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A History of Randolph County 
West Virs^inia 

From its Earliest Exploration and Settlement 
to the Present Time 





No literary merit is claimed in the presentation of this 
book. The purpose of the writer was to present facts and if 
any event of historical value will be saved to future genera- 
tions, the author will feel compensated for his labors. An 
undertaking- embodied within this volume involves labor and 
research little understood by the average individual. En- 
couragement and assistance have been received from many 
sources not practicable to enumerate, but none the less 
cherished and appreciated. 

I acknowledge with gratitude assistance from the follow- 
ing individuals in procuring subscriptions: Jesse W. Bird, B. 
Y. WHiite, G. \V. White, FeHx R. Tuning, Rev. Robert Grey- 
nolds, Wm. H. Conrad and Samuel H. Godwin. 

Valuable assistance which the writer acknowledges with 
pleasure was given by Hon. T. J. Arnold, Capt. W. H. Cobb, 
Col. S. N. Bosworth, Jesse W. Robinson and Geo. W. 

In the preparation of this volume valuable information 
was obtained from Maxwell's History of Randolph, Hay- 
mond's History of Harrison, Price's History of Pocahontas, 
Morton's History of Pendleton and from Harper's Magazine. 

Elkins, W. Va., 1916. 



Physical Features — Chapter 1 7 

Pre-historic Randolph — Chapter II 12 

Pioneer Period — Chapter III 17 

Among the Records of Randolph — Chapter IV 38 

Harrison County Court Proceedings — Chapter V 80 

Early Military Matters— Chapter VI 86 

Early Land Patents— Chapter VII 93 

Early Roads in Randolph— Chapter VIII 102 

Annals of Education — Chapter IX 106 

Civil War Period— Chapter X 114 

Laws Ancient and Obsolete — Chapter XI 158 

Randolph County Lawyers — Chapter XII 177 

Physicians and Surgeons of Randolph — Chapter XIII 181 

Porte Crayon in Randolph — Chapter XIV 193 

Miscellaneous— Chapter XV 229 

Pamily Histories— Chapter XVI 287 


Dr. A. S. Bosworth Frontispiece 

Big Falls of Cheat 9 

Mountains and Valleys 10 

Entrance to the Tunnel of Gandy 11 

Indian Trails 12 

Stone Hatchet '. 16 

A Pioneer Cabin 17 

The Historic Site of Tygart Cabin 18 

The Joe White Tub Mill 33 

A Pioneer Kitchen 34 

A Pioneer Barn 35 

■Randolph's First Court Plouse 38 

Signatures of Early Sheriffs and Justices of the Peace 68 

Rich Mountain Battle Field 156 

The Country Store 194 

Soldier White 198 

Noosing Trout 200 

Goose-plucking 208 

The Dance 210 

A Flirtation 223 

Henry Clay Dean 247 

A Primitive Industry 251 

Historical Round Barn 255 

Dr. Squire Bosworth 307 

Mr. Bernard L. Brown 313 

Abram Crouch 318 

Colonel Elihu Hutton 348 

Mr. J. D. Wilson 395 

Captain Jacob W. Marshall 430 

Mr. James Pickens 433 




"This our life exempt from public haunts finds tongues in trees, 
books in running brooks, sermons in stones and good in everything." 

THE i)ioneers of Randolph partook of their rugged environ- 
ment in their mental, moral and physical characteristics 
That period produced a superior class of men hecause the 
struggle for existence was ameliorated by easy access to the 
soil, giving opportunity for culture and the social amenities 
and fostering a generous and hospitable spirit. The extent 
and direction in which man is compelled to expend his energy 
in obtaining food, shelter and raiment materially influence 
his life and belief. In the field of biology it is a well known 
law that every leaf, limb or branch is developed because of 
the necessity of the organism to obtain support from its en- 
vironment. The organism is strong or feeble, depending upon 
the munificence with which the surroundings bestow their 

The proverbial utterance that "mountaineers are always 
freemen" is largely true for the reason that a people living in 
the seclusion of valleys, stirrounded by high mountains are 
enabled by Nature's fortresses to impel invading foes. More- 
over, the birds in the illimitable air and the animals that roam 
at will in the wilds of the w^oods suggest to man the inherent 
right to freedom and independence. 

Randolph is the largest county in the State with an area 
of 1,080 square miles. The contour of the county exhibits a 
series of mountain ranges with parallel valleys. The valleys 
are drained bv the several forks of the Cheat, the Valley River, 
Middle Fork, Buckhannon, Elk and Gauley Rivers. Tygarts 
Valley is about 40 miles long and averages one mile in width. 
The head of the valley is known as Alingo Flats. The high- 
est point in the county is Snyder's Knob in Mingo district 
on the Pocahontas line. Its altitude is 4,730 feet, being only 
130 feet below Spruce Knob, in Pendleton County, the highest 
point in the State. The lowest point in the county is at the 


Randolph-Tucker line, on Cheat River Avith an elevation of 
1,765 feet. At the vSouthern extremity where the Elk River 
enters Randolph, the altitude is 2,390 feet and at the Ran- 
dolph-Webster line it is 2,000 feet. The Valley River has a 
fall in Randolph of 1,325 feet. Cheat River has a fall in 
Randolph of 1,930 feet, more than it has in its subsequent 
course of 3,000 miles to the Gulf. 

The following table will show the elevation of some of 
the places in Randolph : 

Middle Fork Bridge ; 1,900 

Elkins 1,950 

Kerens 2,000 

Beverly 1 2,000 

Lick 2,000 

Orlena 2,000 

Montrose 2,050 

Valley Bend 2,050 

Huttonsville 2,080 

Lee Bell 2,100 

Cassity 2,100 

Long 2,100 

Crickard 2,100 

Roaring Creek 2,100 

Elkwater 2,200 

West Huttonsville 2,300 

Helvetia 2,400 

Alpina 2,400 

Harman 2,400 

Day's Mills 2,450 

Mouth Fishing Hawk 2,480 

Valley Head 2,500 

Kingsville 2,500 

Job 2,600 

Laurel Hill B. and B. Pike 2,600 

Mingo Flats 2,700 

Pickens 2,700 

Blue Springs 2,900 

Florence 2,900 

Glady 2,900 

Monterville 3,000 

Rich Mountain Battle Field 3,000 

Osceola 3,400 

The Sinks 3,400 

Rich Mountain 3,400 

Nettly Mountain 3,400 

Currence Knob 3,500 

Lone Tree 3,570 

Cheat Bridge 3,600 

Bickle Knob 4,020 

Bayard Knob 4,150 

Yokum Knob 4,330 

Ward Knob 4,400 

Crouch Knob 4,600 


The rocks of Randolpli, with few exceptions, are lime- 
stone, sandstone and shale. Nearly all of these rocks are of 
sedimentary origin. Limeston.e was formed of the remains 
of the shells or skeletons of sea animals, more or less broken 
to fragments or even gronnd to powder in the waves of shal- 
low waters. It is nmch more snhilde in water than other 
rocks. Sandstone was formed from waste of snch rocks as 
granite. The sand was washed into the sea or otlier bodv ol 

Big Falls of Cheat. 

water and was there spread out into layers which in the 
course of ages accumulated in great thickness. Infiltering 
waters, carrying some mineral substance in solution was de- 
posited between the grains and bound them more or less 
perfectly together. The finer waste of granite rocks formed 
shale and slate. Alillions of years ago the only dry land in 
North America was a mountain ridge lying east of the Alle- 
ghenies. This primitive mountain by an internal force was 
forced up out of the bed of the ocean. The rocks forming 
this mountain were not sedimentary in origin. The action of 
air, wind and water in the course of a long period wore down 
this mountain to a base level and deposited its silt and sedi- 
ment layer upon layer in the bottom of the ocean. The land 
formation crept steadily westward. There were alternate 
intervals of upheavals and subsidences. The coal beds of 



Randolph formed by compressed vegetation, mark successive 
terrestial surfaces. At the time of the formation of the Ap- 
palachian plateau, there were no deep valleys or high moun- 
tains. The dry land was plastic and formative. There were 
anticlinals and synclinals that in the course of long periods 
of time by the action of Hoods, frosts and other agencies 
sculped out deep valleys and formed high mountains. 

The Mountains and Valleys of Randolph as They Probably Ap- 
peared in an Early Geological Period. 

No lake, probably, ever existed in the present formation 
of Tygarts A'alley. The outlet of the \'alley, with the excep- 
tion of temporary land slides, perhaps, has ever been on a 
lower plane than its floor. However, that the flood plane of 
the valley has been gradually degrading or eroding, is evi- 
denced by river terraces in different parts of the valley, cov- 
ered by sandstones worn smooth by agitation in a stream with 
a rapid current. These terraces are particularlv prominent 
on the M. J. Coberly farm two miles above Rexxrly and on 
the opposite side of the river on the farm of D. R. Baker. 
Cheat River as it passes througli Randolph County is being 
eroded or degraded at the rate of two inches per annum. 

The Sinks. 

Perhaps the greatest natural curiosity in Randol]:)h 
County is the sinks, where Gaudy Creek makes a remarkable 
subterranean ])assage beneath a spur of the .\llegheny moun- 
tains. The stream issues from its lethean channel in three 
arched passages side by side on the face of a perpendicular 



cliff, which abridges the glen by an arched opening fifty feet 
wide by twenty feet high. Into this orifice Candy's waters 
incessantly glide. At a low stage of the water a few persons 
have succeeded in making their way from entrance to exit. 

Entrance to the Tunnel of Gandy. 





RANDOLPH COUNTY was never the settled abode of the 
Red ]Man. To him it was only a large game reservation, 
into which he made periodic incursions for the hunt and the 
chase. When the first white men visited the county there 

Indian Trails. 

was little evidence of any except temporary occupation by 
the savages. Squaw patches, or small clearings were found in 
some localities ; hov/ever they were of such a character as 
to indicate only transitory habitation. Indian mounds are 


Still to be seen in some localities, but as a rule are found on 
or near old trails. A mound of considerable size is still visible 
on the farm of vVrchil^ald Lytle, near where the old fort stood, 
about three miles south of Elkins. This mound is on an 
Indian trail which passed up VVestfall Run to the West side 
of Rich Mountain, through the Caplinger settlement on the 
East side of the mountain, thence up Chenoweth's Creek. 
Excavations in this mound have revealed fragments of human 
skulls and stone implements. An Indian l:)urial ground existed 
also in Valley Bend district on the Currence farm, once owned 
by Henry Clay Dean. 

The Indian population in what are now the two Virginias 
was never very dense. It is conjectured that at the time of 
the discovery of America, the territory embraced in these two 
states contained a population of about 8,000 savages. The 
Shawnees were the white man's greatest foes during the first 
half century of his occupancy of the New World. They were 
a branch of the Algonquin family. The remnants of this 
family live in the Indian Territory, in a condition of semi- 
civilization. They are a superior race mentally and physical- 
ly. Tecumseh, a member of this tribe, was a man skilled in 
the arts of warfare and of dauntless courage. He was a 
Brigadier General in the British army in the war of 1812, 
and was killed in the battle of the Thames. 

The ethnic stages as adopted by most archaeologists are 
savagery, barbarism and civilization and in each of the two 
lower stages there are three subordinate periods. The dis- 
tinction between savagery and barbarism is marked l)y the 
point where the manufacture of pottery is begun. In the 
lower status of savagery men lived in their original restricted 
habitat and subsisted on fruits and nuts. Articulate speech 
may be supposed to have begun in this status. All existing 
races of men had passed beyond it at an unknown antiquity. 
In the middle status of savagery men had learned how to 
catch fish and to use fire. The invention of the bow and 
arrow marks its close. The upper status of savagery, in 
which some of the lowest American tribes still continue, such 
as the Athamaskans of Hudson Bay, ends, as above stated, 
with the invention of notterv. Tliev know nothine of horti- 


culture, make no pottery and depend for subsistence entirely 
on roots, fish and game. They have little or no village life. 
The lower status of barbarism exhibits the domestication of 
animals other than the dog. In 1492, at the time of the dis- 
covery of America, the dog was the only animal domesticated 
by the North American Indians. This was true of all the 
American aborigines, except the Peruvians. The absence of 
domesticable animals is no doubt important among the causes 
that retarded the development of the American Indians. The 
horse, which is shown by fossil remains to have existed in 
six or seven species, had. become extinct, and was reintro- 
duced by the invaders. The regular employment of tillage 
with irrigation, and the use of adobe brick and stone in archi- 
tecture, marked the end of the lower status of barbarism in 
America. The middle status of barbarism was marked in 
the Eastern Hemisphere by the domestication of other ani- 
mals than the dog, and there as well as in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, by the development of irrigation in cultivation, and 
the use of brick and stone in building, by great improvement 
in the manufacture of stone implements, and ultimatelv the 
introduction of implements of copper and bronze. The middle 
status may be regarded as ending with the discovery of the 
process of smelting iron ore ; and this process becomes more 
and more important through the upper status of barbarism 
and is finally associated with the production of written records 
by means of a phonetic alphabet or of advanced hieroglyphics. 
Among the influences which liave affected the more or less 
rapid development of races the following suggest themselves: 
The condition of soil and climate as favoring or impeding 
the aquisition of ample and varied means of sustenance, the 
existence or absence of the various animals suited for domest- 
ication, notably, sheep and cattle; the opportunities for con- 
tact, by migration, commerce or war, with races occupying a 
higher ethnic scale; inherent ethnological defects or advant- 
ages in special races. 

The Indian that made incin-sions into this sectitui, be- 
longed to the lower status of barbarism. He practiced a 
.limited agriculture. However, he domesticated no animal 
except the dog. He discovered the tol^acco plant, smoked 


but never chewed. Smoking was a civil and religious rite and 
was indulged as a means of communicating with the Great 
Spirit as well as cm])hasizing the sancitv of treaties between 
tribes. Thus originated the phrase "smoking the pipe of 
peace." The Indian raised corn and had many ways of pre- 
paring it for fcK)d. "Cireen corn" was an important food with 
the Indians. .Many tribes celebrated its season with festivals 
and religious ceremonies. The Indian cleared land by dead- 
ening the trees with the stone tomahawk. How^ever, his main 
subsistence was upon game and fish. His hut was made ot 
long poles bent together and fastened at the top, and covered 
with bark. There were two openings, a place to go in and 
out and a place for the smoke to escape. Clothing was made 
from the tanned skins of animals. His weapons were bone 
and stone instruments and the bow and arrow. He was un- 
acquainted with firearms until the wdiite man came. The 
tradition that the Indian visited lead and otlier mines has no 
foundation in fact. Implements used in the hunt and the 
chase were Inirried witli the Indian 1:)ecause he believed that 
the soul tor)k its flight to the happy hunting ground. The 
coward and the deformed were denied admittance to the 
Indian's paradise. In scalping and mutilating an enemy, he 
prevented his foe from entering this abode of bliss. 

The Indian had great skill in finding his wav through the 
forest. The moss and bark on the trees revealed to him the 
prevailing direction of the wind and the rays of the sun. In 
this w^ay he was enabled to distinguish the points of the 
compass. Foot-paths were as a rule established along water 
courses, but in crossing from stream to stream dividing ridges 
were followed. Although not provincial, each tribe claimed 
a definite territory, and any infraction thereof was a cause of 
war with neighiioring tribes. Individual ownership of land 
never prevailed and all claims thereto were of a tribal nature. 
However, indi\idual rights to cultivated patches were re- 
spected, but his use of the land gave him no permanent title. 
Tribes consisted of groups, each living in a separate village. 
Their laws were founded upon custom. Matters of tribal 
interest were settled in ccumcil. 

The Indian was sometimes a cannibal, but not often, and 


was closely associated with economic necessity. The custom 
was practiced only under circumstances of the direst ex- 
tremity. The custom of leaving old men in the woods to die, 
is bad enough but not as bad as supposed. They carried the 
old man with them until he himself grew tired of being a 
burden and begged to be killed. AMien this point was reached 
he was given more than his share of food and left in the woods 
to die. He believed in revenge, but it was to be measured by 
the offense. His revenge was onlv directed against his ene- 
mies and he at all times defended the members of his own 
tribe. Within the tribe everything was shared in common. 
However scant the food, it was shared by those present. 

Stone Hatchet Taken from Indian Grave on Isner 
Farm, Lower Cheat. 





OlxAXGE County, A'ir^inia, was formed from Spottsyl- 
vania county in 1704 and was made to include all the 
territory West of the mountains. In 1744 that vast region 
was divided into the districts of August^, and Frederick and 
was to be onzanized into counties as soon as thev attained 

A Pioneer Cabin. 

sufficient population. ^Monongalia was formed from part ot 
Augusta in 1776: Harrison was formed from part of !\Ionon- 
galia in 1784 and Randolph from part of Harrison in 1787. 



In 1856 Randolpli gave part of its territory to the formation 
of Tucker county. Randolph also contributed part of its 
territory along with other counties in the formation of Nicho- 
las, Pocahontas, Upshur and AVebster. 

Although settlement was made in the adjoining county of 
Pendleton in 1747, the first white men to visit the valley were 
Files or Foyle and Tygart or Taggart, in 1753. Foyle located 
his cabin in the present site of Beverly, a little north of the 
Baker Mill, near the mouth of the creek that bears his name. 
Tygart selected a location farther up the river, on the west 
side, now the John D. AA'eese T5rick House Place three miles 

The Historic Site of Tygart Cabin, Weese Farm, 
Valley Bend District. 

from Beverly. Nothing is known of Tygart or Files that 
would throw light on their antecedents: however, the tide 
of emigration must necessarily have been from the east. 
The Tygart family and young Files departed from the county 
into Pendleton. These circumstances coni)le(l with the fact 
that the name was probabl}- Taggart rather than Tygart 
and the Taggarts were among the first settlers of Pendleton 
and other eastern counties, the presum])tit)n is \erv strong in 
favor of the hypothesis that th.ese families came into the 
valley from the settlements west of the Alleghenies. 

Perhaps, Files and l\vgart were induced to ])usli into 
the wilderness in pursuit of game. The fertile lands of the 
valley, also no doubt, were an inducement. 

The difficulties in the wav of ])rocuring breatlstuffs for 


their families, coupled with the perception of the dangers 
from Indians on a remote and unprotected border induced 
Files and Tygart to a determination to abandon the valley. 
Before they carried their plans into execution Robert Files, 
wife and five children, the youngest of which was ten years 
old, were murdered by the Indians, who were returning from 
the South Branch to the country west of the Ohio. An elder 
son not being at home escaped, but being nearby heard the 
disturbance and approaching the house learned of the horrible 
fate of his relatives, and realizing the utter impossibility of 
giving any assistance, resolved to give warning to the family 
of David Tygart, a few miles up the river. Young Files and 
the Tygart family immediately abandoned the country. 
Withers says that Files and Tygart had discovered that their 
location was near an Indian trail and an Indian village. No 
Indian village existed in dangerous proximity. Mingo on 
]\Iingo Run, 32 miles above, had been many years before the 
site of an Indian village. However, it had been abandoned 
by the Mingoes many years previous to 1753. Their cabins 
were near the trail that entered the valley at Elkw^ater and 
Huttonsville and passed down the river on the east side, and 
thence up Leading Creek and over the mountain to Cheat 

Tygarts Valley did not attract emigrants for a period of 
eighteen years after the disaster attending the efl'orts of Files 
and Tygart. In the meantime hunters from Greenbrier visit- 
ed the valley and on their return gave a glowing description 
of the region to the settlements. These reports induced many 
settlers to seek homes west of the mountains and most of the 
level land in the valley was occupied by permanent posses- 
sors during the year 1772. AMthers mentions among those 
who v.^ere first to occupy the valley the names of Hadden, 
Conley, W'hiteman. AX'arwick, Xelson, W^stfall, Riffle, and 
Stalnaker. Westfall found and buried the remains of the Files 
family. Settlements were made in what is now Lewis, Taylor 
and Harrison counties in the same year. The region that 
now comprises Lpshur County had been the abode of John 
and Samuel Pringle since 1764 and by several other families 
since 1769. John and Samuel Pringle were deserters from the 


army at Fort Pitt and sought safet}- in the seclusion of the 
wilderness by ascending the Alonongahela and making their 
abode in the trunk of a sycamore tree on the west fork of the 
Buckhannon, near the mouth of Turkey Run. They made 
visits to the South Branch for amunition and their reports 
caused others to seek that section for settlement. 

Indian hostilities, which had been in abeyance since 
1765, were renewed in 1774. There is a diversion of opinion 
as to the cause. Some think that the unprovoked murder of 
several Indians caused them to seek revenge, while others 
are inclined to the opinion that they were instigated to out- 
rages upon the whites by British emmisaries and that the 
savages who committed the deeds were ignorant of the out- 
rages committed upon the meml^ers of their own race. Three 
Shawnees, friendly to the whites, were killed near A\'heeling 
by the settlers. Three Indians were killed on the South 
Branch while on a friendly visit to that country. Among the 
number killed were Captain Peter and Bald Eagle, two In- 
dians of prominence in their tribes. About the same time a 
few white men exterminated Chief Bull and five families of 
Indians on tlie Little Kanawha, in cold blood, in what is 
now Braxton county. Bull and his little band were on terms 
of intimate friendship with the settlers, visiting and hunting 
with them. The people expected renewed hostilities on the 
part of the Indians and in 1774 two forts were built in Ran- 
dolph. The W'estfall fort, evidences of which still remain on 
the farm of Daniel Baker, near the mouth of Files Creek 
and the Currence fort which was built near the present town 
of Mill Creek. These forts were constructed of logs, with 
chimneys on the inside to keep the Indians from reaching ihe 
roof. Holes were left between the logs to shoot through. 
There was no visitation this year from the Indians. Ho\ve\ er, 
the settlers kept sconts in the mountains, watching the trails 
leading into the valley, (hi the first indication of danger, 
the settlers took refuge in the forts. The Revoluti(^nary war 
brought Indian troubles in 1777. On the frontier this }'ear 
was known as the bloodv year of the three sevens. The 
British were instrumental in causing the Indians to make an 
effort to exterminate or dri\e back the western settlers. The 


whites were apprehensive and vit;ilant. Leonard Pedro and 
William White were sent out as scouts to watch Indian trails 
leading- into Randolph. They were watching- the path that 
ascended the Little Kanawha, in iiraxton County, when being 
pressed b}- the necessity for food, shot an elk. A number of 
Indians being in the neighborhood, heard the report of their 
gun and stealthily followed them to their camp, and were in 
the act of making an attack when they were discovered by 
AA'hite. A savage sprang upon them and White made a futile 
strike at the Indian with a tomahawk. Realizing that re- 
sistance was useless, White pretended that lie had attempted 
to do the Indian harm only when half awake, and assumed an 
air of friendliness. He told the Indians that Pedro and him- 
self were on their way to join the Indians. Perhaps his ruse 
would have been successful if Pedro's dejected countenance 
had not contradicted his pretentions. They were tied for the 
rest of the night. In the morning Pedro was marked for the 
tomahawk and scalping knife b}' being painted black. How- 
ever, the Indian abandoned their purpose of killing Pedro and 
returned to Ohio, taking their two captives with them. AVhite 
stole a gun, killed an Indian, appropriated the horse of his 
fallen foe and returned to Randolph in 1777. Pedro was 
never heard of afterward. 

As a rule the settlements were free from Indian molesta- 
tion during the months of winter, for the reason that they 
could be followed by their tracks, as well as from the fact 
that their scant clothing was not sufficient for the rigors of 
such a trip through the moimtains. However, whether they 
followed White or came on an independent mission of mas- 
sacre and plunder, a party of aljout twenty Indians approach- 
ed to Avithin about twenty miles of the settlements in Novem- 
ber. A snow had fallen and they waited until December 15th. 
AA'hen it disappeared on that date, they attacked Darby Con- 
noly's house in the upper valley, and having killed him, his 
wife and several of his children, they took the others prison- 
ers. The graves of the Connoh^ family are still to be seen 
on the farm once owned by Harmon Conrad, on which there 
was a salt well drilled at one time. They next visited the 
house of John Stewart, and killed him, his wife and his child. 


carrying away his sister-in-law, Miss Hamilton, as a prisoner. 
John Hadden discovered the murder of the Stewart family 
and reported the fact to Colonel Benjamin Wilson at Wilson's 
Fort. Wilson's Fort was situated about thirty miles down 
the river. Colonel Wilson was an officer in the Revolutionary 
army. With thirty men Colonel Wilson followed the men 
five days through the rain and snow, often wading ice cold 
streams waist deep, but the Indians could not be overtaken. 
The settlers were not molested in 1778. But the next year the 
Indians shot and killed Lieutenant John White from the road- 
side. Colonel Benjamin Wilson with a party of men tried to 
intercept the Indians on their Westward return at the mouth 
of Sand Fork on the Little Kanawha, but the Indians re- 
turned by a different route. 

Farly in Alarch, 1780, Jacob Warwick and others from 
Greenbrier county visited Randolph as Government surveyors. 
Kilbuck was scouting the mountains at the time with bands 
of Mingoes and Shawnees. Mr. AA^arwick and his company 
felt themselves in comparative safety on account of the snow, 
which would betray the Indians' tracks to the settlers. While 
the Greenbrier party was at Haddan's Fort, Thomas Lackey 
reported that he had seen moccasin tracks in the snow a few 
miles above the fort, and heard a voice say in an undertone, 
"Let him alone ; he will go and bring more." An escort of 
men went with the Greenbrier party to the place where 
Lackey saw the Indian signs. When near the place Andrew 
Sitlington's horse showed signs of fright. Mr. Sitlington 
then saw the Indians, but for the moment could not speak 
from fright. Warrick's attention was attracted and he cried 
out, "Indians! INDIANS!!" Thereupon the Indians fired, 
wounding one member of the party and Mr. \\'arwick's horse. 
The horse sank to the ground and the rider was in the act 
of throwing off his cloak to facilitate his escape when the 
horse arose and started off at a rapid speed and away from 
their assailants. Jacob \\'arwick, James AIcLean, Thomas 
Cartwill and Andrew Sitlington comprised the party on horse 
back, all of whom escaped. John McLean, James Ralston and 
John Nelson were killed. This occurred on Windy Run. 
John McLean was killed about thirty }ards froiu the brow of 


the hill. James Ralston was killed while ascending the hill. 
James Crouch was wounded near the summit of the hill, but 
escaped and recovered. J<ihn Nelson attempted to escape 
down the ri\er, l)ut was met by a stout warrior and after a 
severe struggle was killed. I'.ut the shattered gun stock, the 
uptorn earth and Indian hair still in his clinched fist gave evi- 
dence that he had fc^ught l)ra\el}-. Air. Warwick's horse re- 
ceived only a slight w(»und in the thigh and carried him to 
his home in Greenbrier County the same day. The Indians 
occupied the road above and below where they were attacked, 
those on hcjrseback were enabled to out-distance the Indians, 
but the foot men were compelled to cross the river and ascend 
a steep blufif on its opposite side. In attempting this several 
lost their lives. 

Soon after this a famil}- by the name of Gibson was at- 
tacked at their sugar camp, on a branch of the Valley River. 
They were made prisoners and the return trip to the country 
w^est of the Ohio with their captives w^as undertaken. Mrs. 
Gibson, being incapable of undergoing the fatigue of the trip, 
was tomahawked and scalped in the presence of her children. 
The other members of the family were carried into captivity 
and were never heard of afterward. 

