of St. Michael 

hi Kfv. !^;^h'..;> Cornel..:, IS "Col- 'th Edward I., A.n., u;;, to the 19th 

lo'.i.^ri rrUlin;; to t}'.r I>i<.Keie', of of I'ehrii.irv, Qth Edward I., .\.D., 1281, 

KiI:a:«- i.::l I ci^U'.iii," at i>. i.;. at whi.;h tiuie the 'reinporalities were 

»»» tvrc " Ann.ilr^ d- .\Ii.:jtr I-Vrn.mdi." re-t.'i.d t" .Nicholas ( u^ack. Nor 

or .\nn.ti-. ol Mii!lifcr!i.i::». tdiTivl hy did Harris lind any account rendered 

l>r. .\4ud.i Smith, for the In.di .\:ch;co'- in the E.\cheiiner from 1272 to 127s. 

1>km- -iJ Soictv, p. 12. So that he infers, either Simon did 

•♦* Sir J.itno W.irc add-. " fort- not die until the latter year, or the 

St.iiiton " Escheator ditl not account for the full 

'•■(lose Roll of iSth Jl«nry III. tiineof the vacancy. See Harris' " Ware," 

>■» Src Dr. O'Donov.m's ' " .\nnaN vol. 1., " Hislio[)S of Kildare," p. 385. 
f>f ilic- I'our M-i-tcrs." vol. iii., pp. lo^ S(^.e Sir James Ware, " De Pra^suli- 

<;.-. ;;v bus T.-i'^eni.r," Episcopi Darenses, p. 4S. 


After the death ol Simon, the Chapter of KiKlare had an election ; 
one part of the Canons elected Stephen, Dean of Kildarc. while another 
elected William, Treasurer of that church. This proved a cause of 
tedious contest at Rome, and it occasioned a lon;^' vacancy in the See. 
However, after prosecuting the respecti\-e claims at Rome, both candidates 
resigned — William b\- letter and the Dean personally — before Pope 
Nicholas III."''^ The latter, to prevent further contests, appointed 
Nicholas Cusack, Elinor! te and a native of Meath, to be Bishop of Ivildare, 
on the 27th of Noveml)cr, 1279. On the 24th of December, a.d., 12S0, 
the king intimated to the kniglits, free and other tenants of the f^^ishopric 
of Kildare, that he had collated and taken fealty from Nicholas, having 
restored the Temporalities, with a Mandate to be intentive and respondent 
to him as their bishop, and also an order to Ste|)hen, Bishop of Waterford, 
as Royal Treasurer, for 100 marks to be paid to Nicholas as the king's 
gift. The assessment known as tlie Taxation of Pope Nicholas III., 
to ])romote the meditated Cruh.ide, caused this }-)relate, with Thomas 
St. Leger, Bishop of Meath, to be joined in a commission, a.d. I2()2, 
to obtain a Disme or tenth of all ecclesiastical rents, profits, and oblations 
in Ireland, according to their true value to be paid the king for relief 
of the Holy Land.^''^ Such valuation was accordingly made in the course 
of three years and it is yet extant. ^*'^ In the year 1294, the whole country 
around Kildare was nuserably wasted both by the Jrish and English, i'^'" 
the Castle of Kildare was taken, i*^'" while its Rolls and Tallies were burned. ^'^-'^ 
Bishop Nicholas Cusack died in September, 1299, ^'^'■^ having sat about 
twenty years after his advancement by the Pope, and he was buried 
in his own church. ^"'^ 

On the 5th of January, 1300, Walter de Veele, the Chancellor of 
Kildare, was conhrmed Bishop of that See by King Edward I., and lie 
was consecrated in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.^" ^ Pie sat upwards 
of thirty years in the See. During his episcopacy, m 1310, a Parliament 
was held in Kildare.^'- He died in November, 1332, and he w^as buried 

1'^^ This Sovereign Pontitf was elected " ]\Ioinoirs of the Archbishops ol 

November 25th, a.d. IJ77, and he Dulihn," p. 108. 

was crowned the 2t)th ol December ^'^'^ See Jacobi Grace, Kilkennieusis, 

following. He died August 22nd, a.d., " Annates Hiberni.e," edited by Very 

1280. See Sir Harris Nicholas' " Chro- Rev. Richard Butler, pp. 42, 43. 

nology of History," p. Jej. 1^7 Que Calwagh is connected with 

1"^* The history of the crusades has these transactions. See -ibid. He 

been treated by many writers; but was undoubtedly the brother of JMurtagii 

hardly have an}-- succeeded in giving O'Conor, King of Offaly, both of whom 

so complete and reliable an account were killed afterwards at the Court 

as M. jMichaud, whose work on the of Peter Bermiiighaui at Carrick in 

subject has passed through several Carbery, as related in the Annals. See 

editions. In 1854 appeared at Paris ibid., pp. 48, 49. 

in four 8vo. vols, the " Histoire des "s According to Sir James Ware's 

Croisades " par Michaud, de I'Academie " English Annals," at 1294. 

Frangaise. Nouvelle edition faite ^'^'■> See Rt. Rev. Bishop Comerford's 

d'apres les derniers Travaux et les " Collections relating to the Dioceses 

dernieres Intentions del 'Auteur; pre- of Kildare and Leighlin," p. 16. 

cedee d'une Vie de Michaud par I\r. >''« ^g^ Sir James Ware, " De Prcc- 

Poujoulat, et auginentee d'uu Appendice sulibus Lageniaj," Episcopi Darenses, 

par M. Huillard BrethoUes. p. 45. 

16.5 .. xhis estuuaic IS, m a legal point i^' See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

of view, the more important, because " Fasti Ecclesi;c Hibernic;o," vol. ii., 

all the taxes, as well to the successive the Province of Leinster, Diocese of 

kings as to the Popes, were regulated Kildare, p. 228. 

by it down to the 2' I'.h year of the reign '^-See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., 

of Henry VIII." — John D'Alluii's "Bishops of Kildare," p. 386. 



in the Cathedral at Kikhirc.''"' Richard Hulot, or Howlot, a Canon, 
and afterwards Arclid'acon of Kildare, was elected, in 133,^ as successor, 
and he obtained the approval of Pope John XXII ontlu' iSlh of October. 
On the 26th of April, 1334. he obtained the temporalities. ^'^ He sat 
nearly twenty years. He died June 24111, 1352. Wis ohii was celebrated 
at Christ Church, Dublin. '' ' The same year Thomas Giffard, Chancellor of 
Kildare, was elected and confirmed as Bishop of Kildare by a Bull of 
Pope Inocent VI., and dated from Avignon, December 31st, 1352. According 
to other accounts his consecration took place in 1355.-''^" After tlie death 
of Bishop Gihard, the See continued vacant lor more than one year.^''' 
Robert of iVketon, an Angustinian Eremite, had l:)een elected Bishop 
of Down in 1365, but the Pope annulled that election. ^"^ He was after- 
wards promoted to tlie See of Kildare in 1366, by the Sovereign Pontiff. 
He died either in the next or the following year.i"'-* He was living in 
1367, but how long he survived does not appear. He died on the 25th 
of September, 1365,^=^* and he was buried in the Cathedral of Kildare. ^^^ 
However, according to Harris, certain short Annals of the Augustine 
Hermits, winch he had seen, state he died Bishop of Kildare in i3(:iS.^^~^' 
A Bisho]) n_amed George is said to have succeeded, and to have died 

.\.D., LjC)!. I'^" 

In tiie year 1376, a re]^re;^entation of the clerg\' and laitv of Ireland 
was convened by King Edward III. at \yestminsk.n", to deliberate 
on the question of 'granting a liberal subsidy and on the state of the 
kingdom. The clerg\' who represented the diocese of Kildare were 
William White and Kiclnrd Wliite. The diocese of Leighlin sent no 
representative.''^' On_ t!ic 4th day of the Ides or loth of December, 
1401, the Pope appomted Henry of Wessenbt.i-g, a PT"anciscan friar, 
as Bishop of Kildare.''''^ It has been suggested, that perhaps Thomns 
and Robert are only one and the same person, but under different 'names. i''' 
Thomas is said to liave sncceedt-d Henry, and to have died in 1405.'''' 

^'^" A drawing of thr sc-al of this 
bishop is in the archives of Christ 
Church, DubUn. Set- ]\Iust Kev. 

Bishop Comcrfcird's " Collections re- 
lating; to the Dioceses of Kildare and 
].ei,t;hlin," vol. i., Bishops of Kildare, 

'■'See llarris' "Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. r''0. Also 
Theiner, " Vetera Monunieiita Hilier- 
norum et Scotorum Historian! illus- 
trantia," pp. 25S, 259, jui. 

1"-^' See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
Fasti Ecclesiai Hibenue.e, \-ol. ii., 
the Province of Leinster, Diocese of 
Ivildare, p. 22S. 

1'"' See Theiner, " Vetera IMonumenta 
Hibernorum et Scotorum Historiani 
illustrantia," p. 301. Also Bishop 

Coincrford's " Collecti>uii relatin,i,' to 
the Diocese of Kildare and Lci,L;hlin," 
vol. i., p. 17. 

i'''^ See Harris' " W.ire," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," ]>. ^S6. 

^"^ See Bishop Coraerfurd's "Collec- 
tions relating to the Diocese of Kildare 
and Leighlin," vol. i., Bi = l!r,p^ of Kildare , 
p. 17. 

1"'' See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti I'^cclesice Hibernie.L'," vol. ii., p. 

"^" See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 380. 

'-'" St'e Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" l'"asti iCcclesKc Hibeniica;," vol. li., 
p. 228. 

182 See Harris' " ^^'are," vol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 3SG. 

183 See ibid. 

IS* The representatives for the County 
of Kildare, on this occasion, were John 
Rochford and l\'tcr Kowe ; those for 
the County of Carlow, were Geotfry de 
Valle and Peter de A'alle. See Bishop 
Coincrford's " Collections relating to the 
r'ioceses of Kildare antl Leighlin," vol. 
i., " Bishops of Kildare," p. 17. 

18 J According to Luke Wadding's 
".\nnales Minorum Ordinis Franciscani," 
tomus v., p. 3, ad annum 1401. 

'-'*" See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" F^asti Ecclesix' Hibernicx," vol. ii., 
the Province of Lemster, Diocese of 
Kildare, pp. 228, 229. 

"*" See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., 
" Bisliops of KiKlare," p. 387. 



Robert appears to have been bishoj), and to have re^igncd in this ye:ir ; 
for the king presents a clerk to the treasurershij). the Tcniporahties 
of the See being in his hands, owing to the resignation of Robert, the 
late bishop. ^^s A bishop succeeded in the See oi Kildare, but his name 
is not recorded, and this appears from the Archives preserved in tlie 
Vatican. ^^'-^ On the 26th of October, 141(1, one Donald Orici (O'Reilly.' 
was ap])ointed his successor. It has been slated, but incorrectly, by 
John Bale, that a Carmelite, named Quaplod, liad been Bishop of 
Kildare about this time. However, Quaplod was Bishop, not of Kildare. 
but of Deiry ; and the Latin names of the two Sees Derriciisis and 
Daren sis being so nearlv alike, the one may have been ver\' readily 
mistaken for the other. '■'•^ 

John Madock, educated at Oxford, and who was Archdeacon of 
Kildare, filled the Sec^'-'i He died .\.d. 1431.1 - William, Archdeacon 
of Kildare, was appointed to this bishofnic by Pope luigene IV., August 
8th, 143 1. '-^3 ^Iq (;iig^ ij-, A])ril, 144'').^''^ There is a seal inscribed, 
" Sigillum Willmi. Dei Gracia Kyldarens. Epi.," supposed to have 
belonged to this bishop. ^'-'^ Geoffry Hereford, a Dominican friar, 
through the instrumentality of Henry VI., was appointed Bishop of 
Kildare, and he was consecrated upon Easter Day, a.d. 1449. i-"' He 
sat for about fifteen years, and he dieU in i^i]^}'-'' He was buried in his 
own cathedral. 1'^^ Richard Lang, a man of noble birth and of great 
learning, succeeded in 1464. He had been selected for Arclibishop of 
Armagh on tlie death of John Bole, in the year 1470. ''''■* His character 
stood so high, tliat the Dean and Chapter of Armagh earnestly petitioned 
the Pope to promote him to that archbisho|)ric. Their suit, however, 
was rejected. He retained the See of Kildare till the time of his death, 
which hapiK'iied in 1474. -'^'^ In 1474 one David w as appointed Bishop 
of Kildare. However, it does not appear he ever took possession of 
his See, as he died almost immediately after his appointment."'^' On 
the 5th of April, 1475. James Walc; D.D., a Franciscan fnar, was 

ISM Accortliag to the Rolls, Pat. 7, 
Henry IV. 

i"'-* Th'j record thus runs : " Sept. 
Kal. Novcmbris, 14 19, provisum est 
c'cclesioc Daren, in Hib. Vac. per mortem, 
(le persona Dnualdi Oricii, jMiiulen " 
(iMulen ?),— William IMaziere Brady's 
" E])iscopal Succession in Kn<;land, Scot- 
land and Ireland, A.D. 1400 to 1S75, 
with Appointments to Monasteries aiul 
Extracts from Consistorial Acts taken 
from ]\ISS. in public and private Libraries 
in Rome, Florence, Bologna, Ravenna, 
and Pans," Vol. i., p. 348. In Three 
Volumes, Rome 1876, 1S77, 8vo. 

i'-*" See Bishop Comerford's " Col- 
lections relatin;.; to the Dioceses of 
Kiltbre antl Leglilin," vol. i., " Bishops 
of Kildare," ]). iS. 

i'-*' See Bishop Comerford's Col- 
lections relatiu',; to the Diocese of 
Kildare and Leii^hliu," vol. i., " Bishops 
of Kildare," p. iS. 

'"'- See Archdeacon Henry " Cotton's 
'' ImsIi Kcclesi.e llibernic.e," vol. li. 
Pro\iuce ol Leiuster, Diocese of Kildare, 

'•'■' Si-e Dr. Pradx's " Episcoi)al Succes- 
sion." I've, \i)\. 1., p. 349. 

^'-" .Vrt hdeacon Henry Cotton's 

Easti l£ccle.~i,r Hibeniico?," \'ol. ii.. 
Province of Leinster, Diocese of Kildare, 
p. C-'Q. 

i-'-' An engraving of it is to be seen in 
the "Irish Penny Journal" for 1840. 

'■"'See Harris' "Ware," \'ol. i., 
" Bishops of Kildare," p. 3S7. 

I''" See Bishop Comerford's " Col- 
lections relating to the Dioceses of Kil- 
dare and Leighlin," vol. i., " Bishops of 
Kildare, p. iS. 

1-'^ See Archdeacon Cotton's " Easti 
Ecclesia; Hibernica-," vol. li., Province 
of Leinster, Diocesi.; of Kildare, \^. 229. 

i'-*^ See Harris' " W'are," vol. i., 
" Archbishops of Armagh," 

-"^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesia' Hibernica;," vol, ii., 
Pro\'ince of Leinster, Diocese of Kildare, 
p. 220. 

-'^'i l'.\-en befcjie his .'\postolic letters 
x'.ere ci unpli'trd , accordiii'..; Id Luke 
Wadding's " Aunale.^ Ordinis Rlmorum," 
tomus \i., p. S30. 


jTomoted to tliis See. He resigned it in a very .-liort tinio.'-'*^- To him 
William Barret succeeded, but at what precise time seems to be unknown. 
He resigned in or before 14S2. Afterwards he a])]iear3 to have taken up 
his residence in France, as in the year 1493 he was Vicar to the Bishop 
of Clermont. -°2 Edmund or Edward Lane was promoted to this See 
in 1482. He was a great benefactor to its church. He founded a 
college at Kildare for the residence of the Dean and Chapter. This 
prelate had been induced to assist at the coronation of Lambert Simnel 
through persuasion of the Earl of Kildare. For this he was pardoned in 
1488.-^* Bishop Lane occupied this See for upwards of forty years 
and he died about the close of 1522. A drawing of his episcopal seal 
is in the archives of Christ Church, Dublin. -*^'^ 

The Earl of Kildare asked Cardinal Wolsey to procure the bishopric 
of Kildare for the Dean Edward Dillon.-^" This request was not granted, 
but the preferment was obtained by a namesake, perhaps a brother, 
and named Thomas Dillon, who succeeded in 152 ]. He was a nati\-e 
oi Meath, but he was educated in Oxford.-'"' He is said to have died 
.A.!). 1531 -'-'^ ; but, probably, it was at an earlier date. A Dominican 
iiiar, i'eter Stoll, D.D., was promoted to the See of Kildare, by Pope 
( lenient VII., March 15, a.d. 1529. -"'■■' The name of this prelate has 
been omitted by Sir James Ware and by his editor, Walter Harris, 
liie ne.xt wlio succeeded was Walter Wellesley, commonly called 
\\'e^ley, Pricjr of Conall, in the County of Kildare, and "for some time 
.Master of the Rolls.-^'^ As he was designated fur the See of Kildare 
liom the 1st of Jnlv, 1520, according to the Barbanni Archives in Rome, 
It Would seem, eiitier that Dr. Stoll had declined the proffered dignity, 
111 his selection had not been confirmed by the Pope. His being 
an In>hinan was i)rc)bal<l\' a disqualification, and a mure pliant instru- 
ment for l-.i'.L'lish Court policy, -'Mving Henry Mil. being the monarch, icquiivd. \\'alter Wellesley had been one of the King's Privy 
Couii' illoi- ; he jiroinoted to this bishopric bv royal favour, and 
.il)lH>iiited L.'. I'o; e (T.-menl \TI. In virtue of a Dispensation, he held 
the Tiioiv oi C"-..!ll during life.-'^ jj^ ji^-d in 1539, and he was buried 

""-' Sc-c IJisliop Dc Burro's " Hibernia 
Dominicaiia." cap. xiii., sect. Ivii., 

p. 4^^- 

= 1*^ See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., 
" Bisluiiis ol KiUlare," p. ;,S!>. 

211 The fulluuinf,' uiKeinplnncatary 

reference to Dv. Peter Stoll is found 

HI the r.i]i;u^, vol. II., p. 141. 

("owlcv to W.ilsey : " .\ntln.nv Knevet 

hath ubliviieJ the Bishojirik cil Kildare 

to a .syin]'!i- Irish presto, a vayabounde, 

without Kniyni;, maners, or good 

<iua!i!\t. Hot worthy to bee a hally 

<i« KiMaIc. ji. I-, " w.Ucr (.It-rk." This ofliee of Aqux-ba- 

•*' 'M'* .■\:cf:.ttaK'n H'nrv Cotton's j.ilus was bv a constitution of Arch- 

■■ l•.^^!^ l.!«;v!c^j.e lliL-'Tiiua-." v..;. ij.. bishop I' miace to be conlerred on poor 

rroVMucol I.vir.-tcr, I't^^' .- o! Kildare. cKrks. " .\s I lure the Kmges Highnes 

J. .•,"> wol pay for his bulles out of his 

= ''*.\t<.ordifiv' lolhcS'ite r.iprr:,. vol. ii. owne cofer^ ; whereof others in Ireland 

'•• S<-c Anthony \V<>ovl\ '• Athen.i.- w.jiild .^uath- marvaille, soche as 

()\m\cn\c^," vol. 'i.. p. '/.j. have do^u the Kmges grace good 

''•Sec Archdeacon Hiiirv Cotton's service." 
'■ I-'a^U KccleM.e llibernica','" vol 11.. -'-See Sir jaines Ware, " De Pr.x- 

r.'oviTircof Leinster, Dioces'.- of Kildar.- sulibus La^enue." Episcopi Darenscs, 
p. ;to. I^. 40. 

..:,d 1.- 

Hvrd y.:V 

Ill .\pril .'-th. 1494, 
; iu" the l-raiK isian 

t liUV( til 

in l". ;". ! 

::, S<.-e .\'.i "11 


I . '.:■•.: 5 

" l-.l-ti KtclrM I 


.1 " % . 1 

1: I'rovmce ot 


. 1-. ■ 'y ' 

J Im: :..:<•. p. JJ9. 

- lJ•.r.•!^' 
■. . ' Ki: 

■•Waic." \ol. i., 

'. .:•■ " p. 358. .\'iSO 


i-i . ;>-B-- 1 

J . % • pjl ;~iKce~>si. 11," 

.\v.' i ; 

• 'ki i 

W» >.f 

r ■■l..0...i, 

«..::. -M.rd'r. " Co!- 

\ri 1»* J.» 


! 1 Jhr 1>1. .-.<■.(■;. of 

lili JjvfC 

a:uJ I.^..:!. 

:.n." vol. 1.. r-; 


in his Priory of Conall, where an altar tomb to his memory still remains. -"^ 
It bears the tigure of a bishop with mitre, and pastoral staff in low relief 
with a Latin inscription.-'-* On the death mi Dr. Wellesley, Donald 
O'ljeachan, a lMinorit(.\ of the Convent of Kildare, was provided for 
his See b}^ the Pope, on the i6th of Jul\'.. i5-}0. However, he died a few- 
days after his appointment. After his deaili. Thadv Reynolds, Rector 
of the Church of (.)lmar, in the Diocese of ]\le;\th, was ap]~ioinu'd Bisho]-) 
by the Pope, on the 15th of November, 1340. At this time, King 
Henry VHL, in open revolt against the P(.i|)e, refused to acknowledge 
Dr. Reynolds ; and, styling himself Supreme tiead of the Church of 
Ireland, he undertiN.'k II10 promotion of Thonuis Mi:igh,"^^ whom he 
afterwards called into liis ikivy Council of Ireland, iu is reckoned as 
the iirst Kildare prelate of the Pi'otestant Re^oiinalion. He died on the 
15th of December, 1548.-'^ 

When the See had continued vacant one year and seven montjis, 
Thomas Lancaster was appointed Protestant bishop by the king, and 
by virtue of a Commission dated July nth, he was consecrated on the 
20th of that month by George Brown, the Protestant Archbishop of 
Dublin.-^'' On the 3rd of September following, he obtained a faculty 
to hold the deanery of Kilkenny, together with this bisliO]iric. The 
Oxford antiquary, Wood, makes him also Treasurer of Salislun-v.-'^ 
This, hovv'ever, is a mistake, as Thomas Lancaster, ArchbisJiop of Armagh, 
was really that person. In 1554, because he was a married man, a 
Commission, composed of George Dowdal, Archbishop of Armagh, 
Thomas Leverous, and others, deposed Lancaster, "^'-^ under Mary. Oueen 
of England. 

Thomas Leverous,--'^ a native of Kildare County, and Dean of St. 
Patri(-k's Dublin, just then restored, was nominated Catholic Jhshop 
of Kildare on the ist of I\Iarch, 1555 ; yot, this was not confirmed 
by the Pope's Bull until the 30th of August following.--^ But it seems 
])robablc, that he had received episcopal consecration some years previous 
to his appointment to Kildare. In 1541, information reached Rome, 
that Dr. Saunders, Bishop of Leighlin, had died ; whereupon Dr. 
Leverous was appointed to succeed him. The information which led 
to his election for the See of Leighlin proved to be unfounded, as Dr. 

-'2 'J'li'.^i is built inttj ihc wall en- be found in John D'Alton's " Memoir.s 

closing the burial-ground, at the entrance of the Archbishops of Dublin," pp. 196 

gate. See " Journal of the County to 235. 

Kildare Archai'logical Society and Sur- -^^ See " Athenas Oxonienses," vol. i., 

rounding Districts," vol. i., p. 149. p. 175. 

-^* These are the words : " Hie jacet -''-' See Bishop Comerford's " Col- 

frater Walterus Wellesley, quondam lections relating to the Dioceses of 

]4)iscopus Darensis, hujus Domus Com- Kildare and LeighUn," Bishops of 

uiendatarius, cujus animce propitietur Kildare, p. 23. 

Deus Qui obiit Anno Domini M.D. . . ." --" In a passage from the Consistoral 

In English : " Here lieth brother entry, preserved in the Barliarini 

Walter Wellesley, late Bishop of Kddare, Archives, he is called " Tlioma; Leuros," 

Prior of this House, to whose soul may so that probably his real name was 

God be merciful. He died in the year Lewry or Lowry. 

of our Lord, M.D. . . ." --i See Sir James Ware, " De Priu- 

-1^ He was a native of Cork, according suhbus Lagenix'," Episcopi Darenses, 

to Sir James Ware. See " De Prac- p. 50. 

sulibus Lageniai." Episcopi Darenses, --- His instrumentality in saving 

p. 49. Gerald from fcdlmg into the hands 

21" See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., of the linglish is recounted fully in 

" Bishops of Kildare," p. 300. " Tin- lilarls of Kildare," by the Marquis 

-1'' A full account of this P'-'-'l-ite is to of Kildare. 


Saunders lived until 1540 ; still it would appfar, that the mistake had 
not been discovered until alur the consecraliun of Dr. T.everous had 
(aken place, as in his ajiiiuintnient to the See of Kildare, the official 
record styl' s him " olini Kpiscojius Le-hlinmsis." Dr. Levurous 
had been the tutor and guardian of Gerald, halfd^rothcr to Thomas, 
Earl of Kildare, and liis successor in thr title.---' This prelate 
had bfcn mainly instrumental in organizing that great confederacy of 
Iri^h chieftains, Desmond, O'Brien, O'Donnell, and O'Neill,--^ which, 
in 1537 and 1540. --^ had well-nigh overturned the Engl'ish ]iower 
m Ireland.--^ Although his nomination received the sanction of the 
Holy See in August, yet the Bull for his appointment did not arrive 
in Ireland until the iQth of December, 1555, owing to the illness of the 
messenger. By Act of Parliament, Queen Elizabeth was made supreme 
Head of the Church in Tr eland, and the oath of supremacy was enacted. 
Refusing to take that oath. Dr. Leverous w^as deposed from his bishopric 
and dr.mery, January 1550.--'^ Afterwards, he was obliged to teach 
a school, in the town of Adair near Limeritdv, f(3r his livelihood,--' while 
he exercised episcopal faculties and ministrations under the prevailing 
^yr^tem of rigorous proscription. During this period, Dr. Ricliard 
Creagh, Archbishop of Armagh, received faculties from Rome, April loth., 
1575, for administration of the entire ecclesiastical Province of Dublin. 
Dr. Leverous died at .K.tas, about 1577, in the eigjitieth year of his 
age, and he was buried tliere in the parish Church of St. David. --^ 

From the death of Dr. Levercius to the 3'ear 1620, the See of Kildare 
was administered hy Catholic \'icars Apostolic. During this interval, 
the Rev. Robert Lalor was ai)]>ointed \'icar General of the Diocese of 
Dublin, Kildare and h-criis from 1594 to i6o(). He was arrested and 
brou-ht to trial, Diivmler. i(x)0, accused of exercising foreign juris- 
diction, and of dr:i\ing the King's spiritual supremacy. Sentence 
of death was prououmcd against him, and a few days later he was 
t'.\e( ut'd.--' 

r.v L<it'is Pal, it, iv-u.'d |)v auihonty of Queen Elizabeth, one 
.\k\.ind-r Ciaik'-, a Ba.hvlor of Divinity, and Dean of St. Patrick's, 

'■' >;■-• l;t. Kcv. l'...tii.k l-i, uf tlio l\il>.- m ceaseless warfare aii.i 

Mor.i:iS " 11: u :y < i •'.;.; ('.c'o.hc conteiitinn with each other, and with 

.\rf h! :^!; .;^ . ■ '. l>i;b;::!. miil.- th-. Rv- the inhal .Hants of the adjacent districts. 

l,iv..<.'.:\"]' .',-. It L'(iual!y hopeless and impolitic 

V'^"?. ^'' ■■■■*■* ^^ ^ '• ^ ■■ Hi^torv• of to call upon the ]ieoplc at once to 

Ifcli!'.^ " \>>l 1.1., th..-,- \iv.. pp. jjo .d)iiire the leli^^ion of their ancestors, 

' •> -' * " .iud to siiliscnlie to new doctrines." 

•»^ lic.'r;:::-,; ;, :!.,- Ais .,; tip- Iiidi '• SjuTch 01 Lord Clare in the Irish House 

I'aftA.-.*.-:!'. ■■: !l.i» p-r. .5. ..M ! tl:- ol Lords, loih l'"cbruarv, 1800," p. 7. 
»tt«r.;j=t» <i ICitu: n':,ry VIIL [., --iliis reasons to the Lord Deputy 

r»:AV.;Ui t'ic K'-iv.-:...j:; :■. r.i hcl.ind. for reiii>in;_; t<:i take such an oath are 

r.-» lc%i an *-.j;!;.ri!y Th.n L-rl (, l.w t,) l.r lound m a l>ook entitled " De 

«.^t*jv«>. ll;.^l they co.i: 1 not !><• :,- l'r<)Ce.s-,u niartyriali," \e., printed at 

if.ncilf*' tu ar.v p'ti-.i :pl.- of s,.unl^ne in i'mo. 

I'^.Juy ar.(! J;-. tIiS, •■ It wxs ad.;. n ^'^ See William Monck Mason's 

..» {v-ij ctu.-.l, not .,::ly .i.:.unbt tiie " Hi-.torv and Antiquities of the Col- 

n.iuvc Insli, but a;',t tvcry pcr.sou l<-,.',i,uc 'and Cathedral Church of St. 

of Kn^Iisli l,lo<>!. \%ho biid settled Paiiick, Dublin," book li., chap. 

l)cyona the limits of the Tale, and iii.. sect, iii., pp. 163, 1O4. 
irom motives of personal interest ..r --^ See Harris' "\Vare," vol. i., 

convenience had formed cnneMoUs " liishops of Kildare," p. 391. Also 

with t!ie native.-,, or adopted their laws Kt. Kev. Bishop IMoran's " Spicilegium 

or cu.stoms ; and it had the lull elfect, Ossoriense," vol. i., p. 82. 
wiiich might be expected; it drew 2 = ^ See 'ki. Rev.' Bishop Moran's 

clo.'jer the conlcdi-racN it was meant " History of the .\rchbishops of Dublin," 

to (lis-.. .Ive. and impluated the colonv p. J 19. 


Dublin, was made Protestant I'.isliop of Kildare, while retainin;; both 
benefices. But not content with these, he exchanged almost all the 
manors and farms belon'^ing to the See with Patrick Sarsfield for some 
tithes of little value. liy this exchange, he reduced the revenues of 
Kildare to a shameful state of poverty'. He sat for only three years 
and some months, when he died, a.d. 1563, according to Sir Jann's 
Ware.-^*-' or in 1564, according to his editor, Walter Harris. -^^ He 
was buried in St. Patrick's Church, Dublin, under the altar, at the north 
side. -■^- By Letters Patent, and dated May 2nd, 1564, Robert Daly, Pre- 
bendary of Clonmethan, succeeded, in the sixth year of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. He held his prebend in coinmendoDi. and the rectory of Swords 
in the Diocese of Dublin, during his life. He was driven from his See 
three different times, by the Irish enemy, and despoiled of his goods. -'-^^ 
In the winter of 1582 he died. Daniel Neylan, Rector of Iniscathy, 
in the Diocese of Killaloe, was advanced to this See by the Queen's 
letter, dated the 3rd of July, in the twenty-fifth year of her reign. He 
was consecrated by Adam Loftus, Archbishop of Dublin,-^' in November, 
1583. He died on the iSth of May, 1603, having sat for nineteen years 
and six months. -^^ By Letters Patent, dated 9th of August, 1604, William 
Pilsworth,a native of London, -^'^ and educated in Magdalen College, Oxford, 
was appointed to this See, and he was consecrated on the iitli of Septeni- 
i:»er following, at Balsoon, in the County I\Ieath, on account of a plague, 
which then raged in Dublin.-^' He preferred a petition to the Privy 
Council, for some remed\' to recover the lands alienated by his pre- 
decessor Craike from his See, but without success ; and therefore, he 
was determined to have a share in the spoil, by leaving his bishopric 
poorer than he found it.-^s pje died at Naas, on the 9th of May, 1635. 
He was buried at Dunfert, in the County of Kildare. 

During his incumbency in 1615,-^-' Dr. James Talbot was Catholic 
Administrator of the Kildare Diocese, and Vicar-General of the Dioceses 
of Dublin and Kildare. Over the latter Diocese he was appointed 
\'icar-Apostolic in 1617. -'^o On the nth of March, 1G21, Donatus 
Dowling was appointed Vicar-Apostolic. Again, the name of Dr. 
James Talbot appears as Vicar- Apostolic of Kildare, June 5th, 1623. 
Both Dr. Matthews and Dr. Fleming, Archbishops of Dublin, made 
application to the Holy See to have him appointed Bishop of Kildare, 
but that appointment did not take place. On the 17th of Novembrr, 
1629, Dr. Talbot was informed by J. A. Cardinalis Sti Onofrio, that his 

230 See " De Prassulibus Lageni^e." -■''' According to Anthony Wood, 

Episcopi Darenscs, p. 51. he was boru in Fleet street, a.d. i 5O0, 

221 See voh i., " Bishops of Kildare," and was admitted into IMagdakn 

p. 391. College, in 157S. See " Atlienae 

23'.i See William j\Ionck Mason's ' Oxonienses," vol. i., p. 72^. 

' History and Antiquities of the Col- -^' See Sir James Ware, " De Pra:- 

legiate and Cathedral Church of St. sulibus Lagenice," Episcopi Darenses, 

Patrick, near Dublin," book ii., chap. p. 52. 

ui., sect, iv., p. 165. -"■'* According to Bisliop Dopping's 

-33 See Sir James Ware, " De Pra3- Notes to tlu' Latin lulitiou of Ware's 

sulibus LageniLC." Episcopi Darenses, IBishops, quoted m Harris' " Ware," 

p. 51. vol. i., " Bisho()s of fvildare," p. 92. 

234 See an account of him in John -'•''•> At this year he is named in the 
D'Alton's " Memoirs of the Archbishops " Liber Ivcgalis Visitationis." 

of Dublin," pp. 240 to 250. 240 Accordmg to the Manuscripts of 

235 See Sir James Ware, " De Prac- Father Luke Wadding, preserved in 
sulibus Lagenice," Episcopi Darenses, the Franciscan Convent, Merchant's 
p. 52. yuiiy. Dublin. 


office of Vicar-Apostolic of Kildaro had ceased by tlie .iiipointnient 
of Rocco della Croce, viz., Roclie or Ross i\Iac ("icoghegan, a dibtinguislied 
Dominican, on Januar}^ Sth, 1629, to be Bishop of Kildare. During 
his term, he suffered much from persecution, being ol:)hged to fly from 
place to place, thus concealing huusclf from his persecutors. He was 
paralysed and helpless owing to other inlirmitios a considerable time 
before his death, which happened before the month of June, 1644.-^1 

Robert Ussher, son to Henry Ussher, Primate of all Ireland, succeeded 
William Pilsworth, as Protestant Bishop of Kildare. He was educated 
in Trinity College, Dublin, and regarded as a learned and an amiable 
man. He was Prebendary of St. Audoen's Church, Dublin, in 1617, 
and he was elected Provost of Trinity College, on the iGth of October, 
1629,-^- Archdeacon of IMuath, he was consecrated in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, on the 25th of Februar}^ 1635. He took great pains in 
soliciting tlie Parliament for an Act to recover the lands of his bi3ho]:)ric, 
alienated through Craikc and Pilsworth, but without success.'-^^ \Vhen 
the Irish Insurrection of 1641 broke out, he fled from his See to England, 
and he died at Pantabirsly, September 7th, 1642. William Golbourne, 
born \n Chester, a Bachelor of Divinity of the University of Dublin, 
and Archdeaconof KiKlare, was consecrated t^i-dtcstant IH-hnp of the latter 
Diocese in St. Patrick's, Dublin, December ist, 1644, ■»44 by Archbishop 
Lancelot of that See. He died of the plagui' in Dublin, a.d. 1G50, and 
he was buried in the Church of St. Nicholas Within tlie Walls. -^45 

During this time and after the death of the Catholic Bisho]) Mac 
Geoghegan, his Vicar-Cencral, James Dcmpsey, got charge of Kildare 
Diocesf. In a congregation of Propaganda held at Ronie, June 15th, 
1655, it was proposed to make him Vicar-General of Kildare Diocese.-"^ 

During the time of the Commonwealth, no Protestant Bishop of 
Kildare seems to have been promoted. Next in succession to Golbournr, 
however, was Thomas Price, a native of Wales, but educated in Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he took the degree of Bachelor of Divinity and 
became Senior Fellow.-''' He was ordained by Bishoj) Bedell, of Kilmon-, 
to which See he was appointed Archdeacon, and he officiated as chaplain 
to the celebrated James, Duke of Ormond. Through his interest. Price 
was promoted by Letters Patent, dated March 6th, 1660, Englisli style, to 
till.' See of Kildare, and the same day had his mandate for consecration, 
.uul writ of 'cstitution to the Temporalities. He was consecrated on 
the 10th of that month in Christ Church, by James Margetson, Arch- 
l';^llop of Dublin. Bishop Dopping states, that through the negligence 
ol himself or of his Registrar, he left the Diocese of Kildare mdebted 
lo (lie knig for subsiches, in the sum of £217, and the Preceptory of 
'I'tilly, which he held iii. cojiiineiuldiji with his Bishopric, in the sum of 
(40. which his successor was obliged to pay. By virtue of a clause 
1:1 tlu; .Act of Settlement, all the manors and estates formerly belonging 

'" See r.ibhop Comerford's " Col- legiate and Catliedral Church of St. 

lf» tiuiis rrl.itiii.,' to the IDiocese of Kil- Patrick," book li., cliap. lu., sect, xii., 

vl.iK- .md Lei'^hlm," vol. i., pp. 29 to 32. p. 1S7. 

"^ See an account of liis ad- -*^ See Harris' " Ware," vol, i., 

ministration, in Dr. John Williaui " Bisl ops of K'lhhire," p. ^93. 
Stiilibb' "History of the University 210 5^.^. jjj-. RIaziere Brady's " Epis- 

<>i Dublin," chap, iv., p[). 61 to 6j. copal Succession." 

'•^ Sfo Harris' "Ware," vol. i., -■'■''See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

" Bi'^hops of Kddare," j). 393. " Fasti Ecclesiie Ilibernicai," vol. ii., 

'•' Sec William Monck Mason's " Province of Leinster, Diocese of 

" History and .\nti')iiities of the Col- Kildare," p. 233. 


to the See of Kiklare, and which had been forfeited to the kin,!,' throu!:^h 
the Irish Rebelhon of 1641, might have been recovered.-'^ These were 
the manors and lands, which Bishop Craike had exchanged, before the 
restraming act,--*'^ with Patrick Sarsfield for some tithes of small value, 
and which through the rebellion had been forleited by the latter. Bv 
Letters Patent, dated May 30th, ibby, Thomas Price was translated 
to the See of Casliel, and the same day had his restitution to the 

Durmg his term, the Catholic Primate appointed the Abbe Gcraldine 
to superintend the Diocese of Kildare, there l)eing then no Vicar- 
General. -^^ C)n the I2th of May, i()7i, Propaganda selected Patrick 
Dempsy to be Vicar-Apostolic of Kildare. and the Pope ratifud this 
appomtment on the 26th of that month. Recommended by the Kn p2 or 
of Austria, and owing to his own personal qualifications, Dr. ..lark 
Forstal was elected Bishop of Kildare by Projxiganda on the Sth of 
October, 1.676. In his time we learn, that his Diocese had only fifteen 
priests, and that his income was only ("15 a year, so that owing to the 
representations of the Primate, Dr. ()li\X'r Plunkett, and other Irish 
Bishops to the Roman See, a Brief was issued on tlie 5th of September, 
167S, whereby Dr. Forstal might hold the adjoining poor Catholic Diocese 
of Leighlin in coinincndaDi together with Kildare. Even afterwards, 
his life was one of misery, being obliged to dwell in a lun'cl or thatched 
hut, rudely constructed and in a marshy wood, until, on the 25tli of 
February, 16S1, he was arrested, without having any accusation Inought 
against him, but that of his having exercised Pajxil jurisdiction in \he 
Kingdom. When, after a long imprisonment, he was at length liberated, 
the violence of religious persecution at the time obliged him to seek 
safety in the woods and mountains, until on the 7tli of February, 1683, 
as an exile his earthly career was closed in the Diocese of Casliel. After 
the time of Bishop Forstal, in the Catholic arrangement, the two 
Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin have been unite'd under the rule of 
one Prelate. "^- 

On the ist of June, 1677, by Letters Patent, Ambrose Jones, -•^'' son to 
Lewis Jones, Bishop of Killaloe,"^'* and brother to Henry J ones, -'^-^ Bi^hoj) 
of Clogher. and then Bisliop of M(?ath, was made ProVslant Bishop of 
Kildare, and had his writ of restitution the same &.\\. Together with it, he 
held the Preceptory of Tully and the Prebend of JMaynooth in comuiendam. 

-*8 " But either through his miserable 252 ^e^ Bishop Comerfonl's " Col- 
spirit," remarlvs Bishop Dopping, " or lections relating to the Diocese of 
mere slothfulness (who would not Kildare and Leighlin," vol. i., pp. 
consult the interest of his See) an 37 to 42. 

opportunity for this end was lost, 253 \\q ^vas a native of Ireland, and 

which never can be redeemed. For he was educated in Trinity College, 

being liy the Duke of Ormond made Dublin, On the 4th of February, 1600' 

sure of his succession to the See of he was promoted by King Charles II. 

Cashell, he refused to expend a penny, to the Archdeaconry of Mealh, then 

or even to interpose his interest or in the gift of the Crown b}' lapse, 

solicitation in so good a work ; although 254 ^ee Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

Ralph Wallis, and others, offered to " Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernica'," vol. 11., 

take the burden and charges of the " Province- of Leinster, Diocese ol 

whole business upon themselves." Kildare," p. 233. 

2-'3 Of King Charles I., sess. 4, stat. 10, 250 He was ajjpointed Vice-Chancellor 

II, chap. 3. of Dublin University in 1646, and he 

250 See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., continued to act as such, but did not 

" Bishops of Kildare," pp. 393, 394. assume his title of Bishop. See Dr. 

2''' See Maziere Brady's " Episcopal John William Stubbs' " History of the 

Succession," vol. ii., pp. 345 to 349. University of Dublin," chap, iv., p. 90. 


He was consecrated in Christ Church Cathedral, Dubhn, by Michael, 
Archbishop of Dublin, assisted by Henry, Bishop of Meath. and Edward, 
Ijishop of Killaloe, on the 29th of the same month. As Thomas Price, 
on his advancement to the Archbishopric of Cashel, had left a charge 
upon the See of arrears due to the Crown, Bishop Jones was obliged 
t.- pay them without any re-imbursement made by the Archbishop. 
Pjishop Jones preferred petitions to the Duke of Ormond for augmentation 
of the revenues of his See ; but a bad state of health checked his en- 
deavours, and thus his applications failed of success, He died in Dublin, 
December 15th, 1678, and he was buried in St. Andrew's Church.'-'"^ 

In 1683 Edward Wesley was appointed by Propaganda, Catholic Bishop 
of Kildare, with the See of Leighlin united under his administration. 
He seems to have died towards the close of 1693, and in January, 1694, 
he was succeeded by John Dempsy, the date for whose death has not 
l)cen ascertained, but it happened several years prior to 1713.-" 

Andrew Dopping, a native of Dublin, -^^ Fellow of Trinity College, '-^^^^ 
and Chancellor of the University, was riunlc Prutcstant Bishop of Kildare, 
liy Lcltrrs Patent, dated January, 1678.-*^° He was consecrated in 
Christ Church, February 2nd, and enthroned on the 25th of the same 
month. -*^i In February, 1O81, he was translated to I\leath.-'''- He 
then was admitted into the Privy Council on the 5th of April following, 
and he continued there until the death of King Charles LI., and the dis- 
solution of the Council by King James II., on the 2nd of February, 
16S4. Dopping was one of the few Protestant Bishops who remained 
in Ireland during that monarch's brief reign, and he was a stout defender 
!it the interests of his co-religionists. As one of the five Protestant 
hishops in the Irish House of Lords in the Parliament of James II., 
lOSi), he led the opposition to that monarch's measures with great 
courage and pertinacity."^''' After the arrival of King William at Finglas, 
:i. comjianied by others favouring the Revolution, Dopping presented 
an address of congratulation.-'^' He died in Dublin, April 24th, 1697, 
and hr v,\is liuricd in the familv vault in St. Andrew's Church. -'^^ 

He was succeeded in the See of Kildare by William Morton, -'^^ an 

■if, <,,.^. liarris' " Ware," vol. i., the University of Dublin," chap, x., sec. 

"Ui->:.'r;.b oi Kildare." p. -^O-i. ii., p. 376. 

^•■•^'.•e I'.; !. ip Ciiinerford's "Col- -°^ lie resisted all the prineijial 

1 tv.ii. re! ttm^ to the Dioceses of measures, and procured ,L;reat clian'-;es 

Kil '..IT': .ill 1 l.'.iL:hliu," vol. i., pp. in them, as appears from the Journals 

', I ' ■ 7 ' of the House of I,ords. See Thomas 

'■•' I'-iv. tl'.'T'- M.irch cSth, 1643, Davis' " I^atriot Parliament of i''-<Sg, 

^i'.\ <->'.iK. I •,■'.'. w. i\i<- s. lii.ol (if St. with its Statutes, Votes and Pro- 

\'.:u i.'« <'.;'.!i<-.!r,i!. lie adnutted ceedings," chap, ii., j^p. 16, 17. lulition 

!.> the l.■I;»v^•r^!^\■. ?.I tv 5th, 1056. of Charles Gavan Dulf3^ London, 1893., 

"' I-'!cctc<l in lU-'J. and in i'.'><) he sm. 4to. 
«*a.» miile oi '-t. Andrew's, -"* 'I his i^ still preserved in the 

iMjMin. H'- 1 'Ciinf <l.i'l.iin to tlie I.ilir,ir\- of Trinity Colle^r, Dulihn. 

I>ukr <,f ();n '.1. S'- liaiiis' W.ive, See I 'r', I.'hu William Stubhs' "History 

Vol 1.. " !■,. . -I's of Mil !. ire," jv I'l^. ot ilu' rinvci^ity of Dublin," appenilix, 

"»Sr,- i<,,.ui,-y L.i- .•;■,■ •' I.ib.T pp. 3^7, 3^s. 
MtiniTiini Publicnrurn llilrrni.e al> .\n. -"'■ ^-.ct ll.irris' "Ware," vol. i., 

iifj iiN.juc ad t>':7," v>.!. n.. p.irl. v.. " I'.i-hup^. of Meath," pp. 160, 161. 
p. . 107. " 2-wi 11^. ^^..^y educated at Christ Church, 

'" Sec .Xri hdtacon Cott m's " I-asii Oxforil, and he came to Ireland as chap- 

l-"ec!csi.c Hihernic:!-," vol. ii., the Lain to the Karl of Oxford. Afterwards 

I'riivincc of Lcinster. Diocese of Kild.ire, he became chaplain to James, Duke of 

p. J'.'. Ormond. In 1^)77, he was promoted 

■-''- ^■.e W. B. S. Taylor'.-, " History of to be Dean of Christ Church, Dublin. 



Englishman, promoted by Letters Patent, dated February I3tli, i68i.'-'''' 
Owing to the po\'erty of this See, he was allowed to retain his deanery 
of Christ Church, i)i conuiicjidam, and the preccptory of Tully, in the 
County of Kildare,-'^^ a practice which continued from that time till 
the year 1846. Bishop Morton retired with all his family to England, 
during the reign of King James IL In 1705, he was translated to IMeath.-*'^ 
On the 23rd of September, 1705, Welbore Ellis, -''''^ D.D., succeeded 
by Letters Patent to the See of Kildare, and to the Deanery of Christ 
Church, Dublin.-''- He was installed on the 12th of November. For 
upwards of twenty-six years he presided. He was translated to the 
See of Meath the 13th of March, 1731. He died on the ist of January, 
1733.""^'" and on the 3rd, lie was buried with great solemnity in Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dublin, where his monument is still to be seen.-"^ 

On the recommendation of " King James " — generally known as 
the old Pretender — Propaganda appointed Edward Murphy, Vicar 
General, to be Catholic i5ishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and he ^^as 
accordingly consecrated by Edmund Byrne, Archl)ishop of Dublin, 
on the i8th of December, 1715. In September, 1724, he was translated 
^o the Archiepiscopal See of Dublin, over which he presided for the 
five succeeding years. In 1724, Bernard Dunne succeeded as Bishop 
of Kildare and Leighlin, and he ched a.d. 1733. That same year, Stephi'U 
Dowdall succeeded him in office ; but he resigned the government of 
both Dioceses before his death, and in r\Iay, 1737, Dr. James Gallagher, 
Bishop of Raphoe, was translated to Kildare, being also declared ad- 
ministrator of Leighlin. Before his death, which hap^Kmed in i75i,-''* 
he lived much of liis time in a small cabin, near the Bog of Allen. -'^ 

On the i6th of March, 1731,"'" by Letters Patent, Charles Cobbe, 
D.D., an Englishman, Protestant Bishop of Dromore,-77 was trans- 
lated to Kildare. He was installed on the 22nd. In 1743, he was 
raised to the Archbishopric of Dublin. In that city he died, on the 
14th of April, 1765.-'^ George Stone, D.D., an Englishman, Dean of 
Derry, and afterwards Bishop of Ferns, was translated to Kildare, by 
Letters Patent, dated March 19th, 1743- -''' In 1745. lie was translated 

2«'7 See Rowley Lascelles "Liber 274 y^g Bishop Comerlorcl's " Collec- 

Mimerum Publicoruin riibeinia3 ab An. tions relating to the Diocese of Kildare 

1 1 52 usque ad 1827," vol. n., part. 5., and Leighlin," vol. i., pp. 73 to 82. 

p. 197. 275 Letter of his successor, Rt. Rev, 

268 See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., James Doyle, dated Allen, 6th of May. 

"Bishops of Kildare," p. 395. 1823, in William J. Fitzpatrick's "Life. 

-^'•> See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti Times and Correspondence of the Right 

Ecclesi.e Hibernicas," vol. ii.. The Rev. Dr. Doyle, Bishop of Kildare and 

Province of Leinster, Diocese of Kildare, Leighlin," vol. i., chap, ix., p. 239. 

p. 234. Dublin, 18S0. New edition. 

2''u He was an Englishman by birth, and 27.) ^ee Rowley Lascelles' "Liber 

educated at Christ Church, O.xford, where Munerum Publicorum Iliberniaj ab An. 

his portrait is preserved in the hall. 1152 usque ad 1827," vol. ii., part v., 

271 See Rowley Lascelles' " Liber p. 197. 

Munerum Piilihcorum Hiberniae ab An, 277 Hq h^,^ previously filled the See 

1 152 usque ad 1827," vol. ii., par. v., of Killala by Letters Patent, dated May 

p. 197. 30th, 1720. See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., 

2''2 See Harris' " Ware," vol. i.. Bishops of Killala, p. 656. 

"Bishops of Meath," p. 164. Also 278 See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

" Bishops of Kildare," p. 396. " Fasti Ecclesine Hibernicre," vol. ii., 

2 '3 See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti The Province of Leinster, the Diocese of 

Ecclesiae Hibernicae," vol. ii.. The Dublin, p. 4?. Also the Diocese of 

Province of Leinster, Diocese of Dublin, Kildare, p. 234. 

pp. 45, 46, and n. 'b). Also Diocese 279 gge Rowley Lascelles' " Liber 

oi Kildare, p. 234. Munerum Publicorum Hiberniae ab .An. 


to Derry, and in 1747, he became Primate of Armagli.'-'^^' In this 
capacity, he was charged with care of the EngUsh interest in Ireland, 
and he was a man of talent, but of an ambitious, arrogant, and a 
resolutely obstinate character. These dispositions rendered him un- 
popular in the country at large. '■^^^ This prelate died in December, 1764.-^'- 
Thomas Fletcher, D.D., Dean of Down in I73(), and in 1744 Bishop 
of Dromore, was translated to Kildare by Letters Patent, dated May 14th, 
1745. He died in Dublin, on the i8th of March, 1761, and he was buried 
in the Cathedral of Christ Church. -'^^ 

During his time, the Ivev. James O'Keeffe, Parish Priest of TuUow, 
County of Carlow, and Vicar-Capitular of the Diocese of Leigblin, was 
elected Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin by Propaganda, and 
his Brief is dated January 19th, 1752. He founded St. Patrick's College, 
Carlow, which he had nearly built at the time of his death, September 
irjth, 17S7, at the age of 85. In 1781, the Rev. Richard O'Reilly, Parish 
Priest of Kilcock, was consecrated Coadjutor, Bishop of the Diocese, 
but two years afterwards he was made Coadjutor and Administrator 
ol Armagh, cum jure successionis. Afterwards, Bishop O'Keeffe selected 
the Rev. Dr. Daniel Delany, C.C, of Tullow, to l)e his Coadjutor, and 
he was there consecrated i'>ishop on the 31st of Augjjst, 1783. ''^■* 

Thomas Fletcher, D.D., Protestant Bishop of Down, was succeeded 
1)\' Richard Robinson, D.D., son to William, of ^Martin, Surrey, arm.,-"^^ 
and a student of Christ Cliurch, Oxford, -^^ who came to Ireland as 
Chaplain to the Duke of Dorset, Lord Lieutenant. He became Bishop 
of Killala in 1751 ; and in 1759 he was translated to the Sees of Leighlin 
and Ferns. In 1761, by Letters Patent, dated April I3tli, he was trans- 
lated to the See of Kildare and to the Deanery of Christ Church. On 
May Kith, lie was enthroned. Afterwards, he was elevated to 

till- PrniKi. \-, bv Letters Patent, dated January 19th, 1765.'*" That 
same year Ch;irl'S j.uksdn. D.D., a native of Northamptonshire, 
,ind fdurated at I^inmanuel College, Cambridge, having been 
( h:iplain 1(; the \)\\]:r of P.edford, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and 
.idvancrd b\- hnn to tl:e bi-h"pric of Ferns in 17O1, afterwards became 
l-iishoi) di Kildiire, tran>!.itril by Letters Patent, dated February ^^th, 
1703. lb- w.!>- <:ith:iii!r 1 on the bth of June iollowmg. He (.lied a.d. 
17>/J.--"' J'.\ I.etl'!.-, Patent.dated June 5th, i7<jo, the Rt. Rev. George Lewis 

I ! : .: •.;•■;•.,'■ .il ' :~." v^l. n., j'.irt v., of n-^prctalulii y, and bom in 1709, 

; ; >; 1:C was (.'ii^luh in cli.'->Lcnt Iri Jin William 

»*- ^cp .vTtJ, V.i. :. H' :i:v r.'t'iwii's (A Krmlal. A \-cry lull ami conipletL- 

■ 1 i--'.i i -'.rtij lii.. .-;:;. I-." vc], 11., aci^uinl of iliis ri'inarkalile prelate's 

I : ' Tf. ...... T <..J l.i.Ui'.c. I'l'.^v-e of vairrr is to It Imm.l iu James Stuart's 

Ki^'.A-c. }• ;j!i " lii-t'jrical Mnnoirs of the city of 

'*' Srr l-|AJ.i;;» ri^j-A •••n'» " Hi-.', rv of A:inai:h." i!i,i]'. xxv., ])[). 444 to 

|;fl»r.w, iu..u lt» Ir.vj.'! '-A v.r. '.' r \V my 4;-. 

11." \ !. !i . i!;.i;'. IV., 5>j>. i:; i» u j. -• St c Jti.-.r|)li lAi-tcr's " Alumni 

'•' r"'* /I:./ I h.ip. V 5>. I.;'. Ox'iuww-vi," Later Siries, L — R., p. 

"»Vt .\r«.!H!«- .»....!> Ilr:;:y Cott^.n's uij. 

"' I a,%ti Tc; l"- ■•».»: HjN r:jK.«-." vol. 11.. -""He died .it Clifton, near Bristol, 

ll.r l'ri>v'.:n;c ol I.cin^tcr, ! >iai-c->i.> i.f in ( ictobcr, 1794, and he was interred 

D'jf'ijn. pp. 46, .^7. Alv> thu l>iocL3e with due solemnity in a vault under 

• ! KjKla.rc, pp. -34, ;.,;. Ai m.if^h Cathedral. See James Stuart's 

'••Sec IJi-h' p C«.pincrforir3 "Col- "Historical Memoirs of the City of 

IfCtiorvi rvlatm^ to the Dioc'-^e <>t Armagh," chap. .x.kv. 

KiMwr and I.' i..;hlin," vol. i., pp. ■-^■' See .•\rchdcacon Henry Cotton's 

-•-• t') iS7. " l'\isti Ecclesiai HiberniCcC," vol. 11. 

2»' Ho \\a,i .1 IiiumI tleseemlant of the Tlie Province of Leinster, Diocese of 

J<obiav)n-> of Ivjkeby, an atKi- nt family Kildare, p. 235. 


Jones, -^'■' D.D., was translated from the See of Ivihnore to tliat of Kildare, 
and he was enthroned on the loth of Auyust. He died in London, 
March ()th, 1804, aged 84 years. 

On the death of Bishop O'Keeffe in 1787, the Rt. Rev. Dr. Delany 
immediately succeeded him. This pious and amiable prelate departed 
this hfe, July 9th, 1814. The Rev. Michael Corcoran, Parish Priest of 
Kildare, succeeded to the Sees of Kildare and Leigiilin, on the 12th of 
March, 1S15. He died at Tullow on the 22 nd of h\>bruary, 1819, and 
he was there interred in the ])arish church.'-'"' 

The Plon. Charles Dalrymple Lindsay, D.D., was son to John, Earl 
of l^alcarres, in Scotland, and he was educated at Baliol Colle;j,e, 
Oxford.-''' He came over to Ireland as cha[)hun and private secretary 
to Earl Hardwicke, I^ord JJeutenant of Ireland. In 1803, he was ap- 
pointed Bishop of Killaloe ; and by Letters Patent ,he was translated 
to Kildare, on the 14th of May, 1804. He was installed Dean of Christ 
Church on i\Iay iSth ; l)ut this patent being judged delectix'e in point 
of form, a second was issued, dated August ist, when the Dean was 
admitted on August 2nd, and installed on the 4th. He was a man 
of acute mind, of singular industry, and of great talents for business. 
He was a good scholar, of a refined taste, and a great proficient in and a 
promoter of Church music. He was a nian of wide and general informa- 
tion, and fond of literary pursuits. He was enthroned' Bishop of Kildare, 
July, 6th, 1804. For forty-two years he watched actively over the 
rights and privileges of Christ Church Cathedral. He died iii his house 
at Glasnevin, near Dublin, on the 8th of August, 1846, in the eighty- 
sixth year of his age. After his death, the revenues of the deanery 
of Christ Church Cathedral were transferred t(j the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners, and the Dean of St. Patrick's became also Dean of Christ 
Clmrch. Lie was buried in this cathedral, where a monument bearing 
a suitable inscription has been erected to his memory.-'- On his death 
the Protestant See of Kildare was suppressed by Act of Parliament, 
and it became united to that of Dublin,--'^ while the revenues of the 
Kildare bishopric and also those of the deanery of Christ Church 
were transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.-^^ 

On the 22nd of March, 1819, the Catholic clergy of the Diocese 
assembled for the purpose of nominating a successor to Dr. Delany, and 
chose James Warren Dovle, Professor of Theology in Carlow College as dif;- 
nissiwHs. On tlie 8th of August the same >ear he was a])proved liy 
the Pope, and on the 14th of November succeeding, he received Episcopal 
Consecration in the old Parish Church of Carlow. The public career 
of this illustrious Prelate has rendered him generally and justly cele- 
brated. Notwithstanding declining health, especially towards the close 
of his hfe, Dr. Doyle's labours were unremitting ; but on the 21st of 
April, i8j4, a meeting of his clergy was sununoued to select for him 

289 He was educated at Canibridi^'e, 202 gee Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

and he became chaplain to Earl Harcuurt "Fasti EcclesicC Hibernica'," vol. ii. 

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In The Province of Leinster, Diocese of 

1775, he Avas made Bishop of Kilmore. Dublin, yp. 48, 49. 

He was installed Dean of Christ Church --'■' T.v the Act 3 and 4 of \\'ilUam 

on the 31st July ,1700. IV., cliaj). 37. 

= ■'" See Bishop Cnniorford's "Col- -"" Sc'c Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

lections relating to the Diocese of Kil- " Fasti 1'A-ciesia' Hibernica'," vuL ii. 

dare and Lei'^hlin," vol. i., pp. 87 to 92. The Province of Leuister, Diocese of 

-»i See Joseph Foster's "Alumni Kildare, p. 23^. 

Oxonienses," Later Series, I, — K. p. S:;3. -''^ See a full and very interestin^i; 

THE queen's county portion of leighlin diocese. 117 

a Coadjutor Bishop in the person of Rev. I'dward' Xohm di''mssimu, 
and this choice was afterwards confirmed hv tlie Pope Dr Doxle 
expired on Sunday, June 15th, iS34.'--'^ Ih: Nolan was consecrated 
B,shop on the i8th of October following, but his Episc^.al career w " 
rti rrP^^'Tr''' ^' 'ir'] °t,typ''"^ fe^er on tlie i4tli of October, 
T.'^.l?- The Rev. Franeis Halv, Parish Priest of Kilcock, and Ins cousin 
■u-as elected as a successor, and on the 2Sthof j\Iarch iS^S he was ro./ 
.^crated in the Cathedral of Carlow. llns accomplished and vnrable 
IWe died on the rgth of August, 1S55, ni the 74th year of his age 
Ihe kev. Dr. James \VaIshe was nominated to succeed, approved 
1 n':' 1"'"" "r .^f^ecra^^d Bishop, March 30th, 1856. His stTength 
hulmg, he applied for a Coadjutor, and Dr. James L^•nch of Glasox,w 
Diocese was appointed as such in i86a.-'-'<5 The .Most Rev. Dr Wa?she 
died on the 5th of Marcli, 1888,2.7 and liis Coadjutor Dr. Bynch 
succeeded. Jiut as he had borne 1lie burden of the episcojuicy for manv 
years, being now at an advancM age, and with enfeebled" heahh he 
required a Coadjutor bishop, and accordingly the Very Rev. Micha-l 
Comerford, P.P. of Monasterevan, was nominated in r8S8 and consecrated 
on tho_ ist of January 1 88y. He was the author of several works 
the chief one of these being "Collections relating to the Diocese of 
,'r^'^ and Leighhn, which appeared m three octavo volumes 188]- 

tu^' 11, T'^' ''^y"''f ''''*'■'' compiled and ^irranged with f2reat 
abour, skdl and rescarcli, has juoved most useful as a book of reference 
for many of the statements herein set forth. The Most Rev Dr 
Comerlord did not long survive his advancement to the episcopal dignity' 
and he departed this lite on the qth of August, 1805.-"-'^ The Wrv 
evlatnck Foley, D.D. President of 0?!-^ College, was selected 
to hll the position rendered vacant by his death ; and, on the 31st of 
May 1896, he was consecrated Coadjutor, Bishop of Kildare and 
Tn f ;' n f ''^^'\^^'"^^^^le Dr. James Lynch departed this life on the 

iQth ol December, the same year,-*-' and the Most Rev. Patrick Foley 
immediately succeeded him as Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin 

CHAPTER TH -The Queen's County. Portion of Leighlin Diocese. 
As a considerable portion of Leix is included m the Diocese of Leighlin, 
It may be well briefly to designate the Bishops who governed that See 

recordT vL"? 'f p'l''" 'f ""^ ""' ''""^''^ --P^'^^ ^^°- ^-thent c 
n fh ; ? first Bishop St. Laserian,! the founder, flourished early 

m the seventh century. He chose old Leighlin, within the present 
b- nl ^of tllT ^^>'' ""^ "^ ^'" ^°"'^^>^ of'Carlow. near the western 

in ml ll Vh u "''"'"' ^^' "^" ^'^^^ ^"^" ^ ^"^^^'-^""^ establishment, 

aiond which m aftcrtimes grew a considerable town. He died on the 
ibth ot April, A.D. 638 or 039. 2 The list of his immediate successors 

SrS's °''S 't- '''"'■-", J- i-tz- KUdare and Lei.hlin." vol. i.. pp. 92 
Patricks I^ile, Times, and Corrcs- to 164 • 1 1 y-' 

DoylTB^lf^^^^^^^^ ^-- For his Memoir see the "Irish 

Diibhn 1S80 edition, -^^ S,.^ ^lie Irish Cathohc Directory " 

■I'jii i;l„ tt' 1 ^ r '"■" ^^9^- Memoir, pp. i6o ^61 

kc'tions re aS°P to ^''"n^'' " ^°'; . ''' ^'^ ^^^ " ^"^^ ^a^tEoul Dir'e^tory" 
sections relating to the Diocese of for 1S9S. Memoir, pp. 354 to 357. 


does not seem to be known. However, tlie Anna's of Leinster record 
the death of one INIancliin at a.d. 865. Ap;ain, Condla MarDunecan, 
called Bishop and Prince of Lcighlin, is noticed at A D. 943. Danit'l 
died in 969. Cleirec O'Muinic died a.d. 1048.3 Condla O'Flain died 
A.D. 1113. Sluagad O'Catan died a.d. 1144.4 Dungall O'Cellaic, 
Bishop of Leighlin, assisted at the Synod of Kells in 1152, and he died 
that same year. In 1138, Donat was Bishop of Leighlin. He died a.d. 
1185, and he was buried in his Cathedral Church. A Cis'ercian monk, 
named John, Abbot of ^Ionastere\in, ^ was canonically ejected to be 
Bishop of Leighlin, in the year 1198. It would seem, that John, King 
of Ireland and Eaid of Moreton, through his Lord Justiciary of Ireland, 
Hamon de Valois, or Hanno de Valois, opposed that election. The 
Bishop-elect was obliged to go to Rome for his consecration. Pope 
Innocent III. wrote a sharp letter to the Earl of Moreton on this matter, 
commanding the Earl not to molest, either in spirituals or temporals, 
a Bisho]:) consecrated by himself. In another letter he orders, that the 
Bishop sliall be subject to no excommunication, save that of the Pope 
only. This Bishop died about the year 1201. 7 

That same year, Herlewin, a Cistercian monk, became Bishop of 
Leighlin. He died in 1216 or 1217. s In the latter year, Richard o 
Robert Fleming became Bishop of Leighlin. He had a great contes 
for some lands and tithes in Leix, 9 with the prior of Gonall. It was 
settled by composition. 1° He died in 1226. Without a royal licence 
being first obtained, the chapter and clergy of Leighlin Diocese elected 
William, its Archdeacon, as bishop of the vacant See. " Afterwards, 
they wei'e ol)]iged to sue out letters patent, certifying what was contrary 
to the tact, that a coiv^e d'elire had been issued, lest such a precedent 
should turn to the prejudice of the royal prerogative. It would seem, 
that before the year 1247, the mountains adjoining Leighlin afforded 
secure retreats for predatory bands, who caused great losses to fall en 
the clergy and people frequenting that city. Whereupon, the Bishop 
and Chapter represented to Pope Innocent III., the desirability of re- 
moving the Bishop's seat to some place, which might afford better 
security. ^~ Bishop William died A.D. 1251, and he was buried in his 
own ciiurch. '3 

1 His feast occurs in the Irlsli 1° Tlie Bisliop gave up tlie lands and 

Calendars at tlie iStli of April. tithes to tlie I'rior, reserving a pension 

- See Rev. Michael Comerlord's "CoUec- of ten marks ]Kival)le annually to him 

tions relating to the Dioceses of Kildare and to his successors in the See of 

and LeighUn,"vol. i., Bishops of Leighlin, Leighlin. 

pp. 43._.44- ^^ l^itent Rolls of Chancery 13, 

^ See Sir James Ware, " De Pnx'sulibus Henry IH. memln-ane 12 tiitits. 

Lagenia;," Episcopi Leghlinenses, p. 92 12 Qn this subject tlie Pope desired 

* See John Rj^an's " History and further advice in a letter addressed 

Antiquities of the County of Carlow," to the Archbishop of DubUn and 

chap, ii., pp. 25 to 33. to the Prior of the Church of 

^ See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., the INIost Holy Trinity. This was 

" Bishops of LeighUn," p.p. 454, 455. written from Lyons oii the Sth of 

^ It was also called the I\Io)iastdrium the March Kalends and in the fifth 

de Rosea Valle. year of his pontificate, a.d. 1203. 

■' See Bishop Comerford's " Collections See Augustine Theiner's " Vetera 

relating to the Dioceses of Kildare and Monumenta Hibernorum et Scotorum 

LeighUn," vol. i., pp. 46, 47. Ilistoriam illustrantia," CXXX, p. 49. 

^ According to the Annals of St. Rom.e, 1864, fob 

Mary's Abbey near Dublin. i-'See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., 

^ These he claimed as belonging to his " Bishops of LeighUn," p. 456. 

See. 11 See Theiner's " Vetera i\Ionumenta 


A certain Thomas was elected by the Chapter Bishop of Leighhn 
on the 22nd of April, 1252, in virtue of tlu' King's congt^ (Velire. 
He was the first who bestowed Prebends among the Canons. He died 
A]-»ril 25th, A.D. 1275. On the i6th of November, 1275, Nicholas Chevers, 
a Franciscan friar, and Archdeacon of Leighlin. was elected by the 
Chapter, as Bishop of that See ; and Pope John XX f. issued a commis- 
sion on the 2Sthof September, 1276, to enquire if he had I~)een canonically 
elected, before confirmation should be obtained. ^4 However, he was 
not consecrated, nor restored to the Temporalities before the year 1277. 
He died Jul 3^ 20th, A.D. 130c), at a very advanced age. Having been 
lawfully elected on the 13th November, 1309, Maurice of Blanchevill, 
Canon of Leighlin, was confirmed Bishop of that See. He died a.d. 1320. 
On the 5th of November, 1320, Miler le Poer, Chantor of Leighlin. was 
elected Bishop of that See, the King having issued his licence to the Dean 
and Chapter. On the 29th of January, he was confirmed by the Metro- 
])olitan, Alexander Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin. Afterwards, on 
Palm Sunday, 1321, he was consecrated at ^^'aterford. ^5 He died in 
1341. In 1341, William St. Leger was elected Bishop of Leighiln. 
His death took place in the beginning of IMav, 1348. '^ 

In 1343 there is a brief of Pope Clement VI. given at Avignon, and 
dated Fel^ruary i6th, which appoints one Radulphus over this See. ^' 
In the year 1345, he was translated to the Metropolitioal See of Cashel.^s 
Bishop Wilham died at Avignon about the beginning of May, a.d. 1348. 
In 1349, Thomas of Brackenbury, a Franciscian friar, was advanced by 
papal provision of Clement VI., i8th of March, in the seventh year of 
liis pontificate, to be Bishop of Leighlin. On the 5th of August of that 
year, he was restored to the Temporalities of his Sue. He died about the 
month of July, in the year 1360. From 1360 to 1363 the See of Leighlin 
was vacant, when, by papal provision, John Young, Treasurer of 
Leighlin, succeeded as 13ishop. He was restored to the Temporalities of the 
See by King Edward III., on the 21st September, 1363. '9 He appears 
to have resigned the administration. This See became vacant before the 
3rd March, 1731, as we learn from a Brief of Pope Gregory XL from 
/vvignon, and bearing this date, appointing as his successor one 
Philip Pcter,-*^ about whom little seems to be known. For the 
twenty-one years John Young survived, this Bishop was successively 
deputy to Alexander Balscot, Bishop of Meath, and to John Troy, Lord 
High Treasurers of Ireland. He died towards the close of the year 1384. 
In 1385, John Griftin, Chancellor of Limerick, was appointed to the See 
ot Leighlm. He was likewise made Chancellor of the Exchequer, by 
the King in 1391. On the 26th of August, 13S9, King Richard II. issued 
a writ m his lavour,-^ as the Bishop had no place for his abode in the 

Ihbcrnorum ot Scotornni Historiam -i He obtained the village of Galroes- 

illiistrantia," p. 117. town, with all its appurtenances, in the 

" See Sir James Ware, " De Proesuli- County of Dublin. This was part of 

bus Lageniai." Episcopi Leghlinenses, the pcjsscssions of the See of Killaloe, 

p. 9'). and then in the King's hands during 

>" See ibid. p. 97. that vacancy caused by the death of the 

'^ See Thciner's "Vetera ^lonumenta late Bishop, the Bishop succeeding having 

Ilibernorum et Scotorum Historiam illus- been a mere Irishman and abiding among 

trantia," p. 2S0. Irish enemies. Under such custodium, 

"* See i^!(/. p. 284. Pishjp Griihn held Galroestown until 

'" According; to Friar Clynn . September, 1391, when IMatthew 

20 See Theiner's " Vetera Monumenta JNIacCragh was restored to the tenipo- 

Hibernorum et Scotorum Histonam ralities of Killaloe. 

ilhistrantia, p. 342. -2 See William JNlaziere Brady's " Epis- 


Diocese of Leighlin, it having been destroyed by Irish enemies. This 
Sec the Bishop resigned in 1398, he having been translated to that of 

On December ist, 1400, having been appointed by Pope Boniface 
IX., ^- Richard Rocomb or Boknm, alias Boolam, a Dominican f; iar, -i 
became Bishop of Leighlin. While he governed this See, it was reckoned, 
that there was eighty-six burgesses, who inhabited that city. However, 
it was plundered and destroyed, owing to the wars then waged by the 
Irish against the English. In 1420, Richard, Bishop of Leighlin, re- 
signed liis See. -i- It having been vacant for two years, John Mulligan, 
Rector of Lynn in the Diocese of Meath, by provision of Pope Martin 
v., became Bishop, and on the ist of September, 1422. 25 He is said 
to have instituted four petty Canons ni his Church. He ched, in 1431, 
at Leighlin, and he was buried in his own Church, -^ beside tlie tomb 
of Gurmund the Dane. 

