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HY .1. 1-|.K'I<HEK WII.LIA.MS. 




.lOnXSON. S>TIII1 .<; UA It HI SON. 








riM^bW (K 

We live not alone in the present hut also in the past and tuturr. We. 
can never look out thoutjhtfull)' at our immediate surroundinj^s but a course 
of reasoning will start np leading' ns to intpiire the causes that produced the 
developinent around us, and at the same time we are led to conjecture the re- 
sults to follow causes now in operation. We are thus linked indissoIubl\- with 
the past and the future. 

If, then, the past is not simply a stepping-stone to the future, hut a part of 
our very selves, we can not aftord to ignore, or separate it from ourselves as 
a member might be lc)])ped off from our bodies ; for thougli the body thus 
maimed, might perform many and perhaps most of its functions still, it could 
never again be called complete. 

We therefore present this xoluuu- to our patrons, not as something 
extrinsic, to which we would attract their notice and secure their favor, but as 
a part of themselves, and a very important part, which it is the province of 
the historian to re-invigorate and restore to its rightful owner. Moreover, we 
can not but hope that we shall thus confer much pleasure. The recounting 
of events which have transpired in our own neighborhood is the most inter- 
esting of all history. There is a fascination in the study of the intermingled 
facts and fiction of the past, which s heightened by a familiarity with the 
localities described. " The river which flows through our native village 
acquires a new interest when, in imagination, we see the Indian canoe 
on its surface and the skin - covered tepee on its banks, as in days of yore." 
Log cabins, straw roofs, and the rude "betterments" of the hard)- pioneer, 
are the next changes on the scene, followed soon by mushroom towns, some 
of which perish as (}uickly as they sprang up, while others astonish us by 
their rapid growth ; cities are built, and moss and i\y, the evitk^nces of age, 
accumulate. The log cabin and all th(- steps of first settlement are things of 
the past ; the place which knew them shall know them no more forever. 

Our purpose is to present these pictures in their natural succession^ 
arousing the enthusiasm of th(! reader, if possible:, and gi\'ing him a more- 
vigorous enjoyment of the present by linking it with the past. The compass 
of the work is wide, e.xtending over a long period of time, embracing the 
accounts of early explorers, also reaching back among the legends of the past, 
and, approaching the events of the day, almost undesignedly, casting a pro- 
phetic glance forwartl at what must he In the futiu"e after such a beginning. 


Ramsey county presents an exceptionally rich field lor a work of this 
character. Explorer, missionary, voyageur and trader have here left traces 
of their occupation. While reviewing the events and enterprises inaugu- 
rated for the development of the county, we come to regret that we can not 
claim the prestige belonging to the aristocracy of early settlers. 

To crive in detail all the various sources from which the facts here eiven 
have been obtained, would be tedious if not impracticable. It may be sufficient 
to say that it fairly presents the history of our remarkable development, and 
a faithful picture of our present condition. We must, however, express our 
obligations to a host of living witnesses, from whom a large portion of the 
facts have been obtained, and doubtful points verified ; they have our hearty 
thanks. Material has been drawn largely from the columns of newspapers, 
which have given from time to time, a record of passing events. The contri- 
bution of Rev. Edward D. Neill will be of great permanent value in imperish- 
able print, and will be greatly prized by historiographers everywhere. We 
have also drawn upon the accumulation of facts in the possession of the 
Minnesota Historical Society, for a paper by its secretary, Mr. |. Fletcher 
Williams. The value of a reservoir of historical data at the capital of the 
State, for such purposes, was fully appreciated ; and the maintenance of such 
a centre of information can not be too strongly advocated. 

In conclusion, we have an obligation to express to our patrons, and are 
pleased to acknowledge a liberal patronage and more than ordinary courtesy 
toward our employes ; for all of which we tender our hearty thanks. Hoping 
that those who have subscribed for and are about to receive this volume, will 
favor it witii a kind reception, and take as much interest in reading as we 
ha\e in comjiiling the history of Ramsey county, we are, 

\'ery respectfully, yours, 


C O N T E N ^J^ S 



opp. 1 


Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota, 
by Rev. Edward Dnffield Xeill. - 1—128 


Outlines of the History of Minnesotii, 
from 1858 to 1881, by J. Fletcher 
AVilliams, - - - - l:i9— ir.o 


FortSnelling, _ _ _ 161—169 

(IlAl'TEll XXXI. 
t'ln-onoiogy. - ^ - _ no — 176 


Ramsey County History. - - 177 — 20.5 

War Record. - - 20.5—234 


Courts and Bar of Ramisey County, by 

Reserve, - - - 

Rose, - - - 

Mounds A'iew. 


- 2,52—2.58 

- 2.58—273 

- 27.S— 280 


Wliite Bear, 


New Canada, 



- 280—288 

- 288—29.5 

295- -.Wl 


Saint PmiiI. City of, - 


St. Paul. P.iograpliiciil. 

Directory, _ _ _ - 

Hon. Charles E. Flandrau. - - 2.S4— 251 Index 




1 ^1 I ! l^«^-':W-|n^ 

'i-~i— : 





Minnesot.i's Central Position.— D' A vatjour's Prediction.— Nicolfifs Visit to Orooii 
Bay. — First Wliitc Men in Minne^otu. — Notices of GrnsclliiPi and Radisson.- 
Uorona Flee to Minnesota.— Visit L>d Iiy Frenchmen. — Father Menanl Dixiii- 
pears.— Groselliers Visits Huason's Bay.— Father AHoum Describes the Sioux 
Mission «t L.I Pointc.— Father Marquette.— Siuux at Sanit St. Marie, — Jesuit 
Miuions Fiul.- GroBcUicre Visits KngUnd.- Captiiin Gillani, ol Boston, at Huil- 
son's Bfty.— Lt-tter of Mother Sujierior of Ursulines., iit Quebec.— Dejth of 

The Dakotahs, called by the Ojibways, Xado- 
waysioux, or Sioux (Soos), as abbieviatsd by the 
Freiifli, used to claim siiiieriority over other peo- 
lile, because, their sacred men asserted that tlie 
mouth of tlie :Minnesota River was immediately 
over the centre of the earth, and below the centre 
of tlie heavens. 

While this teaching is very different from tliat 
of the modern astronomer, it is cerbiinly true. 
that the region west of Lake Superior, extending 
througli the valley of the Minnesota, to the Mis- 
souri Kiver, is one of the most healthful and fer- 
tile regions beneath the skies, and may jirove to 
be the centre of the rrpublic of the T'nited States 
of America. Baron iJ'Avagour, a brave officer, 
who was killed in fighting the Turks, while he 
was (Jovernor of Canada, in a dispatch to the 
French (iovenimcTit, dated August 11th, \i>r:.i, 
after referring to Lake Huron, wrote, that beyond 
" is met another, called Lake Superior, the waters 
of whicli, it is believed, (low into Xew Spain, and 
this, accordiny to (jcneral opinion, ought to be the 
centre of the country.'^ 

As early as 1635, one of Champlain's interpre- 
ters, Jean Xieolet iXicoIay), wlio came to ('ana 
da in 1G18, readied the western shores of Lake 
Michigan. In the summer of 1634 he ascended 

Entered aoflordinK lo act orCoiigrt^, in ttic year ISSl, by Geo. E. WaairKa and C. M 

tlie St. Lawrence, with a party of Ilurons, and 
probably during tlie next winter was trading at 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin. On the ninth of De- 
cember, 163o, he had returned to Canada, and on 
the 7th of October, 1037. was married at (Jueliec; 
and the next month, went to Three Rivers, where 
he lived until 1642, when he died. Of him it is 
said, in a letter written in 1640, that he had pen- 
etrated farthest into those distant countries, and 
that if he had proceeded " three days more on a 
great river which flows from that lake [Green 
BayJ he would have found the sea." 

The Ih-st white men in .Minnesota, of whniu we 
have any record, were, according to Garneau. two 
persons of Huguenot affinities. Jledard Chouart, 
known as Sieur Groselliers, and I'ierre d'Esprit, 
called Sieur Radisson. 

Groselliers (pronounced Gro-zay-yay) was born 
near Ferte-sous-Jouarre, eleven miles east of 
Meaux, in France, and when about sixteen years 
of age, in the year 1641, came to Canada. The fur 
trade was the great avenue to prosperity, and in 
164f>. he was among the Huron Indians, who then 
dwelt 111)011 the eastern shore of Lake Huron, 
bartering for peltries. On the second of Septem- 
ber, 1647, at (Quebec, he was married to Helen, 
the widow of Claude Ktieiiiie, who was the daugh- 
ter of a pilot, Abraham Martin, whose baptismal 
name is still attached to the suburbs of that city, 
the •• Plains of Abraham."' made famous by the 
death there, of (Jeneral Wolfe, of the Kiiglisli 
army, in 1759, and of General Montgomery, of 
the Continental army, In December, 1775, at the 

FooTK, in tlic office urtlio orCongrcks, at W«abin{t«n, D. C. 


commencement of the " 'War for Independence." 
His son, Mediird, was boni in ]6o7, and the next 
year his mother died. The second wife of Gro- 
selliers was Martruerite llayet (Ilayay) Radisson, 
the sister of liis associate, in the exploration of 
tlie region west of Lake Superior. 

Radisson was bom at St. !Malo. and, wliile a 
boy. went to Paris, and fnmj tlience to Canada, 
and in 10.50. at Three Rivei-s. married Elizabetli, 
tlie daughter of iladeleine llainault, and. after 
her death, the daughter of Sir David Kirk or 
Kerkt. a zealous Huguenot, became his wife. 

The Iroquois of New York, about the year 10-50, 
drove the Ilurons from their villages, and forced 
them to take refuge with their friends the Tinon- 
tates, called by the French. Petuns. because they 
cultivated tobacco. In time the Ilurons and 
their allies, the Ottawas (Ottaw-waws), were 
again driven by the Iroquois, and after successive 
wanderings, were foiuid on the west side of I^ake 
ilichigan. In time they reached the Jlississippi, 
and asceudhig above the Wisconsin, they found 
the Iowa River, on the west side, which they fol- 
lowed, and dwelt for a time with the Ayoes 
(loways) v ho were very friendly ; but Ijeing ac- 
customed to a coimtry of lakes and forests, they 
were not satisDed with the vast prairies. Return- 
ing to the Mississippi, they ascended this river, 
in search of a better land, and were met liy some 
of the Sioux or Dakotahs, and conducted to their 
villages, where they were well received. The 
Sioux, deUghtcd with the axes, knives and awls 
of European manufacture, which had been pre- 
sented to them, allo-ttfd tlie refugees to settle 
upon an island in the Missi.ssijjpi, below the 
mouth of the St. Croix River, called Bald Island 
from the absence of trees, about nine miles from 
the site of the present city of Hastings. Possessed 
of firearms, the Ilurons and Ottawas asserted 
their sujieriority. and dcterniinod to con(iUPr tlie 
country for themselves, and having incurred the 
hostility of the Sioux, were obliged to flee from 
the isle in the ilississijipi. Descending below 
Lake Pepin, they reached the Black River, and 
ascending it, found an unoccupied country around 
its .sources and that of the Cliip))pway. In this 
region the Ilurons established themselves, while 
their allies, the Ottawas, moved eastward, till 
they found the shores of Lake Superior, and set- 
tled at Chagouamikou (Sha-gah-wah-mik-oug) 

near what is now Bayfield. In the year 1659, 
Groselliei-s and Radisson arrived at Chagouamik- 
on. and determined to visit the Ilurons and Pe- 
tuns, with whom the former had ti'aded when 
they resided east of Lake Huron. After a six 
days' journey, in a southwesterly direction, they 
reached their retreat toward the sources of the 
Black. Chippewa, and "Wisconsin Rivers. From 
tliis point they journeyed north, and passed the 
winter of 1059-60 among the " Xadouechiouec,'' 
or Sioux villages in the lilille Lacs (Mil Lak) re- 
gion. From the Ilurons they learned of a beau- 
tiful river, wide, large, deep, and comparable with 
the Saint Lawrence, the great Mississippi, wliich 
Hows through the city of Miimeapolis, and whose 
sources are in northern Minnesota. 

Xortheast of jSIille Lacs, toward the extremity 
of Lake Superior, they met the " Poualak," or 
Assiniboines of the prairie, a separated band of 
the .Sioux, who, as wood was scarce and small, 
made fire with coal (charbon de terre) and dwelt 
ill tents of skins ; although some of the more in- 
dustrious built cabins of clay (terre grassy), like 
the swallows build their nests. 

The spring and summer of 1660, Groselliers and 
Radisson passed in trading around Lake Superior. 
On the 19th of August they returned to Mon- 
treal, with three hundred Indians and sixty ca- 
noes loaded with " a wealth of skins.'' 

" Furs of bison and of beaver. 
Furs of sable and of ermine."' 

The citizens were deeply stirred by the travelers' 
tales of the vastness and riclmess of the region 
they had visited, and tlieirmany romantic adven- 
tures. In a few days, they began their return to 
the far West, accompanied by six Frenchmen and 
two priests, one of wlioni was the Jesuit, Rene Me- 
nard. His hair whitened by age, and his mind 
ripened by long experience, he seemed the man 
for the mission. Two hours after midnight, of the 
day before departure, the venerable missionary 
penned at " Three Rivers,'' the following letter 
to a friend : 

'Reverend FAxnEii : 

" The peace of Christ be with you : I write to 
you probably the last, which I hope will be the 
seal of our friendship luitil eternity. Love whom 
the Lord Jesus did not disdain to love, though 
the greatest of sumers; for he loves whom he 



loads with his cross. Let your friendship, my 
good Father, be useful to me by the desirable 
fruits of your daily sacrilice. 

" In three or four months you may remember 
me at the memento for the dead, on account of 
my old af,'e, my weak constitution and the hard- 
ships I lay under amongst these tribes. Xever- 
theless, I am in peace, for I have not been led to 
this mission by any temporal motive, but I think 
it vv-as by the voice of God. I was to resist the 
grace of tJod by not coming. Eternal remorse 
would have tormented me, had I not come when 
I had the opportunity. 

'■ We have been a little surprized, not being 
able to provide ourselves with vestments and oth- 
er things, but he who feeds the little birds, and 
clothes tiie liUes of the fields, will take care of 
his servants; and though it should happen we 
should die of want, we would esteem ourselves 
happy. I am burdened with business. What I 
can do is to recommend our journey to your daily 
siicritice, and to embrace you with the same sen- 
timents of heart as I hope to do in eternity. 
" My Reverend Father, 

Your most humble and affectionate 
servant in Jesus Christ. 

"From the Three Rivers, this 20th August, 2 

o'clock after midnight, 1660." 

On the 1.3th of October, the party with which 
he journeyed reached a l)ay on Lake Superior, 
where he found some of the Ottawas, who had 
fled from the Iroquois of !Ne\v York. For more 
than eight months, surrounded by a few French 
voyageurs, he lived, to use his words, " in a ki]id 
of small hermitage, a cabin built of fir branches 
piled one on another, not so much to shield us 
from the rigor of the season as to correct my im- 
agination, and persuade me 1 was sheltered."' 

During the summer of 1661 , he resolved to visit 
the Ilurons, who had fled eastward from the Sioux 
of Minnesota, and encamped amid tlie marshes of 
Northern Wisconsin. Some Frenchuien. who had 
been among the Ilurons, in vain attempted to dis- 
suade him from the journey. To their entreaties 
he replied, " I must go, if it cost me my life. I 
can not suffer souls to perish on the ground of 
saving the bodily life of a miserable old man like 
myself. What! Are we to serve (;od only when 
there is nothing to suffer, and no risk of hfeV" 

Upon De ITsle's map of Louisiana, publislied 
nearly two centuries ago, there appears the Lake 
of the Ottawas, and the Lake of the Old or De- 
serted Settlement, west of Green Bay, and south 
of Lake Superior. The Lake of the Old I'lanta- 
tion is supposed to have been the spot occupied 
by the Ilurons at the time when Menard attempt- 
ed to visit them. One way of iiccess to this seclu- 
ded spot was from Lake Superior to the head- 
waters of the Ontanagon River, and then by a port- 
age, to the lake. It could also be reached from 
the headwaters of the Wisconsin, Black and Chip- 
pewa Rivers, and some have said that Menard 
descended the Wisconsin and ascended the Black 

Perrot, who lived at the same time, writes : 
•' Father Menard, who was sent as missionary 
among the Outaouas [Utaw-waws] accompanied 
by certain Frenchmen who were going to trade 
with that people, wivs left by all who were with 
him, except one, who rendered to him until death, 
all of the services and help that he could have 
hoped. The Father followed the Outaouas fUtaw- 
waws]to the Lake of the Illinoets | Illino-ay, now 
^licliigan] and in their (light to the Louisianne, 
[Mississippi] to above the Black River. There 
this missionary had but one Frenchman for a 
companion. This Frenchman carefully followed 
the route, and made a portage at the same place 
as the Outaouas. He found himself in a rapid, 
one day, that was carrying him away in his canoe. 
The Father, to assist, debarked from his own, but 
did not find a good path to come to him. He en- 
tered one that had been made by beasts, and de- 
siring to return, became confused in a labyrinth 
of trees, and was lost. The Frenchman, after 
lia\iug ascended the rapids with great labor, 
awaited the good Father, and. as he did not come, 
resolved to search for him. With all his might, 
for several days, he called his luime in the woods, 
hoping to find him, but it was useless. lie met, 
however, a Sakis [Sauk] who was carrymg the 
camp-kettle of the missionary, and who gave liiin 
some intelligence. lie assured him that he had 
found his foot-prints at some distance, but that 
he had not seen the Father. He told him, also, 
that he had found the tracks of several, who were 
going towards the Scioux. He declared that he 
supposed that the Scioux might have killed or 
captured him. Indeed, several years afterwarda, 


there were found among this tribe, his breviary 
and cassock, wliich they exposed at their festivals, 
making offerings to them of ft>od." 

In a jourual of the Jesuits. Menard, about the 
seventh oreightli of August. 1601. is said to have 
been lost. 

Groselliers (Gro-zay-yay). while Menard was 
endeavoring to reach the retreat of the Hurons 
whii'h he had made known to the authorities of 
Canada, was pusliing tln-ough the country of the 
Assijieboines. ou the northwest shore of Lake 
Superior, and at length, probably by Lake Alem- 
pigon. or Xepigon. reached Hudson's Bay. and 
eiuly ill May, 1(>02, returned to Montreal, and 
surprised its citizens with his tale of new discov- 
eries toward the Sea of the Xorth. 

The Hurons did not remain long toward the 
sources of the Black River, after Menard's disaj)- 
pearance, and deserting their plantations, joined 
their allies, tlie Otlawas, at La Pointe, now Bay- 
field, on Lake Su])erior. Wliile here, they deter- 
mined to send a war party of one himdred agahist 
the Sioux of MUle Lacs (Mil Lak) region. At 
length they met theu- foes, who drove them into 
one of the thousand marshes of the water-shed 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, w-here 
they hid themselves among the tail grasses. The 
Sioux, suspecting that thev might attempt to es- 
cape in the night, cut up l)eaver skins into strips, 
and hmig thereon little bells, which they had ob- 
tained from the French traders. The Hurons, 
emeigmgfromt'jeir watery liiding])lace. stumbled 
over the unseen cords, ringing the liells, aud the 
Sioux instantly attacked, killing all but one. 

About the year 1665, four Frenchmen visited 
the Sioux of Minnesota, from the west end of 
Lake Sviperior, accompanied by an Ottawa chief, 
and in tlie summer of tlie same year, a flotilla of 
canoes laden with peltries, came down to ilon- 
treal. Upon tlieir return, on the eighth of Au- 
gust, the Jesuit Father, AUouez, accompanied the 
traders, and, by the first of October, reached Che- 
goimegon Bay, on or near tlie site of the modern 
town of Bayfield, on Lake Suiierior, where he 
found the refugee Hurons aud Ottawas. 'While 
on an excursion to Lake Aleinpigon, now Ne- 
pigon, this missionary .saw, near the moutli of 
Saint Louis liiver, in Miimesota, some of the 
Sioux. He writes : •■ Tliere is a tribe to the west 
of this, toward the great river called MessipL 

They are forty or fifty leagues from here, in a 
coimtry of ]>iairies. abounding in all kinds of 
game. They have fields, in wliicli they do not 
sow Indian corn, but only tobacco. Providence 
has iirovided them with a species of mareh rice, 
which, toward the end of summer, they go to col- 
lect in certain small lakes, that are covered with 
it. They presented me with some when I was at 
the extremity of Lake Tracy [Superior], where I 
saw them. They do not use the gun, but only 
the bow and arrow with great dexterity. Their 
cabins are not covered with bark, but with deer- 
skins well dried, and stitched together so that the 
cold does not enter. These people are above aU 
other savage aud warhke. In our presence they 
seem abashed, and were motionless as statues. 
They speak a language entirely unknown to us, 
and the savages about here do not imderstand 

The mission at La Pointe w-as not encouraging, 
and Allouez, •• weary of their obstinate unbelief." 
departed, but Marquette succeeded him tor a brief 

The •■Relations" of the Jesuits for 1670-71, 
allude to the Sioux or Dakotahs. aud their attack 
upon the refugees at La Pointe : 

'• Tliere are certain people called Xadoussi, 
dreaded by their neighbors, and although they 
only use the bow aud arrow, they use it with so 
much skill aud dexterity, that m a moment they 
fill the air. After the Parthian method, they 
turn their lieads m flight, and discharge then- ar- 
rows so rapidly that they are to be feared no less 
in their retreat than in their attack. 

"They dwell on the shores and aroimd the 
great river Messipi, of wluch we shall speak. 
They number no less than fifteen populous towns, 
aud yet they know not how to cultivate the earth 
by seeding it. contenting themselves with a sort 
of marsh rye. which we call wild oats. 

•• For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
upper lakes, towards sunset, and, as it were, ui 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
united their force by a general league, which has 
been made against them, as against a common 

•• They speak a peculiar language, entirely dis- 
tinct from that of the Algouciuins and Hurons, 
whom they generally surjiass in generosity, suice 
they often content themselves with the glory of 


having obtained the victory, and release the pris- 
oners tliey have taken in battle. 

" Our OutoiKifs of the Point of the Holy Ghost 
[La Pointe, now Bayfield] had to the present time 
kept up a kind of peace with them, but affairs 
havinf; become embroiled durins last winter, and 
some murders having been committed on both ' 
sides, our savages had reason to apprehend that 
the storm would soon burst upon them, and judged 
that it was safer for them to leave the place, which 
in fact they did in the spring." 

Marquette, on the 13th of September, 1669, 
writes : '• Tlie Xadouessi are the lro(piois of this 
country. * * * they lie northwest of the Mission 
of the Uoly Ghost [La Pouite, the modern Bay- 
field] and we have not yet visited them, having 
confined ourselves to the conversion of the Otta- 

Soon after this, hostiUties began between the 
Sioux and the Hurons and Ottawas of La PoLnte, 
and the former compelled their foes to seek an- 
other resting i)lafe, toward the eastern extremity 
of Lake Superior, and at length they pitched 
their tents at Mackinaw. 

In 1674, some Sioux warriors came down to 
Sault Saint Marie, to make a treaty of peace with 
adjacent tribes. A friend of the Abbe de Galli- 
nee wrote that a council was had at the fort to 
which '■ the Xadouessioux sent twelve deputies, 
and the others forty. During the conference, 
one of the latter, knife in hand, drew near the 
breast of one of the Xadouessioux. who showed 
surprise at the movement ; when the Indian with 
the knife reproached him for cowardice. The 
Xadouessioux said he was not afraid, when the 
otlier planted the knife in his heart, and killed 
him. All the savages then engaged in conflict, 
and the Xadouessioux bravely defended them- 
selves, but, overwhelmed by numbers, nine of 
them were killed. The two who survived rushed 
into the chajiel. and closed the door. Here they 
found munilinns of war. and fired guns at their 
enemies, who became anxious to burn down the 
cliaiiel. but the Jesuits would not i)ermil it, be- 
cause they had their skins stored between its roof 
and ceiling. In this extremity, a Jesuit. Louis 
Le Boeme, advised that a cannon should be point- 
ed at the door, which was discharged, and tlie two 
brave Sioux were killed." 

Governor Frontenac of Canada, was indignant 

at the occurrence, and in a letter to Colbert, one 
of the Ministers of Louis the Fourteenth, speaks 
in condemnation of this discharge of a cannon by 
a Brother attached to the Jesuit Mission. 

From this period, the missions of the Church of 
Rome, near Lake Superior, began to wane. Shea, 
a devout historian of that chnrch. writes: " In 
1680, Father Enjalran was apparently alone at 
Green Bay, and Pierson at Mackinaw ; the latter 
mission still comjirising the two villages, Huron 
and Kiskakon. Of tlie other missions, neither 
Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect, writers of 
the West at this time, makes any mention, or in 
any way alludes to their existence, and La llou- 
tan mentions the Jesuit missions only to ridicule 

The Pigeon River, a part of tlie northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was called on the French maps 
Grosellier"s River, after the first explorer of iliii- 
nesota, whose career, with his associate iladisson, 
became quite prominent in connection with the 
Hudson Bay region. 

A disagreement occurring between Groselliers 
and his partners in Quebec, he proceeded to Paris, 
and from tlience to London, where he was intro- 
duced to the nephew of Charles I., who led tlie 
cavaky charge against Fairfax and Cromwell at 
Xaseby, afterwards commander of the English 
fleet. The Prince listened with i)leasiire to the 
nari'ative of travel, and endorsed the plans for 
prosecuting the fur trade and seeking a north- 
west passage to Asia. The scientific men of Eng- 
land were also full of the enterprise, in the hope 
that it would increase a knowledge of nature. 
The Secretary of the Royal Society wrote to Rob- 
ert Boyle, the distinguished philosopher, a too 
sanguine letter. His words were : " Surely I need 
not tell you from hence what is said here, with 
great joy, of the di.scovery of a northwest passage; 
and by two Englishmen and one Frenchman 
represented to his Majesty at Oxford, and an- 
swered by the grant of a vessel to sail into Hud- 
son's Bay and channel into the South Sea." 

The ship Xonsuch was fitted out. in charge of 
Captain Zachary Gillam, a son of one of the early 
settlers of Boston; and in this vessel Groselliers 
and Radisson left the Thames, in June, 1668, and 
in September reached a tributary of IIuds(m's 
Bay. The next year, by way of Boston, they re- 
turned to England, and in KiTo. a trading com- 



pany was chartered, still known among venpraV)le 
English corjiorations as " The Hudson "s Bay 

The Keverend Mother of tlie Incanialion. Su- 
perior of the Ursulines of (Jiiebec, in a letter of 
the 27th of August, 1670, WTit«s thus : 

" Tt was ahout this time that a Frenchman of 
our Touraine, named des (iroselliers. married in 
this country, and as he had not been successful 
in making a fortune, was seized with a fancy to 
goto New England to better his condition. He 
excited a hope among the English that he had 
found a passage to the Sea of the North. 'With 
this expectation, he was sent as an envoy to Eng- 
land, where there was given to him, a vessel. 
with crew and every thing necessary for the voy- 
age. "With these advantages, he put to sea, and 
in place of the usual route, which others had ta- 
ken in vain, he sailed in another direction, and 
searched so ^^•ide. that he found the grand Bay of 
the North. He found large population, and lilled 
his sliip or ships with peltries of great value. * * * 

lie has taken possession of this great region for 
tlie King of England, and for his personal benetit 
I A publication for the benelit of this French ad- 
I venturer, has been made in England. He was 
a youth when he arrived here, and his wife and 
children are yet here." 

Talon. Intendent of Justice in Canada, in a dis- 
patch to Colbert. ^linisler of the Colonial i)epart- 
ment of France, wrote on the 10th of November, 
1(570, that he has received intelligence that two 
English vessels are approaching Hudson's Bay, 
and adds : '• After reflecting on all the nations 
that might have penetrated as far north as that, 
I can alight on only the English, who, under the 
guidance of a man named Des Grozellers. for- 
merly an inhabitant of Canada, might possibly 
have attempted that navigation." 

After years of service on the shores of Hudson's 
Bay. either with English or French trading com- 
paiues, the old explorer died in Canada, and it has 
been said that his son went to England, where he 
was living in 1696, in receipt of a pension. 




Sagard, A D. 163ft, on Coppor Min«.— Boucher. A. D. 1640, Describes Lake Supe- 
rior Copper— -Jesuit ReUtioiis, A. D. 1600-67.— Copper on Isle Royuls.— Half- 
Breed Yoj-aRCur Oo«« to France with Talon.— Jolliet and Perrot Search for 
Copper.— St. Lua^on Plants tlie Trench Arms at Sault St. Marie.— Copper at 
Ontana^oQ and Head of Lake Superior. 

Before white men liad explored the shores of 
Lake Superior. Iiuliaus hail brought to tlie tra- 
ding posts of the St. Lawrence Kiver, specimens of 
copper from tliat region. Sagard, in his History 
of Canada, publislied in 1636. at Paris, WTites : 
'• Tliere are mines of copper wliich niiglit he made 
])rofitable, if tliere were inhabitants and work- 
men who wciuld labor faithfully. That would be 
done if colonies were established. About eighty 
or one hundred leagues from the Ilurons, there 
is a niine of copper, from which Truchemont 
Bi-usle showed me an ingot, on his return from a 
voyage wliich lie made to the neighboring nation." 

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur de la Ye- 
rendrye, tlie explorer of the lakes of the northern 
boundary of Minnesota, in a volume publislied 
A. I). 1640, also at Paris, writes : " In Lake Su- 
perior tliere is a great island, fifty or one hundred 
leagues in circumference, in which there is a very 
beautiful mine of copper. There are other places 
in those quarters, where there are similar mines ; 
so I learned from four or five Frenchmen, who 
lately returned. They were gone three years, 
without finding an opportunity to return; they 
told me tliat they had seen an ingot of copper all 
refined wluih was on the coast, and weighed more 
than eight hundred pounds, according to their es- 
timate. They said that the savages, on passing 
it. made a fire on it, after which they cut off pie- 
ces with their axes." 

In the Jesuit Relations of 1606-67, there is this 
description of Isle Royale : '• Advancing to a 
place called the (irand Anse, we meet with an 
island, three leagues from land, which is cele- 
brated for the metal which is found there, and 
for the thuniler which takes place there; for they 
say it always thunders there. 

" But farther towards the west on the same 
north shore, is the island most famous for copper, 
^Minong (Isle Royale). This island is twenty-five 
leagues in length ; it is seven from the mainland, 
and sixty from the head of the lake. Nearly all 
around the island, on the water's edge, pieces of 
copper are found mixed with pebbles, but espe- 
cially on the side which is opposite the south, 
and principally in a certain bay, which is near 
the northeast exposure to the great lake. * * * 

"Advancing to the head of the lake (Fon du 
Lac) and returning one day"s journey by the south 
coast, there is seen on the edge of the water, a 
rock of copper weighing seven or eight hundred 
pounds, and is so hard that steel can hardly cut it, 
but when it is heated it cuts as easily as lead. 
Near Point Chagouamigong [Slia - gali - wall - niik- 
ong, near Bayfield] where a mission was establish- 
ed rocks of copper and plates of the same metal 
were found. * * * Returning still toward the 
mouth of the lake, following the coast on the south 
as twenty leagues from the place last mentioned, 
we enter the river called Xantaouagan | Ontona- 
gon] on which is a hill where stones and copper 
fiiU into the water or upon the earth. They are 
readily found. 

■' Three years since we received a piece which 
was brought from this place, which weighed a 
hundred pounds, and we sent it to (Jueliec to Mr. 
Talon. It is not certain exactly where this was 
broken from. We think it was from the forks of 
the river : others, that it was from near the lake, 
and dug up." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, visited 
Frame, taking a half-breed voyageur with hira, 
and while in Paris, wrote on the 26th of Feliru- 
ary, 1669, to Coll)ert, the Minister of the ^Marine 
Department, " that this voyageur had penetrated 
among the western nations farther than any other 
Freni'hnian. and had seen tlie copiier mine on 
Lake liiu-on. LSuperiorVj The man oilers to go 



to that mine, and explore, eitlier h\ sea, or by 
lake ami river, tlie communication supposed to 
exist between Canada and the South Sea, or to 
the regions of Hudson's Bay." 

As soon as Talon relumed to Canada he com- 
missioned Jolliet and Pere [Pi-rrot] to search for 
the muies of cojiper on the upper Lakes. Jolliet 
received an outlit of four hundred livres, and four 
canoes, and Perrot one thousand livres. Miiiis- 
ister Colbert wrote from Paris to Talon, in Feb- 
ruary, 1671. approving of the search for copper, 
in these words • " Tlie resolution you have taken 
to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and 
Sieur de St. Lusson to the north, to discover the 
South Sea passage, is very good, but the principal 
thing you ought to apply yourself in discoveries 
of this nature, is to look for tlie copper mine. 

■■ Were this, mine discovered, and its utility 
evident, it would be an assured means to attract 
several Frenchmen from old. to Xew France." 

On the 14th of June. 1071. Saint Lusson at Sault 
St. ilarie. planted the arms of France, in the pres- 
ence of Xicholas Perrot. who acted as interpreter 
on the occasion ; the Sieur Jolliet : Pierre ^loreau 
or Sieur de la Taupine : a soldier of the garrison 
of Quebec, and several other Frenchmen. 
. Talon, in announcing Saint Lusson's explora- 
tions to Colbert, on the 2d of Xovember. li>71. 
wrote from Quebec : ■■ The copper wliich I send 
from Lake Superior and the river Xantaouagan 
[Ontonagon] proves that there is a mine on the 
border of some stream, which produces this ma- 
terial as pure as one could wish. iMore than 
twenty Frenchmen have seen one lump at the 
lake, which they estimate weighs more Ih.ui eight 
hundred poinids. The Jesuit Fathers among the 
Outaouas [Ou-taw-wawsJ use an anvil of this ma- 
terial, which weighs about one hiuidred pounds. 
There will be no rest luitil the source from whence 
these detached lumps come is discovered. 

■• The river Xantaouagan rOntouagouJ apiears 

between two high hills, the plain above which 
feeds tlie lakes, and receives a great deal of snow. 
which, ill melting, forms torrents which wash the 
borders of this river, composed of solid gravel, 
which is rolled down by it. 

"The gravel at the bottom of this, hardens it- 
self, and assumes different shapes, such as those 
pebbles which I send to Mr. Bellinzany. My 
opinion is that these pebbles, rounded and carried 
off Ijy tlie rapid waters, then have a tendency to 
become copper, by the influence of the sun's rays 
which they absorb, and to form other nuggets of 
metal similar to which I send to Sieur de 
IJellinzany. found by the Sieur de Saint Lus:on, 
about fourhundred leagues, at some distance from 
the mouth of the river. 

" He hoped by the frequent journeys of the 
savages, and French who are beginning to travel 
1)\- these routes, to discern the source of nroduc- 

(iovernor iJenonville. of Canada, sixteen years 
after the above circumstances, wrote : ''The cop- 
per, a sample of which I sent ^I. Aniou. is found 
at the head of Lake Superior. The body of the 
mine has not yet been discovered. I have seen 
one of our voyageurs who assures me that, some 
fifteen months ago he saw a lump of two hundred 
weight, as yellow as gold, in a river which falls 
into Lake Superior. When heated, it could be 
cut with an axe : l)ut the superstitious Indians, 
regarding this boulder as a good spirit, would 
never permit him to take any of it away. His 
opinion is that the frost undermined this piece, 
and that the mine is in that river. He has prom- 
ised to search for it on his way l)ack." 

In the year 1730. there was some correspond- 
ence with the authorities in France relative to 
the discovery of copper at La Pointe, but, practi- 
cally, little was done by the French, in developing 
the mineral wealth of Lake Superior. 


rnAPTER in. 


Da Luth'» Relatives.— lUndin Visit* Extwniity of Lake Superior. — Du Luth 
Plants King's Anns.— Post at Kamiuiatigoya.— Pierre MoreoP. ali'-is La Taul>iiii-. 
-La Salle's Visit.— A Pilot Des«rt« to the Sioujt Country.— uaff.irt, Du LiitU's 
Interpreter.— Descent of the River St. Croix.— Meets Father Heiineiiin.— Cri|. 
jeised by La Salle. —Trades with New England. —Visits Pranei-.- In Coiiiitianil 
•t Jloekinaw.- FrenehiH'-n Murdered at Keweenaw.— Du Luth .\rrests and 
Shoots Murderers.— Builds Port above Detroit. — With Indian Allies in tin- 
Seneca War.— Du Luth's Brother.- Cadillac Defends the Brandy Trade,- Pu 
Luth Disapproves of Selling Brandy to the Indians.— In Command at Fort 
Prontenac— Death. 

In the year 1078. several prominent merchants 
of Quebec and Montreal, with the support of 
Govenior Frontenac of Canada, formed a com- 
pany to open trade with the Sioux of ^linnesota. 
and a nephew of Patron, one of these merchants. 
a brother - in - law of Sieur de Lusigny. an officer 
of the (;ovenioi'"s (Juards. named Daniel Grey- 
solon Du Liilh [Doo-loo]. a native of St. (iermain 
en Laye, afew miles from Paris, although Lahon- 
tan speaks of him as from Lyons, was made the 
leader of the expedition. At the battle of Seueffe 
against the I'rince of Orange, be was a gendarme, 
and one of the King's guards. 

Du Luth ■was also a cousin of Henry Tonty. who 
had been in the revolutioii at Xajiles. to throw off 
the Spanish dependence. Du Luths name is va- 
riously spelled in the documents of his day. Hen- 
nepin writes, '-Du Luth;" others, " Dulhnt." 
'• Du Lhu." ■• Du Lut." '^ De Luth." '• Du Lud.^" 

The temptation to procure valuable furs from 
the Lake Su])erior region, contrary to the letter 
of the Canadian law. was very great ; and more 
than one Governor winked at the contraband 
trade. Kaiidln, 'who visited the extremity of 
Lake Superior, distributed presents to the Sioux 
and Ottawas in the name of (iovenior Frontenac. 
to secure the trade, and after his death, Du Luth 
■was sent to complete wliat he liad begun. With 
a party of twenty, seventeen Frenchmen and 
three Indians, he left (Quebec on the first of 
September, 1678, and on the fifth of April, 1G79, 
Du Luth writes to Governor Frontenac. that he 
is in the woods, about nine miles from Sault St. 
Marie, at the entrance of Lake Superior, and 

adds that : he " will not stir from the Xadous- 
sioux. until further orders, and. peace being con- 
cluded, he will set up the King's Arms : lest the 
Englisli and other Kui'(ii>eans settled towards 
California, take possession of the country." 

On the second of July. 1(579, he caused his 
Majesty's Arms to be planted in tlie great village 
of the Xadoussioux. called Katliio, where no 
Frenchman had ever been, and at Songaskicons 
and Ilonetbatons. one hundred and twenty leagues 
distant from the former, where he also set up the 
King's Ai-ms. In a letter to Seignalay, published 
for the first time by Ilarrlsse, he writes that it 
was in the village of Izatys [Issati]. Upon Fran- 
quelin's map. the Mississippi branches into the 
Tintonha [Teeton Sioux] country, and not farfrom 
here, he alleges, was seen a tree \ipon which was 
this legend: " Arms of the King cut on this tree 
in the year 1(379." 

He established a post at Kamanistigoya. which 
was distant fifteen leagues from the Grand Port- 
age at the western extremity of Lake Superior; 
and here, on the fifteenth of September, he held 
a council with the Assenipoulaks [Assiueboines] 
and other tribes, and urged them to be at peace 
with the Sioux. During this summer, he dis- 
patched Pien-e Moreau, a celebrated voyageur, 
nicknamed La Taujiine. with letters to Governor 
Frontenac. and valuable furs to the merchants. 
His arrival at t^uebec. created some excitement. 
It was charged that the tiovenmr corresponded 
with Du Luth, and that he passed the beaver, 
sent by him. in the name of merchants in his in- 
terest. The Intendant of .Justice, Du Cliesneau, 
wrote to the Minister of the Colonial Department 
of France, that " the man named La Taupine, a 
famous coureur des bois, who set out in the month 
of September of last yeai', 1678, to go to the Ou- 
tawacs, with goods, and who has always been in- 
terested with the Governor, having returned this 
year, and I, bemg advised that he had traded in 



two days, one hundred and fifty beaver robes in 
one %-illage of this tribe, aruountinjr to nearly nine 
hiuidred beavers. \\ liich is a matter of public no- 
toriety : and that he left with Du Lut two men 
whom he had with him. considered myself bound 
to liave him arre.sted. and to interrou'ate him : but 
having presented nie with a license from the Gov- 
ernor, permitting him and his comrades, named 
Lamonde and Dupuy. to rep;iir to the Outawac, 
to execute his secret orders. I had him set at 
liberty : and immeiliately on his going out. Sieur 
Prevost. Town Mayor of Quebec, came at the head 
of some soldiers to force the prison, in ease he 
was still there, pursuant to his orders from the 
Governor, iu these tenns : •• Sieur I'revost, Mayor 
of Quebec, is ordered, in case the Intendant arrest 
Pierre ^Sloreau alins: La Taujiine. whom we have 
sent to Quebec as bearer of our dispatches, upim 
pretext of his having been in the Ijush. to set him 
forthwith at liberty, and to employ every means 
for this puqiose. at his peril. Done at Montreal, 
the .5th September, 1(579." 

La Taupine, in due time returned to Lake Su- 
perior with another consignment of merchandise. 
The interpreter of Du Lutli. and trader with the 
Sioux, was Paffart. who had been a soldier under 
La Salle at Fort Frontenac. and had deserted. 

La Salle was commissioned in 1678. by the 
King of France, to explore the "West, and trade in 
Cibola, or buffalo skins, and on condition that he 
did not traffic with the Ottauwaws. who carried 
their beaver to ISIontreal. 

On the 27th of August. 1679. he arrived at 
Mackinaw, in the " Griftin," the iirst sailing ves- 
sel ou the gi-eat Lakes of the West, and from 
thence went to Green Bay. where, in the face of 
his commission, he traded for beaver. Loading 
his vessel with peltries, he sent it l)ack to Niag- 
ara, while he. in canoes, proceeded with his ex- 
pedition to the Illinois Kiver. The ship was 
never heard of, and for a time supposed to be lost, 
but La Salle afteiward learned from a Pawnee 
boy fourteen or fifteen years of age, who was 
brought prisoner to his fort on the Illinois by some 
Indians, that the pilot of the " Grillln " hail been 
among the tribes of the Upper Missouri, lie had 
ascended the Mississippi with four others in two 
birch canoes with goods and some hand gi'enades, 
taken from the ship, with the intention of join 
ing Du Liith. who had for months been tratUug 

with the Sioux ; and if their efforts were unsuc- 
cessfid. they expected to jmsh on to the English, 
at Hudson's liay. AVliile ascenduig the Missis- 
sippi they were attacked by Indians, and the pilot 
and one other only survived, and they were sold 
to the Indians on the Missouri. 

Ill the month of June, 16b0. Du Liith, accom- 
panied by Faffart, an interpreter, with four 
Frenchmen, also a Chippeway and a Sioux, with 
two canoes, entered a river, the mouth o'f which 
is eight leagues from the head of Lake Superior 
on the South side, named Nemitsakouat. Reach- 
ing its head waters, by a short portage, of half a 
league, he reached a lake which was the source 
of the Saint Croix Kiver, and by this, he and his 
companions were the first Europeans to journey 
in a canoe from Lake Superior to the Mississipjii. 

La Salle writes, that Du Luth. finding that 
the Sioux were on a hunt in the Mississippi val- 
ley, below the Saint Croix, and that Accault, Au- 
gelle and Hennepin, who had come up from the 
Illuiois a few weeks before, were with them, de- 
scended until he found them. In the same letter 
he disregards the truth in order to disparage his 
rival, and writes: 

'•Thirty-eight or forty leagues above the Chip- 
peway they found the river by which the Sieur 
Du Luth did descend to the Mississippi. He had 
been three years, contrary to orders, with a com- 
pany of twenty " coureurs du bois" on Lake Su- 
perior; he had l)orne himself bravely, proclaiming 
everywhere that at the head of his brave fellows 
he did not fear the Grand Prevost, and that he 
would compel an amnesty, 

'• While he was at Lake Superior, the Nadoue- 
sioux, enticed by the jn'esents that the late Sieur 
Raudiu had made on the part of Count Fronte- 
nac, and the Sauteurs [Ojibways], who are the sav- 
ages who carr\' the peltries to Montreal, and who 
dwell on Lake Superior, wishing to obey the re- 
peated orders of the Count, made a peace to 
unite the Sauteurs and French, and to trade with 
the Nadouesioux, situated about sixty leagues to 
the west of Lake Supericu'. Du Luth, to disguise 
his desertion, seized the opportunity to make 
some reputation for himself, seniUng two messen- 
gers to the Count to negotiate a truce, during 
wiiich period their couii'ades negotiated still bet- 
ter for beaver. 

Several conferences were held with the Xa- 



(loiiessionx.andashenpedeilaii interpreter, holed 
ofT one of iiiiiie, named FalTart. formerly a sol- 
dier at Fort Frontenac. During this jieriod there 
were frequent visits between the Sautevirs fOjib- 
ways] and Nadoiiesioux. and supposing that it 
might increase the number of beaver skins, he 
sent Faffart by land, with the Nadouesioux and 
Saiiteurs [Ojibways], The young man on his re- 
turn, having given an account of the (luautity of 
beaver in tlial region, he wisheil to jiroceed tliitlicr 
himself, and, guided by a Sautcm- and a .Nadmic- 
sioux, and four Krcnchmen, lie ascended tlie river 
Xemitsakouat. wliere, by a sliort ijortage, he de- 
scended that stream, whereon he passed through 
forty leagues of rapids [Upper St. Croix River], 
and linding that the Xadouesioux were below with 
my men and the Fallier, who had come down 
again from the village of the Xadouesioux, he 
discovered them. They went up again to the 
village, and from thence they all together came 
down. They returned liy the river Ouisconsing. 
and came back to Montreal, where Du Lutli in- 
sults the commissaries, and the dejiuly of the 
'procureui' general,' named d'Auteuil. Count 
Frontenac had him arrested and imprisoned in 
the castle of tiuebec, with the intention of return- 
ing him to France for the amnesty accorded to 
the coureurs des hois, did not release him," 

At this very period, another part)' charges 
Frontenac as being Du Liith's particular friend. 

T)\\ Lnth, during the fall of IGSl, was engaged 
in the beaver trade at Montreal and Quebec, 
Du Chesneau, the Intendant of Jiustica for Can- 
ada, on the 13th of November, 1681, wrote to the 
^lanjuis de Siegnelay, in Paris : " Not content 
with the profits to be derived from the countries 
under the King's dominion, the desire of making 
money everywhere, has led the Governor [Fron- 
tenac], Boisseau, Du Lut and I'atron, his uncle, 
to send canoes loaded with peltries, to the Kn- 
glish. It is said sixty thousand livres' worth has 
been seiit tliither :" and he further stated that 
there was a very general report that within live 
or six days. Fi'ontenac and his associates had di- 
vided the money received from the beavers sent 
to New England. 

At a conference in (Quebec of some of tlie dis- 
tinguished men in tliat city, relative to dilHculties 
with the Iroquois, held on the 10th of October, 
1682, Du Lnth waspresent. From thence he went 

to France, and, early in 168.'?, consulted with the 
.Minister of .Marine at A'ersailles relative to the 
interests of trade in the Hudson's Bay and Lake 
Superior region. Upon his return to Canada, be 
ileparted for Mackinaw, (iovernor De la IJarre, 
on the Itth of November, 1()83, wrote to the French 
Government that the Indians west and north of 
Lake Superior, " when they heard by expresses 
sent lliem by Du Lhut, of his arrival at Missili- 
makiuak. that h(^ was coining, sent liim word to 
ronic quickly and they would unite willi liini tn 
prevent others g<iiug tliither. If 1 stop that jiass 
as I liojie, and as it is necessary to do, as tlie Eng- 
lish of the Bay [Hudson's] excite against us the 
savages, whom Sieur Du Lhut alone can quiet," 
While stationed at Mackinaw he was a partici- 
pant in a tragic occurrence. During tlie summer 
of Hi.s.S Jacques le Maire and Colin Berlhot, while 
on their way to trade at Keweenaw, on Lake Su- 
])erior, were surprised by three Turiians, robbed, 
and murdered. Du Lutli was prompt to arrest 
ami punish the assassins. In a letter from Mack- 
inaw, dated April 12, 1684, to the Governor of 
Canada, he writes: " Be pleased to know, Sir, 
that on the 24th of October last, I was told that 
Folle Avoine, accomplice in the murder and rob- 
bery of the two Frenchmen, had arrived at Sault 
Ste. Marie with (ifteeu families of the Sauteurs 
[Ojibways] who had lied from Cliagoainigon [La 
Pointe] on account of an attack which they, to- 
gether with the people of the land, made last 
Spring upon the Nadouecioux [Dakotahs.] 

" lie believed himself safe at the Sault. on ac- 
coimt of the number of allies and relatives he had 
there. Rev. Father Albanel informed me that 
the French at the Saut. being only twelve in num- 
ber, had not arrested him. lielieving themselves 
too weak to contend with such numbers, espe- 
cially as the Sauteurs had declared that they 
would not allow the Frencli to redden the land 
of llicir t'alliers with the blood of their brothers, 

"On receiving this information, 1 immediately 
resolved to take witli mi' six Frenchmen, and em- 
bark at the dawn of the next day for Sault Ste, 
Marie, and if possible obtain pos.session of the 
murderer. 1 niade knowni my design to the Rev. 
Father Hngalran. and, at my recpiest, as he had 
some business to arrange with Rev, Father Al- 
banel, he placed himself in my canoe. 

" Having arrived within a Icagi f the village 



of tlie Saut. the TJpv. Father, the Clievalier de 
Fourcille, Canloiinierre. and I disenilmrked. I 
caused the cauoe. iu which were Baribaud. Le 
Jlere. La Fortune, and Macons, to proceed, while 
we went across the wood to the liouse of the Kev. 
Fatlier. fearing that the savages, seeing nic. niiglit 
suspect the object of my visit, and cause Folle 
Avoine to escape. FiJially, to cut the matter 
short, I arrested liim. and caused liim to be 
guarded day and niglit by six Fn-nchnicn. 

" I then called a council, at which I requested 
all the savages of the jilace to be present, where 
I repeated what I had often said to the Ilurons 
and Ottawas since the departure of M. Pere[Per- 
rot], gi\'ing them the message you ordered me. 
Sir. that in case there should be among them any 
spirits so evil disposed as to follow the example 
of those who have murdered the French on Lake 
Superior and Lake ]ilichigau, they must separate 
the guilty from the innocent, as I did not wish 
the whole nation to suffer, unless they protected 
the guilty. * * * The savages held several 
councils, to which I was invited, b'.t their only 
object seemed to be to exculpate the prisoner, in 
order that I might release him. 

■' All united in accusing Achiganaga and his 
children, assuring themselves with the belief that 
M. Fere. [Perrot] witli his detachment would not 
be able to arrest them, and wishing to persuade 
me that they apprehended that all the Frenchmen 
might l)e killed. 

•■I answered them. * * * ' As to the antici- 
pated death of ]\L Pere [Perrot], as well as of the 
other Frenchmen, that would not emliarrass me. 
since I believed neither the allies nor the nation 
of Achiganaga would wish to have a war with us 
to sustain an action so dark as that of which we 
were speaking. Having only to attack a few 
murderers, or. at most, those of their own family. 
1 was certain that the French would have them 
dead or alive.' 

" This was the answer they had from me during 
the three days that the councils lasted ; after 
which I embarked, at ten o'clock in the morning, 
sustained by only twelve Frenchmen, to show a 
few unruly persons who boasted of taking the 
prisoner away from me. that the French did not 
fear them. 

"Daily I received accounts of tlie number of 
savages that Achiganaga drew from his nation to 

Kiaonan [Keweenaw] imder jiretext of going to 
war in the spring against the Xadouecioux, to 
avenge the death of one of his relatives, son of Ou- 
enaus. but really to protect -himself against us, 
in case we should become convinced that his chil- 
dren had killed the Frenchmen. Tliis precaution 
placed me between hope and fear respecting the 
expedition which yi. Pere [Perrot] had under- 

"On the :2-lth of November. [liiSo]. he came 
across the wood at ten o'clock at night, to tell me 
that be had arrested Achiganaga and four of his 
children. He said they were not all guilty of the 
murder, but had thought proper, in this affair, to 
follow the custom of the savages, which is to seize 
all the relatives. Folle Avoine. whom I had ar- 
rested, he considered the most guilty, being with- 
out doubt the originator of the mischief. 

•' I immediately gave orders that Folle Avoine 
should be more closely confined, and not allowed 
to speak to any one ; for I bad also learned that 
he had a brother, sister, and uncle iu the village 
of the Kiskakons. 

•■ M. Pere informed me that he had released the 
youngest son of Achiganaga. aged about thirteen 
or fourteen years, that he might make known to 
their nation and the Sauteurs [Ojibways], who are 
at Xocke and in the neighborhood, the reason 
why the French had arrested his father and bro- 
thers, yi. Pere Ijade him assure the sa\ages that 
if any one Avished to complain of what he had 
done, he would wait for them with a tirm step ; for 
he considered himself in a condition to set them 
at defiance, having found at Kiaonau [Keweenaw] 
eighteen Frenchmen who had wintered there. 

" On the 2oth. at daybreak. M. Pere embarked 
at the fcjault. with four good men whom I gave 
him. to go and meet the prisoners. He left them 
four leagues from there, under a guard of twelve 
Frenchmen ; and at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
they arrived. I had prepared a room in my house 
for the prisoners, in which they were placed imder 
a strong guard, and were not allowed to converse 
with any one. 

'• On the 2Gth. I commenced proceedings ; and 
this, sir, is the course I pursued. I gave notice 
to all the chiefs and others, to appear at the 
councQ w'hieh I had appointed, and gave to Folle 
Avoine the privilege of selecting two of his rela- 



tives to support his interests ; aud to tlie other 
prisoners 1 made the same olTer. 

" The council bcin^ assembled, T sent for Folio 
Avoine to be interrogated, and caused his answers 
to be vratten, and afterwards they were read to 
him. and ineiniry made wlicther they were not, 
word for word, what lie had said. lie was then 
removed mider a safe guard. I used the same 
form with the two eldest sons of .Vchiganaga. and. 
as Folio Avoino had indirectly cliargcd the father 
with being accessory to the murder, I sent for 
Lim and also for Folle Avoine, and bruigmg them 
into the council, confronted the four. 

•• Folle Avoino and the two sons of Achiganaga 
accused each other of committing the murder. 
without denying that they were participators in 
the crime. Achiganaga alone strongly maintained 
that lie knew nothing of the design of Folle 
Avoine, nor of his children, and called on them 
to say if he had advised them to kill the French- 
men. They answered, 'Xo.' 

" This confrontation, which the savages did not 
expect, sm-prised them; and, seeing the prisoners 
had convicted themselves of the murder, the 
Cliiefs said: 'It is enough; you accuse your- 
selves; the French are masters of your bodies.' 

" The next day I held another council, in which 
I said there could be no doubt that the French- 
men had been murdered, that the murderers were 
known, and that they knew what was the prac- 
tice among themselves upon such occasions. To 
all this they said nothing, which obliged us on 
the following day to hold another council in the 
cabin of Brochet, where, after having spoken, and 
seeing that they would make no decision, and that 
all my councils ended only in reducing tobacco to 
ashes, I told them that, since they did not wish to 
decide, I should take the responsibility, and that 
the next day I would let them know the deter- 
mination of the French and myself. 

" It is proper, Sir, you should know that I ol>- 
8er\-ed all these forms only to see if they would 
feel it their duty to render to us the same justice 
that they do to each other, having had divers ex- 
amples in which when the tribes of those who 
had committed the murder did not wish to go to 
war with the tribe aggrieved, the nearest rela- 
tions of the murderers killed them themselves; 
that is to say, man for man. 

" On the 29th of Xovember. I gathered together 

the French that were here, and, after the interro- 
gations and answers of the accused had been read 
to them, the guilt of the three appeared so evi- 
dent, from their own confessions, that the vote 
was luianimous that all should die. But as the 
French who remained al Kiaonan to jiass the win- 
ter had written to Father Engalran ami to myself, 
to beg us to treat the allair with all possible len- 
iency, the savages declaring that if they made 
the prisoners die they would avenge themselves, 
I told the gentlemen who were with me in coun- 
(■il that, this being a case without a precedent, I 
believed it was expedient for the safety of the 
French who would ]iass the winter in the Lake 
Superior country to put to death only two, as that 
of the third might bring about grievous conse- 
quences, while the putting to death, man for 
man, could give the savages no complaint, since 
this is their custom. M. de la Tour, chief of the 
Fathers, who had served much, sustained my 
opinions by strong reasoning, and all decided that 
two should be shot, namely, Folle Avoine and 
the older of the two brothers, while the younger 
should be released, and hold his life, Sir, as a gift 
from you. 

" I then returned to the cabin of Brochet with 
Messrs. Boisguillot, Pere, De Repentigny, De 
Manthet, De la Ferte, and ilaccms. whore were 
all the chiefs of the Outawas du Sable. Outawas 
Sinagos, Kiskakous, Sauteurs, D'Achiliny, a part 
of the Ilurons. and Oumamens, the chief of the 
^•Vmikoys. I informed them of our decision * 
* * that, the Frenchmen having been killed by 
the different nations, one of each must die, and 
that the same death they had caused the French 
to suffer they must also suffer. * * * This 
decision to put the murderers to death was a hard 
stroke to tlicni all. for none had believed that I 
would dare to underla-ke it. * * * I then left 
the council and asked the IJev. Fathers if they 
wished to baptize the prisoners, which they did. 

"An hour after, I put. myself at the head of 
forty-two Frenchmen, and, in sight of more than 
four hundred savages, and within two hundred 
paces of tlieir fort. I caused the two murderers 
to be shot. The impo.ssibility of keeping them 
until spring made me hasten their death. * * 
» When .M. Pere made the arrest, who had 
committed the murder confessed it; and when ho 
asked them what they had done with our goods, 



they answered that they were ahnost all con- 
cealed, lie proceeded to the place of conceal- 
ment, and was very much surprised, as were 
the French with him. to tind tlieui. in lifleeu or 
twenty different places. By the carelessness of 
the savages, the tobacco and powder were entire- 
ly destroyed, havuig been placed in the piiier\ . 
under the roots of trees, and being soaked in llie 
water caused by ten or twelve days" continuous 
rain, which inundated all the lower country. 
The season for snow and ice having come, they 
had all the trouble in the world to get out the 
bales of cloth. 

'• They then went to see the bodies, but could 
not remove them, these miserable wretches hav- 
ing thrown them into a marsli. and thrust them 
down into holes which they had made. Not sat- 
isfied with this, they had also piled branches of 
trees upon the bodies, to prevent them from lloat- 
ing when the water should rise in the spring. 
hoping by this precaution the French would find 
no trace of those who were killed, but would think 
them drowned : as they reported that they had 
found in the lake on the other side of the Portage, 
a boat with the sides all broken in, which they 
believed to be a French boat. 

"Those goods which the French were able to 
secure, they took to Kiaonau [Keweenaw], where 
were a nimiber of Frenchmen who had gone there 
to pass the winter, who knew nothing of the deatli 
of Colin Berthot and Jacques le Maire, until M. 
Pere aiTived. 

''The ten who formed M. Pere's detachment 
ha\'ing conferred together concerning the means 
they sliould take to prevent a total loss, decided 
to sell the goods to the highest bidder. The sale 
was made for 1100 livres, which was to be paid in 
beavers, to M. de la Cliesnaye, to whom I send 
the names of the purehsers. 

■• The savages who were present when Achiga- 
naga and his children were aiTCsted wished to 
pass the calumet to M. Pere. and give him cap- 
tives to satisfy him for the murder committed on 
the two Frenchmen ; but he knew their inten- 
tion, and would not aecej)! their offer. He told 
them neither a hundred cajitives nor a himdred 
packs of beaver would give back the blood of his 
brothers ; that the murderers must be given up 
to me, and I would see what I would do. 

" I caused M. Pere to repeat these things in the 

council, that in future the savages need not think 
by presents to save those who commit similar 
deeds. Besides, sir, M. Pere showed plainly by 
his conduct, tliat he is not strongly inclined to 
favor the siivages. as was reported. Indeed. I do 
not know any one whom they fear more, yet who 
Hatters tlieni less or knows them better. 

•• Tlie criminals lieing ui two different places, 
M. Pere being obliged to keep four of them, sent 
Messrs. de Bepentigny, Manthet, and six other 
Frenchmen, to arrest the two who were eight 
leagues in the woods. Among others. M. de Re- 
pentigny and il. de ilanthet showed that they 
feared nothing when their honor called them. 

" yi. de la Chevrotiere has also served well in 
person, and by his advice, ha%'ing pointed out 
where the prisoners were. Achiganaga, w ho had 
adopted him as a son, had told him where he 
sliould hunt during the whiter. ***** 
It still remauied for me to give to Acliiganaga and 
his three children the means to return to his 
f ainily . Their home from which they were taken 
was nearly twenty-six leagues from here. Know- 
ing their necessity, I told them you would not be 
satisfied in giving them life ; you wished to pre- 
ser\'e it. by giving them all that was necessary to 
prevent them from dying with himger and cold 
by the way, and that your gift was made by my 
hands. I gave them blankets, tobacco, meat, 
hatchets, knives, twine to make nets for beavers, 
and two bags of com, to supply them till they 
could kill game. 

■• They departed two days after, the most con- 
tented creatures in the world, but God was not ; 
for when only two days' journey from here, the 
old Achiganaga fell sick of the quinsy, and died, 
and his children rrtunied. AVhen the news of his 
death arrived, the greater part of the savages of 
this place [Mackinaw] attributed it to the French, 
saying we had caused him to die. I let them 
talk, and laughed at them. It is only about two 
months since the children of Achiganaga returiie I 
to Iviaonan."' 

Some of those opposed to Du Luth and Fron- 
tenac, prejudiced the King of France relative to 
the transaction we have described, and ui a letter 
to the Governor of Canada, the King wTites : " It 
appears to me that one of the principal causes of 
the war arises from one Du Luth having caused 
two to be killed who had assassinated two French- 



men on Lake Superior ; and you sufficiently see 
now niuih this man's voyage, wliicli can not luo- 
duceany advantage to the colony, and wliich was 
permitteil only in the interest of some private 
persons. lia.s contributed to distract the peace of 
the colony." 

Du Luth and his young brother appear to liave 
traded at the western extremity of Lake Superior, 
and on the north shore, to Lake Nipegon. 

In June, 1(584. (Jovernor l)e la Uarre sent Guil- 
let and llebert from Montreal to request Du Luth 
and l>urantaye to bring down voyageurs and In- 
dians to assist in an expedition against the Iro- 
quois of Xew York. Early in Sei)teml)er, they 
reported on the St. Lawrence, with one hundred 
and lifty coureurs des bois and three hundred and 
lifty Indians : but as a treaty had just Ijeen made 
witli tlie Senecas, tliey returned. 

De la Barrels successor, Governor Denonville, 
in a dispatch to the French Government, dated 
November 12th. KiSo, alludes to Du Luth being 
in the far West, in these words : ■• I likewise sent 
to M. De la Durantaye, who is at Lake Superior 
imder orders from M. De la Barre. and to Sieur 
Du Luth, who is also at a great distance in an- 
other direction, and all so far beyond reach that 
neither the one nor the other can hear news from 
me this year ; so that, not being able to see them 
at soonest, before next July, I considered it best 
not to think of undertaking any thing during the 
whole of next year, especially as a great numlier 
of our best men are among the Outaouacs, and 
can not return before the ensuing summer, * * * 
In regard to Sieur Du Luth, 1 sent him orders to 
repair here, so that I may learn the number of 
savages on wliom 1 may depend, lie is accredit- 
ed among tliem. and rendered great services to 
M. De la Barre by a large niunber of savages he 
brought to Niagara, who would have attacked 
the Senecas, was it not for an express order from 
M. De la Barre to the contrary. "" 

In 1686, wliile at ilackinaw, he was ordereu to 
establish a post on the Detroit, near Lake Erie. 
A portion of the order reads as follows : " After 
having given all the orders that you may judge 
necessary for the safety of this post, and having 
well secured the obedience of the Ijidians, you 
will return to Micliilimackinac, there to await 
Rev. Father Engelran, by whom I will commu- 
nicate what I wish of you, there," 

The design of this post was to block the pas- 
sage of the English Ui the upper lakes. Before 
it was established, in the fall of 1686, Thomas 
Roseboom, a daring trader from Albany, on the 
Hudson, had found his way to the vicinity of 
.Mackinaw, and by the proffer of brandy, weak- 
ened the allegiance of the tribes to the Frencli. 

A canoe coming to Mackinaw witli dispatches ■ 
for the French and their allies, to march to the 
Seneca country, in Xew York, perceived this New 
York trader and associates, and, giving the alarm, 
they were met by three hundred coureurs du 
bois and captured. 

In the spring of 1687 Du Luth, Durantaye, 
and Tonty all left the vicinity of Detroit for Ni- 
agara, and as they were coasting along Lake Erie 
they met another English trader, a Scotchman 
by birth, and by name Major I'atrick Mc(iregor, 
a person of some influence, going witli a number 
of traders to ilackiuaw. Having taken him pris- 
oner, he was sent with Roseboom to ^lontreal. 

Du Luth, Tonty, and Durantaye arrived at Ni- 
agara on the 27th of June, 1687, with one hun- 
dred and seventy French voyageurs, besides In- 
dians, and ou the 10th of July joined the army of 
Denonville at the mouth of the Genesee Iliver, 
and on the ISth Du Luth and his associates had 
a skirmish near a Seneca village, now the site of 
the town of Victor, twenty miles southeast of the 
city of Rochester, New York. Governor Denon- 
ville, in a report, writes: " On the 13th. about 4 
o'clock in the aftenioon, having passed through 
two dangerous defiles, we arrived at the third, 
where we were vigorously attacked by eight hun- 
dred Senecas. two hundred of whom lired, wish- 
ing to attack our rear, while the rest would attack 
our front, but the resistance, made produced 
such a great consternation that they soon resolved 
to fly. * * * We witnessed the piiinful sight 
of the usual cruelties of the savages, who cut the 
dead into quarters, as is done in slaughter houses, 
in order to put them into the kettle. The greater 
number were opened while still warm, that the 
blood might be drunk. Our rascally Otaoas dis- 
tinguished themselves particularly by bar- 
barities. * * * "VVe had five or six men killed 
on the spot. French and Indians, and about 
twenty wounded, among the first of whom was the 
Rev. Father Angelran, superior of all the Otaoan 
Missions, by a very severe gun-shot. It is a great 



misfortune that this, -n-oimd will prevent him go- 
jug back again, for he is a man of capacity." 

In the ord«r to Dii Liilli assigning liim to duly 
at the post on the site of the modem Fort Gra- 
tiot, above the city of Detroit, the Governor of 
Canada said: •• If you can so arrange your affairs 
that your hrotlier can be near you in the Spring. 
I shall be very glad, lie is au intelhgent lad. 
and might be a great assistance to you; he miglit be very serviceable to us."' 

This lad, Greysolon de hi Tourette, during tlie 
■WTuter of 1686-7 was trading among the A.ssina- 
boines and otlier tribes at the west end of Lake 
Superior, but. upon receiving a dispatcli, hastened 
to his brotlier. journeying in a canoe witliout any 
escort from ilackinaw. He did not arrive until 
after the battle with the Senecas. Governor Den- 
onville, on the 2oth of August. 1687, wrote: 

•■ Du Luth's brother, who has recently arrived 
from the rivers above the Lake of the Allempi- 
gons fXipegonl. assures me that he saw more than 
fifteen hundred i)ers()ns come to trade with him, 
and they were very sorry he had not goods suffi- 
cient to satisfy them. They are of the tribes ac- 
customed to resort to the English at Port Nelson 
and River Bourbon, where, they say. they did not 
go this year, through Sieur Du Lhu's inlluence." 

After the battle in the vicinity of Rochester, 
Xew York. Du Luth. with his celebrated cousin. 
Henry Tonty. returned together as far as the post 
above the present city of Detroit, Michigan, but 
this point, after 1688, was not again occupied. 

From this period Du Luth becomes less prom- 
inent. At the time when the Jesuits attempted 
to exclude brandy from the Indian country a bit- 
ter controversy arose between them and the 
traders. Cadillac, a (Jascou by birth, command- 
ing Fort Bnade. at Mackinaw, on August 3, 169.5, 
WTote to Count Frontenac: " Xow, what reason 
can we assign that the sa\ages should not drink 
brandy bought with their own money as well as 
we? Is it prohibited to prevent them from be- 
coming intoxicated? Or is it because the use of 
brandy reduces them to extreme .misery, placing 
it out of their power to make war by depriving 
them of clothing and arms? If such representa- 
tions in regard to the Indians have been made to 
the (^ount. they are very false, as every one knows 
who is acquainted with the ways of the savages. 
* * * It is bad faitli to represent to the Count 

that the sale of brandy reduces the savage to a 
state of nudity, aifd by that means places it out 
of liis ])ower to make war, since he never goes to 
war in any other condition. * * * Perhaps it 
will be said that the sale of brandy makes the 
labors of the missionaries unfruitful. It is neces- 
sary to examine this i)roposilion. If the mission- 
aries care for only the extension of commerce, 
pui-suing the course they have hitherto, I agree 
to it: but if it is the use of brandy that hinders 
the advancement of the cause of God. I deny it, 
for it is a fact whicli no one can deny that there 
are a great number of savages who never drink 
brandy, yet who are not, for that, better Chris- 

■• All the Sioux, the most numerous of all the 
tribes, who inhabit the region along the shore of 
Lake Superior, do not even like the smell of 
brandy. Are they more advanced in religion for 
that? They do not wish to have the subject men- 
tioned, and when the missionaries address them 
they only laugh at the foolishness of preaching. 
Yet these priests boldly fling before the eyes of 
Europeans, whole volumes filled with glowing 
descriptions of the conversion of souls by thou- 
sands in this country, causing the poor missiona- 
ries from Eiu'ope, to run to martyrdom as flies to 
sugar and honey," 

Dti Luth, or Du Lhut, as he wrote his name, 
during this discussion, was found upon the side 
of order and good morals. His attestation is as 
follows : ■■ I certify that at diiferent periods I 
have lived about ten \ears among the Ottawa 
nation, frpm the time that 1 made an exploration 
to the Xadouecioux pe()ple until Fort Saint Jo- 
seph was established by order of the Monsieur 
^Nlanjuis Denonville, Governor General, at the 
head of the Detroit of Lake Erie, which is in the 
Iroipiois country, and which I had the honor to 
command. During this period, I have seen that 
tlie trade hi eau-de-vie ibraiuly) produced great 
disorder, the father killing the son, and the son 
throwing his mother into the fire: and I maintain 
that, morally speaking, it is impossible to export 
brandy to the woods and distant missions, with- 
out danger of its leading to misery," 

Governor Frontenac, in an expedition against 
the Oneidas of New York, arrived at Fort Fnm- 
tenac, on the litth of July, 1695, and Captain Du 
Luth was left in command with forty soldiers, 



ami masons and carpenters, with orders to erect 
new liuililinfis. In aViout fonr weeks he erected ; 
a building one liinidred and twenty feet in Icngtli, 
containing officers" quarters, store-rooms, a bakery 
and a chapel. Early in 1697 he was still in com- 
mand of the post, and in a report it is mentioned 
that " everybody was then in good health, except 
Captain Uulhut the commander, \\\w was unweU 
of the gout." 

It was just before this period, that as a member 
of the Eoman Catholic Church, he was firmly 
Impressed that ho had been helped by prayers 
which he addressed to a deceased Iroquois girl, 
who had died in the odor of sanctity, and. as a 
thank offering, signed the following certilicate : 
"I, the subscriber, certify to all whom it may 
concern, that liaving been tomiented by the gout, 
for the space of tweuty-three years, and with such 

severe pains, that it gave me no rest for the spac 
of three months at a time, I addressed myself to 
(\'itheriiie Togahkouita, an Iroquois virgin de- 
ceased at the Sault Saint Louis, in the reputation 
of sanctity, and I promised her to visit her tomb, 
if God should give me health, through her inter- 
cession. I have been as jierfectly cured at the 
end of one noveria, which I made in her honor, 
tliat after five months, I have not perceived the 
slightest touch of my gout. Given at Fort Fron- 
tenac, this 18th day of August, 1 (;!>»;. " 

As soon as cold weather returned, his old mal- 
ady again appeared. He died early in A. I ). 1710. 
Marquis de "^^audreuil, (Jovcrnor of Canada, im- 
der date of first of ilay of that year, wrote to 
Count Pontchartraiii, Colonial Minister at Paris, 
" Captain Du Lud died this winter, lie was a 
very honest man." 





F»Us of St. Anthony Visited by White Hon— La Sallc Givejlhe First DKcription 
of rppcr Mississippi Valley.— Accaolt, the Leader, Accompanied hy AugcUe 
and Hennepin, at Falls of Saint Anthony— Hennepin Declared Cnrcliable by 
U Salle.— His Early Life.— HU First Book Criticised by Ablx! Bcrnon and 
Tronson. — Deceptire Map. — First Meeting with Sious.;- Astonishment at 
Reading His Breviary,— Sioux Name (or Guns.— Accault and Hennepin at 
Lake Pepin.— Leave the River Below Saint Paul.-At Millo Lacs.— A Sweating 
Cabin.— Sioux Wonder at Mariner's Compass.— Fears of an Iron Pot.— Making 
a Dictionary.-Iufant Baptised.-Route to the Pacific— Hennepin Descends 
RnmRivcr.-FirstVisittoFallsofSaintAnthony.-On a Buffalo Hunt— Meets 
Du Luth— Returns to Mille Lacs.- With Du Lulh at Falls of St. Anthony.— 
Returns to France.— Subsequent Life.- His Books Examined.— Denies in First 
Book HU Descent to the Gulf of Mexico.— Dispute with Du Luth at FaUs of St, 
Anthony.— Patronage of Du luth— Tribute to Du Luth.— Hennepin's Answer 
to Criticisms.— Denounced by DIbeniUe and Father Gravier.— Residence in 

In the summer of 1680, Michael Accault (^Vko), 
Hemiepin, the Franeiscau missionary, Aiigelle, 
Du Luth, and Faffart all -visited the Falls of 
Saint Anthony. 

The first description of the valley of the upper 
Mississippi -was -nritten by La Salle, at Fort 
Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, on the 22d of Au- 
gust, 1682, a month before Hennepin, in Paris, 
obtained a license to print, and some time before 
the Franciscan's first -v^ork, was issued from the 

La Salle"s knowledge must have been received 
from Michael Accault, the leader of the expedi- 
tion, AugeUe, his comrade, or the clerical attache, 
the Franciscan, Hennepin. 

It differs from Hennepin's narrative in its free- 
dom from bombast, and if its statements are to 
be credited, the Franciscan must be looked on as 
one given to exaggeration. Tlie careful student. 
however, soon learns to be cautious in receiving 
the statement of any of the early explorers and 
ecclesiastics of the Northwest. The Franciscan 
depreciated the Jesuit missionary, and La Salle 
did not hesitate to misrepresent IJu Lutli and 
others for his own exaltation. La SaUe makes 
statements which we deem to be •n-ide of the 
trutli when liis prejudices are aroused. 

At the very time that the Intendant of Justice 
in Canada is complaining tliat Governor Fronte- 
nac is a friend and correspondent of Du Luth, 

La Salle writes to his friends in Paris, that Du 
Luth is looked upon as an outlaw by the governor. 

While olliciiil documents prove that Du Luth 
was in Jiliunesota a year before Accault and asso- 
ciates, yet La Salle -nTites: " :Moreover, the Na- 
donesioux is not a region which he has discov- 
ered. It is known that it was discovered a long 
time before, and that the Rev. Father Hennepin 
and Michael Accault were there before him." 

La Salle in this communication describes Ac- 
cault as one well acquainted with the language 
and names of the Indians of the Illinois region, 
and also '■■ cool, brave, and prudent," and the head 
of the party of exploration. 

"We now proceed witli the first description of 
the country above the Wisconsin, to which is 
given, for the first and only time, by any writer, 
the Sioux name. Meschetz Odeba, perhaps in- 
tended for :Meshdeke AVakpa, River of the Foxes. 

He describes the Upper Mississippi in these 
words : " Following the windings of the ilissis- 
sippi, they found the river Ouisconsing, Wiscon- 
sing, or Meschetz Odeba, which flows between 
Bay of Puans and the Grand river. * * * About 
twenty-three or twenty-four leagues to the north 
or northwest of the mouth of the Ouisconsing, 
* ■* * they foimd the Elack river, called by the 
Jfadouesioux, Chabadeba [Chapa "VVakpa, Beaver 
river] not very large, the mouth of which is bor- 
dered on the two sliores by alders. 

" Asceudmg about thirty leagues, almost at the 
same point of the compass, is the Buffalo river 
[Chippewa], as large at its mouth as that of the 
Illinois. They follow it ten or twelve leagues, 
wliere it is deep, small and without rapids, bor- 
dered by hilLs which •widen out from time to time 
to form prairies." 

About three o'clock in the afternoon of the 11th 
of April, 1680, the travelers were met by a war 
party of one hundred Sioux in thirty-three birch 
bark canoes. "Michael Accault, who was the 



leader,"' says La Salle, " presented the Calumet.'' 
The Indians were presented by Accault witli 
twenty knives and a fathom and a half of tobacco 
an<l sonit^ floods. Proceedinj? with the Indians 
ten (lays, on the :i2dof April the isles in the ,Mis- 
sissippi were reached, where tlie Sioux had killed 
some Alaskontens, and they halted to weep over 
the deatli of two of their own number; and to 
assuage tlieir ^rief, Accault Rave them hi trade a 
box of goods and twenty-four hatchets. 

AVlien they were eight leagues below the Falls 
of Saint Anthony, they resolved to go by land to 
tlieir vilhige, sixty leagues distant. They were 
well received; the only strife among tlie villages 
was tliat which resulted from the desire to have 
a I'lenchman in their midst. La Salle also states 
that it was not correct to give tlie impression that 
Du Luth had rescued his men from captivity, for 
they could not be properly called prisoners. 

He continues: "In going up the Mississippi 
again, twenty leagues above that river [Saint 
CroixJ is found the falls, which those I sent, and 
wlio passing there first, named Saint Anthony. 
It is thirty or forty feet high, and the river is nar- 
rower here than elsewhere. There is a small 
island in the midst of the chute, and the two 
banks of the river are not bordered by high hills, 
■which gradually diminish at this point, but the 
country on each side is covered with tliin woods, 
such as oaks and other hard woods, scattered wide 

"The canoes were carried three or four hun- 
dred .steps, and eight leagues above was found 
the west [east?] bank of the river of the Nadoue- 
sioux, ending in a lake named Issati, which ex- 
pands into a great marsh, where the wild rice 
grows toward the mouth." 

In the latter [lart of his letter La Salle uses the 
following language relative to his old chaphun: 

" 1 believed that it was appropriate to make for 
you the narrative of tlie adventures of this canoe, 
because I doubt not that they will sjieak of it, and 
if you wish to confer with tlie Father Louis Hen- 
nepin, Itecollect, who has returned to France, you 
must know liim a little, because he will not fail 
to exaggerate all things; it is liis character, and 
to me lie has written as if he were about to be 
burned when he was not even in danger, but he 
believes that it is honorable to act in this manner, 

and he speaks more conformably to that which 
he wishes than to that which he knows." 

Hennepin was bom in Ath, an inland town of 
the Xetheiiands. From boyhood he longed to 
visit foreign lands, and it is not to be wondered 
at that he assumed the jiriesfs garb, for next to 
the soldier's life, it suited one of wandering pro- 

At one time he is on a begging expedition to 
some of the towns on the sea coast. h\ a few 
months he occupies the post of chaplain at an 
hospital, where he shrives the dying and admin- 
isters extreme unction. From the quiet of the 
hospital he proceeds to the camp, and is present 
at the battle of SenefEe, which occurred in the 
year 1674. 

His wliole mind, from the time that he became 
a priest, appears to liave been on " things seen 
and temporal," rather than on those that aiv un- 
seen and eternal." "While on duty at some of the 
ports of the Straits of Dover, he exhibited the 
characteristic of an ancient Athenian more tlian 
that of a professed successor of the Apostles. 
He sought out the society of strang.;-s " who 
spent their time in notliing else but either to tell 
or to hear some new thing." With perfect non- 
chalance he confesses that notwithstanding the 
nauseating fumes of tobacco, he used to slip be- 
hind the doors of sailors' taverns, and siiend days, 
without regard to the loss of his meals, listening 
to the adventures and hair-breadth escapes of the 
mariners in lands beyond the sea. 

In the year 1676, he received a welcome order 
from his Superior, requiring him to embark for 
Canada. I'naccustomed to the world, and arbi- 
trary in his disposition, he rendered tlie cabin of 
tlie ship in which he sailed any thing but heav- 
enly. As in modem days, the passengers in a 
vessel to the new world were composed of hete- 
rogeneous materials. There were young women 
going out in search for brothers or husbands, ec- 
clesiastics, and those engaged in the then new, 
but proUtable, commerce in furs. One of liis 
fellow passengers was the talented and enterini- 
prising, though unfortunate, La Salle, with whom 
he was afterwards associated. If he is to be 
credited, his intercourse with La Salle was not 
very pleasant on ship-board. The young women, 
tired of being cooped up in the narrow accommo- 
dations of the ship, when the evening was fair 



sought the deck, and engaged in the nide dances 
of the French peasantry of that age. Hennepin, 
feeling that it was improper, hegan to assume 
the air of tlie priest, and forbade the sport. La 
Salle, feeling that his interference was uncalled 
for, called him a pedant, and took the side of the 
girls, and during the voyage there were stormy 

Good humor appears to have been restored 
•when they left the ship, for Ilciini'iiiu would oth- 
erwise have not been the companion of La .Salle 
in his great western journey. 

Sojourning for a short period at Quebec, the 
adventure-loving Franciscan is permitted to go 
to a mission station on or near the site of the 
present town of Kingston, Canada West. 

Here there was much to gratify his love of 
novelty, and he passed considerable time in ram- 
bling among the Iroquois of New York. In 1678 
he returned to Quebec, and was ordered to join 
the expedition of Robert La Salle. 

On the 6th of December Father Hennepin and 
a portion of the exploring party had entered the 
Niagara river. In the vicinity of the Falls, the 
•winter was passed, and while the artisans were 
preparing a ship above the Falls, to navigate the 
great lakes, the Recollect wliiled away the hours, 
in studying the manners and customs of the Sen- 
eca Indians, and in admiring the sublimest han- 
diwork of God on the globe. 

On the 7th of August, 1679, the ship being 
completely rigged, unfurled its sails to the breezes 
of Lake Erie. The vessel was named the " (irif- 
fin." m honor of the arms of Frontenac, (Governor 
of Canada, the first ship of European construc- 
tion that had ever ploughed the waters of the 
great inland seas of North America. 

After encounterhig a violent and dangerous 
storm on one of the lakes, during which they had 
given up all hope of escaping shipwreck, on the 
27th of the month, they were safely moored in 
the harbor of " ilissiUmackinack." From thence 
the party proceeded to Green Bay, where they 
left the ship, procured canoes, and continued 
along the coast of Lake ^Michigan. By the mid- 
dle of January, 1680, La Salle had conducted his 
expedition to the Illinois River, and, on an emi- 
nence near Lake Peoria, he commenced, with 
much heaviness of heart, the erection of a fort, 

which he called Crevecoeur. on account of the 
many disappointments he had experienced. 

On the last of February, Accault, Augelle. and 
IIennei)in left to ascend the Mississippi. 

The first work bearing the name of the Rev- 
erend Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan Mis- 
sionary of the Recollect order, was entitled, " De- 
scription de la Louisiane," and in 1683 publisiied 
in Paris. 

• As soon as the book appeared it was criticised. 
Abbe Bernou. on the 29th of February, 1684, 
writes from Rome about the '-paltry book" (mes- 
licant livrei of Father Hennepin. About a year 
l)efore the pious Tronson, under date of March 
13. 1683, wrote to a friend: " I have interviewed 
the P. Recollect, who pretends to have descended 
the ilississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico. I do 
not know that one icill helki-c what he sijeaks any 
more than that which is in the printed relation of 
P. Louis, which I send you that you may make 
your own reflections." 

On the map accompanying his first book, he 
boldly marks a Recollect Mission many miles 
north of the point he had visited. In the Utrecht 
edition of 1697 this deliberate fraud is erased. 

Throughout the work he assumes, tliat he was 
the leader of tlie expedition, and magnifies trifles 
into tragedies. For instance, Mr. La Salle writes 
that Michael Accault, also ^Titten Ako, who was 
the leader, presented the Sioux with the calu- 
met ;" but Ileimepin makes the occurrence more 

He wi'ites : " Our prayers were heard, when on 
the 11th of April, 1680, about two oclock in the 
afternoon, we suddenly perceived thirty -three 
bark canoes manned liy a hundred and twenty 
Indians coming down with very great speed, on a 
war party, against the Miamis. Illinois and Maro- 
as. These Indians surrounded us, and while at 
a distance, discharged some arrows at us, but as 
they approached our canoe, the old men seeing us 
with the calumet of peace in our hands, jirevent- 
ed the young men from killing us. These sava- 
ges leaping from their canoes, some on land, 
others into the water, with frightful cries and 
yells approached us, and as we madfe no resist- 
ance, being only three against so great a number, 
one of them wrenched our caltimet from our 
hands, while our canoe and theirs were tied to 
the shore. We first presented to them a piece of 



French tobacco, better for smoking than theirs- 
and the eldest among them uttered the words' 
" ALiamiha, Miamiha.'' 

" As we did not understand their language, we 
took a little stick, and by signs wliicli we made 
on the sand, showed them that their enemies, tlie 
Miamis, whom they sought, had fled across the 
river Colbert [Mississippi] to join the Islinois ; 
wiien they s;iw tliemselves discovered and unable 
to surprise their enemies, three or four old men 
laying their hands on my head, wept in a mouni- 
fid tone. 

" With a spare liandkerehief I had left I wiped 
away their tears, but they would not smoke our 
Calumet. They made us cross the river with 
great cries, while all s-houted with tears in their 
eyes: they made us row before them, and we 
beard yells capable of striking the most resolute 
with tenor. After landing our canoe and goods, 
part of which had already been taken, we made a 
lire to boil our kettle, and we gave them two large 
wild turkeys which we had killed. These Indians 
having called an assembly to deliberate what they 
were to do ^^•ith us. the two head chiefs of the 
party approaclung, showed us by signs tluit the 
warriors wished to tomahawk us. Tliis com- 
pelled me to go to the war chiefs with one young 
man, leaving the other by our property, and 
throw into their midst six axes, fifteen knives 
and six fathom of our black tobacco ; and then 
bringing down my head. I showed them with an 
a.xe that they miglit kill me. if they thought 
proper. This present appeased many individual 
members, who gave us some beaver to eat, put- 
ting tlie tliree first morsels into ourmontlis, accor- 
ding to tlie custom of the coinitry, and blowing on 
the meat, which was too hot, before putting the 
bark dish before us to let us eat as we liked. AVe 
si)ent the niglit in anxiety, because, before reti- 
ring at night, they had returned us our peace 

" Our two boatmen were resolved to sell their 
lives dearly, and to resist if attacked ; their arms 
aiKl swords were ready. As for my own part, I 
determined to allow myself to be killed without 
any resistance ; as I was going to annomice to 
them a God who had been foully accused, un- 
justly condemned, and cruelly cnieilied, without 
showing the least aversion to those who put him 
to death. We watched in turn, iu oui- anxiety, 

so as not to be suriirised asleep. The next morn- 
ing, a chief named Xarrhetolia asked for the 
peace cahunet, liUed it with willow bark, and all 
smoked. It was then signified that the wliite 
men were to return with them to their villages." 

In his narrative the Franciscan remarks, " I 
found it difficult to say my office before these 
Indians. JIany seeing me move my lips, said in 
a fierce tone, ' Ouakauche." Michael, all out of 
countenance, told me, that if I continued to say 
my breviary, we shoidd all three bo killed, and 
the Ficard begged me at least to pray apart, so as 
not to provoke them. I followed the hitter's 
advice, but the more I concealed myself the more 
I had the Indians at my heels ; for when I en- 
tered the wood, thr'v thought I was going to hide 
some goods under ground, so that I knew not on 
what side to turn to pray, for they never let me 
out of sight. This obliged me to beg pardon of 
my canoe -men, assuring them I could not dis- 
pense with saying my office. I5y the word. ' Ou- 
akauche,' the Indians meant that the book I was 
reading was a spirit, but by their gesture they 
nevertheless showed a kind of aversion, so that 
to accustom them to it, I chanted the litany of 
the Blessed Virgin in the canoe, with my book 
opened. They thought that the breviary was a 
spirit which taught me to sing for their diversion ; 
for these people are naturally fond of singing." 

This is the first mention of a Dahkotah word 
in a European liook. The savages were annoyed 
rather than enraged, at seeing the white man 
reading a book, and exclaimed, " 'Wakan-de I" 
tins is wondei-ful or supernatural. The war 
party was composed of several bands of the M'de- 
wahkantonwan Dahkotahs, and there was a di- 
versity of opinion in relation to the disposition 
that should be made of the white men. The 
relatives of those who had been killed b>- the 
Miamis, were in favor of taking their scalps, but 
others were anxious to retain the favor of the 
French, and open a trading intercourse. 

Ferceiving one of the canoe-men shoot a wild 
turkey, they called the gun. " Manza Ouackange," 
iron that has imderstanding ; more correctly, 
'• Maza Wakande," this is the supernatural metal. 

Aquipaguettn, one of the head men, resorted 
to the following device to obtain merchandise. 
Says the Father, '• This wily savage had the 
bones of some distinguished relative, which lie 



presented with great care in some skins dressed 
and adorned with several rows of black and red 
porcupine quills. From time to time he assem- 
bled Ms men tO give it a smoke, and made us 
come several da\ s to cover the bones with goods. 
and by a present wipe away the teare he had shed 
for him. and for his own son killed by the Miamis. 
To appease this ca]itious man. we threw on the 
bones several fatlmnis of tobacco, axes, knives, 
beads, and some black and white wampum brace- 
lets. * * * We slept at the point of the Lake 
of Teare [Lake Pepin], which we so called from 
the tears which this chief shed all night long, or 
by one of his sons whom he caused to weep when 
he grew tired." 

The next day. after four or five leagues" saO, a 
chief came, and telling them to leave tlieir canoes, 
he pulled up three piles of grass for seats. Then 
taking a piece of cedar full of little holes, he 
placed a stick into one. which he revolved between 
the palms of his hands, until he kmdled a fire, 
and informed the Frenchmen that they would be 
at Mille Lac in six days. On the nineteenth day 
after their captivity, they arrived in tlie vicinity 
of Saint Paul, not far, it is probable, fiom the 
marshy giound on which the Kaposia band once 
lived, and now called Pig"s Eye. 

The journal remarks. ■• Having aiTived on the 
nineteenth day of our navigation, five leagues 
below St. Anthony's Falls, these Indians landed 
us in a bay, broke our canoe to nieces, and se- 
creted their own in the reeds." 

Tliey then followed the trail to ilille Lac, sixty 
leagues distant. As they approached their villa- 
ges, the various bands began to show their spoils. 
The tobacco was highly prized, and led to some 
contention. The chalice of the Father, which 
ghstened in the sun. they were afraid to toucli, 
supposing it was "wakan."' After five days" 
walk they reached the Issati [Dahkotah] settle- 
ments in the valley of the Rum or Knife river. 
The different bauds each conducted a Frenchman 
to their village, the chief Aquipaguetin taking 
charge of Hennepin. After marching through 
the marshes towards the sources of Rum river, 
five wives of 'he chief, in three bark canoes, met 
them and took them a short league to an island 
where their cabins were. 

An aged Indian kindly rubbed dowii the way- 
worn Franciscan; placing him on a bear- skin 

near the fire, he anointed his legs and the soles 
of his feet with wildcat oil. 

The son of tlie chief took great pleasure in car- 
rying upon his bare back the priest's robe with 
dead men"s bones enveloped. It was called Pere 
Louis Chiimen. In the Dahkotah language Shin- 
na or Shiunan signifies a buffalo robe. 

Hennepin"s description of his life on the island 
is m these words : 

'■ Tlie day after our arrival, Aquipaguetin, who 
was the head of a large family, covered me with 
a robe made of ten large dressed beaver skins, 
trimmed with porcupme quills. This Indian 
showed me five or six of his wives, .telling them, 
as I afterwards learned, that they shoul'' in fu- 
ture regard me as one of their children. 

"He set before me a bark dish full of fish, and 
seeing tliat I could not rise from the ground, he 
had a small sweating-cabin made, in which he 
made me enter with four Indians. This cabin he 
covered with buffalo skins, and inside he put 
stones red-hot. lie made me a sign to do as the 
others before beginning to sweat, but I merely 
concealed my nakedness with a handkerchief. 
As soon as these Indians had several times 
breathed out quite violently, he began to sing vo- 
ciferously, the otliers piitting their hands on me 
and rulibing me wliile they wept bitterly. I be- 
gan to faint, but I came out and could scarcely 
take my habit to put on. "When he made me 
sweat thus three times a week. I felt as strong as 

The mariner"s compass was a constant source 
of wonder and amazement. Aquipaguetm hav- 
ing assembled the braves, would ask Hennepin 
to show his compass. Perceivmg that the needle 
turned, the chief harangued his men, and told 
them that tlie Europeans were spuits, capable of 
doing any thuig. 

In the Franciscan's possession was an iron pot 
with feet like lions', which the Indians would not 
touch unless tlieir hands were wrapped in buffalo 
skins. The women looked upon it as "wakan," 
and would not enter the cabm where it was. 

" The cliiefs of these savages, seemg that I was 
desirous to learn, frequently made me write, 
naming all tlie parts of the human body ; and as 
I would not put on paper certain indelicate words, 
at which they do not blush, they were heartily 

KEKlSrEPiyS nSIT to falls of saint AJfTHONT. 


They often asked the Franciscan questions, to 
answer whidi it was necessary to refer to his lex- 
icon. This appeared very strange, and. as they 
had no word for paper, tliey sjiid, •• Tliat white 
thing must be a spirit wliich tells Pere Louis all 
■we say."' 

Hennepin remarks : •■ These Indians often 
asked me how many wives and children I had, 
and how old I was, that is, how many winters ; 
for .so these natives always count. Never illu- 
mined by the light of faith, they were surprised 
at my answer. Pointing to our two Frenchmen, 
whom I was then visiting, at a point three leagues 
from our village, I told them that a man among 
us coidd only have one wife ; that as for me, I 
had promised the Master of life to live as they 
saw me, and to come and live with them to teach 
them to he like the French. 

" ]5ut that gross people, till then lawless and 
faithless, turned all I said into ridicule. ' How,' 
said they, ' would you have these two men with 
thee have wives? Ours would not live with them, 
for they have hair all over their face, and we have 
none there or elsewhere.' In fact, they were 
never better pleased with me than when I was 
shaved, and from a complaisance, certainly not 
criminal, I shaved every week. 

" As often as I went to visit the cabins, I foimd 
a sick child, whose father's name was Mamenisi. 
:Michael Ako would not accompany me ; the 
Picard du Gay alone followed me to act as spon- 
sor, or. rather, to witness the baptism. 

"I christened the child Antohiette, in honor of 
St. Anthony of Padua, as well as for the Picard's 
name, which was Anthony Auguelle. He was a 
native of Amiens, and nephew of the Procurator- 
General of the Premonstratensians both now at 
Paris. Having poured natural water on the head 
and uttered these words : ' Creature of God, I 
baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," I took half an 
altar cloth which I had wrested fi'om the hands 
of an Indian who had stolen it from me, and put 
it on the body of the baptized child ; for as I 
could not say mass for want of wine and vest- 
ments, this piece of linen could not be put to bet- 
ter use than to enshroud the firet Christian child 
among these tribes. I do not know whether the 
softness of the linen had refreshed her. but she 
■was the next day smiling in her mother "s arms, 

who believed that I had cured the child ; but she 
died soon after, to my great consolation. 

" During my stay among them, there arrived 
four savages, who said they were come alone five 
hundred leagues from the west, and had been four 
months upon the way. They assured us there 
was no such place as the Straits of Anian, and 
that they had traveled without resting, except to 
sleep, and had not seen or passed over any great 
lake, by wliich phrase they always mean the sea, 

'• They further informed us that the nation of 
the Assenipoulacs [Assinibomes] who lie north- 
east of Issati. was not above sbc or seven days' 
journey ; that none of the nations, within their 
knowledge, who lie to the east or northwest, had 
any great lake about their coimtries, which were 
very large, but only rivers, which came from the 
north. They further assured us that there were 
very few forests in the coimtries through which 
they passed, insomuch that now and then they 
were forced to make fires of buffaloes" dung to 
boil their food. All these circumstances make it 
appear that there is no such place as the Straits 
of Anian. as we usually see them set downi on the 
maps. And whatever efforts have been made for 
many years past by the English and Butch, to 
find out a passage to the Frozen Sea, they have 
not yet been able to effect it. But by the help of 
my discovery and the assistance of God. I doubt 
not but a passage may stUl be found, and that an 
easy one too. 

" For example, we may be transported Into the 
Pacific Sea by rivers wliich are large and callable 
of carrying great vessels, and from tlience it is 
rtnj easy to go to China and Japan, without cross- 
iiiij the equinoctial line; and, in all prohahihty, 
Japan i.s on the Mtmc continent as America."' 

Ilemiepin in his first book, thus describes his 
first visit to the Falls of St. Anthony : " In the 
beginning of .Jidy. KiSO. wedescemled the[Rum] 
River in a canoe southward, with the great chief 
Ouasicoude [Wauzeekootay] that is to say Pierced 
Pine, with about eighty' cabins composed of more 
than a hundred and thirty families and about 
two hundred and fifty warriors. Scarcely would 
the Indians give me a place in their little fiotilla, 
for they had only old canoes. They went four 
leagues lower (hn\ii, to get birch bark to make 
some more. Having made a hole in the ground, 
to hide our silver chalice and our papers, till our 



return from the hunt, and keeping only our bre- 
viary, so as not to be loaded. I stood on the bank 
of thelake formed by the river we had called .St. 
Francis [now Rum] and stretched out my baud 
to the canoes as they rapidly passed in succession. 

'•Our Frenchmen also had one fortliemsclves, 
which the Indians had given them. They would 
not take me in, ^Michael Ako saying that he had 
taken me long enough to satisfy him. I was hurt 
at this answer, seeing myself thus abandoned by 
Christians, to whom I had always done good, as 
they both often acknowledged; but God never 
having abandoned me on that painful voyage, in- 
spired two Indians to take me in their little 
canoe, where I had no other employment than to 
bale out with a little bark tray, the water which 
entered by little holes. This 1 did not do with- 
out getting all wet. This boat might, indeed, be 
called a death box. for its lightness and fragility. 
These canoes do not generally weigh over tifty 
pounds, the least motion of the body upsets them, 
unless you are long accustomed to that kind of 

'■ On disembarking in the evening, the Picard. 
as an excuse, told nie that their canoe was half- 
rotten, and that had we been three in it, we 
should have run a great risk of remaining on the 
way. * * * Four days after our departure for 
the buffalo hunt, we halted eight leagues above 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, on an eminence 
opposite the moutli of the IJiver St. Francis [Rum] 
* * * The Picard and myself went to look for 
haws, gooseberries, and little wild fruit, which 
often did us more harm than good. This obliged 
us to go alone, as ^Michael Ako refused, in a 
\\Tetched canoe, to Ouisconsin river, which was 
more than a hundred leagues off, to see whether 
the Sieur de la Salle had sent to that place a re- 
inforcement of men, with powder, lead, and 
other munitions, as he had promised us. 

" The Indians would not have suffered tliis 
voyage had not one of the three remained ^\ ith 
them. They wished me to stay, but Michael 
Ako absolutely refused. As we were making the 
portage of our canoe at St. Anthony of Padua's 
Falls, we perceived five or six of our Indians who 
had taken the start ; one of them was up in an 
oak opposite the great fall, weeping bitterly, with 
a rich dressed beaver robe, whitened inside, and 
trimmed with porcupine quills, which he was 

offering as a sacrifice to the falls; which is, in it- 
self, admirable and frightful. I heard him while 
shedding copious tears, say as he spoke to the 
great ciitaract. • Thou who art a spirit, grant that 
our nation may pass here quietly, without acci- 
dent; may kill buffalo in abundance ; conquer 
our enemies, and bring in slaves, some of whom 
we will put to deatli before thee. The Messenecqz 
(so they call the tribe named by the French Outa- 
gamis) have killed our kindred ; grant that we 
may avenge them.' This robe offered in sacrifice, 
served one of our Frenchmen, who took it as we 

It is certauily wonderful, that Ileimepin, who 
knew nothing of the Sioux language a few weeks 
before, should understand the prayer offered at 
the Falls without the aid of an interjireter. 

The narrator continues : " A league beyond 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, the Picard was 
oljliged to land and get his powder horn, which he 
had left at the Falls. * * * As we descended 
the river Colbert [Mississippi] we found some of 
our Indians on the islands loaded with buffalo 
meat, some of which they gave us. Two hours 
after landhig. fifteen or sixteen warriors whom we left above St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, en- 
tered, toinakawk in hand, upset the cabin of those 
who had invited us, took all the meat and bear 
oil they found, and greased themselves from head 
to foot." 

This was done because the others had violated 
the rules for the buffalo hunt. "With the Indians 
Ileimepin went down the river sixty leagues, and 
then went up the river again, and met buffalo. 
He continues : 

" AVhile seeking the Ouisconsin River, that 
savage father, Aquipaguetin. whom I had left, 
and who I believed more than two hundred 
leagues off, on the 11th of July, IWO, appeared 
with the warriors.'" After this, Hennepin and 
Picard contiimed to go \ip the river almost eighty 

There is great confusion here, as the reader 
will see. "When at the mouth of the Rum River, 
he speaks of the AVisct)nsin as more than a hun- 
dred leagues off. He floats down the river sixty 
leagues; then he ascended, but does not state the 
distance; then he ascends eighty leagues. 

He continues : " The Indians whom he had left 
with Alichael Ako at Bidfalo [Chippeway] River, 



with tlie flotilla of canoes loaded with meat, came 
down. * * * All the Indian women hud their 
stock of meat at the mouth of IJuffalo Kivcr and 
on the islands, and afcaiu we went down the Col- 
bert [Mississi))))!] about eighty leagues. * * * 
AVe had another alarm in our camp : the old men 
on duty on the top of the mountains annoiuiced 
that they saw two warriors in the distance; all 
the bowmen hastened there with speed, each try- 
ing to outstrip the others ; but they bro\ight back 
only two of their enemies, wlio came to tell them 
that a party of their people were hunting at the 
extremity of Lake Coude [Superior] and had found 
four Spirits (so they call the French) who, by 
means of a slave, had expressed a wish to come 
on, knowing lis to be among them. * * * On 
the 2oth of July, IbSO, as we were ascending the 
river Colbert, after the buffalo hunt, to the In- 
dian villages, we met Sieur du Lulh. who came 
to the Xadouessious with live French soldiers. 
They joined us about two hundred and twenty 
leagues distant from the country of the Indians 
who had taken us. As we had some knowledge 
of the language, they begged us to accompiuiy 
them to the villages of these tribes, to which I 
readily agreed, knowing that these two French- 
men had not approached the sacrament for two 

Here again the number of leagues is confusing. 
and it is inipossilile to believe tliat l)u Luth and 
his inteqireter Faffart. who ha<l been trading 
with the Sioux for more tlian a year, needed the 
help of Hennepin, who had been about three 
montlis with tliese people. 

■\Ve are not told by what route Hennepin anil 
Du Luth reached Lake Issati or ^lille Lacs, but 
Hennepin says they arrived there on the lltli of 
August, H;80. anil he adds. "Toward the end of 
September, having no inii)lements to begin an 
establishment, we resolved to tell these people, 
that for their benelit, we would have to retin-n to 
the French settlements. The grand Chief of the 
Issiiti or Xadouessiouz consented, and traced in 
pencil on paper I gave him, the route I should 
take for fotu' hundred leagues. With this chart. 
we set out, eight Frenchmen, in two canoes, and 
descended the river St. Francis and Colbert [Kum 
and Mississi]ipi]. Two of our men took two bea- 
ver robes at St. .Vulliony <if I'adua's Falls, which 
the Indians had hung in sacriUce on the trees." 

The second work of Hennepin, an enlargement 
of the first, appeared at Utrecht in the year 1097, 
ten years after La Salle's death. During the in- 
terval between the publication of the first and 
second book, he had i)assed three years as Super- 
intendent of the llecoUects at Keny in the province 
of Artois. when Father Hyacinth Lefevre, a friend 
of La Salle, and Conunissary Provincial of llecol- 
lects at Paris, wished him to return In Canada. 
He refused, and was ordered to go to Umue. and 
upon his coming back was sent to a convent at 
St. Omer, and there received a dispatch from the 
Minister of State in France to return to the coun- 
tries of the King of Spain, of which he was a 
subject. This order, he asserts, he afterwards 
learned was forged. 

In the preface to the English edition of the 
New Discovery, published in 11)98. in London, he 
writes : 

"The pretended reason of that violent order 
was because I refused to return into America, 
where I had been already eleven years ; though 
the particular laws of our Order oblige none of us 
to go beyond sea against his will. I would have, 
however, returned very willingly had I nut known 
the malice of M. La Salle, who would have ex- 
posed me to perish, as he did one of the men who 
accompanied me in my discovery. (Jod knows 
that 1 am sorry for his unfortunate death; but 
the judgments of the Almighty are always just, 
for the gentleman was killed by one of his own 
men, who were at last sensible that he exi)osed 
them to visible dangers without any necessity and 
for his jirivate designs."" 

After this he was for about Uve years at Gosse- 
Ues, in Brabant, as Confessor in a convent, and 
from thence removed to Ills native place. Ath, in 
IJelgiuui, where, according to his narrative in the 
preface to the •■ Xouveau Decouverte," he was 
again ixTsecuted. Then Father Payez, (irand 
Commissary of Recollects at Louvain. being in- 
formed that the King of Si)ain and the Elector of 
Bavaria recommended the step, consented that 
he should enter the service of William the Third 
of (ireat Britain, who iiad been very kind to the 
Roman Catholi('s of Netherlands. By order of 
Payez he was sent to Antwerp to take the lay 
habit in the convent there, and subsequently 
went to Utrecht, where he linished his second 
book known as the New Discovery. 



His first volume, jniiited in 1683, contains 312 
pages, with an ai)iifn(lix of 107 pages, on the 
Customs of the Savages, while the I'tiecht hook 
of 1697 contains 509 pages without an appendix. 

On page 249 of the Xew Discovery, he begms 
an account of a voyage alleged to liave been made 
to the mouth of the ^lississippi, and occupies 
over sixty pages in the narrative. The opening 
sentences give as a reason for concealing to this 
time his discovery, that La Salle would have re- 
ported him to his Superiors fi)r presmning to go 
do^^•n instead of ascending the stream toward the 
north, as had been agreed ; and that the two with 
him threatened that if he did not consent to de- 
scend the river, they would leave him on shore 
during the night, and pursue their own course. 

lie asserts that he left tlie Gulf of Mexico, to 
return, on the 1st of April, and on the 24th left 
the Arkansas : hut a week after this, he di'clares 
he lauded with the Sioux at the marsh aljout two 
miles below the city of Saint Paul. 

The account has been and is still a puzzle to 
the historical stu<lent. In our review of his first 
book we have noticed that as early as 16S3, lie 
claimed to liave descended tlie Mississippi. In 
the Utrecht publication he declares that while at 
Quebec, upon his return to France, he gave to 
Pather Valentine Eoux, Commissary of Recol- 
lects, his joimial. upon the promise that it would 
be kept secret, and that this Father made a copy 
of his whole voyage, including the visit to the 
Gulf of ISIexico ; but in his Description of Louis- 
iana. Hennepin wrote, "' We had some design of 
going to the mouth of the river t'olbert, which 
more probably empties into the Gulf of Mexico 
than into the Red Sea, but the tribes that seized 
us gave us no time to sail \\p and down the river." 

The additions in his Utrecht book to magnify 
his importance and detract from others, are 
many. As Sparks and Farkniau have pointed 
out the plagiarisms of this edition, a reference 
here is ininecessary. 

Du Luth, who left Quebec in 1678, and had 
been in northern Minnesota, with an interpreter, 
for a year, after lie met Ako and Hennepin, be- 
comes of secondary importance, in the eyes of 
the Franciscan. 

In the Description of Louisiana, on page 289. 
Ilenneiiin speaks of ])assiiig the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, upon his return to Canada, in these 

few words : " Two of our men seized two heaver 
robes at the Falls of St. Anthony of Padua, 
which the Indians had in sacrifice, fastened to 
trees." But in the Utrecht edition, commencing 
on page 416, there is much added concerning Du 
Lnth. After using the language of the edition 
of 1683, already (pioted it adds: "Hereupon 
there arose a dispute between Sieur du Luth and 
myself. I commended what they had done, say- 
ing. • The savages might judge by it that they 
disliked the superstition of these people.' The 
Sieur du Luth, on the contrary, said that they 
ought to have left the robes where the savages 
placed them, for they would not fail to avenge 
the insult we had put upon them by this action, 
and that it was feared that they woidd attack us 
on this journey. I confessed he had some foini- 
dation for what lie said, and that he spoke accor- 
ding to the rules of prudence. But one of the 
two men flatly replied, the two robes suited them, 
and they cared nothing for the savages and their 
superstitions. The Sieur du Luth at these words 
was so greatly enraged that he nearly struck the 
one who uttered them, hut I intervened and set- 
tled the dispute. The Picard and Michael Ako 
ranged themselves on the side of those who had 
taken the robes in question, which might have 
resulted Viadly. 

" I argued with Sieur du Luth that the savages 
would not attack us. because I was persuaded 
tliat their great chief Ouasicoude would liave our 
interests at heart, and he had great credit with 
his nation. The matter teriiiinated pleasiuitly. 

" AVhen we arrived near the river Ouisconsin, 
we halted to smoke the meat of the buffalo we 
had killed on the journey. During our stay, three 
savages of the nation we had left, came by the 
side of our canoe to tell us that their great chief 
Ouasicoude. having learned that another chief of 
these people wished to pursue and kill us, and 
tliat he entered the cabin where he was consult- 
ing, and had struck him -on the head with such 
violence as to scatter his brains upon his associ- 
ates ; thus preventing the executuig of this inju- 
rious project. 

•■ We regaled the three savages, having a great 
abundance of food at that time. The Sieur du 
Luth, after the sa\ages had left, was as enraged 
as before, and feared that they would pursue and 
attack us on our voyage. He would have pushed 



the matter further, but seeing tliat one man would 
resist, and was not in the himior to he imposed 
uiion, lie moderated, and I ai)i)eased them in the 
end with the assurance that tiod would not aban- 
don us in distress, and, provided we conlided iu 
Ilim, he would deliver us from our foes, because 
lie is the protector of men and anicels." 

After describing a conference with the Sioux, 
he adds, " Thus the savages were very kind, 
without mcntioiiiMg the beaver robes. The chief 
Ouasicoude told me to olTer a fathom of JSIarti- 
nico tobacco to the chief Aquipaguetin, who had 
adopted me as a son. This had an admirable 
effect upon the barbarians, who went oil' shouting 
several times the word ' Louis,' [Ouis or We] 
which, as he said, means the sun. Without van- 
ity, I must say that my name will be for a long 
time among these people. 

" The siivages having left us, to go to war 
against the ^lessorites, the Maroha, the Illinois, 
and other nations which live toward the lower 
part of the Mississippi, and are irreconcilable foes 
of the people of the North, the Sienr du Luth, 
who ujion many occasions gave me marks of his 
friendship, could not forbear to tell our men that 
I had all the reason in the world to believe that 
the A'iceroy of Canada would give me a favorable 
reception, should we arrive before winter, and 
that he wished with all his heart that he had been 
among as many natives as myself." 

The style of Louis Hennepin is unmistakable 
in this extract, and it is amusing to read his pa- 
tronage of one of the fearless explorers of the 
Northwest, a cousin of Tonty, favored by Fron- 
tenac, and who was in Minnesota a year before 
his arrival. 

In KiOl, six years before the Utrecht edition of 
IIennei)in, another Recollect Franciscan had pub- 
lished a book at Paris, called " The First Kstab- 
lishment of the Faith in New France." in which 
is the following tribute to l)u Luth, whom Hen- 
nepin strives to make a subordinate : " In the last 
years of M. de Frontenac's administration, Sieur 
DuLutli.aman of talent and experience, ojiened 
a way to the missionary and the Gosi)el in many 
different nations, turning lnwaiil llic north of 
that lake [Superior] where Ik- even liuilt a fort, 
he advanced as far as the Lake of the fssati, 
called Lake iiiiade, fmni the I'aniily name of M. 

de Frontenac, plantuig the arms of his Majesty 
in several nations on the right and left." 

In the second volume of his last book, which ia 
called '• A Continuance of the New Discovery of 
a vast Country in America," etc., Hennepin no- 
ticed some criticisms. 

To the objection that his work was dedicated 
to AVilliain llie Tliiril of (ireat Hrilain. he replies : 
" My King, his most Catholic Majesty, his Elec- 
toral Highness of Bavaria, the consent in writing 
of the Superior of my order, the integrity of my 
faith, and the regular observance of my vows, 
which his Britannic Majesty allows me, are the 
best warrants of the uprightness of my inteu- 

To the query, how he could travel so far upon 
the Mississippi in so little time, he answers with 
a bold face, " That we may, with a canoe and a 
pair of oars, go twenty, twenty-live, or thirty 
leagues every day, and more too, if there be oc- 
casion. And though we had gone but ten leagues 
a day, yet in thirty days we might easily have 
gone three hundred leagues. If during the time 
we spent from the river of the Illinois to the 
mouth of. the Meschasipi, in the Gulf of Mexico, 
we had used a little more haste, we might have 
gone the same twice over." 

To the objection, that he said, he nad passed 
eleven years in America, when he had been there 
but about four, he evasively replies, that •• reck- 
oning from the year 11)74, when I first set out, to 
the year KiSS, when 1 printed the second edition 
of my ' Louisiana,' it appears that I have s|ient 
fifteen years either in travels or printing my 

To I hose who objected to the statement in his 
first book, in the dedication to Louis the Four- 
teenth, that the Sioux always call the sun Louis, 
he writes : " I repeat what I have said before, 
that being among the Issati and Nadouessans, by 
whom I was made a slave in Anieiica, I never 
heard them call the sun any other than Louis. 
It is true these savages call also the moon Louis, 
but with this distincti(m, that they give the moon 
the name of Louis Bastache, wliicli in their l;ni- 
guage signifies, the sun that shines in the night." 

The I tree 'lit cditidU ciillcil lorth niiirli ccn.sure, 
and no one in France doebled that Hennepin 
was the author. D'Iberville, Governor of Lou- 
isiana, while in Paris, wrote on July ;Sd IGUi), to 



the Minister of Miirine and Colonies of France, 
in these words : " ^''eiy muoh vexed at the Rec- 
ollect, whose false narratives had deceived every 
one, and caused our suffering and total failure of 
our enter{)rise. by the time consumed in the 
search of things which alone existed in his imag- 

The Eev. Father James Gravier. in a letter 
from a fort on the Gulf of Mexico, near the Mis- 
sissippi, dated February 16th. 1701. expressed the 
sentiment of his times when lie speaks of Hen- 
nepin '• who presented to King William, the Rela- 
tion of the Mississippi, where he never was. and 
after a thousand falsehoods and ridiculous boasts, 

* * * he makes Mr. de la Salle appear in his 
Relation, wounded with two balls in the head, 
turn toward tlie Recollect Fatlier Anastase, to 
ask him for absolution, having been killed in- 
stantly, without uttering a word • and other like 
false stories." 

I IcniK'iiin gradually faded out of sight. Bru- 
nei mentions a letter written by J. 15. Duljos. 
from Rome, dated March 1st. 17(il. which men- 
tions that Hennepin was living on the Capitoline 
Hill, in the celebrated convent of Ara Ca'li, and 
was a favorite of Cardinal Spada. The time and 
place of his death has not been ascertamed. 





Early life.— Searchea for Cop[>or.- Interpreter nt Sault St. Marie, Employed by 
La Salle. "B»iltl8 Stockade at Uike Pepin. — Hostile Indians Reliuked. — A 
Silver Ostensorium Given to a Jesuit Chapel.— Perrot in the Battle against 
Seneciis, in New York.— Second Visit to Sioux Country.— Taking Possession by 
"Proces Verhal."— Discoverj- of Lead Mines.- Attends Council at Montreal.- 
Eatablishes a Post near Detroit, in Michigan.— Perrofs Death, and his Wife. 

Nicholas Perrot, sometimes written Pere, was 
one of the most energetic of the class in Canada 
known as "coureurs des bois," or forest rangers. 
Born in 1644, at an early age he was identified 
with tlie fur trade of the great inland lakes. As 
early as 1G()0, he was among the Outagamies 
[Foxes], and in l(i(j7 was at (ireen Hay. In 1GH9, 
he was appointed by Talon to go to the lake re- 
gion in search of copper mines. At tlie formal 
taking possession of that coinitry in the name of 
the King of France, at Sanlt St. Marie, on the 
14th of May, ItiTl, he acted as interpreter. In 
1677, he seems to have been employed at Fort 
Frontenac. La Salle was made very sick the 
ne.xt year, from eating a salad, and one Nicholas 
Perrot, called .Toly (ViMir (Jolly Sonl) was sus- 
pected of having mingled poison with the food. 
After this he was associated with I)ti Luth in 
the execution of two Indians, as we have seen. 
In 1684, he was appointed by I)e la Barre, the 
Governor of Canada, as Commandant for the 
West, and left Montreal with twenty men. Ar- 
riving at (ireen Bay in Wisconsin, some Indians 
told him that they had visited countries toward 
the setting sun, where they obtained the blue 
and green stones suspended from tlicir ears and 
noses, and that tliey saw horses and men like 
Frenchmen, probably the Spaniards of New Mex- 
ico ; and others saiil that they liad obtained hatch- 
ets from persons who lived in a house that walked 
on the water, near the mouth of the river of the 
Assiiuboines, alluding to the English established 
at Hudson's Bay. Proceeding to the imrtage lie- 
tween the Fox and Wisconsin, tliirteen llurons 
were met, who were bitterly opposed to the es- 
tablisliment of a post near the Siuux. After the 

Mississippi was reached, a party of Winnebagoes 
was employed to notify the tribes of Northern 
Iowa tliat the French had ascended the river, 
and wished to meet them. It was further agreed 
tliat prairie fires would be kindled from time to 
time, so that the Indians could follow the French. 