In April 1781, Indians attacked a party of five men wTio 
were returning to the present cotuitv of Tucker, from Clarks- 
burg, where they had been to obtain deeds for their lands. 
John Minear, David Cameron, and a Air. Cooper w-ere killed. 
Messrs. Miller and Goff escaped, one returning to Clarks- 
burg, the other to St. George. The Indians continued their 
course toward Cheat, but meeting Stephen Radclifif and James 
Brown, whom they could neither kill nor capture, and no 
longer believing that thev could surprise the Cheat River 
settlements, changed their course and passed over to Leading 
Creek, and nearly destroyed the entire settlement. They 
killed Alexander Rooney, Mrs. Dougherty, Mrs. Hornbeck 
and her children as well as many others and made prisoners 
of Mrs. Alexander Rooney and her son, and Daniel Dough- 
erty. Johnathan Buf^ngton and Benjamin Hornbeck succeed- 
ed in escaping. Air. Hornbeck lived about a quarter of a mile 
east of wdiere White Station now stands, on the north bank 


of Stalnaker Run, The remains of the chimney of Horn- 
beck's cabin is still visible on the farm of Obadiah Taylor. 
It seems that the Hornbeck family had some intimation of the 
presence of the Indians in the community and had left the 
house and were in the woods on the hill nearby. The Indians 
visited and plundered the house and were in the act of leaving, 
when the whereabouts of the family was betrayed by the 
barking of a dog that was with them. Air. Hornbeck, fearing 
to approach his house, mounted a horse in the field without 
saddle or bridle and rode hurriedly to A\'ilson's Fort, six 
miles up the valley. Colonel \A'ilson raised a company and 
pursued the Indians, but the men becoming alarmed lest their 
families be murdered in their absence, returned without over- 
taking the savages. In the meantime word had reached 
Clarksburg of the murder of land claimants on their return 
home and a mmiber of scouts were sent out to intercept the 
Indians on their return to the Ohio. Their trail was discov- 
ered on the West Fork River, near Isaac Creek, in the present 
county of Harrison. Colonel William Lowther of Hacker's 
Creek, raised a comj)any to pursue them. They were over- 
taken on a branch of Hughes River, in Ritchie County in the 
evening. They waited until the Indians were asleep and then 
opened fire. Five were killed, the others escaped, leaving 
everything in camp, except one gun. One white man, a 
prisoner, was killed. He was the son of Alexander Rooney 
and his sad fate was much regretted by the whites, who had 
been very cautious in trying to prevent such an accident. 
Withers relates the following amusing incident in connection 
with the alTair : "Daniel Daugherty, an Irishman, came near 
being killed by the ^^'hites. The Indians had him tied down 
and he was so cold he could scarcely speak. Colonel Low- 
ther's party rushed forward after the first fire, and mistaking 
Daugherty for a wounded Indian, they were about to dis- 
patch him with a tomahawk, when fear loosened his tongue 
and he exclaimed, 'Lord Jasus ! and am Oi to be killed by 
white people at last !' His life was saved. Airs. Rooney was 
overcome with the jirospect of deliverance. She ran toward 
the men saying. 'I'm Ellick Rooncy's wife of the A'alley ! and 
a pretty little woman too, if well dressed !' " She was not 
aware that her son had been killed. 


On this raid llic Indians killed James Wilmoth. The VVil- 
moth's were at Wilson's Fort, either in anticipation of an 
Indian raid or as a result of the recent one on Leading Creek. 
James Wilmoth, leaving the other members of the family at 
the fort returned to his home on Cheat to attend to some 
skins he had in process of tanning. The barking of a dog 
which was with him betrayed him to the Indians and he was 
shot and killed, near where the Stone House now stands. 
Some of the Indians were afflicted with small pox and jumped 
into the ice cold water of Wilmoth's Millrace for relief. They 
(lied from the exposure. 

A band of from twenty to thirty Indians visited the 
vallc}- in the stmimer of 1782. They were led by a renegade 
white man l)v the name of Timothv Dorman. John Bush and 
his wife, Jacob Stalnaker and his son, Adam, were ambushed 
on the old road, as they were crossing a drain, on the old Hoy 
McLean place, about a mile south of Arnold station. Young 
Stalnaker was shot from his horse and killed, but his father, 
and Bush and his wife escaped. The fleeing party had a close 
race with the Indians to the river, being so near some times 
as to trv and reach the bridle reins. The whites plunged into 
the river and the Indians abandoned pursuit. The Indians 
were followed by the aroused settlers. WHien near the crest 
of Rich Mountain, at a point ^vhich afterward became the 
scene of the Rich Mountain battle, the Indians were over- 
taken. When just east of the top of the mountain as an 
Indian stooped to drink from a spring, he was shot and killed 
by a man by the name of Morgan. The other savages escaped 
and were pursued no farther. 

The Indians made their last hostile raid into the valley 
on Alay 11, 1781. Two or three families, as a measure of pro- 
tection, lived with Joseph Kinnan, whose cabin Avas one mile 
above the mouth of Elkwater on the west side of the river on 
the land that afterward became the Adam See farm. Haddan's 
Fort was less than a mile down the river. The Indians ap- 
proached the house a little after dark and finding the door 
open, walked in. Mr. Kinnan was sitting on the bed and the 
Indian extended his hand in a friendly manner saving, "How- 


d-do, how-d-do?" Air. Kinnan was in the act of extending 
his hand when an Indian in the yard shot him dead. A young 
man by the name of Ralston, who had been working in the 
house with a drawing-knife, struck an Indian with it and 
cut ofif his nose. Another Indian fired at Ralston, but missed 
and the young man escaped. The Indians killed three of 
Kinnan's children, but two others, Lewis and Joseph, escaped 
with the assistance of Mrs. ^^"ard, through a rear window. 
Mr. Kinnan's brother, Lewis, was sleeping in a rear room and 
escaped through the window. Mrs. Kinnan was taken prison- 
er and remained wath the Indians several months in the 
western country until General Wa3nie conquered the Indians 
at the battle of Fallen Timbers. Andrew and Joseph Crouch 
living a few miles below on the river, were notified next day. 
They took their families to the home of James Warwick who 
lived near where the Brick Church was built in later years, 
and with some neighbors hurried to the rescue of the settlers 
up the valley. While they were absent the Indians visited 
the Warwick home where there were three white women, 
several children and a colored man and his wife. An Indian 
climbed to the roof of one of the buildings after nightfall and 
set it on fire. The colored man put the fire out. Then the 
stable was fired. The colored man went out and seeing an 
Indian by the light of the burning building, shot at him and 
let the horses out and returned in safety to the fort. When 
the barn burned down and darkness returned the colored 
woman left the fort and gave the alarm to the settlers down 
the river. Next day the inmates of the fort were rescued. 
This party also proceeded to the scene of the Kinnan massacre 
and buried Mr. Kinnan and his children. The settlers be- 
lieved that the Indians had withdrawn from the valley. How- 
ever, they were lurking in the community and before leaving 
killed Frank Riffle and ^^'illiam Currence and burned two 
houses belonging to James Lackey. Riffle and Currence were 
killed on the divide between Becca's Creek and Riffle's Creek, 
near the later location of the Brick Church. 

An inventory of the Joseph Kinnan estate was placed on 
record in Randolph County Clerk's Offtce, June 21. 1793 
with Edward Hart as administrator. The personal property 


was \alued at $517, a list of which is given below: "9 horses, 
wheat and rye, two curtains, 2 pairs pillows and cases, 1 
towel, 1 hne shirt, 1 lawn apron, 1 black apron, 1 cambrick 
apron, fine trumpery, 1 silk-gause apron, 2 handkerchiefs, 
children's clothing, 1 coat, 1 jacket, 5 long gowns, 1 pair of 
shoes and silver buckles, 3 petty-coats, 2 check aprons, 4 short 
gowns, 2 beds and bed-clothing, 1 pair of pockets, 4 platters, 
6 basins, 2 plates, 2 kegs, 1 pail, 1 pot tranible, 1 iron kettle, 
2 scythes, 1 set of hangings, 1 gun, 1 pan, 2 bridles, 36 hogs, 
16 cattle, 3 sheep, 1 grubbing hoe, two pairs plow irons and 
devices, 2 pots, 1 jug, 1 candlestick, 2 flat irons, 1 pair of 
shears, 9 spoons, steelyards, 1 brush, 2 collars, 1 ax.'' 

Tradition says that the Indians twice visited the A\'il- 
moth settlement on Cheat. On one incursion they killed 
James Wilmoth and on another raid all were absent from 
the house except Mrs. Wilmoth. They searched the house 
and premises for the men, occasionallv throwing their toma- 
hawks into the logs of the cabin, at the same time giving vent 
to savage exclamations of threat and anger, as much as to say 
what they would do if the men could be found. In the mean- 
time Mrs. ^^"ilmoth had prepared a pot of corn meal mush, 
putting it in a sugar trough with milk and maple syrup, 
giving each Indian a spoon. The half famished savages par- 
took of the repast wath evident signs of delight and gratifica- 
tion. When one of the company would violate a rule of Indian 
table etiquette, he v/as punished by a stroke on the head with 
a spoon, accompanied by words of admonition with violent 
gesticulations, not to repeat the indecorum. After finishing 
their meal, the Indains fastened their eyes on Mrs. Wilmoth 
in a studious and penetrating gaze for several moments, evi- 
dently debating in their own minds what should be her fate, 
then giving a warwhoop they continued on their marauding 
expedition. Mrs. AA'^ilmoth's diplomacy saved her life and 
established the fact that things more material and prosaic 
than music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 

The family of William Leavitt, who settled, in 1780, on 
the lands now^ owned by Drs. J. L. and Perry Bosworth, two 
miles north of Daily Station, was attacked by the Indians 
and the entire familv, father, mother, and several children 


were tomahawked and scalped. The mother, though left for 
dead, revived, was rescued by her neighbors and completely 
recovered. The dead were enshrouded in deer skins and 
buried at the Currence graveyard, on the lands now owned 
by John D. Weese. The date of the tragedy is uncertain, but 
it was subsequent to 1780. 

Then Indians at another time visited that community. 
The date is not definite, but the facts are direct from the lips 
of Isaac White, who was a member of the party, to persons 
now living. The cabin in this incident was situated near 
where the Troutwine Run crosses the county road on the 
Bosworth farm. The men were harvesting in the field in the 
bottom below. The community was apprehensive and several 
families were congregated at the cabin. The women usually 
accompanied the men to the field but on this particular day 
had remained at the cabin for a few minutes to attend to 
household duties following the mid-day meal. The Indians, 
who were lurking near by, thought the time opportune tor 
an attack, but as they approached the house they were dis- 
covered by the women. Realizing that their lives depended 
upon reaching the men in the field, they took to flight and in 
crossing the fence to the field, raised their hands above their 
heads and shouted, "Indians!" The hand of one of the women 
was piereced by a bullet, as a result of a volley from the 
Indians. All others escaped injury. The men seized their 
rifles and started in pursuit. The savages fled to the adjacent 
forests and soon eluded their pursuers. 

The Murder of the Bozart Family. 

In the summer of 1795 the trail of a large party of Indians 
was discovered, leading toward the settlements on ^^"est Fork 
of the ^lonongahela, Tygarts Valley or on the lUickhannon, 
near where the town of Buckhannon is now situated. The 
trail was discovered in what is now Lewis County. Messeng- 
ers were sent immediately to these settlements warning them 
of possible danger. John Bozart lived on the Buckhannon 
River, near the present town of Buckhannon, but at the time 
of the massacre of his family in 1795, the Buckhannon settle- 
ment was within the territorv of Randolph. 


Mr. Bozart and his two sons, John and George, were en- 
gaged in hauHng grain to the barn near the house. They were 
alarmed by the shrieks of the famil}^ at the house and hasten- 
ed to ascertain the cause. George approached the house a 
few paces in advance of his father, but the latter saw an 
Indian raise his gun to shoot the son, and shouted, "SEE 
George, an Indian is going to shoot you." The young man 
was too near the Indian to escape by flight, but watched close- 
ly the movements of the Indian and when he pressed the 
trigger young Bozart fell. The ruse was a success and the 
Indian, believing the young man dead passed on in pursuit 
of the father. The old gentleman proved a good runner and 
was leaving the Indian, when the savage in despair threw his 
tomahawk at him which passed harmlessly by and he made 
his escape. A\'hen George Bozart fell, as though dead, he lay 
upon the ground expecting to be scalped, determined to seize 
the Indian by the leg as b.e would bend over him and en- 
deavor to bring his antagonist to the ground, where he hoped 
to successfully grapple with him. The Indian passing him 
in pursuit of his father, the young man arose and fled. He 
overtook a vounger brother hobbling along on a sore foot. 
George gave him everv assistance he could until he observed 
another savage closely pursuing them. Although much ad- 
verse to leaving his brother, he knew that remaining with 
him meant death to both. Taking to rapid flight, he soon 
came up with his father in the woods. Mr. Bozart, believing 
that his son was dead and hearing some one approaching, 
supposed he was being pursued by an Indian and seizing a 
heavy stick, turned to face his antagonist. He was greatly 
surprised to see his son and exclaimed, "AVHY GEORGE, I 
thought you were dead." In his mistake he evinced a joy- 
ful moment in an awful tragedy. 

At the house two or three children w^ere massacred and 
Mrs. Bozart and two boys were spared and taken to the 
Indian towns west of the Ohio. They were surrendered to 
General \\'ayne at Greenville on September 9, 1795 by a 
party of Shawnees, numbering sixty or seventy. Puck-se-kaw, 
in delivering the prisoners spoke as follows: "My Father: 
I have been in the woods a long time. I was not acquainted 


with the good works which were transacting at this place by 
you and all our great chiefs. Last spring when we were 
hunting peaceably, our camp on the Sciota was robbed. We 
are very poor and the mischief that has since been done was 
in retaliation for the injuries then received. As soon as I 
received this belt, which you sent me by Blue Jacket, one 
of our great chiefs, and as soon as I was informed by him 
that the good work of peace was finished, I arose to come to 
see you and brought with me these four prisoners. I now 
surrender them to you, my father, and promise you that we 
will do you no more mischief. 

"I hope for the future we shall be permitted to live and 
hunt in peace and quietness. We were poor and ignorant 
children, astray in the woods, who knew not that our nation 
and all other tribes of Indians had come in and made peace 
with you. I thank the Great Spirit for at last opening our 
eyes. Father, we beg you will forgive and receive your re- 
pentant ghildren. These people whom I now deliver to you 
must plead our forgiveness and vouch for our conduct for the 

The Last Indian Raids in Randolph. 

The last Indian raids in Randolph were between the 
middle of June and the last of July, 1792. In that 3^ear they 
made three incursions in Randolph, but confined their depre- 
dations to stealing horses. On their return, they were at- 
tacked by a party of scouts on the Ohio and one Indian was 
wounded and the horses recovered. Although this was the 
last visit of the savages to Randolph, alarms were frequent 
until the victory of General A\'ayne over them at Fallen 
Timbers in 1794 and the treaty in the subsequent year. Scouts 
and militia were kept in constant service until after captives 
were returned after the Treaty of Peace at Greenville in 
August, 1795. At dift'erent times after 1792 Indian trails 
were discovered leading toward the valley, but the vigilance 
of scouts and militia prevented them penetrating the frontier 
farther than the Buckhannon settlement, which they visited 
in 1795, taking captive Mrs. Bozart and three children, and 
killing two or three of the smaller ones. 


The following tribes subscribed to the Greenville treaty : 
Wyandottes, Ottawas, Miamas, Kicapoos, Delawares, Chip- 
pewas, Eel Rivers, Paneshaws, Shawnees, Pottowotamies, 
Weas, and Kaskaskies. 

Treaty of Lancaster. 

By the treaty of Lancaster, Pa., 1744, the Indians re- 
linquished their claim to all the lands between the Blue Ridge 
Mountains and the Ohio River. This was the first convey- 
ance to title to lands in this vast region. The consideration 
was £400 — one-half in gold and one-half in goods. In the 
negotiations the Indian chiefs stated that the acquisition of 
the territory by conquest had cost them many lives. The 
treaty was as follows : 

To all people to whom these presents shall come : Con- 
asatngo, Joneeat, Caxhayion, Torachdadon, Nenrranarkto, 
Sachemsor, Chiefs of the nations of the Onondagors ; Saqur- 
hsonyunt, Gasroddodon, Huarasaly-akon, Rowamthalyhisso, 
Occoghquah, Seventies, Sachems or Chiefs of ye nations of 
ye Cahugoes ; Suadany alias Shirketiney, Onishudagony, On- 
onthkallydoroy alias Walrattuah, Tohosnorororow, lArrighah- 
horvand, Tiorhoosoy, Sachems or Chiefs of the Tuscaroras ; 
Tansanegoesand, Tonikuunitus, Sachems or Chiefs of ye na- 
tions of ye Senekers, send greeting: 

AMiereas, the six united nations of Indians laying claim 
to some lands in the Colony of Virginia, signified their willing- 
ness to enter into a treaty concerning the same. Whereupon, 
Thomas Lee, Esq., a member of the Ordinary of his Majesty's 
Honorable Council of the State and one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court of Judicature in the Colony, and William 
Beverly, Esq., Colonel and County Lieutenant of the County 
of Orange and one of the representatives of the people in the 
House of Burgesses of that Colony, were deputed by the Gov- 
ernor of the said Colony as Commissioners to treat with the 
said Six Nations or their Deputies, Sachems or Chiefs, as 
well of and concerning their said claim as to renew their 
covenant chain between the said Colony and the said Six 
Nations, and the said Commissioners, having met at Lan- 
caster, in Lancaster County and province of Pennsylvania, 


and as a foundation for a stricter amity and peace in this 
juncture agreed with the said Sachems or Chiefs of the said 
Six Nations for a Disclaimer and Renunciation of their Claim 
or pretense of Right whatsoever of the said Six Nations and 
an acknowledgement of Right of our Sovereign, King of 
Great Britain to all the land in the said County of Virginia. 

Now Know Ye, in and for the sum of four hundred 
pounds current money of Pennsylvania, paid and delivered 
to the above named Sachems or Chiefs, partly in goods and 
partly in Gold Money by the said Commissioners, they the 
said Sachems or Chiefs on behalf of the said Six Nations do 
hereby renounce and disclaim not only all the right of the 
said Six Nations, but also recognize and acknowledge the 
right and title of our Sovereign, the King of Great Britain 
to all the land within the said Colony as it now or may here- 
after be peopled and bounded by his said Alajesty, our Sov- 
ereign I>ord, the King, his Heirs and Successors. 

Tn Witness Whereof, the said Sachems or Chiefs, for 
themselves and in behalf of the people of the Six Nations afore- 
said have herewith set their hands and seals this second day 
of July in the 18th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord 
George the Second King of Great Britain and in the year 
of our I^ord 1744. 

Signed by all the above named Chiefs. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered in the presence of Edward 
Jennings at a General Court held at the Capital, C)cto))er 
25, 1744. 

This Deed Poll was proved by ye oaths of Edward Jen- 
nings, Esq., Phillip Ludwell Lee, Esq.. and William Black, 
three witnesses thereto and by the Court ordered to be 

Teste: (vSigned) 


Early Customs. 

It was some time after the first settlement n\ the county 
before the pioneers had the con\-enience of grist-mills. In 
the meantime wirious substitutes were devised. First, was 



llic honiiiu- l)l<ick, then fi)llii\ve(l the hand mill. However, 
the settlers, later, axailed themseh'es of the excellent water 
power furnished by the numerous streams in the county and 
tub mills were built in many localities. The hominy block 
was made b\ burnim;- a large cavity like a druggists mortar 
in a block of elm wood. This was made to hold about a 
peck of grain. After soaking the grain in tepid water, it was 
pulverized by a wooden pestle. The coarse and fine particles 
were separated by a seive made by stretching a perforated 



The Joe White Tub Mill, Dry Fork. 

deer skin over a hoop. The fine meal was used for bread and 
the coarse for hominy. 

The log house was necessarih- the onlv kind of house 
built. The first houses were unhewn. The fioor was made 
of puncheons. The roof was made of clapboards held on with 
weight poles. The stairway was a ladder of pegs fastened 
in the side wall. Some cabins were built with fire places so 
large that practically an entire tree could be used as a back- 
log. There was a door at each end of the fire place, which 
extended nearly across the cabin, and a horse would be driven 
in, dragging the log by the chain. Then the chain would be 



unhooked and the horse would be loosened and go out the 
other door. The log- would then be rolled into the fire place. 
The first settlers were under the necessity of making, with 
their own hands, or at least having made in the immediate 
neighborhood all the things essential in the home and on the 
farm. Every well ordered household had a loom, spinning 
wheel, little and big, a flax breaker, sheep shears and wool 
carders. All the processes that converted the wool or flax 

A Pioneer Kitchen. 

into clothing were deftly done at home with their own tools, 
by the mothers and daughters. The apparel worn by both 
sexes was made from linen and woolen fabrics, which had 
been woven on the loom in the farm house and dyed with 
coperas in combination with various barks. Buckskin pants 
were often worn, and vests from fawn skins and caps from 
coon skins were in vogue in some communities until the Civil 
War. In the winter, moccasins were worn. They were made 
from deer skin, came up around the ankles and were tied 
with "buck-skin" strings. 


Stoves did not come into use until a comparatively recent 
period. All cooking was done over the fire place or in the 
bake oven. Kettles were suspended from a hook and tram- 
mel, which was fastened to an iron bar, secured in the chimney 
above. Matches not being- in use, fires were kept as much as 
possible by covering live coals, or burning emliers with ashes. 
When the fires went out however, a "chunk" was brought 
from a neighbor's supply, or resort was had to flint and steel 
with punk and tow. Kerosene lamps, being a later day in- 

- v..-'"" 

** ■ "- 


^•4*^ ^"m-^''' ^^ 

A Pioneer Barn. 

novation, candles, pine knots or the ordinarv dip light was 
improvised. The "dip" w-as made by immersing a twisted 
thread or cotton string in hog's lard or bear's oil and lighting 
the free end. 

The practice of agriculture was rude and the most primi- 
tive tools were used. The plow was made entirely of wood 
and oxen drew them, as a rule, instead of horses. Harrows 
were made of wooden pegs in a wooden frame. Sometimes 
crab bushes or thorn bushes were substituted. The harvest 
was gathered with a sickle. Forks were made from forked 
dogwood saplings. Threshing was done, usual]}', with a flail 
and fifteen bushels was considered one dav's work. Xewdy 


shod horses were sometimes used to tramp out the grain. 
Two or three pairs of horses would tramp out fifty bushels 
in one day. Tlie grain was separated from the chaff by 
throwing both in the air and letting the wind separate them. 
Then came the hand wind mill and later the horse power 

In pioneer days a wedding was an event of great social 
importance. No elTort was spared to celebrate the event in 
such a way as to make the event a memorable one. It was 
a time of much mirth and pleasure. The wedding party 
started in a double file from the home of the groom, when 
within a mile of the home of the bride, an Indian warhoop was 
given and all raced at full speed. The one reaching the house 
first was given a bottle that was awaiting the victor. All 
were then expected to. participate, men and women, in the 
refreshing and stimulating contents of the bottle, when it 
was returned to the winner. A feast followed the wedding 
ceremony, which was duplicated at the infare at the groom's 
home. Horn and puter spoons and hunting knives not in- 
frequently adorned the table on these occasions. After supper 
the young people enjoyed themselves in the misty mazes of 
the dance. In pioneer parlance, it was the "hoe down." 
Occasionally the violinist was not an expert in his art and if 
his music failed to ascend in loft}- and inspiring strains or fall 
in soft and sweet cadences, it was then that some rustic and 
unappreciative youth would likelv com]:)are his strident strains 
to "choking the goose." Other occasional festivities were 
corn huskings, log rollings, and house raisings. In the fall 
months, on a moonlight night the pioneer would ask in liis 
neighbors, and from dark until 11 or 12 o'clock there would 
be a joyous combination of work and sport. There would be 
a contest between indi\-i(luals and groups as to which would 
finish their work first, or which would find the most red ears 
of corn. All hands would occasionallv take a rest to draw 
fresh inspiration from the |)itcher of cider or the jug of ■'api)le 
jack." The log rolling and the house raising were also affairs 
of festivities as well as of hard work. These undertakings 
were impossible undertakings alone, but willi ihc coinl)ined 
assistance of friends and neighbors the task was easv. Then 


it afl'ordcd an opportunity tc* cultixate the social amenities. 
While father and son were l)usy with the throng at the rolling 
or raising, the mother and daughter were having a season of 
mirth and enjoyment at the house, cooking and quilting. 

Wild Animals. 

The mountains and valleys of what is now Randolph 
countv was the hahitat of many wild animals. This was a 
blessing to the pioneer in many ways. They not only sup- 
plied his larder with meat, but their skins covered his naked- 
ness and protected him from the elements. The hunt and 
the chase also furnished him with diversion and relieved the 
monotony of an isolated life. The elk, deer, buffalo, panther, 
bear, otter, beaver, raccoon, wolf and catamount w^ere the 
principal . wild animals found by the first white men. The 
panther and wolf perhaps yet remain in very limited numbers 
in the eastern part of the county. The elk and buffalo disap- 
peared early. A few deer remain and the black bear is rather 
plentiful in the mountain districts in the eastern part of the 
county. The w'ild turkey, pheasant and owl were here in 
abundance. The eagle, though not so plentiful, made its home 
among the crags and cliffs of our mountain peaks. The wolf 
was very numerous and very troublesome to the pioneer. It 
was necessary to fasten sheep and calves in an enclosure every 
night to prevent their destruction. Wolves w^ere soon deci- 
mated, not so much by the hunter's rifle as the prevalence of 
rabies among them. Mau}^ were infected, "went mad," and 
often attacked the settlers in their homes. AX'olves exhibited 
great cunning in preying upon other animals. They hunted 
in packs. They follow^ed the deer in company until they be- 
came tired, then one kept the deer going until it made a turn 
in the direction of another wolf, which w^as sniffing the w-ind 
for scent of its prey. The deer was thus pursued by fresh 
wolves until it became the victim of their ravenous appetites. 

The black bear is a timid animal and is not inclined to 
attack man only in self defense or in defense of its young. It 
was an object of superstitious reverence to the Indians, wdio 
never killed it without apologizing and deploring the neces- 
sity which impelled them to do so. 





RANDOLPH COUNTY was formed by an act of the Vir- 
ginia Assembly, October, 1786, and the house of Benja- 
min Wilson in Tygarts V^alley was designated as the place 
for holding the first court. The territory of the new county 

Randolph's First Court House. 
(From an old photograph.) 

embraced all of the present county of Tucker, half of the 
present county of Barbour, half of Upshur and a large part 
of Webster. 

We give below the proceedings of the first County Court 
held in Randolph County, ^^'e have endeavored to produce 
the record as it is found in the time worn book, using the 
original words, spelling and punctuation : 


Be It Ivciiicml^erccl thai at the I louse of Benjamin Wilson 
on the 28 day of May 1787, a Commission of the Peace &c 
held a session of Oyer & Terminer for the said county directed 
and ordered that Jacob Westfall, Salathiel Goff, Patrick Ham- 
ilton, Jdlm Wilson, Cornelius Westfall, Edward Jackson, 
Robert Maxwell, Peter Cassity, Cornelius IJogard, John Jack- 
son, Georg^e W^estfall, Henry Runyan, John fladden & Johna- 
than Parsons, Gent, was presented and read. Whereupon 
the Ooath of Alley,iance to the Commonwealth was administ- 
ered l)y the said Patrick Hamilton, to the said Salathiel Gofif 
and also the Oath of Office as directed l^y law, and by the 
said Salatliiel (-off to Patrick Hamilton, John Wilson, Cor- 
nelius \\ estfall, Edward Jackson, Robert Maxwell, Peter 
Cassit\-, Cornelius Bogard, John Jackson, Geo. W^estfall, 
Henry Run3'an, John Hadden, & Jonathan Parsons. 

Jacob W estfall, Gent, produced a commission of Sheriff 
from his Excellency the Governor Baring Date the 17th day 
of April 1787 which was openlv Read, whereupon the Said 
Jacol) Westfall, Gent, after entering into the bond, with 
Edward Jackson &c Salathiel Goff his Securities took the 
Oath of Allegiance and the Oath of Office as directed by law. 
John Wilson was chosen Cleark of the Court of Randolph 
county and after giving bond w^ith Jacob Westfall for Secur- 
ity for the due and faithful execution of his office took the 
Oath Allegiance to the Commonwealth and the Oath of Office 
prescribed by law. 

Upon moti'in William ^IcCleary admitted to practice as 
an Attorney in Randolph County and the necessary Oaths 
prescribed by law & paid the Tax Directed by Law. 

That AA'm. ]\[c Leary be allowed the sum of four pounds 
to be paid quarterly by the Court for one Year Should the 
Court think proper to continue for that time, who is now 
admitted Attorney for the Commonwealth. Edward Jack- 
son (X: John Haymond candidates for the Prinsible Survey- 
ors Office for Jackson 7 votes for Haymond 4 votes. 

That Edward Jackson be recommended to the Governor 
as a proper person to fdl the Office of Surveyor, he being of 
Probity & Good Character. 

That Salathiel Goft' and Cornelius Bogard be recom- 


mended to the Governor as proper persons to fill the Office 
of Coroner. 

That Jacol) W'estfall be recommended to his Excellency, 
the Governor as a proper person to fill the office of Lieut, of 
this county. 

Patrick Hamilton Col. 

John AMlson ^^lajor. 

That the Public Buildings be erected on the Lands of 
James Westfall in that space of ground bounded by James 
Westfall fenses on the lower end of his plantation and the 
River & by a line, drawn from the River at Right angles 
passing the old School house and W'estfalls Land and by 
the County Road. 

If any spot within the tract of this order delineated that 
Jacob Westfall and Cornelius Bogard may appoint who is 
hereby appointed to view and lay ofi' a certain tract not ex- 
ceeding One Acre, the Said James W^estfall giving and Grant- 
ing the said Tract of One Acre together with Public 

That John Hadden, John Jackson & Cornelius Bogard 
be appointed Commissioners of Taxable Property. 