By papal provision of April 2Sth, 1432, Thomas Fleming, a 
Franciscan friar,^? became bishop of Leighlin.-S Llowcver, Dowling say^ 
that he was an Augustan Canon of St. Johti the Evangelist, at Kilkenny.-') 
Soon afterwards, the ancient Priory of Leighlin, by authority of Pope 
Eugenius IV., was dissolved, at the instance of Nicholas Coal, Dean of 
Leighlin. Its lands were afterwards annexed to the deanery. In 1430 
this Bishop was fined for non-attendance at a Parlicunent held in Dublin, 
by Richard, Duke of York. Thomas F^leming was in the See, a.d. 1458. 
The next Bisho};) was Dermicius, or Dermod, of whom nothing more 
appears to be known, ^'^' he being only mentioned m the provision of 
his successor. 31 ]ililo Roch, or De Rupc, who was distinguished for 
his love of poetry and music, became l->ishop of Leighlin, by papal pro- 
vision of Pius II., on the 3rd of February, 1464. 3- Between himself 
and his chapter mutual discords arose. He died in the year 1480, and 
he was buried in his own Cathedral, before the image of St. Laserian. ^J 
By papal provision, Nicliolas Mac Gwire, born in Idrone, educated in 
Oxford Universit}', and distinguished for his learning, was advanced to 
the See of Leighlin, 21st April, 1490, when he had not yet completed 
his thirty-first 5'ear, He wrote a Chronicle ; 34 from which Thady 
Dowling 35 derived great assistance in compiling his annals. 36 Bishop 
Mac Gwire l)egan many other learned works, but he did not live to finish 
any. He died a.d. 1512 37 

copal Succession in England, Scotland -'^ See W. Ma, -ji^rc Brady's " Episcopal 

and Ireland, a.d. 1400 to 1875," tV'c, Succession," i\:c., vol. i., p. 384. 

vol. i., p. 383. 32 See VV. Maziere Brady's •' Episcopal 

23 See De Burgo's " Ihberma Domini- Succession," cS;c., vol. i., p. 384. 

cana," cap. xiii. sect xxix pp. 468, 46?. ,3 5^^ Harris' " Ware," vol. .., 

"See Sir James Ware, De Prassuli- „ 3^^^ ^^ Leighlin," p. 4^9- 

bus Lagenue, p. qb. li t* /• .^u ^tc t 

05 gp|; jY)/(/ n on ■'■'■ '^^'^^ preserved in the Mb. known 

28 See Harris' '" Ware " vol i ^^ ^^® Yellow Book of Leighlin, to- 
•• Bishops of Leighlin," ]>p. 455 to 459. " R^-'^^ier with further collections made by 

"See Luke Wadding's Annnles, ,^ ^.';;'|",^^ Waterfeld, Archdeacon of 

IMinorum," tomus v., p. 244. Also i-eighhn. 

Regest. Pontif., ibid., p. 198. ^n ,^vas Protestant Dean of Leighlin 

2s See W. Maziere Brady's " Epis- and he died there in 1628, in the 84th 

copal Succession," &c., vol. i"., p. 384. year of his age. 

29 This statement, however, is ^s intituled " Annales Breves Hiber- 
erroneous. nije," edited liy the Very Rev. 

30 See Rev. M. Comerford's '' Collec- Dean Richard Butler, A.B., M.R.LA., 
tions relating to the Diocese of Kildare and published by the Irish Arch- 
and Leighlin," vol. i., p. 51. aeological Society, Dublin, 4to, 1849. 


By provision of Pope Julius II., and at the instance of Christopher 
Bambrid,i;e,3S Cardinal Archbishop of Yorlc, Thomas Halsay was 
appointed Bishop of Lciglihn, in 1515. Ho\ve\-er, Halsay never saw his 
bishopric. He assisted at the Lateran Council in 1515 and 1516. Lie 
governed Leidilin through liis Vicar-General, Charles Cavenagh, Abbot 
of Dnisk. Bishop Halsay was appointed the Pope's Penitentiary for 
Ireland. He died about tlie year 1521,^'-* and he ^vas buried in the church 
of the Savoy Hospital, in London."^ I\Iaurice Doran, or O'Deoran, 4r 
was born in Leix, and he was either a Franciscan or a Dominican friar .42 
He was appointed Bishop of Leighlin, January 28th, 1524.44 He was 
eminent for his probity of manners, and for his eloquence in preaching.45 
He governed tlie See for one year and eight months onlj^ when about 
the end of 1525, he was villainously murdered by his own Archdeacon, 
Maurice Cavanagh,4'^ whom he had reproved for his insolent obstinacy 
and other crimes. This murder took place on the high road, near Glen 
Reynold. Afterwards, that traitor and parricide was apprehended, 
and by order of the Lord Deputy, Gerald, Earl of Kildare, he was executed 
on the very spot where he had committed such a detestable crime.- 
By provision of Pope Clement VII,, on April nth, 1527, Matthew 
Saunders became Bishop of Leighlin. 48 He was born near Drogheda. 
He rebuilt tlic choir of the Cathedral of St. Laserian, iind he also erected 
and glazed tlie south window. Afterwards, it has been supposed, he re- 
nounced the Pope's authority, and supported the Reformation, during 
the reigns of IIenr\^ VIII. and Edward VI. But, there does not appear 
to be any direct proof that such was the case. He died on the 24th of 
December, 1549. ^^' ^^''^^ buried in the Church, under a marble 
monument. ■''■* 

In 1550, Ro1)ert Travers was appointed Protestant Bishop of Leighlin 
by King Edward VI. He is described by Thady Dowling, the Protestant 
Chancellor of Leighlin, as " cruel, covetous, vexing his clergie."'^'^ 
Being afterwards charged with his marriage, contrary to the Catholic 
discipline, by George Dowdal, Archbishop of Armagh, William Walsh, 
Bishop of Meath, and Thomas Leverous, Bishop of Kildare, he was 
deprived of the See in 1555,^^ during the reign of Queen Mary, who 
came to the throne in 1553. Translated from the See of Achonry on the 
30th of August, 1555, Thomas Field, or O'Fihely, a Frarxiscan friar, 
and a native of the County of Cork, was appointed to succeed him, by 

37 See W. Maziere Brady's " Episcopal *^ Thady Dowling adds " castus a 

Succession," &c., vol. i., pp. 384, 385. nativitate." — " Annales Breves Hibcr- 

The life of this Larned and respected ui,e," p. 34. 

prelate was written by his chaplain, -"^ Called ]\Iac-an-Abbaidh Mac 

Thomas Brown. It seems to have been Murrough, by the Four INIasters, at .a..d. 



38 Then resident Ambassador at "'^ See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., " Bishops 

Rome from King Henry \'lll. of Leighlin," p. 461. Also W. RlaziL-re 

33 See W. JMaziere Brady's " Episcopal J5rady's " Episcopal .Succession," i\:c.. 

Succession," ^Sic, vol. i., p. 385. vol. i., pp. 3S5 to 3S7. 

" See Harris' "Ware," vol i., " Bishops *8 See l\cv. M. Comerford's " Collec- 

of Leighlin," pp. 460, 461. tions relating to the Dioceses of Kildare 

*i See Sir James Ware "EpiscopiLegh- and Leighlin," vol. i., p. 56. 

linenses," pp. loi, 102. *» See John Ryan's " History and 

*2 Sometimes called Durand. .Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 

*3 According to De Burgu's " Hiber- chap, xviii., p. loi. 

nia Dominicana," cap. xiii, sect. Ivi., p. ''" See " Annales Breves Hibernise," p. 

485. 38. Edited by Dean Butler. 

** See W. Maziere Brady's " Episcopal ^^ See Harris' "Ware," vol.i., " Bishops 

Succession," &c., vol. i., p. 385. of Leighlin," p. 461. 


papal provision. It is stated^ that he conformed to the Protestant relitpon 
after Elizabeth succeeded to the English throne, a.d. 155S. About 1565, 
he was joined in Commission with the Earls of Kildare, Ormond, and others, 
for the reformation of religion. However, there are no positive proofs to 
show that he acted upon it, or that this Bishop abandoned the Catholic 
faith. 52 He died the Friday before Palm Sunday, m the year 1566. 
He was buried in the same tomb with his predecessor, Saunders. S3 
Bishop O'Fihely was succeeded by a Catholic Bishop of Leighlin, named 
William Opliily, about whom little is known. After his death on the nth 
of Se]~)teml)er, 1587, a Spanish Franciscan friar named Francis de Ribera 
was n >minated at Rome to succeed. He died at Antwerp in 1604 ; but 
tliere is no evidence to show that this prelate ever came to Irelancl. 

By letters patent of Queen Elizabeth, and dated 7th of May, in the 
ninth year of her reign, Daniel or Donald Cavaii, ;;jh was appointed 
Protestant Bishop of Leighlin. He made long leases of the sce-lands, 
for which he exacted large fines, which caused only small rent^ to be 
reserved for his successors. He died on the 4th April, 15S7. After his 
death, the Queen granted the See of Leighlin, in comincudam, and during 
the vacancy, to one Peter Corse, Archdeacon of Leighlin. ^-^ 
For two years, the Protestant See of Leighlin was \Ticant, as Cavanagh 
!iad left it destitute of a suitable revenue. At that time Sir John Perrot, 
Deputy, had a Welsh chaplain, named Richard Meredith, appointed 
Rector of Loughrea, in the Diocese of Clonfert, who accepted the charge 
in 1589, by Queen's Elizabeth's letters patent, 55 which contained also a 
clause granting the deanery of St. Patrick's in conuih'iiihuii, " on account 
of the poverty of the See." However, the very year of his advancement, 
he was conhned a close prisoner to the Tower, and fined £2,000 in the 
Star Chamber. In consideration of this fine being remitted, he granted 
to the Queen 300 marks -per anmtm, out of his deanery, for ten years. 
He repaired the episcopal residence at Leighlin. 5*^ He died in Dublin, 
on the 3rd of August, a.d. 1597, and he was btiried on the north side 
of St. Patrick's Church, under a marble monument, near the steeple. 5/ 
Having been vacant for nearly three years, Robert Grave, Dean of Cork, 
was selected as Protestant Bishop of Leighlin, in 1600 ; howe\-er, that 
verv same year, intending to sail for Wexford by sea, a storm arose 
and the vessel was cast awaj' in the harbour of Dublin, where he perished. 58 
Soon afterwards, the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns were united, in the 
Protestant arrangement, July 17th, if)Oo. This step was suggested 
no doubt, through the detriment done to the revenues of the former 
diocese. 59 

■'- See Rev. M. Comerford's " Collec- was the income of the deanery reduced 

tions relating to the Dioceses of Kildare to a vrry binall amount, the Bishop and 

and Leighlin," vol. i., pp. 58, 59. chapter havin^; joined with the Dean in 

^3 See John Ryan's " History and coniirming a fee-farm lease of its posses- 
Antiquities of the County of Carlow,'' sions, at a rent of ten pounds per annum, 
chap. XX., p. lo.s. '^'^ Being decayed through lapse of 

•"'* See Harris' "Ware, " vol. i., " Bisho[)s time, a new monument was erected in 

of Leighlin," p. 462. I734. '^t tlie expense of three of his 

■'^ Dated 13th of April, in the thirty- descendants, viz. : Richard Meredyth, 

first year of her reign. Esq.. Shrowland, County Kildare, 

^'' The economy estate, although pro- Charles I^Ieredyth, Dean of Ardfert ; and 

ducing an income of sixty pounds per Arthur l^rancis Meredyth. 
annum, was demised, however, about ^^ See ibid., p. 462. 

this time to a sou of Bishop Meredyth ^^ Sec John Ryan's " History and 

for a term of sixty-one years, at a re- Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 

ser\'cd rent of £4. 12s. ; in a similar way chap, xx., p. 104. 


Nicholas Stafford, who was Chancellor of Ferns, succeeded Robert 
Grave, in the united See of Leighlin and Ferns, by letters patent, dated 
July 19th, in the forty-third year of Queen Elizabeth's reign. He was 
consecrated March i8th (old Englisirstyle), lOoo. He governed the 
united Sees, on the death of Bishop Grave, for three \-ears and eight 
months. 60 He died November 15th, 1O04, and he was buried in St. 
Mary's Church, 61 Wexford. He was succeeded by Thomas Ram, who 
had come over to Ireland, as chaplain to Robert' Earl of Essex, in 
1599. *^2 He was consecrated Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns, ]\Iav 2nd, 
1605, by Henry Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, in Christ Church 
Cathedral, Dublin. <j3 In a return he made to a Regal Visitation held in 
1613, he complains, that at the time of his advancement, the revenues 
of his See had been reduced from /400 or £500 per annum to /G6 6s. 8d.64 
He built an episcopal house at Old Leighlin, for the benefit of hrssucc < -sors, 
and left behind him a Hbrary for the use of his clergy. He acquir. d an 
estate for himself in 1015,^5 at Gorey, on which he built a chapel. 
From the Regal Visitation Book of 1615, it appears that the Diocese of 
Leighlin then consisted of se\'cnt3'-cight jvirishes, and it was divided into 
the six following rural deaneries, viz., i, Odrone deanery, containing 
twenty-five parislies ; 2, Tullophelim, sixteen parishes ; 3, Forte, nine 
parishes ; 4, Lexia, seven parishes ; 5, Omboy, seven parishes ; and 6, 
Margee, alias Bargee, seven parishes. Ot the partehes. three were pre- 
bendal, in::. : Tullomagrinah, Ullard and Aghold. To the Cathedral 
belonged an economy fund arising out of the rectories of Balleroyle, 
Canngston, Crecoyne, Monelecuffe, Painstowne, Rathill, Tullowcrine, 
and Sleguffe. During the time of Thomas Rain, a Rev. Matthew Roche 
seems to have been the Catholic Vicar-Apobtolic over Leighlin, and his 
name occurs in documents bearing date 1623, 1624 and 1630. At the 
Provincial Synod held at Tyrocher, on July 29th, 1640, the Diocese ot 
Leighlin alone was unrepresented. Thomas Ram died in Dublin, 
November 24th, 1634, i^^ ^he seventieth year of his age, and his body 
was buried in his own chapel at Gorey. 66 As a punishment for his opposi- 
tion to the Earl of Strafford, the Dean of Limerick, George Andrew, w^as 
appointed to be Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns ; 67 and accordingly, he 
was consecrated on the i6th of May, 1635, 6S by Lancelot, Archl:)ishop 

''"See IlariLs' " Ware," vol. i., "Bishops estate ilescended to his children. Bishop 

of Fei 118," p. 447. Ram married y?;-ij/, Jane Gillord, widow of 

*' Under the same tomb with his pre- Mr. Thompson, and by her he had one 

decessor, John Devereux, who was son, Thomas, and four daughters, Grace, 

Bishop of Ferns from a.d. 1560 to Susan, Jane and Anne. lie married 

157S. .<i-i-o//i//j', x\nne, daughter of Robert 

"-See Sir Bernard Burke's " Genea- Bnwen, I'-S'i-, of IJallyadams, Queen's 

logical and Heraldic History of the Landed C(junty, and had three sons by her, 

Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland," for Robert, Abel, — who succeeded to his 

1882, vol. ii., pp. 1331, 1332. estates — Henry, and one daughter, 

^■^ The See of Dublin was then vacant. Eli/.ibcih. 

"^ Al a \^i^itation field afterwards in '''' .Ses Harris' " Ware," vol. i., "Bishops 

1622, he attributes its decay to the fact of Iciu-," pp. 447, 448. 

that his predecessors — especially Alex- ^'' As chairman of a committee iu the 

ander and John Devereux — had pas-ed Lower House of Convention, he had 

awry, in fee or by long leases, the manors opposed establishing the articles and 

and lands belonging to the See and with can ms of the Churcli in Ireland upon the 

smaller reseived rents than lay on them in same fooling with ihose in England, as 

1415. See MS. Loflus, in Marsh's Librar)\ .Vrchbishup Lautl had desired. Strafford 

Dublin. characterized hii bishopric as one of the 

*^ The I'lantati(.in of ^Ve.\ford, by meaiu-st in the whole kingdom. 

James I., had then taken place, and that '''^ Sec William Monck Mason's 



of Dublin, in St. Patrick's Cathedral. During the Insurrection Avhich 
followed in 1641, he was obliged to fly into England, where he li\x'd m 
obscurity for several years, and he died in London, October, i()48.'^y 
After his death, the Protestant Sees continued vacant until the restora- 
tion of King Charles II. 

On the loth of ]\Iarch, 1642, Dr. Edmund Denipsey or O'Dempsy, 
who belonged to the Dominican Order, 7" was aj^jiointed at Rome Bishop 
of Leighlin. His early studies were made at Douav and LoiUciin. In 
1624, he entered on the Irish Mission ; and in i()35. he was unanunousK- 
chosen as Provincial of the Dominican (^idcr in Ireland. He took an 
active part in the proceedings of the Confederate Catholics alter his 
episcopal appointment, and he was opposed to the party of C)rmond. 
\Vhen the Papal Nuncio, Rinuccini, sailed from Galway Bay on the 2 ;rd 
of February, 1649, the persecutions, suiterings and i-)rivations of the Irish 
Catholics under the Cromwellians commenced ; l)ut Dr. O'Dempsy 
remained in the country for three years afterwards, constantly exposed 
to great personal risk and danger, until destitute of all hunicUi aid, he 
escaped to Spain before the year 1653. He remained in Cillicia until 
his death, which took place at St. Clary's, Einistfrre, in or belure the year 

Robert Price, a native of Wales and Dean of Connor, was consecrated 
Protestant Bisliop of Eerns and Leighlin, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin, January 27th, 1660./- He died in DuljJin, on the 26th of ^lay, 
i6()6, and he was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral. 73 

In that year John Deoran was the Catholic Vicar-General of Leighlin. 

Richard lioyle. Dean of Limerick, was made Protestant Bisho]) of Leigh- 
hn and Eerns, by letters patent, dated June 7th, i6bf).~^ He was consecrated 
in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, January loth, 16G7. He died of palsy, 
at Leighlin, in January, 16S2, and he was buried there in the Cathedral. 75 
In the year a.d. ibyo, a National Synod uf the six remaining Irish 
Catholic Prelates was held in Dublin, with the Vicars-General of the 
other \'acant Sees. Eor these they recommended certain ecclesiastics, 
whom they deemed worthy of being advanced to the Episcopal dignity, 
and among them Dr. William Phelan, Chancellor of Ossory and Pro- 
thonotary Apostolic, was proposed for the Bishopric of Leighlin. However, 
this See was reserved in courniciidam for Dr. Mark Eorstall, Bishop of 
Kildare. On his death in 16S3, the clergy of Leighlin to the number of 
twelve petitioned the Holv See, that the Diocese might be given in 
administration to Dr. James Phelan, Bishop of Ossory. However, the 
Holy See thought fit to make another arrangement that year, by ap])oint- 
ing Dr. Edward Wesley, Bishop of Kildare, to be also administrator of 
Leighlin. 7<i 

History and Antiquities of the Colic- unusual spectacle and cerL-mon}- were 

giate and Cathedral Church of St. Patrick, afterwards published by Dr. Dutlley 

near Dublin," &:c. Book ii., chap, iii., Loftus in a tract " The proceedings 

p. 187. observed in order to, and in consecration 

•'" See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., " Bishops of, the twelve Bishops, in St. Patrick's 

of Ferns," pp. 44S, 44(.). Church in Dublin, on the 27th of January, 

''^ See De Burgo's " Hibernia l^'omini- 1660," London, iGui, 410. 

cana," cap. xiii., sect. Ixvii., pp. 4S9 to '^^ See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., " Bishops 

49^- of Ferns," ji. 4_)0. 

"' See Dr. jMaziere Brady's " Episcopal "' See John Ryan's " History and 

Succession," &.C., vol. i. Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 

^2 Eleven other Bishops were con- chap, xxiv., ]>. 190. 

secraled at the same time and in the ^■'' See Hams' "Ware," vol. i., " Bishops 

same place ; the particulars of whicli of Ferns," ]i. 449. 


Narcissus Marsh was born at Ilaiiningtun, Wiltshire, December 20th 
1638. Alter various promotions in England, 77 through lavuur of the 
Duke of Orniond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he was nominaled by King 
Charles IL to the Provostsliip of Trinity College, Dublin, December, 
1678. He sought to encourage there the study of the hish language. 78 
He was made Protestant Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns, by letters 
patent, dated Fcb/uary 27th, 1682 ; and he was consecrated in Christ 
Church, Dublin, May 6th, following. 79 However, on the expulsion of 
King James II. from the English throne, Archbishop IMarsh, with many 
others, fled from Ireland when the deposed King arrived there ; while 
his adventures and distress when in England are related in a Manuscript 
Diary, still preserved in the Library he subsequently founded near St. 
Patrick's Church, Dublin, ^t) On his return to Ireland, when King James 
IPs cause had failed there, Dr. ^larsh was translated to be Archhishop of 
Cashel on the 26th of February, ibcji. Si Bartholomew Vigors, educated 
in the University of Dublin, and Dean of Armagh, on the translation of 
Bishop Marsh, was promoted by letters patent, dated the 27tliof February, 
i6gi, to the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. 82 He was consecrated in Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dubhn, on the 8th of March, following. He purchased 
for the beneiit of these Sees a fee-farm in the manor of Old Leighlin, and 
otherwise he increased the revenues. He died on the 3rd of January, 
1721, and he was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dubhn. 83 Josiah 
Hort, an Englishman, and domestic chaplain to Thomas, Marquis of 
Wharton, •'-•'4 Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, after much litigation to defend 
his patent for the parish of Kilskir, in the Diocese of Meath, at last 
succeeded in his suit in 1717. After various removals, he was appointed 
to the Deanery of Cloyne, in 1718, and to that of Ardagli, in 1720. On 
the loth of February, 1721, by favour of the Duke of Grafton, then Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, he was advanced by letters patent to the united 
Sees of Leighlin and Ferns ; 85 and he was consecrated on the 26th of 
that month, in the church of Castleknock. He was further translated to 
the Sees of Kihnore and Ardagh, by favour of Lord Carteret, ^o Lord 

'^^ See Bishop Comerford's " Collec- 
tions relating to the Diocese of Kiklare 
and Leighlin," vol. i., pp. 6S, 69. 

~" See an interesting memoir of him, 
in James Wills' " Lives of Illustrious and 
Distinguished Irishmen," vol. iv., juut 
ii. Ecclesiastical series, pp. 267 to 2/^. 

''s See Rev. Dr. John William Stubbs' 
' 'History of the University of Dublin, from 
its foundation to the end of the Ligh- 
teenth Century," chap, v., pp. 114, 115. 

■^^ See Harris' Ware, vol. i.. " Biahojis 
of Ferns," pp. 449, 4^0. 

80 See W. B. S. Taylor's " History of 
the University of Dublin," chap, vii., 
.sect, ii., pp. 242, 243. 

81 In 1094, he was promoted to be 
Archbishop of Duljlin, and in 1702, he 
became Archbishop of Armagh. He 
died November 2nd, 1713, aged 75, and 
he was buried in a vault in the cliurch- 
yard of St. Patrick's, Dublin, adjoining 
the Library he had founded. See Alfretl 
Webb's " Compendium of Irish Bio- 
grai.liy," n, -,^2. 

^- See |olm Rvan's " Hisliir\' audi An- 

tiquities of the County of Carlow," cha]>. 

"^ See Harris' ''Ware," vol. i., " Bishoi>s 
xxvi., p. 23S. 
of Ferns," pp. 450, 451. 

'^■* He came over as Lord Lieutenant 
in 170.S, a notorious profligate. Accord- 
ing to the sarcastic sketch given of him 
by Dean Swift, he " dropped his reUgion 
and took no other in its stead." Again, 
" he contracted such large debts that 
his brethren were forced, out of mere 
justice, to leave Ireland at his mercy 
where he had only time to set himself 
right." — " History of the Four Last 
Years of Hueen Anne," boolr i. 
Still more severe upon him is the Dean, 
in his " Short Character of his Ex- 
cellency Thomas, Earl of Wharton, 
i.ord Lieutenant of Ireland," a pamphlet 
secretly distributed in London, antl 
dated August 30th, 1710. 

"^5 See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County of Carlow,' 
cha]). xxviii., p. 269. 

^'-' He -was Lord Lieutenant of Ii-eland 
from 1725 to 1732. See T'laiicis Plow- 



Lieutenant of Ireland, by letters patent, dated July 20th, 1727.87 
The vaeaucy thus occurnng, John Hoadly, Archdeacon of Salisbury, 
HI England, was advanced to the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns bv the letter 
of King George I., dated June 3rd, 1727. sti Howc-wr, the King died 
on the loth of that same month, before either he or his inedecessor 
ihshop Hort, could pass j)atent for their respective preferments. After- 
wards, both procured letters patent from Kmg George II. John Hoadly 
was consecrated in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, on the 3rd of September, 
1727 ; but he was translated to the Diocese of Dublin as Archbishop, on 
the 13th of January, 1729. ^9 Arthur Price was translated from Ch^nfert 
to the united Sees of Leiglilin and Ferns in 1729, as successor to Bishoj) 
Hoadly. 90 Afterwards, on tht; 4th of February, 1733. he was translated 
to the See of :Meath. 91 

A friend of Dean Swift, Dr. Edward Synge, Bishop of Cloyne, was 
translated - to the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns, February Sth, 
1733, 93 with clause to hold the Rectory of Killeban, on the same day. 94 
He was appointed to the See of Elphin, in April, 1740. 95 A former Dean 
of Ferns, and the Dean of Derry, George Stone, D.D., was appointed 
Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin, by letters patent, dated June 5th, 1740, 
and he was consecrated on the following 3rd of August, 9(J in the Parish 
Church of Chapelizod, near Dublin, by the Archbishop of Dublin. 97 
In 1743, he was translated to Kildare. Afterwards, he became Bishop 
of Derry. By letters patent, dated March 13th, 1747, he was created 
Archbishop of Armagh. 98 He took a leading part in public business 
and was a strong supporter of English Governmental measures in Ireland. 99 
However, it must be observed, he entertained enlightened views with 
regard to the Irish Ivonian Catholics ; by resisting elotiucntly various 
attempts made in the Irish House of Lords to add still more rigorous 
cmd unjust penal laws than those in force against them, by vindicating 
their character for peaceable and good conduct, by desiring for them 
the enjoyment of every advantage in common with the re.-t of his 
Majesty's subjects, by making fair concessions, to unite them in senti- 

clcu'.s " History of Ireland, from its In- 
vasion under Henry II. to its Union with 
C.ruat ]^ritain," vol. ii., book iii., chap. 
i\'., ji. ')o. 
ot Leighlin," p. 451. 

**' See Harris' ''Ware," vol. i., " Bishops 

88 See John Ryan's " History and 
Antirpiities of the County of Carlow," 
chap, x.xix., p. 269. 

8^ See Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Bisliojis 
of Ferns," p. 452. 

"" See John Ryan's " History and 
Anticpiities of the County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 2i<^'i. 

ui c;^,p Harris' "Ware," vol. i., "Bishops 
of Ferns," p. 452. 

'■'- AcconiinL; to Harris, by letters 
jiatent Sth of February, 1733. See 
ITarris'VVare, vol. i.," Bishops of Cloyne," 
p. 582. 

^'■^ See John Ryan's " History and 
Antic^uities of the County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 269. 

•J4 While occupying this See he pub- 
Hshed " \ Sermon prenchcd before the 
House of Lords, at Chnst Church, 

Dubhn, on the 5th of N(j\'eniber," 
Dublin, 1737, 4to. 

"^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclt'sia' llibernica:." Tlie suc- 
cession of the I'relates and iMenibers of 
the Cathedral Bodu's in Ireland, vol. ii., 
The Province of Leinster, Diocese of 
Ferns, p. 339, Dublin, 1848, 8vo. 

'■"^ See John Ryan's " History ami 
Anticjuilics of the County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 270. 

■'^ Soon afterwards, he published " .-V 
Sermon, preached at Christ Cduirch, 
Dulilin, on November sth." Dublin, 
1741, 4to. 

■'8 See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
Ecclcsiai Hibernicie." The succession 
of the Prelates and Members of tlie 
Cathedral Bodies in Ireland, vol. iii.. 
The Province of Ulster, Diocese of 
Armagh, p. 26. Duldin, 1840, Svo. 

^'■' He died in London, Decembiu- 19th, 
17G4, and he was inti^rred in King Henry 
VH.'s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, Jan- 
uarv 4tli, 1 7O5. 

'^"' See the account of him in James 



ments of loyalty witli other subjects of the Kingdom, wliom the 
leaders of the English Party in Ireland deemed it a wise jiolicy to 
estrange, ^oo 

Dr. William Cotterell, i"' Dean of Raphoe, became Bishop of Leighlin 
and Ferns, by a patent bearmg date March 24th, 1743. ^o- The followinf^ 
June 19th, he was consecrated in Christ Church, Dublin, by the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin. He died in England, on the 21st of June, 1744. 103 
Dr. Rol)ert Downes, Dean of Derry, was appointed Bishop of Leighlin 
and Ferns, by letters patent, August ist, in 1744.104 He was conse- 
crated the 19th of that same month by the Primate, in St. Michael's 
Church, Dubhn. io5 In 1752, he was translated to the united Sees of 
Down and Connor. '^'^'> In 1752, October 28th, Dr. John Garnett i"7 
received his patent of donation, and became Bishop of Leighlin and 
Ferns. He was consecrated November 12th, in 1752,10s by the x\rch- 
bishop of Dublin, in Christ Church Cathedral, and on November 20th, 
he was enthroned by proxy. In 1758, he was translated to Clogher.iof) 
In 175S, Dr. William Carmichael, Bishop of Clonfert, was translated 
by patent dated April 5th, to the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. "o That 
very same year, ^ however, he was translated to Meath, and afterwards 
he was created Archbishop of Dublin, by patent dated June 14th, 1765. 112 
The vacancy thus occuring. Dr. Thomas Salmon chaplain to the Duke 
of Bedford, then Lord Lieutenant, became Bishop of the united Sees 
of Leighlin and Ferns by letters patent, dated May 30th, "3 1758. ^-i 
On the nth of June he was consecrated at St. Bride's Church, Dublin. 
His episcopal career was a short one ; for he died while holding a con- 
hrmaiinn in his native town of Tiverton, England, on March 25th, 
1759. "5 By letters patent, dated April 19th, ''^ 1759, Dr. Richard 

Stuart's " Historical Memoirs of the 
City ut .\nnayh," vSrc, chap, xxv, pp. 437 
to 444. 

i"i Son of Sir (Jliarles Cotterell, IMaster 
of the Ceremonies. 

^°- See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 270. 

^^^ See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
EcclesicC IIibcrnic:o." The succession 
of the Prelates and Members of the 
Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii. 
The r'ro\ ince of Leinster, Diocese of 
Ferns, p. 340. 

^^* See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County of Carlo\v," 
chap, xxix., p. 270. 

1"^ He published " A Sermon preached 
before the Irish Protestant Schools in 

1"^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclcsire HibcrnicaB." The suc- 
session of the Prelates and Members of 
the Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, vol 
ii. The Province of Leinster Diocese of 
Ferns, p. 340. 

1°^ Cliaplain to the Duke of Dorset, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

I'J^ See Jolm Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 286. 

^''3 See Arclideacon Cotton's " Fasti 

EcclesiaB Hil)ernicie." The succession 
of the Prelates and Members of the 
Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii.. 
The Province of Leinster, Diocese of 
Ferns, pp. 340, 341. 

1^"' See " Liber Munerum Puljiicorum 
Hibernia; ab An. 11 52 usque ad I027, 
vol. ii., part v., p. 50. 

>" See John Ryan's "History and 
Antiquities of tlie County of Carlow," 
chap, xxix., p. 2S6. 

"-He died at Bath, December i;th, 
1765. See Archdeacon Cotton's " h'asti 
Ecclesia; llibernica;." The succession 
of Prelates and Members of the Ecclesias- 
tical Bodies in Ireland, \'ol. ii., the Pro- 
vince of Leinster, Diocese of Dublin, p. 
24, and Diocese of Ferns, p. 341. 

i^-* Accortling to yVrchdeacon Cotton, 
dated June lotli. 

"* See Liber Munerum Publicoruin 
Hibernics! ab an. 1152 usque ad 1S27," 
vol. ii., part v., p. 59. 

lis See Archbishop Cotton's "Fasti 
Ecclesia; Hibernica;." The succession c>f 
Prelates and jMeml)ers of the Ecclesias- 
tical Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii. The 
Province of Leinster, Diocese of Fern-', 
P- ,Ui- 

11" AccordiuR to Archdeacon Cotton, 
the " Liber Munerum," i'v:c., has tlie 
date for his transfer, March 27th, 1759. 



Kobinson,!!/ Bishop ot Killaki, was translate'd to the uniird S;'es of 
Lcighhu and Ferns. In 1761, he was translated to the bishopric of 
Kildare, "^ and in I7()5, by patent dated FelM-nary 8th, he became 
Primate, and Archbisliop of Armagh. ^o This ilhistrious Prelate was 
a great public benefactor to that city, in which he effected so many 
great improvements, 120 

As successor of Dr. Richard Robinson, Dr. Charles Jackson was 
nominated by letters patent for the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns, 
March 20th, a.d. 1761.1-' He had been chaplain to the Duke of Bedford, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was consecrated in St. Bride's Church, 
April 19th, by the Archbishop of Dublin. He was translated to Kildare, 
in 1765, by a patent dated February 25th. i-- In 1765,123 March 4th, 
by letters patent. Dr. Edward Young, Bishop of Dromore, succeeded 
in the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. He wrote and published two 
sermons, Dublin : 1763, 1766, in 4to.i-4 He died in Dublin of pleurisy, 
August 29th, 1772.125 In 1772,126 by letters patent of September igtli, 
the Hon. Josejih Dean Bourke, succeeded Dr. Edward Young, as Bishop 
of Leighlin and Ferns. 127 He was translated to be Archbishop of Tuani 
in 17S2, by letters patent, dated August Sth. By the death of his elder 
brother, he became third Earl of Mayo.^^s In 1782,129 by letters patent 
of August 9th, Dr. Walter Cope, Bishop of Clonfert, was translated to 
the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. ^30 He died Ji^ly 31st, 1787, 
at Dromally, in the County of Armagh. In 1787.131 by letters i)atent 
of November 9th, Dr. William Preston, then Bishop of Killala, 132 

11'^ See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County of Carlow," 
clia]i. xxix., p. 2S6. 

'i'^ See " Liber Rlumeruin Publicorum 
llibcruire al> An. 1172, usque ad 1827," 
vol. li., jiarl v., p. 50. 

''■'ScL- Archdeacon Cotton's "Fasli 
lCcclesi;e Hibernica\" 'i'lie succession 
of Prelates and Members of the Ecclesia- 
stical Bodies in Ireland, vol ii., The 
Province of Leinster, Diocese of Ferns, 
]). 341., and vol. iii., The Province of 
Ulster, Diocese of Armaj^h, pp. 26, 27. 

120 See James Stuart's " Historical 
IMenioirs of the City of Ariuagh," cSrc, 
chap. XXV., pp. 444 to 457. 

1-1 According to the " Liber IMunerum 
Publicorum Hibernicas ab An. 11 72 
usque ad 1827," vol. ii., part v., p. 51. 
However, Archdeacon Cotton has the 
]iatent dated April i6th, 1761. 

i'-2 He died in London, March 9th, 
1804, aged 84. See Archdeacon Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesire Hibernica:." The suc- 
cession of Prelates and Members of the 
Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii.. 
Diocese of Ferns, pp. 235, 341. 

12'' See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the County ol Carlow," 
chap, x.xx., p. 303. 

'24 See S. Austin Allibone's " Critical 
Dictionary of English Literature and 
British Authors," &c., vol. iii., p. 2S97. 
125 See Archdeacon Cotton's " I'^asti 
Ecclesiaj Hibernica2." The succession o£ 
Prelates and Members of the Ecclesias- 

tical Bodies in Ireland, vol ii.. The Pro- 
vince of Leinster, Diocese of Ferns, pp. 
341, 342. . 

i2'J See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities ol the County of Carlow," 
chap. xx.K., p. 303. 

1'-^ He \v-<is c(jnsfcrated in St. Thomas's 
Church, Dul)lin, October nth, by the 
Archbishojj of Dublin. See Arcluleacoit 
Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesiaj Hibernica:-." 
The succession of Prelates and Members 
of the iicck'hiastical Bodies in Ireland, 
vol. ii., The Province of Lcinsu-r, 
Diocese of FeTus, p. 342. 

128 He died at Kilbeggan, in the 
County of INIeath, August 17th, 1704. 
He was interred in the burying-groiind 
of his family, Naas. See j/u'd., vol. i\'.. 
The Province of Connaught, Diocese of 
Tuam, p. iS. Dublin, 1S50, 8vo. 

123 See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of Uie County of Carlow," 
chap. XXX., p. 303. 

1^° See Archtleacon Cotton's " Fa-,ti 
Ecclesiaj Llibernicaj." The succes ion 
of Prelates and RL'mbers of the EccL-^ia- 
stical Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii. The 
Province ef Lein.iter, Diocese of Ferns, 
p. 342. 

1^1 See John Ryan's " History and 
Antiquities of the Count}' of Carlow." 
chap. XXX., p. 303. 

i-'2 He ha(l luin Private Secretary to 
Charles, Duke of Rutland, when Lord 
Lieatenant of Ireland. 

1^3 See Arch(_leacon Cotton's " Fasti 


succeeded in the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. He died on Sunday, 
April 19th, 1789, in Dublin. A liandsomL- monument, with a suitable 
inscription, was erected to his memory in the Cathedral of Ferns by 
Mary Isabella, Duchess of Richmond.' i/i Dr. Euseby Cleaver, Bishoji 
of Cork and Ross, was translated and appointed by Kinpj's letter to the 
Sees of Lei,c[hlin and Ferns, June 5th, and patent issued on June 13th, 
1789.134 In 1809, he was translated to the See of Dublin, by patent 
dated 25th of August, that year. "35 In 1809, the Hon, Percy Jocelyn 
M.A., '3'i was appointed by King's letter, dated St. James's, July 31st 
to succeed to the Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. '37 He was consecrated 
m Christ Church. Dublin, September 13th, by the Bishop of Kildare. 
In 1820, he was translated to the See of Clogher, by King's letter dated 
Aj^ril 3rd,i3S In 1820, the Hon. Robert Ponsonby Tottenham Loftus, 
commonly called Lord Robert Loftus, Bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora, 
was translated '39 to the united Sees of Leighlin and Ferns. ^40 Like 
his predecessor, he was translated to Clogher in 1822, by letters patent 
dated December 21st, and admitted December 30th. 141 Thomas Elring- 
ton,"- Bishop of Limerick, succeeded Lord Robert Tottenham, 143 in the 
Diocese of Ferns and Leighlin, by letters patent, dated December 21st, 
:.S22. He had been a distinguished student, professor, and fellow of 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated. He wrote many tracts, 
chiefly of a controversial and political character. * He became Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin, in February, 1811.144 He died at 
Liverpool, on the 12th July, 1835, while on a journey to take his seat 
in the House of Lords, London. His body was conveyed to Dublin, and 
it was interred in Trinity College Chapel. '4=; Under the provisions of 
the Church Temporalities Act pas'sed that year, upon the death of Bishop 

pp. 342, 343. 

History and 

of Carlow," 

Ecclesiaj Hibernito"." The succession 
of Prelates and JLcclesiastical Bodies in 
Ireland, vol. ii., The Province of 
Lemster, Diocese of Ferns, 

1^* See John Ryan's " 
Antiquities of the County 
chap. XXX., p. 303. 

1-^ He was enthroned at Christ Church, 
August 29th, and immediately after- 
wards at St. Patrick's. He died at 
Tunbridge Wells in Kent, December 
1 8 19, aged 73 years, and he was buried 
at Fulham, near London. See Arcli- 
deacon Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesia; Hiber- 
nicae." The succession of Prelates and 
Members of Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ire- 
land, vol. ii. Province of Leinster, 
Diocese of Dublin, pp. 27, 28, and the 
Diocese of Ferns, pp. 343, 344. 

1^'' He Avas second son to Viscount 
Roden. He had been Treasurer of 
Cork, and Archdeacon of Ross. 

^37 His patent was signed August 26th, 
1809, by John Philpot Curran, Irish 
Master of the Rolls. 

13S In 1822, he was deposed. He died 
at Edinburgh, in December, 1843, and 
he was buried there in the new cemetery. 
See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti Ecclesia; 
Hibernica?." The succession of Prelates 
and Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, vol. 
ii„ Province of Leinster, Diocese of 

Ferns, ji. 344. vol. iii., Province of 
Ulster, Diocese of Clogher, pp. 83, 84. 

'39 Carleton House, 3rd April, of 
George IV. Sidmouth, entered at the 
Signet Office, 6th April. King's Letter 
Book at the Irish Department Office, 

^*'^ Patent Rolls of Chancery in 

1*^ See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti 
Ecclesiai Hibernicaj." The succession of 
Prelates and Members of Eczlesiastical 
Bodies in Ireland, vol. ii., Province of 
Leinster, Diocese of Ferns, p. 344, vol. 
iii., Province of Ulster, Diocese of 
Clogher, p. 84. 

1^- He was born near Dulilin, in 
December, 1760. 

!■'•'' See " Liber Munerum Publicorum 
Hibernias ab An. 1172 usque ad 1827," 
vol. ii.., part v., p. 199. 

1*1 See W. B. S. Taylor's " History of 
the University of Dublin," &c., chap, 
vii., sect, ii., ]ip. 257 to 260. 

1*5 A handsome marble tablet has been 
there erected to his memory, with a 
Latin inscription. See Archiieacon 

C(3tton's " h'asti Ecclesiie Hibernica^." 
The succession of Prelates and Mem 
bers of Ecclesiastical Bodies in Ireland, 
vol. ii., Prtn-ince of Leinster, Diocese of 
I'\^rns, pp. 3.14 to 347. 



Elrington, the Protestant Dioceses of Ferns and Leighlin became united 
to the Diocese of Ossory, under vvliich title we have to present tlie suc- 
cession of Protestant Bishops. 

CHAPTER IV.— The Queen's County Portion of Ossory Diocese. 

The Diocese of Ossory, estimated to be about forty-six EngUsh miles in 
length, by twenty-nine in breath, is calculated to have a superhcies of 
about 346,000 acres. It comprehends the City of Ivilkenny and almost 
the whole county of the same, the entire old undivided barony of Ossory, 
forming about one-third of the Queen's County, and a small part of King's 
County, occupied by the parish of Scir-Kyran. The Deanery of Aghaboe 
comprises that and the Queen's County parishes of Aghaboe, Donougli- 
more, Offerlane, and Skeirke.i The See of Ossory was planted at Saigir, 
in the King's County,^ by St. Kieran,3 at a very early period of the 
Irish Church. He was the first bishop, and he is the patron of that Diocese. 
He flourished in the fifth century, and he was born in Clare Island, off 
the south coast of Munster.4 His institute was situated in that ancient 
district known as Eli O'Carroll. A celebrated school was there established. 
After the founder, Saigir took the name of Scir-Kieran,^and his successors 
were called Episcopi Saigerenses, i.e., Bishops of Saigir. There are but 
slender account'^ of the early bishops who succeeded ; s but it is stated, 
that St. Carthach, the elder, and either son or grandson to /Engus, King 
of Munster. comes next to him in order. Kieran is said to have departed this 
life, on the 5th of March, a.d. 540. If we take Abbot and Bishop as being 
one and the same superior at Saigir, we Ihid the following named in the 
Annals of Ireland, as holding rule in the Monastery which was there 
established. In the Latin Life of St. Molua,^ Abbot of Clonfert Molua, 
mention is made of Sedna, also styled Scdonius, as the Bishop of Saigir 
who succeeded St. Carthach. He flourished about the year 570, and his 
festival is kept on the loth of March. 

Afterwards we learn, that with forty other prelates, Killene Mac 
Lubney, Abbot of Saigir, assisted in the year 695, at a synod convened 
at Armagh, 7 by the Archbishop Flan Febla, The festival of St. Killene 
Mac Lubney is observed on the 12th of April. Laigdene Mac 
Donnenach,8 Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 739.9 Tuntgall or Tnutghall, 

1 See " Liber Munerum Publicorum at Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones," 
HibernisE ab An., 11 52 usque ad 1827," capxxvi.,p. 162. See also his work " De 
vol. ii., part v., p. 46. Pnesulibus Lageniae," Episcopi Ossori- 

2 See an account of it in Archdall's enses, p. 69. See also the Rev. M. J. 
" Monasticon Hibernicum," pp. 404 Brenan's " Ecclesiastical History of 
to 406. Ireland." Sixth Century, chap.ii., pp. 

' Venerated on the 5th of March. 73, 74. 

* For fuller particulars regarding this " His feast occurs on 4th August, 

patriarchial founder, the reader is ^ Colgan had in his possession the 

referred to the exhaustive memoir by decrees of this synod. See " Acta 

John Hogan, " St. Ciaran, Patron of Sanctorum Hibernia\" Appendix ad 

Ossory: A Memoir of his Life and Times, Vitam S. Kierani, cap. iv., p. 47^. 
comprising a preliminary Enquiry re- ^ By Archdall he is called Laygnen, 

specting the period of his Birth; an the sun of Donenny. See "Monasticon 

historical Commentary on the Legend Hibernicum," p. 404 
of his Life ; some notes on his death, » See the " Annals of the Four 

and on the surviving Memorials of Masters," vol. i., pp. 340, 341, Dr, 

Mission." Kilkennv. 1876, 8vo. O'Donovan's edition. 

5 See Sir James \' are's " De Hibernia ""See ibuf. 


Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 771.10 Mocoach, or Maccog, Abbot ol 
Saigir, died a.d. 783." Cuccathach, Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 788. '-^ 
Cobthach, Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 801, according to some 
accounts, but Colgan places his death in 807.13 Fcrcdach, Abbot of 
Saigir, died a.d. 809, and Concliovar, Abbot of Saigir, died tlie year 
following. 14 It may be, that some of these had retired from otTice, 
and by courtesy held their former titles till the time of their death. 
Conmach O'Lochene, Abbot of Saigir, died in 826. Irgalach, or 
Jorgalach, Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 832.1=; Subsequently the Abbey here 
was burned, and pillaged, by the Ostmen.i6 Anluain, Albot of Saigir, 
died in 846. Cormac Mac Eladhaig, Abbot, Bishop, and Scribe ot 
Saigir, died a.d. 867.17 Geran, the son of Dichoscha, Abbot of Saigir, 
died a.d. 868. 18 Sloghadhach Ua Raithnen, Abbot of Saigir, died in 
the year 885.^9 Cormac, Bishop of Saigir, died a.d. 907.-0 Fergall 
Mac Maelmorra, Abbot of Saigir, died a.d. 919.-' Fogartach, Abbot 
of Saigir, ched a.d. 941.22 Kenfoelad IMac Swiny, Abbot of Saigir, 
died on a pilgrimage at Glendalough, in the year 951.23 The year 
lollowing, this Abbey was plundered and burned by the Munstermcn.-i 
Flathlcin, Arclicnnach of Saigir, died in 984. Fogartacli, Abbot oi 
Saighir and Glendalough, died A.D. 1004.25 Dunchadh Ua Kellechuir, 
("omorban to Kiaran of Saighir, died in 1048. 2'j In the year i07(), 
l\ellach-Ramhar, i.e. the Fat, Comorban to Kiaran of Saighir and to 
P>rendan of Birr, died. 27 

In the year 1152, Donald Fogarty 2S assisted at the Synod of Kells, 
licld vuidrr Cardinal Paparo. In a catalogue uf the l^jishops then present, 
he is stvled Vicar-Gcncral as well as l')ishop of Ossory.29 He is also 
<-alled (^omorlian of Kiaran. However, his successor in the See of Ossory, 
Most Rev. Patrick Francis Moian, is of opinion, that his position at the 
Syncjd mu>t have corresjionded in some way with that of an Auxiliary 
or a Coadjutor Bishop at tlic present time. 3" We are informed, that ho 

«> Sec )',;■./.. Y\\ 37.}. 375- 

'^S'-.- 1^;./., i'j(. y/). j>i. However, 
Or. O'Uonov.i'.i Ills the correction 
<.I (l.\tc [fcie. ~ ■^ j\. 

>*Sc,3 C'.-l.:.inri "Acta Sanctorum 
lli!-rrni <•." M.iriii v. .\ppi.-nilix ad 
Vma:u S. KuLkiu. i.i;>. iv., \\ .\-; i. 

»• Sfo \l\i. 

«» S--^ 151 .' 

«♦ Sc*! Ar. ;. :.v!l'« " MiJiListiroii Hibcr- 
a;.'jM." I \iy 

» ' .V«j I , >. 

••He 1' th'.iii «J'-M,;natcd in Dr. 
O'l^ rfi'ivuii •» ■■ .Krsn.iN of l!ic I-oiir 
Mjk>;«-».'" a! thai ilate. Sec vol. |., 

j.p. ?!o. 511. 

"Set: ArduiaU'9 "Mo:iaitio)n Hilier- 
tiKuni." p. 40?. 

" .^c Dr. O" Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters." vol. J., pp. 536, 537. 

*' CoI(.;.m has the date incorrect, as 
A.D. 997. 

" Sec CoIi.,'an'3 " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernij'," ^i.lrtii v. Appenili.x ad 
N'ltarn S. Kicrani. cap. iv. ji. .^73. 

" Sec .\rchdair3 " Monasticon Hibcr- 
nicum." \i. 405. 

'* Sec ibid. 

'* See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga " 

-•Xppendi.K Quinta ad Acta S. Brigid.L-, 
caj). x.\., p. 034. 

-" In recording his demise, Walter 
Harris remarks : " The founder of the 
church of Clonmacnois, being also a 
Kieran, leaves one in some doubt as to 
tlie Bishops of this See ; least one may 
ajijily to this wliat belongs to that, 
and so the term Comorban of Kiaran is 
not a sullicicnt guide to us in this 
p.irticidar, unless where Comorban of 
S.iigir or Clonmacnois is specilied to 
(iistin.;uisli them." " Harris' Ware," vol. 
i., Hihhops of Ossory, p. 402. 

-^ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernian," Martii v. Appendix ad 
V'ttam S. Kierani, cap. iv., p, 473. 

•^ He belonged to the tribe of Ua 
Fogarta of Eilie, and apparently he 
was a native of that terrUory, having 
been ecclesiastical superior of the 
monastery of Seirkieran, previous to 
the Synod of Kells. See John Hogan's 
" Kilkenny : The Ancient City of Ossory, 
the Seat of its Kings, the See of its 
iiishops, and the site of its Cathedral." 
Kilkenny, 1884, 8vo. 

-* See Rev. Geoff ry Keating's 

" General History of Ireland," part ii. 


went to rest in the peace of Christ, and in a good old age, on the Sth 
of May, A.D. 117S. The Annals of Leinstor have his death at that year. 
Sir James Ware is of opinion, 3' that he sat upwards of twenty-six years 
in the See of Ossory..v- In 1178, a Cistercian monk, named Felix 

O'Dullany,^^ who lived in Aghaboe, and who is called Abbot of 
Ossory, found the city of Kilkenny in ruins, with its ancient church 
of St. Canice.34 Havmg at ftrst fixed the scat of his See in Aghabou, 
and in proximity with his own family tribe-laiuls, he resolved ou a 
restoration of the fallen city, and this he was enabled to effect, 
with the aid of Earl Mareschal and his Countess Isabella, together 
with their Anglo-Norman retainers. 3 s He accoidingly removed the 
Episcopal See, it is stated; to the City of Kilkenny, 'where he laid 
the foundations of a Cathedral, afterwards dedicated to the Abbot 
and Patron St. Canice. For about twenty-four years he })resided 
over this See, and he died in 1202,36 in the Monastery of the Blessed 
Virgin at Jerpoint,37 where he was buried. 3S He was succeeded 
in that same year, by Hugh Rufus, an English Augustinian Canon, 3'* 
and he had been the first or second Prior of Kells, then lately founded 
by Gcoffry FitzRobert. He granted a great part of the city of 
Kilkenny to William Marshah the elder, Earl of Pembroke, reserving 
as rent an ounce of gold for himself and his successors in the See. 
During the time of Bishop Hugh Rufus, in 1210, Jvilkenny was 
made Shire-ground, and Sheriffs with other officers were appointed for 
it after the English manner.4o In 1218, this prelate died, and he was 
buried in the Abbey of Kells, to which he had been a great benefactor. 
After his death, the Dean and Cha}:>ter of Ossory elected Peter 
Mannesin to succeed, and his election was confirmed by the King,4i 
on the Sth of December, 121S. He purchased the wood of Aghlong, 
near Clonmnrc, with the adjoining farm, and left it to his See. Ho sat 

^'' For additional illustrations on the _ its Kings, the See of its Bishops, and 
subject of the present l^ishop, and much ' the Site of its Cathedral," part hi., pp. 

more extended biographical notices of 175 to 19S. 

other Diocesan prelates, the reader is ^« See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

referred to that learned and researchful nicum," p. 356. 

contribution to the "Transactions ^7 xhis was a Cistercian foundation of 

of the Ossory Archaeological Society," Donald Regulus of Ossory, a.d., 1180. 

headed The Bishops of Ossory from the See Sir James Ware's " De Hibernia et 

Anglo-Norman Invasion to the jiresent Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones," cap. 

Dav, by Most Rev. Dr. Moran, Lord xx\'i., p. 156. 

Bishop of Ossory. See vol. ii., pp. 200, ^s •' ^d ejus tumulum, qui a sep- 

201. trionali parte summi .Mtaris visitur, 

^^ See " De Praeulibus Lagenia;," multa olim patrata ferunt miracula,"— 

Episcopi Ossorienses, p. 69. '' Dc Prccsulibus Lageni;e, sive Provincia- 

32 See Harris' " Ware," vol. i.. Bishops ^-^ubliniensis." Episcopi Ossorienses, p. 

of Ossory, p. 403. '^^^ 

,T TT 1 , , i • i 1 "'•* See John Hogan's Kilkenny, 

•*•* He belonged to an ancient clan ^.^ jjj ■' ^ *= ■' 

seated in CoiU-Uachtorach, now Upper- ^o See Hirris' '•'Warc," vol. i., Bishoj.s 

woods, m the Queens County. ihe ^f Qssory, pp. 403, 4"4. 

fainily name has been Anghcized 41 Henry III. who at this time was 

"^ ^^y- a minor, while the Earl ot Pembroke 

3^ For much valuable information acted as Regent. See Charles Knight's 

regarding the history of Ossory Diocese, " Popular History of England, Civil, 

the reader may consult the learned work Mditary, Political, Social, and Bio- 

of Very Rev. John Francis Shearman, graphical," vol. i., chap, xxiv., pp. 3S6 

" Loca Patriciana," parts xi., xii., pp. to 358. 

264 to 394, Dublin, 1879, roy. 8vo. ^2 See Sir James Ware's " De Pra^- 

35 See John Hogan's " Kilkenny, sulibus Lagenis, sive Provincice Dublin- 

the ancent City of Ossory, the Seat of iensis," Episcopi Ossorienses, p. 71. 


eleven years, and he died a.d. 1220.42 He was also a benefactor to the 
Cistercian Abbey at Dnisk, now ("iraignemanagh.-B Having obtained 
the King's hcence to elect his snccessor, the Dean, and Chapter selected 
from their bodv the Chancellor William of Kilkenny. He presided 
only for a short time, as in the beginning of 1232 he abdicated 
the ofhce, and it is stated, owing to the persuasion of his successor, 
Walter de Brackell, who had been Rector of Strettuncdal, in the Diocese 
of Hereford. His })romotion was due to the favour of King Henry HI.-N 
This Bishop died on the 5th of December, a.d. 1243, when he had ruled 
for a little over eleven years. 

Galfrid or Geoifry of Turvill, Archdeacon of Dublin, and Treasurer 
of Ireland, was hiwiuUy elected l:)islK)p of Ossory and consecrated in 
1244. He purchased for his See the Manor of Dorogh,4S and the lands 
belonging to it. There he built an episcopal palace He died in London 
about the Feast of All Saints, a.d. 1250, having governed this See about 
six years. He was buried in the Inner-Temple Church. He was suc- 
ceeded by Hugh de Mapilton, also Archdeacon of Dublin, who was conse- 
crated towards the end of May, 125 1. The following year he was created 
Treasurer of Ireland. The building of the present Cathedral of St. 
(."aiiicc 1'' in Kilkenny had been carried on slowly bv his jiredecessors, 
but this prelate incurred great exijcnse in the work, which he did not live 
to lini^h, as his death took place in iz^d. He was buried in the Cathedral, 
near St. Mary's Chapel, where the tomb is still to be seen. A Dominican, 
called Hugh III., was his successor, and he was a benefactor to the monks 
of his Ortler in Kilkenny, but lu; did not long survive, having been called 
out of this life in i^y). He wa-, buried m tlu' Dominican ChuVch, near the 
high altcir. In turn, (ialliid or Ct'ohiy St. Leger succeeded. He was de- 
scended from a noble i.unilw and he was Treasurer of St. Canice's Cathe- 
dral. In ijtio. he w.iscdii-.erated I'.idioj), and apjilied himself earnestly to 
li!ii-h the (\ithedr.i!. at no small eost. He also founded a college of 
\arai^ choral, and m many wa\s he was a benefactor of the See.47 He 
liieiv pie-ided I'.r twentv-six \eais, and died in the month of January, 
l_'So. Ui- wa.s built d in the Cathedral, and his tomb is near that of 
}ii>h"p Ma;.iltMii. The Dean ot Kilkenny, known as Roger of Wexford, hl^ ^uu e-r-or, and elected with the King's approbation on the 3rd 
■ ■i N.-veml-, r, ij>7. He died on the 12th June, 128'). Michael of 
i.\t ;• :. .1 ciiion ol Kilkenny Cathedral, was elected Bishop of the See, 
N;,t.:nlK-r 2MI1, ijSi*. and on the 2nd of November following, the 
Km^-'.s .i>M'nt was obtaiiied. His liberalit\- to the canons of the Cathedral 
Is K-'-^tl.V pr.iixd. He d;ed about the Feast of Pentecost— as others 
^Ul^• ini the I2t!> of Julv, 1302. having sat lor thirteen years. 1^ 

Next to liini (.line William Fit/John, Canon of Kilkenny Cathedral, 

♦' Sti: ArclnLiH's '■ MuiiasiKoii Hilar- the rc;i(.lcr i.s referred to that learned 

nicuiii." p. 35;. wuvk. "The- Histurv, Anti(|uities, and 

♦*'liic rt-ii^n oi this rnonarcli om- .Vrchiiecture ol the 'Cathedral Church 

incnccd on tlie day of his cc>roiiatinii, ol St. Canice, " compiled by Rev. 

the I-\Mit of St. Siraou and St. Jude, James Craves and John G. Augustus 

Friday, the 2Sth of October, 1216, I'riin, Dublin, 1S57, 410. 

and lasted to the I' of St. i:dnuind <• See John C. 'l-:rek's "Ecclesiastical 

the Confessor. Wednesday, the 16th of Register, ontainin^ the Names of the 

November, 1272. See I lams Nicholas' l)i-mtaries and Parochial Clergy of 

•' Chronology of Historv." pp. 309, 310. Ireland," p. 113. 

*s Now probably Cas'.le Durrow, in ^-^ See Sir James Ware, " De Pnr- 

the nueen's Couni\. sulibus Lagenia-, sive Provincial Dublin- 

*" Fur a full antl very complete iensis," Hpiscopi Ossoricnscs, p. 75. 

account of this grand Gothic building, ■'■' See Fratris Johannis Clyn "Annales 



and he was consecrated there in 1302, on Sunday within the Feast of 
the Epiphany.49 Having governed the See for fifteen years, by the 
Pope's provision he was translated to be Archbishop of Cashel in 1317, 
It is said, one Peter succeeded in the See of Kilkenny ; but if so, it must 
liave been only for a very short time, since Richard Ledred, a London 
Franciscan Friar, was consecrated at Avignon in 131S, by mandate 
of Pope John XXII. The term of this Bishop was a troublesome one, 
but after various disputes with the Archbishop of Dublin, Alexander 
de Bicknor, and King Edward III., Bishop Ledred was exempted by 
the Pope from the jurisdiction of the former in 1348, while his church, 
peo})le and himself were placed under the immediate protection of the 
Apostolic See. 50 Having endured imprisonment and much persecution 
from the King and his ministers. Bishop Ledred died at a very advanced 
age, in the year 1360, and he was buried on the Gospel side of the high 
altar in his own cathedral church. 5i After his death, Milo Sweetman. 
Treasui-er of the Cathedral, was elected, but the Pope annulled the 
election, 52 and promoted John of Tatenale, by some called John of 
Oxford, to this See. He died in 1370. He was succeeded by 
Alexander Balscot, a man of learning and ability, who filled various 
public ollices, and he sat in this See about fifteen years, when he was 
translated to that of Meath in 1386. His successor was Richard 
Northalis, a Carmelite Friar of London, who greatly enjoyed the 
favour and confidence of King Richard II., by whom he was appointed 
Inquisitor-General for the King's service in Ireland, being Chancellor 
for a time. Ruling about nine years in this See, he was then translated 
to that of Dublin, and became its Archbishop. 53 

Thomas Peverell, a learned Carmelite Friar, succeeded, a.d. 1307, but 
he sat only for a short time in this See, for, in IMay, 1398, he was translated 
to that of Landaff, in Wales, and thence in 1407, to the Bishopric of 
WorcL'stcr. John Grillin, Bishop of Leighlin, was translated by the 
Pope to Kilkenny in 1398, but he died the year following. In 1399, 
John Waltam, an Augustinian Hermit, was advanced to this See 
by a provisional Bull of Pope Boniface IX., but he sat only for a short 
time, having died the year following. Then came Roger of Appleby, 
advanced to this See by the aforesaid Pope, on the 26th of September, 
1400. He died a.d. 1404. John Volcan, ]3isliop of Dromore, was then 
translated to tliis See, but he died about jNIichaelmas, 1405. Thomas 
Snell, Archdeacon of Glendalough, and afterwards Bishop of Lismore 
and Waterford, was translated to Kilkenny soon afterwards, and he 
died in Waterford, October i6th, 1416. Next came Patrick Ragged, 
Bishop of Cork, translated to this See in 1417, and he died on the 20th 
of August, or as some say, on the 20th of April, 1421. Denis O'Dea, 
Bachelor of the Civil and Canon Laws, as also a man of great knowledge 
in the muncipal laws of the country, was elected to this See on tlie 
26th of November, 1421, and he died a.d. 1427. In 1428, Thomas 
i3arry succeeded, and he died, it is said, on the 3rd of March, 1459. 
David Hacket was next in order, and sat about eighteen years, having 
died on the 24th of October, 147S. John O'Hedian succeeded, and 

Hiberniae," p. 10, edited by Very Rev. °i See Harris' " Ware," vol. i.. Bishops 

Richard Butler, A.B., M.R.I.A., Dean of Kilkenny, pp. 407 to 411. 

of Clonmacnoise. ^- Afterwards he was promoted to be 

'^'^ See Rev. Sylvester Malone's Archbishop of Armagh. 
" Church History of Ireland," chap, ix., ^^ g^g " Annales Breves Hiberniae 

pp. 250 to 265. auctore Thaddeo Dowlinp cancellario 



having sat about seven years, he died on the Otli of January, 1486.54 
After his death, owing to the RebelHon of Lambert Simnel'and the 
unquietness of the times, the See of Kilkenny remained vacant about 
two years. At length, Pope Innocent VIII. appointed Oliver Cantwell, 
- a Dommican Friar, as bishop, in 14S8 ; but this was not confirmed by 
King Henry VII., until the 28th of February, 1495. Worn out with 
old age, Bishop Cantwell died early in the year 1526, having 
governed this See almost thirty-nine years.55 In 152S, Milo 

FitzGerald, an Augustinian, as also Canon and Prior of Inistiock 
or Inisteague, was appointed Bishop by Papal Brief, dated June 
June 8th of that year,^*^ and accordingly he was consecrated Bishop of 
Ossory. He is also called Milo Baron, as he belonged to that Branch of 
the FitzGerald family who were Palatine Barons of Burnchurch, in the 
County of Kilkenny.57 His priory was held by dispensation, until the 
Visitation of Religious Houses in the time of King Henry VIII. It was 
then surrendered by deed to that monarch. Milo died at a good old 
age m 1550 ; some have it in 1551. He was buried among his ancestors 
in the monastery at Inistiogue.5« 

The celebrated John Bale,59 was made Protestant Bishop in Christ 
Church, Dublin, by George Ih-own, Protestant Archbishop of that See, 
and advanced to Ossory on the ist of February, 1553.^'^ During the 
reign of King Henry VIII., he had been imprisoned^for preaching against 
the Catholic Religion, but he was set at liberty through the interest ol 
Ford Cromwell. A little later, September, 1553, he was forced to fly 
into Lower Germany, where he lived for eight years.6i Thence he re- 
turned to England, and through procurement of King Edward VI., 
lie was nominated for the See of Ossory, and with his family, he went 

l.'.'chliiicnsi, p. 2<,. Edited by the Very 
Kcv. Richard Butler, A.B., M.R.I. A., 
Dc-an ut Cluiunacnuise. 

'-^ Sec Harris' " Ware," vol. i., Bishops 
.if Kilkenny, pp. 411 10414. 

'-'■' See Sir jaines Ware, " De Pras- 
biilibus Lagenia^." Episcopi Ossorienses 
p. 84. 

"^ See Dr. Mazicre Brady's "Episcopal 
Succession," Vol. i., p. yjz. 

'•' Tliey were orij^inaUy created by the 
llar!:> of parts of the country. 
An .i>.ciiunt of them may be found in the 
!<'.•;> irts of Sir John Davis, p. 65. 

-" SoiM..- wnurs have it, that John 
lUr.l, I'roviiKiil of tlie Carmelites, 
lud be -11 tr.nisLited from the See of 
Kilkenny to that of Bangor, on the 
.uil iif beincinher, 1539; but this is in- 
Correct, lor .Milo I-iiz-C.erald or Baron 
w.vs then and for long before Bishop of 
Kilkenny. See Godwin's " Dc l'r.e:.uh- 
bus .\ngl:;e CommentiLrius," 6:c., p. 540. It 
Is added, that Bird was proniotecl from 
iJangor to Chester in 1533, liecause he 
preached sermons before King Henry 
\ III. against the Poj'c's supremacy. He 
was dey)rived in the reign of QueenMary 
lor being married, and he died at 
Chester in 1556. 

''■'He was born in England at a 
village called Cove, five miles from 

Dudwich, in the County of Suffolk, 
November 21st, 1495. He ^vas edu- 

cated for a time at Norwich, where he 
became a Carmelite friar. He after 
wardsstudied in JesusCollege, Cambridge. 
There, as he states, a temporal 
i.ord, Thomas Wentv/orth, had caused 
him to renounce Popery; and "to 
throw off all marks of the beast, 
he married a faithful wife, according 
to the Divine precept, he that hath not 
the gijt of continence, let kim marry." Such 
is the account in a Book of Persecutions 
written by himself, and also in his more 
celebrated work : " Scriptorum Ilius- 
triuin Majoris Britannia\" 'ic, Cent, 
viii., cap. 100, p. 702. However, Bishop 
Nicholson pleasantly remarks : " In 
truth, his wife Dorothy seems to have 
had a great hand in that happy work." — 
" English Historical Library," part ii.. 
chap, viii., p. 130. Eondon edition, 

1776, 4to. 

'"^ See the particulars of that ceremony 
in Very Rev. Dr. Laurence Renehan's 
" Collections on Irish Church History," 
edited by the Rev. Daniel MacCarthy, 
vol. i., pp. 29, 30. 

^^ See Sir James Ware, " De Prae- 
sulibus Lagenia'," Episcopi Ossorienses, 
p. S6. 

^' See " Transactions of the Ossory 


into Ireland. Afterwards he repaired to Kilkenny, l)ut there his preach- 
ing of the Refornned Doctrine excited hostile demonstrations on the 
part of the clergy and people. He enjoyed the ])roiits of his See onlv 
six months, when King Edward VI. died, and Oneen Mary ascended 
the English throne. Then one John O'Thonory, a native of Kilkenny 
and a Canon Regular of St. Augustine, became the next Bishop in the 
Catholic succession, having been appointed by the Queen's licence, 
dated October 14th, 1553, but his election did not take {)lace until the 
26th of December. He was consecrated early in 1554 and restored to 
the temporalities on the 4th of January. In May, 1559, he was one of 
the Commissioners aiJ[)ointed for civil and military purposes for the 
County of Kilkenny. His name is also found in the list of those summoned 
to Parliament in 1560. ^^ John Bale was obliged to lly from Kilkenny, 
and thence to Dublin. He became a refugee for the second time, and after 
many strange adventures, he escaped to Basil, in Switzerland. ^3 There 
he remained for hve years. ^4 until the accession of Queen Elizabeth 
to tlie English throne caused his return to England ; but he did not 
desire a return to Kilkenny. <^'5 He was made a prebeiidary of the Church 
of Canterbury on the ist of January, i55f)-i56o.6<J He published manv 
works both in Latm and m English, of which he furnishes a catalogue in 
his book on the Writers of Britain.^7 He died at Canterburv in November, 
1563, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and he was buried there in the 
nave of the Cathedral. ^^ As a historian, he has borrowed the ground 
plot of his principal works on the Writers of Britian from John Leland ; '"' 
and, as Bishop Nicholson justly remarks : " the chief of his own super 
structure is malicious and bitter invectives against the Papists." V'^ 
On this score, he is also condemned by Sir James \Vare,7i y^\iQ allows 
him to be a learned man, nevertheless a constant preacher, and addicted 
to antiquarian studies. r^Ioreover, he took care to have the ancient 
charters of his See transcribed, and coniirmed with his own seal. He 
was otherwise a benefactor to the Diocese. He died in 15(15.72 

Archaeological Society," The Bishops "•' See Kymer's " l'\)eclera," torn, xv., 

of Ossory from the Anglo-Norman p. 563. 

Invasion to the present Day, by Most ^^ See Dr. Tiiomas Fuller's " History 

Rev. Dr. Moran, Lord Bishop of Ossory, of the Worthies of England," vol. ii., 

vol. ii., pp. 251, 252. p. 332. 

"3 See M. Le Dr. Hoefer's " Nouvelle ss gee Bishop Tanner's " BibUotheca 

Biographic Generale," tome iv., col. Britannica-Hibernica," p. 68. 

275. His career is set forth, in The ^o j-j^g work is intituled " De illustri- 

Vocacyon of John Bale to the Bishop- bus Britanni:e Scriptoribus," in Four 

ricke of Ossorie in Irelande, his Perse- Books. John Pits says of Bale : 

cutions in the same, and final " Hie Lelandi catalogum non tani 

Delyveraunce. See " Harleian Tracts." prolixe auxit, quam prodigiose de 

vol. vi., pp. 437 ct scq. prauauit. Omnia namque focdissimus 

^* During this time, !:e there published scurra mendaciis et calumniis repleuit. 

his best known work, " lUustrium Majoris et opus Lelanilipolitissimum pollutissimo 

Britaiiniic Scriptorum, hoc est, Angli;e, stylo turpiter conspurcauit." — " Kela- 

Cambri;t!, et Scotia;, Summarium," 1548, tionvm Historicarvm de Rebus Anghcis," 

fol. liefering to it, Dr. Thomas l<"uller tomus primus. Nota de Joanne Balajo, 

states, that he " much advanta'^ed him- p. 53. 

self by his folio edition of his Centuries " ''^ " The English Historical Library," 

— "Church History of Britain," vol. iv., part ii., chap, viii., p. 130. 

book vii., cent, xvi., pp. 230, 231. '^1 He states " in scriptis vero (ut 

Rev. J. S. Brewer's edition, Oxford, alibi dixi) effrenata usus est libertate." — • 

1645, 8vo. ' De Scriptoribus Hibernia;," hb. ii., 

'"''' SeeCharlesKnight's "English Cyclo- cav. v., p. 136. 

p;cdia: A new Dictionary of Universal ^^ gee Sir James Ware " De Pra;sulibus 

Knowledge, Biography," vol. i., col. 501. Lagcnia;," Episcopi Ossorienses, p. Sy. 

THE queen's county PORTION OF OSSORY DIOCESE. 137 

The See of Ossory remained vacant for two years, until Queen 
Elizabeth issued Letters Patent, dated May 7th, 1567, for the succession 
of Christopher Gafney, Prebendary of Tipper, m St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. 73 That same month, he was there consecrated. He died on 
the 3rd of August, 157O, and he was buried in a chapel on the north 
side of the choir. Nicholas Walsh, the son of Patrick Walsh, formerly 
Protestant Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, who had received Ins 
education at Cambridge, and who had been Chancellor of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin, received his Letters Patent, dated January 23rd, 
1577, '^^''d hs was consecrated Protestant Bishop of Ossory in the be- 
gmning of Febraar\' following. While Chancellor of St. Patrick's 

he and the Treasurer of that Cathedral, John Kerney,74 were the first 
to introduce Irish types for printing into the kingdom of Ireland. An 
order was obtained, likewise, that the prayers of the Church should 
be printed in that language and characters, and that a church should 
be set apart in the shire town of every diocese, where they were to be 
read, and a sermon preached to the common people. With the assistance 
of Nehemiah Donellan, afterwards Protestant Archbishop of Tuam, 
and the said John Kerney, he set about translating the New Testament 
into Irish. 75 A prolligate wretch, James Dullard, whom Bishoj; Walsh 
had cited into his court for adultery, stabbed the prelate with a skein 
in his own house, on the 14th of December, I58'5. Soon afterwards 
the murderer suffered the punishment justl}' due for that crime. The 
bishop's body was buried on the south side of the great aisle in the 
Cathedral of Kilkenny. There a monument was erected to his memory. 7^ 
The See continued vacant for nine months after his death. 79 

During the term of the Protestant Bishop, Dr. Walshe, Catholic 
interests were confided to Vicars who received their appointments from the 
Primate or other Representative of the Holy See. At length, Thoiuas 
Strong, a native of the City of Waterford, was appointed Bishop in i^Sz^a 
and he was consecrated at Home on the 5th of April. His name is also 
found written Stronge, and Strang, and Strange. He remained in Ireland 
only for a few months, but in disguise, and subject to various trials and 
peisc'Mitioiis ; so tliat he was obliged to seek refuge in Spain where he 
livn! in rxile at Coiiij-)(^>tella to the date of his death, January 20th, 1601. d 

While llie Dean of the Cathedral of St. Canice held a kind of episcopal 
jiiM-dietion ()V,r the Vicars Choral^o similar to that of the Dean of the 
nittHii>i.htK\il Cluinh oi St. Patrick, Dublin; the Archdeacon formerly 

^ See l>r. Maziore Br.nly's "Episcopal 
SinceN--ion," \-iil, 1., p. jtJ4. 

■''See " Transact ion.-, of llic Ossory 

Arcliai ill ii;ical Socu't\'." vol. li., The 

I!i-iln)ps ()( Ossory iruiu the An,L;lo- 

Nnriiiaii Iin'asioii to the jiresent day, 

li\- .M(i>i Krv. Dr. Moraii, i^ord Bishop 

,1 . , , (ii ()i->iir\', pp. j^S t() 2()i. 

tills uas e.xla:u lu iiumu-icript. He -, i. 1 '.1 . n • .• 

,1, 1 , . ., ', , 'Ml hears the IoIIowiul: luscnptioii lu 

died about the I<*/>, and he ua- ,■ .i- , . •> ui t / i? 