After entering Lake Pepin, n^ar its mouth, on 
the east side, Perrot found a place suitable for a 
post, where there was wood. The stockade was 
built at the foot of a bluff beyond which was a 
large prairie. La Potherie makes this statement, 
which is repeated by Penicaut, who writes of 
Lake Pepin : " To the right and left of its shores 
there are also prairies. In that on the right on 
the bank of the lake, there is a fort, which was 
built by Nicholas Perrot, whose name it yet [1700] 

Soon after he was established, it was announced 
that a band of Aiouez [loways] was encamped 
above, and on the way to visit the post. The 
French ascended in canoes to meet them, but as 
they drew nigh, the Indian women ran up the 
bluffs, and hid in the woods ; but twenty of the 
braves mustered courage to advance and greet 
Pen'ot, and bore him to the chiefs lodge. The 
chief, bending over Perrot, began to weep, and 
allowed the moisture to fall upon his visitor. 
After he had exhausted himself, the principal 
men of the party repeated the slabbering process. 
Then buffalo tongues were boiled in an eartlien 
pot, and after being cut into small pieces, the 
chief took a piece, and, as a mark of respect, 
placed it in Perrot's mouth. 

During the winter of 16H4-8.5, the French tra- 
ded in Minnesota. 

At the end of the beaver hunt, the Ayoes 
[loways] came to the post, but Perrot was absent 
visiting the Nadouaissionx. and they sent a cliief 
to notify him of their arrival. Four Illinois met 
hiqi on the way, and were anxious for the return 
of four children held by the Freucli. When the 



Sioux, who were at war with the IlHiiois. per- 
ceived them, they wished to seize their canoes. 
but the French voyageurs who were guarding 
tliem. pushed into the middle of the river, and 
tlie Frencli at the coming to tlieir assistance, 
a reconciliation was effected, and four of the 
Sioux took the Illinois upon their shouldere, and 
bore them U) the shore. 

An order having been received from L)enon- 
ville, Governor of Canada, to bring the ^liamis, 
and other tribes, to the rendezvous at Xiagara, 
to go on an expedition against the Senecas, Per- 
rot entrusting the ijost at Lake Pepin to a few 
Frenchmen, visited the Miamis, who were dwel- 
ling below on the Mississippi, and with no guide 
but Indian camp lires, went sixty miles iiito the 
country beyond the river. 

Upon his return, he perceivea a great smoke, 
and at first thought that it was a war party pro- 
ceeding to the Sioux country. Fortunately he 
met a Maskouten chief, who had been at the post 
to see him, and he gave the intelligence, that the 
Outagamies [Foxes], Kikapous [Kickapoos]. and 
Maseoutechs [Maskoutens]. and others, from the 
region of Green Bay, had determined to pillage 
the post, kill the French, and then go to war 
against the Sioux. Hurrying on, be reached tlie 
fort, and learned that on that very day three 
spies had been there and seen that there were 
only six Frenchmen in charge. 

The next day two more spies appeared, but 
Perrot had taken the precaution to put loaded 
guns at the door of each hut, and caused his men 
frequently to change their clothes. To the query, 
•• How many French were tliereV" the reply was 
given, " Forty, and that more were daily expected, 
who had been on a buffalo hunt, and that the 
guns were well loaded and knives well sharpened." 
They w^ere then told to go back to their camp 
and bring a chief of each nation represented, and 
that if Indians, in large numbers, came near, they 
would be fired at. In accordance with this mes- 
sage six chiefs presented themselves, After their 
bows and arrows were taken away they were in- 
vited to Perrot "s cabin, who gave something to 
eat and tobacco to smoke. Looking at Perrot "s 
loaded guns they asked, '■ If he was afraid of his 
children':"' He replied, he was not. They con- 
tinued, " You are displeased." He answered, 
" 1 have good reason to be. The Spirit has warned 

me of your designs; you will take my things 
away and put me in the kettle, and proceed 
against the Nadouaissioux, The Spirit told me 
to be on my guard, and he would help me." At 
this they were astonished, and confessed that an 
attack was meditated. That night the chiefs 
slept in the stockade, and early the next morn- 
ing a part of the hostOe force was encamped in 
the vicinity, and wished to trade. Perrot had 
now only a force of fifteen men, and seizing the 
chiefs, he told llicm he would break their heads 
if they did not disperse the Indians. One of the 
chiefs tlien stood up on the gate of the fort and 
said to the warriors, " Do not advance, young 
men. or you are dead. The Spirit has warned 
Jletaminens [PerrotJ of your designs." They fol- 
lowed the advice, and afterwards Perrot present- 
ed them with two guns, two kettles, and some 
tobacco, to close the door of war against the Na- 
douaissioux. and the chiefs were all permitted to 
make a brief visit to the post. 

Returning to Green Bay in 1686, he passed much 
time in collecting allies for the expedition agahist 
the Iroquois in Xew York. During this year he 
gave to the Jesuit chapel at Depere, five miles 
above tireen Bay. a church utensil of silver, fif- 
teen niches high, still in existence. The stand- 
ard, nine inches in height, supports a radiated 
circlet closed with glass on both sides and sur- 
mounted with a cross. This vessel, weighing 
about twenty ounces, was intended to show the 
consecrated wafer of the mass, and is called a 
soleil, monstrance, or ostensorium. 

Around the oval base of the rim is the follow- 
ing inscription: 

0°' *A 









.5. , (gV- 

''ff n K3 aai-'^'^'^ 



In 1802 some workmen in digging at Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, on the old Langlade estate dia- 



covered tliis relic, which is now kept in the vault 
of the Roman Catholic bishop of that diocese. 

Dtiriii!; the spiiiiR of KiST Pt'not,"with I)t' Lu- 
th and Tonty, was with the Indian jillies and the 
French in the expedition against the Senecas of 
the (ienesspe Valley in New Vork. 

Tlie next year Uenonville.Ciovernorof Canada, 
aRain sent Perrot with forty Frenchmen to the 
Sioux who, says Potherie, " were ver\' distant, 
and who would not trade with us as easily as 
the otlier tribes, the Outaganiis [Foxes] having 
boasted of having cut off the passage thereto."' 

AVhen Perrot arrived at Mackinaw, the tribes 
of that region were much excited at tlie hostility 
of llie Outagamis [Foxes] toward tlie Sautenrs 
[Chippeways]. As soon as Perrot and his party 
reached Green Bay a deputation of the Foxes 
souglit an interview. He told them that he had 
nothing to do with this quarrel with tlie Chippe- 
ways. Injustilication, they said that a party of 
their young men, in gomg to war against the 
Xadouaissidux, had found a young man and three 
Chippeway girls. 

Perrot was silent, and continued his journey 
towards the Nadouaissioux. Soon he was met by 
five chiefs of the Foxes in a canoe, who begged 
him to go to their village. Perrot consented, and 
when he went into a chiefs lodge they placed be- 
fore him broiled venison, and raw meat for the 
rest of the French. He refused to eat because, 
said he, " that meat did not give him any spirit, 
but he would take some when the Outagamis 
[Foxes] were more reasonable." He then eluded 
them for not having g(jne, as requested by the 
Governor of Canada, to the Detroit of Lake 
Erie, and during the absence of the French light- 
ing with tlie Cliiiipeways. Having ordered them 
to go on their beaver hunt and only fight against 
the Iroquois, he left a few Frenchmen to trade 
and proceeded on his journey to the Sioux coun- 
try. Arriving at the jiortage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers they were impeded by ice, but 
with the aid of some Pottawattomies they trans- 
ported their goods to the "Wisconsin, which they 
found no longer frozen. The Chippeways were 
hiformed that their daughters had been taken 
from the Foxes, and a deputation came to take 
them back.liut being attacked by the Foxes, who 
did not know their errand, they lied without se- 
curing tlie three girls. Perrot then ascended the 

Mississippi to the post which in 1684 he had 
erected, just above the mouth, and on the east 
side of Lake Pepin. 

As soon as the rivers were navigable, the .Na- 
douaissioux came dovvii and escorted Peirol to 
one of their villages, where he was welcomed 
with much enthusiasni. He was carried upon a 
beaver robe, followed by a long line of warriors, 
each bearing a pipe, and singing. After taking 
him around the village, he wasb(U-ne to the chief's 
lodge, when several came in to weep over his head, 
with the Scime tenderness that the Ayoes (loways) 
did, when Perrot several years before arrived at 
Lake Pepin. " These weepings," says an old 
chronicler •■ do not weaken their souls. They are 
very good warriors, and reported tlie bravest in 
that region. They are at war with all the tribes 
at present except the Saulleiirs [Chippeways] and 
Ayoes [loways], and even with these they have 
quarrels. At the break of day the Nadouaissioux 
bathe, even to the youngest. They have very line 
forms, but the women are not comely, and they 
look upon them as slaves. They are jealous and 
suspicious about them, and they are the cause 
of quarrels and blood-shedding. 

" The Sioux are very dextrous with their ca- 
noes, and they fight unto death if surrounded, 
Their country is full of swamps, which shelter 
them in summer from being molested. One must 
be a Nadouaissioux, to find the way to their vil- 

While Perrot was absent in Xew York, fight- 
ing the Senecas, a Sioux chief knowing that few 
Frenchmen were left at Lake Pepin, came with 
one liundred warriors, and endeavored to pillage 
it. Of this complaint was made, and the guilty 
leader was near being put to death by his associ- 
ates. Amicable relations having been formed, 
preparations were made by Perrot to return to 
his post. As they were going away, one of the 
Frenchmen complained that a box of his goods 
had been stolen. Perrot ordered a voyageur to 
bring a cup of water, and into it he poured some 
brandy. He then addressed the Indians ;uid toUl 
them he would dry up their marshes if the goods 
were not restored ; and then he set on lire the 
brandy in the cup. The savages were astonished 
and terrified, and supposed that lie possessed su- 
pernatural powers ; and in a little '-''He the goods 

explohers and piokeehs of Minnesota. 

were foxind and restored to tlie nwiior. and tlip 
French descended to their stockade. 

The Foxes, while Perrot was in tlie Sioux 
country, changed llieir village, and settled on the 
Mississippi, Coming up to visit Perrot, they 
asked him to friendly relations hetween 
them and the Sioux. At the lime sonic Sioux 
were at the post trading furs, and at (irst the\' 
supposed tlie French were plotting with the 
Foxes. Perrot, however, eased them hy present- 
ing the calumet and saying that the French con- 
sidered the Outagamis [Foxes] as brothers, and 
then adding: '-Smoke in my pipe: this is the 
manner with which Onontio fGovenior of Can- 
ada] feeds his children."" The Sioux replied that 
they wished the Foxes to smoke flrst. This was 
reluctantly done, and the Sioux smoked, lint 
■y\ould not conclude a definite peace until they 
consulted their chiefs. This was not concluded, 
because Perrot, before the chiefs came down, 
received orders to return to Canada. 

About this time, in the presence of Father Jo- 
seph James Marest, a Jesuit missionary, Boisguil- 
lot, a trader on the Wisconsin and Mississippi, Le 
Sueur, who afterward built a post below the Saint 
Croix River, about nine miles from Hastmgs. the 
following document was prepared: 

" Xicholas Perrot, commanding for the King at 
the post of the Xadouessioux, commissioned by 
the Marquis Denonville, Governor and Lieuten- 
ant Governor of all New France, to manage the 
interests of commerce among all the Indian tribes 
and people of the Bay des Puants [Green Bay], 
Nadouessioux, Mascoutens, and other western na- 
tions of the Upper Mississippi, and to take pos- 
session in the King's name of all the places where 
he has heretofore been and whillier he vri]] go: 

" We this day, the eighth of May, one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-nine, do, in the presence 
of the Reverend Father Marest, of the Society of 
Jesus, Missionary among the Nadouessioux, of 
Monsieur de Boisguillot, commanding the French 
in the neighborhood of the Ouiskonche. on the 
Mississippi, Augustin Legardeur, Esquire, Sieur 
de Caumont, and of Messieurs Le Sueur, Hebert, 
Lemire and Blein. 

" Declare to all whom it may concern, that, be- 
ing come from the Bay des Puants, and to the 
Lake of the Ouiskonches, we did transport our- 
selves to the country of the Nadouessioux, on the 

border of the river St. Croix, and at the mouth 
of the river St. Pierre, on the bank of which were 
the Mantantans. and further tip to the interior, 
as far as the Menchokatonx [Med-ay-wah-kawn- 
twawn], with whom dwell the majority of the 
Songeskitons [Se-see-twawnsJ and other Xadou- 
essioux who are to the northwest of the Missis- 
siiqii. to take iiossession, for and in the name of 
the King, of the countries and rivers inhabited by 
the said tribes, and of which they are proprietors. 
The present act done in our presence, signed with 
our hand, and subscribed,"' 

The three Chippeway girls of whom mention 
has been made were still with the Foxes, and 
Perrot took them with liim to JMacldnaw, upon 
his return to Canada. 

While there, the Ottawas held some prisoners 
upon an island not far from the mainland. The 
Jesuit Fathers went over and tried to save the 
captives from harsh treatment, but were unsuc- 
cessful. The canoes appeared at length near each 
other, one man paddling in each, while the war- 
riors were answering the shouts of the prisoners, 
who each held a white stick in his hand. As 
they neared the shore the chief of the party made 
a speech to the Indians who lived on the shore, 
and giving a history of the campaign, told them 
that they were masters of the prisoners. The 
wiiniors then came on land, and. according to 
custom, abandoned tlie spoils. An old man then 
ordered nine men to conduct the prisoners to a 
separate place. The women and the young men 
formed a line with big sticks. The yoimg pris- 
oners soon found their feet, but the old men were 
so badly used they spat blood, and they were con- 
demned to be burned at the Mamilinn. 

The Jesuit Fathers and the Fiench officers 
were much embarrassed, and feared that the Iro- 
quois would complain of the little care which had 
been used to jirevent cruelty, 

Perrot, in this emergency, walked to the place 
where the prisoners were singing the death dirge, 
in expectation of being burned, and told them to 
sit down and be silent. A few Ottaviwaws rudely 
told them to sing on, but Perrot forbade. He 
then went back to the Council, where the old men 
had rendered judgment, and ordered one prisoner 
to be bunied at Mackinaw, one at Sault St. Marie 
and another at Green Bay. Undaunted he spoke 
as follows : " I come to cut the strings of the 



dogs. I will not suffer them to be eaten. I have 
pity on tlipiii, since my Father, Onontio, has com- 
manih'il nie. You Outaouaks [OtlawawsJ are 
like tame bears, who will not recognize them who 
has brought lliem up. You have forgotten Onon- 
tio "s protection. When he asks your obedience, 
you want to rule over him, and eat the llesh of 
those children he does not wish to give to you. 
Take care, that, if oyu swallow them, Onontio 
will tear them with violence from between your 
teeth. 1 si)eak as a brother, and I lliiuk I am 
showing pity to your children, by cutting the 
bonds of your prisoners." 

His boldness had the desired effect. The pris- 
oners were released, and two of them were sent 
with him to ^Montreal, to be returned to the Iro- 

On the 22nd of May, 1690, with one hundred 
and forty-three voyageurs and six In<lians, Per- 
rot left Montreal as an escort of Sieur de Lou- 
vigny La Porte, a half-pay captain, appointed to 
succeed l-)urantaye at Mackinaw, by Frontenac, 
the new Governor of Canada, wlio in October of 
the previous year had arrived, to take the place 
of Denonville. 

Perrot, as he approached Mackinaw, went in 
advance to notify the French of the conung of 
the commander of the post. As he came in sight 
of the settlement, he hoisted the white flag with 
the lletir de lis and the voyageurs shouted, "Long 
live the king! " Louvigny soon appeared and was 
received by one hundred " coureur des bois " 
under arms. 

From Mackinaw, Perrot proceeded to Green 
Bay, and a party of Miamis there begged him to 
make a trading establishment oil the ^^lississippi 
towards the Ouiskonsiug (Wisconsin.) The chief 
made him a present of a piece of lead from a 
mine which he had found in a small stream which 
flows into the Mississippi. Perrot promised to 
visit him within twenty days, and the chief then 
returned to his village below the d'Ouiskonche 
(iWsronsin) River. 

Having at length reached his post on Lake 

Pepin, he was informed that tlie Sioux were 

forming a large war party against the Outaga- 

mis (Foxes) and otlier allies of tlie French. He 

gave notice of his arrival to a party of aljout four 

hundred Sioux who were on the Mississippi. 

j They arrested the massengers and came to the 
post for the purpose of plunder. Perrot asked 
them why they acted in this manner, and said 
that tlie Foxes, Miamis, Kickapoos, Illinois, and 
Maskoutens had united in a war party against 
them, but that he had persuaded them to give it 
up, an<l now he wished them to return to their 
families and to their beaver. The Sioux declared 
that they had started on the war-patli, and that 
they were ready to die. After they had traded 
their furs, they sent for Perrot to come to their 
camp, and begged that ho would not hinder them 
from se:ircliiiig for their foes. Perrot tried to dis- 
suade them, but they insisted that the Spirit had 
given them men to eat, at three days' journey 
from the post Then more powerful influences 
were used. After giving them two kettles and 
some r ;erchandise, Poerrt spoke thus: " I love 
your Ufe, and I am sure you will be defeated. 
Your Evil Spirit has deceived you. If you kill 
the Outagamis, or their allies, you must strike me 
hrst; if you kill them, you kill me just the same, 
for I hold them under one wing and you under 
the other." After this he extended tlie calumet, 
which they at first refused; but at length a chief 
said he was right, and, making invocations to the 
sun, wished Perrot to take him back to his arms. 
This was granted, on condition that he would 
give up his weapons of war. The chief then tied 
them to a pole in the centre of the fort, turning 
them toward the sun. He then persuaded the 
other chiefs to give up the expedition, and. send- 
ing for Perrot, he placed the calumet before him, 
one end in the earth aud the other on a small 
forked twig to hold it firm. Then he took from 
liis own sack a pair of his cleanest moccasins, and 
taking olf Perrofs shoes, put on these. After ho 
had made him eat, presenting the calumet, he 
said: " We listen to you now. Do for us as you 
do for our enemies, and prevent them from kill- 
ing us, and we will separate for the beaver hunt. 
The sun is the witness of our obedience." 

After this, Perrot descended the Mississippi 
and revealed to the Maskoutens, who had come to 
meet him, how he had pacified the Sionx. He, 
about this period, in accordance w'ith his prom- 
ise, visited the lead mines. He found the ore 
abundant " but the lead hard to work because it 
lay between rocks which required blowing up. 
It had very little dross and was easily melted." 



Penicaiit, Mho ascended the Mississippi in 1700, 
vrrote tliat twenty leagues below the AVisconsin, 
on both sides of the ilissis.sippi, were mines of 
lead called " ><icolas Peirot's." Early French 
maps indicate as the locality of lead mines the 
site of modern towns, Galena, in Illinois, and Du- 
buque, in Iowa. 

In August, 1093, about two hundred French- 
men from ilackinaw, with delegates from the 
tribes of the AV'est, arrived at Montreal to at- 
tend a grand coimcil called by Governor Fronte- 
nac, and among these was Perrot. 

On the first Sunday in September the governor 

gave the Indians a great feast, after which they 
and the ti-aders began to retimr to the wilder- 
ness. Perrot was ordered by Frontenac to es- 
tablish a new post for the IVIiamis in JSIichigan, 
ill the neighborhood of the Kalamazoo River. 

Two years later he is present again, in August, 
at a council in Montreal, then returned to tlie 
West, and in 1699 is recalled from Green Bay. 
In 1701 he was at Montreal acting as interpreter, 
and appears to have died before 1718: his wife 
was ^Madeline Raclos, and his residence was in 
the Seigiieury of Becancourt, not far from Three 
Rivers, on the St. Lawrence. 





Li HoulAn, A ftiwcon by Birth.— Early Life— Description or Vox and Wisconsin 
Rivers —Indian Fcnst. — Alleged Ascent of Long River.— Bobo Exposes the 
Deception.- Route to the Pacitic. 

Tlie " Travels'' of Baron La Hontan appeared 
in A. D. 1703, both at London and at IlaRue, and 
were as saleable and readable as those of Hennepin, 
which were on the counters of booksellers at the 
same time. 

La Hontan, a Gascon by birtli. and in style of 
writing, when about seventeen years of age, ar- 
rived in Canada, in 1683, as a private soldier, and 
was with (tOV. De la Barre in his expedition of 
1684, toward Xiagara. and was also in the battle 
near Rochester, New York, in 16K7, at which Hu 
Luth and Perrot, explorers of Minnesota, were 

In 1688 he appears to have been sent to Fort 
St. Joseph, which was bmlt by Du Luth, on the 
St. Clare River, near the site of Fort Gratiot, 
^Michigan. It is possible that he may have accom- 
panied Perrot to Lake Pepin, who came about 
this time to reoccupy his old post. 

From the following extracts it will be seen that 
his style is graphic, and that he probably had been 
in 1688 in the valley of the Wisconsin. At Mack- 
inaw, after his return from his pretended voyage 
of the Long River, he writes: 

" I left here on the ;i4th September, witli my 
men and five Outaouas, good hunters, whciin 1 
have before mentioned to you as having been of 
good service to me. All my brave men being 
provided with good canoes, filled with provisions 
and ammunition, together with goods for the In- 
dian trade, I took advantage of a north wind, and 
in three days entered the Ray of the Pouteouata- 
mis, distant from here about forty leagues. The 
entrance to the bay is full of islands. It is ten 
leagues wi<le and twenty-five in Icngtii. 

•• On the 2iilh we entered a river. whi('h is quite 
deep, whose waters are so affected by the lake 
that they often rise and fall three feet in twelve 

hours. This is an observation tliat I made dur- 
ing these three or four days that I passed here. 
Tiie Sakis, the Poutouatamis, and a few of the 
ilalominis have their villages on the border of this 
river, and the .Jesuits have a house there. In the 
place there is carried on (piite a commerce in furs 
and Indian com, which tlic Indians traffic with 
the ' coureurs des bois' that go and come, for it is 
their nearest and most convenient passage to the 

" The lands here are very fertile, and produce, 
almost without culture, the wheat of our Europe, 
peas, beans, and any quantity of fruit unknown 
in France. 

" The moment I landed, the warriors of three 
nations came by turns to my cabin to entertain 
me with the pipe and chief dcance ; the first in 
proof of peace and friendship, the second to indi- 
cate their esteem and consideration for me. In 
return, I gave them several yards of tobacco, and 
beads, with which they trimmed their capots. The 
next morning, I was asked as a guest, to one of 
the feasts of this n.ation, and after having sent my 
dishes, which is the custom, 1 went towards noon. 
They began to compliment me of my arrival, and 
after hearing them, they all, one after the other, 
liegan to sing and dance, in a manner that I will 
detail to you when I have more leisure. These 
songs and dances lasted two hours, and were sea- 
soned with whoops of joy, and quibbles that they 
have woven into their ridiculous nuisitpie. Then 
the captives waited upon us. The whole troop 
were seated in the Orieutiil custom. Each one 
had his portion before him, like our monks in 
their refectories. They commenced by placing 
four dishes before me. The first ((insisted of two 
white fish simply boiled in water. The second 
was chopped meats with the boiled tongue of a 
bear ; the third a beaver's tail, all roasted. They 
made me drmk also of a syiiip, mixed with water, 
made out of the maple tree. The feast laslfed two 


hours, after which, I requested a chief of the 
nation to sing for me ; for it is the custom, when 
we have business with tliem, to employ an inferior 
for self in all the ceremonies tlicy i)erf(>rin. I 
gave him .several pieces of tobacco, to oblige him 
to keep the party till dark. The next day and the 
day following, I attended the feasts of the other 
nations, where I observed the same formalities." 

lie alleges that, on the 23d of October, he 
reached the Mississippi River, and, ascending, on 
the 3d of Xovember he entered into a river, a 
tributary from the west, that was almost without 
a current, and at its mouth filled with nishes. 
He then describes a journey of five hundred miles 
lip this stream. He declares he foiuul upon its 
banks three great nations, the Eokoros, Essa- 
napes, and Gnacsitares, and because he ascended 
it for sixty days, he named it Long River. 

For years his wondrous story was believed, and 
geographers hastened to trace it upon their maps. 
But in time the voyage up the Long River was 
discovered to be a fabrication. There is extant 
a letter of Bobe. a Priest of the Congregation of 
the Mission, dated Versailles, March lo, 1716, and 
addressed to De L'Isle, the geographer of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris, which exposes the 

He writes: "It seems to me that you might 
give the name of Bourbouia to these vast coun- 
tries which are between the ^lissouri, ^lississippi, 
and the Western Ocean. "Would it not be well to 
efface that great river which La Hontan says he 

'■ All the Canadians, and even the Governor 
General, have told me that this river is unknown. 
If it existed, the French, who are on the Illinois. 
and at Ouabache, would know of it. The last 
volume of the ' Lettres Ediliantes' of the Jesuits, 
in which there is a very fine relation of the Illinois 
Country, does not speak of it, any more than the 
letters which I received this year, which tell won- 
ders of the beauty and goodness of the coiuitry. 
They send me some quite pretty w'ork, made by 
the wife of one of the principal chiefs. 

" They tell me, that among tlie Scioux, of the 
Mississippi, there are always l-'renchmen trading: 
that the course of the Mississippi is from north 
to west, and from west to south; that it is known 
that toward the source of the Mississipiii there is 
a river in the higldands that leads to the western 

ocean; that the Indians say that they have seen 
bearded men with caps, who gather gold-dust ou 
the seashore, but that it is very far from this 
country, and that the\' pass through many nations 
Tuiknown to the French. 

•• I have a memoir of La Motte Cadillac, form- 
erly tiovernor of Missilimackinack, who says that 
if St. Peters [Minnesota] River is ascended to its 
source they will, according to all appearance, find 
in the highland another river leading to the West- 
em Ocean. 

'• For the last two years I have tormented 
exceedingly the Governor-General, M. Raudot, 
and M. Duche, to move them to discover tliia 
ocean. If I succeed, as I hope, we shall hear 
tidings before three years, and I shall have the 
pleasure aud the consolation of having rendered 
a good service to Geography, to Religion and to 
the .Suite." 

Charlevoix, in his History of New France, al- 
ludhig to La Ilontan's voyage, writes: " The 
voyage up the Long River is as fabulous as the 
Island of Barrataria, of which Sancho I'anza was 
governor. Nevertheless, in France and else- 
where, most people have received these memoire 
as the fruits of the travels of a gentleman who 
wrote badly, although quite lightly, and who had 
no religion, but who described pretty sincerely 
what he had seen. The consequence is that the 
compilers of historical and geographical diction- 
aries have almost always followed and cited them 
in preference to more faithful records," 

Even in modem times, Nicollet, employed by 
the United States to explore the Upper ilississ- 
ippi, has the following in his report: 

"Having procured a copy of La Ilontan's 
book, in which there is a roughly made map of 
his Long Ri\'er, I was struck with the resem- 
blance of its course as laid down with that of 
Cannon River, which I had previously sketched 
in my own field-book. I soon convinced myself 
that the principal statements of the Baron in ref- 
erence to the country and the few details he gives 
of the physical character of the the river, coia- 
cide remarkably with what I had laid down as 
belonging to Cannon River. Tlien the lakes and 
swamps coiTesponded; traces of Indian villages 
mentioned by him might be found by a growth 
of wild grass that propagates itself aromid all old 
Indian settlements." 




US,.fi.rTi5il! Uko P.'pln.-Stalinnr.i a. U Pomto.-Est.Mishc « Post on an 
IsUncl Above Ukc IV|.in.— Isloiid Dracrih<>d by Prnic«iit.— first S.ou« Chief 
>t Bonlitil.-fljibw.y Chiefs' Si.eoches.-Speech of Sioux Chief.-Teeoskoh- 
liiy-B De.lh.-Le Sueur Ooes to Frai.ce.-P«l5 West of Mackinaw Abanrtoned 
_Lo Sueur's License Revoked.-Scconil Visit to France.-Arrives in Gulf of 
Mexico »ith I>-ll)erville.-*i> the Mississippi.-Uad Mines.-Canadians 
neeinc from the S.oux.-At the Mouth of the Wisconsin-Sioux Robbers.^ Elk 
Huntme.- IJ>ke Pepin Described.-Rattlesnakes.-Lo Place Killad, -SI. Croix 
Biter Named After a Fre„chni»n.-I,e Sueur Reaches St. Pierre, now Minne- 
sota River.-Enlers Mankahto. or Blue Earth, Biver.-Sioux of the Plains.— 
Port L'Uuillier Completed.— Conferences with Sioux Bands — AssinaV.ines a 
Separated Sioux Band.-An Indian Feast. -Names of the Sioux Bands.-Char- 
levoix-s Account.-Lo Sueur Goes with D'lbervine to Fnmce.-DIbcrvine's 
Memorial. -Early Census o( Indian Tribes. -Penicaufs Account of Fort L'Huil 
lier.-U Sueur's Departure fr.ui, the Fort.-DEvaqe Left in Charee.-Retum' 
to Mobile. -Jucbereau »t Mouth of Wisconsin. -Bonder a Montreal Merchant — 
Sioux Attack Miamis.— Boudor Bobbed by the Sioux. 

Le Sueur was a native of Canatla, and a rela- 
tive of D"Iberville, the early Governor of Louis- 
iana. He came to Lake Pepin in 1GS3, with 
Nicholas I'errot. and his name also appears at- 
tached to the document prepared in ;May, IBS!), 
after Perrot had re-occupied his post just above 
the entrance of the lake, on the east side. 

In 1692, he was sent by Governor Frontenac of 
Canada, to La Pointe. on Lake Superior, and in a 
dispatch of H)9S, to the French Government, is 
the following : " Le Sueur, another voyageur, is 
to remain at Chagouamagon [La Pointe] to en- 
deavor to maintain the peace lately concluded be- 
tween the Saulteurs [Chippeways] and Sioux. 
Tliis is of the greatest consequence, as it is now 
the sole pass by which access can be liad to the 
latter nation, whose trade is very profitable ; the 
coiiiitry to the south being occupied by the Foxes 
and Maskoutens. who several times plundered the 
French, on the groinid they were carrying ammu- 
nition to the Sioux, their ancient enemies." 

Entering the Sioux country in H)94. he estab- 
lished a post upon a prairie island in the ilissis- 
sippi. about nine miles below the present town of 
Hastings, according to r.cllin and otlicrs. Peni- 
caut, who accompanied liiiii in tlie exploration of 
the Minnesota, writes, " At the extremity of tlie 
lake [Pcpiul you come to the Isle Pelee. so called 
because there are no trees on it. It is on this island 

that the French from Canada established their 
fort and storehouse, and they also winter here, 
because game is very abundant. In the month of 
September they bring tlieir store of meat, obtained 
by hunting, and after having skinned and cleaned 
it, hang it upon a crib of raised scaffolding, in 
order that the extreme cold, which lasts from 
September to March, may preserve it from spoil- 
ing. During the whole winter they do not go out 
except for water, when they have to break the ice 
every day, and the abin is generally built upon 
the bank, so as not to have far to go. Vihnx 
spring arrives, the savages come to the island, 
bringing their merchandize." 

On the fifteenth of July. 1695, Le Sueur arrived 
at Montreal wilii a party of Ojibways, and the 
first Bakotah hruve that had ever visited Canada. 

The Indians were much impressed with the 
power of France by tlie manliiug of a delaih- 
ment of seven hundred picked men, under Cliev- 
alier Cresafi, who were on their way to La Chine. 

On the eighteenth, Frontenac, in the presence 
of Callieres and other persons of distinction, gave 
them an audience. 

The first speaker was the chief of the Ojibway 
band at La Pointe, Shingowahbay, who said: 

" That he was come to pay his respects to Onon- 
tio [the title given the Governor of Canada] in the 
name of the young warriors of Point Chagouami- 
gon, and to thank him for liaving given them 
some Frenchmen to dwell with thern; to testify 
their sorrow for one Jobin, a Frencliman. who 
was killed at a feast, accidentally, and nut ma- 
liciously. We come to ask a favor of you, which 
is to let us act. We are allies of the Sciou. Some 
Outagamies, or Mascoutins, have been killed. 
The Scion came to mourn with us. Let us act, 
Father; let us take revenge. 

'■Le Sueur alone, wlio is acfiuaiiited witli tlio 
language of the one and tlie other, can serve us. 
We ask that he return with us." 



Another speaker of the Ojibways was Le Bro- 

Teeoskahtay, the Dahkotah chief, before he 
spoke, spread out a beaver robe, and, layiug an- 
other with a tobacco pouch and otter skm, began 
to weep bitterly. After drying his tears, he said: 

" All of the nations had a father, who afforded 
them protection; all of them have iron. But he 
was a bastard m quest of a father; he was come 
to see him, iuid hopes that he will take pity on 

He then jilaced upon the beaver robe twentj'- 
two arrow's, at each arrow naming a Dahkotah 
\TJlage that desired Frontenac's protection. Re- 
suming his speech, he remarked: 

" It is not on account of what I bring that I 
hope him who rules the earth will have pity on 
me. I learned from the Sauteurs that he wanted 
nothing; that he was the Master of the Iron; that 
he had a big heart, into which he could receive 
aU the nations. This has induced me to abandon 
my people and come to seek his protection, and 
to beseech bim to receive me among the number 
of his children. Take corn-age. Great Captain, 
and reject me not; despise me not. though I ap- 
pear poor in your eyes. All the nations here 
present know that I am rich, and the little they 
offer here is taken from my lands."' 

Coimt Frontenac in reply told the chief that he 
would receive the Dahkotahs as his children, on 
condition that they would be obedient, and that 
he would send back Le Sueur with him. 

Teeoskahtay, taking hold of the governor's 
knees, wept, and said: ''Take pity on lis; we 
are well aware that we are not able to speak, be- 
ing children; but Le Sueur, who understands oiu: 
language, and has seen all our villages, will next 
year mform you what will have been achieved by 
the Sioux nations represented by those arrows be- 
fore you." 

Having finished, a Dahkotah woman, the wife 
of a great chief whom Le Sueur had piu'c/hased 
from captivity at Mackinaw, approached those in 
authority, and, with downcast eyes, embraced 
their knees, weepmg and saying: 

" I thaiik thee. Father; it is by thy means I 
have been Uberated, and am no longer captive."" 

Then Teeoskahtay resmned: 

" I speak like a man penetrated with joy. The 
Great Captain; he who is the Master of Iron, as- 

sures me of his protection, and I promise him that 
if he condescends to restore my children, now 
prisoners among the Fo.xes. Ottawas and Ilurons, 
I will return hither, and bring with me the twen- 
ty-two Alllages whom he has just restored to life 
by promising to send them Iron." 

On the 14th of August, tvvo weeks after the 
Ojibway cliief left for his home on Lake Superior, 
Xicholas Perrot arrived with a deputation of 
Sauks, Foxes, Menomonees, Miamis of Maramek 
and Pottowatomies. 

Two days after, they had a council with the 
governor, who thus spoke to a Fox brave: 

" I see that you are a young man; your nation 
has quite turned away from my wishes; it has 
pillaged some of my yoiuig men, whom it has 
treated as slaves. I know that your father, who 
loved the French, had no hand in the indignity. 
You only imitate the example of your father 
who had sense, when you do not co-operate 
with those of your tribe who are wishing to go 
over to my enemies, after they grossly insidted 
me and defeated the Sioux, whom I now consider 
my son. I pity the Sioux; I pity the dead whose 
loss I deplore. Perrot goes up there, and he will 
speak to your nation from me for the release of 
their prisoners; let them attend to him."' 

Teeoshkahtay never returned to his native land. 
AVhile in ilontreal he was taken sick, and in 
tliirty-three days he ceased to breathe; and. ful- 
lowed by white men, his body was interred in the 
white man"s grave. 

Le Sueur instead of going back to Minnesota 
that year, as was expected, went to France and 
received a license, m 1697, to open certain mines 
supposed to exist in Minnesota. The ship ui 
which he was returnmg was captiu'ed by the Eng- 
lish, and he was taken to England. After his 
release he went back to France, and, in 1698, ob- 
tained a new commission for mining. 

"While Le Sueur was in Europe, the Dahkotas 
waged war against the Foxes and iliamis. In 
retaliation, the latter raised a war party and en- 
tered the land of the Dahkotahs. Finding their 
foes intrenched, and assisted by " coureurs des 
bois," they were indignant; and on their retimi 
they had a skirmish with some Frenchmen, who 
were carrying goods to the Dahkotahs. 

Sliortly after, they met Perrot, and were about 
to burn him to death, when prevented by some 


friendly Foxes. The Miamis, after tliis, were 
disposed to be friendly to the Iroquois. In 1G1)6, 
the year previous, the authorities at Quebec de- 
cided that it was expedient to al)an(lon all the 
posts west of Mackinaw, and withdraw the French 
from Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

Tlie voyageurs were not disposed to leave the 
country, and the governor wrote to Pontehar- 
train for instructions, in October, 1698; In his 
dispatch he remarks: 

" In this conjuncture, and under all these cir- 
cumstances, we consider it our duty to postpone, 
until new instnictions from the court, the execu- 
tion of Sieur Le Sueur's enterprise for the mines, 
though the promise hail already l)een given him 
to send two canoes in advance to ilissilimackinac. 
for tlie piupose of purchasing there some pro- 
visions and other necessaries for his voyage, and 
that he would be permitted to go and join them 
early in the spring with the rest of his hands. 
What led us to adopt this resolution has been, 
that the French who remained to trade off with 
the Five Xations the remainder of their merch- 
andise, might, on seeing entirely new comers 
arriving there, consider themselves entitled to 
dispense with coming down, and perhaps adopt 
the resolution to settle there; whilst, seeing no 
arrival there, with peimission to do what is for- 
bidden, the reflection they will be able to make 
during the winter, and the apprehension of being 
guilty of crime, may obUge them to return in the 

" This would be very desirable, in consequence 
of the great difTiculty there will be in constraining 
them to it. sliould they be inclined to lift the mask 
altogether and become buccaneers; or should 
Sieur Le Sueur, as he easily could do, furnish 
them with goods for their beaver and smaller 
peltry, wldch he miglit send down by the retiu'n of 
other Frenchmen, whose sole desire is to obey, and 
who have remained only because of the impossi- 
bility of getting their effects dowii. This would 
rather induce those who woidd contiiuie to lead a 
vagabond life to remain there, as the goods they 
would receive from Le Sueur's people would afford 
them tilt! means of doing so."' 

In reply to this commimication, Loius XI \ . 
answered that — 

'•His majesty has approved that tlie late Sieur 
de Froutenac and De Champigny suspended the 

execution of the license grantecl to tlie man named 
Le Sueur to proceed, with lifty men, to explore 
some mines on the banks of the Mississippi, lie 
lias njvoked said license, and desires that the said 
Le Sueur, or any other person, be prevented from 
leaving the colony on pretence of going in search 
of mines, without his majesty's express permis- 

Le Sueur, undaunted by these drawbacks to the 
prosecution of a favorite project, ag;iin visited 

Fortunately for Le Sueur, D'lherville, who was 
a friend, and closely connected liy marriage, was 
appointed governor of the new territory of Louis- 
iana. In the month of December he arrived from 
France, with thirty workmen, to proceed to the 
supposed mines in Minnesota. 

On the thirteenth of July, 1700, with a felucca, 
two canoes, and nineteen men, having ascended 
the ^lississippi, he had reached the mouth of the 
Missouri, and sLx leagues above this he passed the 
Illinois. He there met three Canadians, who 
came to join him, w ith a letter from Father Mar- 
est, who had once attempted a mission among the 
Dahkotahs, dated July 13, Mission Immaculate 
Conception of the Holy Virgin, in Illinois. 

" I have the honor to write, in order to inform 
you that the Saugiestas have been defeated by the 
Scioux and Ayavois [lowas]. The people have 
formed an alliance with the Quincapous [Kicka- 
poos], some of the ^Mecoutins, Renards [Foxes], 
and Metesigamias, and gone to revenge them- 
selves, not on the Scioux, for they are too much 
afraid of them, but perhaps on the Ayavois, or 
veiy likely upon the Paoutees, or more jirobably 
upon the Osages, for these suspect nothing, and 
the others are on their guard. 

"As you will probably meet these allied na- 
tions, you ought to take precaution against their 
plans, and not allow them to board youi- vessel, 
since they are traitors, and utterly faithless. 1 pray 
(tod to accompany you in all your designs." 

Twenty-two leaguesabove the Illinois, he jiassed 
a small stream which he called the River of Oxen, 
and nine leagues beyond this he passed a small 
river on the west side, where he met four Cana- 
dians descending the Mississippi, on their way to 
tlie Illinois. On the HOlh of July, nine leagues 
above the last-named river, he met seventeen 
Scioux, in seven canoes, who were going to re- 



venge the death of three Sdoiix. one of whom had 
been buiued, and the others killed, at Tamarois, 
a few days before lus arrival in that \'illage. As 
he had promised the c-hief of the Illijiois to ap- 
pea^>e the Scioiix who should go to war against 
his nation, lie made a present to the chief of the 
party to engage him to turn back, lie told them 
the King of Fnuice did not wish them to make 
this river more bloody, and that he was sent to tell 
tliem that, if they obeyed the king's word, they 
would receive in future all things necessary for 
them. The chief answered that he accepted the 
present, that is to say, that he would do as had 
been told him. 

From the 30th of July to the 25th of August, Le 
Sueur advanced fifty-three and one-fourth leagues 
to a smaU river which he called the Kiver of the 
Mine. At the mouth it runs from the uortli, but 
it turns to the northeast. On the right seven 
leagues, there is a lead mine in a prairie, one and 
a half leagues. The river is only navigable in 
high water, that is to say, from early spring till 
the month of June. 

From the 25th to the 2Tth he made ten leagues, 
passed two small rivers, and made liimself ac- 
quainted ynih a mine of lead, from which he took 
a supply. From tlie 27tli to the 30th he made 
eleven and a half leagues, and met five Canadians. 
one of whom had been dangerously wounded in 
the head. They were naked, and had no ammu- 
nition except a miseralile giui, with five or six 
loads of powder and balls. They said they were 
descending from the Scioux to go to Tamarois. 
and, when seventy leagues above, they perceived 
nine canoes In the Mississippi, in which were 
ninety savages, who robbed and cruelly beat them. 
This party were going to war against the Scioux. 
and were composed of four different nations, the 
Outagamies [Foxes]. Poutouwatamis [Pottowatta- 
mies], and Puans ['Winnebagoes], who dwell in a 
country eighty leagues east of the Mississippi 
from where Le Sueur then was. 
I The Canadians determined to follow the detach- 
ment, which was composed of twenty-eight men. 
This day they made seven and a half leagues. 
On the 1st of September he passed the AVisconsin 
river. It i-uns into the Mississippi from the north- 
east. It is nearly one and a half miles wide. At 
about seventy-five leagues up this river, on the 
right, ascending, there is a portage of more than 

a league. The half of this portage is shaking 
ground, and at the end of it is a small river which 
descends into a bay called AVinnebago Bay. It is 
inhabited by a great number of nations who cany 
their furs to Canada, ^lonsieur Le Sueur came 
by the A\'isconsin river to the ilississippi. for the 
first time, in lO.SS. on his way to the Scioux coun- 
try, wliere he had already passed seven years at 
different periods. The -Mississippi, opposite the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, is less than half a mile 
wide. From the 1st of September to the oth, our 
voyageur advanced fourteen leagues. He passed 
the river '• Aux Cauots.'" which comes from the 
northeast, and then the Quincapous. named from 
a nation which once dwelt upon its banks. 

From the oth to the Oth he made ten and a half 
leagues, and passed the rivers Caches and Aux 
^Ules. The same day he perceived canoes, filled 
with savages, descending the river, and the five 
Canadians recognized them as the jiart}- who had 
robbed them. They placed sentinels in the \\ood, 
for fear of being surprised by land, and when 
they had apjiroached within hearing, they cried to 
them that if they approached farther they would 
fire. They then drew up by an island, at half the 
distance of a gim shot. Soon, four of the princi- 
pal men of the band approached m a canoe, and 
asked if it was forgotten that they were oiu- 
brethren, and with what design we had taken 
arms when we perceived them. Le Sueur repUed 
that he had cause to distrust them, since they had 
I'oljbed five of his party. Xevertheless, for the 
surety of his trade, being forced to be at peace 
with all the tribes, he demanded no redress for 
the robbery, but added merely that the king, their 
master and his, wished that his subjects should 
navigate that river without insult, and that they 
had better beware how they acted. 

The Indian who had spoken was silent, but an- 
other said they had been attacked by the Scioux, 
and that if they did not have pity on them, and 
give them a little powder, they should not be able 
to reach their villages. The consideration of a 
missionary, who was to go up among the Scioux, 
and whom these savages might meet, induced 
them to give two pounds of powder. 

yi. Le Sueur made the same day three leagues; 
passed a stream on the west, and afterward an- 
other river on the east, which is navigable at all 
times, and which the Indians call Red River. 



On the 10th, at daybreak, they heard an elk 
whistle, on the other side of the river. A Cana- 
dian crossed in a small Scioux canoe, which they 
had I'Dund, and sliortly returned with tlie body of 
the animal, which was very easily killed, "qiiand 
il est en rut," that is, from the beginning of Sep- 
tember until the end of October. The hunters at 
this time made a whistle of a piece of wood, or 
reed, and when they hear an elk whistle they an- 
swer it. The animal, believing it to be another 
elk. approaches, and is killed with ease. 

From the 10th to the lltli, M. Le Sueur made 
seventeen and a half leagues, passing the rivers 
Raisin and Paquilenettes {perhaps the Wazi Ozu 
and Huffalo.) The same day he left, on the east 
side of the Mississippi, a beautiful and large river, 
which descends from the very far north, and 
called Bon Secours (Chippeway), on account of the 
great quantity of buffalo, elk, bears and deers 
which are found there. Three leagues up this 
river there is a mine of lead, and seven leagues 
above, on the same side, they found another long 
river, in the vicinity of which there is a copper 
mine, from which he had taken a lump of sixty 
pounds in a former voyage. In order to make 
these mines of any account, peace must be ob- 
tained between the Scioux and Ouatagamis (Fox- 
es), because the latter, who dwell on the east side 
of the Mississippi, pass this road continually when 
going to war against the Sioux. 

Penicaut. in his join-nal. gives a brief descrip- 
tion of the ^lississippi between the "Wisconsin 
and Lake Pepin. He writes: '-Above the Wis- 
consm. and ten leagues higher on the same side, 
begins a great prairie extending for sixty leagues 
along the bank; this prairie is called Aux Ailes. 
Opposite to Aux Ailes, on the left, there is 
another jirairie facing it called Paquilanel which 
is not so long by a great deal. Twenty leagues 
above these i)rairies is found Lake Hon Secours " 
[Good Help, now Pepin.] 

In this region, at one and a half leagues on the 
northwest side, commenced a lake, which is six 
leagues long and more than one broad, called 
Lake Pepin. It is bounded on the west by a 
chain of mountains; on the east is seen a prairie; 
and on the udrtli west of the lake there is another 
prairie two leagues long and one wide. In the 
neighborhood is a chain of mountains quite two 
hundred feet high, and more than one and a half 

miles long. In these are found several caves, to 
which the bears retire in whiter. Alost of the 
caverns are more than seventy feet in extent, and 
two hundred feet high. There are several of 
which the entrance is very narrow, and quite 
closed up with saltpetre, It would be dangerous 
to enter them in summer, for they are filled with 
rattlesnakes, the bite of which is very dangerous. 
Le Sueur .saw some of these snakes which were 
six feet in length, but generally they are about 
four feet. They have teeth resembling those of 
the pike, and their gums are full of small vessels, 
in which their poison is placed. The Scioux say 
they take it every moriiiu r, and cast it away at 
night. They have at the tail a kind of scale which 
makes a noise, and this is called the rattle. 

Le Sueur made on this day seven and a half 
leagues, and passed another river, called Hiam- 
bouxecate Ouataba, or the River of Flat Rock. 
[The Sioux call the Cainion river Inyanbosndata.] 

On the 1.5th he crossed a small river, and saw 
in the neighborhood several canoes, filled with 
Indians, descending the Mississippi. He sup- 
posed they were Scioux, because he could not dis- 
tinguisli whether the canoes were large or small. 
The arms were placed in readiness, and soon they 
heard the cry of the savages, which they are ac- 
customed to raise when they rush upon their en- 
emies. He caused them to be answered in the 
same manner; and after having 'placed all the 
men l)ehind the trees, he ordered them not to fire 
until they were commanded. He remained on 
shore to see what movement the savages would 
make, and perceiving that they placed two on 
shore, on the other side, where from an eminence 
they could ascertain the strength of his forces, he 
caused the men to pass and repass from the shore 
to the wood, in order to make them believe that 
they were numerous. This ruse succeeded, for 
as soon as the two descended from the eminence 
the chief of the party came, bearing the calumet, 
which is a signal of peace among the Indians. 
They said that having never seen the Frenchnavi- 
gate the river with boats like the felucca, they had 
su])posed them to be KngUsh. and for that reason 
they had raised the war cry. and arranged them- 
selves on the other side of the Mississippi; but 
having recognized their flag, they had come with- 
out fear to inform them, that one of their num- 
ber, who was crazy, had accidentally killed a 



Prencliman. and tliat they would go and bring his 
comrade, who ^^■ould U'll how the mischief liad 

The Frenchman they brought was Denis, a Ca- 
nadian, and he reported tliat his companion was 
accidentally killed. Ilis name was Lai)lace, a de- 
serting soldier from Canada, who had taken ref- 
uge ill this country. 

Le Sueur replied, that Onontio (the name they 
give to all the governors of Canada), being their 
father and his, they ought not to seek justilication 
elsewhere than before him; and he advised them 
to go and see him as soon as possible, and 1)eg 
him to wipe off the blood of this Freuchmau from 
their faces. 

The party was composed of forty-seven men of 
different nations, who dwell far to the east, about 
the forty-fourth degree of latitude. Le Sueur, 
discovering wlio the chiefs were, said the king 
■whom they had spoken of in Canada, had .sent 
him to take possession of the north of the river; 
and that lie wished the nations who dwell on it, 
as well as those imder his protection, to live in 

He made this day three and three-fourths 
leagues; and on the lUth of Seplemlier, he left a 
large river on the east side, named t>t. Croix, he- 
cause a Frenchman of thai name icas shipwrecked 
at its mouth. It comes from the north-northwest. 
Four leagues higher, in going uj). is found a small 
lake, at the mouth of which is a very large mass 
of copper. It is on the edge of the water, in a 
small ridge of sandy earth, on the west of this 
lake. [One of La .Salle's men was named St. 

From tlie loth to the Kith, he advanced thir- 
teen and three-fourths leagues. After having 
made from Tamarois two hundred and nine and a 
half leagues, he left the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, to enter the river St. Pierre, on the west 
side. By the 1st of October, he had made in this 
river forty-four and one-fourth leagues. After he 
entered Blue river, thus named on account of the 
mines of blue earth found at its mouth, he found- 
ed his post, situated in forty-four degrees, thir- 
teen minutes north latitude, lie met at this 
place nine Scioux, who told him that the river 
belonged to the Scioux of the west, the Ayavois 
(lowas) and Otoctatas fOttoes), who lived a little 
farther off; that it was not their custom to hunt 

on ground belonging to others, unless invited to 
do so by the owners, and that when they would 
come to the fort to obtain ]irovisions, they woidd 
be in danger of being killed in ascending or de- 
scending the rivers, v.hich were narrow, and that 
if they would show their pity, he must cstahlish 
himself on the Missiitsipin, near the mouth of the St. 
Pierre, where the Ayavois, the Otoctatas, and the 
other Scioux could go as well as they. 

Having finished their speech, they leaned over 
the head of Le Sueur, according to their custom, 
crying out, "Ouaechissou ouaepanimanabo," that 
is"to say, " Have pity upon us." Le Sueiu' had 
foreseen that the establishment of Blue Earth 
river would not please the Scioux of the East, 
who were, so to speak, masters of the other Scioux 
and of the nations which will be hereafter men- 
tioned, herenise they were the first ^l•ith ichcmi trade 
was comnuneed. and in consequence of which they 
had already quite a number of guns. 

As he had commenced his operations not only 
with a view to the trade of beaver but also to 
gain a knowledge of the mines which he had pre- 
viously discovered, he told them that he was sor- 
ry that he had not known their intentions sooner, 
and that it was just, since lie came expressly for 
them, that he should establish himself on their 
land, but that the season was too far advanced 
for him to return. lie then made them a present 
of powder, balls and knives, and an armful of to- 
bacco, to entice them to assemble, as soon as pos- 
sible, near the fort he was about to construct, 
that when they should be all assembled he might 
tell them the intention of the king, their and his 

The Scioux of the West, according to the state- 
ment of the Eastern Scioux, have more than a 
thousand lodges. They do not use canoes, nor 
cultivate the earth, nor gather wild rice. They 
remain generally on the lu-iiiries which are be- 
tween the Uiii)er ]Mississippi and Missouri rivers, 
and live entirely by the chase. The Scioux gen- 
erally say they have three souls, and that after 
death, that which has done well goes to the warm 
country, that \\hicli has done evil to the cold 
regions, and the other guards the body. Poly- 
gamy is common among them. They are ^•ery 
jealous, and sometimes fight in duel for their 
wives. They manage the liow admindily, and 
haN e been seen several times to kill ducks on the 



wing. They make their lodges of a niiiiilicr nf 
biilTalo skins interlaced and sewed, and cany 
tlieni whcri'vcr tlicy go. They are all great smo- 
kers, but their manner of smoking differs from 
that of otlier Indians. Tliere are some Scioux 
who swallow all the smoke of the tobacco, and 
others who, after having kept it some time in 
their mouth, cause it to issue from the nose. In 
each lodge there are usually two or three men 
witli their families. 

On tlie third of October, they received at tlie 
fort several Scioux, among whom was Wahkan- 
tape, chief of the village. Soon two Canadians 
arrived who had been hunting, and who had been 
robbed by the Scioux of the Kast. who had raised 
their guns against the establislmient which M. 
Le Sueur had made on Bine Earth river. 

On tlie fourteenth the fort was (inislied and 
named Fort L'lluillier, and on the twentj-second 
two Canadians were sent out to invite the Aya- 
vois and Oloetatas to come and establish a vil- 
lage near the fort, because these Indians are in- 
dustrious and accustomed to cultivate the earth, 
and they hoi)ed to get provisions from them, and 
to make them work in the mines. 

On tlie twenty-foiu-th. six Scioux Oujalespoi- 
tons wished to go into the fort, but were told 
that they did not receive men wlio had killed 
Frenclunen. Tliis is the term used when tliey 
have insidted them. The next day they came to 
the lodge of Le Sueur to beg him to have pity on 
them. Tliey wished, according to custom, to 
weep over his head and make him a present of 
packs of beavers, which he refused. lie told 
them he was surprised that people who had rob- 
lied should c(mie to him ; to wlncdi they replied 
tliat they liad lieai'd it said that two Frenchmen 
liad been robbed. l)ut none from their village had 
been present at that wicked action. 

Le Sueur answered, that he knew it was the 
ilendeoucantons and not the Oujalesi)oitons ; 
" but," continued he, "yon are Scioux; it is the 
Scioux who have robbed me, and if I were to fol- 
low your manner of acting I sliould break your 
heads; for is it not true, tliat when a stranger 
(it is thus they call the Indians who are not 
Scioux) has insulted a Scioux, Mendeoucanton, 
Onjalespoitons. or ntliers— all the villages revenge 
upon tlie first one tliey rneety" 

As they had nothing to answer to what he said 

to them, tliey wept and repeated, according to 
custom. •■ Ouaecliissou ! oiiaei)animaiial)o !"' Le 
Sueur told them to cease crying, and added that 
the French had good hearts, and that tliey liad 
come into the country to have jiity on them. At 
tlie same time he made them a present, saying to 
them, " Carry back your beavers and say to all 
the Scioux, that tliey will have from me no more 
powder or lead, and they will no longei- smoke 
any long jiipe until tliey liave made satisfaction 
for robbing tlie Frenchman. 

The same day the Canadians, who had been 
sent off on the liJd. arrived without having found 
the road which led to the Ayavois and Otoctatas. 
On the 2oth, Le Sueur went to the river with 
three canoes, which he tilled with green and blue 
earth. It is taken from the hills near which are 
very abundant mines of copper, some of which 
was worked at Paris in KiHO. by L"lIuilUer, one 
of the chief collectors of the king. Stones were 
also found there which would be curious, if 

On the ninth of November, eight Mantanton 
Scioux arrived, who had been sent by their chiefs 
to say that the Mcndcoucanlons leere still at their 
lake on (he eaut of tlie 2Iis><issippi, and they could 
not come for a long time ; and that for a single 
village which had no good sense, the others ought 
not to bear the punishment ; and that they were 
willing to make reparation if they knew how. 
Le Sueur replied that lie was glad that tliey had 
a disposition to do so. 

On the loth the two ^hintantun Si-ioux. who 
had been sent expressly to say that all of the 
Scioux of the east, and part of those of the west, 
were joined together to come to the French, be- 
cause they had lieard that the Christianaux and 
the Assinipoils were making war on them. 
These two nations dwell above the fort on the 
east side, more than eighty leagues on the I'pper 

The Assinipoils speak Scioux, and are certainly 
of that nation. It is only a few years since that 
they became enemies. The enmity thus origi- 
nated: The Christianaux, having the use of arms 
before the Scioux, through the English at Hud- 
son's Bay, they constantly warred upon the As- 
sinipoils, who were their nearest neighbors. 
The latter, being weak, sued for jieace. and to 
render it more lasting, married the Christianaux 



women. The other Scioux, who had not made 
the compact, continued the war; and. seeing some 
Chri.stianaiix with tlie Assiiiipoils, broke their 
heads. Tlie Cliristianaux furnished the Assini- 
poils with arms and merchandise. 

On the 16th the Scioux retmned to their vil- 
lage, and it was reported tliat tlie Ayavois and 
Otoctatas were gone to establisli themselves to- 
wards the Missouri River, near the Malia, wlio 
dwell in that region. On the 26th tlie ilantan- 
tons and Oujalespoitons arrived at the fort: and, 
after they had encamped in the woods. Wah 
kantape came to beg Le Sueur to go to his 
lodge. He there found sixteen men with women 
and children, with their faces daubed with black. 
In the middle of the lodge were several buffalo 
skins which were sewed for a carpet. After mo- 
tioning liim to sit down, they wept for the fourth 
of ail hour, and the chief gave him some wild 
rice to eat (as was their custom), putting tlie 
first three spoonsful to his mouth. After which, 
he said all present were relatives of Tioscate, 
whom Le Sueur took to Canada in 169.5. and who 
died there in 1696. 

At the mention of Tioscate they began to weep 
again, and wipe their tears and heads upon tlie 
slioulders of Le Sueur. Then Walikaiitape again 
spoke, and said that Tioscate begged him to for- 
get the insult done to the Frenchmen by the 
ilendeoucantous, and take pity on his brethren 
by giving tliem powder and balls wliereby they 
could defend themselves, and gain a Uving for 
their wives and children, who languish in a coun- 
try full of game, because tliey had not the means 
of killing them. " Look," added the chief, " Be- 
hold thy children, thy brethren, and thy sisters; 
it is to thee to see whether thf)u wishest tliem to 
die. They will live if thou givest them powder 
and ball: they will die if thou refusest." 

Le Sueur granted them their request, but as 
the Scioux never answer on the spot, especially 
in matters of importance, and as he had to speak 
to them about his establishment he went out of 
the lodge without saying a word. The cliief and 
all those within followed hiin as far as the door 
of the fort: and ^^■hen he had gone in. they went 
around it three times, crying with all their 
strength, " Atheouanan! " that is to say. ■' Father, 
have pity on us." [Ate unyanpi, means Our 

The next day, he assembleil in the fort the 
principal men of botli \'illages; and as it is not 
possible to subdue the Scioux or to hinder them 
from going to war, unless it be by inducing them 
to cultivate the earth, he said to them that if 
they wished to render themselves wortliy of the 
protection of the king, they must abandon their 
erring life, and form a village near his dwelling, 
where they would be shielded from the insults of 
of their enemies: and that they might be liappy 
and notliungry. he would give them all the corn 
necessary to plant a large piece of ground; that 
the king, tlieir and his chief, m sending liim, had 
forbidden liim to purchase beaver skins, knowing 
that this kind of liimting separates them and ex- 
poses them to their enemies; and that in conse- 
quence of this he liad come to establish himself 
on Blue River and vicinity, where they had many 
times assured him were many kinds of lieasts, 
for the sldns of which he would give them all 
things necessary: that tliey ought to reflect that 
they could not do without Frencli goods, and that 
the only way not to want them was. not to go to 
war with our allied nations. 

As it is customary with the Indians to accom- 
pany their word with a present proportioned to 
the affair treated of. he gave them fifty pounds of 
powder, as many balls, six guns, ten axes, twelve 
ai'msful of tobacco, and a hatchet i)ipe. 

On the first of December, the ilantantons in- 
vited Le Sueur to a great feast. Of four of their 
lodges they had made one, in which were one 
liundred men seated around, and every one Ms 
disli before him. After the meal. ^Vallkalltape, 
the chief, made them all smoke, one after another, 
in tlie hatchet pipe which had been given them. 
He then made a present to Le Sueur of a slave 
and a sack of wild rice, and said to him, sliowing 
him his men: " Behold the remains of this great 
village, which thou hast aforetimes seen so nu- 
merous! All the others have been killed in war; 
and the few men whom thou seest in this lodge, 
accept the present tliou hast made them, and are 
resolved to obey the great chief of all nations, of 
whom thou liast spoken to us. Thou oughtest 
not to regard us as Scioux, but as French, and in- 
stead of saying the Scioux are miserable, and have 
no mind, and are fit for nothing but to rob and 
steal from the French, thou shalt say my breth- 
ren are miserable and have no mind, and we must 

lyiliEUVlLLE'S MEMOIR OX THE MliiiilStiiri'l TlilJiES. 


try to procure some for them. They rob us. but 
I will take care that they do not lack iron, that is 
to siiy, .ill kinds of goods. If thou dost this, I as- 
sure thee tliat in a little time the Mantantons will 
become l-'renchmen. and they will have none of 
those vices, with which thou reproachest us." 

Having finished his speech, he covered his face 
with liis garment, and the others imitated him. 
They wept over their companions who had died 
in war, and chanted an adieu to their country in 
a tone so gloomy, that one could not keep from 
partakiiiiT of their sorrow. 

Wahkantape then made them smoke again, and 
distributed the presents, and said that he was go- 
ing to the Mendeoucantons, to inform them of the 
resolution, and invite them to do the same. 

On the twelfth, three ^Icndcoucauton chiefs, 
and a large number of Indians of the same vil- 
lage, arrived at the fort, and the next day gave 
satisfaction for robbing the Frenchmen. They 
brought four hundred pounds of beaver skins, and 
promised that the summer following, after their 
canoes were built and they had gathered their 
wild rice, that they would come and establish 
themselves near the French. The same day they 
returned to their village east of the ilississippi. 


Mantantons— That is to say, Village of the 
Great Lake which empties uito a small one. 

ilKNDEOUACANTuNs— Village of Spirit Lake. 

Quiofetons— Village of the Lake with one 

PsiouMANiToxs— Village of "Wild Rice Gath- 

Ouadebatons— The River Village. 

OuAETEMANETONs— Village of the Tribe who 
dwell on the Point of the Lake. 

SoNOAsyt'iTOXs— The Ihave 'N'illage, 


TouCHOUAESiNTONS— The "\'iliage of the Pole. 

PsiNCHATONS— "N^illage of the Red Wild Rice. 

Ou.TALESPOlTONs — Village divided into many 
small Bands. 

PsiNOUTANlllxiliNTONS — The (Jreat Wild 
Rice Village. 

TiNTANGAOUGiiiATONS — The Graud Lodge 

OUAKPETONS — Village of the Leaf. 

OuGinn-GKODATONs— Dung ^'illage. 

OuAPEONTETONS — Village of those who shoot 
in the Large Pine. 

lIiNiiANKTOxs — Village of the Red Stone 

The above catalogue of villages concludes the 
extract that La Harpe has made from Le Sueur's 

In the narrative of Major Long's second expe- 
dition, there are just as many villages of the Gens 
du Lac, or M'dewakantonwan Scioux mentioned, 
though the names are dilferent. After leaving 
the Mille Lac region, the divisions evidently were 
different, and the villages known by new names. 

Cliarlevoix, who visited the valley of the Lower 
Mississippi in 172i;, says that Le Sueur spent a 
winter in his fort on the banks of the Blue Earth, 
and that in the following April he went up to the 
mine, aliout a mile above. In twenty-two days 
they obtained more than thirty thousand pounds 
of the substance, four thousand of which were se- 
lected and sent to France. 

On the tenth of February, 1702, Le Sueur came 
back to the post on the Gulf of Mexico, and found 
D'Iberville absent, who, however, arrived on the 
eighteenth of the next month, with a ship from 
France, loaded with supplies. After a few w eeks, 
the Governor of Louisiana sailed again for the 
old coimtry. Le Sueur being a fellow passenger. 

On board of the ship. D'Iberville wrote a mem- 
orial upon the Mississippi valley, with sugges- 
tions for carrying on commerce therein, which 
contains many facts furnished by Le Sueur. A 
copy of the manuscript was in possession of the 
Historical Society of Minnesota, from w hich are 
the following extracts: 

" If the Sioux remain in their own comitry, 
they are useless to us, being too distant. We 
could have no commerce with them except that 
of the beaver. M. Le Sueur, who goes to France 
to gin an account of Ihif: counlri/, is the proi)er per- 
son to make these movements. He estimates the 
Sioux at four thousand families, who coukl settle 
upon the Missomi. 

'■ He lias spoken to me of another which he 
calls the Mahas, composed of more tlian twelve 
hundred families. Th(i Ayooues ( loways) and the 
Octoctiitiis, their neighbors, are about three 
hundred families. They occupy the lands be- 


Exi-LouEit^ Ayjj rioyEEiis of ^nxyI:soTA. 

tween tlie Mississippi and llie Missouri, about 
one hundred leagues from tlie Illinois. Tliese 
savages do not know the use of arms, and a de- 
scent might be made upon them in a river, which 
is beyond the AVabash on the west. * * * 

'■ The Assinibouel. (^uenistinos. and people of 
tlie north, who are upon the rivers which fall into 
the ilis.sissippi, and trade at Fort Xelson (Hud- 
son Bay), are about four hundred. We could 
prevent them from going there if we wish." 

" In four or five years we can establish a com- 
merce with these savages of sixty or eighty thou- 
sand bullalo sldns; more than one hundred deer 
skins, which will produce, delivered in France, 
more than two million four hundred thousand 
livres yearly. One might obtain for a buffalo 
skin four or five pounds of wool, which sells for 
tiventy sous, two poimds of coarse hair at ten 

" Besides, from smaller peltries, two hundred 
thousand livres can be made yearly." 

In the tlilrd volume of the " History and Sta- 
tistics of the Indian Tribes," prepared under the 
direction of the Commissioner of Indian affairs, 
by Mr. Schoolcraft, a manuscript, a copy of which 
was in possession of General Cass, is referred to as 
containing the first enumeration of the Indians of 
the Mississipin Valley. The following was made 
thirty-four years earlier by U'Iberville: 

"The Sioux, Families, 4,000 

IMahas, 12,000 

Octata and Ayoues, 300 

Causes [Kansas], 1,500 

Missouri, 1,500 

Akansas, &c 200 

Manton [Mandau] 100 

Panis [Pawnee], 2,000 

Illinois, of the great village and Cama- 

roua [Tamaroa] 800 

Meosigamea [Metcliigauiias] 200 

Kikapous and Mascoutcns, 450 

Miamis, 500 

Chactas, 4,000 

('hicachas, 2,000 

Mobiliens and Chohomes, 350 

Concaques [Conchas], 2,000 

Ouma [Iloumas] 150 

Colapissa, 250 

Bayogoula, loo 

People of the Fork, 200 

Counica. \c. [TonicasJ, 300 

Xadeches 1,500 

Belochy, [BUoxi] Pascoboula, .... 100 

Total. . . 23,850 

'■ The savage tribes located in the places I have 
marked out. make it necessary to establish three 
posts on the Mississippi, one at the Arkansas, 
another at the "Wabash (Ohio), and the third at 
the Missouri. At each post it would be proper 
to have an officer with a detachment of ten sol- 
diers ^\■ith a sergeant and corporal. All French- 
men should be allowed to settle there with their 
families, and trade with the Indians, and tliey 
might establish tanneries for properly dressing 
the buffalo and deer skins for transportation. 

" Xo Frenchman shall he allowed to follow the 
Imlixtns on their hunts, as it tends to keep them 
hunters, as is seen in Canada, and when they are 
hi the woods, they do not desire to become tillers 
of the soil. •»****** 

•• I have said nothing in this memoir of which 
I iiave not personal knowledge or the most relia- 
ble sources. The most of what I propose is 
founded upon personal reflection in relation to 
what might be done for the defence and advance- 
ment of the colony. ***** 
* * * It will be alisolutely necessary 
that the king should define the limits of this 
country in relation to the government of Canada. 
It is important that the commandant of the 
Mississippi should have a report of those who 
inhabit the rivers that fall into the Mississippi, 
and principally those of the river Illinois. 

" The Canadians intimate to the savages that 
they ought not to listen to lis but to the governor 
of Canada, who always speaks to them with large 
presents, that the governor of Mississippi is mean 
and never sends them any thing. This is true, 
and what I cannot do. It is imprudent to accus- 
tom the savages to be spoken to by presents, for, 
with so many, it would cost the king more than 
the revenue derived from the trade. When they 
come to us, it will be necessary to bring them in 
subjection, make them no presents, and compel 
them to do what we wish, as if they tcere French- 

" The Spaniards have divided the Indians into 
parties on this point, and we can do the same. 
When one nation does wrong, we can cease to 



trade witli tliem. and threaten to draw down the 
liostility of other Iniliaiis. AVe rectify tlie difli- 
culty by having missionaries, wlio will liiiiis' 
them into obedience accrcthj. 

'• The Illhiois and ilasconteus have detained 
the French canoes tliey find npon the ^Mississippi, 
saying that llie governors of Canada have given 
them permission. I do not know whether this is 
so, but if true, it follows that we liave not the 
Iil)erty to send any one on llie Mississipi)i. 

" ^I. Le Sue\ir would have been taken if lie 
had not been the strongest. Only one of the 
canoes he sent to the Sioux was plundered." ** * 

Penicanfs account varies in some particulars 
from that of La Ilari^e's. lie calls the ^Mahkahto 
Green River instead of lilue and writes: "We 
took our rotite l)y its month and ascended it forty 
leagues, when we found another river falling in- 
to tiie Saint Pierre, which we entered. AVe 
sailed this the (Jreen Kiver because it is of that 
color by reason of a green earth which loosening 
itself from from the copper mines, becomes dis- 
solved and makes it green. 

•• A league up this river, we found a point 
of land a (juarter of a league distant from the 
woods, and it was upon this point that JM. Le 
Sueur resolved to build his fort, because we could 
not go any higher on account of the ice, it being 
the last day of September. Half of our peoide 
went hunting whilst the others worked on the 
fort. We killed four hundred buffaloes, which 
wei'B our provisions for the winter, and which we 
placed upon scatlolds in our fort, after havmg 
skinned and cleaned and quartered them. We 
also made cabins in the fort, and a magazine to 
keep our goods. After having drawn up our 
shalloj) within the inclosureof the fort, we spent 
the winter in our cabins. 

"When we were working in oiu' fort in the 
beginning seven French traders fidui Canada 
took refuge there. They had lieeu pillaged and 
stripped naked by the Sioux, a wandering nation 
living oidy liy hunting and plundering. Among 
these seven persons tliere was a Canadian gen- 
tleman of Le Sueur's acquaintance, whom he rec- 
ognized at once, and gave him .some clothes, as 
he did also to all the rest, and whatever else was 
necessary for them. Tliey remained with us 
during the entire winter at oni' fort, where we 
had not food enough for all, except buffalo meat 

which we had not even salt to eat with. We had 
a good deal of trouble the first two weeks in ac- 
customing ourselves to it, having fever and di- 
arrhwa and becoming so tired of it as to hate the 
smell. But by degrees our bodies became adapt- 
ed to it so well that at the end of six weeks there 
was not one of us who could not eat six pounds 
of meat a day, and drink fnur b<iwls of broth. 
As .soon as we were accustomed to this kind of 
living it made us very fat, and then there was no 
more sickness. 

" AVhen spring arrived we went to work in the 
copper mine. This was the begimiing of April of 
this year [1701.] We took with us twelve labor- 
ers and foiu' hunters. This mine was situated 
about three-quarters of a league from our post. 
We took from the mine in twenty days more than 
t^venty thousand pounds weight of ore, of which 
we only selected four thousand pounds of the 
linest, which M. Le Sueur, who was a very good 
judge of it, had carried to the fort, and which has 
since been sent to France, though I have not 
learned the result. 

••This mine is situated at the beginning of a 
very long momitain, which is upon tlie bank of 
the river, so that boats can go right to the montli 
of the mine itself. At this place is the green 
earth, which is a foot and a half in thickness, 
and above it is a layer of earth as firm and 
hard as stone, and black and burnt like coal by 
the exhalation from the mine. Tlie copper is 
scratched out with a knife. There are no trees 
upon this mountain. * * » After twenty-two 
days' work, we returned to our fort. 'When the 
Sioux, who belong to the nation of savages who 
pillaged tlie Canadians, came they brouglit us 
merchandize of furs. 

"They had more than four hundred beaver 
robes, each robe made of niiu! skins sewed to- 
getlier. M. Le Sueur purchased these and many 
other skins which he bargained for, in the week 
he traded with the savages. * * * » 
We sell in return wares whicli conu^ very dear to 
the buyers, especially tobacco from Brazil, in the 
proportion of a hundred crowns the pound; two 
little horn-handled knives, and four leaden bul- 
lets are equal to ten crowns in exchange for 
skins ; and so with the rest. 

"In the beginning of Alay, we launched our 
shallop in tlie water, and loatled it witli green 



earth that had been taken out of tlie river, and 
with the fui-s we liad traded for. of wliich we liad 
tliree canoes full. M. Le Sueur before goiiif; 
held council with M. D'lCvaciuo for Kraque] the 
Canadian gentleman, and the three great chiefs 
of the Sioux, three brothers, and told them that 
as he had to return to the sea. he desired them 
to live in peace with M. D'Evaque. whom he left 
in command at Fort L'lluillier. with twelve 
Frenchmen. M. Le Sueur made a considerable 
present to the three l)rothers, chiefs of the sava- 
ges, desiring them to never abandon the French. 
Afterward we the twelve men whom he had chosen 
to go dowai to the sea with him embarked. In set- 
ting out, M. Le Sueur promised to AL D'Evaque 
and the twelve Frenclimen ^\ho remained with 
him to guard the fort, to send up munitions of 
war from the Illinois country as soon as he should 
arrive tliere ; which he did. for on getthig there 
he sent off to him a canoe loaded with two tliou- 
sand pomids of lead and powder, with three of 
our people in charge." 

Le Sueur arrived at the French fort on the 
Gulf of Mexico in safety, and in a few weeks, in 
the spring of 1701, sailed for France, with his 
kinsman, D'lberville, the first governor of Lou- 

In the spring of the next year (1702) D"Evaque 
came to Jlobile and reported to l)"Iljer\'ille, who 
had come back from France, that he had been 
attacked by the Foxes and Maskoutens, who killed 
three Frenchmen who were working near Fort 
L'lluillier. and that, being out of powder and 
lead, he had been obliged to conceal the goods 
which were left and abandon the post. At the 
Wisconsin River he had met Juchereau, formerly 
criminal judge in ^Montreal, with thirty-tive 
men, on his way to establish a tannery for buffalo 
skins at the Wabash, and that at the Illinois he 
met the canoe of supplies sent by Bienville, 
D'Iberville's brother. 

La Motte Cadillac, in command at Detroit, in 
a letter written on August 31st, 1703, alludes to 
Le Sueur's expedition in these words: "Last 
year they sent Mv. Boudor, a ^Montreal merchant, 
into the country of the Sioux to join Le Su- 
em-. He succeeded so well in that journey he 
transported thither twenty-five or thirty thous- 
and pounds of merchandize with which to trade 
in all the comitry of the Outawas. This proved 

to liini an unfortunate investment, as he lias 
been robbed of a part of the goods by the Outa- 
gamies. The occasion of the robbery by one of 
our own allies was as follows. I speak with a 
full knowledge of the factsasthey occurred while 
I was at Michillimackianc. From time immemo- 
rial our allies have been at war with the Sioux, 
and on my arrival there in conformity to the or- 
der of M. Frontenac, the most able man who has 
ever come into Canada, I attempted to negotiate 
a truce between the Sioux and all our allies. 
Succeeding in this negotiation I toolc the occa- 
sion to turn their arms against the Iroquois with 
whom we were then at war, and soon after I ef- 
fected a treaty of peace between the Sioux and 
the French and their allies which lasted two years. 

"At the end of tha' time the Sioux came, in 
great niunl)ers. to tlie villages of the Miamis. un- 
der pretense of ratifying the treaty. They were 
well received l)y the iliamis, and, after spending 
several days in their villages, departed, ajipareut- 
ly perfectly satisfied with their good reception, as 
they certainly had every reason to be. 

" The Miamis, believing them already far dis- 
tant, slept quietly; but the Sioux, who had pre- 
meditated the attack, retiu'ned the same night to 
the principal village of the Miamis. where most 
of the were congregated, and. taking them 
liy surprise, slauglitered nearly three thousandC?) 
and put the rest to flight.. 

-■ This perfectly infuriated all tne nations. 
They came with their complaints, begging me to 
join with them and exterminate tlie Sioux. 15ut 
the war we then had on our hands did not permit 
it, so it became necessary to play the orator in a 
long harangue. In conclusion I advised them to 
' weep their dead, and wrap them up, and leave 
them to sleep coldly till the day of vengeance 
should come;' telling tliem we must sweep the 
land on this side of the Iroquois, as it was neces- 
sary to extingiush even their memory, after which 
the allied tribes could more easily avenge the 
atrocious deed that the Sioux had just committed 
upon tliem. In short, I managed tliem so well 
that the affair was settled in the manner that I 

" But the twenty-five permits still existed, and 
the cupidity of the French induced tliem to go 
among the Sioux to trade for beaver. Our allies 
complained bitterly of this, saying it was injust- 

TRjWE forbidden with the SIOUX. 


ice to them, as they had taken up arms in our 
quarrel against tlie Iro(iuois, while the French 
trailers were carrying munitions of war to the 
Sioux to enable tlieni to kill the rest of our allies 
as they had tlie Miauiis. 

" I immediately informed M. Frontenac, and JI. 
Chamiiiguy having read the couunuuieation. and 
commaniled that an ordinance be publ ished at Mon- 
treal forbidding the traders to go into the country 
of the Sioux for the purpose of traffic under penalty 
of a thousand francs line, the conliscation of the 
goods, and other arbitrary penalties. The ordi- 
nance was sent to me and faithfully executed. 
The same year [1699] I descended to Quebec, 
having asked to be relieved. Shice that time, in 
spite of this proliibition, the French have con- 
tinued to trade with the Sioux, but not without 
being subject to affronts and indignities from our 
allies themselves which bring tlishonor on the 
French name. * * * I do not consider it best 
any longer to allow the traders to carry on com- 
merce with the Sioux, under any pretext what- 

ever, especially as M. Boudor has just been 
robbed by the Fox nation, and M. Jucheraux has 
given a thousand crowns, in goods, for the right 
of passage through the country of the allies to 
his liabitatiou. 

'• The allies say that Le Sueur has gone to the 
Sioux on tlie Mississippi; that they are resolved 
to oppose him, and if he oll'ers any resistance they 
will not be answerable for the consequences. 
It would be well, therefore, to give Le Sueur 
warning by the Governor of Mississipiii. 

'• The Sautenrs [Chippeways] being friendly 
with the Sioux wished to give passage through 
their country to M. Boudor and others, permit- 
ting them to carry arras and other munitions of 
war to tliis nation; but the other nations being 
opposed to it, differences have arisen between 
them which have resulted in the robbery of M. 
Boudor. This has given occasion to the Sau- 
tenrs to make an outbreak upon the Sacs and 
Foxes, killing thirty or forty of them. So there 
is war among the people." 





Be- Establish ment of Mackinaw. — Sic-ur de Louvigny at Mackinaw.— De Lignerj- 
at Mackinaw.— Louvigny Attacks the Foxes.— Du Luth'sPost Reoccupied. — 
Saint Pierre at La Point« on I,akc Superior. — Preparations for a Jesuit Mission 
among the Sioux. — Ia Perriere Boucher's Expedition to Lake Pepin,— De 
Conor and Guiguas, Jesuit Missionaries.— Visit to Foxes and Winnebagocs. — 
Wisconsin River Descn bed.- Fort Beauhamois Built.- Fireworks Displayed.— 
High Water at Lake Pepin.- Dc Conor Visits Mackinaw.—Boucher^HUe, Mont- 
brun and Guiguas Captured by Indians.— Montbrun's Escape.- Boucher\ilIe's 
Presents to Indians.— Exapgerated Account of Father Guiguas' Capture. — Dis- 
patches Conccruinp Fort Beauhamois.—Sieur de la Jemeraye.— Saint Pierre at 
Fort Beauhamois.— Trouble between Sioux and Foxes — Sioux Visit Quebec. — 
De Liisignan Visits the Sioux Country.— Saint Pierre Noticed in the Travels 
of Jonathan Carver and Lieutenant Pike. 

After the Fox Iiuliaiis ilrove away Le Sueur's 
men, in 1702, from the Makalito, or Blue Earth 
river, the merchants of Montreal and Quebec did 
not encourage trade with the tribes beyond Mack- 

D'Aigreult, a French officer, sent to inspect 
that post, In the summer of 1708, reported that 
he arrived there, on the 19th of August, and 
found there but fourteen or fifteen Frenchmen. 
He also wrote: " Since there are now only a few 
wanderers at Michilimackinack, the greater part 
of the furs of the savages of the north goes to the 
EngUsh trading posts on Hudson's Bay. The 
Outawas are unable to make this trade by them- 
selves, because the northern savages are timid, 
and will not come near them, as they have often 
been plundered. It is, therefore, necessary that 
the French be allowed to seek these northern 
tribes at the mouth of their own river, which 
empties into Lake Superior." 

Louis de la Forte, the Sieur De Louvigny, in 
1690, accompanied by Nicholas Ferrot, with a de- 
tachment of one hundred and seventy Canailians 
and Indians, came to Mackinaw, and imtil 1091 
was in command, when he was recalled. 

In 1712, Father Joseph J. Marest the Jesuit 
missionary wrote, " If this country ever needs 
M. Louvigny it is now ; the savages say it is ab- 
solutely necessary that he should come for the 
safety of the country, to unite the tribes and to 
defend those whom the war h:is caused to return 
to Micliilimacinac. ****** 

I do not know \\hat course the Fottawatomies 
will take, nor even what course they will pursue 
who are here, if M. Louvigny does not come, es- 
pecially if the Fo.xes were to attack them or us." 

The next July, M. Lignery urged ujiou the au- 
thorities the establishment of a garrison of trahied 
soldiers at Mackinaw, and the Intendant of Can- 
ada wrote to the King of France : 

'• Michilimackinae might be re-established, 
without expense to his Majesty, either liy sur- 
rendering the trade of the post to such individu- 
als as will obligate themselves to pay all the ex- 
penses of twenty-two soldiers and two officers; to 
furnish munitions of war for the defense of the 
fort, and to make presents to the savages. 

*• Or the expenses of the post might he paid by 
the sale of permits, if the King should not think 
proper to grant an exclusive commerce. It is ab- 
solutely necessary to know the wishes of the King 
concerning these two propositions ; and as M. 
Lignery is at ^Michilimackinae, it will not be any 
greater injury to the colony to defer the re-estab- 
nient of this post, than it has been for eight or 
ten years past." 

The war with England ensued, and in April, 
1713, the treaty of Utrecht was ratified. France 
had now more leisure to attend to the Indian 
tribes of the AVest. 

Early in 1714, Mackinaw was re-occupied, and 
on the fourteenth of March, 1716, an expedition 
mider Lieutenant Louvigny, left Quebec. His 
arrival at Mackinaw, where he had been long ex- 
pected, gave confidence to the voyageurs, and 
friendly Indians, and with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, he proceeded against the Foxes in 
Wisconsin. He brought with him two pieces of 
cannon and a grenade mortar, and besieged the 
fort of the Foxes, which he stated contained five 
hundred warriors, and three thousand men, a 
declaration which can scarcely be credited. After 



three days of skirmishing, lie prepared to mine 
the fort, when the Foxes eapitidated. 

The paddles of the birch bark canoes and the 
gay songs of the voyageurs now began to be heard 
onee more on the waters of Lake Superior and its 
tributaries. In 1717, the post erected by l)u 
Luth, on Lake Superior near the northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was re-occupied by Lt. Ro- 
bertel de la Xoue. 

In view of the troubles among the tribes of the 
northwest, in the month of September. 1718, Cap- 
tain St. Pierre, who ha<l great inlluence with the 
Indians of Wisconsin and ^linnesota, was sent 
with Ensign Linctot and some soldiers to re-oc- 
cupy La Pointe on Lake Superior, now Bayfield, 
in the northwestern part of Wisconsin. The 
chiefs of the band there, and at Keweenaw, 
had threatened war against the Foxes, who had 
killed some of their nuud)er. 

When tlie Jesuit Charlevoix returned to France 
after an examination of the resources of Canada 
and Louisiana, he urged that an attempt should 
be made to reach the Pacific Ocean by an inland 
route, and suggested that an expedition should 
proceed from the mouth of the Missouri and fol- 
low that stream, or that a post .should be estab- 
lished among llie Sioux wliicli should be the point 
of departure. The latter was accepted, and in 
1722 an allowance was made by the French Gov- 
ernment, of twelve hundred livres, for two Jes- 
uit missionaries to accompany those who should 
establish the new post. D'Avagour, Superin- 
tendent of Missions, in May, 1723, requested the 
authorities to grant a separate canoe for the con- 
veyance of tlie goods of the proposed mission, 
and as it was necessary to send a commandant 
to persuade the Indians to receive the mission- 
aries, be recommended Sieiir I'achot, an officer of 

A dispatch from Canada to the French govern- 
ment, dated October 14, 1723, announced that 
Fatlier de la Chasse. Suijcrior of tlie .Jesuits, ex- 
pected that, the next spring, i-'aUier (iuymoneau, 
and another missionary from Paris, would go to 
the Sioux, but that they had been hindered by tlie 
Sioux a few months before killing seven French- 
men, on their way to Louisiana. The aged 
Jesuit, Joseph J. Marest, who had been on Lake 
Pepin in 1089 with Perrot, and was now in Mon- 
treal, said that it was the wandering Sioux who 

had killed the French, but he thought the sta- 
tionary Sioux would receive Christian instruction. 

The hostility of the Foxes had also juevented 
the estalilislimeiit of a fort and mission among the 

On the seventh of June. 1726, peace was con- 
eluded by De Lignery with the Sauks, Foxes, and 
Winnebagoes at Green Bay; and Linctot, who 
had succeeded Saint Pierre in command at La 
I'ointe, was ordered, by presents and the promise 
of a missionary, to endeavor to detach the Dah- 
kotalis from their alliance with the Foxes. At 
this time Linctot made arrangements for peace 
between the Ojibways and Dahkotas, and sent 
two Frenchmen to dwell in the villages of the 
latter, with a promise that, if they ceased to fight 
the Ojibways, they should have regular trade, 
and a "black robe" reside in their country. 

Traders and missionaries now began to prepare 
for visiting the Sioux, and in the sjiring of 1727 
the Governor of Canada wrote that the fathers, 
appointed for the Sioux mission, desired a case of 
mathematical instruments, a universal astro- 
nomic; dial, a spirit level, chain and slakes, and a 
telescope of six or seven feet tube. 

On the sixteenth of June, 1727, the expedition 
for the Sioux country left ilontreal in charge of 
the Sieur de la Perriere who was son of the dis- 
tinguished and respected Canatlian, Pierre Bou- 
cher, the Governor of Three Rivers. 

La I'ei-riere had served in Newfoundland iind 
been associated witli llerlel de Rouville in raids 
into !New England, and gained an uiienvialile no- 
toriety as the leader of the savages, while Rou- 
ville led the French in attacks upon towns like 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where the Indians ex- 
ultiugly killed the Puritan pastor, scalped his 
loving wife, and dashed out his infant's brains 
against a rock, lie was accompanied by his 
brother and other relatives. Two Jesuit fathers, 
De Gonor and Pierre Michel Guignas, were also 
of the party. 

In Shea's '• Early French Voyages" there was 
printed, for the first time, a letter from i'ather 
Guignas, from the Brevoort manuscripts, written 
on May 29. 1728, at Fort I3eauliariiois. on Lake 
Pepin, which contains facts of much interest. 

He writes: " The Scioux convoy left the end 
of ilontreal Island on the 16th of the month of 
June last year, at 11 a. ji., and reached Michili- 


mackinac the 22(1 of the month of July. This 
post is two hundred and fifty-one leagues from 
Montreal, almost due west, at 4-5 degrees 4t) min- 
utes north latitude. 

'• AVe spent the rest of the month at this post, 
in the hope of receiving from day to day some 
news from Montreal, and in the design of 
strengthening ourselves against the alleged ex- 
treme difficulties of getting a free passage through 
the Foxes. At last, seeing nothing, we set out 
on our march, the first of the month of August, 
and. after seventy-three leagues quite pleasant 
sail along the northerly side of Lake Michigan, 
running to the soutlieast, we reached the Bay 
[Green] on the 8th of the same month, at 5:30 p. 
M. This post is at 44 degrees 43 minutes north 

'• Vi'e stopped there two days, and on the 11th 
in the morning, we embarked, in a very great 
impatience to reach the Foxes. On the thud day 
after our departure from the bay. quite late in 
the afternoon, in fact somewhat in the night, the 
chiefs of the Puans [Wiimebagoes] came out three 
leagues from their village to meet the French, 
with their i)eace calumets and some bear meat as 
a refreshment, and the next day we were received 
by that small nation, amid several discharges of 
a few guns, and with great demonstrations. 

■• They asked us ■with so good a grace to do 
them the honor to stay some time with them that 
we granted them the rest of the day from noon, 
and the following day. There may be in all the 
village, sixty to eighty men, Ijut all the men and 
women of very tall stature, and well made. They 
are on the bank of a very pretty little lake, in a 
most agreeable spot for its situation and the 
goodness of the soil, nineteen leagues from the 
bay and eight leagues from the Foxes. 

" Early the next mornmg, the 15th of the montli 
of August, the convoy preferred to continue its 
route, with quite pleasant weather, but a storm 
coming on in the afternoon, we arrived quite wet, 
still in the rani, at the cabins of the Foxes, a nation 
somucli dreaded, and really so little to he dreaded. 
From all that w^e could see, it is composed of 
two hundred men at most, but there is a perfect 
hive of children, especially boys from ten to 
fourteen years old, well formed. 

'• They are cabined on a little eminence on the 
bank of a small river that bears their name, ex- 

tremely tortuous or winding, so that you are con- 
stantly boxing the compass. Yet it is apparently 
quite wide, with a cliain of hills on bollt sides, 
but there is only one miserable little channel 
amid this extent of apparent bed, which is a kind 
of marsh full of rushes and wild rice of almost 
impenetrable thickness. They have nothing but 
mere bark cabins, without any kind of palisade or 
other fortification. As soon as the French ca- 
noes touched their .shore they ran down with 
tlieir peace calumets, lighted in spite of the rain, 
and all smoked. 

""We stayed among them the rest of this day, 
and all the next, to know what were their designs 
and ideas as to the French post among the Sioux. 
The Sieur Reaume, interpreter of Indian lan- 
guages at the Bay, acted efficiently there, and 
with devotion to tlie King's .service. Even if my 
testimony. Sir, should be deemed not impartial, I 
must have the honor to teU you that Rev. Father 
Cliardon, an old missionary, was of very great as- 
sistance there, and the presence of three mission- 
aries reassured these cut-throats and assassins of 
the French more than all the speeches of the best 
orators could have done. 

" A general council was convened in one of the 
cabuis, they were addressed in decided friendly 
terms, and they replied in the same way. A 
small present \Aas made to them. On their side 
tliey gave some quite handsome dishes, luied with 
dry meat. 

On the following Sunday, 17th of tlie month 
of August, very early in the morning, Fatlier 
Cliardon set out, with Sieur Reaume, to return 
to the Bay, and the Sioux expedition, greatly re- 
joiced to have so easily got over this difficulty, 
which had everywhere been represented as so in- 
surmountable, got under way to endeavor to 
reach its journey's end. 

" Kever was navigation more tedious than 
what we subsequently made from uucertamty as 
to our course. No one knew it, and we got 
astray every moment on water and on land for 
want of a guide and pilots, We kept on, as it 
were feelhig our way for eight da}'s, for it was 
only on the nintli, aljout three o'clock p, m,, tliat 
we arrived, l)y accident, believing ourselves still 
far off, at the portage of the Ouisconsin, which is 
forty-five leagues from the Foxes, counting all 
tlie twists and turns of this abominable river. 



This portage is half a league in lengtli, and half 
of that is a kind of marsh full of mud, 

" The Ouiscousiu is iiuite a handsome river, 
but far below what we had been told, aiiparently, 
as those who gave the description of it in Canada 
saw it only in the high waters of spring. It is a 
shallow river on a bed of (inicksand. wliich forms 
bars almost everywhere, and these often change 
place. Its shores are either steep, liarc mountains 
or low i)onits with sandy base. Its course is from 
northeast to southwest. From the jwrtage to its 
mouth in the ilississippi, I estimated thirty-eight 
leagues. The portage is at 43 deg. 24 miu. iiortli 

" Tlie Mississippi from the mouth of the Ouis- 
consin ascending, goes northwest. This beauti- 
ful river extends between two chains of high, 
bare and very sterile mountains, constantly a 
league, three-(iuarters of a league, or where it is 
narrowest, half a league apart. Its centre is oc- 
cupied by a chain of well wooded islands, .so that 
regarding from the heiglits above, you would 
think you saw an endless valley watered on the 
right and left by two large rivers ; sometimes, too, 
you could discern no river. These islands are 
overflowed every year, and woukl be adapted to 
raising rice. Fiftj'-eight leagues from the mouth 
of the Ouisconsin, according to my calculation,*^ 
ascending the Mississippi, is Lake I'eiiin. which 
is nothing else l)ut the river itself, destitute of 
islands at that point, wliere it may be half a 
league wide. This river, in what I traversed of 
it, is sliallow, and has shoals in .several places, be- 
cause its bed is moving sands, like tliat of the 

'■On the ITtli of September. 1727, at noon, we 
reached tliis lake, which had been chosen as the 
bourne of our voyage. We planted ourselves on 
the shore about the middle of the north side, on 
a low point, where the soil is excellent. Tlie 
wood is very dense there, but is already thinned 
in consequence of the rigor and h'ngtli of tlie 
whiter, whicli has been severe for the climate, 
for we are here on the parallel of 43 deg. 41 niin. 
It is true that the difference of the winter is 
great compared to that of C^uebec and Montreal, 
for all that some poor judges say. 

" From the day after our landing we put our 
axes to the wood: on the fourth day folk)wing 
the fort w-as entirely finished. It is a square plat 

of one hundred feet, surrounded by pickets twelve 
feet long, with two good bastions. For so small 
a space there are large buildings quite distinct and 
not huddled together, each thirty, thirty-eight 
and twenty-live feet long by sixteen feet wide. 

" All would go well there if the spot were not 
inundated, but this year [1728], on the loth of 
the month of .Vpril, we were obliged to camp out, 
and the water ascended to the height of two feet 
and eight inches in the houses, and it is idle to 
say that it was the quantity of snow that fell 
this year. The snow in the vicinity had melted 
long lu'fore. and tliere was only a foot and a half 
from tlie stli of February to the loth of March; 
you could not use snow-shoes. 

" I have great reason to think that this spot is 
inundated more or less every year; 1 have always 
thought so, but they were not obliged to believe 
me. as old people who said that they had lived in 
this region lifteen or twenty years declared that 
it was never overflowed. Wo could not enter 
our much-devastated houses until the 3(lth of 
April, and the disorder is even now scarcely re- 

" Before.the end of October [1727] all the houses 
were linished and furnished, and each one found 
himself tranquilly lodged at home. They then 
thought only of going out to explore the hills and 
rivers and to see those herds of all kinds of deer 
of which they tell such stories in Canada. They 
must have retired, or diminished greatly, since 
the time the old voyagcura left the coimtry; they 
are no longer in such great numbers, and are 
killed with dilliculty. 

"After beating the field, for some time, all re- 
assembled at tlie fort, and thought of enjoying a 
nttle the fruit of their labors. On the 4th of No- 
vember we did not forget it was the General's 
birthday. Mass was said for liini [Heauharuois, 
(iovernor-lieneral of Canada] in the morning, 
and they were well disposed to celebrate the day 
in the evening, but the tardiness of the pyro- 
technists and the inconstancy of the weather 
caused them to postiione the celebration to the 
14th of the same month, when they set oil some 
very line rockets and made the air ring with an 
hundred shouts of Vive le Jiai/ ! und Vi re Charles 
lie Jkiiiihiinwis! It was on tills occasion that the 
wine of the Sioux was broiiched; it was j^ar ex- 



cellence, although there are no vrmes here finer 
than in Canada. 

•• AVliat contributeil much to the amusement. 
was the terror of some cabins of Indians, wlio 
■were at tlie time around tlie fort. "Wlien tliese 
poor people saw the fireworks in the air, and the 
stars fall from heaven, the women and children 
began to take flight, and the most courageous of 
the men to cry mercy, and implore us very earn- 
estly to stop the surprising play of that wonder- 
ful medicine. 

"As soon as we arrived among them, they as- 
sembled, in a few days, around the French fort to 
the number of ninety-five cabins, which might 
make in all one hundred and fifty men; for there 
are at most two men in their portable cabins of 
dressed skins, and in many there is only one 
This is all we have seen except a band of about 
sixty men, who came on the 26th of the month of 
February, who were of those nations caUed Sioux 
of the Prairies. 

" At the end of November, the Indians set out 
for their winter quarters. They do not, indeed, 
go far. and we saw some of them all through the 
winter: but from the second of the month of 
April last, when some cabins repassed here to go 
in search of them, pie"] sought them in vain, du- 
ring a week, for more than sixty leagues of the 
Mississippi. He [La PerriereV] arrived yesterday 
without any tidings of them. 
I " Although I said above, that the SioiLx were 
alarmed at the rockets, which they took for new 
phenomena, it must not be supposed from that 
they were less inteUigent than other Indians we 
know. They seem to me more so ; at least they 
are much gayer and open, apparently, and far 
more dextrous thieves, great dancers, and great 
medicine men. The men are almost all large and 
well made, but the women are very ugly and dis- 
gustmg, which does not, however, check debauch- 
ery among them, and is jierhaps an effect of it." 

In the summer of 172IS tlie Jesuit De Gonor 
left the fort on Lake I'epin. and, by way of ]Mack- 
inaw, returned to Canada. The Foxes had now 
become very troublesome, and De Lignery and 
Beaujeu marched against their stronghold, to find 
they had retreated to the Mississippi River. 

On the 12th of October. Boucherville. his bro- 
ther Montbrun, a young cadet of enterprising 
spirit, the Jesuit Guignas, and other Frenchmen, 

eleven in all. left Fort Pepin to go to Canada, by 
way of the Illinois Eiver. They were captured 
by the ilascoutens and Kickapoos. and detained 
at the river •• Au Boeuf ." which stream was prob- 
ably the one mentioned by Le Sueur as twenty- 
two leagues above the IlUnois Kiver, although the 
same name was g'ven by Hennepin to the Chip- 
pewa River, just below Lake Pepin. They were 
held as prisoners, with the ■Niew of delivering 
tliem to the Foxes. The night before tlie deliv- 
ery the Sieur Montbnni and his brother and an- 
other Frenchman escaped. Montbrun, leaving 
his sick brotlier in the Illinois country, journeyed 
to Canada and informed the autliorities. 

Boucherville and Guignas remained prisoners 
for several months, and the former did not reach 
Detroit until June, 1729. The account of expen- 
ditures made during his captivity is interesting as 
showing the value of merchandize at that time. 
It reads as follows: 

'■ ^Memorandum of the goods that ^lonsieur de 
Boucherville was obliged to furnish in the ser- 
vice of the King, from the time of his detention 
among the Kickapoos. on the 12tli of October, 
172S, until his return to Detroit, in the year 1729, 
in the month of Jime. On arriving at the Kick- 
apoo village, he made a present to the yoinig men 
to secure their opposition to some evil minded 
old warriors — 
Two barrels of powder, each fifty pounds 

at Montreal price, valued at the sum of 150 liv. 
One hundred pounds of lead and balls 

making tlie sum of 50 liv. 

Fovir pomids of vermillion. at 12 francs 

the poinid 48 fr. 

Four coats, braided, at twenty francs. . . 80 fr. 
Six dozen knives at four francs the dozen 24 f r. 
Four hundred flints, one hundred gun- 
worms, two Inmdred ramrods and one 
hundred and fifty files, the total at the 

maker's prices 90 liv. 

After the Kickapoos refused to deliver them to 
the Renards [Foxes] they wished some favors, and 
I was obliged to give them the following which 
would allow iliem to weep over and cover tlieir 

Two braided coats (a 20 fr. each 40fr. 

Two woolen blankets (« 15 fr 30 

One hundred pounds of powder (a, 30 sons 75 
One hmidred pounds of lead @ 10 sous . . 25 



Two pounds of vermillion @ 12 fr 24fr. 

Moreover, given to the Renards to cover 
their dead and prepare tliem for peace, 

fifty pounds of powder, making 75 

One hundred pounds of lead {w 10 sous. oO 

Two pounds of vermillion (a 12 fr 21 

During tlie winter a considerable party was 
sent to strike hands with the Illinois. Given at 
that time : 

Two blue blankets @ 15 fr 30 

Four men's sliirts (« f r 24 

Four paire of long-necked bottles (g) 6 fr 24 

Four dozen of knives (n 4 f r 16 

Gun-worms, liles, ramrods, and flints, es- 
timated 40 

Given to engage the Kickapoos to establish 
themselves upon a neighboring isle, to protect 
from the treachery of the Kenards— 

Four blankets, (a) 15f 60f 

Two pairs of bottles. 6f 24 

Two pounds'of vermillion, 12f 24 

Four dozen butcher knives, 6f 24 

Two woolen blankets, (w \6i 30 

Four pairs of bottles, (o) 6f 24 

Four shirts, (li 6f 24 

Four dozen of knives, (a) 4f 16 

The Kenards having betrayed and killed their 
brothers, the Kickapoos, I seized the favorable 
opportunity, and to encourage the latter to avenge 
themselves, I gave — 
Twenty-five pounds of powder, @ 30sous 37f.l0s. 

Twenty-five pounds of lead, (w 10s I2f.lOs. 

Two guns at HO livres each 60f 

One half pound of vermillion 6f 

Flints, guns, worms and knives 20f 

The Illinois coming to the Kikapoos vil- 
lage. I supported them at my expense, 
and gave them powder, lialls and shirts 

valued at oOf 

In departing from the Kikajioos village, I 
gave them the rest of the goods for 

their good treatment, estimated at 80f 

In a letter, written by a priest, at Xew Orleans, 
on July 12. 1730, is the following exaggerated ac- 
count of the capture of Father (iuignas: " We 
always felt a distrust of the Fox Imlians, although 
they did not longer dare to undertake anything, 
since Father (iuignas has detached from their al- 
liance the tribes of the Kikai>ous and Maskoutins. 
You know, my Reverend Father, that, being in 

Canada, he had the courage to penetrate even to 
the Sioux near the sources of the Jlississippi, at 
the distance of eight hundred leagues from Xew 
Orle;uis and live hiuidred from (Quebec. Obliged 
to abandon this important mission by the luifor- 
tunate result of the enterprise against the Foxes, 
he descended the river to repair to the Illinois. 
On the loth of October in the year 172K he was 
arrested when half way by the Kickapous and 
Maskoutins. For four months he was a captive 
among the Indians, where he had much to suffer 
and everything to fear. The time at last came 
when he was to be burned aUve, when he was 
adopted by an old man whose family saved his 
life and i)rocured his liberty. 

"Our missionaries who are among tlie Illinois 
were no sooner acquainted with the situation 
than they procured him all the alleviation they 
were able. Everything w liich he received he em- 
ployed to conciliate the Indians, and succeeded 
to the extent of engaging them to conduct him to 
the Illinois to make peace with the French and 
Indians of this region. Seven or eight months 
after this peace was concluded, the Maskoutins 
and Kikapons returned again to the Illinois coun- 
try, and took back Father Guignas to spend the 
winter, from whence, m all probability, he will 
return to Canada." 

In dispatches sent to France, in October, 1729, 
by the Canadian government, the following refer- 
ence is made to Fort Beauharnois : " They agree 
that the fort built among the Scioux, on the bor- 
der of Lake Pepin, appears to be badly situated 
on account of the freshets, but the Indians assure 
that the waters rose higher in 172« than it ever 
did before. When Sieur de Laperriere located it 
;it that place it was on the assurance of the In- 
dians that the waters did not rise so high." In 
reference to the absence of Indians, is the fol- 
lowing : 

'•It is very true that these Indians did leave 
shortly after on a hunting excursion, as they are 
in the habit of doing, for their own support and 
that of theii- families, who have only that means 
of livelihood, as they do not cultivate the soil at 
all. M. de IJeauharnois has just lieen informed 
that tliiir absence was occasioned only by having 
fallen in while lumling w'ith a nimiber of prairie 
Scioux. by whom they were invited to occompany 
them (in a war expedition against the Malias, 



which invitation they accepted, and retunied 
only in the month of July following. 

•■ The interests of religion, of the service, and 
of the colony, are involved in the maintenance of 
this establishment, which has been the more nec- 
essary as there is no doubt but the Foxes, when 
routed, would have found an asylum among the 
Scioux had not the French been settled there, 
and the docility and submission manifested by 
the Foxes can not be attributed to any cause ex- 
cept the attention entertained by the Scioux for 
the French, and the offers which the former 
made the latter, of which the Foxes were fully 

" It is necessary to retain the Scioux m these 
favorable dispositions, m order to keep the Foxes 
in check and comiteract the measures they might 
adopt to gain over the Scioux, who will invaria- 
bly reject their propositions so long as the French 
remain in the country, and their trading post 
shall continue there. But, despite all these ad- 
vantages and the importance of preserving that 
establishment, il. de Beauhamois cannot take 
any steps until he has news of the French who 
asked his permission tliis summer to go up there 
with a canoe load of goods, and imtil assured that 
those who wintered there have not dismantled 
the fort, and that the Scioux continue in the same 
sentiments. Besides, it does not seem very easy, 
in the present conjuncture, to maintain that post 
imless there is a solid peace with the Foxes; on 
the other hand, the greatest portion of the tra- 
ders. Avho applied in 17-7 for the establishment 
of that post, have withdraviii, and will not send 
thither any more, as the rupture with the Foxes, 
through whose country it is necessary to pass in 
order to reach the Scioux in canoe, has led them 
to abandon the idea. But the one and the other 
case might be remedied. The Foxes will, in all 
probability, come or send next year to sue for 
peace; therefore, if it be granted to them on ad- 
vantageous conditions, there need be no appre- 
hension when going to the Sioux, and another 
company could be formed, less numerous than 
the first, through whom, or some responsible mer- 
chants able to afford the outfit, a new treaty 
coiild be made, whereby these cUfBculties would 
be soon obviated. One only trouble remains, and 
that is, to send a commanding and sub-otHcer, 
and some soldiers, up there, which are absolutely 

necessary for the maintenance of good order at 
that post; the missionaries would not go there 
wthout a conmiandant. This article, which re- 
gards the service, and the expense of which must 
be on his majesty's account, obliges them to ap- 
ply for orders. They will, as far as Ues in their 
power, induce the traders to meet that expense, 
which will possibly amount to lOUO livres or 
1500 livres a year for the commandant, and in 
proportion for the ofTicer under him; but. as in 
the beginning of an establishment the expenses 
exceed the profits, it is improbable that any com- 
pany of merchants will assume the outlay, and 
in this case they demand orders on this point, as 
well as his majesty's opinion as to the necessity 
of preser\'ing so useful a post, and a nation which 
has already afforded proofs of its fidelity and at- 

'• These orders could be sent them by the way 
of He Royale, or by the first merchantmen that 
will sail for Quebec. The time required to re- 
ceive intelligence of the occurrences in the Scioux 
country, will admit of their waiting for these 
orders before doing anything." 

Sieur de la Jemeraye, a relative of Sieur de la 
l^erriere ]5ouclipr. with a few French, during the 
troubles remained in the Sioux country. After 
peace was established witli tlie Foxes, Legardeur 
Saint Pierre was in command at Fort Beauhar- 
nois, and Father Guignas again attempted to es- 
tablish a Sioux mission. In a communication 
dated 12th of October. 1736, by the Canadian au- 
thorities is the following: ■•In regard to the 
Scioux, Saint Pierre, who commanded at that 
post, and Father Guignas. the missionary, have 
written to Sieur de Beauharnois on the tenth and 
eleventh of last April, that these Indians ap- 
peared well intentioned toward the French, and 
had no other fear than that of being abandoned 
by them. Sieur de Beauharnois annexes an ex- 
tract of these letters, and although the Scioux 
seem very friendly, the result only can tell whether 
this fidelity is to be absolutely depended upon, 
for the mirestrained and inconsistent spirit which 
composes the Indian character may easily change 
it. They have not come over this summer as yet, 
but M. de la St. Pierre is to get them to do so 
next year, and to have an eye on their proceed- 

The reply to this communication from Louis 



XV. dated Versailles, May 10th. 1787, was in 
these words : " As respects the Scioux, according 
to what the commandant and missionary at that 
post have written to Siciir de lieaiiharnois rela- 
tive to the disposition of these Indians, nothiui^ 
appears to be wanting on that jioint. 

'■ Bnt their delay in coming down to Montreal 
since the time they have i)romise(l to do so. must 
render their sentiments somewhat suspected, and 
nothing bnt facts can determine whether their 
liilelity can be absolutely relied on. But what 
must still further increase the tmeasiness to be 
entertained in their regard is the attack on the 
convoy of M. de A'erandrie, especially if this officer 
has adopteil the course he had informed the 
Manpiis de IJeauharnois he sliould lake to have 
revenge therefor." 

The particulars of the attack alluded to will be 
found in the next chapter. Soon after this tlie 
Foxes again became troublesome, and the post on 
Lake Pepin was for a time abandoned by the 
French. A dispatch in 1741 uses this language : 
" The Manpiis de Ueauharuois" opinion respect- 
ing the war against tlie Foxes, has been tlie more 
readily approved by the Baron de Longeuil, 
Messieurs De la Chassaigne, La Come, de Lig- 
nery. LaXoue, and Duplessis-Fabert. whom he 
had assembled at his house, as it appears from 
all the letters that the Count has wri'.. 'n for sev- 
eral years, that he has notliing so much at heart as 
the destruction of that Indian nation, whicli can 
not be prevailed on by tlie presents and the good 
treatment of the French, to live in peace, not- 
withstanding all its imiinises. 

'• Besides, it is notorious that the Foxes have a 
secret understanding with tlie Iroquois, to seciii'c 
a retreat among the latter, in case they be obliged 
to abandon Dicir villages. They have one already 
secured among the Sioux of the prairies, witli 
whom they are allied ; so that, should they be 

advised beforehand of the design of the French 
to wag(! war against them, it would be easj' for 
them to retire to the one or the other before their 
passage could be intersected or themselves atr 
tacked in their villages." 

In the summer of 1743, a deputation of the 
•Sioux came down to (iuehec. to ask that trade 
might be resumed. Three years after this, four 
Sioux chiefs came to (Quebec, and asked that a 
commandant might be sent to Fort Beauharnois ; 
which was not granted. 

During the winter of 174")-(), De Lusigiian vis- 
ited the Sioux country, ordered by the govern- 
ment to hunt up the ■■coureurs des bois," and 
withdraw them from the country. They started 
to return with him, but learning that they would 
be arrested at Mackinaw, for violation of law, 
they ran away. AVhile at the villages of the Sioux 
of the lakes and plains, tlie chiefs brought to 
this ollicer nineteen of their young men, bound 
with cords, who had killed three Frenchmen, at 
the Illinois. While he remained with them, they 
made peace with the ()jil)wa.\s of La Pointe, 
with whom they had been at war for some time. 
On his return, four chiefs accompanied him to 
Montreal, to solicit pardon for their young braves. 

The lessees of tlie trading-post lost many of 
their peltries that winter in consequence of a fire. 

Reminiscences of St. Pierre's residence at Lake 
Pepin were long jiresei-ved. Carver, in 17()(), "ob- 
served the ruins of a French factory, where, it 
is said. Captain St. Pierre resided, and carried on 
a great trade with the Nadouessies before the re- 
duction of Canada." 

Pike, in l.sor,, wrote in his journal: ■■ -lust !)<■- 
low Pt. Le Sable, the French, who had driven the 
Kenards [Foxes] from Wisconsin, and chased 
tliem up the Mississippi. Imilt a stockade on this 
lake, as a barrier against the savages. It became 
a noted factory for the Sioux." 






CoDverstttioD of Verendryc with y.ithcr Dp Honor.— PariMiUBe and Early Life — 
Old Indian Map Preserved. — Verendrye's Son and >'cldiew Explore Ptfeon 
Itiver and Reach Rainy I jike. — Father Messayer a Companion. — Fort St. Pierre 
Estaldished.— Lake of Ihe Woo<ls Reached and Fort St. Charles Built.— De la 
Jemeraye's Map. — Fort on the Assinalioinc River. — Verendrye's Son, Father 
Ouneau and Associ.ates Killed hy Stoox, on Massacre Isle, in Lidte ofthe WiHids^ 
— Fort La Reine.— Verendrye's Eldest Son, with Others, Reaches the Missouri 
River. — Discovers the Rocky Mountains. — Returns to Lake of the Woods. - 
Exploration of Saskatchewan River. —Sieur de la Verendryc Jr.— Verendrye 
the Father, made Captain of the Order of St. Louis.— His Death.— The Swedish 
Traveler, Kalm, Notices Verendrye,- Boueainville Describes Verendrye's Ex- 
plorations. — Legardeur de St. Pierre at Fort La Reine. — Fort Jonquiere EstJih- 
lished.— De la Come Succeeds St. Pierre. — St. Pierre Sleets Washintjton at 
French Creek, in Pennsylvania.— Killed in Battle, near Lake George. 

Early in the year 1728, two travelers met at 
the secluded post of JIackiuaw. one was named 
De Gonor. a .Jesuit Father, wlio with Guignas, 
had gone with the expedition, tliat the September 
before had buUt Port Beauharnois on the sliores 
of Lake Pepin, the other was Pierre Gualtier "\^a- 
reiines. the Sieur de la "N'erendrye the commander 
of the post on Luke Nepigon of the iiortli shore 
of Lake Superior, and a relative of the Sieur de 
laPerriere, the commander at Lake Pepin. 

Verendrye was the son of Rene Gualtier Va- 
rennes who for twenty-two years was the chief 
magistrate at Three Rivers, whose vdte was Ma- 
rie Boucher, the daughter of his predecessor 
wliom he had married when she was twelve years 
of age. He became a cadet in I'lUT, and in 1704 
accompanied an expedition to Xew England. 
The next year he was in Newfoundland and the 
year followuig he went to France, joined a regi- 
ment of Brittany and was in the conflict at Mal- 
plaquet when the French troops were defeated 
by the Duke of Marlliorough. When he returned 
to Canada he was obliged to accept the position 
of ensign notwithstanding the gallant manner in 
which he had behaved. In time he became iden- 
tified witli tlie Lake Superior region. While at 
Lake Nepigon the Indians assured him that there 
was a communication largely by water to the 
Pacific Ocean. One, named Ochagaehs, drew a 
rude map of tlie country, which is still preserved 
among the French archives. Pigeon River is 

marked thereon :Mantohavagaue, and the Elver 
St. Louis is marked- R. fond du L. Superior, and 
the Indians appeal- to have passed from its head- 
waters to Raiii\- Lake. Upon the western ex- 
tremity is marked the River of the West. 

De Gonor conversed much upon the route to 
the Pacific with A'erendrye. and promised to use 
his influence with the Canadian autliorities to 
advance the project of exploration. 

Charles De Beauharnois, the Governor of Can- 
ada, gave ■\^erendrye a respectful hearing, and 
carefully examineil tlie map of the region west of 
the great lakes, wliiili had been drawii by Ochar 
gachs (Otchaga). tlie Indian guide. Orders were 
soon given to tit out an expedition of fifty men. 
It left in 17.S1. under the conduct of his 
sons and nephew De la Jemeraye.he not joining 
the party till 1733, Ln consequence of the deten- 
tions of business. 

In llie autumn of 1731. the party reached Rainy 
Lake, by tlie Nantoua.gan. or Groselliers river, 
now called Pigeon. Father Messayer. who had 
been stationed on Lake Superior, at the Grosel- 
liers river, was taken as a spiritual guide. At 
the foot of Rainy Lake a post was erected and 
called Fort St. Pierre, and the next year, having 
crossed ^liiuttie, or L;ike of the Woods, tliey es- 
tablished Fort St. Charles on its southwestern 
bank. Five leagues from Lake Wimiipeg they 
estaljlished a post on the Assinaboine. An un- 
published map of these discoveries by De la .Jem- 
eraye still exists at Paris. The river Winnipeg, 
called by them Maurepas, in honor of the minis- 
ter of France in 1734, was protected by a fort of 
tlie same name. 

Aliout this time their advance was stopped by 
the exhaustion of supplies, but on the 12th of 
April, 1735. an arrangement was made for a sec- 
ond etpiipment. and a fourth sou joined the expe- 

In .Jiiiii'. 173(1, while twenty-one of the expedi- 



tion were camiied upon an isle in tlic Lake of the 
AVoods, they were surprised by a band of Sioux 
hostile to the French allies, the' Cristinaux, ami 
all killed. The island, upon this account, is 
called Massacre Island. A few days after, a 
party of five Canadian voyageurs discovered their 
dead bodies and scalped heads. Father Ouneau, 
the missionary, was foun<l upon one knee, an ar- 
row in his head, his breast bare, his left hand 
touching the ground, and the right hand raised. 

Among the slaughtered was also a son of Ver- 
endrye. who had a tomahawk in his back, and liis 
body adorned with garters and bracelets of porcu- 
pine. The father was at the foot of the Lake of 
the "Woods when lie received the news of his son's 
murder, and about the same time heard of the 
death of his entei-prising nephew, Dufrost de la 
Jenieraye, the son of his sister Marie Reine de 
Varennes, and brother of JIadame Youville, the 
foundress of the Hospitallers at ^Montreal. 