That the Court do now adjourn till tomorrow Xine 

Salathiel Goff. 

The next day May 29. 1787 the Court resumed its session. 
Jacob Riffle, Michael Yokum, Joseph Cooper, Thomas Holder, 
and Chas. Falanash were appointed Constables. Hezekiah 
Rosencranse was appointed Surveyor of Roads from Eber- 
man's Creek, (now Chenoweth's Creek) to Files Creek. The 
House of James A\'estfall was selected as the place of hold- 
ing the next Court. A wagon road vvas ordered opened from 
Mudlick at the County Road to Cheat River at the Horse 
Shoe Bottom. A bridle road was ordered to be opened from 
Connelies Lick to the Top of the Alleghany. Wni. Smith was 
appointed Surveyor of Roads from James Friend's to W'm. 
England's Ford, l/riah (jandy was appointed Surveyor of 
Roads from Benj. AX'ilson's to top of Alleghany. 

The first session oi Court held in what is now the town 
of Beverlv, c(jnvene(l at the house of James Westfall. ^lav 


29, 1787. This house was a log- structure, and was situated 
on the West side of Main .Street adjoining the S. N. Bos- 
worth house on the north. This house remained a landmark 
of pioneer days until long after the civil war. The "worship- 
ful Justices" who conducted this session of court were "Ed- 
ward Jackson, Robert Maxwell, Peter Cassity, and Cornelius 
Bogard, Gent." 

At the June term ot the court, this body entered upon 
new duties and performed functions hitherto not exercised. 
Xo controversy over property rights had so far marred the 
tran(|uilily of tlic pioneer ]jeriod. However, at the August 
term, no less than seventeen cases were on the docket. The 
style of the first case demanding the attention of the court 
at the June term was \\'m. Peterson, plaintiff, vs. James 
Lackey, defendant. Judgment was given in favor of the 
plaintiff' in the sum of $11.65. The first order for recording a 
deed for the conveyance of real estate was also passed at this 
term of the court. 

Ebenezer Petty conveyed by deed 200 acres to Gabriel 
Friend. James Westfall was granted permission to "lay out 
lots for the purpose of a town between the fence or lower end 
of his plantation, the river on the West, Benjamin W'ilson's 
line on the North and the county road on the east & that he 
have town lots laid off' & Exposed to sale the first Day of 
August Court." (1787). No name had been given the em- 
bryotic town at that time, but later it was called Edmonton, 
and retained this appellation until three years later when by 
an Act of the Virginia Assembly the town of Beverly was 
created. At this term of the court the county was divided 
into three assessment districts as follows : ; 

John Hadden's District : — From Simeon Harris' and Aaron. 
Richardson's up Tygarts Valley, a straight line to Roaring 
Creek to the head, thence up Middle Fork to the head, thence 
to the Greenbrier line, "the neardest direction" and from the 
said Harris' to the Rockingham line, "the neardest direction." 

John Jackson's District: — From John Haddan's line on 
Roaring Creek to its junction with the Valley River, thence 
a straight line where the road leading to Clarksburg crosses 
Laurel Run, the old pack road called "Pringle's Road," thence 


with this road to the head of Clover Run, thence with the 
meanders of Laurel Hill to the county line. 

Cornelius Bogard's District: — All of Randolph County 
not included in Hadden's and Jackson's districts. 

In more than one sense the court at this session became 
a trail blazer and a pathfinder. Highways were ordered to 
be viewed that were destined to become roads of State and 
National importance. Commissioners were appointed to re- 
port to the court on the "convenience and inconvenience" that 
would attend the opening of a road from John Jackson's on 
Buckhannon River to the court house in Beverly. This road 
was located some years later. The Staunton and Parkers- 
burg pike was constructed practically on the same route, and 
became part of a great thoroughfare from the east to the Ohio 
river. It was also used extensively in military operations 
during the civil war. 

John Wilson was appointed Surveyor of Highways from 
Mudlick in Tygarts Valley to foot of mountain on Northeast 
side of Horseshoe Bottom. 

The July term, 1787, marked the beginning of the super- 
vision and control of the liquor trafic in Randolph County. 
Jacob Westfall was "admitted to retail licjuor till the Novem- 
ber court and no longer without license." 

During these years of peace Indian hostilities may have 
been in al)eyance, yet the records evidence the fact that the 
Red Man was busy appropriating the settlers horses. The 
court ordered that Charles Parsons be exempted from paying 
taxes on "tliree horse creatures that have been taken from 
him by the Indians since the 9, of March last past." A simi- 
lar order was passed in regard to five horses lost by Henry 
Fink and several lost by John A\'ar\vick. At this term of the 
court Nathan Nelson was brought before the court on the 
charge of being a vagabond and gave bond for his good be- 
havior. Among the cases tried at this term of the court were 
the following: 

John Smith vs. Michael Isner. Judgment for 4 pounds. 

Jacob Stalnaker vs. John Phillips. The case agreed. 

Ralph Stewart vs. James Pringle. Continued. 

John Alford \-s. Joseph Parsons. In this case the plain- 


tiff made oath that he was afraid that the defendant would 
do him a ])rivate injury. Accordingly Parsons was put under 
bond to "keep the peace of the world and especially John 

At this term of the court Hugh Turner and William 
Wilson were appointed to draw plans for a county jail, let 
the contract for its erection to the lowest bidder and report 
the same to the next August court. 

At the July (1787) term pro\ ision was made for the first 
election to be held in Randolph County. (3verseers of the 
Poor were to be elected. All other county officers except 
Members of the Legislature were appointive. It seems strange 
that the more important and remunerative offices of Sheriff 
and Clerk of the Court would be appointed by the Justices 
and the insigniticant office of Overseer of the Poor be made 
elective at so much trouble and expense to the people. 

The county was laid oft' into four districts as follows: 

District 1. west of Rich Mountain, down to the Valley 
River, down the w-est side of the river to the county line. The 
territory between that line and Plarrison county was the dis- 
trict, and John Jackson was appointed to conduct the election. 

District 2, that part of the county northeast of Rich 
Mountain and east of Valley River, including the Horse Shoe 
setlement from Wilmoth's settlement down. Salathiel Goff 
was appointed to conduct the election. 

District 3. The remainder of the county was "divided by 
a line due east from Rich Mountain, passing by ^^ illiam 
Wamsley's." North of the line was the third district and 
Robert Maxwell was appointed to hold the election. 

District 4 consisted of the remainder of the county, and 
Patrick Plamilton was appointed to hold the election. The 
Sheriff' was ordered to oversee the elections and make re- 
turns at the September court. Returns were not made until 
November, and then in only two districts. In No. 2, William 
Westfall and David Minear were elected ; in No. 3. Aaron 
Richardson, Thomas Philips and William Wilson. 

At this court Hugh Turner was ordered to draw plans 
and specifications for a jail, and the Sheriff was ordered to 
advertise for bids for building the jail. 


At the August court, 1787, the first grand jury was 
drawn. The names were : John Hamilton, Daniel Westfall, 
Valentine Stalnaker, Jacob Stalnaker, John Currence, Simeon 
Harris, Joseph Crouch, Charles Xelson, Solomon Ryan, 
Abraham Kittle, Thomas Philhps, AVilHam Wilson, Charles 
Myers, INIichael Isner, Nicholas Petro, Nicholas Wolf and 
Andrew Skidmore. 

At the August term (1787) Jacob Westfall made the fol- 
lowing report in reference to the county jail: "Jacob West- 
fall, Gent, came into court and reported that he struck off 
the building of the Public Jail to a certain Edward Hart, to 
be finished by the next March court." No reference was 
made as to the price at which the contract was given. Joseph 
Crouch was appointed Surveyor of Roads from Geo. A\^est- 
fall's Mill up to John Alexander's plantation. Alexander Ad- 
dison apphed for a recommendation from the court to obtam 
a licence to practice law. He was given one year in which 
to obtain such license. At the expiration of this time the 
order of the court was to become void if he had not obtained 
law license in the meantime. A similar order was made in 
regard to \\m. McLeary. 

At the September court (1787) John \\'ilson was allowed 
200 pounds of tobacco "for service in regard to the tax law." 
This allowance was in all probability for the collection of the 
land tax, and was equivalent to $6.65. 

The first reference to the insane is found in the records 
of that term of the court. Philip and David Minear informed 
the court that their brother John Minear "was crazy and had 
eloped from their charge and strayed into Monongalia Coun- 
ty." They were given authority to take charge of him and 
his property. 

The records of the October term (]7S^7) re\'eal that John 
Jackson was appointed Captain of the Ruckhannon Company 
and Edward Jackson Colonel of this county. Edward Jack- 
son was grandfather of Thomas Jonatlian (Stonewall) Jack- 
son. Colonel Edward Jackson, though his military record 
was humble and obscure, may have possessed, for aught we 
know, the military genius of his illustrious grandson. He 
may have 1)een one of those "gems of purest ray serene the 


dark unfathomed caves of oceans bear" and Stonewall may 
have inherited those qualities of a soldier that gave him im- 
perishable renown from his paternal grandfather. 

Two indictments were found at the November (1787) 
term for illegally retailing liquor. These indictments, as the 
record states, were found on the information of two members 
of the Grand Jury. At the same term of the court we find 
many orders similar to this one: Ordered that the killing of 
one old wolf l^y John Hadden be liquidated. Evidently the 
killing of wolves was an important infant industry. Meagre 
and indefinite information is found in the records of the fol- 
lowing cases tried at this term of the court : 

Cornelius Bogard vs. Wm. Short. Refused to be taken. 

John Hamilton vs. Pat. Hamilton. Refused to be taken. 

Benjamin Hornl:)eck vs. Joseph Summerfield. Xot found. 

At the January term (1788) Benjamin Hornbeck was 
"admitted to retail liquor for the term of the present day." 
The reason for the brevity of the life of his license is not 
clear. Perhaps he only wanted to dispense the ardent on the 
first day of court. In the earlier years of the county and 
even up to the second decade after the civil war the first day 
of court was largely in the nature of a social gathering. An 
event in which the monotony and isolation of pioneer life were 
broken by an exchange of greetings and experience of people 
similarh' situated. Under these circumstances the wine not 
infrequently flowed with a spirit of good feeling and comrad- 
ship. Hence the necessity of "admitting Air. Hornbeck to 
retail liquor for the term of the present day." 

At the same term of the court it was ordered that a 
certificate be issued to the Governor in favor of ^^'m. Blair 
for an increase in his pension for a wound received while 
rendering military service for the commonwealth under 
Colonel Charles Lewis at the battle of Point Pleasant, Octo- 
ber 10, 1774. 

Tavern rates were regulated at that term of the court 

as follows : 



Maderia wine, per half pint 25 cents 

Other wines, " " " 20 5-6 " 

West India rum " " " 16 2-3 " 

Other rums " " " 12 1-2 " 

Peach brandy " " " 11 1-9 " 

Good whiskey " " " 11 1-9 " 

Dinner 16 2-3 " 

Breakfast 12 1-2 " 

Supper 12 1-2 " 

Lodging, in clean sheets each night 8 1-3 " 

Corn and oats, per gallon 11 1-9 

Horse at hay, every 12 hours 11 1-9 " 

Pasture, every 24 hours 8 1-2 " 

Mr. McLeary was recommended to the Judges of the 
Court of Appeals as a suitable person to fill the office of 
Clerk of their court in Monongalia County. 

At the May term (1788) the court ordered that the 
Sheriff collect $26.66 "for E. Hart to carry on the publick's 

At the July term (1788) the following extraordinary 
order was recorded : "That a writ go forth to bring Garret 
Lambert before the next court to show cause why he does not 
betake himself to lawful employment & demean himself as 
required by the laws of the Commonwealth."' The exercise 
of such jurisdiction by the courts today would no doubt be 
considered an unwarranted infringement of personal liberty. 

On the 22nd day of September, 1788, the court took the 
initial steps to build the first court house for Randolph 
County. The Justices of the Peace had previously prepared 
plans and specifications for the temple of justice and it was 
ordered that they be gi\en to the Sheriff, who was directed 
to advertise for contracts for its construction. 

At the February term (1789) the bond of Jacob \A'est- 
fall, Sheriff, was fixed at $53,333. At the same term of the 
court Edward Hart was allowed $85 for building the jail 
to be paid when completed and delivered. James Cunning- 
ham was allowed $2.66 for bringing Acts of Assembly of 
Virginia from Richmond. .At that term of the court it was 
ordered that Hugh Turner be paid $200 for building the 
Court House. W'm. McLear}-, Attorney for the Common- 
wealth, was allowed $40 as his salarv for one year. 

At the March term of tlie court ( 1789) the Sheriff's 
house was "appointed a jail until iItc next term of the court." 


At the April term (1789) Robert Maxwell served notice 
that he intended petitioning the General Assembly setting 
forth the utility of a ferry on Leading Creek from the lands 
of Robert Maxwell to Jonas Friend's. At the same term of the 
court Gabriel Dowell was ordered to appear at the next term 
and give security for the maintenance of himself and wife 
or be subject to the vagrant act. Dowell evidently gave no 
heed to the action of the court as that body at the next term 
ordered that both he and his wife be "taken by Constable 
William Hadden to Constable David Minear and he convey 
them into Washington County, Maryland, and there leave 

At the July term of the court (1789) it was ordered that 
the roads from the county seat to Roaring Creek and from 
Jonas Friend's to Pringle's Ford and from Connalie's Lick 
to the top of Alleghany and from Wilson's Mill to the top 
of Alleghany at the Pendleton line be worked once a year 
and then cleared for a good bridle path eight feet wide. This 
order gives an insight into the status of the roads of that 
day. The roads mentioned above were among the important 
highways of the county at that time and no effort was made 
to keep them in a state of repair surpassing the bridal path 

The Grand Jury at the August term (1789) found only 
one indictment. There was one indictment for retailing apple 
brandy above the legal rate. The indictment was made on 
the information of five members of the Grand Jury. The im- 
portance and emoluments of the office of Commonwealth's 
Attorney had been keeping pace with the growth of the 
county. At this same term A\'m. McLeary's allowance was 
raised to $33.33 per annum if there were two terms of the 
court and $50.00 if there were four terms. At the same term 
the Justices of the Peace took the oath of office as "required 
by Congress to support the Constitution of the United 
States." The constitution had been recently ratified and this 
was the first record of reference to the constitution. 

At the September court (1789) Moses Ware was given 
a certificate for a land warrant for 400 acres of land for ser- 
vices as Sergeant in Colonel Gipson's regiment. The certi- 


ficate explains that the warrant was taken from him when he 
was "captivated by the Indians." It does not say when or 
where. The court issued the certificate to Moses Ward, but at 
a subsequent term corrected its error by substituting Ware 
instead of Ward. The court at that term passed an order 
exempting Jacob Springstone from working the highway 
until he "be in a better state of health, he now being unsane." 

Peace and pleasantness evidently did not prevail among 
the "worshipful" Justices at the March term (1790). Edward 
Jackson went before the Grand Jury and indicted his colleague, 
Robert Maxwell, for being drunk, whereupon Maxwell gave 
information to the Grand Jury that resulted in Jackson being 
indicted for the same ofifense. Jackson confessed, but Max- 
well stood trial and was acquitted. 

At the April term (1790) the court ordered that Hugh 
Turner be paid $200 to enable him to carry on the building 
of the court house, and that $200 be paid him subsequently, 
making the entire cost of the court house $400. At the same 
term the jail was accepted from Edward Hart, the contractor. 
Prisoners, who had been boarding with the Sheriff, could 
henceforth be domiciled at a home especially provided for 

The Sheriff was ordered, at the June term (1790), to pay 
Wm. Blair $33.v33, his pension for that year. Mr. Blair was 
wounded at the battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774, 
while serving under Colonel Charles I-^ewis. 

The town of Edmonton was destined to have a brief 
official life. Only once in the records was there any refer- 
ence to Edmonton. At the October term (1790) a road was 
ordered opened from the town of Edmonton to Roaring 
Creek. In August of the next year, Be\'erly made its official 
bow to the public in the court records, when Edward Hart 
was licensed to keep an ordinary in the town of Beverly. 

At the November term (1790) Maxwell Armstrong was 
the third attorney to be admitted to practice law in Randolph. 

Thomas \\'ilson succeeded W'm. .McCleary as Comnmn- 
wealth's Attorney at the March term (1791) o{ the court. 
No reason was gi\cn for retiring Mr. McLeary. 

At the Ma}- term (1791) Jacob Lewis was apjx'inted ad- 


ministrator of the estate of Joseph Kinnan. Mr. Lewis was 
a l^rotlier of the widow Kinnan, whose husband was killed by 
the Indians May 11th of that year, only a few weeks previous. 
It will be seen by reference to another chapter that Mr. Lewis 
made his escape from the Indians by way of a window in a 
rear room where he was sleeping when the Kinnan house was 
attacked by the Indians. \\^ithers" "Border Warfare" is in 
error as to tlie name arid date. Withers has the name Caanan 
and the date of the occurrence in the latter part of the sum- 
mer of 1794. 

The records of the September term (1791) reveal that 
Edward Hart, who built the jail was licensed to keep an 
ordinary, also conducted a cooper's shop bv the spring". The 
adjacent forests with tlicir retention of moisture made, prob- 
able, the existence of springs in the town of Beverly. 

The cooper's trade in that day was a useful and impor- 
tant one. All tubs, casks, kegs, and barrels were made by 
hand. The order referring to these subjects and prescribing 
prison bounds reads as follows: lleginning at the corner of 
Ed. Hart's lot on the Front street opposite to the lot next 
above the lot whereon the court house is, tlience down to 
the lot Hart's cooper shop is on by the spring, thence down 
with the lower line of the town to the lower end thereof, 
thence up t(^ the front street and thence to the l^eginning. 
Imprisonment for del)t was a legal proceeding and it is 
probable that the boundaries here given applied particularly 
to that class of prisoners. Creditors were compelled to pay 
the expense of imprisoned debtors. 

The sympathies of the court for those who were com- 
pelled to travel the long and lonesome mountain roads, with- 
out the company and consolation of something to revive and 
cheer their drooping spirits, assumed a practical turn at the 
June term (1792) when that body passed the following order: 
■"That Thomas Summerheld be permitted to retail liquor on 
the road that leads from Tygarts Valley to the North Fork, 
without payment of license, for the benefit of travelers on 
such a long and lonesome /oad." At this same term of court 
dollars and cents appeared for the first time on the records 
of the county. Pounds, shillings and pence were used in the 


transaction of the county for two or three years later, but 
gradually went out of use. Tobacco was the legal currency 
of Virginia until 1794. Official fees and county levies were 
frequently computed in pounds of tobacco. At this same ses- 
sion of the court a committe was appointed to examine the 
falls of the Tygarts Valley river, in the present county of 
Taylor, and report on the probable expense of putting them 
in condition for fish to ascend the river. At the July term 
additional action was taken and the cooperation was asked 
of the Harrison County Court with the expression of the 
hope that it would meet with "your worships approbation." 
However, nothing has been done to this day, though there 
has been perennial agitation of the project. 

The first reference to a saw mill in the records of Ran- 
dolph is found in the proceedings of 1794, when Jacob West- 
fall was permitted to erect a saw mill near the town of Bev- 
erly. Prior to this time the slab and the puncheon and the 
product of the cross-cut answered every purpose. The first 
steam saw mill is said to have been brought into this county 
from Virginia in 1878. 

It is surprising that in so short a time, the most of our 
timber, our greatest natural wealth, the result of the provi- 
dent process of the ages, should be without thought or con- 
sideration for the future, used, wasted and destroyed. 

Indictments in most cases in the years of 1795-96 were 
for assault and battery. Although presentments for Sab- 
bath breaking, "profane swearing'' selling liquor "by the 
small," and against overseers of the highway for neglect of 
duty were by no means infrequent. In that day the indi- 
vidual's ability to take care of himself in conflict with savages 
and wild animals was considered a very desirable character- 
istic and the man who exceeded his fellows in strength and 
agility was looked upon as a hero in his community. An 
influence and environment of this sort necessarily resulted 
in personal encounters which terminated in the courts. 

Randolph was still without a court house in 1795, though 
its construction had been undertaken seven years previous. 
At the August term (1795) the court ordered suit to be in- 
stituted against Edward Hart for failure to complete it. 


The court at the September term (1795) gives us an 
index to the rate of daily wages in that day, when it allowed 
50 cents a day to guards for prisoners at the jail for their 

The records of the December term (1795) indicate that 
there was an Indian scare in the valley in that year. At that 
term of the court an allowance for patrolling Leading Creek 
was made to Thomas Phillips, Jacob Kittle, Samuel Ball, 
John Phillips and Moses Shuter. Although the Indians had 
not visited the valley since May, 1791, the settlers evidently 
believed that a raid was iminent. 

There was a smallpox scare in Randolph in May, 1798. 
The court met in special session but did nothing except sum- 
mon all the Justices in the county to attend the next session 
and to take action to prevent the spread of the disease. The 
records of the court are silent as to any further efforts to 
stop the contagion. 

The limited income of the pioneer, together with the 
necessities of incessant toil, incident to the conversion of 
the wilderness into cleared and cultivated fields, with the 
distance and inconvenience of travel to good schools made 
anything but a rudimentary education for their children be- 
yond their hope or ambition. The will of Raphael Warthen 
when admitted to record in 1798, is interesting for the reason 
that it shows the extent of the average and expected educa- 
tion of the youth of that period. One provision of his will 
provided that "as much of my estate as will be sufficient to 
educate my children to read properly, to write plainly and to 
have a knowledge of arithmetic as far as the rule commonly 
called the simple rule of three." 

From the fact that the sickle was the tool commonly used 
in cutting grain and the flail and the winnowing sheet the 
usual method of threshing grain, made anything except limit- 
ed crops in the early period of the settlement of this county, 
impossible. The inventory of the estate of Nicholas \\'olfe 
gives information of the kind and quantity of the crops raised 
by the farmers in 1800, the year the appraisement of his estate 
was admitted to record. It ^^■as as follows : 5 acres of rye, 


3 acres of wheat, 8 acres of corn, 5 acres of meadow, and 4 
acres of oats. 

Neither dude nor dullard ever became a pioneer. Dis- 
content presupposes intelligence and contemplation. The 
first settlers of Randolph evidently were dissatisfied with 
conditions in their native land. They left home and friends 
to seek free homes in a free country for themselves and their 
children. It required hope, courage, decision and determina- 
tion to undergo the isolation, hardships, and the inconven- 
iences incident to the life of the pioneer. They may, or may 
not have had the advantages of a liberal education, yet they 
possessed excellent judgment and good common sense. It 
would be interesting to know the books they read and the 
nature and extent of their libraries. In the records of the 
county there are only vague hints on this subject. In the 
list of articles of the estate of Nicholas Wolf, sold at vendue 
in 1800, we find that three "Dutch books and one English 
Almanac" brought 50 cents. In the inventor}- of the estate 
of Jacob AA'estfall, there is listed the following books ; 6 
volumes Doddridge on the Xew Testament, 4 volumes Gold- 
smith, 2 volumes Pope's Homer, 2 volumes Flower's History, 
2 Spectator, 2 Parcels old books, 2 volumes Blair's Lectures, 
1 Book Washington's Reports, 1 Clark's Magazine. 

From the report of the Commissioners appointed to pass 
upon disputed land entries, their report as recorded in this 
county, shows that Peter Pofi'enberger and John Bush settled 
on Radcliff's Run, on the Buckhannon River in 1774. and 
that John Fink settled on Fink's Run in the same year. 

In the appraisement of the estate of Nicholas W'oU 
(1803) poplar boards were rated at $10 per thousand feet. 
Among the items of the expenses attending the sale of his 
personal estate we find this (~)ne: '"one other gallon of liquor, 
75 cents." In the sale of the personal effects of St. Leger 
Stout about the same time, some of the articles commanded 
the following prices: One pair dog irons $2.00; two pot trani- 
bles and fire shovel, $4.00; fifteen pewter spoons, $5.85. Dog- 
irons and trambles, once articles of uni\-crsal use. are prac- 
ticallv unknown and discarded today. \'>i^iZ irtMis or fire 
dogs were used to support the fore stick in an open fireplace. 


Trammels were pendent hooks for suspendino- pots, kettles, 
etc., over an open fireplace. Chimneys were not in use prior 
to the early part of the 14th century and cooking and heat- 
ing stoves are comparatively modern innovations. In 1741 
Benjamin Franklin invented what he called a Pennsylvania 
fireplace, which consisted of several plates of cast iron with 
a shutter to regulate the draught and a register to distribute 
the heat. ]-'"rom tliis rude construction the modern stove has 
evolved. I'revious to 1825 the use of stoves, generallv of the 
box pattern, and of very rude pattern, was confined to stores, 
halls, hotels, barroms, school houses, and churches, in the 
cities and larger towns. Xot until the building of the B. & 
O. railroad, making possible the transportation of heavy 
goods, did the use of stOACs come into general use in this 

In the records of the court for the year 1803 we find the 
following item, in the report of an Administrator: "burial ex- 
penses, coffin, shirt and liquor and accommodations at the 
sale, $24.00." 

In will book Xo. 1, page 23, there is recorded a list of the 
personal property of Joseph Kinnan, sold at vendue by Edward 
Hart, Administrator, and admitted to record, June 26, 1793. 
]\Ir. Hart( in his final settlement a few years later, among the 
necessary expenses incurred) mentions five gallons of whiskey. 
It was the custom in the pioneer period to treat or give free 
drinks to those in attendance upon a public auction. Perhaps 
the object was to promote a liberal attendance, as well as a 
condition of mental opulence among the prospective purchas- 
ers. The list is interesting from the fact that it gives an 
insight into the possessions of the average pioneer as well as 
the prices these articles commanded in that day. Mr. Kinnan, 
it will be remembered, was killed by the Indians, at his home 
near the mouth of Elkwater. The list is as follows: 

Two pair shears $ .50 

One pot tramble 3.33 

One keg 40 

One keg 35 

Two rockers 90 

Pewter 80 

One mattock 1.15 

One cleavis 35 



Shoes and brush 2.00 

Plow and irons 2.00 

One kettle 1.85 

One scythe 1.70 

One ax 1.60 

One horse 21.60 

One ox 4.00 

One heifer 7.50 

Two yearling steers 11.00 

Two yearling calves 12.00 

One scythe 1.00 

One jug .' 18 

One bucket 35 

One frying pan 70 

One musket 90 

One cow and calf 17.25 

One cow '. 11.25 

One horse 7.25 

One mare 12.50 

One mare and bell 15.50 

Hogs 40.00 

Three sheep , 6.50 

Grain, upper place 6.65 

Two stacks of hay 1.65 

Flax, growing 50 

Corn on Sylvester Ward's loft 10.65 

One brown horse 55.95 

One bay colt 18.95 

Wills Recorded in Randolph County. 

A list of wills recorded in Randolph County prior to 1836 
is given below, with the name of the testator and the date 
of record : 

Andrew McMullen 1788 

George Ward 1791 

David Haddan 1791 

Jacob Stalnaker 1791 

John Miller 1794 

Jeremiah Channell 1797 

Raphael Warthen 1798 

Catherine Carlick 1801 

Thomas White 1802 

Josiah Westfall 1802 

John Haddan 1803 

Vincent Marsh 1804 

St.Leger Stout 1806 

Thomas Phillips 1806 

Henry Mace 1807 

Mary Ann Marteny 1809 

Thomas Holder 1810 

Edward Hart 1811 

Charles Myers 1812 

Abraham Kittle 1813 

Adam Stalnaker 1814 

Jacob Helmick 1815 

John Phillips 1815 

Isaac Kittle 181 

Ebenezer Kelley 1816 

Isaac Bond 1816 

Hezekiah Rosencrantz 1819 

Martin C. Poling 1819 

Martin Poling 1820 

James McLean 1820 

George Mitchell 1822 

Robert Phares 1823 

Elias Alexander 1825 

Boston Stalnaker 1826 

Jacob Weese 1826 

Samuel Bonnifield 1826 

Benjamin Hornbeck 1827 

Joseph Summerfield 1828 

Frederick Troutwine 1829 

William Parsons 1829 


Joseph Pennell 1831 James McClung 1833 

John Rush 1831 Valentine Stalnaker 1833 

Rinehart Dumire 1831 Henry Petro 1834 

Richard Kittle 1831 John Light 1834 

John Chenoweth 1832 Richard Ware 1834 

Joseph Pitman 1832 Isaac Poling 1834 

Sarah Bond 1832 Gilbert Boyle 1835 

Jacob VVeese 1832 Solomon Collett 1836 

Jacob Stagle 1832 Mathew Whitman 1836 

First Will Recorded in Randolph. 