I,,,-, I ... c. I)'. !• II 11 ^ (.itlnc characters Hic acet Rever- 

buric 1 111 St. Patrick s. Dull in. St e , ,, . v- 1 1 \,r 1 • , 

II ,.-, • .. w _ >• 1 .. »f . . I ndus I'ater Nicholaus Walshe, quondam 

H.irris "Ware," vol. lu.. Writers ol , , • ,- ■ ■ ' 1 ^ 1 

I, I „ 1 .. , , . , . , ( '-.scjrK-nsis I-.pisconus ; qui obut die 

Ireland, hook 1.. that), xm.. p. oS. », ,^ , • ' ^ ^-^ 

' »•. I • ./^- Mcnsis Dcceiubns 14 Anuo Domini 

"This was afterwards done from i.v^'S-" 

the Creek text by William Daniel, "'■' See Harris' " Ware," vol. i.. Bishops 

.\rchljishop of Tuam. See Sir James of Ossory, pp. 415 to 419. 

Ware, " De Prasulibus;enia-'," '"" By ancient prescription he was also 

lipiiCopi Ossorieiisfi. p. iS. lord of the manor over the Glebe, 

fs <,., 

■ Sir 


. War. 

• " : 





..;'.;ii ' 

<■■• 1 

1 '■"■'^'; 



■PoCb, p. 


■• lb 


:>it : 

an ] 





( -t 

, ; cx 1 . : 



;ht t 

. h. 



n the 


■.t U 












• .iK 

) tlaii 


a the 

H.Me I 






.1: 1 's 



exercised an ordinary prescriptive jurisdiction each year over the whole 
Diocese of Ossory, from the 30th of September to the 3rd of the following 
February, and he had a moiety of the procurations paid to the bishop 
in his ordinary visitation. 

John Horsfall, a native of Yorkshire, received the Queen's Letters 
Patent, dated September 15th, 1586, and was restored to the temporahties 
of tlie See on the 17th, with a retrospect to the previous j\Iarch 
.5th. _ 

During the exile of Dr. Strong the Catholic See was governed by \'icars 
General ; hrst by the Rev. George Power, afterwards by the Rev. 
Laurence Reynaghan about the year 1599. During his time on the death 
of Queen Elizabeth, the 24th of March, 1603, the Catholics of Kilkenny, 
with the approval of their Sovereign or Chief Magistrate William Archer, 
took possession of their former churches ; but for this the latter was 
thrown into prison, when he contracted a disease which proved fatal on 
the 24th of August, 1604. However, Bishop Horsfall continued to reside 
within the Diocese, and to declaim against the free exercise of their 
religion by the " Romish caterpillars," as he styled the Catholic clergy. 
Meantime, the Rev. William Brennan was Vicar General until he entered 
the Franciscan Order in 1609. The Rev. Richard Fitzgerald succeeded 
him in ofhce, and held it till the appointment of Dr. David Rothe.St 

Having governed his See twenty years and about live months,^-: Bisho)^ 
Horsfall died on the 13th of February, 1609, and he was buried in St. 
Canice's Cliurch.S3 His successor was Richard Dean, born also in 
Yorkshire, and educated at Oxford. He sat but three years in this 
See, and he died on the 20th of February, 1612. lie was buried there 
in the same cathedral,^-i and a marble tomb was erected over him.'^* 
The next in order was Jonas Wheeler by some said to have been a native 
of Oxford and by others of Devonshire.^^ He was advanced to be Dean 
of Christ Church, Dublin, by Letters Patent, dated March 9th, 1504. This 
he held w conimendam after he had been consecrated Bisliop of Kilkenny 
m St. Patrick's Church, by the Archbishop, Thomas, of Dublin. Bishop 
Wheeler recovered several See-lands alienated from his Church, at consider- 
able trouble and expense. He lived to the extreme old age of ninety- 
seven years, and died at Dunmore on the 19th of April, 1640. Thence his 
remains were conve3ed to Kilkenny, and buried in the Cathedral.^? 

His successor m the See, Griffith Williams, born at Caernarvon 
in Wales, had a chequered and stormy career ^s both before and after 
his elevation to the See of Ossory, by Letters Patent of King Charles L 
and dated July 19th, 1641, confirmed by Letters Patent dated the nth 
of September following. On the 26th of the latter month, he was con- 
where lived the inhabitants about the "'' See ibid., p. 90. 
cathedral. Previously to 1641, he had a ■■^r See Harris' "Ware," vol. i.," Bishops 
seneschal, as also courts, leet and baron. ol Ossory," p. 420. 

81 See "Transactions of the Ossory «8 in 1674, be pubHshed a book, which 

ArclKcological Society, vol. 11., pp. 261 may be regarded as an Autobiography. 

*"o.f^-^' r-- T TTT i,^ x^ ,• ^^^ ^^^ contained an account of his 

s- Sec Sir James Ware, De Prajsuh- persecutions and sufferings but in an 

busLagcnioe," EpiscopiOssorienses.p.Sg. unbridled spirit of enmity and railing 

^ 83 See Hams' "Ware," vol. 1., " Bishops against those from whom he had re- 

of Ossory," p. 419. ceived real or fancied injuries. He was 

8' See ibid., pp. 419, 420. a zealous loyalist, and he inveighs 

8s Sec Sir James Ware, " De Prae- bitterly against the Puritans, " the long 

sulibus Lagenia-," Episcopi Ossorienses, Parliament and their whelps," who 

P- ^9- robbed him of all he possessed. 


secratcd by Launcelot, Archbishop of Dubhn. He had also a hcence 
to hold the Deaner\' of Bangor in commeiidaui, which he did until his 
death. This bishop had but a short enjoyment of his See, when the 
great Insurrection of 1641 broke out, in less than a month after his con- 
secration. The City of Kilkenny was one of the first that fell into 
the hands of the Confederates ; and Griffith Williams having spent nearly 
£300, without any return of revenue, was forced to fly into England. 
Meanwhile, the Bishop had suffered many tribulations after leaving 
Ireland. He was arrested by the Parliamentarians, and kept a 
jn'isoner for some time at Northampton ; but on being released, he 
became chaplain to King Charles I., and in that capacity he was at the 
battle of Edge Hill, fought on the 23rd of October, 1642. Afterwards, 
he stayed most part of the winter at Oxford, and thence he went to 
Wales, returning to Ireland, where he continued until after the battle 
of Naseby in 1645 .§9 On a mission from the Marquis of Ormond, he 
again went to England, and once more he visited Dublin with letters 
from the king to the former. From Ormond he received a sum of money, 
and resolved on going to Wales ; but he was taken prisoner again, robbed 
of all his money, and cast upon Ireland's Eye. Thence he made his 
way to Dublin, when Dr. Loftus once more supplied him with money 
to go to London. After many adversities, he resolved on returning to 
Ireland, and at Holyhead, he received news of the preparations making 
l)y Parliament for the Restoration of King Cliarles 11. On the Sunday 
morning, landing in Dublin, he preached the same day at St. Bride's, 
and he there prayed publicly for the king. The next morning he posted 
to Kilkenny, where lie waited on the Marchioness of Ormond, and on 
the following Sunday he preached in Kilkenny. Having mortgaged 
Ins lands in Ireland for one hundred poundh, he again hastened to 
London, wh.ere he printed a work, known as his Great Antichrist, 
which he i/resenled to King Charles II., who very graciously received 
it. When public affairs had thus been settled, Bishop Williams returned 
• rice more to Irclantl, intending to live in his diocese. He then found 
till.- in ruins, and also his ej)iscopal palace. In the lattei, he 
lit ted up one iudui to h\e in, and he laid out large sums to repair, the bishop instituted various suits at law to 
iccovcr thai had been alienated, o\\ing to the action of his pre- 
< iL-i(-<<ir Tlioiiory. As tiie evidences for tlic Si'c liad been destroyed during 
th" L:ii;.tt InMUTcction, lie was lor the most ]iart unsuccessful in those 
.ittenipta, and he lost a large sum of money in law expenses.9o By 
.m Act u{ rarlKi:m-ut.'" wliich disabled all sjtiritual persons from holding 
l»ciul":c«:s in Engl.u.d and WaU-s, and in Ireland, at the same time, 
tlific wab a ji.ii ticuLir i)roviso in favour of liishop Williams, who was 
riKiMc-J to liuld the Deanery of liangor together with his bishopric, 
iialil tlic auL;nK-ntation of £400 a year, mentioned in the Act of 
^vttlcmcnt, sluniid be acconij)lished for him and for his successors. 

** ITic career of this celebruteJ man materials. Our future references are 

is set forth fully iu Thunios Carte's to thii Litter re-issue. 
" Life of Jauies, Duke of Ormoiui," *" An account of these transactions 

published in London, 1735. 1736, m is given in a treatise he \vrote, intituled, 

tlirce (olio volumes. This v.ilu.iblc " .\ Small Part of the Great Wickedness 

l>ioyraphical and historical work h<is and Sacrilcyiuus Dealings of the Great 

been republished in Oxford, 1S51. Antichrist acted in the Diocese of 

in six large Svo volumes, and this new Ossory." 

edition has been revised and carefully ^^ Passed in the 17th and i8th, 

Compared with the original MSS. CharUs IT., chap. 10. 



Notwithstanding his various litigations and troubles, Bishop Williams 
lived to an old age, engaged in acts of good nature, munificence, and 
charity. He died at Kilkenny, on the 29th of ^larch, 1672, in his eighty- 
third year, and he was buried on the south side of the chancel in the 
Cathedral of St. Canicc.''- 

The last Catholic bishop of Ossory, Thomas Strong, died in 1601, 
nor had a successor to him been ajipointed, until in a consistory held 
under Pope Paul V., it was determined that jnovision should be made 
for the vacant See. Accordingly, at the instance of Cardinal Ferallo, 
protector of the Church in Ireland, David Rothe,93 was nominated 
and promoted soon afterwards to the See of Ossory, in 1618.94 His 
rule was memorable, owing to the revolution caused in jniblic affairs 
by the rising of October, 1641, which througlKuit the greatt-r ]-)art of 
Ireland transferred power from the Puritancal {)arty to the Catliolics ; 
and Kilkenny more especially became the centra of their government, 
when the Confederation was there established. Sc\'eral of the Pro- 
testant citizens in alarm fled for their protection to the well-fortified 
Ormond Castle ; but. Lord iMountgarret and tlie Catholics offered to 
secure their safety should they chose to return and occu[)y their houses. 
However, they asked permission, and it was readily granted them, of 
retiring to the stronghold of Carrick Castle. A guard of Catholic troops 
accompanied them thither, but soon afterwards, most cTf the fugitives 
resolved on proceeding to Waterford, thence to embark for England.y=i 
As presiding over the diocese, Bishop Rothe took possession of the 
ancient Cathedral of St. Canice, and held it during that memorable 
period, while the Supreme Council of the Irish Confederate Catholics 
ruled in Kilkenny.96 Ple was a very learned prelate, and he wrote 
sc-veral valuable works. Chief among these was his " Analecta," 
the first i^art of which was published in 1616 ; the other part f()]lowed 
in 1617 and i6ig, in Cologne, making the work complete. 97 lie figured 
])rominently on the stage of public life, in the varied events that took 
})lace during his episcopacy.98 Towards the close of his life, the 
Confederate Catholics were driven to the last extremity, and besieged 
in Kilkenny. Sir Walter Butler, with a small garrison of only three 
hundred men, had made such a brave defence, that Cromwell granted 
honourable terms to them, and even complimented them for their 
gallantry. After the taking of Kilkenny b}^ the English on the 20th 
of March, 1650, Axtell's regiment was quartered in the Cathedral, 
where the soldiers destroyed the sumptuous tomb of the Ormond family 

°- See Harris' "Ware," vol. i.," Bishops republished, and edited with an in- 

of Ossory," pp. 420 to 427. troduction and notes, by JMost Rev. 

83 He was born in the City of Kilkenny, Patrick F. Moran, Bishop of Ossory, 

A.D. 1568, and he belonged to a wealthy Dublin, 1884. Svo. 

family. '-'b A full account of him we liave in the 

'■*■' See W. Maziere Brady's " Episcopal Rev. Charles P. iMeehan's " Rise and 

Succession," &c., vol. i., p. 364. Fall of the Irish Franciscan Monasteries, 

"5 See the Rt. Rev. Bishop Moran's and Memoirs of the Irish Hierarchy, 

account of Dr. David Rothe in the in the Seventeenth Centurv," with 

" Transactions of the Ossory Archieolo^i- Appendix containing numerous original 

cal Society," vol. ii., pp. 307, 30S. Documents. Fourth edition, 1872, 

°^ See Rev. M. J. Brenan's " Ecclesia- i8mo, Irish Hierarchy, &c., chap, vi., 

stical Histcjry of Ireland," Seventeenth pp. 174 to 197. 

Century, chap, iii., p. 519. Second "''See an account of this siege in 

edition, Dublin, 1864, Svo. Thomas Carte's " Life of James, Duke 

^^ Latterly the " Analecta of David of Ormond." dec. Vol. hi.. Book v., 

Rothe, Bisliop of Ossory," has been pp. 530, 537. 



and committed many other saciilegious depredations.99 Tliis venerable 
prelate lived but a short time alter the overtlirow of the Supreme Council.i'^^ 
lie died in Kilkenny on the 20th of April, 1650, m the seventy-eiijhlh 
year of his age.ioi While Cromwell's army was m occupation of tlic 
city, Bishop Rothe's interment took place with religions ceremonies, 
and it was unmolested. He left a work in manuscript, intituled' 
" Hierographia Hibernia?," treating on the Irish Saints, 102 which 
now appears to have been lost. 103 Several years passed after the death 
of Bishop Rothe before his successor could be apjjointcd, m the person 
of James O'Phelan, Prothonotary Apostolic and P.P. of Callan.'oi 
His episcoj-ial career was distinguished for the many Synods he was 
able to hold, under very trying ditiicuties. In April, 1689, he welcomed 
King James II. to Kilkenny. 105 He died a.d. 1695. 

On the 28th of April, 1672, John Parry, son of Edward Parry,io6 
Bishop of Killaloe,io7 born in Dublin, and educated there in Trmity 
College, was consecrated Protestant Bishop of Ossory, in Christ Church, 
by Michael, Archbishop of Dublin, and he was enthroned in Kilkenny 
the September following. He was reputed to be a learned man,'"^ 
and as a bishop, he was popular among his clergy, and a great benefactor 
to his church. During his incumbency, this prelate obtained many 
immunities and impropriations for the benefit of his See ; while the 
Duke of Ormond was his chief patron and adviserjn the proceedings 
necessary to be adopted in attaining such ends. He also obtained a 
charter to confirm privileges belonging to the ancient Corporation oi 
Irishtown, Kilkenny, of which the Ossory bisho[)s were deemed to be 
prescriptive lords, claiming a right ti) a]i[)ro\'e its chief magistrate 
at elections. i"9 However, it is not greatly to Bisliop Parry's credit, 

^"^ See Dr. Tliomas Leland's "History 
of Ireland," vol. lii., book vi., chap. i.. 
p. 362. 

101 Por a very complete IMenioir of 
this illustrious Bishop, the reader is 
referred to that account of him con- 
tained in the Most Rev. Dr. JMoran's 
Bishops of Ossory from the Anglo- 
Norman Invasion to the present Dav. 
" Transactions of the Ossorv Arch.uo- 
lo'^^ical Soi"iet\%" vol. ii., pp. 199 to 

^"- Archbishop Ussher had seen it, 
and quotes a considerable passage 
from its pages in his work " De Prim- 
ordiis Britannicarum Ecclesiarum," cap. 
xvi., p. 7^y. 

I'j' See Harris' " Ware," vol. iii., 
" Writers of Ireland," book i., chap. xiv. 


'"* His succession as Bishop took 
l")lace in 1669. See Wm. .Maziere 

i'rady's " Episcopal Succession," cvc, 
vol. i., p. 366. 

'"^ Sec an account of him Ijy Most 
Rev. i)r. Moran in the Bishops of 
Ossory from the Anglo-Norman In- 
vasion to the present Day. " Trans- 
actions of the Ossory .Vrclurological 
Society," Vol. ii., pp. 416 to 451. 

U"! Wfj ^y^^ ^ native of Newry, Co. 
Down ; a 1?..\. of Trinity College 

Dublin, in 1620, and he became Fellow 
of T.C.D. in 1624 ; liowever, as he held 
an ecclesiastical benelice and a college 
living more than three miles from the 
college, contrary to the statutes and 
the oath of a Fellow, in 1628 his Fellow- 
ship was declared vacant. See Rev. 
Dr. John William Stubbs' "History 
<jf the University of Dublin," &c., 
vol. 1., chap, iv., pp. 55, 56, and notes, p. 

'"'■ He became Dean of Lismore in 
1040, and Bishop of Killaloe in 1647, 
holding the treasurership of Christ 
Church i): coini)iciida)n with his bishopric. 
He died in Dublin, of the plague then 
raging there, on the 20th of July, 1650, 
and he was buried in St. Audoen's 
Church. He wrote a book, published 
alter his death, by John Parry, his son, 
and it was intituled " David Restored, 
or an Antidote against the Prosperity 
of the Wicked, and the Afllictions of 
the Just, shewing the diUerent ends 
of both in a seasonable Discourse on 
the 73rd Psalm," Oxford, a.d. iooo. 

10s j-je wrote several treatises, enume- 
rated in Walter Harris' "Ware," vol. ii., 
" Writers of Ireland," book i., chap, xiv., 
p. io6. 

lO'-- See W. B. S. Taylor's " History 



that he ordered the handsome monument no erected to David Rothe 
in the Cathedral to be defaced, because an inscription '" on it stated, 
that he had driven heresy out of Kilkenny in 1642. The arms and 
images on that monument shew the remains of curious gilding. "2 j\n<. 
Will of Bishop Parry is dated October 19th, 1677,1^3 and by it he left 
various bequests for charities and ecclesiastical purposes to Kilkenny and 
Dublin. He desired especially, that he should be buried in or near 
his deceased father's grave, in St. Audoen's Church, Dublin. In this 
city he died, on the 21st of December, in that same year, and, as he had 
desired, his body was buried in the same tomb with the remains of his 
father. "4 His brother, Ik^njamin Parry, also born in Dublin and 
educated in Trinity College, ^^^ was, through the influence of the Duke 
of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, advanced to the See of Ossory 
by Letters Patent, dated January 24th, 1678.11^ Three days afterwards 
he was consecrated in Christ Church, Dub]in.ii7 However, he did 
not long survive his brother ; for he died in the palace at Kilkenny 
on the 4th of October, of that same year. His body was convened 

of tlie University of Dublin," chap, x., 
sect, ii., pp. 369, 370. 

11" This monument is of black marble. 
A ledger, consisting of a cavetto and 
ovolo, -with their lists, serves for the 
the base of the monument, and upon 
it there is a frieze adorned with foliage. 
At each end, there is a plain field or coat 
designed for coats of arms, but it is left 
blank. Over each end of the frieze 
springs an abutment, upon which 
originally stood two columns of the 
Corinthian Order, which are now talvcn 
away, and the entablature is at present 
su[)])orted by two plain pilasters, wdiich 
stood behind the columns. Between 
these pilasters are two imposts, on 
which an arch rests, in form of a gate 
or fiat niche. That which rej^resents 
the gate contains the inscriptions. 
Over the corner of the left impost is 
cut the i'J/iL;irs of Saint Kicran, with a 
mitre on his head and a crozier in his 
hand, his name being carved underneath. 
Over the corner of the right impost is 
\\\QrjJtgies of Saint Canice, with a mitre at 
his foot, a cro/.ier in his hand, and a monk's 
hood on his head, with his name under- 
neath. The pilasters support an entabla- 
ture com posetl of an architrave, frieze, and 
cornice, the frieze being adorned with 
roses. Over the entablature there is 
another table, on \vliich is carved a 
representation of our Saviour on the cross, 
and on each side a woman weeping. 
From each side of that table springs a 
scroll, which rests upon the extremities 
of the entablature ; and over the table 
is a large ovolo, which serves for a 
cornice to it. On each side of the ovolo, 
there is a block or cube adorned with 
flowers, and between there is another 
talile arch-wise. Upon this the Rothe 
family coat of arms is fixed, and it con- 

sists of a stag trippant, gules, leaning 
against a tree vert. Over this coal 
hangs a canopy, with strings pendant, 
and terminating with fringed knots. 
A small pedestal stands on top of the 
arch, and upon its die are the letters 
I. H. S. This crowns the whole monu- 
ment. — See Harris' "Ware," vol. i., 
" Bishops of C)S3ory," p. 427. 

^'1 The only part of this remaining are 
the following words ; — 
Deo optimo Maximo, 
Et Memorise Davidis, Episcopi Ossorieii- 

sis, qui, 
Hanc Ecclesiam Cathedralem S. Canico 

A.D., 1642. 

The following distich also remains :— - 
Ortus cuncta suos repetunt, Matremque 

Et redit ad nihilum, quod fuit ante nihil. 

11- It seems probable this tomb and 
inscription had been prepared during 
Bishop Rothe's lifetime, and that the 
latter had been of his own composition. 

II-'' Still preserved in the Prerogative 

11* See Harris' "Ware," vol. i, " Bisho])s 
of Ossory," pp. 427 to 429. 

ii'' His first promotion was to a 
prebendal stall in York Cathedral, which 
he resigned, when appointed Cha|4ain to 
Capel, Earl of Iisscx, Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland. The latter promoted hiiu 
to the Deanery of St. Canice, in 1673, 
and to that of St. Patrick, r3ulilin, in 
1674. See W. B. S. Taylor's " History 
of the University of Dublin," chap, x., 
sect, iii., p. 370. 

ii" By several writers the year has 
been erroneously set down as 1677 — 
doubtless through mistaking the entry 
1677-78 new style. 

i''' He wrcjte a book intituled 

THE queen's county PORTION OF OSSORY DIOCESE. 14-; 

to Dublin, and there it was deposited with the remains of his fatlier and 
brother, in St. Audoen's Church.^ '^ 

Next to him in the See of Ossory was Micliael Ward, a native of 
England, but whose education was received in the Dublin University ; 
and by the Duke of Ormond, he was advanced through Letters Patent 
dated the 8th November, 167S. On the 24th of tliat same month, 
he was consecrated by Michael, Archbishop of Dublin, m Christ Church 
Cathedral. Afterwards he was translated to the See of Derry, by 
Letters Patent, and dated January 22nd, 1679.119 Michael Ward 
was succeeded by Thomas Otway, a zealous Royalist, translated from 
the united Sees of Killala and Achonry to the See of Ossory on the 
7th of February, 1679, ^o which he was in various ways a benefactor. 
He died in the Episcopal House, Kilkenny, on the 6th of March, 1692, 
in the seventy-seventh year of his age.^-o He was buried near the west 
door of his Catliedral, where an humble marble stone bears a simple 
inscription, 121 cut in curiously-ilourished and large italic characters. 122 

On the recommendation of the exiled monarch, James H., William 
Daton or Dalton was appointed Catholic Bishop of Kilkenny in i696,^-'^ 
and in a Consistory held on the 23rd of January, for exercising the 
office of his ministry, he was arrested and sent into exile in April, 1698, 
when at Mans in France he resided, and died there on the 26th of 
January, 1712.^-"^ 

Next in order of Protestant succession after Ward came John 
Hartstonge, born at Cattan, near Norwich, in England, and son of Sir 
Standish Hartstonge, Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. He was 
educated, however, in the schools of Charleville and Kilkenny. i^s From 
the latter, he was admitted to Trinity College, Dublin. Afterwards 
he went to Cambridge, where he became a Fellow of Caius College in 17S1. 
Soon afterwards, he was appointed chaplain to James, Duke 
of Ormond, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. After his death in 1688, 
Hartstonge acted as chaplain to his grandson, James, Duke of Ormond, 
during his four first campaigns in Flanders. Through his influence, 
King Wilham III. advanced Hartstonge to the See of Ossory, by letters 
patent, dated April 8th, 1693. '-^^ He was translated to the See of Derry, 
by letters patent, dated IMarch 3rd, 1713.^-7 He was succeeded by 
Sir Thomas Vesey, born at Cork, was son of Dean John Vesey, after- 
wards Archbishop of Tuam. His early studies were at Eton, and 
afterwards at Oxford, where he became a Fellow of Oriel 

" Chymia Ccelestis. Drops from Heaven ; 123 gee William Maziere Brady's 

or Pious Rleditations on several places in " Episcopal Succession," &c., vol. i.. 

Scripture," London, 1659, 1672, umo. p. j66. 

^^^ See William Monck Mason's ^-* See Most Rev. Bishop Moran's 
" History and Antiquities of the Bishops of Ossory from the Anglo- 
Cathedral Church of St. Patrick, near Norman Invasion to the present Day. 
DubUn," book ii., chap, iv., sect, iii., " Transactions of the Ossory Archa;o- 
p. 200. logical Society," vol. ii., pp. 452 to 476. 

'^^SeeHarris' "Ware," vol.i., " Bishops 125 j^ ^^g diocesan Grammar school, 

of Ossory," pp. 429, 430. known as the College, and founded by 

^-'^ See tii'd, pp. 430, 431. the celebrated James, Dukeof Ormond. 

^^^ It reads thus : Hie jacet Thomas ^-^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

Otway Ossoriensis Episcopus qui obiit " Fasti Ecclesice Hibernic;e," vol. ii., 

sexto die Martii, 1692-3, Atatis suai 77. Diocese of Ossory, pp. 282, 283. 

122 See the " History, xVrchitecture, ^^'^ He died in DubUn, January 30th, 

and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church 1716. 

of St. Canice, Kilkenny," by the Rev. ^-^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 

James Graves, A.B., and John Augustus " Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicie," vol. ii.. 

Prim, sect, ii., chap, ii., p. 315. p. 283. 



College. He was created a baronet on the 13th of July, 1698, 
before he entered for orders. Having l)een aiiiiointed by the Lord 
I-ieutenant of Ireland, Vesey was received into the family of the Duke 
of Ormond, who recommended him to Queen Anne. She advanced 
him to the See of Killaloe, on the 12th of June, 1713, and on the 12th 
of the following month, he was consecrated in Christ Church, Dublin. 
He was translated to the See of Ossory by letters patent, dated April 
27th, 1714,^-8 and enthroned on the succeeding i)lh of May. On the 
6th of AugtTSt, 1730, he died in Dublin. i"9 

On August 0th, 1713,130 the Propaganda selected for the vacani 
Catholic See of Ossory the Rev. Malachy Dulany :. and he was consecrated 
Bishop at Dublm, February 17th, 1714. He died in the year 1731.131 

The Protestant See of Ossory remained vacant for several months. 
I'MwardTennison, Doctor of Divinity in Cambridge University, Archdeacon 
of Caermarthen and Rector of Sundrich in Kent, was promoted by letters 
patent of King George H., and dated June, 1730. He was very zealous 
for the propagation of the Protestant religion. 132 He died in Dublin 
November 29th, 1735,133 and he was buried there in St. Mary's Church. i34 
In January, 1735, Dr. Charles Este i3'5 became Bishop of Ossory,i36 
on recommendation of the Duke of Dorset, then Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland. He was consecrated at St. Werburgh's, Dublin, on the ist 
of February, and he was enthroned at Kilkenny, Marcl\ ist. He ex- 
pended a large sum on the improvement of his See residence. In 
1740, he was translated to Waterford.i37 

The Brief of Dr. Patrick O'Shea's appointment to the Catholic See of 
Ossory is dated July the 2Sth, 1731.13S His episcopate only lasted for 
iive years. He died in 1736.139 Through the inlluence of the Pretendei, 

'- ' See Harris' " Ware," vol. i., Bishops 
of Ossory, p. 432, and Bishops of 
Ivillaloe, pp. 598, 599. 

'■"^ See Wm. Mazicrc Brady's " Epis- 
cojial Succession," vol. i., p. 367. 

^-*' For an account of him see Most 
Rev. Dr. INIorau's " Bishops of Ossory 
from the' Anglo-Norman Invasion to 
the present Day, " Transactions of the 
Ossor)? ArcluL'logical Society," vol. ii., 
pp. 476 to 488. 

^^- By a codicil to his will, and dated 
June 23rd, 1735, he left to one IMichnel 
Stephenson, a deacon, during his lile 
£40 per ainiKiii, to catechize the 
children of Papists in Kilkeasy Parish. 
This was a wild and mountainous part 
of the Diocese. Stephenson was 

obligetl to reside there under the penalty 
oi forfeiting his pension. Also /20 was 
bequeathed to the Incorporated Society 
for promoting English Protestant 
Schools. To every incumbent and 

curate in the Diocese of Ossory, the 
Bishop bequeathed one copy of the 
latest edition of Chilliugworth's 
" Religion of Protestants." i\Ioreover, 
he left /lo to each parish towarels Inning 
redlir balks, laths, and slates, for 
covering small oratories to be built, 
and for enlarging the roofs of those 
oratories, which at the time of his death 

should be built withm the ruined walls 
of the churches of Aghmacart, Ros- 
connell, Kildcrmogh, Kdbeacou, Lister- 
ling, and Kilkeasy. 

1^3 See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesia; Hibernicrc," vol. ii., 
p. 283. 

1^* See Hams' "Ware," vol. 1., Bishops 
of Ossory, pj). .132,433. 

!■■'"■ He was born at Whitehall, and 
educated at Westminster School, and 
thence he entered 0.\;ford. In 1724, 

he became domestic chaplain to Hugh 
Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh, and 
through his mtluence, he held various 
benefices in that diocese. See Harris' 
" Ware," vol. i.. Bishops of Ossory, p. 433. 

1^" See " Eiber Munerum Publicoruni 
HibernicU ab. An. 1152 usipie ad 1827," 
vol. ii., part v., p. 4(). 

13" See Arcluleacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesia; Hibernica;," vol. ii. 
p. 284. 

'■'■'See William IMaziere ]ira<ly's 
" l!;piscoj)al Succession," vol. i., j) 3(17. 

>-"^ See Most Rev. Dr. Moian's liisliops 
of Ossory from the Aiigl.j-Norman In- 
vasion to the present Day, " Transac 
tions of Ossory Archaeological Society," 
vol. ii., pp. 488 to 491. 

1*0 See William Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," vol. i., p. 308 



CI! the 5tli ul (.K-t'.lii-r, i7;'>.'-i'J a l^rict was obtained at Rome for the 
apjKjmtniciii of I-\aln.T Colinan ()'Siia,^hncssr\', a Dominican, to the 
I'lshdjiiu: of ().-si>iy.'i' He died at Gowian, on the 2nd of September, 
I7.}N.'5- and hr w.i^ iiHrned. it is saiil, in the cnnetery attached to St. 
J<'l.ns ("ath'.'h. ( liwu h, called St. Stiplitu'^ Cemetery. M3 

In 174'), Dr. Anthony Dt)j'pmL;,'i» son of Anthony, I'.i-hop of Meath, 
l^cune i':<>;. .,i...:.t I',:-hoj) of OaM^ry, on July Hiih. He was enthroned 
on the i.jth of Au^ll^t of that year. lie died in January, 1743, and 
lie was buii'-d at M. Andrew's, Dublin. M5 In 1743, Dr. Michael Cox .1; •■■;:.ied lu the Sec of (3^^ory. He was the son of Sir Richard 
(i>\,'i' f.«'rd (.'h.uuellor of Irel.ind. Having become Chaplain to the 
Duke •-! (»:mond, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, he was made Rector 
t.J r,i!!.ia .iiul Chancellor of Kilkenny. He was advanced to the See 
<>l Kiji.c:jny by Letters Patent, dated April I4tli, and on the 29th of 
M.iy. he consu-rrated Bishop in St. Patrick's, Dublin. In 1755, he tr.m-lated to the Archbisliopric of Cashel.M? 

(»n l>t:cemher 17. 174S, the Rev. James B. Dunne was appointed by 
A|.'o>t(.hc Brief to tlie Catholic See of Ossory.148 He appears to have 
sufjeicd imich through illness, and he retired from active duty in 1753. 
He s^uled for L'rance in I757,and died there on the 30th of April, 1758. '49 
r.i>hoi) Thomas Burke, or De Burgo, born in Dublin about the year 
iji/(), was sent to Rome for his education when qifite j-oung, and in 
17J4, he was invested with the habit of the Dominican Order. In 
1741 commissioned by the Irish clergy, he obtained from Pojje Benedict 
.\I\'. th.e confirmation of ten new offices for Irish saints. In 1743, 
lie returned to IreLind. In 17.}'; ami in 1737 he was dehnitor m a 
['fo'.-ii.' i.\l (li.ij'ter of his order. In 1751), lie was promoted to the 
.'^ee ol I '.--oiy.'i'J i'hib Very learned ])ielate compiled an invaluable 

Work in Latin, and l:nown as "llibernia Dominicana," which 
was ]':i!ited b\- Mib-'iip!ion ill Kilkennv, A.T). I7()J, although the 
title ; .:.!• statv > at Cologne, and it h.ul to be surreptitiously cir- 
iul.i'(d, owit.g to th.e Ii.Ji.i I:\pur^iitoritis against the issue of 
r,itlsi.)hc I'.Kik- .it that time. A " Supplementum "was added 

1:1 1/7-'. ' lK>jki furnished a very comitlete History of the 
Do.-iui.aan Didei in Iieland. Yet, strange to state, the work was 
< oiuleiiira.'d by w:ven of the Irish bishops as tending to weaken 
■di'-»;u:.* V to the I'rote>tant government, to disturb the pul-)lic ]UMce, 

"' >-t< M wi'. Kcv. L>r.'i iiibhips 
*-l c>;5. :\ Uuiii tJ,c .Krigic.f-Nurinau lu- 
%Aw...'s Sj the jiitvrnt Pay. " Trans- 
<n:».j.» tl the 0\>j:y .\ic!',il"gic,il 

SMrSv." \i! 11. J p. .{fyl lo 501. 

•*' Nrc r>e liur,;.>» "HiIaiui.i Doiu- 
irticaaa." chap, xiu , •^■kI. Lxxvm, pp. 
VM. 5"'. 

•"buch b the st.itcnicut of Dc 
Hiir^.'o. aiul I am Kifi:i:.c-1 by tlic Kc\ . 
Willuiiii Carnyan. CC, Duiruw, th^t liii 
in.jniini'-nt is to l>c in Maiidliu 
Mrcct churchyanl, Kilktiiiiy. 

'♦* He was born iu 1075, anil 5ie was 
c^lucatccl in Trinity College, l»ut'lin. 

'•' Si<- .\rchdcacon Henry Cutton'b 

I-"a-sti EccIe.-ii^L- Hibciiuca.-," vol. ii., 
l> uf ObSory, p. 2ii^. 

na l[^. \^.^jy born at IJandon, County of 
Cork. A.D. 1650. He wrote a celebrated 

work, inlilulcd, " IlilK-rnia An^licana ' 
or tile Ilibtory of Ireland Ironi the Con- 
quest thurcof by the English to the 
present Tinie." It appeared in two 
parts, one published in 1089, and the 
other in I/Caj, in -ito. He died 111 1733. 

!•' See .\rehdeaeon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesi.e Hibernic.e," vol. ii.. 
Diocese of Ossury, pp. 264, 285. 

'*" See William Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," &c., vol. i., p 
3 08. 

"'■' See Most Rev. Dr. Moran's Bishops 
of Ossory from the Anglo-Norman In- 
vasion to the present day, " Transac 
lions of the Ossory Archaeological 
SoLietv," vol. ii., pp. 501 to 504. 

150 v^^.^. WiUiain INiaziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succi-ssion," &c., vol. i., p. 



to SOW the seeds of dissension, and to give a handle of offence to thosi- 
who differed in rehgious principles from the author. lie died 
in Kilkenny on the 25th of Septcmlxn", 1776.151 

The Rector of Attanagh, and Precentor of Ossory, Dr. Edward 
Maurice, 152 obtained letters patent for the Protestant" See of Ossory 
January 24th, 1755, and on the 27th he was consecrated in St. Patrick's. 
Dublin. He composed a poetical version of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey' 53 
in blank verse, which has not been published. ^54 It is preserved amonj.' 
the Trinity College iNISS. By his will, Bishop Maurice bequeathed 
all his printed books to the Diocesan Library of Ossory/ 55 and left an 
annual salary of £20 for a librarian, to be appointed by the BislKj], 
of that diocese. While engaged on his parochial visitation, he died 
at Charleville, near Tullamore, February 4th, 1756. On March 

Kjth, 1756, Dr. Richard Pocockeis6 succeeded him as Protestant 
Bishop of Ossory, and he was consecrated on the 21st, in St. Peter's 
Church, Dublin. He was a learned writi-r, esi)ecially on the subject 
of Eastern Antiquities. 157 He travelled through many countries of 
the Orient, and among these were Egypt, Palestine, S}-na, Mesopo- 
tamia, C\'prus and Candia. During the exercise of his ei)iscopate in 
Ireland, he devoted much attention towards the illustration of Ireland's 
monastic antiquities. He promoted the Rev. Mervyn Archdall '5^ 
to be his chaplain, and conferred on him the living of, Attanagh, while 
the bishop's encouragement and patronage enabled that learned writer 
to undertake his valuable " Monasticon Hibernicum." '59 Bishop 

Pococke left narratives of his Travels in Scotland and Ireland, whicli 
contain much valuable topographical and antiquarian information. I'J" 
He never married, but a sister of the Bishop became wife of the Reverend 
and very learned Joseph Bingham, celebrated author of the " Anti- 
quities of the Christian Church." In July, 17O5, Bislujp Pococke 
was translated to tlie See of Meath.'^^' 

Dr. Charles Dodgson^'^- succeeded him in the See of Ossory, by 
Letters Patent, dated July i8th, 17O5. He was consecrated August 14th. 

'61 Set' Alfred Webb's " Coinpcndiiini the LCarl ul Ciiesterlield, Lord Licuteii;uit 

of Irish L)io;ira])liy," p. 50. ol Ireland, he was promoted by the 

1^2 Born ill Ireland, he was educated Crown to the Arcluleactjnry of Dublin, 
in Trinity College, Dublin. i^^^ See S. Austin Alibone's " Critical 

1^^ A brief notice of Bishop IMaurice's Dictionary of English Literature," vol. 

version of Homer occurs in a letter, pill)- ii., pp. 1(113, 1*^^14. 
lished in the " Antholoujia Hibernica." i^^ Born m Dublin, April 22nd, 1723. 

154 For some e.xtracts, the reader is See Alfred Webb's " Compendium of 
referred to Rt. Rev. Bishop Mant's Irish Biography," p. 5. 

" History of the Church of Iralaml," vol. 1^'' Pulilished in Dublin, a.d. 1786, in a 

ii., chap, iv., sec. ix., pp. 620, 621. thick 4to of 820 pages, witli an inde.x. 

155 X7(junded by his predecessor Bishop '''"The Life of Bishoii Pococke has 
Otway. See Archdeacon Cotton's " Fasti been written by Mr. Cumberland. 
Ecclesias Hibernicns," vol. ii., Diocese of i''i He ditl not long survive ; for 
Ossory, p. 285. during the ensuing month of September, 

1^*^ He was son of the Rev. Richar ' while engaged in a visitation of his 
Pococke, liector of Colmer, in Hamp- Diocese, he was suddenly seized with an 
shire. Born in 1704, in Southampton, he apoplectic stroke, which sonn terminated 
was educated at Corpus Christi College, fatally. See the Right Rev. Ricliard 
Oxford. He was elected Fellow of the Mant's " History of the Church of Ire- 
Royal Society. In 1725, he became land," vol. ii., chap, iv., sec. ix., pji. 
Precentor of the Diocese of Lismore, and 623 to C27. 

in 1734, he was appointed Vicar-General i"- He was an Englishman, educated 

of the Dioceses of Waterford and Lis- at St. John's College, Cambridge. He 

more. In 174^, he became Precentor of became Chaplain to the Duke of North- 

Waterford. Having become Chaplain to umberland, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

rm-; (iti-i-Ns corsiv rnuiioN ui- ossouy diocese. 


He was 1i.m--I,\(c(l to Ivl]i!iiii. in 1773-"'' Dr. William Ncwcome, 

I*;--i;(>lt ot l)riim(iic. was ti aii-1 itrd lo \\\c See of ( )>S(jr\', l)y Patent 
(iatiil Ai'iil ijtli. 1773- In 177'). 1>\' Patriit Ni>\-ciul)fr cSth, and con- 
><.ri.i(rd (in ilif i.jtli <'i that ni"iitli, m St. I'atiick's, DuMin, Sir John 
H()t!Kini''-» l>iiar:!'- l'.i>h()i> i«l O.-^oi \-, win'ii l)i. William Xcwcome 
was translatfti to th<" I'lMtc'd S<(.s ul Watciloiii ;ind Lisiiiuic. in 1782, 
hi- was>!.il<(l to ("lo.slur.'*^^ 

Un the drath <>1 P.;>hoi) dr I)ur;^o, another Dominican Fatlier, John 
Thojiias I"u«y, K'canie Cathohc l'i:-.lioj) of ()>-()iy in 1776.'^*^ During liis 
«|>!s< i.|'-, hr i!u-!j.;riieall\' ilriiounced the thsturbanccs created by 
\hc WhitelK>ys. and eau--rd tluui to be solemnly excommunicated m 
the < ijunia > of Ills <hoi i-^( . lIl^ par-'oral letters also succeeded m 

t<>t'rirsi,' older."'' On the death ot Dr. John (\ui)enter, Archbishoj) 
• '1 l)u!'iiti. m ij>'\ Dr. 'I'roy \s.i^, ii.iuslericd Irom Ossory, and appointed 
to nil th<- \a..iiit S<-e."^=^ He died on the ilth of May, 1S23. The 
l^rv. John Dunnt-, born near I lallinakill, Queen's County, succeeded 
Dr. Troy in the Dioctsc of Ossorw 1787.""' After a brief e})iscopate, 
ar,<I jii the forty-fourth year of his age, lie was called out ot this life 
M.a« h 15th. l/iScj. He is buried in the cemetery (jf St. Canice, Kilkenny, 
where lus t<anb and its inscription are still to be seen.'7o Xhe Rev. 
ja?(i>s I.aniLMii was his successor in 1789. '7' He died in 1812. 

William lirre-ford, brother to the hist M iKiuis* of Waterford, Bishop 
«'f Dr»)more, was made rrote>tant l^nshop ot O^sory, in 17S2, May 21st, 
by Patent. After sittuig twelve yi-ai;., he was advanced to the Arch- 
bi'-hoj'nc of 'I'uam, and sub^'i'iuntl\' he was created Ixiron Decies. 
(t is, tint on the death of Richard Robin^on, Archbishop 01 
Ai!n.i::li. Dr. W;il:am l>rie-loid had btx-ii disigiic(l to succeed him in 
the Prim. I' V.'.- When thi- latter was made Aithbi-^ho]) of Tuam, in 
iyu\. Ih. W.'in.'.:^ j.ouis < )'P>eiiiie,'73 on the 2(jth of January became 
Iv,>hoji of (»--i t\ Ia- Patent. »7> and he was consecrated at Christ Church, 
DuMin, on tlie I -I ,,t l-\-l.niai\- following. In December, 179S, he was to >bat!i.':i lu i/\j[j, Jaiuiaiy 24th, Dr. Hugh Hamilton, 

"' --rr " I.r- r M,:!). mm I'iiiMU uuin 
}t»,'':!Lij .,'> .\n. n;j iivjuc .ivl kSj7," 
%«4 ;) . I .i;t v.. j>. .;'). 

"• Hr »4> i!u!:il.<r ul ;in old Ycirlv 
»!ii!' i^:z.:ly. a:\'J \-::\ ui 1731;. He was 
c'li'.-i'c-l at Itsiutv (.■«jl!r^f. Cainliriilge. 
Hr l«.i!:ie Ch.ij'hiin to i]\v Marl of 
IluciLij;,;har!j. l^:-\ I I'-utciiant of<l. 

»** llr i\\c4 "'A th'.; xu\ <>i Novfiiil)er, 
t "■><:. S<-«-- .\rclulr.i< . .IS Henry Cotton's 
" Ia»ti l!c<U^j.i.> HitHriiici.-," vol. ii.. 
l)ii<TM- oi O-vviry. j>. J">i. 

'** Sec Willi.itn Ma/iere llr.uly's 
'* I".{'i'>t;ujj;il Succci.'iion," Ac, vol. i., j). 


»*• Sec H'-v. ,M. J. lircinn's •" larle- 
siabtical Hi.itory of Ircl.iiu!," lai;h- 
tienth Century, ch:i]i. i., ji. sfi;. 

"■' Sic a very s.iti^factory account of 
him in John D'.Mlun, " Memoirs of the 
.■\rchljishops of DubUu," pp. 460 to 4S7. 

x" Sec William Mazierc Brady's 
"Episcopal Succession," Ovc, vol. 1., p. 

>••' Sec " Transactions of Ot;2ary 
Archa^olocric?t Soci<?tv," vol. ii., Misto/v' 

of the Catholic Schools of Kilkenny, by 
the Kev. Nicholas Murphy, pp. 151 to 

'■' Sec William Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," Ac, vol. 1., p. 


'''^ However, Bishop Newcome was 
selectetl for that position, and translated 
from Waterford and Lisniore in January, 
1795. ^'-"'-' Bishop Mant's " History of 
the Church i>l Irelaiul," vol. ii., chap, v., 
sec. VI., p. yj,^. 

'"^ He was born in the County of 
Longford, about the j'ear 1748. His 
father, a Catholic farmer, intended him 
for the priesthood, and sent him to St. 
Omer's ; but the son renounced the 
re!ii;iou of his family and ancestors. He 
then was appointeil Chaplain to the 
British Ideet, under Admiral Lord Howe. 
In 17S2, he returned to Ireland, as Pri- 
vate Secretary to the Duke of Portland, 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 

'"* See " Liber Munerum PubUcorum 
Hibcrnije ab An 115:; usque ad 1827," 
vol. ii., np.rt v., p. 47. 



l^ishop of Clonfert, was thouce translated to Ossory.'?^ He died 

December ist, 1S05, at Kilkenny, and was buried there in his Cathedral. i77 
A distinguished Fellow, and subsequently Provost of Trinity College, 
Dublin, Dr. John Kearney, 178 succeeded in the See of Ossory, January 
20th, iSob, by Letters Patent. He was consecrated in Trinity College 
Chapel, on the 2nd of February, by the Archbishop of Dultlin. He dietl 
at Kilkenny, on the 22nd of May, 1813.179 

The Rev. Kieran Maruni was appointed Catholic ]iishop in 1814. a 
He departed this life in 1827. The Rev. William Kinsclla became 
Catholic Bishop in 1829. ^^ *^^^*^^ ^^ i845- 

Dr. Robert Fowler, Rector of Urncy, in the Diocese of Derry, and 
Archdeacon of Dublin, became Protestant Bishop of Ossory,i8i by Patent 
on June 17th, 1813. i^- He was consecrated in Christ Church, Dublin, 
by the Archbishop of Cashel. Owing to the death of Bisho]) IClrington 
in 1835, the Sees of Ferns and Leighlin became united to the See of 
Ossory by Act of Parliament. Bishop Fowler died December 31st, 
1S41, and he was interred in the Cathedral of St. Canice. /> 

After the death of Bishop Fowler, the Dean of Cork, James Thomas 
O'Brien, D.D., was made Protestant Bishop of Ferns, Leighlin, 
and Ossory, by letters patent dated March 9th, 1S42.1S5 He was con- 
secrated in the Chapel of Trinity College, Dublin, on the 20th of JMarch, 
by the Archbishop of Dublin, assisted by the Bishops of Meath and Cork. 
He was enthroned at Kilkenny, April i6th, and at Leighlin, by proxy 
on September 12th of that same j^ear.^^^ Bishop O'Brien was a man of 
great intellectual ability, a forcible controversialist, and the author 
of many theological treatises. He died in London on the 12th oi 
December, 1874, in his eighty-third year, and on the 19th of that month 
he was interred in St. Ciuiice's Churchyard, Kilkenny. '^7 Tlie Ke\-. 

The Rev. Edward Walsh became Catholic Bishop in 1846.188 He died 
in 1872. The next to succeed him was the Very Rev. Patrick Francis 

'•'•' See Archdeacon Heiny Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesiai HibernicLe," vol. 11., 
Diocese of Ossory, pp. 2SS, 289. 

i'^" See Bishop^Mant's " History of the 
Church of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, v., sec. 
vii., p. 742. 

^■'^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesi;c Ilibernica'," vol. ii., 
Diocese of Ossory, p. 290. 

'"■* His appointment as Provost was 
made by the Marquis of CornwalUs, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland. He succeeded Dr. 
Richard INIurray, who died June 20th, 
1799. See Dr. John William Stubbs' 
" History of the University of Dubhn," 
chap, xiv., p. 27S. 

^''•^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
"Fasti Ecclesiai Hibernicse," vol. ii., 
Diocese of Ossory, p. 290. 

(^ See William Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," &c., vol. i., p 


^81 See Patent Rolls of Chancery in 

^^'- See " Liber Munerum Publicorum 
Hibernia;, ab. An. 1152 usque ad 1827," 
vol, ii., part v., p. 47. 

'1!' See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" fasti Ecclesiai Hibernicae," vol. ii., 
Diocese of Ossory, p. 290. 

18^ See Willuun Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," eS:c.., vol. i., p. 

^^■' A very complete biographical 
account of this prelate has been set forth 
by Rev. William G. Carroll, E.x. Siz., Ex. 
SchoL, A.M., the late respected Incum- 
bent of St. Brule's and St. Michael le 
Pole's, Dublin, and it appeared orij^mally 
in the Irish Times. With additions it 
has been published with the title : " A 
Memoir of the Right Rev. James Thomas 
O'Brien, D.D. (late Lord Bishop of 
Osbory, Ferns, and Leighlin) ; with a 
summary of his writings, and Notices of 
his Fellow-Townsmen : (the late) Pro- 
vost Lloyd, Bishop Doyle, J. K. L., Rev. 
G. W. Carr, R. S. Graves, Esq., M.P. ; 
and of the town of New Ross," Dublin,' 
1875. isvo. 

1'^'^ See Archdeacon Henry Cotton's 
" Fasti Ecclesice Hibernicx'," vol. ii.. 
Diocese of Ossory, pp. 290, 291. 

187 See Rev. W. G. Carroll's " Memoir 
of the Riglit Rev. James Thomas O'Brien, 
D.D., (late Lord Bishop of Ossory, I'erns, 
and Leighlin), Dubhn, 1875. Svo. 

188 See Wilham Maziere Brady's 
" Episcopal Succession," &c., vol. i. p 



M.:.iii in 1S72. In iS'^.}, l^r. Moian was Iraiislatfd from the See of 
i»— ..i\- lo th-- hujilv n-iMui-iMc position of Ariiibi>liop of Sydney, 
in Au-ti,ili.i.'^ ' H'- u !■> enatcil Canlmal in I^^S3. 

Hi.- Ku'ht Ki-v<icn.l Knl,rit Samuel Gyr'^i^ was (.•ducatcd at Trinity 
("1.11. .:r. Duihii. \\h:c li<- I'M.k out his dr-nc of li.A. in the Sjirin^^ 
Tcim of 1S57. a:: i U-. .mi-- M.A. in tlie summer of i8()0.'9o He was 
D.aaol Cork in J>7.;-75. ih- was .Ucted Protestant Bishop of Ossory, 
I'c::r . and I.vii-hhn. on' th-- .\\]\ ol March, 1875. In the year 187S, he 
\va-. tiar.^'.rifrd to Coik,''' and, atu-r a service of sixteen years, he was 
« I(. \t .\ to th<- txalted position of Archbishop of Armagh and Primate 
ar.d ol all Ireland. On the 30th of August of the latter 
>rar. su'-.ccdcd th" Ki^hl Kev. William Pakenham Walsh, educated 
i:» liituty College. Dublin, where he obtained the degree of B.A. in the 
S' :::!^' 'li-jni 011841, and became M.A. in the Summer Term of 1853. "^^ 
l(e \\.i'> D-aii of (■a>hel from 1873 till 1878,1''^ and having resigned, 
the Kcv. John B. Crozier was elected to succeed, and consecrated in 
.St. P.itrick's Cathedral, Dul)lin, on the Feast of St. Andrew, 1897.194 
Tlj" vaeanry rau'^ed in the Catholic See by the translation of Bisho]-)"w.i> filled bv the Rev. Abraham Brownrigg, in 1S84.195 

(■|IAl'Th:R v.— Parochial Divisions.— Parish of Abbeyleix. 

Th! oii'^m of parishes is very ancient ; it seems to be traceable even 
to tin- Pagan times of Greece i and Rome,- when small districts were 
^et apart for public purposes. 3 In the time of St. Patrick and the early 
Irisli missionaries, ecclesiastical parishes were not formed in Ireland, 
although the churches were numerous, and ruled by chorepiscopi, or 
priests approved and appointed by their spiritual superiors. It is (juite 
evident, that formerly the distinctive parishes in the Queen's County and 

li*'-' See tlie " Iri^li Catliolic Directory " 
lur i.SSq. 

'■'I' Sec Rev. ])r. James Henthorn 
TodJ'.s " Catalogue of Graduates who 
have proceeded to Degrees in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, from the earliest 
recorded Commencements to July, i8'.o, 
with Supplement to Decendier lOtli, 
1868," p. 236, Dublin, 1869, 8vo. 

'"i See Thoni s Irish Almanac and 
Official Directory for the year 1876, p. 

1"- See Rev. James Henthorn Todd's 
"Catalogue of Graduates," &c., p. 591. 
i93^See Thorn's Irish Almanac and 
Official Directory for the year 1879. 

1"* See " The Irish Church Directory," 
for 1898. 

ii'5 See the " Irish Catholic Directory," 
for 18S5. 

1 The ecclesiastical terra, -n-apoiKia 
means a collection of many houses or 
of many • illages under a pastor who 
serves them in a religious sense, and 
who officiates in a particular church, 

which is called the parochial church. 
During the first four ages of the 
Christian Church, it does not appear 
that parishes or their pastors were 
generally established. However, in the 
time of the Emperor Constantine, in 
nearly all the great towns of the Roman 
Empire churches had been founded, 
and priests were appointed to govern 
them. In after times, the erection, the 
rights, the revenues and the administra- 
tion of parishes, being matters of discip- 
line, were regulated bytheCanonlaw. See 
Thomassin's " Discipline de I'Eglise," 
Premiere Partie, Liv. i., cap. 21, 22. 

- Thus both parishes and parishioners 
are described as parochi by Horace, in 
that amusing account he has given of his 
journey from Rome to Brundusium, in 
the time of Augustus. See " Satiria," 
Lib. i., V. 

3 See Rev. Joseph Bingham's " Anti- 
quities of the Christian Church," Book 
ix., chap, viii., ct scq. 

* It is represented on the " Ordnance 


the number of parish churches were far more numerous than at present ; 
and several of these have undoubtedly l)een merged into existing paro- 
chial arrangements. As more convenient for reference and description, 
the alphabetical order has been adopted in the ensuing enumeration, and 
only what is relevant to the local bounds, features, remarkable objects, 
statistics, antiquities, and ecclesiastical history of each parish has been 
selected ; other matters of more general accidental interest and of 
political or historical imj^ortance being reserved for a subsequent divi- 

The extensive jiaiish of Abbeylcix,4 comprising 13,547 statute acres, 
lies chiefly in the l)aronies of Cullenagh,5 and Clarmallagh,'^ and paitly 
in Maryborough West,7 and also in Fassadining,''> County of Kilkenny.9 
Its general elevation above the sea-level is not considerable, much of it 
ranging only from 298 to 324 feet. A great part of the ground is tlat 
and of poor qualit3^ comprising much red bog or fibrous peat, ot a wet 
and spongy nature, interspersed wth pools ; yet capable of miprovement 
and drainage, as it lies in great part contiguous to the River Nore. Yet 
ever, in the vicinity of the town of Abbeyleix, there is good arable soil, 
and much of it is under cultivation. 

The parish of Abbeyleix appears to have been formerly called 
Clonkeen, under which name, but written incorrectly Cloneheene, it 
a])pears on the Engraved Map of the Down Survey. ^^ At a remote 
period, there was an ancient ecclesiastical establishment in the present 
townland of Clonkeen, ^ near Cloncnagh,i- which circumstance probably 
caused Sir Charles Coote to fall into the great error of ascribing a 
religious foundation in Abbc^'leix to .\.D. boo, whereas the latter erection 
took place many centuries later. There is a Clonkeen townland in the 
present parish of Abbeyleix, but no record exists that notices an early 
ecclesiastical establishment there, although the rums of a medieval 
church are still to be seen ; '3 and probably it gave the name of Clonkeen 
to the parish, before it obtained the name of Abbeyleix. 

The old village of Abbeyleix, in the southern part of the Queen's 
County, was situated on the river Nore.i4 From the religious foundation 
there, the place was called Mainister Laoighise, or the Monastery of 
Leix. It is said to have been in that part of Leix formerly called Lease 
Carraghain.15 At present, it is in the barony of CuUinagh, about seven 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 280 to 295, " Letters containiiiL; Infor- 

County," Sheets 17, 23, 24, 29, 30, and mation relative to the Antiquities of the 

on those for the County of Kilkenny, Queen's County collected during the 

Sheets i, 5. Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 

° There it covers 11,245a. ^r. 2^p. 1S3S," vol. ii., p. 2S7. 

^ It contains 1,475 «• O''- 26/j. of the n See CoI,L;an's " Acta Sanctorum 

parish. Hibcrni;e," h'ebruarii xvii., Vita S. 

"^ In it are only 144^7. ir. 2gp. of the Fintani de Cluain Eidneach. 

parish. i- And in that parish, yet not very 

s In it are 6Soa. zr. 30/?. of Abbeyleix remote from Abbeyleix. 

parish. 1^ They are marked on the " Ordnance 

^ The township of Corballyogue is Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 

five miles distant from other parts County," Sheets 29, 30. 

of the parish ; separated from it by i* Sir James Ware adds : "in ea 

Ballinakill ; and surrounded on other parte comitatus Regina', ("]uai Leasia 

sides by Clonenagh parish. vulgo appellatur." — " De Hibernia et 

1" See Mr. Thomas O'Conor's letter Antit]uitatibus ejus," cap. xxvi., p. 162. 

dated Carlow, December 26th, 1S3S, in '^ According to Thady Dowling's 

his account of Aliboyleix Parish, pp. " Short Annals of Ireland." at a. d. iios. 



th.- AM' 
hiivf -in 

Ml' ll « ■-' 
NV..> . .tl! 


milrs south-f.i'^t \u)\n Marvboioii-li. In iiS;.'^' a Cistercian abbey was 
toun.lcd \irvr. l.y Cix lir,m-nus U'Mnorc,': 111 lioiiour of the Blessed Virgin 
Marv.''' Scnf writri>— suoli as 'I'liadd.Liis Dnwiing '9 —place the loun- 
(latinn at an « :.! h' i j" i km!,-" and ()tliei> two years ^ubseqnent, viz., at 
A.r>. ii>^5-^' 'llir I'-andrr lillfd tins iiou>e with Cistercian monks from 
V t>( l'.,dtnicla-^." A llonrishiiii; irligions institnte appears to 
'. -drd. and the old town ot Abhevleix— as nsnal in the case of 
ri.livli;!vnts -datt> Its orimn troin this monastic honse. It 
d a!-., till- AhN\- i/(- /.f^'t' /-".i'.-'.^ It has been stated, that the 
•.-..IS himself un-irod tluMV : -4 hnt little seems to be known 
...->. v.v ...Ml, -kt p!cs«-nt. .Xn .■cclesiasiical Taxation of Ireland had been 
ilur-t'dbv r.ijK- Nieholas IV., in March, 1291, which was designed to 
Irvv .1 uv.'.'l i'T t!ie m.iintenance of a war against the Saracens to prevent 
tlMin II. .;n (.l)t.iinmg possession of the Holy Land; the amount thus 
i,,ll.-. !<d w.ts, hwwcver, detained by the King's Justiciaries in Ireland, 
;ind IN'JH- Boniface VIII. wrote to com]ilain of that violence, but he 
ivioivrd no redress. At that time the Church in Ireland was greatly 
imiw.v.Tished. Vet it apjK-ars, that a fresh assessment of the Tenths imiH^sed on the Irish clergy for three years, in 1302. -s Among other 
li\inus, the Church of the New Village of Leys was valued at Twelve 
Marks. an<l returning as a tenth only i6d. ; while the portion of the 
vicar, valued at Five INIarks, was returnable at one-Half Mark. 26 The 
I>our" Masters have it, that Mainister Laoighise in Leinster and in 
the Difx-ese of Leighlin was founded in 1447 in honour of St. Francis 
1)V O'Moie, who selected a burial place for himself and his posterity m 
it' -7 This seems to conflict with the statement, that it had been originally 
founded in 1183, and in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary; unless, 
indeed, we are to assume, that the ancient Cistercian Abbey had been 
deserted, and that a new Franciscan Convent had been established to 

"■ Sir lacolii Clrace, Ivilkeunieusis, 
"'.\imalcs"llibcnuLL'," pp. lO, 17. 

i' He is called Cnoghor O-Moor, m 
Harris' " Ware," vol. ii. " .Antiquities ot 
Ireland," caiL xxxviii., p. 274. 

1^ Aceordin- to Christopher Pem- 
l)ridi;e's " Annals of Ireland," publishetl 
l)v \Vdliani Camden, in his " Britannia," 
lolio edition, publishe.l at London, 
A.D. 1O07. 

19 He was Chancellor of Leighlin, and 
lie dieil there A.D. 162S, in the eighty- 
lonrth year of his age. He wrote 
" Annalcs Breves Hibernia;," anti in 
this Tract, under a.d. 1105, we have the 
following entry : — " Circa hoc tempus 
Cowkaggrig de O-Moardha principalis 
de Clanmelaghlen in Basca fundavit et 
dedicavit nionasterinm de Lege Dei in 
Lease Carraghain in Lagenia." — See p. 7, 
Edition of iS^o, bv \'erv Rev. I^ichard 
Butler, 15. .v., M.K.L.A., Dean of Clon- 
mac loise. 

20 See Sir James Ware's Tract 
" CainobiaCisterciensiaHibernia\" p. 74- 

21 See Dr. Haniner's " Chronicle of 
Ireland," p. ,30. 

22 See Sir James Ware, " De Hibernia 

et Anticpiitatibus ejus," cap. xxvi., 
p. 162. 

23 See Sir James Ware's " Cccnobia 
Cisterciensia Hiberni:i;," 11. 74. 

21 See Archdall, who cites War. Mon. 
for his authority, in " Monasticon 
Hibernicnm," p. 580, n. (d.) 

2'' See tliat account of the origin of 
this Taxation in the Introduction to 
the Rev. William Reeves' " Ecclesias- 
tical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore, consisting of a Taxation of 
those Dioceses, compiled in the year 
ZMCCcvi. ; with Notes and Illustrations, 
pp. X. to xxiv. Dublin, 1847, 4to. 

-■^ See " Calendar of Documents 
relating to Ireland preserved in Her 
Majesty's Public Record Office, London. 
1302-1307, edited by the late H. S. 
Swcetman, B..-V., Trin. Col., Dublin., 
M.R.I. A., Barrister-at-Law, and con- 
tinued by Gustavus Frederick Handcock. 
of the Public Record Office," p. 248, 
London, 1883, lioy. 8vo. 

27 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. iv., pp. 954. 
955, and n. (d.) ibul. 

2-' As we find no record of a Fran- 


replace it.-S During the reign of King Henry VII. died Jolm O' Moore, 
who is said to have been interred in or near this Abbey. His tomb was 
su]iposed to have been seen in the village of Old Abbeyk-ix, during the 
eighteenth century.-'> However, this is incorrect, as the tomb in question 
has since been removed to the garden at Abbeyleix Housi', and the 
inscription on it has been more accurately deciphered. ^'^ Beside it lies 
at present another altar-tomb, and probably erected to a chief of I\Iagh 
Druchtain, named Willalmus 0'Kelly,3i about whom nothing further 
seems to be known. Along the centre on the upper slab there runs the 
shaft of a cross, having on the base inscribed the name of the carver.?' 
At the upper portion, and at the joining of the cross-arm to the shaft, 
two more transverse arms form a double cross there, so tliat seven plain 
finials appear at the heading. 

In the year 1551,33 the Abbot here was found seized of a church 
and other buildings ; also of four hundred acres, English measure, of 
arable and pasture land ; two parcels of wood called the Two Parks, 
containing twelve acres ; three hundred acres of moor and marsh in the 
townland of Abbeyleix ; one hundred acres of arable land and nine ot 
wood, called Dromaclowe ; six acres of moor and marsh in Clonekene ; 34 
one hundred acres of arable and pasture in Ralyshe ; one hundred acres 
of arable and pasture in Ravele or Rathevoyle ; 35 ten acres of arable 
and pasture and ten of wood in Lysnebegnet, or Lesvigne ; 36 one hun- 
dred and ten acres of arable and pasture, and two of underwood, called 
the half of Clownecore ; eleven acres of underwood called Clone John ; 
two acres of underwood called Dyrrelaen ; one acre and a-half of under- 
wood called Clonghill ; and forty acres of moor and marsh in Cloghok ; 
the whole of tlie annual value, besides reprises, of /J21 4s. gd. ; tlie 
rectories of Abbcyleysc, and Leawhill appropriated to the said abl^ot 

ciscan Coii\-'jiit in , Abbeyleix, perliaps Melai^lilan, JNIac Owney O'Mocire, who 

the m^inifctji L-AOijhif may have had this tomb made in 1502. On whose 

reference to its location in Stradbally, soul may God have mercy. Amen." 

where a Franciscan house had been He has thus correctly rendered JMalacias 

founded by an O'More. into Melnnhlan, the proper anglicized 

-^ In the street of Abbe\-leix, as we torm of the old chief's name, as his son 

are told, there was a raised tomb, witli is called ConvU mc Mallaghlen in the 

this inscription on the margin of the Inquisitions, Lagenia;, i temp. Eiiz. 

upper stone : — " Hie jacet Johannes ^i Y\y^, inscription running around the 

O'More, an. dom. 150J, cujus aninuii edges of this tomb is broken oil at two 

propitietur Deus. Amen." Sec Cough's of the corners, S(j that at present it reads : 

" Camden's Britannia," vol. iii., (,}ueen's "Hie iaeet Wllalmus O'Kella q 111c 

County, p. 533. fieri fecit (lost) INl °cccccxxxi Orate jiro " 

30 On the tomb, there is a full-length (lost). It is thus rendered into the 

recumbent figure of a chief in armour, following English translation by Fatlu'r 

and on either side at the edge runs the Carrigan : " Here lyeth William O'Kelly 

following inscription carefully examined who got me made in the year 1530. 

and copied by the Rev. William Pray for him." 

Carrigan, C.C, Durrow, verhatnn and ^- The inscription is " Willalm' 

with contractions lengthened, //;'crrt/im .• O Tunny me labricauit." Translated 

" Hie iacit JMalacias Omouer lilius " W^illiam O'Tunny made me." 

Eugenthii qui tumbam fieri, fecit anno ^3 Qu the Wednesday next before the 

domni M'^oooooiicuis aie propricieter des. feast of St. Thomas the Apostle, and in 

Amen." Some few of the letters are the sth of King Edward VI., this 

obliterated at the corners, but are easily Inquisition sped, 

restored from the context, as shown in ^^ Now Clonkeen townland. 

an accurate trace of the upper slab. 3.-, JnTqw Rathmoyle. 

The following is Father Carrigan's ^u >;ow Lisbigny townland. 

translation into English : " Here lyeth ^7 The foregoing enumeration was 

liishop ()' Dul.iiu 's Tonih, Jerpaint AliheN'. 

Sec p;!"'-' I 32 

>J / c^^v' 


,MeLii;!il;iii ()" Moot f's I'oiub, ni AI)lie\!ei\. 

\ -1. I, 

. 4"* Jp 

7 ^;"^i:^w 

liisliop ()' Dulain 's Tonili, Jerpoint Ahhev. 

i'-J '""^ ^ ^ 



,A\el;i'4lil.'m O'Mooic's r()nil>, .11 AI;!K'\Ioi\. 

\«\. 1. 


and his predecessors, were found of the annual vakie, besides reprises, 
of £10. And the Abbot, on the Monday next before the feast of St. 
Catherine, in the same j'ear, was seized also of twelve acres of araliK' 
lantl, called Ivnockbracke or Kiltybreny, in the parish of Tuadewy, of the 
annual value, besides reprises, of 6s. ; and ten acres of arable and pasture 
in Rahinconoghoe Duff, called Gullardleghe, lying on the river Guile, 
of the annual value, besides reprises, of 5s. 37 

This abbey, with twenty acres of arable land in the towns of Leix, 
Clonekine, Ralyse, Ramoyle, and Cloghoge, in the Queen's County, was 
granted, A.D. 1562,38 to I'homas, Earl of Orniond, at the yearly rent of 
£'6 iGs. 8d., for thirty-seven years, to commence from the date, and 
afterwards at the rate of £10 5s. The lands belonging to this abbey 
were then estimated at 820 acres, as stated in a document contained in 
the Chief Remembrancer's Office. 39 This grant was subsequently 
assigned to Sir John Vesey,4o ancestor of the present family, deriving 
the title Lord De Vesci. The Rectory of Clonekine and Domus Legis 
Dei were impro})riate in the Earl of Ormond. The serving vicar of both 
was Thomas Smith, Minister and preacher, in 1616.41 The value of 
this benefice was £15 with a residence. The church was in repair, havir-g 
books and other things requisite. 

On the large map of Clonkeene or Cloneheene, prepared by Sir William 
Petty, among its townland denominations we find — Abbcyleix, Clohoge, 
Boyley,42 Clonekeen43 Grealagh bog, Ballimullen,'*^ Ralish. Rathmoyle,t5 
Bailitarsney,'^'^ Toniduff,47 Balligegill. Abbeyleix was a vicarage in 
1657, the rectory being then impropriate.'* A trace or rum of the 
Cistercian Abbey could not be found towards the close of the eighteenth 
century .49 However, tradition has left some reminiscences of its site ; 
for the inhabitants of the modern town of Abbeyleix have a belief, that 
hord De Vesci'sfine modern mansion, within an extensive and well-wooded 
demesne, occupies the exact position of the ancient Abbev. In the 
garden attached, it is said, some of its former walls and memorial ruins 
are still preserved. In the grave-yard attached to the site, and even 
beyond its present precincts, numerous human remains have l)een 
unearthed. There was a tradition among the old inhabitants, that 
portions of the former Abbev were retainerl in the wall that encloses a 
burial ground, in which stands a deserted Prott^stant church now closed, 
and contiguous to ihi' iiian>ion (j! Lord De Vesci. 

The mansion ot .XMiiAieix House, the seat of Viscount De Vesci, 
was built in 1774. It is (piadrangular m shape, four storrys high, ancl 
faced with cut stone. The noble demesne around it comprises over 
700 acres, covered with forest trees of indigenous growth, with a variety 

taken by Arcliddll, from the .VviiHtor- *^ Now Clcjiil;rcii. 

General's Records. See " Mona>ticon " .\o\v l^.iUvinullen. 

Hibernicum," p. 57, n. (f.) *'' Sow Katliinoyk-. 

^8 On the last day of February, 5th *'• Now Ballytarsiia. 

of Qneen Elizabetli, tliis tyrant was made, *" Xow Tuiuiult. 

according to the record, in the Chief <» See Sir Charles Coote's " General 

Remembrancer's OHiii-. V^iew of the Ai^rirnlture and Manufac- 

30 See Archdall's " M. .n i-,tican Hibei - tiirrs of the 'hicen's County," chap. i. 

nicum," p. 587 and n. (l;.) sect. ^, p. iv 

*o See Harris' " Ware," vol. ii. " .\nti- *" See Arclidall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

quities of Ireland," cap. xwiii., p. 27.}. nicum," p. 5,SX. 

*i See " Liber Ret^ali-' Visitatiotijs." '■''■' It near the River Nore, but 

*- Now Boley. for many past years it has been closed. 



ot exotics, where splendid avenues and open sjuires do not intervene. 
Some trees are of enormous proiK>rtK)ns, and otliers are disposed in 
ornamental groups. The modern town called at lu'st New Abbeyleix. 
lo distinguish it from the former collection of thatched houses, was laid 
out by Lord De Vesci, after the middle of the eighteenth century. Since 
that time, old Abbeyleix — a little distance from it and towards the 
south-west — was levelled, and it has fallen into decay. Near it were 
flourishing flour-mills, and a woollen factory in the beginning of the last 
century, belonging to a Mr. Leach. 5o The hne mansion of Knaptcn'ii 
is also to be seen in the vicinity, with several other handsome residences. 
The houses of Abbeyleix present a neat ap})earance on the Main street, 
which is wide ; and excellent water, from an ornamental and memorial 
fountain, erected to the founder Lord De Vesci, and m the semi-circu- 
lar market-] )lace, is abundantly j^rovided. Garden ])\n{s are attached 
to each of those dwellings. It is a i^ost and inai i;et-town,5^ having 
fairs throughout the year, 53 while it i^ a station on the Maryborougli 
and Waterford line o| Ivailway, and sixty statute miles from the terminus 
at Dublin. 54 The Protestant established churcli built oi'iginally by 
a loan from the Board of First Fruits ; but since that time, it has been 
enlarged and renovated in a beautiful Gothic style, and it is near Lord De 
Vesci's demesne, with ornamental grounds surrounding it, and conv^enient 
to the town. Abbeyleix was declared the head of a Poor-Law Union, 
December 3rd, 1S39, having as electoral divisions Abbevleix, Ballinakill 
Timahoe, Balh'roan. Raheen, Castletown, Aghaboe, Killermogh, Coolkerry, 
Aughmacart and Durrow.55 The Workhouse was contracted for on 
June i6th, 1840, to be completed for ;^5,850 and £1.050 for fittings and 
contingencies. 5^' Several dispensary districts are under medical residence 
and supervision. A ])olice barrack, bridewell, se-.siMn house, hotel and 
market house, as also the Preston endowed School, and National Schools, 
with brandies of Dublin l)anks, are notable featuies. The fjrigidine 
nuns were here introduced, after their convent had been built beside the 
former cha])el and on an elevated site, in 1843. Besides a boarding school 
for young ladies, they conduct the Female and Infant National Schools in 
the town. 57 The old chapel showing signs of decay was remo\'ed, and 
the present beautiful structure of Irish-Romanesque design was erected 
on its site by the Very Rev. James Lalor, P.P.5S The first stone was laid 
in the year 1893,59 and the church was spi'edily completed exteriorly 

51 Tliero the celebrated Sir Jonah passing daily to and from Mary- 

Barringtou was liorn, about the middle borougli. 

of the iSth century. See " Personal ^^ The ex-officio guardians amount to 

Sketches and Recollections of his own eight, and the elected guardians to 

Times," vol. i., cap. i. twenty-four. 

^- On Saturday, weekly. so j^- occupies an area of <^a. 3*-. up., 

^3 On the 26th of January, the 17th and it was projected to accommodate 500 

of March, the 5th of May, the 20th of paupers. 