It was under the guidance of the latter that 
the party had, in 1731, mastered the difficulties 
of the Xautaouagon, or (Jroselliers river. 

On the 3d of October. 173S. they built an ad- 
vanced post. Fort Lu Heine, on the river Assini- 
boels, now Assinaboine, which they called St 
Charles, and beyond was a branch called St. 
Pierre. These two rivere received tlie baptismal 
name of A'crendrye. which was Pierre, and (Jov- 
enior Beauharuois. which was Charles. The post 
became the centre of trade and point of departure 
for explorations, either north or south. 

It was by ascending the Assinaboine, and b\- 
the present trail from its tributary, Jfouse river, 
they readied llie country of the ^laiitaiies. and in 
1741, came to Ww n|iper Missouri, passed the Yel- 
low Stone, and at length arrived at the Rocky 
Mountains. The party was led by the eldest son 
and his Virother, the chevalier. They left the 
Lake of the AVoods on the :;uih of April, 1742, 
came in sight of the Rocky Jlountains on the 1st 
of .January, 1743, and on the 1:2th ascended them. 
On the route they fell in with the IJeaiix llom- 
mes, Pioya, Petits Renards, and Arc tribes, and 
stopped among the Snake tribe, but could go no 
farther in a southerly direction, owing to a war 
between the Ares and Snakes. 

On the 19th of May, 1744, they had returned to 
the upper ^Missouri, and, in the country of the 
Petite Cerise tribe, they planted on an eminence 

a leaden plate of the arms of France, and raised 
a monument of stones, which they called Beau- 
haruois. They returned to the Lake of the Woods 
on the 2d of .July. 

North of the Assiniboine they proceeded to 
Lake Dauphin, Swan's Lake, explored the riv- 
er " Ues Biches," and ascended even to the 
fork of the Saskatchewan, which they csdled Pos- 
koiac. Two forts were subsequently established, 
one near Lake Dauphin and the other on the 
river " des Biches," called Fort Bourbon. The 
northern route, by the Saskatchewan, was thought 
to have some advantage over the ^Missouri, be- 
cause there was no danger of meeting with the 

Governor Beaidiamois having been prejudiced 
against Verendrye by envious persons, De Noy- 
elles was appointed to take command of the 
posts. During these diflicullies, we Und Sieur de 
la Verendrye, Jr., engaged in other duties. In 
August, 1747, he arrives from Mackinaw at Mon- 
treal, and in the autumn of that year he accom- 
panies St.- Pierre to Mackinaw, and brings l)ack 
the convoy to Montreal. In February, 174K, witli 
live Canadians, five Cristenaux, two Ottawas, and 
one Sauteur, he attacked the ]\rohawks near 
Schenectady, and returned to Montreal with two 
scalps, one that of a chief. On .June 20th, 1748, 
it is recorded that Chevalier de la Verendrye de- 
parted from Montreal for the head of Lake Supe- 
rior. Margry states that he perished at sea in 
November, 17U4, by the wreck of the •• Auguste."' 

Fortunately, Galissioniere the successor of 
T5eauharnois. although deformed and insigiiiti- 
cant in appearance, was fair minded, a lover of 
science, especially botany, and anxious to push 
discoveries toward the Pacilic. Verendrye the 
father was restored to favor, and made Captain 
of the Order of St. Louis, and ordered to resume 
explorations, but he died on Decemlier (ith, 1749, 
while planning a tour up the Saskatchewan. 

The Swedish Professor. Kalm.met liiin in Can- 
ada, not long before his decease, ami lia<l inter- 
estuig conversations with hiui about Un' furrows 
on the plains of the Missouri, wliich he errone- 
ously conjectured indicated the former abode of 
an agricultural people. Tliese ruts are familiar 
to modern travelers, ami may be only buffalo 

Father Coquard. wno had been associated with 



Verendrye. says that they first met the Mantanes, 
aud next the Brochets. After these were the 
Gros A'entres. tlie Crows, the Flat Heads, the 
Black Feet, and Dog Feet, who were establislied 
on the Mi.ssouri, even up to the falls, and tliat 
about thirty leagues beyond they found a narrow 
pass in the uniuntains. 

Boujiainville gives a more f tdl account: he says: 
"He who most advanced this discovery was 
the Sieur de la "V'eranderie. He went from Fort 
la Reine to the Missouri. He met on the banks 
of this river the Mandans, or "Wliite Beards, who 
had seven villages with pine stockades, strength- 
ened by a ditch. Next to these were the Kinon- 
gewiniris. or the Brochets, in three villages, and 
toward the upper part of the river were three 
villages of the Mahantas. All along the mouth 
of the Wabeik, or Shell Elver, were situated 
twenty-three villages of the Panis. To the south- 
west of this river, on the banks of the Ouanarade- 
ba, or La Graisse, are the Ilectanes or Snake 
tribe. They extend to the base of a chain of 
mountains which runs nfirth northeast. South 
of tills is the river Karoskiou, or Cerise Pelee, 
which is supposed to flow to California. 

■■ lie found in the immense region watered by 
the Missouri, and in the vicinity of forty leagues, 
the Mahantas, the Owiliniock, or Beaux Ilom- 
mes. four villages; opposite the Brochets the Black 
Feet, three villages of a hundred lodges each; op- 
posite the Mandans are the Ospekakaerenonsques. 
or Flat Heals, four villages; opposite tha Panis 
are the Arcs of Cristinaux, and Utasibaoutchatas 
of Assinilwel, tln-ee villages; following these the 
Makesch, or Little Foxes, two villages; the Pi- 
wassa, or great talkers, three villages; the Ka- 
kokoschena. or Gens de la Pie. five villages; the 
Kiskipisounouini., or the Garter tribe, seven vil- 

Galassoniere was succeeded by Jonquiere in 
the governorship of Canada, who proved to be a 
grasping, ))eevish, and very miserly person. For 
the sons of A'erendrye he had no sympathy, and 
forming a clique to profit by their father "s toUs, 

he determined to send two expedititins toward 
the I'acilic Ocean, one by the Missouri aud the 
other by the Saskatchewan. 

Father Cocpiard, one of the companions of Ye- 
rendrye, was consulted as to the probability of 
finding a pass in the Rocky Momitaias, through 
which they might, in canoes, reach the great 
lake of salt water, perhaps Pugefs Somid. 

The enterprise was at length confided to two 
experienced officers, Lamarque de Marin and 
Jacipies Legardeur de Saint Pierre. The former 
was assigned the way, by the Missouri, and to 
the latter was given the more northern route; 
but Saint Pierre in some way exciteil the hostil- 
ity of the Cristinaux, who attempted to kill him. 
and burned Fort la Heine. His lieutenant, Bou- 
cher de Kiverville, who had been sent to establish 
a post toward the som'ce of the Saskatchewan, 
failed on accoimt of sickness. Some of his men. 
however, pushed on to the Rocky Momitains. 
and in 1753 established Fort Jonqiuere. Hem'y 
says St. Pierre established Fort Bourbon. 

In 17-")o, Saint Pierre was succeeded in the 
command of the posts of the "West, by de la 
(.'oriie, and sent to French Creek, in Pemisylva- 
nia. He had been but a few days there when he 
received a visit from Washington, just entering 
upon manhood, bearing a letter from Governor 
Dinwiddie of Virginia, complaining of the en 
croachments of the French. 

Soon the clash of arms between France and 
England began, and Saint Pierre, at the head of 
the Lidian allies, fell near Lake George, in Sep- 
tember. 1 Too. in a l)attle with the English. After 
the seven years' war was concluded, by the treaty 
of Paris, the French relinquished all their posts 
in the Northwest, and the work begun by Veren- 
drye, was, in 1805, completed by Lewis and 
Clarke ; and the Northern Pacific Railway is fast 
approaching the passes of the Rocky Mountains, 
through the valley of the Yellow Stone, and from 
thence to the great land-locked bay of the ocean, 
Puget's Sound. 





English Intlii<>nce Increasing. —Lc Due Robbed at Uke Superior.— St. Pierre at 
Mack-naw. — Escape of Indian Prisoners.— URoude and Verendrye.— Influence 
of Sieur Marin.— St, Pierre Recalled from Winnipeg Region.— Interview with 
Washington. — Ijinglade Ur^es Attack Upon Troops of Bniddock. — .Saint Pierro 
Killed in Battle.— Marin's Bold^c^8.— Rogers, a Partisan Ranger, Commands at 
JIackinaw.— At Ticonderoga.— French Deliver up the Posts in Cuna*Ia. -Capt. 
Balfour Takes Possession of Mackinaw and Green Bay.— Lieut. Oorrell in Com. 
maud at Green Buy.-Siou.t Visit Green Bay.— Pennensha a French Trader 
Anions the Sioux.— Treaty ofParis. inlluence produced increasiug dissatis- 
faction among tlie Indians that were beyond 
Mackinaw. >;ot only were tlie voyageurs rolibed 
and maltreated at Sault St. Marie and other points 
on Lake Superior, but even the commandant at 
Mackinaw was exposed to insolence, and there 
was no security anywhere. 

On the twenty-third of August, 1747, Philip Le 
Due arri\ed at Mackinaw from Lake Superior, 
stating that he had been robbed of his goods at 
Kamanistigoya, and that the Ojibways of the 
lake were fa\-orably disposed toward the English. 
The Dahkolalis were also becoming unruly in the 
absence of French ofHcers. 

In a few weeks after Le Due's robbery, St. 
Pierre left Montreal to become commandant at 
Mackinaw, and \'ercheres was appointed for the 
post at Green Bay. In the language of a docu- 
ment of the day, St. Pierre was •' a very good 
officer, much esteemed among all the nations of 
those parts ; none more loved and feared."' On 
his arrival, the savages were so cross, that he ad- 
vi.sed that no Erenchman should come to trade. 

By jiromptness and boldness, he secured the 
Indians who had murdered some Frenchmen, 
and obtaint (i the respect of the tribes. AVliile 
the three murderers were being conveyed in a 
canoe down the St. Lawrence to Quebec, in charge 
of a sergeant and seven soldiers, the savages, witli 
characteristic cunning, though manacled, suc- 
ceeded in killing or drowning the guard. Cutting 
their irons with an axe, they sought the woods, 
and escaped to their own country. "Thus," 
writes Galassouiere, in 1748, to Count Maurepas, 

was lost in a great measure the fruit of Sieur St. 
Pierre's good management, and of all the fatigue 
I endiu'ed to get the nations who surrendered 
these rascals to listen to reason." 

On the twenty-lirst of June of the next year, 
La Roude started to La Pouite, and A'erendrye 
for West Sea, or Fon du Lac, Minnesota. 

Under the influence of Sieur Marin, who was 
in command at Green Bay in 1753, peaceful re- 
lations were in a measure restored between the 
French and Indians. 

As the war between England and France deep- 
ened, the officers of the distant French posts 
were called in and stationed nearer the enemy. 
Legardeur St. Pierre, was brought from the Lake 
Winnipeg region, and, in December, 17.53, was in 
command of a rude post near Erie, I'ennsylvania. 
Langlade, of Green Bay, Wisconsin, arrived early 
in July, 175.5, at Fort Duquesne. With Beauyeu 
and De Lignery, who had been engaged in light>- 
ing the Fox Indians, he left that fort, at nine 
o'clock of the morning of the 9th of July, and, a 
little after noon, came near the English, who had 
halted on the south shore of the Monongaliela, 
and were at dinner, with their arms stacked. By 
the urgent entreaty of Langlade, the western 
half-breed, Beauyeu. the officer in commaml or- 
dered an attack, and Braildock was overwhelmed, 
and Washington was obliged to say, " We have 
been beaten, shamefully beaten, by a handful of 

Under Baron Dieskau, St. Pierre commanded 
the Indians, in September. 17.55. during the cam- 
liaigii near Lake George, where he fell gallantly 
tightmg the EngUsh, as did his cominamler. 
The Rev, Claude Coquard, alluding to the French 
defeat, in a letter to his brother, remarks: 

■■ We lost, on that occasion, a brave officer. M. 
de St. Pierre, and had his advice, as well as that 
of several other Canadian officers, been followed, 
Jonckson [Johnson] was irretrievably destroyed, 



and we should have been spared the trouble we 
have had this year."' 

Other officei-s who had been stationed on the 
borders of iliiinesota also distinguished them- 
selves during the French war. Tlie ^larquis 
Montcalm, in camp at Ticonderoga, on the twen- 
ty-seventh of July, 17.57, wi'ites to VaudreuU, 
Governor of Canada: 

'• Lieutenant Marin, of the Colonial troops, who 
has exhil)itpd a rare audacity, did not consider 
himself bound to halt, although Ins detachment 
of about four hundred men was reduced to about 
two hundred, the balance having been sent back 
on account of inability to follow. He carried off 
a patrol of ten men, and swept away an ordinary 
guard of fifty like a wafer; went up to the en- 
emy's camp, under Fort Lydias (Edward), where 
he was exposed to a severe fire, and retreated like 
a warrior. He was ruiwilUng to amuse himself 
making prisoners; he brought in only one, and 
thirty-two scalps, and must have killed many men 
of the enemy, in the midst of whose ranks it was 
neither wise nor ]>ru(lent to go in search of scalps. 
The Indians generally all behaved well. * * * 
The Outaouais, who arrived with me, and whom 
I designed to go on a scouting party towards the 
lake, had conceived a project of administering a 
corrective to the English barges. * * * On 
tlie day before yesterday, your brother formed a 
detachment to accompany them. I arrived at his 
camp on the evening of the same day. Lieuten- 
ant de Corbiere. of the Colonial troops, was re- 
turning, in consequence of a misunderstanding, 
and as I knew the zeal and intelligence of that 
officer, I made him set out with a new instruc- 
tion to join Messrs de Langlade and Hertel de 
Chantly. They remained in ambush all day and 
night yesterday; at break of day the English ap- 
peared on Lake St. Saci-ament. to the number of 
twenty-two barges, under the command of Sieur 
Parker. The whoops of our Indians impressed 
them with such teiTor that they made but feeble 
resistance, and only two barges escaped." 

After De Corbiere's victory on Lake Cham- 
plain, a large French army was collected at Ti- 
conderoga. with which there were many Indians 
from the tribes of the X orthwest. and the loways 
appeared for the first time in the east. 

It is an interesting fact that the English offi- 
cers who were in frequent engagements with St. 

Pierre, Lusignan, Marin, Langlade, and others, 
became the pioneers of the British, a few years 
afterwards, in the occupation of the outposts of 
the lakes, and in the exploration of ilimiesota. 

Rogers, the celebrated captain of rangers, sub- 
sequently commander of Mackinaw, and .Jona- 
than Carver, the first British explorer of ilinne- 
sota, were both on duty near Lake Champlam, the 
latter naiTowly escaping at the battle of Fort 

On Christmas eve, 17-57. Rogers approached 
Fort Ticonderoga, to fire the outhouses, but was 
pre\ented by discharge of the cannons of the 
Fren h. 

He contented himself with killing fifteen beeves, 
on the horns of one of which he left this laconic 
and amusing note, addressed to the commander 
of the post: 

'■I am obliged to you, Sir. for the repose you 
have allowed me to take; / tliank you for the fresh 
iiifdt you have sent me, I request you to present 
my compliments to the Jilarquis du ]Slontcalm." 

On the thii-teenth of March, 1758, Durantaye, 
formerly at Mackinaw, had a sldrmish with Rog- 
ers. Both had been trained on the frontier, and 
they met " as Greek met Greek." The conliict 
was fierce, and the French victorious. The Li- 
dian allies, finding a scalp of a chief underneath 
an officer's jacket, were furious, and took one 
hunth-ed and fourteen scalps in return. ^V^len 
the French retiuned, they supposed that Captain 
Rogers was among the killed. 

At Quebec, when Montcalm and AVoIfe fell, 
there were Ojibways present assisting the French 

The IntUans, returning from the expeditions 
against the English, were attacked with small- 
pox, and many died at Mackinaw. 

On the eighth of September,' 1760, the French 
delivered up all their posts in Canada. A few 
days after the capitulation at Montreal, ilajor 
Rogers was sent with English troops, to garrison 
the posts of the distant Northwest. 

On the eighth of September. 1761, a year after 
the surrender. Captain Balft)ur, of the eightieth 
regiment of the British army, left Detroit, with 
a detachment to take possession of the French 
forts at Mackinaw and Green Bay. Twenty-five 
soldiers were left at Mackinaw, in command of 
Lieutenant Leslie, and the rest sailed to Green 
Bay, under Lieutenant Gorrell of the Royal 



Americans, where they arrived on tlie twelfth of 
October. The fort had lieen tiljandoned for sev- 
eral years, and was in a dilapidated condition. 
In charge of it there was left a lieutenant, a cor- 
poral, and fifteen soldiers. Two English traders 
arrived at the same time, McKay from Alhany, 
andttoddard from Montreal. 

Gorrell in his journal alludes to the Minnesota 
Sioux. He WTites — 

" On March 1, 17(i8, twelve warriore of the Sous 
came here. It is certaiidy the greatest nation of 
Indians ever yet found. Not above two thousand 
of them were ever armed with firearms ; the rest 
depending entirely on bows and arrows, which 
they use with more skill than any other Indian 
nation in America. They can shoot the wildest 
and largest beasts in the woods at seventy or one 
hundred yartls distant. They are remarkable for 
their dancing, and the other nations take the 
fashions from them. ***** This nation 
is always at war with the Chippewas, those who 
destroyed ilishamakinak. They told me with 
warmth that if e\er the Chippewas or any other 
Indians wished to obstruct the passage of the 
traders coming up, to send them word, and they 
would come and cut them otT from the face of 
the earth; as all ludiaus were their slaves or dogs. 
I told them I was glad to see them, and hojied to 
have a lasting peace with them. They then gave 
me a letter WTote in French, and two belts of 
wampum from their king, in which he expressed 
great joy on hearing of there being English at 
his ]iost. The letter was written by a I'rench 
trader whom I had allowed to go among them 
last fall, with a promise of his behaving well ; 
which he did, better than any Canadian I ever 
knew. ***** With regard to traders, I 
would not allow any to go amongst them, as I 

then understood they lay out of the government 
of Canada, but made no doubt they would have 
traders from the Mississiiipi in the spring. They 
went away e.xtreniely well pleased. June 14th, 
1763, the traders came down from the Sack coini- 
try. and conlirmed the news of Landsing and his 
son being killed by the French. There came with 
the traders some Puans, and four young men with 
one chief of the Avoy [loway] nation, to demand 
traders. * * » » » 

'■ On the nineteenth, a deputation of AVimieba- 
goes. Sacs, Foxes and Menominees arrived with 
a Frenchman named Pemiensha. This Pennen- 
sha is the same man who wrote the letter the 
Sous brought with them in French, and at the 
same time held counril with that great nation in 
favour of the English, by which he much promo- 
ted the interest of the latter, as appeared by the 
behaviour of the Sous. He brought with him a 
pipe from the Sous, desiring that as the road is 
now clear, they would by no means allow the 
Chippewas to obstruct it. or give the English any 
disturbance, or prevent the traders from coming 
up to them. If they did so they would send all 
their warriors and cut them off." 

In July, 1703, there arrived at Green Bay, 
liruce. Fisher; and Roseboom of Albany, to en- 
gage in the Indian trade. 

By the treaty of Paris of 17(>3, France ceded to 
Great Britain all of the country east of the Mis- 
sissippi, and to Spain the whole of Louisiana, so 
that the latter power for a time held the whole 
region between the Mississiiipi Uiver and the Pa- 
cilic Ocean, and that portion of the city of Min- 
neapolis known as the East Division was then 
governed by the British, while the West Division 
was subject to the Spanish code. 





Carver's Early Life.— In the Battle near Lake George.— Arrives ftt Mackinaw.— 
old Fort at Green Bay.— Winnebago VilLige.— Deseriiition of Prairie U« Cliien. 
Eiirlhworks on Banks of Lake Pepin.— Sioux Bands Described.- Cave and 
Biirt.ii Place in Suburbs of St. Paul.— The Falls of Saint Anthony.— Burial 
Rites of tLc Sioux.— Speech of a Sioux Chief.— Schiller's Poem ot the Death 
Song.— Sir John Herschel's Translation.— Sir E. Buhvcr Lytton's Version.— 
Correspondence of Sir \Villi.ini Johnson.— Carver's Pr<yect (or Opening a Koute 
to the Pacific.— Su[ii)osed Origin of the Sioux. -••Carver's Claim to Lands V.x- 
aniined.— .Vllcged Deed.-..Tcslimony of Rev. Samuel Peters."-Communication 
from Gen. Lea\enworth.-..Rciiort of U. S. Senate Coiiiniittee. 

Jonathan Cai'ver was a native of Connecticut 
His graudfatlier, AVilliam Carver, was a native of 
Wigau, Lancashire, England, and a captain in 
Kin.g WilHam's army during tlie campaign in 
Ireland, and fur meritorious services received an 
appointment as an oiliier of the colony of Con- 

His father was a justice of the peace in tlie 
new world, and in 1732, the subject of this sketch 
w'as bom. At the early age of fifteen he was 
called to mourn the death of his fatlier. He then 
commenced the study of medicine, but his roving 
disposition could not bear the confines of a doc- 
tor's office, and feeling, perhaps, that his genius 
would be cramped by pestle and mortar, at the 
age of eighteen lie purchased an ensign's commis- 
sion in one of the regiments raised during the 
French war. He was of medium stature, and of 
strong mind and quick perceptions. 

In the year 1757, he was captain under Colonel 
■Williams in the battle near Lake George, where 
Saint Pierre was killed, and narrowly escaped 
with his life. 

After the peace of ITtia, between France and 
England was declared. Carver conceived the pro- 
ject of exploring the Xortliwest. Leaving Boston 
in tlie month of .June, 1700, he arrived at Macki- 
naw, then the most distant British post, in the 
month of August. Having obtained a credit on 
some French and English traders from lilajor 
Rogers, the ollicer in command, he started with 
them on the third day of September. Pursuing 
the usual route to Green Bay, they arrived there 
on the eighteenth. 

The French fort at that time was standing, 
though much decayed. It was, some years pre- 
vious to his arrival, garrisoned for a short time 
by an officer and thirty English soldiers, liul they 
having been captured by the Menominees, it was 

In company with the traders, he left (Jreen 
Bay on the twentieth, ami ascending Fox river, 
arrived on the twenty-fifth at an island at the 
east end of Lake Wimiebago, containing about 
fifty acres. 

Here he found a Wiiiiiebago village of fifty 
houses. He asserts that a woman was in author- 
ity. In the month of October the party was at 
the portage of the Wisconsin, and descending 
that stream, they arrived, on the ninth at a town 
of the Sauks. While here he visited some lead 
mines about fifteen miles distant. An abundance 
of lead was also seen in the village, that had been 
brought from the mines. 

On the tentli they arrived at the first village of 
the •■ Ottigaumies" [Foxes] about five miles be- 
fore the Wisconsin joins the Mississippi, he per- 
ceived the remnants of another village, and 
learned that it had been deserted about thirty 
years before, and that the inhabitants soon after 
their removal, built a town on the Mississippi, 
near the mouth of the " Ouisconsin," at a place 
called by the French La Prairie les Chiens, which 
signified the Dog Plains. It was a large town, 
and contained aliout three hundred families. 
The houses were built after tlie Imliau manner, 
and pleasantly situated on a dry rich soil. 

He saw here many liouses of a good size and 
shape. town was the great mart where all 
the adjacent tribes, and where those who inhabit 
the most remote lu'anches of the Mississippi, an- 
nually assemble about the latter end of May, 
bringing with them their furs to dispose of to the 
traders. But it is not always that they conclude 
theii' sale here. This was determined by a gen 



eral council of the chiefs, who consulted whether 
it would be more conducive to their interest to 
sell their goods at this place, or to carry them 
on to Louisiana or Mackinaw. 

At a small stream called Yellow River, oppo- 
site Prairie du Chien, the traders who liail tlnis 
far accompanied Carver took up their residence 
for the winter. 

From this point he proceeded in a canoe, with 
a Ciinadian voyageur and a Jlohawk Indian as 
companions. Just before reachiuff Lake Pepin, 
wlule his attendants were one day [jreparhij; din- 
ner, he walked out and was struck with the pecu- 
liar appearance of the surface of the country, and 
thought it was the site of some vast artilicial 
earth-work. It is a fact worthy of remembrance, 
that he was the first to call the attention of the 
civilized world to the existence of ancient monu- 
ments in tlie Mississipi)i valley. We give his own 
description : 

" On tlie lirst of November I reached Lake 
Pepin, a few miles below which I lauded, and, 
whilst the servants were preparing my dinner, I 
ascended the bank to view the country. I had 
not proceeded far before I came to a fine, level, 
open i)lain, on whicli T perceived, at a little dis- 
tance, a partial ehnation that had tlie appearance 
of entrenchment. On a nearer inspection I had 
greater reason to suppose that it had really been 
intended for this many centuries ago. Notwith- 
standing it was now covered with grass, I could 
plainly see that it had once been a breastwork of 
about four feet in height, extending the best part 
of a mile, and sufliciently capacious to cover five 
thousand men. Its form was somewhat circular 
and its flanks reached to the river. 

" Though much defaced by time, every angle 
was distinguishable, and appeared as regular and 
fashioned much military skill as if plamied 
by Vauban himself. The ditch was not visible, 
but I thought, ou examining more curiously, that 
I could perceive there certainly had been one. 
From its situation, also, I am convinced that it 
must have been designed for that purpose. It 
fronted the country, and the rear was covered by 
the river, nor was there any rising ground for a 
considerable way that commanded it ; a few 
straggling lakes were alone to be seen near it. 
In many places small tracks were worn across it 
by the feet of the elks or deer, and from the depth 

of the bed of earth by which it was covered, I was 
able to draw certain conclusions of its great anti- 
quity. I examined all the angles, and every part 
with great attention, and have often blamed my- 
self since, for not encamping on tlie spot, and 
drawing an exact plan of it. To show that this 
description is not the ofl'siu-ing of a heated imag- 
ination, or the chimerical tale of a mistaken trav- 
eler, I find, on inquiry since my return, that 
Mons. St. Pierre, and several traders have at dif- 
ferent times, taken notice of similar appearances, 
upon wliicli they have formed the same conjec- 
tures, but without examining them so minutely 
as I did. I low a work of this kind could exist in 
a country that has hitherto (according to the gen- 
erally received opinion) been the seat of war to 
untutored Indians alone, whose whole stock of 
military knowledge has only, till within two cen- 
turies, amounted to drawing the bow, and whose 
only breastwork even at present is the thicket, I 
know not. I have given as exact an account as 
possible of this singular appearance, and leave to 
future explorers of those distant regions, to dis- 
cover whether it is a production of nature or art. 
Perhaps the hints I have here given might lead 
to a more perfect investigation of it, and give us 
very different ideas of the ancient state of realms 
that we at present believe to have been, from the 
earliest period, only the habitations of savages." 

Lake Pepin excited his admiration, as it has 
that of every traveler since his day, and liere he 
remarks : " I observed the ruins of a French fac- 
tory, where it is said Captain St. Pierre resided, 
and carried on a very great traile with the Nau- 
dowessies, before the reduction of Canada."' 

Carver's first acquaintance with the Dahkotahs 
commenced near the river St. Croix. It would 
seem that the erection of trading posts on Lake 
Pepin had enticed them from their old residence 
on Hum river and Mille Lacs. 

lie says: "Near the river St. Croix reside 
bands of the Naudowessie Indians, called tlie 
Kiver 15ands. Tliis nation is composed at pres- 
ent of eleven bands. They were originally 
twelve, but the Assiniixiils, some years ago, re- 
volting and .separating tliemselves from the otli- 
ers, there remain at this time eleven. Those I 
met here are termed the River Bands, because 
they chiefly dwell near the banks of this river; 
the other eight are generally distinguished by the 



title of Xadowessies of the Plains, and inhabit a 
country more to the westward. The names of 
the former are Xehogatawonahs, the Mawtavv- 
bauntowahs, and 8ha.sli\veento\valis. 

Arriving at what is now a suburb of the cap- 
ital of iliimesota, he continues: '• About thir- 
teen miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, at 
which I arrived the tenth day after 1 left Lake 
Pepin, is a remarkable cave, of an amazing depth. 
The Indians term it "Wakon-teebe |Wakan-tipi|. 
The entrance into it is about ten feet wide, the 
height of it five feet. The arch within is fifteen 
feet high and about thirty feet broad; the bottom 
consists of fine, clear sand. About thirty feet 
from the entrance begins a lake, the water of 
which is transparent, and extends to an unsearch- 
able distance, for the darkness of the cave pre- 
ents all attemjits to acquire a knowledge of it.] 
I tlirew a small pebble towards the nterior part 
of it with my utmost strength. I could hear that 
it fell into the water, and, notwithstanding it was 
of a small size, it caused an astonishing <iud ter- 
rible noise, that reverberated through all those 
gloomy regions. I found in this cave many In- 
dian liieroglyphies, \\hieh appeared very ancient, 
for time had nearly covered them with moss, so 
that it was with difticulty I could trace them. 
They were cut in a rude manner upon the inside 
of the wall, which was composed of a stone so ex- 
tremely soft that it might be easily penetrated 
with a loiife; a stone ever5rwhere to be found 
near the Mississippi. 

" At a little distance from this dreary cavern, 
is the burying-place of several bands of the Xau- 
dowessie Indians. Though these people have no 
fixed residence, being in tents, and seldom but a 
few months in one spot, yet they always bring 
the bones of the dead to this place. 

" Ten miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, 
the river St. Pierre, called by the natives AVada- 
paw Alenesotor, falls into the ^Mississippi from the 
west. It is not mentioned by Father Ilennepm, 
though a large, fair river. This omission, I con- 
sider, have proceeded from a small island 
[Pike's] that is situated exactly in its entrance." 

When he reached the ilinnesota river, the ice 
became so troublesome that he left Ms canoe in 
the neighborhood of wliat is now St. Anthony, 
and walked to St. Anthony, in company with a 
yoimg Winnebago chief, who had never seen the 

curling watere. The chief, on reaching the emi- 
nence some distance below Cheever's, began to 
invoke his gods, and offer oblations to the spuit 
in the waters. 

•• In the middle of the Falls stands a small 
island, about forty feet broad and somewhat lon- 
ger, on which grow' a few cragged hemlock and 
spruce trees, and about half way between this 
island and the eastern shore is a rock, lying at 
the very edge of the Falls, in an oblique position, 
that appeared to be about live or six feet broad, 
and thirty or forty long. At a little distance be- 
low the Falls stands a small island of about an 
acre and a half, on which grow a great number of 
oak trees." 

From this description, it would appear that the 
little island, now some distance below the Falls, 
was once in the very midst, and shows that a con- 
stant recession has been going on. and that in 
ages long past they were not far from the Minne- 
sota river. 

No description is more glowing than Carver's 
of the country adjacent: 

" The country around them is exti'emely beau- 
tiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain, where the 
eye tuuls no relief, but composed of many gentle 
ascents, which in the summer are covered with 
the finest verdure, and interspersed with little 
groves that give a pleasing varietj- to the pros- 
pect. On the whole, when the Falls are inclu- 
ded, which may be seen at a distance of four 
miles, a more pleasing and picturesque view, I 
believe, camiot be foimd throughout the uni-" 

" He arrived at the Falls on the seventeenth of 
November, 1766, and appears to have ascended as 
far as Elk river. 

On the twenty-fifth of November, he had re- 
turned to the place opposite tlie Minnesota, where 
he had left his canoe, and this stream as yet not 
being obstructed with ice, he connuenced its as- 
cent, with the colors of Great Britain flying at 
the stern of his canoe. There is no doubt that 
he entered this river, but how far he explored it 
cannot be ascertained. lie speaks of the Rapids 
near Shakopay. and asserts that lie went as far as 
two hundred miles beyond Mendota. He re- 

" On the seventh of December, I arrived at the 
utmost of my travels towards the West, where I 


met a large party of the Naudowessie Indiaus, 
among whoni I resided some months."' 

After speaking of tlie upper bands of the Dah- 
kotahs and theii- allies, he adds that he " left the 
habitations of the liospitahle Indians the latter 
end of April, ITiiT, butdid not part from them 
for several days, as I was accompanied on my 
journey by near three himdred of them to the . 
mouth of the river St. Pierre. At this season 
these bands annually go to the great cave (Day- 
ton's Bluff) before mentioned. 

AVhen lie arrived at the great cave, and llic In- 
dians had deposited the remains of their deceased 
friends hi the burial-place that stands adjacent 
to it. tlicy lield their great comicil to whii-h he 
was admitted. 

■When tlie Xaudowessies brought their dead fur 
interment to the great cave (St. Paul), I attempted 
to get an insight into the remaining burial rites, 
but whether it was on account of the stench 
which arose from so many dead bodies, or \\Iiellier 
they chose to keep tliis part of their custom secret 
from me, I could not discover. I found, however, 
that tliey considered my curiosity as ill-timed, 
and therefore I withdrew. * * 

One formality among the Naudowessies in 
mouming for the dead is very different from any 
mode I observed in the other nations through 
which I passed. The men, to show how great 
their sorrow is, pierce the flesh of their arms 
above the elbows with arrows, and the women 
cut and gash their legs with broken flmts till the 
blood Hows very plentifully. * * 

After the breath is departed, the body is 
dressed in the same attire it usually wore, his 
face is painted, and lie is seated in an erect pos- 
ture on a mat or skin, placed in the middle of the 
hut, with his weapons by his side. His relatives 
seated around, each in turn harangues the de- 
ceased; and if he has been a great warrior, le- 
counts his heroic actions, nearly to the following 
purport, which in the Indian language is extreme- 
ly poetical and pleasing 

"You still sit among us, brother, your person 
retains its usual resemblance, and co^jtinues sim- 
ilar to ours, without any visible deficiency, ex- 
cept it has lost the power of action! Hut wliither 
is that breath llowu, which a few hours ago sent 
up smoke to the Great Spirit? Why are those 
lips silent, that lately deUvered to us expressions 

and pleasing language? AVhy are those feet mo- 
tionless, that a few hours ago were fleeter than 
tlio deer on yonder mountains? Why useless 
hang those arms, that coidd climb the tallest tree 
or draw the toughest bow? Alas, every part of 
that frame which we lately beheld with admira- 
tion and wonder has now become as inanimate as 
it was three hundred years agol We will not, 
however, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever 
lost to us, or that thy nanii^ would l)e burie<l in 
oblivion; thy soul yet lives in the great country 
of spirits, Vidth those of thy nation that have gone 
liefore thee; and though we are left behind to 
perpetuate thy fame, we will one day join tliee. 

" Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst 
living, we now come to tender thee the last act of 
kindness in our power; that thy body might not 
lie neglected on the plain, and become a prey to 
the beasts of the field or fowls of the air, and we 
will take care to lay it with those of thy predeces- 
sors that have gone before tliee; hojiing at the 
same time that thy spirit will feed with their 
spirits, and be ready to receive ours when we 
sliall also arrive at the great country of souls." 

Por this speech Carver is principally indebted 
to his imagination, but it is well conceived, and 
suggested one of Schiller's poems, which Goethe 
considered one of his best, and wished " he had 
made a dozen such." 

Sir E. Lytton Buhver the distingiushed novelist, 
and Sir John Herschel the eminent astronomer, 
liave each given a translation of Schiller's '• Song 
of the Xadowessee Chief." 

SIR E. L. bulwer's translation. 

See on Ins mat— as if of yore. 

All life-like sits he here I 
With that same aspect which he wore 

W'lien light to liini was dear 

Hut wliere the right hand's strength ? and where 
Tlie breath that loved to l)reathe 

To the Great Spirit, aloft in air. 
The peace pipe's lusty wreath ? 

And wliere the hawk-like eye, alas ! 

That wont the deer pursue. 
Along the waves of rippling grass, 

Or fields that shone with dew ? 



Are these the limber, bounding feet 
Tliat swept the winter's snows V 

Vilmt stateliest stag so fast and fleet ? 
Their speed outstripped the roe's ! 

These arms, that tlien the steady bow 

Could supple from it's pride, 
How stark and heljiless hang they now 

Adown tlie stiffened side ! 

Yet weal to him — at peace he stays 

■\Vherever fall the snows ; 
Where o"er the meadows springs the maize 

That mortal never sows. 

Where birds are l)litlie on every Ijrake — 
Where orests teem with deer — 

Where glide the fish through every lake — 
One chase from year to year ! 

With spirits now he feasts above ; 

All left us to revere 
The deeds we honor with our love, 

The dust we bury here. 

Here bring the last gift ; loud and slnill 
Wail death dirge for tlie Ijrave ; 

What pleased Iiim most in life, may still 
Give pleasure in the grave. 

We 1 ly the axe beneath liis head 
lie s\Mmg when strength was strong — 

The bear ou which his banquets fed. 
The way from earth is long. 

And here, new sharpened, i)lace the knife 

That severed from the clay. 
From which the axe had spoiled tlie life, 

The conquered scalp away. 

The pamts that deck the dead, 1)estow ; 

Yes, place them in his hand, 
That red the kingly shade may glow 

Amid the spirit land. 


See, where upon the mat he sits 

Erect, before his dooi , 
With just the same majestic air 

That once in life he wore. 

But where is fled his strength of limb. 

The whirlwind of his breath. 
To the Great Spirit, when he sent 

The peace pipe's mounting wreath? 

Wiere are those falcon eyes, which late 

Along the plain could trace, 
Along the grass's dewy waves 

The reindeer's printed pace? 

Tliose legs, which once with matchless speed. 

Flew through the drifted snow. 
Surpassed the stag's imwearied coiu'se. 

Outran the mountain roe? 

Those arms, once used with might and main, 

Tlie stubliorn bow to twang? 
See, see. their nerves are slack at last, 

All motionless they hang. 

"Tis well with him, for he is gone 

Whei'e snow no more is foimd, 
"WHiere the gay thorn's perpetual l)loom 

Decks all the fleld around. 

Where wild birds sing from every spray, 

"Where deer come sweeping by. 
Where fish from every lake afford 

A plentiful supply. 

With spirits now lie feasts above. 

And leaves us here alone. 
To celebrate his valiant deeds, 

And romid his grave to moan. 

Sound tlie death song, bring forth the gifts. 

The last gifts of the dead, — 
Let all which yet may yield him joy 

Within his grave be laid. 

Tlie hatchet place beneath his head 

Still red with hostile blood; 
And add, because the way is long, 

The liear's fat limbs for food. 

The scalping-knife beside him lay, 

AVlth paints of gorgeous dye, 
That in tlie land of souls his form 

ilay sliine triumphantly. 

It appears from other sources that Carver's 
\'isit to the Dahkotahs^\\as of some effect in bring- 
ing about friendly intercourse between tliem and 
the commander of the English force at Mackinaw. 



The earliest mention of the Palikotahs, in any 
public British documents that we know of, is in 
the correspondence between Sir William Johnson, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Colony 
of New York, and General Gage, in command of 
the forces. 

On the eleventh of September, less than six 
months after Carver's speech at Dayton's Bluff, 
and the departure of a innnber of chiefs to the 
English fort at Mackinaw, Johason writes to 
General Gage: "Though I wrote to you some 
days ago, yet I would not mind saying something 
again on the score of the vast expenses incurred, 
and, as I understand, still incuning at ^liehili- 
mackinac, chiefly on pretense of making a peace 
between the Sioux and Chippeweiglis, with which 
I tliink we have very little to do, in good policy 
or otherwise." 

Sir William Johnson, in a letter to Lord Hills- 
borough, one of his Majesty's ministers, dated 
August seventeenth, 1768, again refers to the 
subject : 

'•Much greater part of those who go a trading 
are men of such circumstances and disposition as 
to venture their persons everywhere for extrava- 
gant gains, yet the consequences to the public 
are not to be slighted, as we may be led into a 
general quarrel through their means. The In- 
dians in the part adjacent to Michillmackinac 
have been treated with at a very great expense 
for some time previous. 

"Major Roilgers briugs a considerable charge 
against the former for mediating a peace between 
some tribes of the Sioux and some of the Chippe- 
weiglis. which, had it been attended with sucrcess, 
would only have been interesting to a very few^ 
French, and others that had goods in that part 
of the Indian coimtry, but the contrary has hap- 
pened, and tiiey are now more violent, and war 
against one another.-' 

Though a wilderness of over one thousand 
miles intervened between the Falls of St. An- 
thony and the white settlements of the English, 
Carver was fully impressed with the idea that the 
State now organized under the name of Minne- 
sota, on account of its beauty and fertility, would 
attract settlers. 

Speaking of the advantages of the country, he 
says that the future population will be "able to 
convey their produce to the seaports with great 

facility, the cuiTent of the river from its source 
to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico being ex- 
tremely favorable for doing this in small craft. 
This might oho m time be facilitated by canals or 
shorter cuts, and a communication opened by water 
with Iscir York by way of the Lairs.''' 

The subject of this sketcli was also confident 
that a route would be discovered by way of the 
Minnesota river, which w-ould open a passage 
to China and the English settlements in the East 

Carver having returned to England, interested 
Whitworth, a member of parliament, in the 
northern route. Had not the American Revolu- 
tion commenced, they proposed to have built a 
fort at Lake Pepin, to have proceeded up the 
Minnesota until they found, as they supposed 
they could, a branch of the ^lissouri, and from 
thence, journeying over the summit of lands un- 
til they came to a river which they called Ore- 
gon, they expected to descend to the Pacific. 

Carver, in common with other travelers, had 
his theory in relation to the origin of the Dahko- 
tahs. lie supposed that they came from Asia. 
He remarks: "But this might have been at <lif- 
ferent times and from various parts— from Tar- 
tary, China, Japan, for the inhabitants of these 
places resemble each other. * * » 

"It is very evident that some of the names and 
customs of the American Indians resemble those 
of the Tartars, and I make no doidit but that in 
some future era, and this not far distant, it will 
be reduced to certainty that during some of the 
wars between the Tartars and Chinese a part of 
the inhabitants of the northern provinces were 
driven from their native country, and took refuge 
in some of the isles before mentioned, and from 
thence found their way into America. » » * 

"Many words are used both by the Chinese and 
the Indians which have a resemblance to each 
other, not only Ln their sound, but in their signi- 
fication. The Chinese call a slave Shungo; and 
the Xoudowessie Indians, whose language, from 
their little intercourse with the Europeans, is 
least corrupted, term a dog Shungush [Shoan- 
kah.J The former denominate one species of their 
tea Shoushong; the latter call their tobacco Shou- 
sas-sau [Ciianshasha.] Many other of the words 
used by the Indians contain the syllables che, 
chaw, and chu, after the dialect of the Chinese." 



Tlie comparison of lan^iages lias become a rich 
source of liisU.rical knowledge, yet many of the 
ansjlogies traced are fanciful. The remark of 
Humbolt in " Cosmos'' is worthy of remembrance. 
"As the structure of jVmerican idioms appears 
remarkably strange to nations speaking the mod- 
ern languages of 'Western Euroiie . and who readily 
suffer themselves to be led away by some acci- 
dental analogies of .stiund, theologians have gen- 
erally believed that they could trace an affinity 
with the Hebrew, Spanish colonists with the 
Basque and the English, or French settlers with 
Gaelic, Erse, or the Das Breton. I one day met 
on the coast of Peru, a Spanish na\al officer and 
an English whaling captain, the of whom 
declared that he had heard Basque spoken at Ta- 
hiti; the other, Gaelic or Erse at the Sandwich 

Carver became very poor while in England, 
and was a clerk in a lotteiy-office. He died in 
17S0, and left a widow, two sons, and five daught- 
ers, in Xew England, and also a child by another 
wife that he had married in (ireat Britain 

After his death a claim was urged for the laud 
upon which the capital of Minnesota now stands- 
and for many miles adjacent. As there are still 
many persons who believe that they have some 
right through certain deeds purporting to be from 
the heirs of Carver, it is a matter worthy of an 

Carver says nothing in his book of travels in re- 
lation to a grant from the Dahkotahs. but after 
he was buried, it was asserted that there was a 
deed belonging to him in existence, conveying 
valuable lands, and that said deed was executed 
at the cave now in the eastern suburbs of Saint 


" To Jonathan Carver, r. chief under the most 
mighty and potent George the Third. King of the 
English and other nutions, the fame of whose 
warriors has reached uur ears, and has now been 
fully told us by our good hrotlur Jonatlian. afore- 
said, whom we rejoice to have come among us, 
and liring us good news from his country. 

'■ We, chiefs of the Naudowessies, who have 
hereunto set our seals, do by these presents, for 
ourselves and heh-s forever, in return for the aid 
and other good services done by the said Jona- 

than to ourselves and allies, give grant and con- 
vey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his heirs 
and assigns forever, the whole of a certain tract 
or territory of land, bounded as follows, viz: from 
the Falls of St. Anthony, rtuming on the east 
bank of the Mississippi, nearly southeast, as far 
as I..ake Pepin, where the Chippewa joins the 
Mississipiji, and from thence eastward five days 
travel, accomiting twenty English miles per day; 
and from thence agam to the Falls of St. jinthony , 
on a direct straight line. We do for ourselves, 
heirs, and assigns, forever give unto the said Jo- 
nathan, his heirs and assigns, w ith all the trees, 
rocks, and rivers therein, reserving the sole lib- 
erty of hunting and fishing on laud not planted 
or improved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and 
assigns, to which we have affixed our respective 

•• At the Great Cave, May 1st. ITtiT. 



The original deed was never exhibited by the 
assignees of the heirs. By his English wife Car- 
ver had one child, a daughter Martha, who was 
cared for by Sir Richard and Lady Pearson. In 
time she eloped and married a saili-)r. A mercan- 
tile firm in Loudon, thinking that money could 
be made, induced the newly married couple, the 
day after the wedding, to convey the grant to 
them, with the understanding that they were to 
have a tenth of the profits. 

The merchants despatched an agent by the 
name of Clarke to go to the Dahkotahs, and ob- 
tain a new deed; but on his way he was murdered 
in the state of New York. 

In the year 1794. the heu's of Carver's Ameri- 
can wife, in considerationof fifty thousand pounds 
sterling, conveyed their interest in the Car\er 
grant to Edw'ard Houghton of "\^ermont. In tlie 
year l.SOO, Samuel Peters, who had been a tory 
and an Episcopal minister durujg the Revolu- 
tionary war, alleges, in a petition to Congi'ess, 
that he had also purchased of the heirs uf Carver 
their rights to the grant. 

Bef(u-e the Senate committee, the same year, 
he testified as followsr"" 

'■In the yeai- 1774. I anived there (Loudon), 
and met Captain Carver. In 177o, Carver had a 
hearing before the king, prayuig his majesty's 
approval of a deed of land dated May first. 17(;7, 



and sold and granted to liim by the Naudowissies. 
Tlie ivsiill was his i^MJcsty ai)provcd of tlic exer- 
tions and bravery of Captain Carver among tlie 
Indian nations, near tlie Falls of St. Anthony, in 
the Mississippi, gave to said Carver 1371L 13s. Sd. 
sterling, and ordered a frigate to be prepared, 
and a transport ship to tarry one hundred and 
fifty men, under command of Captain Carver, with 
four others as a coniniittee. to sail tlie next June 
to New Orleans, and then to a.seend the Missis- 
sippi, to tiike possession of siiid territory conveyed 
to Captain Carver; but the battle of Bunker Ilill 

In I.sil, General Leavenworth, having made 
inquiries of the Dahkotahs, in relation to the 
alleged claim, addressed the following to the 
commissioner of the land oflice : 

'• Sir: — Agreealily to your request, I have tlie 
honour to inform \ou \\hat I liave understood 
from the Indians of the Sioux Nation, as well as 
some facts within my own knowledge, as to what 
is commonly termed Carver's Grant. The grant 
purports to be made by the chiefs of the Sioux 
of the Plains, and one of the chiefs uses the sign 
of a serpent, and the other of a turtle, purport- 
ing that their names are derived from those ani- 

'•The land lies on the east side of the Mississ- 
ippi. The Indians do not recognize or acknowl 
edge the grant to be vali<I. and they among others 
assign the following reasons: 

"1. The Sioux of the Plains never owned a 
foot of land on the east side of the Mississippi. 
Tlie Sioux Nation is divided into two grand di- 
visions, viz: The Sioux of the Lake; or perhaps 
more literally Sioux of the Kiver, and Sioux of 
the Plain. The former subsists by hunting an<l 
fishing, and usually move from place to place by 
water, in canoes, during the sunmier season, and 
travel on the ice in the winter, when not on 
their lumting excursious. The latter subsist en- 
tirely by hunting, and have no canoes, nor do 
they know but little about the use of them. They 
reside in tlie large prairies west of the Mississippi, 
and follow the buffalo, upon which they entirely 
subsist; these are called Sioux of the Plain, and 
never owned hind east of the Mississippi. 

" 2. The Indians say they have no knowledge 
of any such chiefs as those who have signed the 
grant to Carver, either amongst the Sioux of the 

River or the Sioux of the Plain. They say that 
if Captain Carver did ever obtain a deed or 
grant, it was signed by some foolish young men 
who were not chiefs and who were not author- 
ized to make a grant. Among the Sioux of the 
River there are no such names. 

" 3. They say the Indians never received any- 
thing for the land, and they have no intention to 
part with it without a consideration. From my 
knowledge of the -Indians. 1 am iiiduc'cd to think 
they would not make so considerable a grant, and 
have it to go into full effect without receiving a 
substantial consideration. 

'•4. They have, and ever have had, the pos- 
session of the land, and intend to keep it. I 
know that they are very particular in making 
every person who wishes to cut timber on that 
tract obtain their permission to do so. and to ob- 
tain payment for it. In the month of May last, 
some Frenchmen brought a large raft of red cedar 
timber out of the Chippewa Kiver, which timber 
was cut on the tract before mentioned. The In- 
dians at one of the villages on the Mississippi, 
where the principal chief resided, compelled the 
Frenchmen to land the raft, and would not per- 
mit them to pass until they had received pay for 
the timber, and the Frenchmen were compelled 
to leave their raft with the Indians until they 
went to Prairie du Chieii, and obtained the nec- 
essary articles, and made the payment required." 

On the twenty-third of January, 1823. the Com- 
mittee of Public Lands made a report on the 
claim to the Senate, which, to every disinterested- 
person, is entirely satisfactory. After stating 
the facts of the petition, the report continues: 

" The Kev. Samuel Peters, in his petition, fur- 
ther states that Lefei, the present Emperor of 
the Sioux and Naudowessies, and Red Wing, a 
sachem, the heirs and successors of the two grand 
chiefs who signed the said deed to Cai)tain Car- 
ver, have given satisfactory and positive proof 
that they allowed their ancestors' deed to be gen- 
uine, good, and valid, and that Captain Carver's 
heirs and assigns are the owners of said territory, 
and may occupy it free of all molestation. 

The committee have examined and considered 
the claims thus exhibited by the petitioners, and 
remark that the original deed is not produced, nor 
any competent legal e^'idence offered of its execu- 
tion : nor is there any proof that the persons, who 



it is alleged made the deed, were the cliiefs of 
said tribe, nor that (if chiefs) they had aiilhorily 
to grant and give away the land belonging to their 
tribe. The paper annexed to the petition, as a 
copy of said deed, has no subscribing witnesses ; 
and it would seem impossible, at this remote pe- 
riod, to ascertain the important fact, tliat the per- 
sons who signed the deed comprehended and 
undenstood the nieanmgaud effect of their act. 

'• The want of proof as to these facts, would 
interpose in the wa> of the clahuants insuperable 
difficulties. But. in the opinion of the committee, 
the claim is not such as the United States are 
under any obligation to allow, even if the deed 
were proved in legal form. 

" The British government, before the time when 
the alleged deed bears date, had deemed it pru- 
dent and necessary for the preservation of peace 
with the Indian tribes under their sovereignty, 
protection and dominion, to prevent British sub- 
jects from i>urchasing lands from the Indians, 
and this rule of policy was made knowii and en- 
forced by the proclamation of the king of Great 
Britain, of seventh October, 1763, which contains 
an express prohibition, 

" Captain Carver, aware of the law, and know- 
ing that such a contract could not vest tlie legal 
title in liim, applied to the British goverimient to 
ratify and confirm the Indian grant, and, though 
it was competent for that goverimient then to 
confirm the grant, and vest the title of said land 

in him, yet. from some cause, that government 
did not think i)n)per to do it. 

'• The territory lias since become the property 
of tlie United States, and an Indian grant not 
good against the British government, would ap- 
pear to be not binding uuon the United States 

" \Vhat benefit the British goverimient derived 
from the services of Captain Carver, by his trav- 
els and residence among the Indians, tliat gov- 
ernment alone could determine, and alone could 
judge what remuneration those services deserved. 

" One fact appears from the declaration of Mr. 
Peters, in his statement in writing, among tlie 
papers exhibited, namely, that the British gov- 
ernment did give Captain Carver the sum of one 
thousand three hundred and seventy-five pounds 
six shillings and eight pence sterling. To the 
United States, however. Captain Carver rendered 
no services which could be assumed as any equit- 
able ground for the support of the petitioners' 

" The committee being of opinion that the 
United States are not bound in law and equit>- to 
confirm the said alleged Indian grant, recom- 
menil tlie adoption of the resolution: 

" ' lit.ioln'd, That the prayer of the petitioners 
ought not to be granted." ' 

Lord Palmerston stated in 1839, that no trace 
could be found in the records of the British 
office of state iiapers, showing any ratification of 
the Carver grant. 





Tradlni; Posts at the Itr-ginning of Nineteentli Century.— Sandy Lake Fort.— 
Littli Lake Kurt. —William Honrison. licfore Schoolcraft ut Itasca Lake.— Divi- 
tton of Northwest Territory.— Orguniration of Intliana, Michigan and Upper 
Louisiana.— Notices of \Vo..<I, Fra^er. Fisher, Cameron, Faribault.- F-irly 
Traders.— Pike's Council at Mouth ol Minnesota River.— Grant for Military 
Posts. -Encampment at Falls of St. Anthony,— Block House near Swan River. 
— Vi»it to Salnly and Leech Lakes.— British Flag Shot at and l.owcred.— 
Thompson, Topographer of Northwest Company.- Pike at Dickson's Tr.^ding 
Post —Returns to Mendota.— Fails to find Carver's Cave.— Conference with 
Little l/ruw. —Cameron sells Li(|uor to Indiiuu. 

At tlie beginning of the present century, the 
region now known as Minnesota, contained no 
wliite men, except a few engaged in tlie fur trade. 
In the treaty effected by Hon. Jolm Jay, Great 
Britain agreed to withdraw her troops from all 
posts and places witliin certain boundary lines, 
on or before the first of June, 1796. but all Brit- 
ish settlers and traders might remain for one 
year, and enjoy all their former privileges, with- 
out being obliged to be citizens of the United 
States of America. 

In the year 1800, the trading posts of Minnesota 
were chiefly held by the Northwest Company, 
and their chief traders resided at Sandy Lake, 
Leech Lake, and Fon du Lac, on St. Louis River. 
In the year 1794, this company built a stockade 
one hundred feet square, on the southeast end of 
Sandy Lake. There were bastifjiis pierced for 
small arras, in the southeast and in tlie northwest 
comer. The pickets which surrounded the post 
were thirteen feet high. On the north side there 
was a gate ten by nine feet ; on the west side, one 
six by five feet, and on the east side a third gate 
six by five feet. Travelers entering the main 
gate, saw on the left a one story builduig twenty 
feet stpiare, the residence of the superintendent, 
and on the left of the east gate, a building twenty- 
five by fifteen, the quarters of the voyagenrs. 
Kiitering the western gate, on the left was a stone 
house, twenty by thirty feet, and a house twenty 
by forty feet, used as a store, and a workshop, 
and a residence for clerks. On the soutli shore 
of lieech Lake there was another establishment, 
a little larger. The stockade was one hundred 

and fifty feet scpiare. The main building was 
sixty l>y twenty-five feet, and one and a half story 
In height, where resided the Director of the fur 
trade of the Fond d u Lac department of the North- 
west Company. In the centre was a small store, 
twelve and a half feet stjuaie, and near the main 
gate was flagstaff fifty feet in height, from 
which used to float the flag of Great Britain. 

William ^Slorrison was. in 1.S02, the trader at 
Leech Lake, and in l.S()4 lie was at Elk Lake, the 
source of the Mississippi, thirty-two years after- 
wards named by Schoolcraft, Lake Itasca. 

The entire force of the Xorthwest Company, 
west of Lake Superior, in 180.5. consisted of three 
accountants, nineteen clerks, two interpreters, 
eighty-five canoe men, and with them were 
twenty-nine Indian or half-breed wniiien, and 
about fifty children. 

On the seventh of May, 1800, the Northwest 
Territory, which included all of the western 
countiy east of the ilississippi, was diviiled. 
The portion not designated as Ohio, was organ- 
ized as the Territory of Indiana. 

On the twentieth of December, 1803, the 
province of Louisiana, of which that ptn'tion of 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi was a part, 
was officially delivered up by the French, who 
had just obtained it from the Spaniards, accoril- 
ing to treaty stipulations. 

To the transfer of Louisiana by France, after 
twenty days' possession, Spain at first objected; 
but in 1801 withdrew all opposition. 

President Jefferson now deemed it an objetit 
of paramount importance for the United States 
to explore the country so recently acquired, and 
make the actpiaintance of the tribes residing 
therein ; and steps were taken for an expedition 
to the upper Mississippi. 

Early in .March, 1804, Captain Stoddard, of the 
United States army, arrived at St. Louis, the 
agent of the Ficiiih llepublic, to receive from 



the Spanish authorities the possession of the 
country, vliich he immediately transferred to tlie 
United States. 

As the old settlers, on the tenth of March, saw 
the ancient flag of Spain displaced by that of the 
United States, the tears coursed down their 

On the twentieth of the same month, the terri- 
tory of Upper Louisiana was constituted, com- 
prising the present states of Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, and a large portion of ^Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of January, 1805, the terri- 
tory of Michigan was organized. 

The first American officer who visited ^linne- 
sota, on business of a public nature, was one who 
■was an ornament to his profession, and in energy 
and endurance a true representative of the citi- 
zens of the United States. We refer to the 
gallant Zebulon ilontgomery Tike, a native of 
New Jersey, who afterwards fell in battle at 
York, Upper Canada, and whose loss was justly 
mourned by the whole nation. 

■\Vhen a young lieutenant, he was ordered by 
General Wilkinson to visit the region now known 
as Minnesota, and expel the British traders who 
were found violating the laws of the United 
States, and form alliances with the Indians. 
With only a few common soldiers, lie was obliged 
to do the work of several men. At times be 
would precede his party for miles to recomioitre, 
and then he would do the duty of hunter. 

During the day be would perform the part of 
surveyor, geologist, and astronomer, and at night, 
though hungry and fatigued, his lufty enthu- 
siasm kept him awake until he copied the notes, 
and plotted the courses of the day. 

On the 4th day of September, 1805, Pike ar- 
rived at Prairie du Chien, from St. Louis, and 
was politely treated by three traders, all born un- 
der the flag of the United States. One was named 
Wood, another Frazer, a native of Vermont, 
wlio, when a young man became a clerk of one 
Blakely, of Montreal, and thus became a fur 
trader. The third was Henry Fisher, a captain 
of the Militia, and Justice of the Peace, whose 
wife was a daughter of Goutier de A'erville. 
Fisher was said to have been a nephew of Pres- 
dent Jlonroe, and later in life traded at the 
.sources of the :Minnesnta. One of his daughters 
was the mother of Jos(-ph Rolette. Jr.. a mem- 

ber of the early 3Iumesota Legislative assem- 
blies. On the eighth of the month Lieutenant 
Pike left Prairie du Chien, in two batteaux. with 
Sergeant Henry Keimerman, Corporals William 
E. Mack and Samuel Bradley, and ten pri\ales. 
At La Crosse, Frazer, of Prairie du Chien, 
overtook him. and at Sandy point of Lake Pepin 
lie found a trader, a Scotchman by the name of 
Muriloch Cameron, with his son, and a young 
man named John Rudsdell. On the twonty- 
lirst he breakfasted with the Kaposia band of 
Sioux, who then dwelt at the marsh below Day- 
ton's Bluff, a few miles below St. Paul. The 
same day he passed three miles from Mendota 
the encampment of J. B. Faribault, a trader and 
native of Lower Canada, then about thirty years 
of age. in which vicinity he continued for more 
than fifty years. He married Pelagie the daugh- 
ter of Francis Kinnie by an Indian woman, 
and his eldest son, Alexander, bom soon after 
l'ike"s visit, was the founder of the town of 

Arriving at the confluence of the :Minnosota 
and the Mississippi Rivers, Pike and his soldiers 
encamped on the Xortheast point of the island 
which still bears bis name. The next day was 
Sunday, and he visited Cameron, at his trading 
post on the Minnesota River, a short distance 
above ilendota. 

On ilonday, the 23d of September, at noon, 
he held a Cnuncil with the Sioux, under a cover- 
ing made Ijy suspending sails, and gave an ad- 
mirable talk, a portion of which was as follows : 
. '• Brothers, I am happy to meet you here, at 
this council tire which your father has sent me to 
kindle, and to take you by the hands, as oiu' chil- 
dren. We having but lately acquired from the 
Spanish, the extensive territory of Louisiana, our 
general has thought proper to send out a number 
of his warriors to visit all his red children ; to tell 
them his will, and to hear what request they may 
have to make of their father. I am happy the 
choice fell on me to come this road, as I find 
my brothers, the Sioux, ready to listen to my 

'■ Brothers, it is the wish of our government to 
establisli military posts on the Upper Mississippi, 
at sucli places as might be thought expedient. I 
have, therefore, examined the counti'y, and have 
pitched on the mouth of the river St. Croix, this 



place, and the Falls of St. Anthony ; I therefore 
wish you to grant to the United States, nine 
miles square, at St. Croix, and at this place, from 
a league below the confluence of the St. Peter's 
and Mississippi, to a league above St. Anthony, 
extending three leagues on each side of the river ; 
and as we are a people who are accustomed to 
have all our acts written down, in order to have 
them handed to our children, I have drawn up a 
form of an agreement, which we will both sign, 
in the presence of the traders now present. After 
we know the terms, we will till it up, and have it 
read and interpreted to you. 

" Brothers, those posts are intended as a bene- 
fit to you. The old chiefs now present must see 
that their situation improves by a communication 
with the whites. It is the intention of the United 
States to establish at those posts factories, in 
which the Indians may procure all their things 
at a ciieaper and Ijetter rate than they do now, or 
than your traders can afford to sell them to you, 
as they aie single men, who come from far in 
small boats; but your fathers are many and 
strong, and will come with a strong arm, in large 
boats. There will also be chiefs here, who can 
attend to the wants of their brothers, without 
their sending or going all the way to St. Louis, 
and will see the traders that go up your rivers, 
and know that they are good men. * * » * 

"Brotliers, I now present you with some of 
your father's tobacco, and some other trilling 
thuigs, as a memorandum of my good will, and 
before my departure I will give you some liquor 
to clear your throats." 

Tiie traders, Cameron and Frazer, sat with 
Pike. His interpr«ter was Pierre Rosseau. 
Among the Cliiefs present were Le Petit Cor- 
beau (Little Crow), and Way-ago Enagee, and 
L'Orignal Leve or Rising Moose. It was with 
difliculty that the chiefs signed the following 
agreement; not that they objected to the lan- 
guage, but because they thought their word 
should be taken, without any mark ; but Pike 
overcame their objection . by sayuig that he wished 
them to sign it on his account. 

" "Whereas, at a conference held between the 
United States of America and the Sioux na- 
tion of Indians, Lieutenant Z. M. Pike, of the 
army of the United Stiiles, and the chiefs and 
warriors of said tribe, have agi-eed to the follow- 

ing articles, which, wlien ratified and apjiroved of 
by the proper authority, shall be bimling on both 
parties : 

Akt. 1. Tliat the Sioux nation p-ant imto the 
United Stales, for the purpose of establishment 
of military posts, nine miles square, at the mouth 
of the St. Croix, also from below the confluence 
of the ^lississippi and St. Peter's, up the Missis- 
sippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, extend- 
ing nine miles on each side of the river; that the 
Sioux Nation grants to the United States the full 
sovereignty and iiower over said district forever. 
AuT. 2. That in consideration of the above 
grants, the United States shall pay [filled up by 
the Senate with 2,000 dollars]. 

Akt. 3. The United States promise, on their 
part, to permit the Sioux to pass and repass, hunt, 
or make other use of the said districts, as they 
have formerly done, without any other exception 
than those specified in article first. 

In testimony whereof, we, the imdersigned, 
have hereunto set our hands and seals, at the 
mouth of the river St. Peter's, on the 23d day of 
September, 1805. 

Z. M. PIKE, [L. S.] 
1st Lieutenant and agent at the above conference. 






mark " 

The following entries from Pike's .Journal, des- 
criptive of the region around the city of Miiuie- 
apolis, seventy-five years ago, are worthy of pres- 

"Sept. 26th, T7turs(ia2/.— Embarked at the usual 
hour, and after much labor in passing through 
the rapids, arrived at the foot of the Falls about 
three or four o'clock ; unloaded my boat, and liad 
the principal part of her cargo carried over the 
portage. With the other boat, liowever, full 
loaded, they were not alile to get over the last 
shoot, anil encamped alxiut six yards below. I 
pitched my lent and encamped above the shoot. 
The rapids mentioned in this day's march, might 
properly be called a continuation of the Falls of 
St. Anthony, for they are equally entitled to this 
appellation, with the Falls of the Delaware and 



Susqueliamia. Killed one deer. Distance nine 

Sept. 27th, Friday. Brought over the residue 
of my loading this mornins;. Two men arrived 
from Mr. Fraz'er. on St. Peters, for my dispatches. 
This busmess, closing and sealmg, appeared like 
a last adieu to the civiUzed world. Sent a large 
packet to the (Jeneral. and a letter to Mrs. Pike, 
with a short note to Mr. Fra/.er. Two young 
Indians brought my flag across by land, who ar- 
rived yesterday, just as we came in sight of the 
Fall. I made them a present for tlieir punctual- 
ity and expedition, and the danger they were ex- 
posed to from the journey. Carried our boats out 
of the river, as far as the bottom of the hill. 

Sept. 2Sth . Saturday. — Brought my barge over, 
and put her in the river above the Falls. "While 
■we were engaged with her three-fourths miles 
from camp, seven Indians painted black, appeared 
on the heights. We had left our guns at the 
camp and were entirely defenceless. It occurred 
tome that they were the small party of Sioux who 
were obstinate, and would go to war. wlien the 
other part of the bands came in ; these tliey 
proved to be ; they were better armed tlian any I 
had ever seen : having guns, bows, arrows, clul)s, 
spears, and some of them even a case of pistols. 
I was at that time giving my men a di'am ; and 
givmg the cup of liquor to the first, he di'ank it 
off ; but I was more cautious with the remainder. 
I sent my interpreter to camp with them, to wait 
my coming ; ^visliing to purchase one of theu- war 
clubs, it being made of elk horn, and decorated 
■witli inlaid work. Tliis and a set of bows and 
arrows I wished to get as a curiosity. But the 
liquor I had given him began to operate, he came 
back for me. but refusing to go till I brouglit my 
boat, he returned, and (1 suppose being offeudedj 
borrowed a canoe and crossed the river. In the 
afternoon got the other boat near the top of the 
hUl. when the props gave way, and she slid all the 
way down to the bottom, but fortunately without 
injuring any person. It raining very hard, we 
left her. Killed one goose and a racoon. 

Sept. 29th, Sunday.— I killed a remarkably 
large racoon. Got our large boat over the port- 
age, and put her in the river, at the upper land- 
ing ; this night the men gave sufficient proof of 
their fatigue, l)y all tlirowing tlieuiselves down to 
sleep, preferring rest to supper. This day I had 

but fifteen men out of twenty-two ; the others 
were sick. Tliis voyage could have been per- 
formed vnth great convenience, if we had taken 
our departure in June. But the proper time 
would be to leave the Illinois as soon as the ice 
would permit, when the river would be of a good 

Sept. 30th, Monday. — Loaded my boat, moved 
over and encamped ou the Island. The large boats 
loading likewise, we went over and put on board. 
In the mean time, I took a survey of the Falls, 
Portage, etc. If it be possible to pass the Falls 
in high water, of wliieh I am d<.nibtful, it must 
be on the East side, about tlm-ty yards from 
shore ; as there are three layers of rocks, one be- 
low the other. The pitcli off of either, is not 
more than five feet ; but of this I can say more 
on my return. 

On the tenth of October, the expedition 
readied some arge island below Sauk Kapids, 
where in 1797, Porlier and Joseph RenviUe had 
wmtered. Six days after this, he reached the 
Rapids in Morrison comity, which still bears his 
name, and he writes: '-When we anise in the 
morning, found that snow had fallen during the 
night, tlie ground was covered and it continued 
to snow, Tliis. indeed, was but poor encourage- 
ment for attackmg the Rapids, m which we were 
certam to wade to oiu* necks. I was determined, 
however, if possible to make la riviere de Cor- 
beau, [Crow Wing River], the highest point was 
made by traders in their bark canoes. We em- 
barked, and after four hours work, became so 
benumbed with cold that our limbs were perfectly 
useless. We put to shore on tlie opposite side of 
the river, about two-thirds of the way up the 
rapids. Built a large fire ; and then discovered 
that our boats were nearly half full of water; 
both having sprung large leaks so as to oblige me 
to keep three hands bailing. My sergeant (Keu- 
nerman) one of the stoutest men I ever knew, 
broke a blood-vessel and vomited nearly two 
quarts of blood. One of my corporals (Bradley) 
also evacuated nearly a piiit-of blood, when he 
attempted to void his urine. These mihappy 
circumstances, in addition to the inability of 
four other men whom we were obliged to leave 
on shore, convinced me. that if I had no regard 
for my own health and constitution, I should 
have some for those poor fellows, who were kiU- 



ing themselves to obey my orders. After we had 
breakfast and refreshed ouvsolves. we went down 
to our boats on the rocks, where I was obliged to 
leave them. I then informed my men that we 
would return to the camp and there leave some 
of the party and our large boats. This informa- 
tion was pleasing, and the attempt to reacli the 
camp soon accomplished. My reasons for this 
step have partly been already stated. The nec- 
essity of mdoading and refitting my boats, tlie 
beauty and convenience of the spot for building 
huts, the fine pine ti-ees for peroques, and the 
quantity of game, were additional inducements. 
AVe immediately mdoaded our boats and secured 
their cargoes. In the evening I went out upon a 
small, biit beautiful creek, wliich emptied into 
the Falls, for the purpose of selecting pine trees 
to make canoes. Saw five deer, and killed one 
buck weighing one hundred and thirty-seven 
pounds. By my leaving men at this place, and 
from the great quantities of game in its v-icuiity, 
I was ensured plenty of provision for my return 
voyage. In the party left behind was one luuiter, 
to be continually employed, who w^ould keep our 
stock of salt provisions good. Distance two 
hundred and tlurty-three and a half miles above 
the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Havhig left his large boats and some soldiers 
at this point, he proceeded to the vicinity of 
Swan River where he erected a block house, and 
on the thirtj'-first of October he writes: '-En- 
closed my little work completely with pickets. 
Hauled up my two boats and turned them over 
on each side of the gateways ; by which ineans 
a defence was made to the river, and had it not 
been for various political reasons, I would have 
laughed at the attack of eight hundred or a 
thousand savages, if all my party were witliin. 
For. except accidents, it would only have alford- 
cd amusement, tlie Indians having no idea of 
talcing a place by storm. Found myself pow(>r- 
fully attacked wiili tlie fantastics of tlie brain, 
called ennui, at tlie mention of which I had 
liitherto scoffed ; but m\ books being packed up, 
I was like a person entranced, and could easily 
conceive why so many persons who have been 
confined to remote places, acquire the habit of 
drinking to excess, and many other vicious prac- 
tices, whicli have liccii adopted merely to pass 

During the next month he hunted tlie buffalo 
which were then in that vicinity. On the tliird 
of December he received a visit from llobert 
Dickson, afterwards noted in tlie history of the 
country, who was then trading about sixty miles 
below, on the Mississippi. 

On tlie tenth of December with some sleds he 
continued his journey northward, and on the last 
day of the year passed Pine River. On the tlih-d 
of .January, 1806, he reached tlie trading post at 
Red Cedar, now Cass Lake, and was <iiiite indig- 
nant at findmg the British flag floating from the 
staff. The night after this his tent caught on 
fire, and he lost some valuable and necessary 
clothing. On the evening of the eighth he reach- 
ed Sandy Lake and was hospitably received by 
Grant, the trader in charge. He writes . 

" Jax. 9th, r/iMr.sda)/.— Marched the corporal 
early, m order that our men should receive 
assurance of our safety and success. He carried 
with him a small keg of spirits, a present from 
Mr. Grant. The establishment of this place was 
formed twelve yeai-s since, by the North-west 
Company, and was formerly under the charge of 
a Mr. Charles Brusky. It has attained at present 
such regularity, as to permit the superintendent 
to live tolerably comfortable. They have horses 
they procured from Red River, of the Indians ; 
raise plenty of Irish potatoes, catch pike, suckers, 
pickerel, and white fisli in abundance. Tliey 
have also beaver, deer, and moose ; but the pro- 
vision they chiefly depend upon is wild oats, of 
which they purchase great quantities from the 
savages, giving at the rate of about one dollar 
and a half per bushel. But flour, pork, and salt, 
are almost interdicted to persons not principals 
in the trade. Flour sells at half a dollar ; salt a 
dollar; pork eighty cents; sugar half a dollar ; 
and tea four dollars and fifty cents per pound. 
The sugar is obtained from the Indians, and is 
made from the maple tree." 

He remained at Sandy Lake ten days, and on 
the last day two men of the Northwest Company 
arrived with letters from Fon du Lac Superior, 
one of which was from Atliapuscow, and liad 
been since May on the route. 

On tlie twentieth of January began his journey 
to Leech Lake, which he reached on the first of 
February, and was hospitably received by Ilugli 



McGillis, the head of llie Xoithwest Company at 
this post. 

A ilr. Anderson, in tlie employ of Robert 
Dickson, was residing at the west end of the lake. 
AVhile here he hoisted the American flag in the 
fort. The English yacht still flying at the top of 
the flagstaff, he directed the Indians and his sol- 
diers to shoot at it. They soon broke the iron 
pill to which it was fastened, and it fell to the 
gromid. He was informed by a venerable old 
Ojibway chief, called 8\veet, that the Sioux dwelt 
there when he was a youth. On the tenth of 
February, at ten o'clock, he left Leech Lake with 
Corporal Bradley, the trader Mctiillis and two of 
his men, and at sunset arrived at Red Cedar, now 
Cass Lake. At this place, in 1798, Thompson, 
employed by the Northwest Company for three 
years, in topographical surveys, made sc.'ue ob- 
serv'ations. He believed that a line from the 
Lake of the AVoods would tnucli the sources of 
the ilississippi. Pike, at this point, was very 
kindly treated by a Canadian named Roy, and his 
Ojibway squaw. On his return home, he reached 
Clear River on the seventli of April, where he 
found his canoe and men. and at night was at 
Grand Rapids, Dickson's trading post. He talked 
until four o'clock the next morning with this 
person and another trader named Porlier. He 
forbade while there, the traders Greignor [Grig- 
non] and La Jennesse, to sell any more liquor to 
Indians, who had become very dnniken and un- 
ruly. On the tenth he again reached the Falls 
of Saint Anthony. He writes in liis journal as 
follows : 

April 11th, Friday. — Although it snowed very 
hard we brought over both boats, and descended 
the river to the island at the entrance of the St. 
Peter's. I sent to the chiefs and informed them 
I had something to communicate to them. The 
Fils de Pincho immediately waited on me, and 
informed me that he would provide a place for 
the purpose. About sundown I \\ as sent for and 
introduced into the council-house, where I found 
a great many chiefs of the Sussitongs, Gens de 
Feuilles, and the Gens du Lac. The Yanctongs 
had not yet come down. They were all awaiting 
for my arrival. There were about one hundred 
lodges, or six hundred people; we were saluted 
on our crossing the river with ball as usual. The 
comicil-house was two large lodges, capable of 

containing three hvuidred men. In the upper 
were forty chiefs, and as many pipes set against 
the poles, alongside of whidi I had the Santcur's 
pipes arranged. 1 then informed them in short 
detail, of my transactions with the Santeurs; but 
my interiireters were not capable of making them- 
selves luidcrstood. I was therefore obliged to 
omit mentioning every particular relative to the 
rascal w'ho fired on my sentinel, and of the scoun- 
drel who broke the Fols Avoins' canoes, and 
threatened my life; the interpreters, however, in- 
formed them that I wanted some of their princi- 
pal chiefs to go to St. Louis; and that those who 
thought proper might descend to the jirairie, 
where we would give them more explicit infor- 
mation. They all smoked out of the Santeur's 
pipe, excepting three, who were painted black, 
and were some of those who lost their relations 
last winter. I invited the Fils de Pinchow, and 
the son of the Killeur Kouge, to come over and 
sup with me; when ilr. Dickson and myself en- 
deavored to explain ■\\liat I intended to have said 
to them, could 1 liave made myself understood; 
that at the prairie we would have all things ex- 
plained; that I was desirous of making a better 
report of them than Captain Lewis could do from 
their treatment of him. The former of those 
savages was the person who remained around my 
post all last winter, and treated my men so well; 
they oideavored to excuse their people. 

'•AriUL 12th, iS'((/i(?-(i«i/.— Embarked early. Al- 
though my interpreter had been frequently up the 
river, lie could not tell me where the cave (spoken 
of by Carver) could be foimd ; we carefully 
sought for it, but in vain. At the Indian village, 
a few miles below St. Peter's, we were about to 
pass a few lodges, but on receiving a very partic- 
ular invitation to come on shore, we landed, and 
were received in a lodge kindly; they presented 
us sugar. I gave the proprietor a dram, and was 
about to depart when he demanded a kettle of 
liipior; on being refused, and after I had left the 
shore, he told me he did not like the arrange- 
ments, and that he would go to war this summer. 
I directed the interpreter to tell him that if I 
returned to St. Peter's with the troops, I would 
settle that affair with him. On our arrival at the 
St. Croix, I found the Pettit Corbeau with his 
people, and Messrs. Frazer and "Wood. We had 
a conference, when the Pettit Corbeau made 



many apologies for the niiscoiuluct of his people; 
lie reineseiiteil to us the different manners in 
wliicli lilt' young warriors had been inducing him 
to go to war; tlial he had l)een mvioh l)lamed for 
dismissing his party last fall; but that he was de- 
termined to adhere as far as lay in his power to 
our instructions; that he thought it most prudent 
to remain here and restrain the warriors. He 
tlien presented me with a beaver rolio and pipe, 
and his message to the general. That he was 
determined to preserve peace, and make the road 
ch>ar; also a remembrance of his promised medal. 
I made a reply, calculated to conlirm liim in his 
good intentions, and assured him that he should 
not l)ethe less remembered by his father, although 
not present. I was informed that, notwithstand- 
ing the instruction of his license, and my par- 
ticular request, Murdoch Cameron had taken 
liquor and sold it to the Indians on the river St. 
Peter's, and that his partner below had been 

equally imprudent. I ])ledged myself to prose- 
cute them according to law; for they have been 
the occasion of great confusion, and of much 
injury to the other traders. This day met a 
canoe of yiv. Dickson's loaded with provisions, 
\nider the charge of Mr. Anderson, brother of 
the Mr. Anderson at Leech Lake. He politely 
offered me any provision he had on board {for 
which Mr. Dickson had given me an order!, but 
not now l)eiug in want, I did not accept of any. 
This day. for the first time, I observed the trees 
beginning to bud, and indeed the climate seemed 
to have changed very materially since we passed 
the Falls of St. Anthony." 

The strife of political parties growing out of 
the Frenc'h Revolution, and the declaration of 
war against Great Britain in the year 1812, post- 
poned th" military occupation of the Upper 
Mississippi by the United'States of jVmerica, for 
several years. 





Dickson and other tradcis hostile — American stocVade at Prairie du Cliicii — Fort 
Shelby siirrendcrs to Lt. Col. William McKay— L^yal traders Provenealle and 
Fariljaiilt— Risinff Moose or One-eyed Sioux — Capt. Bulger evacuates Fort 
McKay — iBtclli^enco of I'eace. 

Xotwithstanrting the professions of frientlsliip 
made to Pike, iu tlie second war with Great Brit- 
ain, Dickson and others were found bearing arms 
agamst tlie Eepublic. 

A year after Pil-ce left Trame du Cliien, it was 
evident, that luider some secret uifluence, the 
Indian tribes were combinuig agamst the United 
States. In the year 1809, XicliolasJarrot declared 
that the British traders were furnishing the sav- 
ages with gxuis for hostile puiposes. On the first 
of ilay. 1812. two Indians were apprehended at 
Cliicago, who were on their way to meet Dickson 
at Green Bay. Tliey had taken the precaution 
to liide letters in their moccasms, and bury them 
in the ground, and were allowed to proceed after 
a brief detention. Frazer, of Praiiie du Chieu, 
who had been -n-ith Pike at the Council at the 
moutli of tlie Mimiesota Biver. was at the port- 
age of the Wisconsin wlieii tlie Indians dehvered 
these letters, wliich stilted tliat tlie British flag 
would soon be ilying again at JSIacldnaw. At 
Green Bay, the celebrated warrior, Black Hawk, 
was placed in charge of the Indians who were to 
aid the British. Tlie American troops at Macki- 
naw were obliged, on the seventeenth of July, 
1812, to capitulate without firing a single gun. 
One who was made prisoner, writes from Detroit 
to the Secretary of "War : 

" The persons wlio commanded tlie Indians are 
Kobert Dickson, Indian trader, and John Askin, 
Jr., Indian agent, and his son. The latter two 
were painted and dressed after the manner 
of the Indians. Tliose wlio commanded tlie 
Canadians are John Johnson. Crawford, Pothier, 
Armitinger, La Croix, Kolette, Franks, Living- 
ston, and other traders, some of whom were lately 
concerned in smuggling British goods into the 

Indian country, and, in conjimction with otliere, 
have been using their utmost efiorts, several 
months before the declaration of war, to excite 
tlie Indians to take up arms. Tlie least resist- 
ance from the fort would have been attended 
with tlie destruction of all the persons aaIio fell 
into tlie hands of the British, as I have been as- 
sured by some of the British traders." 

On tlie first of May, 1814, Governor Clark, 
witli two hundred men, left St. Louis, to build a 
fort at the junction of the Wisconsin and iiissis- 
sijjpi. Twenty days before he aiTived at Prairie 
du Cliien, Dickson had started for MackinaAV 
witli a band of Dahkotahs and Winnebagoes. 
The place was left m command of Captain Deace 
and the Mackinaw Fencibles. The Dalikotahs 
refusing to co-operate, when the Americans made 
their appearance they fled. The Americans took 
possession of the old ilackinaw house, m wliicli 
tliey found nine or ten trunks of papers belong- 
ing to Dickson. From one tliey totik the follow- 
ing extract : 

'• ■ Arrived, fi'om below, a few Winnebagoes 
witli scalps. Gave tlicni tobacco, six pounds 
powder and six pounds liiill.' " 

A fort was immediately commenced on tlie 
site of the old residence of the late H. L. Dous- 
man, which was composed of two block-houses 
in the angles, and another on the bank of the 
river, with a subterranean communication. In 
honor of the governor of Kentucky it was named 
" Shelby." 

The fort was in charge of Lieutenant Perkins, 
and sixty rank and file, and two gunboats, each 
of which carried a six-pounder ; and several 
liowitzers were commanded by Captains Yeiser, 
Sullivan, and Aid-de-camp Kennerly. 

The traders at Mackinaw, learning that the 
Americans had built a fort at the Prairie, and 
knowing that as long a.s they held possession 
they would be cut oft from the trade with the 



Dahkotalis, immediately raised an expedition to 
capture the garrison. 

Tlie captain was an old trader l)y the name of 
McKay, and umier him was a sergeant of ar- 
tillery, with a brass six-pounder, and three or 
four volunteer companies of Canadian voyagenrs, 
officered by Captains Griguon, Rolette and An- 
derson, witli T-icntenants Brisbois and Dniuan 
(iraham, all dressed in red coats, with a numl>er 
of Indians. 

The Americans had scarcely completed their 
nide forlilication, l)eft)re the British force, guid- 
ed by Joseph Kolette, Sr., descended in canoes 
to a point on the V/isconsin, several miles from 
the Prairie, to wliicli they marched in battle 
array. McKay sent a Hag to the Fort demanding 
a surrender. Lieutenant Perkins replied that he 
would defend it to the last. 

A fierce encounter took place, in which the 
Americans were worsted. The olhcer was 
wounded, several men were killed and one of 
their boats captured, so that it became necessary 
to retreat to St. Louis. Fort Shelby after its 
capture, was called Fort McKay. 

Among the traders a few remained loyal, es- 
pecially Provencalle and J. B. Faribault, traders 
among the Sioux. Faribault was a prisoner 
among the British at the time Lieut. Col. \\m. 
McKay was preparing to attack Fort Shelby, and 
he refused to perform any service, Faribaidfs 
wife, who was at Prairie du Chieu, not knowing 
that her husband was a prisoner in the bands of 
the advancing foe, fled with others to the Sioux • 
village, where is now the city of "Winona. Fari- 
bault was at length released on parole and re- 
turned to his trading post. 

Pike writes of his flag, that " being in doubt 

whether it had b(>en stolen by the Indians, or had 

fallen overbo;i;d and floated away, I sent for my 

friend the Orignal Leve."' He also call" the 

Chief, liisiug Moose, and gives his Sioux name 

Tahamie. He was one of those, who in 1K05, 

signed the agreement, to surrender land at the 

junction of the ilinnesota and Mississippi Eivers 

to the United States. lie had but one eye, 

having lost the other when a boy, belonged to. 

the Wapasha band of the Sioux, and proved 

true to the flag which had waved on the day he 

sat in council with Pike. 

In the fall of 1814, with another of the same 

nation, he ascended the Missouri under the pro- 
tection of the distinguished trader, .Manual Lisa, 
as far as the Au Jacques or James Kiver, and 
from thence struck across the country, enlisting 
the Sioux in favour of the United States, and at 
length arrived at Prairie du Chien. On his arri- 
val, Dickson accosted him, and inquired from 
whence he came, and what was his business ; at 
the same time rudely snatching his bundle from 
his shoulder, and searching for letters. The 
"one-eyed warrior"' told him that he was from 
St. Louis, and that he had promised the white 
chiefs there that he would go to Prairie du Chien, 
and that he had kept his promise 

Dickson then placed him in confinement in 
Fort iMcKay, as the garrison was called by the 
British, and ordered him to divulge what infor- 
mation he possessed, or he wo.ild put him to 
death. But the faithful fellow said he would 
impart nothing, and that he was ready for death 
if he wished to kill him. Finding that confine- 
ment had no effect, Dickson at last liberated him. 
He then left, and visited the bauds of Sioux on 
the Upper Mississippi, with which he passed the 
wintei-. When he returned in the spring, Dick- 
son had gone to Mackinaw, and Capt. A. Bulger, 
of the Boyal New Foundland Regiment, w-as in 
command of the fort. 

On the twenty-third ot May, 1815, Capt. Bul- 
ger, wrote from Fort JIcKay to Gov. Clark at St. 
Louis: "OHicial intelligence of peace reached 
me yesterday. I propose evacuating the fort, 
taking with me the guns captrn-ed in the fort. * 
* * * I have not the smallest hesitation in 
declaring my decided opinion, that the presence 
of a detachment of British and United States 
troops at the same time, would be the means of 
emlnoiliug one party or the other in a fresh rup- 
ture with the Indians, which I presume it is the 
wish of both governments to avoid." 

The next month the " One-Eyed Sioux," with 
three other Indians and a squaw, visited St. Louis, 
and ho informed Gov. Clark, that the British 
commander left the cannons in the fort when he 
evacuated, but in a day or two came back, took 
the cannons, and fired the fort with the American 
flag flying, but that he rushed in and saved it 
from being burned. From this time, the British 
flag ceased to float in the Valley of the Missis- 




long's expedition, a. D. i817, IX A SIX-OAUKD SKIKF, TO THE FALLS OF SAINT ANTHONT. 

Carvn » Grandsons.— Boque, SioQX Int«rprct<r.— Wapashaw's Villut:e and Its 
Yicinitjr.— A Sucred Dance.— Indian Villa^o Below Daj-ton's Bluff.— Carver's 
Cave.— Fountain Cave.— Falls of St. Anthony Described,— Site or a Fort. 

JIajor Stephen II. Long, of the Engineer Corps 
of the United States Army, learning tliat tlicre 
was little or no danger to be apprehended from 
the Indians, determined to ascend to tlie Falls of 
Saint Anthony, in a sLx-oared skiff presented to 
him by Governor Clark, of Saint Louis. Ilis 
party consisted of a Mr. Hempstead, a native of 
Xew London, Connecticut, 'nhc had been living 
at Prairie du Chien, seven soldiers, and a half- 
breed interpreter, named Roque. A bark canoe 
accompanied them, containing Messrs. Gvm and 
King, grandsons of the celebrated traveler, Jona- 
than Carver. 

On the ninth ot .July, 1S17, the expedition left 
Prairie du Chien, and on the twelfth arrived at 
" Trempe a I'eau." He writes : 

" When we stopped for breakfast, Mr. Hemp- 
stead and myself ascended a high peak to take a 
view of the country. It is known by the name 
of the Kettle Hill, having obtained this appella- 
tion from the circumstance of its having numer- 
ous piles of stone on its top, most of them 
fragments of the rocky stratifications which 
constitute the principal part of the hill, but some 
of them small piles made by the Indians. Tlipse 
at a distance have some similitude of kettles 
arranged along upon the ridge and sides of the 
hill. From this, or almost any other eminence in 
its neighborhood, the beauty and grandeur of the 
prospect would bafUe the skill of the most inge- 
nious pencil to depict, and tliat of the most ac- 
complished pen to describe. Hills marshaled 
into a variety of agreeable shapes, some of them 
towering into lofty peaks, while otliers present 
broad summits embelUshed with contours and 
slopes in the most pleasing manner ; champaigns 
and waving valleys; forests, lawns, and parks 
alternating with each other; tlie humble Missis- 

sippi meandering far below, and occasionally 
losing itself in numberless islands, give variety 
and beauty to the picture, while rugged cliiTs and 
stupendous precipices here and there present 
themselves as if to add boldness and majesty to 
the scene. In the midst of this beautiful scenery 
is situated a village of the Sioux Indians, on an 
extensive lawn called the Aux j\Jsle Prairie ; at 
which we lay by for a short time. On our arrival 
the Indians hoisted tsvo jlmerican Hags, and we 
returned the compliment by discharging our 
blunderbuss and pistols. They then fired several 
guns ahead of us by way of a salute, after which 
we landed and were received with much friend- 
ship. The luime of their chief is Wauppaushaw, 
or the Leaf, commonly called by a name of the 
same import in French, La Feuille, or La Fye, 
as it is pronomiced in English. He is considered 
one of the most honest and honorable of any of 
the Indians, and endeavors to inculcate into the 
minds of his people the sentiments and principles 
adopted by himself. He was not at home at the 
time I called, and I had no opportunity of seeing 
him. The Indians, as I suppose, with the ex- 
pectation that I had something to communicate 
to them, assembled themselves at the place 
where I landed and seated themselves upon the 
grass. I inquired if their chief was at home, 
and was answered in the negative. I then told 
them I should be very glad to see liim, but as he 
w".s absent I would call on him again in a few 
days when I should return. I further told them 
that our father, the new President, wished to ob- 
tain some more information relative to his red 
cliildren, and that I was on a tour to acquire any 
intelligence he might stand in need of. With 
this they appeared well satisfied, and jiermitted 
ilr. Hempstead and myself to go through their 
village. 'VVTiUe I was in the wigwam, one of the 
subordinate chiefs, whose name was Wazzecoota, 
or Shooter from the Pine Tree, volunteered to 



accompany me up the river. I accepted of his 
services, and he was ready to attend me on the 
to>ir in a very short time. When we hove iu 
sight tlie Indians were onKaged in a ceremony 
called the licur Dance; a ceremony wliich tliey 
are in the liabit of performing when any young 
man is desirous of bringing liimself into particu- 
lar notice, and is considered a kind of initiation 
into the state of manliood. I went on to tlie 
ground wliere they liad tlieir performances, 
wliich were ended sooner than usual on account 
of our arrival. Tliere was a Ivind of Hag made 
of fawn skin dressed witli the hair on, suspended 
on a pole. Upon the flesh side of it were drawni 
certain rude ligures indicative of tlie dream 
wliich it is necessary the young man should liave 
dreamed, before he can be considered a proper 
candidate for this kind of initiation ; with this a 
pipe was suspended by way of sacrilice. Two 
arrows were stuck up at the foot of the pole, 
and fragments of painted feathers, etc., were 
strewed about the ground near to it. These per- 
tained to tlie religious rites attending the cere- 
mony, whicli consists in bewailing and self-mor- 
tification, that the Good Spirit may be induced 
to pity them and succor tlieir undertaking. 

" At tlie distance of two or three himdred 
yards from tlie flag, is an excavation which they 
call the bear"s hole, prepareil for tlie occasion. 
It is about two feet deep, and has two ditches, 
about one foot deep, leading across it at right an- 
gles. The young hero of the farce places himself 
in this liole, to bo liunted by the rest of the young 
men, all of wliom on this occasion are dressed in 
their best attire and painted in their neatest style. 
Tlie hunters approach tlie hole in tlie direction of 
one of the ditches, and discliarge their guns, 
which were previously loaded for the purpose 
with blank cartridges, at the one who acts the 
liart of the bear; whereupon he leaps from liis 
den, having a hoop in each hand, and a wooden 
lance ; the hoops serving as forefeet to aid him 
in characterizing liis part, and his lance to defend 
him fniin his assailants. Thus accoutred he 
dances round the place, exhibiting various feats 
of activity, while the otlier Indians pursue him 
and endeavor to trap him as lie attempts to re- 
turn to liis den, to effect which he is privileged to 
use any violence he pleases with impunity against 

his assailants, and even to taking the life of any 
of them. 

" This part of tlie ceremony is performed three 
times, that tlie bear may escape from his deu 
and return to it again through three of tlie ave- 
nues communicating with i' . On being hunted 
from the fourth or last avenue, tlie bear must 
make liis escape through all hi^ pur.suers, if jios- 
sible, and flee to the woods, whei Ik t j remain 
tlirough the day. This, however, is seldom or 
never accomplished, as all the young men exert 
themselves to the utmost in order to trap him. 
When caught, he must retire to a lodge erected for 
his reception iu the field, where he is to be se- 
cluded from all society through the day, except 
one of his partieul^ir friends whom he is allowed 
to take with liim as an attendant. Here he 
smokes and performs various other rites wliich 
superstition has led the Indians to believe are sa- 
cred. After this ceremon; is ended, the young 
Indian is considered qualified to act any part as 
an efficient member of their community. The 
Indian wlio has the good fortune to catch the 
bear and overcome him when endeavoring to 
make his escape to the woods, is considered a 
candidate for preferment, and is on the first suit- 
able occasion appointed the leader of a small \\ar 
party, iu order that he may fiurtlier have an op- 
portunity to test his prowess and perform more 
essential service in belialf of his nation. It is 
accordingly expected tliat he will kill some of 
their enemies and return with tlieir scalps. I re- 
gretted very much that I had missed the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing this ceremony, wliich is 
never performed except when prompted by the 
particular dreams of one or other of the young 
men, who is never complimented twice in the 
same manner on account of his dreams.'' 

On the sixteenth he approached the vicinity of 
where is now the capital of Minnesota, and 
writes : " Set sail at half past four this iiioriiiiig 
with a favorable breeze. I'assed an Indian bury- 
ing ground on oiu- left, the first that I have seen 
surrounded by a fence. In the centre a pole is 
erected, at tlie foot of which religious rites are 
performed at the burial of an Indian, by tlie 
particular friends and relatives of the deceased. 
Upon the pole a flag is suspended when any per- 
son of extraordinary merit, or one who is very 
mucli beloved, is buried. In the enclosure were 



two scaffolds erected also, about six feet high 
and six feet square. Upon one of tbem were two 
coffins containinu' dead bt)dies. Passed a Sioux 
village on our right containing fourteen cabins. 
The name of the chief is the Petit Corlieau, or 
Little Kaven. The Indians were all absent on a 
hunting party up the River St. Croix, wliicli 
is but a little distance across the country from 
the village. Of this we were very glad, as this 
baud are said to be the most notorious beggars 
of all the Sioux on the Mississippi. One of then' 
cabins is furnished with loop holes, and is sit- 
uated so near the water that the opposite side 
of the river is within musket-sliot range from 
the building. By this means the Petit Corbeau 
is enabled to exercise a command over the pass- 
age of the river and has in some instances com- 
pelled traders to land witli their goods, and in- 
duced them, probably through fear of offendmg 
him, to bestow presents to a considerable amount, 
before he would suffer them to pass. The cabins 
are a kind of stockade buildings, and of a better 
appearance than any Indian dwellings I have 
before met with. 

" Two miles above the village, on the same 
side of the river, is Carver's Cave, at which we 
stopped to breakfast. However interesting it 
may have been, it does not possess that character 
in a very high degree at present. We descend- 
ed it with lighted candles to its lower extremity. 
The entrance is very low and about eight feet 
broad, so that a man in order to enter it must be 
completely prostrate. The angle of descent 
within the cave is about 25 deg. The flooring 
is an inclined plane of quicksand, formed of the 
rock in wliieli the cavern is formed. The dist- 
ance from its entrance to its inner extremity is 
twenty-four paces, and the width in the broadest 
part about nine, and its greatest height about 
.seven feet. In shape it resembles a bakers 's oven. 
The cavern was once probably much more ex- 
tensive. My interpreter informed me that, since 
his remembrance, tlie entrance was not less 
than ten feet high and its length far greater than 
at present. The rock in which it is formed is 
a very white sandstone, so friable that the frag- 
ments of it will almost cruml)le to sand wlien 
taken mto the hand. A few yards below the 
mouth of the cavern is a very copious sprhig of 
fine water issuing from the bottom of the cliff. 

" Five miles above this is the Fountain Cave, 
on the same side of the river, formed in the same 
kind of sandstone but of a more pure and line 
quality. It is far more curious and interesting 
Hum llie former. The entrance of the cave is a 
large winding hall about one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, fifteen feet in width, and from 
eight to sixteen feet in height, finely arched 
overhead, and nearly perpendicular. Next suc- 
ceeds a narrow passage and dillicult of entrance, 
which oiiens into a most beautiful circular room, 
finely arched above, and about forty feet in di- 
ameter. The cavern then continues a meander- 
ing course, expanding occasionally into small 
rooms of a circidar form. We penetrated about 
one lumtlred and fifty yards, till our candles 
began to fail us, when we returned. To beauti- 
fy and embellish the scene, a fine crystal stream 
flows through the cavern, and cheers the lone- 
some dark retreat with its enlivening mnrnuirs. 
The temjierature of the water in tlio ca\e was 
46 deg., and that of the air 60 deg. Entering 
this cold retreat from an atmosphere of 89 deg., 
I thought it not prudent to remain in it long 
enough to take its several dimensions and me- 
ander its courses ; particularly as we had to ^\•ade 
in water to our knees in many places in order to 
penetrate as far as We woit. The fountain sup- 
plies an abundance of water as tine as I ever 
drank. Tliis cavern I was informed by my 
interpreter, lias been discovered but a few years. 
That tlie Indians formerly livuig in its neiglilior- 
hood knew nothmg of it till within six years 
past. That it is not the same as that described 
by Carver is evident, not only from this circum- 
stance, but also from the circumstance tliat in- 
stead of a stagnant pool, and only one accessible 
room of a very different form, this cavern has 
a brook running tlu-ough it, and at least four 
rooms in succe.ssion, oite after the other. Car- 
ver's Cave is fast filling up with sand, so that 
no water is now found in it, whereas this, from 
the very natiu-e of the place, must be enlarging, 
as the fountain will carry along with its cun-ent 
all the sand that falls into it from the roof and 
sides of the cavern." 

On the night of tlie sixteenth, lie aiTived at the 
Palls of Saint Anthony and encamped on the east 
shore just below tlie cataract. He writes in his 
journal : 



"Tlie place where we encamped last night need- 
ed IK) emlicllishtnciit U> rciKh'r it i-oiii;iiitic in the 
hi},'licst degree. The banks on botli sides of the 
river are about one hundred feet hish, decorated 
with trees and shrubbery of various kinds. The 
post oak, liickory. walnut, linden, sugar tree, 
white birch, and the American box ; also various 
evergreens, such as the pine, cedar, juniper, 
etc., added their embellishments to the .scene. 
Amongst the shrubery were the ])rickly ash, 
l)lum, and cherry tree, the g(joseberry, the black 
and red raspberry, the chokeberry, grape vine, 
etc. There were also various kinds of herbage 
and flowers, among which were the wilil parsley, 
rue, spikenard, etc.. red and white roses, morning 
glory and various other handsome llowers. A 
few yards lielow us was a beautiful cascade of 
fine spring water, pouring down from a project- 
ing precipice about one hundred feet hight. On 
our left was the Mississippi- hurrying through its 
channel with great velocity, and about three 
(piarters of a mile above us, in plain view, was 
the m.ijestic catiract of the Falls of St. Anthony. 
The murmuring of the cascade, the roaring of the 
river, and the thunder of the cataract, all contrib- 
uted to render the scene the most interesting and 
magnificient of any I ever before witnessed.'" 

'•The jieriiendicular fall of the water at the 
cataract, was staled by Pike in his journal, as sL\- 
teen and a half feet, which I found to be true by 
actual measurement. To this height, however, 
four or five feet may be ailded for the rapid des- 
cent which immediately succeeds to the perpen- 
dicular fall within a few yards below. Immedi- 
ately at the cataract the river is divided into two 
parts by an island which extends considerably 
above and bcliiw tlic cataract, and is al«iut live 
hundred yards long. The channel on tlie riglit 
side of the Island is abont three times the width 
of that on the left. The qiianity of water pass- 
ins through them is not, however, in the same 
proportion, as about one-third part of the whole 
jia.sses through the left channel. In the broadest 
channel, just below the cataract, is a small island 
also, about fifty yards in length and thirty in 
breadth. Both of these islands contain the same 
kind of rocky formation as the banks of the river, 
and are nearly as high. Besides these, there are 
immediately at the foot of the cataract, two 
islands of very inconsiderable size, situated in 

the right channel also. The rapids commence 
several hundred yards above the cataract and 
continue about eight miles below. The fall of 
the water, beginning at the head of ilic rapids, 
and extending two hundred and sixty rods down 
the river to where the jjortage road commences, 
below the cataract is, according to Pike, fifty- 
eight feet. If this estimate be correct the whole 
fall from the head to the foot of the rajiids. is not 
probably much less than one hundred feet.^ But 
as I had no instrument sutficiently accurate to 
level, wlicr( the view must necessarily be pretty ' 
extensive, 1 took no i)ains to ascertain the extent 
of the fall. Tlie mode I adopted to ascertain 
the height (if a cataract, was to suspend a line 
and iilummel from the table rock on the south 
side of the rixer, which at the same time had 
very little water passing over it as the river was 
\uiusually low. The rocky formations at this 
Ijlace were arranged in the following order, from 
the surface downward. A coarse kind of lime- 
stone in thin strata containing considerable silex; 
a kind of soft friable stone of a greenish color 
and slaty fracture, probably containing lime, 
aluminum and silex; a very beautiful satratitica- 
tion of shell limestone, in thin plates, extremely 
regular in its formation and containing a vast 
number of shells, all apparently of the same 
kind. This formation constitutes the Table Rock 
of the cataract. The next in order is a white or 
yellowish sandstone, so easily crumbled that it 
deserves the name of asandbaidv rather than that 
of a rock. It is of various depths, from ten to 
fifty or seventy-five feet, and is of the same char- 
acter with that foimd at the caves before des- 
cribed. The next in order is a soft friable sand- 
stone, of a greenish color, similar to that resting 
upon the shell limestone. These stratifications 
occMi)ied the :vhole space from the low water 
mark nearly to the top of the bluffs. On the east, 
or rather north side of the river, at the Falls, are 
high grounds, at the distance of half a mile from 
the river, considerably more elevatccl tlian the 
blulfs, and of a hilly aspect. 

Speaking of the bluff at the confluence o. Jie 
Mississippi and .Miimesota, he writes: ".V military 
work of considerable magnitude might be con- 
structed on the point, and might be rendered 
sufliciently secure by occupying the commanding 
height in the rear in a suitable manner, as the 



latter ■would control not only the point, but all 
the neighboring heights, to the full extent of a 
twelve pounder's range. Tlie work on tlie point 
■would be necessary to control the navigation of 
the two rivers. But witliout the commanding 
work m the rear, ■would be liable to be greatly 
annoyed from a height situated directly opposite 

on the other side of the ilississippi, which is 
here no more than about two hundred and fifty 
yards wide. Tliis latter height, however, ■«-ould 
not be eligible for a permanent post, on account 
of the numerous ridges and ravines situated im- 
mediately in its rear." 





Ikriy travclera to Lake Winni|>ci.-— Earlios'. Ma|) by tlic Indian Otcliaga— Belli n*fi 
allunion to it — Vcrendryt-'s Mai>— Do la Jcmerayc's Mnp — Kort La Kcine— Fort 
on Hi-'l River Abandoned— Origin of name Red Lake— Earl of Selkirk— Ossini- 
"boi* dMcri bed— Scotch immigrants at Pomhina— Strife oflradiii^ companies— 
Earl «f Selkirk visits Aiiierica— Governor Semplo KiUcil-Honiuntic life ot Julin 
Tanner, and his son Jamc»— Letter relative to Selkirk's tour through Minne- 

The valley of tlie Ei'd nivcrof thf Xorlh is 
not only an important portion of Minnesota, but 
has a most interesting history. 

■\Vliile there is no evidence that Groselliers, the 
first while man who explored ^linnesota, ever 
visited Lake Wimiipeg and the Ked River, yet lie 
met the Assineboines at the head of Lake Supe- 
rior and at Lake Xepignn. while on his way by a 
nortlieasterly trail to Hudson's Bay, and learned 
something of this region from them. 

The first person, of whom we have an account, 
who visited tlie refjion, was an Englishman, who 
came in 1692, by way of York Elver, to Wiiuii- 

Ochagachs, or Otchaga, an intelligent Indian, in 
1728, assured Pierre (iualtierde Yarenne, known 
in history as the Sieur \'erendrye, while he was 
stationed at Lake Xepigon, that there was a 
communication, largely by water, west of Lake 
Sui)erior. to tlic ( ireat Sea or Pacilic Ocean. The 
nide map. drawn liy this Indian, was sent to 
France, and is still preserved. Upon it is marked 
Kanianistigouia, the fort first established by I)u 
Lnth. Pigeon River is called .Mantohavagane. 
Lac Sasakanaga is marked, and Rainy Lake is 
named Tecamemiouen. The river St. Louis, of 
^Minnesota, is R. fond dii L. Superior. The 
French geographer, Bellin, in his " Remarks 
upon the map of North America," published in 
17.5o, at Paris, alludes to this sketch of Ochagachs, 
and says it is tlie earliest drawing of the region 
west of Lake Superior, in the Depot de la Marine. 

After this Yerendrye, in 1737, drew a map, 
which remauis nnpul)lished, which shows Red 
Lake in Xortliern Minnesota, and tlio point of 
the Big AVoods in the Red River ^'alley. There 

is another sketch in llie archives of France, 
drawn by I)e la .lenieraye. He was a nephew of 
Yerendrye, and, under his uncle's orders, he was 
in 1731, the first to advance from the Grand 
Portage of Lake Superior, by way of the Xalao- 
uagan or Groselliers, now Pigeon River, to Rainy 
Lake. On this appears Fort Rouge, on the south 
bank of the Assineboine at its junction with the 
Red River, and on the Assineboine, a post estab- 
lished on October 3, 1738, and called Fort La 
Reine. Bellin describes the fort on Red River, 
but asserts that it was abandoned because of its 
vicinity to Fort La Reine, on the nortli side of 
the Assinneboine, antl only about nine miles by 
a portage, from Swan Lake. Red Lake and Red 
River were so called by the early French explo- 
rers, on accomit of the reddish tint of the waters 
after a storm. 

Tliomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, a wealthy, 
kind-hearted but visionary Scotch nobleman, at 
the commencement of the present century formed 
the design of planting a colony of agriculturists 
west of Lake Superior. In the year 1811 he 
obtained a grant of land from the Hudson Bay 
Company called Osshuljoia, which it seems 
strange has been given up by the people of Man- 
itoba. In the autumn of 1812 a few Scotchmen 
witli their families arrived at Pembina, in the 
Red River Yalley, by way of Hudson Bay, where 
they passed the winter. In the winter of 1813-14 
they were again at Fort Daer or Pembina. The 
colonists of Red River were rendered very un- 
happy by the strife of rival trading companies. 

In the spring of 1815, McKenzie and Morrison, 
traders of the Xorthwest conii)any, at Sandy 
Lake, told the Ojibway chief there, that they 
would give him and his baud all the goods and 
rum at Leech or Sandy Lakes, if they would an- 
noy tlie Red River settlers. 

The Eari of Selkirk hearing of the distressed 
condition of his colony, sailed for ^Uuerica, and 



in the fall of 1S15, arrived at ivew York City. 
Proceeding to Montreal he found a messenger 
who had traveled on foot in mid-winter from the 
Bed lliver by way of Red Lake and Fou du Lac, 
of Lake Superior, lie sent back by this man, 
kind messages to the dispirited settlers, but one 
night he was way-laid near Fon du Lac, and 
robbed of his canoe and dispatches. An Ojib- 
way chief at Simdy Lake, afterwards testified 
that a trader named Gnmt olTered him rum and 
tobacco, to send persons to intercept a bearer of 
dispatches to Red River, and sonu the messenger 
was brought iu by a negro and some Indians. 

Failing to obtain military aid fn)m the 
British authorities in Canada, Selkirk made an 
engagement with four officers and eighty privates, 
of the discharged ;Meuron regiment, twenty of 
the De "WattevUle, and a few of the Glengar\- 
Fencibles, which had served iu the late war with 
the United States, to accompany him to Bed 
Biver. They were to receive monthly wages for 
navigatuig the boats to Red River, to have lands 
assigned them, and a free passage If they wished 
to return. 

"Wlien he reached Sault St. Marie, he received 
the intelhgence that the colony had again been 
destroyed, and that Semple, a mild, amiable, Init 
not altogether judicious m;m, the chief governor 
of the factories and territories of tlie Hudson 
Bay company, residing at Red River, had been 

Schoolcraft, iu 1832, says he saw at Leech 
Lake, ilajegabowi, the man who had killed Gov. 
Semple, after he fell woimded from his horse. 

Before he heard of the death of Semple, the 
Earl of Selkirk had made arrangements to visit 
his colony by way of Fon du Lac, on the St. Louis 
River, and Red Lake of Minnesota, but he now 
changed his mind, and proceeded with his force 
to Fort WUliam, the chief traduig post of the 
Korthwest Company on Lake Superior ; and ap- 
prehending the principal partners, warrants of 
commitment were issued, and they were forward- 
ed to the Attorney-General of Upper Canada. 

While Selkirk was engaged at Fort William, 
a party of cuiigrants in charge of ]\Iiles McDon- 
uel, Governor, and Captain D"Orsomen, went 
forwaril to remforce the colony. At Rainy 
Lake they obtained the guidance of a man w ho 
had all the characteritjtics of an Indian, and yet 

had a bearing which suggested a different origin. 
By his efficiency and temperate habits, he had se- 
cured the respect of his employers, and on the Earl 
of Selkirk's arrival at Red River, his attention was 
called to him, and in his welfare he became 
deeply uitercsted. By repeated conversations 
with him. memories of a different kind of exist- 
ence were aroused, and the light of other days 
began to brighten. Though he had forgotten his 
father's name, he furnished sufficient data for 
Selkirk to proceed with a search for his relatives. 
Visiting the United States in 1817, he published 
a circular iu the papers of the Western States, 
wliich led to the identitication of the man. 

It appeared from his own statement, and 
those of his friends, that his name was John 
Tamier, the son of a minister of the gospel, who, 
about the year 1790, lived on the Ohio river, near 
the Miami. Sliortly after his location there, a 
baud of rovmg Indians passed near the house, 
and found John Tanner, tlien a little boy, filling 
his hat with wahiuts from under a tree. They 
seized him and fled. The party was led by an 
Ottawa whose wife had lost a son. To compen- 
sate for his death, tlie mother beggeil that a boy 
of the same age might be captured. 

Adopted by the band. Tanner grew up an 
Indian in his tastes and habits, and was noted 
for lira\ery. Selkirk was successful iu finding 
liis relatives. ^Vfler twenty-eight years of sepa- 
ration, John Tanner in 1818, met his brother 
Edward near Detroit, and went with him to his 
home in !Missomi. lie soon left his brother, and 
went back to the Indians. For a time he was 
intei'preter for Henry R. Schoolcraft, but became 
lazy and ill-natured, and in 1836, skulking Ijcliind 
some buslies, he shot and killed Schoolcraft's 
brutlier, and (led to the wilderness, where, in 
1847, he died. His son, James, was kindly treat- 
ed by the missionaries to the Ojibways of Minne- 
sota; but he walked in the footsteps of his father. 
In the year 1851, he attempted to impose upon 
the Presbyterian minister iu Saint Paul, and, 
when detected, called upon the Baptist minister, 
who, beUeviug him a penitent, cut a hole in the 
ice, and received liim into the churcli by immer- 
sion. In time, the Baptists found him out, when 
he became an Unitarian missionary, and, at last, 
it is said, met a death by violence. 

Lord Seliiii-k was in the Red River A'aUey 



(luring tlieKummerof 1817, and on the eigliteenth 
of July concliiiled a treaty with tlie Ciees iuid 
SaiiltcHUX, for a tract of lanil bogiuiiiiig at the 
moutli of tlie Red River, and extending along 
the same as far as the Great Forks {now Grand 
Forks) at the nioutli of Red Lake River, and 
along the Assinniboiue Riveras far as ^Iiislv Rat 
River, and extending to the distance of six miles 
from Fort Douglas on every side, and likewise 
from ]'"o;-t J)acr (I'embina) and also from the 
Great Forks, ajid in other parts extending to the 
distance of two miles from the banks of the said 

Having restored order and conlidence, attend- 
ed by three or four persons he crossed the plains 
to the Minnesota River, and from thence pro- 
ceeded to tSt. Louis. The Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chit-n was not pleased with Selkirk's 
trip through Minnesota; and on the sixth of 
February. ISlS, wrote the Governor of lllmois 
mider excitement, some groiuidless suspicions : 

•■ What do you suppose, sir-, has been the re- 
sult of the passage through my agency of this 
British noblcnianV Two entire bauds, and part 
of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined 
Dickson, who has distributed to them large quan- 
tities of Indian presents, together with flags, 
medals, etc. Knowing this, what must have been 
my feelings onliearing that his lordship had met 
with a favourable reception at St. Louis. The 
newsjiapers announcing hix (irrivcd, and general 
Sa/»/>7i appearance, all tend to discompose me; 
believing as I do, that he is plotting with his 
friend Dickson our destruction— sharpening the 
savage scalping knife, and colonizing a tract of 
covuitry, so»remote as that of the Reel River, for 
the purpose, no doubt, of monopolizing the fur 
and peltry trade of this river, the ilissouri and 
their waters; a trade of the first importance to 
our Western Slates and Territories. A courier 
who had aiTived a few days since, confirms the 
belief that Dickson is endeavouring to undo what 
I have done, and secure to the British govern- 
ment the affections of the Sioux, and subject the 
Northwest Company to his lordship. * * * 

Dickson, as I have before obsen'ed, is situated 
near the head of the St. Peter's, to which place 
he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River 
establishment, in carts made for the purpose. 
The trip is performed in live days, sometimes 
less. He is directed to build a fort on the high- 
est land between Lac du Traverse and Red River, 
wliich he supposes will be the established lines 
This fort will be defended by twenty men, with 
two small pieces of artillery." 

In the year 1820, at Berne, Switzerland, a cir- 
cular was issued, signed, R. May D'Uzistorf, 
Captain, in his Britannic ISIajesty's service, and 
agent Plenipotentiary lo Lord Selkirk. Like 
many documents to induce emigration, it was so 
highly colored as to prove a delusion and a 
snare. The climate was represented as "mild 
and healthy." '• Wood either for building or 
fuel in the greatest plenty," and the country 
supplying "in profusion, whatever can be re- 
quired for the convenience, pleasure or comfort 
of life." Remarkable statements considering 
that every green thing had been devoured the 
year before by grasshoppers. 

Under the influence of these statements, a inim- 
ber were induced to embark. In the spring of 
1821, about two hundred persons assembled on 
the banks of the Rhine to proceed to the region 
west of Lake Superior. Having descended the 
Rhine to the vicinity of Rotterdam, they went 
aboard the ship " Lord "Wellington,"' and after a 
voyage across tlie Atlantic, and amid the ice- 
floes of Hudson's Bay, they reached York Fort. 
Here they debarked, and entering batteaux, as- 
cended Xelson River for twenty days, when they 
came to Lake "Winnipeg, and coasting along the 
west shore they reached the Red Ri\er of the 
North, to feel that they had been deluded, and 
to long for a milder clime. If they did not sing 
the Switzer's Song of Home, they appreciated its 
sentiments, and gradually these immigrants re- 
moved to the banks of the ilissLssippi River. 
Some settled in Minnesota, and were the first to 
raise cattle, and till the soil. 





A. D. 1819, TO A. D. 1827. 

Orders for military occnpation of Cppcr Mississippi— Leavenworth and Forsyth 
at Pnurie du Cliicn— Birth in Caiup — Trwps amve at Mendola — Cantonment 
Established— WTicat earricd to Pembina- Notice of Devotion, Prescott, and 
Major Taliaferro— Camp Cold Water Established -<:oL Snelling takes command 
—Impressive Scene — Officers in 1820— Condition of the Fort in 1821— Saint 
Anthony Mill— Alexis Bailly taltea cattle to Pembina— Notice of Beltrami— 
ArrivaloffirstSteamboat-Major Long's Expedition to Northern Boundary- 
Beltrami visits the northern sources of the Mississippi — First flour mill — First 
Sunday School— Great flood in 1S26. African slaves at the Fort— Steamboat 
Arri vals — Duels— Notice of William Joseph Snelling — Indian tight at the Fort— 
Attack upon keel boats — fieneral Gaines' report— Removal of Fifth Regiment— 
Death of Colonel Snelling. 