Below is given a copy of the first will recorded in Ran- 
dolph County. It is evident fro mits freedom from legal 
phraseology that it was a product of his own mind. The 
document is characterized by simplicity and attention to de- 
tails and left no room for doubts or different construction 
of meaning. It is as follows : 

"In the name of God, Amen, I, Andrew McMullen, of 
the County of Harrison and State of Virginia, being weak of 
body but of perfect mind and memory, do make this my last 
will and testament in manner and form following : That is to 
say that it is my desire, after my decease, that I be decently 
buried agreeable to my circumstances, out of what little I 
have behind ; and as my affairs are in a very scattered condi- 
tion at present, OAving to my past troubles, I therefore nomi- 
nate and appoint Robert Maxwell as my executor to see into 
and examine what trifles are mine, and goods likewise. When 
I w^as at Uriah Candy's T lent him two pounds, five shillings 
cash, and gave him an order for a great coat of mine at 
Thomas Goff's a tailor, and a dollar to pay for the making of 
it ; and I gave him my note, as I got his gun by way of loan. 
But at the time I was at his house I was not in my head as I 
ought to have been, and I know not what way the note or 
anything was; but T hope I will do justice as a Christian. 
And his gun he can have again ; and what service he did for 
me, I hope he will be paid out of what he owes me. And for 
what orders I gave or sent Mr. James Cunningham, about 
getting my traps and other things, I hope they give them up 
to Robert ^Maxwell as I have appointed him to settle my 


affairs. And do acknowledge this and no other to be my 
last will and testament; as witness my hand and seal this 
21, day of June, 1786. 

"\\'itness; James Taft'ee and Joseph Friend." 

The first deed admitted to record in Randolph is given 
below : 

At a Court held for the County of Randolph the 25th day 
of June. 1787, the following- Deed of Bargain & Sale of 200 
Acres of Land from Ebenezer Petty &: Elizabeth, his wife to 
Gabriel Friend was acknowledged and ordered to be Recorded. 

This Indenture Executed this Twenty-fifth day of June, 
in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and 
Eighty-seven, between Ebenezer Petty and Elizabeth his 
wife, of Randolph County, and Commonwealth of Virginia, 
of the one part, and Gabriel Friend, of the County of Wash- 
ington and State of Maryland, of the other part. A/Vitnesseth, 
That they the said Ebenezer Petty &: Elizabeth his wife, their 
heirs and assigns for in and consideration of One Hundred 
and Twenty-five pounds, to them in hand paid, the receipt of 
which they hereby acknowledge, and themselves fully satisfye. 
Have bargained and sold and transferred unto the said Gab- 
riel Friend a certain Tract of land lying and being in the said 
County of Randolph, on the west side of Tigers Valley River, 
adjoining the lands of John Llarness and John Crouch, junior, 
and boundede as followeth, towit : Beginning at a Maple 
thence south Ten Degrees East Ninety-six Poles to a Beach, 
South Twelve degrees west Sixty-eight Poles to two Syca- 
more, South Eighteen degrees West Thirty-two Poles to a 
Sycamore & Elm, South nine degrees East Thirty Poles to 
a Sycamore and W^alnut, North Eighty-six degrees. East 
Thirty poles to two walnuts, South Seventy degrees, East 
fifty-two poles to an Elm and \\^alnut. North forty-two 
Degrees East Seventy-four Poles to two White oaks. East 
fifty-eight poles to a Sycamore, North Seventy-one degrees 
East thirty-three poles to two Cherries John Harnesses Cor- 
ner North thirty-eight degrees west one hundred & forty 
poles to a Spanish Oak near two Pines his Corner North 


thirty-three degrees West Eighty poles to a white oak, his 
Corner South Eighty-seven degrees west. Ninety-six poles 
to the Beginning. Containing two hundred acres and ap- 
purtenances to have and to hold the said Tract or parcel of 
Land with its appurtenances to the said Gabriel Friend his 
Heirs and assigns forever. 

In witness of the presents we have hereunto set our 
hands and affixed our Seals this Day and Date above written. 


Recorded and Examined 


The Price of a Slave. 

In deed book No. 10, page 378 of the county of Randolph, 
can be found a document, Ijearing date of October 30, 1830, 
recording the sale of a slave, Henrietta Crown, to Geo. Buckey 
of Beverly. Henrietta gained the favor of her master and 
his family and remained with them to the time of her death, 
some thirty years subsequent to the time of obtaining her 
freedom. Mr. Buckey was opposed to the institution of 
slavery, though it meant to him financial loss and was a L^nion 
sympathizer in the war between the states. Below is a copy 
of the instrument of writing in that transaction: 

Know all men by these presents, that I, George W^ash- 
ington Hilleary, of Prince George County, State of Mary- 
land, for and in consideration of the sum of Two Hundred 
and Forty Dollars, to me in hand paid by George Buckey^ 
of the town of Beverly, county of Randolph, and state of 
Virginia, to and before the sealing and delivery of these pre- 
sents, the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge, have 
bargained, sold, granted and confirmed, and by these pre- 
sents do bargain, sell, grant and confirm to the said George 
Buckey a certain female slaxe named Henny, to have and 
to hold said female negro slave and her future increase to the 


only proper use and behalf of the said George Buckey, his 
executors, administrators, and assigns forever, and I, the 
said George Washington Hilleary for myself, my executor 
and administrators, the said female negro slave with her fu- 
ture increase to the said George Buckey, his executors, ad- 
ministrators and assigns, and against all and every other 
person or persons whatsoever shall warrant and forever de- 
fend by these presents. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
affixed my hand and seal this 27th day of October in the 
year 1830^ 


Teste : Squire Bosworth, 
Randolph County Court, 

February Term A. D. 183L 

This bill of sale from Geo. W. Buckey appeared to have 
been acknowledged before the Deputy Clerk of the Court 
is ordered to be recorded. 

Teste: A. EARLE, C. R. C. 

The following names appear in the records of Randolph 
County prior to the year 1800: 

Arnold, Alexander, Armstrong, Allison. 

Bogard, Blair, Bodkins, Buffington, Barker, Breeding, Bell, 
Brigs, Badgely, Beard, Booth, Brown, Ball, Bird, Bishop, 
Beebe, Bond, Booth, Buckey, Boyles, Berry, Blue, pjeaty. 

Currence, Crouch, Cassity, Crow, Cooper, Conley, Christy, 
Clark, Chenoweth, Cook, Claypoole, Carper, Channell, 
Can field, Cutright. 

Davisson, Donohoe, Deener, Dent, Dawson. Dougherty, 

Elliott, Eberman, England. 

Fink, Fisher, Friend, Ford, Ferguson. 

GofT, Good, Gibson, Gandy, Green, Gallatin. 

Hamilton, Haddan, Holder, Harness, Haddix, Hough, Hunt, 


Ilart, Ileath, Harris, Howell, Hanna, Henderson, Hick- 
man, Harper, Hacker. 


Jackson, Jones, Joseph, Jenkins, Jack. 

Kittle, Kinnan, Kizer, Kuhn, Kykendale, Kerper. 

Lin, Lackey, Lambert, Lowny, Long, Lamberton, Light. 

McLeary, McMnllen, McChmg, Alinear, McLean, Mitchell, 
Maxwell, ^larteny. Mace, ]\Iyers, Middlebrook, Marstil- 
ler, AlcX'icker, AFoore, Morris, Miller, Mason. 

Nelson, Neale, Neston. 


Peterson, Parsons, Post, Petty, Peatro, Pendell, Phillips, 
Pamcake, Pryor, Patterson, Peter, Price, Patten, Pringle, 

Reed, Rose, Rennix, Reeder, Rooney, Ryan, Robert, Riffle. 
Rosencranse, Rankins, Robinson, Riddle. 

Scott, Smith, Stalnaker, Stewart, Sumnierfield, See, St. Clair, 

Stout, Steel, Strawder, Seymour, Seitz. 
Taffee, Taft, Tolly, Truby, Thompson, Teter, Talbott, Thomas. 
Vanscoy, Vandevander. 
Westfall, Wilson, Whitman, Warwick, Ward, Wilmoth, 

Wiseman, \\^eese, Warthen, Wamsley, Wolfe, WHiite. 
Yokum, Yeager, Yenner. 

Marriage Licenses, 

Below will be found a list of Marriage Licenses issued 
from 1784 to 1817. Licenses issued prior to 1787 were issued 
by Harrison County, but the contracting parties lived in 
what is now Randolph. 


Man's Name Woman's Name Daughter of Bt Whom Married 

John Wamsley Mary Robinson 

Henry Runyann Mary Hagel 

Simon Harris Christian Westfall 

James Bodkin Mary Westfall 




Man's Name 
William Briggs 
John Kittle 
John Haddan 
Alexander Blair 
Isaac McHenry 
Richard Kittle 
David Crouch 
John Phillips 

David Henderson 
John Jackson, Jr. 
Thomas Isner 

William Low 
David Thomas 

John Cutright 
Zachariah Westfall 
Henry Mace 
James Holder 
William Gibson 
Samuel Stalnaker 
George Harper 
Solomon Ware 
Cottrill Tolbert 
Philip Reger 
Moses Kade 

Woman's Name 
Sarah Westfall 
Elizabeth Wells 
Isabell Elliott 
Elizabeth Breeding 
Margaret Blair 
Margaret Stalnaker 
Elizabeth Cassety 
Catherine Isner 

Daughter of 

By Whom Married 

Ingra Kittle 
Rebecca Haddon 
Magelene Milder 



Eliza Westfall 
Rachael Brooks 


Rebecca Truby 
Hannah Wolf 
Ann Currence 
Diana Westfall 
Mary W. Henry 
Susannah Batchiff 
Mary Baxter 
Sarah Day 
Elizabeth Reger 
Sarah Jackson 
Elizabeth Anglin 

Leonard Day 
Jacob Reger 
John Jackson 
William Anglin 


Nicholas Wilmoth Susney Currence 


George Rennix Judith Westfall William Westfall 

William Crow 
Isaac Newell 

Samuel Ball 

Isaac Phillip 
John Phillips 

Robert Clark 
Andrew Friend 
John Donoho 
Benjamin Baggley 
Thomas Shaw 
William Currence 
Samuel Bringham 


Elizabeth Herrin 

Abagail Vanscoy Aaron Vanscoy 


Elizabeth Maxwell Robert Maxwell 

Elizabeth Kittle 
Bathia Wells 

Mary Friend 
Elenor McCall 
Mary Wilmoth 
Sarah Westfall 
Margaret McCall 
Mary Ward 
Sarah Neilson 


Jacob Kittle 
Phineas Wells 


Jonas Friend 
Peter McCall 
Thomas Wilmoth 
George Westfall 

Sylvester Ward 
John Neilson 

J. W. Loofborougb 
Isaac Edwards 
Isaac Edwards 
Isaac Edwards 

J. W. Loofborougb 

Isaac Edwards 

A. G. Thompson 
J. W. Loofborough 

J. W. Loofborough 

J. W. Loofborough 
J. W. Loofborough 

Valentine Power 
J. V{. Loofborough 
J. W. Loofborough 
Valentine Power 
J. W. Loofborough 
J. W. Loofborough 
Valentine Power 




Man's Name 
Aaron Richardson 
Samuel Currence 
Hez. Rosekrans 
George Baker 
Jacob Riffle 
Aaron McHenry 
Philip Kunce 
William Daniels 
John Sayler 

Cornelius Westfall 
John Hacker 
Robert Clark 
Jacob Shaver 
John Wilson 
Jacob White 
Moses Slutter 
George Stalnaker 

James Booth 
Martin Miller 
Abraham Springston 
Francis Riffle 
Joseph Donoho 
Thomas Gough 
Thos. Summerfield 
Samuel Keller 
William Wright 
Garrett Johnson 
Henry Paine 

Joel Westfall 
Isaac White 
John M. Nail 
Chris. Burgess 
Thomas Wilmoth 
William Kelly 
William Clark 
James Riddle 
John Clark 
James C. Goff 

Wm. McCorkle 
Benjamin Marsh 
Alexander Goff 
John Cutright 
David Whitman 
Barney McCall 
James Ferguson 
Jacob Wees 
John Wilmoth 
Joseph Lyons 

Woman's Name 
Jenney Bringham 
Elizabeth Bogard 
Nancy Simpson 
Susannah Cutright 
Elizabeth Boarer 
Ann Gibson 
Barbara Barnhouse 
Catharine Stalnaker 
Mary Ann Minear 

Daughter of 
Widow Bringham 
Cornelius Bogard 
John Simpson 
Benjamin Cutright 
Jacob Boarer 
William Gibson 
John Barnhouse 
Jacob Stalnaker 

By Whom Married 
Valentine Power 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
'Robert Maxwell 


Elizabeth Helmick Jacob Helmick 
Susannah Smith 

Gean Hudkins 
Rachel Davis 
Mary Warthen 
Elizabeth Pickett 
Nancy Parsons 
Susannah Hart 


Phoebe Osborn 
Margaret Lochrea 
Mary Innis 
Eva Mace 
Elizabeth Wilmoth 
Rachel Burns 
Elizabeth Roy 
Anna Springston 
Anna Marsh 
Mary England 
Elizabeth Smith 

Elizabeth White 
Margaret Haddan 
Christian Riffle 
Elizabeth Shaw 
Amy Schoonover 
Gean Kittle 
Barbara Helmick 
Anna Grayson 
Mary Ryan 
Elizabeth Howell 

David Smith 
Bennett Hudkins 

John Warthen 
Heehcoat Pickett 
Joseph Parsons 
Edward Hart 


Terah Osborn 
John Lochrea 
William Innis 
John Mace 
Thomas Wilmoth 
Patrick Burns 
Joseph Roy 
Elizabeth Springston 

James England 
William Smith 


William White 
David Haddan 
Jacob Riffle 
William Shaw 
Benj. Schoonover 
Jacob Kittle 
Jacob Helmick 

Solomon Ryan 
William Howell 

Phineas Wells 
Joseph Cheaverout 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Matthew Ryan 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Juda McHenry 
Sarah Minear 
Elizabeth Riddle 
Deborah Osborn 
Nancy Daniels 
Ann Buck 
Elizabeth Donoho 
Sarah Isner 
Mary Cunningham 
Elizabeth Mace 


Samuel McHenry 
John Minear 
James Riddle 
George Osborn 

Tabitha Buck 

Catharine Philips 
James Cunningham 
John Mace 

Phinahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 



Man's Name 
Aaron Vanscoy 
Leonard Hire 

Jacob Baker 
Samuel Harris 
Jacob Parlcer 
John Hartley 
David "White 
Levin Nicholas 

Woman's Name 
Gean Taffe 
Dolly Phyman 

Nancy Showter 
Ann Mace 
Elizabeth Burns 
Mary Roy 
Eliz. Summerfield 
Margaret Mace 

Daughter of 
Nancy Grimes 


John Mace 
Patrick Burns 
Joseph Roy 
Joseph Summerfield 
John Mace 

David Schoonover 

Richard Reeder 

Jonathan Bufflngton Madaline Helmick 

Henry Schoonover Mary Campfield 

Jonathan Daniels 
Chris. Lamberton 
Daniel Clark 
Jacob Ward 
Asahel Heath 
Robert Chenoweth 
Peter Conrad 
George Kittle 
William Bonner 
John Heater 
George Riffle 

Jacob Lorentz 
Jacob Stalnaker 
Samuel Degarmo 
Jacob Crouch 
J. W. Stalnaker 
William Booth 
Enoch Osborn 
Michael Westfall 
Jos. Summerfield 
Gaulaudat Oliver 

Barton Hoskins 
Samuel Channel 
John Stalnaker 
William Yokum 
John White 
Richard Ware 
Abraham Skidmore 
Silas Smith 
Timothy Vanscoy 
Christian Bickle 
Eli Butcher 
Richard Hoskins 


Susanna Wilmoth Thomas Wilmoth 
Urie Butcher Samuel Butcher 

Jacob Helmick 
Daniel Campfield 

By Whom Married 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Phineahas Wells 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Benjamin Riddle 


Mary Channel 

Joseph Channel 



Sidney Westfall 



Mary Ware 



Elizabeth Whitman 

Mathew Whitman 



Eliza Currence 

John Currence 



Rachel Stalnaker 

John Stalnaker 



Ann Currence 

John Currence 



Elizabeth Weese 

Jacob Weese 



Jemima Carr 

John Carr 



Mary Higgins 



Margaret Helmick 

Jacob Helmick 



Rebecca Stalnaker 

Val. Stalnaker 



Nancy Channel 

Joseph Channel 



Elizabeth Grimes 

Mark Grimes 



Jane Smith 

Jonathan Smith 



Mary Chenowith 

John Chenowith 



Deborah Hart 

Edward Hart 



Mary Tidricks 



Mary Helmick 

Adam Helmick 



Abigail White 



Mary Ann Bogard 

Cornelius Bogard 



Naomi Ingram 

Abraham Ingram 



Sarah Hornbeck 

Benjamin Hornbeck 



Elizabeth Haddan 



Sarah Ryan 

Solomon Ryan 



.Jemima Heath 

Asahel Heath 



Polly Wilson 

George Wilson 



Elizabeth Vance 

John Vance 



Sarah Shaw 

William Shaw 



Phoebe Wilmoth 

Thomas Wilmoth 



Hannah Spillman 

John Spillman 



Elizabeth Hart 

Edward Hart 



Elizabeth Ingram 

Abraham Ingram 



Nancy Goff 

Salathiel Goff 





Man's Name 
James Tyger 
James Skidmore 
John Helmick 
Jacob Wilson 
John Spillman 
Abraham Kittle 
Henry Mace 
John Helmick 
James McClean 
Isaac Riffle 

Samuel Wamsley 
William Hoff 
Robert Darling 
Val. Stanaker 
Robert Shanwlin 
Joseph Wamsley 
John Johnson 
Isaac Westfall 
John Forrest 
George Bickle 

William Lynch 
Jeremiah Mace 
John McLaughlin 
Robert Ferguson 
John Gibson 
John Conrad 
Thomas Butcher 
Andrew Skidmore 
Jacob Westfall 
Abner McClain 
John Wilson 
Wm. Stalnaker 

Woman's Name 
Elizabeth Parsons 
Sarah Kittle 
Joan Ryan 
Mary Helmick 
Elizabeth Bickle 
Mary Scott 
Mary Davis 
Rebecca Carle 
Rachel Channel 
Elizabeth Wash 

Daughtee of 
William Parsons 
Jacob Kittle 
Solomon Ryan 
Jacob Helmick 
Jacob Bickle 

Joseph Channel 
John Wash 


Elizabeth Crouch 
Rebecca Johnson 
Sarah Vanscoy 
Lucretia Jenkins 
Mary Marstiller 
Patty Jameson 
Elizabeth Poland 
Catharine Shreery 
Lyhua Carpenter 
Mary Skidmore 

Robert Johnson 
Aaron Vanscoy 

Nicholas Marstiller 

Peter Poland 
Joseph Shreery 
Jere. Carpenter 
John Skidmore 


Nancy Hill 
Rhoda Williams 
Barbara Bickle 
Deborah Wilmoth 
Nancy Harris 
Betsey Currence 
Susanna Petro 
Margaret Hoskins 
Dolly Wilson 
Phoeba Daniels 
Betsey Vanscoy 
Elizabeth Goff 

Sarah Williams 
Jacob Bickle 
Thomas Wilmoth 

John Currence 
Henry Petro 
Bennett Hoskins 

Aaron Vanscoy 

By Whom Married 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
John Skidmore 
John Skidmore 

John Skidmore 
John Skidmore 
John Skidmore 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Basil Hudkins 
James Turner 
Isaac Newell 
John Brady 
Henry Hardman 
John Myers 
John Holder 
George Harnick 
Thomas Holder 
Abraham Kittle 

Ulery Conrad 
John R. Beall 
John Wees 
George Helmick 
William Burns 
Wm. Louchary 
John Hardwiek 

Nancy Skidmore 
Mary Corrick 
Luciana Wilson 
Susanna Ware 
Prudence Scott 
Mary Stalnaker 
Mary Lewis 
Levina Royee 
Margaret Gandy 
Elizabeth Esters 

Sarah Currence 
Patty Holbert 
Mary Phillips 
Elizabeth Isner 
Susanna Chilcott 
^Margaret Johnson 
Elizabeth Channel 


Andrew Skidmore 



John Corrick 



Thomas Wilson 







Jacob Stalnaker 



John Lewis 



Joseph Royce 



widow Jno. Gandy 






John Currence 



Aaron Holbert 



Henry Isner 

Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Robinson L. Chilcott Robert Maxwell 

Edward Johnson Robert Maxwell 

Robert Maxwell 



Man's Name 
S. Cunuingham 
Jacob Borer 
Jacob Wilson 
Jonathan Vanscoy 
Adam Chiner 
Wm. F. Wilson 
George Keener 
Henry Wilfong 
Sol. Carpenter 
Isaac Hedley 
William Yeager 
George Nestor 
Robt. W. Collins 
Uriah Ingrim 
Daniel Decker 
Jacob Stanley 
Abel Kelley 
Jacob Teter 
Joshua Morgan 

Woman's Name 
Mary Shagel 
Sarah Helmick 
Mary Donoho 
Sarah Lochary 
Elizabeth Fields 
Jane Booth 
Peggy Miller 
Christiana Wees 
Catharine Hill 
Elizabeth Wilson 
Elizabeth Thorn 
Millie Poland 
Mary Gibson 
Hannah Holder 
Mary A. Yokum 
Nancy Chapman 
Jemima Kittle 
Nancy Cade 
Hannah Gould 

Daughter of 
Jacob Shagle 
Jacob Helmick 
William Donoho 
John Lochary 
John Fields 
Daniel Booth 
John Miller 
Jacob Wees 
John Hill 
William Wilson 
Frederick Thorn 
Martin Poland 
Nicholas Gibson 
James Holder 
Michael Yokum 
Val. Chapman 
Jacob Kittle 
Moses Cade 
Aaron Gould 

By Whom Married 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
John Skidmore 
John Carney 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Phineahas Wells 
Phineahas Wells 
Phineahas Wells 
Henry Camdem 

Martin Poland 
James Carr 
George Corrick 
Eben Schoonover 
Simon Maloney 
Benj. Phillips 
John Wilmoth 
Geo. Barnhose 
Hezekiah Bussey 
James Ryan 
John Black 
Henry Hudkins 
Andrew Crouch 
Thomas Scott 
John Chenoweth 
Solomon Parsons 
Martin Miller 
Peyton Butcher 

William Moore 
John Bussey 
Samuel Morrow 
Joseph Royce 
Jacob Yokum 
Jeremiah Reddle 
Thomas Wamsley 
Ruben Holbert 
John Hill 
Jonathan Yeager 
Rod. Bonnifield 
Benjamin Helms 
Solomon Yeager 

Dan Howdershell 

Mary Wilson 
Ann Hornbeck 
Jemima Chilcott 
Sarah Reck 
Sarah Hornick 
Phoebe Walker 
Ann Kittle 
Susanna Pitman 
Fannie Knotts 
Eizabeth Bennett 
Mary Bussey 
Mary Isner 
Elizabeth Hutton 
Nancy Skidmore 
Mary Skidmore 
Hannah Parsons 
Nancy Day 
Elizabeth Renix 


William Wilson 
Benj. Hornbeck 
R. L. Chilcott 
George Reck 
Aug. Hornbeck 

Richard Kittle 

Sarah Bennett 
John Bussey 
Thomas Isner 
Jonathan Hutton 
And. Skidmore 
And. Skidmore 
William Parsons 

George Renix 


Rachel Phillips 
Susanna Warthen 
Isabella Barr 
Sarah Summerfleld 
Jane Wamsley 
Margaret Hardman 
Jemima Channel 
Betty Brannon 
Nancy Wartheu 
Elizabeth Miller 
Nancy Minear 
Rachel Moore 
Mary Teeter 

Henry Phillips 
John Warthen 
John Barr 
Jos. Summerfleld 
Mathew Wamsley 
Elizabeth Hardman 
Jeremiah Channel 
John Brannon 
John Warthen 
Andrew Miller 
David Minear 
David Moore 
Jacob Teeter 


Catherin Foreman Jacob Foreman 

Simeon Harris 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 

Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Robert Maxwell 
Robert Maxwell 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 

Simeon Harris 



Man's Name 
Joseph Bennett 
George Hill 
Nicholas Mace 
Thomas Parsons 
James Warner 
Levi "Ward 
Edmond Jones 
Archibald Barle 
Ezekiel Paxton 
Jacob Isuer 
And. Stalnaker 
Ezekiel Hart 
David Nutter 
Samuel Skidmore 
George Beall 

Benjamin Johnston 
Henry England 
John Gainer 
John Shaver 
Jesse Hall 
Samuel Love 
Charles Scott 
Benjamin Scott 
William Smith 
Frederick Corrick 
Jonathan Hornbeck 
Jacob Westfall 
Edwin S. Duncan 
Chas. Marstiller 
Jehu Chenoweth 
Willis Taylor 
John Petro 

Nathan Minear 
Amos Caufield 
Abraham Wolf 
Elijah Skidmore 
Andrew Crouch 
Joseph Bennett 
Richard Moore 
Francis Vansy 
Henry Smith 

Isaac Wamsley 
William J. Davis 
Thomas Goff 
Solomon Westfall 
Henry Sturm 
Jonas Poling 
John Phillips 
Solomon Collett 
Thomas Phillips 
John Flanagan 

Woman's Name 
Mary Phillips 
Rebecca Scott 
Elizabeth Riffle 
Elizabeth Brannon 
Barbara Robbinet 
Cathe'e Whitman 
Mellnda Carr 
Mary Buckey 
C. Coykendall 
Peggy Schoonover 
Clarissa Danbury 
Peggy Hart 
Elizabeth Cox 
Elizabeth Pitman 
Mary Parsons 

Daughter of 
Henry Phillips 
Henry Scott 
Jacob Riffle 

Mat. Whitman 

Peter Buckey 
J. Coykendall 
Benj. Schoonover 

Daniel Hart 
Henry Cox 
Joseph Pitman 
Isaac Parsons 


Catherine Hall 
Mary Alexander 
Susanna Easter 
Polly Nester 
Sally Braidut 
Sarah Newall 
Agnes Kittle 
Jane Currence 
Easter Pitman 
Parmer Checvate 
Kitty Wilt 
Sarah Hinckle 
Prudence Wilson 
Peggy McLain 
Elender Skidmore 
Sarah Clark 
Tasa Butcher 

Elias Alexander 
Jacob Easter 
Jacob Nester 
Luke Braidut 
Isaac Newall 
Richard Kittle 
William Currence 
.loseph Pitman 
Rb. L. Checvate 

Justice Hinckle 
Wm. B. Wilson 
James McLain 
Andrew Skidmore 

Samuel Butcher 


Elizabeth Bonnifleld 
N. Schoonover 
R. McLaughlin 
M. Cunningham 
Eliz. Stalnaker 
Catherine Paine 
Mary A. Phillips 
Mary Gainer 
Catherine Lesher 

Benj. Schoonover 

John Cunningham 
Bostain Stalnaker 
Henry Paine 
Joseph Phillips 
George Gainer 
Jacob Lesher 

Susanna Yeager 
Lydia Gould 
Sarah Robison 
Mary Moore 
Eliz. Stalnaker 
Phoebe Headley 
Rachel Phillips 
Sarah Petro 
Peggy Westfall 
Susan Donoho 


George Yeager 
Aaron Gould 
John Robison 
Daniel Moore 
Wm. Stalnaker 
Cary Headley 
John Phillips 
Henry Petro 
Jacob Westfall 
William Donoho 

By Whom Married 
Simeon Harris 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 

Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
John Gill Watts 
William Munrow 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 

John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 

Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 



Man's Name 
Alex. McQuain 
Aseal Isnear 
Job Parsons 
Wm. Schoonover 
James Shreeve 
John Ryan 
John S. Hart 
John McLain 
Henry Walter 
Gabriel Chenoweth 
Edward Hart 
John Shreeve 

Joseph Phillips 
Squire Bosworth 
Joseph Cross 
John Skidmore 
Joseph Moore 
John Fling 
John Stout 
Daniel Boyle 
Andrew Foreman 
Samuel Poling 
"William Ryan 
George Goff 
Benjamin Arnold 
John Norman 
Martin Poling 
Moses Kittle 
James Skidmore 
David Holder 
Daniel Hardway 
Thomas Skidmore 
J. Cunningham 
Maxwell Renix 
Andrew Snider 

Woman's Name 
Elizabeth Scott 
Sarah Canfleld 
Jemima Ward 
Char'e Marstiller 
Lydia Smith 
Susanna Briggs 
Jemima Stagle 
Delilah Currence 
Phoebe Wood 
Eliz. Currence 
Catherine Phillips 
Susanna Wamsley 

Daughter of 

Daniel Canfleld 
Jacob Ward 
Nich. Marstiller 
Jonathan Smith 
William Briggs 
Jacob Stagle 
John Currence 
John Wood 
Wm. Currence 
John Phillips 
James Wamsley 


Margaret Kittle 
Hannah Buckey 
Mary Westfall 
Juda Pitman 
Mary Cross 
Elizabeth Gainer 
Barbara Cosner 
Catherine Wilson 
Rachel Poland 
Elizabeth Marks 
Rebecca Bennett 
Nancy Robinson 
S. W. Wamsley 
N. Montgomery 
Anna Right 
Nancy Bennett 
Elizabeth Monday 
Ellender Kittle 
Hannah Helmick 
Mary Kittle 
Mary Jordan 
Sarah Wilmoth 
M. Summerfleld 

Jacob Kittle 
Peter Buckey 

Joseph Pitman 
Barbara Cross 

Vandal Cosner 
William Wilson 

Wm. Wamsley 

William Right 
Jacob Bennett 

Abraham Kittle 

Abraham Kittle 
John Jordan 
Nicholas Wilmoth 

By Whom Married 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
Asbery Pool 
Asbery Pool 

John J. Waldo 
William Monroe 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
Simeon Harris 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 
John Rowan 

The following^ table shows the number of claims allowed 
for wolf scalps from 1787 to 1897. The high water mark was 
reached in 1822 when 56 claims were presented : 




1820 — 32 



1853 — 3 

1788 — 13 


1810 — 44 




1854 — 3 


1800 — 13 



1833 — 14 


1855 — 8 

1790 — 15 




1834 — 28 



1791 — 30 


1813 — 30 

18'24 — 51 



1860 — 3 

1792 — 18 

1803 — 23 

1814 — 23 




1861 — 2 


1804 — 21 

1815 — 47 

1826 — 27 

1837 — 18 

1848 — 24 

1897 — 1 


1805 — 30 





1795 — 12 


1817 — 47 

1828 — 40 




1807 — 29 

1818 — 10 

1829 — 43 

1840 — 11 

1851 — 2 




1830 — 37 

1841 — 15 

1852 — 3 

The following table shows the record of panthers and 
wild cats killed in Randolph so far as preserved : 

1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 

Panthers 5 11 5 10 14 11 11 6 

Wild cats 55 66 49 106 58 80 3 12 



Sheriffs of Randolph. 
[The year given is the date of assuming office.] 