June, the 20th of September, and the ^^ Their new National Schools cost 

4th of November. See "The National over ;/[i, 300, and these are of great benefit 

Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland," to the town, 

vol. i., p. 3. ^^ This church rellects great credit on 

•''* Formerly the Dublin and Cork his taste an<l indefatigable exertions. 

iSlail Coach passed through Abbeyleix liberally secon<led by the generous con- 

to the middle of the last century, before triliutions of liis parishioners. 

the opening of the Railway ; while s" It is dedicated to Our Lady of the 

there was a caravati in transit to Holy Rosary. 

Mountrath and Dublin, with a car "" The site for the church, with a large 


and interiorly in a manner that has commanded universal a])prol)ation.''" 
The architect was the late Mr. Haige, and the cost of erection and decora- 
tion amounted to about£6,ooOjinchuling the New Tower to^accommodate 
a grand-toned Bell lately procured. In the Protestant arrangement 
tliis ])arish was a vicarage and a separate benefice in the Diocese of 
Leighlin, the Patron being Lord De Vesci, the rectorial tithes impro- 
priate belonging to him.'" The \'icarial tithe comix)sition was £169 4s. yhd. 
with a glebe valued at £5 15s. 5d. ; the gross income being £175 os. o!d. 
nett £138 IIS. L)\d. At present the incumbent has a sti[)end of £47(^ 
annually. For a more detailed account of the Catholic parish of Abbey- 
leix and its dependency Ballyroan, the reader is referred to the work 
of Rt. Rev. Bishop Comerford.^^- 

Not far distant from the present town of Ballinakill, but within the 
parish of Abbeyleix, Leamchuill — now known as howhill or Loughill — 
was situated on the borders of Hyduach and Leix ; however, the old 
church there lies within that portion of Abbeyleix parish, in Fassadinin 
haronv and in the County of Kilkenny. It seems probable, that Leam- 
choill. wliich means " Elm Wood," was formerly within the old territory 
ol keix, at least through an ecclesiastical arrangement. In the fifth 
year of King Edward VT's reign, the rectory of Leawhill was found 
to be a dependency of the monastery at AblK'ylewx.f^3 The ruins are 
now to be traced beside a stream, which runs through the demesne 
around Loughill House. In ancient times, the church there seems 
to liave been of considerable im]:)ortance. A St. Fintan, surnamed 
Coracli, is said to have been Abbot over it, towards the close of the sixth 
eenlury. Corach, in the Irish idiom, siL^niiies under different respects, 
' the changeable," " tlie giver of a promise," or " the melodious." 
His name is connected, not alone with tlur. jihice, but with Clonenagh 
and Clon-aitehm. or (,'loiike-eii. both in Leix. He is likewise called Bishoj) 
ol Clonleri Iheiidaii, in the County of (ialway. Little is really known 
.:oncerniiiL^ lii-> lile. --o that it -ceins dilticult to reconcile his connection, 
m |)oini ol tune, with the several places already mentioned. t'4 His festivid 
occurs on the ji>i oi Fel)ru,iry,^5 but there is no certainty regarding the 
\ear ot li:^ de.ith and the pi. ire of his interment. From the Irish 
Calend.ii- we tmd, likewise, a St. Mochonna, Ihshop, who was venerated 
.It I '■.unelmill on the I 'jth of Januarw Some doubt seems to exist 
reL;.i!>lih'.^ iii> 'iH'ng i.hntical with a St. Conon, Bishop in the Isle 
ot .Man. .md wlio wa^ .also re\-erenced on this same day.f^*^ We 
find a >;. ('mile. mil. Bishop of Leamchuill, venerated at the 22nd of 
.\pnl. .\ fein.ile saint called Duthracht, of Leamchuill, had a festival 

j.i'-^c of l.uid ailjoiniiii,' for a crnu-tery, Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniaj " 

wa.s mvii \>v tilt- l.iti- l.Mr'l ])'■ W-bci on xxi. Fchruarit. Vita S. Fmtani Aljbatis 

.1 If.isc- for ever, and at .1 merely et Hpiscopi Cluainfcrtensis, p. 385 

rent. ' "^^ Accordint,' to the Fcilire of St. 

<" The rectorial tithes were com- .ICn^ms, the .Martyxologies of Tallaght, 

l)Ounde(l for /v^>^ 9s. -Ui. of C:i^,liel, of .Mananus Gorman, and of 

"2 See "The Irish Church I )ireccory and Donci^al. 

Year- Bouk for 1903," p. 124. Dubhn, 1903. «" See his acts in Colt^an's "Acta 

.Svi). Also " Collections relating to the Sanctorum liibernizt;," xiii. Januarii, 

Dioceses of ivildare and Leii^hlin," Vita S. Connani Episcopi Mannia^, pp 

vol. iii., pp. 55 to 65. 59. 6o. 

"^ See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- "• See Dr. Todd's and Dr. Reeves' 

nicum," p. 587. " Martyrcjlo^^y of Donegal" at the 

'■< Sf(> some notices regarding him in res|)cctive days mentioned. 


likewise at the 25th of October. Attain, a St. Fionntain, of Leamchoill, 
is venerated at the i6th of November ; while the feast of St. Aedh, 
belonging to this same place, is set down at tlie 19th of December. 67 Three 
of those saints are placed by Duald j\IacFirbis in the following order, 
viz. : Fintan Corach, Cuillenn, and Mochonna.'^^ It seems no easy 
matter to determine the exact periods when the foregoing saints 
llourished, in connexion with this place, or in what order of time 
they lived. 

In this parish there was an old castle, which in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century had undergone repairs, had been enlarged, and con- 
verted into a dwelling, now called Watercastle Housl-. x\. townland takes 
name from it.69 Near Abbeyleix there is a remarkable fort site, with 
circumvallation around its summit, and it gives name to the townland of 

CHAPTER VI.— Parish of Achaeoe. 

This parish in ancient times was written Achadh-bo, or Ached-bou ; 
and, at later periods, in former records referring to it, we find Aghboo, 
Aghboye, Athebo ; in more modern times, it was usually noticed as 
Aghevoe or Aghaboe. By Adamnan, it has been Latinized " Campulum 
Bovis."' From the name of its patron saint, it was frequently called 
Achadh-bo-Cainnech, in early Irish records. The soil of this parish is 
mostly good, but in it is a large tract of bog and moory land. This place 
was anciently called Achadhblio, or the Ox's Field ; probably because of 
the rich pasturage, which abounderl, ond wliirh at the present time is s^^ 
greatly prized for its cattle-feeding qualities. A very interesting descrip- 
tion of this place has been furnished, ^ by the Rev. Edward Ledwich, 
LL.D., who for a considerable period was incumbent of Aghaboe. "^ 
This treatise was so greatly esteemed, that reprints of it, with Sir John 
Sinclair's Account of Thurso, 4 were circulated among the clergy of 
Ireland, as models for their contributions to an Irish Parochial Survey. 
Aghaboe was formerly situated in the Barony of Upper Ossory ; but, 
at present, it lies within the newly formed baronies of Clandonagh 5 and 
Clarmallagh <^ — heretofore known as Cantrcds — ami about four miles 
south 7 from the town of ]\Iountrath.^ 

"8 See " Proceedings of the Royal " Parish of Aghaboe, Queen's County 

Irish Academy," Irish MS. Series, vol. i., and Diocese of 0:5Sory," by the Rev. 

part i., p. 117. Edwartl Ledwich, LL.D., member ot 

^3 See " Letters containing Informa- niany learned societies, author of the 

tion relative to the Antiquities of the " Antiquities of Ireland," and editor of 

Queen's County collected during the Grose, on the same subject. This con- 

I'rogress of the Ordnance Survey in tribution is under twelve different head- 

1838," Mr. Thomas O'Conor's letter ings, together with an Appendix, a Map, 

dated Carlow, December, 26th, 183S, a view of the Dominican Abbey, as also 

vol. ii., p. 295. of otlier antit|uilies, see pp. 13 to 7S. 

1 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's 3 jjjg work on Irish Antiquities is 
" Life of St. Columba," Lib. ii., cap. 13, regarded, at present, as one justlv open 
p. 121. to unfavourable criticism, in many of 

2 For William Shaw Mason's " Statis- its statements. 

tical Account or Parochial Survey of * See the old "Statistical Survey of 

Ireland," drawn from the communica- Scotland," vol. xx., p. 493, and p. xii. 

tions of the clergy. This work was first ^ Tliis portion of the parish contains 

published in 1814, 8vo, when vol. i. 6,5iOrt. ir. 21/^. 

a])peared. In this was issued, as No. ii., "^ This nortion comprises 12,192a. ir. 



\ % : 

f -- 

/ J'V, 



•li ^l'^'.'^ 






I'ARISH t)K AGIlAlXi]',. 


In the pre-Christian times, we IiikI no record of Aghaboe, and therefore 
we nnist treat of it only from tlie earhest period of its ecclesiastical 
origin. It is recorded, that St. Kanin/cli, also called St. Canice, Cain- 
neach, or Kenny, was born, in Keenaght tririiory,'^ jn the northern 
l)arts of Ireland, about the war 515,"^ Sib,'' or 517'-' — wilile some 
accounts have the date at 527, '^ on the authority of Archliishop Ussher. 1* 
Glengiven is said to have been St. Kenny's native jilace.'i He was the 
son of Laidic or Laitech Lecerd,'^ an eminent poet — others say his 
father's name was Lugayd^T — and his's name was Mella, 
or Melda. When very young, St. Kannech pa-sed over to Britain, where 
the Life 19 states, he was instructetl \>\- .1 hol\' man, known as Doc or 
Cadoc,-o who had established a monastery, at Llincar\-an, on the Severn, 
and in Wales. After some time s])ent there, he returned to Ireland. 
After their conversion to Christianity, the princes or . chieftains 0+ 
Ossory-i were conspicuous for tlieir religious zeal and munificence 
towards the clergy. Descended from Heremon,-- the son of IMilesius 
their genealogy descends to I\lac-Giolla-Phadraig,-3 " the son-servant oi 
Patrick," who was so-called to manifest devotion for the great Apostle 
of Ireland. In course of time, the Irish famih name Mac-Giolla-Phadraig 
was changed — owing to their intercourse with tlie Anglo-Normans — into 
Fitz-Patrick ; the Gallic-Xorman Fitz coires])onding with the Irish 
Mac, " son," and the word Giolla, " ser\ant," being stippressed. This 
family is credited with the erection of Aghaboe t(j be their head church, 
and its episcopate therefore is found called, e\-en m the Provmciale 
Romanum — a catalogue of uncertam date— l)y the territorial title of 

3p. The parish of Aghaboe is dubcrilH-d 
on the " Ordnance Survey Towiihuui 
Maps for the Queen's County," Sheds 
21, 22, 23, 28, '29, 34. 

"^ ]M(5st incorrectly and unaccountal'ly, 
ArchdaU has staled, it lay north of 

^ The account of Aghaboe^h by 
Patrick O'Keelie, in a letti.r dated 
Mountrath, November 20lh, idjS, is to 
be found in " Letters containing Infor- 
nuitioii relative to the Antiquities of the 
(.Queen's County, collected during tin' 
I'rogress of tlie Ordnance Survey in 
1838," vol. i., pp. 1 to 27- Hxceptin;; 
some extracts given in it from printed 
works, the local information is exceed- 
ingly meagre. 

'•' Now the Barony of Keenaght, in 
the County of Londonderry. 

1° See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 
nicum," p. 588. 

11 See William M. Hennessy'b 
" Chronicum Scotorum," pp. 38, 39. 

1- O'Flaherty has it at this year. 

^3 Sec Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of 
the Fathers, Martyrs, and other prin- 
cipal Saints," vol. x., Oct. xi. 

1* See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 
Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 495. 

15 See Alfred Webb's " Compendium 
of Irish Biography," p. yo. 

*•* lie is said to have been of the 

Mocudalan Sept. See O'Flaherty's 

" Ogygia," I'.Ui. iii., cap xlvi., p. 275. 

!■ According to the Manuscript Life 
in wluit has been called the Codex 
Kilurnniensis, in ^Marsh's Library, 

"> bli(_- is saiil to have been a descend- 
ant ol Mac Gu.iis or Mac Nais. 

'" In 1853, the Marcpns of Ormond 
published ;i " \'ita Sancti Kanechi," in 
a small 410 form, but only for private 

'-'^ See Ke\'. M. J. Brcnan's " Eccle- 
siastical History of Ireland," chap iii., 
p. 00. 

-1 By John Hogan their line is 
derived from Breasal Breac, a.m. 3871, 
and it lias been traced in his Genea- 
loL'ical Table of the Kings of Ossory tu 
the Fnglish Invasion. Sec " Kilkenny : 
the .\ncienl City of Ossory, the Seat of 
its Kings, the See of its Bishops, 
the Site of its Cathedral," part ii., p. 

-- Sec Bishop De Burgo's " Hibernia 
Doininicaua," cap. i.x., sect, xxx., 
subs, iii., n. (p.), p. 29S. 

-2 Called also Gillaphadraig I., who 
flourished A. v. 995, and from whom the 
Mac Gillaphadraig clan derived its title. 
See Jolui Ilogan's " Ivilkenny," Occ, 
part ii., p. 172. 

-' See Rev. Fdward T.edwich, on the 


llIbTUkV OF Till': Qf;EEX S COUNTY. 

O^sinensis. This, however, is a mistake lor C)ssoriciisis.-4 Accordine^ 
to some accouiits, the see of this district was first at Saii;;r-5 or Sier- 
Kieran, in tlie Kint^'s County, and thence it was moved to Aghaboe, in 
tlie elevcntli century.-^ 

About tbic year 5-:o,-7 the celebrated St. Finian had Iniilt his monas- 
tery at Clonard, in ^Meath ; and soon a gr(\it numlx'r of students were 
attracted to his school. Among the rest, St. Kannech became his disciple. 
There he was a schoolfellow, with most ot the great saints, wlio were 
his contemporaries. He is said to have written — besides the Life of St. 
Columbkille and a collection of Hymns — a copy of the Four Gospels, 
with a valuable Commentary. -8 His great \vl^doIn, sanctity, and zeal, 
soon enabled him to become a teacher of others. This saint afterwards 
gave name to the City of Kilkenny. The AbbiN' of Aghaboe, however, 
specially owes its loundation to him, between the dates of 558 and 577.-'' 
He was the first abl)ot,3'J and while tiiere, he ruled ovi'r a numtu'ous 
conmiunity of monks, giving great ed.ihcation, both by ids instructions 
and. example. Owing to his vvel^known intimacy with the great St. 
Columba,3i whose moral and religious influence reached far and wide, 
while Scanlan, King of Ossory, was m an esjiecial manner indebted to 
him, we may well suppose, that the domestic rules and polity of St. 
Canice's monastery were modelled on those of the illustrious arcliiman- 
drite who ruled m lona.s^ St. Canice or Kenny — as, he is popularh 
raUed — continued to preside here until 597,33 5(18,34 or 5()9, 35 when lie 
died, in tlie seventj'-second year of his age, according to Archljishop 
LIssher's computation ; 36 but, in his eighty-fourth year,37 according to 
a writer of his Acts, and several of our Irish Annalists. 3^ The Clarendon 
Manuscript Vita S. Cannechi states, that lie de[)arted this life, a.d. 600. 
This is also the date assigned for his decease, a.t Aghaboe, by Sir fames 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Agliaboe Protestant Church, 
tradition yet points out in the helds the })osition and direction of former 

" Parish of Agliaboe," in William 
Shaw Mason's " Statistical iVccouut or 
Parochial Survey of Ireland," vol. i.. 
No. ii., sect, iv., pp. 32, ^t,. 

-^ See Rishop Dc Burro's " Hibernia 
Dciiniiucana," cap. i., sect, xii., p. i8, 
n. (k). 

-" Sec the Rev. M. J. Brenan's 
" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
chap, ii., p. S3. Second edition, Dublin, 

-'' See L'Abbe Ma-Geoghcgan's 
" Histoire de I'lrlande Ancienne at 
Moderne," Tome i., Seconde Partie, 
chap, ii., p. 283. 

2** This was called Glass-Cainech, or 
the Chain of Canice. See Rev. M. J . 
Brenan's " Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland," chnp. iii., p. 90. 

-'•' See " ']"he History, Architecture, 
and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church 
of St. Canice, Kilkenny," by the Kev. 
James Graves, A.B., and John G. 
Augustus Prim, sect, i., chap, i., p. 16, 
ancl n. (c.) ibid. 

'■^" See Bishop De Burgo's " Hibernia 

Domiuicana," cap. ix., sect, xxx., 
subs, i, and n. (a), pp. 296, 297. 

^' His iesti\-al occurs on 9th June. 

22 See " The History, Architecture, 
and Anticputies of the Cathedral Church 
ot St. CauKc, Kilkenny," by the Kev, 
James Graves, A.B., and John G. 
Augustus Prim, sect, i., chap, i., j). 17. 

^^ The Annals of Clonniaenuise have 
this date. 

■" See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 
the Eour ^Masters," vol. i., pp. 224, 22s. 

'■^■' The " Annales Ultonienses," Pars, 
•i., have entered this year. See Rev. 
Dr. O'Conor's " Kerum Hibernicaruni 
Scriptores," Tomus i\'., p. 34. 

'■"' See " Britannicaruni Ecclesiarum 
Antitpiilates," ca]i. xvii., p. 495. 

^^ See .\lhed Webb's " Compendium 
of Trisii Biography," p. 70. 

■'"^ According to the Annals of Clon- 

^" lie writes: " Obiit il)ideni 5 Idus 
Octobris anno Ooo " — " De Hibernia et 
Antiquitatibus ejus Disquisitiones," cap. 

Nwi., p. '{C)2. 








ilw icli\ Anli.niilie 


•I'M'' ^ 


I ••T'lT:^'^":^ "■'':^^^^- "■"■^ 

'■ion: /'/',',',' ^M'j 

llii: CROSS, A(iHA15()r:. 

[-1/. ()"/'.„ v',. 
I.uv |u-c 159. 

l'\ia>H (11 AMlAlioK. jcq 

ro.nN, li<i t(i lii> I'M iiiDii.i-i. 1 \ . hi Miiiu- r.ivo, tliL' in!ial)itatits liavc 
fiiuiKl tiai-fs of aiKi'-nt stciic louiKiatKnis. (1i^])iim>1 m groups. These 
arc >'a.ja",-,(l to in i;. tr Mtc- Im li..u-.\-,, l)cl(.n;-;in- to the rltaced City 
ol .\','lial">.-. '1 hr \«,;!t'T ua'^ a-suied of sikIi >lalciiKiil> as liein^L,^ facts' 
for In-- att.ata-n hi! \-<<:'. 'l.;.-'t<-'l to sMrious spots in conlninat ion, 1)\' 
a i.-;,< ^ '.il'l.- !<■-;.;■:.[. aiiil lo.\il | ii ojuittoi'. 'I hne, too, witl' ohjects 
to h.- fou:i!, ^.I'i to !;.ivi- !'>. :i a--oi lattil with the ninnorx' of St. Canice, 
.iii'l .1 ;,-.p' \. :i'-.'.iio:i w.i- jmkI to hiiii. In part ol a nch pasture 
•uM. ^'-;..(• Ai.;>'\ liawthoir* h:aiahr> wan- {o hr .seen, and hcneath thian 
V.nif V.-.-- a '>:n '.11 ] -Ic. ii'--.-:iiMin^' a stone cairn. .M\' informant -iiJ toki 
i:i.- A !:.i !:T:o:i, t!i.i; tl..- coiini o! St. Cinici- liad hecn kiid tliere hefore Ins 
iiit' :::,' !il. hv \hr j-^'.p!,- ..f A.Lihahof. When the writer visited that 
^;>.■ *« <>:.'■ i>i th" ,i^''d li.iwthonis had falkai trii \ cais piexaously, and 
It hiv 4' :«"•. tl.f <Mdii:.inly travcU. d roadway. Altlioui^li the trunk was 
i;:ir4!3v tl--Ha'.« 'I. \rt it-^ I>ranclies were ])artially covered with green 
!■--»%■(%; .t::'.! .I'flioui-li tli.-^ trre caused considcrahk' obstruction owing 
!«» j:^ }■»••>«!!()!). the pn.jiri.-tor of thr farm (diliged liis drivers to take a 
.!rt,n;f \0.rn }.is>ini,' by the sjiot, nor woukl tlie ])oorest person in the 
ItRuhty d.jro to remove any of thr rotten bram Iks for firewood. This 
<<Thnk: was tiLtu-ratrd by a long-cstabli<hcd reverence for tlie sanctity of 
lioly Cannc. and thion_;h a fear of destcratinL; aiu' object liowever 
mra.tolv connected with Iiini. Somewhat removed fi;om tliis spot, and 
111 till.- Centre of the same field, a depression in lorm of a cross was shown. 
and tlieie it IS ^:ui\. the -aiiit's coltm was laid a second time, wliilc the 
s»t:/<:i>> oi Kilkerin'v" and AL;liaboe were about to t'li^.iL^e- in a deadl\- 
n>!.liict fi>r i'0--'-->ion ol l-llessed ("aniec's remains. 1- fietore they came 
to l'!(tw>. iiowever. the niH.iculou> ajiparition of a strange man moved 
down o\r! thf ditch, whali fenced a former load, now comi)letcly obhter- 
.ttcd. acroi.iin;: to pojiular tradition. He be>ouqht all jire.-^ent to go into 
the adjoinini^ laid, wh-ie tia ir ditfeiences might be adjusted. On 
colli). I\!i.g with Jii> !'.ju..>t, they ufie then told to return, wlien they 
(ound t\v<.» la.'ijins remamii:^ on the cro>s, where St. Ckmice's remains 
had U<[j dep.-itcd. I lay weie ttdd to remo\'e One colfm to Kih^emiy 
.iiid the other t<» A.di.ii ov-. J he iiixsteiious stranger, supposed to liave 
l-Ttl St. ("ana e. then diiapj'rared ; whereiijX)!! the contending factions 
drj'.Kt'-v!, Kotli; a coltin respecti\el\' to lither destination. Hence, 
thr }«•'«>; Ir ot tla^ pl.icc contend it is not i)os-ible to saw whether St. 
( ar-.:< r l>i . ii iiitcri.-d m Kilkenn\- or in Aghaboe, although they ho[)e 
itv.js in t!:<- l.itttT j'l.icc as Ix-ing his earliest foundation. Such is tlie 
V<A Ir^' r,.l, \\>;:!f jt j^ •>-. inteM/^ting and poinilar, we cannot omit ]dacing 
1 1 on If cord. 

As t!i«- jv.ii;'-h of A^'llal)Ol^ now and since its ecclesiastical origin, lay 
apparrjjtly wrdmi the teuitory of Ossory, and be^n united with 
thi.s <htH'---t- since tlie ViMf 1 1.5-', it would seem to liuve been a distinctive 
tuother church or ancient ejiiscojjal see, for a })eriod long after the 
loundation of his mon.istery there by St. Cainnech. A learned local 
hi^tornm and topograjdier -«» states, that the pre-Christian territory of 


*» Mr. Jcrctiiiah nmiiu-. J.I'., wlio ilhi.-.trati(in of what tlic writer has 
owntT of tliL- place on which liua liuind m so rn.iny instances through 

ubjoct might be seen. out halaiul, liuw closely existing 

♦' .Xu^^usl -n.J, iS'Kj. popular tra^lltlon^. coincide \vith the 

«' This is also mentioned in the Latin written records of several hundretl past 

I.ife of St. C;inice. and it is a turidiis years. 



.Magh-Airget-Ros was an extensive plain, stretching from the stream of 
the River Barrow, where it forms the northern boundary of the present 
Queen's County ; and, it extended southwards to the Drumdeilgg or 
Thornback ridge, three miles above the City of Kilkenny. It included, 
according to hnii, the whole flat country of the present Queen's County, 
comprising the modern baronies of Alaryborough East, Maryborough 
West, Stradbally, Cullenagh, with the old barony of Upper Ossory, now 
represented by its more recent divisions, called the baronies of Upper- 
woods, Clarmallagh and Clandonagh ;44 it even embraced parts of 
Galmoy, Fassidman, and Cranagh baronies, which border on the River 
Nore, and lie within the present Coimty of Kilkenny.^^ This wule 
extent of territory is said also to have been anciently called IMagh 
Laoighis. Admitting the correctness of this statement, which, however, 
is far from being well established, it may be seen that the parish of 
Aghaboe, lying south and west of the River Nore, must in early times 
have been included within the Leix territor5'.46 

Historical information regarding the ancient see and monastery of 
Aghaboe, of its bishops, abbots, saints, and learned men, will be found 
in a magnificent modern work and of great local interest, compiled by 
two accomplished and researchful antiquaries.47 We shall now proceed 
to unfold the annalistic memories of this historic spot. In 6iS,4^ or 
619,49 the Abbot Liber, or Liberius — probably the iipmediate successor 
of St. Cauice ^'^ — departed this life. He is ranked, also, among the saints, 
and his feast has been assigned to the 8th of March. The death of 
]\Iyn Baireann, Abbot of Aghaboe, is recorded, at a.d. 690, in the Annals 

*^ Allu.sion is here made to the late- 
lamented John Hogau, Mayor of Kil- 
kenny, distinguished for his researches 
into the anticiuities of his native 
Ossorian tenitory. Besides some 

l)apers, issued in the Kilkenny Archajo- 
logical Society's " Proceedings," and 
in the " Transactions of the Ossory 
Archreological Society," he published a 
valuable work, " St. Ciaran, Patron of 
Ossory : A Memoir of his Lite and 
Times," Kilkenny, 1876, Svo, pp. i. to 
xviii., and pp. 2 to 260. Not less so is 
his posthumous work, " Kilkenny : the 
Ancient City of Ossory, the Seat of its 
Kings, the See of its Bishops, and the 
Site of its Cathedral," Kilkenny, 18S4, 
Svo, pp. i. to xiv., and pp. 5 to 462. 

** According to John Hogan, the 
Upper Valley of the Nore, or Airgid Ros, 
did not form part of the kingdom of 
Osraighe, for some period after its 
original establishment. In the " Will 
of Cathair More," purporting to be as 
old as the second century of the 
Christian era, Airgid Ros is claimed as 
belonging to that king of Leinster. 
Duach, king or chief of Ossory about 
the middle of the sixth century, seems 
to have wrested it from the dominion of 
Cathair ■More's successors. From the 
conqueror, it assumed the title Ui-Duach, 
or Land of Duach, and it is now called 

( )dogh. See "Kilkenny: the Ancient 
City of Ossory," &c., part i., p. 81. 

*5 See John Hogan's " St. Ciaran, 
Patron of Ossory : A Memoir of his 
Life and Times," part second, i hap. 1., 
l)p. 44. 45- 

■"^ However, a little before or after 
the time for the building of St. Canice's 
Monastery at Aghaboe, Duuch seems to 
have annexed much of the southern 
LeLx territory to that of Ui-Duach. 
The Rev. Nicholas Murphy has written 
;in interesting ]>aper, " The O'Brenans 
and the Ancient Territory of Hy-Duach," 
published in " Transactions of the 
Ossory Arch;eological Society." vol. i., 
pp. 393 to 407- 

*^ Allusion is made to " The History, 
Architecture and Antiquities of the 
Cathedral Church of St. Canice, Kil- 
kenny," by the Rev. James Graves, 
A.B., and John G. Augustus Prim, Esq. 
S:-'e sect, i., chap, i., pp. 14 to 21, with 
accompanying notes. 

*^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four blasters," vol. i., pp. 240, 243. 

*" The Annals of " Clonmacnoise " 
have Liber's death at this year. 

^° See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
I libernix'," Martii viii. De S. Libero sive 
Liberio Abbate Achadhboensi, p. 56 >. 

=1 See William M. Hennessy's edition, 
pp. 110, III. 

i'AKI-!l O! ACli Al ' >i:. l6l 

(.f C!on:n.'i<'!'<<*i-e. In the " Cliroiiicuin Scdidruin.".^' it is set down as 
(k)I. l->nt ;!■■> oidi:;..; {o nthcr ar>.'*i\ims, in (hi '..S' tlu' Abbot Moaiin 
I'oii'iC dri'-iM' .1 ; '.'.hiU-, tlic Ann. lis of liNl.i^^ li.ivi- liis death, at 
A I). '".4.-' A''ioul:r.L,' to tlie Ann. lis of \\\c lM>nr M.istcrs, 55 in 777,5^ 
,\.'-,\ tl'..- Abl<'( S'.'.i.! r.i Tai<lhc',5: Abbot of Ach.Klli-bo, after having 
Ifv:; fi.:ty'iK;<'<" \'.i:> in the abbacy. It is noted, that ht- died (Mi 
th<- 1 . 'iv.d < : St'. ("o::-.i:h:i!l. on the loth of M.iw The tine \ear for his 
«','•; .1: t;:r. ] . m\<; js v.ii<l lo have been A.D. 7SJ. In 7v^4.5^ according,' 
!•» the < ' t 1 :•• -. d;- <i l]:r Ab!">t Foii;hil — otlurwibe called X'irgil — i.t\, the 
(.coMi'ti r. AbV-"t I'l .S^ha'Di-bu, and the famous Bishop of Saltsburg, as 
\Mtr '. \ \ !>:. 0"I>o:-.ovaTi.' ' If tliis admission be correct, he was one of 
ti.r v..'\\ « <lrl:a!c<.I X liol.'irs of his age. We are told, likewise, that he died 
1:; (.rr;..4;iV. a:u\ u\ th<' tlr.rteenth year of his bishojuic, or episcopacy. ^^'^ 
'U.r A-'.'-.i!* of I Kter enter hi;> death under the year 78S ; but, it is stated 
!'.4i U.<- iv.r dit«! IS .\.D. 78(). At A.i). S08, the Annals of the Four 
3tlA»:rt>'» 'j hire ihc death of the Abbot Fearadhach, the son of Scannal 
uf S^r. i.iil. and chionographer of this abbey.'-'- He is also called scribe 
^:;(| .ib5-'t. However, the Annals of Ulster record the happy departure 
«.{ I-«':.e!A<h .^lac Scannail, scribe, ])riest, and al)bot of Achaboo, at 
AD. •**!-.'•» It is said the true \ear was a.i>. St;',. In the year 820.64 
Ihc Abb^'t of Achadhd)o-Cainnigh, who is ciHrd Forbhasach, departed 
this life. Tlie .\nnals of I'lster, at A.n. 821, ivl.ite. what the Four blasters 
li.ivr S.'o.^.i In 835."^ died the .\bbot Kobliartagh Mac Maeluidhir, 
Abi^.t ol Aeliaidhd'o-Cainni-h. At A.V). 8.} ;, the AnnaN of the Four 
Masters''' state, the Ablx>t Kobhartagh .Mac Bre^ail died. In 
yw'"" :t In stated, that .Adill. Abbot of .\chadhdio, dejxirted this life; 
\ ,t, \.\> d.'.-.:t!; i-- rccor(!ed in the " Clironimin Scotornm,""' at A.D. S55. 
Is. •*>«;7.' ' or >v'^.-' '^•<-'d '^•'' Alio! SuairlaL'li or Suairleach, Superior of 
A< h.s'ii.-!o-('a::::.i.:)j. 1 he " (duonicuin .S( o(oiiini,"7- narrates his 

I! '-r^ l>t <»!>■ •; .\.in'» ■* .\K:1.ll^ o( °' ^'C Dr. O'l>onovan's edition, vol. i., 

Mr I-,..i ^Ui-.-.-v" V.I r, J ;,'. :/>. ]>p. .; 20. .',j\, awA n. (h.), ibi J. 

j.^._ *^ S'-f (2oii;. Ill's " Act.T, SanclDrum 

♦ » t- t'.-:.' »■ r. iijir.'K is I.a'.mtrcd Hilx-Mii e." p. 7.-' ;. M.irtii xxviii., IJe S. 

"',i:\: j AfCi." <-^ " uti'r jl-ii: V : i. " ( ■ .ImII ) MVC CuIl.lMo I-' j >i ^' opo, D. 5. 

•• '>»v'v }Uv. I>; in-::-:''^ " K-ium " S-f Iv-v. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum 

Jl,!.5j?..'*rA; -Ki ^..:r^J.".^<t s " T<j::iu» »v,. Hiht.-rnic,irmii Scriptores," Tcjmus iv., 

" Aa.^.i.^'^ l.'U.-Xii-ni^!,"'' j 1:1, 1 . \>. fVj. " .\nii;i!e-> tjlloncinsus," pars, i., ]>. 198. 

••» ^-.v IT. <>'lK4Vu> j.n'» f iUi >:) vol. ** St-e Dr. O'Doiiovan's "Annals of 

». J'- }*>. *•*. ^^'^ Fuur .Masters," vol. i., pp. 430, 431. 

'■•' Is- i*iaii * t-'-...L..>f':«'»:i;v f.-c-.lils tlic *' St-e Kev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rernni 

I ,3.1 Mit'.f;» ■■isl. C-r ''-.'.rv o{ an .\M'>>t Ihlicrni. anini Scrijnores," Touius iv., 

'<. »;a l*.)j » <i'A'.;>, A'. T7* l'-< I'f^- " Ann.ik-b l.'ltoniLMiscs," p.irs. i., p. 203, 

t» lKx.r»*-i"» rij'.ii.a, Lw^cvcr. iJ.rrc is ** See Dr. O'Donuvan's "Annals of 

t^»,^ «ath »f» '.?.!. tli<-" l'""ur Masters," vol. i., pp. 452, 453. 

•« AniiUn va:1» l.irn »!.r Al..l-,it «■ S.-r ,Md.. vul. i., pp. 4O4, 465. 

S<.»r;!*!a* Jm; S-r-^ " yi.:\\^u^.>>Q ''"' "^'-i' Dr. ( )' 1 ii-nov.m's " .\nnals of 

H:V!r...-.iir.."' }•. <aS. t!'.^ I'oiir M.i-Ur.s," vol. 1., pp. 486, 487. 

'* In H^rn*' " \Vat<- ■* v.w lu S.-- is '"'■' S''- William M. llennessy's edition. 

tjii.) 'vo l..»vr ."lUo! .n t».c .--ih ..( pp I-;. i;>. 

Nfvtrnt<r. ;"< t. or ;.S4." Sec " Wiitcin ^'^ See I )r. O'Donuvan's "Annals of 

<5 Irrl.u; ';."■' l*K>k ».. <.}:.»;•. v.. t>. 50. the l-mir .M. esters," vol. i., pp.490, 491. 

»» b'<- ■'> of llic Four Sl-L^trrs," '' .Vccurdint; to the " .\nnals of 

\ .' 1.. pp. Vy.'. >vi. Ulster." Se-e Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 

*» Ac^ordini^ to Jl.un.s' "Ware," he " Keruin Hiliernicarum Scriptores," 

v>.i-» CAn..:iirr\l n\ utv l>v I\>j->r C.rf:,;orv T<miiu> i\-. i .irb. 1., p. 224. 

l.\. Sec VI. 1. ui., " Writers uf Ireland.'' '- St.- WilUaiu M. Hennessy's edition 

l..ik 1 . <l..ip v., p. u. pp. 150, 157. 


t()2 history of the qiieen's copnty. 

deatli at A.D. 859. With a high commendation for his talents ajid 
virtnes, at A.D. S74, the death of Abbot Cinaedh is recorded, in the 
Annals of the Four Masters. 73 They quote an Irish verse, 74 referring to 
his departure, and the following is Dr. O'Donovan's translation of it 
into English : — 

" Great grief is Cinaedh the revered chieftain, son of 

Cosgrach of beaming coimtenance. 
The gifted torch, enraptured Bard, the exalted Abbot of 

His death is recorded, however, under a.d. 875, 7.s in tlie Annals of Ulster ; 
but, we are told, the correct year is 876.76 In 885, died the Abbot 
Maolmarten, or ]Maelmartain,77 " Servant of Martin," and Abbot of 
Achadh-bo-Cainnigh. At a.d. goi,7S f^^. prior of Achadh-bo-Cainnigh, 
named Celi Mac Urthuile, or Urthuili, died. In 913,7'' the Abbey of 
Achadh-bo was plundered b}^ the strangers, or Danes.^o ajiparently for 
tlie first time ; Si and, about that period, a fresh horde had entered the 
estuary of the Nore, Suir, and Barrow, then known as Locii-Dachaech. 
In 914,^2 (^ied the Abbot of Achadh-bo-Cainnigh, ^^laenach I\Iac Dailigein. 
In this year, also, the abbey was plundered h\' the Gentiles, according 
to the " Chronicum Scotorum " ; S3 but, this probably has reference to the 
strangers' raid already recorded. In 915, the Abbey of Aghabne was 
again plundered by the Danes, according to certain Anonymous Annals, 
quoted by Archdall 84 for the statement ; we are told, however, Archdall 
makes two plundcrings here out of one outrage, ■'^5 viz., that in 913. In 
926,86 died the Abbot of Aghaboe, and who was named Ciaran. The 
Annals of Ulster §7 call him Ciaran, Coarb of Cainnech, at a.d. 927 alias 
928,88 their date for his death. 

In 933,89 the Abbot Cormac Mac Alaeny or Maenach, Abbot of 
Achadh-bo, was slain by the people of Eoganaght.^" In the year 969,91 
or 970, died the Abbot Maelsamhna, or Maelsavna,93 successor of Cain- 

■^3 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., ^s t^pp William M. Hennessv's edition, 

pp. 520, 521. pp. 186, IS;. 

^* It runs thus: — si Scu " ■\Ionasticon Hibernicum," 

mofi tiAc CionAcx) 311JICA min-o rri&c p. 588, and in n. (z) Annal. annon. 

Cof5|iAi5 CO ftiocliAil) pn.ui, "■"' See " The History, Architecture, 

In bjteo buA-OA, IJaiLc bAp-o, comA^ibhA and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church 

A^x> SchAm bo. of St. Canice, Kilkenny," by the Rev. 

■'s See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum James Graves. A.B., and John G. 

Hibernicarum Scriptores," Tomus iv., Augustus Prim, sect, i., chap, i., j)- I7- 

pars, i., p. 232. 815 t;ee j)]-_ O'Donovan's " Annals of 

■^8 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four iMasters." vol. ii., pp. 61 S, 619. 

the Four jNlastcrs," vol. i., n. (x.) s? The Codex Clarendon Copy, Tomus 

'■^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of xlix. Seen, (a), ibid., p. 621. 

the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 536, 537. «8 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum 

''s See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of ' Hibernicarum Scriptores," Tomus iv., 

the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 562, 563. pars, i., p. 259. 

''^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "' Annals of 89 gge Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 5S4 to 587. the Four IMasters," vol. ii., pp. 630, 631. 

8" See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," s" See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 

p. 633. HiluTiiire," xvii. Februarii. Appendix 

®i See " The History, Architecture, ad Vitam S. Cormaci, cap i., p. 360. 

and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church ^i See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

of St. Canice, Kilkenny," by the Rev. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 694, 695. 

James Graves, A.B., and John G. ^^ According to the " Annals of 

Augustus Prim, sect, i., chap, i., p. 17. Ulster." See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 

82 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of " Rerum Plibernicarum Scriptores," 

^he Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. s,S6, 587. Tomus iv., pars, i., p. 279. 

!' \1<I>I1 cK \(,ll \1.' II".. , i5: 

tif.iili. Ill i(»n;,''i the Abbot .I'ji^lm^, till- M)ii oi l^it's^al. successor ot 
CamiK-ach, div>\ on In- pil-iiinaj^tr, ;it Aiiiia,L;li. Al a.d. Kio;, the Annals 
('!' ri-t. I.''.- and oi tli,- I-'our Ma>tci s,'-'' umcu.I (hi- death ot Maclmaire 
I a < .«M:.i:;aiii mi> cr --. .r ot Cainurai b. In i<.oS.''7 dicl t be A1)bot Cathal 
.'I r.ith.dil. tb<- sell ol Callus <'i ('li.iilc-, and tbe succes-or of Cainneach. 
At :li:- ya:. ab.v i!i x]..- Annal> of I Istri,"^ tbe death of Cabal ]\Iac 
r.iil'i-.i «'...itb (-1 ('.t:n!Ka( h. i> lecordetl. In loii,'''.' rcc/t- 1012, died 
t!.' Ai J-'t Ci.i'A. Ml' ■ r--or of rainiicMcb. In loij,"'^' died tbe Abbot 
<!.»;. r.i (m .iri^ain or ( »'('u'arL;an, svi(ce>>or of Cainneach. In tbe year 
!<• v'' ' ' < •"!■ :<■ l"-i Coiinhijullain, suece--or of Cainni'acb, died at Rome. 
It; I'V.s.' ' «'.i:.j. a i:obl.' j)iic>,t of A.^baboe, die(L In io5o,i"3 died tbe 
A* U.i IhiMitli.i. !i,' •• the von of Meleadba, or Milidb, successor of Cain- 
i.^A' U li %vr .lie to Ulievc the K'ev. lulward Letlwicb, the old conventual 
\»js cl.\:..:f! trito .■ ( atbedral cbincli about this time.i'^5 In tbe \'ear 
T'S-'. •» 'fi'it'h u.i> ••reeled Inn-, or rather the church of the monastery 
T»^\ :rbvj:it,»''' uhtn-in the shrine of tbe juitron St. Canice was placetl, 
Atif'f^hr-.s" to tlic Manu.scri])! AiniaN <il I.emster, quoted in Harris' 
" U'4i«-."" ■ In 1056, "^'> died the .Abliot Cassacb.i"'' or Cathasach,!'" oi (M-atitMrbhan, succc-sor of Cannu-ach, in Cianacbta.i 'i but he 
«ii^» liot a;'j-<Mi to iia\-f bad any fui tlier ccjinit'ctiou with tbe locality of 
A< ha<!!idx'. ^^•l, be i'^ >t\lrd thr chief among the foiemost of tbe 
N!!j!i'«t.-r « I'lcy."-' In i<;')(), tin- Al.ibot Caomb Oran. or Coemboran, 
•.ij<rcvo: ol ("a!nn<-.trli. .ind Abbot ot A^babor. died ; while on this very 
viJnc \i.t: I-i.;.') ita. h. a la.ble |>ri»-.t of .\( hadb-bo, di-]iar(ed this life in 
A .,•<'*- 1 i.'d .i^-«.-,"'' In n ''o.iii l-\i(I,iii. tbr M;nd I'a .Mordba,"^ the son 

•• V,, I.r <• 1 '..::, v.^nS •' .\ii:i.;l-, v)! ' '- Src ■' J lie lli-tciry, Arcliitectiiro, 

tl,<- J >r M-o'.'j-. ■■ \.; II,, ly ;.;v ;.;■;. .1:1.! .\uli.iuitus of ilic Cathedral Churcli 

" I j.c < .•:< X I l.i.-' !,.; ij. ioi.MiN \iix. .a x. Cmio-, Kilkenny," hy the Rev. 

V"- il»" }<<-v J»:. 0( -,:i.,r''» "l<r:ii:u J,iiiu-> (.r.ive^, A.I>., mnl' John G. 

I!-.: • :r.w«t.'--- ^' :\; '. :rt," i\::\\if i\., An.u-tus I'nm. chap, i,, p. 17. 

S-AJ- » - ;■ -'■ '"' ^""■'- Mil. 1., "Bishops of Ossory," 

'" Ncf J "^f < ^i '•>»;'.. l!»'» r-llM,.!). Vul. p, ^(;S. 

ti , ly r-.' :•■/ All J Ti (-■ < p. ;'v). i'lJ. ' "• See lir. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

•' '^ff I': «'lvf, .\.i'-.S ■■ Viiii.iN '.f the I-', lur -Masters," Vol. ii., pp. S;o, 871. 

<i}.r l.'^t '.4.k»V!v" V I ti . pp ;'»>. r'li- '^''^ See Arclidairs " Monasticon Hiber- 

♦'» f.-^v •;■> w.f •••!«-\ (l.ifr: I II, meiim." p. 580. 

t.r.:,i_%x;'.% v* aN- Kr\. I "r, (.>■(".,!'. ,r'> ''• Ih u.i^ .\lihot of Droniachose or 

" iut^-i JM"-t!;j-. A.'u::» Si :tptfiri->." I ei iii.inkeiii;v--ileilicated to St. Canice 

I,;ir ;•„» »»■ ; \r» 1. p -•>• --in the Harony of Keenaght, and 

»•» '•-•< X>: li l^i->' .An'* " Ann.iit of ((iim!\ of Londonderry. See Rev. Dr. 

?*r.« J. »f MAf.'fs " \..! u . pp. 7<M, •'•;,. |\(evi>' " Kcclebiastical Antiipiitie.s of 

»'* Sf«e I»T < >'IV45 -vi.-i'* ■■ .\nn.ils ol l>owii, C'oiiiior and Dioinore," p. J74, 

t?i.p I ..i*if *£»»'.■■?♦.■' *-x>3 11 . j'j>. ;i^>. 707. and 11. (o), 

«>« <--r t>r, 0" .\ j!>'» " Ann.ih. <d '" He is called Caljasach mac 

J?.^ l\,-4r Jiti.'.r-:*." \'h II . pp. >i;.}, £5;. Cirr^.o l-.m, C(;arl) of Cainneach, in 

"• Scr IH. (>'r> >r;'.v.i!Ps " ,\iiti.ils of K\an,i. ht, in the Codex Clarendon copy 

!!><■ r<Kjr ^!A^•.<•r» " V. !. :i pp. .'<.4'<. 8.P;. of the I d-->ter Aiiiials, at 1056, Tomus 

"» Stt I»r- 0'I\>n"V.,iPs •' Ann.ils <<i \\ix. 

U;'- I-'our M.Vi'.m." vol 11.. pp. ^if'>. 8;;. "•' See I?ev. Dr. O'Coiior's " Keruin 

"• He i» talK-«! Dti% }i.ich in.ic Mil' la, J liliermcn uin Sei iptu .-,," Tcjinus iv,, 

<'<'Ai!i <«f (\iianr,t<.li, i.'i Jl'c C"Ie\ " \nu.ile-. Cltonieiises," ])ars, ii., p. 330. 

Clarrndon copy of lJ:c of t'Ister, " ' See Dr, O'Donov.m's " Annals of 

at A «». II >o, T<'iTiu!> xlix. Sc- Kcv. tlie Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 888, 889. 

I>r. <)T-,n<>r"s *' Kerum Hit.eriiic.uura i'« See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

Sctipt-'frs," Tomus iv.." .\nnalf4 Ultoni- the Four Ma-^ters," vol. ii., pp. 896, 897, 

cnvr-.." j'lrs. ii.. p. 332. dfn] n. (e), ;//((/. 

«•> S." Grc-sc'H " Antiquities if »'^ He descended from Mordha, the 1 " vol. ii,, p. 39. pro-emtiir of the O'.Moores ot I .ei.t. 


of Aimirgin,"^ died at Achadh-bo. This year, most prol)ably, Macraith 
Ua Mordha was killed at Muilleann-na-Crossan,"? in the vicinity of 
Achadh-bo ; thus being punished for an act of impiety and murder 
committed at Timahoe.i'S in 1090, died the Abbot Cian 6'Buachalla,'i9 
successor of Cainneach in Ciannachta ;i-« but, he does not appear to have 
been locally connected with Aghaboe. About the year iioo, Aghaboe was 
noted as a place of resort for religious pilgrims.i^i In 1105,^-- died Aedh 
O'Ruadhan, a priest of this abbey, as also another priest of Aghaboe, 
named Ailillan Ua Spealain. In the year 1106, the Annals of Clonmac- 
noise state, that the family or community of Kilkenny — which must 
here mean the monastic community of St. Canice at Aghaboe — gave an 
overthrow to the comnuuhty of Leighlin.^-^ This must mean in the matlrr 
of some ecclesiastical privilege or endowment. In 1108, died Celech 
Ua Caemhorain, successor of Cainnech. The Annals of Ulster, '--i at 
this same date, record the death of Ccallach O'Cyvoran, Coarb of Caiii- 
ncch, or rather Cclsus O'Coemoran.i-5 

In the beginning ol Lent, in the year 1116,'-'^ the Abbey or Oratory 
of Achadh-bo-Chainnigh was destroyed by lire, -l This devastation is 
also recorded in the Annals of Ulster.^^s at the same date, and in the 
Annals of Loch Cc.i-9 In 1125, Archdall states, 130 that the Monastery 
of Aghaboe was plundered by Turlogh O'Connor, and, for this he quotes 
the Annals of the Four Masters ; but, we do not find- such a statement 
in Dr. O'Donovan's edition. In 1154,131 Cian Ua Geracham, the successor 
of Cainneach, died. About the year of Redemption iiSo, the episcopal 
see of Upper Ossory, which had been at first in Saigir, and subsequently 
at Aghaboe, was removed to Canicopolis, or Kilkenny ; which city was 
named after its patron St. Canice, and where, in after times, was erected 
that beautiful cathedral dedicated to him, and which, for magnificence 
or fine architectural proportions, was second to no other in the kingdom. i3^ 
But the original church there, and dedicated to St. Canice, was burned 
in the year 10S5, as may be gleaned from a passage, in Dr. O'Donovan's 
edition of the " Annals ^of the Four Masters. "'33 and the place seems to 
have been of some importance towards the close of the eleventh 
century.' 34 

116 He was slain, .\.d. 1026. Hibernicarum Scriptores," Tomus iv., 

117 Interpreted, " the mill of the " Annales Ultonienses," pars, ii., p. ^,72. 
Crossans." ^-" See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

118 See ibid. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 1002,1003. 
ii» Now Anglicized, Buckley, without i^^ See " The History, ArchitL-cture, 

the prefix Ua or O. and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church 

120 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals ol of St. Canice, Kilkenny," by the Rev. 
the Four blasters," vol. ii., pp. 93S, 939, lames Graves, A.B., and John G. 
and nn. (m u) ibid. Augustus Prim, sect. 1., chap. 1., jx iS. 

121 See " The History, Architecture, 12a Codex Clarendon, Tomus xlix. 
and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church See also Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum 
of St. Canice. Kilkenny," by the Rev. Hibernicarum Scriptores," Tomus iv., 
James Graves, A.B., and Jolm G. "Annales Ultonienses," p. 379. 
Augustus I'rim, chap, i., p. 18." i^^ See William M. Hennessy's edition, 

122 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of vol. i., pp. 106, 107. 

the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 97S, i^^' See " Moiiasticon Hibemicum," 

079. P- 589- 

123 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of i^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " .\nnals of 
the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 9S6, 987. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. iioS, 1109. 

12-4 The Clarendon Codex, Tomus xlix. 1^2 See Bishop de Burgo's " ITiberma 

See n. (o) ibid. Dominicana," cap. ix., sect, xxx., subs. 

125 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum i., ]i. 297. 

I'AR!h.lI OF AdllAlUJli. 1*35 

ILili Uk' town of Ayluiboc, and halt the cantivd in which it was 

<.itnatcd, were given by Kmg Henry II. to Adam de Hereford; and. 

the lands lying between Aghaboe and Leighhn were given to Johi; 

<Ie Clahull, the ^^lareschal of Leinster.i3S That is, the monarch gave what 

he had not })0ssessed, but, if these favoured adventurers were able t(. 

-ubjugate the districts assigned them, so much the better for the English 

< lown, and they were regarded as safe occupants in its interest. We do 

not hear, however, that they were able to take possession ol then- royal 

L'umts. About the end of King Hunrv H.'s reign, the Bishop of Ossory, 

who was then Feli.x 0'Dubhlaui,i3(^ or b'Dullany,i37 formerly a Cistercian 

monk, translated the see of Ossory from Aghaboe to Kilkenny. He 

sreuH to have been the prelate who first laid the foundation of a cathedral 

in thr latter citv, and others of his episcopal successors there laboured 

m tlie W(Mk of its erection. i3« The Rev. Father Felix 0'Dubhlain,i39 or 

l)i:Il.iiie, i'.i>liop of Ossorv, and whose cathedral church was then at 

.\.;h.dH.r, m I'pper C)ssory", died in the year 1202, ^-^^ at Jcrpoint Abbey,i4' 

to V. hich he is ^aid to luwe been a great benefactor, as also its first abbot. 

He v..l^ buried in St. .Marv's Aliliey, at jerpoint, and his tomb was placed 

at the nt.rth .nde of the Higli Altar.^-i- ' In the year izob, died the Abbot 

.Nl.'.elpeackr O'Colman, according to the Anonymous Annals, quoted 

\r: Auhdall."-^ We are at a ^l^s to know the author or title of these 

. iu»>n;ek.s. Again, aecordmg to the eertaui Anonynv-'us Annals, cited by 

«'■ ^c<.- \. I. 11., p. 'i:\, aii'i n. (r). t.iU-s,' n]'. \sii.,i>. ^-'>. A mistake here 

'■* .^' .• '■ ili<j ll:->l.irv. Ai. l:ilri iiir.', oliui.-,, hi la-iiiliiii; MCll lor :MCC1I. 

.it.^l \ii';'|\iui' .-. oi the C' C l.iiuh i*' .M.iiiv \car:> have elapsed since 

. < M. (. .■.M'c. Kill.' I'.iiy." ! y ih-- K^v. .Mr. S. C. 'Hall iniljli^lieJ, but only for 

!.!•:. c. «.r.i'.' . .\.I;..' .1:.-: Ji hu C, . J. ii\-ati: circulatiun, his exquisite, " Lines 

At;. ■•.>-.:•;•■ 1';; . '••, t. i..ii,n', u., ] ;•. -.). writtm at Jerpuint Abbey," and dedi- 

j: .;:■; '.:,!;> (attd to hi^ Uieiul ShetUeld Grace, Esq., 

'is*. vri- U ii.:.i,::i S; .iw ?.i.i m's "St;i- l'"..\.S. ThiM iHicni was issued at 

•.i»'.;?-.vl .\--. ..:•.:. (■ v..'.' :.:.■.! -^uia--'.- t.i i..;n,li.n. .\.\>. iSj'u, .ind as well in the 

l:cl--. ;." \. ".. « ; J ■ •« . 1 I-.v.ii.i I'dv'.S'h '-taii/av, as in the acconqianying notes. 

, .T j; -• ■■ r..,-:ii >; .\..;.a! ••■■," No. 11., there IS .t we.dtli of local description 

J.., •-• •. • and of historic I'lre. The poem opens 

'•• ;»i.M f.> ;;rji*.iY %wiV.':". I''I.i:r,-. with the-e hue-. ;- • 

--f-f j.n . .r.iv- -;:■-! o! 1.::.: !!i y. \ Kev. "How the r.irlh darkrti-, ! not a day- 

r*T.-v=ii t". y ^At;"t •• l: ).■;■>. it <)-....<;ty be.ini chcrr^ 

♦r ■<•. C« \: ,'' ■ y> ;:--..•.:» Ins j-;. n ic the Its pcii-ive look, or ^ihls the evening 

!;<;^?.l I'i» ■ m ■■ 'Ira;.^^^ t! :.> it t!ic >ky ; 

<•►*>:•»■ .S;,i,»- ii.-^vcal SA'.rty." vtl. u,. Whih' thM:U'.^h the gloom, from other 

; -4 

WMilds ajti'e.irs 

"♦ lU ^.-^i-f'.r''. I' ;i.ild 0"l''u.:.irtv. No sinil.- to bid the gathering 

w.:-.... ; A"'. {:••■:■, * :i. i:;j »u ad. ii;-'. sh.niows die. 

Ilii t-isr.."- a; j<*:» ..s> '..*.c I;;: til t'u!.itt>. All i:. ^^ -adU- still! the coolmg 

Wj!*;^ Utt'jk {w.;t (£1 tJ.c S;,s>(j.! fif Kelis, in bill .'r, 

<?,< i-w*SS.<-^ >-r4;, Sfc AJ! 4A<«.u:it ol l.i:;!. 1 l:at li..iu \-on mountains their 

tu4 ;-;n :</> ?t> Jc-;. • nnKl lirshne-i bears, 

!»• vr* }(;-.•»*»* •• \V.i;r ■' vi 1. i.. N"'.'. 1 rc.ithes not — lloituig through 

** Ji»t,'-- ;'» 'i *./;•-...,♦%■' ; : yj tin; blosscjmed trees. — 

•'* I(c »i v><-j;;'-'! ;:> Uiihaj:; M. 'I o f.iii t lie sable ^arb which Nature 

ICfs-.:-.' ••>>'■» <->1'.!i..:j -i «!.'• " .\u!..d oi \w .ir^." 

l.^khKC'" ai A :». J---. N>Jic:j re-. .id- '*' "It was reported that many 

tag; }il* dr.itli. S-rc v.-I. J.. pj>. .•.•_•. ;iiir.i<des were lormerlv wrought at his 

;:». loinl'." — Hams' "Ware," vol. i., 

»•» ^■■<•<: " T!;c Wh.Jo Work.s of the '•bishops o! Ossory," p. 40.^. 

M>'-: U'v. J.iriicH r-shcr. I>.n., I.ofil >*^ ^t e " Monastieon liibernicum," 

Atcht ; hoji o! .Xrni.iKh, and rniii.ite ol p. fi.^o. and 11. (r) .\nn. Annon. ibid. 

all !r<-!.ii..l," bv l.>r. ririiiv^toii. vol. vi., '** See •'. Monastieon liibernicum," 

'■ r.'it.iriMi arum Ecclesiarum Antiqui- p. 587, and n. (s) ibul. 

r66 HISTORY of the queen's county. 

Archdall,N4 in the year 1234, the great chui-(-h ot Aghaboe was built by 
the Abbot. In the opinion of the Rev. ]{(l\varcl Ledwich, this was 
probably on the site of the present parish cliurch, the architecture of 
which bears some traces of that age. It appears to have been the church 
chancel, for there is no west window to it : but, a Gothic arcli of red 
grit, filled up, clearly marked a chancel, as the foundations of the walls 
show a continuation for the edifice. Beside (he jMcsent Protestant 
church there is a small hexagonal belfry, closed with a cap of masonry, 
and it is on a line with the church roof. E.\-ce])t on the south, buttresses 
support the fabric ; but, on that side there is a door, having concentric- 
arches, enriched with carving and foliated. There are three windows ; 
the eastern window is divided by stone mullions, and it branches into 
trefoils. Within the church, its northern wall is adorned with niches, 
canopies, and concentric mouldings. Near th(? comnumion table, there 
is a curious confessional, it is stated, '45 in tlu; thickness of the wall. 
There are no sepulchral monuments deserving notice, within or without 
the church. ^^"^ 

In 1250 the cathedral seat of S. Canice was translated from Aghaboe 
to the town of Kilkenny. It is no easy matter to asc-ertain at what 
particular time Aghaboe became an episcopal see ; but, it is said to have 
had under its superintendence the following parishes, in its neighbour- 
hood, viz : — Offerlan, Bordwell, Rathsaran, Rathdgwnev, Kildelgy, 
Skirk, St. Nicolas, Killahy, Clomantigh, Aghmacart, Donamore, Eirke, 
Killermogh, Tubrid, Cahir, and Killeen.147 It afterwards, on the 
removal of the see to Kilkenny, became the head of a rural Deanery. 
Geoifry St. Teger, who ruled over the see of Kilkenny, from a.d. 1260 to 
1286, and who is said to liave completed its cathedral commenced by 
Felix OTnillany, repaired and beautified the episcopal palaces of 
Aghaboe end Durrow. 

While Sir James Ware attributes the foundation of Aghavoe 
Dominican Convent, in Upper Ossory, to the Fitzpatricks,^^ who were 
lords of the soil, i"^9 he does not specify the time of its erection; however, 
his editor, Walter Harris, sets it down under the thirteenth centurv.^5« 
He eems to have followed L. Aug. Alemand'^i in this statement ; but 
Bishop De Burgo supi)oses,i52 that a typogra[)hical error crept into the 

^*^ At the time of various visits to the the: time of Henry II. 's arrival in 

jilace, tlie writer had no opportunity for Ireland, a.d. 117J, they were kings of 

examining the interior of the Protestant Ossory. Afterwards, too, they were 

Church. regarded as the chiefs or dynasts ol 

1^° Such is the description furnished their territory, although sometimes 

by Rev. Edward Ledwich, in No. II., opposed by tlieir Anglo-Norman neigh- 

" Parish of Aghaboe," for \\'illiam Shaw bours. In the year 1522, Brian Gilla- 

Rlason's " Statistical Account, or Patrick or Fitzpatrick ^ent a message 

Parochial Survey of Ireland," vol. i. to King Henry VIII. to complain ol 

See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- the wrongs inllicted on him by the Lord 

eurn," p. 5S9. Deputy of Ireland, Peter Butler, Earl of 

i*« Bishop Otway's Visitation Book Ormond. 
is quoted for these statements, by Rev. i^" See " De Tlibcrnia et Antiquita;l- 
Edward Ledwich, in his paper No. II., busejus Disqui^iUones,"cap.xxvi.,p. i(i2. 
on the " Parish of Aghaboe," p. 34. '■^'^ See Harris's Ware, vol. ii., " Anti- 
See William Shaw IMason's " Statistical quities of Ireland," chap, xxxviii.. 
Account, or Parochial Survey of p. 276. 
Ireland," vol. i. ^-'^ See " Histoire ]\Ionastique 

i-*" See Harris' '■ Ware," vol. i., d'Irlande," p. 219. 

" Bishops of Oss<-irv," p. 40fi. '^- See " Hibernia Dominicana," cap. 

'■•^ For a long scries of years, and to ix., sect, xxx., subs, iii., ]ip. 297, 29S. 

anlum cm u*cm I(>n\ i;Iv\ 


-,.,, ,,,. M'. 

\ii:\\' INK) iMii:i.A.N-s ciiAi>i;i., i k'<)a\ ai?hi;> ciu'KCH. 

\..i. I 

Src |)aL;c lj\. 



IMonasticon of the lalti-r writer, or that lie (kerned the figures 1300 or 
over to be referable to the thirteenth century, whereas they should 
rather be assigned to the fourteenth centur\ . Allusion is made by Sir 
James Ware to certain Aimals of the Order of Preachers,i53 brought 
down to the vear of Christ 1274, when their aiunuinous author 
nourished. 1 54 These Annals begin from a.d. 45 to the year indicated, 
and they are now generally known as " Amialrs Montis'Fernandi," or 
Annals of Multifernan.'" and they arc regarddl as the jtroduction' of a 
Monk. 156 Sir Janus Ware gives also a very exact list of aJl the Houses 
of the Dominican Order. '57 and which were in Ireland before the year 
IJOO.'SS Aipong these. '59 howcver, the mention of A,L;habne is not to be 
found; which provis suffi( ientlv that it had not ihen any existence. 
During the year 13J5 the death <.t Downad or Donnel" Duff Mac 
(lilpadricke is recorded.'"' In thai \ear. or iluring the following, it is 
stated that Fitzi)atnel:. ancestor to the Lords ol U])per Ossorj-, erected 
a monastery on the site ol the ancient catlu'dral, and under the invocation 
ot St. Canice.!''^' it wa> destined for friars ol the Order of St. Dominick,"^- 
and after a lapse of two hundred years, sinei tlie I'piscopal see of Ossory 
liad been moved to Kilkenny, the Dominicans restored the original 
Church at Aghaboc, and thev built a Hou-c foi their Older convenient 
to it, under the invoe.ition of St. Canice."' 

In the year 1340. on Mav I3tli,i<j-i accor.ling to .Afchdall.iC.s Dcrmot 
MacGillepatrick — the one-eyed -.1 m.iu reiiiarl-cd.ile (or his villainies, for 
his plots and treasons.''" burnt this town ; wIp-ii tin- >hrines, bones, and 
reliques of the blessed St. C.inice -the foumier and patron of this holv 
place — were lost in that <'ontlagration."': .Aciording to Friar Chn. the 

^■^'^ These were ]>ri'.-erv I ,en .11.; tli-- 
]Mannscripts of Arclibi-!io;) l,'>-ii<.T. 

154 This was atte.stcil, lil.ewiir, from 
tlie form ol the cluiractcis in which tin y 
had been written. 

'Es These have been o'litcfl bv Ai|uill.i 
Smith, M.D., JM.IM.A,, with .a Preface 
and Notes, for the Irish .\ri li,folof;;ca 1 
Society, a.d. 1S42. 

'■'''^ Sir James Ware sii-;.>ixt^ bun tu 
have been Brother Stephen .!•• M\o;u.i. 
said to have been Ixjrn \.i\ i .vj'>. and 
to have received the h:il':t 'in th'- <lav 
of the Annunciation uf ili-- H1n-><-.1 
Virgin, a.d. 1263. 

'^'' The sequence of found.vti'jn, in c-acli 
case, is dated accorthng to the orilcr oi 

^^^ See " De Sc^i!"Jtor^:■•,l^ Hib-rrni.i-," 
Lib. i., cap. ix., pp. M, (,J. 

150 This list has been r-pub!i -h-rvl bv 
Bishop de Burj^o, in his " HilT.nii.i 
Dominicana," caji ii., srn i.. subs vj . 
p. 38. 

""•' It is said, he v.i^ U'-.e h( :mu-!)- 
killed by his own nbit-. m. on tlic 
Sunday which iiiini-. li.i'.c !y i /.I'jwc^.I 
tlie Octave of S.iint Lrmrtntc. See 
" Annalinm Hiberni.e O.r.>nicoii. ad 
Annum MCCCXLIX.." di.-^Mt I-rater 
Joannes Clvn, ()rdini> Mujonim r.\ 
Conventu Kilkeiinicnsi. p, 17 IMuion 

"1 \''i\ Iv V. Richard Butler, A.B., 
.M.1\.I..\., 1 >r,iu el ("l!)nni:icnoisc. Dublin, 
I. '■:.)<;, .)iM. 

"•' S-..- .\rcluKiirs " Monasticou 
Hi: riinciiiii," p. ;Si). 

■'-' S' r the accuuiu of Aghavoe 
Qjiiveni, Ml !ii-.hop de Hiirt'o's " Ilibernia 
l)oniinii. ,in,i," cap. i.\., .sect, xxx., pp. 296 

to ^','J. 

'"> i;isl..,p ]!,■ liur-u, "Ad hanc 
ii-.p:'- It ::;p' -aateui rcteiita, ut semel 
itiT\i:nq\ie ./.;/;,/, e,. xeisans didici: 
N'-'iuf iilhus .dttiius Cceiiobij aut 
M"n.isi,;ij ciijus\'is cirdinis, aut 

In^tlt^ltl. \t! luiiiiMum Ivudus, aut 
Mdiumit ntuiii in\eiiirL est Ai^liavoir , 
aut in liiubus ejii>." — Ibid., subs, ii., 

p. -•■>:. 

''"' 1 hr d.ite duc:i not .-i^^ree, howe\-er, 
••silli l-r.ilii JmIkiuiu-s Clyn's " Annaliuiii 
Hibciuii Clirc.iiuc.n, ad Aniiuin 
.MCCCXl.IX." Thdc It IS said, this 
tr.iie.i. thii toek I'lace, " die Veneris iii. .M.iii." riiis coriesponds witli 
.May 5tli. See p. 3J, Wry Kev. Richard 
IhitK-i'h cdaiDii. 

"■•^ See " MMiKisticou Hibernicuiii," 
p. .>^'.'- 

'«» The Chronicler Clyn adds. 
" taiujuani degener iilius in patrein 
crudeliter deseviens, igne crudelissimo 
coinbu-sit et consumpsit." — " Annalium 


(iclinquent was a perjuror, who associated O'Carroll with himself in 
this impious act, while they dared lo profane both cemetery and church 
Archdall'^-'^ gives an exact and detailed list of the Abbots at Aghaboe 
from the year 138-, and as he seems to have drawn it from the account 
furnished by the then existing incumbent, the is.ev. l^lward Ledwich, we 
should greatly desire to ascertain how the latter obtained it, and wc 
should also feel anxious to have the respective dates for their presidency, 
as he appears to have a very exact order of their succession. it>9 The 
lands annexed to the abbey, such as those of Aghaboe, with the Cross 
and Friars' land, were of a considerable extent, and of the best quality.'"'^ 
On the 8th of October, 1537, Brian Fitzpatrick, son to the Brian already 
mentioned, took an oath of allegiance to King Henry VIII. ; and, as a 
reward for this submission, he was created by the said King, Baron of 
Upper Ossory. on the nth of June, 1541. He married Margaret Butler, 
daughter to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, Peter, Earl of Ormond, his 
father's great enemy and oi')pressor.i7i From this marriage a son was 
born, at hrst known as Sir iiarnaby Fitzpatrick, second Baron of Upper 
Ossory, who died without male issue, and Florence then became the 
third Baron of Upper Ossory. He married Catherine, daughter to Sir 
Patrick O'Moore, of Abbeyleix, in the Queen's County. By lier he had 
five sons, Thaddcus, his successor and the fourth Baron ; John of Castle- 
town ; Galfrid of Ballyraghin ; Barnaby or Brian of \Yatercastle ; and 
Edmund of Castle Fleming. 17- At the dissolution of Irish Monasteries, 
the Anglicized Fitzpatricks were not forgotten, when dividing the spoils 
of the expelled Friars of Aghaboe. By an Act of Parliament, passed m 
the 33rd year of Henry VIlI.'s reign, commissioners were appointed t(j 
assign lands and tithes for vicars nominated by the Crown, out of those 
lormerly belonging to dissolved abbeys. Thus, the Baron of Upper 
Ossory had the patronage of Aghaboe in 1581, when he bequeathed t(j 
his brother Florence, ame^ig other things, all the furniture of his castks 
of Borreidge and Killin^e, with all his tithes in Ossor\', excepting those 
of Aghaboe, which were left to his wife. On the lOth of April, and m 
the forty-third year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, tliis Monastery of 

Hiberni;c Chronicon ad Annum Maunce Fitzpatrick, Hugh O'Kirvan, 

IMCCCXLIX," J). 3j. Dominick Phelan, James Horan, Walter 

>''■'' See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ryan, Denis Cahasy, Anastasius Beacon, 

Ireland," vol. i., ]>. 14. Patrick Comcrford, Rory Fitzl-'atrick, 

i"s See " Monasticon Hibernicum," Christian Conally, Felix Ma,L;rath, James 

p. 590. O'Cleary, James Cavana,L;li, Nicholas 

182 This may have been obtained Caravan, Francis WcFarrel, Thomas 

from 13ishop De Burgo, or from some T'ltzPatrick, Hugh Cashin, Darby Creary, 

other Dominican, who had access to the James \Vilhams, and Patrick Keely. 

Records of his Order. The names thus 1''° See Archdall's " ]\lonasticon 

itjllow, and the last mentioned — it is Hibernicum," p. i^iyo. 

clear — lived after the middle of the '■'^ According to I^odge, when the 

eighteenth century : — John O'Faelain, messenger of Brian l'"itzpatrick appeared 

Michael Cashin, Patrick FitzPatrick, before King Henry Vlfl., in the Ro\ul 

John O'Cara, James O'Hahir, James Palace at London, he s])oke these words 

FitzPatrick, Ambrose FitzGerald, in Latin : " Sta pedibus, Domine Rex, 

Patrick Gorman, Thady O'lvelly, Dominus mens Gillapatricius me misit 

Stephen Lynch, Patrick ?^IcDonagii, ad te, et jussit dicere, quod si non vis 

Patrick Coigly, Donat O'Cuiffe, John castigare Petrnm l^ufum, ipse faciei 

Tuohy, Manus O'Dempsey, Dominick bellum contra te." — Vol. ii., p. 240. 

Nolan, Stephen Burke, John O'Theige, i'^-' See Bishop De Burgo's " Hibernia 

Thomas O'Sullivan, Richard FitzPatrick, Dominicana," cap. ix., sect, xxx., 

Kyran Leynachan, Michael Keoghy, num. iii., n. (p), \). 2qS. 

rAKisii OF Al.hahoi-. i6q 

\.!><- with itb .ij.purtcii.iiict-^, and ilic advowson of the rectory of 
m' ""'KrMi'f oi A:'*.c, wi'io Ki'iii'^-1 to l-loimcc Fitzpatrick, at the rent ui i^ i- '•' H<- \vas thud I'-auHi ol ri'i"!- Ossory, and 
tii.- iM:j(<s.:"n v^-> 'i..:«:d -i-l '>t J^»lv, i'a'o,'7-» accoidiii- to Harris '7j 
i:,i\ \i'\' ■•> li. '.•'•Kth li.irnii i.i I'liixr ()-M)rv was Jliaddeiis Fitz- 
•Mt:;<i.,"%^). > i:;-.'.:;' i jo.intKi. ni-xr (o jaincs Ihillrr, ninth ]':arl of 
« »:;i;''>:.'l Ih'-;: lo'tr <••:■.> \vrr>- Hrian or liarnahy, or Dermoid, 
I,"j':VTi' ..; InL. h. .i;. i John. or Barnabv Incame iUv fifth Baron 
i,i rV,.*«-r <>.-..,, :y /a:'-. 1 h- m.irrifd Mar.i^an-t iVailrr, dau-hter to Walter, 
<-l.-.rV!lh l.^:i *-'' <^>ri..«'"'l. Ti\v)V soiis were Brian or Barnaby, Edward 
it. 5 I'kJi. .;•..«•: Ihi-c i!^.'.iri>hed in the seventeenth century. Aghavoe in 
fj'-.-i Tk . ,;vh.».l turtv-Uvc lownlands,'7S -md it was worth, in 1640, 

'^' Ui i* V^'iu Ih.}, |».'.rjsh the Duke of Buckinj^diam was proprietor of 
ir^ iull'fAini; tlcr.onunations : viz.— i. Shanbogh, arable, pasture and 
C.ivA) -''.J a. .i \x<. -■ Burris, arable and pasture, 660 a. 3. Derreeni- 
vC'jill-h ar.\i.!r. {..isture and moor, 254 a. or. 4 p. Municultipenan, arable, 
^;a,!un- 'md :n->or. J^w. 5. Dermeslough, arable, pasture and moor, 
fu J ' O. B.i!lvdee'nioderv, arable, pasture and moor, 63 a. o r. 20 p. 
7 Kc-^J, .ir-iLle and pasture, -^j a. 3 r. o />. 8. Derryborgm, arable and 
(..isturc. i'.«.» .;. 3 r. 20 p. 9. Bardnasallogh, arable, pasture and shrub, 
v> J I'o. Balhiorgin, arable and pasture, Soa. 2 r. 2 p^ ii. Ballykeran, 
oiablo, J>a^lu^c and shrub, 71 a. 2 r. 0/). 12. Cappagh, arable, pasture 
and shrub, 114 a. i> Kilbeg, arable, pasture and shrub, 171a. 14. 
Ku.xkni-. arat)le and pasture, 49 «. Next comes 15 Mrs. Pigott, 
M.i duTin-tart, arable, pasture and moor, 124 a. i r. 29 p. The next in 
ordrr i'>. H Terence Fit/Patrick, Lismore, arable and pasture, 692 a., a bog, 
S-, '.' -^ r. o/>. 17. The Duke of Buckingham, Ardnarny, arable and 
i.-ibtme ]ici. )r.op. 18. The same, Grancemore, arable and pasture, 
'80 a ,a bo-, 1 15 ./. o /-. o />. 19. Mrs. Pigott, Grangebeg, arable and pas- 
ture 325 a. 20. Duke of Buckingham, Ballybrogy, arable, pasture and 
shrub, -;o4 <:., a l>og. 21. The same, Kilrottom, arable, pasture, moor and 
shrub' 2i<) </.'i r. 2 p. 22. Morgan Cashin, Carran, arable and pasture, 
650 a. " 2j. Parson of Aghboe, Kcallagh, arable and pasture, 1571 a, 
24. Mr. Carpeiit.T. Aghaboe, arable, pasture and moor, 295 a. 25. F. 
iMtzpatrick and Ant.' Cashin, Knockmullen, arable and pasture, 96 a. 
>o Barnaby Fitzpatrick, Gurtnebooke, arable, pasture, wood, moor 
and meadow, 4S7 a. 27. Parson of Aghaboe, Farranagh, arable 
and pasture, 69 a. 2 /. 10 p. Half the Chapter. 28. Anthony Cashin, 
Cross arable and pasture, 147 a! 29. Mr. Carpenter, part. Friar's Land, 
arable and pasture, 50 a. 30. Thomas Hovenden, Boherard, arable, 
pasture, moor and shrub, 341 a. 31. Morgan Cashm, Coolbally, arable, 

>" According to the Auditor-General's i" See Bishop De Burgo's " Hibernia 

RL-cords. Diiminicana," cap. ix., sect, xxx., num. 

i"» " Post Doinorum ReG;ularium iii., n. (p), 29S. 

oinnis Ordiuis de Institati in ilibernia 1 ^s This number, however is con- 

SviivMCbsionem " &c " llibernia siderably under that ot the denomina- 

Don'umcana," cap. ix., sect, xxx., subs. tions given and describing tje state 

,^. p ogg of the parish in 1640, as found in the 

'i"Sc"e Harris' " Ware," voL ii., " Anti- Dowii Survey, and quoting proprietors. 

ciuities of Ireland," chap, xx.xviii., denominations, quahty of land, prolitable 

J| ^_5 and unprolilable. bee the Appendix 

leasee his "Peerage of Ireland," tothe Rev. Edward Lcdwich's "Statis- 

vol ii pp 245 246. tical Account of Aghaboe, pp. 7(^. 77- 


pasture, moor and shrub, 260 a. 32. Sir Charles Cootc, Pahiier's HiU, 
arable and pasture, 113 a., a bog. ;^^. Theubald Butler, Billiegiebane, 
arable, pasture, moor and shrub, 135 a. 34. Florence. FitzPatrick 
Towrooe, arable, pasture, moor and shrub, 12 ii. 35. Morgan Cashcn, 
Ballygoudanbeg, arable, pasture and moor, 50,7. 36. Thomas Hovendcn 
Ballygoudanmore, arable, pasture, moor and shrub, 8S a. 37. Gcoftry 
FitzPatrick, Kilmulfoyle, arable and pasture^, 2()m </. 3S. John Fitz- 
Patrick, Ballygihen, arable, pasture, wood, moor and meadow, 1,430 a. 