The rumor that Lord Selkirk was f ouudiBg a 
colony on the borders of the United States, and 
that the British trading companies within the 
boundaries of what became tlie territory of Min- 
nesota, comTiiced the authorities at "Washington 
of the imiiortanee of a military occupation of tlie 
valley of the Upper Mississippi. 

By dii-ection of M.ijor General Brown, the fol- 
lowing order, on the tenth of February, 1819, was 
issued ; 

"Major General Jilacomb, commander of tlie 
Fifth JVIihtary department, will without delay, 
conceutiate at Detroit the Fiftli Regiment of In- 
fauti7, excepting tlie recruits otlierwist.^ directed 
by the general order herewith transmitted. As 
soon as the navigation of the lakes will admit, lie 
will cause the regiment to be transported to Fort 
Howard; from thence, by the way of the Fox 
and Wisconsin Rivers, to Prairie du Chien, and, 
after detachuig a suflBcient number of companies 
to garrison Forts Crawford and Armstrong, the 
remauider will proceed to the mouth of the River 
St. Peter's, where they will establish a post, at 
which the hejidquarters of the regunent will be 
located. The regiment, previous to its depar- 
tui-e, -will receive the necessary suppUes of cloth- 
ing, provisions, arms, and ammunition. Imme- 
diate application will be made to Brigadier (Jen- 
eral Jesup, Quartermaster General, for funds 
necessary to execute the movements reiiuired by 
this order." 

On the thirteenth of April, this additional order 
was issued, at Detroit : 

"The season ha\'ing now arrived when the 
lakes may be navigated with safety, a detacli- 
ment of the Fifth Regiment, to consist of Major 
JNIarston's and Captain Fowle's companies, imder 
the command of Major Muhlenburg, wUl proceed 
to (ireen Bay. Surgeon's ]Mate, R. M. Byrne, of 
the Fifth Regiment, will accompany the detach- 
ment. The Assistant Deputy Quartermaster 
General will furnish the necessary transport, and 
will send by the same opportunity two hundred 
barrels of provisions, wliich he will draw from the 
contractor at this post. The provisions must be 
examined and inspected, and properly put up for 
transportation. Colonel Leavenworth will, ^rith- 
out delay, prepare his regiment to move to the 
post on the Mississippi, agreeable to the Divi- 
sion order of the tenth of February. The Assist- 
ant Deputy (Quartermaster General will furnish 
the necessary transportation, to be ready by the 
first of May next. The Colonel will make requi- 
sition for such stores, ammunition, tools and 
implements as may be required, and he be able to 
take with him on the expedition. Particular in- 
structions will be given to the Colonel, explaining 
the objects of his expedition." 


On Wednesday, the last day of June, Col. Leav- 
enworth and troops arrived from Green Bay, at 
Prairie du Chien. Scarcely had they reached 
this point when Charlotte Seymour, the \^'ife of 
Lt. Nathan Clark, a liative of ILartford, Ct., 
gave birth to a daughter, whose first baptismal 
name was Charlotte, after her mother, and the 
second Ouisconsin, given by the officers in view 
of the fact that she was born at the junction of 
that stream with the Mississippi. 

In time Charlotte Ouisconsin married a young 
Lieutenant, a native of Princeton, New Jersey, 
and a graduate of West Point, and still resides 
with her husband, General II. P. Van Cleve, in 



the city of Minneapolis, living to do good as she 
has opportunity. 

In June, under instructions from the War 
Department, !Major Tluimas Forsyth, connected 
■with the office of Indian affairs, left St. Louis 
with two thousand dollars worth of goods to be 
distributed among tlie Sioux Indians, in accor- 
dance with the agreement of ISUo, already re- 
ferred to, by the late General Pike. 

About nine o'clock of the morning of tlic fiftli 
of July, he joined Leavenworth and his connnand 
at Prairie du Cliien. Some time was occupied by 
Leavenworth awaiting the arrival of ordnance, 
provisions and recruits, but on Sunday morning, 
the eighth of August, about eight o'clock, the 
expedition set out for the point now known as 
Mendota. The flotilla was quite imposing ; there 
were the Colonel's barge, fourteen Viatteaux witli 
ninety-eight soldiers and officers, two large canal 
or Mackinaw boats, filled with various stores, and 
Forsyth's keel boat, containing goods and pres- 
ents for the Indians. On the twenty-third of 
August, Forsjih reached the mouth of the Min- 
nesota with his boat, and the next morning Col. 
Leavenworth arrived, and selecting a place at 
Mendota, near the present railroad bridge, lie 
ordered the soldiers to cut down trees and make 
a clearing. On the next Saturday Col. Leaven- 
worth, ]Major Yose, Surgeon Purcell, Lieutenant 
Clark and the wife of Captain Gooding ivited 
the Falls of Saint Anthony with Forsyth, in 
his keel boat. 

Early in September two more boats and a bat- 
teaux, with ollicers and one hvmdred and twenty 
recruits, arrived. 

During the winter of 1820, Laidlow and others, 
in behalf of Lord Selkirk's Scotch settlers at 
Pembina, whose crops had been destroyed by 
grasshoppers, passed the Cantonment, on their 
way to Prairie du Clden, to purchase wheat. 
Upon the lifteentli of April they Itegan their 
return with their Mackinaw boats, each loaded 
with two liundred bushels of wheat, onehimdred 
of oats, and thirty of peas, and readied the nioutli 
of the Minnesota early in ilay. Ascending tliis 
stream to Big Stone Lake, the boats were drawn 
on rollers a mile and a half to Lake Traverse, 
and on tlie third of .lune arrived at Peniliinaand 
cheered tlie desponding and needy settlers of the 
Selkii'k colony. 

Tlie first sutler of the post was a Mr. Devotion, 
lie brought with him a yonng man named Phi- 
lander Prescott, who was born in Plielps- 
town, Ontario county, Xew York. At lirst they 
stopped at Alud lien Island, in the Mississippi 
below the mouth of the St. Croix River. Coming 
\ip late in the year IRllt, at the site of tli(^ pres- 
ent town of Hastings tliey found a keel-lioat 
loaded with supplies for the cantonment, in cliarge 
of Lieut. Oliver, detained by the ice. 

Amid all tlie changes of the troops, Mr. Pres- 
cott remained nearly all his life in the vicinity of 
the post, to wJiich lie came when a mere lad, and 
was at length killed in the Sioux Jtlassacre. 


111 tlie spring of 1820, Jean Baptiste Faribault 
brought up Leavenworth's horses from Prairie 
du Cliien. 

The first Indian Agent at the post was a former 
army officer, La^xTence Taliaferro, pronounced 
Toliver. As he had the confidence of the Gov- 
ernment for twenty-one successive years, he is 
deserving of notice. 

His family was of Italian f)rigin, and among 
the early settlers of "\"irginia. He was born in 
1794, in King William county in that State, and 
when, in 1812,' war was declared against Great 
Britain, with four brothers, he entered the army, 
and was coniniissioiied as Lieutenant of tli(! 
Thirty-flftli Infantry. He behaved galhiiitly at 
Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor, and after peace 
was declared, Ik^ was retained as a First Lieuten- 
ant of the Tliird Infantry. In 1816 he was s-ta- 
tioned at Fort Dearborn, now the site of Chicago. 
Wiile on a furlough, he called one day upon 
President Monroe, who told him that a fort would 
be built near the Falls of Saint Antliony, and an 
Indian Agency established, to which he offered 
to ajiiioint him. Ilis commission was dated 
March 27tli, 1.S19, and he proceeded in due time 
to his post. 

On llie fifth day of May, 1820, Leavenworth 
left his winter quarters at Mendota, crossed tlie 
stream and made a summer camp near the 
present military grave yard, which in conseciuence 
of a fine spring has been called " Camp Cold 
Water."' The Indian agency, under Taliaferro, 
remained for a time at the old cantonment. 

The commanding officer established a fine 



garden in the bottom lands of the ilinnesota, 
and on the fifteenth of June the earUest garden 
peas were eaten. The first distiiiguislied visitors 
at the new eiicampmenl were (Governor Lewis 
Cass, of ilichigau, and ilemy Schoolcraft, who 
arrived in July, by way of Lake Superior and 
Sandy Lake. 

The relations between Col. Leavenworth and 
Lidian Agent Taliaferro were not entirely har- 
monious, growmg out of a disagreement of views 
relative to the treatmentof the Indians, and on 
the day of the amval of Governor Cass, Tel- 
iaferro writes to Leavenworth : 

" As it is now understood that I am agent for 
Indian affairs in this country, and you are about 
to leave the upper Mississippi, in all probability 
in the course of a month or two, I beg leave to 
suggest, for the sake of a general laiderstanding 
with the Indian tribes in tliis country, that any 
medals, you may possess, would by being tirnied 
over to me, cease to be a topic of remark among 
the ditfereut Indian tribes undej' my direction. 
I will pass to you any ^'ouchei- that may be re- 
quired, and I beg leave to observe that any pro- 
gress in influence is much impeded in conse- 
quence of this frequent intercourse with the gar- 

In a few days, the disastrous effect of Indians 
minglhig with the soldiers was exhibited. On 
the thu-d of August, the agent wrote to Leaven- 

" His Excellency Governor Cass during his 
visit to this post remarked to me that the Indians 
jU this quarter were spoiled, and at the same 
time said they shoidd not be permitted to enter 
the camp. An unpleasant affair has lately taken 
place ; I mean the stabbing of the old chief 
Mahgossau by his comrade. This was caused, 
doubtless, by an anxiety to obtain the chief's 
wiiiskey. I beg, therefore, that no whiskey 
whatever be given to any Indians, unless it be 
through their proper agent. While an overjilus 
of wiiiskey thwarts the beniflcent and humane 
poUcy of the government, it entails misery upon 
the Indians, and endangers their lives." 

A few days after this note was v.ritten Josiah 
SneUing, who had been recently promoted to the 
Colonelcy of the Fifth Regiment, arrived with 
his family, reUeved Leavenworth, and infused 
new life and energy. A little whUe before his 

arrival, the daughter of Captain Goodhig was 
married to Lieutenant Green, the Adjutant of 
the regiment, the first marriage of wiiite persons 
m ^Minnesota. Mrs. Snelling, a tew days after 
her arrival, gave birth to a daughter, the first 
white child born in Minnesota, and after a brief 
existence of thirteen months, she died and was 
the first interred in the military grave yard, and 
for years the stone wiiich marked its resting 
place, was visible. 

Tlie earliest manuscript in JVUnnesota, written 
at the Cantomnent, is dated October 4, 1820, and 
is in the handwriting of Colonel Snelling. It 
reads : •' In justice to Lawrence Taliaferro, Esq., 
Indian Agent at this post, we, the inidersigned, 
officers of the Eifth IJegiment here stationed, 
have presented him this paper, as a token, not 
only of our individual respect and esteem, but as 
an entii'e approval of his conduct and deportment 
as a public agent in this quarter. Given at St. 
Peter, this 4tli day of October, 1820. 


Col. .5th Inf. Lieutenant. 

S. BuiiBANK, Jos. Hake, 

Br. Major. Lieutenant. 

David Peeky, Ed. Pukcell, 

Captain. Surgeon, 

D. GooDixG, P. E. Green, 

Brevet Captain. Lieut, and Adjt. 

J. Plymptox, "\V. G. Caju', 

Lieutenant. Lt. and Q. M. 

R. A. McCabe, II. AViLKiNs, 

Lieutenant. Lieutenant." 

During the summer of 1820, a party of the 
Sisseton Sioux killed on the Missouri, Isadore 
Poupon, a half-breed, and Joseph Andrews, a 
Canadian engaged in the fur trade. The Indian 
Agent, through Colin Campbell, as interpreter, 
notified the Sissetous that trade would cease 
vrith tliem, until the murderers were delivered. 
At a council held at Big Stone Lake, one of the 
miuxlerers, and the aged father of another, agreed 
to surrender themselves to the commanding 

On the twelfth of Xovember, accompanied by 
their friends, they approached the encampment 
in solemn procession, and marched to the centre 
of the parade. First appeared a Sisseton bear- 
ing a British flag ; then the murderer and the de- 
voted father of another, their arms pinioned, and 



large wooden splinters thrust through the flesh 
above the elbows indicating their contempt for 
pain and death ; in the rear followed friends and 
relatives, with them chanting the death dirge. 
Having arrived in front of the guard, fire was 
kiiulled. aiul the British Hag burned; then the 
niurdererdelivered up his medal, and both prison- 
ers were surmunclcd. Col. Snelling detained tlie 
old chief, while the nnirderer was sent to 8t. 
Louis for trial. 


Col. Snelling built the fort in the shape of a 
lozenge, in view of the projection between the 
two rivers. The first row of barracks was of 
h<\\ u logs, obtained from the pine forests of Rum 
River, but the otlier buildings were of stone. 
ilrs. Van Cleve, the daughter of Lieutenant, 
aftei'wards Captain Clark, writes: 

" In 1821 the fori, although not complete, was 
fit for occupancy. ^ly father had assigned to 
liini llie quarters next beyond the steps leading 
to the Commissary's stores, and during the year 
my little si.ster Juliet was born tliere. At a later 
period my father and Major Garland obtained 
permission to build more commodious quarters 
outside the walls, and the result was the two 
stone houses afterwards occupied by the Indian 
Agent and interpreter, lately destroyed." 

Early in August, a young and intelligent mixed 
blood, Alexis l?ailly. in after years a member of 
the legislature of Minnesota, left the cantonment 
with the first drove of cattle for the Selkirk Set- 
tlement, and the next winter returned with Col, 
Robert Dickson and Messrs, Laidlow and Mac- 

The next month, a party of Sissetons visited 
the liidiau Agent, and told him that they had 
started with another of the nuuderers, to which 
reference has been made, but that on the way he 
had, through fear of being hung, killed himself. 

Tliis fall, a mill wa,s constructed for the use of 
the garrison, on the Avest side of St. Anthony 
Falls,under the supers'ision of Lieutenant McCabe. 
During the fall, George Gooding, Captain T)y 
briivet, resigned, and became Sutler at Prairie du 
Chien. He was a native of Massachusetts, and 
entered the army as ensign in 1808. In 1810 he 
became a Second Lieutenant, and the next year 
was wounded at Tippecanoe. 

In the middle of October, there embarked on 
the keel-boat " Saucy Jack," for I'rairie du Chien, 
Col. Snelling. Lieut. Baxley, Major TaUaferro, 
and ilrs. Gooding, 

P: VENTS OK 1822 AND 1823,. 

Early in January, 1822, there came to the Fort 
from the Red River of the Nortli, Col. Robert 
Dickson, Laidlow, a Scotch fanner, the superin- 
tendent of Lord Selkirk's experimental farm, and 
one Mackenzie, on their way to Prairie du Chien. 
Dickson returned with a drove of cattle, but 
owing to the hostility of the Sioux his cattle were 
scattered, and never reached Pembina. 

Dm-ing the winter of 1823, Agent Taliaferro 
was in Washington. While returning in March, 
he was at a hotel in Pittsliurg, wlien he received 
a note signed G. C. Beltrami, who was an Italian 
exile, asking permission to accompany him to the 
Indian territory. He was tall and coinuiaudiug 
in appearance, and gentlemanl)' in bearing, and 
Taliaferro was so forcibly impressed as to accede 
to the request. After reaching St. Louis they 
embarked on the first steamboat for the Upper 

It was named the Virginia, and was built in 
Pittsburg, twenty-two feet in width, and one 
liuudred and eighteen feet in length, in charge of 
a Captain Crawford. It reached the Fort on the 
tenth of May, and was saluted by the discharge 
of cannon. .Vuioug the passengers, besides the 
Agent and tlie Italian, were Major Riddle, Lieut. 
Russell, and others. 

The arrival of the Virginia is an era in the 
history of the Dahkotah nation, and will proba- 
bly be transmitted to their posterity as long as 
they exist as a people. They say their sacred 
men, the night before, dreamed of seeing some 
monster of the waters, which frightened them 
very much. 

As the boat neared the shore, men, women, 
and children beheld with silent astonishment, 
supposhig that it was some enormous water-spirit, 
coughing, pufling out hot breath, and splashing 
water in every direction. When it touched the 
lauding tlieir fears prevailed, and they retreated 
some distance ; but when the blowing olf of 
steam commenced they were comjjletely un- 
nerved : mothers forgetting their children, with 
streaming hair, sought hiding-places ; chiefs, re- 



nouncing tlieir stoicism, scampered away like 
aflriglited animals. 

Tlie peace agreement beteen tlie Ojibways and 
Dahkotabs, made through tlie influence of Gov- 
enior Cass, was of brief duration, the latter be- 
ing the first to violate the provisions. 

On the fourth of June, Tahaferro, the Indian 
agent among the Dahkotahs, took advantage of 
the presence of a large number of Ojibways to 
renew the agreement for the cessation of hostili- 
ties. The council hall of the agent was a large 
room of logs, in wliich waved conspicuously the 
flag of tlie United States, surrounded by British 
colors and medals that had been delivered up 
from time to time by Indian chiefs. 

Among the Dahkotah chiefs present were 
AVapashaw, Little Crow, and I'enneshaw ; of the 
Ojibways there were Kendouswa, Mosliomene. 
and Pasheskonoepe. After mutual accusations 
and excuses concerning the infraction of the pre- 
vious treaty, the Dalikotahs lighted the calumet, 
they having been the first to infringe upon the 
agreement of 1820. After smoking and passing 
the pipe of peace to the Ojibways, who passed 
through the same f(u-malities, they all shook 
hands as a pledge of renewed amity. 

The morning after the council, Flat Month, 
the distinguished Ojiliway chief, arrived, who 
had left his lodge vowing that he would never be 
at peace with the Dahkotahs. As he stepped from 
his canoe, Penneshaw held out his hand, but was 
repulsed with scorn. The Dahkotah warrior 
immediately gave the alarm, and in a moment 
runners were on their way to the neighboring 
villages to raise a war party. 

On the sixth of June, the Dahkotahs had assem- 
bled, stripped for a fight, and surrounded the 
Ojibways. The latter, fearing the worst, con- 
cealed their women and children behind the old 
barracks which had been used by the troops while 
the fort was bemg erected. At the solicitation of 
the agent and commander of the fort, the Dahko- 
tahs desisted from an attack and I'etired. 

On the seventh, the Ojibways left for their 
homes; but, in a few hours, while they were 
making a portage at Falls of St. Anthony, they 
were again approached by the Dahkotahs, who 
would have attacked them, if a detacliment of 
troops had not arrived from the fort. 

A rumor reaching Penneshaw's village that he 

had been killed at the falls, his mother seized an 
Ojibway maiden, who had been a captive from 
infancy, and, with a tomahawk, cut her in two. 
Upon file return of the son in safety he was much 
gratified at what he considered the prowess of 
his parent. 

CMi the third of July, 1823. Major Long, of the 
engineers, arrived at the fort in command of an 
expeditifin to explore the Minnesota Kiver, and 
the region along the northern lionndary line of 
the United States. Beltrami, at the request of 
Col. Snelling, was permitted to he of the party, 
and JSIajor Taliaferro kindly gave liim a horse 
and equipments. 

The relations of the Italian to Major Long were 
not pleasant, and at Pembina Beltrami left the 
expedition, and with a '• bois brule "', and two 
Ojibways proceeded and discovered the northern 
sources of the ilississippi, and suggested where 
the western sources would be found ; which was 
verified by Schoolcraft nine years later. About 
the second week in September Beltrami returned 
to the fort by way of the Mississippi, escorted by 
forty or fifty Ojibways, and on the 25th departed 
for Xew Orleans, where he pubUshed Ms discov- 
eries in the French language. 

The mill which was constructed in 1821, for 
sawing lumber, at the Falls of St. Anthony, stood 
upon the site of the Holmes and Sidle Mill, in 
^liiuieapolis, and in 1823 was fitted up for grind- 
ing flour. Tlie following extracts from corres- 
pondence addressed to Lieut. Clark, Commissary 
at Fort Snellmg, will be read with interest. 

Under the date of August 5th, 1823, General 
tiibsou writes : " From a letter addressed by 
Col. Snelling to the Cjuartermaster General, 
dated the 2d of April, I learn that a large quan- 
tity of wheat would be raised this summer. Tlie 
assistant Commissary of Subsistence at St. Louis 
has been instructed to forward sickles and a pair 
of millstones to St. Peters. If any flour is manu- 
factured from the wheat raised, be pleased to let 
me know as early as practicable, that I may deduct 
the quantity manufactured at the post from the 
quantity advertised to be contracted for." 

In another letter. General Gibson writes : 
" Below you will find the amount charged on the 
books against the garrison at Ft. St. Anthony, 
for certam articles, and forwarded for the use of 
the troops at that post, which you will deduct 



from the jiayments to be made for flour raised 
and turned over to you for issue : 

One pair buhr millstones $250 11 

337 pounds plaster of Paris 20 22 

Two dozen sickles 18 00 

Total $288 33 

Upon the 19th of January, 1824, the General 
writes: " The mode suggested by Col. Snelliiig, 
of fixing the price to be paid to the troops for the 
flour furnished by them- is deemed equitable and 
just. You will accordingly pay for the flour 
S3.33 per barrel." 

Charlotte Ouisconsin Van Cleve, now the oldest 
person living who was connected with the can- 
tonment in 1819, in a jiaper read before the De- 
])ai"tnient of American History of the Minnesota 
Historical Society in January, 1880, wrote : 

" In 1823, Mrs. Snelling' and my mother estab- 
lished the firsit Sunday School in the Northwest. 
It was held in the basement of the commanding 
officer's quarters, and was productive of much 
good. Many of the soldiers, with their families, 
attended. Joe. Brown, since so well knt)W in 
this coinitiy, then a drummer boy, was one of 
the pupils. A Bible class, for the officers and 
their wives, was formed, and all became so inter- 
ested in the history of the patriarchs, that it fur- 
nished topics of conversation for the week. One 
day after the Sunday School lesson on the death of 
Moses, a member of the class meeting my mother 
on the parade, after exchanging the usual greet- 
ings, said, in saddened tones, ' But don't you feel 
soiTy that Moses is dead ? ' 

Early in the spring of 1824, the Tully boys 
were rescued from the Sioux and brought to the 
fort. They were children of one of the settlers 
of Lord Selkirk's colony, and with their parents 
and others, were on their way from Red River 
Valley to settle near Fort Snelling. 

The party was attacked by Indians, and the 
parents of these children murdered, and the boys 
captured. Through the influence of Col. Snell- 
ing the children were ransomed and brought 
to the fort. Col. Snelling took John and 
my father Andrew, the younger of the two. 
Everyone became interested in the ori)hans, and 
we loved Andrew as if he had been our own lit- 
tle brother. John died some two years after his 
arrival at the fort, and Mrs. Snelling asked me 

when I last saw her if a tomb stone had been 
placed at his grave, she as re(iueHted, during a 
visit to the old home some years ago. She said 
she received a promise that it should be done, 
and seemed quite disappointed when I told her it 
had not been attended to.'" 

Andrew Tully, after being educated at an 
Orphan Asylum in New York City, became a 
carriage maker, and died a few years ago in that 


In the year 1824 the Fort was visited by Gen. 
Scott, on a tour of inspection, and at his sug- 
gestion, its name was changed from Fort St. 
Anthony to Fort Snelling. The following is an 
extract from his report to the War Deiiartment : 

" This work, of which the AV'ar Department is 
in possession of a plan, reflects the highest credit 
on Col. Snelling, his officers and men. The de- 
fenses, and for the most part, the public store- 
houses, shops and quarters being constructed of 
stone, the whole is likely to endure as long as the 
post shall remain a frontier one. The cost of 
erection to the government has been the amount 
paid for tools and iron, and the per diem paid 
to soldiers employed as mechanics. I wish to 
suggest to the General in Chief, and through him 
to the War Department, the propriety of calling 
this work Fort Snelling, as a just compliment 
to the meritorious officer under whom it has 
been erected. The present name, (Fort St. jVu- 
thony), is foreign to all our associations, and is, 
besides, geographically incorrect, as the work 
stands at the junction of the Mississippi and 
St. Peter's [Mumesota] Rivers, eight miles be- 
low the great falls of the ]Mississippi, called 
after St. Anthony." 

In 1824, ;Major Taliaferro proceeded to Wash- 
ington with a delegation of Chippeways and Dah- 
kotahs, headed by Little Crow, the grand father 
of the chief of the same name, who was engaged 
in the lato horrible massacre of defenceless 
women and children. The object of the visit, was 
to secure a convocation of all the tribes of the 
Upper Mississippi, at Prairie dti Chein, to define 
their boundary lines and establish friendly rela- 
tions. When they reached Prairie du Chein, 
Wahnatah, a Yankton chief, and also Wai)ashaw, 
by the whisperings of mean traders, became dis- 



affected, and wished to turn back. Little Crow, 
perceiving this, stopped all hesitancy by the fol. 
lowing speech: "My friends, you can do as you 
please. I am no coward, nor can my ears be 
pulled about by evil coimsels. 'We are here and 
should go on. and do some good for our nation. 
I have tiiken our Father here (Taliaferro) by the 
coat tail, and will follow him until I take by the 
hand, our great American Father." 

"While on board of a steamer on the Oliio 
Eiver. Marcpee or the Cloud, in consequence of a 
bad dream, jumped from the stern of the boat, 
and was supposed to be drowned, but he swam 
ashore and made his way to St. Charles. >Io.. 
there to be murdered by some Sacs. The re- 
mainder safely arrived in "Washington and ac- 
complished the object of the visit. The Dahko- 
tahs returned by way of Xew York, and while 
there were anxious to pay a visit to certain par- 
ties with "Wm. Dickson, a half-breed son of Vo\ 
Kobert Dickson, tlie trader, who in the war of 
ISI2-I0 led the Indians of the Northwest against 
the United States. 

After this visit Little Crow carried a new 
doul.le-barreled gun, and said that a medicine 
man by the name of Peters gave it to him for 
signing a certain paper, and that lie also prom- 
ised he would send a keel-boat full of goods to 
them. The medicine man referred to was the 
Rev. Samuel Peters, an Episcopal clergyman, 
who had made himself obnoxious during the 
Revolution by his tory sentiments, and was sub- 
sequently nominated as Rishop of "\'ermont. 

Peters asserted that in 1806 he had pm'cliased 
of the heirs of Jonathan Carver t!ie right to a 
tract of land on the upper Mississippi, embracing 
St. Paul, alleged to have been given to Carver by 
the Dahkotahs, in 1767. 

Tlie next year there arrived, inoneof the keel- 
boats from Prairie du Chien, at Fort Snelling a 
box marked Col. Robert Dickson. On opening, it 
was found to contain a few presents from Peters 
to Dickson's Indian wife, a long letter, and a 
copy of Carver's alleged grant, written on parch- 


On the 30th of October, 1825, seven Indian 
Women in canoes, were drawn into the rapids 
above the Falls of St. j\j)thony. All were saved 

but a lame girl, who was dashed over the cata- 
ract, and a month later her body was found at 
Pike's Island in front of the fort. 

Forty years ago, the means of communication 
between Fort Snelling and the civilized world 
were very limited. The mail in winter was usu- 
ally carried by soldiers to Prairie du Chien. On 
the 26th of January, 1826, there was great joy in 
the fort, caused by the return from furlough of 
Lieutenants Baxley and Russell, who brought 
with them the first mail received for live months. 
About this period there was also another excite- 
ment, cause by the .seizure of liquors in the trad" 
ing house of Alexis 15ailey, at Xew Hope, now 

During the months of February and ilarch, in 
this year, snow fell to the depth of two or three 
feet, and there was great suffering among the 
Indians. On one occasion, thirty lodges of Sisse- 
ton and other Sioux were overtaken by a snow 
storm on a large prairie. The storm continued 
for three days, and provisions grew scarce, for 
the party were seventy in number. At last, the 
stronger men, with the few p>airs of snow-shoes 
in their possession, started for a trading post one 
liundred miles distant. They reached their des- 
tination half alive, and the traders sympathizing 
sent four Canadians with supplies for those left 
behind. After great toil they reached the scene 
of distress, and found many dead, and, what was 
more horrible, the living feeding on the corpses 
of thi'ir relatives. A mother had eaten her dead 
child and a portion of her own fatlier's arms. 
The shock to her nervous system was so great 
that she lost her reason. Ilcr name was Pash- 
uno-ta, and she was both young and good look- 
ing. One day in September, while at Fort Snell- 
ing, she asked Captam Jonett if he knew which 
was the best portion of a man to eat, at the same 
time taking him by thg collar of his coat. He 
replied with great astonishment, "No !" and she 
then said, "The arms," She then asked for a 
piece of his servant to eat, as she was nice and 
fat. A few days after this she daslied herself 
from the blulTs near Foit Snelling, into the river. 
Her body was found just above the month of the 
Minnesota, and decently interred by the agent. 

The spring of 1826 was very backward. On 
the 20th of March snow fell to the depth of one 
or one and a half feet on a level, and drifted in 



heaps from six to fifteen feet in height. On the 
otli of April, early in the day, there was a violent 
storm, iiiid the ice was still thick in the river. 
Diirini? the storm thishes of lij^htning were seen 
and thunder lieard. On the 10th, the thermome- 
ter was four degrees above zero. On the 14lh 
there was rain, and on the next day the St. Peter 
river broke up, but tlie ice on the ilississiiipi re- 
mained lirm. On tlie 21st, at noon, the ice began 
to move, and carried away Mr. Faribault's houses 
on the east side of the river. For several days 
the river was twenty feet above low water mark, 
and all the liiiiises iiii low lands were swept off. 
On the second of May, llie steamboat LawTence, 
Captain Ueeder, arrived. 

Major Taliaferro had inherited several slaves, 
which he used to hire to oflicers of the garrison. 
On tlie 31st of March, his negro boy, William, 
was eiuiiloyed by Cul. Suelling, tlie latter agree- 
uig to clothe him. About this time, William at- 
tempted to shoot a hawk, but instead shot a small 
boy. named Henry Cullum, and nearly killed him. 
In May, Captain I'lyiuptun, of the Fifth Infantry, 
wished to purchase his negro woman, Eliza, but 
he refused, as it was his intention, ultimately, to 
free his slaves. Another of his negro girls, Har- 
riet, was married at the fort, the ilajoi' pei-form- 
ing the ceremony, to the now historic Dred Scott, 
who was then a slave of Surgeon Emerson. The 
only person that ever i)urchased a slave, to retain 
in slavery, was Alexis HaiUy, who bought a man 
of Major Garland. The Sioux, at first, had no 
prejudices against negroes. They called them 
" Black Frenchmen," and placing their hands on 
their woolly heads would laugh heartily. 

Tl e following is a list of the steamboats that 
had arriv(!d at Fort Snelling, up to Slay 26, 1H26 : 

1 Virginia, May 10, 1828; 2 Neville; 3 Put- 
nam, April 2, 1825 ; 8 Mandan ; .5 Indiana ; 6 Law- 
rence, May 2, 182(5; 7Sciota;8 Eclipse; 9 Jo- 
sephine ; 10 Fulton; 11 Ked Eover; 12 Black 
Rover; V.i WaiTior; U Enterprise; lo \'olant. 

Life within the walls of a fort is sometimes the 
exact contrast of a paradise. In the year 1826 a 
Pandora box was opened, among the otiicers, and 
dissensions began to previiil. One young odicer, 
a graduate of A\'est Pouit, whose father liadbeen 
a professor in Princeton College, fought a duel 
with, and slightly wounded. William .Iosei)li, the 
talonted son of Colonel Snelling, wlio was then 

twenty-two years of age, and had been three years 
at West Point. At a Comt Martial convened to 
try the oflicer for violating the Articles of War, 
the accused objected to tlu! testimony of Lieut. 
AVilliam Alexander, a Tennesseean, not a gradu- 
ate of the Military Academy, on the ground that 
he was an infidel. Alexander, hurt by this allu- 
sion, challenged the objector, and audthcr duel 
was fought, resulting only in slight injuries to 
the clothing of the combatants. Inspectt)r Gen- 
eral E. P. Gaines, after this, visited the fort, and 
in his report of the inspection he wrote : '■ A 
defect in the discipline of this regiment has ap- 
peared in the character of certain personal con- 
troversies, between the Colonel and several of liis 
young officers, the particulars of which I forbear 
to enter into, assured as 1 am that they will be 
developed in the proceedings of a general court 
martial ordered for the trial of Lieutenant Hun- 
ter and other officers at .JefTerson Barracks. 

" From a conversation with the Colonel I can 
have no doubt that he has erred in the course 
l)ursued by him in reference to some of the con- 
troversies, inasmuch as he has intimated to his 
oflicers his willingness to sanction in certain cases, 
and even to participate in personal conflicts, con- 
trary to the twenty-fifth, Article of War."' 

The Colonel's son, AVilliam Joseph, after this 
passed several years among traders and Indians, 
and became distinguished as a poet and brilliant 

His ''Tales of the Northwest," published in 
Boston in 1820, by Ililliard, (;ray. Little & Wil- 
kins, is a work of great bterary ability, and Catlin 
thought the book was the most faitliful jiictureof 
Indian life he h^d read. Some of his poems were 
also of a high order. One of his pieces, deficient 
in dignity, was a caustic satire upon modern 
American poets, and was ])ul)lished under the 
title of " Truth, a Gift for Scribblers." 

Nathaniel P. Willis, who had winced \nider 
the last, wrote the following lampoon : 
" Oh, smelling Joseph I Thou art like a cur. 

Pm told thou once did live by liuuting fur : 

Of bigger dogs thou smellest, and, in sooth. 

Of one extrem(>, jierhaiis, eautell tlie truth. 

'Tis a wise shift, and shows thou know"st thy 

To leave tlie ' North West tales,' and take to 
smeUing ours." 



In 1832 a second edition of " Truth "" appeared 
■with additions and emendations. In this ap- 
peared the following pasquinade upon Willis ; 
"I live by hunting fur, thou say'st, so let it be, 
But tell me. Natty ! Had I hunted thee, 
Had not my time been thrown away, young sir, 
And eke my powder? Tuppics have no fur. 

Our tails ? Thou ownest thee to a tail, 
I've scanned thee o"er and o'er 
But, though I guessed the species right, 
I was not sure before. 

Our savages, authentic travelers say, 
To natural fools, religious homage pay, 
Eadst thou been born in wigwam's smoke, and 

died in, 
Nat ! thine apotheosis had been cei-tain." 

Snelling died at Chelsea, Mass., December six- 
teenth, 18-18, a victim to the appetite which en- 
enslaved Robert Burns. 

In the year 1826, a small party of Ojibwayfs 
(Chippeways) came to see the Indian Agent, 
and three of them ventured to visit the Colum- 
bia Fur Company's trading house, two miles 
from the Fort. While there, they became 
aware of their danger, and desired two of the 
white men attached to the establishment to 
accompany them back, thinking that their pres- 
ence might be some protection. They were in 
error. As they passed a little copse, three Dah- 
kotahs sprang from behind a log with the speed of 
light, fired their pieces into the face of the fore- 
most, and then fled. Tlie guns must have been 
double loaded, for the man's head was literally 
blowni from his shoulders, anil his wliile com- 
panions were spattered with brains and Ijlood. 
The survivors gained the Fort without further 
molestation. Their comrade was buried on the 
spot where he fell. A staff was set up on his 
grave, wliich became a landmark, and received 
tlie name of The Murder Pole. The murderers 
boasted of their achievement and with impunity. 
They and their tribe thought that they had struck 
a fair blow on their ancient enemies, in a becom- 
ing manner. It was only said, tliat Toopunkah 
Zeze of the village of the Bafture aux Fievres, 
and two others, had each acquired a right to 
■Wear skunk skins on their heels and war-eagles' 
feathers on their heads. 

EVENTS pF A. D. 1827. 

On the twenty-eighth of May, 1827, the Ojib- 
way diief at Sandy Lake, Kee-wee-zais-hish 
called by the, Flat IMouth with seven 
warriore and some women and children, in all 
amounting to twenty-four, arrived about sunrise 
at Fort Snelling. Walldng to the gates of the 
garrison, they asked the protection of Colonel 
Snelling .and Taliaferro, the Indian agent. They 
were told, tliat as long as they remained under 
the United States flag, they were secure, and 
were ordered to encamp ■within musket shot of 
the high stone walls of the fort. 

During the afternoon, a Dahkotah, Toopunkah 
Zeze, from a village near the first rapids of the 
Minnesota, ^^sited the Ojibway camp. They 
were cordially received, and a feast of meat and 
corn and sugar, was soon made ready. The 
wooden plates emptied of their contents, they 
engaged in conversation, and whiffed the peace 

That night, some officers and their friends were 
spending a pleasant evening at the head-quarters 
of Captain Clark, which was in one of the stone 
houses which used to stand outside of the walls 
of the fort. As Captain Cruger was walking on 
the porch, a bullet whizzed by. and rapid firing 
was lieard. 

As the Dalikotahs, or Sioux, left the Ojibway 
camp, notwitlistanding their friendly talk, they 
tur-ned and discharged their guns with deadly aim 
upon their entertainers, and ran off with a shout 
of satisfaction. Tlie report was heard by the 
sentinel of the fort, and he cried, repeatedly, 
" Coi^poral of the guard !"' and soon at tlie gates, 
were the Ojibway s, with their women and the 
wounded, telling their tale of woe in wild and in- 
coherent language. Two had been killed and six 
wounded. Among others, was a little girl about 
seven years old, wlio was pierced through both 
thighs with r. bullet. Surgeon jMcMahon made 
every effort to save her life, but without avail. 

Flat Mouth, the chief, reminded Colonel Snel- 
ling that he iiad lieen attacked while under tlie 
protection of the T'nited States flag, and early the 
next morning, Captain Clark, with one hundred 
soldier: . proceeded towards Land's End, a tra- 
ding-post of the Columbia Fur Company, on the 
Minnesota, a mile above the former residence of 



Franklin Steele, wliere theT)alikotahs were sup- 
posed to be. The soldiers had just left tlie large 
gate of the fort, when a party of Dalikotalis, in 
battle array, appeared on one of the jiraiiic 
hills. After some parleying they turned their 
backs, and being pursued, thirty-two were cap- 
tured near tlie trading-post. 

Colonel Snelling ordered the prisoners to be 
brought before the Ojibways, and two being 
pointed out as parti<'ipants in tlie slaughter of the 
preceding night, they were delivered to the 
aggrieved party to deal with in accordance with 
their customs. They were led out to the plain 
in front of the gate of the fort, and when placed 
nearly without the range of the Ojlbway guns, 
they were told to nm for their lives. With the 
rapidity of deer they bounded away, but the Ojib- 
way bullet llew faster, and after a few steps, they 
fell gasping on the ground, and were soon lifeless. 
Then the savage nature displayed itself in all its 
liideousness. Women and chihlren danced for 
joy, and placing their lingers in the bullet holes, 
from whicli the blood oozed, they licked them 
with delight. The men tore the scalps from the 
dead, and seemed to luxuriate in the privilege of 
plunging their knives through the corpses. After 
the execution, the Ojibways returned to the fort, 
and were met by the ("oUmel. lie Iwid prevented 
all over whom his authority extended from wit- 
nessing the .scene, and had done his best to con- 
fine the excitement to the Indians. The same 
day a deputation of Dahkotah wan-iors received 
audience, regretting the violence that liad been 
done by their young men, and agreeing to deliver 
up tlie ringleaders. 

At the time ajipcjinted, a son of Flat Mouth, 
with those of the Ojibwa party that were not 
woimded, escorted by United States troops, 
marched forth to meet the Dahkotah deputation, 
on the prairie just beyond the old residence of 
the Indian agent. With much .solemnity two 
more of the guilty were handed over to the 
assaulted. One was fearless, and with lirinness 
stripped himself of his clothing and oruauients, 
and distributed them. Tlie otlur could not face 
death with composure. He was not d for a hid- 
eous hare-lip, and had a bad reputation among 
his fellows. In the spirit of a coward he prayed 
?or life, to the mortitication of his tribe. The 
same opportunity was presented to them as to the 

first, of running for their lives. At the first fire 
the coward fell a corpse; but his bravo compan- 
ion, though wounded, ran on, and had nearly 
reached the goal of safety, when a second bullet 
killed him. The body of the coward now became 
a common object of loathing for both Dahkotahs 
and Ojibways. 

Colonel Snelling told the Ojibways that the 
bodies must be removed, and then they took th.e 
scalped Daldcotahs, and dragging them by the 
heels, threw them off the bluff into the river, a 
hundred and lifty feet beneath. The dreadful 
scene was now over; and .1 detachment of troops 
was sent with the old chief Flat .Mouth, to escort 
him out of the reach of Uiihkotah vengeance. 

An eyewitness wrote : '• After this catastrophe, 
all the Dahkotahs quitted the vicinity of Fort Snel- 
ling, and did not return to it for some months. 
It was said that they formed a conspiracy to de- 
mand a council, and kill the Indian Agent and 
the commanding oflicer. If this was a fact, they 
had no opportunity, or wanted the spirit, to exe- 
cute their purpose. 

"The Flat Mouth's band lingered in the fort 
till their wounded comrade died. He was sensi- 
ble of his condition, and bore his pains with great 
fortitude. AVhen he felt his end approach, he 
desired that his horse might be gaily caparisoned, 
anil bniught to the hospital window, so that he 
might touch the animal. He then took from his 
medicine bag a large cake of maple sugar, and held 
it forth. It may seem strange, but it is true, that 
the beast ate it from his hand. His features 
were radiant wdth delight as he fell back on the 
pillow exhausted. His horse had eaten the sugar, 
he said, and he was sure of a favorable recei>tion 
and comfortable quarters in the other world. 
Half an hour after, he breathed his last. 'Wo 
tried to discover the details of his superstition, 
but could not succeed. It is a subject on wliich 
Indians unwillingly discourse.'' 

In the fall of 1826, all the troops at Prairie du 
Chieu had been removed to Fort Snelling, the 
counuander taking with him two Wiiniebagoes 
that had been confined in Fort Crawford. After 
the soldiers left the Prairie, the Indians in the 
vicinity were quite insolent. 

In .lune, 1827, two keel-boats ppssed Prairie du 
Chien on the way to Fort Snelling with provis- 
ions. When they reached Wapashaw village, on 



the site of the present town of AVinona. the crew- 
were ordered to come ashore by the Ualikotahs. 
Complying, they found themselves surrounded by 
Indians with hostile intentions. The boatmen 
had no fire-arms, but assuming a bold mien and a 
detjant voice, the captain of the keel-boats ordered 
the savages to leave the decks ; which was suc- 
cessful, The boats pushed on, and at Red Wing 
and Kaposia the Indians showed that they were 
not friendly, though they did not molest the 
boats. Before they started on their return from 
Fort Snelling, the men on board, amounting to 
thirty-two, were all provided with muskets and a 
barrel of ball cartridges. 

When the descending keel-boats passed Wapa- 
shaw, the Dahkotas were engaged in the war 
dance, and menaced them, Ijut made no attack. 
Below this point one of the boats moved in ad- 
vance of the other, and when near the mouth of 
the Bad Axe. the half-breeds on board descried 
hostile Indians on the banks. As the channel 
neared the shore, the sixteen men on the first 
boat were greeted with the war whoop and a vol- 
ley of rifle balls from tlie excited Winnebagoes. 
killing two of the crew. Rushing into their ca- 
noes, the Indians made the attempt to board the 
boat, and two were successful. One of these 
stationed himself at the bow of the boat, and 
fired with killing effect on the men below deck. 
An old soldier of the last war with Great Britain, 
called Saucy Jack, at last despatched him, and 
began to rally the fainting spirits on board. Du- 
ring the fight the boat had stuck on a sand-bar. 
With four companions, amid a shower of balls 
from the savages, he plunged into the water and 
pushed off the boat, and thus moved out of reach 
of the galhng shots of the Winnebagoes. As 
they floated down the river during the night, 
they heard a wail in a canoe behind them, the 
voice of a father mourning the death of the son 
who had scaled the deck, and was now a corpse 
in po.ssession of the white men. The rear boat 
passed the Bad Axe river late in the night, and 
escaped an attack. 

The first keel-boat arrived at Prairie du Chein, 
with two of their crew dead, four wounded, and 
the Indian that had been killed on the boat. The 
two dead men had been residents of the Prairie, 
and now the panic was increased. On the morn- 
ing of the twenty -eighth of June the second 

keel -boat appeared, and among her passengers 
was Joseph Snelling, the talented son of the 
colonel, who wrote a story of deep interest, based 
on the facts narrated. 

At a meeting of the citizens it was resolved to 
repair old Fort Crawford, and Thomas McXair 
was appointed captain. Dirt was thrown around 
the bottem logs of the fortification to prevent its 
being fired, and young Snelling was put in com- 
mand of one of the block-houses. On the next 
day a voyageur named Loyer, and the well-kno-mi 
trader Duncan Graham, started through the in- 
terior, west of the Mississippi, with intelligence 
of the murders, to Fort Snelling. Intelligence 
of this attack was received at the fort, on the 
evening of the ninth of July, and Col, Snelling 
started in keel boats with four companies to Fort 
Crawford, and on the seventeenth four more 
companies left under Major Fowle. After an 
absence of six weeks, the soldiers, without firing 
a gun at the enemy, returned. 

A few weeks after the attack upon the keel 
boats General Gaines inspected the Fort, and, 
subsequently in a communication to the War 
Department wrote as follows ; 

" The main points of defence against an enemy 
appear to have been in some respects sacrificed, 
in the effort to secure the comfort and conven- 
ience of troops in peace. These are important 
considerations, but on an exposed frontier the 
primary object ought to be seciu'ity against the 
attack of an enemy. 

" The buildings are too large, too numerous, 
and extending over a space entirely too great, 
enclosing a large parade, five times greater than 
is at all desireable in that climate. The build- 
ings for the most part seem well constructed, of 
good stone and other materials, and they contain 
every desirable convenience, comfort and securi- 
ty as barracks and store houses. 

" The work may bfr rendered very strong and 
adapted to a garrison of two hundred men by re- 
moving one-half the buildings, and with the ma- 
terials of which they are constructed, building a 
tower sufficiently high to command the hill be- 
tween the Mississippi and St. Peter's [Minnesota], 
and by a block house on the extreme point, or 
brow of the cliff, near the commandant's quarters, 
to secure most effectually the banks of the river, 
and the boats at the landing. 



"Much cr>(lit i ; due to Colonel Snelling, liis 
officers autl men, for their immense liibors .inil 
excellent workmanship exhibited in the construc- 
tion (if tliese barracks and store houses, but this 
has been efTccted too niucli at the expense of the 
disciiiline of the regiment." 

From reports made from 1823 to 1826, the health 
of Die troops was good. In the year ending S('i> 
tember thirty, 1823, there were but two deaths; 
in 1824 only six, and in 182o but seven. 

In 182j tliere were three desertions, in 1S24 
twenty-two, and in 1825 twenty-nine. ^lost of 
the deserters were fresh recruits and natives of 
America, Ten of the deserters were foreigners, 
and five of these were born in Ireland. In I.'-'2ii 
there were eight comi)aiues numbering two hun- 

dred and fourteen soldiers (puirtered in the Fort- 
During the fall of 1827 the Fifth Regiment was 
relieved by a part of the First, and the next year 
t'olonel Snelling proceeded to Washington on bus- 
iness, where he died with inflammation of the 
brain. Major (Jeueral Macomb annomicing his 
death in an order, wrote : 

'• Colonel Snelling joiueil the army in early 
youth. In the battle of Tippecanoe, he was 
distinguished for gallantry and goo<l conduct. 
Subsequently and during the whole late war with 
tireal llritain, from the battle of Brownstown to 
the termination of tlie contest, he was actively 
employed in the field, with credit to himself, and 
honor to his country." 





ArriViU of J. N. Kirollci— Marriage of Jiuiies Wflls — Niciillet" s letter from Falls- 
of St. Anthony— Perils of Martin McLeod- Chil>|>eway t rcachery— Sioux Kc 
venge — Kuui River and Stillwater battles.— (Jrog shops near the Fort. 

On the second of July 1836, the steamboat 
Saint Peter landed supplies, and among its 
passengers was the distinguished French as- 
tronomer, Jean N. Xicollet (Xicoky). Major 
Taliaferro ou the twelfth of July, wrote ; 
" ilr. NicoUet, on a visit to the post for scientific 
research, and at present in my family, has shown 
me the late work of Henry It. Schoolcraft on the 
discovery of the source of the ilississippi ; which 
claim is ridiculous in the extreme." On the 
twenty-seventh, Nicollet ascended the Mississippi 
ou a tour of observation. 

James "Wells, a trader, who afterwards was a 
member of the legislature, at the house of Oliver 
Cratte, near the fort, was married on the twelfth 
of September, by Agent Taliaferro, to Jane, a 
daughter of Duncan Graham. Wells M'as killed 
in 18(j2, by the Sioux, at the time of the massacre 
in the ^Minnesota Valley. 

Xicollet in September retunied from his trip 
to Leech Lake, and on the twenty-seventh wrote 
the following to Major Taliaferro the Indian 
Agent at the fort, wliich is supposed to be the 
earhest letter e.xtaut written from the site of the 
city of J^liuneapoUs. As the principal hotel and 
one of the fluesl avenues of that city bears his 
name it is worthy of preservation. He spelled 
his name sometimes Xicoley. and the pronuncia- 
tion in English, would be Xicolay, the same as 
if written N'icollet hi Ereuch. The letter shows 
that he had not mastered the English language : 
" St. Anthony's Ealls, 27th September, 1836, 

Dear Friend : — I arrived last evening about 
dark; all well, nothing lost, nothing broken, 
happy and a very successful journey. But I 
done exhausted, and nothmg can relieve me, but 
the pleasure of meeting jou agam under your 
hospitable roof, and to see all the iriends of the 
garrisou who have been so kind to me. 

" Tills h'tter is more particularly to give you 
a very extraordmary tide. Flat Mouth, the chief 
of Leech Lake and suite, ten in number are with 
me. The day before yesterday I met them again 
at Swan river where they detained me one day. 
I had to bear a new harangue and gave answer. 
.Vll terminated by their own resolution that they 
ought to give you the hand, as well as to the 
Guinas of the Fort (Colonel Davenport.) I 
thought it my duty to acquaint you with it be- 
forehand. Peace or war are at stake of the visit 
they pay you. Please give them a good welcome 
until I have reported to you and Colonel Daven- 
l>ort all that has taken place during my stay 
auKiiig the Pillagers. Lut be assured I have not 
trespassed and that I . have behaved as would 
have done a good citizen of the V. S. As to 
Schoolcraft's statement alluding to you, you will 
have full and complete satisfaction from I'lat 
]\Iouth liimself. In haste, your friend, J. A"". 


EVENTS OF A. D. 1837. 

On the seventeenth of March. 1837, there ar- 
rived .Martin McLeod, who l)ecame a prominent 
citizen of Minnesota, and the legislature has 
given his name to a county. 

He left the Red River country on snow shoes, 
with two companions, one a Polander and the 
other an Irishman named Hays, and Pierre Bot- 
tineau as interpreter. Being lost in a violent 
snow storm tlie Pole and Irishman perished. He 
and his guide, Botthieau, lived for a time on the 
flesli of one of their dogs. After being twenty- 
six days without seeing any one, the survivors 
reached the trading post of Joseph R. Brown, at 
Lake Traverse, and from thence they came to 
the fort. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1838. 

In the niontli of A]iril, eleven Sioux were slain 
in a dastardly manner, by a party of Ojibways, 



under the noted and elder Hole-Ln-the-Day. The 
Chiiipeways feigned tlie wannest friendship, and 
at dark lay down in the tents by the side of the 
Sioux, and in the niglit silently arose and killed 
them. The occun'ence took place at the Chippe- 
way Kiver, about thirty miles from Lac qui Parle, 
and the next day the Hev. G. II. Pond, the Indian 
missionary, accompanied l)y a Sioux, ^.ent out 
and buried the mutilated and scalpless bodies. 

On the second of August old IIole-in-the-l)ay. 
and some Ojibways, came to the fort. They 
stopped first at the cabin of Peter Qninn, whose 
wife was a half-breed Chippeway, about a mile 
from the fort. 

The missionary,' Samuel W. Pond, told the 
agent that the Sioux, of Lake Callioun were 
aroused, and on their way to attack llie Cliippe- 
ways. The agent quieted them for a time, but 
two of the T-elatives of those slain at l^ac qui Parle 
in April, hid themselves nearQuinu's house, and 
as IIole-iu-the-I)ay and his associates were pass- 
ing, they fired and killed one Chippeway and 
woinided another. Obequette, a Cliippeway from 
Red Lake, succeded, however, in shooting a- 
Sioux wliile he was in tlie act of scalping his 
comrade. The Chippeways were brought vtithia 
the fort as soon as possible, and at nine o'clock 
a Sioux was conlined in the guard-house as a 

Notwithstanding the murdered Chippeway had 
been buried in the grave\ard of the fort for safety, 
an attempt was made on the part of some of the 
SioiLX, to dig it up. On the evening of the sixth, 
Major Plympton sent the Chippeways across the 
river to the east side, and ordered them to go 
home as soon as possible. 

EVKNTS OF A. D. 1839. 

On the twentieth day of June the elder Ilole- 
in-the-Day arrived froTu tlie Upper Mississippi 
with several liunilred Chippeways. Upon their 
return homeward the Mississippi and Mille Lacs 
band encamped the first night at the Falls of Saint 
Antliony, and some of the Sioux visited them and 
smoked the pijie of peace. 

Ou the second of July, about sunrise, a son-in- 
law of the chief of the Sioux band, at Lake Cal- 
hoiui, named Meekaw or Batlger, was killed and 
scalped by two Chippeways of the I'illager band, 
relatives of him who lost his life near Patrick 

Quinn's the year before. The excitement was 
intense among the Sioux, and immediately war 
parties started in pursuit. lIole-in-the-Day"s 
band was not sought, but the Mille Lacs and 
Saint Croix Chippeways. The Lake Calhoun 
Sioux, with those from the villages on the 
Minnesota, assembled at the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, and on the morning of the fourth 
of July, came up with the Mille Lacs 
Chippeways on Rum River, before siuirise. Not 
long after the war whoop was raised and the 
Sioux attacked, killing and womiding ninety. 

The Kaposia band of Sioux pursued the Saint 
Croix Chippeways, and on the tliird of July found 
them in the Penitentiary ravine at Stillwater, 
mider the influence of whisky. Aitkin, the old 
trader, was with them. The siglit of the 
Sioux tended to make them sober, but in the fight 
twenty-one were killed and twenty-nine were 

Whisky, during the year 1839, was freely in- 
troduced, in the face of the law i)rohibiting it. 
The first boat of the season, the Ariel, came to 
the fort on the fourteenth of April, and brought 
twenty barrels of whisky for Joseph R. Brown, 
and on the twenty-first of JMay, the Glaucus 
brought six barrels of liquor for David Faribault. 
On the thirtieth of June, some soldiers went to 
Joseph R. Browni's groggery on the opposite side 
of the Mississippi, and that night forty - seven 
were in the guard-house for drunkenness. The 
demoralization then existing, led to a letter by 
Surgeon Emerson on duty at the fort, to the Sur- 
geon General of the United States army, in which 
he writes : 

" The whisky is brought here by citizens who 
are pouring in upon us and settling themselves 
on the opposite shore of the Mississippi river, 
in (lellance of our worthy commanding oflicer. 
Major J. Plympton. whose authority they set 
at naught. At this moment there is a 
citizen named Brown, once a soldier in 
the Fifth Infantry, who was discharged at 
this post, while Colonel Snelling commanded, 
and who has been since employed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, actually building on the land 
marked out by the land ollicers as the reserve, 
and withui gunshot distance of the fort, a very 
expensive whisky shop." 





Sioux or Dahkotah people— Meaniii;:of words Sioux and Palikntlh— Early villages 
— Resiilcuce of Sioux in 1M9— The Winnel>a|:oes— Tlie Ojibways or Chippoway-s. 

The three Indian nations who dwelt in tliis 
region after the organization of ^Minnesota, were 
the .Sioux or Dahliotalis; the Ojibways or Chip- 
peways ; and tiie Ilo-tchiui-graws or AViimeba- 


They are an entirely different group from the 
Algonquin and Iroquois, who were found by the 
early settlers of the Atlantic States, on the banks 
of the Connecticut, ilohawk, and Susquehanna 

AVhen the Dahkotahs were first noticed by tlie 
European adventurers, large numbers were occu- 
pying the Mille Lacs region of country, and appro- 
priately called by the voyageur, "People of the 
Lake," "Gens du Lac." And tTadition asserts that 
here was the ancient centre of this tribe. Though 
we have traces of their warring and hunting on the 
shores of Lake Superior, there is no satisfactory 
evidence of their residence, east of the ]\lille Lacs 
region, as they have no name for Lake Suiierior. 

The word Dahkotah, by which they love to be 
designated, signifies allied or joined together in 
friendly compact, and is equivalent to " E pluri- 
bus unum," the motto on the seal of the United 

In the Mstory of the mission at La I'ointe, 
Wisconsin, published nearly two centuries ago, a 
a writer, referring to the Dahkotalis, remarks : 

" For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
Upper Lake, toward sunset; and, as it were in 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
united their force by a general league." 

The Dahkotahs in the earliest documents, and 
even until the present day, are called Sioux, Scioux, 
or Soos. The name originated with the early voy- 
ageurs. For centuries the Ojibways of Lake 
Superior waged war against the Dahkotahs ; and, 

whenever they spoke of them, called them Jfado- 
waysioux, which signifies enemies. 

The French traders, to avoid exciting the atten- 
tion of Indians, while conversing in their pres- 
ence, were accustomed to designate them by 
names, which would not be recognized. 

The Dahkotahs were nicknamed Sioux, a word 
composed of the two last syllables of the Ojibway 
\\ord for foes 

Under the influence of the French traders, the 
eastern Sioux began to wander from the JNIille 
Lacs region. A trading post at O-ton-we-kpa- 
dan, or Rice Creek, above the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, induced some to erect their summer 
dwellings and plant corn there, which took the 
place of wild rice. Those who dwelt here were 
called Wa-2pa-a-ton-we-dan Those v.'ho dwell on 
the creek. Another division was Icnown as the 

Less than a hundred years ago, it is said that 
the eastern Sioux, pressed by the Chippeways, 
and influenced by traders, moved seven miles 
above Fort Snelling on the JNIinnesota River. 


In 1.S49 there were seven villages of Med-day- 
wah-kawn-twawn Sioux. (1) Ik-low Lake Pepin, 
where the city of Winona is, was the village of 
Wapashaw. This band was called Kee-yu-ksa, 
because with them blood relations intermarried. 
Bounding or Whipping Wind was the chief. (2) 
At the head of Lake Pepin, under a lofty bluff, 
was the Red Wing village, called Ghay-mni-chan 
Hill, wood and water. Shooter was the name 
of the chief. (3) Opposite, and a little below the 
l^ig's Eye ilarsh, was the Kaposia band. The 
word, Kapoja means light, given because these 
people are quick travelers. His Scarlet People, 
better knovni as Little Crov(r, was the chief, and 
is notorious as the leader in the massacre of 1862. 

On the Minnesota River, on the south side 



a few miles above Fort Snelling, was Black Dog 
\-illage. The inhabitants were called, Ma-ga-yu- 
tay-slinee. People who do not a geese, be- 
cause tliey found it profitable to sell game at Fort 
Snelling. Grey Iron was the chief, also known 
as Pa-ma-ya-yaw, My head aches. 

At Oak (Jrove, on tlie north skle of the river, 
eight miles above the fort, was (o) Ilay-ya-ta-o- 
ton-wan, or Inland A'illage, so called because 
they formerly lived at Lake Palkoun. Contigu- 
ous was {(i) O-ya-tay-shee-ka, or Bad People, 
Known as (Jood Roads Band and (7) the largest 
village was Tin-ta-ton-wan, Prairie Village ; 
Shokpay, or Six, was tile chief, and is now the 
site of the town of Sliakopee. 
West of this division of the Sioux were— 


The War-pay-ku-tay, or leaf shooters, who 
occuiiied the country south of the Minnesota 
around the sources of the Cannon and Blue Earth 


North and west of the last were the War-pay- 
twawns, or People of the Leaf, and their princi- 
pal village was Lac qui Parle. They numbered 
about fifteen hundred. 


To the west and southwest of these bands of 
Sioux were the Se-see-twawns (Sissetoans), or 
Swamp Dwellers. This band claimed the land 
west of the Blue Earth to the James River, and 
the guardianship of the Sacred Red Pipestone 
Qiuirry. Their principal village was at Traverse, 
and the number of the band was estimated at 
thirty-eight hundred. 


The Ilo-tchun-graws, or Winiiebagoes, belong 
to the Dahkotah family of aborigines. Cham- 
plain, although he never visited them, mentions 
them. >ricollet, who had been in his employ. 
visiteil Cireen Bay about the year 163.5, and an 
early Relation mentions tlial lie saw the Ouiui- 
pegous, a people called so, because they came 
from a distant sea, which some French erron- 
eously called Puants. Another writer speak- 

ing of these people says: "This people are 
called ' Les Puants ' not because of any bad odor 
.peculiar to them, bvit because they claim to have 
come from the shores of a far distant lake, 
towards the north, whose waters are salt. They 
call themselves the people ' de Teau puants,' of 
the putrid or bad water." 

By the treaty of 1837 they were removed to 
Iowa, and by another treaty in Oi-lober, 1846, 
they came to Minnesota in the spring of 1848, 
to the country between the Long Prairie, 
and Crow Wing Rivers. The agency was located 
on Long Prairie River, forty miles from the 
Misjjissippi, and in 1S4'.) the tribe numbered 
about twenty-five hundred souls. 

In February 1855, another treaty was made 
with them, and that spring they removed to lands 
on the Blue Eartli River. Owing to the panic 
caused by the Outbreak of the Sioux in 18G2, Con 
gress, by a special act, without consulting them, 
in 18t)3. removed them from their fields in Min- 
nesota to the Missouri River, and in the words 
of a missionary, " they were, like the Sioux, 
dumped in the desert, one hundred miles above 
Fort Randall" 


The Ojibways or Leapers, when the French 
came to Lake Superior, had their chief settlement 
at Sault St. Marie, and were called by tlie French 
Saulteurs, and by the Sioux, Ilah-lia-tonwan, 
Dwellers at the Falls or Leaping Waters. 

AVhen Du Lulh erected his trading post at the 
western extremity of Lake Superior, they had not 
obtained any foothold in Minnesota, and were 
constantly at war with their hereditary enemes, 
the Xadouaysioux. By the middle of the 
eighteenth century, they had pushed in and occu- 
pied Sandy, Leech, Mille Lacs and other points 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, which 
had been dwelling places of the Sioux. In 1820 
the principal villages of Ojibways in Jlinnesota 
were at Fond du Lac, Leech Lake and Sandy 
Lake. In 1837 they ceded most of their lauds. 
Since then, other treaties have been made, until 
in the year 1881, they are confined to a few res- 
ervations, in northern ilinnesola and vicinity. 





Jesuit Missions not permanent— Presbyterian Mission at Maeliinaw— Visit of Rev 
A. Coe aa.i J D. Stevens to Fort Siiclliog— Notice of Ayirs. Hall, and Boulweil 
—Formation ol the word Itasca— The Brothers Pond— Arrival of Dr. William- 
son -Presh)-1e(iau Church at Fort SneUing— Mission at Lake Harriet— Mourn- 
ing for the Dead— Church at Lac-qui parle- Father Ravoojc — Mission at l-ake 
Fokeguma— Attack hy the Sioux — Chippeway attack at Pig's Eye — Death of 
Rev. Shenuan Hall— Methodist Missions Rev. S. W. Pond prepares u Sioux 
Grammar and Dictionary Swiss Presbyterian Mission. 

Bancroft the distinguished historian, catching 
the enthusiasm of tlie narratives of the early 
Jesuits, depicts, in language which glows, tiieir 
missions to the ^Northwest ; yet it is erroneous 
to suppose that the Jesuits exercised any perma- 
nent influence on the Aborigines. 

Shea, a devoted member of the Eoman Cntlio- 
lic Church, in his History of American CathoUc 
Missions writes : " In 108(1 Father Engalrau was 
apparently alone at Green Bay, and Pierson at 
ilackinaw. Of the other missions neither Le- 
Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect writers of the 
AVest at this time, make any mention, or in any 
way allude to their existence." He also says 
that "Father Alenard had projected a Sioux 
mission ; Marquette, Allouez, Druilletes, all en- 
tertained hopes of realizuig it, and had some 
intercourse with that nation, but none of them 
ever succeeded in establishing a mission." 

Father Hennepin wrote: " Can it be possible, 
that, that pretended prodigious amount of savage 
converts could escape the sight of a multitude 
of French Canadians who travel every year V 
* * * * How comes it to pass that these 
churches so devout and so numerous, should be 
invisible, when I passed through so many 
countries and nations V " 

After the American Fur Company was formed, 
the island of ilackiuaw liecame the residence of 
the principal agent for the X'orthwest, Robert 
Stuart a Scotchman, and devoted Presbyterian. 

In the mouth uf June, 1820, the Rev. Dr. 
Morse, father of the distlnguislied inventor of 
the telegraph, visited and preached at Mackinaw, 
and in consequence of statements pubUshed by 

him. upon liis retirm, a Presbyterian Missionary 
JSiiciety in the state of 2s ew York sent a graduate 
of Union College, the Rev. W. M. Ferry, father 
of the present United States Senator from Miciii- 
gau, to explore the field. In 1S23 he had estab- 
lished a large boarding school composed of 
children of various tribes, and here some were 
educated who became wives of men of intelli- 
gence and influence at the capital of Minnesota. 
After a few years, it was determined by the 
Mission Board to modify its plans, and in the 
place of a great central station, to send mission- 
aries among the several tribes to teach and to 

In pursuance of this policy, the Rev. Alvan 
Coe, and J. D. Stevens, then a licentiate who 
liad been engaged in the Mackinaw Mission, 
made a tour of exploration, and arrived on 
September 1, 1829, at Fort Snelling. In the 
journal of Major Lawaence Taliaferro, which 
is in possession of the Mimiesota Historical 
Society, is the following entry : " The Rev. 
Mr. Coe and Stevens reported to be on their way 
to this post, members of the l'resbji;erian diiu'ch 
looking ont for suitable places to make mission- 
ary establisliment for the Sioux and Chippeways, 
found si'liools, and instruct in tlie arts and agri- 

The agent, although not at that time a commu- 
nicant of the Church, welcomed these visitors, 
and afforded tlieni every facility in visiting the 
Indians. On Sunday, tlie 6th of September, the 
Rev. Mr. Coe preached twice in the fort, and the 
next night heltl a prayer meeting at the quarters 
of tlie commanding officer. On tlie next Sunday 
he preaclied ag:iin, and on tlie 14th, witli Mr. 
Stevens and a hired guide, returned to Macldnaw 
by way of the St. Croix river. During tliis visit 
the agent offered for a Presbyterian mission the 
mill which then stood on the site of Minneapolis, 
and had been erected by the govermnent, as well as 



the farm at Lake Callioiiii, \\ liich was begun to 
teach the Sioux agriculture. 


In 1830, F. Ayer, one of the teachers at :M;i(k- 
inaw. made an exploration as far as La roiiiLt', 
and returned. 

Upon the 30th day of August, 1831, a Macki- 
naw boat about forty feet long arrived at La 
Pointe, Ininging from Jlackinaw the iirincipal 
trader, iir. Warren, Rev. Sherman ILiU and wife, 
and Mr. Frederick Ayer, a catecliisl and teacher. 
Mrs. Hall attracted great attention, as she was 
the first while woman who had visited that 
region. Slierman Hall was born on April 30, 
1801, at Wethersfleld, Vennont, and in 1828 
graduated at Dartmouth College, and completed 
his theological studies at Andover, JMassachu- 
setts, a few weeks before he journeyed to the 
Indian country. 

His classmate at Dartmouth and Andover, the 
Rev W. T. ISoutwell still living near Stillwater, 
became his yoke-fellow, but remained for a time 
at ^lackinaw, which they reached about the mid- 
dle of .July. In .lune, 1832, Ileniy K. School- 
craft, the head of an exploring expedition, invited 
Mr. Boutwell to accompany him to the sources of 
the ^lississippi. 

\Vlien the expedition reached Lac la Biclie (u- 
Elk Lake, on July 13, 1832, Mr. Schoolcraft, who 
was not a Latin scholar, asked the Latin word for 
truth, and was told "Veritas."' He then wanted 
the word which signilied head, and was told 
"caput." To the astonishment of many, School- 
craft struck oft' the first sylable, of the word 
ver-i-tas and the last .sylable of ca-put, and thus 
coined the word Itasca, which he gave to tlie 
lake, and which some modern writers, with all 
gravity, tell us was the name of a maiden who 
once dwelt on its baidis. I'pon Mr. IJoutwells 
return from this expedition he was at first asso- 
ciated with Mr. Ilall in the mission at La I'ouite. 
In 1833 the mission liaiid which had centered 
at La I'ointe dilfused their inlluence. In Octo- 
ber Rev. Sir. Uoutwell went to Leech Lake, Sir. 
Ayer opened a school at Yellow Lake, Wiscon- 
sin, and Sir. E. F. Ely, now in California, became 
a teacher at Aitkhi's trading postal Sandy Lake. 


Mr. IJoutwell, of Leech Lake Stiition, on the 

sixth of May, 1834, happened to be on a visit to 
Fort Snelling, AVhile there a steamboat arrived, 
and among the passengers were two young men, 
linithers, natives of Washington, Coimecticut, 
Samuel W. and Gideon II. Fond, who had come, 
constrained by the love of ( 'hrist, and without con- 
ferring with flesh and blood, to try to improve 
tlie Sioux. 

Samuel, the older brother, the year before, had 
talked with a liquor seller in Cialena. Illinois, who 
had come from the Red River country, and the 
desire was awakened to help the Sioux ; and he 
wrote to his brother to go with liim. 

The Rev. Samuel W . Pond still lives at Shako- 
pee, in the old mission liouse. the lirst I)uilding of 
sawed lumber erected in the valley of the Sliune- 
sota, above Fort Snelling. 


About this jieriod, a native of South Carolina, 
a graduate of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, 
the Rev. T. S. Williamson, SI. D., who jirevious 
to his ordination had been a respectable physi- 
cian in Ohio, was appointed by the American 
Board of Foreign Slissions to visit the Dahkotalis 
with the view of ascertaining what could b(^ done 
to introduce Christian instruction. I hning made 
imiumes at Prairie du Chien and Fort Snelling, 
he reported the held was favorable. 

The Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, 
through their joint Missionary Society, appointed 
the following persons to labor in Slinuesota : 
Rev. Thomas S. Williamson, SI. D., missionary 
and physician ; Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary ; 
Alexander Iluggins, farmer ; and their wives ; 
SI iss Sarah Poage, and Lucy Stevens, teachers; 
who were prevented during the year 1834, by the 
state of navigation, from entering upon their 

Dining the winter of 1834-3.5, a pious ofllcer 
of the army exercLsed a good inlluence on his 
fellow ollicers and soldiers under liis command. 
In the absence of a chaplam of ordained minis- 
lir, he. like General Ilavelock, of the British 
army in India, was accustomed not only to drill 
the soldiers, iiut to meet them in bis own quar- 
ters, and reason with them " of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come." 

In the month of Slay, 1835, Dr. AV^illiamson 
and mission band arrived at Fort Snelliug, and 



were hospitably rpceived liy the officers of the 
garrison, the liulian Aireiit.aiid Mr. Sibley. Agent 
of the t'ompany at ^Menilota, who had been iii 
the conntr)' a few months. 

On the twenty-seventh of this month the Rev. 
Dr. "WilUamson uniteil in marriage at the Fort 
Lieutenant Edward A. Ogden to Eliza Edna, the 
daughter of Captain G. A. Loomis, the first 
marriage service in whicli a clergyman officiated 
in the present State of ^Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of June a meeting was held 
at the Fort to organize a Presbyterian Cliurch, 
sixteen persons who had been commuuicants, 
and six who made a profession of faith, one of 
whom was Lieutenant Ogden, were enrolled as 

Four elders were elected, among whom were 
Capt. Gustavus Loomis and Samuel AV. Pond. 
The next day a lecture prejiaratory to administer- 
ing the communion, was delivered, and on Sun- 
day, the 14th, the first organized church in the 
Valley of the Upper ^lississippi assembled for 
the first time in one of the Company rooms of the 
Fort. The services in the moniing were conducted 
by Dr. "\^'illiamson. The afternoon service com- 
menced at 2 o'clock. The sermon of Mr. Stevens 
was upon a most appropriate text, 1st Peter, ii:2o ; 
" For ye were as sh-eep going astray, but are now 
returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your 
souls." After the discourse, the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper was administered. 

At a meeting of the Session on the thirty-first 
of July, Eev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, was in- 
vited to preach to the church, "so long as the 
duties of his mission will permit, and also to pre- 
side at all the meetings of the Session." Captain 
Gustavus Loomis was elected Stated Clerk of the 
Session, and they resolved to observe the monthly 
concert of prayer on the first Monday of each 
month, for the conversion of tlie world. 

Two points were selected by the missionaries 
as proper spheres of labor. Mr. Stevens and 
family proceeded to Lake Harriet, and Dr. Wil- 
liamson and family, hi Jime, proceeded to Lac 
qui Parle. 

As there had never been a chaplain at Fort 
Snelling, the Rev. J. D. Stevens, the missionary 
at Lake Harriet, preached on Sundays to the 
Presbyterian churcli, there, recently organized. 

AVriting on Januaiy twenty-seventh, 1836, he 
says, in relation to his field of labor: 

" Yesferihiy a portion of this baud of Indians, 
who had been some time absent from this village, 
returned. One of the number (a woman) was 
informed that a brother of hers had died during 
her al)sen('e. He was not at this village, but 
with another ))and, and the uiformation had just 
reached here. In the evening they set up a most 
piteous crying, or rather wailing, which con- 
tinued, with some little cessations, during the 
night. The sister of tlie deceased brother would 
repeat, times without number, words which may 
be thus translated into Englisli : ' Come, my 
brother, I shall see you no more for ever.' The 
night was extremely cold, the thermometer 
standing from ten to twenty below zero. About 
sunrise, next morning, preparation was made for 
])prforniing the ceremony of cutting their flesh, 
in order to give relief to their grief of mind. 
Tlie snow was removed from the frozen ground 
over about as large a space as would be required 
to place a small Indian lodge or wigwam. In the 
centre a very small fire was kindled up, not to 
give warmth, apparently, but to cause a smoke. 
Tlie sister of the deceased, who was the chief 
mourner, came out of her lodge followed by 
three other women, who repaired to the place 
jiieiiared. They were all barefooted, and nearly 
naked. Here they set up a most bitter lamenta- 
tion and crying, mingling their waitings with the 
words before mentioned. The principal mourner 
conimeiici'd gashing or cutting her ankles and 
legs up to the knees with a sharp stone, until her 
legs were covered with gore and flowing blood ; 
then in like manner her arms, shoulders, and 
breast. The others cut themselves in the same 
way, but not so severely. On this poor infatuated 
woman I presume there were more than a hun- 
dred long deep gashes in the flesh. I saw the 
operation, and the lilood instantly followed the 
instrument, and flowed down upon the flesh. Slie 
ai)iieared frantic with grief. Through the pain 
of her wounds, the loss of blood, exhaustion of 
strength by fasting, loud and long-continued and 
bitter groans, or the extreme cold tipon her al- 
most naked and lacerated body, she soon sunk 
upon the frozen ground, shaking as with a violent 
fit of the ague, and writhing in apparent agony. 
' Surely,' I exclaimed, as I beheld the bloody 



scene, 'the tender mercies of the heathen are 
cruelty I' 

" The little church at the fort begins to mani- 
fest something of ii missionary spirit Tlieir con- 
tributions are considerable for so small a luunber. 
1 hope tliey will not only be willuig to contribute 
liberally of their substance, but will give them- 
selves, at least some of them, to the missionary 

" The surgeon of the military post. Dr. Jarvis, 
has been very assiduous in his attentions to us in 
our sickness, and has very generously made a do 
nation to our board of twenty-five dollars, being 
the amount of his medical services in our family. 

"On the nineteenth instant we connnenced a 
school with six full Indian children, at least so in 
all tlieir habits, dress, etc.; not one could speak a 
word of any language but Sioux. The school has 
since increased to the number of twenty-five. I 
am now collecting and arranging words for a dic- 
tionary. Mr. Pond is assiduously employed in 
preparing a small spelUng-book, which we may 
forward next mail for printing. 

On the lifteenth of .September, 1836, a Presby- 
terian church was organized at Lac-qui-Parle, a 
branch of that in and near Fort Snelling, and 
Joseph lU'nville, a mixed blood of great inllu- 
ence, became a communicant. He had been 
trained in Canada by a Ttoman Catliolic priest, 
but claimed the right of private judgment. Mr. 
Uenville's wife was the lirst pure Dahkotah of 
whom we have any record that ever joined the 
Church of Christ. This church has neverbecome 
extinct, although its members have been neces- 
sarily nomadic. After the treaty of Traverse des 
Sioux, it was removed to Hazlewood. Driven 
from thence by the outbreak of 1H()2, it has be- 
came the parent of other churches, in the valley 
of the upper Missouri, over one of which John 
Kenville, a descendant of the elder at Lac-qui- 
Parle, is the pastor. 


Father Kavoux, recently from France, a sin- 
cere and earnest priest of tlie Cliiirch of Home, 
came to Mendota in the autumn of 1.S41, and 
after a brief sojourn with the Rev. L. (Jaltier, 
who had erected Saint Paul's chapel, which has 
given the name of Saint Paul to the capital of 
Minnesota, he a.sceiided the ^hmiesota lliver 
and visited Lac-qui-Parle. 

TCshoii Loras, of Dubuque, w rote the next year 
of his visit iis follows : " Our yomig missionary. 
M. Ravoux, passed the winter on the banks of 
Lac-qui-Parle, without any other support than 
Providence, without any other means of conver- 
sion than abunung zeal, he has WTOuglit in the 
space of six months, a happy revolution among 
the Sioux. From the time of his arrival he lias 
been occupied night and day in the study of their 
language. ***** Wlieu be uistructs 
the savages, he speaks to them w ith so much fire 
whilst showing them a large copper crucifix which 
he carries on his breast, that he makes the strong- 
est impression upon them." 

The impression, however was evanescent, and 
he soon retired from the field, and no more elTorts 
were made in this direction by the Church of 
Rome. This young Mr. Ravoux is now the highly 
respected vicar of the Roman Catholic diocese of 
Minnesota, and justly esteemed for his simplicity 
and uiiobtrusiveness. 


Pokeguma is one of the " Mille Lacs," or thou- 
sand beautiful lakes for which Minnesota is re- 
markable. It is about four or five miles in extent, 
and a mile or more in width. 

This lake is situated on Snake River, about 
twenty miles above the junction of that stream 
with the St. Croix. 

In the year 1S36, missionaries came to reside 
among the Ojibways and Pokeguma, to promote 
their temporal and spiritual welfare. Their mis- 
sion house was built on the east side of the lake ; 
but the Indian village was on an island not far 
from the shore. 

In a letter written in 1837, we find the fol- 
lowhig: "The young women and girls now 
make, mend, wash, and iron after our man- 
ner. The men have learned to build log houses, 
drive team, plough, hoe, and handle an .iVmerican 
axe with some skill in cutting large trees, the 
size of which, two years ago, would have afforded 
them a sufficient reason why they should not med- 
dle with them." 

In ilay, 1841, Jeremiah Russell, who was In- 
dian farmer, sent two Chijipeways, accompanied 
by Flam Greeley, of Stillwater, to the Falls of 
Saint Croix for supplies. On Saturday, the 
fifteenth of the month they arrived there, and 



the next day a steamboat came up \\ith the 
goods. The captain said a war party of Sioux, 
headed by Little Crow, was advancing, and the 
two ("liippeways prepared to go back and were 
their friends. 

Tliey had liardly left tlie Falls, on their re- 
turn, before they saw a party of Dahkotahs. The 
sentinel of the enemy had not noticed the ap- 
proach of the young men. In the twinkling of 
an eye, these two yoinig Ojibways raised their 
guns, fired, and killed two of Little Crow's sons. 
The discharge of the gims revealed to a sentinel, 
that an enemy was near, and as tlie Ojibways 
were retreating, he fired, and mortally wounded 
one of tlie two. 

According to custom, the corpses of the chief's 
sons were dressed, and then set up with their 
faces towards the country of their ancient ene- 
mies. The wounded Ojibway was horribly 
mangled by the infuriated party, and his limbs 
strewn about in every direction. Ills scalped 
head was placed in a kettle, and suspended in 
front of the two Dalikotah corpses. 

Little Crow, disheartened by the loss of his two 
boys, returned with his party to Kaposia. Btit 
other parties were in the field. 

It was not till Friday, the twenty-first of ilay, 
that the death of one of • the young Ojibways 
sent by Mr. Russell, to the Falls of Saint Croix. 
was known at Pokeguma. 

Mr. Russell on the next Sunday, accompanied 
by Captain William Ilolcomb and a half-breed, 
went to the mission station to attend a religious 
service, and while crossing the lake in returning, 
the half-breed said that it was rumored that the 
Sioux were approaching. On Monday, the twen- 
ty-fourth, three young men left in a canoe to go 
to the west shore of the lake, and from thence to 
Mille Lacs, to give intelligence to the Ojibways 
there, of the skinnish that had already occurred. 
They took with them two Indian girls, about 
twelve years of age. who were pupils of the mis- 
sion school, for the pui-pose of bringing the canoe 
back to the island. Just as the three v.ere land- 
ing, twenty or thirty Dahkotah warriors, with a 
war whoop emerged from their concealment be- 
hind the trees, and fired into the canoe. The 
young men instantly sprang into tlie water, which 

was shallow, returned the fire, and ran into the 
woods, escaping without material injury. 

Tlic little girls, in their fright, waded into the 
lake; but were pursued. Their parents upon 
the island, lieard the death cries of their children. 
Some of the Indians around the mission-house 
jumped into their canoes and gained the island. 
Others went into some fortified log huts. Tlie 
attack uiion the canoe, it was afterwards learned, 
was premature. The party upon that side of the 
lake were ordered not to fire, mitil the party 
stationed in the woods near the mission began. 

There were in all one luuulred and eleven 
Dahkotah warriors, and all the fight was in the 
vicinity of the mission-house, and the Ojibways 
mostly engaged in it were those who had been 
under religious instruction. The rest were upon 
tlie island. 

The fathers of the murdered girls, burning for 
revenge, left the island in a canoe, and drawing 
it up on the shore, hid behind it, and fired upon 
the Dahkotahs and killed one. Tiie Dahkotahs 
advancing upon them, they were obliged to 
escape. The canoe was now launched. One lay 
on his back in the bottom ; the other plunged 
into the water, and, holding the canoe with one 
hand, and swimming with the other, he towed 
his friend out of danger. The Dahkotahs, in- 
furiated at their escape, fired volley after volley 
at the swimmer, but he escaped the balls by 
putting his head under water whenever he saw 
tliein take aim. and waiting till he heard the 
discharge, he would then look uj) aii<l breathe. 

After a fight of two hours, the Dahkotahs re- 
treated, with a loss of two men. At the request 
of the parents, Mr. E. F. Ely, from whose 
notes the writer has obtained these facts, be- 
ing at that time a teacher at the mission, 
went across the lake, with two of his friends, to 
gather the remains of his murdered pupils. He 
found the corpses on the shore. The heads cut 
off and scalped, with a tomahawk buried in the 
brains of each, were set up in the sand near the 
bodies. The bodies were pierced in the breast, 
and the right arm of one was taken away. Re- 
moving the tomahawks, the bodies were brought 
back to the island, and in the afternoon were 
buried in accordance with the simple but solemn 
rites of the Chm-ch of Christ, by members of the 



The sequel to this story is soon told. The In- 
dians of Pokegunia, after tlie light, deserted tlieir 
viHage, and went to reside with their countrymen 
near Lalje Superior. 

In July of the following year, 1842, a war party 
was formed at Fond du Lac, about forty in num- 
ber, and proceeded towards the Uahkotah coinitry. 
Sneaking, as none but Indians can, they aiTived 
imnoticed at the little settlement below Saint 
Paul, connnonly called "Pig's Eye," wliieh is 
opposite to what was Kaposia, or Little Crow's 
village. Finding an Imlian woman at work in 
the garden of her husbaml, a Canadian, by the 
name of Gamelle, they killed her; also another 
woman, with her infant, whose head was cut off. 
The Dahkotahs. on the opposite side, were mostly 
intoxicated ; and. Hying across in their canoes but 
half prepared, they were worsted in the en- 
comiter. They lost thirteen warriors, and one of 
their n\miber, knowii as the Dancer, the Ojib- 
ways are said to have skinned. 

Soon after this the Chippeway missions of the 
St. Croix Valley were abandoned. 

In a little while Uev. Mr. Boutwell removed to 
the vicinity of Stillwater, and the missionaries, 
Ayer and Spencer, went to Red Lake and otlier 
points in Alinnesota. 

In IhoSthe Rev. Sherman Hall left the Indians 
and became pastor of a Congregational church at 
Sauk E.ipids, where he recently died. 


In 1837 the Rev. A. Bnmson commenced a 
Methodist mission at Kaposia, about four miles 
below, and opposite Samt Paul. It was afterwards 
removed across the river to Red Rock. He was 
assisted Ity the Rev. Thomas W. Pope, and the 
latter was succeeded l>y the Rev. J. Ilolton. 

The Rev. ilr. Spates and others also labored 
for a brief period among the Ojibways. 


At the stations the Dahkotah language was dil- 
igently studied. Rev. S. W. Pond had prepared 
a dictionary of three thousand words, and also a 
small grammar. Tlie Rev. S. R. Riggs, W'lio 
joined the mission in 1H87, in a letter dated 
February 24, 1841, wi-ites: "Last summer 
after returning from Fort Snelling, I spent li\ f 
weeks in copying again tlie Sioux vocabulary 
\\hich we had collected and arranged at this sta- 

tion. It contamed then about 5500 words, not 
including the various forms of the verbs. Since 
that time, the words collected by Dr. Williamson 
and myself, have, I presume, increased the num- 
ber to six thousand. ***** In this con- 
nection, I may mention that during the winter of 
1839-40, Mrs. Riggs, with some assistance, wrote 
an English and Sioirx vocabulary contaming 
about three thousand words. One ot ^Ir. Ren- 
ville's .sons and three of his daughters are en- 
gaged m copying. In committing the grammati- 
cal principles of the language to writing, we have 
(lone something at this station, but more has been 
done by Mr. S. W. Pond." 

Steadily the nimiber of Indian missionaries 
increased, and in 1851, before the lands of the 
Dahkotahs west of the Mississippi were ceded to 
the whites, they were disposed as follows by the 
Dahkotah Pi-esbytery. 

Lac-qui-parle, Rev. S. R. Riggs, Rev. M. N. 
Adams, Missionarks, Jonas Pettijohn, ilrs. 
Fanny Pettijohn, JSIrs. Mary Ann Riggs, Mrs. 
Mary A. M. Adams, Miss Sarah Rankin, .l.s- 

Traverse des Sioiix, Rev. Robert Hopkins, .¥)'s- 
sionan/; Mrs. Agnes Hopkins, Alexander (i. 
Iluggins, Mrs. Lydia P. Ilnggins, Aif!iis/((nts. 

Shakpaii, or Sholpmj, Rev. Sanuiel "\V. Pond, 
Missionary; Mrs. Sarah P. Pond, Assistant. 

Oak Orove, Rev. Gideon II. Pond and wife. 

Kaposia, Rev. Thomas ■\Villiainson, M. D., 
3nssiona)-y and rhysician; ilrs. Margaret P. 
Williamson, Miss Jane S. 'Williamson, Assistants. 

lird Wing, Rev. John F. Alton, Rev. Joseph 
W. Hancock, ilissionarics; Mrs. Xancy H. Alton, 
]Mrs. Hancock, Assistants. 

The Rev. Daniel Gavin, the Swiss Presbyte- 
rian Missionary, spent the winter of 1839 in Lac- 
qui-Parle and was afterwards married to a niece 
of the Rev. J. D. Stevens, of the Lake Harriet 
Mission. Mr. Stevens became the fanner and 
teacher of the Wapashaw band, and the lirjt 
white man who Uved where the city of Winona 
has been built. Another missionary from Switz- 
erland, the Rev. Mr. Denton, mairied a Miss 
Skinner, formerly of the Mackinaw mission. 
During a portion of the year 18:i9 these Swiss 
missionaries lived with the American mission- 
aries at camp Cold Wat«r near Fort Snelling, 
but their chief field of labor was at Red Wing. 





Origin of the name Saint Croix — Du Luth, first Explorer — Prencli Post on the St. 
Croix — Pitt, an early pioneer — Early settler? at Saint Croix Falli — Pirst women 
there — Marine Settlement — Joseph R, Browni's town site — Saint Croix County 
orvanized— Proprielors of Stillw;iter — A dealt Negro woman — Pig's Eye, origin 
of n.inie— Rise of Saint Paul— Dr. Williamson secures first school teacher for 
Saint Paul — I>escription of first school room— Saint Croix Countj" re-organized 
— Rev. W. T. Boutwell, pioneer clercyman. 

The Saint Croix river, accoixling to Le Sueur, 
nametl after a Frencliman wlio was drowned at 
its mouth, was one of the earliest throughfares 
from Lake Superior to tlie Mississippi. The first 
white man wlio directed canoes upon its waters 
was Du Luth, who liad in 1G79 explored iliune- 
sota. He tlius describes his tour in a letter, first 
published by Ilanisse : " In Jime, 1680, not be- 
ing satisfied, with having made my discovery by 
land, I took two canoes, with an Indian who was 
my inteii)reter, and four Frenchmen, to seek 
means to make it by water. AVith tliis view I 
entered a river which empties eight leagues fnm) 
the extremity of Lake Superior, on the south 
side, where, after liaving cut some trees and 
broken about a hundred beaver dams, I reached 
the upper waters of the said river, and then' I 
made a portage of half a league to reach a lake, 
the outlet of which fell into a very fine river, 
which took me down into the Mississippi. There 
I learned from eight cabins of Nadouecioux that 
the Rev. Father Louis Hennepin, Eecollect, now 
at the convent of Saint Germain, with two otlier 
Frenchmen had been robbed, and carried off as 
slaves for more than three hundred leagues by 
the Xadouecioux themselves."' 

He then relates how he left two Frenchmen 
with his goods, and went with his interpreter and 
two Frenchmen in a canoe down the Mississippi, 
and after two days and two nights, found Henne- 
pin, Aecault and Augelle. He told Hennepin 
that he must return with him through the country 
of the Fox tribe, and writes : " I preferred to re- 
trace my ste]os, manifesting to them [the Sioux] 
the just indignation 1 felt against them, rather 
than to remain after the violence they had done 

to the Rev. Father and the other two Frenchmen 
with him, whom I put in my canoes and brought 
them to ^lichilimackinack." 

After this, the Saint Croix river became a chan- 
nel for commerce, and Bellin writes, that before 
IToo, the French had erected a fort forty leagues 
from its mouth and twenty from Lake Superior. 

The pine forests between the Saint Croix and 
Minnesota had been for several years a tempta- 
tion to energetic men. As early as November, 
1836, a Mr. Pitt went with a boat and a party of 
men to the Falls of Saint Croix to cut puie tim- 
ber, with the consent of the Chippeways but the 
dissent of the United States authorities. 

In 1837 while the treaty was being made by Com- 
missioners Dodge and Smith at Fort Snelling, on 
one Sunday Franklin Steele, Dr. Fitch, Jeremiali 
Russell, and a Mr. Maginnis left Fort Snelling 
for the FiiUs of Saint Croix in a birch bark canoe 
paddled by eight men, and reached that point 
about noon on Monday and commenced a log 
cabin. Steele and ^laginnis remained here, 
while the others, dividing into two parties, one 
under Fitch, and the other under Russell, search- 
ed for pine land. Tlie lirst stopped at Sun Rise, 
while Russel went on to the Snake River. About 
the same time Robbinet and Jesse B. Taylor 
came to the Falls in the interest of B. F. Baker 
who had a stone trading house near Fort Snelling, 
since destroyed by fire. On the fifteenth of .July, 
1838, the Palmyra, Capt. Hulland, arrived at 
the Fort, with the official notice of the ratifica- 
tion of the treaties ceding the lands between the 
Saint Croix and Mississippi. 

She had on board C. A. Tnttle, L. W. Stratton 
and others, with the machinery for the projected 
mills of the Northwest Lumber Company at the 
Falls of Saint Croix, and reached that point on 
the seventeenth, the first steamboat to disturb the 
waters above Lake Saint CroiX. The steamer 
Gypsy came to the fort on the tn'enty-first of 



October, witli goods for the C'hippeways, and was 
chartered for fom- hundred and fifty dollars, to 
carry them up to the Falls of Saint Croix. In 
passing through the lake, the boat irroiinded near 
a projected town called Stambaughville, alU-r S. 
C. Stambangh, the sutler at the fort. On tlie 
afternoon of the 26th, the goods were landed, as 

The agent of the Improvement Company at the 
falls was Washington Libbey, who left in the fall 
of 1838, and was succeeded by Jeremiali llussell, 
Straltou acting as millwright in place of Calvin 
Tuttle. On the twelfth of December, KusscU and 
Stratton walked down the river, cut the first tree 
and built a cabin at Marine, and sold their claim. 

The first women at the Falls of Saint Croix were 
a AIr.s. Orr, Mrs. Sackett, and the daugliter of a 
Mr. Young. During the winter of isiis 0, Jere- 
miali Russell married a daughter of a respectiible 
and gentlemanly trailer, Cliarles II. Oakes. 

Among tlie first preachers were the Rev. W. T. 
Boutwell and Mr. Seymour, of the Chippeway 
Mission at I'okeguma. The Kev. A. Brunson, of 
Prairie du Cliien, wlio visited tliis region in 1838, 
wrote tliat at the mouth of Snake River lie found 
Franklin Steele, witli twenty-five or thirty men, 
cutting tiinl>er for a mill, and when he ottered to 
preach Mr. Steele gave a cordial assent. 

On the sixteenth of August, ilr. Steele, Living- 
ston, and others, left the Falls of Saint; Croix in a 
barge, and went around to J^ort Snelling. 

The steamboat Fayette about tlie middle of 
May. 1839, landed sutlei-s' stores at Fort Snell- 
ing and then ))roceeded willi several iiersons of 
intelligence to the Saint Croix river, who s tiled 
at Marine. 

Tlie place was called after Marine in Madison 
county, Illinois, where the cnniiiany. cousisliug 
of Judd, Hone and others, was foi'iiied to build 
a saw mill in tlie Saint Croix Valley. The mill 
at Marine coniineiiced to saw lumber, on August 
2A, 183!), the first in Minnesota. 

.Joseph R. Drown, who since 1838, had lived at 

Chan Wakan, on the west side of Grey Cloud 

Island, this year made a claim near the upper 

end of the city of Stillwater, wliicli he called 

Dahkotah, and was tin; first to raft lumber down 

the Saint Croix, as well as the first to represent 

the citizens of tlie valley in the legislature of 


Until the year 1841, the jurisdiction of Craw- 
ford county, Wisconsin, extended over the delta 
of country between the Saint Croix and Missis- 
sippi. Josepli R. Brown having been elected as 
representative of the county, in tlie tenitoriid 
legislature of AVisconsin, succeeded in obtaining 
the passage of an act on November tweiitictli, 
1841, organizing the county of Saint Croix, with 
Dalikotah designated as the county seat. 

At the time prescribed for liolding a court in 
the new county, it is said that the judge of the 
district arrived, and to his surprise, found a 
claim cabin occupied by a Frenchman. Speedily 
retreating, he never came again, and judicial 
proceedings for Saint Croix county ended for 
several years. I'hineas Lawrence was tlie first 
sheriff of this county. 

On the tenth of October, 1S4.S. was commenced 
a settlement which lias become the town of Still- 
water. Tlie names of the proprietors were John 
McKusick from Maine, Calvin Leach from Ver- 
mont, Elam Greeley from Maine, and Klias 
McKean from Pennsylvania. They immediately 
commenced the erection of a sawmill. 

John II. Fonda, elected on the twenty-second 
of September, as coroner of Crawford county, 
Wisconsin, asserts that he was once notified that 
a dead body was lying in the water opposite Pig's 
Eye slough, and immediately proceeded to the 
spot, and on taking it out, recognized it as the 
body of a negro woman belonging to a certain 
captain of the United States army then at Fort 
Cra\\-ford. The body was cruelly cut and bruised, 
but no one appearing to recognise it, a verdict of 
" Found dead," was rendered, and the corpse was 
buried. Soon after, it came to light that the 
woman was whipped to death, and thrown into 
the river during the night. 

The year that the Dahkotahs ceded their lands 
east of the Mississippi, a Canadian Frenchman 
by the name of Parrant, the ideal of an Indian 
whisky seller, erected a shanty in what is now 
the city of Saint Paul. Ignorant and overbear- 
ing he loved money more than his own soul. 
Destitute of one eye, and the other resembling 
that of a pig, he was a good representative of 
Caliban. Some one writing from his groggeiy 
designated it as " Pig's Eye." Tlie reply to the 
letter was directed in good faith to" Pig's Eye" 



Some years ago the editor of the Saint Paul 
Press described the occasion in these ■words : 

" Edmund Brisette. a clerkly Frenchman for 
those days, who lives, or did live a little while 
ago, on Lalcp Harriet, was one day seated at a 
table in Parranfs cabin, with pen and paper 
about to write a letter for Pan-ant (for Parrant, 
like Charlemagie. could ni)t write) to a friend 
of tlie latter in Canada. The question of geog- 
raphy puzzled Brissette at the outset of the 
epistle : where sliould he date a letter from a 
place without a name ? He looked up inijuir- 
ingly to Parrant. and met the dead, cold glare of 
the Pig's Eye fixed upon him. with an irresist- 
ible suggestiveness that was inspiration to 

In 1842, the late Henry Jackson, of Mahkahto, 
settled at the same spot, and erected the first 
store on the height just above the lower landing, 
Roberts and Simpson followed, and opened 
small Indian trading shops. In 1846, the site of 
Saint Paul was cliiefly occupied by a few shanties 
owned by " certain lewd fellows of the liaser 
sort," who sold rum to tlie soldier and Indian. 
It was despised by all decent white men, and 
knowTi to the Dahkotahs by an expression in 
their tongue which means, the place where they 
sell miiuie-wakan [supeniaan-al water]. 

The chief of the Kaposia l)and in 184(3. was shot 
by his own brotlier in a drunken revel, Ijut sur- 
viving the wound, and ajiparently al.urmed at the 
deterioration under the influence of the modern 
harpies at Saint Paul, werit to Mr. Bnice, Indian 
Agent, at Fort Snelling, ,ind requested a mis- 
sionaiy. The Indian Agent in his report to gov- 
ernment, says : 

"The chief of the Little ("row's band, who re- 
sides below this place (Fort Snelling) about nine 
miles, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
wliiskey dealers, has requested to liave a school 
established at liis village. He says they are de- 
termined to reform, and for the future, will try 
to do better. I wrote to Doctor '\^'illiamson soon 
after the request was made, desiring him to take 
charge of the school. He has had charge of the 
mission school at Lac qui Parle for some years ; 
is well qualified, and is an excellent pli)sician." 

In Xovember, 1846, Dr. Williamson came from 
Lac qui Parle, as requested, and became a resi- 
dent of Kaposia. "Wliile disapproving of their 

practices, lie felt a kindly interest in the whites 
of Pig's Eye. wliich place was now beginning to 
be called, after a little log chapel which liad been 
erected at Ihe suggestion of Rev. L. Galtier, and 
called Saint Paul's. Thouglia missionary among 
the Dahkotahs, he was the first to take steps to 
promote the education of the whites and half- 
breeds of Minnesota. In the year 1847, he wrote 
to ex-Governor Slade, President of tlie Xational 
Popular Education Society, in relation to the 
condition of what has subsequently become the 
capital of the state. 

In accordance with his request, Miss H. E. 
Bishop came to his mission-house at Kaposia, 
and, after a short time, was introduced by him 
to the citizens of Saint Paul. The first school- 
house in Minnesota besides those connected with 
the Indian missions, stood near the site of the 
old Brick Presbyterian church, corner of Saint 
Peter and Third street, and is thus described by 
the teacher : 

•' The school was commenced in a little log 
hovel, covered with liark. and chinked with mud. 
previously used as a lilacksmith shop. On three 
sides of the interior of this liumble log cabin, 
pegs were driven into the logs, upon which boards 
were laid for seats. Another seat was made liy 
placing one end of a plank between the cracks 
of the logs, and the other upon a chair. This 
was for visitors. A rickety cross-legged tabic in 
the centre, and a hen's nest in one comer, com- 
pleted the furniture." 

Saint Croix county, in the year 1847. was de- 
tached from Crawford county, Wisconsin, and 
reorganized for judicial purposes, and Stillwater 
made the county seat. In the montli of .June 
the United States District Court held its session 
in the store-room of Mr. John McKusick : Juilge 
Charles Dunn presiding. A large number of 
lumbermen had been attracted by the pineries 
in the upper portiojrbf the valley of Saint Croix, 
and Stillwater was looked upon as the center of 
tlie lumbering interest. 

The Rev. ]Mr. Boutwell. feeling that he could 
be more useful, left the Ojibways, and took up 
his residence near Stillwater, preaching to tlie 
lumbermen at the Falls of Saint t!roix. Marine 
Mills, Stillwater, and Cottage Grove. In a letter 
speaking of Stillwater, he says, " Here is a little 
village sprung up like a gourd, but whether it is 
to perisli as soon, God only knows." 



ciiAPTKu xxr. 


WUconsin Stute BoundariM— Kirst Bill (or th« Organ lialiBii of MiiiiiCTota Terri- 
tory, A. D. 184ft— Change nf Wisconsin Boundary— Memorial of Saint Croix 
Valley ciliiens — Various names iirojHwcfl for the New Territory — Convention at 
Stillwater— H. U. Sitley elected Dele|[ate to Congress.— Derivation of word 

Three years elapsed from the time that the 
territory of Mimiesotii was proposed in Congress, 
to the final passage of the organic act. On the 
sixth of August. 1S-1(), an act was passed by Con- 
gress authorizing the citizens of AVisconsin Ter- 
ritory to frame a constitution and form a state 
government. The act fixed the Saint Louis river 
to the rapids, from thence south to the Saint 
Croix, and thence down that river to its junction 
with the Mississippi, as the western bonndary. 

On the twenty -third of December, 1846, the 
delegate from Wisconsin, Morgan L. Martin, in- 
troduced a bill in (Jongress for the organization 
of a territory of ilinnesota. This bill made its 
western boundary the Sioux and Red River of 
the North. On the third of March, 1«47, per- 
mission was granted to Wisconsin to change her 
boundary, so that the western limit would pro- 
ceed due south from the first rapids of the Saint 
Louis river, and lifleen miles east of the most 
easterly point of Lake Saint Croix, thence to the 

A number in the constitutionai convention of 
Wisconsin, were anxious that Rum river should 
be a part of her western boundary, while citizens 
of the valley of the Saint Croix were desirous 
tlial the Chipjieway river shovild lie the limit of 
Wisconsin. The citizens of Wisconsin Territory, 
in the valley of the Saint Croix, and about Fort 
Snelling, wished to he included in the jirojected 
new territory, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 
1848, a memorial signed by II. II. Sibley, Henry 
M. Rice, Franklin Steele, William R. Marshall, 
and others, was presented to Congress, remon- 
strating against the proposition before the con- 
vention to make Rum river a part of the bound- 
ary line of the contemplated state of Wisconsin. 

On the twenty-ninth of May, ls48, the act to 
admit Wisccmsin changed the boundaiy line to 
the present, and as first defined in the enabling 
act of 1840. After the bill of Mr. Martin was 
introduced into the House of Representatives iii 
1846 it was referred to the Committee on Terri- 
tories, of which hlr. Douglas was ('hairman. On 
the twentieth of January, 1847, he reported in 
favor of the proposed territory with the name 
of Itasca. On the seventeenth of February, be- 
fore the bill passed the House, a discussion arose 
in relation to the proposed name. Mr. Win- 
throp of Massa<'hus('tts proposed Chippewa as a 
substitute, alleging that this tribe was the prin- 
cipal in the proposed territory, which was not 
coi'rect. Mr. J. Thompson of ^lississippi disliked 
all Indian names, and hoped the territory would 
be called Jackson. Mv. Houston of Delaware 
thought tliat there ought to be one territory 
named after the "Father of his country," and 
proposed Washington. All of the names pro- 
posed were rejected, and the name in the original 
bill inserted. On the last day of the session, 
March tliird, the bill was called up in the Senate 
and laid on the table. 

When Wisconsin became a state the query 
arose whether the old territorial government did 
not continue in force west of the Saint Croix 
river. The first meeting on the subject of claim- 
ing territorial privileges was held in the building 
at Saint Paul, known as Jack.son's store, near the 
corner of Bencli and Jackson streets, on the 
bluff. This meeting was held in July, and a 
convention was propo.sed to consider their iiosi- 
tion. The first public meeting was held at Still- 
water on August fourth, and Messra. Steele and 
Sibley were the only persons lue.sent from the 
west side of the Mississippi. This meeting i.s- 
sued a call for a general convention to take steps 
to secure an early territorial organization, to 
I assemble on the twenty-sixth of the mouth at 


EXPLOREiis AXD riuynEiiii OF jiiyyssorA. 

tlie same place. Sixty-two delegates answered 
tlie call, and among those iiresent. Were AV. D. 
Pliillips. .1. W. Bass, A. Lai-pentenr. .1. M. Hoal. 
aiid otliei-s from Saint Paul. To the conventicin 
a letter was presented from Mr. Catlin, who 
claimed to be acting governor, giving his opinion 
that the Wisconsiii territorial organization was 
still in force. The meeting also appt)inted ilr. 
Sibley to visit Washington and represent their 
views; but the Hon. John II. Tweedy having 
resigned his office of delegate to Congress on 
September eighteenth, 1848, Mr. Catlin, who had 
made Stillwater a temporary residence, on the 
ninth of October issmd a proclamation ordering 
a special election at Stillwater on the thirtieth, 
to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation. 
At this election Henry H. Sibley was elected as 
delegate of the citizens of the remaining portion 
of "Wisconsin Territory. His credentials were 
presented to the House of Representatives, and 
the committee to whom the matter was referred 
presented a majority and minority report : but 
the resolution introduced by the majoi-ity jiassed 
and Mr. Sibley took his seat as a delegate from 
Wisconsin Territ(n-y on the fifteenth <<( .lanuary, 

Mr. H. M. Itice, aud other gentlemen, visited 
Washington during the winter, and, uniting w ith 
Mr. Sibley, used all their energies to obtain the 
organization of a new territory. 

Mr. Sibley, in an interesting communication to 
the Minnesota Hist(.i-ical Society, writes : " A\'heu 
my credentials as Delegate, were ]iresented l)y 
Hon. James Wilson, of New Ilanjiisliire, to the 

House of Representatives, there was some curi- 
osity manifested among the members, to see what 
kind of a person had been elected to represent the 
distant and wild territory claiming representation 
in Congress. I was told by a Xew England mem- 
ber with whom I became subsequently (piite inti- 
mate, that there was some disappointment when 
I made my appearance, for it was expected that 
the delegate from this reninte region would make 
his debut, if not in full Indian costimie, at least, 
with some peculiarities of dress and mannere, 
characteristic of the rude aud semi-civilized i)eo- 
ple who had sent him to the Capitol." 

Tlie territory of Minnesota was named after 
the largest tributary of the ^lississipiii within its 
limits. The Siou.x call the Mis.sonri Minnesho- 
sliay, muddy water, but the stream after which 
this region is named, Minne-sota. Some say that 
Sota means clear; others, turbid; Schoolcraft, 
bluish green. Xicollet wrote. "The adjective 
Sotah is of difiicidt translation. The Canadians 
translated it by a jiretty equivalent word, lirouille, 
perhaps more properly rendered into English by 
blear. I have entered upon this explanation be 
cause the word leally means neither clear nor 
turbid, as some authors have asserted, its true 
meaning being found in the Sioux expression 
Ishtah-sotah, blear-eyed." From the fact that the 
word signifies neither blue nor white, but the 
peculiar appearance of the sky at certain times, 
by some, Minnesota has been defined to mean the 
sky tinted water, which is certainly poetic, and the 
late Rev. (iideon H. I'ond thought quite correct. 





Appearii'Ke of tho Coiiiitry, A. D. 18i0 — Arriviil of lin.t Eililor — Gv 

ItuniM-y «rri*rs ~ IjiH-sl of H. H. Sibley — rrciclaiimtion isMuctl — fiovcrnor 
RaniHry «iid H. M. Rice move to Siiiiit Paul— Fourth of July tVU-liratioii-r 
fini clertioii— Karly BoW!i[>a|)crs — First Courts — Firtt Logislaturc— Pioneer 
News CarriiTs A<l<lre»s— Wedfiing at Fort SiielliiiB— Territorial Seal — Scalp 
Dance at SliUwalrr — Fir^t Stcanilioat at FalU of Saint Antliony— Presliyterutn 
Chapel liurneil — Indian council at Fort Snellinit — First Steanitwat aliovo Saint 
Anthony— First tjoat at the Blue Kortli Kivcr— Conpressional election— Visit.of 
Frcdriku Ilrenicr — Indian newspaper — Other newspapere— Second Legislature 
— University of Minnesota — Teamster killed hy Indians— Sioux Treaties— Third 
Legislature— Land slide at SI ill water — Death of first Eilitor — Fourth legislature 
Baldwin School, now Macalester College — Indian light in Saint Paul. 

On the third of March, 1849, the bill was passed 
by Coiifrrpss for organizing tlie territory of 
Jliiinesota, whoso bountlaiy on the west, extended 
to the .Missouri Uiver. At tliis time, tlie region was 
little more tliau a wilderness. The west bank of 
tlie Jlississippi, from the Iowa line to Lake 
Itasca, was iincedeil by tho Indians. 

At Wapasliaw, was a trailing post in charge of 
Alexis Bailly, and here also resided the ancient 
voyagonr, of fonrsfion; years, A. Rocque. 

At tlie foot of Lake I'epin was a sloio house 
kept by .Mr. F. S. Richards. On the west shore of 
the lake lived the eccentric AVells, whose wife 
was a liois l)nilc. a daughter of the deceased 
trader. Diinraii (iraliain. 

The two uiiliuished buildings of stone, on 
the beaulifid bank opposite the renowned 
Jlaiden's Rock, and the surrounding skin loilges 
of his wife's relatives and friends, presoiiteil a 
rude but picturesque scene. Above the lake was 
a cluster of biuk wigwams, the Dahkotah village 
of Hiiyniiicocha, now Red \Viiig, at which was a 
Presbyterian mission house. 

The next settlement was Kaposia, also an In- 
dian village, and the residence of a I'rosliyterian 
missionary, the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D. 
On the east side of the Mississippi, tlie first set^ 
tlement, at the mouth of tlie St. Croix, was Point 
L'onglas, then as now, a small hamlet. 

At Red Rock, the site of a former Methodist 
mission station, there were a few farmers. Saint 
Paul was just eniorging from a collection of In- 
diiiu whisky shops and birch roofed cabins of 

half-breed voyagenrs. Here ami there a frame 
tenement was erected, and, under the auspices of 
the Hon. II. M. Rice, who had obt^iined an inter- 
est in the town, some waroliouses were con- 
structed, and the foundations of the Ainerican 
House, a frame hotel, which stood at Tliiid and 
Exchange street, were laid. In bs4!i, the poim- 
lation had increased to two hundred and lil'ly 
or three hundred hihabitants, for rumors had 
gone abroad that it might be mentioned in the 
act, creating the territory, as the capital 
of ]\liniiesota. More than a month after 
the adjouiimient of Congress, just at eve, 
on the ninth of .\pril, amid terrific peals of 
tliiinder and torrents of rain, the weekly sleam 
packet, the first to force its way through the icy 
barrier of Lake Pepin, rounded the rocky point 
whistling loud and long, as if tli(^ bearer of glad 
tidings. Before she was safely moored to the 
landing, the shouts of the e.xcited villagers were 
heard amiouncing that there was a territory of 
^Minnesota, and that Saint Paul was the seat of 

Every successive steamboat anlval poured out 
on the landing men big with hope, and anxious 
to do something to inoiilil the future of tin' new 

Nine days after the news of the existence of the 
territory of Minnesota was received, there arrived 
.lames M. Goodhue with press, type, and printing 
apparatus. A graduate of Amherst college, and 
a lawyer by profession, he wielded a sharp pen, 
and wrote editorials, which, more than anything 
else, perhaps, induced immigration. Though a 
man of some faults, one of the counties proiierly 
bears his name. On the twenty-eighth of April, 
he issued from his press the first number of the 

On the twenty - seventh of May, Alexander 
Ramsey, the (iovenior, and family, arrived at 
Siiint Paul, butowingto the crowded state of pub- 



lie houses, immediately proceeded in the steamer 
to the estalilishment of the Fiir Company, kuowTi 
as Meudola. al the junction of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi, tind became the guest of the Hon. II. 
II. Sibley. 

On the fii-st of Jnne, Governor Ramsey, by pnv 
clamation, declared the territory (hily organized, 
wilh the following officers: Alexander Kamsey, 
of Permsylvania, Governor ; C. K. Smith, of Ohio, 
Secretary ; A. Goodrich, of Teiniessee. Chief 
Justice ; D. Cooper, of Pennsylvania, and B. B. 
Meeker, of Kentucky, Associate Judges; Joshua 
L. Taylor, Marshal ; H. L. Moss, attorney of tlie 
United States. 

On the eleventh of June, a second proclama- 
tion was issued, dividing the territory into three 
temporary judicial districts. The first compi-ised 
the county of St. Croix ; the county of La Pointe 
and the region north and west of the ilississippi, 
and nortli of the Minnesota and of a line running 
due west from the headwaters of the Minnesota 
to the Missouri river, constituted the second : 
and the country west of tlie Mississippi andsoutli 
of the ilinnesota, formed the third district. 
Judge Goodrich was assigned to the first, Meeker 
to the second, and Cooper to the tliird. A court 
was ordered to beheld at Stillwater on the second 
Monday, at the Falls of St. Anthony on the thinl. 
and <at ^Mendota on the fourth Monday of August. 

Until the twenty -sixth of June, Governor 
Ramsey and family had liccn guests of Hon. II. 
II. Sibley, at Meudota. On the afternoon of 
that day they arrived at St. Paul, in a birch-bark 
canoe, and became permanent residents at the 
capital. The house first occupied as a guber- 
natorial mansion, was a small frame building that 
stood on Third, betsveen Robert and Jackson 
streets, formerly known as the New England 

A few days after, the lion. II. M. Rice and 
family moved from Mendota to St. Paid, and oc- 
cupied the house he had erected on St. Anthony 
street, near the corner of Market. 

On the first of July, a land office was estab- 
lished at Stillwater, and A. Van Vorhes, after a 
few weeks, became the register. 

The anniversary of our National Independence 
was celebrated in a becoming manner at the cap- 
ital. The place selected for the address, was a 
g: , • that stood on the sites of the City HaU and 

the Baldwhi School building, and the late Frank- 
lin Steele was the marshal of the day. 

On the seventli of July, a proclamation was is- 
sued, dividing the teiiitory into seven council 
districts, and ordering an election to be held on 
the lirst day of August, tor one delegate to rep- 
resent the people in the House of Representatives 
of the United States, for nine councillors and 
eighteen rejiresentatives, to constitute the Legis- 
lative Assembly of Minnesota. 

In this month, the Hon. II. M. Rice despatch- 
ed a boat laded with Indian goods from the 
the Falls of St. Anthony to Crow Wing, which 
was towed by horses after the manner of a canal 

The election on the first of August, passed off 
with little excitement, Hon. II, II. Sibley being 
elected delegate to Congress without opposition. 
David Lambert, on what might, perhaps, be 
termed the old settlers' ticket, was defeated in 
St. Paul, by James M. Boal. The latter, on the 
night of the election, was honored with a ride 
through town on the axle and fore-wheels of an 
old wagon, which was drawn liy his admiring 
but somewhat undisciplined friends. 

J. L. Taylor having declined the office of 
Ihiited States Marshal; A. M. ilitchell. of Ohio, 
a graduate of AV'est Point, and colonel of a regi- 
ment of Ohio volunteers in the Mexican war, was 
appointed and arrived at the capital early in 

There were three papers published in the ter- 
ritory soon after its organization. The first w'as 
the Pioneer, issued on April twenty-eighth, 1849, 
under most discouraging circumstances. It was 
at first the intention of the witty and reckless 
editor to have called his paper " The Epistle of 
St. Paul." About the same time there was issued 
in Cincinnati, under the auspices of the late Dr. 
A. Randall, of California, the first number of 
the Register. The second niuuber of the paper 
was printed at St. Paul, in .Jidy, and the office 
was on St. Anthony, between ^\'ashington and 
Market Streets, About the lirst of Jiuie, James 
Hughes, afterward of Hudson, Wisconsin, arrived 
with a press and materials, and established the 
Minnesota Chronicle. After an existence of a 
few weeks two paper's were discontinued ; and, 
in their place, was issued the "Chronicle and 



Register," edited by Xatlmicl .MiLiniu and Joliu 
P. Owens. 

The lirst courts, jmrsuant to proclamation of 
the governor, were lield in the month of August. 
At Stillwater, tlif^ court was organized on the 
thirteenth of tlie month. Judge (iuddrich pre- 
siding, and Judge Cooper by courtesy, sitting on 
the bench. On the twentietli, tlie second .judi- 
cial district held a coiul. The room used was 
the old goveriMiient mill at Jlinneapolis. The 
presiding judge was 15. li. .Meeker; the foreman 
of tlie grand jury. Franklin Steele. On the last 
Wnnday of the month, the court for the lliird 
judicial district was organized in the large stone 
warehouse of the fur company at Mendota. The 
presiding judge was David Cooper. (Jovenior 
Kamsey sat on the right, and Judge tTOodricli on 
the left. lion. II. II. Sibley was the foreman of 
tlie grand jury. As some of the jurors could not 
speak the English language, W. II. Forbes acted 
as interpreter. The charge of .Judge Cooper was 
lucid, scho'arly, and dignilied. At the recpiest 
of the gi'and jury it was afterwards published. 

On Monday, the third of September, the first 
Legisli|,ti\e ^Vssembly convened in the " Central 
IIoiise,"in Saint Paul, a building at the corner 
of ilimiesota and Bench streets, facing the 
Mississippi river which answered the double 
ptn-pose of capitol and hotel. On the first 
floor of the niahi building was the Secretar 
ry's otBce and Representative chamber, and in 
the second story was the library and Council 
chamber. As the flag was run up the staff in 
front of the house, a number of Indians sat on a 
rocky bluff in the vicinity, and gazed at what to 
them w;i8 a novel and perha)>s saddening scene; 
for if the tide of immigration sweejis in from the 
I'acific as it has from the Atlantic coast, they 
must soon dwin<Ile. 