Jacob Westfall 1787 

Cornelius Westfall 1789 

Edward Jackson 1792 

Uriah Gandy 1793 

Cornelius Bogard 1796 

John Wilson 1798 

Matthew Whitman 1800 

Asahel Heath 1803 

John Currence 1806 

Samuel Bonnifield 1806 

George Rennix 1808 

John Chenoweth 1810 

Isaac Booth 1813 

John Crouch 1815 

Benjamin Hornbeck 1815 

William Daniels 1818 

Andrew Crawford 1820 

Ely Butcher 1822 

Robert Chenoweth 1827 

John M. Hart 1829 

William Marteney 1830 

George Stalnaker 1833 

David Holder 1829 

Levi Ward 1841 

Peter Conrad 1847 

Jacob W. See 1848 

George McLean 1850 

W. C. Chenoweth 1856 

Solomon C. Caplinger 1857 

Hoy McLean 1858 

Jacob Phares 1860 

Jesse F. Phares 1862 

John M. Phares 1864 

Archibald Harper 1864 

F. M. White 1870 

L. D. White 1872 

J. F. Harding 1876 

Jacob G. Ward 1880 

Z. T. Chenoweth 1884 

Warwick Hutton 1888 

A. J. Long 1892 

A. W. Hart 1896 

P. W. Marshall 1901 

Floyd McDonald 1905 

Thadeus Pritt 1910 

A. J. Crickard 1915 

County Clerks of Randolph. 

County Clerks were appointed by the Coimty Court until 
the adoption of the constitution of 1852. 

John Wilson 1787 

Jacob Westfall 1793 

Archibald Earle 1810 

D. W. Shurtliff 1838 

John W. Crawford 1845 

Squire Bosworth 1858 

William Bennett 1861 

John B. Earle 1868 

John B. Morrison 1870 

James D. Wilson 1872 

Floyd Triplett 1890 

Lee Crouch 1896 

S. A. Rowan 1905 

F. A. Rowan 1910 

Thadeus Pritt 1915 

Circuit Clerks. 

John Wilson 1809 

Archibald Earle 1812 

E. D. Wilson 1842 

Bernard L. Brown 1849 

John B. Earle 1861 

L. D. White 1866 

Leiand Kittle 1872 

John B. Morrison 1879 

W. H. Wilson 1885 

G. N. Wilson 1897 

County Surveyors. 

Edward Jackson * 1787 

Henry Jackson 1793 

Robert S. Shanklin 1809 

Thos. O. Williams 1819 

Bernard L. Brown 1849 

Nicholas Marstiller 1852 

Milton Hart 1858 

Cyrus Kittle 1865 

Nicholas Marstiller 1868 

C. M. Marstiller 1892 

Frank Parsons 1900 

E. E. Taylor 1904 

A. J. Crickard 1908 

A. W. Schoonover 1912 




Signatures of Randolph's Early 
Sheriffs. (From Maxwell's History of 
Randolph County.) 





Signatures of Early Justices 
of the Peace. (From Maxwell's 
History of Randolph County.) 



Commissioners of the Revenue and Assessors. 

The officers whose duty it has l^een to fix the vakiation 
of property in Randolph Comity for purposes of taxation, 
have not been called by the same name at all times, nor have 
their duties been always the same. In early years they were 
known as Commissioners of Revenue, and of late years As- 
sessors. A list follows of those who ha\e filletl the office in 
this countv : 

John Haddan 1787 

John Jackson 1787 

Cornelius Bogard 1787 

John Wilson 1788 

Peter Cassity 1789 

Abraham Claypool 1789 

William Wamsley 1790 

Edward Jackson 1791 

Robert Clark 1792 

William Wilson 1795 

James Bruff 1796 

George Rennix 1796 

Simon Reeder 1797 

St. Leger Stout 1800 

Asahel Heath 1801 

Nicholas Gibson 1809 

Isaac White 1809 

William Wilson 1810 

John Crouch 1813 

John M. Hart - 1814 

Ely Butcher 1815 

Robert S. Shanklin 1816 

Robert Chenoweth 1816 

John Currence 1817 

Andrew Crawford 1818 

George Wees 1819 

Adam Myers 1821 

George Stalnaker 1822 

Jacob Teter 1823 

Daniel Hart 1824 

Daniel Booth 1825 

Isaac Taylor 1826 

Henry Martin 1827 

Levi Ward 1828 

Michael See 1830 

Matthew Whitman 1831 

John Harris 1832 

George Nestor 1833 

Andrew Crawford 1834 

Peter Conrad 1835 

Brown Jenks 1836 

William Shaw 1837 

John Moore 1838 

William Marteney 1839 

Lair D. Morrell 1841 

Jacob W. See 1842 

Bushrod W. Crawford 1843 

George McLean 1844 

Ely Baxter Butcher 1845 

George Wyatt 1846 

John Taylor 1848 

Absalom Crawford 1849 

Charles C. See 1850 

Jacob Ward 1851 

Parkison Collett 1856 

John B. Morrison 1858 

Jacob Phares 1860 

Squire B. Daniels 1861 

Archibald E. Harper 1861 

J. M. Curtis 1876 

Jasper W. Triplett 1880 

H. H. Taylor 1880 

Abel W. Hart 1884 

French H. Kittle 1881 

Sheffey Taylor 1892 

William O. Triplett 1892 

Thadeus Pritt 1900 

J. C. Goddin 1902 

L. W. McQuain 1902 

A. W. Zinn 1910 

J. N. Phares 1913 

Justices of the Peace. 

From the organization of Randolph until the adoption of 
the Constitution of 1852 Justices of the Peace were appointed 
by the Governor, and held office for life if they chose to do 


SO. After 1852 they were elected. The following list shows 
the names of the Justices and the year when they first ap- 
peared on the records : 

1787— Jacob Westfall, Salathial Goff, Patrick Hamilton, 
John Hamilton, John Wilson, Cornelius Westfall, Edward 
Jackson, Robert Maxwell, Peter Cassity, Cornelius Bogard, 
John Jackson, George W^estfall, Henry Runyan, John Had- 
dan, Jonathan Parsons, Uriah Gandy. 

1789— John Elliott, .\braham Claypool. 

1790— Jacob Westfall. 

1791— Abraham Kittle, Matthew Whitman, Terah Os- 
born, William AX'ilson, Jacob Polsley. 

1794 — AVilliam Parsons. 

1795 — Asahel Heath, John Pancake, John Currence, Jacob 
Kittle, Samuel Bonnifield. 

1797 — William Seymour, William B. Wilson. 

1799 — Simon Reeder, John Chenoweth, Nicholas Mar- 

1801— Isaac Booth. 

1802— Andrew Miller. 

1803 — Joseph Long, Daniel Clark, Barthan Hoskins, John 
Hartley, John Sanders, John Barnhouse, Joseph Joseph. 

1804— Ebenezer Flanagan, Gilbert Boyles. 

1806 — John Crouch, John Lamberton, Benjamin Horn- 
beck, Nicholas Gibson, Isaac Booth. 

1808 — William Daniels, Jonathan Hutton, John Hart. 

1809 — Isaac Wliite, Andrew Cawford, George Parsons, 
Samuel Ball. 

1810 — Matthew Hines, John Skidmore. 

1811 — Nicholas Storm, Daniel Booth, Benjamin Riddle. 

1813 — Zedekiah Morgan, Andrew Cross, George Wees, 
Jonathan Wamsley. 

1814 — Isaac Greggory, Adam Alyers, Andrew Friend, 
George Stalnaker, Robert S. Shanklin. Jacob Sprigstone, Levi 

1815 — Hiram Gofif, Robert Young, James Tygart. 

1817 — Ebenezer Leonard, Frederick Troutwine, Jacob 

1820— ^[ichael See, Isaac Tavlor, AWlliam S. Wilson. 


182^1 — Jonas Crane, (iddfrey liiller, Jonas llarnian, John 

1825— David Wiles, Rol)ert McCrum. 

1830 — Brown Jenks, David Goff, Joseph Hart, William 
Shaw, John A\'alker, William llufl', John Moore, Peter Con- 
rad, George Nestor. 

1831 — Georg-e See, Henry Sturm, Jacob See. 

1832 — \\'illiam McLain, Scjuire Bosworth, Jacob Keller. 
Ely Butcher, Andrew Miller, Robert N. Ball, John Wyatt, 
Joseph Roy, William F. Wilson, Joseph Teter, Adam See. 

1835 — Jacob Harper, John Phares, William Rowan, Ad- 
onijah B. Ward, Valentine Stalnaker, Lorentz Mitchell, Daniel 
W. Shurtliff, Jarrett Johnson, Abraham Harding, Samuel Kel- 
ler Arnold Bonnifield, Isaac Roy, Thomas S. W^hite, John 
Arbogast, Andrew M. Wamsley. 

1838 — Lemuel Chenoweth, Job Parsons, Samuel Stal- 
naker, Samuel Elliott, Michael H. Neville, John W. Crawford. 

1839 — Charles C. See, Francis D. Talbott. 

1841— John A. Hutton. 

1842 — ^Xoah E. Corley, George Buckey, William Phares, 
John Kelley, William Johnson, John AV. Moore, John Taylor. 

1845 — David Gilmore, Christian Simmons, Lenox M. 
Camden, Elijah Kittle, Archibald Chenoweth, Benjamin W. 
Kittle, Jacob Crouch, Abraham Crouch. 

1848 — Whitman Ward, Adam D. Caplinger, John W. 
Haigler, Harrison W. Campbell, James W^. Parsons, W^illiam 
Talbott, James Shreve, William G. Greggory, Harman Snyder, 
Thompson Elza. 

1852 — Peter L. Lightner, Isaac G. Dodrill, ^^'illiam Ham- 
ilton, George W^ Mills, Hezekiah Kittle, Henry Harper, Wil- 
liam C. Chenoweth, Jacob Vanscoy, William R. Parsons, 
George H. Long, Nathaniel J. Lambert, Joseph AMiite, James 
Vance, Jeremiah Lanham, James D. Simon, Absalom Stalnaker. 

185-1 — Jacob H. Long, Henry C. [Moore. 

1856— Jacob W. Marshall, Thomas B. Scott, Hamilton 
Stalnaker, Abraham Hutton, John A. Rowan, Edwin S. Tal- 
bott, Eli Kittle, Aaron Coberly. Arnold Wilmoth, Samuel 
Dinkle, Xoah H. Harman, lames AA^ilmoth. 


1859 — Asa Jrlarman, Mathias C. Potts, Joseph J. Sim- 

1860 — Jacob Conrad, S. Salisbury, W. Wilson, Washing- 
ton G. Ward, George Phillips, Wilson Osborn, Michael Yo- 
kum, William F. Corley, William Raines, James H. Lambert, 
William Jordan, Elijaii J. Nelson. 

1861 — Jacob Daniels, Everett Chenoweth. 

1862--Henry H. Leigh, U. G. Adams. 

1867 — Solomon S. Warner, James W. Dunnington, 
Charles Crouch, ^^'illiam Bennett, Patrick Durkin, Peleg C. 

1869 — Sampson Snyder, Reuben S. Butcher, John A. 
Vance, John A. King. 

1873— Jesse W. Goddin, J. Wood Price, Riley Pritt, 
George H. Phillip, Jacob C. Collett, Adam C. Currence, Eman- 
uel \\'hite, Patrick Crickard, Leonard H. Schoonover. 

1876 — ^George W. Yokum, Holman Pritt, Miles King, 
Joseph Bunner, J. W. Summerfield. 

1877— Alfred Hutton. 

1880 — George Beatty, John Bunner, William PL Wilson, 
Z. T. Chenoweth, J. A\'. Tyre, Jacob C. Harper, Randolph 

1882- Adam tl. ^^'amsley, Peter Crickard. 

188-1 — J. H. Dewitt, Melvin Currence, James L. Coff, 
John A. Hamilton, D. E. Coberly. 

1886 — James Shannon. 

1888— William H. Goss, Adam C. Rowan, William AL 
Boyd, PL N. Brunner, Adam L. Findley. 

1890— Caleb White. 

1892— John R. Crickard, D. P. Harper, Job. W. Parsons, 
\\'illiam Hamilton, James Coberly, J. J. Zickafoose, Lew 

1895— G. F. Sims. 

1896— B. Y. Cunningham, Floyd McDonald, W. A. Horn- 
beck, X. ^^■. Talbott. A. Brandley, Page C. Marstiller, Peter 
Madden, W. Scott Woodford, W. S. Kelley, John W. Hart- 
man, r^lias Zickafoose. 



Prosecuting Attorneys. 

'I^hc proseculin<4- atlonic}', in former times, was appoint- 
ed, and did not necessarily li\e in the county where he served. 
The same man sometimes was prosecutor in two or more 
counties at one time. Following- are the names of the com- 
monwealth's attorneys of Randoli)h : 

William McCleary 1787 

Thomas Wilson 1791 

Maxwell Armstrong 1795 

Adam See 1798 

William Tingle 1809 

Noah Linsley 1809 

Edwin S. Duncan 1814 

Oliver Phelps 1817 

Phineas Chapin 1818 

John .T. Allen 1820 

William McCord 1829 

Gideon D. Camden 1837 

David Goff 1835 

John S. Huffman 1841 

Samuel Crane 1852 

Joseph Hart 1862 

Nathan H. Taft 1862 

Spencer Dayton 1863 

Gustavus Cresap 1867 

Thomas J. Arnold 1868 

Bernard L. Butcher 1876 

Cyrus H. Scott 1880 

Jared L. Wamsley 1888 

C. W. Harding 1901-09 

H. G. Kump 1909-15 

County Coroners. 

Salathiel Goff ...1787 

Cornelius Bogard 1787 

Robert Maxwell 1789 

Abraham Kittle 1792 

Simon Reeder 1796 

John Chenoweth 1803 

Adam Stalnaker 1805 

William B. Wilson.. 1807 

Charles Myers ....1809 

John Stalnaker 1820 

Jacob Myers 1827 

William Rowan 1854 

Lemuel Chenoweth 1855 

William C. Chenoweth 1873 

County Commissioners. 

Solomon C. Caplinger 1880 

William M. Phares 1880 

Jacob S. Wamsley 1880 

Omar Conrad 1880 

Jacob Vanscoy 1884 

B. W. Crawford 1884 

G. W. Yokum 1886 

Patrick Crickard 1886 

C. S. Armentrout 1888 

Jesse F. Phares 1882 

Jesse W. Goddin 1892 

P. Crickard 1896 

John Heavener 1902 

R. M. Harper. 1904 

K. B. Crawfird 1908 

A. W. Hart 1912 

Judges Circuit Court. 

Hugh Nelson 1809 

Daniel Smith 1811 

Edwin S. Duncan 1831 

Geo. H. Lee 1848 

Gideon D. Camden 1851 

William A. Harrison 1861 

Robert Irvine 1863 

Thos. W. Harrison 1867 

John Brannon 1872 

William T. Ice 1881 

Joeph T. Hoke 1889 

John Holt 1897 

Warren B. Kittle 1912 



1787 — Jacob Riffle, Alichael Yokum, Thomas Holder, 
Jeremiah York, Jeremiah Cooper, Charles Falnash. 

1788 — William Haddix, David Alinear, Valentine Stal- 
naker, Jacob Shook. 

1794 — William Clark, Henry Carr, Jacob Ward. 

1796 — Jacob Springston, Henry Phillips. 

1797 — John Runkins, Nicholas Smith, George Long, Mat- 
thew Wamsley. 

1798 — John Phillips, Thomas Cade, Joseph Joseph, John 

1799 — Richard \^'are, Daniel Canfield, Gilbert Bayles. 

1800 — Peter Buckey, John Cutright, John Hart. John 

1803 — ^^'illiam Daniels, Samuel Pierce, Richard \\'are. 

180^1 — George Whitman, William Booth, William Mc- 

1805 — Barthan Hoskins, John Hartley, John Spillman, 
John Beall. 

1809 — George Stalnaker, John Chenoweth, AMlliam 
Steers, Edward Hart, William F. Wilson, AMlliam Stalnaker, 
James Holder, Alexander Morrison. 

1810 — Adonijah Ward, Samuel Burrett. 

1811- — John Clark, John Miller, Joseph Roy, Nicholas 

1813 — Jonathan Yeager, Levi Skidmore, John W. Stal- 
naker, William Kelley, Isaac Wamsley, Samuel Oliver, Isaac 

1815 — David Holder, Wilby Taylor, John Snyder, Jesse 
Cunningham, John Lynch, Abraham Bryant. 

1817 — David Evans, Solomon Parsons, Isaac Post. Adam 
Lough, John Walker. 

1818 — Thomas Wamsley, Jonas Harman, Samuel Wyatt, 
Moses Phillips. 

1819 — Solomon Yeager, James Teter. Jesse Bennett. John 
Long, Joseph W^alker. 

1821 — Robert N. Ball, Henry Sturm, Henry Cunning, 
Thomas W. Holder. 


1823 — William H. Crawford, Jesse Coberly, Enoch Min- 
ear, Abraham Wolford, Hugh Dailey, James Turner, Noah 
E. Corley. 

1825 — Elisha Puling-, George Harris, Benjamin Johnson, 
Isaac B. Marsh. 

1827 — Absalom Wilmoth, William W'amsley, Jacob Kel- 
ley, Benjamin I'. Marsh, John Taylor, William G. Gilmore. 

1829— John \V. Crawford, Eli Walker, Jacob Teter, Abra- 
ham Bowman, Edmund S. Wyatt, Thomas Byrd, Washing- 
ton Taylor, Joshua Glascock. 

1831 — Burv/ell Butcher, Oliver E. Domire, Joseph Shaw, 
William Marsh, John Stout, William Rowan, William Pick- 
ens, Absalom Hinkle. 

1832 — John Conrad, John Phares, Samuel Keller. 

1833 — Edward Stalnaker, Daniel W. Shurtliff, James W. 
Corley, John P. Gray, Jesse Day, Levi Jenks, Arnold Bon- 

1836 — Andrew ]\I. Wamsley, AA'illiam Wamsley, Thomas 
Phillips, John Sargent. 

1837 — Lair D. Morrell, Garrett Johnson, Absalom Har- 
den, David Gilmore, James A'ance, Thomas S. White, Joseph 
J. Simmons, John M. Crouch. 

1838 — Adam H. Bowman, William Simpson, Bushrod W . 
Crawford, Archibald Coyner. 

1839 — Isaac White, Elias Alexander, Lewis Gilmore, 
John C. Wamsley. 

1841 — William Wilmoth, Garretson Stalnaker, Francis J. 
Holder, John Tygart, Jesse Roy, John Arbogast, Jacob Con- 
rad, Abraham Crouch. 

1842 — William AA^. Parsons, Samuel AVamsley, John M. 
Phares, Israel Coffman, Flavins J. Holder, Francis O. Shurt- 
liff, James R. Parsons, Benjamin Kittle, Henry V. Bowman. 

*1845— Matthew^ AA'. Brady, Milton Hart, Michael Yokum, 
John O. AATlson. 

1847 — AAllliam Currence, ]\Iichael AA'alters, Samuel P. 
Wallace, Job Parsons, Jr., James Long, Elias AVyatt, AA^ash- 
ington Roy. 

1848— Thomas James, George AA^ Mills, Cyrus Kittle. 

1849 — Allen J. Currence, John AA^. Adams, Solomon C. 


Caplinger, W. H. Coberly, Samuel P. Wilson, Aaron Bell. 

1851— Peter H. Ward, William Raines. 

1852— Hugh S. Hart. IVIelvine Currence, Moses J. Phillips, 
Samuel P. Dinkle, Isaac Roy, Samuel Bonnifield. 

1854 — Jacob Currence, Isaac \\'ilmoth, Parkinson Collett, 
Jesse Parsons, David O. Wilson. 

1855 — Alfred Taylor, W^ashington Stalnaker, George W. 

1856 — ^Michael Alagee, Patrick Crickard, Powhatan A. 

1858 — Levi AVhite, Squire Daniels. 

1860 — Thomas J. Powers, Plenry J. White, Patrick Dur- 
kin, Edward Grim, O. C. Stalnaker. 

1867 — Sampson F. Shiflett, ^^'illiam O. Ferguson, AA'illiam 
H. Quick, Andrew J. W^ilmoth, James A. Hicks, W. K. Her- 
ren, John Snider. John King. 

1869 — Daniel Cooper, Granger Lamb, Montgomery G. 
Mathews, James Hicks. 

1870— John AIcGillivany. 

[There is a gap of six years in the records which show the 
election of constables.] 

1876 — S. Tyre, E. O. Goddin, George W. Phares, John 
Pritt, Jasper Bolton, \A\ D. Currence, A. J. AWlmoth, Caleb 
AAdiite, A. J. Bennett, James S. Hutton. 

1884 — French H. Kittle, Lee Yokum, James R. McCal- 
lum, P. B. Conrad, A. B. Mouse, J. A. Cunningham, John J. 
Nallen, John \A'. Hartman. 

1885— Creed L. Earle, R. L. Pritt. 

1888— Page C. Daniels, R. G. Thorn, Charles W^ Chan- 
nell, Gideon AL Cutright, Hamilton Markley, Hyre A. Stal- 
naker, A. H. Summerfield, George W. Stalnaker. 

1892— Lloyd D. CoUett, J. H. Currence, Elam E. TayR)r, 
W. D. Currence, C. C. Crickard, L. W. McOuain, William 
Snyder, Patrick Phillips. 

1894— R. T. Hedges, Page C. Marstiller. 

1896 — R. C. Sassi, Daniel Cooper, Frank Shoemaker, 
James Brady, Oliver Daniels, A. B. Coberly, E. E. Taylor,. 
N. B. Flutton. 



Colonels of Militia. 

Patrick Hamilton 1787 

William Lowther 1796 

Archibald Earle 1822 

Robert N. Ball 1827 

Solomon Wyatt 1831 

Jacob Keller 1837 

David Goff 1844 

John W. Crawford 1850 

Hoy McLean 1853 

Melvin Currence 1860 

Cyrus Kittle 1862 

Captains of Militia. 

Edward Jackson 1787 

James Westfall 1787 

Peter Cassity 1787 

William Wilson 1787 

George Westfall 1787 

Jonathan Parsons 1787 

John Jackson 1789 

Jacob Kittle 1794 

John Chenoweth 1794 

John Haddan 1795 

William Parsons 1796 

George Rennix 1798 

Adam See 1800 

Matthew Whitman 1800 

Samuel Ball 1802 

Benjamin Vannoy 1805 

John Crouch 1805 

John Currence 1805 

Nicholas Gibson 1806 

John Forrest 1807 

William Booth 1807 

Anthony Huff 1807 

Andrew Friend 1807 

John Wood 1808 

Thomas Butcher 1810 

William Stalnaker 1810 

Solomon Collett 1812 

George Anderson 1816 

Solomon Yeager 1817 

Samuel Oliver 1818 

Adonijah Ward 1818 

Thomas W. Holder 1823 

George McLean 1827 

Charles C. See 1828 

Solomon Parsons 1828 

Arnold Bonnifield 1829 

Solomon Wyatt 1829 

William McCord 1830 

Thompson Elza 1844 

Benjamin Kittle 1844 

Bushrod W. Crawford 1844 

Jacob Conrad 1844 

Daniel W. Shurtliff 1844 

Elijah M. Hart 1844 

John M. Crouch 1844 

Wyatt Ferguson 1844 

Hamilton Skidmore 1845 

Andrew Stalnaker 1845 

Hoy McLean 1846 

Henry Rader 1846 

George W. Berlin 1848 

George Kuykendall 1848 

Jesse L. Roy 1850 

Cyrus Chenoweth 1850 

Cyrus Kittle 1851 

Washington Salsberry 1851 

William C. Chenoweth 1851 

Michael Yokum 1851 

James L. Hathaway 1851 

Heckman Chenoweth 1851 

Abraham Hinkle 1852 

Aaron Bell 1852 

Allen Taylor 1852 

Jacob Shafer 1852 

Charles Crouch 1852 

Jacob Currence 1860 

William E. Logan 1860 

Sampson Elza 1860 

George W. Mills 1860 

L. Phillips 1860 

William Westfall 1860 

George A. Hesler 1860 

Arnold Phillips 1860 

J. S. Collett 1860 

John Rice 1860 



Lieutenants of Militia. 

Jacob Westfall 1787 

John Jackson 1787 

John Haddan 1787 

James Kittle 1787 

Matthew Whitman 1787 

Daniel Booth 1787 

William Parsons 1787 

George Rennix 1797 

Asahel Heath 1799 

John Crouch 1800 

Nicholas Gibson 1805 

John Baker 1805 

James Frame 1807 

William Johnson .•...1807 

William Currence 1807 

Thomas Skidmore 1810 

Robert W. Collins 1810 

William Bennett 1813 

Robert Chenoweth 1814 

Jesse Phillips 1815 

James Wells 1818 

Arnold Bonnifield 1828 

Nathan Minear 1829 

Solomon Wyatt 1829 

Isaac Canfield 1843 

Jesse Roy 1843 

Jacob Flanagan 1843 

Levi Stalnaker 1844 

Levi D. Ward 1844 

William G. Wilson 1844 

John Bright 1844 

Jacob W. Manthus 1844 

Jeremiah D. Channel 1844 

Isaac C. Stalnaker 1844 

Vincent Pennington 1844 

Cyrus Kittle 1844 

Samuel Smith 1844 

Everet Chenoweth 1844 

Samuel P. Wilson 1844 

Elam B. Bosworth 1844 

George W. Rennix 1846 

Washington Stalnaker 1848 

John Phares 1849 

Cyrus Chenoweth 1850 

Conrad Currence 1852 

Nathaniel Moss 1852 

George W. Long 1852 

Hull Ward 1853 

Jacob Long 1853 

William E. Long 1853 

Simeon Philips 1853 

Robert Philips 1853 

Thomas T. Talbott 1853 

James W. Miller 1853 

John M. Stalnaker 1853 

Hugh S. Hart 1853 

George Little 1853 

Randolph Coberly 1853 

Dolbeare Kelly 1853 

Ezra P. Hart 1853 

Arnold Wilmoth 1853 

John Wyatt 1853 

Jacob Currence 1853 

Charles Channel 1853 

William E. Logan 1853 

Sampson Salsberry 1853 

Samuel Channel 1853 

L. Denton 1860 

L. Phillips 1860 

William M. Westfall 1860 

Abraham Smith 1860 

John W. Bradley 1862 

Andrew C. Currence 1862 

James Scott 1862 

Patrick King 1862 

William Bennett 1862 

Jacob W. Fortney 1862 

Alvin Osburn 1862 

J. M. W^estfall 1862 

Solomon P. Stalnaker 1806 

Squire B. Daniels 1862 

Harrison Moore 1862 

Archibald E. Harper 1862 

John G. Bradley 1862 

William S. Phares 1862 

Alfred Stalnaker 1862 

Aaron Workman 1866 

Riley Pritt 1866 

Majors of Militia. 