39. Morgan Cashen, Larah, arable and pasture. 124 a., a bog, 11 a. 2 r. o pi 

40. Daniel FitzPatrick was proprietor of Knocl:tin, ai-ablc, pastuie, 
moor and wood, 250 a. 41. Kileneseare, arable, pasture, wood, and 
moor, 246 a., a bog 25 a. r. o p. 42. The same, a wood. 43. The same, 
Clonkinahanbeg, a' 'vble, pasture and moor, 20 (?.. a bog. iq (^ or. op 
44. Florence FitzPatrick, Clonkinahanmore, aralilc-, pasture and moor, 
129 f?. 3;'. />. 45. The same, Kileteloga, aralile, pasture and moor, 
182 a. 4b. The same, Oklglass, arable, pasture, moor and shrub, 303 uM^) 

In 1657, Aghavoe was set for the use of the Cdnunonwealth at ;^6o 
per annum. A church was there, at the time ; but it had no minister. i^'"-' 
In Kev. Dr. Ledwich's " Antiquities 01 Irekuid " liiere is an interesting 
account of the Church of Aghaboe.'^' to which is prehxed a coj)per-plate 
engraving of the old Abbey and Church by J. Ford from a drawing by 
W. Bcauford. There is also an engraved map of the jDarish of Aghaboe 
in the Queen's County, Barony of Upper Ossory. copied from the actual 
Survey~of Sir W. Petty in 1655. This latter is very interesting, as 
sliowing the parish extension in 46 numbered plots— Coolkerry townkmd 
being separated at some distance from the bull: of the lands, yet forming 
a part of Aghaboe Parish. 1S2 There is a convenient Index to each number 
which sets'forth the names of the proprietors in ib40, the denominations, 
the quality of the land and the number of acres. '■'•3 In the year 1667, 
the Earl of Ormond made a lease of the rectories of Agliaboe,i84 Offer- 
Ian, and Rathdowney from the 14th of January, 1603. for the re- 
mainder of 200 years, to the Deans of Ossorv. Dr. Neylan, Protestant 
Bishop of Kildare, died A.d. 1603 ; and his son, Daniel Nilan or Neylan, 
was dean of St. Canice in 1667.1^5 The following list of Protestant 

"9 See Rev. Edward Ledwich's "AiUi- in Daiiic Street, but unaccompanied by 

quitics of Ireland," p. 511. notes or illnstrations. Wherefore it is 

1=^0 See the Inquisition at Maryborough ahnust uinntellisible to a common 

in 1657, given in Sir Chark^s Coote's reader ; for it requires an extensive and 

" General View of the Agriculture and accurate l;nowledge of the civil and 

?,Ianufactures of the Queen's County," political a Hairs at the time, and of 

chap, i., sect. 3, p. 8."' ' Petty's personal history to ^ suiiply 

1**! See pp. 509 to 515. either eiiicrtaining or uselul informa- 

182 The relative position of the ad- tion. See Dr. I.edwich's " Antuiuities 

joining parishes is also shown. of Ireland," p. 510. 

i«3 This is called the Down Survey, as i8< The Rev. Dr. Ledwich adds. 

Petty explains it in " Reflections on " Ware omits .\ghaboe in this grant, but 

some Persons ?.nd Things in Ireland," it is, and always was, part of the^corps 

p. 74, London, 1666. It was a measure- of the deanery, as I well know." 

ment' of land by the chain and needle iss The chalice belonging to the church 

of the mile in length, and not by the has this inscription, " Ex dono Ursuhe 

thousand acres of superficial content. Carpenter, viduie Ichoschuhai Carpenter, 

In other words the base of downs or hills nuper de Sigginstowne, in com. Kildare, 

were only surveyed ; a method which armig ecc]esi;T? parochiali dc Aghaboe 

be seems first to have used. Lord 14 IVIaii., 166^, Daniele Nilan, sac. 

Chancellor Clare had the Down Survey Thcologia- doctore Rectore." The 

iirinlL'fl at his own expense by Grueber, patten has only the word "Aghaboe" 

i'AKi>ii ov \c.n\v,uE. 171 

(Icrgviuen, coiiiiocted with the church ot AL;haboe, has bcou furnished 
1)V the Rev. Dr. Ledwich ; and, it was taken, most probably, Irom the 
n.uisli register or from some other record m his kecpmg :— The incum- 
bent of Agliaboe, in iGb^, was John Cull; the incumbent of Aghaboe, 
m 1670, was Thomas Hill ; the vicai- of Aghaboe, m i()74, was Ben- 
lamm Parry; in 1675, the vicar of Aghaboe was John Poolev ; the 
mcumbcnt of Aghaboe, in lOSO, was Willuim Whitehead. Ihe next 
m order, after William Whitehead, appears to have been a rector 
named Wilson, but no date is assigned for Ins incumbency. Imme- 
fiiatrly alter him appears the name Arthur Lewelhn, without a date ; the 
th>- vicar of Aghaboe, in 1744, was Thomas Carr. 

In 175'), the Rev. Dominican Father and Brother James Williams 
W1-; titular' Prior there— an excellent missionary, in the fortieth year of 
1,1^ religious profession, and in the sixty-ninth year of his age. He 
1 ibnmvd well among the poor Catholics of the p!ace.iS6 Towards the 
.lo.cot the Penal Days, only a single Dominican friar, who had been 
iiin^ferr. 1 fruni the convent of Burrishoole, in the County of Mayo, 
hiiked 111 the neighbourhood of the deserted friary at Aghavoe. In 
•hr v.- ir 17b' 1'^:' Bishop De Burgo, praising the beautiful site oi 
\..liiv.>e d.Tlares, that the monastic walls and church there were 
f uih- w.'il 1)1. M-rved, and presented evidences of a very fine architectural 
• TDun 'n'l.-v wri- soon destined for the miserable spectacle they now 
K.M lit and at the instance of their legal guardian. The former 
,-,tv of '•\"hab(;e dwindled down to a village, consisting of about twenty 
l-nu^r< and cabir.s. in the v-mis 17O2 ^^^^ and 1786; ^^9 and, at present, 
not ..r.' -hrdl that number <>t hum in habitations adjaceiu to the ruins can 

ll,- nuii:ib,:it ol .Adialioe. m 177-'. was h.dward Ledwich, the most 
, .1.1,1 it.-,l .,! the rectors beloiuMiig to that church, and especially known 
on .le. .ami .-1 his writings. This ^ceiii^ to have l)een the first 3;ear o. his 
■ MM i" itio-i T' ere can liar<llv be a doubt, but that he took an intelhgent 
',nt.'-i m th- v,.\iMc of lii>'parishion.'r.-,, and that he was desirous to 

:„ote lu'lu.iu.d and economic advantages for them. He built an 

|.,,..,,.,d hm-i.iln. and thus contributed to encourage tillage among 
l',.s "-^i..- tl..-.>ind p.uishu.ncrs, the vastly great majority of whom 
\s",-r k ••-, I". C.itb.Mhc farnurs, artisans or labourers. ]^y all of these 

5,^.\ ,.|v !,,v, ! and respected, hviu- with them on friendlyterms, 

i- I -s A l-v-e Ck". j.nMi.JV"^ To t! ■• cottagers' wives and daughters, 
\^ahk- .•r'ri^•tou^ .vA of Dr. Drought, of Ballvgiheii, he gave at cliiterent 
li'V.-. .'.'.vc .;.n) wooll.-:i or llax and reels ; as he believed, that 
lU-^- vv, :r t:.-.i.urcs to Uie indu>tiuai^, and superior to money donations, 
v: c%.:i to wo. lien j^.irmeiits, as both of thr l.ttter were often misapplied. 

.^,, ^-.U.v. !.r I,- l.uhon O.c - l-.u>.h ' ^ >- l^e-h,.;' ^^ B^"-^"'=^ " Hibernia 

oi A^h^r.^.- u» W ilhAU. Sh.i-.v M. ■..-. Poinuucina. cap. ix., .tcl. xxx., bub.. 1. 

•• <f •»• »'i<-j»l \<.c<>vi:it or I'.iri>\.l.!.il 1'.- v7' ^t-i 

S^y'oilz^l^r- yoC\.. Mu:a. u.. |j ■'^^Scc Archdall's " Moaasticon Hiber- 

^''\J'<^..^\...h.n. I..- H>ir,o-s •• "'VrihJrc Ts'au mtcivsUag memoir of 

>A ni HM > ' K l-Mward Ledwich, written by 

iMm.n.. ana, ^ .]'. .v . >-t. .xxx.. ^ub.. l^.;^^^;^ ^_^ ^^^^^^^,^ ^^ ^, ^^^ ^l^e "Diction- 

^••.i'-fiu^'vcar m wh.di the - H>b.r,na ary of XaUoaal ^^^^-P^^;;' ^^^J^^^^i; 

n.,:iuiucmi" W.U pi.bhshcJ. ostensibly, the bc:.mnmg by Lc.lie ^^^P^^^^^^- ^" ' 

o'i r' t..K--i.a.,;-. at ColoKue. bnt snr- afterwards coatmued by Sydney Let, 

rrpuu.-u^ly at' Kilkenny. vol. xxxn., p. 340. 


[n his time, there were ten wooi-eonibcrs, tea stuff \vea\i'rs, twelve hneii 
weavers, and forty-eight spinners, within his parish ; all carried on their 
operations contemporaneously, while most of their manufactures were 
used by the parishioners, yet there was an overplus of woollen yarn, spun 
by the young females, who frequently wanted work. Still he complains 
of the decay of local manufactures ; and he tells us, that the town of 
Borris-in-Ossory, as indeed the whole parish, had been filled with combers, 
spinners and weavers, before the jealous prohibition of exporting wool 
and woollens to the continent had been promulgated by English Acts of 
Parliament, in the reigns of Henry VIII., of Queen Eli/aljc th, and later 
still in William III.'s time. The English House of Commons addressed 
the Crown on this subject, in 1698 ; Acts were passed, and the exportation 
of Irish wools was prohibited. This i-cducrd the nati(jn to grc-at distress, 
and threw back the improvement of the country for at least a century. 
Un obtaining the vic:irage, the Rev. Dr. Ledwich, in lieu of his tithes, 
proposed to the parishioners his accejHance of one shUhng an acre, 
although this should have lessened his income ; but, he flattered himself, 
that he ought to have been compensated b}' the respect and regard of the 
people. He deemed, also, it should be a mivans for securing harmony 
between himself and those who were legally bound to pay the tithes. The 
small and middling farmers, he declares, were quite willing to submit to 
such an arrangement ; but the more opulent, who had CQusidcrable tracts 
under dry cattle, and who were protected by the law of agistment, 
passed in the Irish Parliament, refused the offer made by him. 

By an Act passed in the Irish Parliament, in the nth and 12th years 
of George III.'s reign, permission was given to establish Corporations 
for the relief of the poor in each count}', with power to punish vagabonds 
and sturdy beggars, while houses of indnstr}' might be built, when grand 
juries granted sums of money for that purpose. Through the zeal and 
industry of the Rev. Dean Coote,i9i he procured a house of industry 
to be erected at Maryborough, and besides the county presentments, 
he solicited subscriptions for its support. The Rev. Edward Ledwich, 
then vicar of Aghaboe, lent him willing aid. The newly formed Queen 's 
County Corporation adopted the idea, and sent circular letters to the 
different parishes, requiring returns of two descriptions of the poor ; 
the one class of persons, who was owing to age disabled from working, 
and the other, who was willing to work had it the means. On the 22nd 
May, 1775, the Rev. Edward Ledwich convened a vestry, and appointetl 
a committee, consisting of sixteen respectabe parishioners, to inquire 
into the state of the poor in their respective districts. Two of those 
were to form a quorum. Accordingly, they prepared reports at another 
vestry, held on the ist of June following. After due deliberation, their 
reports were consolidated and forwarded to the Corporation in 
Maryborough. 19- 

i''i He lived in the present ruined and examine the reports of tlie parocliial 

Castle of Coolbanagher, durint; the committees, the lollouiuy appeared to 

eighteenth century. be the state of the poor in this parish : — 

1"- The following return, regarded as First class, consisting of those who 

iheir report on the poor, is here sub- through age and infirmities are unable 

mitted : — to contribute to their own support, and 

" Parish Church of Aghaboe, are therefore objects of charitable 

'.' June 1st, 1775. benevolence, viz. John Austin and fifteen 

" At a vestry held this day, to receive more; second class, who, though aged 


In 1776, the Rev. Dr. Ledwich, — far in advance of the social and 
economic ideas of liisday — preyiared a small pamphlet, as the first annual 
Report of the Corporation, and it was ]^rinted in Kilkennw In this, he 
(U'tailed provisions of the statute under which tin; Corporation acted, and 
f^Mve an account of their proceedings, with observations on ])rovision for 
th(" ])(>iir, during; the flourishing periods of Greece and Rome. He 
also glanced in it at the state of the j^oor in Ireland from the reign of 
King Henry \'1II. to subsequent periods. However, it was found that 
thi- scheme in contemplation did not work satisfactorily, and the Grand 
jury of the Queen's County, learning that England was already heavily 
burthened b\' its annual poor-rates, feaicd to countenance a project 
which might lead to the introduction of poor laws for Ireland. They 
flfclined supporting the House of Industry, — although admirably devised 
to encourage work, and to suppress pauperism — ■ so that the institution 
b(H)n ceased to exist, and thus were frustrated the benevolent desires 
of the projector. 

The following is a description of the Abbey as it appeared in 1786.^93 
The west and south windows were handsome Gothic work ; the church 
was one hundred feet in length, and twenty-four in width. It had 
three windows to the south, one to the east, and one at the west.i94 
That to the east was ramified, the western door had concentric arches, 
and the walls of the abbey were not ornamented. ■• In the centre, to 
the; scnith was a small oratory or building, called Phelan's Chapel, and 
ii was divided from the church by an arch, resting on a pillar of solid 
masonry. Between the east windows of this chapel was a pedestal, 
a hove the altar, intended for a statue. ^95 Under it was a stone, hollowed 
and shaped like an inverted cone, with eight grooves, supposed to be 
for holy water. To the present writer it appears to have been 
a piscina. A door in the north side led into a quadrangle of sixty 
feet ; the cells for the friars, usually ten in number, lay to the east, 
and opposite thereto was the kitchen, with apartments for servants and 
necessary officers ; the cellars were large, and over them was the prior's 
apartment, measuring forty-six feet by seventeen. At the end of 
this was a bed-chamber, seventeen feet square. Whether or not this 
l.irge room was the refectory could not be determined. The last vicar '9^ 
and predecessor of the Rev. Etiward Ledwich in the parish demolished 

.•md sickly, are willing to work had they county proceed as they have bcnim, 

the means and materials, \'iz., John honesty and industry will be estaMirilied 

DUlon and seven more. The com- in the jilace of pilfering and idleness, 

nuttee beg leave to observe tliat, and the execution ot the statute will 

alarmed al the inquiries now set on jiiove a blessing to this [uiri^h as well 

loot, many sturdy beggars who m- a--> to the count)-, 

cumbered tlu- parish and intercepted " Edward Licdwich, \'icar. 

charity Irom real objects, ha\'c either " Da.n'ILL Lauloi^, "1 Cliurch- 

witlidrawn to other parts ur t.ii.eii "William Cu.nnuk, J wardens." 

themselves to labour, as they nnd '"^ See .Vrchdall's " .Monasticon lliber- 

both the Corporation and parialuonerb nicum." \j\i. 569, 590. 

are determined to enforce the statute. 1^* This description had been originally 

The committee further remark that, i>repared for Archdall's work by the I'lev. 

since stocks have been erected in Ldward Ledwich. 

Ai;haboe, and a resolution made public ^'■'^ On this, the Rev. Edward Ledwich 

of punishing strange and sturdy ijeg^.u.-.. sui'<pc.aes the statue of St. Canice stood, 

not one has appeared lor some lime ; .-^o and he ^ays there ixre two tabernacles, 

tli.u the m0.1t sanguine hopes are en- ^'■'"^ lie had the fee of the land and the 

ten. lined that if the ( nrp' ii.itiun of the a<i\-i)v. n( .n. 

174 iiisTOKY OF THE quken's county. ^ 

much of the buikimg, and made use of the materials to enclose a 
demesne. 197 Originally there was a fueplace at the south end, and a 
stone staircase made a communication with the church and cellars. A 
very interesting copper-plate drawing of the old ruins at Aghaboe ni 
1792, when they were nuich more perfect than at present, may b<- 
found in Grose's " Antiquities of Ireland." '9^ This south-east aspect 
was drawn by Lieutenant Daniel Grose. ^99 

The festival of St. Canice is still celebrated, on the V. of the Ides 
—corresponding with the nth of October -^'Jt._which is stated also to 
have been the date for his death, at Aghaboe.-oi During the eighteenth 
century, on that day, crowds of persons came from all the neighbouring 
parishes to celebrate his memory ; but, owing to tlie abuses which pre- 
vailed at these patrons — as they have been called — their meetings were 
chscountenanced by tire Cathohc bishop and i)riests. At St. Canice's 
Well, in Rev. Dr. Ledwich's orchard at Aghaboe, the pedlars were 
accustomed to lay down their packs and to say their praycts. About 
a quarter of a mile from the town was a group of thorn bushes,203 
where the ])oor people performed their devotions ; but the Rector 
very ignorantly assumes, that these were heathen practices, derived 
from the earliest ages. -^"3 

The denominations of the townlands, with their respective number 
of acres and the names of their proprietors, as the'se stood in 1796, 
were contained in the Vestry Book of the parish.204 The vicar of 

I'''' See William Sliaw Mason's " Statis- 
tical Account or Parochial Survey of 
Ireland," vol. i., No. II. Description 
of the "' Parish of Aj^haboe." by the Rev. 
Kdwanl Ledwich, LL.D., pp. 3S, 3Q. 

I'-'s See vol. ii., p. 30. The descriptive 
article was writtL-n \>y the Kev. Edward 

i-'-' In Kev. Edward Ledwich's "Anti- 
quities of Ireland," there is a distinct 
view of the ruins at Aghaboe, as the\' 
appeared towards the close of the eigh- 
teenth century, with a description ; see 
[)p. 509 to tI5, Second edition. 

206 At tliis date it is found, in the 
" Martyrologies of Tallaght and of 

201 See the Marquis of Urmond s 
"Vita S. Kanechi," p. 46. 

2U2 Xo these we have already made 

2o:i See Rev. Edward Lcdwicli's paper, 
on the " Parish of Aghaboe," in Wilham 
Shaw Mason's " Statistical Account cjr 
Parochial Survey of Ireland," vol. 1., 
No. ii., sect. iv. pp. 41. 4-- 

2u* Tliese are given as an Ai)pendix to 
the Paper of the Rev. Edward Ledwich, 
LL.D., and they are also to be found 
in his " Antiquities of Ireland," pp. 512, 
qi3, as here given: — The following town- 
lands belonged to the Chandos (Duke of 
Buckingham) familv : viz. Shanbough, 
z')4.a.; Borros (Borris), 600 ci. ; Der- 
rieenshinagh, 257 a. ; Dunmunne and 

Monesat, 2^7 a. ; Curra,'.;limore, 8 a. ; 
Barnasallagh, So a. ; Cappagh, iz},ii.; 
Kilebeg anil Derreen Oliver, 171 «.; 
Knockaroe, 49 «.; Ardvarney, 34 «.; 
(".raiigemore, 1 1 1 rt.; Grangebeg and 
two Ballynlies, 270 rt.; Ballybrophy, 
276 rt.; Kilcotton, 219 rt.; Kiiockamullen, 
96 rt.; Derreensollogh, 00 a. The 

fciUowing townlands belonged to Lord 
ll]>per fjssory, ■ — Knockamullen, 96 «.; 
Kiliiuinfoyle, 103 .(.; Uklglass and 
Clonkinahanmorc, 250 rt.; Park, 50 rt.; 
Ballvcolla, 50 rt.; Newtown, SJ a.; Bally- 
henode, 50 r(.; Kilctelague, 160 a. The 
following townland belonged to Sir 
I'.rasmus Burrowes, Bart. — Mahernas- 
kagh, 125 rt. The following townland 
belonged to Richard Grace, Esq. — 
Lismore, 60 rt. The following town- 

lands beloii-eil : Carran, to Thos. Carr, 
Esip, Carroreig, to Robert Stubber, 
Esq. Carran and Carroreigh, 6S0 a. 
The following townland belonged to the 
Vicar of Aghaboe, Keilagh Glebe, 157 rt. 
The following townlands belonged to 
Thomas Carr, Esq. — .\ghaboe and 
Frier's Land, 445 a.; Cross, 148 a. 
The following belonged to Lord Mount- 
morres, Gurtnaclea, and its members, 
487 rt. The following belonged. Part 
to the Dean of Ossory, and Part to the 
Vicar, Earran-Eglish Glebe, 65 a. The 
following belonged to John Rotton 
Esq., Boherard, 215 a. The following 
belonged to Earl .\nneslev, Coolbally, 

rA:.i<ii OF Ai.HAiioi:. 


\i-hil...- in itm;, w.i. John Mmui-.. ihc church of Ayhaboc were 
M.nic l.uul.. cl.tniiU!^ rv.n-ntmn ii-m titl,.-, alunit the iK'-inning of the 
hht <tiitr.iv. A- .1 tnii-.u^ ui>t,iiicc, lilu-tratiiiL,' the manner of 
,"-. !.••.: ."• tl.':-^ Mrv u:.] cji-.! u i:!r,H..t. . \v.> wnr hr(Hi,!;ht to >ean there 
Ii.'.-ii V.i!.' : !,.-.'i^. ..:■ 1 !■> til'--- niL;vni'.Ms d.Ai.r tlie payment of tithes 
•A v*>' !■ K.'illv rv.i.'.' ■! In sl.o uninediate iiri-hl'ourhood of the ruins, 
tlor >.r.i!j'.i:li!u.i.«r»% -J-.'ir.t .! moun.l oi u ihitteneJ cone hhape. .Murounded 
I's A i'- "> V:}d ciKiUi'-d waU r<-ni.uns ot a wall on the tnj..-"'^ At some 
U><A l).\% u the Kath ul I.aia dr the Moat of Monacoglilan, a 
v.: ;. <•! -.Ouch. \Mtl» Its icm. likable circumvallations, is given 
\>: I.rd«:vh in a oopi-Lr-jilate engraving.'«<> 
/;l o!h«-: atifjonl i>'H> were in the i)arish of Aghaboe ; and 
.,..-, ^,i vc,;t;r crcN-iaMical ruins besides those on the townland (jf 
'\t''> j.ulr i-vf Ort a 5^auiiiulandan rlevated site are only to be seen a trace 
l.i'llr <'M i..i::alat!ons of Kiu)ckserra, with graves surrounding it.-"^ 
li-nJi^ Jj'ic Hous<- and Demesne of l.ismore there is a ruined church 
4->.i' tmrjal-Kiouiu!.-'-"' On Kildellig townland, there is a church in 
rmt* \\'A)un a i^u\\c\aTi\.-'° Within Farraneglish Glebe, there is also 
*4 ci.iitvh jn rui!!^.-"' On Coolkerry townland there are remains of a 
H' cl.iu<-h as also of a castle.^i- The remains of Gortnaclea Castle 
\rl njuv U- seen beside the River Gully.-i3 The town of Borris-m- 
O-s^TV hci within this parish, on the south-bank of the Iviver Noie.^i-i 
1 h«- G'reat Southern and Western Kailway passes near it, having a station 
It H.tihbroi-hv. A weeklv market is held in the village, which consists 
1,1 one long street. Formerly the Fitzl'atricks erected a castle here, 
..n.l in ruu'.s it is yet an imposing object. A recently-l)uilt Protestant 
thiiuli of Irish- Romanesque design, with a round tower for a beltrv 
ilt'ichcd i in tlie town. There is a court-house, a police station and a 
di.s'K-nsary in the town, while Quarter and Petty Sessions are 
thr're summoned. Fairs are held on the 25th of January, the 21st of 
M iich the 31st of May, the 24th of June, the 15th of August, the nth 
of Uctober, the 21st of November and the 20th of December.^iS 
\bout iSiS' the church was enlarged or partly rebuilt, and the Board 
("rf First Fruits granted a loan of £500 for that purpose. The same board 
mvc ^I'^o to build the glebe-house, and a loan of £i,35o. There were 

:f;.,ii. The following belonged to Lord 
Movintr.Uh, Palmer's Hill, 106 a. The 
• ollowniL,' bclon;;ed to Robert Stubbc/, 
llbii., Ucligibawn, Go a. Tlie foUowm- 
b'rloi'iL;ed to Peier La Touche, Esq., 
rcK^rcijili. and Tereragh, 37 a. Baunoge, 
-o a. The following belonged to Henry 
(•.rattan, Esq., Ballygowdenraore iSS a. 
Tlie f<jll<)wing belonged part to Henry 
C.raltan. Esq.. Part to Dr. Draoght. 
IViUyt'ihen and its Members, 1430 a. 
l he' following belonged to — Despard, 
ICs*!., I.nrah, 50 «.; Garryduffe, 12, rt. 
The 'following belonged to Lord Por- 
tarlington, Knocldin, I79 «• ^'^^ 

loUowmg belonged to Gerald Pitz- 
Gerald, Esq. Kiloneseer and Clonkma- 
hanbeg. .;4y '(. The following belonged 
to the' Parson of Killerniogh. Bally- 
garvin. Hon. Besides CooUin, 36a., 
onuiled since 176S. 

20a See " The National Gazetteer," 
vol. i., p. 31. 

2"s See his " Antiqnities of Ireland." 

207 Besides the old J3ominican Abbey 
ruins, Aghaboe House, as also the 
Rectory not far distant, are shown on 
the " Ordnance Survey Townland Alaps 
for the Queen's County," Sheet 22. 

2o« See ibid. 

20a See ihid. 

210 See ibid. 

211 See ibid.. Sheet 23. 

212 See ibid., Sheet 28. 

213 See iiid:, Sheet 23. 

2" It is shewn on the "Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 
County," Sheets 21. 22. 

21^ See " The National Gazetteer," 
vol. i., p. 315. 

' 218 See Lewis's "Topographical Dic- 
tionarv of Ireland," vol. i., p. 11. 



two glebes— comprising altogether 1S5 acres— in this parish, :ind belonging 
to the vicaragc.-i6 In '1837 the tithes of this parish amounted to 
^^789 4s. 7°d.^ of which amount ;^526 3s. id. was payable to the dean 
and the remainder to the vicar. The vicarial tithe composition in 1846 
was £263 IS. 6M., glebe, £277 4s. 4d.; the gross income was £540 5s. 10 ^d. 
nett, /^ei i8s. 5 id.— the patron being the Rev. George Carr.217 In 
1831 the population of this parish was 6,198, and it increased to 6,310 
in 1841.-^^ Since these times, it has greatly diminished hi number. 

CHAPTER VIL— Parish of Arc-.uMACART. 

This parish is situated about four miles west of Castle Durrow ; formerly 
it was in the Barony of Upper Ossory, but now it is in that of Clarmallagh. 
It contains 9,600 a. 3 r. 5 p^ The ancient name of this place was 
Achadh-mic-Airt, rendered the Field of the Son of Art, by Dr. John 
0'Donovan,2 ^yho places its old ruined church, however, in the Barony of 
(ialmoy. County of Kilkenny, but on tlie borders of the Queen's County. 
The name of this parish is found written Aughmacart, and also Augha- 
macart.3 There an abbey is said to have been founded aljout the year 
550.4 It is stated, that the O'Dempsies 5 founded a priory on the ancient 
site for Canons Regular of St. Augustine, and it is said to have been 
placed under the invocation of St. Tighernach,^ John O'Donovan very 
justly suspects that O'Dempsey, whose country was at least twenty-live 
miles distant, was not the founder of this priory, but that its erection 
should rather be ascribed to MacGiolla Patrick, Lord of Ossory.7 There 
is no record of its original erection, or list of its abbots.^ A fine square 
tower, used for a Ix'liry, with some portions of tlic walls and passages into 
the vaults, are still to "be seen.9 A few hundred yards to the eastward of 
the priory, the massive tower of the Fitzpatnck's former castle may be 
noticed ; while the monastic and military ruins lurm doubly picturesque 
objects to the eye of a visitor. 

A village or town seems to have been here hciore the middle of the 
twelfth century, for, in the year 1156, the Annals of the Four Masters ^'^ 
record the burning of Achadh-mic-Airt. The priory here paid £2 
annually to the Bishop of Ossory for proxies. It was the burial-place 
for the "Fitzpatricks, lords of the barony.ii On the loth of April, in the 

21 ■ See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of "^ See his communication dated Mount- 
Ireland " vol i p. 14. rath, November aStli, 183S, m "Letters 
213 See ffc/i. pTi3. containing Information relative to the 

1 It is defined on the " Ordnance Antiquities of the Queen's County 
Survey Townland ]\laps for the Queen's collected during the Progress _ of the 
County." Sheets 2S, 29, 34, 3 ^- Ordnance Survey in 1S3S, vol. 1., p. 94- 

2 See his edition of " Annals of the ^ See tbuL, p. 95- . 
Four Masters," vol. ii., p. 1119. n. (y). » There is a rude wood engraving of 

:' See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of these from a drawmg made by Lieu- 
Ireland," vol. 1., p. 109. tenant Daniel C. Grose for the ' Irish 

*Such is the statement of Archdall. Penny Magazine of Dec. 7th, 163^. 

who quotes Conry, as an authority, in A description accompanies this sketch. 

the " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 59i. See voL 1 No 49, PP- 3S5. 3^<-\ 

and n (z) '^'^^ ^^- 1°^^"^ O'Donovan s edition, 

5 According to Alemande, " Histoire vol. ii., pp. 1 1 iS, 11 19. . _^ 
Monastique d'Irlande," p. 37S. '' See the " Irish Penny Magazine, 

6 See Harris "Ware," vol. ii., "Anti- vol. 1., No. 49, p. 3>^5- . . ^ 
quities of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., p. 264. ^^ Said iu Grose's "Antiquities o. 

sOIMll \'Ii:\\' Ol ACiH.MACAkT PRIORY. 

■ I \' .rn ( 11. .-c"^ . I/:.'; ■////:'■ ., 1 "ill." 

Scf pai^e I 70. 


43rd year of Queen Elizal)cth's reign a grant was made to Florence 
Fitzpatrick of this priory, with the aj)purtenances and the tithes of corn 
and hay ; also the rectory of Aghaniacart, with the tithes of Cowlhill.'^ 
together with the monastery of Aghaboe/3 and the rectory of Cowlkerry,i4 
parcel of the monastery of St. Thomas, near Dn! )lin, at the annual rent 
of £23 8s. 2d., the rectories of Aghenmaghe, without the alterages, at the 
annual rent of 26s. 8d.; Aghtert, alias Cirke, 13s. 4d., besides tlie alterages; 
and the rectory of Kelline,i5 at the annual rent of /lo ; to hold the 
same m fee-farm. ^^ Killeny is said^'' to have been situated in Upper 
Ossory ; but, if so, we cannot find any corresponding name for a 
jiarish there at the present time. Yet, in this parish there are two 
townlands, named respectively Killenny Beg or Knocknagrally, con- 
taining 130 rt. 3;-. ^3/>., and Kilenny More or Toberboc, containing 
621 a. I r. iSj>. ; ^^ these probably forming the old rectory. We are 
told, however, that the living was worth, in 1640, £15 per annum. 
In i()57 it had eleven townlands and a parsonage impropriate, with a 
vicarage belonging to the church. Then it was worth £47 ])er annum, 
and it was held under letters patent. The vicarage was worth £23 per 
annum, and the whole was set at £"14 for the use of the Common- 
wealth. In an old document, taken at Maryborough, in the ninth 
yeari9 of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and dated June r7th, it is stated 
that at the death of Rory O'More -o himself ancl his father ^i had from 
MacGilpatricke on mortgage, '' Killcnye for nyne score marks." This 
seems to be the Killenye to which the foregoing statement refers; -- 
while the chieftain of Leix, to whom allu-^ion is made, must have 
been Rory Caech or '• the one-eyed," as he is styled by the Four 
Masters, and who is spoken of -3 a- having been recently dead in I54f\ 
After this period, the territories of Leix and Offaly were oppressed by 
the English, while their chiefs, Gilla-Patrick O'More and Brian O'Conor, 
who had risen in arms to oppose them, were obliged to flee for 
jirotection into Connaught, in 1547.-4 Aghmacart had 22 acres and 79 
jierches of glebe, in the year 1657.25 In 1745, Ephraim Dawson, Esq., was 
the assignee of its lands. ^6 It contained fifteen townlands, and it was an 
impropriate vicarage, worth £91 in the year 1640. The jiarsonage, church, 

Ireland " to have been Cow-hill or now named Kylespiddoge, in Moyanna 

Cullan-hill. Parish. 

' ' To this we have already alluded in 21 Connell McMelaghlin O'More. 

the jireceding article. ^- Mr. Thomas O'Couor wrongly sup- 

^* Now Coolkerry. poses it has relation to Killeany Pan^^ir 

IS Or Kiiline. near the great heath of Maryborough, in 

"^ According to the Auditor-General's his letter, dated Stradbally, December 

Accounts. 6th, 1S38, in "Letters containing Infor- 

1^ In Sir Charles Coote's "General rnation relative to the Antiquities of the 

View of the Agriculture and Manufac- Queen's County, collecteil during the 

tures of the Queen's County," chap, i., Progress of tiie Ordnance Survey m 

sect. 3, pp. 7, 8. l^i^," vol. i., i>p, 183, 1S4. 

1'* They are shown on tlie '' Ordnance -'By Walter Cnwlev. 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's -■* See Dr. (J)'l )>iiiiivairs " .'Vnnals of the 

Connty," sheet 75. Four Masters," vul. v., i)p. 1500, 1501. 

ly The regnal years of Queen Elizabeth -^ See Sir. Charles CuoIl-'s "General 

are dated from November 17th, 1558. View of \\\v .Agriculture and Manu- 

See Sir Harris Nicolas' ''Chronology factures of the (Uiecii's County," chap, i., 

of History," p. 338. This year, there- sect. 3, p. 7. 

fore, should be 15OS. -"^ See l[arri->'s Ware, vol. ii., "Anti- 

20 He was killed at a place called quities of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., 

Killnesperokye — probably the townland p. 2('>^. 




and monastery, in this parish, were then totally demolished. The parish, 
not being two miles long, had no minister. Its jxitronage was vested 
in Lord Upper Ossory and in Florence Fitzpatrick, Esq. This noble 
family held the right of advowson to Aghmacart, Cahir, Killine, and 
Coolkerry ; the church presentment resting in the Earl of Upper Ossory, 
even when th.e parish itself became the property ot the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Portarlington.-/ 

Several ruins of the old building yet remain. They stand on a 
gentle eminence in the midst of a rich and well-cultivated country.-''^ 
A gate at the entrance, with a well-turned arch of good workmanship, 
is a remarkable feature, with stone sockets for the gate to move in. 
Through the attention and care of the Right Rev. Dr. Pococke, whilst 
he presided as Protestant Bishop in the See of Ossory, a part of these 
ruins were repaired, and were used as the parish church. -9 In the 
townland of CuUohill in this parish are the ruins ot an old castle, about 
ninety feet in height, which tradition supposes to have belonged to the 
Butlers. 30 

The living of Aughmacart was a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossjry, 
Ferns and Leighlin, and with the vicarages of Cahir and Killcen, it was 
united episcopally and by act of council ; 3i the rectory became im- 
propriate to the Fitzj^atricks. In 1837, the titlies of the union amounted 
to ^466 13s. 4d. of which /300 was payable to the impropriators and 
the remainder to the vicar. '1- In 1S31, the population of this parish 
was 3,373 ; in 1S34, the Protestants of Aughmacart were 107 in number, 
the Roman Catholics, 2,171 ; while in 1841, the united population was 
3.667. The houses were 858.33 

CHAPTER \TII.— Parish of Akdea or Ardrka. 

The area of Ardca or Ardrea parish, in the barony of Portnahinch, 
is estimated at 7,726 a. ^ It contains a part of the town of ]\Iountmellick, 
and the village of Irishtown. It lies along the road leading from Mary- 
borough to Monasterevan, and it is nearly midway between these towns. 
Also the road from iMountmellick to Monasterevan passes through it, 
each being about five miles distant. The Triogue River runs through 
it northwards to where it joins the Barrow. A branch of the Grand 
Canal leads through it from Monasterevan to Mountmellick. The 

27 See the " Irish Penny Magazine," ^o Sce Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

vol. i., No. 49, p. 3^6. nicum," p. 591. 

2** Towards the end ot" 1833, Liqu- ^'^ See Jolm O'Donovan's communi- 

tenant Daniel C. Grose adds that it rose cation already quoted, p. 95. 

"by degrees uito hills covered with ^i -phe vahie of this living was /210 

crops of grain, waving in rank luxuriance in the patronage of the Ladies Fitz- 

interspersed with dark green fields of patnck who lived in Aghmacart Cottage. 

Ireland's favourite root, the potato ; See " The National Gazetteer," vol. i. 

relieved at intervals by the more lively p. 33- 

tint of the gracefully bending flax, with '^- See Lewis's " Topographical Dic- 

here and there a jxi'tch of bog, the deep tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 93. 

purple of its surface forming a striking •" Sce " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 

contrast to the variegated green that Ireland," vol. i., pp. 109, no. 

covers the upland, the meadows, and » Its extent is defined on the " Ord- 

the pasture." — " Irish Penny Magazine," nance Survey Townland Maps for the 

vol. i.. No. 49, p. 385. Queen's County," Sheets 4, 7, 8. 



>itcs ol old churches autl of a friary arc markrd uii Uic (Jrchiaiicu Survey 
maps as beiut; within the bouiuis of ArcU-a ])arish.- Yet it is not 
!<H-all\- known In' the name as a distinct parish, it l)ein,!L( mer^'ed 
at jncsent in that of Coolbana^-her. 'ihe sod is fertile in i)art, although 
a con-^iderable portion of it is under boi,^ and niarslies. In the northern 
part of this parish, and to the south of the River Barrow, is the towidand 
<>! IN.rtnahinch, which gave name to the whole of the Barony.3 As its 
KtiL'li'.h equivalent means " the island-fort," it seems likely" that there 
ha'l I'cen a fort or castle here on the I'arrow in former times, although 
nu race or tradition regarding it now remains. 1 

This i)arisli — also written Ardee — was usually included under that of 
CrKilbanau'lier. and the same Protestant incumbent had charge of both. 
'I he gleIi<diouse,5 built in 1700, and the church were in the Ardee dis- 
ir;ct, while tlu' crown was ri'jmted the patron. In 1S04, the Rev. 
Kcbrit X'lcars was the incumbent,^ and this year Ardea or Ardrea was 
i::iitrd with C<M)lbanagher, the tithes amounting to ^^276 iSs. ^Id. per 
.ii.iiuin. The extent of the union, as applotted under the Tithe A"ct, was 
15.7'.; statute acres; while the tithes for the whole amounted to ;^536 
'- I'd. prr annum. The Protestant cliurch was erected at the expense 
ol .1 lormer Karl of Portarlington, and it stamls on the summit of an 
< inuicnce, not far from the southern extremit\- of this uyion. The \'illage 
"' I'.ino lies within it, and there, a \-er\' handsome Catholic church in the 
(iotiiic st>-le has I'ccn latel\- erected. The recumbent hgure of the 
Counters of PurtailiiiL^ton, c>n her marble altar-tomb withm it, is a 
liiuih a'i::.ired wcjrk ol sculptural art. 

hi tb,-i!i .ue -.-v'rral remains of aini(]uit\'. The venerable 
n:I;!^ *.l >h,in'- «r Sh- Ca-tli - lormerlx' called Sion — are to be seen. 
T'.}-. was :1..- l.r.ul <ji a mane'r in i;,07, and it was in possession of Sir 
Ku^-.M P;v-t..:i. It wa.s sei/.. d m 10.41 by the Irish Confederates, but 
;;» 0.'- t'.UoAij,,^ \ it was taken liDm them bv Sir Charles Coote. K<-<- O'Ncjli .u-.:'.u took JK)^^' -loll (A it in ib46, but, it was finally 
-tjiic:, Icic'l to ("'.I..:.,;, lleUhon and Reynolds in 1650. These de- 
tU'.-Iishc! tJir o':t-w..:ks am! only lelt the walls as thcv now ap])ear on a 
l;Ji <>:.:. A l.:ii I>aMr.i:the eighteenth centur\-, the old castle had 
Uvn rr.«-4i:ir..l I'V K< v. Dean CckjIc, who converted it into a very 
j:ir,i,v4ti: trwikjac." J >:» Inirkiil townlaiid is shown the site of an old 
..A^?lc, *!;'.: uj a to'.rrjiM.^st.itc of apj^earson the old Ma]i 
*A I *xx A:v:i < »p!i.Jy, Jiud tu t)ic South-west of it there is a church marki'd 
K-:;*>(SA'. * Ihr ciitU- of T;nckill9 was tenanted by the MacDonnells 
tn !'•/<• ^c'tcr.Ui-tnU c-ffuury. an.j the interior presents lllu:^trations of 

» l?-e -,.i:t.;. ..{ Aj.I"c f,' as wri'.tta- • In I'.irlnaliinch townlan.l there is 

.\jaiTA. ictvco ..ts ll.r aul!;^;uy ui an -.M Lhurch in ruins, within Portna- 

«^r Ho-ukc oi C. ::•.••:. :;•> ruj.iilati.ii huu h IIoiisc deiiicbne. 
K'?tira» lu* t»j|. u l:!c:ly <lc-»cj;t>cd bv » The (.jlcbc cunii.nsed 26V acres 

I?. •;:.v« o-O .:!,■» m a letter .Jatoi « Sc-c- John C. Hrcl^'s " Ecclesiastical 

S!»A^!>ally. IVtfi;,l.rr. yiL. !' 56 m Kt^istcr lor Ireland, 1827," p. 103. 
••I.«:tr.'» c.,!itj,ini:n; In!..ri:ij;i.4i rr- ' ^^ee Lewis's " Toi^graphical Diction- 

Unvc to the AntLjijitio >A the Outt- n's ary ot Ireland," vol. i. 
<"<-mntv v-ll'-ctoj dunn< the l'u<^t:--i " Mr. O'Conor couhl not identify the 

k4 the <)f-!:Kiiue Survey in liJjs." latter with any of those old churches 

v.'l. I j-ji i.>.- to ir>5. mentioned, nor with any name or 

»lh;» j-i >howa on the " Ordnaiue feature in the i)arish of Ardea. Perhaps 

>u:vcv _I..wnL\nd Maps for the Ouecn's he says, it may be one of the churches 

< ounty." Sheet 4- which ha\ in- K,st its ancient appellation 


former masonry. Access to the roof is by a winding stone stairs, which 
enables the visitor to see from the top battlements over a flat extent of 
country. The ruined castle of Moret, on a gentle elevation and formerly 
possessed by the Fitzgeralds, is yet to be seen.i" Its owners shared in 
some of the troubles of warfare, carried on in the seventeenth century. 

Several churches were formerly within this parish, now onlv to be 
traced by their ruins.' ^ Thus on the townland of Acragar is a ruined 
church locally known as the Ivy Chapel — doubtless, because the walls 
have been covered with ivy — and a much resorted grave-yard surrounds 
it. The ruins of a church are on the Commons of New Church. There is 
a Friary site in ruins on Kilmainham townland. Within Ardea, there 
was an old church now in ruins on Dangan's townland. An old burying- 
place is in Killeen townland. ^~ Moreover, in the Ecclesiastical Taxation 
of Ireland, 1302-6, there was a church at iMoyrett, valued at 100 shillings, 
the Tenth of which was 10 shillings ; "i l)ut no trace of its site is now 
known. The vicarage being rated for only 30 slullings did not come 
within the limit of taxation. '4 

In 1841, the population of this parish was 5,1^5, and li\-iiig in (S45 
houses. The inhabitants of the rural districts were in number 3,()03;, 
and living in 594 houses. Ardrea was a rectory charged in the King's 
Books at jTio 3s. io^d.,i5 and it was a quoad civilia parish included in the 
ecclesiastical parish of Coolbanaghcr '<J 

CHAPTER IX. — P.vKiSH of Att.'Wagh. 

The parish of Attanagh, which is situated parllv in the Barony of 
Clarmallagh in the Queen's County, i but chiefly m that of Fassadinning 
m the County of Kilkenny,- lies to the south-east of Castle Durrow. 
The lands within it arc well cultivated, and tolerably fertile. There was 
a tradition regarding an old church having been within its bounds ; but 
there seems to be nothing of antiquarian interest at present. 3 On the 
west the parish is touched by the River Nore, and south-westerly it is 
traversed by one of that river's affluents. 

iiow goes by the modern name of the County collected during the Progress 

Ivy Church. See " Letters containing of the Ordnance Sur\-ey in 1S38," 

Information relative to the Antiquities vul. i., p. 193. 

of the Queen's County collected during i- All the foregoing sites arc shewn on 

the Progress of the Onlnance Survey the " Ortlnance Survey Townland INIaps 

in 1S3S," vol. i., p. 194. for the Queen's County," Sheet 8. 

'* It is shown on the " Ordnance '^ i^^^e " Calendar of Documents re- 
Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's kiting to Ireland preserved in Her 
County," Sheet 8. Majesty's Public Record OOice, London, 

1" The reailer may find some humo- 1302-1307," Edited by the late H. S. 

rously sicetched reminiscences of this old Sweetman, B.A., Trin. Coll., Dubhn, 

castle and its occupants in Sir Jonah M.R.L.V., Barrister-at-law, and con- 

Barrington's " Personal Sketches and tinned by Gustavus Frederick llandcock 

Kecolleclions of his own Times." See oi the Public Record Ollice, p. -48. 

the chapter headed " Elizabeth Fitz- The editors have identilietl the place 

gerald." with Morett, in the Banjny of Portna- 

11 These are noticed by Thomas hmch. Queen's County. See p. 247. 

O'Conor in a communication, dated, 1* See ibid. 

Stradbally, December, 8th, 183S, in is 5^;^. " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 

" Letters containing Information re- Ireland," vol. i., p. 64 

lative to the Antiquities of the Queen's ^^ See ibid., p. 497. 






In the Protestant arrangement this parish was a vicarage in tlie 
Diocese of Ossory, Ferns and Leighhn ; 4 and with the vicarage of 
Aharney and the rectories of Kilmenan and Rosconnell it constituted 
the benefice of Attanagh. Before the Disestabhshment the vicarial tithes 
were compounded for £46 3s. id.; the rectorial tithes were appropriate, 
Init their value is not stated. The gross income was £^41 Os. 3^1.; 
the nett, £4^0 8s. yd. The diocesan was jxitron. Tlie church, situated 
in Attanagh was built in 1S21, by means of a loan of ;^73S 9s. 2jd. from 
the Board of First Fruits. 5 At Balyouskel in this parish was a Roman 
Catholic chapel of ease, attended by from 730 to 750 worshippers, and 
served by the priests living at 13allyragget. In 1834 the Protestants of 
Attanagh parish amounted to 6.S, while the Roman Catholics numbered 

CHxAPTER X. — Parish of Ballyadams. 

The Parish )i Ballyadams has given name to the barony, in which it 
is situated ; ^ but it also extends, in a lesser proportion of area, into 
the adjoining Barony of Stradbally.^ This place is written Baile Adam, 
when reference is made to it in a.d. tS4^^-^ According to Jphn O'Donovan, 
the Irish name is resolvable into Adam's town, or bally, or residence ; 4 
but we have no account regarding the Adam from whom its name has 
been received. 5 There is a considerable portion of good land aralile, 
with some bog and woodland, within this parish. 

At present this district includes an ecclesiastical parish, formerly 
called Ballintuboert or Ballintobbcr, also designated Fonstown ; but, 
as both ]:)arishes have been long consolidated into one benefice, and as 
their respective limits cannot now be exactly ascertained, it becomes 
necessary to treat the civil and social condition of this union under the 
heading of Ballyadams. <^ However, its original bounds seem to be 

'' Tliis jiortion coiitainini; 630 «. 2 r. 
14/5. is shown on the " Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the Queen's County," 
Sheets 29, 35. 

- 'I'liis luirium containing; 1,93017. Or. 
2g p. is sliown on the " (Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for tlie County of 
Kilkenny," Sheets 1, 4, 5. 

3 Such is the statenunt of John 
■O'Donovan, Avho dismisses it with a 
brief notice in a letter dated Mounlralh, 
November 20th, 183S, in " Letters 
containing; Information relative to the 
Antiquities of the Queen's County col- 
lected during the Proj^ress of tlie 
Ordnance Survey in 163.S," vol. i., 
pp. 102, 103. 

•» See " The National Gazetteer," 
vol. i., p. 124. 

''It containetl sittincjs for 150, while 
the average attendance varied from 
40 to 80. 

" The Protestants of the l^iion 
amounted to 115, and the Roman 

Catholics to 3,967, at that time. See 
" Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland," 
vol. i., p. lOi. 

' This parish is shown on the " Ord- 
nance Survey To^s•nIand Majis for the 
(Uieen's Comity," Sheets 19, 20, 25, 2(>. 
This portion ccjntaiiis 6,313^/. 2r. 19/?. 

- This portion only comprises 395^. 
iy. 1/5. 

^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," \-ol. v., pp. 1496, 
1497. and n. (t). 

■• See " Letters containing Informa- 
tion relative to the Antiquities of the 
Queen's County, collectetl during tlie 
Progress ui the Ordnance Survey in 
1S3S," \'ol. ii. Letter of John 

O'Donovan. dated Carlow, December 
15th, 1S3S, pji. I to 4. 

'' " Perliap:^," suggests Mr. O'Donovan, 
" he was Ailam O'More ? " — Ibid. 

" See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 
Ireland," vol. l.. ]i. 151. 

^ Kosbran, Shrouquill, Ratherique, 


determined by the succeeding denominations. Besides Ballyadams town- 
land, we find the following townlands— Loughlass, Fallaghmore, Drumroe, 
Garroonagh, Whitcbog, Kilh'ganard, Rathcrng, Rathgilbert, Cappana- 
feacle, Sronscull, and Parkahoughill— which appear to have constituted 
its original parish. The limits of Ballyadams Barony arc coloured red 
on Sir William Petty's Map of the Queen's County. The following 
churches arc represented on it, as lying near the River Barrow, viz.:— 
Donbrin, Tankardstown Killebban, and Monksgrange. Also the follow- 
ing castles, viz :— Ballintlea, Cronagh, BaUyadams, Kilmacready, 
]\Iilltowne, and Ballilehan. Likewise the following denominations are 
found, viz. :— Bituber, Fontstown, Monyscriban, Shronquila, Rossban, 
Ratlikilligancr, Rathirique, Fcramore, Rathgilbert, Rathaspug, Oldcort, 
Clonepeirc, Shehanagh. Coolegaragh, B:foyle, and Killtcen. A stream 
is represented as passing south-wesiwards to the Ijarrow. This mai> 
a])pi'ars to com]")rise live divisions. 

The old church of this parish was situated within a cemeterv, and 
on an eminence. It is now m ruins, and from old records, Kilmackeady 
seems to have been the original name of Ballyadams old church. It 
may mean " the Church of MacAedh." 7 The ruined building of Bally- 
adams was about 66 feet long, and i8 broad. It consisted of a nave 
and choir, the latter being 22 feet in length.^ The most remarkable 
object in the grave yard of Ballvadams was the monument of the Bowen 
family, who were colonists in the neighbourhood, when the tribe-lands 
of the O'Mores had been parcelled out among the early English settlers 
in the Queen's County. The country traditions, regarding the cruelties 
liractised by this family against the native Irish, have caused this toml) 
to be pulied asunder," witliin the last century, and now its former 
charactenstics are scarcely distinguishable. On the entablature were the 
Boweiis' arms quartered with those of Hartpole, and the crest is composed 
of those representing Bowen and Harpole; that is, a helmet for the former, 
and a hart or stag for the latter.9 In the Bowens' arms are the ins:gnia 
of the order of Baronets ; though Sir John, and not his father Robert. 
was the first who bore that On the sarcophagus lay the 
effigies of Robert Bowen, Esq., and Alice Harpole. Uv. Bowen was 
dressed in the buff armour and morion, and Mrs. Bowen in the close 
dress of the times. In the front of the sarcophagus, under four distmct 
niches, were the figures of their four children, that is, Joan Bowen the 
2nd, Margaret Bowen, Thomas Bowen the 4th, and Oliver Bowen the 
3rd. At^he foot end were Sir John Bowen the eldest son, and fliela 
Ellis Bowen, wife to Sir John. At the head were Alles Bowen and six 
more, with ^largaret Bowen the third. The names of all these were 

RathKilbort. and Ferai-hmore, with vol. iv., p. 161, there is an excellent 

Rathkilligainer, are lound on General copiu-r-plate engraving of the Bowen 

Valiancy's Map of this Parish. monument, erected by Sir John Bowen 

8 In the year 1838, Mr. O'Donovan to the memory of Ins father, Robert 

deemed this old cluirch to have been Bowen, J■.^q., and to the wife of the 

"abont three or lour hundred years latter, AUce Harpole, or Hartpoole. 

old." — " Letters containing Information This lady was tlie daughter of bir 

relative to the AntiqnUies of the Queen's Robert Hartpoole of Shrucl, the Con 

County, collected during the Progress of stable of Carlow Castle m 1577. <'vnd 

the Ordnance Survey in iS^g." vol. ii. member of Parliament lor the Queens 

Letter dated Carlow. December 15th, County in the year 1585. A description 

ij^,^^ p_ ■:■_ of this tomb is given by a, writer in the 

» In the " Anthologia Hibcrnica," foregoing monthly periodical. 


(■.irv»'d on the arches over their heads ; yet it chd not appear that they 
were all dead on the erection of the monument. Imt rather they were 
the cliildren then living and dead ; that is, three sons and four daughters. 
'I he dauf^hters were Alice, Joan, ami two Marijaiets. The sons were 
Jolui, Thomas, Oliver, and Thomas, of whom one, Thomas, died before 
ilif I'Uth of the other. The monument was about eight feet high, of 
grc-v stone, and but indifferently cut.'^ 

The Parish of Ballyadams is situated along the road, leading from 
Callow to Stradbally, The living was a rectory and a vicarage in the 
duxese of Teighlin, with the rectory and vicarage of Ballintubber united 
(:uni tiiiu- inuneuKuial. The patronage was long disputed, under the 
j'rotcstant establishment, but the Bishop presented during late years. '- 
Nu: titlus of the united parishes amounted to £553 iGs. iid. ; but there 
.v.Ls tu-itht-r glebe nor glehe-house in this parish. ^3 

.■\s to whether or not the manor of Ballyadams was one of their original 
i:f.ints wr have no information; but Robert Bowen was possessed of it in 
Ihr laf ii-r part of the reign of Oneen Elia^abeth, although the castle is much 
«'Mrr than that time. He buik the church in which his monument was 
• rrcttd bv his son. His family were as exprcssL-d on the monument. 
ni> flJt.>t ^on John Bowen was knighted, and not created a baronet. 
,.•* ihc .i:::i> seem tu iinj)ly. He married, first, Thalia Ellis, daughter 

" {':; '.■ rr.'.itli th-- arr.s .'.re, in Kom,-in naiiu' in l~iu'l.ind, tlie offiC'j of high con- 

<j»;rA'.i. l<"!".:Kr l-v.i.N AM' .\iiis st.iMc clcv' K-rd In iJic Dul.e of Buck- 

)lii.n:;, :' u. Mr. C)'J 'mii'a .m, iiu;hani in iiLlit of hi> iji^c.-nt from the 

r.vrwf, )..., W >- <\.i\r ;';i in h;^ Urd- i-IJc->i d.r.i.:!:iir of tht- la>t Humphrey de 

r.*t.'r s.;:\.v I.-'.'.'T, .l..;c ! Carlow. Holiuii. \\li"-f claiin. liowever, was not 

|v.,^s:,Ur Jt*.!. !"••. ;■ 5 <*:> th^-" adniitiid l-y IKnry \'III.. and the office 

).',r,th *-i-. t:.<- ! il-.-i;..- I|it.Lj!;, iu was drw ,:itinu'-d. 1 111114. hi'cy de fiuhun 

ii i'x~: i.-t',i'.^U i^-.i I »:. :^:.:.~- the I'.d't. .u. ! fii.'>t hii;li constable of 

A» t ;;:»:;! <v ttn. l»j:.Mi! \.i IC m kl 11. 'i:;'-. c.uiic iutu Ireland with 

1' •j-JJv I -.,i:i; l!'-iuv II. and was by that Prince made 

" l! '.<■;..•» j;''n-;.t f..?. c". :;. r.-.i '.rr'5 f m\ criior of Wat'-Tft.rd, having under 

/,. linn Kolcrt Fitz-Bernard and Hugh de 

>Ca« *■■:; i-r:>f..^c ! -'. la tL.» toinb CJun Icville ; but it dic'S not appear he 

.• 1:, ;,.<• S'-ttlcd m till-, (.oiintry or obtained any 

|. '■*•-,!.»' ?-, ;•*. i ■: •!!•!..!, \»I.<.vc fc'f.ints tl.rtin. Huiiijihriy de Bohun, 

1^;^, «•*»., *./tfVi.»t ?.,*:;! his descendant and i.,irl of Hereford, 

i^vj-.-)j'«J V'-»*-"J'^>«fe«J J«-A..e »i;hiu iii.Trricd I-ili/.d'cth, tlie fourth daughter 

■!-:«» J --jf „3 ixi,' . ol l-!il\vard I., fri>in wlioiii the Bohuns or 

\i^;.,«.< ■»s*'(^ &.M. «r.,ut.: r.v.ll oa B.wens, \sho .afterw.uJ.s settled in 

t^l■!it^ •..lis,, are supp.:^.] tn be descended. 

Ihl.ijua <-t"j.5 .ievTc.'. »*jt {.:»•. Irw:;i 'Ihout'.h we h,i\e no parinular account 

#<»»_■. k-1-f! . of their establishment in tins coiinlry, 

%l'.}«.icx «:\i'*-*i -ijji.i, \.;'.wC» live; it wa.s prd'ably one of th',' sens ol the 

4..* »3. J- ' .Said rniieess Jili/.ibeth, ,is the name 

%*^-.«»« 8*,/rt.t'« t',<^uiSi'.. ht <.iii LcCvnie c.MiiKi 111 the jv.r^on of her 

8t*^-?f C yt '" j;:.iiidvj:i a!"/ul f ; 1 1 v \e,irs after. On 

*♦ ti.e J).-w<t= v.ij JV l.,n Uruly i» very wl.ieh uccoant the BmIuuis quarter their 

♦A«^b«T»,V Iti^t <i«'.i";£.A";)- i'.ci. <-n '.t\\ !;>>::» anuh with Ihnse of Edv..ird 1., two lions 

«*-« > t;i:.vs.3 hi~£* '-.< J.r-..;lAr.J. I>.L^i.lnt ; their own paiernal arms with 

livKji-ffT- lie liJLir, la Ihf »r;^:» ol a riag's he. 1 !, u inch tiiey quartered with 

H'C^f !t . ty r.f.:.'. • ! l..« v.;rc MAr^-irct, ti.o;.e of .Milo, i:arls of Hereford, as 

«il<^»: <i4-«}itcf ci Vtilj.. KA;i«Ml'.ir*.:d. cxj>resacd on tlie former monument. 

«M tTfli'.i.'y l.'-ich c.>a»!a;!' o! lin^- "In ii..\'> the I'atroiis were succes- 

it^%.'i , An ' '.:.'. f tx'.XiV.rl l.'j 'amily bivtly Miss i^outhv.ell, P. Maguire, Esq., 

%€a |<ru>-.'J»tw..'ti*. ur.til !?.r .'cipin ol and — ]5rerito!i, li-q. 

|.J«»i\l III.. ^»!.'-n tl-.r :i;a!c Ime t.f the '^ See Lewis's '• Tupograpliical Dic- 

IViAwr.* t«-;::;:n.x'.tnif >n the { ol ti'>narv of IieLmd," vol. i., p. 121. 

Uu-' jhsrv i!c iWihun. the List ol that *♦ llis m -nuiry is held in detestation 



of — Ellis, Esq., who died without issue ; and, secondly, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir William Domvile, Attorney-General of Ireland. Sir 
John was active in keeping possession of the country during the Irish 
Insurrection of 1O41 ; and from being, on constantly going abroad, 
armed with a pike, he obtained in Irish the name of Slun&n-a-Ficha, 
or John with his pike. '4 His eldest son by his second marriage, William 
Bowen, Esq., died nth April, 16S6, without male issue, leaving three 
daughters co-heirs, his son having died some time before his father. '5 
Lucy, the youngest, married Colonel Southwell, who distinguished himself 
at the siege of jNIonjuich, in 1705. The eldest married — Butler, Esq., 
and the second Arthur Brereton, Esq., of the Queen's County, whose 
descendants occupied in three divisions the Ballyadams estate. A 
short distance towards the north-west of this church stands the old 
Castle of Ballyadams — said to have been built by O'More — and it belonged 
to one of this name in 1546, when it was taken by the Lord Justice 
who proceeded from Atliy, with a numerous armv, into the territory 
of Leix. He was assisted on that occasion by the Earl of Desmond and 
a large army. They remained for fifteen days plundering the country, 
and they left warders in the Castle of Ballyadams. '^ The ruins of the 
embattled walls of the castle are embosomed in venerable trees. The 
eep consists of several storeys, and it is of very commanding height, being 
inhabited in the last century. Its projectmg towers {produce an interesting 
and a highly picturesque effect. ^7 Some little distance north-eastwards 
from the old castle are the remains of a large rath. During the In- 
surrection of 1641 this castle was besieged. 18 

Kilmackeady had four townlands, and it was an entire rectory, 
worth in i()40 £40 per annum, and worth only /12 in 1657.'^ Its church 
was out of repair, at this latter period, and it had no minister. Among 
other antiquities in the parish, there was a ruined chapel at Doonbrin, 
which may be Anglicized " The Fort of Bran," in this jiarish, and it lay 
on the western bank of the Barrow. Withm the townland of Lower 
Dunbrin, there is a remarkable Rath or Dun, which is easily reached 
by a road near Heathfield House, and which leads eastward from that 
high road between Athy and Carlow, on the west side of the Barrow. In 
Upper Dunhiin there is a smaller Rath, within a j^lanted enclosure. 
Near Ballyadams grave- vard and within a copse wood are two wells ; 
one of these is called Toberneeve, and the other Tobernasool. The 
Roman Catholic Chapel of this district, and a National School are not 
far removed. Ballyadams is the head of a Catholic parish, having 
also chaj^els at Luggacurren and Wolfhill. On the townlands named 
there is also a large circular rath. The parish of Ballyadams contains 

by the country people, on account of his the F )ur Masters," vol. v., pp. 1496, 

alleged c uelties i407- 

^^Tliere is another family of the '^See J. N. Brewer's "Beauties of 
Bpwcns in Ireland, but whether Ireland," vol. ii., p. 103. 
descended from any of the younger '" See I.ewis's "Topographical Die- 
sons of Sir John Bowen before ti«"^:y of .Ireland " vol. 1., p. 122. 
mentioned, or from anotlier b anch .'•' ^^^f Sir Charles Coote's "General 
of the Bowens, is not known V""^ °f '^'^ Asncnlture and Manufac- 
c iu << A J 1 • ,,-, !, tures of the Queens County,' chap. i.. 
See the " Antholo;^ia Ihbernica," ^„^. , -, f7 

vol. ,v. pp. 161 to 163, for 20 See " ParlianuMilary Gazetteer of 

the month of September, 1794. Ireland," vol. i., p. 151. 

'"See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of -'i See ibid. 


some liaiulsome rfsulenccs. Amon.e; these may be enumerated Kcllyville, 
Ballinlobber, Tallvho, Southlk-ld, RathgillK-rt, Popeticld, and Heathtield, 
In iS]i, the poinihition was ^,165.-'^ The tithe composition and gross 
income was J\\]j ; the nett was i^oj 15s. ^d. The curate had a stipend 
of /'Jt prr annum m 1846.-' In 1841, the population of Ballyadams 
jMii'^li was 2,051,-- and the h(nises were j,y4. 

Within tins jnirish is the district called and written Ballintubbert 
or i;.illintubber, which may be Anglicized "the town of the well." 
In the b'-gmning of the seventeenth century, it appears to have been 
a M-jiarate pan>h and rectory, although now included as a townland 
withm the i>arish of liallyadams. The Iri^h name of Ballintubber, 
alt.T the settlement of Leix by the English colonizers, was changed 
mtn I'on^towne ; luit the former name, which the native population 
u-'-.l, is iiow the only one remaining. Fonstown had a non-resident 
n. !(ii, but a resident vicar, in ihid. -3 The rector was Robert Ram, 
Ma>trr (.t Arts, and a college student at the tune. This livmg was worth 
£i(*. i he vicar wa- Arthur Bladesmith, a reading minister. The church 
and its chancel weie in good rejxiir, with books, etc. The site of its 
.i!iei--nt clmrch is not now remembered. A Protestant church and 
»•- hooMiouve at ])resent are situated close by Ballintubbert House and 
.•rn.tmental grounds ; while this serves also for the union of Bally- 
ad. iin-^. A small villa-..- is near it. The two ]-iarishes of which this 
iK-iu-lice con-^i>ted have the iiUds api)ellations of fiallyadams of Ballin- 
lohUr and l-un-t(Av:; of liallintol.hei .- 1 Inuitstown or Fonstown had 
(•v.- !..'.'.iil.ii. U.-.' aiid the rommonwealtli iteei\'ed the ])rolit in 1657, 
\'.\.< :\ U.' ]'.iu-h i;-. ehui« h .uid no minister.-'" In Fonlstown parish, 
.iu ::.'• tfv. id.tiid-) <■! <'ron,iu;h.-" h.isaiig a stone house in repair; 
H.i'i'..:.. !• .1,-' B.iihntui'l.'r.-' .md .Mon.isti it'an.3" In the latter places, a 
>bitrr5 },■•'. V M\\ .t :;nu'-d (huieh are noted. It is possible Monastriban 
n•.'•.l::^ ■' t'-e jn-:-.i>t. ;v ot Ahb.m." It is not hir from Killabban. 

A i:v'*!'ra stiu- tn:<-, r.illed (j.Mrr's Castle, is built on the summit 
<.{ .1 r.^k. talKd ("arrigatuder, within Ballintlea townland. 
TT.'.N norid'-'-riipt .aal sohd -tone i^ile was erected some time during the 
ru'htii nth i'-iituf\ . to givr employment for labourers in that neighbour- 
!..-s!, and It ina\ l-c- c!<-d with one of the many Irish " lollies," 
uhuh arc still sl;--.\n as a d.i>tinctive class of unmeaning objects, yet 

" S"- liiK.itt'.ri's "• (;.i7'-ttrcr of the View of the .Agriculture and Manu- 

W.fl.!." \'!. I, i>. c ;■ factures of the Oueen's County," cliap. i., 

".\.<< to th- •• I.iIht Kc;;alis bect. t,, ]i. ij. 

ViM'..i;t'<f.i> " ^~ l'".vi(iently Cranua,i.;li townland, in 

5*S'i' " !".ir!t.i:miit.irv G.iz-tteer of the parisli of liallyadains. 

IrcI.iU'l." vol. 1.. j>. i.jK. -" Now BalHntlca, in the parish of 

'* l-\>ur <•! thcv t'jwnlands are ac- Ballyadams, and still pronounced Ballin- 

cunteii (or in a > p.ira:^raph. clea by the country ]5eople. 

'Ihrre is anoth.-r t.iU'd K.ithiiiore -•' Olherwise Ballintubbert. The trans- 

fvi(lcnt!%' an ancieni dcMoimnatioii, and lation of this is Fontstown, and it is a 

denveil from a rath of i-onsiderable .size. townland now lying within the parish 

to \,r seiii uithiii It. .\No, on this ol Ballyadams. 

townland is to be seen the site of ^" Si^w the townland of Monas- 

Kilnialee.l graveyard. The <leiiomina- creeban, in the parish of Ballyadams. 

tions of Keilyville and Southluld town- U is spelled Monestribban on (General 

lands are evidentlv modern. aii<l taken Valiancy's Maps. vol. ii.. No. 66, Irish 

from out of the older divisions. Kecor<l Oftice, Dublin. 

'« See Sir Charles Cooo-'s " General ■" A very favourable account of his 


desif^ned for the purpose of emplo^'ing labour. The Deautiiul demesne 
of Kcllyville, formerly the seat of Judge Kelly,3i Qf ^he Common Pleas, 
and Southlield House, 3^ are within this present division of Bally- 
adams parish. The rectory and vicarage of Ballintubbert, 33 in the 
Diocese of Leighlin, are united with those of Ballyadams, and its tithes 
were included in the composition for the latter parisli.34 Further illustra- 
tions of the Catholic History of Ballyadams parish relating to its old 
divisions, including Tullomoy, Ballyquillane, Fontstowne or Ballintubl)er, 
Tecolme, and ]iart of Ratliaspick, are to \k- fmiiid in the 'Most Rev. 
Bishop Comerford's work. 35 

CHAPTER XL— Parish of Bali.yroan. 

This parish is situated in the north-west border of the barony of 
Cullenagh, and it contains 9,682 a. or. i/.i of land, about 800 of which 
is under bog, and the rest arable or pasture. A town or village, bearing 
the same name, appears to have been of some antiquity.^ The parish 
is traversed south-south-westward by the old coach-road, leading from 
Dublin to Cork. 3 Near the village is a remarkable moat, which ascends 
to a considerable height, and which has a terraced passage, wmding 
around its sides to the topmost plateau. A deep trench surrounds tlie 
raised enclosure, which is planted over with trees. A castle is thought 
to have been here, as on the margin of a loose folii) vellum Manuscript 
in T.C.D., 4 there is a note in Irish which states, that Conall, 
the son of David O'More, King of Leix, re-erected the castle of Dunmase 
{i.e. Cainen Mase) after having taken it from the English ; and built 
the castle of Baile atha in roine— supjiosed 5 to be a mistake for an 
Irish rendering of Ballyroan.6 On the old INIap <>t Leix and Ophaly, 
Ballyrone is marked, as also Tolouer, now Tullc-re, and Dromselcge, 
now Drimashellig, a townland in this parish. Coulinleigh and 
Koulinagh is marked on the old Map of Leix and Ophaly. 

We find, that Ballronv was an impropriate reciory. with residence 
in 1616.7 Thomas Manby {idoii) was minister and i^reacher, with books 

high character and wit is contained in - There is a castle and church called 

Sir Jonah Barrington's " Per.sonal Basuonc — we sui)pose it is a misspelling — 

Sketches and Recollections," in the in the division ot Tovachlov, on the old 

chapter " Anecdotes of Irish Judges." Map of Lea.K, published in the " Journal 

^^ Formerly the residence of the re- of the Kilkenny and South-Eust of Ire- 

spected and accopmlished Richard Grace, land Archaeological Society," vol. iv. 

Esq., M.P., of Bole^^ See J. N. Brewer, New series, part ii., p. 345. This 

" Beauties of Ireland," vol. ii., pp. 103. denomination is probably intended for 

104. Balliroan. 

^^ The ruins of Ballintubbert old ■' Thomas O'Conor, in a letter dated 
church are marked on the "Ordnance Carlow, December 23rd, 183S, de- 
Survey Townland Maps for the Oueeii's scribes Ball\'roan parish in " Letters 
County," Sheet 19. containing In.fnrmation relative to the 

2* See Lewis's " Topographical Die- Antiquities of the Queen's County, 

tionary of Ireland," vol. i.. p. I2u. collected (h.rin^; the Progress of the 

35 See "Collections relating to tlie Ordnance S.irvry in 1S3S," vol. ii.. 

Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin," vol. pp. 250 to ji.S. 

iii., pp. 124 to 134. ■• It is classe 1 fl. 2. iS. 