The legislature having organized, elected the 
following ])rrmaMcut oflicers: David Olmsted, 
President of Coiuicil: Joseph R. Brown, Secre- 
ary; II. A. Laiiibert. .Assistant. In the House 
of Representatives. Joseph W. Furber was elect- 
ed Speaker : \V. I). Phillips. Clerk: L. 1!. Wail, 

On Tuesday afternoon, both houses assembled 
in tlie dining hall of the hotel, and after prayer 
was olfered by Re\'. K. D. Xeill, Governor Ram- 
sey delivered his message. The message was ably 

written, and its perusal alTorded satisfaction at 
houK! and abroad. 

The fii-st session of the legislature adjourned on 
the lirst of November. Among other proceed- 
ings of interest, was the creation of the following 
counties: Itasca, Wapashaw. Dahkolah, A\'ah- 
nahtah, Mahkahto, Pembina AVashington, Ram- 
sey and Benton. The tliree latter counties com- 
prised the country that u]) to that time had been 
ceded by the Indiana "i the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, Stillwater was declared the county seat 
of Washington, Samt Paul, of Ramsey, and '• tlie 
seat of justice of the county of Benton was to be 
within one-quarter of a mile of a point on the east 
side of the .Mississippi, directly opposite the mouth 
of Sauk river." 

EVENTS OF A. D 1850. 

By the active exertions of the secretary of the 
territory, C. K. Smith, Esq., the Historical 
Society of Minnesota was incorporated at the 
first session of the legislatiiie. The opening an- 
nual address was delivered in the then Methodist 
(now Swedenborgian) church at Saint Paul, on 
the first of January, 1850. 

The following account of the proceedings is 
from the Chronicle and Register. "The first 
public exercises of the Alinnesota Historical 
Society, took place at the Methodist church. Saint 
Paul, on the first inst., and pas.sed off higlily 
creditable to all concerned. The day was pleasant 
and the attendance large. At the appointed 
hour, the President and both Vice-Presidents of 
the society being absent ; on motion of Hon. C. 
K. Smith, Hon. Chief Justice CSoodrich was 
called to the chair. The same gentleman then 
moved that a commi-ttce, consisting of ^Messrs. 
Parsons K. Johnson, Jolin A. Wakefield, and B. 
W. Brunson, be appointed to wait upon tlu^ 
Orator of the day, Rev. Mr. Xeill, and inform 
him that the audience was waiting to hear his 

'" Mr. Xeill was shortly conducted to the luiljiit; 
and after an elo()uent and aiiproriate prayer by 
the Rev. Mr. Parsons, and music by the band, he 
l>roceeded to deliver his discourse upon the early 
French missionaries and Voyageui-s into Alinne- 
sota. We hope the society will jirovide for its 
[lubUcation at an early day. 

•'After some brief remarks by Rev. .^Ir. 



Hobart, upon the objects and ends of liistor\ . the 
ceremonies were concliiilnl with a praver by 
that geiitU-man. The audience dispersed highly 
delighted wth all that occurred.' 

At this early period the Minnesota I'ioneer 
issued a Ciurier's New Years Address, ^\hil■h 
was amusing doggerel. The reference to the 
future greatness and ignoble origin of the cjvpital 
of Minnesota was as follows : — 

The cities on this river must be three, 
Two that are built and one that is to be. 
One, is the mart of all the tropics yield, 
The cane, the orange, and the cotton-field, 
And sends her ships abroad and boasts 
Iler trade extended to a thousand coasts ; 
Theotlier, central for the temperate zone. 
Gamers the stores that on the plains are growTi, 
A place where steamboats from all cpiarters. 

To meet and speculate, as 'twere on 'change. 
The third v:ill he, where rivers confluent How 
From the wide spreadhig north tluough plains 

of snow ; 
The mart of all that boundless forests give 
To make mankind more comfortably live, 
The land of manufacturing industry, 
The workshop of the nation it shall be. 
Propelled by this wide stream, you'll see 
A thousand factories at Saint Anthony : 
And the Saint Croix a hundred mills shall drive, 
And all its smilhig villages shall thrive ; 
But then viy town— remember that high bench 
With cabms scattered over it, of French? 
A man named Ilemy Jackson's living there, 
Also a man — why evei-y one knows L. Kobair, 
Below Fort SnelUng, seven miles or so, 
And three above the village of Old Crow V 
Fig's Eye V Yes ; Fig's Eye ! That's the spot ! 
A very f mmy name ; is't not 'f 
Pig's Eye's the spot, to plant my city on. 
To be remembered by, when I am gone. 
I'ig's Eye converted thou shall be, like Saul : 
Thy name henceforth shall be Sauit Paul. 

On the evening of New- Year's day, at Fort 
Snelling, there was an assemljlage which is only 
seen on the outposts of civilization. In one of 
the stone edifices, outside of the waU, belonging 
to the Uiuted States, there resided a gentleman 
who had dwelt in Miimesota since the year 1819, 

and for many >eai-s had been in the employ of 
the government, as Indian interpreter. In youth 
he had been a member of the Columbia Fur Com- 
pany, and conforming to the habits of traders, 
had purchased a Dahkotah wife who was w holly 
ignorant of the English lan.sjuage. As a family 
of children gathered around him he recognised 
the relation of husband and father, and consci- 
entiously discharged his duties as a parent. Ilia 
daughter at a proper age was sent to a boardmg 
school of souie celebrity, and on the night re- 
ferred to was married to an intelligent young 
American farmer. Among the guests present 
were the otlicers of the garrison in full miiform, 
with then- wives, the United States Agent for 
the Dahkotahs, and family, the bois brules of 
the neighborhood, and the Indian relatives of the 
mother. The mother did not make her appear- 
ance, but, as the minister proceeded with the 
ceremony, the Uahkotah relatives, wrapped in 
their blankets, gathered hi the hall and looked 
ill through the door. 

The marriage feast was worthy of the occa- 
sion. In consequence of the numbers, the 
officers and those of European extraction partook 
first; then the bois brules of Ojib way and Dali- 
kotah descent; and, finally, the native Ameri- 
cans, who did ample justice to the plentifid sup- 
ply spread before them. 

Governor Ramsey. Hon. II. H. Sibley, and the 
delegate to Congress devised at "Washington, tliis 
winter, the territorial seal. The design was Falls 
of St. Anthony in the distance. An immigrant 
ploughing the land on the borders of the Indian 
country, full of hope, and looking forward to the 
possession of the hunting grounds beyond. An 
Indian, amazed at the sight of the plough, and 
lleemg on horseback towards the settmg sun. 

The motto of the E;irl of Dimraven, "Qua 
sursuiii volo videre'' (I wish to see what is above) 
was most appropriately selected by' Mr. Sibley, 
but by the blunder of an engraver it appeared on 
the territorial seal, "Quo sursiun velo videre," 
which no scholar could translate. At length was 
substituted, "L' Etoile du Nord," "Star (jf the 
North," while the device of the setting sim 
remained, and this is objectionable, as the State 
of Maine had already placed the North Star on 
her escutcheon, with the motto " Dkigo," "I 
guide." Perhaps some future legislature may 



direct the first motto to be restored and correctly 

Ill tlit^ iiioiitli of April, tlieie was a renewal of 
hostilities between the Dahkotalis and Ojibways, 
on lands tliat had hi'cii ceiled to the I'liited States. 
A war iirophet at Red Wing, dreamed that h(i 
oiifilit to raiseawariiarty. , Aiiiioiinein,!,' the fact, 
a iiundier exiiressed their willingness to go on siieh 
an expediiion. Several from the Kajtosia villagi^ 
also joined the iiarty. under the leadeishi]) of a 
worthli'ss Indian, who had been coidined in the 
gnaid-lioiise at Fort Snelling, the year previous, 
for sealjiing his wife. 

Passing up the valley of the St. Croix, a lew 
miles above Stillwater the i>arty discovered on the 
snow the marks of a keg and footprints. These 
told them that a man and woman of the Ojibways 
had been to some whisky dealer's, and were re- 
turning. Following their trail, they fomul on 
Apple river, ali^ lilt l\\ciit\ miles from Stillwater, 
a I land of ( )jiliwayseni-aiiiiied in one lodge. Wait- 
ing till da\ break of Weilnesday. April second, the 
Dabkotahscormueiiceil firing on the unsuspecting 
inmates, some of whom were drinking from the 
contents of the whisky keg. The camp was com- 
posed of fifteen, and all were murdered and scalp- 
ed, with the exception of a lad, who was made a 

On Thursday, the victore came to Stillwater, 
and daiicetl the scali) dance around the captive 
boy, in the heat of excitement, striking him in the 
face with the scarcely cold and bloody scalps of 
his relatives. The child was then taken to Ka- 
posia. and adopted li> the cliief. Governor Ram- 
sey immediately took measures to send the boy to 
his friends. At a conference held at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, the boy was delivered up, and, 
on behig led out to the kitchen by a little son of 
the Governor, since deceased, to receive refresh- 
ments, he cried bitterly, seemingly more alarmeil 
at being left with the whiles than he had been 
while a cai)tive at Kaposia. 

From the lirst of April the waters of the Mis- 
sissippi began to rise, and on the tiiirteenth, tht^ 
lower floor of the warehouse, then occupied by 
William Constans, at the foot of Jackson street, 
St. Paul, was submerged. Taking advantage of 
the freshet, the steamboat .Vntliony Wayne, for a 
purse of two hundred dollars, ventured through 
the swift current above Fort Snelling, and reached 

the Palls of St. Anthony. The bnal loft the fort 
after dinner, with (iovernor liainsey and other 
guests, also the band of the Sixth liegiment on 
board, and reached tlie falls beiween three and 
four o'clock in the afteiiioou. The whole town, 
men, Women and chililren. lined the shore as the 
boat a|>proaclieil. ami welcomed this first arrival, 
with shouts and wa\ iug handkerchiefs. 

Ou the afternoon of May lifteenth, there might 
have been seen, hurrying thidiigh the streets of 
Saint Paul, a number of naked and pauited braves 
of the I^aposia band of Uahkotahs, ornamented 
Willi all the attire of war, and i>aiiting for the 
scalps of their enemies. A few hours before, the 
warlike head chief of the Ojibways. young Ilole- 
in-the-l)ay , having secreted his canoe in the retired 
gorge which leads to the cave in the upper sub- 
urbs, with two or three associates had crossed the 
river, and, almost in sight of the citizens of the 
town, had attacked a small party of Uahkotahs, 
and murdered and scalped one man. On receii>t 
of the news, Governor Ramsey granted a parole 
to the thirteen Dahkotahs confined in Fort Snell- 
ing, for participating in the Apple river massacre. 

On the morning of the sixteenth of IMay, the 
first I'rotestant church edifice completed in the 
white settlements, a smidl frame building, built 
for the Prosbyterian church, at Saint Paul, was 
destroyed by fire, it lieing the first conflagration 
that had occurred since the organization of the 

One of the most interesting events of the year 
18.50, was the Indian council, at Fort Snelling. 
Governor Ramsey had sent runners to the differ- 
ent bands of the Ojibw.iys ami Dahkotahs, to 
meet him at the fort, for the purpose of en- 
deavouring to adjust their difficulties. 

On Wednesday, the twelfth of June, after 
much talking, as is customary at Indian councils, 
the two tribes agreed as they had freipiently done 
before, to be friendly, and Governor Ramsey 
presentuig to each party an ox. the council was 

On Thursday, the Ojibways visited St. Paul 
for the lirst time, yoimg Hole-in-the-Day being 
diessed in a coat of a captain of United States 
infantry, which had been presented to him at the 
fort. On Friday, they left in the steamer tiov- 
ernor Ramsey, which had been built at St. An- 
thony, and just commenced running between 



that iMiiiit and Sauk Rapids, for their homes in 
the vi ilderness of the Upper Mississippi. 

The summer of ISoO was the commencement 
of tlie navigation of tlie Minnesota River by 
sleamlioats. AVith the exception of a steamer 
llial made a pleasme excursion as far as Slioljpay, 
in 1841, no large vessels had ever disturljed the 
waters of this stream. In June, the "j\jithony 
AVayne," which a few weeks before had ascended 
to tlie Falls of St. Anthony, made a trip. On 
llie eighteenth of July she made a second trip, 
going almost to Mahkahlo. The " Nominee " 
also na%igated the stream for some distance. 

On the twenty-second of July the ollicers of 
the " Yankee." taking advantage of tlie liigh 
water, determined to navigate the stream as far 
as possible. The boat ascended to near the Cot- 
tonwood river. 

As the time for the general election in Septem- 
ber approached, considerable excitement was 
manifested. As there were no political issues 
before the people, parties were formed based on 
personal preferences. Among tliose nominated 
for delegate to ('migress, by various meetings. 
were II. 11. Sible> , tlie former delegate to Con- 
gress, David Olmsted, at that time engaged in 
the Indian trade, and A. M. Mitchell, the United 
States marshal. Mr. Olmsted witlidrew liis 
name before election day, and tlie contest was 
between those interested in Sibley and Mitchell. 
The friends of each betrayed the greatest zeal, 
and neither pains nor money were spared to in- 
sure success, lilr. Sibley was elected by a small 
majority. For the first time in the territory, 
soldiers at the garrisons voted at this election. 
and tliere was considerable lUscussion as to the 
propriety of such a course. 

Iiliss Fredrika Bremer, the well known Swedish 
novelist, visited Minnesota in the month of 
October, and was the guest of Governor Ramsey. 

During November, the Dalikotah Tawaxitku 
Kin, or the Dalikotah Friend, a monthly paper. 
was commenced, one-half in the Dabkolali and 
one-half in the English language. Its editor was 
the Rev. Gideon II. Pond, a Presbyterian mis- 
sionary, and its place of publication at Saint Paul. 
It was iiublished for nearly two years, and, tliougli 
it failed to attract the attention of the Indian 
mind, it conveyed to tlie English reader much 

correct information in relation to tlie liabits. the 
belief, and superstitions, of tlie Dahkolalis. 

On the tenth of December, a new paper, owned 
and edited by Daniel A. Robertson, late I'nited 
States marshal, of Ohio, and called the J^linne- 
sota Democrat, made its appearance. 

Dnruig the summer there had been changes in 
the editorial supervision of the " Chronicle and 
Register." For a brief period it wiis edited by 
L. A. Babcock, Esq., who was succeeded by W. 
G. Le Due. 

About the time of the issuing of tlie Demo- 
crat, C. J. Ilenniss, formerly reporter for the 
United States Gazette, Philadelpliia, became the 
editor of the Clironicle. 

The fust proclamation for a tliaiiksgiviug day 
was issued in 1850 by the governor, and the 
twenty-sixth of December was the time appointed 
and it was generally observed. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1851. 

On Wednesday, January first, 1851, the second 
Legislative Assembly assembled in a three-slory 
brick building, since destroyed by fire, that stood 
on St. Anthony street, between Washuiglon and 
Franklin. D. B. Loomis was chosen Speaker of 
the Council, and M. E. Ames Speaker of the 
House. This assembly was characterized by 
more bitterness of feeling than any that has 
since convened. The preceding delegate election 
had been based on personal preferences, and 
cliques and factions manifested tliemselves at an 
early period of the session. 

The loi-atmg of the penitentiary at Stillwater, 
and the capitol building at St. Paul gave some 
dissatisfaction. By tlie efforts of J. W. North, 
Esq., a bill creating the University of Minnesota 
at or near tlie Falls of St. Anthony, was passed, 
and signed by the Governor. This institution, 
by the State Constitution, is now the State Uni- 

During the session of this Legislature, the pub- 
lication of the -' Chronicle and Register"" ceased. 

,\biiiit llie middle of May. a war party of Dah- 
kotahs discovered near Swan River, an Ojibway 
with a keg of whisky. The latter escaped, with 
the loss of his keg. Tlie war party, drinking the 
contents, became intoxicated, and, firing upon 
some teamrters they met driving their wagons 
with goods to the Indian Agency, killed one of 



them, Andrew Swartz, a resident of SI. Paul. 
The news was conveyed to Fort Kipley, and a 
party of soldiers, with lIole-in-the-L)ay as a Ruide, 
started in pursuit of the murderers, 1ml did not 
succeed in capturing them. Through the inllu- 
ence of Little Six the Dalikotah cliief, whose vil- 
lage was at (and named after him) 8h<)k- 
pay, live of tlie ollieiiders were arrested and 
pliwed in the guard-house at Fort Snelling. On 
Monday. June ninth, they left the fort in a wagon, 
guarded liy twenty-live dragoons, destinecl for 
Sauk Hapids for trial. As they departed they all 
sang tlieir death song, and the coarse soldiers 
amused themselves by making signs that they 
were going to be hung. On the lirsl evening of 
the journey the live culprits encamped witli the 
twent\-live dragoons. Handcuffed, they were 
placed in tlie tent, and yet at niidniiilit they all 
escaped, only one being wcuuuled by llie guard. 
Wliat was more remarkable, the woimded man 
was the fii-st to bring the news to St. Paul. Pro- 
ceeding to Kaposia. his woiuid was examined by 
the missionary and physician, Dr. "Williamson ; 
and then, feaiing an arrest, he took a canoe and 
paddled up the Minnesota. The excuse offered 
by the dragoons was, that all the guard but one 
fell asleep. 

Tlie first paper published in Minnesota, beyond 
the capital, was the St. Anthony Express, which 
made its appearance during the last week of 
April or May. 

The most important event of the year li^;")! 
was the treaty with the l)ahkotahs,by w'liichthe 
west side of the Mississippi and the valley of the 
Minnesota Kiver were opened to the hardy immi- 
grant. The connnissioners on the part of the 
United States were Luke Lea. Conmussioner of 
Indian Affairs, and (iovernor llam.sey. TIkj 
place of meeting for the upper bauds was Trav- 
erse des Sioux. The commission arrived there 
on the last of June, but were obliged to wait 
many days for the assembling of the various bands 
of Dahkotahs. 

On the eighteenth of .Tuly, all those expected 
having arrived, the Sissetoans and '\\'ahpaytoan 
Dahkotalis assembled in grand council \\\\\\ the 
United States commissioners. After the usual 
feastings and speeches, a treaty was concluded 
on Wednesday, July twenty-third. The pipe 
having been smoked by the commissioners, Lea 

and llamsey, it was passed to the chiefs. The 
paper containing the treaty was then read in 
English and translated into the Bahkotali by the 
Kev. S. 11. Riggs, Presbyterian Missioiuiry among 
this people. This finished, the chiefs came up 
to the secretary's table and touched the pen; the 
white men present then witnessed the docr.ment, 
and iiotliing renained but the ratilication of the 
United States Senate to oiien that vast country 
for the residence of the hardy immigrant. 

During'the week in August, a treaty was 
also concluded beneath au oak bower, on Pilot 
Knob, Mendota, with the M'dewakantonwan and 
M'ahpaykootay bands of IJahkotahs. About sbcty 
of the chiefs and principal men touched the pen, 
and Little Crow, who had been in the mission- 
school at Lac qui Parle, signed his own name. 
Before they separated. Colonel Lea and (Jovernor 
Kamsey gave them a few words of advice on 
various subjet'ts coimected with their futiu'e well- 
being, but particidarly on the subject of educa- 
tion and temperance. The treaty was interpret- 
ed to them by the Rev. G. II. Pond, a gentleman 
who was conceded to be a most correct speaker 
of the Dahkotah tongue. 

The day after the treaty these lower bands 
received thirty thousand dollars, which, by the 
treaty of 1837, was set apart for education ; but, 
by the misrepresentations of interested half- 
breeds, the Indians were made to believe that 
it ought to be given to them to be employed as 
they pleased. 

The next week, mth their sacks filled with 
money, they thronged the streets of St. Paul, 
pmchasing whatever pleased their fancy. 

On the seventeenth of September, a new jiaper 
was commenced in St, Paul, under the auspices 
of the " AVliigs,"' and John ]'. Owens became 
editor, which relation he sustained until the fall 
of 18.57. 

The election for members of the legislature 
and county otlicers occurred on the fourteenth of 
October ; and, for the first time, a regular Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed before the people. The 
parties called themselves Democratic and Anti- 
organizatio;!, or Coalition. 

In the month of Xovember Jerome Fuller ar- 
rived, and took the place of Judge tioodrich as 
Chief Justice of Muuiesota, who was removed ; 
and, about the same time, Alexander Wilkin was 



appointed secretary of the terriU)iy in place of 
C. K. Smith. 

Tlie eigliteeiitli of December, pursuant to 
proclamation, was observed as a day of Thanks- 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1852. 

Tlie third Legislative AssemV)lycnmme!ici'il its 
sessions in one of the edifices on Tliiid licluw 
Jackson sti'eet, which became a portion of tlie 
Alercliants' Ilotel, on the seventh of January, 

This session, compared with the previous, 
formed a contrast as great as that between a 
boisterous day in March and a cahn June morn- 
ing. Tlie minds of the population were more 
deeply interested in the j-atificalion of the treaties 
made with the Dahkotahs, than in pohtical dis- 
cussions. Among other legislation of interest 
was the creation of Hennepin county. 

On Saturihiy, the fourteenth of Felmiary, a 
dog-train arrived at St. I'aul fj-dm tlie north, 
with the distinguished Arctic explorer, Dr. Rae. 
He had been in search of the long-missing Sir 
John Franklin, by way of the ]\Iaekenzie river, 
and was now on his way to Europe. 

On the fourteenth of Jlay, an interesting lusus 
naturae occurred at Stillwater. On the prairies, 
beyond the elevated bluffs which encircle the 
business portion of the town, there is a lake which 
discharges its waters through a ravine, and sup- 
pUed McKusick's mill. Owing to heavy rains, 
the hills became saturated with water, and the 
lake very full. Before daylight the citizens heard 
the " voice of mai»y waters," and looking out, saw 
rushing down through the ravine, trees, gravel 
and diluvium. Kotliing impeded its course, and 
as it issued from the ravine it spread over the 
town site, covering up barns and small tenements, 
and, continuing to the lake shore, it materially 
improved the landing, by a deposit of many tons 
of earth. One of the editors of the day, alluduig 
to the fact, quaintly remarked, that "it was a 
very extraordinary movement of real estate." 

During the summer, EUjah Terry, a young 
man who had left St. Faul the previous ^Marcli. 
and went to Pembina, to act as teacher to the 
mixed bloods in that vicinity, was murdered un- 
der distressmg circumstances. "With a bois brule 
he had started to the woods on the monung of 

his death, to hew timber. While tliere he was 
fired upon by a small parly of Dahkntahs ; a ball 
broke liis arm, and he was pierced with arrows. 
His scalp was wrenched from his head, and was 
afterwards seen among Sisseton Dahkotahs, near 
Big Stone Lake. 

About the last of August, tlic pioneer editor 
of ..Minnesota, James M. (ioodhue. died. 

At the .November Term of the I'liiteil Slates 
District Court, of Bamsey county, a Dahkotah, 
named Yu-ha-zee, was tried fur the murder of a 
German woman. ^N'itli others she was tiavel- 
ing above Slioki>ay, when a jiarty of Indians, of 
whom the jirisoner was one, met them; and, 
gathering about the wagon, were much excited. 
The prisoner pimched the woman fiist with his 
gun, and. being threatened by one of the party, 
loaded and fired, killing the wom;m and woimd- 
iiig one of the men. 

On tlie day of his trial he was escorted from 
Fort Snelling by a company of mounted dragoons 
in full dress. It was an impressive scene to 
witness the poor Indian half hid in his blanket, 
in a buggy with tlie civil officer, surrounded with 
all the pomp and circumstance of war. The jury 
found him guilty. On being asked if he had 
anything to say why sentence of death should 
not be passed, he replied, tlirough the interpreter, 
that the band to which he belonged would remit 
their amiiuties if he coidd be released. To this 
Judge Ilayner, the successor of Judge Fuller, 
replied, that he had no authority to release 
him ; and, ordering him to rise, after some 
appropriate and impressive remaiks, he pro- 
nounced the first sentence of death ever pro- 
nounced by a judicial officer in Minnesota. The 
prisoner treml)led while the judge spoke, and 
was a piteous spectacle. By the statute of Min- 
nesota, then, one convicted of miu'der could not 
be executed until twelve nmnths hail claiised, and 
he was confined until tlie governor of the ter- 
orrity should by warrant order his execution. 

KVENTS OF A. D. 1S53. 

The fourth Legislative Assembly convened on 
the fifth of January. IS.jS, in the two story brick 
edifice at the corner of Third and Jlinuesota 
streets. The Council chose Martin JMcLeod as 
presiding oflicer, and the House Dr. David Day, 



Speaker. Governor Ramsey's message was an 
inturestiug document. 

The Baldwin school, now known as Macalester 
College, was incorporated at this session of the 
legislature, and was opened the following June. 

On the ninth of April, a party of Ojibways 
killed a Dahkotali. at the village of Shokpay. A 
war party, frimi Kaposia, then proceeded up the 
valley of the St. Croix, and killed an Ojibway. 
On the morning of the twenty-.seventh, a band 
of Ojibway warriors, naked, decked, and fiercely 
gesticulating, might have been seen in the busiest 
street of the capital, in search of tlieir enemies, 
.lust at that time a small party of women, and 
one man, who had lost a leg in the battle of Still- 
water, arrived in a canoe from Kaposia, at the 
.Jackson street landing. Perceiving the Ojib- 
ways, they retreated to the building then known 
as the " Pioneer " oftice, and the Ojibways dis- 
charging a volley through the windows, wounded 
a Dahkotali woman who soon died. For a short 
time, the infant capital presented a sight 
similar to that witnessed in ancient days in 
Ilailley or iJeerlield. the then frontier towns of 
Massachusetts. Messengers were despatched to 
Fort Snelling for the dragoons, and a party of 
citizens mounted on horseback, were quickl\ in 
pin-sint of those who with so much boldness had 
.sought the streets of St. Paul, as a place to 
avenge their wrongs. The dragoons soon fol- 
lowed, with iTidian guides scenting the track of 
the Ojibways, like bloodhounds. The next day 
they discovered the transgressors, near the Falls 
of St. Croix. The Ojibways manifesting what 
was supposed to be an insolent spirit, the order 
was given by the lieutenant in command, to lire, 
and lie whose scalp \vas afterwards dagiieiieo 

typed, and which was engraved for Graham's 
Magazine, wallowed in gore. 

During the summer, the passenger, as lie stood 
on the hurricane deck of any of the steamboats, 
might have seen, on a scaffold on the blulTs in 
the rear of Kaposia, a square box covered with a 
coarsely fringed red cloth. Above it wa.s sus- 
pended a piece of the Ojibway's scalp, whose 
death had caused the affray in the streets of St. 
Paul. Within, was the body of the woman who 
had been shot in the "Pioneer "building, while 
seeking refuge. A scal]> suspended over the 
corpse is supposed to be a consolation to the soul, 
and a great protection m the journey to the spirit 

On the accession of Pierce to the presidency of 
the United States, the officers appointed under 
the Taylor and Fillmore administrations were 
removed, and the following gentlemen substitu- 
ted : (iovernor, W. A. Gorman, of Indiana ; Sec- 
retary. J. T. Rosser, of Miginia; Chief Justice, 
\V. II. Welch, of Minnesota; Associates, Moses 
Sherburne, of Maine, and A. G. Cliatlield, of 
Wisconsin. One of the first official acts of the 
second Governor, was the making of a treaty 
with the Wimiebago Indians at Watali. llenton 
<'iiunty, for an exchange of coiuitry. 

On the twenty-ninth of June, D. A. Robertson, 
who by his enthusiasm and earnest advocacy of 
its principles had done much to organize the 
Democratic paity of Miiuiesota. retired from the 
editorial chair and was succeeded by David Olm- 

At the election held in October, TTeiiry JI. 
Rice and Alexander Wilkin were can(li<lates 
for deligate to t'ongress. The former was elect- 
ed by a decisive majority. 





Fifth Le^slature— Execution of Vuhazee — Sixth Legislaturo— First bridge ovt-r the 
Mi!^issip[>i— Arctic Explurer — Seventh Le^shlture — lodian girl killed near 
Kloomin^on Kerry — Eighth l<etnslature — Attempt to Remove the Capita] — 
Special Session of the LeinsUturo — Convention to frame a State Constitution- 
Admission of Minnesota to the Union. 

The fifth session of the lesrislatiire was com- 
menced ill the building just compleled as the 
Capitol, on January fourth, 1854. Tlie President 
of the Council was S. B. Olmstead, and the Speak- 
er of the House of Representatives was N. C. D. 

Governor Gorman delivered Ms first annual 
message on the tenth, and as his predecessor, 
irrged the importance of railway communicatioiis, 
and dwelt upon the necessity of fostering the in- 
terests of education, and of the lumbermen. 

The exciting bill of the .session was the act in- 
corporating the ^Minnesota and Northwestern 
Railroad Company, introduced by Joseph P.. 
Brown. It was passed after the hour of midnight 
on the last day of the session. Contrary to the 
expectation of his friends, the Governor signed 
the bill. 

On the afternoon of December twenty-seventh, 
the first public execution in Jlinnesota. in accord- 
ance with the forms of law, took jilace. Yu-lia- 
zee, the Dahkotah who had been convicted in 
November, 1852, for the mm'der of a Gei-man 
woman, above Shokpay, was the individual. 
The scaffold was erected on the open space be- 
tween an inn called the Franklin House and the 
rear of the late Mr. J. W. Selby's enclosiiie 
in St. Paul. About two o'clock, the prisoner, 
dressed in a white shroud, left the old log pris- 
on, near the court house, and entered a carriage 
with the officers of the law. Being assisted up 
the steps that led to the scaffold, he made a few 
remarks in his own language, and was then exe- 
cuted. Numerous ladies sent in a petition to 
the governor, asking the pardon of the Indian, 
to which that officer in declining made an appro- 
priate reply. 

e\t;nts of a. d. 1855. 

The sixth session of the legislature convened 
on the third of January, 1855. W. V. Murray 
was elected President of the Council, and James 
S. Norris Speaker of the House. 

About the last of January, the two houses ad- 
journed one day, to attend the exercises occa- 
sioned by the opening of tlie first bridge of 
any kind, over the mighty Mississippi, from 
Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. It was at 
Falls of Saint Anthony, and made fif wire, and 
at the time of its openhig, the patent for tlie 
land on which the west piers were built, had not 
been issued from the Land Oflice, a striking evi- 
dence of the rapidity with which the city of 
iliuneaiidlis, which now surrounds the Falls, has 

On the twenty-ninth of March, a convention 
was held at Saint Anthony, which led to the 
formation of the Republican party of Minnesota. 
This body took measures for the holding of a 
territorial convention at St. Paul, which con- 
vened on the twenty-fifth of July, and AVilliam 
R. Marshall was nominated as delegate to Con- 
gress. Shortly after the friends of Mr. Sibley 
nominated David Olmsted and Henry M. Rice, 
tlie former delegate was also a candidate. The 
contest was animated, and residted in the elec- 
tion of .\Ir. Rice. 

Abiiut noon of December twelfth, 1855, a fonr- 
horse vehicle was seen driving rapidly through 
St. Paul, anil deep was the uiterest when it was 
announced that one of the Arctic exploring party, 
Mr. James Stewart, was on his way to Canada 
with reUcs of the world - renovinied and wmld- 
mounied Sir .John FraukUu. Gathering together 
the precious fragments found on Monti-eal Island 
and vicinity, the party had left the region of ice- 
bergs on the ninth of August, and after a con- 
tinued land journey from that time, had reached 



Saint I'aul on that day, en route to the Uiidson 
Bay Company's quarters in Canada. 

EVKXTS OF A. D. 1S.5(). 

The seventh session nf the Legislative Assem- 
bly was befC'n "ii llic second of January. ISod, 
and again the exciting question was llio .Minne- 
sota and Northwestern Itailroad Company. 

John B. Brisbin was elected President of llie 
Council, and Charles Gardner, Speaker of the 

This year was comparatively devoid of interest. 
The citizens of 11 le territory were busily engaged 
in making claims in newly organized ctmnties, 
and in enlarging the area of civilization. 

On the twelfth of June, several Ojibways 
entered the farm house of ilr. 'Wliallon, who ri'- 
sided in Heiuiepin county, on the banks of the 
Minnesota, a mile below the Bloomington ferry. 
The wife of the farmer, a friend, and three child- 
ren, besides a little Dahkotah girl, who had been 
])ronght up in the mission-liouse at Kaposia, and 
so changed in mamiers that her origin was 
scarcely perceptible, were sitting in the room 
when the Indians came in. Instantly seizing 
the little Indian maiden, they threw her out of 
the door, killed and scalped her, and fled before 
the men who were near by, in tlie field, could 
reach the house. 

EVENTS OK A. D. lSo7. 

Tlie procurement of a state organization, and 
agi-antof lands for railroad pni-jjoses, were tlie 
topics of political interest dm-iug the ye:ir IS.'j". 

The eighth Legislative Assembly convened at 
the capitol on the seventh of January, and J. 1!. 
Brisbin was elected President of the Council, and 
J. AV. Furber, Speaker of the House. 

A bill changing tlie seat of government to 
Saint Peter, on the ^Minnesota Uiver, caused 
much discussion. 

On Saturday, Felirnary twenty -eighth, JMr. 
Balconibe offered a resolution to report the bill 
for the removal of the seat of govenunent. and 
should ilr. lloletle, chairman of the committee, 
fail, that "\V. "\V. "\\'ales, of said committee, report 
a copy of .said bill. 

Mr. Setzer, after the reading of the resolution. 
moved a call of the Council, and Mr. Bolette was 
found to be absent. The chair ordered the sei-- 
geant at amis to report Mr Rolette in his seat. 

Mr. Balcombe moved that finlher proceedings 
inider the call be di'^pensed with; which did not 
prevail. From that time until the ne.xt Thnr.silay 
afternoon. March the iiftli, a period of one hini- 
dred and twenty-three hours, the Council re- 
mained in their chamber without recess. At that 
time a motion to adjourn prevailed. On Friday 
another motion was made to dispense with the 
call of tlie Council, wliicli did not prevail. On 
Saturday, the Comu-il met, theiiresidentdeclareil 
the call still pending. At seven and a half p. ni.. 
a committee of the House was announced. The 
chair ruled, that no communication from the 
House could be received while a call of the Coun- 
cil was pending, and the committee withdrew. 
A motion was agaui made during the last night 
of the session, to dispense with all further pro- 
ceedings under the call, which iirevailed, with 
one vote oiily in the negative. 

Mr. Ludden then moved that a committee be 
appointed to wait on the (iovernor. and inquire if 
he had any further conuniinicalion to make to 
the Council. 

Mr. Lowry moved a call of the Council, which 
was ordered, and the roll being called, Messi-s. 
l?olctte, Thompson and Tillotson were absent. 

At twelve o'clock at luglit the president re- 
sumed the chair, and announced that the time 
limited by law for the continuation of the sessicm 
of the territorial legislature had expired, and he 
therefore declared the Council adjourned and tlie 
seat of government remained at Saint I'aul. 

The excitement on the capital question was in- 
tense, and it was a strange scene to see members 
of the Council, eatuig and sleeping in the hall of 
legislation for days, waiting for the sergeant-al- 
aiins to report an absent membei- in his seat. 

On tlie twenty-third of I'eliruary, 18")7, an act 
liassed the United States Senate, to authorize 
the people of Minnesota to form a constitution, 
preparatory to their admission into the Union 
on an equal footing with the original .states. 

Governor (iorman called a special session 
of the legislature, to take into consideration 
measures that would give etliciency to the act. 
The extra session convened on ^Vjiril twenly- 
seventli. and a UH'ssage was transmitted by Sam- 
uel .Medary, who had been ai)|iointeil governor 
in place of W. A. (oirnian, whose term of oltK^e 



li:ul expired. Tlie extra session adjourned on 
the twenty-tliird of May ; and in accordance 
Willi tlie provisions of the enabling act of Con- 
gress, an election was held on the first Moiiilay 
ill June, for delegates to a convention which was 
to assemble at tlie capittil on the second ^Monday 
in Jnly. The election ivsulted, as was thought. 
ill giving a majority of delegates to the Kepiibli- 
can party. 

At midnight i)revions to the day fixed for the 
meeting of the coiivenlioii, th(! Kepiiblicans pro- 
ceeded to the Capitol, because the enabling act 
had not fixed at what liour on the second Mon- 
day the convenlioii should assemble, and fear- 
ing that the Democratic delegates uiighL antici- 
pate them, and elect the oOicers of the body. 
A little before twelve, A. m., on Mon<Iay, llie 
secretary of the territory entered the siicaker"s 
rostrum, and began to call the body to (U'dcr: 
and at tlie same time a delegate. .T. W. Xnitli. 
who had in liis possession a written re(|iiest from 
the majority of the delegates present, proceeded 
to do the same thing. The secretary of tlie ter- 
ritory put a motion to adjourn, and tlie Demo- 
cratic members present voting in the allii'mative, 
they left the hall. The I{epiililic;iiis. feeling tlial 
they were in tlie majority, remaiued. and in due 
time organized, and proceedeil with tlic Imsiuess 
specified in the enabling act, to form a constitu- 
tion, and. take all necessary steps for the estali- 
lishment of a state government, in cont'orniity 
with the Federal ('onstitutii>ii, sulijecl to tlic 
approval and ratification of tlie people of tlic 
proposed state. 

After several da.\sfhc DciiKicralic wing also 
organized in tlic Senate cliainlirr at th(^ capitol, 
and, claiming to be the true body, also proceeded 
to form a constitutimi. ]ioth jiarties were re- 
mai-kably orderly and intelligcut. and eveiythiiig 
was marked by perfect de<-i>riiiii. After they li;id 
been iu session some weeks, moderate counsels 

prevailed, and a committee of conference was 
appointed from each body, which resulted in 
liotli adopting" the constitution framed by the 
Democratic wing, on the twenty-ninth of Aug- 
gnst. According to the provision of the consti- 
tution, an election was held for state othcers 
and the adoption of the con.stitntion, on the 
second Tuesday, the thirteenth of October. The 
constitution was adopted by almost a unanimous 
vote. Tt provided that the territorial officers 
sliould retain their ollic(>s until the state was ad- 
mitted into the Union, not aiiticii>atiiig tlie 
long delay which was experienced. 

'i'lie first session of the state legislature com- 
menced on the first Wednesday of December, at 
the capitol, in the city of Saint I'aul ; and during 
the niitiith elected Henry M. Hice and James 
Shields as their Represeutati\cs in the I'uited 
States Senate. 

EVENTS riF A. 1>. 1S.")S. 

On the Iwenty-iihitli of .laiiiiary, ls.")S, ^Mr. 
Douglas submitted a bill to the I'niteil States 
Senate, for the admission of .Minnesota into the 
I'nion. On the first of February, a discussion 
arose on the bill, in which Senators Douglas, 
Wilson, (iwiu. Hale. Mason, (tieeu. Rrown, and 
Critteuilen participateil. ]h-owii, of Mississippi, 
was opposed to the admission of Minnesota, un- 
til the Kansas (|iiestion was settled, ^fr. Crit- 
tenclen. as a Soutlicni iiiaii. could not endorse ;.ll 
that was said liy the Senator from Mississipj i ; 
and his words of wisdom and moderation duriig 
this day's discussion, wcit! worthy of reine n- 
brance. Oil April the seventh, the bill jiassed 
the Senate with only three (tissentiilg votes; and 
in a .short time the House of Representatives 
concurred, and on .May the eleventh, the Presi- 
dent approved, and Minnesota was fully rec- 
ognized as one of the t'liiteil States of America. 

o r 'r 1. 1 XES 





Admission of th« Stat«.— II9 want of Rosourw^s,— The HnrJ Times.— Commence- 
ment of Railmail RtiililinK.— The Slate Railrowl Bonds Discreilited, — " Wild- 
tat" Banking Scheme.— Ttie Wriclit Cui.nty War.- Failure i.f the SUte Loan 
Seheme." Atlem|>tetl A<ljiistnient of tlie Dilemma. — Purlial return of (io*nl 
Times. — The Political Campaign of 1800, — Secession Movement. — Proslieet of 
War, &€., Ac. 

On Miiy 11 111, is.J.s, Uie ;ict of Coiii^rcss ailiiiit- 
ting Minnesota U> the Unimi, becaine ii law . iind 
our State took licr jilace anmiij; the sislcihooil of 
re|)ul)lics, the Ihirty-scpdiiil in the onler of admis- 
sion, and hatl thenceforth a xoice in the national 
councils. On the 24tli of May, the State ollieers 
elect were quietly sworn in, in the Executive 
Rooms in the Cai>itol, ami the machinery of the 
State government was put in motion. The out- 
look for the little commonwealth at this time, 
was far from iiroiiitimis. The terrible liiiaiicial 
revulsion of the iufvious year had iiroslniteil ;ill 
business, destroyed values, undermincil conii- 
dence, dei)resseil the cnerKies ami aniliilion of 
the iie(i]ile. and ;ihiiost entirely checkeil ininiit;ra- 
tioii. 'rhfic w;is hut limited agriculture (a large 
portion of the liread-stufTs used being imported), 
little ai-cuiMidalcd weiillh. ami thiit mostly based 
on real estate, now luisaleable. money coiiiiiiaml- 
illg two Jier ceul. ;i inoulh; no estiilihslii'd iiiilus- 
tries or nianulailuics. not a niili-of liiibdiid. no 
sound banks or curifiicy. no s\steiii for raising 
revenue, and not a cent of money in the State 
treasury. In fiict the State w;is consiilerably in 
debt. The loan of S:i.j(),0((() authorized by the 
Legislature the winter previous, was not yet real- 
ized on. Meantime, denominational treasury 

warnints. bcarnig iiilcrest, v.ere useil as currency, 
while town and county " scrip " were generally 
circulated among the people as money. It was 
under such gloomy circumstances as these, that 
the State began its career. 

.\n adjourned session of the Legislature was 
hflil in .Inly, but little or nothing could bedoiie 
for the relief tif the people from the lin;inci:il strin- 
gency or other troubles snrnium ling them. Souit^ 
relief was hoped for from the building of the 
liind grant railroads, which were generally got 
under way during the summer, but there was not 
as much money disbursed by the coni])aiiies or 
contractors, as had been anticipated. The direct- 
ors of the roads hurried their first ten mile sec- 
tions of grading to comiiletion as nipiilly as |)ossi- 
ble, and as soon as they were eutitleil to bonds, 
according to the terms of the coustitutiouiil 
amendment. a|)plied to (iov. Sibley foi' the same. 
He declined to issue them unless the roiids wnuld 
give the State first mortgaga bomls in etpial 
amounts, giving it a priority of lien. This the 
land grant companies refused to accede to. and 
aiiplied to the Supreme Court of the State, for a 
writ of niamlamus. tocomiM'l (iov. Sibley to issue 
the bomls. as (hMiiiimlcil by them. The writ was 
issueil on Xoveiiiber liitli.and left the Kxecutive 
no alternative in the premises, so llu' bonds were 
issued. Kfforts were at once made to negotiate 
them in the New York market. 

The harvest this year, although a greatly in- 
creased area was sown, was almost a failure, and 




bread-stirffs were still largely imported. Every- 
body was in the most desperate straits financially 
A winter of gloom and depression set in, such as 
has never been experienced in the history of tlie 
Korthwest, and, it is scarcely probable, ever will 
be again. The price of labor, for such as could 
get employment at aU, touched an unprecedentedly 
low figure, though, fortunately, the cost of living 
had declined in the same ratio. Meantime, the ne- 
gotiation of the bonds in New York, proceeded 
very slowly. Capitalists were very unwilling to 
invest in them, as already some journals in the 
State had predicted the failure and break-down 
of the whole sclieme, added to pretty clearly ex- 
pressed threats that the bonds would be repudi- 
ated. Anxious to save the credit of the State, 
and prevent a disastrous ending of the measure, 
Gov. Sibley went to New York in person, about 
the close of the year (1858) and gave his best en- 
deavois to aid the pending negotiation of the 
bonds ; but the capitalists there, alarmed at the 
hostile tone of the newspapers in the State, finally 
refused to touch them at all. The only recourse 
now left for the holders of the bonds, and those 
interested in the railroad scheme, was to use 
them as a security for the issue of bank notes, 
under the recently enacted general banking law. 
Purported sales at ninety-five cents on the dollar 
having bBen certified to the Stale Auditor, he re- 
ceived a large number at this figure, and procured 
for the owners currency in like amount. Mean- 
time, work was progressuig on the four land grant 

No session of the legislature was held in the 
winter of 1858-'9. The stringency increased 
with each month. The newspapers of the state 
which survived, were crowded with mortgage 
foreclosure advertisements. Taxes were scarcely 
paid at all, and the warrants, or scrip, of both 
State and counties, depreciated, in some in- 
stances, to forty or fifty cents on the dollar. 
These were soon replaced by the issues of the 
new banks based on the state railroad bonds 
which now began to flood the state, until the 
names "Glencoe,"'-Owatonna," "La Crosse" and 
"La Crescent," etc., were familiar words. These 
issues were regarded with considerable distrust 
from the outset. Bankers in the state received 
them with much disrelish, and generally at a 
discount, while outside the state, they scarcely 

circulated at all. The Chicago papers, and some 
financial journals in New York, classed them as 
"wild-cat."' Their issue was puslied for a few 
weeks, however, until in the spring of 18.59 over 
§200,000 of the currency was in circulation. 
Tliere were, in atldition to these " railroad banks." 
several based on ilinnesota 8 per cents, which 
were actually worth par. 

Dirring the summer of 18o9 the reported discov- 
ery of gold on Frazer River, and otlier puiuts in 
British Xortli America, called the attention of tlie 
people of Minnesota to the importance of an over- 
land route to the Pacific, winch might ultimately 
lead the way fora northern railroad route. Meet- 
ings were held, and money was subscribed, to 
equij) a train to open a wagon road via the nortli- 
ern bend of the Missouri Eiver. Col. AVm. II. 
Xobles was placed in command of the expedi- 
tion, which left St. Paul on June 11, and pro- 
ceeded safely through. Another important step 
towards settling the regions beyond us. was the 
successful navigation of Ked River, by a steamer 
launched tins season. The Minnesota Stage Com- 
pany also established a line to the Red River. 

The ■• Wright county war," as it lias been fa- 
cetiously termed, occurred this STimmer. In tlie 
fall of 18.58, one II. A. Wallace was murdered in 
AVright county, and a neiglibor, named Oscar F. 
.fackson, \\'as tried for the offense in the spring 
of 1S50. and acquitted. On Ajuil 25, a crowd of 
men assembled, and hung Jackson to tlie gable 
end of Wallace's cabin. Gov. Sibley offered a re- 
ward for the conviction of any of tlie lynchei-s. 
Not long afterwards one Emery Moore was ar- 
rested on charge of binng concerned in the out- 
rage, and was taken to Wriglit Comity for trial, 
but was rescued by a mob. (iov. Sibley at once 
decided to take vigorous steps to maintain the 
majesty of the law. A military force was called 
out. and three companies dispatched (Aug. .5) to 
Monticello to aiTCst the rioters. The troops pro- 
ceeded to ]Monticello, reinforced the civil autlioi- 
ities, arrested eleven lynchers and rescuers, and 
turned tliem over to the civil authorities. Hav- 
ing vindicated tlie supremacy of law and order, 
the bloodless expedition retunicd. 

The financial condition liad meantime been 
gi-owiiig worse. Early in .June, the brokers of 
the state had combined to depreciate the," Glen 
coe money," iis the railroad currency was called, 



and as several sums which liad been presented at 
the banks for redemptinn, were not redeemed, 
they were protested, and the state a\ulitor was 
compelled to a<lv('rtise the scciirilies for Side. 
This caused a still further depreciation o^ th = 
money, until shortly it was scarcely current on 
any terms. Meantime all work on the land grant 
lines had been liually and comiiletely susix-nded, 
and S2,27o,(i00 of the state bonds had been issued. 
In October, it was stated that the bonds had been 
sold as low as ten cents on the dollar. The cou- 
pons due on ])('c'. 1, Is-W, were unpaid, and the 
companies holding the bonds declared in defaidt. 
The whole scheme had thus been brought to a 
complete failure, and was now practically aban- 
doned, while not a mile of road had been com- 

The hard times, and the failure of the real es- 
tate spriulalive era, had one good result, how- 
ever, which was, to turn increased attention to 
agriculture. A greatly enlarged area was sown, 
and the agricultural resources of the State began 
to be known as the true source of its wealth. 
For the lirst time,breadstulTs were exported, and 
immigration began again. 

The fall of this year witnessed a bitter )iolitical 
tight. Two years before, the parties had been 
pretty evenly divided. This campaign each one 
spent its full force and energy, and had nomina- 
ted for state ollicers their most popular men. 
The election took place on Oct. 11. Hon. Alex. 
Riimsey was chosen governor, by a vote of 21,335, 
over Hon. George L. Becker, who received 17,532. 
The Icfiislature which met on Dec. 7, was largely 

The most impdrtanl woik whii-h cunic before 
this session was some adjustment of tlie dilemma 
into which the state had fallen, through the adop- 
tion of the loan amenduicnl. Xearly the entire 
session was consumecl ill deliatiug various plans 
of extrication without much fruit. The loan 
ameudmeut was exiiunged. however. an<i a new 
amendment was framed for submission to the 
people, providing that there should be no further 
issue of bonu., to the companies; also, that no law 
levyini^ a tax to pay either principal or interest 
on thelKinds already issued, slioidd be of any force 
or effect, initil ratified by a popidar vote. These 
constitutional amendments were .adopted by a 
large majority of voles, in the fall of the same 

year. The governor was also directed to foreclose 
the deeds of trust given to secure interest on the 
bonds loaned, and bid off and purchase the prop- 
erty sold, in the tiame of the state. This was 
done, the following summer, and the stale again 
secured the forfeited rights, franchises and land 

The Federal census taken this year (1860), 
showed that the state had a population of 172,- 
123. The harvest was a good one, and business 
was considerably revived. Immigration was be- 
giiming to liecome brisk, and building in the 
towns and cities was perceptibly increasing, while 
the tilled area was receiving great additions. 
It seemed that the " hard times "' had about 
ceased, and the hope of prosperous days was be- 
ginning to enliven all. IJut this gleam of sun- 
shine was of short duration. The memora- 
ble presidential contest of that year, the first in 
which ^Minnesota had a voice, was a period of un- 
precedented heat and excitement. The electoral 
vote of Minnesota was cast for Abraham Lincoln 
by a very large majority, he receiving 22.009, 
IJouglas, 11,920, Breckenridge 748, and Bell (i2. 
It was not long before the disunion cloud arose 
in the slave states, and the mutterings of rebell- 
ion began to be heard. It was a period of iloubt 
and forebodings. The currency used generally in 
the state, being largely based on the bonds of 
seceding states, became greatly depreciated. All 
classes suffered much loss, business became de- 
pressed, real estate unsalable, and soon a condi- 
tion of distress ensued, almost equal to the dark- 
est days fif the panic, three years before. 

The legislature of 1801 considered the railroad 
(piestion at length, and passed acts designed to 
facilitate the construction of the land grant roads 
by turning over the forfeited franchises of the old 
companies to new organizations, believed to be 
able to complete them. The Lake Superior and 
Mississippi Railroad Company was also char- 

The secession movement progressed steadily 
during the winter, and it soon became apparent 
to all that war was inevitable. Lincoln was in- 
augin'ated, but his address promised only coer- 
cion, and coercion war. The feeble and unreal 
movements for compromise and conciliation all 
failed. Meantime business in this state was daily 
growing worse. Large numbers were out of em- 
ployment, and anticipating .still further disaster. 





The War Actually Begun.— Exfittmeul of the Pcriwl.— Minnesota Calleil on for 
One Regiment.— Recruiting Vigorously Begun.— The First Regiment Mus- 
lerrtl in for Three Years.— It is Ordered to W.xshnigton.— A Second Regiment 
calledforand Recrniteil.- The First Engaged at Bull Run.— Contributions for 
tlicReliefof the Sick and Wounded.— Progress of Railroad Building.— Third, 
Fourth, and Fifth Regiments Called For.— Battle of Mill Springs.— Railroad 
Legislation -Battle of Pittslnirg Ijinding. -A Sixth Regiment Authorized.— 
Currency Trouldes.-iCxpetlitions to Idaho.— First Railroad Completed.— Gal- 
lantry of Minnesota Troops in the South.— The Seven Days Fight.— Heavy 
Levies of .Men Called For.-The Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Regiments 

Saturday. April 18. ISfil. was a dark day in the 
annals of onr state. The telegraph lirtiuglit the 
unwelcome news of tlie attack on Fort Snmter, 
and it was seen tliat war was inevitable. The 
bulletin boards of the newspaper oHices were sur- 
rounded all day with an excited and anxious 
crowd, but courage and determination were every- 
where visible. The next day was the Sabbath, 
britiht and balmy. The churches had liut meagre 
aiuliences that day. All day knots of angry 
and excited men gatliered on the streets, con- 
versing on the startling events of the time. 

Ou Monday, the proclamation of President 
Lincoln was received, calling for 7o,()fl0 volun- 
teers ftir three months" service, and assigning to 
Minnesota one regiment. Gov. Kamsey, A\ho was 
in Wasliington. had alreaily tendereil to the Pres- 
ident, in person, a like force. Lt. (iov. ])onnelly 
at once issued a proclamation calling on the citi- 
zens of Minnesota to enlist, and Adjt. (ien. 
Acker issued a general order giving the needed 
instructions. In all tlie principal towns and (dties 
of the state, public meetings wei'e at once held, 
and enlistment stations opened. A fervid pat- 
riotism pervaded all ranks. " The war" was tlie 
sole topic of conversation. Everything else, even 
business, to a large extent, was suspended for tlie 
time. Never, and in no other state, w.os a peo- 
ple so imbued with warlike zeal. In four or five 
days ten companies, in various localities, had 
been raised and accepted by Adjt. (ieneral San- 
born ((ien. Acker having resigned to recruit a 
company.) Fort Snelling having been designated 

by the war department as a school of instruc- 
tion, the companies were rendezvoused there, 
anil by the 2.jth were all in their tpiarters, and 
busily engaged in drilling. The regimental offi- 
cers were announced on the 2iith, and on that day. 
two weeks from the time when the president's 
call was received, the " Immortal First," over one 
thousand strong, was mustered into service, for 
three months, with Ex-(tov. (iorman as Colonel. 
Scarcely was this accomplished, when the War 
Department ileciiletl tliat it could only be received 
as a three years regiment, and it became neces- 
sary to at once renew the enlistments on that 
basis. After a few days delay, enough recruits 
were received, and mustered in, to fill a three 
years regiment, and it was accepted on that 
biasis. The 'War Department, contrary to the 
hopes of the men, at first ordered the companies 
to garrison the various posts in and near the state, 
relieving the re.gulars stationed there, and some 
detachments had already left for their posts, 
when the need of more troops for the A'irginia 
campaign became innninent, anil the order was 
ctjuntermanded and the First Regiment directed 
to proceed at once to Washington. Tlie compa- 
nies were tpiickly reassembled at Fort Snelling, 
and. nil .liuic 22d, left that post by boat, arriving 
in AVashingtonon .June2(ith. In the various cities 
through wliich the First passed, tlicy were re- 
ceived with patriotic dcinonstrations of resjiect, 
and it was noticed by tlie press as a remarkalile 
fact that a young commonwealth, unknown and 
almost without poimlatiou a dozen .\cais liefore, 
coidd now send to the defense of the riiion a reg- 
iment of such stalwart and brave soldiei's. 

Meantime, the war spirit which had been 
arojised in the State, was not content with send- 
ing one regiment. There were numbers, in fact 
several almost full companies, who had tried to 
get admission into the First, but were too late, 
and were anxious to go. Tliis fact being made 



known by Gov. Ramsey on May 3(1, to the Secre- 
tary of War, he at oni-e aiitliorized tlie raising of 
a second regiment, ami tlie recniiliiig for tlie 
same was i)r()ceedeil witli, with alacrity. The 
rcgiineiit was lillcd to the luiniiniini.aiKl niiistcrcd 
in on .Iiiiif :iiith, with tlic f,'allanl \'aii Cleve as 
Colonel, and iiiidezvoused at Tort Snelling, for 
the time iH'iiig, some of tlie companies, mean- 
time, gairisoniug the forts in and near .Minnesota. 

The First Regiment on readiing Washington, 
was, after a few days of canii) life at ^Vlexandria, 
pushed to the front, and took an active part witli 
Ileintzehnan's Division, in McDowell's campaign 
against ^lanassas. accinitling itself well. On 
July 21st, scarcely more than three weeks 
after its arrival in the lield, it took ])art in tlie 
memoralile haUk'of Hull Hun, m which disastrous 
engagement it lost 174 men, of whom 41 were 
killed. 107 wounded, and 23 taken prisoners. The 
gallantry of the men, and their line conduct in 
the heat of hattle, gaine^l tlie regiment as well as 
our State, great praise ; hut the sad news of the 
loss it suffered, lillcd our citizens willi gloom. 
The magnitude and solcnmily of the great strug- 
gle in which the nation had engaged, began to be 
realized, while the sympathy and benevolence of 
the citizens of the State, especially the ladies, 
was aroused by the wants of the wounded and 
sick soldiers in the hospitals, and a general move- 
ment made for such contributions of money and 
clothing and delicacies suitable for invalids. 
Nearly $2.oo(i in money alone, was promptly con- 
tributed, and scut to the Chaplain of the First. 
This was the commencement of a splendid stream 
of gifts towards the same olyect, which c(mtinued 
to How during the whole four years of the war, 
the Sanitary and Christian Commissions being 
soon after organized as a means of coUecthig and 
dist ributing relief. In no Slate, during the strug- 
gle for the I'nion, was found a more jiafriotic, 
liberal, actively generous people, than in .Minne- 

Not long after the battle of T.ull Kuii. the First 
Ucgimenl went into camp between I'dolesville 
and Edwards Ferry, Maryland, for winter quar- 
ters, remaining there several months. 

Wliile these events were occurring, the mate- 
rial progress of our Slate was receiving an im- 
puise. Capitalists from Ohio were induced, tmder 
the legislation of the last winter, to embark in the 

completion of the " Minnesota and Pacific Rail- 
road," froTii St. I'anl lo St. Anthony. This line 
had been partially graded lliree years before, and 
with lit lie labor was made ready for the super- 
structure. Ties and rails for several miles were 
I)rovided, and Iraciv-laying connn need. A loco- 
motive and cars arrived, and the first wheel 
tinned by a locomotive in this Slate, was on Sep- 
tember liUh. At this junctine, unfortunately, a 
disagreement sprang ui> between the contrac'tors 
and the oflicers of the road, and resLdted in a sus- 
pension of tlie work for several months. 

Business remained very much depressed all the 
season, a result, in pari, of the miserable cur- 
rency used in trade. 

Recruiting for the second regiment did not 
cease until September, by which time all tlie 
companies were filled to the ma.ximum, and the 
battalion was ready for service on southern fields. 
Jleantime a company of Sharp-Shooters had been 
recruited by Capt. I'eteler, and having been ac- 
cepted (Sept. 3d), left oil Oct. (ilh for Mrginia, 
where they were attached to IJenlan's U. S. 

Congress, at its special sessiim, commencing 
,Iuly 4th, had authorized the raising of 50(),()U() 
troops. Under this call Minnesota was called on 
for two more regiments, on Sei)t 17th. There 
were already some iiartially coniplclcd companii^s, 
and recruiting commenced vigorously in all parts 
of the state. Up to this time all the troops re- 
cruited had been for the infantry service, liut in 
order to give all who wished to enlist, their pref- 
erence for the different arms of seiTice, cavalry, 
an<l artillery organizations were commenced. 
Three companies of cavalry were authorized, and 
began to receive recruits, while a battery of light 
artillery was gotten under way. 

On Oct. 3d, Capl. N. .J. T. Dana, formerly of 
the regular army, was connnissioned as Colonel 
of the First, vice Gorman, wlio had been pro- 
moted to Ihigadier Geneial. 

On Oct. 14. the Second Keginienl left for Vir- 
ginia, but at Pittsburgh was ordered to J.,oni.s- 
\ illc, Ky., and soon after went into camp at Leb- 
anon Jimction, where they remained some 
weeks, guarding bridges. On Oct. 2i)th, the Third 
Regiment was announced as organized, an<l Hen- 
ry C. Lester appointed Colonel. i)n Xov. HUh the 
Third left for Kentucky, and were emploved hi 


orruxEs OF riiE Jiisn)Ry of mina'^hota. 

the same ser\-iee as the Second, near which they 
were encamped for some weeks. Tlie Fourth 
Kegiment was lilled nearly at the same time, and 
Adjt. (Jen. John J5. Sanborn apixunted Colonel. 
It was retained in tlie state, doing ganison duly, 
until spring. 

On Oct. 19tli the First Kegiment participated in 
the action at Edwards Ferry, suffering small 
loss, but making a noble record for gallantry. 

The state election occurred on Oct. 9th. I'arti- 
san politics were not much noticeable in this con- 
test. Alex. Hanisey was re-elected for governor. 
by a vote of 16,274 over E. O. Hamlin, who had 

The three cavalry companies, commanded re- 
spectively by Capts, Yon JSIinden, Brackett, and 
West, were ordered to Benton Barracks, ilo., in 
December, and incoi-porated into an Iowa troop 
called Curtis Horse, and subsequently Third Io\\a 

The Fii-st Battery Light AitiUery, Capt. Munch, 
also left for St. Louis Dec., and was soon 
after ordered to Pittsburgh Landing. During 
this month a Fifth Begiment was authorized, and 
considerable progress made in fdling it. 

On January 19th, 1862, occurred the memora- 
ble battle of Mill Springs, in which our Second 
Regiment won a national reputation. Early on 
that day, the enemy, under Gen. Zollieoffer, at- 
tacked the union forces. Col. ^'au Cleve says in 
his oiiicial rejioit; " After proceeduig about half 
a mile, we came upon the enemy, who were posted 
beliind a fence along the road, beyond which was 
an open field, broken by ravmes. The enemy, 
opening upon us a galling tire, fought desperate- 
ly, and a hand to hand light ensued which lasted 
about thiily minutes, * * * The enemy gave 
way. leaving a large number of their dead and 
wounded on the field. * * * ^Ve joined in 
the pursuit, which continued till near smiset, 
when we aixived withui a mile of their uitrench- 
nients. where we rested upon our arms diu'ing 
the night. * * * SLx hundred of oiu' regi- 
ment were in the engagement, twelve of whom 
were killed and thiity-three wounded." Gen. 
Zollieoffer himself was among the enemy slam. 
Private George G. Strong, of ('onii>any D, is 
thought to have killed Baillie Peyton, a jiroiui- 
nent rebel oflicer. 
The news of the victory at JSIill Springs, occiu'- 

iug, as it did. during a period of depression, was 
like a gleam of sunshine, and oiu- Second Regi- 
ment won bright laurels for their gallantry. For 
meritorious service in this engagement. Col. Van 
Cle\e was soon after promoted to Brigadier Gen- 

On Feb. 24th Capt. Alfred Sully was commis- 
sioned colonel of the First Regiment, vice 
Dana, promoted to Brigadier General. 

The legislature of 1862 had many important 
questions luider consideration, prominent among 
which were those measures providing for military 
necessities, and putting the state on a " war foot- 
ing.' The work of releasing the land grant rail- 
roails from the entanglements resulting from the 
old five-million loan, and bestowing the franchis- 
es on real capitalists, who would undertake to 
build in good faith, was another of the important 
measures of the session. The latter work was 
successfully accompU.shed in most cases. On the 
luie of the Itlinnesota & Pacific, between St. I';uil 
and St. Anthony, work was recommenced and 
pushed vigorously. 

On April fith the battle of Pittsburg Landing 
occurred. The only Minnesota troops engaged 
in this conflict was the First Battery, which was 
in the heat of the action at several points. Sev- 
eral cannoneers were woiuuled (Capt. Jliuich se- 
verely) two killed, and also a mmiber of horses. 
The battery did splendid service, and '• mowed 
the enemy down with cannister."' Capt. (form- 
erly adjutant general) Wm. II. Acker, of the 
Sixteenth Regulars, was killed during this en- 

On March 20tli, the Fifth Regiment was de- 
clared organized, and the field ollicers were com- 
missioned. Rudolph Borgesrode was appointed 
Colonel. The Second Sharpshooters, Captain 
Russell, which had been recruited during the 
winter, soon after left for ^Vashington, aniving 
there April 26th. On April 24th, the Fourth 
Regiment, and Second Battery of Light Artilleiy, 
Captain Ilotchkiss, left for Benton Barracks, and 
were soon pushed to the front in Mississippi. On 
May 13th, the Fifth Regiment also left for the 
same destination, excepting companies B, C, and 
D, who remained behind to garrison forts, and a 
few weeks subsequently took a conspicuous part 
in the Sioux war. 
On May 26th, the call for a sixth regiment was 



made and recruiting was commenced very act- 
ively, several skeleton companies, partially lilled 
for the Fifth Regiment, being already in the field. 

Congress, at its extra session, commencing July 
nil, IStil liad aulliorized the issue of "legal ten- 
der"' notes, which were by this date, in large cir- 
culation. The result of this was to greatly en- 
liven Imsincss and enhance prices. While govern- 
ment was expending in our state but a small 
fraction of the enormous sums it was paying out 
ill eastern States for materials of war, the results 
were unmistakably felt here. One effect was the 
gradual and almost complete withdrawal of coin, 
especially small coin from circulation. This oc- 
casioned great inconvenience in "making change,'' 
and various devices were used to overcome the 
trouble. Postage stamps came into general use for 
fractional sums, and soon became a decided nui- 
sance. Then many of the cities and towns, as well 
as business firms and banks, issued fractional 
"shiii-plasters"' as currency. The country was 
soon flooded with these, and it proved an intolera- 
ble nuisance. The issue of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, soon after, of "postage currency,'" some- 
what relieved the dearth of small change. A 
steady enhancement in the price of goods, labor, 
the cost of living, etc.. commenced, from this date, 
an uiflation which lasted for two or three years. 

The material development of the state pro- 
gressed during this period, notwithstanding the 
burdens ami waste of war, and the fact that over 
si.x thousand of our young men were withdrawn 
from productive industry. An increased area 
was sown. Immigration was becoming large, 
especially of Scandinavians. Further efforts were 
also made to open and extend our area of trade 
towards the nortliwest. The reported discovery 
of rich gold lields in the region now known as 
Idaho and Montana, led to the formation of a 
company of citizens to proceed thither overland. 
On May 14th, the expedition left St. Paul, and 
arrived safely at the diggings. Congress had, 
meautime, been appealed to for some protection 
to this emigration movement, and a small appro- 
priation was made for this purpose, and Captain 
.lames L. Fisk appointed to organize and com- 
mand any party that might wish to go over. An- 
other expedition was organized and equipped, 
leaving on June 16th, and made a successful 
journey to the gold fields. These expeditions 

did much towards preparing tlie way for the 
opening and settlement of the Xorthwest, and 
wei-e repeated in 1863 and 1864. 

Another important event was the comiiletion of 
the Minnesota and Pacific Railroad from St. 
P.aul to St. Anthony, which was opened for 
traffic on June 28 — the first Ime oi't'i'sited in our 
stale. From that dale on, railioad building was 
rapidly carried on, on several of the lines. 

While these encouraging events were in prog- 
ress in ourstfite, her brave troops, in Virginia and 
Mississippi, were contending against great odds. 
The Fourtli and Fifth Regiments and the Second 
Battery, whose departure for " Dixie" was noted 
a few lines back, had been pushed rapidly to the 
front, and, being a part of the "Army of the Mis- 
sissippi," were soon face to face with the enemy, 
in the gi-eat Corinth campaign. On May 28th 
the Fifth Regiment had a sharp action with the 
enemy, in which several were killed, and a num- 
ber wounded, and won much praise for gallantry. 
On July 12th, near Murfreesboro, Tenn., the 
Third Regiment was attacked by a greatly supe- 
rior force, and after a brave resistance, losing 
twelve men, its ammunition became exhausted, 
and it was compelled to surrender. The men 
were paroled a few weeks later. 

Meautime the First Regiment had taken an 
active part in a campaign of great danger and 
hardship. It had remained in its winter quar- 
ters, near Edwai'd's Ferry, until Marcli, wlien 
(attaclied to Sedgwick's Division) it proceeded to 
Winchester, from whence they were ordered to 
join tlie army of the Potomac near Fortress 
Monroe. In April they took part iu the siege of 
Yorklown. From thence they participated in 
McClellan's great Richmond campaign, and the 
■' seven days flglit." At Seven Pines, or Fair 
Oaks, on May 31st and June 1st; at Peach Orch- 
ard, "June 29th; Savage's Station, June 29th; 
Glendale and 'White Oak Swamp, June 30th; 
Nelson's Farm, June 30th; Malvern Hills, July 
1st, tlie brave First took an active part, and suf- 
fered severe-losses, with great hardship and con- 
tinual fighting. In all these engagements, it lost 
ninety men. At the Rattle of Fair Oaks, the 
Second Sharp-Shooters was united with the First 
Regimet, and continued with them during the 
rest of the campaign. 

The disastrous teriiiii.ation of the operations 



by McClellan. and t lie lieavy losses of the army, 
produced a feeling of great discouragement and 
doubt throughout the North. ( )ii .Inly 2, thei)res- 
ident called for 3(10.0(Hi more troops. Still this 
heavy draft wa.s met cheerfully, and in this State 
vigorous steps were taken to lill our quota. On 
July 24th. a rousing war meeting was held at the 
Capital. «hich lighted anew the tires of ])atriot- 
ism. roused the despondent, and infused new 
liopes into all. Eecruiting (•ommenced vigor- 
ously. Hut scarcely was the work un<ler way. 
when the call of August 4th. for 3(10.00(1 more 
troops, was issued. It now l)ecame evident that 
special exertions would V>e neected to fill our ([iio- 
fci by the 18th, at which time the Secretary of 
AVar had ordered a draft to be made, if not tilled. 
Public meetings were held at various places, and 
large siuns of money were subscribed by individ- 
uals, in addition to local bounties, to stimidate 
enlistments. Great excitement prevailed through- 
out the State for some days— fully equal to the 
patriotie war spirit following the fall of Sumpter, 
and business seemed to be almost suspended ; in 

fad. in many instances, actually was. as the en- 
tire employees of many establishments enlisted. 
To some extent, martial law was enforced in the 
State. The Adjidant (ieneral, in a ])ublislied 
proclamation, forbade citizens (males of military 
age) from leaving the State without a pass from 
him, nor were they allowed to go from one comity 
to another without a permit from the Sheriff. 
The Sixth Hcgiment. which was partially lilled 
when the call of July 2d was issued, was quickly 
filled and organized. A seventh regiment was 
authorized on August oth. On August loth the 
eighth was called for ; on August 13th, the ninth; 
and soon after even a tenth. Recruiting for the 
old regiments was also brisk. Four companies 
were received at Fort Snelling in one day. The 
Press of August 19th, says: •' On Sunday and 
yesterday, large bodies of men were continually 
pouring in." Over three tliousand men were 
then at the fort. The work of receiving, muster- 
ing in, clothing and equipping these troops, laid 
on the authorities a heavy task. 



ciiapteh XX A' I. 


The Sioux M.-imiirrr -The Events Which I*n>hiibly It-.l t" 11. -Dihcoiileiil i>f the 
IliiliMiis. -Tlie Wiinlers M Acloil,— foliHiieiiceiiiellt of tlic Cariiiicc at Krtl 
Wo«l.- Awful Scenes.— Narrow Kica|>e of Whites. -The Biiltle of Rwl Wood 
Ferry. - Fiemlish fruelties of the .Savn^es.— Tunic iinil Fliyht i>f Ihc i'eltlers. - 
Conilition of Affttini at Fort Iti.lKrly. -The Aliinn neiiches St. rcter.-Iiein- 
forcenients Set Oot Iroin There- Th ■ fimt Attuck on New Ulni.- The SnvaBCR 
Iteiiulsed.— They Bestejie Fort llidttely- But Fnil to Capture It— An»l Awain 
Full on New VIni. — Poi'crate Fiuhtine.— The Town Nearly Ilornwl Down — 
The Savaiie^ Withdraw. Unsuccessful.— The Town Evacuated.— End of 'he first 
" Wc«k ol Illood."— Its Results to the SUte. 

■\Vliilt' tliese exciting events were occui-ring, 
anil altiactiiig llie attention of our citizens, a 
fearful storm was gathering in an luie.xpected 
quarter, ami soon burst upon our state with ap- 
palling fury. The Sioux Indians, of wlicm sev- 
eral thousand were living on reservations in the 
western jiortions of Minnesota, had been for sev- 
eral weeks (i. e. since about June 14th) collected 
at the Yellow Medicine agency, to receive their 
annual iiaynient. This would have been made 
to them by the proper officer, at that time and 
place, promptly, had not the necessities of the 
government just at that juncture, prevented the 
prompt transmission of the ?7(l,()00 in gold coin, 
which was to i>ay the Indians their annuities. 
As soon as it could be got ready, it was sent, and 
hurried forward by special messengers, night and 
day. arriving just oiie day too late. Meantime 
the Indians were waiting impatiently for their 
money, anil lor tlie judvisions and other supplies 
which were to be given them when the payment 
was made. They were almost destitute of food, 
and some were really sutt'ering from hunger. In 
this discontented condition, they were ready to 
listen to bad counsel. Malicious parties had whis- 
pered to them that the war had destroyed most 
of the young men of the whites^ that only old 
men and boys were left; and if so disposed they 
could repossess themselves of the land; that they 
were to be cheated out of their money by the 
traders, whom they had before accused of de- 
frauding them; and other wrongs, real or fan- 
cied, were recited to inllame them. As was 
usual, a small detachment of troops had been 

sent to the agency when the Indians lirst assem- 
bled, to preserve order. This consisted n! lilly 
men from Fort Hidgely. under Caiit. -liio. S. 
Marsh, and fifty from rmt Kijiley. connnaiided 
by i-ieut. T. J. Sheehan. ^'et. notwithstainling 
the presence of thesesoldiers. guarding the ware- 
houses, im Aug. 4th, several hundred Indians 
attacked and broke into one of the buildings, 
and took about one hundred sacks of Hour before 
they could be stopped. Tlie missionaries, with 
Major Galbraith, the agent, at length (piieted 
this outbreak. The agent issued some amnuini- 
tion and goods to them, and persuaded them to 
disperse, and he would send them word when 
the money was ready for them. 'J"o this they 
appeared to agree, and ap])arently left tlie agency 
and went to their hunting-grounds. It was now 
supposed that the trouble was over, and the 
troops were allowed, on Aug. ItJtli, to depart for 
their posts. But it was only the calm before the 
storm. All this time bad blood was brewing, 
and the storm gathering, unnoticed, or at least 
unheeded by the whites. Only a spark was 
needed to explode this magazine of savage fury, 
and that, at length came. There is good evi- 
dence to believe that during this interval the In- 
dians were holding councils and '• soldier's lodg- 
es," and had concluded that as the forts were 
manned by but a handful of snldiers, it would be 
a good lime to rise and swee]) away the white 
r;H-t' from their old hunting-grounds. 

On Sunday. Aug. 17. a paii> nl lour 1 ml i:ii is. be- 
longing to a band noted for iiisiibordin;ition. were 
in the neighborhood of Acton, .Meeker Coiiiity, 
where they had been for several days hunting. 
They were angry and qiianelsome. They came 
to the house of a Mr. Howard Jiaker, where they 
found him and his wife, and a .Mr. Webster and 
wife. Mr. Kobinson Jones and wife and a Jliss 
Wilson, neighbors, came in soon after. Tlie In- 
dians had previously had a <iii;irrel with Jones, 



which was now renewed. Tliey then proposed 
shooting at a mark witli IJaker and Jones, wliich 
was done. After discharging tlieir guns, the 
Indians at once reloaded, and commenced tiring 
on tlie whites. Jones and liis wife, and Baker 
and "Webster were killed, and Miss WUson, Mrs. 
liaker and child, and Mrs. AVelister, were un- 
hurt. The four Indian murderers then stole 
horses in the neighborhood, and rode rapidl>'. 
during the night, to the Indian village near the 
agency, where they tt)ld what they had done, and 
urged that, as blood had been spilt, and they 
would sirffer the penalty, they must all iniite 
aud extenninate the whites. The other Indians 
then armed themselves, and at smirise. Aug. 18, 
the work of the death commenced, at the Lower 
Sioux Agency, near Ked Wood. It is strongly 
asserted by other writers, who give good reasons 
for the behef . that the Indians collected at the 
Agency had all ready demanded on the massacre, 
and commenced it on the isth. without kn(i,wing 
of the events at Acton. 

The first \nctim to this hellisli plot was James 
■\V. Lynde. a clerk in the trading house of Xathan 
ilyrick. He was a man of line attainments, and 
had written a work on the History and Religion 
of the Dakotas, which was ready for publi- 
cation. Three other persons were killed at the 
same store. At Forbes" trading house, near by, 
George H. Spencer, the clerk, was badly wounded, 
when his life was saved l)y the interposition of a 
friendly Indian, named Chaska, who jirotected 
him until he recovered. Other white persons in 
and near the houses at the agency, were either 
killed or wounded, within a few minutes. At 
this point the Indians ceased their carnage, in 
order to phuider tlie stores and government ware- 
houses, and this delay enabled Eev.- S. D. Ilin- 
man and some other whites, to escape to Fort 
Ridgely, spreading the alarm as they went. 

After a brief time spent liy the savages in rob- 
bing the stores, they contuiued tlieir wtrk of car- 
nage in every direction. They were soon joined 
by the warriors of the other bands, and, to the 
number of two or three hundred, spread through 
the settlements for several miles up and down 
the river, miu'dering all the whites whom they 
could find, excepting a few yoiuig womeni, whom 
they took captive, and in many instances burnuig 
the houses of the settlers. 

Meantime, the whites at the upper, or Yellow 
Medicine Agency, some thirty miles distant, were 
in ignorance of tliese dreadful scenes, and of the 
danger which tl)reatened them. It was not until 
nearly night wlien John Other-Day, a Christian 
Indian, brought them the dreadful news, and 
warned them to save their lives. The whites, 
sixty-two in number, at once took refuge in a 
warehouse: but flight seemed tlie only safe 
course, aud before daylight the next morning, 
they were on their way across the ])rairies to- 
wards Henderson, the men on foot, and the wo- 
men aud children, with S. iJ. Garvie, who had 
escaped from his warehouse, after being badly 
wounded, in wagons. The noble (Jther-Day 
piloted them tridy and skillfully. Tliis p.irt)-, 
after great hardships, arrived safely at the settle- 
ments on the ilinnesota river, and thence to St. 
Paul, though 2ilr. Garvie died on the way. The 
two luissiouaries, Messrs. 'Williamson and Eiggs, 
also escaped, with their families, after suffering 
much hardship. 

On Monday mornmg, August isth.aljout three 
hours after the first outbreak at Bed Wood 
agency, a messenger from that place arrixed at 
Fort Bidgely, twelve miles distant, with the 
startUng news. Captain JSIarsh, Company B, 
Fifth Regiment, then in connnand, at once dis- 
patched a courier to Lieutenant Sheehan. Com- 
pany C. Filth Regiment, who, with his detach- 
ment, had left the post the morning previous on 
his return to Fort Ripley, and also to Major (ial- 
braith. who had left at the same time for St. 
Peter, with about fifty recruits, called the "Ren- 
ville Rangers," en-route for Fort Snelling, urging 
them to return at once. Captam Marsh at once 
left for the scene of carnage, with forty-four men 
on foot. After a forced march, he arrived aliout 
2 o'clock p. M. at the ferry opposite the Agency, 
near which place tliey found nine dead Ijodies. 
They were met here liy Rev. Tslv. Ilinman, on his 
wa) to the fort, who cautioned Capt. Marsh against 
an ambuscade, and warned him to retuni, as the 
Indians greatly outnumbered his force. Captain 
Marsh, wlio was a very brave but very rash man, 
would not listen to the atlvice, declaiing that he 
coidd "whip all the Indians," or something to 
that effect. xVrriving at the ferry, his men were 
drawn up on the bank, in plain sight, when three 
or four hundred Indians concealed in the thickets 



near by, poured a volley into them. Mearly half 
of his iiK'ii Ml dead or inorlally wounded at the 
first lire, some of them iiieiced with twenty bul- 
lets, while several others were wounded, but 
mauaged ultimately to escape; some of them not 
reachiii!,' Uie fort for three days. The survivors 
of this su<lden attack (Captain .Marsh bein^' himself 
uuiujured) iVIl hack finm the ferry towards tlie 
fort, keepinj; up a ninnini; fight amidst tlie thick 
timber on the river bottom, hut against terrible 

Rushing up to the fallen soldiers, the savages 
tomahawked those still living, and tore the scalps 
from most of them, iidlicting also nameless bru- 
talities on their corpses. All the fine Springfield 
muskets carried by the dead, and their ammuni- 
tion, fell into the hands of the redskins, and were 
subse(iuent!y used by them, with deadly effect. at 
the sieges of J'ort Kidgely and is'ew Llm, and the 
battleof Birch Coolie. The remahisof the fallen 
heroes were ultimately interred at Fort Kidgely. 
and the legislature, some years subsecpiently, 
caused a fine monimient to be erected there in 
honor of their bravery. 

For some time a hot battle raged in the forest, 
Capt. Marsh and his men retreating towards the 
fort, contesting the ground, inch by inch. Find- 
ing that his men were falling fast, and that the 
enemy was gathering in force ahead of him, so as 
to cut him off, he deteiiiiined to cross the river, 
so as to '4aiu the open prairie on that side, and 
reach the fort, if jiossible. He had now but thir- 
teen men left. At their head he attempted to 
■wade the river, but was drowned while so doing. 
His men got over in safety, and made tlieir way 
to the fort about dark. Out of the forty-four 
who had left it that morning, twenty-four were 
dead. Thus ended the liattle of Itedwood Feriy. 
the first engagement of the war. The Indians, it 
is thought, lost only one or two warriors. 

Flushed with this easy victory in their first 
encounter with our troops, the Indians now con- 
sidered that the way was clear for then- bloody 
war of extermination. They scattered in every 
direction, carrying death and torture to the homes 
of all the settlere within reach. For several days 
the work of carnage was awful. No pen can 
describe the horrors of that bloody week. So 
sudden and unexpected was the outbreak, and so 
i^nsidious and skulking the mode of warfare of 

the savages, that the inhabitants were overtaken at 
their various pui-suits and butcljered in cold blood, 
without any chance of llight or resisUuice. Most 
(if them were Kuropean inunigrants wiio had re- 
cently settled on the frontier, and were quite un- 
ac(iuamted with savage warfare and treachery. 
liut few of tliem possessed efTective fire-arms, or 
weapons of any kind, indeed, and even if they 
had these, so sudden and stealtliy was the onset, 
that resistance would have been unavailing. The 
savages generally went about on these raids in 
squads of eight or ten, well armed. In many 
instances the treacherous devils would advance 
bohlly and with friendly demeanor into houses 
with whose owners they were acipiainted, as if 
to ask for food, (as was their custom, for the set- 
tlers had always freely supplied them) ; w hen all 
at once they would shoot down or tomahawk 
the luisuspecting inmates, perhaps the very per- 
sons who had many times fed them when hun- 
gry. In a few instances children, and sometimes 
adults, lied unobserved while this work of death 
was going on, and escaped a like fate by skulkuig 
in the grass or Inishes, from whence they were 
often compelled to witness the cruel tortures 
practiced on the other members of their family, 
or llee tor life with the death shrieks of the suffer- 
ing victims ringing in their ears. Some of those 
who escaped thus, were rescued many days sub- 
se(iuently, after enduring incredible hardships, 
skulking by day around deserted houses, endeav- 
oring to find food, and wandering by night 
through the trackless waste, towards the settle- 
ments. Delicate women, cairying or leading in- 
fant children, thus traveled scores of miles to 
some place of safety, sometimes wounded and 
sick and almost naked. Many perished from 
hunger, exposure or wounds. Others lived, to 
suffer for years from their injuries. There 
were literally hundreds of such incidents as the 
above, and a full narrative of these adventiu'es 
and escapes would fiU volumes. No record can 
ever be made of them, and the fate of many ^^ iU 
never be known mitil the last d^y. 

The cniel barbarities ])racticed by the savages 
on their victims, was another sickening feature 
of the massacre, and its l)are recital makes one 
shudder. All the fiendish cruelties that their 
savage nature and pent up hatred of the pale 
faces could suggest, they wreaketl on their vie- 



tims. a people who li;ul always been their friends 
and benefactors. The wounded and dying were 
scalped or tomakawkcd out of all semblance of 
linmanily. Tlie bowels of many were gashed 
open, and their hands and feet, or otlier members, 
cut off iind thnist into them. Children were 
slashed with knives, eyes gouged out. ears or 
hands cut off. or skulls smashed with war clidjs. 
Some of these survived even such awful wounds. 
Babes were thrust living into stove ovens, and 
there left, to roast to death. I'regnant women 
were ripped open, and their unborn babes torn 
away, and thrown into their face, or nailed to a 
door or tree, for their dying gaze to witness. But 
few women, comparatively, were killed outright. 
Instant death wotdd have been a more merciful 
fate than they were reserved for. Frequently 
delicate young maidens were tied, or held by the 
fiends, and repeatedly outraged by the band of 
captors, some actually dying in the hands of their 
tormentors, or if they survived. le<l into a cap- 
tivity of horrors. But let us draw a veil o\er 
these atrocities. 

After the murder of the inmates of a house, 
pillage was the next step, and the torch was then 
generally applied to it. oftentimes the wounded 
victims, luiable to escape, being burned to death. 
Day after day the columns of smoke rising here 
and there showed where the various bands of de- 
mons were j)lying their work of destruction, while 
night after inght the sky along the frontier was 
lurid with the light of burning homes. Two or 
three thousand dwellings were thus destroyed, in 
addition to three entire towiis. Cattle were shot 
from mere wantonness, and others left to starve, 
with no one to attend them. Horses were saved 
for the use of the marauders, hundreds of them 
being stolen, and in many instances the savages 
were observed riding to and fro in fine buggies 
and carriages. 

As the houses of the settlers were generally 
isolated from each other, the news f>f the out- 
break could not reach the more remote and scat- 
tered, in season to save them. Along the main 
roads leading to the settlements, the alarm was 
spread l)y fugitives, after a day or two, and this 
fact enabled thousands to save their lives who 
would otherwise have fallen. Abandoning houses, 
crops, cattle — everything, hastUy seizing some 

food and clothing, and harnessing their teams, 
they lied towards New Ulm, Fort Kidgely, St. 
Peter, ilankato, Henderson, and other towns 
along the river. Some even jjiessed on to St. 
I'aid. Soon the roads were literally crowded 
with a jianic-stricken cavalcade, on foot, on 
horseback, in all sorts of vehicles, hurrying along 
with l)lanched faces and nervous trepidation. 
Many were pursued and shot at (some killed, 
even) while flying, and all had horrid stories to 
relate. J>ieut. Gov. Donnelly, on Aug. 20, wrote 
from St. Peter: "You can hardly conceive the 
panic existing along the valley. In Belle Plaine 
I found 600 people crowded in. In this ])lace 
there are between 3,000 and 4.(Kto refugees. On 
the road between Xew Ulm and ^Nlankato were 
over 2,000. Maukato is also crowded. * * * 
Their property in the mean time abandoned and 
going to ruin." The condition of these throngs 
of fugitives, crowded into the small towns, was 

The handful of men who survived the massa- 
cre at Prdowod Ferry, and made their way back 
to Fort liidgely. found that post already crowded 
witli iiauic-stricken fugitives from the sur- 
rounding country. All night these poor settlers 
arrived from every direction, many of them 
wounded, having left portions of their families 
miu'dered, and their homes in flames. In every 
direction, all night long, the sky was reddened 
with the light of bunung houses. It was a night 
of terror and despondency. About ten o'clock 
t]n Tuesda\ morning, the iimiates were gladdened 
with the return of Lieutenant Sheehan and his 
command, who, on being overtaken the evening 
before by the messenger sent out to recall them, 
had made a forced march of sixteen hours. 
Lieutenant Sheehan at once took command of 
the post, and in connection with Sergeant John 
Jones, of the regiilar army, post ordinance ser- 
geant, took effective measures to put the fort in 
a defensible condition. All the civilians who 
were fit for duty, were armed, or put on guard, 
and even the women were employed making cart- 
ridges, running bullets, &c. Xo attack was made 
that day, however, although Indians were seen 
watching the fort. [The warriors were busy at- 
tacking Xew Flm. as will be seen a little farther 
on.] About noon on Monday, the messengers and 
guard in charge of the §70,000 in gold, reached 



Fort Kidgely, and remained there dm'ing the 

Let us now follow Mr. J. C. Dickinson, of 
Lower Agency, tlie messenger sent from Ked- 
wood to recall Maj. Galbraith from St. Peter. 
Maj. G., so well satisfied was he witli the loyal 
promises of the Indians, had left the agency 
with some Tolnnteers for Fort SnelHng. His 
family were at Yellow Medicine, and escaped 
from that place. He. -with the " lienville Ihiii- 
gei-s." Lieut. (^'(Jorman. had arrived at St. I'eter 
Monday evening, whin ^Ir. Dickinson reached 
there, with the startling news. It was at first 
discredited, hut he at once made preparations to 
retinn, with the Kangers. and a company of vol- 
unteer citizens. He immediately dispatched Wm. 
H. Shelley, of St. Paul, who was with him, with 
a message to (Tr)v. Ramsey, asking military aid. 
Shelley rode at full speed all niglit, and reached 
St. Paul, nearly one hundred miles distant, at 10 
o'clock r. M. Tuesday, spreading the news as he 
pa.ssed (h)wn the valley, (iov. Kanisey at once 
took steps t« send troops to the scene of Mood. 
But of this anon. 

Monday night was spent by the soldiers and 
citizens at St. Peter in organizing companies, 
searching for arms, making cartridges, etc. Early 
on Tuesday morning, the bells were rung and the 
inhabitants called together. Great excitement 
prevailed. l)ut a company was at once organized. 
Hon. Chas. E. Flandrau, associate justice of the 
Supreme Court, was elected cai)tain. and W. 15. 
Dodd, fust lieutenant. Teams, wagons, camp 
ecprpage, etc., were hastily collected. 

Major (Jalbraith, with the Renville Rangers, 
and othei-s who accompanied them, armed as 
well as could be iiossible, left St. Peter at 6 A. M., 
and after a hard march, reached Fort Ridgely 
(Forty-five miles distant) the same evening. Just 
as they arrived at the fort, a furious thunder- 
gust came U)i. In the darkness and rain tliey 
got into the fort safel\ . although liuiidreds of 
Indians were watching it, and nnist have seen 
them but for the storm. There were now. lioO 
fencible men in tlie fort, and the crowd of fu- 
gitives hourl\ increasing. These were cared for 
as well as possible, the hospital being full of 

ileantime a company of sixtt;en horsemen left 
St. Peter (Tuesday) for the aid of New Ulm, 

which was reported by fugitives to be in great 
danger. At one o'clock the same day, Hon. Chas. 
E. Flandrau left for the same place with KIO 
w^U armed men, on foot. Let us now give some 
account of the 

SIEGE or NEW ri..M. 

This town was on the south bank of the yiinne- 
sota Eiver, thirty miles, by land, from St. Peter, 
and eighteen miles below Fort Ridgely. It con- 
tained about ]..")00 inhabitants, mostly (iermans. 
On Monday morning, Aug. 18th, a party of citizens 
left New I'lm to recruit for volunteers. When 
some seven or eight miles west of new llm. they 
found several dead bodies lying in the I'oad. Con- 
vinced that the Indians had risen, they retraced 
their steps, but on their way back were fired on, 
and several of the part}' killed. The rest fled to 
town and gave the alarm. At tlie same time, 
fugitives came hi from other directions, near the 
town, all telling horrid tales of butchery. This 
created a great panic in the town, and maii\ lied 
to St. Peter. All that day and night, and next 
day, fugitives continued pouring into the place. 
The leading men of the town at once took steps 
to organize for defence. Arms were collected, 
barricades erected, sentinels posted, and evei)- 
thing done which coidd be, to repel an attack. 
These precautions were taken none too soon. 
About four o'clock on Tuesday, a party of mount- 
ed Indians appeared on the prairie above the 
town, and dismounthig. advanced on the jilace. 
The few men who had arms, at once attacked 
them, but most of the people gathered into the 
houses in the center of the town, panic stricken. 
Fortunately, soon after the attack commenced, 
the fifteen horsemen from St. Peter arrived, and 
at once began a vigorous defence. The savages 
burned several buildings on the west edge of th 
town, and kept up a hot fire on the people with- 
in the barricade. The St. Peter cavalry .soon 
made such a brave advance on the Indians, that 
they were compelled to retire, alioiit dark, sev- 
eral having been killed. Duiiug the engagenienl. 
the whites lost several, killed and wounded, also. 
About nine o'clock, in the midst of a furious 
thunder-storm, .Judge Flandrau, with over one 
bundled men, reached the town, and were 
warmly welcomed. Vigorous efforts to organize 
for defence were at once made. Judge Flan- 



drau was chosen couimaiKler-in-i'hief, Caiit. Dodd. 
provost mai-sbal, .!^i-. Small leiiiforci'iiit'iils con- 
tuiued to arrive from Maiikatu and olhcr points, 
and l>y Tlini-sda.v. 325 armed men were guarding 
the town. Wednesday passed williDiit any 
alarms, and scouting parties were sent out in va- 
rious directions to bury the dead, of which a 
nnud)er were foiuid. Let us now glance at the 
cunditinn of things 


About three o'clock on AVednesday, the iOtli, 
the first attack was made on this post, i)robably 
by the same force who had been at New I'lm the 
evening previous. Jt is thought five hundred 
Indians were engaged in it. Concealing them- 
selves in the wooded ravines near the post, the 
savages suddenly advanced on it with hoi-rid yells 
and a volley of balls. The smlilenuess of the on- 
set almost threw the garrison olT their guard, and 
two of the soldiers were killed at the iirst lire. 
The men speedily rallied, however, and fought 
bravely. Sergeant .Jones wasquickly at his guns, 
two (i-pounders and one 24-poun(ler, but on at- 
tempting to file, they would not go off. On 
drawing the charges, he found them stuffed with 
rags! Some treacherous lialf-breeds had ilonc 
this dastardly act, and then deserted to the 
enemy. Assisted by a citizen, .J. C. Wliipple, 
who liad served in the Mexican war, and Sergt. 
MeGrew, of Comiiany (', he soon poured several 
rounds of cannister and shell into the tldckets. 
amongst the foe, killing and wounding a inunber. 
The savages then succeeded in crawling up be- 
hind some old outbuildings and hay-stacks, from 
whieli tliey poured furious vollejs into the fort. 
Sergt. Jones soon set these on fire with shells, 
and drove the savages off. At dusk the light of 
this fire, and the noise of the artillery, impressed 
the people at Xew rim and other places in the 
vicinity with the belief that the fort had fallen. 
But when night closed down, the savages witli- 
drew. The garrison remained on arms all night. 
One great danger w as thi- diyness of the roofs' 
which could have been ignited with " fire-ar- 
rows."' A close watch was kept, and Providence 
favored the beleagured force, for late at lught a 
heavy rain-storm commenced falling, and contin- 
ued until next day, entirely averting this danger. 
The large stables of the fojt. alioiit thirty rods 

distant, were perfectly filled with government 
mules, and liorses brought in by the fugitives. 
These theTndians succeeded in gettuig out and 

The next morning ^Tbursdajl the attack was 
renewed about it o'clock, and lastecl hotly for an 
lionr, when the savages retreated, but again at- 
tackeil the fort about r. -M.. when auollier en- 
gagement look place, and lasted about an hour. 
But their etforts to cajilure the fort weie useless. 
They foiuid it too well defended. It could have 
been taken by cliarging into it. but this Indians 
are afraid to do. Meantime the gaiTison was be- 
coming worn out witli loss of sleep and continual 
labor and fighting. Nearly five hundred refugees 
were croW(k'<l into its small buildings, where 
they were compelled to lie on the lloor to av<iid 
the bullets of the foe, which swept like a hail- 
slorni through the windows. To add to the trou- 
ble, many were becoming sick, and the stores 
both of ammunition and provisions, and even 
water, were running low. 

That night, as subsefpient evidence revealed. 
Little Crow and his foi'ces retin-ned to the Lower 
Agency, where he found the uppei- Indians, whom 
he had sent for. arrived. This increased his 
force to 4-")U warriors. Large numbers were also 
marauding among the settlements, as far east as 
Forest City and as far south as Lake Slietek. 
Confident that with this large force he could take 
both Fort Kidgely and New I'lm, he now moved 
on the former post. 

During the night, however, the garrison had 
strengthened its weak points viTth great skill and 
success. Earthworks had been thrown up, bar- 
ricades erected, out of cordwood, sacks of grain, 
etc., and other defenses provided, while the can- 
non were stationed so as to command the most 
exposed points, and the riflemen posted where 
they could do the greatest execution. About 
noon the Indians ajipeareil in greater numbers 
than on either previous attack, and commenced 
an assault so determined and furious, it seemed 
as if they were confident that this time the post 
must fall. But as they advanced, yelling like de- 
mons, the gunners sent a storm of grape and can- 
nister amongst them, while the riflemen jioured 
volley after viilley into them, and the savages re- 
treated from this hot fire. Tliey soon rallied and 
took ])ossesslon of the stables and other outbuild- 



ings near tlie fort, and kept up a terriljle lire from 
tliem. A ]ierfec.l st»rm of balls poured into the 
frame buildhiKs in tlie fort, sometimes passing 
clear UirouKli tlieni. Several soldiers were hit. 
and some ehilians (one Ijeing killed). tlioiij;h all 
the non-coinliatants kept well concealed. Finally 
Sergt. Jones was cunipelled to th-e the outbuild- 
ings with shells, and ihive tlic savages out. 
Soon the flames and lilai-k smoke rolled up. and, 
,witli the yells of the Indians, the rattle of small 
arms, and the tliunder of the cannon, made an 
exciting scene. For live hours the battle raged 
hotly. Little Crow was heard repeatedly order- 
ing his warriors to charge into the fort, and sev- 
eral limes they gathered for that purpose and 
started, but Sergt. .limes would send a storm of 
shell or cannister among Uiciu, and drive them 
back. It is tliought nnniliersnf Ihem were killed 
in tliis attack. 

About dark their lire ceased, and the night was 
passed in tpiiet. but tliere were few slept around 
the post except the non-combatants. All the men 
were under arms all night, being live nights of 
weary vigil and sleeplessness. The garrison were 
well nigli Willi] out, and expected another day of 
hard lighting. The sun rose, but no signs of In- 
dians. AVcirk was continued on the fortificaticms, 
which ^\ere greatly strengthened. While thus 
engaged, a large body of mounted Indians (said 
by Louis Kobert, who counted them, to number 
nearly 1,000) were seen coming down rniiu the 
Lower Agency on the opposite side of the river. 
They did not, however, cross to the Fort lUdgely 
side, but kept on towards Xew Ulm. It now 
became evident that the latter place was their 
objective iioint. and the garrison breathed freer. 
.still, they knew not what a day might bring 
forth, and kept ui) their working and watching. 
Let us now return to 


and see how^ that beleagnred town fared, .\fter 
the battle (if Tuesday, bet'ciie described, no at- 
tack had been made on the town, thdugh small 
jiarties of Indians, dunblless scouts, were once 
!ir twice seen near llie place. This interval of 
quiet was spent in erecting barriciules, and other 
works of defence, and in taking such steps as 
seemed necessary, in case of another attack. 
About ten o'clock a. m. on Saturday, the 23d, 

the Indians (mounted) appeared in great force on 
the prairie above town, and our I'urces were at 
once posted on tlieoiien gmund in that direction. 
The Indians lirsl aiipmacluMl slowly, but when 
about a mile from our line, iiicreaseil their speed, 
and gradually spread out their trciiit. like a fan, 
until it covered oiir whole line. On lliey came at 
full sjiced. yelling like ilciunn^. \\'lien about 
double rille-shot off. Col. Flandrau's men. inex- 
perienced in such warfare, fell ))ack on the town, 
the Indians firing on them. The whites com- 
mitted the error of passing the outermost luiild- 
ings, and not occupying them, an error the sav- 
ages soon took advantage of, as they at once took 
possession of them, and openi'd a furious lire on 
our men. By the exertions of Col. Flaudrau, 
the latter soon rallied, and commenced a vigorous 
lire from every protected sjiot. each doing duty 
as best he could, ''on hisown hook." They soon 
recovered their coolness, and fought bravely. 
The enemy. from their great niinibers, were able 
to surround the town, and soon iioured into it a 
fire from every direction. The battle liecanic fu- 
rious and general. 

The Indians also succeeded in getting possess- 
ion of the houses on the liliiff, which gave them a 
great advantage, cimimanding, as it did, the inte- 
rior of the town below, but about twenty men of the 
Le Sueur company had occupi(^d the windmill, a 
high building in that locality, and kept up such a 
hoi lire, the Indians could dobutlittleexecution on 
that side. They took possession of the lower end 
of the city, liowever, and, the wind being from 
that direction, fired the houses one by one, ad- 
vancing thus towards the center of the city, con- 
cealing themselves behind the smoke. The 
greatest danger seemed now to be from this di- 
rection, and a strong force of the liest marksmen 
was sent to resist the advance. They fought 
bravely, and checked the enemy consiilerably. 
The battle here was very hot for several hours. 
About three o'clock the enemy concentiatc(l a 
force on the river side, as if preparing for a grand 
assault. A detachment was sent to meet it. The 
Indians came on at full speed, but our men stood 
linn, and sent such volleysamong them, that they 
broke and retreated, losing several. Two of our 
best marksmen, however, fell at the same lime. 

The battle rageil furiously and without inter- 
mission until dark. Many of our men were 



wounded, several killed. All had fought nobly, 
some peifoimins feats of great (hiring. The en- 
emy had left ten dead on the lield, besides many 
killed and wounded carried off, and luid gained, 
so far, no great advantage; but if the attack con- 
tinued nuich longer, the worst result was feared. 
Jsight clo.sed on the weary defenders, full of 
doubt and anxiety. 

A consultation was now held among the leading 
men and those in command, as to the '■ situation. 
One thing thai seemed necessary, was to contract 
the lines of defence toward the center of the town 
so that a less number could more readily defend 
any point. To do this it was voted that all build- 
ings, except a few in tlie center of the town, must 
be burned. To this tlie inhabitants consented, 
and themselves applied the torcli to about forty 
buildings. One brick house was left, and loop- 
holed for defence. Including those l)ui-ned by the 
savages, 190 houses in all were now in ashes. 
Only about twenty-live were still standing. A 
range of ri lie-pits were now dug in front of the 
barricade, and all the defences strengthened. 

"When morning dawned (Sunday, August 24th), 
the savages feebly renewed their attack, but they 
soon saw they were foiled. In order to get near 
enough to the barricade or buildings to do any 
execution, they must pass over an open space right 
in the face of the defenders rifles, where there 
was not even a l)unch of grass to skulk behind. 
They kept up a fire at long laiige for tliree or four 
liours, but as i1 made no impression they ceased 
the attack about noon, and left ii the direction of 
Lower Agency They were seen from Fort Hidge- 
ly tha afternoon, passing uj) the river with a long 
train ol wagons, probably loaded with their iilun- 
der, and many horses and cattle stolen from the 
settlers. Neither Fort llidgely nor New I'lm 
were again attacked. The brave resistance of the 
wliites had balked the red demons at both places. 
Had eitlier of those posts fallen, hundreds of 
women and children, and even of the armed men, 
would have been massacred. But few would 
have escaped, and there is no doubt but that the 
victorious savages would have jiressed on and 
taken both St. Peter and Mankato. 

In the attack on Xew L'lm, ten whites were 
killed and about lifty wounded. The few build- 
ings left .standing in the jilace, were almost tilled 
with the dead and wounded, and with sick people ; 
for disease had by this time commenced to do its 
work. The provisions were nearly exliausted, 
and it seemed impossible to hold the place any 
longer. There were no houses adeqviate to shel- 
ter tlie two thousand people now ci'owded within 
the fortilicatioiis. Hundreds had been for several 
days huddled in cellars and other unsuitable pla- 
ces. On Sunday afternoon, one hundred and 
fifty more volunteers from St. Peter and vicinity, 
arrived, in command of E. St. .Tulien Cox, well 
armed and e(|iiipped. A council of war was held, 
and it was resolved to evacuate the town. Ac- 
cordingly, on jSIonday, August 2.5th, every inhab- 
itant, some two tliousaiid in number, with a train 
of one hundred and hfty-three wagons bearing 
the sick, woniided and feeble, commenced the 
march to .Mankato. '■ It was a melancholy spec- 
tacle (says Colonel Flandrau, in his report) to see 
two thousand people, whoa week before had been 
prosperous and happy, reduced to utter beggar)-, 
starting on a journey of thirty miles through a 
hostile counliy." The volunteer troops guarded 
the train through safely 

One week had now elapsed since the cruel mas- 
sacre began. It was a '• week of blood." Over 
seven liundred persons had been murdered (many 
think the number exceeds one thousand); two 
hundred had lieeii taken captive •. nearly two 
thousand houses burned: thousands of horses 
and cattle stolen, and a fertile region some two 
hundred miles long and one hundred wide, laid 
waste and (li-]io]iiilated. Eighteen counties were 
ravaged, tliirty thousand people (one-tenth of the 
population of the State) homeless, their crops and 
property going to ruin. <'Iaiius wei'e subsequently 
tiled liy nearly three thousand |ieisons, who lost 
property valued at S2,.5(H».(I(mi. lint this does not 
represent the total loss to our State, while no sum 
can represent the sorrow ami siiftering caused by 
the massacre. 





Military Moosiircs to Drfnid tjic Frontier— Want of any OrBanilcd Forei?.— H. H- 
SiMoy Aiilmiutwl to Command an Exi»edition.— Oroat Lack of Anns anil Am- 
munition.— Voluntpcr^ Hurry to the Rescue in Large Force,— Col, Sibley (iatti* 
en a Coliitnn at St. Peter— And Relieves Fort Ridgcly,— (ireat Want of Amuui- 
nition, Traiuportation, and Supplies — Danger of a Chippewa Outhrcak, — Ac- 
count of Indian Raids in Kandiyohi, Meeker, and other Counties. — SiCBe of 
Hutchin-son. — Sicuo of Fort 'Aliercromliie,— A Mounted Force Provided,— The 
Battle of Birch Coolie.— Relief Measures for the Refuirees, —The State Apro. 
priales $'.'5.0(Hl.— Col, Sibley Opens Negotiations for the Release of Prisoners.— 
They Prove Successful,— Extra Session of the Legislature,— Battle of Wootl 
Lake, — The Savages Defeated. — Release of the Captives, ...Arrest and Trial of 
the Guilty Murderers.— Three hundred and Three Convicted and Sentenced to 
1* Hnng,...Close of the Indian War, -.-Departure of more Regiments for the 
War,— Hard Fighting hy our Tnxips in the South,— Execution ot Thirty-eight 
Indian Murderen at Mankato, 

While these exciting events were occurring 
alont; the frontier, the State authorities had been 
acting witli great energy and luoniptness in or- 
ganizing and etiuipping a military force to pro- 
ceed against the savages. The suddenness of the 
outbreak found llieni totally unprepared for any 
such emergency. The Sixth Kegimeut was in 
barracks at Fort Snelling, nearly full and par- 
tially organized, hut its field officers had not yet 
been appointed, nor had the men received tlieir 
arms. The Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth 
Regiments were also partially recruited but not 
mustered in. Skeleton companies were at Fort 
SneWing, but none had Ijeen organized, and 
the men were undisciplined. Large niunbers 
had been let off on furlough, to complete 
hanesting their crops. All the arms due tlic 
State had been drawn and issued to tlie old regi- 
ments. Tlie general government was so hard 
pushed that even blankets and tents could not be 
furnished to the iiew troops. 

Immediately on receiving the news. Governor 
Ramsey appointed Hon. H. H. Sibley, of Men- 
dota, to the command of such forces at Fort 
Snelling as the coniniandant there, Colonel I!. F. 
Smith, could organize on the instant. Colonel 
Sibley was admirably qualified for such a respon- 
sible duty. His long and intimate actiuaintance 
witli the Indian character and habits, and espe- 
cially \vith the bands now in rebellion, together 
with his knowledge of military matters, and his 

familiarity with the topography of the country, 
enabled him to either meet the savages in the field 
successfully, or to treat with them to advantage. 

Four companies of troops, about three hundred 
in all, armed with Belgian rifies and ll),000 cart- 
ridges, were furnished to him ; and they at once 
stiirted on a small steamer for Shakopee, arriving 
there on the 20th. From thence they marched to 
St. Peter. On the 21st. the six remaining compa- 
nies of the Six-th Regiment were filled by consol- 
idation and transfers, and sent forward as rapidly 
as possible. On the 21st, (iovernor Ramsey is- 
sued a proclamation, reciting the news of the out- 
break, and calling on such citizens as had horses 
and arms, to start at once and join the expedition 
moving up the river. Considerable numbers did 
so. Companies of horsemen were formed in St. 
Paul, and several other places, and rode forward 
night and day. Small companies of infantry also 
organized in various towns in the central ami east- 
em portion of the State, and made forced marches 
to the relief of the frontier. By the end of the 
first " week of blood " (a very short period, con- 
sidering how unprepared the State was for such 
a war) several thousand armed men were pressing 
' forward on different routes to meet and drive 
tnick the savages. These companies were mostly 
distributed at stockades and garrisoned towns 
along the frontier, where they remained for sev- 
eral weeks, until the worst danger was over. On 
September 9th, (4overn<u- Ramsey's message re- 
ports, there were twenty-two militia companies, 
with 2800 men imder arms, and volunteer troops 
enoiigli to make ■5500 men in all. 

On Friday, the 22d, Col. Sibley arrived at St. 
Peter, and remained there some tlireo days, get- 
ting his troops in hand and properly armed. The 
latter was a work of difficulty. Most of the Sixth 
Regiment were armed with Belgian rifles, many of 
them almost worthless, and none of them very 
reliable. But a small part of the cartridges fur- 



nished were of the right calibre, and much time 
was lost " swedgmg " bullets. Gov. Ramsey had, 
on the i!Oth. telegraphed to the governor of "Wi.s- 
consin to -'borrow" 100,000 cartridges. Tliey 
were promptly sent, and reached Col. Sibley at 
Fort Ridgely. Provisions had to Ije collected. 
and transportation secured. Jleaiilinie the; peo- 
ple of the Stale were nervous with anxiety, and 
blamed the commander and State authorities for 
not throwing his half-armed and unorganized 
troops at once on the several hundred well armed 
and desperate savages at Xew Ulm or Fort 
Eidgely. Had this been done, a '' Custer massa- 
cre ■ ' would have resulted, and another rout and 
panic ensued, many fold worse than that of the 
week previous. 

By the 24th, nine companies of the sixth reg- 
iment (of which "Wm. Crooks had just been ap- 
pohited colonel) were concentrated at St. Peter. 
There were also some three hundred mounted 
men. and several companies of militia infanti-y. 
On the morning of August 2<ith, Col. Sibley, with 
his entu'e force, about 1400 men, commenced the 
march to Fort Kidgely. Col. McPhaill, wiLh one 
hundred and eighty mounted men, was sent on 
in advance. These arrived at the Fort at dark, 
to the great joy of its beleaguered inmates. The 
maui force arrived on August 28th. Ko Indians 
were encomitered on the way. The expedition 
was halted at this post for several days, until nec- 
essary reinforcements and ammunition (which he 
called for from the executive) should arrive, and 
enable him to pursue and successfully act against 
the Indians, who had retreated some distance 
up the river,where it was reported they had a 
number of prisoners. 

On August 2oth, Col. 15. F. Smith was ordered 
to organize a force of 1000 men, out of detach- 
ments of the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth 
regiments, at Fort Snelling, and dispatch said 
force at once to join Col. Sibley. This force was 
put imder command of Lt. Col. Wm. R. iMarshall, 
of the seventh regiment, and moved fonvard as 
soon as it coiild be properly equipped, reaching 
the expedition on September 1st. 

The diflicidty of securing transportation for 
these expeditions, was a serious drawback to ce- 
lerity of movements. Finally, a general order 
was issued by tlie adjutant general authorizing 
the commanding officers of detachments in act- 

ual service, to seize and impress citizens teams 
whenever needed. This was done, and enough 
transportation secured in that way, resulting in 
many cases of individual hardship, b>it this is 
one of the inexorable "necessities of war."' 
Another great need which bothered the state au- 
thorities, was the scarcity of serviceable arms. 
(Jood rilles were few. Many of the troops 
were very poorly armed, and even of these inferi- 
or guns, enough could not be had. The general 
government w as telegraphed to, but could supply 
none, in season to do any good. The authcii- 
ties then seized all the gun-shops in the states 
and confiscated their serviceable rifles and mus- 
kets, and anmiunition. All the powder and lead 
in the hands of dealers everywhere was seized, 
yielding 3.17-5 jiounds of powder and 1 .200 potmds 
of lead. Even this was insufficient. A lead 
pipe, some 3.000 feet long, which had been laid 
in one of the streets oi' St. Paul, but was just then 
imused, was dug up and melted into bullets. A 
force of yoimg women were working day and 
night making cartridges. Finall.w however, all 
the troops were wel supplied and equipped, and 
no further trouble was felt. It must be remem- 
bered that there were then no raikoads in the 
state (excei)t one ten-mile section between St. 
Paul and Minneapolis,} and no telegraph but 
one from St. Paul to La Crosse. All military 
messages and dispatches to the frontier, had to 
be .sent by special couriers. 


Meantime, a new danger threatened tlie people 
of the stiite. In addition to the powerful Sioux 
nation, there were in Minnesota the Winnebagoes, 
\di\\ 400 warriors, and in th« northern half of the 
state, the Chippewas, wh( could muster 2.o00 or 
3.000 warriors. There were good grounds for be- 
lieving that these tribes had been in consultation 
with the Sioux, and that ii the latter \\ere suc- 
cessful they wotild also rise Ii has-been proved 
that several Wmnebagoes participated in the 
earlier murders near the Upper and Lower Agen- 
cies, while on the same day as the outbreak at 
Redwood, the Chippewas commenced plundering 
their agency at Crow Wing on the L'pper Miss- 
issippi, and assembling armed warriors. They 
acted very turbulent and defiant, and an out- 
break between them and the whites was immi- 



ment. Indeed, on one occasion, shots were act- 
ually exchanged. The possibility of an outbreak 
by them so weighed on the mind of ilaj. L. 0. 
AValker, tlieir agent, that he committed suicide 
near Monticello, on Aug. 23d. Companies of 
cavalry were authorized by the state authorities 
to protect the country north of St. Paul, and per- 
formed patrol duty for some days. Had the 
Chippewas risen also, nearly the whole slate 
would have been laid waste. Even the cities of St. 
Taul, Minneapolis, etc., would hiive been captured, 
as there were not arms in those places enough to 
have defended them. A company of Home 
Guards was organized in St. Paul as a precau- 
tionary measure. For some days tlie situation 
was very critical, and full of danger. Finally, 
Hon. AVm. P. Dole, the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, Hon. H. M. Kice, Major E. A. C. Hatch, 
Clark ^\'. Thompson, and other men who had 
influence writh the Ojibways, calmed them down, 
and averted what might have proved an awful 


The comities along the Minnesota River were 
not the only ones ravaged by the red devils during 
that week of blood. McLeod, ilonongalia, Kandi- 
yohi, Stearns, Meeker, Otter Tail, Douglas, Sib- 
ley, etc., were all overrmi in whole or in part, and 
the inhabitants either butchered or driven away. 
Tlie first blood of the outbreak had been shed at 
Acton , Meeker county. A messenger was sent post 
haste by the citizens there to inform Gov. Ramsey. 
He arrived at the capitol just at the same time 
that the courier from St. Peter bore the news 
from Redwood. Tlie Governor issued to Capt. 
Geo. C. Whitcomb, of Forest City, seventy-tive 
giuis and a small amount of ammunition, to en- 
able them to make a stand. Capt. W. retumed 
Willi these at once, via Hutchinson, where he left 
some of the guns. On arriving at Forest City 
he found tlie whole region in a state of panic, the 
inlial)itants fleeing, and the Indians killing and 
ravaging the coiuitry. A company was at once 
organized and aimed, and marched over into 
Monongalia county (since a part of Kandiyohi), 
where they found the bodies of a number of slain, 
and also of hundreds of cattle killed in mere wan- 
tonness. They also rescued several persons who 

had been woimded and were hiding. The militia, 
aided by citizens at Forest City, at once began 
erecting a large stockade fcr defence, in the cen- 
ter of to\ra,m which the inhabitants and refugees 
could take shelter. Hearing that a family at 
Green Lake were in great danger, Capt. Whit- 
comb went to their relief. Near that spot his 
men had a hard skirmish with the Indians, in 
which three of the redskins were left dead on (he 
ground, and only one of his own men slightly 
wounded. He returned to the stockade that 
night, but next day, with a larger party, again 
attempted to reach Green Lake. The Indians 
again attacked him, and after a sharp bultle he 
returned without loss to Forest City. That night 
the savages made a Uerce attack on the town, 
burned several buildings, and lired on the stock- 
ade, but fortunately hurting no one. The troops 
retumed the hie. About daylight the Indians 
were seen trying to drive off a number of horses 
and cattle in a corral. The troops sallied out and 
drove them off, killing t\vo, and having two of 
tlieir own number badly wounded. By this time 
Meeker county west of Forest City, and all of 
Kandiyohi and Monongalia counties, were entirely 
deserted by the whites. 

On August 26th, Captain Richard Strout of the 
Tenth Regiment, was ordered to proceed to Gleii- 
coe and the region adjacent, to protect it. He 
reached that place about September 1st, and 
found the town had been well fortified and de- 
fended by the mihtia under command of General 
.John H. Stevens, of the state militia, and was 
safe from any immediate danger. He therefore 
marched, with about seventy-five men, towards 
Acton. On the morning of September 3d, he was 
attacked near that place by about one hundred 
and fifty Indians, and a sharp battle ensued. 
The troops were driven back towards Hutchinson, 
figlitingall the way, until afternoon, when they 
reached that place. Captain Strout lost three 
men kUled and fifteen wounded, all of whom were 
lirought off the field, and lost most of their equi- 
page, rations, &c..aiid .several horses and wagons 
abandoned and mired. The Indians must. have 
lost several killed. 

At Hutchinson, a large stockade liad been built, 
and a company of about sixty militia commanded 
by Captain Harrington, were defending the town. 
About nine the next morning, September 4th, the 



Indians attacked the post. They burned all the 
houses on the edge of the towii and one or two 
more centrally located. Our troops sallied out 
and routed them, however, and a succession of 
skirmishes ensued, which lasted all day. 