John Wilson 1787 

James Westfall 1794 

William Wilson 1794 

John Haddan 1800 

Isaac Booth 1805 

Matthew Whitman 1805 

John Crouch 1805 

David Holder 1820 

Henry Sturm 1831 

John C. Wamsley 1843 

Benjamin Kittle 1849 

Patrick Crickard 1860 

Archibald Earle 1860 

John M. Crouch 1862 



Ensigns of Militia. 

John Ciitright 1787 

Jacob Westfall 1787 

Anthony Smith 1787 

George Rennix 1787 

Job Westfall 1787 

Jeremiah Cooper 1787 

William Seymour 1796 

Samuel Ball 1796 

George Kittle 1796 

James Booth 1798 

Barthan Hoskins 1802 

John Stalnaker 1805 

Thomas Williams 1805 

James Tygart 1806 

John J. Harrison 1807 

William Huff 1807 

Thomas Skidmore 1807 

Jacob Pickle 1807 

Solomon Yeager 1815 

Aaron Gould 1818 

Job Parsons 1818 

Nathan Minear 1828 

Isaac D. Neville 1829 

William W. Chapman 1829 

Jesse Vannoy 1830 

In the early records of Randolph frequent reference was 
made to Samuel Pringle, who deserted Fort Pitt in 1761 and 
located in what is now Upshur County in 1765. He was a 
witness in the court at Beverly in 1803 and was allowed for 
traveling 30 miles. This is the distance from Beverly to the 
former home of the Pringles near the present town of Buck- 
hannon. Pringle's name is mentioned for the last time in the 
Randolph records in the year 1803. 

It seems that the refusal to exercise the elective fran- 
chise was an indictable offense in pioneer days. At the May 
term of the court, 1803, a number of indictments were found 
against individuals who "for not giving or offering to give 
their votes for a member of Congress and two members of 
the General Assemblv of the State." 




AT a court held at the residence of George Jackson on the 
Buckhannon River, July 20, 1784, the oath of office was 
administered to the following Justices of the Peace: Benjamin 
Wilson, John P. Duval, Wm. Lowther, James Anderson, 
Henry Delay, Nicholas Carpenter, John Powers, Thos. Chane, 
Jacob Westfall, Salathiel GofT and Patrick Hamilton. 

At the same term of the court Jacob Westfall and Patrick 
Hamilton were authorized to celebrate the rites of matrimony. 
Cornelius Westfall, Geo. Jackson, Edward Jackson, John 
Wilson and Robert Maxwell were recommended to the Gov- 
ernor as suitable persons to hold the office of Justice of the 

Jacob Riffle, John Currence and Matthew ^^'hitman were 
appointed Constables. 

At a court held at Clarksburg, September, 1784, Patrick 
Hamilton, Jacob Westfall, John \A'ilson, were appointed 
Captains of Militia. Peter Cassity, Cornelius Bogard, and 
George Westfall were appointed Lieutenants of Militia. 

Abram Kittle, Thos, Phillips, Geo. AA'estfall, Sr. and 
Benjamin Hornbeck were appointed Viewers of a road from 
Jacob Westfall's Mill to a bridge opposite Geo. Westfall's 

Ebenezer Petty, John Yokum, Peter Cassity and Jacob 
Stalnaker, Sr., were appointed Viewers of a road from the 
bridge opposite Geo. Westfall's Mill to Darliy Conly's Place. 

At a Court held at Clarksburg, Septemljcr 22, 1784, Jonas 
Friend was appointed a Surveyor of a Public Highway from 
his own house to Eberman's Creek. He was to collect 
tithables on Leading Creek, 1)()th side of the X'alley I\i\er, up 
Eberman's Creek and acrc^ss the river to Hezekiah Rose- 
crances, and to keep same in lawful re]Kur. 

At a term of the Harrison Countv Court held at Clarks- 


bur^", September, 1784, Henry Petro was appointed Surveyor 
of a hig"hway from El)ermans Creek to Jacob Westfall's Mill 
and tithal)les from said Creek upwards to Files Creek and 
William Smitb's. 

Most of the litij^ation in the Harrison county court seem- 
ed to be between parties then living in that part of Harrison, 
now embraced in Randolph. The case of Cornelius Westfall 
vs. Joseph Donohue and Westfall & Crouch vs. Donohue, 
both cases of debt were at the September term 1784, dis- 
missed as generally agreed. 

At the same term of the Court the following cases involv- 
ing people living in the \ allc}^ were disposed of : 

John Warwick, plaintiff, vs. Joseph Friend, defendant. 
Upon motion of the defendant that the plaintiff be nonsuited 
for failing to tile his declaration, the court ordered the same 
to be nonsuited. 

Case of John AN'estfall vs. Benjamin Hornbeck, trespass, 

Johnathan Smith \s. James Taff'e, attachment. The at- 
tachment was dissolved and Thos. Wilmoth entered special 
bail for defendant and the common proceedings of law to 
issue. Declaration and i:)lea of payment liled and ride for 
trial at March term. 

David Bradford took oath as directed by law and was 
admitted to practice as an attorney. He was thus the iirst 
attorney to qualify in what is now Randolph County. 

At Court held at Clarksburg, Va., November, 1784 Jacob 
Stalnaker was appointed Surveyor of Roads from Jacob West- 
fall's ^lill to Alexander Maxwell's Old Place and to collect 
tithables for same. It is signficant that at this early date that 
a farm be designated as an Old Place. 

On motion of Jacob Crouch, Thomas Lackey was fined 
350 pounds of tobacco for contempt of Court for failing to 
answer summons as witness. He was summoned to appear 
at the next term of the Court to show cause why execution 
should not issue for said judgment. 

The rate of liquor license, victuals, horse forage, etc., for 


Ordinary Keepers was fixed as follows for the year 1784: 

S P 

Wine, per pint 1 6 

Jamaica spirits, per pint ly^ 

Peach and apple brandy, per pint 6 

Rye whiskey, per pint 6 

Beer, per quart 6 

Cider, per quart 6 

Mead, per quart 6 

Warm breakfast 9 

Cold breakfast 8 

Warm supper 9 

Cold supper 4 

Bed for night, clean sheets 4 

If not clean, nothing 

Horse and hay for night TYz 

Corn and oats per gallon 7^4 

Pasturage, 24 hours 4 

The following Justices composed that Court : James An- 
derson. John Powers, John McCally, John Sleeth, and Ed- 
ward Jackson. 

In 1784 there were 337 tithables in Harrison County. 
Two-thirds, or 225 tithables, were in what is now Randolph, 
Tucker and Upshur counties. 

At a court held at Clarksburg in August, 1785, Cornelius 
Bogard was appointed Surveyor of a highway from Wilson's 
Mill to Rockingham County line. The tithables in Tygarts 
Valley from Joseph Crouch's down, and including Leading 
Creek, W^ilmoth's settlement and Dry Fork of Cheat settle- 
ments were by their labor to keep this highway in good repair. 

At the term of the Court held at Clarksburg, Va., Febru- 
ary 1, 1786, it was ordered that a path be opened from Conoly's 
Lick to the top of Allegheny Mountain. John Warwick was 
appointed Overseer. The petitioners for this road were James 
Lackey, Jr., David Henderson, James Lackey, Sr., Francis 
McDonald, Jacob Riffle, Geo. Wilson, Geo. Johnson, John 
Warwick, Geo. Parsons, Benjamin Abbott, John Alfred, 
David Haddan, Thos. Lackey, John Hamilton, James Moore, 
William Hamilton, James McLean, Pat. Hamilton, John 
Alexander and Robert Henderson. 

At a Court held at Clarksburg, September, 1786, Wm. 
Wilson, Cornelius W^estfall, Andrew Skidmore and Nicholas- 
Petro were ordered to view a road from Tvgarts A^allev road 


by way of Mud Lick to Cheat River at Phillip Menear's in 
Horse Shoe Settlement. 

An Early Inventory. 

An inventory of the personal estate of John Crouch was 
filed in the county court of Harrison County, September 4, 
1786 by Charles Formelson, John Wilson and Patrick Hamil- 
ton. This indicates the usual articles possessed by the aver- 
age citizen of that period as Avell as their valuation. 

L S d 

One black mare 10 

One sorrel yearling horse colt 3 

One bay horse colt 15 

One saddle and bridle 1 2 

One rifle gun and shot bag 4 

One yearling bay horse colt 11 

One pair leather breeches 1 4 

One iron pot and dutch oven with bails 1 4 

One cow 3 

One jacket with scarlet fore shirt 1 5 

One pr. silver knee buckles and stork buck 18 

One straight coat 1 16 

One straight coat without lining 1 

One furred hat 10 

One Great coat 1 4 

One old jacket and old leggins 6 

One shirt 10 

One pair old leather breeches 6 

One sieve 8 

Cash and one Johannas 4 16 

Johannes, above mentioned, was a Portuguese coin of the 
value of eight dollars ; often contracted into joe ; half-joe. 
It is named from the figure of King John which it bears. 

Residents in Randolph, 1785. 

At the June term of the Harrison County Court, 1785, a 
list of all the white inhabitants of Harrison County, subject 
to the payment of taxes, was ordered taken. Assessors were 
appointed and the county divided into districts. The names 
of women who owned property are given. 



H. Delay's District from Petty's Ford to Joseph Crouch. 

Anthony Chevalear 
George Westfall 
John Crouch, Jr. 
John Currenc 
Charles Parsons 
Henry Delay 

Johnathan Crouch 
Ebenezer Petty 
John Crouch, Sr. 
Liddia Currence 
A\'illiam Currence 

Ed. Jackson's District — Buckhannon River Settlement. 

Charles Foranash 
Henry Fink, Sr. 
John Cutrite, Jr. 
John Bush 
John Jackson 
David Casto 
Henrv Fink, Jr. 

Joseph Hall 
Edward Jackson 
John Bosart 
Henry Runyan 
John Cutrite, Sr. 
John Tackson, ]r. 

Jacob AX'estfall's District from Leading- Creek up lo 
Pettv's Ford. Both Sides of River. 

Aaron Richardson 
Abraham Kittle 
Anthony Smith 
Benjamin Wilson 
Benjamin Cutright 
Benjamin Jones 
Cornelius Bogard 
Daniel Westfall 
David Cassity 
David Henderson 
David Phillips 
Elizabeth Springstone 
George Bredin 
Henry Petro 
John Trubies 
John Pauly 
John Wilson 
Isaac McHenry 
Johnathan .^mith 
Jacob Wolf 
Joseph Donahue 
Thomas Holder 
George Breedinrr 

Nicholas F'etro 
Nicholas Wolf 
Peter Bredin 
Peter Cassity 
Phineas \\>lls 
Phillip Clem 
Richard Kittle 
Solomon Ryan 
Jonas Friend 
Benjamin Hornbeck 
Andrew Skidmore 
Samuel McHenry 
Samuel Quick 
Thomas r*hilli])s 
Thomas Bore 
Valentine Stalnaker 
A\'illiam Cassity 
A\'illiam .^mith 
A\'illiam Levitt 
AA'illiam Blair. Sr. 
A\'illiam I'riggs 
\\'illiam Blair. Jr. 
Zacharia Wstfall 



Jacob Stalnaker, Sr. 
Jacol) Stalnaker, Jr. 
Jacob Westfall, Sr. 
Jacob Westfall, Jr. 
John Johnson 
John Yoakum 
John Kittle 
John Cassity 
Mathias \A'hitman 
Michael Toner 
Nicholas Smith 

William Anglin 
(leorge Teter 
Jacob Shook 
Samuel Eberman 
Alexander Blair 
Elizabeth Shaver 
Hezekiah Rosecronts 
Jacob Shaver 
Jacob pjrinkle 
Joseph Friend 
James Bodkin 

Cornelius Westfall's District from Leading Creek Down to 

the County Line, Between the East Side of the 

River and Cheat Mountain. 

Cornelius ^^'estfall 
John \\'estfall 
Robert Maxwell 
William AVestfall 
Daniel Booth 
Phillip Washburn 

Samuel Cole 
\\ illiam \A'ilson 
George Westfall 
Hannah Wire 
William Haddix 
AA'illiam Clark 

Patrick Hamilton's District from Jacob Crouche's up to 
the County Line. 

George Alford 
John Alexander 
Judy Crouch 
Rol)ert Henderson 
John Hadden 
James Leckey, Sr. 
Franceys McDonald 
Charles Nilson 
Elmer RifTle 
Christopher Truby 
Benjamin Abbott 
Alargaret Bare 
Richard Elliott 
\Mlliam Hamilton 
David Hadden 
Thomas Leckey 

James Moor 
James Prathor 
Daniel Simerman 
John AA'arwick 
Peter Shavers 
John Alford 
Joseph Crouch 
Patrick Hamilton 
John Hamilton 
James Leckey, Jr. 
James ]\IcClain 
Joseph Milton 
Jacob Riffle 
George Shavers 
George AVilson 




JACOB CONRAD was a private in Uriah Springer's com- 
pany in 1781 when the present area of Randolph was a 
part of Monongalia County. He was in service at Pittsburg. 

There were three invalid pensioners in Randolph in 1835. 
They were ^^'illiam Shreves, Abram Burner and Fortunatius 
Snyder. Each received an annual stipend of $96.00. Others 
who were not invalids, but on the pension list for that year 
were: Henry Fansler, Virginia, Continental, aged 7Z\ Jacob 
Kittle, New Jersey Militia, aged 77 \ Marney Rarvan, Virginia 
Continental, aged 83 ; Ambrose Lipscomb, Virginia Militia, 
aged 82 ; David Minear, Virginia Militia, aged 79 : John Ne- 
ville, Virginia State Troops, aged 69 ; John Ryan, Virginia 
Continental, aged 75; James Tenney, Virginia, aged 68; John 
Woolford, Virginia Alilitia, aged 80; Matthew Whitman, Vir- 
ginia Militia, aged 74 ; Henry Whiteman, Pennsylvania Mili- 
tia, aged 75. 

The following pensioners of the Revolutionary war were 
living in Randolph in 1840: Mary Cheno'weth, widow of John 
Chenoweth, aged 78; John Neville, Sr., aged 74; Henry Fans- 
ler, aged 79, residing with Andrew Fansler; Jacob Kittle, 
aged 84; Nancy Ann Hart, widow of Edward Hart, aged 83. 

The following pensions were suspended awaiting fur- 
ther proof: Thomas Isner, service subsequent to the Revolu- 
tion; Johnathan Smith, services not of a military character; 
Michael Boyles, awaiting further proof ; Catherine Parsons, 
period, length and mode of service and name of company and 
field officers wanting. 

Governor Beverly Randolph ordered into service in 1790 
the following scouts for the protection of the settlements in 
Randolph County. They were in service two months from 
March 1, 1790 to May 1, 1790. The following facts have been 
obtained concerning them ; A^alentine Stalnaker, aged 30, size 


5 feet 9 inches, nationality, Virginia ; Phineas Wells, aged 30, 
size 5 feet 9 inches, nationality. New York ; James Stewart 
Elliott, aged 22, size 5 feet 10 inches, nationality Virginia; 
James Westfall, aged 22, size 5 feet 11 inches, nationality 
Virginia ; James Schoolcraft, aged 20, size 5 feet 8 inches,, na- 
tionality Virginia ; Jacob Reger, aged 23, size 6 feet, nation- 
ality Virginia. 

In 1792 Governor Henry Lee, apprehending an Indian in- 
cursion into the valley ordered into service the following 
scouts in Randolph : Valentine Stalnaker, Charles Parsons, 
Geo. Westfall, John Jackson, William Gibson, William West- 
fall, and Thomas Carney. 

The following persons from Randolph were officers in the 
war of 1812: Isaac Booth, Colonel, date of commission, Dec. 
10, 1807; John Crouch, Major, date of commission, Aug. 30, 
1806; Hiram Goff, Major, date of commission, Dec. 10, 1807; 
Solomon, Collett Captain, served at Norfolk and other places 
on Atlantic seaboard in 1812. 

Randolph County paid $5,465.50 in direct taxes to aid the 
United States in prosecuting the war of 1812. 

The following correspondence from Colonel Benjamin 
\A'ilson to Governor Harrison, dated December 9, 1782, re- 
veals the dangers to which the early settlers were subject, 
during the first two decades of the occupation of the county. 
Many other facts of interest are disclosed. Flints which at 
that time were necessary munitions of war were furnished by 
the General Government. The number of men in the county 
subject to military duty is also gleaned from the reports. 

Sir : — At this time duty obliges me to lay before youi 
Honor this letter which contains a narrative of the present 
state of the County of ^Monongalia together with my humble 

Notwithstanding your parental care of my county, last 
Spring before aid came to its relief, the settlement of Buck- 
hannon broke up and moved into the interior parts of the 
county, which unhappy event caused about fourteen or fifteen 
families of the settlement of Tygarts A^alley to leave the 
county. At this time Tygarts Valley is a frontier, also Horse 


Shoe, Vv'est Fork, Dunkard Tlottom and about fifteen miles of 
Cheat River settlement, the county as now inhabited is about 
one hundred and ten computed miles from North to South. 

There are about sixty-eight effective men in Tygarts 
Valley, eighteen at the Horse Shoe, eighty at West Fork, 
twenty-five at Dunkard Bottom and about one hundred and 
sixty at forks of Cheat River and Sandy Creek Glades, so 
that from the scattered condition of the country the damages 
the people have already sustained by the frequent incursions 
of the Indians since the commencement of this war, will, I 
believe (and from the voice of the people) cause the firse four 
mentioned settlements to break up and leave the country, 
should the Indians pursue the war with the vigor they did 
last Spring, unless timely relieved by your excellency's in- 

I here insert the different incursions made by the Indians 
in my county this year until the eleventh day of October: 
first incursion made February 7th, next 10th day, next 12th 
day, next 20th day of March, next 22nd day, next 7th day of 
April, next 12th, next 24th, next 29th day of May, next 12th 
day of August. I await your answer. 

Sir, from your most obedient and very humble servant, 


Memorial to the Governor by Delegates from 
Randolph County. 

On October 27, 1790, Abraliam Clay]:»ool and Cornelius 
Bogard, delegates to the AssemhU- from Randoljdi County, 
addressed a memorial to the Governor of Virginia praying 
that the four scouts from Randolph be allowed their claims 
for services rendered during the year, 1789. These delegates 
also ])etitioned Governor Beverly Randolph, Nov. 1. 1790, 
stating the defenseless condition of the counties for 400 miles 
along the ( )hio river exposed to the hostile in\asion of the 
Indians and destitute of every support, is truly alarming. 
The Governor was asked to relieve the people from the 
threatened danger or lay their com])laints before the ])roper 
Iriliinial for redress. 


ji)lni r. l)ii\;ill, C'(iunl\- LitMileiianl of llarrison County to 
(i(i\c'ni(ir I k'nr\' I a'c, I )cct'ml)er 20, 1791. 

Sir:—-] could wish to ha\c about twenty of the men to be 
raised for the defense of ilarrison County, stationed on the 
(Jhio, ten at XeaTs Station, the Little Kanawha, and ten at 
or near the mouth of ihe Muskingum. 

1 could also wisli your excellency to appoint some person 
to employ a person to prepare the arms belonging to the State 
in the counties of Oliio, Monongalia, Harrison and Randolph, 
as the\- are much out of repair, and also wish you to appoint 
Colonel llenjamin Wilson to muster the men for the counties 
of Harrison and Randolph. 

And am Sir, Your Excellency's most obedient, hund)le 


In 1792 the Governor of Virginia authorized the distri- 
bution of a number of scouts to protect the frontier from the 
apprehended invasion of the Indians from the territory West 
of the ( )hio River. William Howther, of Harrison County, 
wrote to (len. James Woods informing him of the following 
distrilmtion of men at his disposal : Two scouts at the mouth 
of the Little Kanawha, two scouts on the frontier of the West 
Fork settlements. In Randolph he stated he had under his 
command a Lieutenant, two Sergeants, two Corporals and 
twenty-five privates which the Randolph of^cers distril)Uted 
as follows : Lieutenant, fifteen privates. Sergeant and Corporal 
in the upper end of the valley. Eleven men and a Sergeant 
were sent to the Buckhannon settlement 

The Governor of Virginia Sends Flints to the Settlers. 

A\'ith the modern inventions of the w^eapons of warfare, 
it seems incredible that as late as 1792 the Governor of A'"ir- 
ginia would send flints to the settlers of the frontier as muni- 
tions of war in their defense against the invasion of Indians 
from tribes West of the Ohio River. However, Colonel Benj. 
Wilson, writing to General James \\'oods, from Morgantown, 


June 7, 1792, informs him that powder, lead, and flints had 
been received and distributed to the Captains of Militia in 
Randolph, Harrison and Monongalia counties. 

Philadelphia War Department, 7th April, 1792. 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson, 

Sir : — I am directed by the President of the United States 
to acknowledge the receipt of yours to him of the 29th ot 
February, 1792. and inform you that his excellency, the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, was authorized in behalf of the President 
of the United States to add as mau}^ scouts as he should 
judge expedient, at the general expense to any part of the 
exposed not exceeding eight in number in any one county. 

It is the disposition of the ^'resident of the United States 
that the most entire protection should be afl:"orded the exposed 
counties that the nature of the case may require. The ex- 
ecutive of \ irginia must b.e presumed to be competent to 
judge of this matter, and they have made an arrangement 
upon this subject, but as some inconvenience may result from 
waiting for an application from the Governor of Virginia, 
the counties of Randolph and Monongalia will be permitted 
the four scouts requested by your letter of the 27th February, 
together with such a sufificient number of rangers upon the 
continental establishment as a temporary arrangement as 
shall be deemed indispensal^ly necessary, not exceeding the 
Company mentioned in your letter, until the executive of 
Virginia may make an application confirmative of the same 
for the season. 

I am your humble servant, 


Strength of Militia in Randolph. 

The County Lieutenants reported to James \\'oods, Lieu- 
tenant Governor of A'irginia, June 7, 1792, the fallowing as 
the strength of the militia in the counties of Harrison, Ran- 
dolph and ]\Ionongalia : Benjamin AX'ilson reports strength 
of Harrison Count\- militia at 400; Jacob Westfall reports 
strength of Randoljih Count}- mililia at 174 or 200: John 


E\ans reports strens^th of Monongalia Count}- militia at 730. 

Colonel Benjamin Wilson Appeals to President 
of United States. 

Harrison County, Va., February 29, 1792. 

Sir: — It would be intruding on you for me to call your 
attention to the disposition of the Indians when fired with 
conquest, on their dastardly way of war. Particularly their 
lying- in wait about houses to take advantage of defenseless 
women and children, their ambuscading roads, robberies, etc. 
It may sufifice only to mention the situation of the exposed 
frontier and the present fears of the people. 

Ohio County covers a part of Monongalia County and 
Harrison a part of Randolph County, and my observation 
since the year 1774, Ohio and Harrison have stood on a simi- 
lar footing in point of danger. The lamentable catastrophe 
that befell the Federal Army last fall has with fear so im- 
pressed the minds of the exposed people that it is pitial)le to 
hear their complaints, and sure I am that many of them 
would move from the exterior settlements was not their con- 
solation a full confidence in your granting extensive tempor- 
ary relief, as well as to pursue the reduction of the Indians 
upon a more extensive scale than has been heretofore done. 
I wish not to trespass upon your time or patience, but con- 
ceive it my duty to mention my adjoining counties, viz : That 
Randolph may be favored with an addition of four scouts, 
and Monongalia with four, Ohio I learn is bv your excel- 
lency provided for, with an additional number of those al- 
lowed by this State. 

Sir, I am your humble and devoted servant, 


Sir : — If you condescend to answer the above, the wax- 
by A\'inchester is the swiftest and surest convevance. 

B. A\'. 


Captain Cornelius Bogard of Randolph to Governor. 

Randolph County, August 16, 1794. 

On receiving your orders I raised a company of volun- 
teers for the defense of the Monongalia District. On the 17th 
March last I received orders from Captain William Lov/ther 
to station the troops raised in this county at the head of the 
Tygarts \^alley and Buckhannon Rivers. I acted agreeably 
to his instructions and kept the troops stationed at these 
points until I received another letter from Captain Lowther 
with orders to march them under my care to the mouth ot 
the Great Hock Hocking, or a little settlement about four 
miles above Hock Hocking. I received said orders on tlie 
8th of July. On consideration of the distance I had to march 
I tliought it would be impracticable to march before the first 
Monday in August, l)ut on the 29th I had an express from 
Buckhannon, giving the intelligence that the Indians had 
taken a young woman prisoner from the West Fork. I im- 
mediately marched a part of my company to the place where 
the mischief was done, but did not o^■ertake the enemy. I 
got back to the Valley the 10th of August where I found the 
people much alarmed. I think it my duty to try to detect 
the enemy if they be in the settlement before I march to the 
Ohio. The vacancy on the Ohio between Belleville and the 
mouth of the Big Kanawha is the worst inlet to the Indians. 




THE <_ieneral Assenil)ly of Virginia in 1777, passed an Act, 
providing- that all ])crsons, who settled on the ^^'estern 
Waters prior to the 24, day of Jnne, 1776, should be given 
400 acres of land for every family. In 1779 that law was 
changed to require one year's residence and the raising one 
crop of corn, to entitle him to 400 acres. In 1781 a commis- 
sion was ai)pointed to grant certificates to those who were 
entitled to lands in the counties of Monongalia, Ohio and 
Yohogania. These certificates are of the greatest historical 
value as fixing- the date and place of occupancy of the pioneers. 
Appended are certificates granted to settlers in this sec- 
tion of the District. The first one is copied in full, followed 
by extracts from others. 

We, the commissioners for adjusting claims to unpatent- 
ed lands in the counties of Monongalia, Yohogania and Ohio, 
do certify that William Isner is entitled to 400 acres of land 
in Monongahela County, on Tygarts Valley River to include 
his settlement made in 1775, adjoining lands of Benjamin 

Given under our hands at Colonel John Evan's this 7, 
day of March in the fifth year of the Commonwealth 1781. 


This certificate cannot be entered with the surveyor 
after the 26, of October, 1781. 

AYm. ]\IcCleary, Clk. Com. 
Ent'd, 9th. April 1781. 

Thos. W^ilmoth is entitled to 400 acres of land on Cheat 
River to include settlement made in 1776. 


Thos. W'ilmoth, assignee of Geo. Shaver, 400 acres on 
Cheat River near to lands of settlement of 1776. 

John Wilmoth 200 acres on Cheat River to include set- 
tlement made in 1776 and adjoining- lands of Thos. Wilmoth. 

John Haddin, 200 acres on Haddin's Mill Run to include 
settlement of 1774. 

Jacob White 100 acres on Laurel Run to include settle- 
ment made in 1773. Preemption. 

Richard Jackson, 400 acres on South Fork of Ten Alile 
Creek, including his settlement made in 1775. 

Geo. \\'alker, 200 acres, adjoining lands of John Wil- 
moth, including settlement of 1777. 

John Yeoakum, 400 acres on Barker's Creek to include 
settlement made 1773. 

Michael Yeoakum, 400 acres on Sugar Creek to include 
settlement of 1772. 

Noah Hadden, 1000 acres 2 miles from mouth of Elk 
Creek and Haddin's Cabbin. 

Daniel Fink, 1000 acres on Fink's Run to include his set- 
tlement, made in 1772. 

David W'ilson, 400 acres on Buckhannon River to include 
settlement of 1772, adjoining lands of Henry Fink. 

John Fink, preemption 1000 acres on Buckhannon River 
to include settlement of 1777. 

Phillip Menear, 400 acres on Cheat River. 

A\'illiam ^^'estfa]l, 1000 acres on Teter's Creek, including 
settlement of 1772. 

John Jackson, Junior, 400 acres Turkey Run on Buck- 
hannon River, adjoining lands of John Jackson, Senior, to in- 
clude his settlement made in 1773. 

Benjamin Wilson, 400 acres on Leading Creek, right of 
residence and including improvements made in 1773. Ad- 
joining lands of Thos. Skidmore. 

Jacob Conrad and Benjamin Wilson, tenants in com- 
mon, 400 acres at lUilltown, on Kanawlia River, including 
settlement made in 1775. 