' It is described on the " Ordnance ^ By IMr. 0'(_;ouor in his letter of 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's December 23, 1S38. See vol. ii., p. 260. 

County," Sheets 18, 23, 24, 30. " Thus set down, bAile aca mitem. 


desij^ned for the purpose of employing labour. The beautiiul demesne 
of Kelly ville, formerly the seat of Judge Kelly, 3i of the Common Pleas, 
and Soutlilicld House, 3^ are within this present division of Bally- 
adams parish. The rectory and vicarage of Ballintubbert, 33 in the 
Diocese of Leighlin, are united with those of Ballyadams, and its tithes 
were included in the composition for the latter parish. 34 Further illustra- 
tions of the Catholic History of Ballyadams parish relating to its old 
divisions, including Tullomoy, Ballyquillane, Fontstowne or Ballintubber, 
Teculnitj, and ]iart of Rathaspick, are to bt- found in the Most l-iev. 
Bishop Comerford's work. 35 

CHAPTER XL— Parish of I'.ali.yrcan. 

This parish is situated in the north-west border of the barony of 
Cullenagh, and it contains 9,682 «. or. i/.^ of land, about 800 of which 
is under bog, and the rest arable or pasture. A town or village, bearing 
the same name, appears to have been of some antiquit}^- The parish 
is traversed south-south-westward by the old coach-road, leading from 
Dublin to Cork. 3 Near the village is a remarkable moat, which ascends 
to a considerable height, and which has a terraced passage, winding 
around its sides to the topmost plateau. A deep trench surrounds the 
raised enclosure, which is planted over with trees. A castle is thought 
to have been here, as on the margin of a loose folio vellum Manuscript 
in T.C.D., 4 there is a note in Irish which states, that Conall, 
the son of David O'More, King of Leix, re-erected the castle of Dunmase 
{i.e. Cainen Mase) after having taken it from tlie English ; and built 
the castle of Baile atha in roine — supjiosed 5 to be a mistake for an 
Irish rendering of Ballyroan.6 On the old Map oi Leix and Ophaly, 
Ballyrone is marked, as also Tolouer, now Tullf^-e, and Dromselcge, 
now Drimashellig, a townland in this parish. Coulinleigh and 
Koulinagh is marked on the old Map of Leix and Ophaly. 

We iind, that Ballrony was an impropriate reciorw with residence 
in 1C16.7 Thomas Manby {idem) was minister and jjreacher, with books 

high character and wit is contained in - There is a castle and church called 

Sir Jonah Barrington's "Personal Basuone — we sujiposeit is a misspelling — 

Sketches and Recollections," in the in the division ot Tovachlov, on the old 

chapter " Anecdotes of Irisli Judges." Map of Leax, publishtid in the " Journal 

^- Formerly the residence of the re- of the Kilkenny and South-East of Irc- 

spected and accopmlished Richard Grace, land ArchtEological Society," vol. iv. 

Esq., M.P., of Boley. See J. N. Brewer, New series, part ii., p. 345. This 

" Beauties of Ireland," vol. ii., pp. loj. denomination is probably intended for 

104. d3alliroan. 

^'■' The ruins of Ballintubbert old ■' Thomas O'Conor, in a letter dated 
church are marked on the " OrtUiance Carlow, December 23rd, 1838, de- 
Survey Townland IMaps for the Queen's scribes Ballyroan parish in " Letters 
County," Sheet 19. containing Information relative to the 

2* See Lewis's " Topographical Die- Antiquities of tlie Queen's County, 

lionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 120. collected (h.rin.; the Progress of the 

^° See " Collections relating to the 
Dioceses of Kildarc and Leighlin," vol. 
iii., pp. 124 to 1 3-1. 

1 It is described on the " Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 

County," Sheets 18, 23, 24, 30. « Thus set down, t)<MLe Ac.^ nmoin. 

Ordnance Survey in 1.S3S," 

vol. ii.. 

pp. 250 to J 06. 

^ It is classe 1 II. 2. iS. 

5 By ]\Ir. O'Conor in his 

letter of 

Deceuiber 23, 1S38. See vol. 

ii., p. 260. 


'I'he cliurch and chaiiccl witc kept in repair. The pari>h and town of 
Inilliroane arc rcjirrsentcd on Sn- William Potty's Map of Cullcnagh 
baron}'. A few houses mark the site of the town ; and a considerable 
vtri]ie of bog is marked. In the next map to Clonkeene or Cloneheen 
(>n an enlarged scale is Balliruane parish. Its town is represented by 
.1 ^I'dup of seven detached houses near its celebrated moat. The town- 
I.ind denominations are, Balliroane, Rahinbroge, Ballinlogh, Cloncullan, 
Crubin, Ballmone (?), Cashcll. The arable, meadow, pasture and bog 
I.I lids are shown in the numlur of acres, roods, and perches, as admeasured 
b\- .Ambrose Yorke, a.d. 1650. The detached Balligormill of Fossey 
pan-^li is shown in like manner on this map.^ 

In the village, there was a Protestant school, endowed b\' Alderman 
I'resion with lands in Cappaloughlan. The school was a large slated 
building erected at a cost of £500. The schoolmaster was a Master of 
.•\rt> fiom Trinity College, Dublin, who, with an usher, gave a classical 
.md Bn-Iish education in 1834, 1S35, 1S36.'' to about iifty boarders and 
<lay ^eh(>lar^."J His sti})end was /55 ])er annum." In subsequent 
\i-;ii-. the- scIk^oI was removed to Rockheld House near the village; 
A !;!!<• a l^ilice P.arrack and Dispensary have been built on the former 
Mtc. Tlie Preston foundation of late has been removed to Abbeyleix, 
uheir .1 new s, h'lol has been provided, under altered regulations. 

The ("idlriM^h Mountains lie witliin Bnllyroan parish, on the eastern 
lxi!'!'i ; and tin-- consist of three distinct peaks, distinguished as the 
nia< N Mi^untam. the Middle Mountain, and Slieve Bawn, the former, 
w!.:- !i ;> the hi^'he-^t, at taining an altitude of 1,045 feet. Coal ajipears to 
« \;-.*. ::\ {)'..> h!.,'!.e.-i mount, iHi, where shafts have been sunk and a level 
j;i.-.!'-. .'.t ^i-.w leini'te time. Ind;.. .Mioi^.s oi co.d are in other parts of 
th:> J .i:.-:», n^p.j.'.llv uv.-.v tlie town of i'.:ill\roan, on the bank of a 
tivi;!'?. 0:j 'A,-- "-Imj-.: (.f the Hl.ick Mountain, the Barringtons, who 
1,4.1 4 •j;;.rcl .il.:.:c r^t.itc in Cullinagh Barcjny, built a castellated 
n;^:. '•:•'.•;. thr ii-.tMUis ol uhich are still to be seen. In it they li\'ed for 
g«T,rr.iti":.>, .ii-\ 'h:.>ui.'h sloimy tinifs m the sixteenth and seventeenth 
f«-titnr-.'--i. In tii-.- «.n;;htcent!i centurw it was called by the peasantry, 
C.ullm.iirhrnorc lloiw.'. Wiien y<>ung. Sn- Jonah Barrington i- lived in 
i! v.5?h K:s ;,T;i;id!a?h<'r, Col<.>ncl Jonah Barrington, Many amusing local 
•liifvdo'.o .»:•■• jntrwJuccd, in " Personal Recollections and Sketches 
<■! lki-> o-.^n 'Ii!i;c5." in conm-xion with this house. '3 The rcnmant of their 
1.j;t:i- •■ was s^-'d to Sir Jolm Parnell, and when the Barringtons 

' A'«;« ;.lif. K* to t!.'- "'-r Kcl:i1is tuiuil m W. D. S. T.iylor s " History of 

VmJjkUijn:*." tin- I ni\i'rsity of Diil)iin," chaji. xi., sect. 

» N«-.vrlv corr<".>.:->l:n;^ with tlic f^re- i., p]"", .^S.j to.)SS, he is called the youngest 

K'i'-'-ii l» V.iH.i;'. v"s M.ip of thr sun of Colonel liarrin2;tnn, of Cullenagh, 

l..i:ony oi Cul!r:ia-.;h. v..!. 11., N). 6y. inccjrrectly placed ui the County of 

* During tiirsc th- h.'-'. l-in.i^ter Kilkenny. 
was .^l.'. .\rthiir' Ihitchms, M..\., of '^ In boyhood, the writer of these 

Trinitv C"l'.c;'>-. Du! Iin. articles liad a ]iersonal knowledge of some 

"The I'rotc'-t;int I'aydyjys. accordin..' of the ch.iracters mentioned, who were 

10 l!i'- btipiil.Hi''n of the lOund'.T, re- then Iivuil,'. 

(vivd a ^ratmtous f<!ucat:()n ; ihe '* Tliu writer, when \-cry young, well Citholie-i paid /i a quarter lor recollects some amusing anecdotes of this 

tlu-ir tiay beln'oluiK. gentleman, told by old jieasants who re- 

•» See' Ltuis'.s '• Toixigraphical Die- meml)(-rrd him. He was remarkable for 

liouary of Ireland." \o\. i.. p. 163. ready wit and humour, as also for kindly 

" In the bio-r.ii'hy of Sir Jonah sympathies and charities towards the 

r..ininmi'n, LL.D., and which is c<'n- ]n-)p!i-. which made him highly popular. 


left their family mansion, a Mr. Anderson, '4 the Catholic agent of Sir 
John, lived in it, and fitted up a small chapel in the hamlet of Cullenagh 
adjoining, for the accommodation of himself and the Catholic tenants. '5 
Afterwards, Sir John Parnell sold the estate to John Toler, the well- 
known Lord Norbury ; whose descendant holds it m possession. 

One of the earliest religious foundations in Leix aj^pears to have 
been the church, which derived its name from St. Faolan, and which 
afterwards distinguished the now almost forgotten site, where it had 
been erected, as Kilwhelan. This townland lies upon an elevated ridge, 
on the west of the Cullenagh mountains."^ The mound of an old disused 
burial-ground — in the eighteenth century of considerable height, but 
now almost level with the surrounding field — may be observed on the 
s]>ot ; while tradition avers, that an ancient church formerly stood 
tliere, and gave the locality even greater prominence. ^ 7 The patron 
saint of this place seems to have flourished at a very early date, and 
we are informed that he descended from the race of .^ngus, son of 
Nadlraech, King of jMunster. It may be inferred, as stated, that this 
saint was restored to life through St. Attracta's merits, and after 
he had been drowned. ^S By one writer ^9 he is designated as 
St. Foillan, surnamed the Leper ; while, in the " Martyrology of Donegal," 
lie is called Faolan the Stammerer, -o of Rath Erann in Albain, and of 
Cill Fhaelain,2i in Laoighis, in Leinster. On the 2oth cjay of June, his 
feast occurs in our Calendars.-^ Some doubt seems to remain, however, 
that he may have been identical with the celebrated St. Foilan, Felan, 
or Fillan, Abbot in Scotland, and who is venerated on the 9th day of 
January .23 The Earl of Essex's army passed near Kilwhelan, after the 
celebrated engagement at " The Pass of Plumes," and on its march to 
IJallyroan. The townland of Tullore, in the ]:)arish of Ballyroan, and 
barony of Cullenagh, contains 199 a. 2r. 2S /). -4 of good arable land. 
Here there is an old place of interment, held in great veneration by the 
people from time immemorial, and yet greatly resorted to on the occasion 

^■^ At the time Cullenagh was within Irish IMonasticon, the foundation of St. 

the Catholic district of Ballynalull, and Foillan's Church is assigned to the time 

served by a priest from that town. of St. Patrick, ami he is styled abbot, 

^•^ These are three in number, and callc',1 apparently on no goott anlhurity. 
respectively Slieve Dubh, or the Black 20 'pj^g " J3i-t^.viary of Aberdeen " states. 

Mountain, the Middle Mountain, and the that it had been a prophecy, the Scottish 

White Mountain. The latter is of lesser St. FeaUin should be born witli a stone 

elevation than the other two mountains, in his mouth, and this caused his father 

and on its sale is Ivilwhelan, now com- to regard him as a monster, 
pletely unenclosed ; and even, like many -^ The old form of Ivilwhclan, as now 

celebrated Irish places, not named nor written and pronounced, 
noted on our Irish Ordnance Survey -- In the Kev. Matthew Kelly's 

Majis. " Martyrology of Tallaght," we have the 

'■^ Archdall asserts, that the place is following entry at this date, " Faelani 

TUiknown ; yet, if such were the case so amlabair i Sraith Eret Albain," ]i. xxvii. 

far as he had been concerned, the name See also " The Martyrology of Done.ual," 

and local traditions preserve it in the edited by the Kev. Dr. Todd, and Kev. 

recollections of the neighl)ouring pea- Dr. Keeves, pp. 174, 175. 
santry. See " Monasticon Jlibermcuni," 23 jj^g jife will be found at that tlate, 

p. 595. in Rev. John Canon O'Hanliju's " Li\es 

1" See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum of the Irish Saints," vol. 1., pp. 134 to 

Hibernia'," ix. Februarii. \'ita S. 144. 

Attract.e, cap. xi., xii., and n. 16, ])p. 279, -* See "Ordnance Survey Townland 

2.'^o, 2Sj. Maps for the (Jueen's County," Sheet 

*^ .Xi-chdall. Bv this author of the 24. 

I'AKISH (il I'.AI I VlvOAN. ^ 1S9 

of (icatli. ( )n thr I'M Map of T.i-i\,-"> 'rulDuir is iiiaiked lUTir a church, 
which a])]>eais to ha\'c stootl thi-rr, cail\- m the sixteenth century, and 
in the former teintorv of Tovaclilov. It srruis ver\' ]M'oliaMe, that this 
had hti-n the ])lare alhided to, ui that I.itanv attributed to .l^n^us 
Ceile De. wlii're he invokes tlie Seven l>ishoi)S of Tuhich Labhair,-'' 
who inu>t ha\e been l)Uried in the ceiueters' thire previoiis to tlie ninth 
I'l'iitury. and wh(jse memories were ew-n then \n benethi tion. If so, tlie 
burial-uround. wliere it is certain a church fornurI\- arose, must boast a 
Very f^TCiit antiqmty. In summer time, the spot is t^arnished with fine 
hawtliorns, which are of .i^reat beauty while in blossom. 'J'he townland 
o| Kilvahan is situatetl, ])artly in the pari>h of Ballvroan,-/ and partly 
in the ])arish of Kilcolmanbane,-"^ in the baron\- of Cullcnagh. The 
L;raveyard of Kilvahan occupies an ele\'ated situation, and it is surrounded 
by a nearly circular fosse, which was formerly entered by an old road 
h-adiiii; from the adjoining village of Moncenafullagh, " the little marshy 
sjMd (li blood," on the direction from Ixillyknockan Castle. It is some 
little distance removed from the former mail-coach road, between 
Dulihii and Cork. At the village already named, the chief k)runt of contest 
at the Tass of Plumes was sustained, and hence the name it afterwards 
b. i:e.-'' The i^assage of funeral processions to the cemetery, at present, 
leads along a headland of the acljacent field to the horeeji, wliere traces 
of thf old road are to be seen. In the month of ]M?iy fine ancient haw- 
thorn tiecs are in the richest bloom, on the ditch whicli fences the moat, 
.uid i-"l.'.tiii thorn bushes grow among the graves. Of late a wall of 
« I,. 1..- Uf has been built around the cemetery by the Poor Law 
• .v;.i:'i;.in>. .-V fiw head-stones of marble-limestone are seen, and 
J:i.n» .o:i^t.^nt friction of the fleecy flocks that formerly resorted 
!->r s!,<ltrr thiie, those sepulchral memcniais assumed a jet-black 
I-i'ttrc. ar.'i the iiiscri[)tions are mo^t clearly legd)le. We have 
j.ul In-en able to discover any historic record, which might serve 
to ir!ij->irate tlie foi nu-r history of Kilvahan. l\Ir. Thomas O'Conor, 
ulio visited this pl.i( e in 1S38, was of o]iinion that Kilvahan 3o probably 
<!i-n\<i| it> name liom a St. IMeathon.?' thus making it the Kill or 
(hurt !i cf St. Meatlu;n. However, this name cannot be found in our Irish 
(".ilendar>. l-~oimerlv, and, ind^'ed. to the beginning of the present century, 
,»n old ruiii'd church was to be seen, within the burial enclosure 
!•! Kilvahan. iMoni a jierfect local know'ledge of the spot, the writer has 
not It en .d'!'- to trace a single \-eb ige of those ancient walls, which 

''• Sc- •* J..iiti;,il ..( il>'- Kilkcniiv ami -■' Sec " Pruccei.linj.^s of the Royal Irish 

^M■^Jth■<-a^^ ,,t Inl.uul .\r(.lia(i!o'.^ical .^ca(leIny," sccoiul sltIcs, vol. 1., Polite 

S-.n-ty." vi 1. IV.. luw siriL-h, pari li.. Literature and .\ntii|uitie.s, for a Paper 

p. \.\\. " On the Iclcntilicalion of the site of the 

»* Srr ■■ '1 ho Irivh KccK-siast.ical lCn,i;am.-inent at the ' Pas.-; of Plumes,' "!." olil M-rirs. \..l. iii.. June, i.So-, Xo. XLIII., pj). 279 to 2SS. There is a 

IP 47. J. .;'>. "Tlu- I'H..)k of I.i-in.sler '' inaji of this locality prefixed, and which 

toMi.iins thr onL; Ir;-li, which has .shows tlie position of Kilvahan Grave- 

l.'.cn c<ipic<! ;iii<l ir.m-l.itfil by Prcjfcssur yard. 

IJrv.m O'LiM.ticy. '■"' See " Letters containing Infornia- 

'■ This portion of the townhmd con- tion relative to the .Antiquities of the 

t.iins .;.j.i. .'». JO/. (.hieen's County, collected during the 

"This portion of the towniaml con- Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 

tain.s i>f>j. J'-. I ;^*. Kilv.di.m is shown on iS^S," vol. li., p. jo^ 

the "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps ^i 5;^^.^^. K^iter, dated Carlow, December 

l..r tlie nueeii's County." Slieel 18. 23rd, iJsjS.— /<f'/</. 


appear to have been upiuoted from their ioundations, by the contractor 
for an erection on behalf of Sir John Parncll, l-Jart., who had some time 
before purchased this property from the Barringtons of CuUcnaL:;h. Tlie 
materials were used to build a tuck-mill for the manufacture and dressint,' 
of friezes and druggets, on the rivulet in a valley beneath the grave- 
yard, and at no great distance removed from it. The writer knew an 
old peasant, who stated, now many years ago, that he had a perfect 
recollection of the ancient church, as its walls then stood. Happily, 
at the present day, such a deseci'ation, as that here alluded to, would 
not be thought of, much less perpetrated, by gentle or simple folk ; 
but the prevalence of like practices, during and before the last century, 
has contributed to deface, and even utterly to destroy, some of the most 
interesting vestiges of antiquity. Nor have the features of these objects 
been preserved lor us, by any delineation whatever, either of the pen 
or jiencil. 

This living was a rectory and vicarage in the diocese of Leighlin, 
and in the patronage of the crown ; the Protestants amounted to 326, 
and the Roman Catholics to 3,139. In 1S41, the population was 3,680, 
the houses were 628. The area of Ballyroan town was 56 acres, and, 
in 1831, it had a population of 714 ; in 1841 the census makes it of 637, 
the houses being 119. The ]K)pulation and houses have since greatly 
fallen away in number. In the Roman Catholic arrangement, Bally- 
roan is united with Abbeyleix, and Catholic churches are m both towns. 
The chief seats here are : Blandsfort, Rockbrook, and Derryfore. 1 n 
1831, the parochial population was 3,544 persons. 32 In 1S34, the tithe 
composition amounted to £415 7s. SM.33 Tlie church was a plain edifice, 
near the moat and surrounded with a graveyard, with a scriptural and a 
national school attached. There is neither a glebe-house nor a glebe 

CHAPTER XII.— Parish of Bordwell. 

At the present time, the parish of Bordwell — or, as sometimes written, 
Boardwell — is situated, in part, in the barony of Claiidonagh,i but 
chiefly in that of Clarmallagh.- The land within this i)arish is generally 
of a good description. There is a small tract of bog, and limestone 
abounds. 3 The road from Durrow to Donaghmore, and that from 
Mountrath to Rathdowney, intersect each other in the interior. Towards 
the south-east lies Lough Grantstown, near which is the handsome 
mansion called Grantstown House, within a fine demesne, and orna- 
mental grounds. This is the seat of the Earl of Ossory. 

A church in ruins is on the townland of Bordwell Big, as distinguished 
from Bordwell Little. The remains are to be seen there, within an ancient 
graveyard. This is now enclosed ; but while the upper portion of the 

'-See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of 2 jhis portion contains 2,690^. 2r. 30/. 

Ireland," vol. i., p. 192. See ibid. 

^^ The nett was /390 4s. 4d. The ^ gee " The National Gazetteer," vol. 

curate had a stipend of l^S- i-. P- 3i3- 

1 This portion contains only 113^. 2r. * See Sir Charles Coote's " General 

T 3/1. See " Ordnance Survey Townland View of the Agriculture and Manu- 

iMaps for the Queen's County," Sheet factures of the Queen's County," chap, i., 

28. sect. 3, p. 12. 

I'Al^ISH OF l;i~)Kl^IS. , I()I 

old rliuicli is i^reatly Ics'clUd, its dimensions may be traced, and its plan 
is still ree(\t;iH-able. In 1O57, it is reported, that Bordwell — in Upper 
()>S()rv — was worth /16 per annvuii in 1640; and that it had 80 acres 
and 148 perches ol glebe. The Lord Protector. Oliver Cromwell, was 
then patron.-i In i8ji, the population was 8O0. In 1834, the Protestant 
inliabitants numbered only 49, while the Roman Catholics were 8.12. 
In 1837, this parish was a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, 
the Protestant Bishop being the patron, and the tithes amounting to 
{137 los. As applotted under the Tithe Act, it was held to contain 
2,541) statute acres. 3 There was iieitlier glebe-house nor glebe at that 
time. At Grantstown and Kilbredy are the ruins of old castles. There 
is a roomv Roman Catholic Chapel to accommodate the inhabitants 
of that district in the union of Aghavoe. In 1841, the population of 
I'oidwell parish was 057, in 157 houses.'' 

CHAPTER XIII.— Parish of Borris. 

The parish of Borris occupies a considerable division in the Barony 
of i\Iar\-l)orough East.i It has two townlands, respectively denominated 
Cireat Borris - and Little Borris. 3 C)n the engraved' Map of the Petty 
Down Survey these are spelled Little Burres and Great Burres. It 
srrins most probable, that there was a still more ancient Irish name 
lor this parish ; for it is stated, that Borris, Burris, Burges, or Buirghes, 
(iitrring into the composition of local denominations in Ireland, was a 
word introduced bv the Anglo-Normans, and applied by them to small 
borough towns, which they established after the twelfth century. It 
signifies a burgage, or borough, and it was brought into the Irish 
language. As Anglicized, it forms the whole or part of names in several 
of the Leinster, Munster, and Connaught counties ; but, it does not 
occur in Ulster.4 It is difficult, however, to believe, that in the case of 
the special local denomination here, it could have had an Anglo-Norman 
origin. 5 since the history of Leix attests, that only the original Irish 
inhabitants luul control of that territory, until the present Queen's 
{\)unt\- hail been formed into shire-ground ; the chief fortress established 
m it b\- the Knglish having been called Marvliorough, also, in honour 
of Queen Marv. This is the onlv town within the bounds of Borris 
parish ; but it contains some remarkable natural and artificial curiosities. 
The 5iari>h of Burress, drawn by Ambrose Yorke in 1657, contains the 
town, castle, and fort of Mariburrough. Cloanrehir and Rathnamanagh 

■' Sec Lewis' " Tuiiogr.iphical Diclio- -'This contains 419"- i'"- -9fi- See 

narv of Ireland." \()1. i., ]). 210. iliul. 

■■■In the Clanilonagh section there uere * See Dr. P. W. Joyce's " Oriijin and 

5^ sonls — honses 8. In the Clarinalla,L;ii History of Irish Names of Places," 

(Mjrtion, tliere were 004 i)ersons, and 149 part iii., chap, iv., p. 340. 

houses. See " Parhanientciry ("Gazetteer ^ A note of Dr. O'Donovan simply 

(i! Ireland." vol. i., p. 267. states, " The Irish name is donbtless 

1 It is shown on the " Ordnance buijiif," in a coniment appended to 

Survey Townland Maps for tlie Queen's Thomas O'Conor's account of the place. 

County, " Sheets 7, 8, 12, 13, 18. It com- in his Queen's County Letters for the 

prises 7,O40i7. I r. 28/. Irish Ordnance Survey. 

- This contains 529^. jr. 20/^. See " Menelew bog is represented. The 

ili.l.. Sheet I 1. lands are marked as forfeited. 


appear to have had fortified houses or castles.^ On another map 7 is a 
trace of Burres parish on a larger scale. There are as denominations, viz., 
Rathnamanagh, Great and Little Burres, Ballintogan, Gurtin, Ross- 
leachan, Cloanrehir, Monelew, Knocknagrougli, Cultoryn, Balitogin, 
Killeclonhoban, Monebalycaroll, with the commons of Maryburough, 
consisting of over 300 acres of pasture.^ There was a chapel in Kyle 
townland, also called Kyleclonhobert,'J in the parish of Borris, about 
one mile northwards from Maryborough, and on the left side of the road 
from that town leading to Mountmelhck. This was probably a Roman 
Catholic Chapel in the penal days or somewhat previous. Only a heap 
of stones now marks its site.'" 

Within the old parish of Borris, to which allusion has been made, 
the fort of Maryborough had been erected in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, as a protection for the English settlers introduced, when the 
Queen's County was erected into shire-ground, in the seventh and eighth 
years of the reign of King Philip and Queen Mary. A town was then 
commenced, and while, to compliment the latter, the shire was called 
the Queen's, its intended chief town was named ^laryborough. An 
ancient graveyard occupied the site of " the ridge," near the town, 
but no trace of a former church now remains on that sj^ot." Extending 
from Maryborough towards Mountmelhck, an eleveted ridge or Esker 
of lime-stone, gravel, and sand is a very remarkable objcQt, and geologists 
have not hitherto accounted satisfactorily for its formation. The country 
on both sides of it is level, and in many places moory. On the very 
summit of this Esker is an ancient highway, known as the " ridge road.''^^ 
The Esker runs above eight miles uninterruptedly, and above twenty 
with small chasms towards Tullamore town and beyond it. Skirting 
Maryborough towards the east, and issuing from this ridge, near Rath- 
league, there is a " holy well," ^3 which was formerly much frequented 
by pilgrims. The ridge appears to have been formed by tlie ebbing 
and flowing of water, and in some places it divides the upland from the 
moor. "4 This natural barrier varies from over two hundred feet to 
about sixty feet in width at the base, and it slopes gradually to the 
summit where it measures over twenty or tliirty feet in breadth. There 
are several of these Eskers well-defined and bearing in different directions 
throughout the Queen's County. These appear to have had no distinct 
connection with the historic Esker Riada, said to extend from Dublin 
to Galway. On the site of Great Borris townland not far from Bloomfield 
House lay the old church, i5 only a heap of stones remaining ther-^ to 

7 Admeasured by Ambrose Yorke, i* Several bead-stones and tombs are 
A.D. 1657. to lie seen there in an elevated position. 

8 Some differences of spelling and ^- In the beginning of the last 
entry of denomination will be found in century, it was a leading county road. 
\'allancy's Maps, copied from the See Sir Charles Coote's " General View of 
originals in the National Library, Paris, the Agriculture and Manufactures of the 
vol. ii., No. 64, Public Record Ol'hce. Queen'sCounty," chap, ix., sect. 4, p. 107. 

9 See " Ordnance Survey Townland ^^ The local denomination of this well, 
]\Iaps for the Queen's County," Sheet 13. according to Thomas O'Conor, was 

1" See letter by T. O'Conor, and dated Toberagaddy, CobAii 4 Jatjaij, i.e., 

Stradbally, December Oth, 1838, iu " the well of the thiel," At present it is 

" Letters containing Information relative more usually called the "holy well of 

to the Anticpiilies of the Queen's County, Maryborough." 

collected (luring the Progress of the '* See Lewis' " Topographical Diction- 
Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i., p. 160. ary of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 346. 


indicate its former site.i6 Some remains of the old ( le of Clonrcar 
still exist in the western part of this parish. It now i.. n ruins off the 
high road leading from IMaryborough to Mountmellir ibout two miles 
from the former town. The ruins are to the left on a b\ ,•-: oad. Formerly 
it seems to have been a fortification of some impoi..L ice. That old 
Castle of Clonreher in this parish is found marked on ihe old map of 
Leix and Ophaly, of earlier date than 160S.17 A short walk along the 
" ridge road," and over that natural embankment from Maryborough, 
will bring the tourist to Cnoc-na-greo, a hill which eminently merits its 
name, for its verdant slopes are covered with the richest pasture, and it 
is still grazed by cattle. Turning to the right at the foot of this hill, 
the pedestrian comes to Ranamanna, an old fort presenting several very 
remarkable features. The fosses that sweep round it are amazingly 
deep, and its floor is perfectly level, free from shrubs and covered with 
verdure. It may be fairly termed a magnificent rath, on account of 
its ambit and considerable elevation. 

The ancient Irish name for Maryborough was Port Laoighse.^^ meaning 
" the town of Laoighis." ^9 This portion of country had been reduced 
to English subjection by the Earl of Sussex. Then a suitable site was 
selected within it, to have a fort built for the protection of English 
settlers, and its name was determined by the circumstance. The Pro- 
tcctour Fort of Maryborough was of oblong quadrangukir shape. -o It 
had only one opening, at a lane, towards the west of tlie town. The 
walls battened upwards for a considerable height from the foundations. 
A round tun-et Hanked the north-east angle, the castle was well within 
the walls, near the south-east, a square turret stood at the south-west 
angle. A draw-well was within the enclosure, and near the round 
bastion. Soon after the building of the fort, a church seems to have 
been erected just outside of the enclosure. Whether serving as a Catholic 
or a Protestant Church, in the early days, it was used for the latter 
denomination until the beginning of the last century, and a cemetery 
—now deserted — had been attached. A charter of Queen Elizabeth, 
granted in the twelfth year of her reign, a.d. 1570, erected this town 
into a borough, and assigned its municipal bounds. These were an 
extent of 8,000 feet on every side of the castle, in its centre. It obtained 
a Corporation, consisting of a burgomaster, two baililts, an indefinite 
number of burgesses, and a commonalty ; the burgomaster was con- 
stituted a justice of the peace within the borough ; it was also granted 
a court and a market, with tolls and customs.^! The 1 urgomaster was 
assisted by a town clerk, a sergeant-at-mace, and inferior officers. The 
burgesses, by a majority of and from their own body, were annually 

15 Its position is noted on the town- stated that, in his time, the old kihabi- 

land map. Sheet 13. tants of the Queen's County called 

1'^ See letter of T. O'Conor, and dated Maryborough Port Laoighse, wlu-nsiieak- 

Stradbally, December oth, 1S3S, in ing Irish. 

" Letters containing Information relative -" A ground-plan tracing is to be found 
to the Antiquities of the Queen's County in the "Letters cont, lining Information 
collected during the Progress of the relative to the Antiqui lies of the Queen's 
Ordnance Survey in 183S," vol. i.. p. C<ninty, collected dunn- the Progress of 
160. the Ordnance Survr\' in 1S3S," vol. i., 
»' See tbid. Letter of Thomas O'Cnior, dated Strati- 
's In the Irish language it is spelled bally, December 6th, 1.S3S, pp. 160 to 17S. 
poitc tv\o^fe. ■' See " I'arlianK'.itary Gazetteer of 
'■'Mr. kaurence Byrne, of Fallybeg, Irelantl," vol. a., p. 73S. 



to elect on Michaelmas Day the burgomaster and bailiffs and they 
filled up vacancies m their ranks, freemen being admitted only by 
favour By charter, the burgomaster and baihhs were obliged to take 
the oaths of oiftce before the constable of the iort or castle of Mary- 
borough, or, in his absence, before the burgesses and commons of the 
borough. The burgomaster, with the two bailiHs, was escheator, clerk 
of the market, and coroner. The burgomaster appointed the town 
clerk as sergeant-at-mace, billet-master, and weigh-master.-'- 

In 1580 Port Laoighse was plundered, and a party of its keepers 
was killed, bv John, son to the Earl of Desmond. Arms, armour horses, 
and other property were carried away.^3 The garrison of Port Laoighis 
was beleagured in 1500, by the O'Moores and their confederates. 
Provisions were required to support the besieged, and, accordingh', the 
Earl of Ormond organised a considerable force to bring relict. However 
on the way, he was met bv Ownv Mac Rory O'Moore, Captain Fyrrel 
and Tames Burke,-4 who intercepted the convoy, with a great loss o 
men horses, arms, and provisions. The Earl of Ormond being wounded 
was obliged to fly from the Irish enemy, and he had a narrow escape m 
not being made a prisoner. In the year 1507, and on the 7th day of 
December, two bands of soldiers stationed m Port Laoighis were slain 
bv Captains Tyrrell and Nugent, as also by the Kavanaghs O Moores, 
d'Conors Faly, and by the Gaval Ranall.^S who were,in a state of msur- 

'^^A^'public school had been established at Maryborough, early in the 
seventeenth centurv, and in 1616 it was conducted by a schoolmaster 
named Tavlor.^'^ Marvborough formerly returned two members to the 
Irish House of Commons, the burgesses and freemen being the electors. 
In 1635, the Corporation of Maryborough obtained from King Llianes 

I. a grant of two fairs. /^ ■. • /^^a oi 

Burrisse was an impropriate rectory to Peter Crosby, in 1616.27 
The serving vicar was David Good, a reading minister. The value ol 
the living ?vas /lo. The church and its chancel were m proper repair, 
and furnished with books. In 1640 this rectory was worth £90 per 
annum, and the parsonage was worth £60 ; the vicarage was valued at 
/•30 and the whole was then valued at /48 per annum ; one-third part 
of these revenues in this and other parishes was allowed to ministers 
and for church repairs, the rest was enjoyed by the patron oi the paiisli 
who was Sir K. Crosbie, Knt. Then, it had seventeen townlands; it 
was also an impropriation, having three acres of glebe.^^ in 104- 
Ormond reheved the fort of Maryborough,29 which had been m danger oi 
falling into the hands of the Confederate CathoUcs. On the surrender 
of Bi?r Castle, Jan. 20th, 1643, to the Confederation, William Parsons, 

33 See Lewis' " Topographical Diction- sufficiency. He hath a Sood number of 

arv of Ireland " vol ii p. US- schoUers resorting to the schooU Dy 

^aleeDr'o'DonivaS's^- Annals of reason of the Enghsh pl-ntacon m the 

the^Four Master." vol. v.. pp. 1750. ^^^^.^t^^^^^^ %^^- 

'1; fE^mel^^f ^.^^^ aS;;Ses. '':^'Lo..^, to - Uber Regahs V.sita- 

26 " There is a publique schoolmaster tionis. ' r^^t^-o " Tpneral 

in this Diocese placed in Marlborough, J^ See Sir Charks .^oote s General 

the chiefest Towne, in the Queen's View ^'^ ^'^« ^Sn<^ul "re and Manu 

County. The schoolmaster's name is factures of the Queen ^ County, chap. , 

Taylor, a Bachelor of Art of good sect. 3., p. y. 


llie Governor, stipulated for safe-conduct tt) .Mar\liorou,L;li,3o the fort of 
which was kept by Sir Wilham Gilbert, Kni.^lit. That cessation of 
arms, dated from JDublin, on the 26th of September, was reeei\ed by 
him, and directed in his absence to the chiei ol'licer commanding his 
Majesty's forces there.3i 

It is related, 32 that having received the Papal Nuncio's blessing, 
Owen Roe O'Neill and his men marched on Monday, September iSth, 
1646, " to Droicead a deignei, and to B. Shean in Laois, where they staid 
four nights." Thence they proceeded to Coilleadh a Laois 33 and Caislean 
na Cuilenthoi.34 The general treated the captain of that place very 
Icnientl}^ and placed a garrison of his own there. From this spot they went 
to Port Laois. Sir Phelim, Colonel of the Horse, called on the garrison 
to surrender. They refused to do so, until they saw the general with 
the cannon. The troops now arriving, a drummer was despatched to 
demand formally the surrender of that place. The governor demanded 
hostages from the general, and, accordingly, Brian O'Neill, McHenry, 
and McTurlogh of the Fews were sent. Sir William GiUx-rt then came 
to the army. On seeing their forces and the cannon, he agreed to capitu- 
late. He received permission for the garrison to carry away all their 
moveables. Port Laoighse was then given in charge to Felim O'Neill, 
.McDonnell, and Towards the close of that year, Owen 
Ivoe O'Neill, who had failed to effect the capture o"! Dublin, owing to 
the imbecility or bad faith of his colleague Preston, returned with his 
troops to Maryborough.36 From Kilmensie, in the vicinity of this town, 
on the 27th of i\Iay, 1648, the Papal Nuncio Rinuccini pronounced 
sentences of excommunication against all who should accept the cessation 
ot Kilkenny.37 Subsequently the town was retaken by Lord Castlehaven. 
In 1650, Maryborough was taken by the Parliamentary forces 
under Colonels Hewson and Reynolds. The fort was then demolished, 
and the castle was deserted. An agreement, bearing date the 12th of 
May, 1652, assigns Marlborough to be the place where " Colonel! Lewes 
.Moore's foote and some troupes of horse " should surrender their arms 
to the Parliamentarians. 3S 

According to the IMaps and Books of the Down Survey, the forfeited 
lands of Burres, to the amount of 302 acres of prohtable lands, with 
6 additional acres, were assigned as commons for the Corporation of 
Maryborough, after having been surveyed by the Commonwealth sur- 

-3 See" History of the Irish Confeaera- ^4 Nq doubt, the Castle of Cullenagh, 

tion aud the War in Ireland, 1641-1O.1.3," probably held there by the Barringtons. 

vVc. Edited by Jolm T. Gilbert, vol. i., ^■' See letter of Thomas O'Conor, and 

p. 79. dated Stradbally, December 6th, 1838, 

^" See ibid., vol. ii., p. 145. • m " Letters containing Information 

''1 See ibid., p. 3S5. relative to the Antiquities of the Queen's 

'= In the Journal of the Irish Rebellion County, collected during the Progress of 

of 1641. the Ordnance Survey in 1S3B," vol. i., 

-^ This has been identified as Coille, a pp. 172 to 174. 

to\vnIand about two miles eastward of ^° See Rev. Charles P. Meehan's 

liallynakill, where there had been an " Confederation of Kilkenny," chap, 

uak-wood, the last of which had been cut vii., p. 201. 

down in 1704. Adjoining the same, yjlace ^^ See ibid., chap, ix., p. 253. 

was a mill, the old church of Dysart ^^ Sce the " A])horismical Discovery 

Galen, and the remains of an old castle of Treasonable Faction," sixth book, 

overit, called Cnoc Airo ^51111. It is said. chap, vii., p. 99., in "A Contemporary 

this castle had been c.illed CAifLeAti History of Irekind, from 1O41 to 1652." 

mluMUJeA-o iTi^eAn -Ooriin.MLl. Edited by John f. Gilbert, vol. iii., part i. 



ve3^ors. But this valuable estate was afterwards usurped by the families 
of "De Vesci, Parnell, Coote, &C.39 This tract was formerly known as the 
Green of Maryborough.4o In the days of duelling, it was the scene of 
several hostile meetmgs. One of these occurred about 1759, between 
Colonel Jonah Barrington 4i of Cullenaghmore and a Mr. Gilbert. It 
was fought on horseback before a great concourse of persons, with 
holster pistols and broad-bladed swords, both combatants receiving 
slight wounds, but escaping with life, and agreeing to shake hands as 
friends. Another ridiculous affair of the kind, between a Mr. Frank 
Skelton and an exciseman, occurred in 1783, during an election contest 
for the Queen's County.42 fhe living of Maryborough is a rectory in 
the diocese of Leighlin. In 1721, it was episcopally united to the rectory 
and vicarage of Kilcolmanbane, and to the vicarage of Straboe. It was 
then in the patronage of the bishop. 

Formerly a considerable trade in cotton flourished in Mary- 
borough, but it has long since disappeared ; still, owing to a 
favourable position, the town enjoys a fair distribution of local 
traffic.43 During the eighteenth "century, and far into the last, 
here and in the neighbouring town of Mountmellick, woollens 
and durants, or broad stuiis, furnishing a good material for 
women's wear, had been produced ; while some extensive Hour mills 
were in and near the town. These have since fallen to decay, and the 
local trade is now inconsiderable. Fine grain markets on each Thursday 
and large fairs were known in past years, but these likewise have 
dechned. Many interesting election anecdotes are told of contests for 
the representation of jNIaryborough, which, for the last time, was con- 
tested by Lord Castlecoote and the famous Sir Jonah Barrington, in the 
l)eginning of the year iSoo. Before the close of the eighteenth century, 
the borough court of Maryborough — having jurisdiction to any amount- 
was discontinued. When the borough was disfranchised, at the time 
of the Legislative Union of England and Ireland, Sir John Parnell and 
the Right Hon. Charles Henry Coote received between them, in two 
equal portions, the whole of the £15,000 compensation allowed, as m 
similar cases of political effacement.44 

In the eighteenth century, horse races and games were often held 

39 In reference to the De Vesci the town was divided between Lord 

acquisitions, we are thus informed : — Castlecoote and Sir John Parnell, Bart. 

" The tirst usurpation was brought about The remainder was distributed equally 

by a breakfast given to the exclusive and among the thirteen freemen who were 

monopolising burgesses, who, having there, with the reservation of a small 

made an illegal transfer of a large portion rent for the widows of freemen. Suice 

of the projierty on that occasion, the that period, no freemen havebeen elected, 

shrewd Lady de Vesci observed, perhaps See Lewis' " Topographipal Dictionary 

rather greedily, ' as thev,' the burgesses, of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 346. 

' had given so much for a breakfast, why *^ Grandfatherto Sir [onahBarnngton. 

not now try the effect of a dinner.' " Both of these rencontres are told 

There are other amusing facts and with much particularity and humour by 

anecdotes, that must enliven those who the facetious Sir Jonah Barrington, in 

have to unravel these iniquitous pro- " Personal Sketches and Recollectums 

ceedings." See Peter Gale's " Inquiry of his own Time," in the chapter headed 

into the Ancient Corporate System of " Duelling Extraordinary." 

Ireland," chap, iii., p. So, note, and p. "See the "National Gazetteer," 

100, ibid. vol. ii., p. 790. 

*" It was enclosed after the Vmon in *^ See " Parhamentary Gazetteer of 

1800, and the common of 200 acres near Ireland." vol. ii., p. 738. 


Oil the Green. In the beginning of the last century, a great liurling 
match was played there, between the most celebrated Jiurlers assembled 
from all parts of the Queen's County. So vast was the concourse of 
spectators who flocked to witness it, that all the bakers' and victuallers' 
siiops in I\Iaryborough were vun out of bread and meat, while the towns- 
people and visitors there were obliged to fast for a whole day or more 
U-fore the shops were again supi)lied. In the interim, extortionate prices 
wt're demanded and given for provisions. In 182T, the Kight Hon. 
William Wellesley Pole — who had so frequently been returned as 
inemlu-r of Parliament for the Queen's County — was created Baron of 
McU"yborough.45 He was second son of Garrett, fust Earl of jMornington, 
and elder brother to the famous Duke of Wellington. Through his 
influence at the War Office, he succeeded in getting military commissions 
lor many sons of the Queen's County voters, who supported him at the 
elections. Numbers of those officers distinguished themselves during 
the Peninsular War, in the regiments composed almost exclusively of 
Irishmen, and who fought with such determined bravery under the 
ronmiand of Lord Wellington. In 1829, the members of the Corporation 
of Maryborough had so diminished in number, that no legal election ot 
tifticers took place; however, the townspeople elected a burgomaster, 
bailiffs, and other corporate officers. In 1830, one burgess and two 
treemen of the old Corporation held a meeting, at which the former was 
elected burgomaster by the latter, who were also elected bailiffs by the 
former ; and the townspeople also elected the same number of officers 
without having had any legal authority in either case.4'' 

During many years preceding the date of the Municipal Inquiry 
Commission, the only jurisdiction of any kind exercised within the town 
as a borough was by the burgomaster, simply in his magisterial capacity. 
When that report was pubished in 1S33, it was stated, " The internal 
regulations of the town are deplorably bad. False weights and measures 
are in general use, by which all classes, and particularly the poor, suffer 
scverclv. This is a subject of well-founded and very general complaint. 
The town is not lighted, and the Act of 9 George IV., cap. 82, has not 
been put in operation here. "47 About the year 1835, the last vestige of 
the old castle, that remained within the Fort of ^Maryborough, was 
cleared away : 4^ but the ]i]ace \\here it stood is still jtointed out by the 
• lid townspeojile. It was about 200 ft. distant from the rere of a large 
business house,49 which faced the leading street in Maryborough. How- 
ever, the office of constable of that fort, although a sinecure, was still 
retained. 5u The area of Maryborough town is about 300 acres. Its prin- 
cipal street is irregular in width ; nevertheless it contains some resi:)ectable- 
kjoking houses. The streets which branch from it are few in number, 
l)ut they contain some good houses with a great many ill-ventilated 
and wretchedly built, as also many that are scarcely above the class of 
mere thatched cabins. However, there are some imposing public 
buildings, among which may be noticed the old gaol 5i and courthouse, 52 

*^ This nobleman was constable of the *'■' It then belonj^eil to a Air. Colman. 

fort and castle of Maryborough. ^'> See Lewis' " Topographical Diction- 

*^ See Lewis' " To])ographical Diction- ary of Ireland." vol. ii., p. 345. 

arv of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 345. ^^ This has been converted into a 

*'' See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of police barracks and a bridewell. 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 73S ^- Both of these binliHngs are off the 

'■^ By a jMr. Graves. main street of the town. 

jg8 iiiSTOKV or Tin-: oueen's count v. 

the infirmary,53 the infantry barracks, S4 the new county gaol, 5^5 the 
district hmatic asyhnn,5»theEpiscopahan,57 ^Methodist and Roman Catho- 
hcchurchcsSS with the Presentation Convent 59 and Christian Brothers' 
Schools. This town is the seat of the Queen's County assizes, courts of 
quarter sessions, during Hilary term, usually in January, during Piaster 
Term, usually in March or April, during Trinity Term, usually m June, 
and during Michaelmas Term, usually in October, while weekly courts of 
l^etty sessions are also held. It is the residence of a stipendiary magistrate, 
and the head-quarters of the county constabulary force. 

In 1831, the population of the town was 2,223, m 1841, it reached 
to 2,633, in 559 houses. The country around Maryborough is rather level, 
and 'devoid of ornamental demesnes. Near it, however, is Rathleague, 
formerly the fine residence of Sir John Parnell, and later still of his son, 
Sir Henry Parnell,afterwards Lord Congleton,but it has now greatly gone to 
decay ; Sheffield, the seat of the Cassans ; and Lamberton Park, finely 
wooded and picturesquely surrounded with wide ranges of scenery. 
Maryborough has a weekly market on Thursday, and fairs on January 
ist FebruaVv 24th, March 2=sth, April 14th, I\Iay 12th, June 5th, July 5th, 
August 5th, September 4th, October 23rd, November 13th, and December 
4th In 1831, the population of Borris parish, including the town of 
Maryborough, is returned as 5.300 ;6o in 1841, it is set down as 5,264 
and'living in 806 houses. This parish was a rectory m the dii)ce3e ot 
1 ei-hlin \ind the tithe composition was £302 6s. 2d. m 1846.^1 Ihe 
Triogue River effects the drainage northwards into the River Barrow, ihe 
other chief seats in this parish are Annbrook, Portran. Blooinheld, New- 
ixark and Borris. In general, the land is only of a middle quality m this 
parish and it is chiefly bog in the northern part. The tithes amounted 
to /3Q^ 0, i-Vl in 1S37. The glebe in the parish of Kilcolmanbane 
comprised only one acre, while the gross value of the benefice was 
/()()7 i6s 4^^ The value of the Maryborough living is now £450.- 
tlie Great Southern and Western Railway at present leaves Mary- 
borough witlun a two hours' run from Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland. 

CHAPTER XIV.— Parish of Castlkrrack. 

The pari'^h of Castlebrack forms the eastern portion of Hy-Regan 
territory i This tract was also called Dooregan, as shown on the old 
Map of Leax and Ophaly. Castlebrack was a part of the latter district, 
lying north-east of Ely O'Carroll or O' Carroll's country and not shire- 
gi-ound, but comprising a part of the Slieve Bloom range. Ihe source oi 

" It is a larc^e building of three storevs. Queen's Cuimties. as also for those of 

and built just outside the town in tlie Westincath and Longford. The expense 

be-mnmL-of the last century.havnig been of building and 22 acres of ground was 

opened In 1S08. /24.172. „ . . . u 1 

" These are intended to accommodate " The new Protestant church was 

a company of infantry, but they are built in the beginning of the last 

seldom occupied bv tlie military. century. Ihe board of hirst l-ruit^ con- 

5^ This was comi.leted in 1830, at a tnbutecl £500 towards its erection 

cost of £18,500. It is built on the radia- =« This was at first erected by the 

ting plan and surrounded by a lugh Very Rev. Nicholas O Connor P.P of 

^^.^jl ' Maryborough ; but considerable addi- 

6«'lt is intended for the King's and tions were made by his successor, Very 



/•//.'/, ^v/,r I 


a:?: /,. t'7.. 

\'..i. I. 

:-C |);i;^c l<)<). 


tlie Barrow is also shewn within it. On that Map it is marked Yregan — 
O'dun, and Baun Kcijjan is written across it, near the source of tlie 
Barrow ; but that name is not to be found in any part of the territory 
at present. According to John O'Donovan it is not of ecclesiastical 
origin, and in his opinion is not of great antiquity as it does not appear 
to have had a patron saint. He also tliinks, that this parish had been 
formerly divided between the parishes of Rosenallis and Rear\niore, 
and that the old church which lies ruined in the townland of Castlebi ack 
had been only a chapel-of-ease to the castle, from which its name had 
been received.- 

The parish of Castlebrack, situated in the barony of Tinnahmch, 
contains 9,275 a. 3 r. 24 ^.,3 in the most northerly part of the Queen's 
County. A large portion of it is under bog, and the surface is mostly 
level, the highest ground being only 4SS ft. above the sea. The River 
13arrow flows some miles on its western boundary. Castlebrack had 
iive townlands with 200 acres of profitable lands, and a glebe rated at 
/15 per annum, worth £6 m 1657.4 Barnaby Dunne, Esq., was then 
the patron. Here a castle, once strong and stately, had been erected by 
the Dunne family. Its last inhabitant was a Colonel Dunne's 

This parish had its name from that castle, which has been long since 
in ruins. A. httle to the north of this building stands — but of a more 
modern date— another old castle called Roskeen, of- which httle now 
remains. The only remarkable mansion in this parish is Cappalough. 
There is a remarkable moat at Castlebrack. Tn the beginning of the last 
century, the occupying tenant of the farm on which it was situated, 
L. M'Evoy, found under it some subterraneous passages.6 in the village 
annual fairs are held on the i6th of I\Iay, on the 12th of August, and 
on the 15th of November. 7 

This parish was a vicarage, and part of Oregan benehce, in the 

Rev. l;iniL-s J. Taylor, D.D., and p.p. of 2 See the letter of John O'Donovan, 

the parish. dated Stradbally, Deceml)er 8th, 1838, in 

f^y Founded by the Very Rev. Nicholas " Letters containing Information re- 
O'Connor, and since his time greatly lative to the Antiquities of the Queen's 
enlarged and improved. County, collected during the Progress of 

«" The Ecclesiastical Authorities state the Ordnance Survey in 1838," vol. i., 

it at only 5,2^4. pp. 212 to 21O. 

''1 See " I'arliamentary Gazetteer of 3 It is shown on the ' Ordnance Survey 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 7 ^7- Townland iMai)s for the Queen's County," 

"- See the " Irish Cliurch Directory and Sheets i, 3, 4, S, 

Year-Book for 1903," p. 125. * See William Shaw Mason's " Statis- 

1 An account of the division of Iregan tical Account or Parochial Survey of 

into four parts, places Castlebrack and Ireland," vol. iii.. No. xvi. " Union ui 

its appurtenances in the hrst division, Rosenallis or Oregan, Diocese of Kildarc 

and it is thus described : " The Castle of and Leighlin," by the Rev. John Baldwin 

the towne of Castlebracke, the hall, the Curate, sect. iv.. p. 318. 

parlour, att the end of the hall, the = See Sir Charles Coote's " General 

kitchen', the brewe-house, the l>ack- View of the Agriculture and Manu- 

house, and the west of the houses, within factures of the Queen's County," chap. 

the Bawen, the haggart, the barnes, on i., sect. 3. p. 10. 

the south side of the castle, the garden, " See William Shaw Mason's " Statis- 

the orchard, the parke, the stable, and tical Account or Parochial Survey of 

the houses for cattell on the west syde, Ireland," vol. iii., No. xvi. " Union of 

and all others the houses and tenements, Roscnalhs or Oregan, Diocese of Kildare 

for tenements, and other uses, situated aud Leighlin," by the Rev. John 

on the north and west partes of the said Baldwin, Curate, sect, iv., p. 318. 

towne of Castlebracke in the territorie 7 Sre the " National Gazetteer," vol. i., 

of Iregan, and in the Queen's Countie." p. 508. 


dioceses of K '' 're, Dublin and Glendalough. The glebe-house of 
Castlcbrack c ted only of the house and a small garden adjoining 
the burial-gro '. The population in 183T was 1,855. Ii^ 1S34, the 
Roman Cath( ' population was found to be 1,724 ; the Protestants 
numbering 126. In 1S37, the tithes amounted to /210 2s. 6d., of which 
;^I40 IS. 8d. w.'s payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the 
vicar.8 In 1811, the population reached 1,924, living in 318 houses.9 
In 1846, the vicarial tithes were compounded for ^^70 os. lod., and the 
rectorial tithes for ;^I40 is. 8d., the latter being im{)ropriate in General 
Dunne of Brittas. In the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, 
Castlebrack is united with Rosenallis. 

CHAPTER XV. — ^The Parishes of Clonenagh and Clonagheen. 

The very extensive and now united Parishes of Clonenagh and 
Clonagheen,! spread into the baronies of Cullcnagh - and Mary- 
borough East, 3 but chiefly into the barony of Maryborough West.-i 
The greater part of its surface is boggy or of second-rate quality ; it 
includes some minor elevations of the Slieve Bloom range towards 
the west. The River Nore in great part tlows through it, and a small 
tributary called the Shannon, on which the town of Mountrath is 
situated ; while the Ownass stream, which joins the River Barrow, 
describes the northern parochial boundary. The former excellent coach- 
road from Dublin to Limerick intersects Clonenagh and Clonagheen 5 
south-westerly, passing through the town of Mountrath. The public 
road as also ilie railroad, from Maryborough to Abbe\'leix, runs through 
the eastern verge of Clonenagh and Clonagheen Parishes ; much bog, 
with poor reclaimed land, and some fir plantations, extending on either 
side. 6 

During the eighteenth century the village of Clonenagh was the 
nucleus of a parish so named, in the Barony of Maryborough West, 
and situated about two miles eastward from the town of Mountrath. 7 
It has now dwindled to a few scattered houses and cabins, still standing 
near the site of its " Seven Churches," formerly so celebrated. All 
these have long since disappeared ; however, some ruins remain, and 
three places for interment. ^"^ Two of these are yet greatly frequented 

8 See Lewis' " Topographical Diction- jNIap was admeasured by Ambrose 

ary of Ireland," vol i., p. 290. Yorke ; the date, however, is burned 

1 They are shown on the " Ordnance oil. Boyley is the only church to 
Survey Townland Maps for the (Queen's be seen within its boumls. 
County," Sheets 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 16, "See "Ordnance Survey Townland 
17, iS, 23, 24. Maps for the Queen's County," Sheet 18. 

2 This portion contains jjia. 3>-. 23/5. ^ See the account of Clonenagh 

3 This portion contams 4,645^. ir. Parish in the letter of John O'Donovan 
16/'. dated, Mountrath, November 24th, 

^ This portion contains 41,770a. \r. 1838, in " Letters containing Information 

10/5. relative to the Antiquities of the 

^ On Sir William Petty's maps, the Queen's County in 183S," vol. i., 

parish of Clonkeene or Cloneheene pp. 38 to 80. 

is represented on a larger scale, with § One of these, on a mound of steep 

its townland denominations, and the ascent, seems now to be seldom dis- 

various acres of arable, meadow, pasture, turbed, although a few rude head-stones 

bog and shrub lands. This particular are to be found in it. 


and used by people living throughout all the adjaeent country. A 
number of surging hillocks rise here to a consideral)lc elevation over 
bogs and declivities that surround the site, which forms a very beautiful 
configuration of ground. Cluain-zEdnach or Cluain-Eidhniach is stated 
to have been in Laoighis or Leix,9 according to old documents. That 
it was a place of great importance formerly is known, not only because 
it was styled the great Cluain-Eadnach, but owing to the historic interest 
with which it has been invested, and the frequent recurrence of its 
referential entries in our Irish Annals. We are told, but incorrectl3% 
that Clonenagh was anciently called Cluain-Aitchin.^o Cluain-yEdnach, 
however, was the former mode for spelling this name ; and Cluain- 
Aitchin — not far from this place — was another form for Clonkeen. Some 
writers have rendered the denomination of Cluain-Eadnach, in Latin, 
" Latibulum Haederosum," ^^ or in English, "The Ivied Retreat," ^^ 
but without suificient warrant. The foundations of various old buildings 
are yet traceable at this place. However, the ruins of any church, 
having an antiquity of more than four centuries, are not to be seen there 
at present. 13 

The great monastery of Clonenagh owed its origin to the celebrated 
St. Fintan, the son of (_Kibhran.i4 He was born, it is supposed, at Clonkeen 
in Leix, not far from Maryliorough, according to a local tradition, nor 
is this opinion disjn'oved b}' any ancient record. It has been stated, 
that he and St. Brigid are derived from a common ancestor, ^ 5 both of 
them descending from Eochaidh Finnfuathairt's race.^^ The stone 
whereon Fintan had been baptised was shown, or at least there was 
a tradition regarding it, in mediaeval times. ^7 From early youth he 
was distinguished for his remarkable virtues, and his religious training 
began at Tirdaglas, near Lough Derg, on the River Shannon, where 
Columba,iS the son of Crimthann, had founded a celeljrated monastery, 
'.-arly in the sixth century. i'' According to Colgan, St. Columba, 

" Nothing can be more inaccurate by the glossographer to the FeiUre of 

than Abbe MacGeoghegan's statement, St. iEngus, in the " Leabhar Breac " copy, 

that it lay within the country of Hy- who states that Finntan was the son 

Regan, and that St. Fintan founded of Gaibrene, son of Bresal, who was 

also the Abbey of Achad-Ardglais, son of Den, and that here he and Brij^it 

otherwise called Achad-Finglass in the meet in their i)e(ligrees, as Fintan sjkI : 
same territory. See " Histoire d' " xXni]u\ imntieom biK\ijiijv\ 

Irlande, Ancieune et Moderne," tome i., T)oiu\Ia potmiicifi IJi-'g'-' poum 

seconde partie, chap, iii., p. 298. niichip-fij 

^^ See Rev. MerN-x'n Archdall's Cipe mipAf |\unti ^'ociii 

" Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 591, "Oejib tjojiia xioni'oife." 

n (f^'j. In luiglish it is thus rendered — 

" See Usshcr's " Britaunicarum Ec- " Womlrous this anvil of victory 

clesiarum Antiquitatcs," cap. xvii.. Which has come on my time ! 

p. 498. Whosoever turns here thrice 

12 See Rev. M. J. Brenan's " Ecclesia- Will surely come again." 

stical History of Ireland," sixth century, See "The Calendar of Oengus," 

chap, ii., p. 81. edited by W'diitley Stokes, LL.D., p. Hi., 

1^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of tlie in "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

Fcmr Masters," vol. i., n. (g), p. .^71. Academy," Irisli MS. Series, vol. i. 

1* Colgan has jiublished an old Life '« Sec Colgan's " Trias Thanmaturga," 

of this saint, illustrated with notes. Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. Brigidce, 

and an Appendix, in five chapters, cap. 3, p. 61,^. 
See " Acta Sanctorum Hibemia?," xvii. i'' See ibid., n. (f). 

Februarii ; Vita S. Fintaui, Abbatis is His feast occurs at the 13th of 

de Cluain-Ednech, pp. 349 to 3^7. December. 

'■■Such at least is the account given i'-' Sic the Life of St. Fintan. 



the son of Ciimthauii, ^vas the first Abbot ot CloiK-.uiL^h and afterwards 
he became the first Abbot over Tn'daghiss, havnii^ died a.u. 54«--' 
However, it seems quite clear, from the old Life of bi. Inntan,^' soir oi 
Gabhran, which Colgan has published, that the lormer samt was the 
spiritual director of the latter, whom he counselled to erect his habitation, 
and m this particular situation.^^ In former times, even dating back 
to St Fmtan's rather inconvenient recourse was had to Cionenagli, 
by p-ople who disturbed the retirement of its founder. As a consequence 
he sought a more secluded position among the adjoining recesses ot 
Slieve Bloom, until directed by St. Columba, the soii of Crimthann, 
to seek the place first chosen for his habitation. Thus begun the 
religious career of the renowned St. Fmtan, the son of Gabhran, who 
was abbot here, and he flourished about the year 5bo,=3 presiding over 
a number of laborious and fervent monks. From its earliest foundation 
the monastery became remarkable for the austerity of that rule -4 
established by St. Fintan ; but it was also distinguished for a seminary, 
which trained St. Comgall,-5 afterwards Abbot of Bangor, and some 
rarly fathers of the Irish church, as also several foreigners, who resorted 
thither from distant countries. As Gaul furnished a considerable con- 
tingent Clonenagh was called the Gahic school. Hospitality was a 
virtrrf 'recorl^mended to the monks of this establishment - although 
their own manner of living was very strict, and frequent fasts were 
enioined So rigorous were the practices of those inmates, that many 
aspirants to a recluse life found themselves unable to comply with its 
rules of living. Still St. Fintan himself never swerved m a single instance 
f om the observances he had instituted.^7 The holy lounder of Clonenagh 
died on the 13th of the calends of March,28 having served the Almighty 
in a most perfect state. Immediately before his decease, Fintan ap- 
pointed another St. Fintan, surnamed Maeldubh, as his successor, 
to rule over that monastery, already founded at Cloneiiagh.^9 However 
some mistake has occurred m sui>posing that a ^t. Fmtan, son of 
Ciimthann, and also abbot here, made such an appointment.30 it has 
been conjectured, that St. Fmtan, son of Gabhran, departed this life 
before the year SQo, and on the 17th of Februaiy.31 „ , 1 

Afterwards 'the Abbot St. Fintan, the son of Crimthann, called also 
Corach,33 who was bishop of Clonfert, it is thought, ruled over the 

Abbot and Patron of Clonenagh, earth or water, accordi.i,; to the Litany 

.< T • \-.f t),r. Tri^h flints' vol 11 26 5(^y IveV. M.. J. isrcnan t. l^i-eicsi. 

-Lives of the lu.h ^amts nol u.^ J ^^_^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

February xvu., Art. 1., pp. ^74 to ^.t^^^Jj^^^^^^^ J Christianity into that 

20 See Coli?an's "Acta Sanctorum country to the year MDCCCXXIX. 

Hibernicc" xvii. Februarii. Appendix Sixth century, chap, u., p. 61 
S'Jitam S. Fmtani, Atjatis de Cluain- ;; .ee .^... cja,. 111.^ ,. 90^^^^^^^^^ 

'-'.fu'is'fikrto ?iave been taken .. Hibenna., x^vii, F^^-^-'V. 'T^.n' 
codice '' Kill-Kenniensis.- Fmtan., Abbatis de Cluain-Edaech, cap. 

;; III ^SSf- ^[/-Sanctorum ^^^'k!^^ Ujf^f^ |lt,Finta.. 
HibernL," xvU. Februarii. Appendix taken from the Book of Kilkenny, 
ad Acta S. Fmtani. Abbatis de Cluam. ^hap^xxiv^^^^^^^^^^,^ _, Monasticon Hiber- 


Ednech, cap. iv., p. 35^- , • . ■ ... 

2* The monks partook not of any kmd mciim, p. ^r r. .-c 

of food or drmk, save the roots of the 3i See zbid.. n. 26, p. 3.5- 


iiKuiastcry of Clunen;it,'li.33 However, it does not seem to be well estab-'jcl, that he could have been more than a simi)le monk m this place. 
He is said lo have died, according' to some aeeounts, on the 2ist ; 34 
others liave it on the 17th of February, in the year 603.35 At this latter 
date, Ussher places the death of St. Fmtan, "Abbot of Clonenagh ; yet 
he does not seem to distinguish this i-)ersona,i:,'e from the first founder of 
the monnsterv.36 h IS stated, also, that the Abbot of Clonenagh, Fintan 
.Moeldubh, duel a.d. 625.3? From various calendars and lives of Irish 
saints, Colgan supjdies the memorials of holy men and superiors, who 
were connected with this monastery during the sixth and seventh 
centuries, 3^ nearly in the order we have adopted for their periods. On 
the 2ist of October died St. Munna, the son of Tulchan, who was callefl 
Fintan. He was bishop and abbot over Clonenagh monastery.39 His 
departure from this life has been assigned to a.d. 634. About the 
sear 639 died St. Cobban, who at first had founded a monastery at 
Old Leiglilin. Having resigned this place to St. Laserian, he chose 
another habitation at Killamery, in Ui-Caithrenn in the west of Ossory. 
1 1 is said that he had a thousand monks under his direction. Whether he 
held jurisdiction over those of Clonenagh or not seems to be unrecorded ; 
but it is likely he died tliere, as in it his relics were preserved.4o St. 
Aidan, the son of Concrad, was set over Clonenagh. On November 
2ist, died the abbot,4i and, as is supposed, som^ time about the 
seventh century .42 About the middle of that century, the Abbot 
Moasacra, son of Senan, flourished. He is said to have been Abbot of 
Clonenagh ; while he belonged also to Tegsacra, or Saggart,43 and 
Fionmagh in Lemster. His feast occurs at the 3rd of March, when 
Colgan has some notices regarding him.44 At the year 685, the Abbot 
Ossen is incorrectly introduced, as belonging to Clonenagh ; 45 rather 
is he called Bishop of Mainister where his death is rccorded.46 

The Abbot Maelaithgen next appears on record, and he is venerated 
as a saint at the 21st of October. The great monastery of Clonenagh, 
under direction of the saintly Abbot Malathgenius, had enjoyed a high 
reputation, both for the number and sanctit\' of its inmates. During 
the time of Maelaithgen's rule over this house, and about the middle 

^' Because of his melodious voice, *'^ He is :ilso called Gobban-Fionn, 

it is thought, and of a supposition that and his least is entered at the 6th of 

as a chorister, he taught the monks a December, in the " Martyrology of 

new style for singing psalms. Donegal." See Drs. Todd and Reeves' 

^3 See Archdall's " Monasticon edition. 

Mibernicum," p. 592. " See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 

^' See some account of him, at that Hiberni.e," xvii. Februarii. Appendix ad 

date, in Rev. John Canon O'Hanlon's Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain- 

" Lives of the Irish Saints," vol. ii., Ednech, cap. iv., p. 356. 

.Art. ii, pp. 657 to 660. *- See Archdall's "Monasticon Hiber- 

^■' See Harris' "Ware," vol. iii., book i., nicum," p. 592. 

chap. XV., p. 302. *■' Near Tallaght, and about six or 

'■^° See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum seven miles from Dublin. 

Antiquitates," cap. xiu., p. 237, cap. ** See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernire," 

xvii., ji. 498, and inde.x Chronologicus, IMartii iii. De S. Sacro sive JNIosacro, 

p. 536, at A.D. DCni. Abbate, p. 454. 

^^ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum ^^ See Archdall's "Monasticon Hiber. 

Hibernia\" xvii. Februarii. Appendix nicum," ]). 592. 

ad Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain- *" See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

Ednech, cap. iv., p. ^^6. the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 292, 293. 

'*' See iliid. *'' His supposed festival and acts have 

39 Sec Md. been set down by Colgan at the iitii 



of the eighth centui\y, /Eiigus, the celebrated son of Ocngobhan, more 
generally known as the Culdee,47 preferred his suit for admission within 
its enclosure, and his request was favourably received. But his earl\- 
noviciate, in the exercise of all virtues, had jn'eceded the care bestowed 
by that holy abbot, on his youthful disciple. His daily progress in 
the paths of Christian sanctity, and his advancement in sacred learning, 
were aided by application and capacity, to such an extraordinary degree, 
that in a short time he bore the reputation of being one among the most 
sanctihed and erudite men, of whom Ireland could then boast. St. 
.Engus must have been a disciple of St. Malaithgen before the year yGyA^ 
That other yEngus, who wrote his eulogy in ek-gant metre, has told us, 
/Engus the Culdee had studied from boyhood in the monastery of Clone- 
nagh. Afterwards, when he had been celebrated for his miracles, he 
hved in the monastery of Tallaght, before St. Alelruan's death, which 
occurred a.d. 7S7. It is supposed therefore to follow, that he studied in 
the monastery of Clonenagh under St. Alalathghen ; 4') and most probably 
he was a religious there, even after the death of that holy Abbot. Erom 
Clonenagh, he went at first to Dysart Enos, as has been supposed — 
and thence he proceeded to Coolbanagher, not far distant. From this 
latter place, he went to Tallaght, near Dublin. There he is thought 
to have laboui-ed, with the holy Abbot, St. Maelruain,^" ni comi)iling 
the famous " Martyrology of Tallaght," which has CQuie down to our 
time. "51 The distinguished superior Maelaithgen,5- alias I\Ioetlogan,5-5 
Abbot of Cluain-Eidhneach, died in the year of our Lord 767. His name 
is Latinized Maelathgenius.54 After leaving Tallaght, according to 
some accounts, the celebrated anchorite St. /Engus retired to his first 
chosen place, near the Al)bey of Clonenagh. Erom him it afterwards 

of March ; but in reality we liave some of the Calcjular or ' ]\Iartyrology of 

reason to doubt that many of those Tallaght.' referred to by Colyan, wliich 

conjectures regarding him are well is, however, itself also unfortunately 

established. imperfect, owing to the loss of a leaf. 

*8 The death of " Maelaithgen, Abbot The defect includes the whole of 

of Cluain-Eidhneach," occurred in the November and the first sixteen days 

year 767. See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of December. This Calendar is a 

of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 370, transcript of a very ancient martyrology, 

^71. The feast of St. Malathgenius containing a list of the saints and 

IS observed on the 21st of October, martyrs ot the universal Church under 

according to our Irish Calendarists. each day of the year, the Irish saints 

*^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum being added at tlie end of each day, 

Hiberni;c," xi. Martii,-)n. 4, p. 5S2. and separated from the rest by a 

'•'^ His feast occurs on the 7th of peculiar mark. The Calendar com- 

July. mences on Christmas day, and not 

'■i This work was contained in the as is more usual, on the Kalends of 

" Book of Leinster," a MS. of the January. At the beginning is this 

twelfth century, preserved in the title in rubric : — 

library of Trinity College, Dublin, but " Incipit Martira oengluisa mc Oibleau 

it has long disappeared from that volume, at Maolruain ic " (i.e., hie), 
which is now very imperfect. Neverthe- Here basins the Alaftyrolugy of CEngns 

less, the Rev. Dr. Todd states : "During Mac Oibleau and Maolntaiit. 
my visit to Rome, in 1862, I found ^'- See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

eleven of the missing leaves of this the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 370, 371. 
precious manuscript (which I recognised ^3 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 

at once), among the documents kindly Hiberniie," xi. Martii, De S. /Fngusio 

shown me by tiie superior of St. Isidore's Hagiagrapho, Episcopo et Confessore, 

convent. These leaves contain some u. 4. p. 582. 

of the curious tracts attributed to ^* See ibid., xvii. Februarii. Appendix 

Aengus Cede De, together with a copy ad Acta S. Fintani, cap. iv., p. 356. 

TAKi^in -1 oi- cl()Ni;n'.\(;ii and ri.(-)NAr,iii:EN. 205 

I'ore tlu- ii.iiiu- t.l l)i-<-it .1Cn,L;ui>, or l)\>art Knos. Thence he returiKtl 
to ('liii'.<n.iL,'ii. It IN not known ;it which of these jilaces he wrote 
the w.Il-kn"\sn I'<ihrc, or Fcstilogy.^^ That the writer of this poem 
U.I-, .il.!.>t .it ClotUTiaj^h, as also at I)isert-Aen,i;ns, is possilTe ; and 
("i'K;.in <<!--< rv^■^, that his own hints are e\-en stron^^er as to the 
l.itt<T I K-.> <■. 'lh:s matter can easily he settled. As both places lay 
I!' .ir 1 .1' h other, within the Ixirony of Maryborough, Aengus might have 
\\xu »<;:;;.., ted with Ixjth these establishments. Disert-Aengus, which 
t:oit;i!.-:i«' d with lumself, may be considered simply as a cell to the 
older .«:id ^'rv.itj-r monastery at Clonenagh ; or most probably it formed 
>>;\r .,! tiif'X' earlier missionary stations, when a priest hved in connexion 
ujth tJie • hurcli, and ministered to the spiritual necessities and con- 
^'>l.^!I'<:iS oi a niral j)Oj-)ulation. The early Christian pastors of former 
\u^U j .inshcs ^<ein to have lived in a very simple and austere manner. 
Y( t Jt !•» jw>>MhIc the spot chosen for his last retreat was Disert Bethech, 
'•; l>.^» riU .igh, not far from the River Nore. 

lU-|<«:c the commencement of the ninth century, no less than eight 
l-i:;t.ui>, commemorated as saints, NV^ere buried at Clonenagh; while it 
wa> found inipo-^sible to count other monks who were there interred, 
.1^ *'.i!'d in the Litany attributed to St. .Engus the Culdee.56 This 
iuAv and learned anchorite died, it has been supposed, on the nth 
.M.ireh, between the years S19 and 830.57 According ^to some, his life 
•■tided at Clonenagh ; others have it at Disert Bethach, not far from 
that monastery. 