Meantime, tieueral Stevens had heard of the 
engagement near Acton, and at once sent the 
companies of Captam Davis and Lieutenant 
Weinmann to the relief of Hutchinson. They 
arrived about six o'clock on the evening of the 
fight, but the Indians had withdrawn. Several 
pei-sons in the neighborhood were killed by them, 
and others escaped into the stockade. All the 
signs indicated that the Indians had retreated 
towards the upper Minnesota, taking a large 
drove of stolen horses and cattle with them. The 
Indians were not seen again in this vicuiity luitil 
September 23d. when a band of about fifty inva- 
ded Meeker and Kandiyohi comities. They killed 
two or three settlers who had returned to their 
farms, but seemed more intent on stealing cattle 
than on killing whites. They were pursued by 
the troops, and sixty-five head of cattle rescued 
from them. 

Wright comity does not seem to have been in- 
vaded by the Indians. Fortifications were erect- 
ed by the inhabitants at various points, but no 
depredations were made iu that locality, so far as 

Western and southern Stearns county, how- 
ever, sufl'ered severely from the depredations of 
the red foe. About August 23d, tliey committed 
mmders and other crimes near PayuesviUe. Tlie 
people of that town erected a strong stockade, 
and the citizens and refugees from points further 
west, sheltered themselves therein. A part of 
the town was burned, but no attack was made (ju 
the post. At Maine I'rairie, St. Joseph's, Sauk 
Centre, Clear Water, Little Falls, and other pla- 
ces, similar stockades were built, and held by a 
few determined citizens. At St. Cloud, which 
was filled with refugees, strong fortifications were 
built, and preparations made to defend the place 
to the utmost, but no foe ever appeared, fortu- 
nately. A number of persons were mm-dered in 
the western and southern part of Steams county, 
and houses burned. 

The southwestern portion of the State Was also 
ovemm, and a number of murders committed. 
This district was soou after j)laced La command I 

of Colonel Flandrau, and about five hundred 
militia garrisoned at different points, who soon 
rid the country of Indians. 

The Third Regiment, which had been paroled, 
after its surrender, at ilurfreesboro, was now at 
rJenton Barracks. Mo. Gov. Ramsey telegraphed 
on Aug. 22d to have them sent to tliis state at 
once, for sen'ice against the Indians. The re- 
quest was complied with. The regiment received 
its exchange on Aug.24th, and they arrived in 
St. Paul on Sept. 4th. All their officers were 
still prisoners in the hands of the rebels, and the 
companies were commanded by non-commissioned 
olKcers. Maj. Welch, who was not with the regi- 
ment at its surrender, (having been taken pris- 
oner at Bull Run) was in command of the regi- 
ment. Three Inuulred men were at once sent to 
the frontier, where they did good service, being 
the only veteran troops engaged durmg the war. 

On Aug. 23d, Gov. Ramsey, in response to 
many petitions, called an extra session of the 
legislature, to meet on Sept. 9th. 


On Aug. 23d the Indians commenced hostili- 
ties in the valley of the Red River. Fort Aber- 
crombie was then garrisoned by Co. D., Fifth 
Regiment, Capt. .1. Van der Ilorck, but about 
half the company was stationed at Georgetown, 
protecting the Transportation Company's goods 
at that place. Early on the 23d a band of 500 
Sissetons and Yanktons crossed the Otter Tail 
River, with the intention of capturing a train of 
goods and cattle en route for Red Lake, where a 
treaty was to be made with the Chippewas. The 
train was at once ordered to take refuge in Fort 
Abercrombie, and did so. Most of the citizens 
in the svu'iounding region also rejiaired to that 
post, for safety, l>ut many were killed, or taken 
prisoners. The town of Dayton was destroyed. 

Reinforcements were ordered to Fort Aber- 
crombie as soon as its danger was learned, but 
the ti'oo])s sent out were detained en route, to 
protect and aid threatened places in Stearns and 
Meeker Counties, and did not reach the fort. 
Meantime it was in great danger, and was quite 
siuTouuded by the enemy. Skirmishes near by 
had taken place between detachments of the 
troops and the Indians. On Aug. 3Utli the latter 
appeared in large numbers Ijefore the fort. A 



large herd of tlip treaty cattle (172 head) and 
about 100 iKirsfrs and mulfs were grazing on the 
prairie near l)y. The Indians drove tliese off. 
and the small garrison could make no resistance. 
On Sept. 3d, at daybreak, the Indians attacked 
the post. A fight was kept up for two or three 
hours, but they were repulsed, with some loss on 
both sides. Active measures were then taken 
to strengthen the post by a stockade of timber. 
On Sei)t. 0th, a sepond attack was made, and a 
sharp battle raged until nearly noon. A number 
of the Indians were killed and wounded, but only 
one of our force was killed, and one mortally 
wounded. Tlie Indians hung around the fort, 
occasionally attacking a messenger, or a water- 
ing party, until Sept. 23d, when reinforcements 
arrived via St. Cloud to tlie great joy of the be- 
leaguered garrison, who had now been besieged 
over three weeks. >' o farther demonstrations, of 
any force, were made by the Indians. But for 
the brave resistance made by a mere handful of 
soldiers, aided by a few citizens, the post must 
have fallen. 


The want of a mounted force to pmsue the In- 
dians was severely felt by Col. Sibley. His small 
number of irregu'ar mounted militiamen were 
leaving for their homes. He several times urged 
Gov. Ramsey to provide cavalry, and that official 
in turn asked of the War Department the proper 
authority. This was granted on Sept. 1st, and 
a regiment of mounted rangers at once called for, 
for three months ser\-ice, which was subseiiuently 
changed to one year. The regiment was soon 
recruited, and Col. S. McPhaill appointed colonel. 


While waiting at Fort Kidgely for proper sup- 
plies and equipments, and before undertaking 
any offensive campaign against tlie Indians, Col. 
Sibley sent out, on August 31st, a detachment to 
bury dead bodies, rescue any fugitives that might 
be found, and make reconnoissances. Tliis de- 
tachment consisted of part of Co. A, sLxth regi- 
ment, Capt. II. P. (irant, about seventy mounted 
men under Capt. Jos. Anderson, and a fatigue 
party— about one hundred and fifty men in all, 
accompanied by seventeen teams. The whole 
force was in command of Maj. .losepli U. Brown, 
who was perfectly familiar with the country and 

with Inilian warfare. On the first day"s march 
sixteen dead bodies were found and l)uried. Tlie 
iie.xt day (Sept. 1) the force separated into two 
detachments. During this day fifty-five mutil- 
ated bodies were buried. In the evening the 
whole force went into camp at Birch Coolie (or 
Coulee) in a spot selected by ilaj. Brown. No 
Indians had been seen that day. 

Just before daybreak on the 2d, the camp was 
aroused by a volley of (irearms and the yells of 
Indians, who had crawled unperceived within a 
few yards of the encampment. For a few min- 
nutes terrilio volleys were poured into the tents, 
cutting them into shreds and wounding or killing 
a nimiber of men and horses. As soon as they 
could seize their arms, those who were unhurt 
crawled out, and sheltering themselves as well as 
they could behind wagons, dead horses, etc., re-' 
turned the fire. Shortly after daylight the mem 
began excavating, with such implements as they 
could get, a line of rifle-pits, and in a short time 
had about two hundred feet dug. 

The firing in the still of the morning was heard 
by the sentinels at Fort Kidgely, fifteen miles 
away, and a detachment of troops under Colonel 
McPhaill, at once pushed off to their relief. When 
within three miles of Birch Coolie, they were met 
by such a large force of Indians they could not 
advance, and sent a courier back for reinforce- 
ments. Meantime, the troops of Major Brown's 
command lay all day in their rifle-pits, keeping 
the savages at bay. The wounded were cared 
for as well as possible, but some died during the 

As soon as McPhaill's courier reached Fort 
Ridgely, a large force, with some artillery, was 
sent to the relief of his and Brown's troops. 
They came up about daylight, and the whole col- 
umn then pushed on to Birch Coolie, dislodging 
and driving the Indians from their position, after 
keepiugour men underfire for tliirty hours, with- 
out food or drink. 

The camp was an awful .scene, when relieved. 
Twenty-three men had been killed outright or 
mortally wounded, forty-five badly wounded, and 
seventy horses killed. The dead were buiied on 
the spot, and tlie wounded carried back to Fort 
lUdgely in wagons. Thus terminated the most 
bliiddy battle of the war, and one which spread 
gloom over the State. It is not creditable to 



Miiinesot.a that this battle ground should have 
been allowed to pass into private hands, and be 
plowed over. 1 1 should have hoen reserved by the 
.State as a historic spot, and marked with a suit- 
able monument. All the bodies, however, were 
subscqueutly removed, and lu'operly interred else- 


Tlie conditiim of tlie j)our refugees from the 
ravaged distriels, was deplorable in the extreme. 
In St Peter alone, tliere were in September, as 
many as 6.0(10 or 7,000 for some days, and at one 
time 8.000. In St. Paul there were 1 .000. and at 
Minneapolis an equal number, and all the towns 
had more or less. Tliey were all destitute of 
money, clothing, employment, &c.. and many 
were sick, while not a few were actually insane 
from trou)]le and grief. Tlie active exertions of 
citizens of St. Peter alone prevented great suller- 
ing there, but their means were soon exhausted. 
They then appealed through the papers for aid, 
and Governor Kamsey appointed commissioners 
to receive and disburse supplies. About $20,000 
in money was contributed, half of which came 
from eastern cities, while large quantities of cloth- 
ing were collected by local reUef committees, in 
St. Paul and other places. The Legislature, 
when it met, voted 52.5,000 more. These amounts 
relieved the worst cases of need. In October, 
most of those whose homes had not been des- 
troyed returned to them, and the number of des- 
titute rapidly decreased. Several hundred, how- 
ever, were supported all winter. Fortimately, 
laborers had now become scarce, and wages en- 
hanced, .so that all could get employment. The 
building of railroads went along inichecked in 
the midst of all the jianic. The Wuiona and St. 
Peter llaUioad comi)leted about ten miles of road 
this fall. 


Before leaving the battle-field of Birch Coolie. 
Col. Sibley left the following note attached to a 

" If Little Crow has any proposition to maKe to 
me, let him send a half-breed to me, and be shall 
be protected in and out of camp. 

" Col. Com'g Mil. Exped'n." 

Col. Sibley had reason to believe that their re- 
peated defeats had discouraged the foe, and ne- 
gotiations could be made with the disaffected 
Indians, and those tired of lighting, for the re- 
lease of the prisoners. Tliis note bore good fiuit 
very soon. 

It was now evident that all tlie uiaraiKling 
bands from the intericn- had been called in. and 
that the Indians would oppose the column wi its 
march with all their combined forces. 

Col. Sibley ordered the Third regiment, then 
at Glencoe, to join his command, and it readied 
Fort Kidgely on Sept. 13th. 

Meantime Col. Sibley "s note had been shown 
Little Crow on his return from the raid on the 
Big Woods settlers, and A. 3. Campbell, a half- 
breed who acted as his secretary, read it to him. 
Crow at once dictated a reply, blaming Galbraith 
and the traders for wronging them, and enumer- 
ating some grievances which caused the wax. 
lie requested an answer. This note reached Col. 
Sibley at Fort Bidgely on Sept. 7th. Col. S. at 
once replieil demanding that Little Crow should 
release the prisoners, and he would then treat 
with him. On Sept. 12th a reply was received 
from Crow, saying that the Mdewakantons had 
150 prisoners, and other bands some more. He 
said: 'T want to know from you, as a friend, 
what way I can make peace for mypeople." Col. 
Sibley at once replied, urging Crow to give up the 
prisoners, and comiilaining that he had allowed 
his young men to kill nine more whites since he 
sent the hrst letter. The same courier who 
brought Little Crow"s letter also brought fine pri- 
vately from the chief ^Vabasha. and Ta<ipi, a 
Christian Indian. They asserted that they were 
forced into the war, and were now anxious to 
make peace, and if a chance oifered they would 
come in and give themselves \\\\. with all their 
prisoners. Col. Sibley replied to this message 
urging them to do so. and promising them ino- 
tection. addrng-that he 'was now strong enough 
to crush all the Indians who held out. 

When this letter was received by Wabasha and 
his friends who wished to separate from the other 
Indians, a great dispute arose among all the 
bands. Indeed, disaffection and jealousy had 
been brewing ever since the outbreak. The pris- 
oners were in great jieril and might have been 
murdered. But at last all worked out well, and 



flie friendly and leppiitant Indians canied tlie 

The War Di-partment had meantime created 
Miiniesota and Dakota into a military depart- 
ment, anil apiKiinted (icn. .John I'ope to the com- 
mand. He reiiched St. Panl on Sept. 12th, and 
established his headquarters there. The 


called by the Governor, met on September 9th, 
and adjourned on September 2!Hh. The legisla- 
fon was mostly in regard to matters growing out 
of the Indian war. A Board of Auditors was 
created to adjust claims growinj; out of the mas- 
sacre, and $7-).(iuO was appropriated to settle 
them. Congress was memorialized to reimburse 
tlie State for this outlay. A Board of Commis- 
sioners was autliorized to collect names of slain, 
and the facts of their death, &c. [This was never 
done.] The sum of $2-5,000 was voted for the 
relief of indigent refugees. Congress was also 
memorialized for the removal of tlie Winneba- 
goes from the State. 


(the 6th, 7th, 8th, i)th. and loth) which had been 
hurried off to the frontier, half organized, were, 
by this time, completely organized and mustered 
in. The Colonels were appointed as follows: 
Si.xth, "SVm. Crooks ; Seventh, Stephen Miller; 
Eighth. Minor T. Thomas; Ninth, Alex. Wilkin; 
Tenth, -lames II. Baker. 


Col. Sibley, after the arrival of the Third Regi- 
ment and the supplies and ammunition he had 
needed, broke camp, on Sept. 18th, and started in 
jiursuit of the Indians at or near Yellow Medi- 
cine. On the morning of Sept. 23d, while en- 
camped near Wood Lake, the Indians suddenly 
attacked the force. Tlie Kenville Hangers were 
thrown out, and met the enemy bravely. JIaj. 
Welch soon had tlie Third Regiment in line, and 
they poured steady volleys into the advancing line 
of Indians, as did also the Sixth Regiment, under 
Maj. ilcLaren. The fight then became general. 
Lieutenant Colonel Marshall charged the enemy 
with three companies of the Seventh and A 
uf the Sixth, and put them to rout. The bat- 
tle bad lasted an hour and a half. Our loss was 
four killed and fifty wounded; among the latter, 

Maj. AVelch. The Indians lost (piitc ;i uunilier — 
thirty, it is said — fifteen being found dead on the 
field. A iter burying the dead. Col. Sibley marched 
toward La(^ (pii Parle, near which place Wabasha 
had notihed him he would meet him and deliver 
up the prisoners. 


( )u Septemlier 2(jtli the colunni arrived at the 
camp where the friendly Indians had the priscm- 
ers, an<l made their own near by. It was 0|)po- 
site the mouth of the Chippewa River, and was 
named by our men "Camp Release." Col. Sibley 
without delay visited the Indians and demanded 
the captives. They were at once produced, 
nearly two lunidi'ed and fifty in number. Jilany 
wept with joy at their release ; others had grown 
almost indifferent. These poor people — mostly 
women and children — were sent as soon as i)ossi- 
ble to their friends, if the latter were stiU living. 

The Indians who had given themselves up were 
at once placed under guard until tlicy could be, 
examined as to their guilt. During the next few 
days a numlier came in and gave themselves up, 
and some smaller parties were captured .soon 
after by our troops under Lt. (^ol. Marshall, so 
that soon our force had over 2,000 Indian war- 
riors in their hands. Col. Sibley at once organized 
a military conmiission, composed of Col. Crooks, 
Lt. Col. Marshall, and ('apt. (irant, with I. V. 
D. Heard as judge adxocate, to examine all evi- 
dence against the Indians, and indicate the guilty 
ones. Another connnission of five otlicers was 
appointed to try the accused. 

These commissions continued at work imtil 
Xo\-ember .5th, by which tune they had found 
three hundred and twenty-one Indians guilty of 
murder, ravishing, and other crimes, and sen- 
tenced three hundred and three to death. These 
were at once removed to South Bend, there to 
await the orders of the president. The other 
Indians and their familis were taken to Fort 
SneUing and cnnflucd all winter in a stockade. 


Meantime Little Crow and the still hostile In- 
dians had retreated into Dakota, and before win- 
ter reached De\irs Lake, where they remained 
until the next season. As the war m this State 
was now practically over, most of the settlers 
whose homes had not been destroyed returned to 



them. Tlie Third Miimesota legiment, and the 
Twenty-fifth 'Wis. and Twenty-seventh Iowa, 
were seut south before whiter, but the Sixth, 
Seventh. Eighth, Xinth, and Tenth Minn., with 
the Mounted Kaugers, were retauied for home 
service, and were stationed in detachments in a 
cordon of posts reaching from the south line of 
tlie State across the frontier to St. Cloud. The 
country between the garrisons was carefully 
scouted and patrolled, so that no hostile Indians 
could pass the line. On November 25th, Gen. 
Pope removed his headquarters to ISIilwaukee, and 
Brig. Gen. Sibley (for such he was made after 
the battle of Wood Lake) remained in command 
at St. Paul. The winter passed without any 


had not been idle meantime. On Sept. 4th the 
Fifth Regiment was in the battle at Corinth, and 
under fire some time. One accoimt says: " Tlie 
ground in front of us was covered with killed and 
wounded rebels." The Fifth suffered a loss of 
six killed, eighteen wounded and three missing. 
The Fourth Regiment was also in the same fight, 
and lost, during two days' fightmg, three killed 
and nine wounded. The Fourth Regiment was 
also hotly engaged at the battle of luka, on Sept. 
19th. It lost three killed, four wounded, two 

At Corinth, Oct. 3d and 4th, the Fourth also 
bore an active share, losing three killed and five 
wounded. "The regiment bore itself most gal- 
lantly," says an oflicial report. In the same en- 
gagements the Fifth Minnesota also shared, ex- 
pending about fifty rounds of ammunition, with 
which they made deadly work among the enemy, 
losing six killed, sixteen wounded, and four miss- 
ing. The First Battery were also in this en- 

gagement, and did good work, having only one 
man woinided. 


also bore its share during this period. At the 
Battle of Antietam, on Sept. 17th, it was closely 
engaged, and left ninety men dead or mor- 
tally wounded on the field. Their bodies now 
rest in the national cemetery there. 

The First also participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburg, on December 11th, 12th, 13th and 
14th, during which it lost nine wounded and one 


The three hundred and three Indian murderers 
w ere kept at South Bend a short time and then 
removed to ISfankato, where they were confined 
in a stone warehouse strongly guarded. Mean- 
time, some (so called) " philanthropists," princi- 
pally Quakers, at Philadelpliia and other eastern 
cities, interfered in the matter, and got up a 
strong pressure on President Lincoln to pardon 
the guilty wretches. This was resisted by the 
prominent men and oflBcials of Minnesota, the 
people of the State almost unanimously demand- 
ing their execution, and threatening, if it were 
not done, to apply lynch law to them. President 
Lincoln selected thirty -nine of the murderers, 
and (on December nth) ordered General Sibley to 
execute them. This was carried into effect on 
December 2(ith, at Mankato, (one, meantime, 
dying of disease). Thirty-eight of the savages 
were swung off of one scaffold, in the presence of 
a large concourse of people. The rest of the mur- 
derers were imprisoned until spring, then taken 
to Davenport, Iowa, where they were confined a 
few months, after which thev were removed to a 
reservation on the Mssouri river, and set at 





Events of th*- \fAT I8C3.— ScattmiiR Raids on the Frnntier.— A Scalp Bounty 
Ofrer*il.— K«raav4l of tin- Sioux antl Winnebftgoes. — Gen. Sibli-j-'a Ejcp(?<lition 
of 1S63.— Brave Conduct oftho Third, Fourth and Fiflh Rcsiments.— The First 
at Gett>-sburg,— Death of Little Crow.— (Jen. Sihley's Column Attiiokcd I'y the 
Sii.ux.— Rffinirkalilo Drought in lM63-fil.— Thico More Regi)nent.s sent South. 
—Return of thi- Fimt Regiment.— Ocn. Sibley's Kxpedition in 18114.— Heavy 
Dralts for Men.— Infiation and High Prices. — Battles in which Minnesota 
Troops Took Tart.— Union Victories.— Close of the War. — Kctuni of our 
Troojnt.— Tb« State's Shore in Iho Conflict. "'A new Era of Uaterial Frosperity' 

The winter of 1862-'63 was spent by Gen. Sib- 
ley in making preparations for an expedition to 
the Missouri Elver, to pursue and punish the 
hostile Sioux. A tliiid battery of light artillery 
was reciiiited for tliis purpose, and John Jones, 
the gallant defender of Fort Ridgely, appointed 
captain. At the session of the legislature, Gov. 
Eamsey was elected U. S. Senator, but did not 
vacate the gubernatorial chair until June 30th. 

Early in the spring, small parties of Sioux be- 
gan to make predatory inoirsions into the state, 
and these raids continued all summer. Some 
twenty persons were killed, in all, and a num- 
ber of horses stolen. The Indians were pur- 
sued by troops in every case, and a number of 
them killed. A reward of $25 was offered by 
the Adjutant General for Sioux scalps, and 
afterwards raised to S2()0. 

In May, the Sioux were removed from the 
state, together with the AVinnel)agoes, and sent 
to a new reservation on the Missouri River. 
Efforts were made to get rid of the Chippewas, 
but were not successful. 

Gen. Sibley in May concentrated three thous- 
and troops at Camp Pope, <in the ujiper Minnesota 
River, for his expedition. These were: the Sixth, 
Seventh, and Tenth Infantry, Capt. Jones" IJat^ 
tery, and the Mounted Rangers. On June 17th, 
the e:ipedition started on its march. Gen. Ste- 
phen .Miller was meantime in command of the 
department here. Gen. Alfred Sully was iit the 
same time moving up the Missouri River with 
another expedition. 

Ou June 22d, the War Department autliorized 

the formation of a three years battalion of six 
companies of cavalry, for service against the In- 
dians, to be commanded by Major E. A. C. Hatch. 
This was soon recruited, and in active duty at 
the various posts in this department. 


The summer of 1863 was one of hard service 
and brilliant renown to our regiments in the 
South. On May 3d, the Fourth Regiment was in 
hot action in the battle at the crossing of Big 
Black river, with a loss of three killed. One of 
its officers planted the Union flag on the Capitol 
at Jackson. At Champion Hills (May lOth) it 
lost one killed. On May 22d, at Vicksburg, it 
again suffered severely, losing twelve killed and 
forty-two wounded. The Third Regiment was 
also in the same campaign. On May 19th, the 
Fifth Regiment near Vicksburg, lost one killed 
and five wounded. 

The severest loss of any of our regiments in 
the war, however, was that suffered by tlie First 
Regiment at Gettysburg on July 3d. It took 
part in the hottest of that memorable action, and 
made a movement in the face of an awful fire 
from the rebels. In a few minutes it lost sixty- 
eight killed, 149 wounded, 90 missing, and when 
it emerged from the baptism of tire, had only 87 
men in its ranks. The news of this terrible car- 
nage was received with profound sympathy by 
the people of the State, mingled with thankful- 
ness, however, for the great victory won there, 
and at Vicksburg, on tlie same day. 


During June, a band of seventeen Indians 
gieatiy annoyed the settlers in Meeker and Kaiuli- 
yohi counties, killing several. On July 3d, a man 
named Nathan Lampson, and his son Chauncy, 
were hunting near Hutchinson, when they espied 
two Sioux. A fight ensued, in which Mr. Lamp- 
sou was badly wounded, when his son, by afortu- 



iiatcslidl. killed one lift lie liidUiiis. Tlie dead body 
of the latter was taken to Ihitehmson. From its 
appearance, and certain marks, it was supi'ose(l 
to l)e Little Crow. It was scalped, and the re- 
mains buried. Xot long after, an Indian was 
captured in Dakota, which proved to be Wo-ui- 
iiii-pr. Little Crow"s son. He confessed that the 
Indian killed bv Lami)Son was his father, and 
that he was Avith him at the time. The remains 
of the celebrated chieftain, whose name for 
months was a terror to our people, .were then 
e.xlmmeil, and the skeleton preserved. The scalp 
and arm bones are in the museum of the Histori- 
cal Society, at St. Paul. 

Gen. Sibley's expedition reached the Coteau of 
the Missouri on July 2-1. and on that day, at a 
place called " ]>ig ^Moiuid,'" was attacked by 
about one thousand Indians. A sharp engage- 
ment ensued, in which twenty-one Indians were 
killed, and only two of onr troops. On July 20, 
at '■ Dead Luffalo Lake," the Sioux again attacked 
his column, but were repulsed, with a loss on our 
side of one man. On July ti.s, at '■ Stony Lake,'" 
about two thousand Indians again gave battle, 
but were routed, with considerable loss. The 
expedition jmrsued the s-avages to the Missouri 
river, across which they escaped. It returned to 
the state about Sept. 1st. (icu. Sully's column 
had several engagements with the Indians, chas- 
tising them severely. 

The summer of ]MJ3 \\as memorable for an in- drouth, whidi continued until the close of 
1KC4. During these two seasons almost no rain 
fell, yet the harvests were good. The worst re- 
sult was on the river, which was luiprecedently 
low, and business was badly interfered with, and 
the lujiibering interest was, for the same reason, 
greatlj' depi-essed. 

On Sept. 19 and 21). at Cliickamauga. theSecond 
liegiment was hotly engaged, and suffered a loss 
of thirty-five killed and one hundred and thirteen 

Early in October, the Seventh, Ninth, and 
Tenth Eegiments were relieved from duty here 
and sent to St. Louis, from whence they went to 
the front. 

On Oct. 12th, the AVar Department, having 
called for two hundred thousand more troops, 
authorized the Second liegiment of cavalry to 

take the place of the ^Mounted Rangers, whose 
term of service had expired. 

On Oct. 14 the First Eegiment was engaged at 
Bristow's Station, and lost one killed and nine- 
teen womided, capturing two luuidred prisoners 
and several guns. 

At the state election this fall. Gen. Stei)hen 
^liller was elected governor, by a vote of 19,628 
over Henry T. "Wells, who had 12.7:^9. 

On Xov. 2.'i, the Second Regiment was in the 
action at Mission Ridge, and suffered a of 
live killed and thirty-four W'ounded. 

The provost marshals of the state made an en- 
rollment of all the male citizens this fall, pre- 
paratory to the draft. Resistance was made in 
some cases, but no serious distiu-bauces took 
place, as in other states. 


the regiments which enlisted in isoi, and had re- 
enlisted as '• veterans."" were allowed to return to 
the State on furlough. They were received 
in the various towns of the State with the 
most lively demonstrations of pride and grati- 
tude, and liancpieted and petted as the brave 
heroes deserved. 

On April 2Stli the First regiment, whose terra 
of service had expired, was mustered out at Fort 
Snelling. Barely one hundred of the lOSd men 
who had stood on the same parade ground three 
years before, were in the ranks. Out of some re- 
enlisted men and I'eci-iiits a battalion was formed, 
called the "First Battalion,"" which did good ser- 
vice during the next year. 

On March oOth the Third regiment had a close 
actidu at a place called Fitzhuglfs Woods, near 
,VMgusta, Ark. Seven were killed and sixteen 
wounded, (ien. ,Vndrews, commanding, had his 
hoise shot under liiin. 

On June (ith an expeilititm left Fort Ridgely 
in pursuit of th(! hostile Sioux on the Missouri 
River, luider command of Gen Sully. It con- 
sisted of the Eighth Miim. (mounted)i six compa- 
nies of the Second Cavalry, three sections of 
Jones" Batfei'y, and Brackett"s Battalion of cav- 
alry, which had re-enlisted and was now organ- 
ized as a separate command. 

On June 14, the Sixth Regiment left Fort Snel- 
ling for the south, and was soon after placed in 
the Sixteenth Army Corps, in which was also the 



Fifth, Seventh, Ninth anil Tenth Miiiuesola reg- 
iments. The Fiftli liad, not long previously, 
taken a part in tlie disastroiis Red River cam- 
paign, and the N'iiith had home a share in tlie 
unfortunate tiunlown expedition ( Jmie in), where 
it suffered a loss of seven killed, thirty-three 
■\vounded. and two hiinilrcd and forty-six taken 

On Fil'. 1 the ^VMr Department had made a 
call for two liundvcd tliousand men, and on 
ilardi 14 anollicr call for the same number, fol- 
lowed by one in April for eighty-five thousand. 
The quota of our slate under these heavy calls 
was about live thousand men, and on May 20 
drafting connnenced to fill the quotas of some 
districts whicli \\ere delinquent. Tlie desire of 
some towns and districts to escape a di-aft led to 
the issuing of bonds, with tlie proceeds of whicli 
they paid higli ))ountics and prociued recruits. 
Subscriptions were raised in some districts for 
the same iiurpose. A class of middle men, called 
recruit, or bounty, agents, sprang up, wlio, in 
bidding for recruits, sometimes gave as high as 
?700 or ?H00 for men to fill quotas. Under this 
stimulus recruiting went on pretty lively, while a 
cousiderabh! number of men were drafted and 
sent to fill old regiments. On July IStli came an- 
other call for five hundred thousand, and tliis 
again luoduced a new struggle to fill (piotas. 
Tlie entire numlier of men apportioned to our 
state iqi U> this time was 21,442. 

That tlics(^ frequent and heavy drafts for men 
produced a I'eelingof doubt and despondency can 
not be denied. It was now the fourth year of the 
war, and its end still seemed far off, wliile its rapa- 
cious maw appeared to literally swallow iq) tlie 
enormous levies which the people in their pride 
and patriotism promptly furnished at each call. 
There was mouniiug in nearly every household 
for some "unretuniing brave," and siilTering in 
the families of enlisted men. 

The inllation of the ctirrency also produced 
an iiuheanl-of rise in the price of living. On 
June 1 gold was loO. On July 1 Ith it had reached 
28.5— the highest i)oint during the war. .Ml other 
values advanced accordingly. There was some 
sUver lining to the dark cloud, though. Tiie 
great advance in goods literally made the for- 
tunes of many dealers. Even real estate began 
to sliow life, while there was an ease in the money 

market which reminded one of 18.57. Several of 
our railroads ^^■ere now in active progress, and 
labor was in great demand. The continued 
drouth and low water was a serious drawback, 
however. Prayers were put up in most of the 
churches for rain. 

Small raids were made by the Sioux several 
times during the sniunier, and several persons 
killed, but these attacks occiisioued but little 

On July ]:>tli. oiu Fifth, Seventh, Ninth and 
TenUi Regiments were in the Rattle of Tupelo, 
and all suffered some loss. The Seventh had 
nine killed and fifty-two wnuiuled. Col. \\ilUiii. 
of the Xiiitli, was killed— one of the bravest and 
finest ollicers who left our stale. 

Under tlie call of JulylJ.'td. i.ij eleventh regi- 
ment of iufautiy was authorized, and filled very 
quickly. James Ciilfillan, formerly of the Sev- 
enth, was appointed colonel. The Eleventh left 
the state on Sept. 22d, for Tennessee, where it 
performed guard duty for several months. 

A battalion of heavy infantry was also re- 
cruited, which was soon increased to a full regi- 
iment. Wm. Colville, late of the First Regiment, 
was placed in command. The regiment served 
for several months at Cliatlanooga, Teun. 

The bullets of the enemy were not so disas- 
trous to .some of our regiments, as the malaria 
of southern swamps. Our Sixth Regiment at 
Helena, and the Third at I'ine Rluff, Ark., were 
both decimated by disi^ase. Sometimes only a 
handful of men were found well enough for duty. 

On October 5th, the Fourth Kegiment was in a 
heavy action at Altoona, and caiitured two flags. 
Their loss was killed, 13-, wounded, 31. 

On December 7th, the Eightli Regiment took 
part in an engagement near Wiirfreesboro, Teiiu- 
essee, in w liicli it lost 14 killed and 7() wounded, 
in a charge on the enemy's batteries. 

On December Kith, tlie Fifth, Seventh. Ninth 
and Tenth Regiments took ])art in the great bat- 
tle of Nashville, between Thomas's and Hood's 
armies. All suffered loss, though fortunately 
not severe. 

On December 19th, another call was made, for 
,300,000 troops, and the recruiting and bounty 
business grew more intense than ever, and con- 
tinued all w inter. 

Durhig this time, the patriotic people of our 



State were contiibutLng witli generous liberality 
to the Sanitary and Christian Commissions, to 
various relief movements, to special hospital 
fmids of our various regiments, for the support 
of destitute soldiers" families, and individual cases 
of distress without number. Ko State in the 
Union did more, proportioned to their means, in 
these works, than the people of ^linnesota. 


opened with more encouraging prospects. The 
large forces of the Union army were gaining sub- 
stantial victories. The successes of Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah '\'alley. Sherman in his historic 
march to the sea. " crushmg the confederacy like 
an eggshell," and Grant, doggedly consuming 
the enemy at Petersburg, were fast shattering 
the rebellion. In the siege of Spanish Fort, at 
Mobile, in April, the Fifth. Sixth. Seventh. 
Ninth, and Tenth Miimesota ^'olunteers bore an 
active and honorable part. 

Xot immingled with tears were the rejoicings 
over these victories. Every battle bulletin brought 
sorrow and mourning to many homes in our state 
On April 3d came the great news of the fall of 
Eiclimond. and on April Sth, while the people 
celebrating this event, the dispatch of General 
Grant annomicLng the unconditional surrender of 
Lee and his army was received, setting nearly 
everybody crazy with joy. On April 13th the 
provost marshals received an order to cease draft- 
ing and recruiting, and the war v as practically 
over. One of its saddest results was yet to come 
—the death of President Lincoln, on April l-5tli. 
This calamity was duly observed in all the towns 
of the State, on April 19th. by suspension of 
business, and religious sers'ices. These gloomy 
feelings were soon dispelled, however, by the 


early in the summer, and their muster out at Fort 
SneUing. As each of these bodies of brave men 
returned, they were received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of joy as a grateful people 
could devise. Quietly our soldiers "hung up 
their l)ruised arms,"" and were soon .again ab- 
sorbed into the body of the people. In all, Min- 
nesota had furnished to the armies of the repub- 

lic 2o.0.52 men. or about one-seventh of its entire 
population at the beginning of the war. Of 
these, it is estimated from the best data obtaina- 
ble, that 2500 were killed- in battle and died of 
disease during the war, while probably t%\'ico as 
many more received wounds from which they 
will sufEer through life. Many died shortly after 
the war, from the effects of disease or imprison- 
ment incurred in service. In her devotion to the 
cause of the T'nion, our State has a bright record. 

The state was almost free from Indian raids 
during all this year. Only one of any moment 
occurred. On May 2d a family of five persons 
named Jewett, were murdered near Garden 
City. A half breed named Campbell, who aided 
in the raid, was arrested at Maiikato several days 
afterward, and hung by a mob. 

The census of ls6o. showed a population of 
2o0.099 — a gratifying increase, considering the 
war of secession and the Indian war as draw- 

With the close of the war a new era of pros- 
perity seemed to have begun in the state. ^Nloney 
was abundant, immigration brisk, labor in de- 
mand, and real estate advancing. Our railroads 
were in rapid progress in all directions, and vil- 
lages and towns springing up everywhere. 

On Nov. 11th. at Fort Snelling. Shakopee and 
^ledicine Bottle, two Sioux convicted of takmg 
part in the massacre of 1862, were hung. They 
had fled to Manitoba, and were not caught until 

This fall much excitement was occasioned by 
the reported discovery of gold quartz at Lake 
A'ermillion. Several mining companies were 
formed, and veins opened ami worked, but the 
yield did not pay, and the mines were soon aban- 

The state election this year was very feebly 
contested. Two well-known old settlers were 
nominated for governor, but the vote was light. 
Wm. K. Marshall received 17.318 and Henry 
M.Kice 13,842. At the same election an amend- 
ment to the constitution was voted on. proposing 
to confer the elective franchise on negroes, but 
was defeated. 





i Penod or Inflktion.— Rapid lUilroad Conitruction.—Propoeetl R«mo%-&I of the 
Capltal..»Attrmpteil Ailjustment of the Railroad Bonds.— Le^iilatkre Contrtil 
of Freight Tariffs.— Prairie Fires in 1871.— An Arctic Cyclone. -■■lnii>eachment 
of State Treasurer.— The Jay Cook© Panic— Regulating Railroad Tariffs.— 
Oraashopper Ravages.— Suffering on the Frontier.— Relief Measures Adopted 
by tho Legislature -■■Murderous Raid by Missouri Outlaws.— Further Attempts 
to Adjust the Railroad Loan Delit.— End of the Grasshopper Scourge. —Return 
of " Oood Times," and Rapid tirowth tn Prosperity. 

The year 1866 was one of great financial ease. 
The large expenditure of money by the govem- 
ment. in the pay of disdiarged troops, bounties, 
and various war claims, made money unusually 

The railroads of the State were pushed this 
year with gieat vigor. By winter, 315 miles were 
in operation. There was a continuous line from 
St. Cloud, via Owatonna, to "Winona, a distance 
of 245 miles. These roads were an important 
element in aiding the .settlement and business 
of the State. Formerly the sole dependence for 
travel and freight had been on the river, and the 
winter was a season of dullness and depression. 
This was now largely changed. 

At the State election in the fall of 1867, Wm. 
R. ilarsliall liad 34.874 votes, and Charles E. 
Flandiau 2!i.oU2. This would indicate a popula- 
tion of about 320.000, showing a heavy immigra- 
tion during the yeais 1866 and 1867. At this 
election, a negro suffrage amendment was again 
voted on and defeated. The following year [1808] 
the amendment was a third time voted cm, and 
adopted; ayes, 39,493; noes, 30,121. 


At the session of the legislature in 1 869 , a bill 
was introduced to remove the seat of goveniiiicut 
to a spot near 15ig Kandiyohi Lake. The bill was 
at first regarded as a joke, and it met with small 
opposition, passing both houses with little delay. 
Gov. JIarsliall vetoed the measure, and an at- 
tempt to pass the act over his veto, failed. 

At this session, the legislature celebrated the 
completion of an aU-rail route to the east by a 

visit to Milwaukee, and to tlie Wisconsin legisla- 
ture at Mailison. 

At the state election in the fall of 1869, Horace 
Austin (rep.) was elected governor, by a vote of 
27,348, over George L. Otis (dem.), who had 

By the census of 1870, Minnesota was found to 
have 439,706 population. 


At the session of the Legislature in 1870, an 
act was passed snbmittuig to the people an 
amendment to the constitution, providing for the 
sale of the five hundred thousand acres of what 
was known as the " Internal Improvement 
Lands," and the use of the proceeds in extin- 
guishing the state railroad loan bonds, in the fol- 
lowhig manner: Two thousand of the bonds 
were to be deposited with the State Land Commis- 
sioner on or before the day of sale, by the hold- 
ers, they agreeing to purchase with them the 
lands at $h.70 per acre, etc. The amendment 
was adopted by a popular vote, but as only 1 ,032 
bonds were deposited by the owners, the measure 

The unusual low water of 1863, '64 and '65 had 
now given way to a series of years of the oppo- 
site extreme. In 187^ occurred great ft-eshets, 
doing much damage, and the water was repoiied 
■•higher than for twenty years." 

Railroad construction had been pushed with 
great vigor for the last year or two. At the close 
of 1870, there were 1.096 miles in operation, 329 
of which were built that year. A road had been 
completed to Lake Superior dui-ing the season, 
thus connecting the river and lake systems, while 
the Northern Pacific Railroad was under full 

During 1869 and '70, much ciinii)lalnt was made 
by shippera, of unjust charges by the railroads of 



the State. Governor Austin, in his message, 
January, 1871, called attention to the subject 
very pointedly. An investigation was made by a 
legislative committee, wliicli resulted in the en- 
actment of a freight and passenger tariff, and llie 
creation of the oflice of Railroad Commissioner. 
Tlie tariff so lixed was disregarded by the rail- 
roads, and in 1871, au action, as a sort of test 
case under the statute, was commenced by Jolm 
D. Blake, of Rocliester, against the Winona and 
St. Peter Railroad, for unjust freight cliarges. 
The presiding judge decided the act unconstitu- 
tional, but the Supreme Cotut of the State re- 
versed this decision, when tlie railroad company 
appealed the case to tlie Supreme Court of the 
United States. It was not until 1876 that a de- 
cision was rendered, sustaining the right of legis- 
lative control over railroad tariffs. 

An act was passed by the legislature of 1871 to 
"Test the validity and provide for tlie equitable 
adjustment" of the State railroad bonds, by the 
creation of a commission, to ascertain and award 
the amount due on each. The act was voted on 
in May following, and rejected by the people. 
Another important measure passed at the same 
session, was an act dividing up the 500,000 acres 
of Internal Improvement Land, among various 
railroad companies. This was vetoed by Gov. 
Austin. Two years later the constitution was 
amended so that no act disposing of these lands 
should be valid, unless api)roved by a vote of the 

In the fall of 1871, destructive fires, driven by 
high winds, swept over a number of frontier 
counties, lasting several days, and inflicting great 
damage on the settlers. Hundreds lost their 
houses, crops, hay, fences, etc., and several per- 
sons were burned to death. During the summer, 
many had also lost their crops by destructive hail- 
storms. Gov. Austin appealed to the people of 
the state, by proclamation, for aid for the suffer- 
ers. He received in response $1-4,000 in money, 
and clothing, provisions, etc., worth ?1 1,000 more, 
wliile the next legislature appropriated $20,000 
for the purpose of purcliasing seed wheat for 
those who had lost their crops. 

In November, 1871, Horace Austin was re- 
elected governor, by a vote of 45,yyo, over W. 
Young, who had ;S0,002. 

From 1870 to lS7o. was a period of great infla- 
tion and speculation. The money market was 
unprecedentedly easy, and real estate partook of 
the same excitement as characterized the flush 
limes (if is.jtj and 1857. Railroad building was 
carried ou to a remarkable extent, and the entire 
State was enjoying an unusual period of material 
progress and development. 

The winter of 1.S72-3 was an u)iusually early 
and severe one. On January 7th, 8th ami '.Kli. 
1878. occurred an " Arctic Cyclone", or ■■ I'olar 
AVave "■, of a violence and intensity never before 
exp-^rienced m this State. The worst effects were 
felt in the prauie region. Gov. Austin, in a spe- 
cial message to the legislature, reported that.sev- 
enty lives were lost, thirty-one persons suffered 
h)ss<if limbs, and about three hundred cattle and 
horses perished. The legislature voted as 
a relief finid to aid sufferers. 

During the session of 1873, charges of corrupt 
conduct and misdemeanors in office, were made 
against ^Viii. Seeger, State Treasurer. On March 
5tli, the House of Representatives impeached him, 
and the Senate, on being presented with the arti- 
cles, appointed May 20th as the date to sit as a 
Court of luipeachiiieiit. Prior to that date. Mr. 
Seeger resigned his oflice, and tJov. Austin ac- 
cepted the resignation. Wiieu the Senate met 
on May 20th, this fact left that body uncertain 
wlietlier to proceed with the trial or not. On 
Ma\ 22d, Mr. Seeger sent in a written plea of 
"guilty" to all the charges. A resolution was 
then adopted by the Senate, declaring that the 
judgment of the court was, tliat he be removed 
fn)m ofKce, and disqualified to hold and enjoy any 
oflice of honor, trust or profit in this State. 

On September 19th, 1873. the news was circu- 
lated in this State, of the failure of Jay Cooke's 
banking house in Philadelphia, occasioning a 
financial panic. Its effects here were far dif- 
ferent frohrtliose of the panic of 1857. There 
was some stringency in the money market, rail- 
road building ceased, and real estate was very 
dull for several years, but not a bank in the State 
closed its doors, and but few mercantile liouses 
failed. Immigration was large, good harvests 
added annually to the wealth of the State, and 
it advanced steadily in prosperity. 




During the siunmer of 1S73, :i species of frrass- 
liopper, called the "Rocky Mouiitaiii Locust," 
made its appearance in myriads, in some of the 
south-western counties, almost totally destroying 
the crops. Hundreds of families were /eft in 
great destitution. These facts being reported by 
the press, an energetic movement was made in 
the towns and cities in the eastern portion of the 
state, to send relief to the sufferers, and large 
quantities of clothing, provisions, medical sup- 
plies, etc., were collected and distributed to them, 
beside quite an amount of money. 

At the state electicm this year. Cusluaau K. 
Davis was elected governor, by a vote of 40,741, 
over .Vra Barton, who had 3o.245. 

When the Legislature of 1S74 assembled, it 
promptly voted $5,000 for the temporary relief of 
the frontier settlers, and on ilarch 2nd. a fiu-ther 
sum of S^OjOdd for the purchase of seed grain. 
A\'ith the aid thus furnished, the settlers planted 
their crops again, but soon the ground was fairly 
alive with young grasshoppers, hatched from eggs 
deiiosited the year previous. As soon as these 
were large enough, they laid bare the region 
about them, then fell on other localities near by, 
and thus destroyed the crops in a number of conn- 
ties again. The people were once more in a 
state of g;-eat destitution. 

Gov. Davis addressed a circular to the com- 
missioners of the counties not ravaged by the lo- 
custs, asldng them to advance money propor- 
tioned to their property, for a relief fund. Con- 
tributions were also solicited from the people of 
the state. By the latter, $18,959 was raised, to- 
gether with very large quantities of clothing and 
provisions, and forwarded to the sufferers. Even 
with this aid, there was much suffering the next 

The legislature of 1875, immediately on as- 
sembling, appropriated $20,000 for immediate 
relief, and later in the session, $75,000 for the 
purchase of seed grain. Only $49,000 of this was 
used. The farmers again planted their crops, in 
hope, but early in the summer they were, for a 
third time, destroyed. The situation now became 
serious. All the state was hegiiuiing to feel the 
effects of this calamity, thougli the i>orti()ns yet 
unharmed kept up an active collection and fur- 

warding of supplies for the destitute. Without 
this benevolent work, the sufl:eriiig would have 
been severe. 

]5y the state census this year, the population 
of Minnesota was fomid to be 597,407. At the 
state election, John S. PiUsbury was elected ( Jov- 
ernor, by a vote of 47,073, over D. L. liuell. who 
had oo,275. 

Tlie season of 1876 saw the grasshopper devas- 
tations rei)eated. and over a larger area than be- 
fore. The crops were more or less fi failure, 
and again an appeal was made to the benevolent 
people of the rest of the State for aid, whicli was 
liberally and cheerfidly responded to. 

On Septemlier (ith, a daring crime was perpe- 
trated at Xorthlield. A band of eight outlaws 
from Missouri, attacked the National Bank in 
that town, with the intention of robbing it. The 
cashier and another citizen were shot dead, and 
two of the robbers killed by persons who hastily 
armed themselves. The rest of the desperadoes 
fled, and, after a chase of several days, four of 
them were surrounded in a thicket in Watonwan 
county, where one was killed, and three taken 
prisoners. The latter, who were brothers named 
Younger, plead guilty of murder, and were sent 
to the State's Prison for life. 

The legislature of 1877 prepared an amend- 
ment to the constitution, providing for biennial 
sessions of that body, and the amendment was 
adopted by the people at the fall election. 

Five acts were passed at the same session, re- 
lating to the grasshopper scomge. One of these 
appropriated $100,000 for bounties to pay for the 
destruction of grasshoppers and their eggs. [This 
was never put into effect.] A State loan, to raise 
the money therefor, was also authorized. In ad- 
dition, townships or villages were authorized to 
levy a tax to pay similar boimties. Tlio sum of 
875.000 was also appropriated to purchase seed 
grain for those who had lost their croi)s, an 1 
$5,000 was voted for a special relief fund. 

At the same session was passed an ;ic'j provid- 
ing for the redemption of the State railroad 
bonds, by giving for each outstanding V)ond sur- 
rendered, a new bond for $1,750, at i)er cent, 
interest. The amendment was defeated at an 
election held on .Tune ]2tli. 

Early in the sunnncr [1K771 the grasshoppers 
appeared in myiiads again, and bc;,'an devouiiiig 



tie crops. The" farmers endeavored to destroy 
them by fires, ditching, and catching them in 
pans''smeared with tar. A day of fasting and 
prayer for riddance from. the cahimity, was ap- 
pointed by the Governor, and generally obsen^ed 
throughout the State. Soon after this, the grass- 
hoppers disappeared, and a partial harvest was 
secured in the region formerly afflicted by them. 
For five successive seasons, the farmers in that 
district had lost their crops, more or less entirely. 

In the fall of 1877, Gov. Pillsbury was re- 
elected Governor, receiving 57,071 votes, over 
Wm. L. Banning, who received 39.147. 

The legislature of 1878, appropriated S150.000 
to purchase seed grain for destitute settlers, the 
amovmts issued, to such, to be repaid by them. 
Over six thousand persons, in thirty-four counties, 
received loans imder this act. enough to plant 
223.727 acres. Most of these loans were repaid. 

At the same session an act was passed, propo- 
sing a constitutional amendment, offering to the 
holders of State railroad bonds. Internal Improve- 
ment Lands, in exchange for such bonds. The 

amendment was rejected l)y the people at the 
next election. 

During the >ear 1878, railroad extension, wliich 
had been almost suspended for four years, was 
renewed again with much vigor, and the mate- 
rial progress of the State was very marked, the 
western comities, especially, developing rapidly. 

At the election in 1879, John S. Pillsbury was 
re-elected Governor for a third term, by a vote of 
57.471, over Edmund Rice, who had 42,444, and 
other candidates, who received 6,401. 

On November loth, 1880, the Hospital for the 
Insane, at St. Peter, was partially destroyed by 
lire, and twenty-seven of the patients lost their 
lives, by burning, or in consequence of exposure 
and fi-ight. 

The census of 1880, showed a population in 
iliimesota, of 780.082. The assessors" returns 
give a valuation of real and personal property, of 
§268,277,874. These figures show a proud and 
gratifying condition of growth and prosperit)' in 
the short space of thirty-one years, since ilinne- 
sota began its political existence. 

Vi)\Vr SX7^]LLTNG 



If a visitor expects to see a stone fortification, 
bristling with cannon and prepared for defense 
against intrndersl)y land or water, he will be dis- 
appointed in Fort Snelling. If, on the other 
hand, he anticipates a pile of ruins overgrown 
with ivy, the remains of former greatness and 
strength, he will liiid himself as much deceived in 
that direction. No mark of cannon-ball or even 
musket shot exists. The fort has never sustained 
an attack. Some old buildings, it is true, are dis- 
used and look sadly forsaken, their places being 
supplied by new and more modern structures, 
still it would re(iuire some stretch of the imagina- 
tion to construe them into ruins. One of the 
officers, however, jokingly suggested that ivy be 
planted around the tower that in old time guarded 
the main entrance, pierced for two tiers of mus- 
ketry, and a ruin be made of it. This was a 
valuable suggestion, as in its present condition it 
performs no useful purpose, and is an eye-sore to 
the visitor. Tlius we see that the fort fails to at- 
tract, either by its military freshness or by a ruin- 
ous condition. It is simi)Iy a plain mihtaiy i)ost 
without display. It has, however, served a pur- 
pose, and it is now the historical landmark for 
the state and the north-west. Here was the first 
settlement, the first birth, lirst marriage and first 
death. Here was organi/eil tlie lirst church, here 
was the first fanning, first milling and first enter- 
prise of every khid. Around Fort Snelling clus- 
ter all the early associations of the stale. What 

matters it, if it has been a means of fraud on the 
national resources and a continual charge to the 
government? Had the paltry dollars been kept 
back, much would have been lost and the country 
made poorer not richer. As the skilful general 
in the hour of battle w'astes ammunition, pro- 
perty of all kinds and even lives of men that in 
a less critical hour lie would cherish, to accom- 
plish a result superior in importance to money or 
lives, so the government is often compelled to 
submit to much waste to achieve great ends. 
The fort stands on the blulfs of the Mississippi, 
whose pure white sandstone affords a strong con- 
trast to the dark waters below, as well as to the 
green banks above. The wide gorge through 
which the Father of Waters brings down the 
Hoods of the north is here greatly increased in 
width, after receiving the waters of its confluent, 
the Minnesota. Geologists tell us lliat once the 
Minnesota was the larger river, and that the Mis- 
sissippi was its tributary. They tell us, too. that 
the Mississippi once traversed a dilTerent I'ourse, 
leaving its present channel at the mouth of Bas- 
setfs Creek, and, taking a route through the 
Lakes Harriet and Calhoun, llowtd into the Min- 
nesota at some point between Shakopee and the 
fort. No historian, however, can confirm the 
testimony of the rocks, and the old fort cannot 
reach back far enough to aid in the research. 

We are indebted to the politeness of Colonel 
John (iibboii, the ofiicer in command, and to 
Adjutant Harding for the followiui,' history of 
the fort, piepared by S, R. Douglas, liiid Lieut,. 
Seventh Infantry, This will give tlie facts of the 
fort as it was, and as it is, except the improve- 
ments of the past year. The improvements con- 
sist of a bakery, a commissary stoie house and a 
stable, added at a cost of about 89,000, It will be 
necessary for us, however, to notice some im- 
provements lately made in the reservation, in 

consequence of the establishment of the head- 




quarters of the "Department of Dakota '' at tliis 

The '-Department of Dakota" was created A u;;. 
11th. ]866,oiitof thedepartmentsof the Missouri 
auil Platte, and I5revet Major General Alfred II. 
Terry assigned to command. May 18th. 1869, 
General Terry was succeeded by JSIajor General 
"Vrinfield S. Hancock. December 3d, 1872, the 
latter was succeeded by Brevet ISIajor (General, 
now Brigadier General. Alfred H. Terry. 

The Department of Dakota now includes the 
territories of ]SIontana and Dakota and the state 
of ^Minnesota. The object of the department is to 
facilitate the movement of troops, the distribution 
of supplies, etc., etc. The troops in this depart- 
ment are the Second and Seventh cavalry. Third. 
Fifth, Seventh. Eleventh. Seventeenth. Eigh- 
teenth and Twenty-iifth infantry. Tlie bead- 
quarters have been located at St. Paul since the 
creation of the department, with the exception of 
a short time when they were located at Fort 
Snelling. During the past year, extensive build- 
ings have been erected on the Fort Snelling res- 
ervation with a view to the establishment of the 
headquarters of tliis department there, near the 
military post. These improvements are still in 
progress, and, when complete, will add greatly to 
the beauty and usefulness of the reservation. 
Fourteen buildings, binlt of cream-colored brick, 
are nearly complete, and present a fine appear- 
ance. Tliey differ in architecture and are large 
and elaborate. The headciuarters building is a 
handsome structure. 

So mncli has been said, and is still to lie said. 

in this history in reference to Fort Snelling. that 

it has been thought best to insert the following 

report of the fort: 

FoKT Snklling. Minx., ) 
December 4th, 1879. ( 

To the Post Adjutant. Fort SiicUiny, Minn.: 

Silt: Pursuant to instructions from the com- 
mandmg officer, Fort Snelling, JNIinn., I have the 
honor to submit the following report, viz.: In 
1805, Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike, U. 
S. Army, was sent out to explore the upper Missis- 
sippi river, to expel British traders who might be 
found violating Fnited States laws, and to make 
treaties with the Indians. 

On the 21st of September, 1805, he encamped 
on what is now known as Pike Island, at the 

function of the Mississippi and Minnesota, then 
St. Petei-s. rivers. Two days after, he ol)tained 
by treaty with the Sioux nation, a tract of land 
for a military reservation, whicli was described 
as follows: "From below the conlluence of the 
Missii^sippi and St. Peter, up the Mississippi to 
include the Falls of St. Anthony, extending nme 
miles on each side of the river." By this treaty, 
as ratified by the senate, the United States stipu- 
lated to pay two thousand dollars for the lands 
thus ceded. 

The reserve, thus purchased by Lieutenant 
Pike, was not used for military jiurposes until 
February 10th. 1819. at whicli time, to cause the 
jiower of tlie United States government to be 
fully acknowledged by the Indians and settlers 
of the northwest, to prevent Lord Selkirk, the 
Hudson Bay Company and others, from establish- 
ing traduig poists on United States territory, to 
better the condition of the Indians, and to de- 
velop the resources of the coimtiy, it was thought 
expedient to establish a military post near the 
junction of the ^Mississippi and the St. Peters. 
Accordingly jiart of the Fifth United States In- 
fantry, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Henry 
Leavenwortli, was despatched to select a site and 
erect a post. They arrived at the St. Peters in 
September 1819, and went into cantoment on the 
south side of it. near where the tnwii nf Mendota 
now stands. 

Tlie first monthly report was rendered for Sep- 
tember, 1819. During the ensuing winter 1 1819-20) 
scurvy raged amongst the troops, referring to 
which, (ieueral II. II. Sibley, in his addi'ess before 
the Minnesota Historical Society, says: " So sud- 
den was the attack, that soldiers apparently 
in good hcaltli when they retired at night, were 
found dead in the morning. One man who was 
relieved from his tour of sentinel duty, and 
stretched himself upon a bench, when he was 
called four hours after, to resume his duties, was 
found lifeless." -In May. 1820, the command left 
their cantonment, crossed the St. Peters, and 
went into summer camp, at a spring near tlie 
old Baker trading house, and about two miles 
aliove the present site of Fort Snelling. This 
was called "Camp Cold Water." During the 
summer the men were busily engaged in procur- 
ing logs and other necessary materials for tlie 
work. All preparations were being made to com- 



mence building tlie new post, which was called 
"Fort St. Anthony;" the site selected heins that 
of the present military cemetery. But in August, 
1820, Colonel Josiah Snelling, 5th U. S. Infantry, 
having arrived ami assumed command, selected 
the site wliere Fort Snelling now stands. 

Work steadily progressed, the troops perform- 
ing the labor, and on September 10th, 1820, the 
corner stone of Fort St. Anthony was laid with 
due ceremony. 

During tlie following winter 1820-'21, the 
buildings of llie new post not being habitable, 
the tn)oi)s were cpiartered in the cantonment of 
the preceeding winter. 

The first measured distance between Fort St. 
Anthony and Fort Crawford. Prairie du Chien. 
was taken in February, 1S22, and was given as 
two hundred and four miles. 

Work on the jiost was pushed forward with all 
possil)le speed. The buildings were made of logs, 
and first occu])ied in October, 1S22. 

The first steamboat, the ^^irginia, arrived at 
the post in 1823. 

A saw-mill was built, the first in ^Minnesota, 
by troojis from the |iost, in 1822, and the first 
lunilx'r ever sawed on Rum river, was for use in 
the construction of the fort. Minneapolis imw 
includes the mill-site. 

The post continued to be called Fort St. An- 
thony until 1824, when, upon the recommendation 
of (ieneral Scott, U. S. A., who inspected the 
fort, it was named Fort Snelling, in honor of its 

In 1830 stone buildings were erected tor a four 
company infantry post, also a stone hospital and 
a stone wall nine feet high surrounding the post. 
Tliese l)uil(lings were not actually completed, 
however, until after tlie Mexican War. 

Xotwithstanding the treaty made by Lieuten- 
ant Pike, the Indian title to the Fort Snelling 
reservation, did not cease until the treaty of 1837, 
which was ratified by the senate in 1838, and by 
which the Indian claim to all lands east of the 
Mississippi, including said reservation, ceased. 

In 1836, before the Indian title ceased, many 
settlers located on the reservation, on the left 
bank of the Mississippi. 

On (October 2Ist, 1839, the president of the 
United States issued an order, by virtue of the 
act of March 3d, 1807, "An act to prevent settle- 

ments being made on lands ceded to the United 

States, until authorized by law." directing the 
United States marshal to remove squatters from 
the Fort Snelling reserve, and if necessary, to call 
on the commanding officer at Fort Snelling for 
troops to assist him in executing his order. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 6th of May, 1840, a few of these 
settlers, having received the necessary notice, 
were forcibly removed by the marshal, assisted 
by U. S. troops from the fort. 

In 1837, Mr. Faribault presented a claim 'for 
Pike Island, part of the reservation purchased by 
Lieutenant Pike in 180.5. Tliis claim was based 
on a treaty made by him with the Dakotas in 

A military reservation of seven thousand acres, 
at Fort Snelling. Minnesota, was set aside by the 
president, on May 2oth, 1853. In November fol- 
lowing, the president amended his act of May 
25th, and reduced the reservation to about six 
thousand acres. 

The first map of the Foit Snelling reserve was 
made by 1st Lieutenant James AV. Abert, corps 
engineer, in October, 1853. 

Pursuant to the act of March, 3d, 1857, wliicli 
extended the provisions of the act of Marcli lltth, 
1819, authorizing the sale of certain military sites, 
the secretary of war sold the Fort Snelling 
reserve, excepting two Small tracts, to Mr. Frank- 
lin Steele. 

The articles of agreement between the board 
appointed for the purpose on tlie part of the 
United States, and Mr. Steele, were dated June 
6th, 1857, and were approved on the second day 
of July, following. The reservation and build- 
uigs thereon were sokl for ninety thousand dol- 
lars, one-third t(i Ijc paid on July IDtli, ISo;, ;iii(l 
the balance in two etpial yearly instalhncnts. 
The first payment, $30,000, was actually made, 
July 25th, 1857, on which date Mr. Steele, in pur- 
suance of military authority, took possession of 
said property. The troops were withdrawn from 
the post previous to Mr. Steele's occupancy there- 
of. Mr. Steele having made default in the two 
remaining payments, the United States entered 
into possession and occupancy of the reservation 
and post, on April 23d, 1861. 

By act of August 26th, 1862, the Fort Snelling 
reservation was reduced and defined as follows: 
"Beginning at the middle of the channel of the 



Mississippi river below l'ike"s Island; tlience 
asceiulinfr along the clianiiel of said liver in such 
diieetion as to iiidude all the islands of the 
river to the mouih of Brown's creek, thence up 
said creek to IJice lake; thence through the mid- 
dle of l{icc lake to the outlet of Lake Amelia; 
thence through said outlet and the nnddle of 
Lake Amelia to the outlet of Mother lake; 
thence through said outlet and the middle of 
Mother lake to the outlet of Duck lake; thence 
through said outlet and the middle of Duck lake 
to the soutliern extremity of Duck lake; thence 
in a line due south to the middle of the channel 
of the St. Peter's river; thence down said river 
so as to include all the islands to the middle of 
the channel of the Mississippi river; reselling 
further, for military purposes, a quarter section 
on the right Ijank of the St. Peter's river, at the 
present feny, and also a quarter section on the 
left bank of the JSIississippi river, at the present 
fen-y across that stream.'' 

Mr. Steele presented, on February Olh, 1SG8, a 
claim against the United States government for 
the possession and occupancy by United States 
troops, of said post and reservation; which claim 
exceeded in amount the original purchase with 

By act of May 7th, 1870, the secretary of war 
was authorized "to select and set apart for a per- 
manent military post, so much of the military 
reservation of Port Snelling, not less than one 
thousand acres, as the public interest may require 
for that purpose, and to quiet the title to said 
reservation, and to settle all claims in relation 
thereto, and for the use and occupation thereof, 
upon principles of equity.'' In pursuance of 
which act, the secretary of war set apart for a 
permanent military reservation, lifteen hundred 
and thirty-one and twenty hundredths acres, de- 
fined as follows: 

'■Beginning at a point where the south line of 
the north-east quarter of the north-east quarter of 
section tlmly-two, township twenty-eight north, 
of range twenty-three west of the fourth princiiial 
meridian, intersects the middle of the main chan- 
nel of the Minnesota river; thence west to the 
south-west cornerof the north-west (juarterof sec- 
tion thirty-two, town and range afoiesaid; thence 
north to the north-west corner of section twenty, 
town and range aforesaid; thence east to middle 

of the main channel of the Mississippi river; 
thence along the main channel of the Mississippi 
river and the conlluence of the ^lississippi and 
Minnesota rivers at the head of Pike Island and 
the middle of tlie Minnesota River, to the place 
of begiiHiing. including the otlicers" quarters, bar- 
racks, &c.'' 

A reserve of ten acres granted by the United 
Stiites to the Catholic Churdi at Mendota for a 
cemetery, was also reserved. Mr. Steele executed 
full release of all claim whatsoever to this prop- 
erty, and for the use or occupation of all property 
sold to iiim per agreement dated June (ith, 18.57; 
in consideration of which, the I'nited States re- 
leased 'My. Steele fi'om all indebtedness on the 
jiurchase made by him, and griuited and con- 
veyed to liim the remainder of the so-called Fort 
Snelling reservation excepting one small tract, 
which is defined as follows: 

"All of section nineteen, thirty and thirty- 
one, and all that part of section eigliteen lying 
south of Minnehaha creek, and all that part of 
section seventeen lying soutli of Minnehaha 
creek and west of the ISIississippi river; all that 
portion of section twenty, lying east of the main 
channel of the Mississippi river, including the 
islands east of said main channel, and the south- 
west ([uarter of the northwest quarter, and all 
that pcirtiuu of the southwest quarter and of the 
northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion twenty-one which lies east or northeast of 
the main channel of the Mississippi river, and 
all those portions of sections twenty-one, twenty- 
two and twenty-eight lying on Pike's Island so- 
called, being the entire island, and all that other 
portion oi section twenty-eight which lies east 
and south of the Minnesota river, except twenty 
acres, being the south half of the southeast quar- 
ter of the northeast quarter of said section, the 
same being reserved for a Catholic Cliurcli and 
bm-ial grovuid, where the church and burial 
ground now -;ire; all that portion of the south 
half and of the south half of the nortli half 
of section thirty-two which lies west or north- 
west of the Minnesota river; all tlie above 
described lands being in township twenty-eight 
north, of range twenty-three west of the fourth 
principal meridian. Also all that portion of sec- 
tion thirteen, lying south of JNlinnehaha and Rice 
Liike and east of the creek running between said 



Rice Lake and Lake Amelia and east of said 
Lake Amelia, and all land in section twelve that 
may be included in said boundaries. All of sec- 
tion twenly-foiir lyini; east of the westoin bound- 
ary of said reservation {••reserve selected"") and 
any iiortion of section twenty-three that lies east 
of the creek joining Mother Lake and Lake Ame- 
lia, and the east lialf of section twenty-live and 
the eiust h.alf of section thirty-six. all in township 
twenty-eisht north, of ranjje twenty-lour west of 
the foin-th nieridaii. .Mso all that portion of sec- 
tliiii live wliich lies west or northwest of the Min- 
nesota river; all of section si.x ; all that portion 
of section seven which lies north of the Minneso- 
to river, and all those jiortions of sections eight 
and eighteen wlii<'h lie west and nortli of the Min- 
nesota river; all in township twenty-seven north, 
of ranije twenty-tlnee west. 

Also the east half of section one, and the east 
half of section twelve, and all that portion of the 
east half of section thirteen which lies north and 
east of the Minnesota river ; all in township twen- 
ty-seven north, of range twenty-four west. 

The action of the secretai-y of war in selecting 
said reservation and buildings and conveying the 
above spccilied lands to Mr. Steele, was approved 
by the president on .Jaiuiary 4th. 1871. 

A stone prison was erected during the war of 
the rebellion, which is now used as a commissary 

The old stone hosi)ital is now used for ollices 
and laundress" cpiarlers. The new hospital is just 

Fort Snelling is situated on a high blulT on the 
right bank of the Mississippi, in hititude )l (leg. 
52 mill. 4fi sec. north, and longitude ii3deg. 4 niin. 
54 sec. west. It is an irregular shaped bastioncd 

A wagon road runs entirely around the jiost, 
and is eight feet below the parade at tlu^ gorge, 
but gradually arives on the same level at the 
shoulder angle. 

The iild post is almost enclosed by live build- 
ings, and in form is nearly a rhomlius, with a 
tower at each angle. 

A new twii-story barracks for six companies of 
infantry and si.\teen sets of oflicers' (puirters 
was liuilt during isTK. The east tower, stone 
wall, and old guard house, have been torn (l(^wn. 

The commanding officer's quarters have been re- 
modeled during the current year. 

The water is obtiiined from a spring aliout 
three-(iuarters of a mile from the iiost. by means 
of water wagons. Water is also obtained from 
the .Minnesota river, being forced through pipes 
by an engine, into a large tank on the west side 
of tlie jiarade groimd. but the water thus obtained 
is unlit for drinking purposes. During extreme 
cold weather the water pipes free-/.e up, rendering 
it impossible to relUl the tank except during the 
open weather. 

There is a post-othce, a telegraph ollice and a 

railroad station at the post. 


The nearest supply depots are at St. I'aul, four 
miles distant from the post, by wagon road, and 
six miles by railroad. A bridge is building across 
the Mississippi river at the post. 

Forage and fuel are obtained by contract. The 
post and company garden supply vegetables for 
the garrison. 

The armament consists of two three-inch rilled 
cannon, with carriages, model of 1861. The 
present strengtli of the garrison is sixteen com- 
missioned officers and three hundred and fourteen 
enlisted men. 

It is impossible to obtain from the records of 
the post, the various expenditures for barracks 
and (piarters,and repairs of same, forany deliinile 
period. All that I have been able to obtain 
is that thirty-five thousand dollars was 
appropriated for barracks and quarters in 1878. 
It is presumed, however, that tlie re(|uired in- 
formation can be ol)tained at the (luarlermaster 
general's office. The work, practically, with 
few exceptions, has been perfonued liy the labcu' 
of the trooi>s, and the cost to the government 
cannot be correctly estimated. 

A site has been selected on the Fort Snelling 
reservation upon which to erect buildings for the 
headcpiarters of the department. 

Th.e records of the post are very incomplete. 
It seems, from all attainable evidence, that the 
records were removed in I8.'>7. when the troops 
were withdrawn, and have not l)een returned. 
It further appears that these records had not been 
rev-eived by the adjutant general of the army 
])rior to .July IKtli. ISiKi. The last board of 
officers ap|"iinle(l to investigate claims on the 



Fort Snclliiig reservation met pui-suaiit to S. O. 
]S:o. 278 A. (;. O. dated October 17tli, 1870. I 
have been unable to lind any general order re- 
fcrrina: to tbo reservation of 1853 or LSOii, or re- 
furring to lands sold in 18.57 and 1870. 

The reservation of 1870 was announced in 
General Order Xo. ()(>. Adjutant (ienerars ofiice 
of that year, and was lirst surveyed by Caiilain 
D. P. Heap, corps of engineers, on A)>ril loth. 
1871. A new line for the sonthem boundary was 
run by First Lieutenant Edward Maguire, corps 
of engineers, on May 7tl!. 1S77. 

I respectfully submit tlie foregoing, believing 
it will cover a few of the points reipured. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your oljedient ser- 
vant. S. R. Douglas, 

Second Lieutenant Seventh Infantry. 

It has already been intimated tliat Fort Snell- 
ing was the point of departure for every enter- 
prise connected with the nortli-west, and in addi- 
tion to the matter already given with reference 
to events that there took jdace, we may with in- 
terest add others. Missionary enterprise for the 
north-west began among the Ojibwas of the 
north, in 1881. The region of country about 
Lake Superior and along the northern borders 
of the United States, had been longer open l]y 
reason of trading-posts, and tlie safer and more 
approachable cliaracter of the tribes. Tlie fierce, 
wld traits of the Sioux had repelled tlie .Jesuit 
missionaries, as well as all other efforts for their 
good, until 18.34. when two determined yoiuig 
men appeared on the scene, destined to prove 
superior to all obstacles. These were the mission- 
aries now so well known to all ac(iuaint6d with 
the history of the north-west, l)y their clerical 
names, Kev. S. W. Pond and his Ijrother, Rev. 
Gideon H. At this time, however, they were 
young adventurers in tlie Christian work, without 
profession or patronage save that of the blaster 
in whose vineyard they set at work, devoting 
their lives to His service. 

They arrived by steamboat at Fort Snelling, 
May 6th, 1834, self-ecpdpped and commissioned to 
labor for the Sioux. Major Taliaferro, the In- 
dian agent, was absent on their arrival at the fort, 
but they obtained a room in one of the agency 
houses of the post, by feeing the mercenary sub- 
agent in charge. To exhibit some of the trials 

to which the brothers were immediately exposed. 
we give .some of Rev. S. W. Pond's reminiscences. 
"We had not been at the agency house at the 
fort long. l)efore Majoi- Bliss sent his orderly, re- 
(piiring us to appear lietVire him and give an ac- 
cdut of ourselves. I, of course obeyed the man- 
date, and he told me it was bis duty to exclude 
from the Indian country all who were not author- 
ized to 1)6 here. Having no authority to show, I 
handed him ^Ir.Kenfs letter .which he pronounced 
unsatisfactory, for he said though Mr. Kent 
was a reliable man being the Presbyterian cler- 
gyman at Galena, his acquaintance wastoosliort 
for him to know much about me. I then handed 
him a private letter from General Hriusmaid. a 
man well known in New England, and also a let- 
ter from the postmaster of my native place. 
These letters he said were perfectly satisfactory, 
so far as our character was concerned. He then 
asked me what our plans w'ere. I told him we 
had no plans except to do what seemed most for 
the benefit of the Indian. He told me then that 
the Kaposia Viand wanted plowing done, and had 
a plow and oxen, but could not use them, so I 
volunteered to go dciwn and help them, and then 
hastened back to the agency house to tell Gideon 
how I liad succeeded with the major, for I knew 
that his mind would be in a state of anxious sus- 
pense. These little things may seem now hardly 
worth relating, but whether we \\ere to stay here 
or be driven away, depended on the result of that 
interview with the major. We were in fact in- 
truders, and had no right to be here. The mis- 
sionaries of the board did not come here without 
authority from the secretary of war. Major 
Plympton, who succeeded Major Bliss in com- 
mand, received orders to remove all persons 
from this region who were not authorized to be 
liere, but we were not molested. From the time of 
my first interview with jMajor Bliss, he and Mm. 
Bliss were our true friends and when I returned 
from Kaposia,_they invited me to reside in their 
family, and instruct their son, a boy eight or ten 
years old, but I had other work to do. AVhen the 
Indians learned that I would plow for them they 
took down the plow in a canoe, and I drove 
down the oxen. At Kaposia, the chief was Big 
Thunder, the father of Ta-o-ya-te-du-ta, called by 
the whites erroneously Little Crow, and the chief 
soldiei' was Big Iron These two held the jilow 



alteiiiatcly, wliilf I drove the oxoii. I siippoHc 
tlicy were the lirst J>;ikotas wlioever lieki a [ilow. 
The clogs, or Indians, stole my provisions the first 
nisht I was there, and I did not 'fare snmptu- 
ously every day," for food \\as scarce and not 
very palatable. About the time I returned from 
Kaposia, Major Taliaferro arrived and seemed 
glad to find us here. Xo more was said about 
rent, and we kept the key to oin- room till our 
house was Ihiislied at Lake Calhoun. This was a 
great convenience for us, for before that time, 
neitlier provisions nor clotlihig were safe at the 
lake. We told the agent tliat we wislu'd to build 
a house near some village, and he advised us to 
build at Lake Calhoun, and after in.\ lirolher 
plowed for the Indians a few days, we conuncnccd 
building where the pavillion now stands. ( )\\ inji 
to our inexperience we wasted a great ileal of 
labor. We put up a building of large oak logs 
that might have stood fifty years, but we could 
have built a more comfortable house afterwards 
with half the labor. Five years after, we lised 
the tinil)er to build a breastwork for the Indians. 
While building we occupied a temporary shelter 
in the woods, where we were constantly sur- 
rounded by a cloud of mus(iuitoes, and, as my 
l)rolher's health was not good that summer, the 
laborious days and restless nights almost wore 
him out, but when our house was finished it 
seemed like a palace to us after living a few weeks 
in that keiniel. and we were no longer compelled 
to walk eight miles and l)ack every week, to the 
agency-house to get a supply of food, for we 
now had a safe place to store our clothing 
and provisions. JIajor Taliaferro gave us a 
window-lock and an ax, and Mrs. Bliss sent 
us a ham, and Major Uliss gave us potatoes to 
plant the next spring. That was all the pecuui. 
ary aid we received or wished to receive, and 
when the agent offered us a stove we preferred to 
build a fire-place, for while we felt grateful for 
the favors we received, we wished to maintain a 
spirit of independence. We had the use of oxen, 
but we used them chicllv for the Indians and to 
take care of them through the winter. Hut 
though we did not receive and should not have 
accepted much pecuniary aid if it had been offered 
us, the inlluence of friends hi our favor was of 
great advantage to us, for it was needed to coun- 
teract the elTorts of others to e.xcite the prejudice 

of the Indians against us, and we congratulated 
ourselves on the timely arrival of Mr. Sibley at 

Lake Calhoun was within the Fort Suelling 
reservation and thus was established the lirst 
mission, not only for the fort, but for the whole 
country of the Sioux. 

Rev, T. S. Williamson, M. D., and Ifev. .J. I). 
Stevens, with their wives and associates, Mr. 
Ilnggins and Miss Poage, arrived at Fort Snell- 
iiig in May, 1835, under the auspices of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. Dr. Williamson came by the Missis- 
sippi from the mouth of the ( )liio,aiid Mr. Stevens 
came tlirough Lake Michigan to (ireen Bay, 
thence by the Fox and Ouisconsiu (then so 
spelled) rivers to Prairie dii Chien, thence to Fort 
Suelling by tlie Mississipjii. Major Bliss in com- 
mand. Major Loomis, Major Taliafero,and all at 
the fort welcomed their arrival. During their 
continuance at the fort and before proceeding to 
the stations selected at Lac qui Parle and Lake 
Harriet, about a month elapsed. 

In June they organized a Christian cliiirch, to 
which eight persons connected with the garrison 
and who had been hopefully converted during the 
preceding winter and si)ring, were admitted on 
profession, together with six others, who had 
been members of other churches. The elders of 
the ■church were Col. Gustavus Loomis, Hon. II. 
H. Sil>ley, tlien a young man who had lately as- 
sumed charge of the trading post at .Mendota, A. 
G. Huggins and S. W. Pond. "On the second 
Sabbath in .June, these with tlie mcmlK'rs fif the 
mission families, amounting to twenty-two in all, 
sat down in the wilderness to communicate the 
dying love of the Savior of sinners, hinidreds of 
miles in advance of where a similar scene had 
ever before been witnessed or enjoyed." It is in- 
teresting to follow out this feeble beginning. 
Suffice it to say, the First Presbyterian Church 
in Minneapolis, of which 1). M. Stewart, 1). I)., is 
pastor, is a continuation or perpetuation of the 
old church at the fort. 

In \>i'2.'l, to supply the demand of the fort, a mill 
was erected at the Falls of St. Anthony to saw 
lumber, and to this was added, in 1823, stones 
for grinding corn for provender. Thus the fort 
opened enterprise in the direction of manufac- 
tures. This old stone mill, partially hid by shrub- 



bery, was Ions a l:""' iiiiii'l<- '"it its simple struc- 
ture inodiiced small results in tlie way of sawing 
or grindin;^. A small house was built near tlie 
mill for tlie occupany of those employed in its 
operation; and here, when the settlement after- 
wards began, was a small, cultivated tract,which, 
witli the mill, was under the charge of one called 
"Old Maloney," who was aided, as required, by 
soldiers from the fort. 

Hon. Robert Smith, member of congress from 
Alton district, Illinois, wrote, Felrt'uary loth, 
1849, from the house of represent^itives, to the 
commissioner of Indian atfairs. expressing a wish 
'•to lease for live years the old government house 
and gi'ist and saw-mill, on the west side of the 
Mississippi river, opposite the Falls of St. An- 
thony." In the letter he adds: "I shall move 
into the territory of Minnesota after the adjourn- 
ment of congress, and I wish to procure this 
house for my family to live in, and to fix up the 
old grist mill to grind corn and othergrain. there 
being no grist-mill now in that region of coun- 

Tills led to correspondence between Major 
AVoods, in command at the fort, and the secretary 
of war, and also other letters. A letter descrip- 
tive of the property at that time is here Lntro- 
duced, but the details must be taken with many 
grains of allowance, as the writer was in league 
with the grasping congressman, to descry the 
property and obtain it for a song. 

In Septeml)er. Mr. Smith had asked the privi- 
lege of purchasing tlie liuiklings, and in March, 
1S53, Captain X. J. T. Dana, quartermaster at 
Fort Snelling. wrote to the quartermaster-general 
at AVashinglon: '-I returned to tliis on the 
20tli instant, and on the next day visited the old 
mill and buildings belonging to the quartermas- 
ter's department, and now in possession of Hon. 
Kobert Smith, and I submit the following as my 
opinion of the value of the buildings to the gov- 
ernment at the time when ilr. Smith received 
them. The old stone grist-mill, the building 
somewhat dilapidated, the water-wheel worn out 
entirely, but the other machmery, mcluding two 
mill-stones, good, was worth S400. The old 
frame of a saw-mill, greatly decayed, together 
with the mill-irons on it and extra posts, mostly 
worn out, $100. The one-story frame building, 
much decayed, $200. Fences and races, much de- 

cayed, |50." The result of the negotiation was 
the jiurchase by Mr. Smith of the improvement, 
and a permit granted him from the secretary of 
war to make a claim including the same, although 
at this time the land formed a part of the Fort 
Snelling reserve. 

Tlie jiurpose of tlie grant was that ilr. Smith 
should operate the mill for the benefit of the gov- 
ernment, in supplying provender for Fort Snell- 
ing. This jnirpose was carried out by Mr. Smith 
by placing Reuben Bean in charge to operate the 
mill, soon after substituting Calvin A. Tuttle. 
who continued several years. The ostensible pur- 
pose of moving to Minnesota, and personally oc- 
cupying the buildings and land, was never car- 
ried out on Mr. Smith's part, for he remained in 
Illinois until his death, representing Alton dis- 
trict in tlie house of representatives at Washing- 

Soon after the erection of Fort Snelling. the 
fur trade of the northwest, which had previously 
been carried on by the way of the lakes, took the 
great river as one important avenue, and the fort 
became the rendezvous of traders and speculators, 
forming then' channel of communication and 
base of supplies. 

I'nder the shelterhig wing of the fort also 
sprung up. on the reserve, cabins and small 
farms, some of wliicli were occupied by French 
Canadians, who here took a rest from their voy- 
aging, living with the sipiaws. with whom they 
seem to have mated as easily as birds in the 
spring. Others were occupied by half-breeds, 
very similar in character to the former, but the 
Swiss refugees, from Lord Selkirk's colony, were 
by far the most interesting and important of these 
squatters. Induced by the flattering representa- 
tions of Lord Selkirk, a large settlement bad been 
formed on the Red river, in the Hudson Bay ter- 
ritory, from the Swiss and Scotch. After suffer- 
ing untold privations from cold, hunger, 
floods and the strife between the two great fur 
companies of the north, this colony was broken 
up and the individuals that constituted it found 
homes at various points within our territories. 
Many located near Dubuque, but a few about 
Fort Snelling. and to this exodus from the north 
we must ascribe our first settlement. Some of 
these became farmers with no small pretensions. 
Ferry, who located on the limits of the reserve, 



at tlie cave, near St. Paul, was called the Abra- 
luini of the country, in coiise(iupnce of his large 

Near him also lived Benjamin Garvais and his 
brother Pierre, wlio had farms with considerable 
improvements. After occupying their comfort- 
able homes for nearly ten years, in obedience to 
an imperative order from the war department, 
these inoffensive settlers were forced to abandon 
their lands and improvements and seek other 
homes. We cannot forbear tender sympathy for 
these ^i!nple peojile, whose misfortunes had al- 
ready l>een so great, when we see them the vic- 
tims of new trouble. The instructions of the 
war department, reiterated October 31st, 1S39, 
were, however, imperative and inexorable, and it 
is probable that the unwarranted force exercised 
was necessary to compel obedience to the military 

On May «th, 1840, Edward James, United 
Slates marshal for the territory of Wisconsin, 
called on the commanding officer of Fort Snelling 
for troops, liy his deputy Bruiison, and the set- 
tlers were forcil)ly and hastily removed. On the 
following day their cabins were destroyed. Thus 
rendered homeless and shelterless, they sought 
new aliodes. Perry. Gervais, Clewette, Hondo 
and some others made claims and settled at St. 
Paul, while others removed to Wisconsin. 

A large portion of what is now ilinneapolis 


was included in the reservation, and there, similar 
events were enacted some years later, when 
squattere began to encroach < in that portion of 
the reserve. The permits granted to a few to 
locate on the reserve opposite the Falls of St. 
Anthony, encouraged settlers to make claims and 
locate tliere in anticipation of the reduction which 
it seemed probable was near at hand. It is un- 
fortunate that it must be recorded of the oUicers 
in charge, that their rough treatment in the exe- 
cution of orders were often executed in an arbi- 
trary and tyranical manner, unless we discredit 
the universal testimony of the well known settlers 
of respectability thus dispossessed. In addition 
to pulling down their shelters and threatening 
the occupants with the guard-house in case they 
re-built, the officei-s were guilty of corruption and 
received bi'ibes from the sipiatters in the form of 
notes or agreements to pay when their claims 
were established. 

In these various w\ays the history of our cities, 
the settlement of the country at large, and even 
farming and manufacturing find in Fort Snell- 
ing their origin and lirsl progress. The perusal 
of the following pages will exhibit much more 
fully the intimate connection between Fort Snell- 
uig and the development of the north-west, and, 
although its influence is a thing of the past, its 
history will always remain a matter of present 




1659. Groselliers {(iro-zay-yay) and Kadisson 
visit Minnesota. 

1661. Menaid, a Jesuit missionary ascends tlie 
Mississippi, according to Perrot. twelve years lie- 
fore JSIarquette saw the river. 

166.5. Alliinez. a .Jesuit, visited the Minnesota 
shore of Lake Superior. 

1680. Du Lutb in June, the first to travel in 
a canoe from Lake Superior, by w'ay of the St. 
Croix river, to the ^Nlisssissippi. Descending the 
Mississippi, he writes to Seignelay Ln 16.So: '-I 
proceeded in a canoe two days and two nights, 
and the next day at ten o'clock iu the morning"" 
he found Aecault, Angelle, and Father Hennepin, 
with a hunting party of Sioux. He writes: "The 
want of respect wiiich they showed to the said 
Reverend Father provoked me, and this I showed 
them, telling them lie was my brother, and I had 
him iilaced in my canoe to come with me into the 
villages of said Nadouecioux." In September, 
Du Lnth and Hennepin were at the falls of St. 
Anthony on their way to Mackinaw. 

1683. Perrot and Le Sueur visit Lake Pepin. 
Perrot with twenty men, Iniilds a stockade at the 
base of a bluff, upon tlie east bank, just above the 
entrance of Lake Pepin. 

1688. Perrot re-occupied the post on Lake 

1689. Perrot, at Green Bay, makes a formal 
record of taking possession of the Sioux country 
in the name of the king of France. 

1693. Le Sueur at the extremity of Lake Su- 

1694. Le Sueur builds a post on a prairie 
island in the Mississippi, about nine miles below 

169.5. Le Sueur brings the first Sioux chiefs 
who visited Canada. 

1700. Le Sueur ascends tlie Minnesota river. 
Fort L'lluillier built on a tributary of Blue Earth 

1702. Fort L"IIuillter abamloned. 

1727. Fort Beauharnois, in the fall of the 
year, erected in sight of Maiden's Rock, Lake 
Pepin, by I^a Perriere du Boucher. 

1728. A'erendye stationed at LakeXepigon. 

1731. A'erendrye's sons reach Rainy Lake. 
Foi-t St. Piei-re erected at Rainy Lake. 

1732. Fort St. Charles erected at the south- 
west corner of the Lake of the Woods. 

1731. Fort Maurepas estalilished on Winnipeg 

1736. A'erendrye's son and others massacred 
by the Sioux on the isle iu the Lake of tlie Woods. 

1738. Fort La Heine on the Red River estab- 

1 743. \^erendrye's sons reach the Rocky Moun- 

1766. Jonathan Carver, on X^ovenilier 17tli, 
reaches the Falls of St. Anthony. 

1704. Sandy Lake occupied by the Xortb- 
west Company. 

1802. William JNIorrison trades at Leech Lake. 

1804. WilUam Morrison trades at Elk Lake, 
now Itasca. 

1805. Lieutenant Z. il. Pike purchases the 
site since occupied by Fort Snelling. 

1817. Earl of Selkirk passes through Minne- 
sota for Lake Wimiipeg. 

Major Stephen 11. Long, I'. S. A., visits Falls 
of St. Anthony. 

1818. Dakotah war party under Black Dog, 
attacks Ojibways on the Pomme de Terre river. 

1819. Col. Leavenworth arrives on the 24th of 
August, with troops at Mendota. 

1820. J. B. Faribault brings up to Mendota, 

horses for Col. Leavenworth. 




Laidlow, supciiiiteiKleiit of farmiiift for Earl 
Selkirk, passes from I'einlniia to Frairiedu Cliien 
to pm-cliase seed wheat. Upon the 15th of April 
left Prairie du riiicii with mackinaw boats and 
ascended the Minnesota to Dig Stone Lake, where 
the boats were placed on rollers and dra^fjed a 
short distance to Lake Traverse, and on the 3tl 
of June reached Pembina. 

On the 5th of Way Col. Leavenworth estab- 
lished summer quarters at Camp Coldwater, Hen- 
nepin eountj'. 

In July, tJovenior Cass, of Micliisan, visits the 

In Aufiust, Col. Sneiling succeeds Leaven- 

September :J(itli. corner stone laid under com- 
mand of Col. Snelliuf,'. 

First white marriage in Minnesota. Lieutenant 
Green to a daughter of Cai)tain Gooding. 

First white child born in Minnesota, daughter 
of Col. Snelling; died following year. 

1821. Fort St. Anthony was sufficiently com- 
pleted to be occui>ied by troops. 

^lill at St. Anthony Falls constructed for the 
use of garrison, under the supeiTision of Lieuten- 
ant McCabe. 

1822. Col. Dickson attempted to take a di-ove 
of cattle to Pembina. 

1823. The first steamboat, the ^'irginia, on 
May lOtli, arrived at the mouth of the iliunesota 

Mill stones for grinding flour sent to St. An- 
thony Falls. 

Major Long, U. S. A., visits the norllicrn 
boundary by way of the ^Minnesota and Ilcil 

Beltrami, the Italian traveler, explores the 
northenmiost source of the ^Mississippi. 

1824. General Winfield Scott inspects Fort 
St. Anthony, and at his suggestion the war de- 
partment changed the name to Fort Snelling. 

182-3. Ai)ril oth, steamboat Rufus Putnam 
reaches the Fort. May, steamboat Rufus Put- 
nam arrives again and delivers freight at Land's 
End trading post on the Minnesota, about a mile 
above the Fort. 

1820. January 2(ith, Inst mail in five months 
received at the Fort. 

Deep snow during February and March. 

March 2flth, snow from twelve to eighteen 

April •5th, snow storni with Mashes of light- 

April null, thcnniinicter foiu' degrees above 

April 21st, ice began to move in the river at 
the Fort, and with water twenty feet above low 
water mark. 

May 2d, first steamboat of the season, the l^aw- 
rence, Captain Reeder, took a pleasuic party to 
within three miles of the Falls of St. Anthony. 

1.S2G. Dakotahs kill an Ojibway near Fort 

1S27. Flat Mouth's party of Ojibways at- 
tacked at Fort Snelling, and Sioux delivered by 
Colonel Snelling to be killed by Ojiliways. and 
their bodies thrown over the bluff hito the river. 

General Gaines inspects Fort Snelling. 

Troops of the Fifth Regiment relieved liy those 
of the First. 

1828. Colonel Snelling dies in Washington. 

1829. Rev. Alvan Coe and J. D. Stevens, 
Presbyterian missionaries,visit the Indians around 
Fort Snelling. 

Major Taliaferro, Indian agent, establishes a 
farm for the benelit of the Indians at Lake Cal- 
houn, which he called Eatonville, after the sec- 
retary of war. 

Winter, Spring and Summer very dry. One 
inch was the average monthly fall of rain or 
snow for ten months. Vegetation more back- 
ward than it had been for ten years. 

1830. August Utli. a sentinel at Fort Snell- 
ing, just before daylight, discovered the Indian 
(■(unii-il house on lire. \\'a-)ia-sha's son-in-law 
was the incendiary. 

Cadotte and a half-breed called 'LiUlc French- 
man" killed on the St. ("roix by Sioux Indians. 

1831. August 17th, an old trader. Uocqne, 
and his son arrived at Fort Snelling from Prairie 
du Chien. having lieen twenty-six days on the 
journey. I'ndcr the inlluence of whiskey or stu- 
pidity, they ascended the St. Croix by mistiike, 
and were lost for fifteen days. 

1832. May 12tli, steamboat Versailles arrived 
at Fort Snelling. 

June 16th, William Carr arrives from Missouri 
at Fort Snelling, with a drove of cattle and 



Henry K. Schoolcraft explores the soiuces of 
the Mississippi. 

1833. Rev. AV. T. ISoiilwell establishes amis- 
sion among the Ojihways at I.eech Lake. 

E. F. Ely opens a mission school for Ojihways 
at Aitkin's trading post, Sandy Lake. 

1834. May. Samuel W. and Gideon IL Toiid 
arrive at Lake Calhoun as missionaries among the 

November. Henry II. Sibley arrives at Men- 
dota as agent of Fur Company. 

183.5. May. Rev. T. S. Williamson and J. D. 
Stevens arrive as Sioux missionaries, with Alex- 
ander (4. Iluggins as lay assistant. 

Jime. I'resbyterian Church at Fort Snelling 

July 31st. A Red River train arrives at Fort 
Snelling with fifty or sixty head of cattle, and 
about twenty-five horses. 

Major J. L. 15ean surveys the Sioux and Chip- 
peway boundary line under treaty of ISiio, as far 
as Otter Tail lake. 

November. Col. S. C. Stambaugh arrives; is 
sutler at Fort Snelling. 

1836. May 6th, '"Missouri Fulton," first steam- 
boat, arrives at Fort Snelling. 
May 20th, "Frontier," Captain Harris, arrives. 
June 1st, "Palmyra" arrives. 
July 2d, "Saint Peters" arrives, with J. N. 
Nicollet as passenger. 

July 30th, Sacs and Foxes kill twenty-four 
Wiimebagoes on Root river. 

September Ttli, first Cliristiau marriage cele- 
brated at Lae-qui-Parle. 

1H37. February 2oth, Rev. S. F. Denton, mis- 
sionary from Switzerland, arrives at Red Wing's 

Rev. Stephen R. Riggs and wife join Lake 
Harriet Mission. 

Rev. A. Brimson and UavidKing establish Ka- 
posia Mission. 

Commissioners Dodge and Smith, at Fort 
Snelling, make a treaty with tlie Cliippeways to 
cede lands east of the Mississippi. 

Franklin Steele and others make claims at Falls 
of St. Croix and St. Anthony. 

September 29th, Sioux chiefs at Washington 
sign a treaty. 
November loth, steamlx>at Rolla arrives at Fort 

Snelling with the Sioux on their return from 

December 12th. Jercuiiah Russell and L. W. 
Stratton make the first claim at Marine, in the 
St. Croix valley. 

1838. April, Ilole-in-the-day and party kill 
thirteen of the Lac-qui-Paile Sioux. Martin Mc- 
Leod from Pemliina, after twenty-eight days of 
exposure to snow, reaches Lake Traverse. 

May 2.5th. steamboat Burlington arrives at Fort 
Snelling with J. X. Nicollet and J. C. Fremont 
on a scientific expedition. 

June 14th, Maryatt, the Rritish novelist, Frank- 
lin Steele and others rode from the fort to view 
Falls of St. Anthony. 

July 15th, steamboat l'alm\ia arrives at Fort 
Snelling with an official notice of the ratification 
of treaty. JSIen arrived to develop the St. Croix 

August 2d, Hole-in-the-Day encamped with a 
party of Chippeways near Fort Snelling, and was 
attacked by Sioux from Mud Lake, and one killed 
and another wounded. 

August 27th, steamboat Ariel arrives with 
commissioners Pease and Ewing to examine half- 
breed claims. 

Septemlier 3uth, steamboat Ariel makes the 
first trip up the St. Croix river. 

Octo))er 26th, steamboat Gypsy first to arrive 
at Falls of St. Croix with annuity goods for the 
Chippeways. In passing tlirougli Lake St. Croix 
grounded near the town site laid out by S. C. 
Stambaugh. and called Stambaugliville. 

1830. April 14th. first steamboat at Fort Snell- 
ing, the Ariel, Captain Lyons. 

Henry M. Rice arrives at Fort Snelling. 
May 2d, Rev. E.G. Gear, of the Protestant 
Episcopal cliurcli, recently appointed chaplain, 
arrived at the fort in the steamboat Gypsy. 

]May 12th, steamboat Fayette arrives on the St. 
Croix, having been at Fort Snelling with members 
of Marine Mill Company. 

May 21st, the Glancus, Captain Atchison, ar- 
rives at Fort SnelUng. 

June 1st, the Pennsylvania. Captain Stone, ar- 
rives at Fort Snelling. 
June 5th, the Glancus arrives agam. 
June 6tli. the Ariel arrives again. 
June 12th, at I^ake Harriet mission. Rev. D. 
Gavin, Swiss missionary am(.)ng the Sioux at Red 



Wing, was married to Cordelia Stevens, teacher 
at Lake Harriet mission. 

Jinie 2otli, steamboat "Kniclverboclver" arrived 
at Fort Snelling. 

June liGtli, steamboat "Ariel"" on tliird Irii). 

June 27tli, a train of Red River carts, arrives 
iindcvMr. Sinclair willi I'niiiirants. \vhoencani|ied 
near the fort. 

Jul) lM. ( liipiieways kill a Sioux of I^ake Cal- 
liouu band. 

July .'id, Sioux attack Chippeways in ravine 
above Stillwater. 

1840. April, Rev. Lucian tialtier of the Ro- 
man Catholic church, arrives at Mendotji. 

May lith. siiuatters removed from military reser- 

June b")th. Thomas Simpson, Arctic explorer, 
shoots him.sclf near Turtle liver, under arberration 
of mind. 

.June ITlh, fiiur Chippeways kill and scalj) a 
Sioux man and woman. 

IS41. March (ith. wild geese appeared at the 

Marcli liOth, Mississippi opened. 

April (ith, steamboat "Otter," Captain Harris, 
arrived. Koboka, an old chief of Lake Calhoun 
band, killed by Chippeways. 

May 24th, Sioux attack Chippeways at Lake 
Pokegimia, of Snake river. ^lethodist mission 
moved from Kaposia to Red Rock, Rev. B. F. 
Ka\cnaugh, superintendciil. 

August, Mission church of uuburnt bricks built 
at J.,ac-(iui-l'arle and surmounted with the lirst 
church bell. 

November 1st, Father (jaltier completes tlie log 
chapel of St. I'aul, wliich gave the name to the 
capital of Minnesota. I!cv. .\ui;uslin Uavoux ar- 

1842. .luly. Ihc ('liip]ic\vays attack the Kapo- 
sia Sioux. 

\HVii. Stillwater laid out. Ayer, Spencer aiid 
Ely establish a (111 piK'way mission at Red lake. 
Oak(;ro\(' luiliaii luissiou established liy (i. II. 

June 20th, Rev. S. R. Riggs and R. Hopkins 
establish an Indian mission at Traverse des Sioux. 

July lolli, Thomas Longley, brother-in-law of 
Rev. S. R. Riggs. drow ncd at Traverse des Sioux 
mission station. 

1844. August, Captain Allen with lift> di'a- 

goons marches from Fort Des Moines through 
southwestern Minnesota, and on the 10th of Sep- 
tember reaches the Big Sioux river. Sisseton 
war party kill an Americiin named Watson, driv- 
ing cattle to Fort Snelling. 

1845. June 25th, Captain Sunnier reaches 
Traverse des Sioux, and proceeding northward 
arrested three of the murdcicrs of Watson. 

1846. Dr. \Villiamson, Sioux inissionaiy, 
moves from J.,ac-qui-J'arle to Kaposia. 

March 31st, steamboat l-ynx. Captain Atchi- 
son, arrives at Fort Snelling. 

Rev. S. W. Pond establishes an Indian mission 
at Shakopee. 

1847. St. Croix county, Wisconsin, organized, 
Stillwater the county .seat. Harriet E. Bishop 
establishes a school at St. Paul. Saw mills be- 
gun at St. Anthony Falls. 

First framed liouse above Fort Snelling in the 
Minnesota valley erected by Mr. Pond. Lumber 
brought from Point Douglas. 

August. Commissioners \'erp!anck and Henry 
M. Rice make treaties with the Cliippeways at 
Fon du Lac and Leech Lake. The town of St. 
Paul surveyed, platted, and recorded in the St. 
Croix county register of deeds oflice. 

H()le-in-the-l)ay, the elder Chippeway chief, 
killed by falling from a wagon, when ilrunk. 

1848. Henry H. Sibley, delegate to congress 
from Wisconsin territoi-y. 

May 2'.)lli, W iscousin admitted, leaving Minne- 
sota (with its present boundaries) without a gov- 

August 26th, ''Stillwater convention'' held to 
take measm'es for a separate territorial organiza- 

October 30th, II. II. Sibley elected delegate to 

1849. March, act of congress creating Mini\,e- 
sota territory. 

April 0th, "Highland .Mary"' Captain Atchison, 
arrives at St. Paul. 

.\pril ISth, James M. (Joodhue arrives at St. 
Paul with lirst newspaper press. 

May 27th, Governor Alexander liinnscy arrives 
at Mendota. 

June 1st, Governor Ramsey issues proclama- 
tion declaring the territory duly organized. 

July, lirst brick house in .Miiniesota, erected at 
St. Paul, by Rev. E. D. Neill. 



August 1st, H. II. Sibley elected delegate to 
congi'ess for Minnesota. 

August, first rrotcstaiit liouse of worship in 
white settlement, a Presbyterian chapel, com- 
pleted at St. Paul. 

Septeinljer 3d, first legislature convened. 

Xovemlier, First Presbyterian Church, St. 
Paul, organized. 

December, first literary address at Falls of St. 

18.50. .January 1st, first annual Historical So- 
ciety meeting. 

June 11th. Indian council at Fort Snelling. 

June 14th, Steamer Governor Kamsey makes 
first trip above Falls of St. Anthony. 

June 26th, the Anthony Wayne reaches the 
Falls of St. Anthony. 

July istli, Steanil)oat Anthony Wayne ascends 
the Minnesota to vicinity of Traverse des Sioux. 

July 2.5th, steamboat Yankee goes beyond Blue 
Earth river. 

Septemlier, II. II. Sibley elected delegate to 

October, Frederika Bremer. Swedish novelist, 
visits ^Minnesota. 

Xovember, tlie Dakotah Friend, a monthly 
paper, appeared. 

December, Colonel D. A. Robertson establishes 
Minnesota Democrat. 

December 26th, first public Thanksgiving day. 

1851. ilay, St. Anthony Express newspaper 
began its career. 

July, treaty concluded with the Sioux at Trav- 
erse des Sioux. 

July. Tiev. Robert Hopkins, Sioux missionary, 

August, treaty concluded with the Sioux at 

September l!)th, tlie Minnesotian, of St. Paul, 
edited by J. P. Owens, appeared. 

November. Jerome Fuller, cliief justice in place 
of Aaron Goodrich arrives. 

December 18th, Thanksgiving day. 

Smithsonian Institution publish Dakota Gram- 
mar and Lexicon. 

1852. Hennepin cotmty created. 

February 14th, Dr. Kae, Arctic explorer, arrives 
at St. Paul with dog-train. 
May 14th, land-slide at Stillwater. 
August, Jas. M. Goodhue, Pioneer editor, dies. 

November, Vuhazee. an Indian, convicted of 

ls.5;i. April 27tli. Chippeways and Sioux fight 
in streets of St. Paul. Governor Willis A. (Jor- 
man succeeds Governor Ramsey. 

October, Henry M. Rice elected delegate to 
congress. Tliecapitol building completed. 

1854. March .3d, Presbyterian mission-house 
near Lac-ipii-Parle burned. 

June 8th. great excursion from Chicago to St. 
Paul and St. Anthony Falls. 

December 27th, Yuhazee, the Indian, liung at 
St. Paul. 

1855. January, first bridge over Mississippi 
completed at Falls of St. Anthony. 

Church erected near Yellow JSIedicine. Indi- 
ans contribute two-thirds of its cost. 

October, II. M. Rice re-elected to congress. 

December 12th, James Stewart arrives in St. 
Paul, direct from Arctic regions, with relics of 
Sh' John Franklin. 

1856. Erection of State University Imiiding 
was begun. 

1857. Congress passes an act authorizing peo- 
ple of ISIinnesota to vote for a constitution. 

March, Inkjjadootah slaughters settlers in 
South-west Minnesota. 

Governor Samuel Medary succeeds (Jovernor 
W. A. Gorman. 

.March 5th, land-grant by congress for rail- 

April 27th. special session of the legislature 

July. On second Monday, convention to form 
a constitution assembles at Capitol. 

October 18th, election for state officers, and 
ratifying of the constitution. 

H. II. Sibley first governor under the state con- 

W. W. Kingsliury elected delegate to Congress. 

December. On first Wednesday, first legisla- 
ture assembles. ^~ 

December. Henry M. Rice and .James Shields 
elected Fnited States senators. 

1858. April 15tb, people approve act of legis- 
lature loaning the public credit for five millions 
of dcjllars to certain railway companies. 

May 11th, Minnesota becomes one of the United 
States of America. 
June 2d, adjourned meeting of legislature held. 



^\'. W . I 'helps representative in congress. 

Jas. M. Kavenaiigli representative in congress. 

November. Supreme court of State orders 
Governor Sibley to issue railroad bonds. 

December. (Jovernor Sibley declares the bonds 
a failure. 

1859. Normal scliool law passed. 

June. Burbank and Company place Ihc lirst 
steamlxiat on Red River of the Xorlli. 

August. Rislicip T. L. Grace arrived at St. 

October 11 til, stale election. Alcxamlcr Uamsey 
clidscn jiovcniiir. 

William W. W'indom elected representative to 

Cyrus AUlrich elected representative to con- 

December. Morton S. Wilkinson elected United 
States senator. 

18ti0. Marcli S.U}. .Vnna Ililanski hung at St. 
Paul for the murder of her husliand. the lirst 
white person executed in ^Minnesota. 

August nth, telegrajih line completed to St. 

August 20th. .1. r.. Faribault died, aged eighty- 

1861. ^Vpril Iltli. (iov. Ramsey calls upon the 
president in Washington and offers a regiment of 

Jinie 21st, First Minnesota Hegimenl. Col. W. 
A. (iorman leaves for Washington. 

June 2Sth. lirst railway completed fidui St. 
I'aul to St. Anthony. 

July 21st. First .Minnesota in battle of Hull 

October l.'Uh, Secoiul Minnesota Infantry; Col. 
II. P. ^'an Cleve leaves Fort Snelling. 

November Kith, Third Minnesota Infantry, II. 
C. Lester go to seat of war. 

Alexander Kanisey re-elected Governor. 

\\illiani \\iii(loni re-electe,d to congress. 

Ignatiu.'i Donnelly representative in congress. 

1802. January 10th, Second Minnesota in bat- 
tle at Mill Spring. Kentucky. 

.\pril nth, First Minnesota Battery, Cai'tain 
Miuich, at Pittsburgh Landing. 

April 21st, Second ilinnesota Battery, goes to 
seat of war. 

April 21st, Fourth .Minnesota lul'autry \'olun- 
teers. Col. J. B. Sanborn leaves Fort .Snelling. 

May 13th, Fifth Regiment Volunteers Col. 
Borgesrode leaves for the seat of war. 

May 28th. Second, J-onrth and F'ifth in battle 
near Corinth, Mississiiipi. 

May 31st, First ^Minnesota in battle at Fair 
Oaks, Virginia. 

June 2iHh, First Minnesota in battle at Savage 

June 3(ith, First ^linnesota in battle near Wil- 
lis' church. 

July 1st, First Minnesota in battle at Malvern 

.Vngust. Sixth Regiment Col. Crooks organized. 

August, Seventh Regiment, Col. Miller organ- 

August, Eighth Regiment Col. Thomas organ- 

August, Ninth Regiment, Col. Wilkin organ- 

iVugust 18th, Sioux attack whites at Lower 
Sioux Agency. 

Amos W. Hoggins kille<l by Sioux. 

James \V. I^ynd killed by Sioux. 

Philander Prescott killed by Sioux. 

September 2d, battle of Birch Coolie. 

September 23d, Col. Sibley defeats Sioux at 
Wood Lake. 

December 26th. Thirty-eight Sioux executed on 
the same scaffold at Maidvato. 

1863. January, Alexander Ramsey elected 
United States senator. 

Henry A. Swift, governor for an unex))ired term. 

.May 14th, F'ourth and I-'ifUi Regiment in battle 
near Jackson, Mississippi. 

July 2d, First Minnesota Infantry in battle at 
Gettysburgh, Pennsylvania. 

.Inly 3d, Tah-o-yah-tay-doo-tah or Little Crow 
killed near Hutchinson. 

September 19th, Second .Minnesota Infantry en- 
gaged at Chickaniauga, Tennessee. 

November 23d, Second Minnesota Infantry en- 
gaged at Mission Ridge. 

William Windom elected to Congress. 

Ignatius Donnelly ele<-ted to Congress. 

1864. January, Col. Stephen Miller inaugu- 
rated (iovernor of Minnesota. 

March 30th, Third Minnesota Infantry engaged 
at Fitzhnglfs Woods. 

June 6tli, Fifth Minnesota Infantry engaged at 
Lake Chicot, Arkansas. 



July ISth. Seventh. Xintli. and Tenth, with 
portion of Fifth Minnesota Infantry engaged at 
Tupelo, Mississippi. 

July 14tli. Colonel Alex. Wilkin, of the Ninth, 

October l')th. Fourth Heginient engaged near 
Altoona. (ieorgia. 

December 7th. Eighth Regiment engaged near 
JIurfreesboro, Tennessee. 

Fifth, Seventh, Xintli and Tenth Regiments 
at Nashville, Tennessee. 

Railway reaches Elk River. 

1865. January 10th, Daniel S. Norton elected 
United States senator. 

April Oth. Fifth. Sixth, Seventh, Ninth and 
Tenth at the siege of Mobile. 

November 10th, Shakpedau, Sioux chief, and 
Jledicine Bottle, executed at Fort Snelling. 

William Windom re-elected to congress. 

Ignatius Donnelly re-elected to congress. 

1866. January Sth, Colonel William R. Mar- 
shall inaugurated governor of Minnesota. 

Railway reaches St. Cloud. 

1867. Preparatory department of the State 
University opened. 

Railway reaches AVayzata. 

1868. January, Governor Marshall enters upon 
second term. 

January 1st, Minnesota State Reform school 
opened for inmates. 

June 27th. "Jldlc-in-the-day,"' the second 
Chippeway chief of that name, shot by relatives, 
near Crow AN'ing. 

M. S. Wilkinson elected to congress. 

Fugene M. Wilson elected to congress. 

1869. Bill i)assed by legislatm-e, removing 
seat of government to a spot near Big Kandiyohi 
Lake vetoed by Governor Marshall. 

Alexander Ramsey re-elected United States 
senator. Railway completed to Willmar. 
M. II. Duunell elected to congress. 
J. T. Avcrill elected to congress. 

1870. January 7th, Horace Au.stiu inaugurated 
as governor. Railway to Benson completed. 

August, railway completed from St. Paid to 

1871. January, Wm. Windom elected United 
States senator. 

In the fall destructive lires, occasioned Ijy high 
winds, swept over frontier counties. 

October, railway' reached Pied River of the 
Xoilh at Breckenridge. 

Hon. (ieorge L. Becker, president of the rail- 
road, gives invitations to the old settlers to an 
exclusion to the Bed liiver. 

187:i. .January. (Joveruor Austin enters upon 
a second term. 

1873. January 7th, 8tli and 9th. polar wave 
sweeps o\ er the state, seventy persons perishing. 

]May 22(1, the senate of Minnesota convicts state 
treasurer of corruption in office. 

Septend)ei, grasshopper raid began and con- 
tinued live seasons. 

Jay Cooke faihu'e occasions a financial panic. 

1874. January ftth. Cusiiman K. Davis in- 
augurated governor. 

William S. Kmg elected to congress. 

187.5. February 19th, S. J. R. McMillan elected 
I'nited States senator. 

November, amendment to state constitution, 
allowing any woman twenty-one years of age to 
vote for school officers, and to be eligible for 
school offices. 

Rocky Mountain locusts destroy crops in south- 
western Jilinnesota. 

1S76. January 7th. Jolm S. Pillsbury inaugur- 
ated governor. 

January ]2tli. State Forestry association or- 

Septemljer 6th. outlaws from Missouri kill the 
cashier of the Northfleld Bank. 

1879. November, state constitution amended, 
forbidding pidjlic moneys to 1)6 used for the sup- 
port of schools wherein the distinctive creeds or 
tracts of any particidar Cliristian or other relig- 
ous sect are taught. 

.1. II. Stewart. M. I)., elected to congress. 
Biennial sessions of the legislature adopted. 

1875. .laiuiary, Ciovernor Pillsbury enters 
upon a second term. 

Jlay 2(1, explosion in the AVasliliurn and other 
ilour mills at ^Minneapolis. 

One luualred and fifty thousand dollars appro- 
priated to purchase seed grain for destitute set- 

1880. November loth, a portion of the Insane 
Asyliun at St. Peter was destroyed by fire and 
twenty-seven inmates lost their lives. 

1881. March 1st, Capitol at St. Paul destroyed 
by lire. 

H T S T O Pv ^^ 








Eamsey county was created by act of the terri- 
torial legislature, approved October 27th, 1849, 
with the following boundaries: "Beginning at 
the point on the Mississippi river where the town- 
ship line between townships 27 and 28 north, of 
range 22 west of tlie fourth pnnci))al merid- 
ian intersects said river, thence \\\\ said river to 
the intersection of range line between ranges 2o 
and 26, west of the fourth meridian in township 
No. 32 north, thence due north along said range 
line to its intersection with the northern boun- 
dary line of township 30, thence in a line due 
north to its intersection witli the Mississippi river, 
thence up said river to its intersection with the 
southern boundary line of Itasca county, thence 
in a south-easterly direction along said boundary 
line to its intersection with the western boundary 
line of Washington county, thence south along 
said western boundary line to its intersection 
with the township line between townships 27 and 
28 north, of range 22 west of fourth meridian, 
thence west along said township line to the place 
of beginning." 

It will be seen tliat the county originally in- 
cluded several times its present area, being all 
the present county of Ramsey lying east of the 
Mississippi and all of tlie present counties of 
Anoka, Isanti and Kanabec, as well as a portion 
of the counties of Washington, Pine, Carlton, Ait- 
ken, Mille Lacs and Hennepin. St. Anthony was 
in Ramsey county when it received its lirst city 

charter, in 1855. 

The visit of Father Hennepin to this region in 
1680 and of Jonathan Carver in the years 1766 
and "77 are so fully given by Mr. Neill, in this 
work, that for information concerning them we 
refer the reader to preceding chapters and espe- 
cially to chapter XI, page 64, wherein is given a 
somewhat extended accoiuit of ("arver"s visit, a 
description of 'the great cave,"' two translations 
of Schiller "s celebrated poem, etc., all of which 
properly belong to the history of Ramsey county. 
Carver"s alleged grandiloquent speech, which he 
claims to have made during his last visit at the 
cave, w'as as follows: 


" My brothers, chiefs of the numerous and 

powerful Naudowessies ! I rejoice that, through 

my long abode with you, I can now speak to you 

(though after an imperfect manner) in your own 

tongue, like one of your own children. I rejoice, 

also, that I have had an opportunity so fre- 

ipienlly to inform you of the glory and power of 

the great king that reigns over the English and 

other nations; and who is descended from a very 

ancient race of sovereigns, as old as the eailh 

and the waters, whose feet stand upon two great 

islands, larger than any you have ever seen, 

amidst the great waters of the world; whose head 

reaches to the sun, and whose arms encircle the 

whole earth; the number of whose warriors is 

equal to the trees in the valleys, the stalks of rice 

in yonder marshes, and the blades of grass on 

yonder plains; who has hunilreds of canoes of 

his own, of such amazing bigness that all the 

waters in your country would not suffice for one 

of them to swim in, each of which have great 

guns, not small like mine, which you see before 




you, but of such maguituile that a huiwhed of 
your stoutest young men would with difficulty be 
able to carry one. ^Vnd they are ecjually surpris- 
ing agahist the king's enemies when engaged in 
battle; the terror they cany with them your 
language lacks words to express. You may re- 
member the other day. when we were encamped 
at AVadapaw-menesoter, the black clouds, the 
wind, the fire, the stupendous noise, the horrible 
ci'acks, and the tumbling of the earth which then 
alarmed you. and gave you reason to think your 
gods were angry with you, not unlike these are 
the warlike implements of the English when 
they are fighting the battles of their great king. 

" Several of the chiefs of your bands have 
often told me in times past, when I dwelt with 
you in your tents, that they much wished to be 
counted among the children and the allies of the 
great king, my master. 

"You may remember how often you have de- 
sired me, when I return agam to my owii country, 
to acquaint the great king of your good dispo- 
sition toward him and his subjects, and that you 
wished fur traders from the English to come 
among you. 

"Being now about to take my leave of you, 
and to return to my own coimtry, a long way to- 
ward the rising sun, I again ask you to tell me 
whether you continue in the same mind as when 
I spoke to you in the council last winter, and as 
there are now several of your chiefs here who 
come from the gi'eat plains toward the setting of 
the sun, whom I have never spoken with in coun- 
cil before, I ask you to let me know if you are 
willing to acknowledge yourselves the children of 
my great master, the king of the English. 

" I charge you not to give heed to bad reports, 
for there are wicked birds flying about among the 
neighboring nations, who may whisper evil thmgs 
in your ears agamst the English, contrary to what 
I have told you. You must not beiievetliem,for 
I have told you the truth. 

"As for the chiefs that are about to go to 
Michilimackinac, I shall take care to make for 
them and their suits, a straight road, smooth 
waters, and a clear sky, that they may go there 
and smoke the pipe of peace, and rest secm-e on a 
beaver blanket under the shade of the gi-eat tree 
of peace. FareweU I" 

Though it may be doubted that such a speech 

was ever made by Mr. Carver, its grandiloquence 
wiU be readily admitted. 

To this speech, the principal chief, speaking for 
the eight bands of the nation, is said to have re- 
plied that he believed Carver's statements touch- 
ing the king and his power, and requested Carver 
to say to him that they " wished to be counted 
among his good children," and to have traders 
sent among them. 

In 1806. Pike searched in vain for the cave. 
Major Long visited it in 1817, and in 1835, Feath- 
erstonehaugh found its entrance closed with de- 
bris. iSTicollet explored the cave in 1837, and said 
Carver's description of it was "accurate." It pre- 
sents about the same appearance to-day as when 
vLsited by Carv'er, save that no •' map " or " hiero- 
glyphics " are to be found. It contains a beautiful 
pond of clear water, varying from a few inches to 
six or eight feet in depth. The river division of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway passes 
near its entrance. 