John Jackson, 400 acres on Buckhannon. including set- 
tlement made 1776. 


Isaac l*)i'0(iks, assitiiiee of Samuel PriiiLjlc, 400 acres on 
Buckhannon River incliulintj settlements made in 1772. 

Timothy Dorman, 400 acres on Buckhannon River in- 
cluding improvements of 1773. 

John Reger, 400 acres on Buckhannon River to include 
settlement made 1773. 

Salathiel Goft'. 400 acres Cheat River to include settle- 
ment made in 1774. 

Thomas Parkeson, 1000 acres by right of preemption at 
the Tygarts Valley Falls to include improvements made 1773. 

John Wilson and Martin Shobe, assignee, of James 
Knotts, as tenants in common, 400 acres on Dry Fork of 
Cheat to include settlement made at Horse Camp in 1776. 

Edward Jackson and John Fink, as tenants in common, 
assignees to George Parsons, 400 acres in Parsons right ot 
residing and raising a crop of corn, to include an improve- 
ment made by the said Parsons on the T^ead of Little Elk, 
adjoining lands claimed by Timothy Dorman in 1775. 

David Minear, 200 acres Clay Lick Run, a branch of 
Cheat River in right of residence to include improvements 
of 1776. 

Salathiel Goff, assignee of A\'illiam \\'ilson, 400 acres at 
the mouth of Pleasant Creek, opposite to lands claimed by 
Thos. Parsons, to include settlement of 1776. 

Salathiel Gofif, assignee of Thomas Pence, 200 acres on 
Cheat River nearly opposite Tiorse Shoe Bottom, to include 
settlement of 1776. 

John Reger, 400 acres on each side of Buckhannon river 
nearby joining lands of Timothy Dorman to include his set- 
tlement made 1773. 

Edward Jackson, 400 acres Finks Run to include settle- 
ment of 1774. 

Geo. Peck, assignee of Edward Tanner 400 acres on 
Buckhannon River, adjoining lands of George Jackson to 
include settlement 1774. 

Christopher Strader, 400 acres in the right of raising corn 
crop before 1778 on Buckhannon Fork. 

Charles Fornash, assignee of Alexander Sleath, 400 acres 
on the Buckhannon River, to include his settlement of 1772. 


Jeremiah Prather, assignee of John Davis, who was as- 
signee of Daniel Hagle, 200 acres in Tygarts Valley on the 
West side of the river, adjoining lands of Peter Cassity and 
Benjamin Jones, to include his settlement of 1771. 

James Parson, 400 acres in the Horse Shoe Bottom, Cheat 
Rive'", to include his settlement made in 1769. 

John Heagle, 400 acres on Buckhannon to include his 
settlement made in 1776. 

John Haddin, 200 acres on Haddin's Mill Run, a branch 
of the Tygarts Valley River, to include his settlement made 
in 1774. ' ^ ' ■ 

Geo. Teter, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley River, adjoin- 
ing said river, to include his settlement made in 1772. 

William Anglin, 400 acres on Tygarts Valley River at 
Pringle's Ford, including" his settlement made in 1773. 

Geo. Jackson, assignee Alexander Sleeth, 400 acres on 
Buckhannon River including his settlement made in 1769. 

Isaac r>rooks, assignee of Samuel Pringle, 400 acres on 
Buckhannon River, to include settlement of 1776. 

John Jackson, assignee of William W hite, 400 acres on 
Buckhannon River to include settlement made in 1772. 

Old Land Entries. 

Jfiseph Friend entered 100 acres on the Fast side of 
Cheat River to include imi)r(>\-cmtnts made in 1783. 

Andrew Skidmore, assignee of William Wamsle}', enter- 
ed 5000 acres to include Salt Black Lick. 1783. 

John Harness, 600 acres on Black Water, a brancli of 
Cheat River, adjoining lands of Ruby Shol)e and Isaac Horn- 
beck, 1783. 

John Crouch, assignee, Geo. Harness, 70 acres adjoining 
lands he now lives on Tygarts \'alley River, 1783. 

William Wcslfall. 24 acres, \\'est side Tygarts X'allcy 
River, 3 miles to tlu' left liand of Geo. Westfalbs Mill to in- 
clude the Co])er 1 winks, April, 1783. 

Criah Gandy. 200 acres on Dry Fork of C4icat to include 
land he formerh- li\cd on, 1783. 


IMiiiu'as \\ I'lls, assij^nee of TU'ii. Wilson, 100 acres, l)cIo\v 
and adjniuin- lands of Abraham Kittle, 1781. 

David Lil]\'. 600 acres l^ast of Txijarts A'allcy Rixer, ad- 
joining lands of William Westfall, 1783. 

I'rom the entr\- of William Westfall as g'iven above, the 
"Cojier Uanks" were e\identl\- a place of local celebrity in 
the \icinit\- of IlexerK- in 1783. 

Real Estate Conveyances, 1787-92. 

200 Acres. Ebenezer Petty to Gabriel Friend, adjoining 
lands of John Crouch and John Karness in Tyo^arts Valley. 

10 Acres. John Warwick to Syhester Ward, East side 
of Valley River. 

900 Acres. James Arnold to Jacob McEnry, Cave Run, 
a branch of Tyo;arts Valley River. 

5400 Acres. Samuel ITanaway to Mathias Halstead, Elk 

600 Acres. John Ilagel to Henry Runyan, Buckhannon 

130 Acres. Jacob Shaver to W^m. Briggs, Kings Run. 
200 Acres. Joseph Friend to Henry Smith, Alud Lick Run. 
1000 Acres. James Hanaway to Benjamin Hall, Davis 

Run and Hawe's Run. 

540 xAcres. James Arnold to Ignatius Fla3-den, Tygarts 
Valley River. 

600 Acres, James Arnold to Robert Price, Sandy Creek. 

300 Acres. Charles Tomilson to James Lackey, Tygarts 
Valley River. 

170 .W^res. James Lackey to Charles Tomilson, Tygarts 
Valley Ri\'er. 

103 Acres. John Lackey to John Hadden, Tygarts \'al- 
lev Ri^'er. 

170 Acres. Joseph Crouch to Geo. See, Tygarts Valle^' 

400 Acres. \A'm. Gibs()n to Charles 3dyers, Sugar Creek. 

131 Acres. Simean Harris to David Lilly, Tygarts 

225 Acres. James Arnold to Thomas Martin. 


2000 Acres. Edward Jackson to Henry Arkeport, ad- 
joining lands of John Jackson and James Arnold. 

1000 Acres. Richard Mason to Wm. W. Gary, Middle 

250 Acres. AMlliam Wilson to John Shenick, West side 
Cheat River. 

400 Acres. John Hardin to Hector Hardin, Cove Run. 

1000 Acres. Brooks Beal to William Wilson, East side 
Tygarts Vallc}^ River. 

6% Acres. Henry Petro to Richard Kittle, Wilson Creek. 

197 Acres. Aaron. Richardson to Charles Myers, West 
side Tygarts Valley River. 

186 Acres. Sylvester Ward to Geo. See, John Warwics 

213 Acres. Cornelius Bogard to Jacob Stalnaker, FiL-s 

135 Acres. John Crouch to John Pancake, West of 
Tygarts Valley River, adjoining lands of Ebenezer Petty. 

20 Acres. AlDram Kittle to Phineas Wells, East side of 
Valley River. 

210 xA.cres. John Alexander to Jacob Poseley, East side 
of Valley River. 

130 Acres. Jacob Shaver to Wm. Biggs, Trout Run. 

197 Acres. Elizabeth Shaver to Boston Stalnaker, ad- 
joining lands of /Mexander Maxwell and \\"m. Gurrence. 

500 Acres. John Jackson, Jr. to Wm. Waters, Turkey 

200 Acres. Daniel Westfall to Henrv Fink, East side 
Tygarts Valley River. 

112 Acres. Nicholas Smith to Wni. Sniitli. West side 
Tygarts Valley River, adjoining lands of Isaac White. 

120 Acres. Benjamin Jones to John Gurrence. West side 
T3'garts Valley River. 

190 Acres. Daniel Henderson to Wm. t'lark. Tygarts 
Valley River. 

300 Acres. John Gassity to Wm. Wamsley. West side of 
Valley Ri\er. adjoining lands of I'cler Gassity above and 
Wm. Levett below. 


166 Acres. Cornelius Bogard to Daniel Richardson, Files 

96 Acres. Jeremiah Cooper to Patrick Burns, Cheat 

3000 Acres. Hugh Thompson to Joseph Gibson, Elk 

396 Acres. David Conley to Jacob Kuhnrod (Conrad), 
adjoining- lands of Wm. Hamilton. 

330 Acres. Wm. Wilson to John Beall, Mouth of Roar- 
ing Creek. 

260 Acres. Jacob Eberman to John Smith, Tygarts Val- 
ley River. 

9322 Acres. Thomas Pennell to Stephen Sherwood, Elk 

5000 Acres. Joseph Pennell to Stephen Middlebrook, 
Elk River. 

1434 Acres. Thomas Pennell to Stephen Sherwood, Elk 

57 Acres. Plenry Mace to John Bogard, Cheat River. 

190 Acres. Geo. Reed to John Currence, W^est side Val- 
ley River. 

77 Acres. Thomas Wilmoth to James Thompson, Cheat 

77 Acres. James Thompson to Uriah Gandy, Cheat 

200 Acres. Philip Kizer to Cornelius Bogard, Shavers 

a7 Acres. Peter Cassity to Benjamin Plornbeck, ad- 
joining land of A\'m. Wamsley, West side Valley River. 

300 Acres. Sylvester W^ard to John Pancake, East side 
Valley River. 

135 Acres. A\"m. Briggs to Jacob AA>ese, Kings Run. 

150 Acres. Jacob AA'estfall to Sylvester AA^ard, East side 
Valley River. 

200 Acres. Geo. Breeding to Abraham Claypool, East 
side Tygarts A'alley River, between the two tracts of Geo. See. 

190 Acres. .Michael Isner to David Henderson, both sides 
of the river, adjoining lands of Al)ram Kittle and Henry 


195 Acres. Xicholas Petro to Henry Petro, adjoining 
land of Benjamin Wilson, Daniel Westfall, Abram Kittle, 
John Kittle and Jacob AMiite. 

402 Acres. Cornelius Bogard to Jacob C. Harper, East 
side Tygarts A^allev River. 

The consideration in the sale of tlie 402 acre tract of 
land of Cornelius Bogard to Jacob C. Harper was $1,458.00. 
In the sale of ^?)7 acres of land of Peter Cassity to Benjamin 
Hornbeck, the consideration Avas $972.00. This tract was 
north of the present railway station of Daily, in Valley Bend 
District, and the descendants of Benjamin Hornljeck own 
and reside upon a portion of the tract at the present time. 

Old Surveys. 

The following surveys were made in Avhat is now Ran- 
dolph County before separation from Harrison : 

August 3, 1785, Geo. Harness, adjustor for both sides, 
surveyed a tract on l)oth sides of Dry Fork of Cheat River 
above Buffalo Lick. 

Surveyed in 1785, on W^stfalls Mill Run for Jacob West- 
fall, Jr. and Geo. \\'estfall, Sr., 322 acres. 

Surveyed 1785, for Benjamin Wilson, assignee of Henry 
Banks, 200 acres East side of Valley River, adjoining lands 
of John Truby. Chain Carriers, W^m. Cassidy, Jacob ^^^est- 
fall and Cornelius Bogard. 

Surveyed, x\ugust 1785, for John Jackson, assignee of 
Geo. Harness, 148 acres of land in Harrison County, on Black 
A\'ater Creek, a branch of Cheat River. 

Surveyed August, 1785, l)y Geo. Harness for Wm. Hay- 
mond, a tract of land on Black \\'ater Creek. Chain carriers, 
Henry JMace and John Jackson. 

Surveyed June, 1785, for Isaac Westfall, assignee of Cor- 
nelius \A"estfall, assignee of Joseph Friend, assignee of An- 
drew Woodrow, 152 acres of land in Harrison Countv on both 
sides of left liand fork of Isners Rvni, adjoining lands of Thos. 

John Wilson, adjustor, surveyed in 1785, for Henry and 
Nicholas I'etro, 200 acres adjoining the land t1u'\' then lived 


on and lands of l)anic'l W'eslfall and William Wilson, as- 
signee of Uenjaniin \\ ilson, assignee of Henry Hanks. 

Snrveyed by Edward Jackson, adjuster, 1735, for Wm. 
Ilaymond, Sheriff of llarrison County, lands of Christopher 
Strader on lUickliannim Rixer, including mouth of Little 
Sand Run. 

Surveyed 1785, for Jacob Riflle. 50 acres on waters of 
Tygarts Valley River, adjoining lands of John Alexander, 
Geo. Harness, surveyor. Chain carriers, James Lackey and 
Geo. Wilson. 

Surveyed, August 1786, for James Taffee, assignee of 
Israel Brown and Robert Chanee, 698 acres on both sides of 
river that empties into Tygarts \"alley River below Roar- 
ing Creek. 

Surveved bebruary 1786, for James Taffee, assignee of 
Israel Brown, assignee of Robert Chanee, 875 acres on W^est 
side of the waters that empty into Roaring Creek. Chai^i 
carriers, Jonas Friend and John W'estfall. 

Surveyed by Daniel Pugh for James Taffee, 1000 acres of 
land on King's Creek, a branch of Tygarts Valley River and 
adjoining lands of John Wilson, Benjamin Wilson and Henry 




"One day through the primeval wood, 
A calf walked home, as all calves should; 
But made a trail all bent askew, 
A crooked trail as all calves do. 

"And then the wise bell weather sheep, 
Pursued the trail o'er vale and steep 
And drew the flock behind him, too 
As good bell-weathers always do. 

"This forest path became a lane. 
That bent and turned and turned again; 
This crooked path became a road, 
Where many a poor horse with a load, 
Toiled on beneath the burning sun. 
And traveled some three miles in one. 
And thus a century and a half 
Trod in the footsteps of that calf." 

THE roads of a country are an index to its ctilture and civi- 
lization. The status of any people, historic or contem- 
poraneous, may be determined by a knowledge of its facilities 
for intercommtmication. The civilization of the classic an- 
cients reached its limitations in stone highways. The carts, 
wheelbarrows, canals and junks are parallelled by the civili- 
zation of the Celestial Empire. Civilization today is moving 
forward on railroads, steamships and magnetic telegraphs, 
while the possibilities of aerial navigation are challenging 
man's inventive genius. 

Of course good roads were an impossibility in Randolph 
for many years because of the sparsely settled condition of 
the county. 

In 1774, when Pendleton was still a part of Augusta, a 
road was ordered to be surve}-ed up Seneca and over the Al- 
leghany divide in order to connect the infant settlements on 
Cheat and T}'garts Valley Axith the communities east of the 
mountains. Whether this road was ever surveyed and im- 
proved is uncertain. Road making in that day. however, con- 


sisted largely in cutting out the brush and removing the logs 
along the proposed highway. A new order for a road over 
the same route was ordered by the Court of Pendleton County 
in 1787. Regardless of the condition of the trail, this was the 
main route traversed by the pioneer in reaching his new abode 
West of the mountains. 

Among the im])ortant early road surxeys were the fol- 
lowing : 

In 1787 a road from the county seat by Win. Smith's to 
Middle Fork. 

Same year a road from the county seat to Sandy Creek. 

Same year a road from Salt Lick on Leading Creek to 
Mud Lick. 

In 1788 a road from the Tygarts Valley Road to Crab 
Apple bottom in Highland County. 

In 1789 a road from Peter Cassity's to the Clarksburg 
road at the mouth of Leading Creek. 

In 1790 a road from Michael Isner's in Tygarts Valley 
to the Hardy County line. 

Same year a road from Connolly's Lick to the top of the 
Alleghanies at the Augusta County line. 

In 1792 a road from Beverly to the upper ford of Cheat. 

In 1793 a road along Currences Blazes square across the 

Same year a road from Beverly to the Carpenter settle- 
ment on Elk. 

In 1795 a road from Beverly to Jacob Westfall's Saw Mill 
on Files Creek, so as to intersect the Big Road. 

In 1798 a road from Beverly to \\'olf's at the foot of Rich 
Mountain toward Buckhannon. 

The travel in an early day between the valley and set- 
tlements to the A\'estward was probably across the mountains 
South of Kuttonsville. 

In 1814 a road was ordered to be made that would be 
passable for pack horse from Beverly to Buckhannon. 

The Staunton and Parkersburg Pike was built about 
1840. Fvidently the Board of Public AA'orks intended to cross 
the mountains South of Huttonsville. This would have left 
Beverly ten or twelve miles to the north. To induce the 


Board to make Beverly a point on the road, several thousand 
dollars was subscril^ed by citizens of Beverly to be used in 
the construction of the road. 

In 1784 Henry Petro was appointed surveyor of a road 
from Eberman's Creek to Jacob W'estfall's Mill. 

In 1785 Cornelius Bogard was appointed surveyor of a 
road from Wilson's Mill on Wilson's Creek to the Rocking- 
ham County line. This was practically a continuation of the 
Seneca Trail l)y which most of the settlers had entered the 
valley from the East. It crossed over Cheat Mountain at tlie 
Kelly settlement to Cheat River, thence up the river to the 
mouth of Taylor Run, ascending Shaver Mountain by a divid- 
ing ridge just South of Taylor Run, passing down on the 
east side of the mountain about tme-half mile north of the 
Coberlv farm, uniting with the rijad as presentlv located at 
or near Laurel Tork. 

At a court held at Clarksburg, September, 1784, Abram 
Kittle, Thos. Phillips, Geo. Westfall, Sr., and Benjamin Horn- 
beck were appointed viewers of a road from Jacob Westfall's 
Mill to a bridge opposite Geo. Westfall's Mill. Geo. Westfall's 
Mill was located, perhaps, in the vicinity of the old Baker 
Mill at Beverly, wdiile Jacob AX'estfall's Mill was probably 
located on the Buckey Mill site, about one mile east of Bev- 
erly, on the same stream. 

At the same term of the court, Ebenezer Petty, Jacob 
Yokum, Peter Cassity, and Jacob Stalnaker, Sr., were ap- 
pointed viewers of a road from a bridge opposite Geo. \\'est- 
fall's Mill to Darby Conoly's place. This road, perhaps, the 
most travelled road in the first half century in the history of 
the county, crossed the river abcnit one mile south of Beverly 
at what is known as the slaty ford on the Co])erly farm, then 
skirted tlie base of the old river terraces up the ri\er. ])assing 
al)out 100 yards to the west of the old Isaac White house on 
tlie l)ro\v of tlie hill, thence U]) tlie river at the l)ase of the 
foot-hills, crossing over the bluff near the site of the old 
IMethodist church a quarter of a mile west of the residence 
of J. A. Crawford, thence on up the \alley largely on the 
west side to Conlc}- Pun. 

Jonas Eriend was made overseer of a road b\- the liarri- 


son County Court in 1784, from his home near the mouth of 
Leading- Creek to Eberman's Creek, now Chenoweth's Creek. 




THE education of the youth of Randolph, in the first decade 
of its history, because of the sparsely settled conditiun ol 
the country, must have been limited to the home and fireside. 
While the achievement' that mostly concerned the pioneer was 
the conversion of the wilderness into homes and farms, yet a 
people with the courage and intelligence to take advantage of 
the opportunities afforded by a frontier communitv with the 
laudable ambition to improve their condition, would nut long 
neglect the education of their children. Accordingly, private 
schools were early established by tw'O or more families uniting 
and employing a teacher. The next step in the way of ele- 
mentary education was in the direction of subscription schools, 
open to all who were able to pay the tuition fees. Often the 
teacher of these schools was a roving individual, whose quali- 
fications were limited to his ability to teach the most rudi- 
mentary branches, such as reading writing and arithmetic 
and his physical ability to maintain discipline. As a rule 
these teachers received a meagre salary and boarded around 
with the patrons of the school. However, not a few of the 
early teachers of Randolph were men of classical scholarship, 
and the impress and influence of their teaching is not only 
manifest today, but will extend to future generations. Such 
men were James H. Logan, Dr. Squire Bosworth. Rev. 
Thomas and Jacob I. Hill. 

Education was a subject the early lawmakers of A'irginia 
considered worthy of their consideration and Randolph 
Academy was established by act of the V'irginia assembly of 
December 1, 1787. In the follcnving November, among the 
additional trustees appointed, w^ere the following from Ran- 
dolph County : John Haddan, Abraham Claypoole, James 
Westfall, and Henry Fink. The trustees selected Clarksburg 
as the most eligible location ior the proposed institution of 


Icarniiii;'. A copy of tlie act foundino- Randolph Academy is 
appended : 

W'iLERKAS, d'lie inhabitants of the counties of Harri- 
son, MonongaHa, Randolph and Ohio, are from their remote 
stiuation, deprived of the advantages arising from the estab- 
lishment of public seminaries within the state: and it is just 
and reasonable that the one-sixth of the fees of the surveyors 
of the said counties, which are now applied toward the sup- 
port of the William and Mary College, should be a])])lied to 
the establishment of a public seminary within one (»f the 
said counties. 

ERAL ASSEMBLY, That his excellency Edmund Randolph, 
Benjamin Harrison, Patrick Henry, Joseph Prentiss, James 
Wood, George Mason, George Nicholas, John Harvey, Tho- 
mas Mathews. AMlliam Ronald, Henry Banks, AA'illiam Mc- 
Leary, John Evans, AA illiam John, Francis Worman, John 
Pearce Duvall, George Jackson, Benjamin \Mlson, Nicholas 
Carpenter, John Powers, Archibald A\"oods, Closes Chapline, 
Ebenezer Zane, David Chambers, John Wilson, Jacob West- 
fall, junior, Robert Maxwell and John Jackson, junior, gentle- 
men, shall be and they are hereby constituted a body politic 
and corporate, to be known by the name of "The trustees of 
the Randolph Academy," and by that name shall have per- 
petual succession and a common seal. 

The said trustees shall hold their first session in Alorgan- 
town in Monongalia County, on the second Monday in ~Slay 
next : they shall then or as soon after as conveniently may be, 
fix upon some healthy and convenient place within one of the 
counties of Harrison, Monongalia, Randolph, or Ohio, for the 
purpose of erecting thereon the necessary buildings for the 
said academy. 

After defining the powers and duties of the trustees of the 
academy the act concludes in the following sections, indicat- 
ing the source from which the financial support of the institu- 
tion should come : 

The surveyors of the said counties of Monongalia, Har- 
rison, Randolph, and Ohio, shall not be accountable to the 


president and masters of William and Mary College, for any 
part of the fees which shall accrue to them after the first day 
of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight : 
And the bond as given by them for the yearly payment of 
one-sixth of their fees to the president and masters of the 
said college, shall be and are hereby declared to be null and 
void, so far as relates to the fees which shall become due to 
them after the said first day of January, in the year last men- 

Each of the surveyors of the said counties shall, within 
one month after he shall 'be required by the board of trustees, 
give bond with sufficient security in a reasonable sum, for 
the yearly payment of one-sixth part of the fees which shall 
become due to him after the said first day of January, to the 
said trustees; and in case any one of the said surveyors shall 
fail or refuse to give such bond and security he shall forfeit 
and pay to the said trustees the sum of one hundred pounds, to 
be recovered by motion in the court of the county of such 
surveyor, upon giving him ten days previous notice of such 
motion : and each of the said surveyors shall annually forfeit 
and pay the like sum to the said trustees, to be recovered in 
the same manner, until he shall give such bond and security. 

Free School System, 

In order to understand the causes that resulted in the 
foundation of the free school system, it is necessary to give 
a cursory review of the origin and progress of popular educa- 
tion in the mother state. Thomas Jefiferson, in 1779, jjre- 
pared and had submitted to the Virginia Assembly a bill 
"For the Better Diffusion of Knowledge." This was the first 
movement to establish a system of Free Schools in \'irginia. 
The object of Air. Jefferson's Free School h\\\, in conjunotidu 
with his other bills for religious freedom and the abolition of 
entails and the rights of primogeniture, was to form "a sys- 
tem by which every fil)er would l)e eradicated of ancient or 
future aristocracy, and a foundatiiMi laid for a g(n'ernment 
truly republican." 

]\Ir. Jefferson's I'^ree School hill was not even considered 


by the General Assembly, but it greatly influenced public 
sentiment and laid the foundation for all subsequent legisla- 
tion on puljlic education in \'irginia. It proposed a system 
embracing three classes of schools, namely : 

1. Elementary schools, free to all and supported by pub- 
lic expense. 

2. Cicneral schools, academies and colleges, to be main- 
tained parti}- by public expense, and partly by tuition fees. 

3. A State University, at the head of the system. 

In his "Notes on Virginia" Mr. Jefferson gives the fol- 
lowing particulars of the system : 

"The bill proposes to lay off every county into small dis- 
tricts of five or six miles square, called hundreds, and each 
of them to establish a school for teaching reading, writing and 
arithmetic. The teacher to be supported by the hundred and 
every person in it entitled to send his children three years 
gratis, and as much longer as he pleases, paying for it. These 
schools to be under a visitor, who is annually to choose a boy 
of best genius in the school, of those whose parents are too 
poor to give them further education, and to send him forward 
to one of the grammar schools, of which twenty are pro- 
posed to be erected in diff'erent parts of the country, for teach- 
ing Greek, Latin, geography and the higher branches of num- 
erical arithmetic. Of the boys thus sent in one year, trial is 
to be made at the grammar schoods one or two years, and 
the best genius of the w^hole selected, and continued six years, 
and the residue dismissed. By this means twenty of the best 
geniuses will be annuallv instructed at public expense, so tar 
as the grammar schools." 

"At the end of six years" instruction, one-half are to be 
discontinued, from among wdiom the grammar schools are to 
be supplied with future masters, and the other half who are 
to be chosen for the superiority of their parts and disposi- 
tions, are to be sent and continued three years in the study 
of such services, as they may choose at AMlliam and Mary 
College, the plan of which is to be enlarged, as will hereafter 
be explained, and extended to all the useful sciences." 

The general objects of the law are to provide an educa- 


tion adapted to the years, to the capacity, and the condition 
of every one, and directed to their freedom and happiness." 

In 1796, December 22, an act to establish public schools 
was passed which embodied the provision of Air. Jefferson's 
bill for elementary schools, being the first grade of the system. 

This act contained the general plan of an efficient free 
school system. The entire management of the proposed sys- 
tem was placed in the hands of three county officers, styled 
aldermen, who were empowered to divide the county into 
school districts, employ teachers, determine the amount of 
money necessary to build school houses, to pay teachers' salar- 
ies and to make a levy upon the property of the inhabitants of 
each county for this purpose. A fatal proviso, however, was 
added to the act : "That the court of each county, at which 
a majority of the acting magistrates thereof shall be present, 
shall first determine the year in which the first election of ald- 
ermen shall be made, and until they so determine no such 
election shall be made." Concerning the failure of his law, 
]\Ir. Jefferson said: "The justices, being generally of the more 
wealthy class, were unwilling to incur the burden, so that it 
was not suffered to commence in a single county." Although 
ths law was never repealed, there is no record showing that 
this act was ever put in operation. 

The Literary Fund. 

The opportunity was again presented for the agitation of 
the public school question in 1810 when the Literary Fund 
was created. 

"It was enacted on the 2d of February, 1810, that all 
escheats, confiscations, fines, penalties and forfeitures, and all 
rights in personal property accruing to the Commonwealth, 
as directed, showing no rightful pro])rietor, sliall be appro? 
priated to the encouragement of learning; and the auditor was 
directed to open an account to be designated as the Literary 

The following year an act was passed protesting against 
any other application of the revenues of this fund by any 
other General Assembly, to any other object than the educa- 
tion of the poor. This was the beginning of what was called 


the "Pauper System" which continued in force up to 1861 and 
was in operation in every county except those in which a free 
school system had been established and in such counties their 
just quota of the Literary Fund went into the county school 

Various amendments were made to the Literary Fund 
bill from time to time, however, under laws most friendly to 
free schools, it required the endorsement of two-thirds of the 
legal voters of the county, before a single public school be 
established. This, coupled with the property qualification of 
voters, gave a vast advantage to the enemies of public edu- 

The constitution, which was adopted by the state of 
West A'irginia in 1861, made provision "for a thorough and 
eflficient system of free schools." The legislature on the lOth 
day of December, 1863, passed an act, establishing our pre- 
sent system of free schools. However, some slight amend- 
ments were made under the new constitution adopted in 1873. 

School Commissioners for Randolph County. 

At a session of the County Court, held on the 27th day 
of October, 1856, by Joseph Hart, Thos. B. Scott, and Jacob 
Vanscoy as members of the court, the following School 
Commissioners were appointed for Randolph County : 

District No. 1 — John W. Moore. 