Onoting MacGeoghegan for his authority, Archdall states ^s that 
t!i.- .Abljey of Clonenagh was destroyed by the Danes, a.d. 838. Another 
liitrv has it, that the foreigners ])lundered Clonenagh in 840.59 It 
'<eem^, that in a double capacity over Clonenagh ruled Aid, a venerable 
abbot, who was also the abbot of Tirdaglass, near Lough Derg, in 
the County of Tipperary. Having in the year 843 destroyed the fortress 
<«l Dunamase, in this country of Leix, the Danes carried him into Munster, 

■■'■' In his Introduction to " Martyrology gaje the faith among pagans, or who were 

..( Donegal," the Rev. Dr. Todd thus buried in the same monastery, or lived in 

lichcnlics thi' I'l-'ilire of -Engus Ceilc Do : communion in the same church, or 

■' l'"()ur lines in rhyme are devoted to lastly, who ^vere joined together hv 

c.uh day uf the year, and the author any other like titles." The vast 

h.ii imjiosed on himself the task of number of foreign saints who were 

introducing into those four lines the buried in Ireland, whose intercession 

names of the saints commemorated on is invoked in this Litany, alfords tlu' 

tl'.,it ilay. The copy of tliis work strongest proof of the great inllux ol 

pieserved in the lilirary of the Royal foreign ecclesiastics to Ireland in the 

Irish Academy, and a still more perfect fifth and sixth centuries. The I.itany 

copy in the Bodleian Library, Oxfortl, has been published in the " Irish ]'~.ccle- 

are accompanied by a copious inter- siastical Record," First Series, vol. iii., p. 

linear gloss and scholia, containing some 38=;. 

\-ery curious legends and traditions, " gee Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 

which throw great light on the ancient Hibernian," xi. Martii, De S. /Engusio, 

state of religion and of society in Ireland Hagiographo, Episcopo et Confessore, 

down to the eleventh century." cap. xvi., p. 582. 

''" " The Litany of yT2ngus," written 58 g^'e " Alonasticon Ilibernicum," p. 

about 79S, is descrii:)ed by Sir James 592. 

Ware, as " A book of litanies in which, so y^-e Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

in a long series of daily prayers, are the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 462, 463. 

invoked some companies of saints so See Colgan's " .Acta Sanctorum 

who were either school-fellows under Hiberni.e," xvii. Februarii. Appeiuhx 

the same master, or, wlio joined in ad Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis dc Cluain- 

sociely under the same leader, to pro])u- Ednech, cap. iv., p. 356. 



and there, on the Sth of July, they crowned him with martyrdom.^" 
The abbot Laichtene, of Clonenagh monastery, died a.d. 866.'^ i The 
abbot Ainbhchcllach,6- son to Fonascach, also styled Ainbeceally 
MacFonasky, died in the year S72. His name is Latmized Anbhchei- 
lachus, filius Fonaschii.63 The Abbot Colga, son to Caithniadh,'^4 
also called Colgc ^IacCothnia,65 died in the year 890. His name is 
Latinized Colgus filius Catlinire.^S In the year 898, '^7 the abbot Mael- 
carain, or IMoel Kieran, of Clonenagh, departed this life.^^ He also was 
abbot of Tirdaglass. His name is Latinized ''9 as IMoel Kieranus Abbas 
de Cluain-ednech et Tyrdaglas. Tibraide,7o or Tiopraide,7i Latinized 
Tipradiiis, bishop of Cluain-ednech, departed this life in the year 909.''- 
That a bishop, as distingushed from the abbot, usually resided at Clone- 
nagh, is very cleaidy shown, not only from the circumstance, that at 
this year and in the same place, another monastic superior dej^arted 
to another world beyond the grave, but his name even is quite a different 
one from that borne bj' the bishop. In the year 909 73 the abbot of 
Cluain-eidnech, who is named Litheach, was called away from this life. 74 
The monastery was plundered and destroyed, according to Archdall, 
in both the years 009 and 919, but this appears to be an error, in the 
first instance due to a t3'pographical inaccuracy in Colgan's work. In 
the year 919, the abbey of Cluain-eidncach was ]:)hindered, 75 wlille the 
oratory of Mochua,76 and Fearna-mor-Maedhog 77 were, burned by the 
foreigners. "s In 922 79 died Duibhlitir,79 abbot of Cluain-eidhneach. 
His name is Latinized Dubhlitirius Abbas de Cluain-edhnech.Si 

In the year 927^2 departed the abbot of Cluain-eidhneach, Tuathal, 
son of Maelcarain, or, as rendered otherwise, Toole MacMaoilciar.ui.'.i 

"1 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

the Four Masters." vol. i., pp. 504, 505. 

"-' See ibid, pp. 518, 519. 

•^^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernian" xvii. Februarii. Appendix 
ad Vitam S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain- 
Ednech, cap. iv., p. 356. A typographi- 
cal inaccuracy has substituted T for F 
in his father's name. 

"* See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 544, 545. 

•^5 See Archdall's " MonasUcon Hiber- 
nicum," p. 592. 

'^^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
Ilibernia;," xvii. Februarii. Appendi.x 
ad Vitam S. Fintani, cap. iv., p. 356. 

•^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 556, 557. 

'•s See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernias," xvii. Februarii. Appendi.x; 
ad Acta S. Fintani, cap. iv., p. 356. 

i^'-' See Archdall's " Monaslicon 

llibernicum," p. 592. 

"^ See Duald MacFirbis in " Pro- 
ceedings of tlie Royal Irish Academy." 
Irish MSS. Series. Vol. i., Part i., pp. 
100, 101. See, also. Dr. O'Donovan's 
'■ Annals of the Four IMasters," vol. ii., 
pp. 5 So, 58 1 . 

■''•See Archdall's " IMonasticon lliber- 
nicum," p. 59-. 

''" Sec Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
Ilibernia'," xvii. Februarii. Ajipi'udix ad 
Acta S. i''intani, cap. iv., \). 350. 

■'^ A typograpliical inaccuracy in 
Colgan's work has the date 919. See 
Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol. ii., ])p. 580, 5S1. Archdall 
has rightly corrected the error in his 
" Monasticon tliberiiicuni," [1. 59J. 

"^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
IIil)eini:e," x\'ii. Februarii. Appendix 
ad Acta S. Fintani., ca[). iv., p. 356. 

'-' See Colgan's " Truis Thaumaturga," 

P- '^3?'- 

■''' Now Timahoe, Queen's County. 

■'■' Now Ferns, County Wexford. 

"8 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. Oo(), 607 

''•> See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 
nicura," p. 592. 

'" See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals o 
the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 610, 611 

''i See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorun 
IIiberni;e," x\-ii. I'ebriiarii. Apjieiuiix 
ad Acta S. hintaui, Al>l)atis de Cluain- 
Ednech, ca]:). i\'., p. 350. 

*=- See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 
the Four IMasters," vol. ii., pp. 620, 621. 

^'^ See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 
nicum," p. ;02. 

*** See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 



This name is Latinised Tuathalius, Alius i\Ioel-Kierani.^4 In the year 
^37, Ceallachan, the King of Cashel, assisted by the Danes of Watertord, 
laid waste the country of Meath as far as Clonard.'^S They pillaged 
and sacked this monastery of Clonenagh,S6 with that of Killachaidh,^? 
making the abbots Conchaur and Muredach prisoners. These are 
called, likewise, Muireadhach Ua Conchobhair, and Coibhdeanach, 
son of Beargdha. Owing to the apposition of the Four Masters, we 
may consider the first-named to have been the Abbot of Clonenagh.^^ 
Again, Ceallagh, the son of Eporan, Bishop of Clonenagh,S9 died ni 
the year 940.90 Xhis entry is Latinized as Ceallachus fiUus Eporani, 
1-^piscopus de Cluain-edhnech.91 Gormghilla, the son of Ceandubhain, 
became arch-prior of this abbey. He was barbarously murdered by 
the neighbouring inhabitants 92 in the year 965.93 Some of the Ossorians 
are charged with this murder.94 Muireadhach Ua Conchobhair, or 
C)'Conor,95 who was bishop and successor to Finntan of Cluam-eidhneach, 
died A.D. 970.96 xt seems most probable, that he was the abDot already 
named, and who had been taken prisoner in the year 937, thus surviving 
that event thirty-three years. He was probably very old at the time 
ol his death. By Colgan 97 he is called Muredachus Oconchubhair. 
We are informed that Diarmit, who had been a lector or professor at 
Kildare, and a man of uncommon eruditioa,9S became aboot over 
Clonenagh. Lie is called likewise a scholastic of Kildare, while he was 
remarkable for his exquisite literary acquirements.99 His fame and 
virtues were recorded in an Irish poem, from which the following lines 
have been translated : — 

" Diarmaid, stronghold of noble wisdom, a man of generous fame, 
of great battle ; 
Pity, O king of the righteous laws, that death has now approached 
"him." 100 

Hibcrniaj," xvii. Februarii. Append'x s-' See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

ad Acta S. Fintani, cap. iv., p. 356. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. oSS, 68(j. 

"'' See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of ^^ See Colpan's " Acta Sanctorum 

the Four ]Masters," vol. ii., pp. 638, ll!bernix>," xvii. Februani. Appendix 

630. acl Acta S. Fintani, cap. iv., p, 356. 

'''' See Archdall's " Munasticon Iliber- "^ See Archtlall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

nicum," p. 59S. nicuin," p 593. 

*>'' Now Killeigh, in the Kinf^'s County. '•"'• See Duald jNIacFirbis, in " Pro- 

'■^ Colgan, however, has " Conchuarus ceedinps of the Royal Irish Academy." 

ct Muredachus de Cluain-Fdhnech et Irish MSS. Series. ■ Vol. i., part. ' i., 

Kill-Achaidh capti," &c. See " .Acta pp. 100, lor. Also, see Dr. O'Donovan's 

Sanctorum Hibernia2," xvii. Februarii. " Annals of the Four Masters," vol. li., 

.Appendix ad Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis pp. 694, 695. 

Cluain-Fdnech, cap. iv., p. 356. "^ See "Acta Sanctorum Iliberni.e," 

'^^ See Archdall's "Monasticon Pliber- xvii. Februarii. Appendix ad Vitam 

nicum," p. 593. S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain-Ednech, 

^0 See Duald MacFirbis in "Pro- cap. iv. p. 356. 

ceedings of the Royiil Irish .Vcademy." ''^ See Arclidall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

Irisii MS. Series. Vol. 1., part, i., pp. nicum," p. 592. 

100, loi. Also, Dr. O'Donovan's ^^ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 

" .Xnnals of the Four Masters," vol. ii. Hibernian," xvii. Februarii. Appendix 

pp. 644, G45. ad Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain- 

"1 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernic," Fdnech, cap. i\^, p. 350. 

xvii. Februarii. Appendix ad Acta 1°" See Dr. O'Donovan's " .Annals of 

S. Fintani, Abbatis de Cluain-Ednech, the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 7J8, 

cap. iv., p. ^^6. 729. 

"2 Thus is it stated in Archdall's io» See Colgan's "Trias Thauma- 

*' Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 593. turga," p. 633. 


He died in the year 991. loi In the year 1007, Tuathal O'Conchobhair, 
successor to Finntan — most probably of Clonenagh — died.'"- The 
noble Donghal Ua Coibhdheanaigh, or Donnghal 0'Coibhdeany,io3 
a priest of Cluain-eidhneach, departed this life in the year 1071.104 
]3y Colgan he is styled Donnghalius Ocorbhdhcanaigh, pra^sbyter de 
Cluaineidhnech. Thenceforward we find no historic accounts, and 
we may probably attribute the circumstance to a gradual decline, 
until a succession of monks had failed to support this ancient estab- 
lishment. After the monastery disappeared, Clonenagh was converted 
into a parish church. A valuable compilation, comprising some historic 
tracts, and known as the Book of Clonenagh, had long been preserved, 
after the dissolution of the monastery. It is thought to have 

been written by the monks, nor does it appear to have been completed 
until after the twelfth century. 

When Dr. Geoifry Keating wrote his History of Ireland, io5 early in 
the seventeenth century, he refers to it as amongst the books ■■ that 
are to be seen at this day," and he quotes many passages from it in the 
course of his work. The following extract from the Book of Clonenagh, iot> 
relating to the synod of Kells, is given by Keating : — '' In the year 
1157, from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, being bissextile, 
was celebrated in the Spring;, a noble council at Ceannannus, in which 
presided Cardinal John, a priest of St. Laurence ; there were present — 
twenty-two bishops, and five bishops-elect, and very rnany abbots and 
})riors, on the part of the blessed Peter and Paul, and our apostolic 
Lord Eugenius. The synod condemned usury and adopted every means 
to extirpate it, and commanded that tithes be paid by apostolic authority. 
He delivered four palliums to the four archbishops of Ireland, namely — 
of Dublin, Tuam, Cashel, and Armagh. ]\Iorcover, he constituted, 
as was proper, the Archbishop of Armagh primate over the rest. As 
soon as the council was ended, Cardinal John at once set out, and on 
the ninth of the Kalends of April, crossed the sea." Then follow 
the names of the bishops who took part in the council, amongst whom 
we find Finn MacTireeain, bishop of Kildare, and Dungal O'Keilly, 
bishop of Leighlin. 

In the year 1657, a map of Maryborough barony, in the Queen's 
County, was ad-measured by Ambrose Yorke. It appears to Tnclude 
the present baronies of Maryborough East and West. The latler 
scems to have comprised the parish of Clonenagh, with Cloncheene, 
which latter extended into the barony of Cullenagh. Moncrath's 
church — now the site for Clonenagh — is marked on the map. 107 Of 

1°* See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals »<>'■ Not far away is Ballifinae House 

of the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. (castellated) with its surrounding timber 

7 5^' 759- and bog characterized as forfeited lands. 

^'^^ See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- The River Ownassa bounds them on the 

nicum," p. 593. north. 

'"♦See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of !"« Not far from it, on the same strean\, 

the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 900, 901. is the iron mil! at Dysertbeagh. We^t- 

1°^ See l^art. ii., edition of 1S41. ward of these denominations the castle. 

1'^ There are reasons for thinking from which Castletown derives its name, 

that this precious historical treasure is situated on the right bank of the Nore. 

was at one time preserved m the library and a church is on the left bank, within 

of Ballyfm house, and consequently the present townland denoiniuation 

that it may still exist. See " Lives of of Dysertbeagh. The Red Castle of 

the Irish Saints," vol. ii., p. 591. Upper Monerath is near Clonenagh. 

i . 

1, •vii4>VV-H>V.j|^jA 1 


Sl-O p.l-C 20(J. 


( I'l. 1111 ( '. in^r'-'n', ^ . 


c i>.il;c 170. 


course the tovvn of Monerath, designated by a few houses on a stream 108 
IS now known as Mountrath. Much of the parish of Clonena^h is there 
represented as for eited lands. To the soutli appear denonunations 
of several to^ynlands. Amon,^^ these are named Cloanadogas, Roscoltean 
Cromoge and its church, Cappabegkinny, Killeany, Scotchrath, where 
tluje IS a fort, Iron Mill m Dvsartheagh, "Tinnekilly, Coulty, with woods 
and bogs. Knockme^- and Clonrusk are also represented as forfeited, 
on the verge of Burres parish. The remainder of Clonenagh parish 
consisted of unforfcited lands.109 Clonenagh was a parish, and it had 
preserved an old church, witliin tlie diocese of Leighlin, during the 
eighteenth century.'-" This was used for the pun)oses of Protestant wor- 
ship during the earlier years of the last century, but it was suffered to 
lai^se into decay and it was finally unroofed, when another building? 
to replace ithad been erected in the town of Mountrath. The adjoining 
grave-yard is used as a place of interment, chiefly for Protestants • on 
the opposite side of the road, is another cemetery, in which Catholics 
exclusively are interred. At least three priests lie interred here • 
the tomb-stones are so over-run with weeds and grass, that it is very 
dilhcult to decipher tlirm."i On the roadside, the well of St. Fintan 
is pointed out. It does not, it is said, occupy its original site, which 
was 111 the adjoining lield ; the owner of this held contrived to divert the 
spring to the place it occupies at present. An old- tree opposite the 
well is popularly supposed to be sacredly connected with it. In some 
cavities withm the trunk, water is said to be at all times found, and to which 
healing properties are ascribed. 

Formerly the Protestant Church was at Clonenagh ; but in 1796 one 
more commodious was designed and built, chiefly at the expense of the Earl 
of Mountratli I'- in the town from which his title had been derived. 
The incumbent has an annual income at present ot /'575.113 The town 
had been founded by the Cootu family in 162S. ^"The large bogs ot 
Dcrrymore and Derrybeg— the names of which indicate a former growth 
ot oak-woods there— extend eastwards from Mountrath. The principal 
seat near the town is Forest House, in a park similarly named. The 
hvmg m the patronage of the crown was a rectory in the diocese of 
Leighlm, and formerly valued at £1,125. The Great Southern and 

109 Very nearly corresponding are Haec est requies mea in a-ternuin • 

the denommations on the maps copied Hie habitabo quoniam ele^i earn." 

by General Valiancy from the originals Two other stones mark the graves oi 

in the National Library, Paris. See priests, bearing the following inscrip- 

vol 11 No. 64. Record Ollice, Dublin. tions :— " Here lieth the body of the 

^ I'oSee Rev Mervyn Archdall's Rev. Daniel Horohan, who departed 

Monasticon Hibernicum," pp. 591 to this life the 13th dav of November in 

593- ihis work was published in- the year of our Lord, 1749 aged 60 

Jm'^V ''■^■' '^^■^' •^^''- vcars." Also " Here lieth the body of the 

"1 After a vigorous apphcation of Rev. Denis Lalor, who departed this 

brush and water, one of these revealed life the 26th March, 1762 in the 44111 

the following interesting inscription : — year of his age " 

''Here heth the body of the Revd. 112 See the '"'National Gazetteer" 

Lawrence Colkton, Pastor of Clonenagh, . vol. ii., p. 895 

Bachelor of Divinity in the Sorbonne, ^^^ Sec "The Irish Church Directory 

and Archdeacon of the Diocese of and Year Book for 190^' p 1^4 

Leighhn who departed this hfe, the The town and environs of 'Mountrath 

of September, in the year of our are shown on the "Ordnance Survey 

Lord, 1788, aged, 66 years. Requiescat Townland Maps for the Queen's County '' 

in Pace. Sheet 17. 



Western Railway passes near Ck)nenagh, and has the station named 
Mountrath and Castletown. The town of Mountrath, with its fine- 
looking, capacious old houses, is of considerable size, and one hundred 
years ago was a hive of busy indu^-try, especially in the weaving of 
stuffs and tammies — the latter a mixture of homr-grown flax and 
imported cotton. A monastery of Patrician Monks has long been 
established here, and they conduct a boarding as well as a day-school 
for the education of boys. Even previous to this foundation, a convent 
for ISrigidine Nuns was provided on the i8th of April, iSoq, bv three 
Sisters, who proceeded thither from the mother house in Tullow, County 
of Carlow. The Catholic history of Mountrath which is the head 
station — and of the parish of Clonenagh, is fully set forth ir- the Most 
Rev. Dr. Comerford's " Collections relating to the Dioceses of Kildareand 
Leighlin," vol. TIL, pp. 291 to 304. A fine Gothic Catholic Church has 
been erected in the town by a former Parish Priest, Very Rev. James 
Dunne ; the architect was Mr. John Butler, Dublin. In 1868, there were 
five or six chapels and meeting-houses for Presbyterians, Quakers, 
and Dissenters. There were also nineteen day schools, nine of which 
were National. "4 In the town are a market-house, mills, a brewery 
and a police station ; also a dispensary, which last is within the Mount- 
mellick Poor-Law Union. Saturday is the market day, and fairs are 
held on the 17th of February, St. Fintan's Day, on the 8th of May, 
on the 20th of June, on the loth of August, on the 19th of September, 
and on the 6th of November. 

In Kilbrickan townland, south of Mountrath, and on the banks 
of the River Nore, there is a church in ruins.ii5 It is within the orna- 
mental grounds surrounding Kilbrickan House. "^ Near Clonenagh 
is also the site of the ruins of Red Castle, probably erected in the 
sixteenth century. 

The very ancient church formerly called Cluainchaoin, and now 
written Clonkeen,'i7 was situated a few miles eastward from Clonenagh, 
and near to Bocluain. The site is still traditionally remembered ; 
and it is at a place now called Churchfields,"^ where an old burial-ground 
was still used in the early part of the last century. "9 Another name 
by which this locality appears to have been recorded, was Cluain-Aitchenn. 
Aticicntly it would seem to have been united as a parish with Clonenagh, 
and most jirobably after the monastery disappeared at the latter place. '-o 
In old documents this union is called Clonehine or Clonkeen and Clonenagh. 
We are told tliat Cluainchaoin was an ancient monastery, not far distant 
from Clonenagh. 12 1 Jt is not improbable, that, besides a church, some 
religious estal^lishment there existed in remote times. It is possible, 
too, that the celebrated St. Fmtan,i22 founder and first Abbot of 
Clonenagh, was born at this Clonkeen. 123 Father Hugh Ward has 

11* See the "National Gazettrer," >*8 The place has been identified by 

vol. i., p. 605. Dr. O'Donovan. 

i>* See the " Ordnance Survey Town- ^i" See a wood engraving and a des- 

land Maps for the Queen's County," cription of the spot in Rev. John Canon 

Sheet 17. O'Hanlon's '' Lives of the Irish Saints,' 

11" See ibid. Sheet 23. vol. ii., Art. i. Life of St. Fintan of 

'1^ It is in the Barony of Maryborough Clonenagh, chap, i., p. 576. 

West, and detineij on the " Ordnance "" We lose historic trace of its 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's existence after the eleventh century. 

County," Sheets 12, 17, iS. ' '2' See Colgan's '' Acta Sanctorum Hi- 



placed the following saints at Clonkeen ; but as there were other places 
so called in different parts of Ireland, we may not too hastily conclude 
that all of tliose whose names follow belong to this place : — Thus, 
Aruinus or Aaron, said to have been venerated at the 15th of August, 124 
Daghdus,i25 whose feast occurs on the i8th of August ; and Dimocus 
or I\Iodimocus,i26 who was commemorated at the loth of Dccember,i^7 
are all styled bishops at Cluain-Caoin.i^s jt is evident, however, that 
the foregoing saints were not all connected with the present locality. 
Duald MacFirbis places a bishop named Lugach at Cluain-Aitchenn, 
in Leix, assigning his festival to the 6tli of October.i-9 He would, 
tlierefore, seem to be identical with a St. Lugech or Lughaidh, mentioned 
in the Alartyrologies of Tallaght and of Donegal, at this same date. 
The latter martyrology, however, says he was of Cuil Beannchair,i3o 
and of Rath Muighe Tuiscirt.131 But we are not able to ascertain the 
jieriod when these saints flourished. It was, however, most probably at a 
very early date. It is said a St. Fintan had been venerated here 132 at the 
nth of May. 133 He died, it is thought, in the year 860,134 uncertain if 
he be the same as Finan of Cluain-Caoin, bishop and anchorite. ^5^ 
However, Dr. O'Donovan states, that he Ijelonged to Clonkeen, near 
Ardee, in the County of Louth. The saint, whose feast is recorded 
at the nth of May, is called simply Fionntain, of Cluain-Caoin, by the 
O'Clerys. By Colgan, he seems confounded with a St. Fionntain, 
Priest of Cluaoin-Caoin,i36 who is venerated in our Calendars at the 7th 
of February ;i37 but we deem them to have been distinct personages. 

bemise," xvii. Febriiarii ; Vita S. Fintani, 
Abbatis de Cluain-Ednech, n. 4, p. 353. 

1-2 He died on the 17th of February, 
and in the sixth century. 

1-^ See ibid., Appendix, cap. v., p. 356. 

124 Sec Rev. t)Ts. Todd and Reeves, 
" Martyrology of Donegal," at this date, 
for Aruin, Bishop of Cluaincaoin, pp. 
20S, 209. 

125 According to the O'Clerys, he 
belonged to Inis Caoin Deagha, in the 
County of Louth. See Rev. Drs. 
Todd and Reeves' " Martyrology of 
Donegal," pp. 222, 223. 

1*" The same authorities liave the 
entry of his feast at the loth of December 
as Modiniog, bishop and confessor of 
Cluain-cain-Aradh, in Munster (see pp. 
330, 331), so that he did not belong to 
the Leix Clonkeen. 

1" Archdall has it the 8th of December. 
See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 593. 

128 See " Sancti Rumoldi Martyris 
Inclyti, Archiej)iscopi Dubliniensis, 
Mechliniensium ApostoLi," &c.; " Acta ;" 
" Dissertatio Llistorica De Patria S. 
Rumoldi," sect. 9, p. 158. 

12!* See " Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy," Irish MSS. Series, 
vol. i., part i., pp. 100, loi. 

130 Now Coolbanagher, in the northern 
part of the Queen's County, although 
this has been questioned by the O'Clerys, 
■who find another Cuil-Beannchair on 

the brink of Lough Erne. See Rev. 
Drs. Todd and Reeves' " Martyrology of 
Donegal," pp. 226, 267. 

121 This place is said to have been m 
Ciarraighe Luachra ; see ibid. The 

district here mentioned is now the 
County of Kerry. 

1^2 The Martyrologies of Tallaght and 
of Donegal record this St. Fintan of 
Cluaoiu Caoin (Clonkeen) at the nth of 
May. Probably it was Cluain-Aitchenn, 
in Leix, and where Fintan is yet a 
favourite name in many families. 

133 See Archdall's " Muiiasticon Hiber- 
nicum," p. 593. This writer m mistake 
places four other saints in connection 
with this monastery, not appearing to 
have known there were other Cluaiu- 
chaoins or Clonkeens in diiterent parts 
of Ireland. As usual, his references 
to dates and authorities are very inexact. 

i3< See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum 
HibL-rnia^" ix. Januarii. Appendix ad 
Acta S. Finani^ Fpiscopi Lindis- 
farnensi, cap. i., p. 46. 

135 See ibid., xvii. Februarii. Ap- 
pendix ad Acta S. Fintani, Abbatis de 
Cluain-Ednech, cap. i., p. 355. 

138 See I'did. In the similar names 
of Irish Saints and their places, 
many inaccuracies of identification 

137 An ancient name for Kill-o'-the- 
Grange, near Kingstown, was Clonkeen. 


The Church of Clonkeyn is represented here on the old Elizabethan 
Map of Leax and Ophaly. In the year i6iO,i3« the rectory of Cloncliine 
and Qonenagh was impropriate in one Peter Crosby, who probably 
lived at Ballyfin. The serving vicar of both places was Dermit 
Horoghan, an old and inhrm man at that time. The value ol this living 
was then ;{i6, which represented more than ten times that amoun 
at the present day. James Waller was then the curate. At this period, 
too, the Church of Clonehine was found to be ruinous, while the chancel 
was kept in repair ; and the church was furnished with books. We read 
that Clonena and Clonehine (in Maryborough) hath thirty-eight farms, 
united and impropriate, m 1640. The union was worth £150, the vicarage 
;^"5o, the parsonage /loo, and then valued at £75 per annum. The 
patron was Sir K. Crosbie Knt.; ^39 but as he was opposed to the Crom- 
wellian party, who afterwards obtamed power, his estates in the Queen's 
County were forfeited to the Poles, the Coote family ultunately succeeding 
m possession of that district. Now no trace of the former chmcii 
at Clonkeen appears, nor even the vestige of a grave, although in a 
corner of the open field very rank grass still grows over the burial place 
of multitudes who there lie interred. The parish of Clonkeene in Sir 
Sir William Petty's Maps has a representation of Boyly Churcli, with 
bog and what may be presumed more profitable land. 140 On another 
map of Clonenagh and Cloneheene the denominations already set forth 
on the barony map are repeated, and the ad-measurements of arable, 
pasture, wood and bog lands are given in acres, roods and perches, a.d. 
1657. The edges^of this map are burned. The castles, houses and 
churches are also marked. Knockmay and Clonrusk are marked. 

On the northern or left bank of the River Nore, which separates 
Castletown from it, the townland of Dysartbeagh,Mi southwards from the 
town of Mountrath, yet preserves the former denomination of old Dysart 
Bethech. At a very early period, this place seems to have been a 
dependency on the great monastery at Clonenagh ; and probably, 
a hermitage had been established there for those monks who chose 
to live in seclusion, yet near the parent house. The site of Castletown 
on the River Nore has its ruined castle and church presented on Sir 
William Petty's Down Survey maps ; while on the opposite bank is 
marked there the exact position of Dysart Bethech. M- At present, 
not a single vestige of the former religious house can be traced, as the 
writer has been informed by people living in that neighbourhood. How- 
ever, a careful search, with such a recorded clue as remains, might result 
in the wished-for discovery. Little more than two centuries have 

In the " Lilier Niger" of Archbishop Parish is Balhgcgill towTiland, with 

Alan, this church is said to have been a house there shown. Nothing else 

dedicated to a St. Fintan. is to be seen. This Map was ad- 

1'** According to the " Liber RcgaUs measured by Ambrose Yorke, a.d. 1657. 
Visitationis." ^*^ It lies within the united parishes 

^^^ Inquisition taken at INIaryborough of Clonenagh and Clonagheen. It is 

on the ijtli of October, 1657, before Sir shewn on the "Ordnance Survey 

Chartes Coote, Knight, Baronet and Townland Maps for the Queen's 

President of the Province of Coimaught. County," Sheet i6. 

See Sir Charles Coote's "General View 1^- See tlie copies by General 

of the Agriculture and Manufactures of Valiancy from the cjriginal maps, now 

the Queen's County," chaj). i., sect. 3, j reserved in the National Library, Paris, 

p. 9. Vol. ii.. No. 62, in the Irish Record 

"■^o In a detached portion of this Office, Dublin. 


tl.ijM-<l. Mine 11 .1 jMiMtioii as a proiiiinent land-mark. On 
Sir William l*«tt\"b maps a c himh is n,'i)rL->(.'nted within the present 
towuJaiul <i<;:ii'm::iatioii i.( 1)\ >-i ihra;-!!, on the left bank of the River 
Sou-, aiul htaf to Ca>tK-to\\n. a short distance from Mountrath.MS 
old I>;Mtt I'' t.ti.'h may liavc hccii ^o^u•\^lH■^c within or near the woods, 
uhi.ii ^:t.'•.v a! pi. ■>- nt'alon^,' tlie rivvr hank ; and even if the walls have 
d:vr. ;-.«:< d. th- .: iomuLitions, or the rtlics of an old grave-yard, may still 
Ir d, -•''.•:'•! 11 one were luit in exihti-nee before his time, the ccle- 
hr.s'.'d M. .L.'iK"* 'h.e Ciildcf may be supposed to have established 
•t K<-:jjiit.ii:<-, r.ut far distant from rii>nena,L;h, and at that place called 
Uiun i'-rtt.rt t. Aft. r rclutnmt,' liom 'I'allaght to Leix, it has been stated, 
Jlui! \w l«rv-4mc Al K)l over Clomna^h ; but it is ]:)0ssible enough, that 
J <«-*.;< u'rlv h^ o^-tuj-ied the retired place beside the River Nore. Certainly 
ihit L' ini!t.i;;f liad an existence towards the latter part of the eighth 
*r:itt:fv. M.ncovcr it seems to have been inhabited by St. /Engus, 
il«u;:t th*' U-f:iiuung of the ninth century ; and here, too, it is probable, 
\fc a cun.sidcrable jjortion of his Feilire — at least, from the account 
a-^cxcrdiug, lie finished it at Dysartbeagh. 

It would apjK-ar, that the poem of St. /lingus had not been issued- 
until after the death of holy Abbot ^Maclruan, which took place a.d. 792, to the best computation. M4 This fact appears still more 
evident, as in the Festilogy, the name of Tallaght'c venerable superior 
js found recorded, with a suitable eulogy. According to the best accounts, 
.ICngus wrote his poem in or before a.d. 798 ; for, so far as can be 
ascertained, the name of any saint who died after such date cannot be 
discovered in it. MS At the head of a large army. Aid or Aideus the Sixth, 
surnamed Oirdnidhe, undertook his expedition against the Leinstcr 
jx,-oi)lf, A.D. S04, according to the most correct supposition. He had 
summoned the clergy, as well as the laity, to join this hosting, and twice 
within a month the monarch devastated Leinster.MO He marched to 
this spot, and on the Leix side of the River Nore, the monarch Aitl 
seems to have selected a site for his encampment. This was during 
the hosting of Dun Cuai into the borders of Meath and Leinster.M? 
A very learned man, who api)ears to have been high in favour with the 
king, travelled as the monarch's companion, while engaged on this 
expedition. This was Fothad or Fothadius, surnamed the Canonist, 
owing to his special knowledge of Canon Law, or because of the modiiica- 
tions in Irish Church discipline, of which he was the author at that 
jK-riod. The king promised to abide by the award of Fothadh 
na Canoine, who composed an Irish poem on the subject, and in which 
his opinion was forcibly expressed, yet in terms of justice and persuasive- 
ness. At this very time, it so happened, that St. /Engus resided at 
Disert Bethech, and, no doubt, his reputation and position caused 
him to have had interviews with the Irish monarch. Just then the 
Culdee had finished his Festilogy. A friendship was here formed between 

1*3 This particular map was drawn the Manuscript Materials of Ancient 

by Ambrose Yorke, A.n. 1657. Irish History," Lcct. xvii., p. 362. 

*^* Such is the correction of Mr. ^"'See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

O'Donovan, although the Four Masters the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 408, 409. 

place his death at a.d. 737. See Dr. ^*'' See " Transactions of the Royal 

O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four Irish Academy," vol. i., Irish Manus- 

Ma^ters," vol. i., pp. 392, 393. cript Series. On the Calendar of .-Engus. 

'■•■'' See Eugene O'Curry's " Lectures on By Whitley Stokes, LL.D., p. iii. 


the saint and Fothadh the Canonist, who showed the poem he had 
composed for Aedh's decision. l^efore presenting it to the king, he 
desired and received the warm approval of his brother poet.M^i Fothadh 
the Canonist is said to have received a present of the Feihre, which 
had been first shown to him, from our samt's hands. Having read it 
with great dehght, Fothadh solemnly aj^proved and recommended 
it for perusal by the faithful. M9 The Canonist returned this comphmcnt 
by the bestowal of another work, of which he was the author. Tins 
latter treatise is said to have l^een the famous l^emonstrance he drew 
up, as addressed to King Aidus. It inveighs against the employment 
of ecclesiastics in military services. At this time, the clergy had com- 
plained of the grievance inflicted on them ; because they had been obliged 
— ^contrary to the spirit of their calling — to take up arms and to engage 
in scenes of violence and of bloodshed. Commhach, Archbishop of 
Armagh, and the northern clergy, were among the chief remonstrants. 
yEngus Ceile De first published or circulated his Festology that very 
year, when Aedh Oirdnidhe obtained his full demand from Finsneachta, 
King of Leinster, who gave him hostages and pledges. 

After the commencement of the ninth century, and w4ien he was 
somewhat advanced in years, St. /Engus Hagiographus died. Whether 
this event occurred at Dysart Betach, Dysart Enos, or Clonenagh, is 
uncertain. Sir James Ware names one or other of^ the years 819, 824, 
or 830, conjecturally, as referring to this saint's death, from the cir- 
cumstances of the nth March, falling on the jeria sexla, or Friday,^5o 
at eacli of these dates. 151 Professor Eugene O'Curry thinks St. /Engus 
Ceile De must have died about the year 815.152 Nearly all our writers 
seem to agree with the account furnished in his Acts by Colgan,i53 that he 
had been buried at Clonenagh.'' 54 A scholiast on the Feilire asserts, 
that he was both educated and buried at Dysart Enos. ^ 55 However 
it seems very probable, that the latter place has been mistaken for Disert 
Bethech, and that here he i-eally died. A very ancient Irish poem 

1*8 See Eugene O'Curry's " Lectures '^s ggg " Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," 

on the Manubcript Materials of Ancient xi. Martii, De S. ii^ngusio Hagiogropho, 

Irish History," Lect. xvii., p. 354. cap. xvi., p. 582. 

i^'^See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum i=* The " Martyrology of Donegal," at 

Hibernio?," xi. Martii, De S. -Engusio the nth of March, thus refers to St. 

Hagiographo, cap. xiii., p. 581. .-Tingus : — " ^Engus-na-heblen, bishop, 

tf''^ ".-lingusin the assembly of Heaven who is called /linghus Cele-de It is he 

Here are his tomb and his bed ; that composed the Feilire. He is of the 

It is from this he went to death, race of Irial, son of Conall Cearnach ; 

In the Friday, to holy Heaven. and it was at Clnain-eidhnech, on the 

It is at Cluain-eidnech he was nursed bank of the Eoir (the Nore), in Laoighis, 

At Cluain-eidnech he was buried.; he was fostered; he read his psalms 

At Clnain-eidhnech of many crosses, first, and he was afterwards buried. 

He read his psalms at first." according to this verse, which is in the 

161 "There being good reason to poem which begins: 

think that yEngus sui"\'ived the year " Delightful to sit here around him, 

8o5, Colgan conjectures that the year of By the side of the cold, clear Eoir." 

his death was either 819, 824, or 830; See Ivev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' 

whereas in each of them the nth March edition, p. y^. 

fell on a Friday." — Dr. Lanigan's i^s Colgan has remarked, that the 

" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," Dysart where he died was possibly 

vol. iii., chap, xx., sect x., n. 100, p. 249. not diflerent from CKjnenagh ; if, how- 

15- See " Lectures on the Manuscri[)t ever, it was a distinct place, he considers 

Materials of Ancient Irish History," .Engus may have died at Dysart, and 

Lect. xvii., p. 362. may have been afterwards interred at 


states, that it was his death-bed, and that here also was his leacht or 
monument. No doubt, in past ages, it was long the resort of the pious 
))ilgrim ; at present, the very cemetery in which it stood is unknown. 
In an old Irish poem, this place is called, " sacred Disert Bethech," 
and " a religious city, by crosses enclosed." Not one of these can now 
be found. It was held in such reverence, that it was exempt from 
plunder, although populous. ^56 When its church fell into ruins the 
site became sohtary, and it presents all around at present tlie features 
of rural loneliness. 

Almost forgotten at present, but yet situated near the old coach- 
road between Maryborough and Mountrath, is the former burial-ground 
of Bocluain, It is surrounded by high hedgerows of hawthorn, with 
some larger trees of that species now shading the grass-grown graves, 
;ind several rude headstones there, are now scarcely visible ; yet, in former 
tunes, some kind of a church must have been erected on this site. In 
our Calendars, a St. Fraechan, Bishop of Bochluain, to the east of Clone- 
iiagh, m Laoighis, seems to have been venerated on the 20th day of 
November. 157 The period when he flourished is not known to the 
writer ; but it must have been during or before the eighth century ; 
tor he IS mentioned in the " Feihre " i5« of St. .Engus, at the same date, 
and assigned to the same place. A scholiast on this passage states, 
that besides Bochluain in Leix, he was also veneratcid in Druim Daganda 
in Dalaradia. According to one tradition, he came from the north, 
accompanied by a saint called Escon.i59 Others think the latter term 
is a corruption of the text, and that Epscop should be read, which 
should simply imply Bishop Froechan. His place is described as having 
been right before Sliabh Bladhma, now the Sheve Bloom Mountains. 
The etymon Bo-Chluain, in Irish, has been translated " the Cow's 
Lawn " or " Meadow." The spot here referred to lies about two miles 
south-west from Maryborough. ^^^ It is witliin the united parishes 
of Clonenagh and Clonagheen, in the barony of Maryborough East.!*^! 
Tlie people formerly had a great veneration for this ancient abode of 
mortality ; and the neighbouring inhabitants had their family places 
for interment well defined. But, in the famine years, the old wayside 
inn and stables for Frederick Bourne's coach-horses were converted into 
an auxiliary workhouse. Numbers of paupers died there, or on tlie 

Clonenagh. See " Acta Sanctorum Ebcon, because he slew a king of 

litberni.c," Martii xi., De S. .Eugusio Leinster, i.e. by the dipping (read 

Hagiographo, n. 6, p. 5 82. threatening ?) with his stall, which he 

'^s See the author's " Lives of the made at him, while he, the saint, was 

Irish Saints," vol. iii., March xi. Art. i. at Bo-Cluain, and the king in a batliing- 

St. ^Engussius Hagiographus, chap, iv., tub at Naas. See " The Calendar 

n. 20. ■ of Oengus," edited by Whitley Stokes, 

'^^ See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' pp. cL-tiv., cl.xix., clxx. " Transactions 

" Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 314, 315. of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish 

168 Xhere we read — Manuscript Series, vol. i. 

guiT) efcon l<\ piioecliATi ^'^^ Thus identified by William M. 

A|i t)teT)niA bAle. Hennessy, M.R.I.A. See "Proceedings 

It IS rendered into English thus : — u£ the Royal Irish Academy," Irish 

" Beseech Escon with Froechan before ]\ISS. Series, vol- i., part i., pp. 90, 

Strong (Slieve) Bloom." gi. 

'•'•" This term is said to mean " im- ^'^^ The grave-yard, but without a 

pure," and it is thought, because he name, is noted on the " Ordnance 

was thirty years without baptism ; Survey Maps for the Queen's Couuty," 

but another version has it, he was called Sheet 13. 


roadside ; they were buried indiscriminately m Bocluain, and the people 
of that locality disliked ever afterwards commingUng the dust of then- 
relatives with that of strangers. Elsewhere they sought burial-places, 
and the old cemetery ceased opening its over-crowded loam for the 
reception of new occupants. It is now quite disused, for even few 
visitors ever stroll among the lonely graves. 

The union of Clonenagh and Clonagheen contains the two chaptlrjcs 
of Ballylin and Roskelton. The church of Roskelton in the townland 
so named is a prominent object over a bleak and level landscape. "'- 
The village of Raheen, containing a good Catholic Church, has but a 
few houses, most of rather an humble appearance. In the immediate 
neighbourhood arc Raheen House and Tinnekill House, within orna- 
mental grounds. it^'S The old Church of Cremogue i<^4 and an adjoining 
graveyard are within the union, and about two miles distant from 
Clonenagh. 165 Beside it is a remarkable well reputed to be " holy," 
and still frequented' by pilgrims, who usually carry away one of the 
j)ebbles found in the bottom of that clear spring. In addition to some 
already named, the principal seats within this union are Ballyfin,i66 the 
beautiful demesne of the Coote family, Woodbrook, Newpark, Woodbine, 
Springmount, Shanahoe, Anngiove Abbey and Mount Eagle. 

CHAPTER XVL— Parish of Cloydagh. 

This parish is situated, partly in the barony of Slievemargy, in the 
Queen's. County, but chiefly in the baronies of West Idrone and of 
Carlow, in the County of Carlow. The former section contains 788 a. 
o r. 28/., I and of these 245 a. 2 r. 33/. — a small part of Cloghgrennan — 
are detached in the Queen's County, yet contiguous to the Carlow portions 
of the parish ; while i r. 32/. are islands m the River Barrow, which 
Hows from north to south through it.^ The Carlow barony section 
contains 1265^?. 2 r. 11/., and of this area 27 a. ir. 32/. are in the River 
Barrow ; while the West Idrone barony section comprises 28S9 a. 2 r. 29/., 
and of this area 22 a. o r. 8/. are islands in the River l-jarrow.3 It is also 
called Clody or Clogrennan, as the Clogrennan hills lying to the east 
and south of the Slievemargy range slope down steeply on the Queen's 
County side to the River Barrow. The principal peak is 1038 feet 

182 It is shown on the " Ordnance described on the " Ordnance Survey 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's Townland Maps for the Queen's 

County," Sheet 17. County," Sheet 12. 

1*^^ See ibid. ^ This portion is showTi on the 

1"* Wood-cut illustrations of Cremogue "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps lor 

Clonenagh, and Mountrath Catholic the Queen's County," Sheet 37. 
Church, with additional details, have ~ The parish of Cloydagh is described 

been already published by the author, by Mr. Thomas O'Conor in a letter, 

and are to be found in " Lives of the dated Leighhn Bridge, June 20th, 1839 

Irish Saints," vol. ii. February xvii., in " Letters relalmg to the Antiquities 

Art i. Life of St. Fintan, Abbot and of the County of Carlow containing 

Patron of Clonenagh, pp. 574 to Information Cf)llected during the Pro- 

598. gress of the Ordnance Survey in 1839," 

16S We fail to find them on Sheet 17 pp. 122 to 132. 
of " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps ^ These divisions are to be traced on 

for the Queen's County," where they the " Ordnance Survej' Townland Maps 

should have appeared. for the County of Carlow," Sheets 6, 7, 

1*" Ballyfin House and Demesne are 11, 12. 


above the sea-level. The soil is good with limestone substratum. Coal 
is procured at the Bilboa colliery.4 The lands along the Barrow are 
very fertile, as are those uplands immediately near, but they become 
barren as you ascend the summits, from which most charming scenic 
effects are obtained, as in one place the elevation is considerably above the 
district lying eastwards. 

This parish was a vicarage and a separate benefice in the diocese 
of Leighlin, the diocesan being the patron. Popularly, it is now called 
Clogrennan. Cloydagh had a residence in 1616, and it was an impropriate 
rectory,S Keating being the vicar. The church and chancel were in 
good repair, and a Communion Book was possessed. That old church 
of this parish is now to be seen in ruins, and surrounded by a burial- 
ground, within the beautiful demesne of the Rochfort family. 6 The 
ornamental grounds skirt the pubhc road from Carlow to Leighlin Bridge, 
and they extend along the western banks of the River Barrow. They 
he also on the slope of the Cloghrennan Hills. The former old church 
of this parish was in a good state of preservation in the summer of i83() ; 
and at that time the measured length of the structure inside was 59 ft. 
6 in., and its breadth was 18 ft. On the east gable was to be seen a 
large window, topped with a pointed arch. On the inside it began 
within two feet from the ground, and was 5 ft. broad in the lower part. 
On the outside it commenced within 4 ft. from the ground, and was 
4 ft. broad in the lower part, rising to a height of no less than 12 ft. 
Near the west gable and in the south side wall there was a door having 
a pointed arch. There was another door opposite to it in the side wall, 
the opening running to the top of the wall, the upper part of which 
had been destroyed. The church was built of chiselled granite.7 

Here, also, on the banks of the River Barrow is to be seen Clogrennan 
Castle, now in ruins and covered with ivy .8 This formerly belonged 
to the Ormond family. Sir Edward Butler had raised the standard 
of revolt against the English Government in the sixteenth century. 
He held this castle, but it was taken from him by Sir Peter Carew in 
1568. In 1641, it was besieged by the Irish. It was relieved, however, 
by Colonel Sir P. Wemys. At this place, the jMarquis of Ormond 
mustered his forces, before proceeding to Dublin in 1649, when the 
battle of Rathmines took place. It is said, that after his defeat at the 
battle of the Boyne, James II. encamped at a place known as Bawn 
Ree ;9 however, for this statement, there seems to be no confirmation. 
There is a grave-yard in the townland of Cloghrea in this parish, and it 
is only a short distance eastwards from the River Barrow. No vestiges 
of a church are within it. 10 The Protestant church here was built in 
iSoo, through a gift of £461 los. ghd. from the Board of First Fruits. 

* See the " National Gazetteer," vol. i., Castle, as presented in 1794 in the 

p. 614. " Anthologia Hibernica," vol. iii., May, 

s According to the "Liber Regalis 1794, at p. 319. 

Visitationis." ^ In the year 1819, at a ford over 

^ Some inscriptions on the tombs are the Barrow, and about one mile and a- 
given in Ryan's " History and Anti- quarter distant, various relics of anti- 
quities of the County of Carlow," quity were found. Among these were 
chap, xxxi., pp. 334, 335. brazen swords and arrow-heads. See 

■^ See Thomas O'Conor's description Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary ot 

at pp. 122, 123. Ireland," vol. i., p. 381. 

8 There is a line copper-plate 1° See Thomas O'Conor's description, 

engraving of the ruins of Cloghgrennan p. 131. 


Some thirty years later, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners added a 
j^aant of £167 5s. iid. for repairs. Tlie glebe-house was built, in 1813, 
by a gift of ;f400, and a loan of /360, from the Board of First Fruits. 
The glebe comprised six acres, subject to a rent of £4 4s. an acre." The 
hamlet of Milford on the River Barrow is within this parish, and cele- 
brated for its extensive flour-mills, which in the beginning of the 
last century carried on a flourishing trade by means of canal-boat com- 
munication with Dublin. At another spot, Killeeshal Fort on the 
west side and near the Barrow is a remarkable circular enclosure. 

In 1831, the population of this whole parish was 1422 ; the number 
in Carlow barony being 204, and in West Idrone barony being 903. 
Consequently the remaining 315 lived in the barony of Slievemargy. 
In 1834, the Roman Catholic population was 1,168 for this whole parish, 
while the Protestants numbered 343.^- In 1837, ^^^ estimated area of 
this parish was 4737 statute acres, of which 290 were woodland and 324 
moorland, the remainder being arable and pasture ; while 3764 acres 
were applotted under the Tithe Act, and they were valued at £y]^^ 
per annum. 13 In 1S41, the population of this whole parish was 1499. 
living in 240 houses. The population was thus distributed, viz. :- 
That of Carlow barony section was 211, in 27 houses ; that of Idrone 
West section 997, living in 161 houses, while that in Slievemargy barony 
was 291, living in 52 houses. '4 In 1846 the rectorial tithes were com- 
l)ounded for ;^i84 12s. 3^d., being imjDropriate in Colonel Henry Bruen 
and W. Fishbourne, Esq. The vicarial tithe composition was ;r92 6s. i^d., 
with a glebe valued at £2'^ 4s. ; the gross income being £117 lOs. ifd., 
*nd the nett being £']'] 17s. 8f-d. At present the incumbent has an 
annual stipend of £250.15 A Catholic chapel is in this parish, belonging 
to the Union of Old Leighlin, Wells, Clonmulsk, and Cillinane ; ^^ and 
the religious history of the Union is traced imder the heading of thu 
Parish of Leighlin, by the ]\Iost Rev. Dr. Comerford.i7 

CHAPTER XVII. — Parish of Coolbanagher. 

This parish is now within the barony of Portnahinch ; and its old church, 
for many centuries back, seems to have been included within the bounds 
of Clanmalier,! in the district of Offaly. It lay, however, immediately 
without the border of Leix, and it has connexion with early Irish eccle- 
siastical history, having an existence in the eighth century, if its period 
of foundation be not traceable to even an earlier dale. The surface 
consists of good land, with bog and limestone formations. 2 

1^ See Lewis' " Topographical Diction-- Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin. " 

ary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 381. Third Series, pp. i to 32. 

12 See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of ^ The territory of tho O'Dempsej'S. 

Ireland," vol. i., p. 470. ^ See "The Naiional Gazetteer," 

12 See Lewis' " Topographical Die- vol. i., pp. 645, 646. 
tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 381. ^ In Rev. Dr. Keilv's "Calendar of 

1* See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Irish Saints," the " I\Iart\'Tologv of 

Ireland," vol. i., pp. 469, 470. Tallaght," &c., he i . noticed siini)ly as 

16 See "The Irish Church Directory Lugech Sci, at tlv 6th of October. 

and Year Book for 1903," p. 124. See p. xxxvi. Als ■ at the same date, 

1* See the "National Gazetteer," we find Lujech Si, in that copy, 

vol. i., p. 614. contained in the " !;)ok of Leinster." 

*' See " Collections relating to the at p. 563. 



In our Irish Calendars, the festival of Lugccli,' Lugach, or Liighaidh, 
Bishop of Cuil-Beannchair, is recorded at the 6th of Uctober.4 His 
parents were Lucht,5 who was his father, and Medhbh,*^ who was I; is 
mother. Still some doubt has been felt regarding the site of that Cuil- 
beannchair, with which he had been connected.? To us it appears 
j)robable, this was not a place different from the ancient monastery 
which stood at the present Coolbanagher.^ 'I'hat Lugach nourished 
at an early period, seems estabhshed, from tlie circumstance of his 
having been entered in the Feilire of St. Aengus tlie Culdee, who calls 
him " Bishop Lugdach the gentle. '"•' The old commentator formed 
some idea, that he had relations both with Leix and Offaly ; 1° although, 
indeed, his observations are confusing enough, in the attempt at identifi- 
cation." From the epithet applied, it would seem probable St. 
Aengus the Culdee had some personal acquaintance with him, or, at 
least, he had some reliable knowledge regarding his character. 

It is said, that such a concourse of people flocked to visit St. Aengus 
the Culdee in that retreat he had chosen at Dysart Enos,^^ that he 
wished to seek a place where he might live wholly unknown. '3 But, 
previously, he visited and stopped at Coolbanagher Church, situated 
near the extreme northern bounds of Leix. Here he had an angelic 
vision, which induced him to comjiose his Feilire or Metrical Hymn in 
honour of the Irish saints. At Coolbanagher, in Mor«tt,i4 and in the 
territory of Offaly, the gifted Culdee began his celebrated work, according 
to the writer of an Irish Preface to it ^5 as furnished in the " Leabhar 
Breac " copy ; ^^ and the Laud Manuscript copy ^7 partly supports that 

* See Rev. Drs. Todd's and Reeves' 
" Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 266, 

5 He is also called son of Anrodhan 
son to Maeltuile, son of Aithcleach, 
son of Fori). 

" She was daughter to Garbhan, son 
of Brocan, son to Garbhan, son of 
Dubhchertan of the Ui-Saithghil of 
Ciarraighe Luachra, now in the county of 

■^ The O'Clerys conjecturally observe, 
that he was Bishop of Cuil-Beannchair, 
on the brink of Loc Erne, and of 
Rath Muighe-tuaiscirt in Ciarraiglu; 
Luachra ; or of Cuil-Beann-chair in 
Ui-Failghe, and of Tuaim-fobhair in 
Luighne. See their Martyrology, at 
the oth October. 

8 This parish is shewn on the " Ord- 
nance Survey Townland Maps for the 
Queen's Couiity," Sheets, 4, 8, 9, 13, 14. 
The townland proper is on sheets 
8. 13. 

"In the "Leabhar Breac" copy he is 
styled eprcop LujtiAch ti5<\ch. 

1° The original gloss in Irish and 
Latin has thus been rendered : — 
" 'Ludach,' i.e., of Daire na Fland in 
Eoganacht Chaisil, i.e., I,ugdach, 
bishop in Cluain Aithchein in Leix, 
or in Cuil-Bennchair in Olfaly, et quod 
uerum est, and, moreover, the same 

Bishop Lugdach is in Cuil-Bennchoir 
in Lurg on the brink of Lough Erne, and 
he IS in RatliMaige Tuaiscirt in Ciarraige 
Luachrai, i.e., at Daire iMochua on the 
brink of the Feile." 

*i The reader is referred to Dr. 
Whitley Stokes "On the Calendar of 
Oengus," in " Transactions of tlie 
Royal Irish Academy." Irish Manu- 
script Series, vol. i., part i., pp. cxhx., 
and civ. 

^- However, it does not seem at all 
to be perfectly clear, that the celebrated 
Aengus the Culdee, either hved in 
retirement at or afterwards gave name 
to Dysart Enos. Perhaps, indeed, 

this place may have been thus named 
before he had been called away to 
enjoy the bliss of immortality. Another 
Aengus, who was almost contemporary 
with this saint, has left an elegant poem 
in praise of him. From this poem 
Colgan derives a great part of St. 
Aengus Ceilii De's Acts. 

1^ See Colgan's " ,\cta Sanctorum 
Hibcrnia?," iNIartii xi. De .Engussio 
Ilagiographo, Episcopo et Confessorc, 
cap. iii., X3. 579- 

1* Where there is an old castle, 
connected with which some amusing 
anecodotes are related in Sir Jonah 
Barrington's " Personal Sketches and 
Recollections of his own Times." 


statement, although this latter text is somewhat ambiguous. ^8 Inspired 
by a devotional feeling and poetical genius of no mean order, St. Aengus 
took up his pen, and he commenced a composition in the Irish language, 
since known as the " Feilire," or, in Latin, as the Festilogiiun of St. 
Aengus. In this extended poem he enumerates some of the principal 
saints, whom he calls Princes of the Saints. The Festilogium commemo- 
rates saints' festivals assigned to each day of the year, with allusions 
to characteristic virtues or actions of some holy individuals therem 
commemorated. 19 Various other archseological works, but especially 
relating to Irish hagiology, have been attributed to St. Aengus thi 

When this renowned writer left the district of Leix, and had re- 
mained for some time at Coolbanagher — where there seems to have 
been a sort of monastic estabhshment at the time — afterwards, as we 
read, he went to Tallaght, near the present city of Dublin, and there 
concealing his name and former place of residence, this humble man 
became a monk under St. Maelruan, then abbot. At Clonenagh and 
Disert Enos, or Disert Aengus, Archdall has inverted the order of Aengus' 
transactions. After making Aengus found an abbey at Disert-Aengus, 
Archdall sends him to Tallaght, where, it is said, he died.-"^ Now, it 
is clear from the Ads that Aengus was no more than a simple monk, 
when he removed to Tallaght. As to the place of hjs death it could 
not have been Tallaght ; for, as we find in said Acts, he was buried at 
Clonenagh, or at Disert Bethach. After having spent some time at 
Tallaght, his name and literary qualifications were discovered by St. 
Maelruan. Afterwards both those holy men composed that valuable 
hagiographical and historic record, known as the " Martyrology of 
Tallaght." 21 St. Maelruan died on the 7th of July, a.d. 792, and, 
afterwards, St. Aengus took the resolution of returning to Leix. 

Over its great monastery of Clonenagh, in due course of time, it 
is stated, that the humble monk and disciple of St. Maelruan was chosen 
abbot. St. Aengus is said to have succeeded Melathgenius, who died 
in 767, or rather in 768, according to Sir James Ware.22 He was also 
elevated to the episcopal dignity.-3 It was a very usual practice then 

15 Thus it is rendered in English: in the " Leabhar Breac," which is in the 

" Lochs hujus ariis (was) Cool Banagher Royal Irish Academy's Library. There 

in INIorett : in the territory of Otialy is a commentary or series of notes 

its beninning, in Clonenagh, however, found in various copies of this work 

its continuation (?), in Tallaght Libren yet extant. These comments relate 

its entire completion ut ah'i." many traditions regarding those saints 

I*' See Dr. Whitley Stokes " On who are named in the Ffilire. 

the Calendar of Oengus," " Transac- ^o gee " IMonasticon Hibernicum," 

tions of the Royal Irish Academy," pp. 592, 594. 

Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., part i., ^i Owing to this joint authorship, 

pp. iii., V. the work is frequently cited as Marty- 

I'^The English translation runs: rologium /Engussii filii Hua-Oblenii et 

" Place, forsooth, first for it : Cool Moelruanii, " the Martyrology of Aengus 

Banagher in Morett in the border of and Molruan." 

Oflaly, and it was in the kiln in Tam- 22 jt jg not probable, that St. Aengus 

lacht wherein some of it was made. In the Culdee was the imuietiiate successor 

Clonenagh its beginning, in Cool of Melathgenius. By his namesake, 

E.magher, and its completion in the however, Aengus Ceile De is called 

kiln in Tallaght." abbot. 

^^ See ibid., pp. v., viii. ' -' At least such a statement is con- 

13 A copy of this poem is preserved tained in our Irish Martyrologies 




\nl. I. 


I'd lafc |i.iL;r 2J1. 


j)revailing in Ireland, to invest the superiors of all great religious houses 
with this exalted rank. Probably, however, we may regard this dignity 
he obtained as qualifying him to be classed only with the inferior prelates, 
known as Chore-episcopi, in early times. We can find no mediaeval 
accounts of Coolbanagher ; but, we conclude, that its monastic hfe 
fell into decay, and that only a parish church afterwards remained. 

The old medireval church of Coolbanagher — portions of which we 
believe to present evidences of very remote antiquity — remains in a 
ruinous state, and its surrounding grave-yard is now used as a place of 
burial. Tradition assigns to the building an early date of erection. 
Tiiere are two divisions in this church yet visible— most probably the 
nave and choir. A wall appears to have separated both, but a large 
pointed doorway afforded a communication. The nave, on the outside, 
measures 32 ft. in length by 22 ft. in breadth. The outside wall of 
the choir measures 28 ft. in length by 16 ft. in breadth. The inside 
of the building is filled with loose stones and rubbish. A narrow, low 
door, now stop[:)ed up with masonry, appears beneath an overshadowing 
mass of ivy, on the western gable ; and a door seems to have been subse- 
([uently opened on the southern side wall, probably, when the former 
one had been closed. A splayed window opened on either side of the 
nave. A splayed and ruinous east window formerly lighted the choir, 
the side walls of which are now nearly level with the ground. -4 The 
spot is not far removed from the great Heath of Maryborough, and near 
the ecclesiastical ruins are to be seen the stately remains of Coolbanagher 
Castle.' 5 There are no tombs, at present, in the grave-yard or within 
the church, but such as bear modern inscriptions. 

In 1657 Coolbanagher is reported as having twenty-five townlands, 
and that it was an impropriation. Gilbert Rawson, Esq., was the 
])atron ; it had been rated at £25 per annum, and then it was worth /16. 
It had 15 acres of glebe attached.-^ The living is a rectory in the 
Diocese of Kildare, formerly valued at £454, and in the patronage" of the 
crown. The church there erected dates for 1786,27 and it occupies 
a commanding site. At present, the incumbent has an annual salary 
of £224.-8 \Vith an interesting early account of Emo Parish — which 
is the title for it in the Catholic distribution — the Most Rev. Dr. 
Comerford treats its religious historic records in his valuable work.-'-* 
The old castle of Morett has an interesting record, 30 and its ruins are 
on a slight elevation. In the early days of the writer its four quadrangular 
walls were in a good state of preservation, but at present much of the 
remains having fallen, the rest of this interesting castellated mansion 
must probably soon disappear. 

2* These are some ck'scriptive parti- of a castle." Chap, x., sect. 4, p. 

culars noted during a visit to the spot, on 136. 

the loth of December, 1853. On that -'^ See ibid. chap, i., sect. 3, p. 10. 

occasion, the writer took a pencil -''• See " The National Gazetteer,* 

sketch of the old church ruins, as they vol. i., p. 646. 

appeared from the south-east side of -^ See " The Irish Church Directory 

the building. and Year-Book for 1903," p. 114. 

-5 In Sir Charles Coote's " Statistical -'9 gee " Collections relating to the 

Survey of the Queen's County," we are Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin," 

simply informed, that " at Coolbanagher vol. ii., pp. 144 to 1-54. 
are the ruins of a church and also 20 gee ibid., pp. 146 to 148. 


CHAPTER XVIIL— Parish of Coolkerry. 

This small parish i — formerly situated in the barony of Upper Ossory — 
is now chielly in the barony of Clarmallagh,- while a very insignificant 
area 3 is in the barony of Clandonagh. It lies a short distance to the 
east of Rathdowney, and along the right or soutli bank of the Erkin 
rivulet. A part of Ai^haboe parish intervenes, so as to cut Coolkerry 
parish into two mutually-detached districts. As applotted under the 
Tithe Act, it comprised 1,720 statute acres.4 A castle was formerly 
here, but it has now been destroyed. 5 

Coolkerry had ^I'^a. 9/. of glebe, and it was anentire rectory, in 1657, 
while the value was £50. The tithe was set for the use of the Common- 
wealth. It contained eight townlands, and the value of tithe was forty 
shillings per annum. It had no churcli.6 In 1S37, the tithes amounted 
to £110, which were paid to the impropriators, the Ladies G. and A. 
Fitzpatrick ; 7 although no church or glebe residence was in the parish. 
Its old church was. then in ruins, while the Protestant parishioner 
attended the church at Rathdowney.^ 

In 1831, the Clarmallagh barony section of Coolkerry contamed 375 
inhabitants, while the Clandonagh barony section remained uninhabited.9 
Coolkerry was a rectory and vicarage in the diocese of Ossory ; while it 
was entirely impropriate in the Fitzpatrick family. 10 tin the Roman 
Catholic arrangement, Coolkerry fell within the parochial union of 
Aghaboe." In 1S34, the Protestant inhabitants of this parish amounted 
to 23, while the Roman Catholics numbered 361. i- In 1841, there were 
67 houses in this parish, with 457 inhabitants. Middlemount and 
Erkina are two handsome residences \\ntliiii it, as also a castle and the 
old church in ruins. ' 3 

CHAPTER XIX. — Parish of Curraclone or Corcloxe. 

The parish of Curraclone — sometimes written Corclone — adjoins that 
of Stradbally, towards the north-east. Its name is thought to have 
been derived from Currach ^ and Cluana,^ interpreted to be " a bog 
island," by Thomas O'Conor.3 This parish contains 3,644 </. 3 /-. i/>., 

1 It is shown on the " Ordnance '' They allowed an annual stipend of 
Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's /lO ids. to the vicar of Au.L;hinacart, 
County," Sheets 28, 34. for performing the clerical duties. 

- This portion contains *i, 615a. 2>'. 6/>. ^ c;pg "The National Gazetteer," 

2 It contains only 4a. 2y. izp. See a vol. i., p. 646. 

description of this parish in " Letters ^ See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 

containing Information relative to the Ireland," vol. i., p. 499. 

Antiquities of the Queen's County, '^ In 1837, the impropriators were 

collected durmg the Progress of the the Ladies G. and A. Fitzpatrick, who 

Ordnance Survey in 1838," Letter of are now represented in their large 

John O'Donovan, dated Mouutrath, landed possession by the Earl of 

November 30th, 183S, j^P- ii<^. iii- Ossory. 

* See " Lewis' Topographical Die- i' See " Lewis' Topographical Dic- 
tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 397. tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 397. 
5 This site is shown on Sheet 28. '^ See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of 
" See Sir Cliarles Coote's" General View Ireland," vol. i., p. 500. 
of the Agriculture and Manufactures of i^ See on Sheet 28 of the Ordnance 
the Queen's County," chap, i., sec. 3, p. 7. Survey Maps. 


including those portions covered by the Barrow's water margin.4 A 
light clay or a substratum of limestone or gravel predominates. 5 The 
extensive woods of liallyduff — as part of the Ballykilcavan estate — 
cover a considerable surface. The castle of Blackford, erected as a 
defence against the Pale incursions by the O'Moores, is now in ruins near 
the boundary stream. 

There is an old church within a cemetery in this parish. Only 
one gable of it now remains ; and this was repaired in the beginning 
of the late century, to preserve it from total ruin. A doorway 
is in it, and this exhibits two concentric arches at top. In the rude 
process of repairing, plaster was put over the masonry, which renders 
the ruin an unsightly object. An earher church stood there, the founda- 
tions of which are now scarcely recognizable. Yet, the remains are in the 
centre of the grave-yard, and they rise considerably over the surface.'^ 
At the end of the church — now unroofed and disused, as a new Protes- 
tant church on an elevated site has been erected near it. 7 — modern 
masonry appears. The grave-yard is exceedingly old, and it has been 
much used lor interments. The graves are chiefly on the south side, 
where the entrance from the road opens. Numbers of old head-stones 
are to be seen. Ash trees grow around the grave-yard. A beautiful view of 
Ballykilcavan woods is presented from this lonely site, which is partially 
elevated over the surroundmg [-(lains. Ballymanus house is quite near. On 
the east side of the Grand Canal, which nms throug^i a part of this 
parish, is shown the site of Ballymanus Castle, said to have been 
dependent on Dunamase.8 The river of Stradbally passes beneath 
the site of the old church, and thence makes its way eastward to the 
River Barrow. Another historic townland in this parish is Blackford,y 
situated on the eastern boundary, near a small stream. This separates 
the Queen's County from the County of Kildare. In the year 1404,"' 
Giolla Patrick O'Mordha gained a victory over the English at this s])ot, 
and many of their people were slain there. Spoils of arms, armour, 
and horses were also taken from them. Blackford is marked on the 
old map of Leax and Ophaly. There stood an old castle on its site. 
In the beginning of May, 1599, Owny Mac Rory O'More had thrown 
up some entrenchments at this place to oppose the progress of the Earl 
of Essex and his army into Leix. Finding the position indefensible 
and the opposing force too powerful, O' Moore changed his cantonments, 

* Written in Irish Cu|iiK\ch. stone over the entrance is inscribed 

2 Written in Irish CIuatia. " 1794 C. H. W." 

3 In liis letter, dated Stradbally, ^ This church was built at tlie ex]iense 
December 9th, 1838. See "Letters of the parish in 1S04. See "The 
containing Information relative to the National Gazetteer," vol. i., p. 715. 
Antiquities of the Queen's County, 8 According to Sir Charles Coote. 
collected during the Progress of the Ord- ' In the Irish Annals, it is called 
nance Survey in 1838," vol. i., p. 356. Ach "Oubh. 

* See "Ordnance Survey Townland 10 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 
Maps for the Queen's County," Sheets the Four ^Masters," vol. iv., pp. 7S0, 781. 
14. 19. ^^ See " On the Identification of the 

5 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Site of the Engagement of the ' Pass 

Ireland," vol. i., p. 504. of Plumes,' " published in " Proceedings 

^ The ruins at some not very remote of the Royal Irish Academy," second 

date appear to have been modernized to series, vol. i., " Polite Literature and 

serve for a Protestant church. At Antiquities," No. xliii., p. 281. 
the east end is the family vault of the '-According to the "Liber Recalls 

Walshes of Ballykilcavan. On a lime- Visitationis." 


and retired before him to Stradbally, which the Earl of Essex reached 
on the evening of May 15th, having crossed at Blackford unopposed. i' 
The Rectory of Corclone, alias Blackford, was impropriate with a 
residence in 1616.12 The vicar was John ^loren, a reading minister. 
The value of this living then was £1^. The church, with its chancel, was 
in a good state of repair, and furnished with books. This townland 
is called Corclone in an Inquisition taken in the time of Charles I. We 
find, that a.d. 1640, Corkclone — in Stradbally — had eight townlands 
and thirty-four acres of glebe. Then it was worth £40 per annum. '^ 
Tradition holds, that on the site known as Chapel Hill, in the townland 
of Garrans, a Roman Catholic Chapel of rude structure stood in the 
Penal Days, to which the worshippers in the adjoining town of Strad- 
bally were obliged to resort. The parish was a rectory and a separate 
benefice in the Diocese of Leighlin, the patron being the Diocesan. 
The living was formerly united to that of Killeny. In 1837, ^^^^ tithes 
amounted to £233 ; while there was a glebe comprising 2 a. 3;)., but, 
no glebe-house was built upon it.M A new and neat Protestant church — 
to replace the old church which had become ruinous — was built on a 
fine eminence, and it is now surrounded by planted trees. Two 
very beautiful mansions and demesnes are within the ]iarish of Curraclone, 
viz., Ballykilcavin, the seat of Sir Hunt Walsli, Bart., and Brocklev 
Park, the seat of Mr. Young. Ballymanus is also a handsome residence 
of Mr. Dunne, and it is surroundecl by ornamental grounds. In 183 1, 
the population was 650 ; and in 1834, there was a hedge school here, 
having on its books eleven bo\'S and nine girls, while the Protestant 
population was 53, and the Catholic numbered 593.^5 

CHAPTER XX. — Parish of Donaghmore. 

There is a parish called Donaghmore, in the barony of Clandonagh, 
Queen's County. It consists of 3,528 a. 3 r. 22 [^A The village which 
bears its name is partly in the same parish, \\liile part of it lies within 
Kathdowney parish, the town of which is onl^^ one mile and a-quarter 
distant. Five fairs are held annually in the village of Donaghmore ; ^ 
viz., on the 28th of March, on the 12th and 13th of June, on the 31st 
of August, and on the 12th of December.3 Generally speaking, the 
land is ot good quality for agriculture and pasturage. A work-house 
was built there, and occupied for some years by inmates ; but of late 
it has been closed. A description of this parish will be found in the 
material provided for it in the Irish Ordnance Survey Records.4 Here 

'3 See Sir Charles Coote's " General being 81. Of these 71 persons lived 

View of the Agriculture and Manu- in the Rathdowney section ni 13 houses, 

factures of the Queen's County," cliap. See " ParUanientary Gazetteer of Ire- 

i., sect. 3, p. 10. land," vol. ii., p. 30. 

1* See Lewis' "Topographical Die- ^ See "The National Gazetteer," 

tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 401. vol. i., p. 777- 

If* See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of * See " Letters containing Infornia- 

Ireland," vol. i., p. 504. tion relative to the Antu|uities of tlie 

1 See its extent dclincd on the Queen's Count \', collccled during the 
" Onlnance Survey Townland Maps for Progress of tiu- Ordnance Survey in 
the Queen's County," Sheets 22, 27,28. 1S38." vol. i. Letter of John O'Donovan 

2 In 1831, it had a population of dated jNIounlrath, November 28th, 1838, 
383, and in 1841, it had 496, the houses pp. Sj to 80. 


there is a very old graveyard, enclosed with a modern wall. The burial- 
ground rises to a considerable height, above the outside earth ; and 
the modern Protestant church is j^laced in its centre. This probably 
stands on the site of an ancient buikhng, every trace of which has now 
disappeared. The situation is a beautiful one, and rising over the 
Erkina River, which Hows through the village of Donaghmore. 

The ecclesiastical state of this rectory is omitted from the returns 
made in 1657. This parish was formerly a separate benefice in the 
Diocese of Ossory. The diocesan was patron. An older Protestant 
church having been removed, a new one was built in 1822 at a cost of 
^^480, of which ^^462 los. gld. was borrowed from the Board of First 
Fruits, while the rest was raised from the sale of materials belonging 
to the church which had been pulled down. 5 Applotted under the 
Tithe Act, the parish was returned as containing 3,226 statute acres. 
There was a glebe of 193 acres, with a glebe-house, in 1837. The tithes 
then amoimted to £154 Qs. yld. At that time, there were extensive 
corn mills and a large starch manufactory within the parish ; '^ but 
these have since gone to decay. In 1831 the j)opulation of this parish 
was 1,211 ; that of the rural districts, 828 ; 7 \Nhile m 1841, the population 
Iiad increased to 1,620, in 255 houses ; that of tlie rural districts being 
1,199, i^^ ^^7 houses.''^ Manufactures and agriculture were then very 
flourishing. This parish is traversed north-north-westu'ard by the high 
road from Rathdowney to Roscrea. In the Roman Catholic jiarochial 
arrangement Donaghmore is united to Rathdowney and Grogan. 

CHAPTER XXI.— Parish of Durrow. 