Prominent among the early explorers of Min- 
nesota was Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery 
Pike, subsequently General Pike, who fell in the 
battle of York, now Toronto, Upper Canada, in 
the war of 1812. He came to this region in 1805, 
with twenty men under instructions to visit the 
Indian tribes and expel the British traders. He 
kept a journal of his expedition, from which we 
gather the following: September 21st, he break- 
fasted with Little Crow's band at Grand Marais 
now Pig's Eye. and the same day passed up the 
river to tlie island which now bears his name op- 
posite Fort Snelling. on the north-east part of 
wliich he pitched his camp. On the following 
day which was Sunday, Little Crow, of the Ka- 
posia band, arrived with one hundred and fifty 
warriors, and from the pouit now occupied by 
Fort Snelling, fired a salute with balls according 
to their custom. 

On the following Monday he made a treaty 
with the Dakqtas. We quote the first two articles. 

Article 1. " That the Sioux nation grant unto 
the United States, for the purpose of establish- 
ment of military posts, nine miles square, at the 
mouth of the St. Croix, also from below the con- 
fluence of the Mississippi and St. Peter's, up the 
Mississiiipi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, 
extending nine miles on each side of the river, 
that the Sioux nation grants to the United States 



the full sovereignty ami power over said district 

Article 2. "That, in consideration of the 
above grants, tlie Tnited States shall pay (-flUed 
up by the senate witli $:2,000,") 

This grant included the present township of 
Reserve, a part of Rose township, and a part of 
St. Paul. 

Lieutenant Pike was well adapted to the duties 
of his expedition, and his visit had a most salu- 
tary elTect on the Indian tribes, including both 
the Sioux and Ojibwas. In liis journal of March 
18th, 1800, the following anecdote is found: 

"In the course of the day, observing a ring on 
one of my fingers, he (tlie chief) inquired if it 
was gold, he was told it was the gift of one with 
w-hom I shall be happy to be at that time. He 
seemed to think seriously, and at night told my 
interpreter, "that perhaps his father (as they all 
called me) felt much grieved for the want of a 
woman, if so, he could furnish me with one. He 
was answered, that with us, each man had but 
one wife, and that I considered it strictly my 
duty to remain faithful to her. This he thought 
strange, (he himself having three,) and replied 
tliat he knew some Americans with his nation 
wlio had half a dozen wives during the winter. 
The interpreter observed that they were men 
without character, but that all our great men had 
each but one wife. The cliief ac(iuiesced, but 
said he liked better to have as many as he 

In 1817, Major Stephen 11. Long, of the United 
St'ites army, visited tliis region for the purpose of 
exploring the upper Mississippi, sketching its 
course, and to "designate such sites as were suit- 
able for military purposes." On the Ifith of 
September, according to his journal, he landed 
and breakfasted at Carver's cave, of which he 
gives a detailed description. He also visited and 
describes Fountain cave, (which is now in the 
corporate limits of St. Paul), of which men- 
tion will be made hereafter. On the evening of 
•the same day, he encamped on the east bank of 
the Mississippi, "just below the cataract." We 
lind the following in his journal of September 
27th, 1817. 

"This remarkable pai-t of the Mississippi, is 
not williout a tale to hallow the scenery and add 

some weight to the interest it is naturally calcu- 
lated to excite. Our Indian companion, the 
Shooter from the Pine Tree, related a story while 
he was with us, the catastrophe of which his 
mother witnessed with her own eyes. A young 
Indian, of the Sioux nation, had espoused a wife 
with whom he had lived happily for a few years, 
enjoying every comfort of which a savage life is 
susceptible. To crown the felicity of the happy 
couple, they had been blessed with two lovely 
children, on whom they doted with the utmost 
affection. During this time the young man, by 
dint of activity and perseverance, signalized him- 
self in an eminent degree as a hunter, having met 
with unrivaled success in the This cir- 
cumstance contributed to raise him high in the 
estimation of his feUow savages, and to draw a 
crow'd of admirers about him. which operated as 
a spur to his ambition. At length, some of his 
newly acquired friends, desirous of forming a 
connection which must operate greatly to their 
advantage, suggested the propriety of his taking 
another wife, as it would be impossible for one 
woman to manage his household atiairs, and wait 
upon all the guests his rising importance would 
call to visit him. That his consequence to the 
nation was everywhere known and acknowledged, 
and that in all probability he would soon be 
called upon to preside as their chief. His vanity 
was tired at the thought, he yielded an easy com- 
pliance with their solicitations, and accepted a 
wife they had already selected for him. After 
his second maniage, it became an object with 
him to take his new wife home, and reconcile his 
first wife to the match, which he was desirous of 
accomplishing in the most delicate manner that 
circumstances would admit. For this pin-pose he 
returned to his first wife, who was yet ignorant 
of what had taken place, and by dissimulation at- 
tempted to beguile her into an approbation of the 
step he had taken. 'You know," .said he, 'I can 
love no one so much as I love you, yet I see that 
our connection subjects you to hardships and fa- 
tigue, too great for you to endure. This grieves 
me much, but I know of only one remedy by 
which you can be relieved, and which, with 
your concun-ence, shall be adopted. My friends 
from all parts of the nation, come to visit me, 
and my house is constantly thronged by those 
who come to pay their respects, while you alone 



are imder the necessity of laboring hard, in order 
to cook their food and wait upon tliem. They 
are daily becoming more numerous, and yoiu' 
duties instead of growing lighter, are becoming 
more arduous every day. You must be sensible 
that I am rising high in the esteem of the nation, 
and I have sufficient grounds to expect that I 
shall, before long, be their chief. These consid- 
erations have induced me to take another wife, 
but my affection for you has so far prevailed over 
my inclination in this respect, as to lead me to 
solicit your approbation before I adoiit the meas- 
ure. The wife I take shall be subject to your 
control in every respect, and will be always 
second to you in my affections." She listened to 
his narration with the utmost anxiety and 
concern, and endeavored to reclaim him from 
his pui-pose, refuting all the reasons and 
pretenses his duphcity had urged in favor 
of it, by unanswerable arguments, the sug- 
gestions of unaffected love and conjugal affec- 
tion, lie left her, however, to meditate upon the 
subject, in hopes that she would at length give 
over her objections, and consent to his wishes. 
She, in the meantime, redoubled her industiy, and 
treated him invariably with more marked tender- 
ness than she had done before ; resolved to try 
every means in her power to dissuade him from 
the execution of his purpose. She still, however, 
found him bent upon it. She ))leaded all the en- 
dearments of their fonuer life, the regard had for 
the happiness of herself and the offspring of their 
mutual love, to prevail on him to relinquish the 
idea of taking another wife. She warned him of 
the fatal consequences that would result to their 
family, upon his taMng such a step. At length 
he was induced to communicate the event of his 
marriage. He then told her that a compliance on 
her part would be absolutely necessary ; that if 
she could not receive his new wife as a friend and 
companion, she must admit her as a necessary in- 
cumbrance ; at all events, they must live together. 
She was determined, however, not to remain the 
passive dupe of his hypocrisy. She took her two 
children, left his house, and went to reside with 
her parents. Soon after she returned to her fa- 
ther's family, she joined them and others of her 
friends in an expedition up the Mississippi, to 
spend the winter in Inmting. 
'■ In the spring, as they were returning laden 

Willi peltries, she and her children occupied a ca- 
noe by themselves. On arriving near the Falls of 
St. Anthony, she lingered by the way till the rest 
had all landed, a little above the chute. She then 
painted herself and her children, paddled her ca- 
noe immediately into the suck of the rapids, and 
commenced singing her death song, in which she 
recounted the happy scenes she had passed through 
when she enjoyed the undi\'ided affection of her 
husband, and the wretchedness in which she was 
involved Viy his inconstancy. 

" Her friends, alarmed at her situation, ran to 
the shore, and begged her to paddle out of the 
current, while her parents, in the agonies of de- 
spair, rending their clothes, and tearing out their 
hair, besought her to come to their arms. But all 
to no purpose; her wretchedness was complete, 
and must terminate only with her existence. She 
continued her till she was borne headlong 
down the roaring cataract, and instantly dashed 
to pieces on the rocks below. No trace of either 
herself and children or the boat were ever found 
afterwards. Her brothers, to be avenged of the 
imtimely fate of theu' sister, embraced the first 
opportunity, and killed her husband, whom they 
considered the cause of her death, a custom sanc- 
tioned by the usage of the Indians, from time im- 

.In 1823. the first steamboat visited this region. 
It was laden with supplies from St. Louis for Fort 
Snelling. The vessel was the Virginia, IIS feet 
long and 24 feet wide. Up to May 26, 1826, fifteen 
steamers had arrived at Fort Snelling, and there- 
after their arrivals became more frequent. 

In 1836, before the Indian title was extin- 
guished, settlers had located on the land between 
St. Paul and Fort Snelling, along the banks of 
the river. By the treaty of the Dakotas with the 
United States in 1837, ratified by the senate June 
loth, 1888, the Indian title to this tract was can- 
celed and in March, 1838, the commander at Fort 
Snelling selected this land as a part of the mili- 
tary reservation. For this reason the lands were 
not open to private entry. 

Xearly all the settlers at this time were in the 
immediate proximity of the fort, and as in those 
early days whisky was freely indulged in, when 
obtainable, their presence exerted a bad effect 
upon the soldiers. In accordance therefore, with 
instructions from the war department, the United 



States marshal of Wisconsin was directed to re- 
move tlie intruders. A proceeding wliioli the 
settlers manifested a disposition to resist. Most 
of them were Swiss, from the Selkirk settlement, 
where they had suffered severely from grasshop- 
pers and Hoods, and they were loath to leave their 
desirable locations. On the 6th of May. is Id. the 
troops were called out, the settlers removed, and 
the following day, to prevent re-occupation, their 
cabins were destroyed. 

The disastrous effects of the abuse of intoxi- 
cating liquors were l)y no means conlinod to the 
whites. Upon the Indians worse results were en- 
tailed, and it is a melancholy fact that the same 
results have everywhere attended the contact of 
so-called civilization witli primeval people. In 
an article which appeared in the Dakotah Friend 
in September, 18.51, the editor, the Rev. Gideon 
II. I'iukI, says: "Twelve years ago they (the 
Indians), bade fair soon to die altogether in 
one drunken jumble. They must be drunk — 
they coidd hardly live if they were not 
drunk. Many of them seemed as uneasy when 
sober as a fish does when on land. At some 
of the villages they were drunk months to 
gether. There was no end to it. They would 
have whisky. They would give guns, blankets, 
pork, lard, Hour, corn, coffee, sugar, horses, furs, 
traps, anything for whisky. It was made to- 
drink — it was good — It was mikun. They drank 
it, they bit oil each other's noses, broke each 
other's ribs and heads, they knifed each other. 
They killed one another with guns, knives, 
hatchets, clubs, fire-brands; they fell into the lire 
and water, and were burned to death and 
drowned. They froze to death and committed 
suicide so frequently, that for a time, the death 
of an Indian, in some of the ways mentioned, was 
but little thought of by themselves or others. 
Some of the earlier settlers of St. Paul a]id Pig's 
Eye remember something about these matters. 
Their eyes saw sights which are not exhibited 

Says Neill. in his History of Minnesota: "Un- 
der the inlluence of a vile class of whisky-sellers, 
that infested the neighborhood of what is now 
the capital of Minnesota, the Dakotahs, a few 
years before this, were, a nation of drunkards. 
Men would travel hundreds of miles to the ' place 

where they sell muiiie-wakan," as they designated 
St. Paul, to traffic for a keg of whisky." 

Dr. John Dewey, who settled in St. Paul in the 
summer of 1847, relates that soon after his ar- 
rival here, two Indians fronrLittle Crow's band 
came to St. Paul, and, becoming^intoxicated, 
their stpiaws attempted to get them home, and 
succeeded so far as to geltliem totheir canoes^on 
the bank of the river, where they quarrelled and 
one killed the other. Nothing was ever done 
about it. 

At times, a whole band of Indians would agree 
on a general drunk, those near would be notified 
of their intentions, the S(iuaws would conceal 
their weapons, and the debauch would begin. 
Among the most notorious of these dealers in 
" flre-water" was 


a disreputable Canadian, who had been ordered 
" not to enter the Indian covnitry in any ca- 
pacitv." At " Fountain Cave," in upper town, 
in 1838, he erected a hovel for the sale of liquor, 
and it was in all respects an infamous den. In 
the fall of the same year, he borrowed ninety 
dollars of William Beaumette, of Mendota, to 
secure which he gave a judgment note, as fol- 

" Saint Peter'.s, 12th November, 1838. 

"On the first day of May next, I promise to pay 
Guillaume Beaumette, ninety dollars, for value 
received, without defalcation. 

"Pierre ><) Parrant, 

A. M. Ander.son, 
II. II. SinLEY. 

"Know all men by tliese presents, that I, 
Pierre Parrant, residing near the entry of the 
Saint Peter's river, and in Wisconsin territory, 
do hereby make over, ti-ansfer, and quit claim to 
Guillaume Beaumette, of said Saint Peter's, all 
my right, title, and interest in and to all that 
tract or portion of land which I, the said Par- 
rant, now reside upon and occupy, at the Cave, 
so called, about four miles below Fort Snelling, 
to have, and to hold the same to the said 
Guillaume Beaumette, his heirs and assigns for- 



"Provided always, and it is hereby expressly 
understood between tlie parties, tliat if tlie said 
Pierre I'arrant sliall pay or cause to be paid on 
or about the first of May next, to the said Beau- 
niette. the sum of ninety dollars, amount of a 
certain note of hand given by me, tlie said Par- 
rant, to the said Beaimiette, then this transfer to 
be null, and of no effect, otherwise to i-emain 
in full force and viitue." 

Pierre y, Pakkaxt, (l. s.) 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of II. 
II. Sibley and A. M. Anderson. 

The above document now in existence, was 
drawn up by H. 11. Sibley, then, or soon after 
a justice of the peace, of Clayton county, Iowa, 
with a jurisdiction extending from the present 
north line of Iowa to the British possessions. 

Befoi» the note became due. Beaumette sold it 
to John Miller, of Mendota, who soon after sold 
it to Vetal Guerm of the same place in payment 
of a debt of S150 due to Guerin, who never got 
possession of the claim. It was jumped by a 
party who was among those driven off the re- 
serve by the government as before stated. 

After losing his place at the Cave , Parrant "se- 
lected a tract just east of Sergeant Hay's claim, 
fronting on the river, extending from Mmnesota 
street to Jackson street, approximately, and 
thence back to the bluff." On Bench street near 
the foot of Robert, he erected his saloon, which 
he occupied about one year. 

Parrant was blind in one eye. and from his al- 
leged resemblance to a pig. he was nicknamed 
'•Pig's Eye,"" a name wliich was subsequently at- 
tached to the locality of his residence, and at a 
later period when lie moved to a point on the bot- 
tom lands on the east side of the river, about three 
miles below his former residence on Bench street, 
then that place in time became known by the 
same name. In 1840, Parrant sold his claim in 
St. Paul to Benjamin Gen-ais for SIO. He un- 
doubtedly little dreamed that it would ultimately 
be worth milUons. 


among the settlers, each occurred in the year 
1839. On September 4th, Benjamin Gervais, 
youngest son of Basil Gervais, was born, he hav- 

ing the distinction of being the first white child 
born on the land, now part of St. Paul, then but 
a wilderness, there not being even a post-office m 
existence. The first christian mairiage also took 
l)lace in this year on April 4th. it being that of 
J. K. Clewett to Rose Perry, and was solemnized 
by Rev. J. AV. Pope, who was the Methodist mis- 
sionary at Kaposia. 

The first recorded death of a white-man here, 
sad to relate, was that of the murdered John 
Hays, for even in those early days, when lands 
were so plenty, and settlers so few, mm-der was 
in the land. Edward Phelan. John Ilays, and 
AVm. Evans, all natives of Ireland.were discharged 
soldiers from the Fifth Regiment at Fort Snell- 
ing. and all took claims in what is now St. Paul. 
While in the army Phelan was regarded by his 
superiors as a liad, unscrupulous man. He 
boasted that before entering the army he had 
been lawless and a criminal. He and John Hays 
were partners, and the circumstances were such 
as to leave no doubt that Hays was murdered by 
Phelan. The latter was arrested, examined be- 
fore 11. H. Sibley, and sent to Prairie du Cliien 
for trial, where, in the following year, the grand 
jury failing to find a bill agamst him, he was dis- 
charged, and soon found his way back to the 

On Phelau's return he found "\'etal Guerin in 
possession of the Hays claim, which he pretended 
to own by reason of his partnership with Hays, 
and at once demanded possession, which Guerm 
refused. Phelan was a man of fine physique, 
and threatened vaolence to Guerin, who was a 
small man. in case possession was not given by a 
specified time. Guerin represented the case to 
some of his friends at Mendota, who came to his 
shanty, where cards and whisky made them con- 
tented. At the appointed time Phelan appeared 
with ax in hand, sleeves rolled up, and tlu-eaten- 
ingly demanded possession of the claim, which ■ 
was again refused. This made Phelan very 
angry. At tliis juncture (iuerin's friends came 
out of the house and told Phelan that if he did 
not go away they would "pitch him over the 
liluff." and that if he ever molested Guerin they 
"woiOd lynch him." Kno^nng that these men 
were not to be trifled with, Phelan resorted to the 
law and brought suit before Joseph R. Brown, 
justice of the peace, at Gray Cloud Island, twelve 



miles below St. Paul, who examined the ease 
and told IMu'laii that as he had l)e*ii absent from 
the claim over six months at one time, he had 
lost all title to it, and that Guerin could not be 
ejected. (Jneriti was then left in peaceable pos- 
session of the claim. 

On January 20th, 1841, Vetal (iuerin was mar- 
ried to Adele Perry, who became a bride at the 
age of fourteen years. She was the daughter of 
Abraham Perry, and about two mouths after 
marriage commenced house-keeping with her 
husband, on the ground where Ingersoll's store 
now stands, a part of the Ifays claim. As an 
illustration of the then primitive state of affairs 
here, it may be stated that their house was about 
sixteen feet by twenty, binlt of logs cut from 
trees near by. and had a chimney of clay. Their 
bridal couch was made of boards. They had no 
sheets, and their spread was a red blanket. Their 
table was Guerin's chest, and their chairs were 
three-legged stools. Though they ultimately be- 
came rich and worth over a million dollars, yet 
such was their humble beginning. We will fol- 
low the remarkable history of this couple a little 

A squaw and her brotlier had been in the habit 
of calling at Guerins and getting food, which was 
never refused them. One Sunday she was seen 
approaching the house, but as she had evidently 
been drinking, the door was closed against her. 
She then broke in a window with a stick, where- 
upon Guerin went out, took the squaw around her 
waist, and was carrying her out of the yard, when 
her outcries brought some half a dozen Indians, 
who were camping near by, to her aid. These 
Indians had also been drinking, and Guerin soon 
lied into the house, where two arrows followed 
him before the door conld be closed. The drunken 
and infuriated Indians then attempted an en- 
trance at the broken window, where sash and all 
had been smashed. Mrs. Guerin and her two 
children fled under the Ix'd for safety, while 
Guerin seized the ax, with which he intended to 
knock out the brains of the first intruder. For- 
tiniately, at this alarming crisis, a sober and 
friendly Indian came to their relief, and enabled 
Guerin and his family to escape to a neighbor's, 
their friendly deli\erer deeming it unsafe for 
them to remain in their house. In the evening 
the Indians returned, and fired barbed arrows at 

Guerin's cattle, but fortunately none were killed. 
Mrs. (Jueriu, now fifty-four years of age, with 
seven of her fourteen childi'en, still resides in St. 
Paul, in excellent health, and it is believed that 
she is the only person now in St. Paul, who re- 
sided here in 1841. 

In the spring of 1811, Kaiboka, a Dakotah 
chief, his son and another Indian were waylaid, 
killed and scalped near Fort Snelling by three 
Chipiiewas, who escaped unharmed with their 
ghastly trophies. Enraged at this wanton act, a 
war party from Little Crow's band at Kaposia, 
among whom were three of Little Crow"s s-ons, 
headed by Little Crow himself, set out intent on 
revenge. Xear the St. Croix Falls they met the 
Chippewas, and in the encounter two of Little 
Crow's sons were shot dead, whereupon the party 
returned. In return for this raid, in 1842, the 
Chippewas decided to attack Little Crow's village 
at Kaposia. For this purpose, a war party, con- 
sisting of about forty braves, was organized at 
Fond du Lac, and on the march received acces- 
sions from the Mille Lacs and St. Croix bands, 
swelling their number to about 100. About 
10 a. m., they arrived at the bluff back of Pig's 
Eye unheralded and unnoticed, and halted in a 
ravine knovni as Pine Coolie, just back of the old 
poor-house. From this point, some half-dozen 
Indians were sent out to reconnoiter and entice 
the Sioux into ambush. Seeing two women at 
work, they fired at them, killing one and mor- 
tally wounding the other, who was picked up by 
her husband and carried into the house, where 
they were followed by Chippewas, who scalped 
the dying woman in her husband's arms, and 
fled, one of the party receiving a wound in his 
leg. In their flight, meeting a young child, they 
cut of his head. 

In the meantime, the Sioux across the river had 
been advised of the attack by a messenger, as 
well as by the noise of musketry. They were in 
the midst of a drunken revelry, nearly all intoxi- 
cated, and their arms had been concealed by the 
women. But this sudden attack tended to sober 
them; the arms were soon found, and the Sioux 
hastened across the river to meet the enemy. 
Soon after, the entire force of Chippewas ap- 
proached the river opposite Kaposia, at a point 
near where the (piarantine grounds now are, 
where the severest conflict cocurred, including 


nisTonr of ba.usey county. 

hand to hand encounters, while the bluffs echoed 
with their demoniacal yells and the reports of 
Ine-arms. which were distinctly heard in St. 
I'anl. After a spirited contest of about two 
hours, the Chippewas began to fall back, and were 
followed some miles toward Stillwater. 

In this conflict, the most severe Indian battle 
in this region of which we have any authentic 
record, the Sioux lost eighteen or nineteen lives, 
including the mortally wounded. Six bodies 
were buried in one grave near the mission house. 
The Chippewas also lost heavily, nine or ten 
bodies were found on the field, while some may 
have been concealed. It is probal)le, also, that 
they earned off their wounded, according to In- 
dian custom. 

After the battle, the Sioux women amused 
themselves by hackmg the mutilated dead of their 
enemies, whose scalps had already been taken. 
It is said that " Old Bets," well known to all old 
settlers here, pounded their heads with a huge 
club. One of her sons, wounded in this battle, 
in consequence, was subsequently called Ta-opi, 
or wounded man. 

Mrs. Thomas Odell, now a resident of St. Paul, 
was a pupil at Red Rock when the fight occurred, 
and remembers it distinctly. Mr. Odell at the 
time was a soldier at Fort Snelling, and, with 
others, was dispatched to put a stop to the con- 
flict, passing down to Pickerel lake in boats, and 
thence to Kaposia by land, but did not arrive at 
the scene of conllict in time to interfere. 

Prior to the establishment of Little Crow's 
village at Kaposia, they were located in what is 
now McLean township, about wliere the St. Paul 
pest house now is, and opposite Kaposia. It is 
supposed that they occupied Kaposia, for better 
protection against the Chippewas. 

As incident to the Indian battle of Kaposia— 
it sould be stated that Little Crow was angry with 
the whites that they did not give him and his 
band warning of the contemplated attack of the 
Chippewas, and this becoming known in St. Paul 
some fifteen families took refuge on Mississippi 
island, now occupied by the St. Paul Boat Club, 
where they spent the night in great alarm. "Word 
was sent to the fort and troops were despatched 
to St. Paul for their protection. 

In the same year that this battle took place, 
through the in.itrumeu1.ality of the Rev. Luci: n 

Galtier, a Catholic Chapel was erected and dedi- 
cated to the honor of St. Paul. This event gave 
to the site a name which has since remained. 
This was the first church edifice of any kind in 
this region with the exception of that built in 
1841, at Lac-qui-Parle, by Dr. Williamson and 
Rev. S. R. Riggs, the Presbyterian missionaries 
at that point. 

In this year also, two brothers, who afterwards 
occupied a prominent position in the affairs of 
the district, first; arrived and became residents. 
They were PieiTe and Severe Bottineau. From 
Benjamin Gervais they obtained, by purchase, a 
small tract of land on what was subsequently 
known as Baptist hill. 

EVENTS OF 1842. 

On June 9th, 1842, Henry Jackson, from whom 
Jackson street is named, landed in St. Paid and 
soon after purchased a small tract of land in the 
block now bounded by Jackson, Robert, Bench 
and Third streets, where he built a cabin and 
opened a stock of goods suital)le for tlie Indian 
trade and l)uilt up a jirosperous business. In the 
following year he Viecame justice of the peace, the 
first to serve in .that capacity in St. Paul. In 
184(i he beame its first postmaster. 

Sergeant Richard W. Mortimer also settled in 
St. Paul this year, purchased of Joseph Rondo 
eighty acres of his claim, fronting on the river, 
and l)ounded on the east by St. Peter street, and 
on the west by "Washington street. lie built a 
good log house and is said to have died of deliri- 
um tremens in January, 1843. 

Stanislaus Bilanski settled in St. Paul this year, 
and purchased a claim and cabin between Phe- 
lan's creek and Trout brook, near the present St. 
Paul and Duluth railroad shops, where he lived 
several years. In 1859 he was poisoned by his 
fourth wife— he havmg another wife then living 
—an account of which may be found among the 
events of that year. 

In 1843. John R. Irvine purchased of Joseph 
Rondo, the balance of the I'helan claim fen- S300. 
There was an excellent log house on the property, 
located about where the north-west corner of Third 
and Franklin street now is, which was occupied 
by Mr. Irvine for several years. 

This year, Xorman AV. Kittson purchased 



Clewptfs claim, and tlie latter purchased Labris- 
nier"s claim. 

The new settlers for the year were — 

John K. Irvine. Antoine IVpin, Ansel B. Coy, 
Alex. Mejie, James W. Simpson, David Thomas 
Sloan, William Hartshorn, Jo, Desmarais, A. L. 
Larpenteur, S. ("owden, jr. (or Garden), Alex. R. 
McLeod, Charles Reed, Christopher C. Blanch- 
ard, Louis Larriveer, Scott Campbell, Xavier 
Delonais, Alexis Cloutier, Joseph Gobin, Francis 

Durini; the winter of is in and "4, snow fell to 
an miMsiial depth, and the weather was extremely 

During this year. Little Canada was settled, a 
more extended account of which will be given in 
the sketch of that township, in a later iiart of this 

Tarrant sold his claim on the lower levee, made 
subse(pient to the sale of his cal)in and land to 
Gervais, to Louis Robair or Robert, and took his 
fame, trade, name and carcass to what is now 
known as " Pig"s Eye." 

In May of this year, Father Galtier was trans- 
ferred to another field of labor, and thereafter 
Father Ravoux officiated in St. Raul and Mendota, 
spending one Sunday in the former to two in 

In 1849, the Catholics still continuing to in- 
crease. Father Ravoux "determined upon spend- 
ing two Sundays in St. Paul and the third one in 
Mendota." At Mendota. he preached in both the 
French and English languages, but he says, it 
was not till 1S48 or 1 849, that ''we had in our 
congregation" at St. Paul, "some members who 
did not understand French." 

The settlers of this jear were Louis Robert, 
Thomas McCoy, Charles IJazille. Joseph Hall and 
William Dugas. 

In the beginning of the year 1845, it is esti- 
mated that there were about thirty families liv- 
ing in or near St. Paul besides a floating poi)ula- 
tion of laborers, mechanics, trappers and adven- 
turers. The larger portion of the hihabitants 
were Canadian French, refugees from the Sel- 
kirk settlement in the Red River valley and their 

There were three, or not more than four, purely 
American families in the settlement. Most of 
the French were intermarried with the Indians, 

and not more than half the families in the place 
were white, and English was spoken by but 

1846 — St. Paul had now become rpiite a point 
on the river, and during the season of navigation, 
steamboats landed here with some regularity. 
Hut there was no hotel here, and strangers who 
landed were usually entertained by Henry Jack- 
son without charge. His hospitality was a dis- 
tinguishing trait, and he kept a tavern without 
making a bill. He was a justice of the peace, a 
m('rcliant,.and a saloon-keeper. Being well liked, 
his place became one of popular resort, and the 
mail for settlers was left with him by nearly 
every boat that landed, because there seemed to 
be no one else to receive it. He kept the letters 
piled up on a shelf, and when any one called for 
mail, the pile was thrown down and the expectant 
helped himself to such as he wanted. 

It was e\ident that a post-oflice was needed 
here, and a petition was accordingly forwarded to 
tlie post-office department at Washington, favor- 
ably considered, and on April "til. 1840, a com- 
mission was issued to Henry Jackson. It does 
not appear that he had a competitor for either the 
honor or emoluments of the office. But the salary 
then was not a perquisite of S4,ll()0 per annum, 
with an elegant office for the lucky recipient. 

Mr. Jackson constructed a rude case about two 
feet square, containing sixteen pigeon holes, la- 
belled with initial letters, which, rude as it was, 
answered llie purpose for some years. Fortu- 
nately it is still preserved by the Historical So- 
ciety, and on looking at it, one can but be im- 
pressed with the changes thirty-live years have 
wrought. This was the lirst post-office estab- 
lished in Ramsey county. 

David Faril)ault had one hundicd and forty 
feet fronting on Third street, next to Jackson, 
and extending through to Fourth street. Thesouth 
half of this claim, and seventeen and a half dollars 
he gave A.L.Larpeuteurforahorse valued at $80. 
Keferruig to the subject, in a recent interview, 
Mr. Larpenteur said "Faribault would undoubt- 
edly have given the entire one hundred and forty 
feet for the and call it an even trade, but 
I was poor, seventeen and a half dollars was an 
object, and he hUd not tvant .so much himJ.' " 

During the same year Mr. Larpenteur hiiill on 
this property w hat he believes to have been llie 



first frame residence in St. I'mil. It was subse- 
sequently enlarged and became the Wild Hunter 
hotel, now standing in its original position on 
Jackson street. The lumber was purchased at 
Stillwater for ten dollars per thousand and brought 
to St. Paul by boat at a cost of three dollars per 
tliousand. Mr.Larpenteurbuilt a store, made some 
further improvements on the property, iind before 
the war was offered §75,000 for it. In 1864, he sold 
the property for §26,500. It is now worth over 

The settlers of this }'ear were: JamesMcC. Boal, 
Thomas S. Odell, Wm. II. Randall, Ilarley D. 
White, Wm. Randall, Jr., Joel D. Cruttenden, 
E. West, Louis Denoyer. David Faribault, Joseph 
Monteiir, Charles Rouleau. 

This year St. Anthony gave promise of its 
future and Pierre Bottineau was induced to sell 
his claim on Baptist Hill on June 16th. for ?300 
and remove to St. Anthony where he bought a 
considerable tract of land for ^160. Thissubse- 
(juently became Bottineau's addition. He built 
the second house in that place. 

The claim which Bottineau sold on Baptist 
Ilill, he described in the deed as ''bounded east 
by Kittson, north by Clewett, west by Hartshorn 
and Jackson, and south by Louis Robert," "con- 
taining one hundred acres." 

In 1817, the Rev. J. S. U'illiamson, M. D., 
then a loissionary with Little Crow's band at 
Kaposia, a few miles .south of St. Paul, in writ- 
ing to ex-Governor Slade, president of the board 
of national popular education, gave what is be- 
lieved to be the tirst written description of the 
hamlet of St. Paul. The following is the letter 
in full: 

"My present residence is on the utmost verge 
of civilization, in the north-western part of the 
United States, within a few miles of the principal 
vUlage of white men in the territory that we sup- 
pose will bear the name of Minnesota, which some 
would render ' clear water," tliough strictly it sig- 
nifies slightly turbid or water. 

" The village referred to has grown up within a 
few years in a romantic situation on a high bluff 
of the Mississippi, and has been baptized by the 
Roman Catholics, by the name of St. Paul. They 
have erected in it a small chapel, and constitute 
much the larger portion of the inhabitants. The 

Dahkotahs call it, •' Im-ni-ja-ska (White Rock)" 
from the color of the sandstone which forms the 
bluff on which the village stands. This village 
has five 'stores,' as they call them, at all of which 
intoxicating drinks constitute a part, and I sup- 
pose the principal part of what they sell. I would 
suppose the village contains a dozen or twenty 
families living near enough to send to school. 
Since I came to this neighborhood I have had fre- 
quent occasion to visit the village, and have been 
grieved to see so many children growing up en- 
tirely ignorant of God, and imable to read his 
word, with no one to teach them. Unless your 
society can send them a teacher, there seems to be 
little prospect of their havmg one for several years. 
A few days since I went to the place for the piu'- 
pose of making inquiries in reference to the pros- 
pect of a school. I visited seven families in which 
there were twenty-three children of proper age to 
attend school, and was told of five more in which 
were thirteen more that it is supposed might at- 
tend, making thirty-six in twelve families. I sup- 
pose that more than half the parents of these 
children are luiable to read themselves, and care 
but little about having their children taught. 
Possibly the priest might deter some from attend- 
ing, who might otherwise be able and willing. 

" I suppose a good female teacher can do more 
to promote the cause of education and true reli- 
gion than a man. The natural politeness of the 
French (who constitute more than half the popu- 
lation) would cause them to be kind and courteous 
to a female, even though the priest should seek 
to cause opposition. I suppose she might have 
twelve or fifteen scholars to begin with, and if she 
should have a good talent for winning the affec- 
tions of children (and one who has not should not 
come), after a few monttis she would have as many 
as she could attend to. 

"One woman told me she had four children she 
wished to send to school, and that she would give 
board and a romn in her house to a good female 
teacher for the tuition of her children. 

'■A teacher for this place should love the Sav- 
icjiu-, and for his sake should be willing to forego, 
not only many of the religious privileges and ele- 
gances of New England towns, but some of the 
neatness also. She should be entirely free from 
prejudice on account of color, for among her 
scholars she might find not only English, French 



and Swiss, but Sioux and ('liippewas, with some 
claiming kindred witli the African stocli. 

"A teaclier coming sliould bring books witli lier 
suflicient to l)pgin a scliool, as tliere is no book 
store witliin tliree liundred miles."' 

Governor Slade referred Dr. Williamson's let- 
ter to Dr. ('. E. Stowe, husband of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe, wlio forwarded it to MissCatlier- 
ine Beecher at Albany, Xew York, where she 
was instructing a class of young ladies, among 
whom was a Miss Harriet E. Bishop who was be- 
lieved to possess the requisite qualifications. The 
letter was accordingly handed to Miss Bishop, 
who accepted the mission and three days later 
received her commission, which covered the en- 
tire extent of territory "between 'Wisconsin and 
the Rocky Mountains, north of Iowa uj) to the 
North Pole."' She started at once on her peril- 
ous journey, and m July, 1S47, landed at Kaposia 
from the steamer " Argo," of which Capt. Russell 
]51akely, now- of St. Paul, was then clerk. After 
spending a few days with Dr. AVilliamson,on the 
13th of tlie same month she started for St. Paul, 
a few miles distant, in a canoe manned by two 
squaws and the missionaries for companions. 
Arriving at her destination, she says, "a cheerless 
prospect" greeted her. "A few log huts com- 
posed the town — thiee families, the American 
population. With one of these (J. R. Irvine), 
distant from the rest, a home was offered me. 
Theirs was the dwelling — the only one of respect- 
able size, containing three rooms and an attic." 

The title to all lands in St. Paid was still vested 
in the United States, but the increase of popula- 
tion, the increasing value of lands and frequent 
transfer of claims showed the importance of a 
survey, and tlu^ laying out of a town. Ira B. 
Brunson and brother, Benjamin W. Brunson, 
of Prairie du Chien, (the latter is now clerk in 
the St. Paul post-o(lice), were employed for that 
purpose, and the former entered on the work in 
August, and the tract now known as St. Paul 
proper, was laid out. containing about ninety 
acres. The recorded plat shows that the jivoprie- 
tors were, Louis Robert, David Lambert, Henry 
Jackson, Benjamin W. Brunson, Charles Cavilier, 
Henry II. Sibley, J. W. Bass, A. L. Larpenteur, 
AVilliam H. Forbes, J. AV. Simpson, Henry C. 
Rhodes. L. II. LaRoche. J. B. ("oty and A'etal 
(iucriii. Ijut the plat could not be enlercd this 

year, and was not entered until April 2Rth, 1849. 

The surveys for the United States were made 
in the fall of this year. James M. Marsh run the 
town lines in October, and in the following month 
the sub-divisions were made by Isaac \. Iligbee. 

The oi'ganization of a steamboat company to 
run regular packets from (ialena to Mendola and 
Fort Suelling, was an important event of tliis 
year, and materially conti'ibuted to the prosperity 
of St. Paul. Up to this time only stray boats, 
at irregular intervals, visited this region. 

The new settlers of this year were : Wil- 
liam Henry Forbes, John Banlil, J. \V. Bass, 
Fred. Oliver, Benjamin \V. Brunson, Wm. C. 
Renfro, Daniel Hopkins, Sr., Parsons K. John- 
son, Miss Harriet E. ]5ishop, V. P. V. Lull, Aaron 
Foster, G. A. Fournier, S. P. Folsom. 

In 1848, Henry M. Rice generously olfered ten 
town lots and S200 for the building of a clnuvh 
edifice, which resulted in the erection of the 
Market street Methodist cluuch, now occupied by 
the Swedenborgians. 

The excessive use of spirituous liquors has 
been heretofore referred to, and it is worthy of 
record that the first temperance society in St. 
Paul was organized this year, by the young people, 
some of them pupils of Miss Bishop's school. 

The public lands in this region having been 
surveyed in September of this year, the lands 
where St. Paul now is, were offered for sale to 
the highest bidder. H. II. Sil)ley, Louis Robert, 
and A. L. Larpenteur were selected as trustees 
to enter the lands for the various claimants, and 
the latter had fears that specidalors would com- 
pete in their purchase, and thus nm up the price. 
In this, however, they were happily disappointed. 

In referring to this sale in his " Reminisences 
of Early Days of Minnesota," General Sil)ley 
says: " I was selected by the actual settlers to 
bid off portions of the land for them, and, when 
the liour for business had arrived, my seat was 
invariably surromided by a lunnber of men with 
huge bludgeons. What was meant by the pro- 
ceedings I could, of course, only surmise, but I 
would not have envied the fate of the in(livi<lual 
who would have ventured to bid against nic." 

It was understood among the claimants tliat if 
any one bid above one dollar and twenty-live 
cents per acre, they would duck him in the river. 
The task assigned to tlie tliree commissioners, as 



before stated, was both delicate and diflScult, but 
was finally accomplished to the satisfaction of all 
concerned. Some of the claimants, however, 
who did not understand English and the details 
of conveyancing, allowed their claims to remain 
in Mr. Sibley's name some years, and it required 
ti-ouble and persuasion on his part to get them to 
receive and register their deeds. 

About this time, Jtliss Bishop records in her 
diary that J. R. Clewett entered Mr. Irvine's 
house and said, " My ! how this town is growing. 
I counted the smoke of eighteen chiiimeys this 

On February 10th, 1819, the territorial legisla- 
ture of Michigan created Crawford county, with 
the following boimdaries: On the east by a 
line running north and south from the portage of 
the Fox and "Wisconsin rivers, and extending to 
Lake Superior, thence westward to the Missis- 
sippi river. For over twenty years its boundaries 
remained unchanged. 

In 1836, the territory of Wisconsin was organ- 
ized, comprising aU of Michigan territory west of 
the lake, except what is known as the upper 
peninsula of Michigan. In 1840, through the in- 
fluence of Joseph K. Brown, a bill was passed 
creating St. Croix county, which included all of 
Crawford county lying west of a line ruimiug 
northward from the mouth of Porcupine river, 
on Lake Pepin, to Lake Superior, and the county 
seat was located at Dakotah, Brown's townsite, 
near the uppt-r end of the present city of Still- 
water. The same year, Mr. Brown was elected 
to the Wisconsin assembly for two years. Hence- 
forth, this region was to have a voice in the man- 
agement of public affairs. 

May 29th, 1848, '^V'isconsin was admitted into 
the Union as a state, with its present boundaries. 
The residuum of the teiTritory of Wisconsin was 
that i)ortion of the present state of Minnesota, in- 
cluded between the state of Wisconsin on the 
east, and the channel of the Mississippi from the 
mouth of the St. Croix to the "head waters or 
sources of the Mississippi,'' and thence due north 
to the Britisli Possessions, and following the na- 
tional boundary line to Lake Superior, an area of 
20.000 square miles. For this remnant of the ter- 
ritory, congress made no provision by repealing 
or modifying the organic act. 
The question arose whether the old territorial 

government did or did not contmue in force over 
this region, a subject on which public opinion 
was divided. A meeting to consider the matter 
was held in the building at St. Paul, known as 
Jackson's store, near the corner of Bench and 
Jackson streets, on the bluff. This meeting was 
held in July, and a convention was proposed to 
consider their position. The first public meet- 
ing was held in Stillwater on August 4th, and 
Messrs. Steele and Sibley were the only persons 
present from the west side of the ilississippi. 
This meeting issued a call for a general conven- 
tion, to take steps to secure an early territorial 
organization, to assemble on the 26th of the 
month, at tlie same place. Sixty-two delegates 
answered the call, and to this convention the letter 
of lion John Catlin, who had been secretary of 
the territory of Wisconsin, was read, as follows: 

Madison, August 22d, 1S4S. 
Hon. Will. Holcornhe: 

Deaii Sir — I take the liberty to write you 
briefly, for the purpose of ascertauiing what the 
citizens of the present territory of Wisconsin de- 
sire in relation to the organization of a territorial 
government. Congress adjourned on the 14th 
inst. without taking any steps to organize the ter- 
ritory of Minnesota, or to amend the act of ]8o6, 
organizing AVisconsin, so that the government 
could be successfully contuiued. I have given 
Jlr. Brown, by whom I send this, a copy of jSIr. 
Buchanan's opinion, by which he gives it as his 
opinion that the laws of Wisconsin are in force in 
your territory, and if the laws are in force, I 
think it is equally clear that theoflicers necessary 
to carry out those laws are still in office. After 
the organization of the state of Michigan, but be- 
fore her admission. Gen. G. W. Jones was elected 
by the territory of Alichigan, (now state of '\\"is- 
consin) and was allowed to take his seat. It is 
my opinion that if your people were to elect a del- 
egate this fall, he would be allowed to take his 
seat in December^and that a government might 
be fully organized; and unless a delegate is elected 
and sent on, I do not believe a government will 
be organized for several years. You are aware 
of the ditticulty which has prevented the organi- 
zation of Oregon for two years past, and the same 
difficulty will prevent the organization of Minne- 
sota. If Mr. Tweedy were to resign, (and he 
would if requested) I do not see any thing to pre- 



vent my issuing a proclamation for an election to 
till the vacancy as the acting governor; l)nt I 
sliould not like to do so unless the people would 
act under it and hold the election. 

If a delegate was elected by color of law, con- 
gress never would inciuire into the legality of his 

It is the opinion of most all this way, that the 
government of the territory of Wisconsin still- 
continues, although it is nearly inoperative for 
want of a court and legislature. 

I write in haste, and have not time to state fur- 
ther the reasons, which led me to the conclusion 
that the territorial government is still in being; 
but you can confer with Mr. Brown, who, I be- 
lieve, is in possession of the views and opinions 
entertained here on the subject. I shall be 
pleased to hear from you at your earliest conve- 
nience. Youi-s very respectfully, 

Jonx Catlin. 

The opinion of Hon. James ]5uchanan, secre- 
tary of state, refened to in Mr. Catlin's letter is 
as follows : 

'• The question is, whether the laws of the ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin still remain in force in that 
portion of it now beyond the limits of Wisconsin. 
I am clearly of the opinion that these laws are 
still in force over the territory not embraced 
within the limits of the state. It can not well be 
supposed that congress, by admitting the state of 
Wisconsin into the Union, intended to dejirive 
the citizens of the United States, beyond its 
limits, of the protection of existing laws; and 
there is nothing in their legislation from which 
any such inference can be drawn. The dillicult 
question is, what officers still remain to carry 
those laws into execution. It is clear to my 
mind that all the local oflicers residing in counties 
without the .state line, such as judges of probate, 
sherifls, justices of the peace, and constables, 
may e.xercise their appropriate functions as here- 
tofore. AVhether the general officers, such as 
governor, secretary, and judges, appointed for the 
whole of the former territory, are authorized to 
perform their duties within what remains of it, 
presents a question of greater difficulty, on which 
I express no opinion. Whatever may be the 
correct decision of this question, immediate leg- 
islation is required; because it is very certain 
that congress will never consent to maintain the 

machinery provided for the government of the 
entire tenitory, merely for the purpose of gov- 
erning the twenty-five hundred or three thousand 
inhabitants who reside beyond the limits of the 

This convention appointed II. II. Sibley a del- 
egate "to ^^sit "Washington during the ensuing 
session of congress," ''to represent the interests 
of the proposed territory of Minnesota, and urge 
an immediate organization of the same." 

A memorial addressed to President I'olk was 
also prepared praying for the early organization 
of the territory. The signers of this memorial 
were: A. L. Larpenteur. David Ivambert, J. W. 
Simps5on, II. Jackson, "\'etal Guerin. David Her- 
bert, Oliver Rosseau. Andre Godfrey, all of St. 
Paul, and many others who resided elsewhere. 

On September ISth, 1848, Hon. John II. Tweedy 
resigned his office as delegate to congress for the 
territory of Wisconsin. Hon. John Catlin having 
been induced to visit Stillwater for a temporary 
residence, on October 9th, issued a proclamation 
as governor of the territory of Wisconsin, order- 
ing a special election to fill the vacancy, which 
was accordingly held on the 30lh of October. 
The candidates were H. 11. Sibley and H. M. 
Rice. It was not generally believed that the 
elected delegate would be allowed to take his 
in congress and neither candidate particularly de- 
sired the office or made any particular effort to 
secure it. H. II. Sibley was elected ami in No- 
vember took his departure for Washington. 

The settlers of this year were: David Olm- 
sted, Kelson Robert, David Herbert, Wm. IT. 
Kelton, E. B. W' ild, Henry :M. Rice, A. II. Caver.- 
der, Benj. F. Hoyt, Wm. II. Nobles, David Lam- 
bert, Wm. D. Phillipps, W. C. Morrison, Nathan 
Myrick, E. A. C. Hatch, Hugh (ilemi. Andre 
Godfrey, Oliver Rosseau, Andy I. Sliearer, Albert 
Tillow,*Richard Freeborn, William Freeboni, 
Alden Bryant. Lot. IMolTett, A. R. French, Wm. 
M. Brown, Hugh McCann, B. W. Lott, II. C. 

The year 1849 is an important era in the his- 
tory of this region. In this year the residuum of 
the territory of Wisconsin loses its identity in 
the larger territory of Minnesota, the territorial 
government is organized. St. Paul receives its 
charter and our material interests receive an 



impetus of man-elous prosperity which it is tlie 
province of this chapter to record. 

The ^^lnter of 1848-9 was long and severe, 
hemmed in by snow which fell unusually early 
(November 1, 1848.) two hundred miles from 
I'rairie du Chien, through wliich all communica. . 
tions with the civilized world had to pass; the 
mails carried over this trackless and unsettled 
region on a dog sledge, and at irregular intervals, 
was a state of affairs not pleasant to contemplate 
mudi less to endure. It was not until January 
that the result of the presidential election an- 
nouncing the election of Gen. Taylor was re- 

On the arrival of Hon. H. II. Sibley in Wash- 
ington, as delegate from the territory of Wiscon- 
sin, his credentials were presented and refeiTed 
to the committee on elections, which, after several 
meetings and considerable discussion presented a 
majority and minority report. The majority re- 
port was accepted and Mr. Sibley took his seat 
in congress as delegate for the territory of Wis- 
consin being the territory as before stated, lying 
mainly between the St. Croix and Mississippi 
rivers and running north to the British posses- 

Mr. Sibleys"s seat secured, which cost no little 
tact, patience and perseverance, he at once ad- 
dressed himself to the passage of a bill creating 
the territory of ilinnesota. He desired that 
when the bill was presented to the house it sliould 
have prestige of having passed the senate, and it 
was accordingly drawn by the chairman of the 
committee on ten'itories, Hon. Stephen A. 
Douglas, making Mendota the capital of the pro- 
posed territory. A copy of the bill was sent to 
Delegate Sibley for perusal, wlio lost no time in 
calling on Senator Douglas, and urged that the 
capitol should be located at St. Paul, representing 
that it was the wish of a majority of his constitu- 
ents. He also represented that he was a large 
land-owner in Mendota; that the bill as it stood 
located the capitol on his land; that such loca- 
tion would enhance its value by many thousands 
of dollars, and would place him under suspicion, 
however unjust, of representing his pecuniary in- 
terests in "Washington, rather than the expressed 
wishes of his constituents. To this Mr. Douglas 
replied that he had visited the location, at the 
junction of the two rivers, the site was com- 

manding and pictm-esque; that he would assume 
tlie entire responsibility, and in his judgment 
^leudota combined superior advantages and was 
the proper place for tlie proposed capitol. To 
this General Sibley replied by repeating and giv- 
ing emphasis to reasons before stated, and finally 
Senator Douglas, without changing his ^iews on 
the subject, consented to a call of the committee, 
and that Mr. Sibley should be present and state 
his objections. It was not until three days of 
labor and anxiety on the part of Delegate Sibley 
that the desired cliauge in the bill was accom- 
plished, making St. Paul the capital of the tenl- 
tory, a change m the wisdom of which Senator 
Douglas, on a subsequent visit to this region, 
fully acquiesced. The bill passed the senate, but 
met considerable opposition in the house, which 
was finally overcome, and received the executive 
approval March .Sd, 1849. 

Owuig to the slowness of the mails, jiartly in- 
cident to the breaking up of winter, the news of 
this important event was over five weeks in 
reaching St. Paul. The event is thus graphically 
porti-ayed by David Lambert in acommituication, 
published in the first nimiber of the Pioneer, 
under the heading of •' The Breaking up of a 
Hard Winter." 

■■ The last has been the severest winter known 
in the Xorth-west for many years. During five 
months, the communication between this part of 
tlie country and our brethren in the United States 
lias been difficult and infrequent. A mail now 
and then from Prairie du Chien, brought up on tlie 
ice in a train drawn sometimes by horses and some- 
times by dogs, contained news so old that the 
counti-y below had forgotten all about it. When 
the milder weather commenced, and the ice be- 
came imsafe, we were completely shut out from 
all communication for several weeks. Some time 
in January we learned that Gen. Zachary Taylor 
was elected president of the United States. We 
had to wait fo r the ^ arrival of the first boat to learn 
whether our territory was organized, and who 
were its Federal officers. How anxiously was 
that boat expected '. The ice still held its hou 
grasp on Lake Pepin. For a week the arrival 
of a boat had been looked for every hour. Ex- 
pectation was on tiptoe. 

" Monday, the ninth of April, had been a pleas- 
ant day. Toward evening the clouds gathered, 



and about dark commenced a violent storm of 
wind, rain and loud peals of thunder. The dark- 
ness was only dissipated by vivid flashes of light- 
ning. On a sudden, in a momentary lull of the 
wind, the silence was broken l)y the groans of an 
engine. In an other moment the shrill whistle of 
a steamboat thrilled through the air. Another 
moment and a bright Hash of lightning revealed 
the welcome shape of a steamboat just around the 
bluff, less than a mile below Saint I'aul. In an 
instant the welcomer news flashed like electricity 
through the town. and. regardless of the pelting 
rain, the raging wind and the pealing thunder, 
almost the entire male population rushed to tlie 
landing, as the steamboat, " Dr. Franklin Xo. 2" 
da.shed gallantly up to the landing. IJefore she 
was made fast to the moorings she was boarded 
by the excited throng. The good captain and 
clerk (Capt. Blakely) were the great men of the 
hour. General Taylor can not be assailed with 
greater impunity for the 'loaves and lishes' 
than they were for the news and newspapers. 
At length the news was known, and one glad 
shout resounded throughout the boat, taken up on 
shore, and, echoed from our beetling bluffs and 
rolling hills, proclaimed that the bill for the or- 
ganization of ^linuesota Territory had become a 
law !" 

It is estimated that at tliis time the entire ter- 
ritory, could not have contained a population of 
more than one thousand whites. The census 
taken four months later, when many immigrants 
had arrived, showed a total of but four thousand 
six hundred and eighty, of which three hundred 
and seventeen were connected with the army, 
and a large percentage of the remainder were of 
mixed blood. 

The entire territory west of the Mississipi)i 
was still unceded by the Indians, save such small 
tracts as had been secured for military purposes. 
Steamers on the river noith of Prairie du Chien 
had no regular landing places except to wood up. 
Mr. James M. Goodhue, founder of the Minne- 
sota Pioneer, states that in April of this year there 
were but thirty buildings in 81. Paul. 

The first number of the Minnesota Pioneer, 
issued on the 28Ui of April, of this year, advised 
immigrants who were ••swarming into St. Paul 
in siU'h multitudes, to bring along tents and bed- 
ding, to proviile for their comfort until they could 

build houses, as it is utterly impossible to hire a 
building in any i)art of the village, althovigh 
builders are at work in every direction complet- 
ing houses." 

E. S. Seymour, author of "Sketches of Minne- 
sota, the Xew England of the West," lauded in 
St. Paul the 17th of May. He says: "On arriv- 
ing at the wharf, a numerous throng of citizens 
and strangers came rushing down the hill to 
welcome our arrival. I grasped the hand of 
many an acquaintance, whom I unexpectedly 
found here. Everything appeared to be on the 
high-pressure pruiciple. A dwelling house for a 
family could not be rented. 

"The only hotel was small and full to overflow- 
ing. Several boarding houses were very much 
thronged. Many families were living in shanties 
made of rough boards, fastened to posts driven 
in the ground, such as two men coidd construct 
in one day. It was said that about eighty men 
lodged in a barn belonging to Rice's new hotel, 
which was not yet completed. Two families oc- 
cupied tents while I was there. While traveling 
in IMinnesota, I made my headquarters in St. 
Paul, where I occasionally tarried a day or two 
at a boarding-house, consisting of one room, 
about sixteen feet square, in which sixteen per- 
sons, including men, women and children con- 
trived to lodge. The remaining boarders, a half 
dozen or more, found lodgings in a neighbor's 
garret; this tenement rented for S12 per month. 
The roof was so leaky tliat during the frequent 
rains that prevailed at that time, one would often 
wake up in the night and find the water pouring 
ilowu in a stream on liis face, or some part of liis 

"We are now near the dividing line of civilized 
and savage life. We can look across the river 
and see Indians on their own soil. Their canoes 
are seen gliding across the Mississippi, to and fro 
between savage and civilized territory. They 
are met hourly in the streets. * * * Here 
comes a female in civilized costume; her com- 
plexion is tinged with a light shade of bronze, 
and her features bear a strong resemblance to 
those of the Indians. She is a descendant of 
French and Indian parents, a half-breed from 
Red River. There goes a French Canadian, who 
can converse only in the language of his mother 
tongue. He is an old settler; see his pratlliug 



children sporting about yonder shanty, whicli 
was constructed of rough boards, witli al)out one 
day's labor. Tliere he lives— obliging fellow I ex- 
posed to the sun and rain, and rents his adjoin- 
ing log cabin at S12 per month. Let us pass on 
to the group that converse daily in front of yon- 
der hotel. They appear to be principally profes- 
sional men, politicians, office-seekers, speculators 
and traders, discussing the various topics grow- 
ing out of the organization of the new tenitory, 
such as the distribution of the loaves and fishes, 
the price of lots, the rise of real estate, the oppor- 
tunity now afforded for the acquisition of wealth 
or political fame. 

'• The townsite is a pretty one, affording ample 
room for stores or dwellings, to any extent de- 
sirable. I could not but regret, however, that 
where land is so cheap and altundant. some of 
the streets are narrow, and that the land on the 
edge of the high bluff, in the center of the town 
was not left open to the public, instead of be- 
ing cut up into small lots. It would have made 
a pleasant place for promenading, affording a 
fine view of the river, which is now liable to be 
intercepted by buildings erected on these lots." 
At a later date of this year, the same writer says: 

"On the 13th of June, I counted all the build- 
ings of the place, the number of which, includ- 
ing shanties, and those in every state of progress 
from the foundation wall to completion, was one 
hundred and forty-two, of the above, all, except 
about a dozen, were probably less than six 
months old. They included three hotels, one of 
which is very large, and is now open to the ac- 
commodation of travelers; a state house, four 
warehouses, ten stores, seven groceries, three 
boarding houses, two printing offices, two drug 
stores, one fruit and tobacco store, one or two 
blacksmith shops, one wagon shop, one tin shop, 
one or two bakery shops, one furniture room, a 
billiard and bowling saloon, one school-house, in 
whicli a school of about forty children is kept by 
young lady, and where divine services are per- 
formed every Sabbath by a minister of the Epis- 
copalian, Methodist, Presbyterian, or Baptist 
persuasion. There is also a CathoUc church, 
where meetings are held every alternate Sabbath. 
At the time mentioned above there were twelve 
attorney's at law, six of whom were practicing, 
five physicians, and a large number of mechan- 

ics of various kinds. There was not a brick or 
Btone building in the place. There are however, 
good stone quarries in the vicinity, and clay near 
the town, where persons are employed in making 

In May of this year, " not a lock of hay could 
be bought from Cialena to St. Paul." In the 
same month, ex-Uovernor Slade, of Vermont, 
general agent of national popular education, ar- 
rived here with three young ladies, among whom 
was Miss Mary A. Scofleld, one of the first teach- 
ers employed in the schools of the'town. She is 
now the wife of lion. A. S. Kissell, who, for 
some years, was superintendent of the schools of 
Minneapolis, and was subsequently state super- 
intendent of public instruction for the state of 

ilrs. Kissell related to the writer the following 
incident of early days in St. Paul, which oc- 
curred in 1819 or 1850. She was in one of the 
best houses in the town, consisting of two rooms 
the first floor and chamber, the latter reached by 
a ladder, and having loose boards for a floor. 
While in this rude chamber reading Byron, sup- 
posing she was alone, absorbed in the rolling 
numbers, sparkUng wit, biting sarcasm, and 
charming reveries of her author, she was inter- 
rupted and startled by the words, " Reading By- 
rou is like gathering flowers on a dung-hill," a 
laconic and just criticism from the inspiration of 
genius. On looking up. Miss Scofield saw tlie 
founder of the Pioneer. J. M. tioodhue. looking 
over her shoulder. 

Early on the 27th of May, a day resplendent 
with the beauties of spring, and made gorgeous 
by the morning's sun, Alexander Ramsey, with 
his wife, arrived in St. Paul, to enter on his 
duties as governor of the territory. Mrs. Ram- 
sey had not risen, and as the bow of the steamer 
ran into the shore, a little east of where Jackson 
street now is. Governor Ramsey landed, climbed 
over the high bluff bordering the river, and 
found his way to the St. Paul house, a log struc- 
ture, with an addition standing where the 
Merchants' hotel now is, and then the leading 
hotel of St. Paul. The accommodations as to 
rooms and table were both scant and primitive, 
and the house was crowded. The immediate 
prospects were not cheerful, more especially when 
he thought of his young wife, who bad been 



reared amid the abundance and refinement of tin 
East, and had experienc-ed none of the iirivations 
of frontier life. The governor walked up what 
is now Third street, for there was no Third street 
then, where he saw a story and a half white 
house. In answer to an inquiry, a boy said: 
'• Tliat is for tlic governor," a remark of which 
he did not understand the full significance until 
after his arrival at Mendota. then called St. 
Peter's. Hcturning to the boat, the clerk per- 
suaded him to go to St. l*eter"s, saying that every 
one went there who came to St. Paul. On arriv- 
ing at St. Peter's, the governor and his wife were 
met by II. II. Sildey, and became his guests for 
near a month, until suitable quarters could be 
provided for them in St. Paul. The white house, 
before referred to on (iovernor Ramsey's landing 
at St. Paul, had been occupied as a saloon, but 
the tenant bemg unable to pay his rent, had va- 
cated the premises. Houses were scarce, and lea- 
soning correctly that the governor must have a 
house, it was held for him and became his first 
residence in St. Paul. 

Furniture was ordered from St. Louis, and on 
the 2oth of June, (nnernor Ramsey and Mr. 
Sibley rode to St. Paul on horseback, passing 
through several sloughs, the horses floundering 
to the saddle girths in mud. In the meantime, 
Mrs. Ramsey, servant and child came to St. Paul 
in a birch bark caTioc, landing at the foot of 
what is now Eagle street, where they were met 
by a French carl drawn by oxen, and conducted 
to the executive mansion, on the south side of 
what is now Third street, two doorseastof Robert 

The following year (Jovernor Ramsey built a 
commodious and (-omfortable residence, on the 
site of his present mansion (220 Exchange street) 
on a knoll fourteen feet above the present grade. 
Not another house was near them, and for a long 
time their new residence was only reached by an 
Indian trail. In 1857, this house was moved to 
an adjoining lot. and is now occupied by Horace 
K. liigilow. 

On June Kst, in a small room in the St. Paul 
House, the territorial oflicers drew up what is 
known as "The First of June Proclamation,'' 
formally annonncing the organization of the ter- 
ritorial government. 

'• To commemorate this event, the formal birth 

of .Minnesota, the Old Settlers' Association of 
Minnesota hold their annual meetings on June 
first of each year, and their ainiualban(iuet at the 
Merchants Hotel, the successor of the historic 
St. Paul House, the conicr-stone of wliose new 
structure was laid by the Association, on Jmie 
first, 1870."- [Williams.] 

Gen. R. W. Johnson, now of St. I'aul. passed 
through the town in 1849, on his way to Fort 
Snelliiig. as lieutenant in the army, and relates 
the following anecdote : 

" The boat had tied up at the levee. Taking 
advantage of the delay, I wended my way to the 
Pioneer ofiice, and was kindly received by Mr. 
(ioodhue. During the conversation, I observed a 
hen on her nest under the table, and ventured to 
ask him if he designed raising his own poultry. 
He replied thai he had eaten all her eggs, ' and 
the old fool is sitting on a couple of brickbats, 
and if she hatches out a brick yard, you may bet 
your last dollar that hen is not for sale !' " 

The territorial census, which was taken this 
year, showed that the St. Paul precinct contained 
540 males and 300 females, a total of 840. 

The election of councillors, representatives and 
delegates, was on August 2d. Wm. H. Forbes 
and James McC. Boal were elected to the coun- 
cil, and Renjamin W. Bnnison," Henry Jackson, 
Dr. John Dewey and I'arsons K. Johnson, were 
elected from the St. Paul precinct. Capt. John 
Rollins was elected to the council by the Falls of 
St. Anthony precinct and the Little Canada 
settlement. William R.Marshall and Wm.Dugas 
were elected delegates to the house. 

The Register, referring to the election says: 
'•They were successively i)Iaced on a small-sized 
'go-carf and hauled through the streets by the 
enthusiastic crowd, at a speed rather piejudicial 
to whole necks. The vehicle finally broke down, 
but the boys were not to be stopjied in their re- 
joicings. So they carried their successful friends 
to the hotel, where sndi cheering took place as 
we scarcely ever heard before.'' 

The session of the first territorial legislature 
was held in "The Central House,'' on the corner 
of what is now Minnesota and Rench streets. 

During this session the first struggle took place 
for the permanent location of the capital, which 
was not fully determined until the following year, 
"when a compromise was effected by which the 



Capitol was to be at St. Paul, the State ITjiiversi- 
ty at St. Anthony anil the Tt'nitcntiary at Still- 

The legislature was in session sixty days and 
adjourned Xoveniber 3d, 1849. 

By act of the legislature, approved October 
27th, Eamsey county was created, with boun- 
daries heretofore given. On the adjournment of 
the legislature Gov. Ramsey appointed county 
officers to hold their positions until the fust of 
January following. The formal election of coun- 
ty officers was held on November 2r)th. 

The lirst term of court was held Aiiril 2Sth. 
1850, with forty-nine cases on the calendar; Chief 
Justice Goodrich presiding. There were thirteen 
indictments, mostly against gambling house 
keepers. As there was no jail, prisoners were 
sent to Fort Snelling for safe keeping. 

The federal census of this year showed that 
Ramsey county had 1,337 males and 86H females 
— a total of 2,197. Xumber of dwellings. 834. 
Number of acres improved, 458. Number of 
families, 257. It should be borne in mind that at 
that time Ramsey county included nearly all of 
Miunesota on the east of the Mississippi, except 
the St. Croix valley. 

^'etalGuerin gave the county a block for coun- 
ty buildings. Oh January 16th, the county com- 
missioners advertised for plans for a court house 
and jail. Dr. David Day furnished the most ac- 
ceptable plan for a court house, for which he was 
paid ten dollars. To raise money for the erection 
of county buildings, bonds were issued to the 
amount of five thousand dollars, drawing ten per 
cent, interest, and this sum covered the entire cost 
of our old court house, except that a trilling ad- 
ditional compensation was allowed for "winding 
stairs.'" At no time since could the building have 
been erected for that sum. 

A Mr. Taylor, who purchased Franklin Steele "s 
interest in the St. Anthony Water-power C^om- 
pauy, said he could negotiate the court house 
bonds in Boston. They were accordingly drawn 
up, and signed by Benjamin Gervais, Louis 
Roberts, and R. P. Russell, the two former mak- 
ing their marks. These bonds were offered in 
the Boston market, but the good people would 
not purchase bonds thus signed. They were ac- 
cordingly returned, by .some means duly signed, 
(of course by proxy), and Mr. Russell paid the 

money for them. The court house was com- 
menced in November of this year, and completed 
the year following. 

Several months after, the building of the jail 
was commenced, and was the first prison erected 
in Minnesota. It was built of logs, weather 
boarded, and stood till 1857. 

From about the 1st of April, 1850, the Missis- 
sippi began to rise, and on the 13th, the lower 
floor of a warehouse, then occupied by William 
Constans, at the foot of Jackson street, was sub- 
merged. For a purse of $200, the steamboat 
.Vnthony Wayne passed above Fort Snelling to 
the Falls of St. Anthony, having Governor Ram- 
sey and others on board. 

On tlie 15th of May, the chief " Ilole-in-the- 
Day ■' secreted his canoe in the gorge leading to 
" the cave,"" and with two or three of his braves 
crossed the river, and while almost in sight of St. 
Paul, attacked a party of Sioux, killed one man, 
took his scalp, and made a safe retreat. This 
daring act produced great excitement in Little 
Crow's band, a number of whom soon after ap- 
peared running to and fro in the streets of St. 
I'aul, naked, but armed " and panting for the 
scalps of their enemies."" It is said that to ac- 
complish this daring act, and make good his re- 
treat, " IIole-in-the-Day "" marched eighty miles 
in twenty-four hours. 

The great event of 1851 was the treaty with 
the Dakotahs. whereby they sold their birthright, 
and were to be henceforth intriulers when on 
their nativesoil. Up to 1851, '2 and '3, their dead 
might be seen on platforms in 'West St. I'aul, 
and settlers there found the near presence of the 
Indian dead so offensive, that complaint was 
made to (iovernor (jorman, who ordered their 

The Democrat of September 30th, says: "The 
country is full of bears. A band of Sioux In- 
dians killed, in two days, in the neighborhood of 
Rice Lake, twenty-five bears. Two were seen 
within a mile of our office on Saturday."" 

The same paper under date of December 24th, 
says: "Plenty of delightful weather, plenty to 
eat, plenty to drink, but not a word of news from 
the states for two weeks past." 

On October 27th, 1852, an Indian, near Ilolmcs- 
ville, shot a German woman, whose remains were 
brought to St. Paul and buried. The murderer, 



Yu-ha-zee, was pursued aud ancsled. He was 
taken to Fort Snelliug, indicted two days later 
by Uie grand jury of Ramsey county, tried, con- 
victed of murder, and sentenced the same week, 
but was not executed until December i;i»tli. l.So4. 
He was publicly executed on St. Anlhcny liill. 
This was the first executiim in Ttamscy county. 



We now approach some of the most stirring 
events connected with the history of Ramsey 
county. It has before been stated that the mili- 
tary reservation of Fort Snelling included the 
present town of Reserve and a part of the present 
city of St. Paul. Settlers had made homes on 
the reservation from time to time until 1853, 
when all the lands of the reserve, east of the Mis- 
sissippi were taken by claimants, though without 
the sanction of law. In anticipation of the offer- 
ing of these lands for sale, a Claim Association 
was organized for the purpose of mutual protec- 
tion. Henry il. Rice was elected the first presi- 
dent, and William S. Combs, secretary of the as- 
sociation, which held a meeting in the oi)en air, 
on the grass, about where the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis and Omaha nuicliine shops are now 
being built. 

The claims of the settlers frequently over- 
• lapped, aiul the-first business of the association 
was to settle these claims among themselves, and 
then to present a united front against any new 
comer who might attempt to get possession of the 
lands by jumping claims, buying of the govern- 
ment, (u- otherwise. 

On July 1st, 18.54. the association held a meet- 
ing, in anticipation of the sale of the lands 
which was to occur on the 11th of September, 
following. Mr. Rice in the mean time having 
taken his seat in congress as delegate from the 
territorv of Minnesota. 

It should be stated that at that time the gov- 
ernment required all public lands, when ollered 
for sale, to be put up at auction and sold to the 
highest bidder, though at a price of not less than 
SI. 25 per acre. 

At the meeting before referred to, a series of 
nine resolutions were adopted, a few of which we 
give with their numbers. 

3. " Resolved that we rei)air to the land sale 
f 11 mnssc, to protect our homes from the bids of 
wealthy and sordid speculators, the homes and 
improvements which have cost so many of us 
long years of toil and labor, and the exiienditure 
of all our means, the homes which slicltcr nur 
wives and little ones, the homes doublv endeared 
to us by the privations, cares and anxieties which 
we have all experienced in their .security, the 
only spot in fact which we can justly call our 
home, upon this fairest portion of God's foot- 
stool, and which we will protect from the ruth- 
less hands of those who would eagerly tear them 
from our possession." 

7. "Resolved that our brethren of Minneapolis 
and Brownsville land district be respectfully and 
cordially invited to be with us at Stillwater ou 
the 11th day of September next, and that we do 
pledge ourselves to return the favor at their re- 
spective " land sales " on the 18th of September 

9. '■ Resolved that a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to every editor in the territory, and that 
they be respectfully requested to give publicity 
to the same." 

The resolutions were signed by Wm. Xoot, 
president, and J. I). Williams, secretary, and 
were published in the papers of the territory 
thereby giving due and public notice, that no 
competition in the purchase of the lands of the 
reservation would be allowed. 

Wm. R. Marshall was appointed to bid off the 
lands ou the day of sale, in trust for the claim- 

On the day appointed for the sale, according to 
the Daily Democrat, a thousand people were on 
the ground at Stillwater, ready to act decisively, 
had occasion required. The claimants dressed 
in red shirts, all armed, and having clubs in their 
hands, were arranged in a circle so large as 
almost to prevent outsiders from being heard, 
even if disposed to bid. One outsider oidy made 



an attempt to bid. and lie was soon disposed of. 
The sale couinicnced at nine a. m.. and was 
finished in thiee-iiuarteis of an honr. The re- 
mainder of the day was consumed in making out 
the papers for the purchasers, who were congratu- 
lated on being released from their long suspense, 
and getting lands so valuable to them and the 
territory, at the government price of $1.25 per 
acre, "without disturbance or \iolence of any 

One week after the sale of lands at Stillwater, 
the register and receiver of the land office united 
in a letter to the commissioners of the general 
laud office at Washington, in which they repre- 
sented that they offered "at public sale, according 
to law, so much of the original military reserva- 
tion, at Fort Snelling, as is within this land dis- 
trict, and lymg on the left bank of the Mississippi 
river, being in township 28, north, of range num- 
^ ber 23; that the whole of said lands were offered 
during the day, and sold at the minimum price 
of $1.25 per acre, there being four thousand five 
hundred and three and eighty-nine one hund- 
redths acres, amounting to Jo.629.86]; and that 
we believe a combination existed which prevented 
the said lands from being sold for more than the 

The authorities at AVashington received infor- 
mation corroborating the statements of the land 

On the 4th of October, the land officers at Still- 
water were insti'ucted to report the facts and 
circumstances going to show the existence of a 
combination, with the testimony they might be 
able to procure on the subject ; to which, on the 
9th of December, those gentlemen replied that 
their " belief in the existence of the aforesaiil 
combination was based mainly upon public ru- 
mor," and " that the utmost harmony prevailed 
during the sale."" 

The commissioner at "\Vashington . in a letter 
dated Feljruaiy 2d. 1855, censured the officers at 
Stillwater for having in their communication of 
September 18th, " by implication, at least, charged 
the purchasers at the sale therein referred to. with 
being guilty of an offence against the laws of the 
country, for which, if convicted, each would be 
liable to a fine of one thousand dollars and two 
years" imprisonment, and that, too, on a mere 

rumor, whidi. upon investigation, seemed to be 
without any tangible foundation."" 

But the commissioner was liually induced to 
appoint J. Ross Brown, then a traveler and wri- 
ter of some note, with instructions to visit Min- 
nesota, investigate and report on the facts. Mr. 
Brown, accordingly, as a secret agent, visited 
ilinnesota, where he remained some weeks. The 
people and claimants not only did not deny the 
existence of a •■ combination."" but freely admitted 
it. Mr. Brown found an abundance of moral evi- 
dence going to show the truth of the charges, but, 
save a protest signed by Lyman C. Dayton, he 
obtained very little po.sitive proof until on his re- 
turn trip. 

William S. Combs, the first secretai^ of the 
Claim Association, with others, started east over- 
land, and were pleased to have Mr. Brown as one 
of their party, knowing him as a traveler and 
writer, but in entire ignorance of his mission. 
They carried his satchel for him, gave him the 
best bed at night, and as he manifested an inter- 
est in the " Claim Association "" and their late 
transactions, some of the party told him all they 
knew about it with ample embellishments. On 
the information thus obtained, together vrith 
what he learned in Minnesota, under date of 
March 28th, 1855. Mr. Brow'U reported that in- 
timidation had been resorted to, and that if the 
" sales were confirmed the government would be 
defrauded out of $300,000, which of right be- 
longed to the people of the United States," and 
that the actual value of the lands was from forty 
to three hundred dollars per acre, and that the 
average value of the whole tract was "at least 
eighty dollars per acre.'" He submitted a copy of 
a protest signed by Lyman C. Dayton, which he 
found filed in the general land office, showing 
that on the 8th day of August, a month prior to 
the sale, "Charles H. Rice sold to said Dayton 
forty-seven acres of land within the reserve, for 
the sum of Slj)37, which land the said Rice 
bought at public sale on the 11th of Sejitember 
for ^1.25 per acre, or about S60.'" 

In the agreement accompanying the protest, a 
copy of which was also submitted, Mr. Rice 
bound himself " to the amount of the considera- 
tion paid to him to use his influence and do every 
thing for the protection and securing of the claim 
to said Dayton, as if he alone was interested, and 



it was also agreed that tlie said Dayton pay, or 
cause to be jiaid, a i)ro rata exjiense of obtaiiiiiif!; 
the lands, he to incur all the risk in the premises, 
and possession to said laud to remain in said 
Rice until title is obtained as aforesaid." 

Further on in his report, which lills two solid 
columns in the papers of the day, Mr. Brown 
says: " I submit in this connection a list of the 
lands sold and the names of the purchasers, 
taken from the records of the general land office, 
together with copies of the St. Paul Democrat 
and Weekly Minuesotian, containing the business 
notices of most of the speculators therein 

••The principal purchaser. Wm. H. 
a merchant and speculator. Alpheus G. Fuller 
is an Indian trader and speculator, George L. 
Becker is a member of the firm of Uice, IloUins- 
head and Becker, Henry M. Rice is the delegate 
to congress from Minnesota, Charles L. Emerson, 
who obtains five acres of land purchased of C. L. 
Rice, is editor of the Democrat, known as the 
'Rice organ' and member of the firm of Emerson 
and Case, land agents and speculators; George 
W. Biddle is a dentist and speculator; W. S. Combs 
is a bookseller and land speculator. All these 
gentlemen are residents of St. Paul, and none of 
them now occupy or ever actually occupied or 
lived on these lands." 

Mr. Brown concluded his report by recommend- 
ing that •■an investigation of all the facts and cir- 
cumstances connected with the settlement and 
sale of lands within the Fort Snelling reservation 
should be instituted; and that all patents for the 
land now pending in the general land ofiice, 
should be suspended vuitil an official report" could 
'■be made on the subject, accompanied by the 
necessary testimony." 

Mr. Brown's report was referred to in the Min- 
nesota papers of the day as the "Report of the 
Government Spy." The day following its publi- 
cation in Minnesota, Lyman C.Dayton publislied 
a card denying certain statements it contained, 
and Governor Gorman with others, were moved 
to publish cards denying imputations as to tlieir 
complicity with Mr. Jhown, who, in his report 
made frequent reference to Hon. II. M. Rice and 
others,tlie nature of whit'h is so clearly indicated in 
extracts from the incisive reply of ilr. Rice, which 

we give, that we forbear further extracts from 

the report of the government's agent. 

The report on its face was conclusive as against 
the alleged purchasers of the resen'e, and had it 
been confined to well established facts, the result 
might and probably would have been dilTerent. 

On the receipt of Mr. Brown's report by the sec- 
retary of the interior, he sent a copy to Hon. II. 
M. Rice, then in Washington, who the same day, 
under date of April 9th, 18.")o, made a lengthy and 
caustic reply to !Mr. Brown's report, from which 
we make the following extracts: 

••He sets out by charging that there was an un- 
lawful and fraudulent combination among a 
large number of persons, to defraud the govern- 
ment of the value of these lands; that this com- 
bination succeeded by force and violence in pre- 
venting competition at the pul)lic sale; that the 
government was defrauded of more than three 
hundred thousand dollars; that the punishment 
prescribed by law for tliis offence, is a penalty of 
one thousand dollars and imprisonment for two 
years; that Henry M. Rice, the delegate in con- 
gress from Jlinnesota, w'as one of the purchasers 
at that sale, who, among the guilty parties pur- 
chased a part of the said military reservation at 
$1.25 per acre, and thus defrauded the govern- 
ment by preventing competition, etc.; that Henry 
M. Rice, the delegate from ^linnesota, wrote a 
letter that these sales were virtually •confirmed 
and congratulated the hardy pioneers,' etc., etc.; 
and in conclusion refers anew to a list of names 
of the purchasers, and reiterates that 'among 
which will be found that of Henry M. Rice, the 
present delegate from Minnesota.' " To all this 
Mr. Rice replies: 

"Fortunately the records of your own depart- 
ment convict Mr. Brown of falsehood on every 
material stiitement he made against me. The 
records of your own department as well as the 
records of the land office at Stillwater, where the 
sale took place, prove that I did not purchase any 
land at the sale. The same records prove that 
the lauds mentioned by Mr. Brown as having 
been purchased by me at that sale had been en- 
tered and paid for by me at that same office, near 
three years previous. The same records prove 
that that tract of laud, which Mr. Brown .says be- 
longed to the military reser\'ation of Fort Snell- 
ing, did not belong to that reservation, and 



was not embraced within its limits. The 
same records prove that the tract of land 
in question was never purchased by me at public 
sale at any lime: but that after having been of- 
fered at public sale at S1.2o per acre, there was 
no pretext for a combination, that no one would 
bid, was struck off to the government, and sub- 
sequently entered by me at a private sale in the 
usual manner. 

'■It is true, as Mr. Brown alleges, that some of 
these lands had been cultivated and occupied for 
'several years past," and it is also true that the 
land is now very valuable 1 But who made them 
so? The settlers themselves, by the introduction 
of industry, capital, and civilization into that 
new and distant region. Seven years ago St. 
Paul and St. Anthony did not exist, and but lit- 
tle more than six years since the sites upon which 
they are erected were entered at SI .2-5 per acre, 
much of which is at the present time worth from 
.f lO.dOO to 5.50,000 per acre; therefore, according 
to tlie reasoning of this special agent, the gov- 
ernment has been defrauded in the purchase, of 
an enormous sum of money, and it can not be 
perceived why he did not also ask to have those 
entries cancelled. He does not believe that 
' land speculators throughout Minnesota were 
prevented from bidding by motives of personal 
friendship for the claimants holding possession of 
the land." Xeither do I. But a sense of honor 
prevented any but rightful claimants from bid- 
ding. There is a bond stronger than any law, 
which makes honest men respect the rights of 
their neighbors, and I am glad that that bond is 
so universally respected throughout Minnesota." 

"Your agent submits a copy of a protest and 
agreement, etc., given him by Lyman C. Dayton, 
by wliicb it appears that Charles E. Rice agreed 
to sell to said Dayton, forty-seven acres of said 
land for SI, 927, which the said Rice bought for 
about 860. It is to be regretted that Jlr. Brown, 
while examining into the private affairs of the 
citizens of Minnesota, did not ascertain what tlie 
improvements on the lands cost Mr. Rice. It is 
well known to every man the least conversant 
with the West, that claims are sold every day, 
and that improvements are constantly changing 
hands upon both the surveyed and unsurveyed 
lands, and are regarded as property by the local 
laws. Xor do I know any law, human or divine. 

that hinders men in Kansas or Minnesota, to 
keep possession any longer than it may suit their 
interests or convenience so to do; neither can- I 
see how a man's lands regularly purchased can 
be taken from him. because imi)rovements and 
those of his neighbors have made it worth more 
than he paid for it. And as to the improve- 
ments on the claim of Charles R. Rice, to my 
own knowledge, they cost him over §3,000 prior to 
the sale." 

"Again, Mr. Brown says: -there appears a strong 
prejudice in the new territories in favor of origi- 
nal settlers and claimants." This is true; and I 
am glad he made the discovery, for it is an im- 
portant fact, going to show that western men are 
possessed of a high sense of justice and honor, 
and will protect their neiglibor"s rights as readily 
as their own." 

"^Ir. Brown further says, that 'William R. 
Marshall, the principal purchaser, is a mercliant 
and speculator." 

"Xow, Mr. Marshall is simply a merchant, and 
his character for integrity will compare favorably 
with that of any man east or west. He is uni- 
versally respected, and for that reason poor men 
solicited him to go and bid oil lands upon which 
lliej- had settled, to save them from the expense 
of attending the sale. Xot one foot of land was 
purchased for himself, but lie attended the sale 
and bid off for the sole purpose of accommodat- 
ing the poor. And had Mr. Brown examined the 
records, with the same care he seems to have be- 
stowed upon advertisements in newspapers, and 
'notices stuck upon trees," or with the willing- 
ness he gave ear to the idle gossip of idle persons, 
he would have found that Mr. Marshall had, 
true to his trust, conveyed to each individual 
settler, the lands he had purchased, nor did he 
even charge tlie settlers one farthing for the ser- 
vices he rendered them. 

"Mr. Brown asserts that they all reside in St. 
Paul. If lieTneans to restrict tliis expression to 
those he named, it is perliaps true, with the ex- 
ception of Dr. Biddle, but if he means to embrace 
hi it all the purchasers at the land sale, it is 
equally of a piece with the balance of his report, 
as certainly not one-fifth of the purchasers of the 
land in question, do now. or did at the time of 
the sale, reside in St. Paul."" 

"Dr. Biddle built a house, plowed, sowed, 



planted, reaped and resided upon tlie land he pur- 
chased, lie resided on it for months prior to the 
sale, and continued to reside upon it, until tlie 
winter had set in, when he removed with his 
family to town, to remain until spring." 

" I can not believe that this administration will 
use its power to deprive men of the money, labor 
and time they have expended, to say nothing of 
the hardships they Iiave had to encounter in set- 
tling the great West ; neither am I willing to be- 
lieve that this administration will countenance 
the report of a special agent, who has evidently 
traveled outside the courtesies of life, for tlie pur- 
pose of injuring citizens of the country, either pe- 
cuniarily or in reputation." 

The report of ilr. Brown was so diluted with 
fiction, that, with the aid of Mr. Kice, it proved 
its own antidote. A day or two after Mr. Rice 
sent his reply to the Secretary of the Interior, he 
called on that gentleman, who asked what he 
wanted ; to which Mr. Kice replied : " I want the 
patents on those lands issued at once, and it is 
going to be done. I do not say this to you as 
Secretary of the Interior, but I say it to you as 
a citizen and a gentleman. " The patents were 

There is no doubt that the prompt and decisive 
action of .Mr. Rice saved tliose lands to the pur- 
chasers, and secured the lands to the original set- 
tlers of ilinneapolis as well. Had speculators 
been allowed to bid against the first settlers and 
actual occupants of tlie land, it would not only 
have involved great hardship on the latter, but 
would have seriously retarded the growth of the 
two cities. 

In 1855, the city of St. Anthony received its 
first city charter, and included the territory which 
had been known as St. Anthony City, which led 
to the presentation of the following petition to 
the legislature then in session: 
"Jo tlw Honorable Council and House of Repre- 
senlutives of the Tn-ritonj of Minnesota: 

•'• Wlwnas, your honorable body, by a special 
act, has dignified the unassuming village of St. 
Anthony into the magnitude and importance of 
a city, and have therein incorporated a tract of 
land, conijirising 200 acres, which was surveyed 
and laid off into a t«vvn in 1848, recorded in 1849, 
and known the world over as St. Anthony City, 
par excellence. 

"yIik? irhr lifts, said St. Anthony City proper, 
being near the " head of navigation," being situ- 
ated on higher and on better ground, being nearer 
heaven, and further removed from sin than the 
village of St. Anthony, whicli has assumed its 
title, being also in another school district and in 
another road district, and its inhabitants being 
entirely able (in their own opinion) to govern 
tlieir own affairs, we do. therefore, respectfully 

"That the annexation and taxation, without our 
consent and representation, is contrary to tlie 
fundamental principles of our republican govern- 
ment. It was this, gentlemen, which raised the 
muss commonly known as the American revolu- 
tion, commencing with the preparation of a strong 
decoction of tea prepared with salt water instead 
of fresh, and ending with the fall of Yorktown 
and the evacuation of the Britishers from our 
free and virgin soil. We, in short, declare it to 
be unconstitutional, unjust, and oppressive in the 

"And we do furtlier represent that we. your 
petitioners, are perfectly happy as we are, and 
able to take care of ourselves to our own satisfac- 
tion, and that we have no desire and are not in 
the least ambitious to be a part or parcel of the 
city of St. Anthony, but wish to remain alone in 
our glory, and to be known distinctly as St. An- 
thony City. 

" We, your petitioners, do therefore most 
humbly pray your honorable body to set off and 
apart from the recently incorporated city of St. 
Anthony, so much of section 25 thereof as lies 
east of the Mississippi river, comprising 200 
acres, and known as St. Anthony City. 

And your petitioners will ever pray, as in duty 
bound, so long as pen and ink shall last." 

The petition was signed by Wm. Cheever, witli 
twelve others, and tlie followuig year the legisla- 
ture granted their request. 

In the same year (1855), a bill passed both 
branches of the legislature, removing the county 
seat from St. Paul to St. Anthony, but before it 
received the signature of the president of the 
council a friend of St. Paul pocketed the bill aud 
thus prevented its becoming a law. 

St. Anthony and Minneapolis at this time were 
at swords points and extremely jealous of each 
other, anil in 1856, more as a joke than in serious. 



ness, St. Anthony was attached to Hennepin 
county. Tlie transfer left two officers of Ramsey 
county beyond the new limits: Chas.F. Stimson, 
treasurer, and J. P. Wilson, commissioner. 

From time to time. largely for speculative rea- 
sons, the area of Ramsey county has been re- 
duced until from a large county in the territory, 
it has become the smallest county in the state, 
and now contains about one hundred and sixty- 
nine square miles, being less than one third tlie 
area of Hennepin. 

In 1857. the counties of .\noka. Aitkin, Isanti 
and Manomin,were created from territory taken 
from Ramsey county. The history of Mauomin 
county, nowextinct.isalittle remarkable. It was 
six miles in length and lay between the township 
ofilounds View on the east and the Mississippi on 
the west, and contained about eighteen square 
miles. Hon. S. M. Fridley was the principal pro- 
prietor, who, with his retainers, held all thei-oun- 
ty offices. For judicial purposes it was attaclied 
to St. Louis county. When it is remembered 
that we were not then connected with Duluth l)y 
rail and that the entire country from Manomin to 
Duluth was an almost unliroken wilderness, it 
will be seen that it was next to impossible to get 
a civil process served on a resident of Manomin 

During the year 18-57, Ramsey county jail was 

Stanislaus Bilanski, before referred to, died in 
18.59, under circumstances that awakened sus- 
picion of foul play. His wife was arrested, tiied , 
convicted of the crime of murder, sentenced to 
be hung, and the governor named jSIarch 23d. 
1860, as the day. Prior to the time named, the 
legislature convened, and, Governor Ramsey hav- 
ing refused to pardon her, a bill passed lioth 
branches of the legislature, which practically 
abolished capital punishment, but it was vetoed 
by the governor, and an attempt to pass the bill 
over the veto signally failed. 

Mrs. Bilanski escaped from jail and spent 
nearly a week with a paramour, but was finally 
re-an-ested between Lake Como and St. Anthony, 
returned to her old quarters, and on the day ap- 
pointed was publicly executed on the spot where 
the new court-house now stands. Tliis is be- 
lieved to have been the first and only execution 

of a woman in the territory or state of Miiuie- 


Dining the few years immediately preceding 
tlie panic of 18-57, when speculation in real estate 
was at its height, people wanted their property 
rated high for the pin-poses of tiixation, so as to 
give a colorable liasis for the inflated prices at 
which it was held. When the bulible burst, the 
payment of taxes was quite generally neglected, 
except by the middle or poorer classes, and in 
many cases the latter could not pay. 

In order to collect these taxes and afford some 
relief to the overbtn-dened taxpayers, the county 
authorities allowed a liberal discount to those 
paying within a certain specified time, which ac- 
tion produced good results. Later on, the state 
itself had made a larger abatement, its treasury 
being empty, and the amount of taxes due being 
very considerable. Ramsey county, by means of 
the taxes collected, owing to the discount allowed. 
was enabled to pay the state tax, a proceeding 
which saved the state authorities much embar- 
rassment. Exception was afterwards taken to 
the legality of the action of the county authori- 
ties, and a bill was introduced into the house re- 
(luiring Ramsey county to pay into the hands of 
the state authorities, the di.scount allowed for the 
promi)t payment of taxes. The following extracts 
from a letter addressed by Robert A. Smith, ex- 
county treasurer, to the Ramsey county delegation 
in the state legislature, not only state the facts of 
the case clearly, but illustrate fully the wisdom 
of the step taken by the county authorities. 

■•In 18-58, the board of commissioners of Ram- 
sey county, purchased state orders, and paid into 
the state treasury tlie full amount of the state 
tax of 18-57 and prior years, and at that time 
there was a large amount of delinquent taxes for 
tliose years. In 1802 the legislature enacted a 
law giving the state auditor and county counnis- 
sioners tlie power to abate a portion or all of the 
taxes of 1861, and prior years. The result was 
that the taxes of 1859 and prior years, were 
abated in no instance less than fifty per cent., 
and ui many cases seventy- five per cent., and the 
taxes of I860 and 1861, thirty-three per cent. St. 
Anthoin- and a large portion of Anoka county, 
was set oft fixm RaniH-y county in 18.56. with 



quite a laiRO anunmt of taxes due Haiiisey county, 
and iiotwitlisUindiiijj; llanisey county had paid up 
the state in full, all these delinquencies, the state 
auditor abated eveiy dollar of them, without 
even consulting the authorities of Kamsey county. 
The state auditor is clamoring constiintly for this 
ten per cent, discount allowed by the commis- 
sioners of Kamsey county, at a time of great 
financial distress, to encourage the payment of 
taxes, when the very fact that they did so, re- 
sulted in the payment to the state of thousands 
of dollars above this discount, that otherwise 
would not have been received. If this discount 
had not been made, the result would liave been a 
small amount of taxes collected, and the people 
would have waited until the legislative act of 
1862, and had the same advantages as Hennepin 
and other large counties of the state, of an abate- 
ment of sixty or seventy per cent, on a large de- 
linquent list. 

•■The necessity of this action of our commis- 
sioners was fully appreciated by at least one of 
the state ollicers at the time. Mr. Schetfer, then 
slaf^ treasurer, has often said that he did not 
know what lie would liav(^ done to pay off the 
legislative expenses if it had not been for ad- 
vances made by Kamsey <'ounty, during the ses- 
sion of the legislature, and while the state auditor 
may have thought tlie action of the Ramsey 
county oilicers not technically legal, yet h<> over- 
looked their liberal construction of the Uix' laws, 
and drew his warrants on the county treasurer 
for the state tax, less the discount. "To illus- 
trate further the idea, I wish you to understand; 
assume the state tax of 1858 tohave lieen $f)(t,(tO(l, 
by tlie discount of ten per cent., it' paid before 
January 1st, 1850, §80,000, or one-half of tlie 
whole tax was collected. The state loss would 
have been §3,000. If no discount had been made 
less than one-third of llu; 830,000 would have 
been collected, say $10,000, leaving .•i;20,000 de- 
linciuent. Of this amount very little would have 
been collected until the act of the legislature of 
1862, authorizing abatement, and the §20,000 de- 
Iin(iuent would have been abated by the commis- 
sioners sixty per cent, at least, so that the state 
would have lost $12,000 under her own enact- 
ments, instead of if3,000, by the wise action of 
the Ramsey oumty authorities."' 

The total alialenient of taxes amouiitiMl. from 

(list to last, to the sum of nearly :* 
This board of abatement still exists, though with 
somewhat modified powers. Its chief function, 
however, is the equalization of ta,xes. and it is a 
fact that of late years all taxes have been paid 
with commendable progress. 

A i)oint has now been reached where tlie his- 
tory of Ramsey county as a whole can hardly be 
carried farther without repetition, the events of 
later days being more properly treated in those 
pages devoted to the dilTerent towns comiirising 
the county, or in the chapters pertaining to St. 

Reference, however should be made to the fact 
that in 1874, West St. Paul, until then a part of 
Dakota county became a part of Ramsey county, 
the annexation having been voted upon by the 
inhabitants of both counties. By this, about two 
thousand eight hundred acres were added to the 
area of the county of Ramsey. This annexed 
territory was a part of that known as the Louisi- 
ana purchase, ceded in 1803, by Napoleon in con- 
sideration of 115,000,000 paid by the government 
of the United States. 

The bridge across the Mississippi ojiposite Fort 
Snelling was constructed in 1880, which was ef- 
fected at a cost of, including approaches, i.133,- 
507.37, of which sum |65,000 was contributed by 
the general government. 

The changes wrought by the energy of man, in 
such a short period of time, have been truly 
wonderful, and possible probiibly in no other 
country than this. Swiftly ami surely, but not 
always iieacefully, the Indian has faded from 
sight, and his place has been taken by a restless, 
pushing, industrious people, whose labors have 
created wealth and turned the wild grandeur of 
early days into a smiling paradise, a land of 
plenty and happiness, so that the acres over which 
so recently the savage wandered now 
homes for the i)eoi)le of all nations, (ireat as has 
been the progress made ui the past generation the 
next has changes in store of larger import, of 
wider growth. Climate and other considerations 
are all favorable, and its destiny is being shaped 
by men of vigorous understanding. In view, 
therefore, of the achievements of tlie i)ast, tlie 
noble sujierstructure now being raised upon such 
a .solid foundation may safely be expected to at- 



tain to such proportions of strengtli and grandeur 
as imagination alone can conceive. 

This favored section, tliougli an infant in 
years, is a giant in strength, and the elements of 
its greatest possibilities, manufactures, commerce 
and its railroad system are such as necessarily 
must make it the seat of an empire of wide 
dominion and broadening civiliy.ation; tlie central 
point in a magniticeut future, with an inliuence 
radiating into territory as yet even imsettled and 


First legislature. September 3d to Xoveml)er 
1st. 1849. William 11. Forbes. James McC. 
Boal, council. Benj. W. Brunson. Henry Jack- 
son. J. J. Dewey, P. K. Johnson, house. 

Second legislature. January 1st to March 31st, 

1851. "William II. Forbes, James McC. Boal. 
council. Benj. W. Brunson, J. C Kamsey, Ed- 
mund Rice, II. L. TUden, house. 

Third legislature, January 7th to March 6tli, 

1852. William II. Forbes. George "W. Farring- 
ton, (president) council. Charles S. Cave, AV. P. 
Mun-ay, Sam. J. Findley, Jeremiah AV.Sell)y. J. 1'^ 
Fullerton. house. 

Fourth legislature, Januan- 5th to March 5th, 

1853. George W' . Farrington, AVilliam H. Forbes, 
council. W. P. Murray, B. W. Lott. J. C. Ram- 
sey, L. M. Oliver, William Noot, house. 

Fifth legislature, January 4th to March -Itli, 

1854. W. P. Murray, Isaac Van Etten, council. 
William Xoot, W. A. Davis, Louis Barllett, J. 
II. Day, Levi Sloan, house. 

Sixth legislature, January 8d to Marcli 3d, 1855. 
Isaac Van Etten, W. P. :Murray, (president) 
council. AV. A. Davis, B. F. Brawley. Charles S. 
Cave, Reuben Ilaus, Joseph Le ]May, house. 

Seventh legislature, January 2d to March 1st, 

1856. John B. Brisbin. (president) council. W. 
II. Nobles, B. AV. Lott, F. Kuauft. Ross A\'ilkin- 
son, Reuben Haus, house. 

Eighth legislature, January 7th to March 7th, 

1857. John B. Brisbin, (president) council. Wil- 
liam Branch, A. T. Chamblin, AV. P. Murray, 
AVilliam Costello, J. C. Ramsey, house. 


George L. Becker, Moses Sherburne, D. A. J. 
Baker, Lafayette Emmett, W. P. Mm-ray, AV. A. 
Gorman, W. II. Taylor, John S. Prince, Patrick 

Nash, AV. B. McGrort^', Paul Faber. ilichael E. 
Ames. There were no members of the Repub- 
lican wing from the St. Paul district. 


First legislature, assembled December 2d, 1857. 
On March 25tli. 1858, took a recess until June 
2d; finally adjourned August 12th. Isaac A'an 
Etten, Charles S. Cave, senate. James Slarkey, 
Charles Ranch. G. L. Otis, AV. B. McGrorty, 
WiUiam Davern. J. W. Crosby, house. 

No session was held during the winter of 
1858-9, mainly owing to the previous protracted 
session. An election was held in October, 1858, 
and the following gentlemen elected to the house 
(none of whom were elected for the senate): 
John B. Brisbin, AV. A. Gorman, E. D. Cobb, 
William A'on Ilamm. W. P. Murray and John S. 
Prince. As there was no session, they never 

Second legislature, December 7th, 1859, to 
March 12th, 1860. J. II. Stewart, AV. Sprigg 
Hall, C. N. Jklackubin, senate. John B. San- 
born. Ilemy Acker, Oscar Stephenson, J. B. 
Olivier. George Mitsch, D. A. Robertson, house. 

Third legislature, Januaiy 8th to March 8th. 
1S61. Senate: James Smith. Jr., First district; 
John 15. Sanborn, Twenty-first district. House: 
Henry Acker, A. AVessell, First district; AV. L. 
Banning, Twenty-first district. 

Fourth legislatiu-e, January 7th to March 7th. 

1862. Senate: James Smith, Jr., First disti'ict; 
J. R. Irvine, Twenty-first district. House: H. 
L. Carver, Philip Rohr, First district; Nicholas 
Gross, Twenty-lirst district. 

Fifth legislature. January 6lh to March 6tli. 

1863. Senate: James Smith, Jr., First district: 
J. R. Irvine, Twenty-lirst district. House: W. 
P. Murray, J. P. Kidder, First district: John B. 
Brisbin, Twenty-first district. 

Sixth legislature. January 5th to March 4tli, 

1 864 . SenateOLdmund Rice, First district. John 
Nicols, Twenty-first district. House: J. P. Kid- 
der, R. H. Fitz, First district; A. R. Kiefer, 
Twenty-first district. 

Seventh legislature, January 3d to :siareh 3d, 

1865. Senate: Edmund Rice, First district; John 
Nicols, Twenty-first district. House: C. D. 
Gilfillan, J. A. Peckham, First district; J. M. 
Gilman, Twenty-first district. 



Eighth legislature, Jatiuary 2d to Marcli 2(1, 

1866. Senate: W. V. Murray, First district; G. 
L. Otis, Twenty-first district. House: William 
IJrancli. Parker I'aine, First district; Herman 
Trott, Twenty-lirst district. 

Xinth legislature, January Stli, to March Stli, 

1867. Senate: W. P. ^Murray. House: Edniuml 
Kice, C. K. Davis and C. II. Lienau. 

Tenth legislatui-e, January 7th, to March Gtli. 

1868. Senate: George L. IJecker. House: AV. P. 
Murray, 1). C. Jones, ('. II. Lienau. Mr. Mur- 
ray although elected, did not take his seat. 

Elevcntli legislature, January 5th, to March 
5th, 1869. Senate: George L. Becker. House: J. 
M. Gihnan, J. J. Egan and Paul Faber. 

Twelfth legislature, January 4th, to March 
4th, 1870. Senate; George L. Becker. House: 
J. L. Merriam, (speaker) .1. JM. Gilman ami Paul 

Thirteenth legislature, January 8tli. to March 
3rd, 1871. Senate: George L. Becker. House: 
J. L. Merriam, (speaker) II. H. Sibley and 
Christopher Stahlman. 

Fourteenth legislature. January 2d, to March 
1st, 1872. Senate: I. V. D. Heard, 28d district; 
John Nicols. 24th district. House: John P. 
Sanborn. Peter Berkey. 2:id district; J. C. Bur- 
bank, Henry M. Smyth, Edmund Rice, 24th 

Fifteenth legislature, January 7th, to March 
1st, 1873. Senate: Edmund Kice, 23d district; 
John Xicols, 24th district. House: J. X. Rogers, 
II. H. Miller. 23d district; (ieorge Benz. II. A. 
Castle, H. J. Brainard, 21th district. 

Sixteenth legislature, January 6tli to March 
6th, 1874. Senate: Edmund Rice, 23d district; 
E. F. Drake. 24tli district. House: John X. Da- 
vidson. Henry Meyerdiiig, 23d district; George 
Benz, T. M. Metcalf, Lorenzo Hoyt, 24th dis- 

Seventeenth legislature, Januaiyoth, to March 
5th, 1875. Senate: W. P. JSIurray, 23d district; 

E. F. Drake, 24th district. House: William 
Crooks. II. H. .Miller. 23(1 district; George Ben/., 

F. II. Delano, Lorenzo Hoyt, 24th district. 
Eighteenth legislature, Jaiuiary 4th to March 

3d, 1876. Senate: W. P. Murray. 23d district; 
James Smith. Jr., 24th district. House: William 
Crooks, John LuMkcnhciuier, 23d district; Fred. 


Richter, C. D. Gilfillan. \V. W. Webber, 

Xineteenth legislature, January 2il, to March 
2d, 1877. Senate: C. A. Morton, 23d district: 
James Smith, Jr., 24th district. House: William 
Crooks, John Lunkenheimer, 23d district; J. M. 
(iilmau, Edmund Rice, B. Magollin, Jr., 24th 

Twentieth legislature, January 8th, to March 
8th. 1878. Senate: C. A. Morton, 23d district; C. 
D.(iiinilan, 24th district. House: J. II. Reaney, 
R. C. Wiley, 23d district ; W. II. Mead, Edniuiul 
Rice, II. J. Brainard, 24th district. 

Twenty-first legislature, January 7, to March 
7, 1879. Senate: J. II. Reaney, 23a district; 
C. D. Ciilfillan, 24th district. House : Jos. Oppen 
heim, R.C.Wiley, 23d district; W. H. Mead, 
James Smith, Jr., Peter Bohland, 24th district. 

An act was passed by the legislature during 
the session of 1878, changing the legislative ses- 
sions from annual to biennial, to take effect after 
the adjourinueut of the session of 1879. As a 
consequence, there was no session of the legisla- 
ture in 1880. 

Twenty-second legislature, January 4, to March 
4,1881. Senate: William (brooks, 23d district ; 
C. D. GilUllau, 24th district. House : John B. 
Sanborn, R. C. Wiley, 23d district ; C. W. Griggs, 
James Smith, Jr., Peter Bdlilaml. 24tli district. 


Auditors. (Until 18.59 the services allotted to 
this office were performed by the register of 
deeds); Alexander Buchanan, T. M. Metcalf. W. 
II. Forbes, J. F. Hoyt, S. Lee Davis, A. J. Tay- 
lor, J. B. Olivier, S. Lee Davis, J. J. McCardy. 

Register of Deeds. David Day. M. S. Wilkin- 
son, L. M. Oliver, Edward Heeuan, Slierwood 
Hough, Charles Passavant, Jacob Mainzer, Theo- 
dore Sander, Alexander Johnson, Otto Dreher. 

Sheriffs. C. P. V. Lull, (ieorge F. Brott, A. 
M. Fridley, A. W. Tullis, J. Y. Caldwell, A. W. 
TuUis, D. A. Robertson, John Grace, John C. 
Becht (died in office), James King, Frederick 

Treasurers. James \\ . Simpson, A. L. Lar- 
penteur, S. H. Sergeant, Robert W.Cummings, X. 
E. Tyson, Allen Pierce, C. F. Stimson (from Jan- 
uary 1st to March 23, 1856, when by change of 
comity boundaries he became a non-resident, con- 



sequently ineligible), Robert A. Smith, Calvin S. 
Uline, II. M. Rice. 

Clerks of Courl. J. K. Iluinplnvy. A. J. Wliit- 
ney, George W. Prescott, R. F. llouseiiworili. 
Albert Armstrong. A. R. Kiefer. 

County Attorneys. Ilemy A. Lambi-rt, W. 
U. Pliillips. A. L. Williams. D. C. Cooley, I. V. 
D. Heard, II. J. Horn, .S. M. Flint, Harvey Of- 
ficer. AV. W. Erwin. C. D. O'Brien, E. (i. Rogers, 
J. J. f^gaii. 

Judges of Proliate. Henry A. Lambert. Ira 
B. Kingsley, H. L. Welch, S. M. Tracy, Jesse 
M. Stone, Ricliard Fewer, A. C. Jones, John 
Penman, J. F. Iloyt, I. V. D. Heard, J. F. Hoyt, 
R. F. Crowell, E. C. Lambert. R. F. Crowell, 
Oscar Stephenson, H. R. Brill, Oscar Steplienson, 
Henry O'Gorman. 

County Surveyors. B. B. Ford, S. P. Folsom, 
W. R. Marshall. J. A. Case, W. F. Duffy, D. S. 
Kennedy, D. L. Curtice, (i. A. Johnson, Charles 
M. Boyle. C. E. Davis, L. W. Rundlett, D. L. 

Coroners. Charles Bazille,S.H. Axtell, Charles 
Bazille, J. D. Goodrich, W. H. Jarvis, J. D. 
Goodrich, J. ^V. Wren, J. M. Castner, O. F. 
Ford, Philip Schieg, O. F. Ford, J. P. Melaucon, 
A. Guernon. P. McEvery, P. Gabrielson, C. A. 
Stein, James Davenport, Jr. 

Abstract Clerk. (This office was established in 
1873), J. B. Olivier, to date. 

County Superintendents of Schools. (This of- 
fice was established In 1864, and until 1878 the 
superintendents were appointed by the county 
commissioners. Mr. E. A. Hendrickson was the 
first superintendent cJrrUd to the office), A. B. 
Patterson. D. A. J. Baker, Henry Acker, Ben- 
jamin Welles, F. A. Fogg, E. A. Hendrickson. 

Assessors. Under the earlier organization of 
the county, it was divided into assessment dis- 
tricts. At first there were three of these districts. 
S. J. Findley was appointed assessor in district 
uumlier 1, Thomas Odell ui number 2, and 
Isaac J. Lewis in number 3. These districts 
were increased in number as the increase in 
population required, until the system of town 
organization took place in 1858, when town asses- 
sors took the jdace of district assessors. This 
system was continued until 1875, when the office 
of county assessor was established. The gentle- 
men holding the ofiice smce that time, in the 

order of their terms of service were: .]. \V. Mc- 
Clung. Charles Passavant. J. W. Mi-Clung. and 
J. I. Beaumont. 

The ollice of abstract clerk was not established 
until 1878, when Jolin H. Olivier, who was at that 
time auditor, received the appointment. He re- 
.signed his position as auditor and entered upon 
his term of service as abstract clerk, December 
8th, 1873, which position he still holds. 


The first meeting of a board of commissioners 
was held November Kith. 1849. Tlie members 
were appointed by the governor and consisted of 
Ard Godfrey and Louis Robert, with Dr. David 
Day as clerk. An election was called for No- 
vember 26th, following. Tlie names of tlie com- 
missioners since serving the county appear in tlie 
order of years from 1849. 

1850 — R. P. Russell, Louis Robert, Benjamin 

1852-3— R. P. Russell, Louis Robert, Joseph 
Le Bonne. 

1854 — J. P. Wilson, Louis Robert; Joseph 
Le Bonne. 

1855 — J. P. Wilson, Louis Robert, Aliraham 

1856 — N. McLean, Abraham Bennett, J. P. 
Wilson. (Mr. Wilson served until April 1856, 
when, owing to tlie change in county boundaries, 
he became a non-resident, consequently, ineligible, 
and Edmund Rice was chosen in his place). 

1857-8— N. McLean, Abraham liennett, Ed- 
mund Rice. Tills year the system of county 
representation was changed, the members of the 
board being the chairmen of the different town 
boards and wards of the city of St. Paul. The 
new members taking their places on the board 
during the latter part of the year. They were, 
D. A. J. Baker, William Branch, M. I). Clark, 
William Davern, C. L. Emerson, John S. Lam- 
bert, AV. B. McGxorty, N. McLean, J. F. Murray, 
W. H. AVolf. 

1859— D. A. J. Baker, M. D. Clark, J. S. Lam- 
bert, A. L. Larpenteur, N. McLean, L. Alarvin, 
— Schiller, W. M. Stees, H. J. Taylor, Ross 
Wilkinson, W. II. Wolf. (The system was again 
changed, this year to district representation.) 

1860— D. A. J. Baker, J. C. Burbank, J. R. Ir- 
vme, J. W. McClung, John Nicols, John Smith. 

WAH REVOlii). 


1861 — John Xicols, .1. (i. Hetz. M. J. ( )"Coimor, 
A. F. I'arker, John Smith. 

1862— J. W. Selby, J. G. Betz, A. F. Parker, 
George Ilanimonil. J. V. Kilroy. \'S\v. I'arker re- 
signed, ami Henry Hale was appointed in his 
place, July 5tl).] 

1863— J. \\. Selby, J. G. Betz, J. V. Kilroy, 
(ieorge Hammond, C. T. Whitney. [Mr. Selby 
resigned, and I'eter lierkey was appointed in his 
place, February !ith.| 

18()4-5— C. T. Whitney, George Hammond, J, 
1'. Kilroy. Patrick Ryan, John Holland. [Mr. 
Whitney resigned, and C. A. Morgan was ap- 
pointed in his place in October, 1865.] 

isr.ii- George Hammond, John Steele, John 
Holland, Patrick liyan. J. P. Kilroy. 

1867— George Hammond, Thomas Howard, 
Joseph Spiel, John Holland, John Steele. 

1868— John Holland, II. J. Brainard, John 
Steele, Thomas Howard. Joseph Spiel. 

1869—11. J. Brainard, Henry Acker, Thomas 
Howard, John Holland, Joseph Spiel. 

187(1 -Thomas Howard, 11. J. Brainard, Henry 
Acker, Joseph Spiel, C. Stahlman. 

1871— [The method of representation was again 
changed, thereby making the mayor of the city of 
St. Paul, (.)• (iillcio, chairman of the county board.] 
— William Lee, Henry Acker, Joseph Spiel, C. 
Stahlman, Lorenzo Iloyt, 11. J. Brainard, John 
Xicols, AVilliam Welch, T. J. Barney, Daniel 
Kelly, John S. Prince. 

1872— J. H. Stewart, Peter Berkey, II. J. Hrain- 
ard, T. J. Barney, Lorenzo Hoyt, Joseph Speil, 
William Welch, John Nicols, C. II. Schurmeier. 

1878— J. II. Stewart, Peter Berkey, H. J. Brain- 
ard,!'. J. Barney, Lorenzo Hoyt, William Welch, 
William Lindeke, John Nicols. [Mr. Xicols re- 
signed, July 14th. and Daniel Kelly was appointed 
ill his iilare.j 

1874— J. II. Stewart, Peter Berkey, II. J. Brain- 
ard, E. S. Blasdel, Daniel Kelly, William Welch, 
William Lindeke. 

187.')- J. T. Maxlicld, H. J. Brainard, K. S. 
Blasdel, Daniel Kelly, William Welch, William 
Luideke, William Lee. [Mr. Blasdel resigned and 
K. W. Jolnison was appointed in his place, Jan- 
uary 4, 1876.] 

1876— J. T, Ma.\lield, II. J. Brainard, William 
Welch, William Lindeke, Daniel Kelly, U. W. 
Johnson, William Lee. 

1877 — William Dawson. A. K. Maynard. John 
Wagener, Daniel Kelly, William Lindeke, Wil- 
liam Welch, Daniel McGrath. 

1878— William Dawson, William Lindeke. .Tohn 
M. Miner, D. II. Hunt, A. K, Maynard. John 
\\'agener, D. C. McGrath. 

1879- William Dawson. William Lindeke, J. F. 
Hoyt, John M. Miner. John Wagener, E. O. 
Rene, D. II. Hunt. 

1880— William Dawson, E. O. Rene, John Wag- 
ener, J. F. Hoyt, John Grace, Adam Finck, Adam 

1881 — Edmund Rice, John Wagener, .J. F. 
Mcintosh, Daniel O'Connor, John Grace, Adam 
Finck. Adam Bohland. 



When the tocsin of war resounded throughout 
the land early in 1S61, the people were aroused to 
the highest pitch of excitement. Unused to aught 
but the arts of peace they were unprepared for 
war. Then it was that the genius of our politi- 
cal institutions sliined forth with a brilliant lus- 
tre. Ins-tead of rearing a race of men dependent 
upon a few for leaders, they brought forth a race 
nearly every man a leader, as occasion demanded. 
Yet, as'subsequent events proved, subservient to 
necessary discipline, not from fear, but from a 
kiiiiwledge that good discipline is rccpii red to pro- 
duce good results. Our record has especially to 
do with Ramsey county, and of that record no 
citizen of the county need be ashamed, A peru- 
sal of the army record will show that in whatever 
form the •'St. Paul boys,"' as tliey were generally 
known, were brought into the field, they made 
a mark which their opponents remembered, 
victors or vanquished. Upon the memorable 13tli 
of April, when the news of the fall of Eort Sump- 



ter was received in St. Paul, the r-ity was thrown 
into intense excitement. In a few days Company 
C was formed and ready for service, a few days 
later Company A followed and on the iOth 
of April the First ^Minnesota Infantiy was mus- 
tered and awaiting ordere. This regiment lost 
more men in battle than any sent from the state 
and ac(iuired the title of the '■Bloody First." 

To attest the average intelligence of the rank 
and hie of the Minnesota volunteers, it is only 
necessary to know the positions occupied l)y 
them to-day. They can be found in every walk 
of life, from the highest to tlie lowest. A recent- 
ly appointed district judge enlisted as a iirivate. 
Among our business men they are to be found 
occupying positions as managers or principals, 
requiring executive abilities of a high order. 
Among the professions they are to be found in 
high rank. Foreigner traveling in the I'nited 
States are suprised at the absence of soldiers. 
although surrounded by men wlio have fought 
ill many fierce battles for the preservation of tlie 
nation's life. They see no evidence of the sol- 
dier in the quiet civilian. These men took up 
arms for a purpose; when that puipose was ac- 
complished, they returned to their former mode 
of life to remain until a like emergency calls 
them forth again, when the same intrepid valor 
will display itself. 

The record we here present has been obtained 
from the adjutant-general's report, and by inter- 
views with members of the difl'erent organiza- 
tions that went into the army from Kamsey 
county, and is as accurate as circumstances with- 
in our control will permit, and only the names of 
Ramsey county men appear. 


This regiment was organized in April, 1801, 
and was originally commanded by Colonel Willis 
A. Gorman, of St. Paul. Ordered to Washing- 
ton, 1). C, June 14th, 1861. Engaged in the 
following marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes: 
Edward's Ferry, October 22. 1861; Yorktown, 
May 7, 1862; Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862; Peach 
Orchard and Savage Station, June 29, 1862; 
Glendale and Nelson's Farm, June 30, 1862; 
Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862; Vienna, September 
2, 1862; Antietam, September 17, 1862; Charles- 
town, October 17. 1862: first Frederickt^burg. 

December 11, 12 and 13; second Fredericksburg, 
May 3, 1863: Gettysburg, July 2 and 3. 1863. and 
Uristow Station, October 14, 1863. Discliarged 
at Fort Snelling,Minn., May 5, 1864. 

The severest battle engaged in by this regi- 
ment was the second battle of Gettysburg. Pre- 
vious to making the charge to check the enemy 
\intil reinforcements, then seen in the distance, 
could come up. it mustered 448 oflicers and 
men. It came out of the fight with considerably 
less than a hundred. Company A had forty-eight 
in all, and came out, leaving twenty-one dead on 
the field. The reniainder were all wounded save 
three, Captain Coates and two privates. The 
slaughter was so great among officers that Cap- 
tain Coates was left in command of the entire 
division. The regiment was mustered out with 
less than 300 men. 


Co/ojif?— AVillis A. Gorman, must. April 29, 
"til, pro. brig, gen'l, October 1. "61. 

Lkut -Cohmel— Stephen i\Iiller, must. April 
29, "01. pro. colonel of the Seventh Infantry, Au- 
gust 24, "62. 

,S'!(i-(/(0)i— Jacob II. Stewart, must. April 29, 
"61. one of five surgeons who voluntarily re- 
mained on the field at the first battle of Bull 
Pun to care forwounded. Captured and paroled, 
with privilege of caring for wounded prisoners. 
Subsequently transferred to skeleton regiment, 
with headquarters at Fort Snelling. 

(_'hi.iiilinn—l\e\-. E. D. Xeill, must. April 29, 
"61. res"d July 13, "62. Sergt. Major C. E. Davis, 
must. April 29, '01, pro. 2d lieut. Co. I, Novem- 
ber 18, "61, 1st lieut. Co. A, September 17, "62, 
captain Co. E, July 3, '63, dis. with regt.. May 4, 
"64. app'd captain in Hancoek"s Veterans, No- 
vember 18, "64, res"d May, '65. 

Capt. N. J. T. Dana, formerly of the regular 
army, was app'd colonel com'g, October 2. "61, 
pro. brig, gen'l, February 3, '62. William II. 
Morton, app'd surgeon, February 2, '62, res'd 
June 23, '63. D. W. Hand, app'd asst. surgeon, 
July 23, "61, pro. div. surgeon, dis. Id November, 
"63. Peter Gabrielson, app'd asst. surgeon, 
February 17, "63. dis. with regt. D. A. Cottin, 
sergt. major, must. April 29, "61, jtro. 1st lieut. 
Co. A., trans, to Co. K, dis. with regt. A. S. 

Flimi EE(;iMENT I^'FANTliV 


Davis, sergt. major, must. April 20. "fil, pro. 1st 
lieut. Co. A March 4, "64. dis. with regt. 


Captain— Alexander Wiltiiii. pro. major, Sec- 
ond Infy, September, 1861. 

Fiivl Lkul.— Henry C. Coates, pro. capt. Sep- 
tember 18, "61, dis. with regt. 

Second i(V'l(^— Cliarles Lieiiciibcrg, pro. 1st 
lieut., September 18, "61, died Seiiteuiber 13, '62, 
of w'ds rec'd at A'^ienna, Va. 

Sc)■(/f(^l^•^— Josias K. King. pro. 2d lieut. adj"t, 
1st lieut, and capt. of Co. (1, dis. with regt. Au- 
gust Krueger, pro. 2d lieut.; accidentally 
drowned August 20, '63, near Alexandria, Va,. 
Jolin teller, pro. sergt. major, 2d lieut. 1st lieut. 
and adj't, dis. with regt. Howard Slansbury, 
pro. 2d lieut. in U. S. army in June. '61. Henry 
C. Wright, must. May 17, "61; killed July 2, '63, 
in battle of Gettysburg. 

Co/7;o/«?.-.— Matthias Steffes, pro. sergt. in '61. 
Charles Steen, pro. sergt. 1st sergt, dis. with 
regt. Frank Housdorf, pro. sergt, 1st sergt, re- 
enlisted. William Kramer, deserted Xovember 
11, "62. Charles King, dis. per order, February 
4, '62. 

Musician— V.d\\a.rd C. Agnew", dis. with regt. 
Tfd.'/oiicc— Gates Gibbs, re-en. in First Hat'n 

Privates— L. A. Adams, must. May 22, "61, 
absent sick on dis. of regt. J. H. A. Alpers, 
must. May 22, '61, re-en. as vet. in First Bat'n 
Infy. John Blesse, must. April 29, '61, trans, to 
y. K. C. November 16, "63. Wm. Becher, must. 
May 22, "61, dis. for disab'y, March 25, '63. 
Frederick A. Brown, must. May 22, "61, no rec- 
ord. Timothy Crawley, must. April 29, '61, pro. 
Corp.; killed July 2, '63, at battle of Gettysburg. 
John Dehn. nuist. April 29, '61, pro. coiiJ. dis. for 
w'ds reed at battle of Gettysburg. C. S. Drake, 
must. April 29, "61, absent sick on dis. of regt. 
Julius Kdlcr, must. April 29, "61, pro. Corp.; 
killeil July 2, '(JB, at battle of Gettysburg. Chas. 
Eichler, must. April 29, "61, dis. for disab'y, 
February 3, "63. Jacob Fegar, must. April 29, 
"61, dis. with regt. J. J. Gallman, must. April 
29, "61, dis. with regt. Xicholas Guntzer, must. 
April 29, '61, absent sick on dis. of regt. Fred- 
erick Glare, must. May 22, "CI, died of w'ds rec'd 
in battle of Gettysburg, July 2, '63. J. T. Ilal- 

sted. must. April 2'.i, "61, dis. for disab'y from 
w'ds rec'd in battle of Bull Bun, September 1 , "62. 
E. C. HolT, must. April 29, "61, died Oct. 14, '62, of 
w'ds rec'd in battle of Vienna, Va. Geo. Hedapp, 
must. April 29, "61, dis. with regt. John Hauser, 
must. May lo. "(il. killed July 2. '63, in battle of 
Gettysburg. Jacob Kliugel, must. May 17, '61, 
trans, to I'nited States Cav. Oct. 23, '02. Au- 
drey Levering, must. April 29, '61, pro. 2d lieut., 
died March 27, '63, at Sioux City, Iowa. C. C. 
Loomis, must. April 29, '61, missing at Antietam 
Sept. 17, '62. Charles Muller, must. April 29. '61 , 
dis. with regt. Feter Marks, must. April 29, '61, 
pro. Corp., died in July, '63, of wds. received in 
battle of Gettysburg. W. F. Miller, must. May 
17, "61, killed July 2. "63, in battle at Gettysburg. 
Nicholas Matheis. must. May 22, '61 . offered com- 
mission as lieut., refused, dis. with ivgt. J. J. 
Marshall, must. April 29, '61, trans to Inv. corp. 
Xov. '63. Henry Xickel, must. April 29, '61, 
killed July 2, '63. in battle at Gettysburg. N. E. 
Nelsen, must. May 17, "61, pro. Sergt, dis. for 
disabl. Nov. 6, '62. Ole Nelson, must. April 29, 
"61, died Sept. 8, '62, at Fortress Monroe. Wil- 
liam Nixon, must. April 29, '61, dis. with regt. 
G. II. Parker, must. April 29, '61, destd., captured 
and trans, to U. S. Cav. in '62. John Rohring, 
must. May 22, '61, taken prisoner while on march 
near Warrenton, Vn., died in Andersonx ille 
prison. J. G. Sondermann, must. April 29, '61, 
pro. Corp.. dis. with regt. G. W. Smoot, must. 
April 29, "61, dis. per order, Aug. 1, '61. Robert 
Stevens, must. April 29, '61, wounded in battle at 
Bull Run, arm amputated. William Schmidter, 
must. April 29, '61 , dis. w'ith regt. Andrew Stoll, 
must. April 29, "61, dis. for disabl. Sept. 9. '62. 
Jacob Stoll, must. April 29, '61, dis. for disabl. 
Feb. 7, '63. Josepli Schmucker, must. April 29, 
'61, killed July 2, '63. hi battle of Gettysburg. 
E. L. Sproat, must. April 29, '61, dis. for pro. as 
1st Lieut, and Q. M. in 32d N. Y. Vol. Inf., July 
31.62. Nicholas Streit, must. May lo. '61. dis. 
for disabl. Feb. 3, '63. Louis Sattler, must. Jlay 
22, '61, trans, to U. S. L'gt. Art. Oct. 27, '62. 
Matthias Tliiesen, must. April 29, '61. dis. with 
regt. Dietrich Vogelsang, must. April 29, '01, 
wounded in battle at Antietam, Sept. 17. '62, leg 
.amputated, and dis. 

i?f'(Ti/;<— John Wilson, must. Sept. 29, '61, 
killed .luly 2, '63, in battle at Gettysburg. 


niSTonr of RA^fs^:y covnty. 


C'a;^roi)<— AVilliam II. Aeker, pro. Capt. in IGtli 
r. S. Inf. Aug. 8. -Gl . 

Fiist Lieut.— \\i\snn B. Farrell. pro. Captain, 
killed July 3, '63, in battle of (iettysburg. 

Second /.iCMf.— Samuel T. Eaguet, pro. 1st 
lieut., (lis. with regt. 

Sergeants — James Victory, reduced, re-en. and 
trans, to 1st Bat. Inf. J. C. Rensliaw, wounded 
in battle of Bidl Bun. probably dead. Kiigeiie 
Wilmar, dis. for disabl. ilay 2, "62. I). 15. Dc- 
marest, pro. 2d lieut. July 1(1. ■62, and tr.ins. to 
Company E, pro. 1st lieut. Sept. 26. "62. died of 
wounds July 36. '63. 

Cor2)orals — John McConkey, wounded in battle 
of Bull Bun, left on the field. S. N. Waterhouse, 
killed July 21, "61, in battle of Bull Bun. E. II. 
Foster, dis. Xov. 7, "61, for pro. as 2d lieut. in 
Company I. Fourth ilinn. Inf., resigned March 

19, "62. 

Micsician — Henry O. Fifield. must. May 20, "61, 
pro. principal musician. 

Prir((tf:s — Ilenry Arnsdorf. must. April 2i), "61, 
killed June 1, "62, while on picket at Fair Oaks, 
Va. W. A. Brack, must. May 17, "61, dis. with 
regt, re-en. in Company E, Heavy Art. Edmund 
Brissette, must. May 21, "61, wounded at Bull 
Bud, July 21, "61. John Lonquist, must. May 

20, '61, re-en., trans to First Minnesota Bat. J. 
B. McNelly, must. Ai)ril 29, "61, wounded and 
left on the field at Bull Bun. Marshall Sherman, 
must. April 29, "61, re-en. March 24, "64, trans, to 
First Minn. Bat. T. N. Whetstone, must. Aug. 
29, "61, re-en., trans, to First Mimi. Bat. asSergt. 
of Company A. 

Eecniits — Warper Willey, dis. for disabl. May 
17, '62. George Mortimer, re-en. March 24, "64, 
trans, to First JNlinn. Bat. George Willey, trans, 
to Company A, First Minn Bat. 


Privates — Andrew Bayer, must. May lo. "61, 
pro. Corp., dis. with regt. James Broffee, must. 
May 24, "61, trans, to U. S. Light Art. July 16, 
"62. C. A. Brooks, must. May 22, "61, pro. hos- 
I>ital steward, trans, to N. ('. S. May 14, '63. Ole 
Gilbiu-n, must. May 15, '61, dis. with regt. 

Bccruit — II. G. McGuire, must. March 24, '64, 
trans, to First Bat. Inf. 


P(('rf(/f— C. C. UavLs, must. April 29. '61, dis. 
with regt. 

Rceruit—yV. W. Brown, must. Sept. 18, "61, 
trans to First Bat. Inf. 


Sfryediif — Bichard L. Gorman, must. April 29. 
"61, dis. for pro. as 1st lieut. in .'?4tli New York 

Prcruit — lohn :McClay, must. Feb. 26, "64, 
trans, to First Minn. Bat. Inf. 


This regiment was organized in July. lS(il, 
originally commanded by H. B. Van Cleve. Or- 
dered to Louisville, Kentucky, in October, 1S61. 
and assigned to the Army of the Ohio. Engaged 
in the following marches, battles, skirmishes and 
sieges: Mill Spring, January 19, 1862, siege of 
Corinth. April, 1S62. Transferred to the army 
ol the Tennessee. Bragg's Raid; Perry ville, Oc- 
tober S. 1S62: skirmishes of the Tullahoma cam- 
paign; Cliickamauga. September 19 and 20, 1863; 
Mission Bidge, November 25, 1863. "\'eteranized 
in January, 1864. Battles and skirmishes of the 
Atlanta campaign, viz: Besaca, June 14, 15 and 
16, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain. June 27th, 1864; 
Jonesboro; Sherman's march through (Georgia 
and the Carolinas; Bentonville, March 19, 1865. 
Discharged at Fort Snelling. July 11, 18B5. This 
regiment covered itself with laurels at the Ijattle 
of Mission Bidge, where they were badly cut 
up in a charge made on the enemy's works. 
Few Minnesota legiments, if any, perfoiined 
more long and laborious marches. The majority 
of Ramsey county's representatives were in Com- 
panies D and G, although the county was repre- 
sented in everj- company in the regiment. The 
following is their record by companies in their 

Field and Staff O./ft'wr.'!— Major— Alexander Wil- 
kin, com"d September 10. "61, pro. lieut. colonel 
March 21, "62, and colonel of the Ninth Infy, 
August 26, "62. Asst. Surgeon— William L. Ar- 
mingtoii, com"d Septtmber 3. '62, resigned Feb- 
ruary 23, '63. IIosp. Steward— E. Brewer Mat- 
tocks, must. June 27, "61, pro. ass"t sin-geon in 
Seventh Inf"y, July, "62. 

JjVr/irt— Michael Esch (leader), must. Septem- 



ber 25, '61. A. B. Cowles, must. September 10, 
"61. Theodore Damon, must. September 2-5, '61. 
Henry Ilnuley, must. A\igust 27, '61. Frederick 
Stoltz, must. August 23, "SI. F. Z. Cowles, 
must. September 10, "61. Charles Ebert, must. 
August 31, "61. Kasmus Oleson, must. August 
31, "61. Frederick Dohm, must. July 8, "61. 
Herman Memmler, must. July 27, "61. Alfred 
Moone, must. September 4, "61. Reinhard Seidel, 
must. August 31. "61. and Peter Zenzious, must. 
September 3, "61. All dLscharged. by order of 
(ieueral liuell. April 2 1. 1862. 


Pn"ra(f— Hugh Gerety,must. July 20, '01, dis. 
on ex. of term, June 25, "64. 


Eeenuts—lioheTt McKenzie, must. November 
20, "61, dis. for disab'y, ilarch 28, "63. 

Drafted— J. B. Jones, must. March 8, "65, dis. 
from hosp. August 19, '65. Bernard Shock- 
wauler, must. September 26, '64, dis. per order, 
June 11 '65. 

Substitutes— Xii\ier Delmar, must. November 
14, '64, dis. with regt. John Fox, must. Decem- 
ber 2, '64, dis. with regt. James Goodhawk, 
must. February 14, '65, dis. witli regt. 


Eecruits— George Dayton, must. February 19, 
"65, dis. with regt. Charles Gautier, must. Oc- 
tober 12, '61, deserted October 16, '62. Edward 
Jones, must. Feliruary 10, "05, dis. with regt. 

Drafted— George Stiff, must. May 27, "64, dis. 
from hosp. August 10, '65. Daniel Totten, must. 
May 27, '64, dis. with regt. 


Cf(7</rti)i— Horace II. Western, resigned October 
27, "02. 

Fii-tit Z,/f»7.— Moses C. Tuttle. resigned May 
1 , "62. 

Second Lieut. — Samuel P. Jennison, pro. adj't, 
lieut. colonel of the Tenth Minn. Infy, August 
24, '62. 

Sergcdnts—ii. F. Irvine, dis. fordi»ab"y in Oc- 
tober, "62. S. G. Trimble, pro. 2(1 lieut., 1st 
lieut.; killed November 25, '63, in battle of Mis- 
sion Kidge. yV. B. King, red'd, deserted Marcli 
26, "62. John Moullon. pro. 2d lieut. 1st lieut., 

captain and major, dis. with regt. 

'Corponds — Hiram Lobdell, pro. sergt, 2d 
lieut., 1st lieut., resigned July 12, '64. S. B. 
Holdship, pro. sergt, wounded at Chickamauga, 
dis. at e.K. of term, July 4. "65. AVilliam Dudley, 
pro. sergt, killed September 20, '03, at battle of 
Chickamauga. G. M. Fillmore, pro. 2d lieut. 
in Third U. S. Artillery, December 13, '01. Wil- 
liam Wilson, dis. for disab'y, June 4. "62. CM. 
Bowes, dis. on ex. of term. July 4, '04. il. J. 
Clum, dis. for disab'y, May IS, '62. 

Muxicirin — R. B. Jones, dis. for disab'y. June 
13, "62. 

Wayoiifr — William Dubsun, re-en. December 
29, '63, (lis. with regt. 

Pvivutfs — Hunter Brook, pro. staff ofllcer, with 
rank of captain, April 1, '62. J. W. Bartlett, 
died October 15, '62, at Nashville, Tenn. Ed- 
ward Brown, dis. on ex. of term, July 11, '65. 
Alfonso Bogan, killed September 20, '03, at bat- 
tle of Chickamauga. Felix Cariveau, wounded 
at Chickamauga, dis. on ex. of term, July 4, "64. 
Stephen Carpenter, dis. for disab'y, June 10, "62. 
A. 1. Connan, deserted July 26, '62, from Tus- 
cumbia, Ala. E. A. Davis, dis. for disab'y, No- 
vember 21, '01. Leaiider Frazier, dis. on ex. of 
term. July 4, "04. John (;il)bons, dis. on exp. of 
term, July 4, '64. Amos Hanson, dis. on ex. of 
term, July 4, '64. T. A. Holdship, dis. for 
disab'y. May IS, 62. A. Y. Howell, dis. for 
disab'y, March 30, '62. W. II. Harrison, deserted 
February 28, "62, from Smithland, Ky. C. E. F. 
Johnson, dis. on ex. of term, July 4, "64. James 
Kearney, deserted December 1, "61; neversmelled. 
powder. R. A. Lanpher. pro. corp. sergt, com'd 
1st lieut., not accepted, dis. on ex. of term, July 
4, "64. Napoleon Labrash, re-en. December 29, 
"63, trans, to First Regt. Vet. Engineers. July 5, 
"64. J. E. Le Blond, re-en. January 2, "64, dis. 
with regt. W. H. II. Morrow, killed January 9, 
'02, at battle of Mill Spring (a good soldier.) 
Samuel Mair, dis. on ex. of term, July 4, '64. 
John McMahon, dis. by civil authorities, October 
30. "(il. B. W. Morse, dis. fordis:di"y in Septem- 
lier, '01. Washington Maguire, captured at 
Cliickamauga, i)risoner nine months dis. on ex. 
of term, July '04. Thomas Maguire. re-en. De- 
cember 29, '63, pro. sergt, w"d at Kene . w Mount, 
dis. July 11, "65. O. IT. Mevis. dis. on ex. of 
term, July 4, '64. Matthew McKwen, dis. on ex. 
of term, July 4, "64. J, T. McCoy, re-en. Decern- 



ber 29, "63, pro. corp. sergt. Istlieut. (lis. July 11, 
"65. Beniaid McCiirty. dis. on ex. of term, July 

4, "64. Luke Mulnean. pro. corp. dis. ou ex. of 
term. July 4. '(M. J. S. Mullen, pro. corp. w"d at 
Mission Ridge, dis. on ex. of term, July 4, "64. 
Severe ^"eros, trans, to Co. C, November 1, "(il. 
St. Don Palmer, dis. for disab"y, October 1, "62. 
Phillip Potts, dis. on ex. of term, July 4, "64. J. 

5. Sherburne, pro. corp., killed September 29, '03, 
at Chickamauga. B. AV. Sergeant, dis. by order, 
Xovember 16, "61. (under age). G. G. Strong, 
dis. on ex. of term. July 4, '64. M. IL Shanley, 
dis. on ex. of term. July 4, "64. E. K. Trow- 
bridge, dis. for disabl. June 6, '62. Robert Tan- 
kard, dis. for disabl. June 23, '63. Wm. Wag- 
ner, re-en. December 29, '63, pro. corp. trans, to 
band, dis. July 11, '65. A. 11. WUliams. dis. on 
ex. of term, July 4, '64. J. H. "Wilson, dis. on 
expiration of term, July 4, '64. J. D. Wilson, 
pro. sergt. ma.j. dis. for disab'y. November 1 1 . "<)2. 
W. II. Wiley, re-en. January 13, '64, pro. corp. 
sergt. dis. with regt. Charles Whitmore, dis. ou 
ex. of term, July 4, '64. Nelson Young, dis. for 
disab'y. August 9. "62. 

i?cc/-!( (■;.•-• — Thomas Corcoran, dis. with regt. 
Charles Clewett. must. October 13, "61, pro. corp. 
dis. on ex. of term. October 12. "64. Alfred 
Guertn, must. February 27, "65, dis. per order, 
June 19, "6.5. 11. \V. Hoover, must. October 16, 
'61, pro. Q. M. sergt, reduced to ranks at his own 
request, dis. ou ex. of term, October 16, '64. 
Michael King, must. Februaiy 25, "65, dis. per 
order, June 19, "65. Manville Le"Vler, must. Oc- 
tober 22, "64, dis. from hosp. October 13, '65. T. 
G. Perrin, must. September 27, '61, died March 
19, "62, at Louisville. Ky. M. H. Pease, must. 
September 23, "61. dis. for disaby, July 17, "62. 

1. W. Stuart, must. October 7, "61. re-en. Decem- 
ber 26, "63. pro. corp. sergt. 2d lieut. dis. with 
regt. C. A. Treat, must. February 8, "64, pro. 
corp. dis. with regt. C. F. Watkins, must. Oc- 
tober 8, "61, died October 28, '62, at Bowling 
Green, Ky. 

Drafted — Bartholomew Daily, must. November 

2, "64, dis. from hosp. in "65. 

Svhstitutes— John Hall. must. November 9, '64, 
dis. from hosp. in '65. Thomas Klassey, must. 
October 31, "64, dis. per order, June 16, '65. 
David Mason, must. May 28, "64, died October 6, 

"64. at Marietta, Ga. Clark Weed. must. Novem- 
ber 22. "64, dis. from hosp. in "65. 


Private — C.O.Channing, must. July 5. '61, dis. 
for disabl. in "63. 

i?rfn((/.s— Charles Diericks. must. Aug. 25, '64, 
dis. per order June 11, '65. 

7>/«;7(;rt— Rudolph Teich. must. May 28, "64, 
dis. per order May 10, "65. 

Sitb$titi(tes—Aloi Becklin, must. Oct. 13, "64, 
died June 27. '65, at Washington, D. C. A. P. 
Cronkset, must. Aug. 8, "64, dis. per order June 
11, "65. Ender Gustoff, must. Oct. 13, '64, dis. 
with regt. Peter Oleson. must. Aug. 8, '64. died 
Nov. 24. '64. at Milledgeville. Ga. A. E. Wick- 
strom, must. Oct. 13, '64. dis. with regt. 

COMl'AXY F, JR'STEKED .Jl'LY 8. 1861. 

Cdptdin — John B. Davis, pro. Major, resigned 
April 5. '64. 

Second Lieut.— John S. Livingston, pro.! st lieut. 
and Capt., dis. with regt. 

Priratdi — James Andrews, died April 19, '62, 
at Na.shville, Tenu. O. H. P. Abbott, dis. for 
disabl. June 22. "62. J. H. Baxter, re-eu. Dec. 
23. "63. destd from Nashville, March 20, "64. 
Jacob Doney. dis. for disabl. April 19, "62. Cor- 
nelius Holland, killed Sept. 20, "62, in battle of 
Chickamauga. Patrick Maloney, dis. for disabl. 
June 25, "62. John Tuft, re-en. Dee. 23. "63. dis. 
July 11, "65. 

Becruits — Jasper Blanchard. must. Feb. 29. "64, 
died July 24, '64. Richard Butts, must. Feb. 29, 
'64, died Sept. 2, '64. George Newville. must. 
Feb. 29, "64, dis. i)er order June 9, '65. Michael 
Short, must. Feb. 11, '64, dis. with regt. 

Driifted — Joseph Giddeman, must, ^larch 8. '65, 
dis. with regt. 

S^(^s^'0(/<■.s— Peter Dockendorf, Jan. IB. 
'65, dis. per order June 24, "65. Eugene Edgar, 
must. March 6, "65, dis. per order June 12, "65. 
Cisco Edmundson, must. Jan, 13, "65, died May 
16, "65, at Washington, D. C. Frederick Frank- 
house, must. Nov. 26, '64, dis. per order June 11, 
'65. Frederick Koester, must. Nov. 28, '64. dis. 
per order June 25, '65. Thomas Lawrence, must. 
Nov. 9, '64, dis. with regt. Carl Lidenqued, 
must. Nov. 28, '64, dis. with regt. Nicholas 
Lauerman, must. March 9, "65. dis. with regt. 




Caplfiin — Aiulipw T{. Kiet'cr. resiRiied .Iiilj' 18, 

First Limit. — Jacob Maiiizer, lesigiicd March 
19. "63. 

Serycanta — John Iloflman, reen. Pec. 26, '63, 
(lis. witli regt. Henry liit'raii. destd. July 1. "62. 
Charles F. Meyer, pro. 1st lieiit., adjt. and capt.. 
resigned July "64. Frederick Dolini, trans, to 
regtl. band. 

Co)7(OC((/.s— Erastus Harrington, died Sept. 29, 
'61, in St. Paul. Charles llampe, pro. sergt.,and 
2d lieut., resigned July '64. H. Von Eumohr, 
pro. sergt., 2d lieut.. 1st lieut. and capt., dis. with 
regt. A. II. Mosely, dis. on exi)iration of term, 
July 7, "64. Frederick Lanibrecht, pro. sergt., 
re-en. pro. 2d lieut., dis. with regt. George 
Schlief, dis. for disabl. May 19, '62. 

Mu.tii-ianii — Rasmus Oleson, trans, to regtl. 
band Sept. 1, '61. Reinerd iSeidel. trans, to regtl. 
band Sept. 1, "61. 

T|V((/0)ifr— John Woodward, dis, on exp. of j 
term, July 7, '(>4. 

I'rirates— John Hackhoff, dis. for disabl. Feb. 
17, '62. Frank Buhr, dis. for disabl. Aug. 1, '63. 
Peter Douthiel. mortally wounded and left on the 
field at Chickamauga, supposed to be dead. Mazel 
Dannenberger, died June 30, '62, at luka. Miss. 
Christian Dehn.dis. on expiration of term. .July 
7. '61. Charles Ebert, trans, to regtl. band Sept. 
1 . 'CI . Peter Ferleln, destd. Jan. 1, '62, from Le- 
banon, Ky. John German, destd. Oct. 1, '62, 
from Louisville. Ky. John (ientzem. re-en. Dec. 
26, '63, pro. Corp., dis. with regt. Geo.Guetlich, dis. 
on expiration of term, July 7, '64. Henry Holtz, 
dis. for disabl. Feb. 12, '63. Jo.seph Huber. trans, 
to V. R. C. April 10, '64, Charles Janke. dis. for 
disabl. Jan. 6, "64. William Keil, dis. for disabl. 
May 19, '62. Frank Keifer, dis. for wounds re- 
ceived, June 17. "62. John Letto. destd. Aug. 
13, "62. from Decherd, Tenn. Charles Letto, 
re-en. Dec. 26, '63, dis. with regt. Herman 
Memmler, trans, to regtl. band, July 8, "61 . Jacob 
G. Miller, dis. on expiration of term. -July 7, "64. 
Anthony Morgenstern, destd. Oct. 1, '62, from 
Louisville, Ky. John Ohrlein, captured Chicka- 
mauga, died in rebel prison. Thomas Peterson, 
trans, to Company I; Sept. 1, "61. Andrew Pohl, 
trans, to regtl. band, Sept. 1, '61.. George Reed, 
reen. Dec. 26, '63, dis. July H- '65. George 

Reichenbach, died Jan. 8, '62, at Louisville, Ky. 
Stephen Sander, re-en. Dec. 26, '63, pro. corp. 
dis. with regt. Charles Senile, killed Sept. 20, '63, 
at Chickamauga. Andrew Streicher, re-en. Dec. 
26, '63, pro. coi-i).,dis. with regt. Henry Siemers, 
dis. for disabl. Aug. 5, '62. Jacob Warner, killed 
Jan. 19, "62, at Mill Springs. Charles Wick, dis. 
while on recruiting siivice. 

Rfci-ttilx- William Kaniper, must. September 
12, "61, re-en. December 26. "63, pro. corp. sergt, 
dis. with regt. William Parsons, must. July 15, 
'61, trans, from Co. 11 August 1, '61, dis. on ex. 
of term, July 7, '64. William Pratt, must. July 
1.5, "61, pro. corp. dis. with regt. Peter Rungger. 
must. August 26, '61. trans, to Co. H, dis. for 
disab'y in '62. Joseph Schefler, must. February 
24, '64, dis. per order. May 3, '6-5. Paul Schleif, 
must. February 18, "64, dis. with regt. Henry 
Siemers, must. Feb. o, "64, dis. for disab'y, Aug. 5, 
'62. Frederick Waltz, must. February 12, '64, 
dis. with regt. 

Suh.'<tilutes—WiUiiim Dohmann, m<ist. March. 
2, '6.'), dis. from hosp. August 10, '6.5. Anton 
Guilbaume, must. October 7, "64, dis. with regt. 
William Giesking, must. January 18, '65, dis. 
from hosp. August 14, '65. Bonifacius Hoffman, 
must. February 14, '65, dis. from hosp. xVugustl, 
"65. John Kaufman, must. February 20, "65, dis. 
from hosp. August 1, '65. Frederick Jungblut, 
must. January 20, '65, dis. with regt. John 
Luclisinger, must. September 15, '64. dis. with 
regt. John Leisen, must. May 28, '65, dis. with 
regt. Jonas Sivequist, must. November 18, '64, 
dis. with regt. Frederick Vahl.must. November 
17. "64, (lied .May 28, "65, at Alexandria, Va. 

C()MI'.\NY II. 

Priio(e— Wm. Parsons, must. July 15. '61. 
trans, to Co. G, August 1, '61. 

JfcccHJis— Patrick Calloon, must. January 21, 
'65, dis. witli regt. G. C. Hyatt, must. Septem- 
ber 22, '61, dis. for disab'y, May 18, '62. T. E. 
Matteson, must. September 17, '61 , re-en. Decem- 
ber 15, '63, pro. corp. trans, to Signal Corps April 
10, '64. M. E. Reese, must. September 27, '61, 
dis. on ex. of term, September 27, '64. A. B. 
Hose, must. October 12. "61. pro. corp. killed Sep- 
tember 20, "63, at Chickamauga. Lafayette Trues- 
dale, must. March 2, '65, dis. with regt. 



Dco/^<rd— Dennis Mulcahy, must. February 2(1, 
"65, (lis. with regt. 

Si/fts^'fute— Wliandelin Berger, must. October 
24, "64. (lis. with regt. E. Glidden, must. March 
29, "65, dis. per order, July 10, "65. John John- 
son, must. January 20, '65, dis. per order, May 
29, "G-S. Jolin Jacobson. must. Februaiy 15, "65, 
dis. with regt. Jolm Kerclieu, must. October 29, 
"64. dis. with regt. Bredesick Lindert, must. 
April 5, "65, dis. with regt. John ilirron. must. 
January 14, "65, dis. with regt. James Odell, 
must. November 9, "64, dis. with regt. Ole Tor- 
enson, must. February 18, '65, dis. per order, July 
2, "65. Clark Wead, must. Kovember 21, "64, 
■(lis. from hosp. July 24, "65. August Ucker. 
must. March 27, '65, dis. with regt. 


Second Lieut.— Cahin S. Uline, must. July .SO, 
'61, pro. 1st lieut. January 1, "62, capt. March 4, 
'62, major April 6, '64. and lieut. colonel, July 15, 
"64, dis. with regt. 

Privates — J. S. Berry, must. August 12, "61, 
dis. for disab'y, August 24, "63. C. J. Erickson, 
must. September 10, "61, deserted in October "62, 
arrested in March. "64. sentenced to make his 
time good. Edward McPhillip. must. September 
8, "61, re-en. December 19, "6.3, dis. with regt. 
Henry Parker, must. July 30, "61, died December 
18, "63, atXashville,Tenn. C. A. Sandin, must. 
July 30, '61, re-en. December 19. "63. dis. with 
regt. John Storm, must. September 10, "61. de- 
serted October 23, "63, from Danville, Ky. J. W. 
AVood, must. August 12, "61, pro. 2d lieut. 1st 
lieut. capt. of Co. B, June 20, "64, dis. with regt. 

i?ecr«j"(.s— X. E. Alger, must. October 8, "61, 
died at Somerset, Ky. R. 11. McElroy. must. 
September 16, "64, captured and paroled in Au- 
gust, '62, killed by Indians at Wood Lake, Minn., 
September 22, "62. U'ardwell ilathers, must. 
September 14, "61, killed September 19. "63, at 
battle of Chickamauga. William McCurdy, 
must. September 24, "61, killed September 19, '63, 
at battle of Chickamauga. S. M. Parker, must. 
September 4, "61, killed January 19, "62, by 
bayonet thrust at Mill Springs. T. B. Peterson, 
must. September 1, "61, deserted March 10, "62, 
from Nashville, Tenn. Augustus Peterson, must. 
September 10, "61, dis. for disaby, March 1, "63. 
Lewis Quinnell, must. October 18. "63, died 

Jaiuiary 18, '64, at Jeffersonville, Ind. G. "W. 
Shuman, must. September 24, "61, re-en. pro. corp. 
sergt, 1st lieut. capt. Co. D, August 23, '64, dis. 
with regt. 

Si(6,s/i/i<(fs— George Parks, must. November 25, 
'64, dis. with regt. George WUson, must. Janu- 
ary 20, "65, dis. per order, J.une 12, "65. 


Captain — Jacob J. Noah. must. August 23, "61, 
resigned June 3. '62. 

Second Lieut. — Ephraim A. Otis, must. August 
23, "61, appointed staff officer in October, "61. 

Corporals— G. A. Stark, must. July 31, "61, dis. 
for disab'y. J. "W. "Wilson, must. July 31, "61. F. 
Y. Ilotchkiss, must. August 19, "61, dis. on ex. of 
term, August 13, "64. 

Musicians — George "Woodward, must. August 
8, "61, dis. for disab'y, April 19. "02. William 
Birclier, must. August 14, "61, re-en. December. 
"63, dis. with regt. 

Wagoner — Ulrich Birclier, must. August 14, 
"()1, re-en. December "63, dis. witli regt. 

Piv'ra/p.s— Christian Bensen, must. Sept. 10, "61. 
w"d at Mill Springs, dis. for disab'y, April 19, "62. 
"W. ir. F. Bishoff, must. Aug. 26, "61, dis. for disabl. 
J. D. Burr, must. August 26, "61, pro. corp. sergt. 
dis. on ex. of term, August 26, "64. J. H. Clark, 
must. September 12, "61, deserted October 12, "62. 
W. I. Clyde, must. September 11. "61, dis. on ex. 
of term, September 10, "64. Gilbert Jackson, 
must. August 12. "61. died in hosp. at Chat- 
tanooga. T. II. Johnson, must. September 11, 
"61, trans, to X. K. C. November 13, "63. Chris- 
tian Kersemier, must. August 8, "61. died in De- 
cember, "63, of \v"ds rec"d at Mission Ridge. 
.John McAlpin. uuist. August 30. "61, missing at 
Chickamauga. deserted. Robert McLellan, must. 
August 30, "61, w'd at Chickamauga. re-en. jiro. 
Corp. dis. July 15, "05. Charles Metzgar, must. 
September 12, "61, dis. for disab"y, February 
8, "62. Alexander Metzgar, must. September 20, 
"61, killed at Chickamauga, September 20, "63. J. 
M. Olson, -must. August 19, "61, re-en. Decem- 
ber, '63. pro. corp. dis. with regt. J. D. Smith, 
must. September 11, "61, died April 6, "62. at 
Lebanon, Ky. Levi Staler p, must. August 26, 
"61. re-en. December, "64, dip. with regt. J. M. 
"Waldorf, must._ August 19, "61, deserted from 
Louisville, Ky.. in October, "62. 



Recniils— Felix Carture, muct. May 28, '64. dis. 
per order, June 10, "65. Nicholas Freedinan, 
must. May 20, "64, died September 21, '64, at Ma- 
rietta. Ga. 

Substitute— Chvis. Zimmerman, must. October 
8, '64, dis. with regt. 


This rpRiment was organized in October, 1S61, 
and originally commanded by Colonel Henry C. 
Lester, of Winona. Ordered to Xashville, Tenn., 
in March, 1862; captured and paroled at Mur- 
freesboro, in July, 18G2. Ordered to St. Louis, 
Missouri, thence to Minnesota. Engaged in tlie 
Indian expedition of 1862. Participated in tlie 
battle of Wood Lake, September 23. 1862. Or- 
dered to Little Rock, Arkansas, in Xovcnil)er, 
1863. Veteranized in January, 1864. Engaged 
in battle of Fitzhugh's woods, Marcli 30, 1864; 
ordered to I'iue Hluff. .Vrkansas. in April. 1864 
thence to Devall's.blufl'. in October, 1864; must- 
ered out at Devall's bluff, September 2, 1865; dis- 
charged at Fort Snelling. Comparatively few 
representatives from Ramsey county were in tliis 
regiment. Nearly all of them were in Com- 
pany 15. 


Jfcc(i((7.s— Jolm Worley, must. September V, 
'64, dis. per order, July 23, '65. Pleasant Green 
(colored), must. November 1, '63, dis. with regt. 


Cai>«at)i— Chauuey W. Griggs, pro. major. May 
1, '62, lieut.-col. May 29, '62, and col. Dec. 1, "62, 
resigned July 15, "63. 

Sergeant— ' Pierce, pro. 2d lieut. May 
12, '63, 1st lieut., captain of Company F, xVpril 
17, "65, died July 1, "65, at Devall's Bluff. 

Corporal— John Berrisford, dest. Jan. 25, "63, 
at Chicago, 111. 

7'r;r«(f.s— Peter Brunell, re-en. Feb. 2, '64, 
dis. with regt. Frank Brunell, re-en. Feb. 2, '64, 
died Dec. 16, '64, at Prairie du Cliieu,Wis. Geo. 
Breuer, re-en. Feb, 2, '64. wounded at Fitzhugh's 
Woods. Ark., dis. with regt. Stenard Bliss, 
destd. in July '62, returned in June, '63, re-en. dis. 
with regt. John Cochran, re-en. Feb. 2, '64, dis. 
per order. May 31, '65. Joseph Colter, dis. on 
expiration of term, Nov. 15, "64. F. M. Cart- 
wright, re-en. Feb. 2, '64, pro. corp., dis. with 

regt. R. B. Dean, dis. for disabl. March 28, '62. 
J. L. Fisk, appointed A. Q. M. of X'olunteers, 
with rank of captain. May 29, '62. Edward Frey- 
gang, pro. corp., re-en. Feb. 2. "64, dis. witli regt. 
F. B. (ialusha, dis. for disal)!. Benjamin Hand, 
dis. for. disabl. May 28, "63. Frank Simmons, 
re-en. Feb. 2, '64. pro. corp. sergt.. dis. for pro. 
Nov. 7, '64. 

Recruits— J. G. llutchins, must. Feb. 11, '64, 
dis. with regt. Michael Harrington, must. April 
18, '64, dis. for disabl. Dec. 7, '64. Andrew San- 
burg, must. Aug. 27, '63. dis. per order, July 28, 
'65. Abraham Iberson, must. Feb. i), "64, dis. for 
disabl. Dec. 7, '65. 


Prii-dtt-'iielii O. Skoog, nuist. Nov. 4, '61, dis. 
on expiration of term, Nov. 12, '64. 


Privates— 11. C. ColUns, must. Nov. 7, '61, pro. 
2d lieut. in Eleventh La. C. Vols. Dec. 6, '65. 
William Green, must. Nov. 7, '61, re-en. Dec. 20 
"63, dis for disabl. May 30, '65. 


Ser<jia lit— Otto F. Dreher, must. Nov. 8, '61, 
pro. 1st heut. Dec. l,'62,Capt. Company A, Aug. 
14, '64, dis. with regt. 

Corporul—C. C. Berkman, must. Nov. 8, '64, 
dis. for disabl. Dec. '62. 

Recruits— U. R. Hare, must. Jan. 26, '64, dis, 
with regt. Robert Hare, must. Aug. 29, '64, dis. 
per order, July 28, '65. 


Second Lieut.— John C. Devereux, must. Nov. 
6, '61, pro. 1st lieut. July 8, '62, captain, July 15, 
'63, resigned March 2, '65. 

Pc(co(c— Nicholas Remus, must. Nov. 6, "61, 
trans, to Company B, Dec. 1, "61, dis. on expira- 
tion of term. Nov. 15, '64. 

Bra/lid— Tlmmns Milliu'r. must. June 24, "64, 
dis. witli regt. John Rigney, must. June 24, '64, 
dis. with regt. 


Second Lieul.—Dnmon Greenleaf, must. Nov _ 
6, '61, pro. 1st lieut. Dec. 1 , '62, resigned Aug. 
16, '64. 

Recruit— F. E. Miller, must. Dec. 11, '62, dis. 
with regt. 




Second Lk tit. —Cyrene H. 1st lieut. 
and adjt. January 9, "62, Capt. of subsistence, 
June 13, "64. 

Se)(/(((ii<— Hiram V. Gates, pro. 1st lieut. Dec. 
1, '62, dismissed July 15, "64. 


This regiment was organized in December. 
1861, and was originally commanded by Colonel 
John B. Sanborn, of St. Paul. Ordered to Ben- 
ton Barracks, Mo., April 10,1862. Assigned to 
the army of the Mississippi. May 4, 1862. Par- 
ticipated in the following marches, battles, sieges 
and skirmishes: Siege of Corinth, during April, 
1862; luka, September 19,1862; Corinth, October 
3d and 4th. 1862; siege of Vicksburg. Forty Hills. 
Raymond, Jackson. Champion Hills, assault on 
Yicksburg and capture of Vicksburg. July 4, 
1863. Transferred from the seventeenth to the 
fifteenth army corps. Mission Bidge. Xovember 
25, 1863. Veteranized January. 1864. Alla- 
toona. October, 1864; Sherman's march through 
(ieorgia and the Carolina's; Benton ville, ^larch 
20. 1865, and Raleigh, April 14. 1865. Mustered 
out at Louisville, Ky., July 19, 1865. Discharged 
at Fort Snelliug. 


X)ro/(ff?— Baptiste Marx. must. May .SO. '64. 
dis. with regt. 


.S«6s^i7i<(c— Joseph Lapp. must, ilarch 20, '65, 
dis. July 18, '65. ' 


Privates— Tvancis Berquest. re-en. i)ro. corp. 
dis. July 19, '65. W. B. Morgan, dis. for disabl. 
September 10, "62. O. J. Weaverson, dis. on ex. 
of term, October 11, '64. 

Recruit— 3. B. Dufford, must. Felnuary 1, "62, 
re-en. March 22, "64, dis. for disabl. June 27. '65. 

Svhstitute—'M. I. Mattson, must. August 29, 
'64, dis. with regt. 


Privates — Cheeseman Gould, pro. 2d lieut. No- 
vember 4, '62, 1st lieut Co. B. January 29, "64, 
and capt. dis. with regt. 

Recruit— O. H. Wiley, must. March 21, "64, 
trans, from Co. K. dis. with regt. 

Substitutes— Jacob Feger, must. August 21. '64, 
dis. per order, June 12. "65. Daniel Hughes, 
must. August 23, '64, dis. per order, June 12, '65. 
Lorenzo A'etsch, must. May 20, '64, died October 
20. "64. 


Serijfuitt — Peter Jerome, must. Novenil)er 27. 
"61, re-en. January 1. '64. pro. 2d lieut. June 5, 
"65. dis. with regt. 

ro/7)o/((?— Louis Fontain. must. Xovember 27. 
"61, re-en. January 1, '64, dis. with regt. 

Prir(ttes—Fa.\i\ Bassler, must. October 18, '61. 
re-en. January 1, "64, dis. with regt. Amea 
Cohl, must. October 20, "61, died at Camp Den- 
nison, Ohio, date unknown. Peter Keller, must. 
October 20, '61, dis. for disabl. December 21, "62. 
Christian :Mohr, must. Octol)er 18, '61, dis. for 
disabl. April 4, "62. Frederick Schrome, must. 
October 23, '61, re-en. January 1, '64, dis. with 
regt. Joseph White, must. October 11. "61. 
trans, to V. R. C.'ilarch 15. "64. 

Suhstitides—Frauk Curtis, must. December 6. 
"64, dis. for disabl. June 28, '65. Napoleon St. 
Germain, must. December 29, "64, dis. with regt. 
Chas. Iladam, must. January 19, '65, dis. with 
regt. William Jordon,must. January 9, '65, dis. 
with regt. 


F/i>/ iK(((.— William T. Wheeler, must. Xo- 
vember 15, '61, pro. capt. August 9, '03, dis. for 
disabl. January 25, '64. 

Second Lieut. — James Drysdale. must. Xovem- 
ber 20, '61, pro. 1st lieut. August 9, '63. dis. per 
order. May 24. '64. 

Prir(iie>:— .John Cooney, must. Xovember 6. 
"61. re-en. January 1. '64. dis. with regt. Henry 
Carroll, must. Xovember 16, "61, re-en. February 
24. '64. pro. corp. dis. with regt. Philip Gum- 
rup, must. October 16, "61, died Xovember 27. 
"64. at Jeffersonville, Ind. James M. Hubbard, 
must. Xovember 20, "61, trans, to reg'l band, dis. 
for disabl. May 6, "63. C. P. Hubbard, must. 
Xovember 20. "61. trans, to reg"l baud, dis. for 
disabl. August 10, "63. 

Recruit— John Anglesburg. must. September 
4, '64, dis. per order, June 12, '65. 


Second Lieut.— D. M. G. Murphy, pro. Q. M. 
April 9, '63. capt. Co. B, May 3, '64, and major, 
dis. with regt. 



Second Lieut.— John G. Janike, trans, to comp. 
must. September 23, "64, pro. 1st lieut, June •'), 
"60, dis. with regt. 

Serymiil—Samuel W. Uussell, (lis. June 14, 
'62, to accept pro. as 2(1 and 1st lieut. of Co. I, 
pro. reg"I Q. il. August 7, "64, dis. witli regt. 

J'rinihs — James Conway, re-en. January 1, 
"64. dis. with regt. Sebastian Ernst, dis, on ex. 
of term, December 21, "64. John Fisher, died 
June 27, ,63, at Vicksburg. Miss, (ieorge Fisher, 
trans, to V. R. C. William Hutchinson, re-en. 
January 1, "64, pro. corp. w"d at AUatoona, Ga., 
dis. with regt. Patrick Loftus. re-en. January 1, 
'64, pro. -Corp. dis. with regt. August Loch. dis. 
Januaiy 19, "64, for wMs rec"d at Corinth, Miss. 
Joseph LaBue, dis. February 28, "63, to enlist in 
Marine Brigade, llichard McLagan. dis. on ex. 
of term, December 21, "64. 

COMPANY H. .MlSTi:i{i:i) DE<^K-Mlii;i£ 2(1, 1861. 

Corporal — J. II. B. Beebee, dis. for disabl. May 
o, "62. 

Pcirfito— N.P. Folk.dis. for disabl. January 19, 
"63. P. Johnson, died Jiuie 20, "63, at Young"s 
Point, Miss. 


Second Lieut. — Edward H. Foster, resig"n ac- 
cepted, March 19, '62. 

iSfc(/e(()i(— Johnson Colter, drowned Man-li 3, 
"63, at Memphis, Tenn. 

Mi(s!r!ii ii—^TUcodore Taylor, dis. for disabl. 
April 18, "62. 

Privates — Peter (Jruther. killed in battle, May 
22, '63. Henry Harper, deserted September 19, 
•62, at luka. Miss. Adam Kiefer, dis. for disabl. 
September 2, '62. John Smith, re-en. January 1, 
'64, dis. with regt. Leonard Seibert, trans, to 
reg"l band. dis. on ex. of term, December 26, '64. 
T. P. AVilson. pro. com. sgt. December 4, "61, dis. 
April 22, "63, for pro. to 1st lieut. in Eleventh La. 
Infy (afterward Forty-ninth U. S. C. Vols.), pro. 
A. (^. M. with rank of capt. April 7, "64, and 
brevet major, dis. August 21, "66. 


First Lieut. — Lucien B. Martin, pro. capt. Oc- 
tober 3, "62, res"d July 6, '63. 

Pricdtes — Francis Belot, re-en. January 1, "64, 
dis. with regt. J. S. Boyd, re-en. March 21, "64, 
pro. corp. dis. with regt, A. F. Ilagerman. de- 

serted, (late unknown. John Lindsay, dis. on ex. 
of term. December 22, "64. John McCann, dis. 
for disabl. November 11, "o2. AVilliani Monsou, 
dis. for disabl. in October, "63. W. II. Mortimer, 
dis. October 3, "63, for loss of arm. H. P. Miller, 
dis. in "t)3, at Vicksburg, to accei)t promotion. 
Joseph Montour, re-en. January 1, "64, dis. with 
regt. Charles E. Smith, dis. on ex. of term, De- 
cember 22, "64. Peter Sherrier, dis. April 29, "65. 
G.(J. Sherbrook, pro. corp. sergt. and 2d lieut., 
died May 24, "63, from w'ds. J. G. Smale, dis. on 
ex. of term, December 22, '64. George Therriot, 
died March (>, "64, at Anderson, Ala., from rail- 
road accident. 

J?eeri«"(s— -Joseph Monteuer, must. August 25, 
'64, dis. with regt. J. F. Tostevin, must. March 
2S, "Ii2, dis. on ex. of term. April 21, "65. O. H. 
Wiley, must. March 7, "62, re-en. March 21, '64, 
trans, to Co. D. dis. witli regt. 


This regiment was organized in May, 1862, and 
originally commanded by Colonel Iludolph Bor- 
gesrode of Shakopee. Ordered to Pittsburg 
Landing, May 9, 1662. A detachment of tliree 
companies remained in ^linnesota to garrison 
frontier posts. Participated in the following 
marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes: Siege of 
Corinth in April and May, 1S62. The detachment 
in ^linnesota, engaged with the Indians at Red- 
wood, Minnesota, August 18, 1862. Siege of 
Fort Ridgely, August 20, 21 and 22, 1862; Fort 
Abererombie, D. T. in August, 1862. The regi- 
ment was assigned to the sixteenth army corps. 
Engaged in battle of luka, Sept. 18, 1862; Corinth, 
October 3 and 4.18(52; Jackson, May 14, 18(53; 
siege of \'icksburg; assaidt of A'icksburg, May 
22, 1863; Mechanicsburg, June 3, 1863; Rich- 
mond, June lo, 18(53; Fort DeRussey. La.. March 
14,18(54; Red River expedition, ilarcli, Ajiril and 
May, 1864; Lake Chicot, June 6, 1864; Tupelo, 
July 13. 1864. Veteranized in July, 1864. En- 
gaged in battle of Abbeyville, August 23, 1864. 
Marclu^d in September, 18(54, from Brownsville, 
Arkansas, to Cape Girardeau, Missouri, thence 
by boat, to Jefferson City, thence to Kansas line, 
thence to St. Louis. Ordered to Xashville, 
Tenn., in Xovember, 1864. Engaged in battle of 
Nashville, December 15 and 16, 1864. Spanish 
Fort and Fort Blakely, in April 1865. Mustered 


HISTORY OF liA^rsKV ror.V7'r. 

out at Demopolis. Alabama. September G. 1865. 
Discharged at Fort Snelliiig. As may be seen, 
by the above record, tliis regiment experienced 
very active service, yet comparatively few men 
were killed in battle. Ramsey county represen- 
tatives were principally in companies D. E and 
F. also quite a number in companies (i and I. 

FiiUl (vuJ Slair Officers^WiWiani B. McGrorty, 
(I .M.. must. Dec. 20, '61, resigned Sept. 15, '64. 
J. A. ^'ervais. asst. surgeon, comd. Sept. 3. '62, 
resigned April 3. "63. John Ireland, chaplain, 
Jmie 22, '62, resigned April 3. "63. 


Bccniit—Il. I. Eoth. must Aug. 31. "64, dis. 
with regt. 


First Li(i(t. — Francis A. Cariveau. resigned 
May 3, T,3. 

Srrgeanfti — Frederick Sinven. dis. on expiration 
of term, March 16, "65. Charles Gervais. severely 
wounded in battle of Xashville.dis. from hospital 
Jan. 2. "65. 

Corporals — August Vau Beck, pro. sergt., dis. 
on expiration of term, March 16, "65. A. E. 
Kelley , pro. sergt., died June 22. "63, at Duckport, 
La. Anthony Iloeningsehmidt, dis. for disabl. 
March 16, '63. Louis Carle, deserted Jan. 30, 
"64. Nicholas Hettinger, dis. for disabl. Jan. 5. 

Musician — J. P. Koss, dis. on expiration of 
term, Jan. 6, "65. 

Privates — ^liehel Brouillette, dis. for disabl. 
Feb. 5, '63. Maxim Case, died March J 2. "63, 
near Germantown, Tenu. Clement Dubay, re- 
en. March 11, "64, dis. with regt. Sebastin Ash- 
falg, dis. for disabl. Jan. 5, '63. B. J. Baldwin, 
dis. for disabl. Jan. 5, "63. Xavier Ellemond. 
re-en. Feb. 15, "63, dis. with regt. \V. F. Gerth, 
re-en. Feb. 23, '64, pro. eorp.. dis. with regt. 
AugustusGerth, dis. on expiration of term, March 
16, "65. Alois Iloeningsehmidt, dis. for disabl. 
Oct. 31. "63. John Kranz, dis. on expiration of 
term, March 19, "65. Ouesime Leford, re-en. 
March 11, '64, dis. with regt. Andrie St. Jean, 
dis. for disabl. March 16, "63. Matthias Smith, 
pro. Corp., died Aug. 2, '63, at Mound City, 111. 
Joseph St. Germain, trans, to Company F, Feb. 
8, '63. Joseph Tourville, killed June 6, "64, in 

battle at Lakeville. Ark. Jose)ih Therein, re-en. 
Feb. 15, "64, dis, with regt. John Vogler, re-en. 
Feb. 15, "64, pro. corp. sergt.. dis. with regt. 

Recruits — Jacob Mossbnigger, must. Aug. 30. 
"64. dis. per order. June 30, "65. William Rhode, 
en. ilarch 10. "62. pro. corp. sergt., dis. on expi- 
ration of term, March 15. '65. Ferdinand Rhode, 
must. Sept. 30, "64. dis. per order, June 15, "65. 
John Truwe, must. Sept. 3, "64. dis. with regt. 
Samuel Truwe, must. Sept. 3, "64. dis. per order. 
Jime 30, "65. Joseph Tourville, en. Feb. 16, "64, 
dis. with regt. 

Stdstilttte — Alfred Rogue, must. Aug. 8. "64. 
no record. 

Driifted — Augustus Charley, must. July 6, "64, 
dis. with regt. Dennis Moone, must. July 13, 
"64, trans, to Company K. 


Crqjtaix — John C. Becht, pro. major. May 1. 
"63, dis. per order, March 18. "65. 

First Lieut. — Charles Roch. died August 7, "63, 
at St. Paul. 

Sicond Lieut. — KielianSix, resigned September 
3, "62. 

Scryeauts — Henry Stasson, pro. 2d lieut. Sep- 
tember 3, "62, capt. August 1, "63, killed Decem- 
ber 16, "64, in battle of Xashville. Jacob Amos, 
pro. 1st lieut. August 7. "63. captain February 9, 
"65, dis. with regt. 

Corporals — C. F. Lipke, dis. on ex. of term. 
March, "65. Christian Grupe, dis. for disabl. 
March 16. liS. John Walter, re-en. February 28, 
'64, dis. with regt. Wilhelni Kreuther, died May 
8, '63. at St. Louis, Mo. John Wenges, trans, to 
Inv. C. May 11, "64. 

Musician — John Lipke, trans, to luv. C. No- 
vember 20, "63. 

Privates — Thomas Breyer, pro. corp. died July 
2, '63, at Young"s Point, La. John Brettner, 
pro. sergt. May 1, 1862, reduced June 6, 1864, 
dis. with regt. Matthias Beseke, died July 
23, 1863. Moritz Dreyer, dis. for disabl. Feb- 
ruary 24. 1.863. Frederick Fleming, re -en. 
February 26, "64, dis. with regt. Lewis Jorg, dis. 
on ex. of term. Anton Kleffner, died August 9, 
'62, at Camp Bear creek. Miss. Henry Ley, 
re-en. February 28, '64, trans, to non-com "d staff 
as reg'l bugler. Charles Meyforth, wounded at 
Corinth, also in Arkansas, dis. on ex. of term. 



Jacob Xiederliofer, deserted July 2, ■(>2, at 
Corinth. Miss. John I'feiffer, wounded at 
Corinth, October 4, '62, trans, to Inv. C. Jolni 
Peterson, dis. fordisabl. March IS, '63. J. (J. Pet- 
ter, dis. on ex. of term. Jacol) Sclnieeberger, dis. 
for disabl. July 1 1 , "tij. lleimich Studt, died Sep- 
tember 18, '03, at Camp Slierman, Miss. David 
■N'olmer, trans, to Inv. C. September 1, '63. John 
Wagoner, drowned May IS. ■i):;,at St. Louis, Mo.. 
I)y falling overboard. Peter Williehui, dis. for 
disalil. November 28, '03. Julius W'cyl. pro. 
Qorp. sergt. w"d December 16. til. dis. cm ex. of 

Recruits — Christian Bolirer, must. July 28, '64, 
dis. per order. May 10, '6"). Martin Biske, must. 
September Id, "64. dis. with regt. Auton Can- 
tieui, must. August 3, '64, dis. on ex. of term, 
August 28, "6.5. Charles Lang, must. August 9, 
'64, w'd December 16, '64, at Nashville, dis. per 
order, May li). "6.5. Joseph Rctzer, must. Sep- 
tembers, "64, mortally w"d at Nashville, Decem- 
ber 16, "64, died December 31, '64. Henry 
Wilms, must. August 25, '62, died October .5, '63, 
at A'icksburg, iliss. 

Suhgtitutcs — Warner Meyer, must. August 1, 
"64, w'd at battle of Nashville, December 16, '64, 
dis. with regt. Julius Schmidt, must. August 
25, '64, served iu First regt. pro. sergt, dis. Sep- 
tember 6, "65. 

COMPANY F, .MLSTEltED Al'KlL 2o, 1S62. 

First Lieut. — Ross Wilkinson, i)ro. capt. March 
1, '66, dis. with regt. 

Second LicKt—Viwid O. Oakes. killed May 28. 
'62, in battle of Corinth. 

t)(irgcants—C. L. A. Demers, died August 22, 
"63. James Agnew, dis. for disabl. February 
6, "63. 

Corporuls—A. T. Smith, re-en. February 29, 
"64. dis. with regt. John M. Bliven, dis. for 
disabl. April 11, '63. Samuel Quinn, dis. for 
disabl. February 16, "63. 

Mn.tirians — Jacob Metzgar. Irans. to nou-com"d 
staff as principal mus"n. 

Privates — Peter Bermier. rc-eu. February 13, 
"64, dis. with regt. Josejili liastian, ills, date un- 
known. J. H. Duclos, re-en. March 20, '64, pro. 
corp. dis. with regt. J. T. Gibbens, pro. corp. 
died August 11, '63. Stephen Pepin, dis. for 
disabl. September 29, '62. Edward Paul re-en. 

February 13, '64, dis. with regt. Joseph Robiu- 
chaud, re-en. March 20, "64, dis. with regt. 
Thomas Smith, pro, corp. sergt, re-en. March 31, 
'64, dis, for disabl. June 19, "65. Joseph St. Ger- 
main, trans, from Co. D, must. February 8, "63, 
re-en. February 13, "64, dis. with regt. 

ijfci-i/i^.s— Michael Dorgan, must. February 4, 
"64, died October 16, '64, at Jefferson City, Mo. 
John Farrell. must. February 6, "64, dis. with 
regt. K. W. Mortimer, must. December 30, "63, 
pro. sergt, July 15, '65, dis. with regt. George 
Sirringer. must. March 30, '64, dis. for disabl. 
February 6, "6"). 

COjrPAXV O, MUSTERED APRir. 24, 1862. 

Second Lieut.— William A. Van Slyke, resigned 
July 23, '63. 

Corporal — Benjamin Vouiig, re-en. March ir,, 
'64, dis, with regt. 

Privates — John Glenn, pro. corp. re-en. i\Iar<,-h 
26, '64, w'd in battle of Nashville, dis. Septem- 
ber 2-5, "65. F. M. Gembe. re-en. jSIarch 24, "64, 
pro. corj). sick at Deinoi)olis on dis. of regt. 
Charles Kelly, pro. corp. trans, to Inv. C Novem- 
ber 20, "63. John Kunz. dis. on ex. of term. 
Warren Woodbury, died July 10, "63, at Young"s 
Point, La. 

liecniil.i— E. R. French, trans, from Co. I, 
must. March 14, '62, re-en. March 25, "64, pro. 
corp. dis. with regt. Franklin Gale, must. 
February 24, '64. deserted December 1, "64, at 
Nashville, Tenn, D, P. Glenn, must. September 
1, "(i4, died July S, '65. of w'd received at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. C. F. Jeaunin, trans, from Co. I, 
must. May 1. "62, dis. on ex. of term. 


Cnptain— Luther E. Clark, dis. May 30, '62. 

First Lieut. — Patrick Ryan, dis. December 
31, "62. 

Sergeant — Thus. Deuany, re-en. February 27. 
'64, dis. with regt. 

f'rirporfil.i—.lDhn Clansey, dis. for disabl. 
Michael Fleming, dis. on ex. of term, January 
18, '65. 

Musician— Thomas Nolan, deserted May 14, 
'62, at Fort Snelling. 

Privates — James Brogan, fell from steamer 
Metropolitan into Mississii)pi river and drowned, 
March 14, '63. Roger Cunningham, dis. for 
disabl. Oct. 7. "03. James Farrell, pro. corp. 



sergt. ami 1st lieiit.. April 3. "63, dis. witli regt. 
E. R. French. trans, to Company (J. Feb. 24, "03. 
John Flanagan, pro. corji.. deserted March 14. 
"63, returned to company Nov. 12, "(iS, dis. 
with regt. Thomas Fallowe. re-en. Feb. 27, "(54. 
dis. with regt. James Grady, deserted May 14, 
"62, at Fort Snelling. C. P. Jeannin, trans, to 
Company G, May 1, '62. Matthew Kerwin. re- 
en. Feb. 27, "04, deserted Aug. (i. "64. James 
McDonald, deserted March 14. "(iS. at Mempliis. 
Tenn. J. II. Mead. dis. on expiration of term, 
Jan. 31. "(io. Robert Xolan, dis. for disabl. 
March 14, "63. James Xolan, pro. corp., sergt., 
re-en. Feb. 27, "64, dis. with I'egt. James O'Far- 
rel, dis. for disabl. Xov. 8, "62. Andrew Walsh, 
pro. Corp., sergt.. deserted July 18, "64. at "^'icks- 
biirg. Miss. James Wilson, deserted May 14, '&2, 
at Fort Snelling. 

COMPANY K. MUSTKKED Al'ltlL 30. 1862. 

Privates — James Dolan, pro. corp.. deserted 
March 13, '63, at Memphis, Tenn. ('has. Fields, 
pro. corp., re-en. Feb. 29, '64, dis. with regt. 
Michael Green, deserted May 8, "62, at Fort Snel- 
liiig. Robert Healey, dis. on expiration of term. 

Liruftcd — Deiniis Moone, trans, from Company 
T>, must. Xov. 13, "04, paroled prisoner, sent to 
St. Paul. dis. July 18, -65. 


This regiment was organized in August. 1862. 
Ordered upon Indian expedition of tliat year; a 
detachment of two liundred was engaged in the 
battle with the Indians at Birch Coolie, Septem- 
ber 2, 1862. The regiment participated in the 
battle of Wood Lake. September 22, 1S()2. From 
X'ovember, 1862, until May, 1S63. the regiment 
was engaged garrisoning frontier posts. Tliey 
were then ordered upon the Indian expedition of 

1863, and were engaged with the Indians, July 
24, 26 and 28, of that year. Stationed at frontier 
posts from September 18, 1863, until Jime 5, 1864, 
when they were ordered to Ileleiui, Arkansas. 
Ordered to St. Louis, ilissouri, in Xovember, 

1864, then to Xew Orleans in January, 18(;o. As- 
signed to the Sixteenth army corps. Participated 
in the engagements of Spanish Fort and Fort 
Blakely, in April, 186-5. Discharged at Fort 
SnelUng, in April, 1865. The record shows that 
the regiment was originally commanded by Col. 
William Crooks, of St. Paul, but such was not the 

fact, strictly speaking, although technically so. 
Colonel A. D. Xelson was the original command- 
er. The outl>reak of the Indian war. lirforc the 
regiment was fully organized, caused them to be 
liurried to the scene of trouble before lieing mus- 
tered. They received their arms at Jordan and 
ammunition a few days later, while on the march. 
Colonel Xelson refused to report to Colonel Sib- 
ley from jioints of etiquette. The latter, although 
in command of the expedition, was a militia 
officer. This action on the part of Colonel Xel- 
son made his resignation necessary, and Colonel 
Crooks, who was originally lieut. -colonel, became 
colonel, and other officers throughout the regiment 
were raised one grade, so that when the regiment 
came to to be mustered in, the officers appeared 
as originals in places they had been promoted to. 
This explanation will make the record appear 
clear as we present it from the ad,iutant-generars 
report. Ramsey comity was largely represented 
in this regiment, the men being principally in 
Companies A, E and G. 

Field and Staff Officers— Colonel— Wmiam 
Crooks, must. August 23, "62, resigned October 
28, "64. 

Lieut. Colonel— John T. Averill, must. August 
22, '62, pro. colonel October 28, "64, pro. provost 
marshall of the state of Minn., chief mustering 
officer and supt. of the recruiting service, and 
brig. gen. dis. by S. O. W. I). September 30. ■65. 

Ailjutant-Floviim E. Snow, must. August 21. 
"62, resigned December 10, '64. 

/S((/-^co/i— Alfred Wharton, must. August 22. 
'62, resigned July 2i), "04. 

Ass't Si(/-(/eo)i— James X. McMasters. must. 
May 20, "64, dis. with regt. August 10, "65. 

C7i((^j((((»— Daniel Cobb, must. October 15, "04, 
dis. with regt. 

Seryt. J/ty'oc— Fred W. Xorwood, must. Oc- 
tober 18, "64, dis. for pro. in colored regt. May 
9, '64. 

Q. M. Sergt.— II. II. Gilbert, must. October 8, 
"62, ino. 2d lieut. Co. G, January 21, "03, pro. 
reg"! 0- M. June 10, "04. dis. with regt. 


Caijtain-llimm P. Grant, pro. major, April 9, 
"64, lieut. col. October 28, "64, dis. with regt. 

First Liext.—llniYy J . Gillham. pro. capt. April 
9, "64, dis. with regt. 



Second Lieut.— Jacob E. Baldwin, died of con- 
sumptiDii at St. Paul, Ueceniber 18, '63. 

S(')v/C((»(i"— William Irvine, died of \v"d rec"dat 
Birch Coolie, September S, "(32. William I'ratt, 
died September 22, "(i4, at Memphis, Teiiii. 
AIoiizo 1'. Coinielly, pro. 2d lieiit. .laiuiary 7, "04, 
adj"t December 10, "64, dis. with regt. John 
College, killed at Birch Coolie by Indians, Sep- 
tember 2, '62. (J. W. Brainian. pro. Istsergt., 
dis. with regt. 

Coi-jjocn/s— Rasmus Oleson, pro sergt., dis. 
with regt. George B. Gardner, i)ro. sergt., dis. 
with regt. W. T. Barnes, pro. sergt., dis. with 
regt. Solomon AValters. died March 13, "63, at 
Glencoe, Minn. Seth Fielding, pro. sergt., dis. 
with regt. Joseph Staples, dis. for disabl. Oc- 
tober 13. "1)4. 

rrii-atex — B. V. Arhuckh'. died September 8, 
"t)4, at ^lemphis. Tenn. S. G. Arbuckle, w\l at 
Birch Coolie, dis. for disabl. March li>, 'Cm. K. S. 
Beck, trans, to Inv. C. November 18, "03. W. 
H. Bowers, deserted January 28, "63. E. S. 
Blase, dis. December 1, "02. for w'ds ree'd at 
Birch Coolie. W. II. Bolton, dis. with regt. 
Enocli Brown, w"d at Birch Coolie, dis. with regt. 
V. II. Byrnes, dis. with regt. tJeorge Colter, 
killed at Birch Coolie, September 2, "62. J. F. 
Chapron. pro. corp., dis. with regt. ^\'. II. 
Caine, dis. for disabl. November 21, "04. C. F. 
Coyle, killed at Birch Coolie. September 2, "02. 
A. M. Daniels, pro. corp., dis. with regt. E. A. 
Erickson, dis. witli regt. M. B. Field, pro. corp. 
and sergt., dis. with regt. Patrick Freany, dis. 
with regt. H. C. Greenlee, pro. corp., dis. with 
regt. 1). C. House, wounded at Birch Coolie, 
dis. for disabl. March in. "03. Jolni Hays, dis. 
for disalil. April !), "lU. (;. \V. Hard, dis. for 
di.sal)!. January 4, "03. William Havens, dis. 
with regt. A. G. Ilillbi'rge, dis. for disabl. Sep- 
tember 24, "64. J. C. Havens, dis. with regt. 
Samuel Hart, dis. witli regt. Alfred Hayford, 
dis. with regt. Anke Jolnison, died August 0, 
"04, at Helena, Ark. A. J. Killiiatrick, trans, to 
Third Minn. Bat"y, May 18, "63. Swan Linstrom, 
died October 18, "04, at Helena, Ark. Tlieodore 
II. Miller, pro. corp., dis. with regt. ^licliael 
Mergen, trans, to Inv. C. November is, "04. W. 
S. McCauley, pro. com. sergt. September 1, "02, 
ti-ans. to N. C. S. D. S. McCauley, dis. with 
regt. Joseph Madison, pro. 2(1 licut. December 

16, '64. Charles Mayall, trans, to Inv. C. Oc- 
tober, '63. Deiniis Mnri>hy, tlis. with regt. 
Horatio Marsden, dis. with regt. Alex. H. Mc- 
Leod, died November 14, '64. at Jefferson B'ks, 
Mo. George Nemo, dis. with regt. W. A. New- 
comb, dis. witli regt. Hans Oleson, trans, to 
Third Minn. Bafy, May 1, "03. William Uussell, 
killed Septembers, '62, at Birch Coolie. Henry 
Kolleau, killed September 2, '02. at Birch Coolie. 
F. C. Shanley, dis. December 11. "62, 
for w'ds rec'd at Birch Coolie. Wil- 
liam Sehuler, dis. for disabl. May 8, '04. 
C. W. Smith, dis. with regt. Deimis Sweeny, 
dis. with regt. P. F. Tliielen, dis. with regt. D. 
F. Terwilliger, pro. corp., dis. with regt. Wil- 
liam \'aughinger, dis. with regt. Thomas Van 
Etten, trans, to Company I, Ninth Inf.. as 2d 
lieut. Hein-y Wlietster, killed Sept. 2, "02, at 
Birch Coolie. Bernard Weber, died Sept. 15, '64, 
at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. T. S. Wirt, deserted 
Jan. 28. "03, at FortSnelling. Charles Weed, di.s. 
with regt. Richard White, dis. with regt. S. J. 
Welting, wounded at Birch Coolie, trans, to Inv. 
C, Nov. 18, '03. Louis Mario, dis. with regt. 

Eccruit — Jeremiah McCarty. must. Feb. 28, "03. 
dis. per order, June 12, '6-5. 


Eecnilt — Nelson Chandler, must. Sept. 1(1, "04, 
dis. with regt. 


First Lieut. — Dana Wiiitc, must. Oct. 3, "02, 
resigned Aug. 14, '04. 

Pci"iY(?f'— Cornelius Sullivan, must. Oct. 3, '02, 
(lis. with regt. 

COMPANY i:, MfSTHUKD OCTOliEU •'), 1862. 

CiqAain — Rudolph Schoenmann, dis. with regt. 

First Lieut. — Christian Exel, resigned July 23, 

Second !,/(■(((.— Malliias Hdll, jiro. 1st licut. 
July 23, '03, dis. with regt. 

Sfcf/cdii'.s-— J. B. Bell. pro. 2(1 lieut. Nov. 'J, '63, 
dis. with regt. George Huhn, dis. Feb. 20, '64, 
to enlist as hospital steward in U. S. army. 
Frederick Sheer, dis. with regt. Ellas Siebert, 
pro. 1st sergt., dis. witli regt. Paul Iluth, dis. 
on expiration of term, June 15, '05. 

C'orpr>i((/.s— John Burcli, dis. with regt. Ma- 
tliias Miller, dis. with regt. William Rhode, pro. 
sergt., dis. with regt. J. P. Lcitner, pro. sergt.. 



(lis. with legt. Reiiiarcl Stiefal. pro. sergt., dis. 
for disal)!. May 31, "Go. (ieorge Saner, pro. serjrt., 
dis. witli regt. Josepli Sinitli. pro. sergt.. dis. 
with regt. 

Wagoner — Henry Hendricks, dis. with regt. 

P»-(((i?(-.s— ISIatliias Becker, dis. for disal)!. in 
"63. Peter Beckendorf, pro. corp.,dis. vvitli regt. 
Ferdinand Besicke, dis. with regt. John Blesiiis, 
pro. Corp.. dis. with regt. WilHam Best. jiro. Corp., 
dis. witli regt. Henry Deters, dis. witli regt. 
Nicholas Dreis, died Nov. 24. "64. at Hutcliinson. 
Minn. Charles Ebert. dis, ^\■ith regt. Joseph 
Elieim, pro. corp., trans, to Inv. C. Nov. 21, '(i3. 
Joseph Ferlein, dis. on expiration of term, June 
1, "So. Louis Fisher, dis. for disabl. March 24. 
"1)3. Jacob (iautner. dis. on expiration of term, 
June 15, "04. Henry Graper. dis. with regt. 
Kudolph Griebler, deserted April 9, "63, from Fort 
Snelling. AV. A. Hill, trans, to Third Minn. Bat. 
May l."63. F. ('. Hahn, dis. with regt. Hermann 
Hellman, trans, to Inv. C. Xovemljer 20, "03. 
Jacob Haiick, dis. per order, :\Iay 1(1, "(io. Fred- 
erick Ilenrick, dis. with regt. Nikolas Hosheid, 
pro. Corp.. dis. with regt. A. J. Hill, dis. with 
regt. Louis Jergens, pro. corp., dis. per order. 
Junel3, "l).5. Frederick Kabelitz, dis. for disabl. 
April 1, "63. K. J. Knabelsdorf, dis. for disabl. 
June 17, "63. Ludwig Koenig, dis. with regt. 
Jacob Kernen, trans, to Inv. C. November 20, 
"63. August Kellermann. trans, to Inv. C. No- 
vember 20. "63. Henry Krnegler, dis. with regt. 
J. H. Meyer, trans, to Tliird Jlinn. Bat'y, May 1 , 
"63. Charles Metz, dis. with regt. J. J. Miller, 
pro. corp. dis. with regt. J. T. Meurer, deserted 
April 19, "63, at Fort Snelling. Richard Miller, 
dis. October 29, "62, for w"ds rec"d at Birch Coolie 
September 2, '62. AVilliam Mohle, dis. with 
regt. ^Michael Neuenbnrg, pro. corp., died Oc- 
tober 23, "64, at Jefferson b'ks. Mo. Charles 
Flessuer, dis. with regt. Jean Rassiau, died in 
field hosp., near Helena, Ark. John Beimers, 
dis. with regt. William Schene, died July 8, '65, 
at Montgomery, Ala. Fred. Sclieinheiter, died 
August 10, "64, in field hosp., near Helena, Ark. 
W. A. Smith, died on steamer Brilliant, en route 
to Fort Snelling. Charles Temme, dis. with regt. 
Anton Wolf, trans, to Inv. C. November 20, '63. 
August Williams, died August 23, "64, at Helena, 
Ark. Wilhelm Gabbert. dis. for disabl. Decem- 
ber 20, '64. 

Eerriiit.i — W. S. Adams, must. September 12. 
'64, dis. with regt. Edward Bryan, must, No- 
vember 9, "63, dis. with regt. Henry Fandel, 
must. August 15, "62, dis. for disabl. May 28, "63. 
Peter Ilolzmer, must. February 15, "64, dis. with 


Captain — Daniel R. Valentine, resigned .lanu- 
ary 21, "63. 

jF//-.s-/ Liriit. — George W. Prescott. dis. with 

Second Liciil. — Charles J. capt., dis. 
with regt. 

iSVc(/(-(ni/j.— Orlo Rogers, dis. for disabl. October 
8, "64. J. B. Perrin, dis. for disabl. January 16, 
'63. B. S. Terry, killed September 2, "62. at Birch 
Coolie. H. J. Kneiff, dis. with regt. 

Coi-piiriih — Nazainre Yelle, dis. for disabl. 
January 16, "63. E. J. Van Slyke, dis. Novem- 
ber 30, '64, to accept pro. in First Regiment 
Heavy Art'y. J. S. Cornelle, pro. sergt., dis. 
for disabl. January 14, '63. J. F. Lowe, trans, 
to V. R. C. October 3, '63. E. O. Zimmerman, 
pro. sergt. June 13, '64, 2d lieut. October 22, '64, 
dis. with regt. Joseph Hare, Jr., dis. per order, 
May 18, "65. F. C. W. Beneken, killed Septem- 
ber 2, '62, at Birch Coolie. 

Munkian — Franklin Brawley, died January 7, 
'65, at St. Paul. 

P7-/c(((c.s— W. H. Abbott, died June 7, '65, at 
White Hall Gen. Hosp., Pa. Zephrine Archam- 
bean. dis. with regt. Michael Byrne, deserted at 
(ilencoe, Minn., March 4, '63. W. R. Brown, dis. 
with regt. B. P. Bartlett, dis. for disabl. :Marcli 
](), "1)3. L. W. Beach, dis. with regt. G. M. 
Brack, pro. sergt. July 1, "65, dis. with regt. E. 
A. Brown, dis. for disabl. April 12, "63. Porter 
Barbeau, dis. with regt. Dennis Clierrier, dis. 
with regt. Albert Colgrave, died March 4, '63. 
ai (ilencoe, Minn. J. B. Carle, dis. per order, 
June 24, 'ij-'i. B. M. Carr, dis. per order. May 10, 
'65. John Dreis, died August 4. "64, at Helena, 
Ark. William Dames, trans, to Third Minn. 
Bat"y. May 1. lS(i3. William Filers, dis. with 
regt. Louis Eisenmenger, dis. with regt. E. L. 
Fryer, dis. for disabl. December 26, '64. Nicholas 
Fogen, trans, to V. R. C. October 3, '63. George 
(iermhi, dis. with regt. H. T. Gross, dis. with 
regt. David Guerin, pro. corp. dis. July 10, '65^ 



at St. Piiiil. Uohcit {;eorge. desertpd at Fort 
Snelliiig, in March, "63. J. li. (Jillis, appil liosp. 
stevv'd, August 25, "62, died of small-pox at St. 
Peter, Minn. James (iibbs, deserted March 4, 
■(>;{, at Glencoe, Minn. W. A. Ilobbs, trans, to 
Tliird Minn. IJafy, May 1, "6.3. W. Y. Home, 
pro. corp. dis. with regt. C. F. IlenTiiKe, ilis. for 
disabl. Marcli Ifi. "63. A. ('. Ilelmkamp, pro. 
sergt. October 2, "62, 2d lieut. June 13, "(il, died 
February 2-1, "6.5, at St. Paul. G. S. Ilazeltine, 
pro. 2d lieut. in 112tli U. S. CoPd Infy, July 25, 
■(i4. W. L. Jolmson.dis. with regt. A. G. Johnson. 
dis. for disabl. May 10, "63. E. II. Judson, pro. 
coni-. ilis. for disabl. Oct. 30, "04. Ceril Labelle, 
trans, to ^^ R. C, Nov. 18, "(iS. Theophile Le 
Fevre, dis. with regt. Peter Molitor, died Oct. 
11, '64, at Jefferson B'ks, Mo. Henry McLean, 
destd. Feb. 18, "63, apprehended Xov.l5,"63, trans, 
to Fifth Minn. Inf. Zavier Mannhart, dis. with 
regt. I. 1). Morgan, pro. corp., sergt., 1st sergt., 
dis. for disabl. Nov. 27, "64. II. D. Matthews, 
dis. with regt. L. W. Middlebrook, dis. for 
disabl. Oct. 24, at St. Louis, Mo., died before 
reaching home. George Mead, died Dec. 1 1 , "lU, 
at Helena, Ark. llance D. McLoud, pro. sergt., 
major, trans, to N. C. S., May 30, '64. J. H. 
Myrick, pro. cor])., sergt., dis. per order, May 31, 
'65. Joseph Oburu, deserted Feb. 3, "63, at Fort 
Snelling. Gaspard Prudhomme. dis. for disabl. 
April 21, "65. M. II. Patterson, dis. with regt. 
E. C. Palmer, pso. coip., dis. with regt. Anton 
Rohl, dis. with regt. E. D. K. Randall, dis. 
Sept. 14, "64, for pro. in First Regt. Heavy Art. 
H. 1). Tenney. jao. Quar. M. sergt., Jan. 21. "63, 
dis. per order. May 10, "65. J. M. Siebenthaler, 
dis. with regt. T. J. Stokes, pro. wagoner, dis. 
with regt. John Staus, pro. corp., dis. with regt. 
Fran/. Stolz, dis. with regt. Andrew Tliompson, 
trans, to Y. H. C, Nov. 18, '63. G. L. Van 
Solen, dis. per order. May 29, "65. William Wal- 
lace, pro. coi-p. sergt., dis. for pro. May 10, "65. 
P. P. Wilson, dis. with regt. John Way, dis. 
with regt. C. A. Zimmermann, pro. corp., dis. 
with regt. Ole Gordman, died March 1, "64, at 
St. Louis, Mo. Henry L. Caryer. pro. 1st lieut., 
cai)t. and asst.-t^iar. M., V. S. Yols., breveted 
major anil coliiiicl, appointed chief quartermas- 
ter of ilistricl of Minnesota, on fJen. Sibley's 

lierruitx — Timothy Cherrier. en. Feb. lii. '64, 

dis. with regt. .Morgan Hans, en. Feb. 24, '64, 
dis. per order. Aug. 4. "64. J. E. Home. en. Feb. 
9, "64, died Oct. M. ■ti4. at Jefferson Harracks, 


Pnrntev— Tufue Trulson. dis. for djsabl. Nov. 
6, '63. Menzo Plato, dis. for disabl. June 15, '63. 

l?ecri«"(— Charles Cavender, must. Aug. 1, '64, 
dis. per order. May 11, '65. 


TIlis regiment was organized in August. 1862. 
and originally commanded by Colonel Stephen 
Miller, of St. Paul. Ordered upon th • Indian ex- 
pedition of 1862; engaged in the battle of Wood 
lake, Minnesota, September 22, of that year. The 
regiment was stationed at frontier posts tmtil 
iMay, 1863, when it was ordered upon the Indian 
expedition of that year. Engaged willi tlic In- 
dians July 24, 26 and 28, 1863; ordered to St. 
Louis, ilissouri, October 27, 1863; thence to Pa- 
ducah, Ky., in April, 1864; thence to Memphis, 
Tenu., and assigned to the Sixteenth army 
corps in June following. Participated in the fol- 
lowing marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes: 
Tupelo, July 13, 1864; Tallahatchie, August 7 
and 8, 1864; march in pursuit of Price from 
Brownsville, Ark., to Cape Girardeau, Missouri; 
thence, by boat, to Jefferson City; thence to 
Kansas state line; thence to St. Louis; battles of 
Xashville, Tenn., December 15 and 16, 1864; 
Spanish fort and Fort Blakely, in April, 1865. 
Discharged at Fort Snelling, August 16, 1865. 

Comparatively few Ramsey county men were 
in this regiment, and they were in Company H. 
Colonels Miller and Marshall afterwards became 
governors of the state, and Captain Gillillan, of 
Company II, is now chief justice of the supreme 
court. Colonel Miller died at Worthington, 
Minnesota, in August, 1881 ,and Colonel Marshall, 
who went into the service as a private in 
Company K, of the Kiglith Infantry, is now state 
railroad commissioner. Some of tlie minor of- 
ficers and privates, have likewise become prom- 
inent in civil life. Following appear the names 
of Ramsey county's representatives in this 

Field and Stuff 0#cf-c.s—CV/</»cr- Stephen 
Miller, eom'd Aug. 24, '62, must. Oct. 10, '62, 
pro. brig. gen. Xov. '>, '63. 


lifut.-Cohmd—'W'iWmn I?. Marshall, com'd 
Aug. 28, '62, must. October 10, "62, pro. col. Nov. 
6, "63, dis. with regt. 

Major— George Bradley, com'd Sept. 5, '62, 
must. Oct. 10, "62. pro. lieut. col. Nov. (i. "G.S. dis. 
with regt. 

A sKt. Surgeon — Brewer Mattocks, com"d .Iiiiie 
30, '63. must. July 27, "63, dis. with regt. 

COjrPANY c. 

i?rcn(i7.<— "William Dibble, must. February 22, 
"64, dis. with regt. Eric Ericson. must. ISIarch 
•5, "64, absent sick in hosp. on dis. of regt. L. ('. 
Kennedy, must. Feb. 17, '60, dis. with regt. 
.John Newman, must. March 2, "64, trans, to V. 
R. ('. April 1, "65. Charles Olson, must. Feb. 16, 
"64 dis. with regt. Ilakken Oleson, must. Feb. 
26, "64, dis. with regt. 


i?i?cn/)"/.s— William Rowe, must. Feb. 11, '65, 
dis. with regt. Nickolas Schepps. must. Feb. 
1 1 , "65. dis. with regt. 

C03irAXV K. 

Borndff: — John Johnson, must. Fel). 11, '65, 

dis. with regt. Allen Oleson, must. Feb. 11, "65. 

dis. witli resit. 

co^ll'ANV K. 

Ricridt — Steiihen C. Miller, en. July 15, "62, 
trans, to Company B, pro. cor. 2d lieut. Jan. 8, 
"63, com. sergt. V. R. army, with rank of captain, 
in 1864. 


C'a^j/oni— James GilflUan, comd. Sept. 1. '62, 
pro. colonel of the Eleventh Inf. 

Secrmd Lieut. — S.Lee Davis. i)ro. 1st lieut. Fel). 
13, '63, dis. with regt. 

Sergeants — S. P. Folsom, pro. 1st sergt., dis. 
with regt. David Newell, died May 5, "65. on 
hospital steamer Baltic. 

Corporals — C. A. Wackerliagen, dis. ilay 12, 
"64. for pro. in Sixty-eighth U. S. Col. Inf. II. 
L. Mills, i)ro. sergt. Feb. 8, "64, lost foot in battle 
of Nashville, dis. in "65. 

Musician — Jeremiah Cantwell, deserted Oct. 9, 
"63, at La Crosse, Wis. 

Privates — Michael Bellair, dis. with regt. Jno. 
Bloom, destd. Oct. 10, "63, at Bloomington, Ills. 
John Brennan, destd. Oct. 6, "63, at Fort Snell- 
ing. Ira Cole, dis. with regt. A. II. I)e Lang. 

dis. for pro. in Forty-seventh Wis. "\''ols. John 
Griggs, dis. with regt. Jacob Ilarrisberger, pro. 
Corp., wounded in battle of Tupelo, dis. per or- 
der. May 22, "65. H. T. Hagadom, dis. for disabl. 
Jan. 22, "64. Franz Lambrecht, dis. for disabl. 
Se))!. 11. '62. Napoleon L"IIereaux, dis. with 
regt. E. S. Lightbourne, pro. eorp. and sergt., 
dis. with regt. Victor Miller, destd. in Minn. 
March 7, "63. J. C. Mullin. dis. with regt. J. G. 
McGregor, trans, to Eighth Minn. Inf., in Oct. 
'62. O. C. Murray, died Aug. 7, "65, on trans- 
port steamer. J. L. Ruth, dis. per order, June 
5, "65. William Stringer, dis. for disabl. Feb. 9. 
"65. William Whitchill, pro. corp.. dis. fur pro. 
in V. S. C. Inf.. May 5. "64. 


Tills regiment was organized in August, 1862, 
and originally commanded by Colonel Minor T. 
Thomas of Stillwater. It was stationed at fron- 
tier posts until iSIay, 1864, when it was ordered 
upon Indian expedition. Engaged in the follow- 
ing marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes; Tah- 
cha-o-ku-tu, Jvdy 28, 1864; Little Missouri, battle 
of the Cedars, Wilkinson "s Pike, December 7tli, 
and near Murfreesboro, Decembers, 1864. Over- 
all's creek. Ordered to Clifton. Tenn., thence to 
Cincinnati, thence to AVashington, D. ('..thence 
to Newburn, N. C. Engaged in the battles of 
Kingston, March 8, 9 and 10, 1865. Mustered out 
at Charlotte, N. C. July 11, 1865. Discharged 
at Fort Snelling. Ramsey coiuity"s representa- 
tives in this regiment were nearly all in com- 
panies II and K. 


Sinyroiis — Francis Reiger. comd. Sept. 24, "62, 
resigned April 10, "64. J. II. Murphy, comd. ^lay 
25, "64, resigned Jan. 12, "65. 

Q. 31. jSu-y/.— Edgar M. Bass, must. Aug. 14, 
'62, dis. to receive appointment as cadet to West 
Point. Oct. "64. 


Private— John B. Olivier, must. Oct. 12. "62, 
dis. for disabl. June 15, "65. 


First Lieut. — Egbert E. Ilughson. dis. with 
regt. (On detached service.) 



Second L^•(•i(^- William Taist, ino. capt. April 
7, '65, dis. with regt. 

Sei-yeant—C. A. Branch, ilis. in "i!'), ilicd l)ofore 
arrival home. 

Cnrpntfiln— Patrick McDeniioU. pn). corp., 
(Us. Willi regt. Tallman Decker, dis. per order, 
Aug. o, '64. Franklin Hill. dis. for disability, 
June 23, "63. W. II. (iraluun. dis. with regt. 
Musician. James Kennedy, deserted, March 1, 

P/-i''Y(/(.<— Tliomas I?yroii, dis. with regt. J- 
F. Burnett. Dis. for disab"y, Dec. 10, "03. Fat- 
rick Burke, died Aug. 6, "63, at Marslian, Miss. 
Dominick Barney, dis. per order, May 21 , '65. Peter 
Balnies. dis with regt. John B. Brisette, dis. for 
disal)"y, Dec. 12, "64. lames Cunningham, dis. 
for disab'y, June 5. "63. James Cheever, dis. 
with regt. K. II. Capistrant, dis. Feb. 28, "63. 
Charles Desjardin, dis. for disab'y, March 31, 
"63. F. I. (iale, dis. for disab'y, March 20, '63. 
William Hart, dis. for disab'y July 2, '64. Pru. 
dent Lemay, dis. with regt. C. P. Lane, trans, 
to Co. K. O. C. Ludlow, dis. Oct. 24, '64, for 
pro. in 122nd I'.S. Col. Infy. John Mc(iartney, 
dis with regt. R. I.McHenry, no record. James 
Murphy, died Feb. 11, '65, at Camp Stoneman. 
Isaac Obevg, deserted Feb. 28; '63. George Paul- 
son, deserted Feb. 28, '63. Ecan Hescenlibue, dis. 
with regt. Thomas Reddy, dis. with regt. J. 
W. Sherbourne, dis. for disab'y, May 9, '63. 
James Shepard. dis with regt. S. E. Smith, pro. 
Corp., dis. with regt. W. II. Stittman. dis. for 
disab'y May 8, '63. George Trett, dis. with regt. 
Alexander Trevitt, no record. G. A. Weaver, 
dis. with regt. Sylvanus White, dis. in hosp. in 
"65. G. W. Wells, dis. with regt. Jolm Wright 
deserted Feb. 28. '63. 


Second Licut^John G. McGregor, en. Sept. 24, 
"62, pro. 1st lieut. Dec. 1, '62. japt. Jan. 1, "65, 
dis. with regt. 

COMPANY K, MrSTKISKD SI'.I'T. 20. 1,S()2. 

C'ap?rtni--Williani T. Hockwcidd, (lis. for jihy- 
sical disab'y March 24, '6.5. 

First Lkul-~.h>hn I. Salter, dismissed from 
service by order of the president. 

Second 7v(pi(/— William Ilelsper, dis. with regt. 

Serj/ta/i?.s— Benjamin W. Bruiison, pro. 1st 
lieut. Sept. 24, '64. dis. July 1 1, Co. Conrad Loef- 

felholz. dis. with regt. A. J. Wliitney, dis. for 
disab'y. May 20. '63. E. W. Bass, pro. Q. M. 

Corporah"Y . B. Parks, pro. sergt., dis. with 
regt. L. D. Brown, pro. sergt.. dis. with regt. 
Hiram Dyer, dis. with regt. Edward Richards, 
dis. with regt. E. (i. Rogers, dis. with regt. 

J/iLs/c/aii.*!— John SchaelTer. dis. with regt. 
Peter Wilhelnius. dis. with regt. 

ll'(((/o»(c - I). B. Shipley, deserted Jan. ■■>, '64, 
while on furlough. 

Pc/ra(c.s— Jacob Orth. dii>d Sept. 15, "64, near 
Fort Rice, D. T. W. II. IJIackman. dis. in hosp. 
in '65. David Bruch. dis. with regt. G. W. 
Bray, dis. per order, May 24, "65. W. W. Defoe, 
dis. with regt. E. X. Darling, dis. for pro. 
March 12, "64. Ileni-y Downs, pro. corp. dis. 
with regt. Adrew Erickson, dis. with regt. W. 
O. French, died March 27, '64, at Clinton Falls, 
Minn. Peter (Joel/., dis. with regt. Richard 
Goodhart, pro. sergt. major, Sept. 23, '62. Robert 
Ilolgate, dis. for disabl. March 20, '63. E. W. 
ITolman, dis. with regt. Matthias Junger, dis. 
with regt. Mathew Krech. dis. with regt. John 
Loveridge, dis. in hosp. in "65. C. P. Lane, dis. 
for disabl. JSIay 17, "65. Frank Moore, dis. for 
disabl. Dec. 0. "62. Archibald Mooney, pro. corp. 
dis. with regt. E. D. Xorth, dis. with regt. 
Thomas Pemberton, died Dec. 8. '64, of v^'d re- 
ceived in battle of the Cedars. Gottlieb Reichert, 
dis. with regt. J. D. Rogers, jr., dis. March 12, 
'64, for pro. C. R. Stuart, dis. for pro. Oct. 25, 
"64. Charles Saunders, dis. with regt. Marshall 
Sellers, dis. for disabl. April 2, "65. Robert Sil- 
cox, dis. in hosp. in "65. Franz Scho'uig, dis. for 
disabl. April 9, '64. S. A. Thompson, dis. with 
regt. D. 1). Williams, dis. for disabl. March 12, 
'64. John A. Proi)er, dis. for disabl. Sept. 23, 
'62. Wm. R. Marshall, pro. lieut. col. Seventh 
Minn. Infy, Sept. 23, '62. 

J?fcn/!"(.'!— John Brennan, must. Feb. 11, "64, 
dis. with regt. Joseph Ilerley, must. Feb. 17, 
'64, dis. with regt. (J. B. Leyde, must. Feb. 4. 
"64, dis. with regt. S. II. Lloyd, Feb. 4, 
'64. dis. with regt. 


This regiment was organized in August, 1862, 
j and originally commanded by Colonel Alexander 
' Wilkin, (if St. Paul. It was stationed at frontier 



posts until Sfi)tembei', Ihd;'., wiicn it was ordered 
to St. Louis. Missouri. Ordered to Jefferson 
City, Missouri, and distributed among several 
posts in the interior of the state. Ordered to 8t. 
Louis in May, 1864; thence* to Memphis, Tenn. 
Kngaged in tlic following marches, battles, sieges 
and skirmishes: Guntown expedition in June, 
1864; assigned to the Sixteenth army coi-ps the 
same month; at the battle of Tupelo, July 1.3, 
18()4: Oxford expedition, in August, 18()4: Tal- 
lahatchie, August, 1864; march in pursuit of 
Price, from Brownsville, Arkansas, to Cape 
(iirardeau, Missouri; thence by boat to Jefferson 
City; thence to Kansas line; thence to St. Louis. 
Battles of Nashville, Tenn., December 1-5 and 16, 
1864; Spanish Fort and Fort Blakelely. in April. 
1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling. August 24, 

Kamsey county had only four representatives 
in this regiment, viz: 

Co/o)i(?-- Alexander Wilkin, com'd Aug. 24, 
'62, killed at Tupelo. July 14, "64. 

Asst. Siayion — John Dewey, com'd Dec. 20, 
"62, resigned Sept. 11, '68. 

Hosp. Stctmrd — Samuel P. Tomlinson, must. 
Nov. 4, '62, dis. with regt. 

Second Lieut. — Thomas Van Etten, of Co. I, 
must. Oct. 12. "62, pro. 1st lieut. September 26, 
"64. and capt. Jan. 16. '6.5. 


Tliis regiment was organized in August, 1862, 
and originally commanded by Colonel James IL 
Baker, of Mankato. It was stationed at frontier 
posts until June, 1863, when it was ordered upon 
the Indian expedition. Engaged with the In- 
dians July 24, 26 and 28, 1863. Ordered to St. 
Louis, Missouri, in October, 1863; thence to Co- 
lumbus. Kentucky, in April. 1864; thence to 
Memphis, Tenn., in June following, and assigned 
to the sixteenth army corps. Participated in the 
following marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes: 
Battle of Tupelo, July 13, 1864; Oxford expedi- 
tion in August, 1864; marched in jiursuit of 
Price, from Brownsville, Arkansas, to Cape Gi- 
rardeau, Missouri, thence by boat to Jelfefson 
City, thence to Kansas line, thence to St. Louis. 
. In the battles. of Nashville, Tejin., Dec. lo and 
16,186.5; Spanish Fortand FortBlakely, in April, 
186.5. Discharged at Fort Snelling, August 10, 

1865. Aside from the staff officers, all but one 
of Ram.sey county "s representatives are in com- 
panies II and K. 


iK!((.CotoHc;--Samuel P. Jennison, com'd. Sept. 
15, "62, dis. with regt. 

AxM. Siiryeon — Cyrus A. Brooks, Com'd. Oct. 
29, '64, must. Dec. 12, '64, dis. with regt. 


Captain — Michael II. Sullivan, dis. with regt. 

Sergeant- James O'Brien, dis. per order. July 
6, "65. 

Corporah—ii. W. Lightcap, dis. with regt. 
Jeremiah Sullivan, pro. sergt., dis. with regt. J. 
J. Consadine, destd. April 21. "64, at St. Louis, 
Mo. James Conway, trans, to loth regt. V. B. 
C, July 20, '64. 

Musician — Glover (i. Irviner. dis. per order, 
July 10, "65. 

Priratis~-C. C. Bowen, dis. with regt. Fred 
Christianson, destd. Oct. 29, "62, at Fort Snelling. 
Wesley Cliase. died Jan. 14. '63, at St. Peter. 
iMinn. E. A. Cramsie, dis. with regt. Hugh 
Crawford, destd. Nov. "68, at St. Louis, Mo. Syl- 
vester Dreger, in prison at Alton, 111., on dis. of 
regt. II. J. Dibble, dis. per order, June 26, '65. 


Privutf — Peter Bacon, must. Nov. 12. '62, dis. 
with regt. 

COMP.VNY K. .■\nSTp:RED OCT. 31, 1862. 

Captain — Micluiel .1. O'Connor, dis. witli regt. 

Sivgeant — James Flanigan, trans, to Co. F. 
April 21, '64. Mathew Flood, reduced to raidvs, 
Feb. 12, '63, dis. viith regt. 

Cocjjo/Y(/.v-Thomas O'llerr, dis. with regt. Geo. 
Stewart, dis. with regt. Owen McGrann, red'd 
to ranks Jan. 16, '68, dis. with regt. Andrew- 
Welsh, pro. sergt., dis. with regt. 

3/H.s("ci«)is:— Christopher Connelly, dis. with regt. 

W(uji)ner — Daniel Sexton, trans, to Y. R. C. 
Nov, 18, "63. 

Pr;r((?F.<!--Patrick Burke, killed Nov. 21, "64, 
at St. Louis, Mo., by prov. guard. IL A. Cox, 
dis. with regt. M. T. (.'onnelly, pro. Corp., dis. 
with regt. John Costello, trans, to V. IJ. C. Nov. 
18, '63. James Conlin, deserted Sept. 8, '63, at 
Fort Snelling. Timothy Daly, dis. with regt. 
Jlichael Nixon, (lis. Aug. 16. "65. absent from 



regt. Patrick Eustis, deserted May 12, '63, at 
Le Sueur, Minn. John (lallagher, dis. with regt. 
Thonia.s Ilorance, dis. with regt. Benjamhi Iler- 
rons, dis. with regt. Kerr Ilennessy, deserted 
Xov. 10, '64, arrested, claimed to be a minor, 
case tested in civil court and dis. Patrick Ken- 
nedy, dis. for disab'y in "65. Jolui died 
Sept. 27, "63, at Fort Ridgely. Edward Martin, 
dis. with regt. James Manning, dis. per order, 
Feb. 13, "65. Patrick ^laloney. died Aug. 10, 
■65, at St. Paul. Hugh MeCaun, deserted Feb. 
10, '63, at Le Sueur, Minn. William McCool, 
dis. with regt. Patrick Tlonan, dis. with regt. 
John Sheridan, pro. corp., dis. with regt. Patrick 
Sullivan, dis. with regt. Alexander Sauce, dis. 
with regt. Timothy 'Wood. dis. with regt. Peter 
Ward, dis. with regt. 

/^c/»//.s— Alexander Lytle, must. Feb. 12, "fil, 
dis. for disab'y, Nov. 10, "(U. John Lysight, dis. 
with regt. Michael AfcOrath, dis. with regt. 
Patrick (Juinlin, dis. with regt. Xavier Doney, 
dis. per order, June 15, "64. William Elliot, dest. 
Oct. 30, '62, at Fort Snelling. Martin Kilroy, 
dis. with regt. Martin Noon, <lis. with regt. 
Thomas O'Maley, dis. for disabl. June 13, '64. 
Amon Olson, died Jan. 21, '65, at Nashville, 
Tenn. M. R. Prendergast, pro. com. sergt., Oct. 
21,'62, dis. with regt. John Robegea, dis. with 


This regiment was organized in August, 1864, 
and originally commanded by Colonel James (iil- 
fiUan; ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, and was 
engaged in guarding the railroad between Nash- 
ville and Louisville until muster out of regi- 
ment. June 26th, 1865. 

The men composing this regiment were gath- 
ered from all over tlie slate. It was largely com- 
posed of drafted men and substitutes. The con- 
stant drain upon the state for men had taken 
from some localities nearly every available man. 
As a consequence, recruiting agents were sent to 
all parts of the stale to pick u]) men wherever 
tliey could be found. 

Fi'ld find Staff Officers—Colonel— Jamea Gil- 
flllan, coni'd Sept. 7, '64, must. Nov. 3, '64, dis. 
with regt. 

AksI. SurgeonK — Peter Gabrielson. com'd Sei>t. 

7, '64, dis. with regt. Robert L. Morris, com'd 

Nov. 15, '64, dis. with regt. 

Q. M. Sergeant — Jason W. Gardner, must. Aug. 
22, '64, dis. with regt. 

Hnsij. S/f'if(/)-(?— Wilfnnl ('. Wilson, must. Aug. 
19, '64. dis. with regt. 

(■i).Ml'.\NV A. 

S'/-.'/''f(»/— Frederick Foster, must. August 24, 
'64, dis. with regt. 

I{reniit.<<—'Se\s Knutson, must. Sept. 15, '64, 
dis. with regt. Joliu I\iebe, must. Sept. 15, '64, 
dis. for disabl. Marcli 22, "65. 


rf())?((/)i--Franklin Paine, must. Atigusl 10, 
'64, dis. with regt. 

First Lieut.— Joseph 1!. .lones. must. Aug. 20, 
'64, dis. with regt. 

Coi-poraZ— E. F. Crocker, must. Aug. 15, '64, 
dis. with regt. 

/'/■(■iv(?(,s— Charles Beyer, must. Aug. 5, '64, dis. 
with regt. Henry Boyden, must. Aug. 7, 
"64, dis. with regt Napoleon Duford, must. 
Aug. 0, "64, dis. with regt. Wilford C. Wilson, 
must. August 19, '64, pro. hosp. steward, trans, 
to N. C. S. Sept. 13, '64. 


First Lieut.— John S. Moulton, must. Sept. 
1, '64, dis. with regt. 

Corporal— Joseph Allen, must. .\ug. 23, '61, 
dis. with regt. 

Pi(r«(c— Timothy O'Brien, must. Aug. 23, '64, 
dis. with regt. 


P)-u-««c- -Benjamin Brack, must. Aug. 18, "64, 
dis. with regt. 


(7o)-jjO)-rt?— Rufus Davenport, must. August 24, 
'64, pro. sergt. dis. with regt. 

PcJc(((c— Jason W. Ciarduer, must. Aug. 22, 
"64, pro. (-1 M. sergt. trans, to N. C. S. Sept. 
6, '64. 


TIlis l)allalion originally consisted of two com- 
panies, organized from the re-enlisted men, 
stay-over men and recruits of the First Minnesota 
Infantry. They were ordered to Washington, D. 
C., in May, 1S(>4. and joined the army of the Po- 
tomac, June 10, following. Participated in the 
following engagements: Petersburg, Virginia 



June 18. 1864; Jerusalem Plank Roads.Yirgiuia, 
June. 22 and 23. 1864; Deep Bottom, Virginia. 
August 14. 1864; Keam's Station, Virginia, Aug. 
25. 1864: Hatcher's Run. Virginia, October 27, 
1S64. and Feliruary o. 186"): Company C joined 
them March 26. 186-5. Took active part in the cam- 
paign, commencing March 28. 1865, and resulting 
in the capture of Petersburg, Va.. April 2, 1865, and 
the surrender of Lee's army, April 9, 1865. Four 
new companies joined them at Berksville, \ir- 
ginia. in April, '66, from whence they marched to 
Washington, D. ('. in May, 1865, where they were 
joined by two more companies, making nine com- 
panies in all. Ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, 
in June, 1865. Mustered out at JeflersonviUe, 
Indiana. June 14. 1865, and discharged at Fort 
Snelling, July 25, 1865. There were only a few 
men from Ramsey county in this battalion, 
and they were principally in Company A. Among 
the field officers only one name appears, that of 
Frank Houston, who was commissioned major, 
April 24. "65. must. May 2. follo-ning. and dis- 
charged with the regiment. 


Sergenni—Thomaa X. "Whetstone, vet. vol.. 
must. March 24. '64. pro. capt. Company D, March 
17. "65, dis. with the regt. 

Corporah—3. H. A. Alpers, vet. vol.. must. 
March 24, "64, pro. sergt.. was taken prisoner, ab- 
sent, sick oir dis. of battalion. George F. Morti- 
mer, must. Sept. 9, "64, dis. on exp. of term. Sept. 
16, "64, 

Musician— Heovge "Willey. must. Feb. 24. '64, 
dis. with battalion. 

TTayoii'/— Gates Gibbs. must. March .SI. "64, 
dropped as a deserter, July 1, "64. 

Pm-«te?—W. W. Brown, must. Sept. 13, "61, 
dis. on exp. of term, Sept. 14, "64. Jacob George, 
vet. vol., must. March 24, "64, pro. sergt.. dis. 
with battalion. George Buck, must, ilarch 24, 
'64, dis. with battalion. John Lonquist, must. 
Jan. 1. "64, killed June 22, "64. near Petersburg. 
Virginia. Marshall Sherman, unist. March 24. 
'64, lost a leg in battle of deep bottom. "Virginia, 
Aug. 14. '64, absent, sick on dis. of battalion. J. 
C. Victory, must. Jan. 1, "64. pro. corp., dis. with 


Fiint iww/.— Frank Houston, vet. vol. must. 

May 12. "64, pro. capt. Oct. 13. "64, and major 
May 2, "65. 

CorimmU \V. W. llolden. nuist. Feb. 26. "63, 
pro. 2nd lieut. March 16, "65, 1st lieut. Co. H. 
June 8. "65. dis. with regt. 

Piiidlif—ll. (i. McGuire. must. March 25, "64. 
dis. with comp. John McClay, must. June 19. 
'61 , dis. on ex. of term, July 4, '64. 

i?m-u!'(— Francis Lampier, must. Feb. 17, '65, 

dis. with comp. 


This regiment was organized in April 1865, 

■ and originally commanded by Colonel "William 

Colville, of Red "Wing. Ordered to Chattanooga, 

Tennessee, and remained stationed at that post 

until mustered out Ln September, 1865. 

Fidd and Staff Officers— Surgeon— Clinton G. 
Stees, com"d March 25, '65, resigned June 24, "65. 

ifo.fjy. .SV( !/•(•) rtZ— George Powers, must. Feb. 7, 
"65. dis. with regt. 


Sr-nior, First Lieut— ^E. D. K. Randall, must. 
Oct. 5, "64. dis. with regt. 

Junior, First Lieut.— F.. J. Van Slyke. must. 
March 19, "64, pro. reg"l Q. M.,dis. subsequent to 
regt. Left at Chattanooga to close up business, 
must, out at Covington, Ky. 

.Junierr Second I,k>i/(.— "William Colter, must. 
March 5, "65, dis. July 1, "65. Q. M. sergt. E. R. 
Trowbridge, must. Sept. 21, "64. reduced Xov. 
19, "64, dis. in "65. absent from comp. 

Sergeiint—.J. C. Murray, must. Sept. 13. "64. 
dis. with comp. 

Priviite.-i—'L. C. Dunn. must. Sept. 13, '64, pro. 
1st. sergt. dis. June 26. "65. James Kitson, must. 
Sept. 12. '64. dis. with comp. Samuel Pierson, 
must. Sept. 28. "64, dis. with comp. Dennis 
Wood. must. Sept. 15, '64, dis. with comp. Robert 
Whitaker, must. Sept. 22, "64, dis. July 3, '65. 
Edward AValsh. must. Sept. 17, "64, dis. with 


Cflj>'"/H— William Leyde, com'd Oct. 13, "64, 
resigned Feb. 12, '65. 

Pi-ivKtes—T. L. Bemian.must. Sept. 14. "64, dis. 
with comp. Thomas Hamson.must. Sept. 14, "64, 
pro. corp. and sergt., dis. with comp. James 
Henrie, must. Oct. 6, '64. Medard Lucier, must. 
Sept. 17, "64, dis. with comp. M. D. IManning. 



must. Sept. 24, '64, trans, to comp. M, dis. July 
7, "65. Midmel McMalion, must. Sept. 14, "(U, 
dis. witli comp. J. F. Madden, must. Oct. 3, '64, 
trans, to comp. M, dis. July 7. "05. Alvin Phelps, Sept. 22, "65, dis. with comp. O. A. Phelps, 
must. Sept. 20, '64, dis. with comp. Hlake Peter- 
sou, must. Sept. 15. "64, dis. with comp. Wil- 
liam Sliields. must. Sept. 24, "64, dis. with comp. 

fO.MI'ANY r. 

Junior First Lieut. — Rinaklo (i. Oauiels, must. 
Oct. 19, "64, dis. July 1, '65. 

5(')-(/('(ni?— Eobert Palmer, must. Sept. 14. "64, 
dis. with comp. 

Corporal — Jouatliuu liooth. must. Sept. 14, "64, 
dis. with comp. 

Pc/r(((r,s'— Michael Connolly, must. Sept. 23, 
'64, dis. with comp. II. P. Dahlbcrg, must. Sept. 
15, "64, dis. at St. Paul. -Inly 27, "65. Henry 
Kirchner, must. Sept. 14. "64, dis. July 10, "65, 
absent. William Smith, must. Sept. 14, "64, dis. 
with comp. E. X. Youni;. must. Oct. II. "64. dis. 
witli com)!. 

(O.MI'AN^' K. 

Captain — Harvey Otlicer. must. Feb. 11, '65, 
dis. Oct. 31, '65. 

Prirate.s — William A. 15raik, must. Jan. 10, "05, 
dis. f(U' disabl. June 5, '65. Gilbert Wakeman, 
must. Feb. 7. "65, dis. with comp. 

COMl'.WY F. 

Pn"'-n?f —Sauuiel .Mclen, must. Feb. 4, "65, dis. 
with ciinii). 


Sergeant- Simeon Kysar, must. Feb. 15, "65, 
dis. with comp. 

Corporals — William Larsen, must. Feb. 15, "65, 
dis. with comp. J. II. Rose. must. Feb. 14, '65, 
ilis. with comp. 

]'rirai(s—llnmy Anderson, Feb. 14, '65, 
(lied ;SIarch 25, "65. E. C. Burdick, must. Feb. 
15, '65, dis. with comp. Charles IJanieman. must. 
Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. John P.urton. must. 
Feb. 14. '65, dis. with comp. C. II. Cary. must. 
February 14. "65. dis. with comp. C. A. Carpenter, 
must. Fell. 14, "65. dis. per order. Au}j. 8. '65. 1). 
F. Dilible. must. Feb. 14. "65, (lis. with comp. T. 
II. Deascher, must. Feb. 15, "65, pro. corp.. dis. 
with comp. T. H. Daily, must. Feb.15, '65, dis. 
with comp. O. A. Uolson, must. F^b. 14, '65, 

dis, with comp. W. H. Dibb, must. Feb. 14, '65, 
dis. with comp. I?. F. Doyle, must. Feb. 14, '65, 
dis. with comp. W. F. Fisk, must. Feb. 14, '65, 
dis. with comp. George Forsythe. must. Feb. 
lo, '65, dis. with comp. .J. A. F(wd, must. Feb. 

14, '65, dis. with comp. Patrick Gribbiii. must. 
Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. John Gildea. must. 
Feb. 14. 'i\'). (lis. with comp. G. X. (iilbertsen. 
must. I'cli. 14, '115. dis. in '65, absent. Warren 
Ilowitt. must. F'eb. 14. "65, dis. per order, Aug. 
8, 'iMi. II. II. llamiltou, must. Feb. 16, '65, pro. 
sr. 2d lieut., dis. with comp. C. L. Ilett, must. 
Feb. 15, '(i5, pro. corp., dis. with comp. Bene- 
dict Jani, must. Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. 
Christian Lepel. must. Feb. 14, '65, dis. with 
comp. J. 11. McKee, must. I'eb. 15, '65, dis. in 
'65, absent. M. It. Parks, must. Feb. 14, '65, 
dis. per order, July 24, '65. Henrie Poulesson. 
must. Feb. 14, "65. dis. with comp. Leonard 
Peters, must. Feb. 14, '65, dis. with comp. Clark 
Shellenbarger, must. Feb. 11, '65, dis. in '65, ab- 
sent. M. J. Steirnerg, must. Feb. 15, '65, dis. 
with comp. Conrad Shields, must. Feb. 15, '65, 
dis. with comp. H. C. Smith, must. Feb. 15, '65, 
dis. in '65, absent. L. L. Scott, must. Feb. 15, 
"65, dis. with comp. Oscar Slocuni, nuist. I'eb. 

15, "65, dis. with comp. Martin Ste(!k, must. F'eb. 

14, '65, dis. with comp. George Vistman. must. 
Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. Henry Zimmerman, 
must. Feb. 15, 65, dis. with comp. 

CO.Ml'ANY n. 

Senior Second Lieut. —Jamen K. Wilson, must. 
Feb. 17, '65, dis. with comp. 

Q. M. Sergeant— (ico. T. Belden,must. I'eb. 14. 
'65, dis. with comp. 

iSc)-f/'"/i/.s— James McKay, must. F>b. 13, '65, 
dis. with comp. AV'ashington Mctiuire, must, 
Feb. 11, '65, dis. with comp. L. S. Sampson, 
must. F'eb. 14, '65, dis. with comp. Jolui Y. 
Ziegler, must. Feb. 16, "65, dis. with comp. 

Corporals — J. \. .\nstin. must. Feb. 11, "65. 
dis. with comp. Thomas Faucett, must. Feb. 

15, '65, dis. with comp. A. J. Hodgman, must. 
Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. L. B. Moore, must. 
F>b. 14, "65. reduced, dis. with comp. T. J. 
\V(Hi(l\v(irtli. must. F'eb. 13, '65, dis. with comp. 

vli//./i«T/— Lewis Koak. must. Feb. 14, "65, dis. 
with regt. 
P/iir/?<?.s— Sivert Alackson, must. Feb. 10, "66, 



dis. with comp. G. F. Babbidge. must. Feb. lo. 
"65, dis. witli comp. H. C. Collins, must. Feb. 
16, "65, pro. 2d, lieut. in Co. I, Feb. 22, "65. Elza 
Conner, must. Feb. 13, '65. dis. per order. July 
26, '65. M. F. Canfield. must. Feb. 6, "65, dis. 
with comp. Thomas Costello, must. Feb. 16, "65, 
dis. with comp. "William Dimiek,must. Feb. 11, 
"65, dis. per order, Aug. 2d, "65. Matthias Gen- 
ner. must. Feb. 15. "65. dis. with comp. C. II. 
Gilbert, must, Feb. 7, "65, dis. with comp. John 
Greig, must. Feb. 10, '65, dis. with comp. James 
Grimes, must. Feb. 15. "65, dis. with comp. 
Charles Hamilton, must. Feb. 15. "65, dis. with 
comp. J. D. Hoffman, must. Feb. 7, "65, pro. 
Corp. dis. with comp. F. G. Jewett, must. Fel), 
11, "65, dis. with comp. W. T. C. Johnson, must. 
Feb. 6, '65, dis. with comp. Henry Lukkart, 
must. Feb. 15, '65, dis. with comp. Dennis Lea- 
my. must. Feb. 15, '65. dis. with comp. Elijah 
Lambert, must. Feb. 8, "65, dis. with comp. R. 
E. Mars, must. Feb. 6, "65, dis. with comp. Jos- 
eph MiUs, must. Feb. 10, "65. dis. per order, Aug. 
9, "65. "\V. M. Orton. must. Feb. 11, "65. dis. 
with comp. George Powers, must. Feb. 8, '65, 
pro. liosp. stew'd Sept. 1, '65. Komam Pouliotte, 
must. Feb, 4. "65. dis. witli comp. John Peter- 
son, must. Feb. 16, "65, dis. with comp. L. F. 
Ready, must. Feb. 6, '65, dis. with comp. D. L. 
Reynolds, must. Feb. 11, '65, dis. with comp. 
Palmer Soper, must. Feb. 15, "65, dis. with comp. 
A. W. Winter, must. Feb. 4. "65, dis. with comp. 
Enist Zalm, must. Feb. 14, "65, dis. with comp. 
D. L. Sutliff, must. Feb, 4, '65, dis. per order, 
Aug. 25, "65. 


Junior Second Lieut. — Henry C. Collins, must. 
Feb. 22, '65, dis. with comp. 

Private — John Bailor, must. Feb. 16, "65, dis. 
with comp. 


Junior Second Lieut. — II. H. "Wilson, must. 
Apr. 20, "65, resigned June 22, "65. 


Ofyjd-rni— James P. Allen, must. Feb. 22, '65, 
dis. with comp. 

Private — Nikolas Ludwig, must. March 6, "65, 
trans, to Co. July 5. "65. dis. with comp. 


This battery was organized in Oct. 1861 and 
originally commanded by Captain Emil Munch, 
of Cliengwatana. Pine county; ordered to St. Louis 
in December, ISfil, thence to Pittsburg Landing 
in Feb. 1862. Engaged in the following marches, 
battles, sieges and skirmishes ; Shiloh, April, 5 
and 6, 1862; sieges of Corinth, Mississippi, in 
April, and October 3 and 4, 1862; marched from 
Corinth to Oxford, Mississippi, thence to Mem-