The parish of Durrow is situated partly in the l.)arony of Clarmallagh 
in the Queen's County, and partly in that of Galmoy, in the County of 
Kilkenny. It has some good land, but the surface has much woodkmd 
and bog. The Queen's County section contains 5,85()rr. 3;'. 2C)/).,' wliile 
that in Kilkenny County has only GOSa. 2r. ()p.~ Within the former portion 
is the town of Durrow, surrounded by the woods and demesne of Castle- 
Durrow, the seat of Lord Ashbrooke. Several otiier l)eautiful mansions 
and grounds are within the parish, which has an ornate and a picturesque 
appearance. The town is pleasingly situated on the banks ot the River 
Erkina, wliich joins the River Gully at Castlewood House and demesne. 
An oblong square is the predominating feature of the town, and it is 
Hanked with several neat and well-built houses. This parish is noticed 
in the Ordnance Survey Records for the Queen's County.3 It is sup[)oscd, 
that at an early period a monastery was in Durrow ; but, little seems 

5 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 30. the Queen's County," Sheets 29, 35. 

'■ See Lewis's " Topographical Die- - This part is shown on the "Ordnance 

tiouary of Ireland," vol. 1., p. 4.S2. Survey Townland Alaps for the County 

" In 1834, the Roman Catliolics of of Kilkenny," Sheet 4. 

this parisii numbered 1,132, the Pro- ^ y^.^. "Letters containing Informa- 

testants amounted to 109. tion relative to the Antiquities of Itie 

** See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Queen's County collected during the 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 30. Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 

1 'this portion is described on the 183S," vol. i. Letter of Thomas O'Conor, 



to be known of its history.4 However, a St. Fintann Moeldribh, of 
Dermhuighe Ui Duach, is said to have been from Northern Ossory.5 
He was of Eoghauacht Caissil, and he descended from the race of Brian, 
son of Eochaidh Muighmedhoin. He had a festival at the 20th of 
October.6 In the " Martyrology of Tallaght " 7 we tind the names of Fintan 
and of Maelduibli separated, as if they had been different saints,^ as 
also in the O'Clerys' Calendar, while St. /Engus in his " Festilogy " 
has no notice of either name, at that date.9 In the year 626, as we are 
told, Finntan Maeldubh died.^o 

The country about Durrow formerly belonged to the Fitzpatricks ; 
but, although surrounded by the Queen's County, the Earl of Ormond 
procured an Act of Parliament to make that tract a part and parcel 
of the County of Kilkenny. This was done to remove the Fitzpatricks 
from their connections, so that when they were apprehended on real 
or presumed crimes, they were immediately taken to Kilkenny, and 
dealt with by the powerful Butler family." At Kilkenny, they often 
suffered the extreme jicnalties of the law, and sometimes with little 
regard to justice. 

In 1640, the vicarage of Durrow was worth /6 6s. 8d. Durrow was 
situated in Upper Ossorj^ in the year 1657, and then it contained 16^ 
townlands. It had a parsonage impropriate, worth £13 13s. per annum. 
The Protector was the patron. The church was then out of repair, and it 
had no minister. 12 A Protestant church was built here in 1793, at a 
cost of about £646 3s. id., raised by parochial assessment. ^3 A Wesleyan 
meeting-house was also built in the town. The chief part of this parish, 
inclusive of the town, was transferred by the Act 6 and 7 of William 
IV., from the County of Kilkenny to the Queen's County. The living 
became a vicarage in the Chapter of St. Canice, Kilkenny, while the 
rectory was appropriate to tlie economy estate of the cathedral. In 1837, 
the tithes amounted to £360, of whicli £240 became payable to the 
lessee under the economy' estate, and /120 to the vicar. There 
was a glebe-house, with a glebe of more than 18 acres. These 
were valued at £40. Thus the gross income was /^i6o, while the nett 
was only ^^143 4s. At present, the value to the incumbent is £350. '4 
The Dean and Chapter of St. Canice's Cathedral were patrons in 1846 ; 
the rectorial tithes being compounded for £240, and were appropriated to 
the Dean and Cliapter of St. Canice's Cathedral, but demised for a term 
of years to the Vicar of Durrow. The curate had a salary of £'69 4s. 7 id. 

A weekly market on Friday, and several fairs throughout the year 

dated Mouutrath, November 30th, 1S38, said to have been of Dermagh-Ui-Duach, 
pp. 97 to loj. which territory hes around Durrow. 

* See Archdall's " Monasticou Hiberni- "See this matter treated in the 
cum," p. 348. ■ author's " Lives of the Irish Saints," 

^ See Colf^'au's " Acta Sanctorum vol. x., October xx. 
Hiberniee," h'ebruarii xvii.. Appendix ad '"See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

Acta S. Fintani, chap, i., p. 355. the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. :;4.S, 

* See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' 249. 

" Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 278, 279. " See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

^ Itdited by the Rev. Dr. Kelly, nicum," p. 349. 

Seep, xxxvii. '-See Sir Charles Coote's "General 

s This is probably a mistake. In View of the A,::;nculture and Manu- 

their Calendar, the O'Clerys signalise faclures of the Quern's County," chap, i., 

Maeldubh as being sou of Auduilgaidh, sect. 3, ]■>. 8. 

of Cluain-Innnorrois in Ui-Fadghe, or of '^ In 1S46, the sittings were 300, 

this place. When Fintan follows, he is the attendance being 130. 



were held in the town of Durrow, it having formerly had an infantry 
barracks, an inn, and a posting estabhshnient. Extensive Hour mills 
were on the Erkina, and altogether a considerable local business was 
transacted. In 1831, the population of this parish was 2,gii. In 1834, 
the Protestants amounted to 456 and the Catholics to 2,519. In 1S41, 
the whole population was 2,977,15 while the houses were 499. ^^ Tlie 
town contained an area of 51 acres, while its population in 1831 was 
1,298 persons, and in 1841, 1,318 in 239 houses. '7 A market-house 
is in Durrow ; also a police-station and barracks ; mills and a dispensary 
are likewise here. Fairs are held on the 2nd of January, on the 4th of 
March, on the 22nd of May, on the 21st of August, and on the 20th of 
November. I s a commodious Catholic chapel is in the town, and, in 
the Catholic parochial arrangement, Durrow has Aughmacart and 
Cullohill united with it. 

CHAPTER XXII.— Parish of Dysart Enos. 

The elevated range of limestone hills between the celebrated Rock 
and Castle of Dunamase, and extending to Lamberton Demesne, is 
conspicuous as a feature of the scenery in the parish of Dysart Enos. 
Beneath that elevation the surface slopes to a well-cultivated plain, 
which reaches to Stradbally Hall Demesne. This parish is in the barony 
of Maryborough East, and it lies about two miles south-east from the 
county town. I An account of Dysart Enos parish may be found in the 
collections for the Ordnance Survey Records. 2 The topographical 
etymon of Dysart or Diseart, is Latinized deserhtm, and corresponds 
oftentimes in meaning with the English word " desert " ; 3'et it is 
frequently .found in ancient Irish manuscripts, to denote a hermitage, 
or an asylum for pilgrims, penitents, and saints.3 Broken and rugged 
rocks surmount the heights, only suitable for sheep pasturage, and 
presenting at the present time aspects of solitude, but commanding 
magnificent and extensive views. In the earlier times, this tract must 
have been still wilder and more romantic. 

We find the Tomhcan dc Fingal, or " Tomb of Fingal," marked on 
a poorly-furnished map of Comte dc la Rcine or Queen's County,4 attach- 

'^ See "The Irish Church Directory Queen's County collected during the 

and Year-Book for 1903," p. 120. Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 

15 Of these, the rural section of the i83S,"voI.i. Letter of Thomas O'Conor, 

Queen's Ct>unty contains 1,436 persons, dated Stradbally, December 9th, 183 

the Kilkenny section having only pp. 2 So to 353. 
-32- ^ It occurs in this latter sense in the 

1^ Of these, 223 were in the Queen's " Leabhar Breac," fol. 100, a. a., and in 

County portion, and 37 in the Kilkenny the Book of Leinstcr, in the :MS. Library 

division. of Trinity College, Dublin, classed H. 2, 

1^ See " Padiamentary Gazetteer of 12, fol. 113, b. a. — "Irish Charters in 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 165. the Book of Kells," n. (g), p. 112. 

18 See " The National Gazetteer," vol. < See Comte Charles Denis O'Kelly- 

i., p. 849. Farrell's " Les O'TooIe : Notice sur le 

' It is described on " The Ordnance Clan on la Tribu des O'Toole, Princes 

Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's dTMureday et d'l'AIailey, dans la 

County," Sheets 13, 14, iS, 19. Prcjvince de Lcinster en Irlande," &c., 

2 See "Letters containing Informa- p. 12. Published at La Rcole, France, 

tion relative to the Anticjuities of the 1864, fol. 


mg to a more enlarged chart, purporting to give the former territorial 
possessions of the O'B^'rne and OToole families, in the modern counties 
of Kildare and Wicklow. So far as can be conjectured, the position 
should cause it to be on or near the hills of Dysart ; however, the fore- 
going statement, as also that it had been a seat of Dermod MacMurrough, 
King of Leinster,5 is utterly devoid of historic credit. The parish of 
Dysart Enos seems to have derived its name from St. /Engus, who 
there first estabhshed his church or hermitage. A very general opinion 
prevails, that he was a holy and learned man, who chose to lead the 
life of a hermit in this lonely place, and who flourished at a remote 
period. He apjK^ars to have founded a church or cell on the western 
slope of the Dysart hills, as is thought, towards the close of the eighth 
or the commencement of the ninth century. Most of our Irish writers 
suppose this personage to have been the celebrated /Engus Hagiographus. 
However, the locality of this cell derived its denomination Dysartenos, 
or the desert of /Engus, which it yet retains, aj^jparently from some one 
bearing that name, which was a prevailing appellation in the old land 
of Leix. If he were the great Irish Hagiogra|)lier, his earlier course of 
studies was passed at Clonenagh. From every point of view, his history 
is a very interesting one, as related tor us ; but litre we can only chronicle 
some few of its particulars. 

Sometime about the middle of the eighth century, iEngus the Culdee, 
likewise named /Engusius Hagiographus, or /luieas the Hagiologist, 
was born. Following the accounts of our early records, his pedigree 
is found in the Festilogies,^ Martyrologies, Calendars, and Genealogies,? 
that have come down to our times. He is said to have been the son 
of Oengoba- — also called /Engavan or Oengobhane ^ — son of Oblen, 
son of Fidru, son of Diarmuit, son of Ainmire, son of Cellar, son of 
Oengus, son of Natsluagh, son of Caelbad.9 This celebrated ancestor 
of iEngus ruled as monarch over Ireland, and he was slain in the year 
of our Lord 357. From the dawning perceptions of childhood, the holy 
/Engus was well deserving that appellation Culdee, or " worshipper 
of God," which surname he afterwards bore. Even as a child he con- 
ceived and cherished the most exalted ideas of Christian perfection, 
the attainment of wliich was an object e\er uj^permost in his mind. 
/Engus practised mortilication to an extraordinary degree in his 3'outh, 
so that after a very short trial of the world's inquietudes, he felt a most 
earnest desire of devoting himself to a religious life."^ He entered tlie 
monastery of Clonenagh, and conformed to its religious rules. Alter 

^ See "The National Gazetteer," vol. F. Imchadii, F. I'elhlemidii, F. Cassii, F. 

i., p. S52. l-'iach Aradii, a quo Dalaradioruiu 

'• 'riu- anonymous scholiast on the- lamilia noininatur." — C(jlj,'an's "Acta 

Feilire of St. Aengus gives us the pedigree Sanctoiann 1 liheruia^," xi. .\Lirtii. Vita 

of its persuined author, in a l-'reface to S. -Engussii, nn. i and 3, p. 5>Sj. 
that copy contained in the " Leabhar ^ See Harris' " Ware," vol. li. , " The 

Breac." Writers of Ireland," book i., p. 51. 

■^ His pedigree, as found in the "■* He was the son of Crumbadrai, son 

" Sanctilogium Genealogicum," cha]i. to Fochaidh Cobai according to another 

xxiii., is given in these words: " S. account, and sprung from the Dalaradian 

^Fngussius filius /Engavani, F. Hoblenii, race of Ulster. See Professor Eugene 

F. Fidrai, F. Diermitti, F. Anmirechi, O'Curry's " Lectures on the Manuscript 

F. Cellarii, F. Engussii, F. Natsluagii, F. Materials of Ancient Irish History," 

Coelbadii, F. Crunnii Batlhrai, F. lect. xvii., p. j'>j, and Appendix, No 

Eochadii Cobha;, F. Lugadii, F. I^osaii, cxi., p. 609. 


spending some time in holy exercises, he resolved on selecting another 
place lor his habitation. The distant ranges of hills at this i)]ace were 
thought to be suited for retirement. An extensive tract of morass and 
bog now intervenes between the ruins of Clonenagh's old monastery 
and Dysart Enos. Both sites still lie within view of each other, a few 
miles only separating the localities. So late as the seventeenth century, 
a vast skirt of wood svirrounded Clonenagh " on every side, and trunks 
of bog oak and fir are frequently turned up from a wide tract of 
bog, which spreads between both places. 12 This moorland and wood 
must have rendered access from Clonenagh to Dysart a matter of some 
difficulty to the saint, who chose the latter spot for his hermitage. In this 
favourite retreat, we are told by his biogra}-»hers, St. /Engus the Culdee 
was in the habit of making three hunched gcnuilections each day, and 
of reciting the entire Psalter. This latter office he di\'ided into three 
separate portions : the hrst was said witliin the cell : the second under 
a spreading tree of large growth, that cast its branches over his rude 
habitation ; and the third lie repeated whilst tied b^' the neck to a stake, 
with half of his body ]:)lunged in a tub of cold water. After all it may 
be consistent with truth to assert, that these and other great mortifications 
had been practised b^^ /Engusius Hagiographus, not at Dysart Enos 
but rather at Dysart Betach, which was still nearer to Clonenagh's great 
monastery, and which is said to have been a h(?rmitage, where this 
celebrated saint also lived. 

That particular cell built or inhal)ited by the St. /Engus, who was 
at Dysart Enos, probably occupied a site on which the former Protestant 
church of Dysart may now be seen, and as a comparatively modern 
ruin. 13 This latter remains unroofed, but within the enclosure of its 
standing waHs, the traces of a still older foundation are manifestly dis- 
cernible ; having been levelled and concealed under the timber flooring 
of the dilapidated modern church. An ancient graveyard is to be found 
there, even yet much resorted to for the interment of persons deceased, 
who had belonged to the neighbourhood, and adjoining towns and villages. 
No doubt, the very old parish church occupied this site. We cannot 
learn, that any regular monastic establishment ever existed here. From 
or near that elevated position occupied liy Dysart Enos cemetery, the 
ruins of Clonenagh's " seven churches " are yet clearly visible under 
favouring circumstances ; and the graveyard, which is considerablv 
elevated over the exterior surface of the fields, is regarded witli 
reverential feelings by the country people. It is stated, that liere /Engus 

^•^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum square tower or steeple, which has a 

Hibcrniii?," xi. Martii. Vita S. ^Engussii. very picturesque ap}Jearancc." Chap, 

cap. 1. ix., sec. iv., p. 117. Within the writer's 

11 See Harris' " Ware," vol. ii. ; memory, this church had been roofed. 

" Writers of Ireland," bt)()k i., cliap. v., and frequented by a very small congre- 

n. (d), p. 51. gation of Protestant worshqipers. A 

1- Dysart .T'lngus, the name of which new and mucli more architectural 

Harris thought to have been lost, is said structure was built at a very recent 

to have been a part of this great wood, date, under the celebrated Rock of 

See iliid., p. 52. Dunamase. Since the death of the 

13 W'hen Sir Charles Coote wrote his rector, who lived in Kilteale glebe-house, 

" Statistical Survey of the Queen's this wqw church has been closed, in 

County," in iSoi, he described J dysart accordance with the provisions of the 

Church as standing " on one of the Disestablishment Act for the Irish 

lofty lulls of the same name, with a Protestant Episcopal DenoTnination. 


had built a cell for himself to [)ass his days m solitude. Thither he 
frequently retired, to spend his hours of prayer, and to put in practice, 
unknown and unnoticed, those rigorous observations which he followed, 
and the anonymous scholiast on the works of tliis saint calls the spot 
Disert Mngits : while another /Engus, said to have compiled our 
saint's eulogy, writes it down as Discrt-Bcthech, in his metrical 
eulogy on St. iEngus the Culdec. He likewise indicates, that 
its position lay very near to Clonenagh. Colgan adds, moreover, 
how this other /Engus says, tliat the Culdee was l)oth educated and 
buried at Disert-Bethech. Hence, it is thought to be doubtful, 
whether this desert might not have been identical with Clonenagh. 
Such a conjecture was allowable to Colgan, owing to the ambiguity 
of statement regarding St. iEngus the Hagiologist. The annals 
and records of our country render it manifest, however, that the Disert- 
Oenghusa, or a Desertum /En^tidi, must be altogether distinguished 
from Clonenagh. 

Besides the ])lace so named witliin the bounds of ancient Leix, there 
was another of like denomination in a more distant locality, but seeming 
to have no special connection with St. /Engus the Culdee. Thus, our 
annals record that Conn, son of Maelpadraig, Archinnech of Disert- 
Oenghusa and of Mungairit, died a.d. 1033.14 The learned Dr. O'Donovan 
fell into an error, 1 5 by identifying the latter Disert- Aengusa with Dysart- 
Enos, in the Queen's county. ^^ It may, indeed, be questioned, whether 
the saint, who gave name to Dysart Enos m Leix, was the celebrated 
Irish hagiologist, or another bearing the name of .Engus, and wdio 
wrote a poem in praise of his more renowned namesake. His verses 
indicate great antiquity. It is related, that the author of this metrical 
life, in the penultimate verse of his panegyric on the illustrious Culdee 
prays, that he may enjoy with his namesake the bliss of eternal life. 
He extols St. .Engus with surpassing praise, stating that the holy 
subject of his encomium was often engaged in colloquies with celestial 
spirits. If we take into account the concurrences of time, of neighbour- 
hood, and of great erudition, the writer of the " Metrical Eulogy " 
probably had been no other than that iEngus, Abbot of Cluain-fearta- 
Molua, who died in 858.^7 Whoever the composer of the renowned Hagio- 
grapher's panegyric may have been, his admiration for the subject 
of his verse is almost unmeasured, and he styles St. /Engus, moreover, 
the Sun of Western Europe. On account of those things related, re- 
garding the studies of St. /Engus the Hagiographer during his youthful 
days, his dailv and wonderful exercises, his rare humility and austerity, 
the day of his death, being feria sexta, the jilace of his burial, and such- 
like notices. Father John Colgan is under an impression that the writer 
must have been a friend of St. /Engus, and have lived contemporaneously 
with him. From the metrical panegyric, and the statement of a 
scholiast, who wrote a preface to the Festilogy of /Engus, Father John 
Colgan derived all his materials for the life of that saint. A few particulars 
only are excepted, and these were drawn from other sources. '^ 

1* See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of were both situated witliiu the present 

the Four ]MasttTs," vol. ii., pp. 826, 827. county ot Limerick. The former lay 

1= See note (y), ibid. near Ballingarry, and the latter near 

^" It is evident that the Disert- Limerick city. 

Aenvussa and ^lunqairit, already named, i" See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals <il 


In the year 1657, this ]iarish of Diseit is descrilied as the remaining 
part of the parish of Kihele or Kilteal, wliich is in I\Iaryborough 
barony. Disert contained three townlands at the time, and wortli 
3^20 per annum ; while the vicarage had an annual value of £10. Sir 
Robert Pigot, Knight, \vas the patron, ^'J and he seems to have resided 
in the old castle of Dysart, the fragmentaJ ruins of which are yet to 
be seen, beside a farm house, on an elevated site. The impropriate 
rectory of Disert Enos had a residence. The vicar Thomas Waller was 
a preaching minister there in 1616.20 The worth of this living was £15. 
The church, its chancel and books are rc}^orted to have been in good 
condition. This living is a vicarage in the Diocese of Leighlin, formerly 
valued at £157, the ])atron being Lord Carew. A church, which was 
built about 1752 on the summit of one of the Dysart Hills,^i is surrounded 
by a graveyard, in which probably stood the still more ancient eccle- 
siastical building. That erected in the middle of the eighteenth century 
is now a ruin, and it was replaced by another built near the Rock of 
Dunamase one hundred years later. A fair used to be held on the 
green field beside the graveyard on Whit-Monday, and on the 12th 
(jf October ; but for many past years, tlie fairs have been discontinued. 
In the Roman Catholic arrangement, this parish is united to that of 
Maryborough, and its chapel is in the townland of Raheenanisky.22 
Lamberton House and the chief part of its demesne i^ in the parish of 
Dysart Enos. 

CHAPTER XXHL— Parish of Dysert-Gallex. 

On the southern border of the barony of Cullenagh, the extensive parish 
of Dysert-Gallen ^ spreads over a very hilly and diversihed surface 
of country. It contains 10,781 a. o ;'. 28 p.; 2 much of this runs in hilly 
and mountainous land, the two chief summits of which have, respectively, 
over the sea-level an altitude of 869 feet, and looi feet. Except in the 
valleys and on some rolling uplands, the soil is of a secondary quality. 
The Owenbeg River receives its confluent streams from the higher 
ColUeries district north of Castlecomer and from Cullenagh mountain ; 
it then flows south-westwardly, until it joins the River Nore, in the 
County of Kilkenny. The considerable town of Ballinakill is \vithin 
the bounds of this i)arish. In a very beautiful and sheltered valley, 
near the Owenbeg River, is the old church of this parish, within a still 
more ancient cemetery, well crowded with graves, and of triangular 
shape. 3 An old road crossed the river ford, and there is a temporary 

the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 492, " Collections for tlie Dioceses of Kildaro 

493. and Leighlin," vol. iii., pp. 275 to 278. 

IS See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernioe," ^ It is shown on tlic " Ordnance 

xi. Martii, n. 5, p. 5S2. Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 

1^ See Sir Charles Coote's " Statistical County," Sheets 24, 25, 30, 31. 

Survey of the Queen's County," chap. - Oi this 13 u. 2 r. 26 />. are under 

i., sect. 3, p. 10. water. 

2° According to the " Liber Regalis ^ For a fuller description of this place, 

Visitationis." with an engraving on wood of the old 

-'■ See " The National Gazetteer," church, by William Oldham, the reader 

vol. i., p. 852. is referred to the author's " Lives of 

22 The history of Dysart Enos is to be the Irish Saints," vol. i.. Second Day of 

seen in Most Rev. Bishop Comerford's January, .\rt. iii., pp. 38 to 41. 



bridge over it, yet only sufficient for the accommodation of foot 
passengers. This place has been called Disert Chuillin by Colgan ; -i 
and when introducing a saint, known as Manchen the Wise, 5 the O'Clerys 
state, that this sage, whose feast occurs on the 2nd of January, belonged 
to Disert-mic-Cuilinn, now Disert Gallen of Laeighis in Leinster.^^ His 
period is not distinctly known, but there is a tradition in the neighbour- 
hood, that a monastery was here in ancient times. Among the Ordnance 
vSurvey Records,? tliere are notices of Disartgallen parish, in the barony 
of Cullenagh. It had six townlands and two English acres of glebe, 
the valuation of which was not determined in 1657. Sir Robert Pigot 
was then patron.^ As applotted under the Tithe Act, this parish com- 
prised 10,557 statute acres. 9 In an Inquisition, taken a.d. 1607, the 
liectory of Gallen, alias Dvsert Gallen, comprised the townlands of 
Ballanekilly, Kilcronan, Kilnashane, Ralishe, Clogheoge, Killrush, 
Ballahancarr, Castlenioat, Graige, Athanacrosse, Graghnahone, Gragnas- 
muttan, Moyarde, Knoghorocroughan, Doghill, Bouleylieg, Leaseo- 
connan, Boulanabane, and Ballanageragh, with all other hamlets to 
the same belonging. To the rectory of Gallen belonged also two-thirds 
of the tithes, and live great acres of land, of all which tithes and five acres 
the vicar of Gallen had a third part. 10 In the deanery of Leix proper, 
the church of Gallen is noticed as a rectory imjiropriate, with a residence 
in 1616.11 The Vicar was Thomas ]\Ianley, minister and preacher, 
^vith books. Value /8. The church was in repair, while the chancel 
was in ruins. \\'hcrefi)re, the fruits were sequestrate. That old church 
is now a pictiu'csque rnin. It consisted of a nave and choir ; the 
former measuring 40 feet by 20 feet, the latter 20 feet by 14 feet, while 
only the dilapidated foundations are now visible. The walls are about 
3 feet in thickness. A beautifully turned arch connected the nave and 
choir. In the two side-walls — a great part of them destroyed— there 
are traces ap])arently of two doors and two windows. In the west 
gable was a large window, and over it was a belfry. The church was 
built of limestone and grit, which were well cemented with mortar.'- 
It was a rectory and a separate benefice, in the diocese of Leighlin.i3 
In 1810, the glebe-house was built by a gift of /lOO, and by a loan of 
£550 from the former Board of First Fruits, while the glebe itself com- 
prised 30 acres. H A Protestant church was built in the town of 
iSallinakill, which belongs to this parish, in 1S21, at a cost of {1.55''^ 
4s. j^d., of which £198 los. y^d. only was raised by subscription ; 

* See " Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," xiv. View of the Agriculture and Manufac- 

Februarii, Vita S. Mancheni, n. o, p. 333. tares of tlie Queen's Count^^" chap, i., 

^ In the " Mart^Tolo.t^'V of Tallaylit," at sect. 3, p. 10. 

the 2nd of January is the entry- » See Lewis's " Topographical Dic- 

niAtichetii SApietinf. tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 593. 

^ See Rev. Drs. Tfidd and Reeves' i" See Jolin C. Erck's " Ecclesiastical 

" Martyrology of Donegal," pp.4, 5 and Register," &c., p. 131. Dublin, 1827. 

pp. 440, 441, Appendix. 11 Accor(Hng to tlie " Liber Regalis 

■^ SeL' " Letters containing Information \''isitatii)ins," 5th and 6th of July 

relative to the Anti(]uities of tlie Queen's returns. 

County collected during the I-'rogrcss 12 These observations were made by 

of the Ordnance Survey in 1838," the writer on the spot, 

vol. ii. Letter of Thomas O'Conor, '^ See John C. Erck's " Ecclesiastical 

dated Carlow, December 24th, 1S38, Register," Ac, p. 131. 

pp. 267 to 679. '•'See Lewis's "Topographical Dic- 

8 See Sir Charles Coote's " General tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 593. 

^i\ t^(i^ 

v.i\-S-\^ ,'•■.'-.'"'?■' .-^.'^3-- ■ 


.Sl-c nam.- 22'). 


;^344 6s. i.^d. being raised by parochial assessment ; while ;^i.ot5 7s. S|d. 
was borrowed from the former Board of First iMaiits.iS However, we 
find £1,100 the amount borrowed for this inirish in another account. '6 
In the year 1824, Rev. Stewart S. Trench became the rector of Dysart 
Gallen.17 In 1846, the tithe composition was £-\o() 3s., the glebe £$2 5s. ; 
the gross income being from this source £458 8s., and the nett being 
;f4ii 19s. yd. The curate had a salary of £yo. The Earl of Stanhope 
was patron. iS The church then had 150 sittings, the attendance being 
estimated at 250 persons. There are no returns of income for incumbent 
of the parish of Dysert Gallen, including Ballinakill.i9 There were 
nine daily schools in 1846. Two of these were salaried with /24 each 
from the National Board ; while one school had £y los. from the 
Association for Discountenancing Vice, and it was reported that 429 
l)oys and 407 girls were on its books. In 183 1 the population was 
4,014; and of these 2,087 lived in the rural districts. In 1834, the 
parishioners were thus distributed in the return of religious denomina- 
tions : Roman Catholics, 4,200 ; Protestant chiuxhmen, 228 ; and 
Dissenters, 3. In 1841, the population of this ]nirish was 4,342, living 
in 731 houses. The inhabitants of the riu-al districts numbered 2,802, 
in 457 houses. There are some very beautiful residences within this 
jiarish. The chief one of these is Heywood, greatly beautified by its 
former pro])rietor, j\I. F. Trench, Esq. It is situated qtaite near to the 
town of Ballinakill. Valleylleld House in the \'icinity is also an attrac- 
tive place. At Ballinakill and at Knockangurt were the Roman 
Catholic churches, luu'ing an estimated attendance of, res'pectively, 
3,000 and 717. Under the head of Ballinakill, its religious history, with 
that of Dysert Gallen, is set forth in the work of Most Rev. Bishop 
Comerford.-o The scenery of Dysert Gallen, especially along the course 
of Owenbeg River, is highly picturesque and romantic. 

Among Sir Williim Betty's Maps we find one 21 representing the 
barony of Cullenagh ; the greater. part of which is indicated by un- 
forfeited lands. On these the parish of Dysert Gallen is to be found, 
while Ballinakill town is shown as having a castle and a few houses ; 
these, and a castle, represented at Sampson's Court, are the only objects 
to be seen. The town of Ballinakill is situated in the parish of Dysert 
Gallen, on the southern verge of the barony of Cullenagh, Queen's 
County. The River Nore is about two miles distant. The Owenbeg, 
which above Ballinakill has been formed into a succession of delightful 
artificial lakes and miniature cascades within Heywood demesne, is a 
tributary, which, passing iit-ar the town, joins the Nore at Rosconnell. 
Ballinakill is surrounded by a very beautiful and fertile country, situated 
south-west by south from Dubhn, from which it is distant about fifty 
miles by way of Timahoe. From Maryborough, the county town, it 
lies ten miles south-south-east. -2 It is a market and post-town — the 

1^ See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of ~° See " Collections relating to the 

Ireland," vol. ii., ]>. 108. Dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin," 

^'^ See John C. hhclc's " Ecclesiastical vol. iii., pp. 102 to loy. 
liej^'ister," ^Vc, p. 131. -' Ballygormill, in Fossy parish, enters 

I'' See ibid. the northern part ol this map in a small 

IS See " I'aiiiainentary Gazetteer of angle. 
Ireland," vol. ii., p. idS. '--See Lewis's "Topographical 

!"■* See " 'L he Irish Chiircii Directory Dictionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 

and Year-Book for 1903," p. 144. 109. 



market held on Saturda}' — having wide streets and an elevated market- 
square. Fairs are held in it monthly throughout the year. 23 It contains 
a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, both handsome and solidh- 
built structures, and in immediate proximity, divided only by a high 
wall. They open on the principal street. This town has a dispensar\- 
within the Abbeyleix Poor Law Union. A military barrack, having 
accommodation for two troops of cavalry, was there in the beginning 
of the last century, but at present it is unoccupied. National schools 
also have been there erected and maintained. 

Although of some antiquity, only in the year 1606, a grant was 
made by King James I. to Sir T. Coatch, proprietor of the Manor of 
(lalline, to hold a weekly market on Wednesday and Saturday, as also 
fairs in Ballinakill. Soon afterwards, Sir Tliomas Ridgway, baronet, 
])lanted an English colony here, and a castle was built for their ])ro- 
tection. Tlie same monarch, in the loth year of his reign, a.d. 1612, 
granted a Charter of Incorporation to Ballinakill, whereby it was con- 
stituted a borough, with the privilege of sending two members to the 
Irish Parliament. -4 The sovereigns, burgesses and freemen formed 
the constituents. However, by this charter, the site of the castle was 
excluded from the corporation's jurisdiction. The limits of the quondam 
borough, measured from the centre of the town, extended on the north, 
about one English mile along the road to Dublin ; oq the east, about 
sixty perches to Comerford's former brewery, near the Owenbeg River ; 
on the south, one hundred and twenty perches ; and on the west, 
about one hundred and twenty perches to Mr. Stubbard jMullin's demesne 
wall. During the Insurrection of 1641, the castle of Ballinakill, at first 
successfully resisting an attemjit on it by (General Preston, -5 at length 
fell into the possession of the Confederate Catholics. However, it was 
cannonaded from Warren Hill, adjoining Heywood demesne, by General 
Fairfax. Although bravely defended, the garrison was at length com- 
pelled to surrender. -6 The castle was then destroyed. In 16S0, another 
castle was built on its site, by the Dunnes ; but, it was never inhabited, 
and only its ruins at present remain. 

In the year iSoo, when the ]\Iarquis of Drogheda the proprietor 
had api^ropnated this pocket-borough, for the inujiose of opening the 
doors of Parliament to liis nominees, he received the whole of the ;^i5,ooo 
of compensation mone}^ which was given by the Act of Union for the 
loss of its franchise. At that time, all the burgesses, and most of the 
freemen, were non-resident ; even the sovereign v/as generally non- 
resident ; and this mockery of a corporation ceased to exist the instant 
its parliamentary franchise was destro3'ed.-7 A borough court, held 
by the sovereign or his deputy, ceased also in 1800. About twenty- 
two years later a manor court held in Ballinakill ceased ; and a quarter 
sessions and petty sessions, formerly held in the town, have been trans- 
ferred to Abbeyleix. Towards the close of the eighteenth and beginning 
of the last century, considerable trade was carried on here, it being 
then a fine market and fair for grain, horses, cattle, sheep, and all other 

23 See "The National Gazetteer," pp. 385, 3S6. Oxford edition. 1851, 

vol. i., p. 151. 8vo. 

2* See the " Parliamentaxy Gazetteer 26 See Lewis's "Topographical Dic- 

of Ireland," vol. i., p. 131. tionary of Ireland," vol. i., p. 109. 

2s See Thomas Carte's " Life of James, 27 See the "Parliamentary Gazetteer 

Duke of Ormond," vol. ii., book iii., of Ireland," vol. i., p. 131. 


agricultural products. Three tan3'ards, a bolting mill, a brewery and 
several woollen factories -S gave steady employment to numbers ot 
the townspeople. Those are nearly extinct at present. Formerly fairs 
were held on the i6th of January and February, on the 22nd of March 
and April, on the 13th of May, on the fii-st Thursday after Whit Sunday, 
on the 13th of June and July, on the 12th of August, on the i6th of 
September, October, November and December.-9 The weekly market 
formerly held on Wednesday has long been discontinued ; that which 
IS held on Saturday has also greatly declined, owing to the attractions 
of a new market on that same day, jn the not distant town of Abbeyleix. 
The Earl of Stanhope is Lord of the Manor, and chief proprietor of 
BalHnakill, at the present time. The beautiful demesne of Heywood, 
now possessed by Lieutenant-Colonel Poe, is remarkable for its romantic 
site, growth of timber, natural and artificial adornments. 30 The old 
mansion-house is undergoing quite a transformation, and wings are 
being added to it of large extension ; the whole when completed must 
form one of the most elegant and architectural residences in the Queen's 

In Dysert Gallen parish about one mile and a-half south of Ballinakill, 
and situated beside the river which flows past Ironmills, is the greatly 
crowded graveyard of Kilcronan, at the angle of two roads. 3 1 Near 
it, a bridge crosses the river. Fine flowering hawthorn3 were around 
the burial ground in the month of May, when visited by the present 
writer, now many years ago. There, too, a shocking spectacle was 
presented, as the River Owenbeg had carried away m its flood a great 
portion of the graveyard, composed chiefly of the rank loam earth, 
formed by decaying human remains from very remote times. Pieces 
ot coflins and bones were to be seen protruding in thick layers, where 
the soil had given way. This sight alone revealed the great antiquity 
of the cemetery, or at least its frequent use in past ages. It was the 
favourite burying place, not alone for families in the adjoining town 
of Ballinakill, but m all the surrounding country. The old church arose 
within the graveyard, but now it is almost levelled to the ground. It 
measured 42 feet in length by 17 feet in breadth interiorly ; while the 
walls were 3 feet m thickness. The traces of the old foundations yet 
remain, with a fragment of the west end and south side-wall. In the 

-8 See Sir Charles Coote's " General Survey Townland Maps for the Queen's 

View of the Aojicullure and Manu- County," Sheet So. 

factures of the yueen's County," chap. ^- See " Leabhar Breac, the Speckled 

vii., sect. 4. Book, otherwise styled Leabhar Mor 

-^ Fairs were entitled to be held Duna Doishre, the Great Book of 

likewise on April 3rd, July 22nd, Dun Doighre ; a collection of pieces 

November 5th and December iSth ; in Irish and Latin, compiled from, 

but, in most instances, these onlv exist ancient sources, about the close of the 

on paper, since the trade of Ballinakill fourteenth century," p. 21, col. 4. 

declined. This mafjnificently-produced volume, 

3** " In forming this demesne, due in elephant quarto and thick paper, 

advantage has been taken of the natural was published for the first time in 

features of the ground. These features Dublin, a.d. 1876. The original manu- 

are the lovely little verdant hills, knolls, script, of which this is an exact repro- 

and valleys, which kind nature has duction. is now in the Library of the 

liberally scattered around." — James Royal Irish Academy. 
Fraser's " Hand Book for Travellers in 23 gee " Irish Ecclesiastical Record," 

Ireland," No. 84, p. 410. vol. vii.. No. Ixxix., April i, 1871, u. 

31 It is shown on the " Ordnance 23, p. 342, old series. 


latter was the customary alcove for altar re(]uisites. The history of this 
church seems to have beeu buried in oblivion ; but, from the name, 
we suppose it to liavc lieen dedicated to one of the numerous saints, 
called Cronan, as found in the Irish Calendars. From an account of 
the Saints of Erin, as found in the " Lealjfiar Breac," 32 we read about 
Crocha, one among the seven sons of Torlicn, son to Nuachadh. This 
Crocha is said to have been from Cill Crochan — jorobably owing to some 
connection he had with such place — on the boundary of Leix and Ossory. v^ 
We are strongly inclined to suspect, there is some error of spelliixg in the 
" Leabhar Breac " ; and that Crocha may be an error for Cronan, and 
that Cill Crochan may have been substituted for Cill Cronan. Tlic 
situation indicated well ajiplies to the present place, and we know ol 
no other locality as described suitably agreeing with the description. 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Parish of Erke or Eirke. 

This parish is situated, partly in the extreme south-western angle ol 
the Queen's County, within the baronies of Clandonagh ^ and Clarmal- 
lagh,'2 and partly in tie County of Kilkenny, m the barony of Galmoy.'^ 
About 2,000 acres of this parish are under l)(\g ; in other places, ihc 
land is of fair average quality', and a considerable portion of it may 
be regarded as excchent. The highest kind — reaching to 555 feet — 
is in the Clandonagh section of Eirke parish. Some notices of it are 
to be found in the Ordnance Survey Records. 4 Eirke, reported to have 
been situated in Upper Ossory in 1657, contained fourteen townlands, 
and it was then estimated to have been worth /60 per annum. One 
moiety of the parsonage in titlie was possessed by Florence FitzPatrick, 
lisq.; another share belonged to Mr. Edmond Shea ; and another was 
held by Lord Upper Ossory. At that period the church was in ruins. 5 
This living was a rectory and vicarage in the diocese of Ossory, the 
patronage being in the Crown, and the tithes amounting to ^^692 6s. i^d. 
in 1S37. The glebe-house was built by aid of /loo as a gift, and /800 
from the Board of First Fruits. The glebe comprised 15a. 25/). As 
a])})lotted under the Tithe Act, this parish was valued at £"1,370 6s. 
A Protestant church — a plain building — was erected here in 1824,^ 
and towards its erection, the Board of First Fruits lent £650. In 1831 
the population of this parish was 5,565 persons ; those of the Galmoy 
section amounting to 3,802 of that number. In 1834, fbere were 5.535 
Roman Catholics in this parish : the Protestants numbered 154. In 
1841, the population had increased to 5,678, the houses being 925 — oi 
these 640 were in the Galmoy section.7 The tithe composition was then 

1 This portion contains 3,685^. or. S/. Queen's County collected during the 

- This portion contains 2, 3t)4"- I''- i^P- Progress of the Orchiance Survey 111 

See " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 183S," voh i. Letter of John O'Donovan, 

for the Queen's County," Sheets 2>3> 34- dated Mountrath, November 2Sth, 1838, 

^ This portion forms by far the largest pp. 92, 93. 

division, and it consists of 12, ^^j--,a. Of. ^ See Sir Charles Coote's "General 

\op. See it described on the " Ordnance View of the Agriculture and Manu- 

Survey Townland Maps for the County factures of the Queen's County," chap. 

of Kilkenny," Sheets 3, 7, 8, 12. i., sect 3., p. 8. 

* See " Letters containing Informa- '^ Sec " The National Gazetteer," 

tion relative to the yVntiquities of the vol. i., p. 914- 

V -f" ^ 'St' 

/7/,)/„ h\'\ 


/:. ()'/.. 

Sl-c pai^e 237. 

\ ol. !. 


(I- 1. mi (ir(i-M''s .lii//ij!ii/hs). 

),iij,c 240 


/"602 6s. 3d. ; the glebe was valued at £22 los. ; the gross income was 
{724 OS. lod. ; s the nett was £613 3s. yd. ; the curate having a salary 
of /70.9 Two Roman Catholic chapels were then in the parish. Also 
tliL^ houses and demesnes of Mount Pleasant, Bagswell, Rathpatrick, 
Hallydonnel, Kyle, Lavally, and Ballinfrost, are ])leasing features of its 
>ccnery. The surface is generally very hilly, and the soil is ot varying 
quality, with an abundance of limestone, and coal,io that as yet has 
been only partially worked. 

CHAPTER XXV.— The Parish of Fossy or Timahoe. 

The parish of Fossy receives its name from the townland in which tlie 
old parish church — now in ruins- — was situated. According to a con- 
jecture of Mr. O'Donovan, the name seems to be Anghcized from 
Fassach,^ a wilderness. Such an etymological derivation might probably 
a]iply to the place, when the church was first founded there ; and even 
at the present day, there is a wild and desolate-looking hill appearing 
to the south-east. At present, the neighbourhood around is tolerablv 
well populated. The surface is generally very hilh', and the soil is of 
varying qualit}^ with an abundance of limestone, and coal - that as 
yet has been onh^ partially worked. There is an account bf parish 
in the Ordnance Survey Records. 3 

The existing ruined church at Fossy is a building of no great antiquity, 
bluing a chapel probably built, or at least remodelled, a little before or 
about the commencement of the seventeenth centur^^ No tradition or 
historic record remains regarding the founder or patron saint. On the 
interior, tliis church measures about 38 feet in length by 18 feet in 
breadth. The eastern gable contained a large pointed window, which 
is now almost reduced to a breach, whilst we can only reasonably infer 
that the western gable contained an entrance doorway, no part of which 
now appears, if we except a few distinguishable corner fragments near 
the foundations. From the apex of the roof to the very ground, the 
central portion of this gable has given way, and the more original 
windows in the north and south walls have crumbled to decay. Tlierc 
is a square window, however, in each of these walls, apparently of a 
more modern date than those already' destro^^ed. An Inquisition, taken 
at I\Iary borough in the ninth year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, states that the 
district comprised in this parish was named Ferane prior, or Prior's land, 
from a respectable family of the name living in that country. It is also 
thus designated, on the old maji of Leix and Ophaly. The patron of this 
parish was Mochua, also called iMogue. In the " Martyrology of Tallaght," 4 

■^ See Lewis's " Topographical Die- ~ See " The National Gazetteer," 

tionarv of ]rclan<l," vol. i., p. 597. vol. ii., j). 55. 

■^ The ClaiKlona,i;h yueen's County ■' Sl-c " Letters containing Information 

section coutaini'tl 1,133 souls and 1S2 relative to the Antiipiities of the Queen's 

houses. County collected during the Pi'ogi'ess of 

'■' See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of the Ordnance Survev in 1S38," vol. i. 

Ireland," vol. ii., p. 173. John O'Donovan's Letter, dated Strad- 

1'^ See " The National Gazetteer," vol. bally, December 9th, 1S3S, pp. 264 to 

ii., p. 55. 270. 

1 In the Irish language written ' Edited by the Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

pAfAch. p. xxxix. 



at the 24th of December occurs a festival in hon(~)ur of ^locua !MacLonain, 
i.e., Cronan. It seems to have been Colgan's intention, as we learn from 
his list of unpublished MSS., to have mserted a life of St. Mochua at 
the 24th of DecemiKu-. At the same date, the "Martyrology of Donegal"5 
also registers Mochua, son of Lonan, of Tigh jNlochua, m Laoighis, in 
Leinster. He descended from the race of Eochaidh Finnfuathairt, 
from whom Brighit is descended. Fineacht, daughter of Loichin, son 
to Dioma Chiret, of Cill Chonaigh, was his mother. From him, Timahoe 
and Timogue derive their denominations. 

One of the earliest and most celebrated, among the local saints of 
Leix, was Mochua, IMochoe, or Cuan, the son of Luan, who derived his 
descent from the illustrious race of Lugne.6 Mochua descended from 
the posterity of Cathaoir More. 7 At lirst, he was a warrior, but at 
thirty years of age, he became a Christian convert, and afterwards he 
embraced the monastic profession. He also assumed the clerical habit. 
Admonished by chvine inspiration, he came to a place, where he erected 
a rehgious house, called alter him Teach-]\Iochua,*^ and at present known 
as Timahoe. An uninhabited house, which served as a hospice, was near 
the monastery or cell. Here he seems to have permanently resided, 
until towards the close of his career. Then he wished to seek a more 
retired spot ; and, as we are told, he journeyed towards the north to 
visit St. Patnck.9 At a place called Dayrinis,io he finally settled and 
built a church. He there remained for a lapse of thirty years, and 
departed this life on the Kalends of January, having attained the ex- 
treme age of ninety-nine. He is said to have erected thirty churches, 
with 120 cells, in Ireland. St. Patrick most assuredly did not live 

5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

P- 347- 

° The Acts of this saint were com- 
mnuicated to the BoUandists by Father 
Hugh Ward. The Life is said to have 
been compiled from old Irish records 
ileserving of credit. Yet, in it some 
anachronisms may be detected. See 
" Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Januarii i., 
p. 45 to 47- 

7 Acctirdiu;; to Rev. Dr. Geohry 
Iveating's " General History of Ireland," 
second book, p. 397, Duffy's edition. 

8 Anglicized, " Alochua's House." See 
Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol. i., p. 530, n. (q). 

" If he arrived there, wliile St. Patrick 
was living, this seems inconsistent with 
the account in those Acts, that he was 
intimate witli St. Fintan Munnu, the 
Leper, who died on the 21st of October, 
A.D. 634. He is likewise said to have 
been visited by a noble-born and wise 
cleric, Colman Ela, who had a cell at a 
place called Glernssen. There is a 
St. Colman Eala, Abbot of Lynally, 
who died on the 26th of September, 
.\.D. 610. But, it may be questioned, 
if he be the cleric mentioned in St. 
Mochua's acts. Perhaps Glernssen may 
prove to have been a mistake for Glenn - 

Uissen, now Killeshin, which lay among 
the mountains uf jNlairg, noticed in this 
old Life. When a certain St. Kienan 
had completed his church, St. Mochua 
went over the mountain called Mairg 
to assist at its consecration. There are 
three saiiits bearing the name of Kienan 
in our Calendars. One is venerated at 
the 25th of February, and who liourishcd 
in Armoric Britain, about the middle 
of the sixth century, according to 
Colgan. Another is St. Kienan, Bishop 
of Duleek, who died on the 24th of 
November, a.d. 488, according to the 
Four Masters. Another St. Cianan, 
but undistinguished, has a festival at 
the 29th of November, in the " Alarty- 
rology of Donegal.'" A holy man, 
named Molua, probably the founder of 
Clonfert Molua, now Kyle, near Borris- 
in-Ossory, is stated in the life of Mochua 
to have departed before him, and his 
death is placed at a.d. 605, by the 
Annals of the Four Masters, or at 
A.D. 60S, in those of Ulster. 

*° Dairinis or Molana, formerly an 
island in the River Blackwater, is now 
united to the shore, and its position 
is shown on the " Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of 
Watcrford," Sheet ^y. 



beyond the close of the hl'th century ; and, if it happened, that St. 
Mochua was a contenii~iorary, liis hfe must be assigned to that, or to a 
j)criod perhaps not long subsequent to it. But there is no warrant for 
Archdall's statement, ^ that he died a.d. 497 ; this being tlie date of death 
lecorded for St. Mochai, Abbot of Aendruim, or Mahee Island, m 
Strangford Lough, i- and with him the founder of Timahoe appears to have 
been confounded. Although the period of St. Mochua has been referred 
to the sixth century ; yet, it is even more probable, he lived so late 
as the seventh century; for we are mtormed,i3 that he died during 
the reign of Domhnall, or Daniel, as monarch over Ireland. This term 
of sovereignty lasted from a.d. 624 to bjg.14 There may be reasons 
to suspect, however, that the patron of Timahoe has been again mis- 
taken for St. iMochuda, Bishop of Lismore, who died ^lay 14th, a.d. 
636, or perhaps for St. Mochua, Abbot of Balla, who died a.d. 637.15 
Nor does it seem certain, that the feast of St. Mochua, venerated at 
Timahoe, sliould be assigned to the ist of January, since in the Irish 
Calendar of the O'Clerys, it is set down at the 24th day of December.'^ 
We do not meet with any further notice of the religious house erected 
at Timahoe, in our Annals, until towards the close of the ninth century. 
Then, the death of its Abbot, Focarta, son of Dubhdacheal, is com- 
memorated, at a.d. S80.17 

Formerly, no doubt, a church and a monastic establishment were 
situated beside the hue and well-proportioned " pillar»-tower," which 
still proudly lifts its head on high. A place for burial is known to have 
been near. Notwithstanding those human remains, which are 
frequently disturbed about the place by persons when engaged 
in digging, yet, the old cemetery has long been disused as a place for 
mterments ; so that, not a single vestige of a tomb or of a grave can 
be seen at present. Still it seems probable, tliat portions of the former 
religious buildings are there traceable. Surrounded on every side by 
mountain ranges of considerable height, and having a clear gurgling 
stream called the Bauteogue River descending from them, the present 
xillage of Timahoe and the interesting ruins still there are situated 
within a beautiful valley. The parish itself, otherwise named Fossy, 
IS m the barony of Cullenagh. The village flanks a fair green with a 
few well-built houses and these too surroimd the decayed vestiges 
of its former history. 

In the parish of Fossy, are situated the niins of Timahoe Round 
Tower, in a tolerable state of preservation, with the military and ecclesia- 
stical remains in its immediate vicinity. The tower rises to the height 
of 96 feet, and measures round the base 57 feet, on the outside circum- 
ference. ^s Six offsets appear on the inside, each one of which seems 

1' See " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 246 to 

598. 257. 

^2 According to the Annals of 'richer- ^^ Accordine; to the "Annals of 

nagh. In those of Innisfallen, at Clonmacnoise," at that year, and his 

A.D. 490 ; in those of Ulster, at .\.d. feast is assigned to the 30th of March. 

493, and again at 498 ; in those of the i** See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' 

Four Masters, at a.d. 496, his death is edition of the " ]Martyrology of Donegal," 

recorded. pp. 346, 347. 

1' By Rev. Dr. Keating in his i'' See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of 

"General History of Ireland," second the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 530, 531. 

book, p. 397. '^ Tliere is an engraving of Die 

'*See Dr. O'l^onovan's "Annals of round tower and castle at Tiinahoo, 


to liavc sustained a laiKling. The two first stories were not liglited 
by any window or aj^erture ; the third story was hj^lited on the eastern 
side, or very nearly so, only by the duorwaw the base of which is exacth' 
16 feet from the ground ; the fourth story was lighted by a window, 
opening on the south side, projecting somewhat, and having a pointed 
top ; the fifth story received light from a small square window, placed 
exactly in the nortli ; whilst the sixth story was lighted by a square 
window, much injured on the exterior, and ojxming on the west side 
of the tower. Four triangularly-headed windows, each al:)out 7 feet 
in height, and nearly facing the four cardinal points, occu})ied a place 
in the highest story, being situated immediately under the conical 
roof or bciDui-cliohJiar, which was ver\' much mjured. Of late years, 
the Board of Public Works undertook the repair, and completely 
destroj'ed the original coved roof, of wliicli the author took a sketch 
in December, 1853. This he has ])rcsrrved, and on comparing it with 
the engra\-ing in the " Anthologia HibL-i'iiica." he iincls the latter 
coved roof had been too much elevated. However, the Architect of the 
Board of Public Works has brought it to a ])yramidically-rounded cone 
and to a mere point at the apex — a shape it did not originall}^ possess. The 
doorway of this tower measures from the turning of the arch to the base, 
5 ft. 10 in. ; from the outer centre ol the arch to the base, 7 ft. gin. ; 
from the inner centre of the arch to the I'ase, 7 feet :^ inches ; from the 
opposite side to the sj)ringing of the arch, 2 feet 7 inches ; and from 
the opposite sides at the base, 2 feet 9 inches. The outer part of the 
doorway contains two concentric arches, the internal one of which is 
elaborately carved. The internal arch whicli spans the top of the doorway 
is ornamented with lozenge-shaped tracery, presenting a beautiful 
appearance to one looking upwards, and standing on the lower sill at 
tlic entrance. ft sj^rings from columns, with ornamental capitals, 
grotesque heads, and s])iral ornaments, somewhat resembling a true- 
lover's knot, and forming the decorative features. The doorway 
projects 4 inches from the wall, and its entire thickness is 4 feet 6 inches. 
One of the characteristics of ancient Irisli doorways, being more narrow 
at the top than bottom in round towers and old churches, is here ex- 
hil)ited, but not in a very marked degree. 'i~he mternal ]xirt of the door- 
way, opening on the inside of the tower, is lower, and more narrow than 
the external ])art. It consists of two columns, irom whicli an elaborately 
ornamented semi-circular arch springs. The height to the top of 
capitals where the arch springs is 5 feet, the breadth i foot 
qh inches, and the breadth below, i foot 11 inches. The two 
capitals of this internal — unlike the external — part of the doorway, 
are without sculptured heads. The lower part of the columns exhibits 
very curious gyral and lozenge-shaped decorations. lietween the 
external and the internal parts of this doorway, on either side, two 
litte flutes or staffs project from the wall. They are exactly the height 
of those columns on the internal part of the doorway, and they exhibit 
very curiously sculptured faces on each. One face is at top, and the 

Queen's County, from a view by Lieu- do(.)i'\\a\- is one of the ninth or tenth 

tenant D;inir! Cirose, a.d. 1792, in C(_-ntui\'. .iml differing materiall}' in 

Grose's " Antitjuities of Ireland," vol. sizl' and other characteristics from all 

ii., pp. II, 12. tlie doorways of other round towers 

^^ In Mr. O'Donovan's opinion the examiticd liy him. 


other at bottom. It is (.liflicult to understand how the door of this 
opening was fastened. i'> 

Among the structures of its class throughout Ireland, the Round 
Tower at Timahoe is one of the most remarkable. Not only accurate 
])ictorial illustrations of very great interest but even descripti\'e 
p;irticulars of its arcliitecture, of its admeasurements, and of its style, 
are to be found in an archaeological work, distinguished by learned ancl 
careful research.-o For a long period, Timahoe seems to have Ijten the 
seat for a monaster}^ and a bishop's see, as we hnd recorded in our Annals. 
At A.D. 915,-1 is noticed the death of Mughron, son of Cinneidigli, 
Lord of the three Comainns and of Laighis,-- who was killed at the battle 
of Ceannfuait, together with six hundred of the Leinster forces, by 
Sitric, the grandson of Imhar, and l^y his foreigners.23 Strange to say, 
the tower is built of freestone, which is not a geological product of the 
district. A considerable portion of the western side being better built 
than any other part, leads to the natural conclusion, that the whole 
building had been re-modelled.24 The Round Tower at Teach Mochua 
lias heen referred to the close of the eighth or to the beginning of the 
ninth century, as the period of its erection.^.s It is said, the O'Moores 
of Leix established a religious house there in tlie tenth century. At 
all events, we read, under the year 919, that Cairbre, son»of Fearadhacli, 
head of the piet^- of Leinster, successor of Diarmaid, son to Aedh Roin, 
airchinneach of Tigh-Mochua, and an anchorite, died after a good life 
at a very advanced age.-"^ This same year is recordetl the burning of 
tlie oratory of Mochua, together with that of Cluaineidneach, l)y tlie 
foreigners. -7 The Abbot Meoyleke\'in died at Teacli-Mochua, A.i>. 
925,-^ according to one account ; but, the O'Clerys have the death 
of Maelcaeimhghin, son to Scannlan, Abbot of Teach-lMochua, entered 
at A.D. 928.-'-' In 031, died the Abbot Cosgrach, the son of Moihno- 
cheir}' ; 3" l^y the O'Clerys, he is styled the son of Alaelochoirgln, 
Bishop of Teach-Mochua and of the Commans.31 In a note to Dualtl 
MacFirbis' entry, at this same date, William M. Hennessy states, that 
the Three Commauns were three septs originally settled in that district 
comprising the southern part of the Queen's County and tlie noithern 
ixirt of Kil]-:cnny.3- 

In the Irish Annals, we read sometimes about the Bishop of Timahoe, 

-*' See " The Ecclesiastical Architcc- ap]icars in a quarto work, piilili^hed 111 

tiire of Ireland, anterior to the Anglo- London, 1830. 

Norman Invasion, comprising an Essay -'' See Dr. George Petrie's " Kcclesia- 

on the Origin and Uses of the Round stical Architecture of IrelantI, anterior 

Towers of Ireland." By George Petrie, to the An'^lo-Nornian Invasion," tVc., 

R.H.A., part ii., sect, iii., sub-sect. 2, pp. part ii., sect, iii., sub-sect. 2, pp. 2^2 to 

233 to 239. 234. 

-' The Annals of Ulster have the date -'' See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals ot 

916, alias 917. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. Aoo. Ooi. 

-- In the old English translation of -" See ihid., pp. G06, 607. 

the Ulster Annals, he is called simply -'^ See Arclulall's " Alonasticon Hiber- 

Ogran MacCinnedi, King of Lea^-e. nicum," p. 59S. 

-^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of -'•' See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals ot 

the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 588 to the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 622, (03. 

591, and n. (i). ^" See Arclulall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

24 A view of this Round Tower, and uiciun," p. 598. 

the ruins adjoining, drawn by Robert -'^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

O'Callaghan Newenham, Ebq., and the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 62(1, (S27. 

lithograiihed by James D. Harding, ^- See " Proceedings of the Ko\-al 


and of the Commauns. 33 The celebrated Iiish scholar, John O'Donovan, 
LL.D., has siipjiosed that the Commauns were in the northern part of 
Kilkenny County; whereas, the Rev. Dr. James Henthorn Todd is 
of oj)inion, that they were situated also in the southern part of the 
Queen's Count\-. It slcius to us, that the mountainous district adjoin- 
ing Timahoe, and designated the Commons of Fossy, must have been 
identical with the Commauns named in connection with the former 
place. Even, at this jnesent time, the Commons of Fossy, which were 
immediately near Timahoe, are yet traditionally remembered by the 
people of that neighbourhood, as freehold properties, long possessed by 
their ancestors, until their titles were extinguished, after the beginning of 
the last ceuiury. The following succession of ecclesiastics in Timahoe 
is thus registered in our Annals : Finguine, son of Fubhthaidh, son to 
Donnagan, son of Fogartach, son to Dninechdha,34 son of Bearach, 
son to Mescell, and the Vice- Abbot of Tcach-Mochua, died a.d. g^j6.35 
He was also Lord of ]\Iach-x\.bhna.36 As v;e learn from the annalistic 
entry, a school existed at Timahoe, in the middle of the tenth century. 
In 951, died Gormgall, prelector of this abbey ; 37 while, at the same 
year, the O'Clerys place the death of Gormghal^ Lector of Teach-IMochua 
and Inis Robhartaigh. In g6g, died the Abbot of Teach-Mochna, 
Finguine O'FiachrachJS or Ua-Fiachrach.39 In looi, died the Abb')t 
of Teach-Mochua,4o Conaing 0'Fiachrach,4i or , Ua-Fiachrach.42 
In the year 1007, the Abbot of Teach-Mochua, Finsneachta 
0'Fiachrac"h,i3 or Fmsnechta Ua Fiachra, died.44 From the latter 
annalistic entries, the dynastic rule of a particular family seems to have 
prevailed in a succession of abbots. 

The sanctuars' of Teach- j\Iochua-mic-Lonain — another name for 
Timahoe — was violated in the year 1041. MacConin slew Cuciche Ua 
Dunlaing, lord of Laeghis, his son, and his wife Cailleoc ; but, on the 
day following, their death was avenged by Ua Broenain,45 who killed 
MacConin, and this was regarded as a great miracle, through the inter- 
vention of St. i\Iochua.4'^ In the year 1142, Teach Mochua was burned, 47 
and we are told that afterwards it was re-founded by the O'Moores.48 

Irish Academy." Irish Manuscript the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 668, 

Series, vol. i., part i., pp. ku, 103. 669. 

See also pp. 12S. 129. ^" See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiber- 

■"^ Such mode of expression indicates, nicum," p. 598. 

that the distinguished jurisdiction of *° See Dr. O'Donovau's " Annals of 

the local Bishup cousistcd of conter- the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 694, 695. 

miuous districts. ""i See Archdall's " Monaslicon Hiber- 

"' He was tiie brother of Cathal, nicnm," p. 598. 

ancestor to the O'Mores of Laeighis or '2 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

Leix, in the Queen's County. the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 744, 745. 

^^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of ^^ See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiljer- 

the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 634, nicum," p.- 598. 

635, and nn. (m, n). ■*■* See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of 

^•^ This is probably a mistake for the Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 758, 759. 

O m-Biiidhe, or Omuigh. This latter *^ Anglicized O'Bronnan. 

was the ancient name lor that district, *'• See Dr. 0'Dono\-au's " Annals of 

in wluch Teach-Mocluia, or Timahoe is the Four INIasters," vol. ii., pp. 840, 841, 

situated. See " Leabhar na g-Ceart," and n. (o). 

or the Book of Rights, " edited by ''■? See ibid., pp. 1066, T067. 

John O'Donovan, p. J13, n. (a). ""^ See Lc^s■is "Topographical Dic- 

2'' See Archdall's " ]Muuasticon Hiber- tionary of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 625. 

nicum," p. 598. *'■' See " Expugnatio Ilibernice," by 

28 See Dr. O'Donovan's " .\nnals of Giraldus Cambrensis, cap. x.xv. 



In the reign of Henry II., among many castles Imilt in Lcinster by Hugh 
de Lacy, he erected one at Tachmeho in Leix, which he gave to Meilerms 
as also he gave his niece to be ^vife of this same lAIeyler Fitzhenry -I'J 
A coarb of IMochua— it is doubtful if this means of Timahoe— had a "son 
named John O'Hughroin, who became bishop of Elphin, and who died 
at Rath-Aedha-mic-Bric,5o now Rathugii,5i in 1246. The taxation for 
Taghmoho (Timahoe) in 1302-1307 for the Holy War was 8 marks— 
the Tenth being los. Sd.S^ 

It is related, that the Cosby family—when in possession of the 
manor of Timahoe— built a castle there, during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth.53 At the period of the Suppression, that Oueen granted the 
abbey, with the lands appertaining, to Sir Thomas Loftus. He died 
there, m the monastery or castle, at Tymoghoe, a.d. 1635.54. Durin-'- 
the War of the Confederation, Colonel Lewis, O'Moore and his men held 
possession of this place.55 However the English general i\Ionk defeated 
the Irish, under General Preston, in a battle [(jught near this town, 
A.D. 1642.56 The ruins close beside the Round Tower are in great part 
traces of the former castle, which stood there, in the seventeenth century 
We find it stated, that Anne the daughter of Sir Thomas Loftus, married 
Francis, son of Richard Cosby. This latter received a grant of the 
monastery lands of Timahoe in 1609, probably by assignment.57 

Timahoe was an impropriate Rectory, having a restdence. Its vicar 
was Richard Meredith, a Master of Avis, and a preaching minister. The 
worth of this living was £10. The church and its chancel were in good 
repair, and furnished with books. In the Report of the Commission 
issued from the Lord Protector's Court of Chancery, and dated Dublin' 
July 30th, 1657, we learn, that Tymoge,5S or Timahoe, in rullenagh,' 
hath four townlands worth ^(16 per annum, and that the patron was the 
Earl of Kildare.59 A tradition holds, that friars dwelt in the abbey at 
Timahoe until a.d. 1650, when Colonels Hewson and Reynolds over-ran 
the Queen's County.^jo 

The Round Tower of Timahoe is vet in a good state of preservation, 
and many of its details are of exceeding great beauty. Beneath it are 
other crumbling walls, not dating back apparently to the age of its 
erection. We are presented with a well-linished engraving, purporting 
to rejnesent the Round Tower and ruins at Timahoe, as these stood 

=° It means the Fort of lli'.-li, the John T. Gilhcrt, K.S.A., :\I.R.r.A. .S:c 

son of Brec ; he was a saint who \m1. i., p. 91. 

flourished iu the sixth century. :-; xiie pursuit was stopped by Coiontd 

A parish in the barony of Mov- Lewis O'RIoore, who arrived opportunely 

cashel, and in the County of Westmeath. with a party of horse, not far distant 

" See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of from Mr. Barrington, of Cullentra'di 

the Four Masters," vol. hi., pp. 310, 317. (Cullenagh), where there was an English 

and n. (1). Also see the " Calendar of garrison. See ibiJ. 

Documents relating to Ireland," pre- " See " Antholugia Hibernica " vol 

served in lier Majesty's PubUc Record iv., p. 349. 

Office, London, edited by Henry S. as n „o,.v forms a distinct parochial 

bweetman and G. F. Handcock, p. j^S. denomination, and it lies north of 

f^s See Lewis' " Topographical Die- Timahoe ; it is also conterminous 

tionary of Ireland," vol. n., p. 625. s^ See Sir Charles Coote's " Statistical 

See Anthologia Hibernica," vol. Survey of the Queen's County " chao 

IV., p. 349- i., sect, i., p. 11. ^' 

" See Richard Belling's " History of 60 Amongst their other acts of cruelty 

the Irish Confederation and the War in and devastation, these leaders are said 

Ireland," 1641-1643, &c. Edited by to have murdered all the friars of this 


towards the close of the last century. ^i However, the subject of that 
etclung is not easily reco.guisable by comparing it with the existing 
ruins. <^2 East of Kilcohnanbane there is an angle of Timahoe or Timechoe 
Parish shown, 63 on Sir William Petty's Maps. Timahoc, including 
Luggaciu-ren and Timogue, brings f2io annually to the incunibent.^'i 
In the Catholic arrangement, Timahoe and Fossey are united to the parish 
of Stradballv.<'5 

One of tile most rcmarlcable feats of human agility, nerve, courage, 
endurance, and skill coml)ined, happened here on the 2nd of July, 1S27, 
when a young country man, named Daniel Keane, climbed 
the Round Tower on the outside without any assistance whatever, 
and crowned the exploit by standing on his head when he reached 
the topmost cone. He there fastened, and left his coat on the top, as 
a memento of the performance.'^'^ It is stated, that the adventurous 
climber had been a sailor. He safely descended also, and in the presence 
of a large concourse of spectators."7 He won a lai-ge sum of money 
through the wager made for the occasion. About that period, also, 
the Kev. Cornelius Bowling, P.P. of Stradballw and of Timahoe, com- 
menced the erection of a handsome new Catholic church in the latter 
village, which he li\-ed to see complett'd, and in which that veneral)le 
ecclesiastic now lies intci-red. The clunch is dedicated to St. Patrick, 
and it replaces a wretched thatched house, wliich stobd dismantled, 
but which was to be seen, within the writer's memory. 

CHAPTER XXVL — Pakisii of Kit.colmaxb ank. 

Partly within the Barony of Cullenagh,i i^^t chiefly withm that of 
Maryborough West,- lies the Parish of Kilcolemanbane, sometimes 
written Kilcommonbawne. It is ti'aversed by the road from IMaryborough 
to Ballinakill. The land is of middle-rate quality, for the most part, 
with a considerable surlat'e of bog. In it Slieliield, Rathleague and 
Woodville are the chief residences. Tliis parish is noticed in the 
Ordnance Survev Records. 3 A saint named Colman Ban. or tlu' " white" 
or " fair Colman?' is noletl in our Irisli Calendars as having been venerated 
on the iQth of October ; v and to us it seems most probable, that he 
was the first founder of a church in that place, which deri\'es its de- 
nomination from him. That he flourished at a very early date, is 

place, and to have tlismantlcd this '"'^ Sec an account of its rchgious 

abbcv. The spot, where they were history in JNhist Rev. Jiiishop Comerford's 

massacred, is still pointed out and " Collections relalint; to the t^iocese of 

calleil " l^ohcr a wurther," or l/w Kildarc and Leighlm," vol. hi., pp. t,66 

viurderiitii load." to 372. 

•"■ See the " Anthologia Hibernica," '^" See " Picturesque views of the 

vol. iv., p. S49- Antiquities of Irelanil," drawn on 

<"'- Their site is shown on the " Ord- stone by James D. Harding, from the 

nance Survey Townland Maps for the sketches of Koliert O'Callaghan Newen- 

Queen's County," Sheet iS. ham, Esq.. vol. i., p. 19. 

63 Nearly corresponding with this, "^^ Althou.trh very young at that 

is Valiancy's copy of the Maps in Paris, time, the writer has a distinct recoUec- 

vol. ii., No. 64. Record Office, Dublin, tion of crowds leaving Stradbally to 

8* Se'e " The Irish Church Directory witness that feat so successfully 

and Year-Book for 1903," p. 125. accompUshetl. 


manliest from the fact, that lie has been recorded in the •• Alartyrology 
of Tahaght/'S The exact period, however, is unknown. 

There are ruins of a very old church within the grave^-ard, with its 
divisions of choir and nave yet exhibited ; but they arc in a sad state 
of dilapidation and decay. To the east lie the beautiful demesne and old 
house, once inhabited by Sir John Tydd, later on by Judge Moore, 
and at present owned by the Sweetman family. Near Kilcolmanbane 
commenced that fierce attack of Owny MacRory O' Moore on the Earl 
of Essex and his English forces, and which is known in Irish history 
as the battle at the Pass of Plumes, fought May 17th, 1509.^ This 
parish is marked as Kilcolmanban on the old Map of Leix and Ophaly, 
and Kilcolmanljane on the engraved Map of the Down Survey. Also, 
the Castle of Ballyknockan, now in ruins, is within the extreme southern 
limit of this parish, and on e\'cry side of its slightly elevated position 
it is surrounded by reclaimed bog or moorland. In this parish likewise 
is Ball\'carney, marked on the old Map of Leix and Ophaly, often referred 
to as Ballycarnan, and placed in the country of the O'Lalors, called 
Feranolalor.7 By patent of Queen Elizabeth, dated the i6th of October 
in the nineteenth year of her reign, ^ Sir Robert Pigott of D\-sert,9 among 
his other grants had the " rectory of Kilcolmanbane together with all 
the churches, chai'cls, etc., to the same belonging, and also the pre- 
sentation of a vickar to the church of Kilcolmanbane a|oresaid, to whom 
belongeth the third part of all the tithes of the aforesaid parsonage." 

During the reign of James 1., Kilcolmanbane was an impropriate 
rectory, with a residence. The vicar was then Thomas llaslam. The 
worth of this li\-ing was fj. The churcli and its chancel were in good 
repair, l)ut tliere were no books except those the \-icar carried with him. 10 
It had six townlands, and it was nn imj)roin"iation, worth, in 1640, 
£60 per annum. Then it was set, lor tlie use of the Commonwealth, 
at £2id. Besides it had one acre of glebe." On Sir William Petty's 
Maps and within the East Maryborough barony division isjepresented 
the Parish of Kilcolmanbane, with its parish church, Balleknockane 
Castle, Ballecharnane House, and a skirt of Red Bog ; all represented 
as forfeited land.'- (^n another j\Iap ^3 Kilcolmanbane Parish is given, 
with the denominations and numbers of acres, shrubby pasture and 

1 This portion contains 63S acres, i srr-cs, vol. i., No. xliii. " On the 

rood, jj ])crclics. Identification of the .She of tlie Engaye- 

- J'his portion contains 3,054 acres, nient at the Pass of Phiines," pp. 

3 roods, jC pcrclies. The parish of 279 to 2S8. 

Kilcohiianlmnc is described on the " See Thomas O'Conor's letter of 

" Ordnance Snrvey Tovvnland i\Iaps December 6th, 1S38, vol. i., p. 189. 

for tlie Queen's Conntv," Sheets 13, 18. ^ And tiy indenture, liearing date the 

•' See " Letters containing; information 2nd ol May, 1605, transferred to Thomas 

relative to the Anticpiities of the Allen. 

Queen's County collected tluring the ■' Inquisition taken at ^laryborough, 

p'rogress of the Ordnance Survey in 7th of Se|)tember, 1607. 

1838," Vol. i. Letter of Idiomas O'Conor, 1° See "Liber Regahs Visitationis," 

dated Stradbally, Decendier 6th, 1838, a.d. 16,16. A ccjpy is yireserved in 

pp. 186 to 189. the Ivoyal Irish Academy, classed 

■•See " i\Iartvrology of Donegal," 23, F., i. 

edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, ^i See Sir Charles Coote's " General 

pp. 278, 279. View of the At;riculture and Manu- 

5 See Rev. Dr. Kelly's edition, p. n . factures of the Queen's County," chap. 

" See an account of it, in " Proceedings i., sect. 3, j). 9. 

of the Royal Irisli Academy " ; second i- General Valiancy's copy of Sir 


bog. Jiallyknockane Castle luis two other houses near it. The ruins 
of a chureh on the lands of Ballecliarnan are there represented. ^4 This 
parish, in 1837, was a rectory and vicarage in the diocese of Leighlin, 
forming part of ?iIaryborough Union, valued at £48^, the tithes amount- 
ing to £iOo. The bishop was j^ It had then a population of 
1.223 inhabitants, i*J in i8ji ; in 1834, the Protestant population amounted 
to 151, and the Roman Catholics to 1,093 united to their jjarish of Alary- 
borough. The i)opulation of the Maryborough section ni 1841 was 
78S, living in 126 houses. The total population then was Q62, living 
in 153 houses. In 1846 the tithe composition was £Tbo, and the glebe 
worth /i 7s. 6d.i7 Rathleague Lodge, formerly the seat of Sir John 
Parnell, Bart., is in this parish. 

CHAPTER XXVTI. — Parish of Kilcolmanbrack or Cremorgan. 

The small parish of Kilcolmanbrack adjoins that of Kilcolmanbane 
towards the east, and it lies within the barony of Cullenagh. It only 
contains one townland, Cremorgan, com})rising c)05a. 3r. 26p.i It is 
traversed by the road from Monasterevan to Kilkenny. The land in 
this parish is generally of good quality, with some bog.2 This parish 
has been noticed by John O'Donovan, in the Ordnance Survey Records. 3 
It is probable the name was derived from some Colman, who first built 
a cluirch there, and who was brcac or " freckled," to distinguish hinr 
from his namesake " the fair." who a]:)pears to have founded the 
adjoining church, known as Kilcolmanbane. If so, however, the period 
when the present church was founde