District No. 2 — Harmon Snyder. 

District No. 3 — John M. Crouch. 

District No. 4 — E. B. Bosworth. 

District No. 5 — -W'm. P. Brady. 

District No. 6 — Squire Bosworth. 

District No. 7 — John I. Chenoweth. 

District No. 8 — Levy Moore. 

District No. 9 — Wm. M. Phares. 

District No. 10 — W^ashington Taylor. 

District No. 11 — ^Samuel Dinkle. 

District No. 12 — Cyrus Kittle. 

District No. 13— Alexander Grim. 

District No. 14 — Alph Taylor. 

District No. 15 — Jesse M. Roy. 



School Statistics of Randolph County for 1866. 

Amount of School Fund $2,157.00 

School Houses in 1865 2 

School Houses in 1866 12 

Average value of School House, 1866 $140.00 

Enumeration 1736 

Enrollment 761 

Daily Attendance 615 

Teachers — Male 21 

Teachers — Female 9 

Average Salary — Men $24.00 

Average Salary — Female $15.00 

Average length of term 2.8 months 

Statistics 1910. 

Names of Magisterial and 
Independent Districts 

Beverly 20 | 

Dry Fork 41 [ 

Huttonsville 15 I 

Leadsville 20 ] 

Mingo 14 j 

Middle Fork [ 25 I 

New Interest 13 

Roaring Creek j 16 ] 

Valley Bend ! 8 | 

Elkins Independent 33 ! 


O rvi 


CD ■ 13 jH 

2 != 






Total I 205 I 7143 



S M 

-1-1 p 


f 2,898.32 



-.J 3 

O !Lh 

? 7,375.74 


Public Schools of Randolph in 1882. 

A. S. Bosworth was County Superintendent that year and 
from his report we learn the following facts : There was an 
enrollment of 1758 pupils in the county ; tliere was but one 
graded school in the county and this was at Beverly ; there 
were 24 log l)uildings and 34 frame buildings for school pur- 
poses in the county ; the average value of school buildings was 
$211. Fiftv-three teachers were licensed that year with grades 


as fdllnws: 20 first grade, 25 second grade, and 8 tliird grade. 
The following teachers were licensed : Id. L. Stalnaker, G. W. 
Cunningham, C. S. IMoore. d'eresa Cain, A. M. Bradley, D. 
R. Curtis, Anna McLean, Maud Chenoweth, Nannie Daniels, 
John L. Bosworth, James 1'.. Litle, B. W. Taylor, P. C. Web- 
le}', Lee Marstiller, J. B. Canheld, W. Marstiller, Agnes Mar- 
stiller, Angelia Scott, Alice Scott, F. M. Canfield, C. M. Mar- 
stiller, M. A. Durkin, Ella Wilmoth, F. J. d^riplett, Sylvester 
Wilmotli, Arnold Wilmoth, L. B. Triplett, D. E. Coberly, 
E. R. Skidmore, D. A. Denton, AL E. Lawson, Lemuel C. 
Rice, Delpha Marstiller, Celia Wilmoth, Flora Channel, B. 
B. Herron, T. L. Daniels, Sheffey Taylor, Thomas Madden, 
Alary King, W. P. Aladden, John F. Ward, F. H. Kittle, John 
Hutton, Martin Madden, Mollie L. Thomas, Henry Simmons, 
A\'. O. Grim, H. B. Morgan, J. H. Wamsley, J. L. Wamsley. 

Superintendents of Schools. 

David Goff 1853 C. S. Aloore..... 1888 

\\'. F. Corley.. 1865 D. A. Hamrick 1890 

S. B. Hart... ....1867 S. L. Hogan 1892 

Jacob L Hill .....1869 W. T. Woodyard. 1895 

j. W. Price .1872 A. J. Crickard 1899 

A. F. Wilmoth 1875 E. A. Poe 1903 

A. S. Bosworth 1882 AA'. J. Long.... 1905 

E. W. Tavlor ......1884 Troy \\'ilmoth 1915 

F. P. Madden 1886 

The Davis and Elkins College. 

The founding of the Davis and Elkins College marked a 
new era in the educational history of Randolph. The first 
session opened in 1904 and has steadily grown in power, pat- 
ronage and usefulness. Lentil 1908, the college was under 
Lexington and AA'inchester Presbyteries. The Presbyterian 
church of the State is now united in its support. The College 
received an endowment of SIOO.OOO under the will of the late 
Senator Davis. The College is open to both se.xes and com- 
pares favorably with the best institutions of learning in this 




ON December 20, 1860, South Carolina adopted an ordi- 
nance of secession declaring that the Union existing be- 
tween South Carolina and the other States was dissolved. 
The spirit of secession spread with great rapidity, and by the 
first of February, 1861, five other states — Mississippi, Florida, 
Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana — all had taken similar action. 
On February 4, 1861, delegates from six of the seceded states 
met at Montgomery, Alabama, and formed a new government 
called the Confederate States of America. February 8th, the 
same year, Jefferson Davis was elected President, and Alex- 
ander Stevens, Vice-President. Virginia was not only the old- 
est but, in many respects, the most influential among the 
slave holding States. She was soon to become the principal 
theatre in which the great Civil War drama was to be en- 
acted. The public mind at this time was much agitated and 
the impending crisis cast its shadows before. Under these 
circumstances Governor Fletcher called the General Assembly 
in extra session on Monday, January 7, 1861, and an act was 
passed providing for a State Convention and the election of 
delegates thereto. The object of this convention was to de- 
termine the position \"irginia should take in regard to seces- 
sion. The election was held February 4, 1861, and the con- 
vention was to be held February 13th following. John X. 
Hughes was elected to represent Randolph County in that 
convention. The pul:)lic mind was further inflamed by the 
bombardment of Fort Sumpter bv the forces of South Caro- 
lina on April 13, 1861. On April 17, 1861, this convention 
passed an ordinance of secession by a vote of yeas 88 and 
nays 55. 

The Civil \\"ar was precipitated in Western N'irginia by 
an effort on the part of Virginia, aided by the other seceding 
states, to prevent a dixision of the state. In the counties west 


of the Allec^hanies the preponderance of sentiment was in 
favor of maintaining the Union. However, in some counties, 
as Randolph, secession sympathizers were in the majority. 
Robert E. Lee was appointed Commander in Chief of the 
miHtary and naval forces of Virginia, April 23, 1861. He at 
once began the organization in the counties west of the Al- 
leghanies of an army of volunteers. 

On May 4, 1861, Colonel A. Porterfield was ordered to 
Grafton by General Lee to take charge of the volunteer troops 
.of that section. About the middle of ^lay, 1861, General Lee 
ordered Colonel Heck to transport 1,000 muskets from Staun- 
ton to Beverly for the use of volunteer companies. General 
Lee being disappointed in the enlistment of volunteers, sent 
General Garnett across the mountains with troops from Vir- 
ginia, Georgia and Tennessee. AMiile the Confederacy was 
organizing an army in Northwestern Mrginia, the general 
government was not idle. Two thousand stands of arms were 
shipped to the Northwestern Panhandle on May 7, 1861. 
Colonel Benjamin F. Kelley organized a force of Federal 
volunteers at Wheeling, May 26, 1861, and was commanded 
to obey the orders of General McLellan, who was then at 
Cincinnati. The next da}- Colonel Kelley was ordered to 
Grafton to engage Colonel Porterfield. On reaching Grafton 
Colonel Kelley learned that Colonel Porterfield had abandon- 
ed Grafton for Philippi. Colonel Kelley with a much superior 
force surprised and routed Colonel Porterfield at Philippi on 
the morning of June 3, 1861. Colonel Porterfield retreated to 
Huttonsville where he met and was relieved of his command 
by General Garnett, who with the combined forces of Porter- 
field and his own men commanded an army of about 6,000 
soldiers. Against this force General ]\IcLellan was approach- 
ing with an army of 20,000 men. General Garnett sent Col- 
onel Pegram to fortify the western base of Rich ^fountain 
with 1,300 men. General Garnett marched with the main 
body of his army of between 4,500 and 5,000 to the northern 
base of Laurel Hill near Belington. General Morris was 
ordered to advance from Philippi and make a demonstration 
as though the principal attack was to be made on the Con- 
federate forces at Laurel Hill, while ?\IcLellan, desis:ned to 


route Pegram's forces at Rich Mountain and cut off Garnett's 
retreat at Beverly. 

On June 22, 1861, General McLellan crossed the Ohio 
River at Parkersburg. By way of the B. & O. Railroad he 
reached Grafton next day. He marched to Buckhannon by 
way of Clarksburg and Weston, leaving fortified posts at 
Webster, Grafton, Clarksburg and Parkersburg. He reached 
Buckhannon, July 2, 1861. Under date of July 5, 1861, Buck- 
hannon, Va., General McLellan informed Colonel E. D. Town- 
send, \A'ashington, D. C. : 

"I expect to find the enemy in position on Rich Moun- 
tain, just this side of Beverly. I shall, if possible, turn the 
position to the south, and thus occupy the Beverly road in 
the rear. Assure the General that no prospects of brilliant 
victory shall induce me to depart from my intention of gain- 
ing success by maneuvering rather than by fighting. I will 
not throw these men of mine in the teeth of artillery and in- 
trenchments, if possible to avoid it. From all that I can 
learn the enemy is still uncertain as to where the main at- 
tack is to l)e made, and is committing the error of dividing 
his army in the face of superior forces." 

Colonel Pegram, the Confederate commander, had a 
picket post at Middle Fork Bridge to keep watch on the Fed- 
eral advance. A scouting party from McLellan's army ran 
into these pickets on July 6th, and were repulsed with one 
killed and five wounded. This was the first armed conflict 
between the Federals and Confederates in Randolph County. 
General McLellan in his report to the Federal Government 
says that seven Confederates were killed. This statement was 
erroneous as the Confederates had three wounded and none 
killed. On July 7, General R. L. McCook drove the Confed- 
erates from Middle Fork bridge. General McLellan occupied 
the bridge next day, July 8th, and on the evening of July 9th. 
moved to the Hillery farm on Roaring Creek, within two miles 
of Pegram's fortifications at the base of Rich 3*Iountain. On 
July 10, 1861, the Confederates under Colonel Pegram. and 
the Federals under General McLellan were facing each other 
at the western base of Rich Mountain. Simultaneously (ien- 
eral Morris was feigning ])reparations for an attack on the 


forces of (iencral (larnctt at the iKirthern l)ase of Laurel 
Hill, acting- under orders from (ieneral Mcl.ellan to withhold 
his attack until he was in a position to intercept General 
Garnett's retreat at Beverly. Colonel Scott was encamped at 
Beverly on the ni,yht of July 10th, on his way from Staunton 
to Laurel Hill to reinforce Cieneral Garnett. It was apparent 
that a battle was impending. General McLellan, conscious 
of his superior force and eciuipment, was confident of victory. 
In his report to Colonel Townsend from Buckhannon, July 
6th. he said: "By the 8th or 9th, at least, I expect to occupy 
Beverly, fighting" a battle in the meanwhile. I propose to 
drive the enemy over the mountain toward Staunton. Gen- 
eral Garnett was discouraged by the prospect of meeting a 
force much larger than his own, as well as disappointed by 
the meager number of volunteers and the lack of support and 
co-operation on the part of the people. In his report of June 
25th, from Laurel Hill, to the Confederate government at 
Richmond, \'a., among other things he said: "I have been, 
so far, whollv unable to get anything like accurate informa- 
tion as to the numbers, movements, or intentions of the enemy 
and begin to believe it almost an impossible thing. The Union 
men are greatly in the ascendency here and are much more 
zealous and active in their cause than the secessionists. The 
enemy are kept fully advised of our movements, even to the 
strength of our scouts and pickets, by the country people, 
while we are compelled to grope in the dark as much as if we 
were invading a foreign and hostile country." Instead of large 
additions to his forces as he expected, only eight men had 
joined his army prior to July 1st, and only fifteen had joined 
Colonel Heck's camp to that date. That General Garnett 
realized his inability to cope with the superior forces of 
the Union army was evidenced by his report from Laurel 
Hill dated July 6, 1861, in which he said: "I do not sup- 
pose this force can ever obtain a strength relative to that of 
the enemy, which would warrant us in giving him battle. The 
only certain result we can calculate upon is that our presence 
here will occupy a considerable force of the enemy, and re- 
lieve other points of the state where they might be employed 
against us." Colonel Peg^ram seemed to be the onlv officer 


on eillier side who had no adequate idea of the comparative 
strength of the opposing armies. The day before the Rich 
Mountain battle he asked permission of General Garnett to 
attack AIcLellan's army, intimating his belief that his forces 
were adequate for such an engagement. General Garnett 
very wisely refused him permission. 

Colonel Pegram was under the impression that the Fed- 
eral army would endeavor to attack him from the rear by 
sending a detachment across the mountain by an abandoned 
road to the north of the pike and which entered that road one 
and one-half miles west of Beverly. Colonel Pegram accord- 
ingly sent a message to Colonel Scott on the morning of 
July 11th, stating: "T think it almost certain that the enemy 
are working their way around my right flank to come into 
the turnpike one and one-half miles this side of Beverly."' 
This message reached Colonel Scott when his regiment had 
reached a point four miles north of Beverly. Colonel Scott 
immediately retraced his march to Beverly and thence to the 
position where the old road intersects the turnpike at the 
eastern base of Rich Mountain. While Colonel Pegram was 
industriously trying to circumvent the opposing forces from 
reaching his rear from the north, General Rosencranse was 
without molestation moving approximately 2.000 men to Peg- 
ram's rear by way of a circuitous route through the woods a 
mile or more to the south of the Pike, being piloted by David 
B. Hart, son of Joseph Hart, who resided on the crest of the 
mountain, where the pike crosses, a mile and a half to the 
rear of Pegram's camp. Young Hart visited IMcLellan's 
camp about 10 o'clock on Jul}- 10th, and volunteered his ser- 
vices in piloting the Federal troop to his father's farm on 
the top of the mountain from which point Pegram's forces 
could be attacked from the rear. Generals AIcLellan and 
Rosencranse discussed the plan and concltided to accept Hart's 
services. Rosencranse was given a detachment of 1917 men, 
and on the morning of July 11th, at 5 o'clock with rations 
for one day, they started to execute the movement. Rosen- 
cranse savs : "The column formed and moved forward in the 
following order and strength : 


Eighth Indiana, under Benton 242 strong 

Tenth Indiana, under Manson 425 

Thirteenth Indiana, under Sullivan.... 650 

Nineteenth Ohio, under Beatty 525 

Total infantry 1,842 

Burdsal's cavalry 75 

Aggregate 1,917 

"Colonel Lander, accompanied by the guide, led the way 
tlirongh a pathless forest, over rocks and ravines, keeping far 
down on the south eastern declivities of the mountain spurs, 
and using no ax, to avoid discovery by the enemy, whom we 
supposed would be on the alert, by reason of the appearance 
of unusual stir in our camp, and the lateness of the hour. A 
rain set in about 6 A. AI. and lasted until about 11 o'clock 
A. ]\I. with intermissions, during which the colitmn pushed 
cautiously and steadily forward, and arrived at last and halt- 
ed in rear of the crest on the top of Rich Mountain. Hungry 
and weary with an eight hours' march over a most unkindly 
road, thev laid down to rest, while Colonel Lander and the 
General examined the country. It was found that the guide 
was too much scared to be w'ith us longer, and we had an- 
other valley to cro.-.s, another hill to climb, another descent 
beyond that to make, before w^e could reach the Beverly road 
at the top of the mountain. On this road w^e started at 2 
o'clock, and reached the top of the mountain after the loss of 
an hour's time by mistake in the direction. 

"Shortly after passing over the crest of the hill, the head 
of the column ordered to be covered by a companv deployed 
as skirmishers, was fired on by the enemy's pickets, killing 
Sergeant James A. Taggart and dangerously wounding Cap- 
tain Christopher Miller, of the Tenth. 

"The column then advanced through dense brushwood, 
emerging into rather more open brushwood and trees, when 
the rebels opened a fire of both musketry and 6-pounders, 
firing some case shot and a few shells. * * * * * * * 

"^^"e formed about three o'clock under cover of our 
skirmishers, guarding w^ell against a flank attack from the 
direction of the rebels' position, and after a brisk fire, which 
threw the rebels into confusion, carried their position bv a 


charge, driving- tliem from behind some log breastworks, and 
pursued them into the thickets on the mountain. We cap- 
tured twenty-one prisoners, two brass 6-pounders, fifty stand 
of arms, and some corn and provisions. Our loss was 12 
killed and 49 wounded. 

■'The rebels had some 20 wounded on the field. The 
number of the killed we could not ascertain, but subsequently 
the number of burials reported to this date is 135 — many 
found scattered over the mountain. Our troops, informed 
that there were one or two regiments of rebels toward Bev- 
erly, and finding the hour late, bivouacked on their arms 
amid a cold, drenching rain, to await daylight, when they 
moved forward on the enemy's intrenched position, which 
was found abandoned by all except 63 men, who were taken 
prisoners. A\'e took possession of two brass 6-pounders, four 
caissons, and one hundred rounds ammunition, two kegs and 
one barrel powder, 19,000 buck and ball catridges, two stands 
of colors, and a large lot of equipment and clothing, consist- 
ing of 204 tents, 427 pairs pants, 124 axes, 98 picks, 134 spades 
and shovels, all their train, consisting of 29 wagons, 75 horses, 
4 mules, and 60 pairs harness. 

"The enemy finding their position turned, abandoned in- 
trenchments, which, taken by the front, would have cost us 
a thousand lives, and dispersed through the mountains, some 
attempting to escape by the way of Laurel Hill and others 
aiming for Huttonsville." 

Rosencranse and his army reached the mountain crest, 
at the lone tree. This point is a little more than a mile from 
Hart's house, where the battle was fought. The valley to 
cross and the hills to climb were comparatively small de- 
pressions and elevations, as the crest of the mountain from 
the lone tree to Hart's house is a descent of nearly 600 feet. 
The Confederate pickets were stationed about a half mile 
south of Hart's house, and upon approach of Federal forces, 
fired and fell back, joining the Confederate detachment at 
the Mart farm. 

The Confederates were informed of the flank movemenr 
alK)Ut noon bv a messenger sent from Rosencranse to Mc- 
Lellan. This messenger lost his way and was captured by the 


Confederates. Acting uixm this information Pegram sent 
350 men and one 6-poun(l cannon to the top of tlie monntain. 
The Confederates opened tire on the first api^ruach of the 
Federals, although the Federals outnumbered the Confed- 
erates, about six to one, the battle lasted three hours, and was 
stubbornly contested. Mart's house was occupied by the Con- 
federates, who fired from the windows and from the chinks 
between the logs. The Federals finally drove them out, kill- 
ing one Confederate who was settling himself in a far corner 
of an njjstairs room. .Man}- dead and wounded were carried 
into the house, and blood stains are still visible on the floors 
and stairways, having penetrated the wood beyond the effect 
of the scouring brush. 

Colonel Pegram's report is much more complete than 
Rosencranse's, and is here appended. It was written while he 
was a prisoner at the residence of Johathan Arnold in Beverly. 
He says: 

"Not knowing where a communication will find General 
Garnett, I submit the following report of the fight at Rich 
]\Iountain. The l^attlefield was immediateh- around the house 
of one Hart, situated at the highest point of the turnpike over 
tlie mountain, and two miles in the rear of my main line of 
trenches, the latter being at the foot of the western slope of 
the mountain. The intricacies of the surrounding country 
seemed scarcely to demand the placing of any force at Hart's, 
yet I had that morning placed Captain DeLagnel there with 
310 men and one piece of artillery, with instructions to de- 
fend it to the last extremity against whatever force might be 
brought to the attack by the enemy, but also to give me 
timely notice of his need for reinforcements. These orders had 
not been given two hours before General Rosencranse, who 
had been conducted up a distant ridge on my left flank and 
then along the top of the mountain by a man, attacked the 
small handful of troops under Captain DeLagnel, with 3,000 
men. A\'hen, from my camp, I heard the firing becoming 
very rapid, without waiting to hear from Captain DeLagnel, 
I ordered up reinforcements, and hurried on myself to the 
scene of action. \\"hen I arrived the piece of artillery was 
entirely unmanned. Captain DeLagnel having been severely 


wounded, after which his men had left their piece. The lim- 
ber and caisson were no longer visible the horse having run 
away with them down the mountain, in doing which they 
met and upset the second piece of artillery, which had been 
ordered up to their assistance. Seeing the infantry deserting 
the slight breatsworks hastily thrown up that mornmg by 
Captain DeLagnel, I used all personal exertion to make them 
stand to their work until I saw that the place was hopelessly 
lost. On my way back to i: y camp I found the rtinforcinj 
force under command of Captain Anc'erson, of the artillery. 
in great confusion, they having fired upon their retre:itiug 
comrades. J hurritd on to camp and ordered the remaining" 
companies of my own regiment in camp to join them. This 
left my right front and right flank entirely unmanned. I 
then went back up the mountain where I found tne v/iiole 
force drawn up in line in aml^uscade near the road, under 
Major Nat Tyler. I called their attention and said a few en- 
couraging words to the men, asking them if they would fol- 
low their officers to the attack, to which they responded by a 
cheer. I was here interrupted by Captain Anderson, who said 
to me, 'Colonel Pegram, these men are completely demoraliz- 
ed, and will need you to lead them.' 

'T took my place at the head of the column, which f march- 
ed in single file through laurel thickets and other almost im- 
passable brushwood up a ridge to the top of the mountain. 
This placed me about one-fourth of a mile to the right flank 
of the enemy, and which was exactly the point 1 had been mak- 
ing for. I had just gotten all the men up together and was 
about making my dispositions for the attack when Major 
Tyler came up and reported that during the march up the 
ridge one of the men in his fright had turned around and shot 
the first sergeant of one of the rear companies, \\hich had 
caused nearlv the whole ni the company to run to the rear. 
He then said that the men were so intensely demoralized that 
he considered it madness to attempt to do anything with them 
by leading them on to the attack. A mere glance at the 
frightened countenances around me con\-inced me that this 
distressing news was l)ut too true, and it was confirmed by 
the opinion of three or four com])an\- conuuanders around me. 


They all agreed with me that there was nothing left to do hut 
to send the command under Major Tyler to effect a junction 
with cither (General (iarnctt at Laurel ilill, or Colonel Wil- 
liam C". Scott, who was supposed to be with his regiment near 
Beverly. It was now half past six in the evening, when I re- 
traced my sle])s with much difrtculty l)ack to the cam]), losing 
myself frecjucutly on the way, and arriving there after 11 
o'clock at night. I immediately assembled a council of war, 
composed of the field officers and companv commanders re- 
maining, when it was unanimously agreed that, after spiking 
the two remaining j^ieces of artillery, we should attempt to 
join (ieneral ( larnelt by a march • througli the mountains to 
our right. This act W'as imperative, not only from our re- 
duced numbers, now being about 600, and our being placed 
between two large attacking armies, but also because at 
least three-fourths of my command had no rations left ; the 
other one-fourth not having tlour enough for one meal. Hav- 
ing left directions for Sergeant Walker, and giving directions 
to Assistant Surgeon Taylor to take charge of the sick and 
wounded in camp, and to show a white flag at daylight, I 
called the companies together and started at one o'clock A. M., 
without a guide, to make my way. if possible, over the moun- 
tains, where there w^as not the sign of a path, toward General 
Garnett's camp. As I remained in camp to see the last com- 
pany in column, l)y the time I reached the head of the column, 
wdiich was nearly a mile long, Captain Lilly's company had 
disappeared and has not since been heard from. * * * * 
"The difficulties attending mv march it would be im- 
possible to exaggerate. \\'e arrived at Tygart's \*allev River 
at 7 P. M.. having made the distance of tw-elve miles in about 
eighteen hours. Here we were met by several country people, 
wdio appeared to 1)e our friends, and wdio informed us that at 
Leadsville Church, distant three miles, there was a small 
camp, composed of a portion of Garnett's command. Leaving 
Colonel Lleck with instructions to bring the command for- 
ward rajiidly, I hired a horse and proceeded forward until in 
sight of I^eadsville Church, when I stopped at a farmhouse 
w^here were assembled a dozen men and women. Thev in- 
formed me that General Garnett had retreated that afternoon 


up the Leading Creek road, into Tucker County, and that he 
was being pursued by three thousand of the enemy, who had 
come from the direction of Laurel Hill as far as Leadsville 
Church, when they turned up the Leading Creek road in pur- 
suit. This, of course, rendered all chance of joining General 
Garnett, or escaping in that direction, utterly impossible. 
Hurrying back to my command, I found them in much con- 
fusion, firing random shots in the dark, vuider the impression 
that the enemy were surrounding them. Reforming them, 1 
hurried back to the point where we first struck the river, and 
persuaded a few of the country people to cook all the pro- 
visions they had, hoping that it might go a little way toward 
satisfying the hunger of my almost famishing men. 

"I now^ found, on examining the men of the house, that 
there was, if any, only one possible means of escape, and that 
by a road which, passing within three miles of the enemy's 
camp at Beverly, led over precipitous mountains into Pendle- 
ton County. Along this road there were represented to me 
to be but a few miserable habitations, where it would l)e ut- 
terly impossible for even a company of men to get food ; and 
as it was now 11 o'clock P. ^L, it would be necessary to leave 
at once, without allowing them to get a mouthful where they 
were. I called a council of war, when it was agreed almost 
unanimouslv (only two members voting in the negative) 
that there was left to us nothing but the sad determination 
of surrendering ourselves prisoners of war to the enemy at 
Beverly. I was perfectly convinced that an attempt on our 
part to escape would sacrifice by starvation a large number of 
the lives of the command." 

Colonel Pegram sent a note to the commanding officer 
of the United States forces at Beverly, and dispatched it 
about 12 o'clock on the night of July 12th. The messenger 
returned next morning with Colonel Key, one of General Mc- 
Lellan's staiT officers. After a conference between Colonels 
Pegram and Key, the former's of^cers and men. numbering 
555 marched to Beverly and stacked their arms. The)- were 
kept at BeverW until July 17th, when all but Colonel Pegram 
were released on parole, Pegram being refused his parole be- 


cause lie had not resigned as an officer in the United States 

Lieutenant Charles W. Statham, in his report, gives in- 
teresting additional details of the battle of Rich Mountain. 
He says : 

"I have to report that on the 11th instant, l)y your order, 
I moved with one gun and a detachment of twenty-one men 
to occupy this pass in Rich Mountain. We took our position 
about 1 o'clock P. M. In less than two hours tlie enemy made 
their appearance in large column, six regiments strong, im- 
mediately on the hill south of the pass. We reversed our 
gun, which was pointed down the pass, and prepared to re- 
ceive the enemy in the direction in which he was approaching. 
In a few minutes the sharpshooters of the enemv commenced 
a fire upon us from behind trees and rocks at a distance rang- 
ing from two to three hundred yards, the body of the enemy 
being still farther. A\'e opened upon the main body with 
spherical shot, which I cut at first one second and a cpiarter, 
and could distinctly see them burst in their midst. I knew 
we did good execution, as I could distinctly hear their officers 
give vehement commands to close up ranks. After firing this 
way some little time at the rate of near four shots per minute 
we forced the enemy to retire. 

In about twenty minutes the enemy reappeared in a 
column of three regiments, advanced briskly upon us, when 
we moved our gun a little higher up the opposite hill and 
again opened upon them, and with our spherical shot cut as 
low as one second down to three-quarters. After firing 
rapidly for some time the enemy again beat a hasty retreat, 
when mv men, including the infantry not yet in action, rent 
the air with their shouts, confidently believing that we had 
gained the day. But in a short time the enemy again formed 
and renewed the attack with more swnftness than before, and 
soon played havoc with our horses. These, with the caisson, 
ran down the mountain with drivers and all, leaving us with 
onlv the small amount of ammunition in our limber-box. Wq 
then limbered and moved our gun near a small log stable, be- 
hind which we placed our horses for protection. By this time 
our men were falling fast. Sergeant Turner, of the gun, had 


both legs broken and shot through the body ; Mays had his 
left arm splintered with a musket ball ; Isaiah Ryder shot 
through the head, and died instantly ; John A. Taylor had his 
thigh broken ; E. H. Kersey, shot in the ankle ; Lewis Going, 
wounded in the arm ; ^^^lliam W. Stewart, badlv wounded in 
the head and breast. This left me but few to man the gun. 
Captain DeLagnel, who was the commander of the post, 
having his horse shot under him and seeing our crippled con- 
dition, gallantly came and volunteered his valuable aid, and 
helped load and fire three or four times, when he was shot 
in the side, and I think, in the hand. He then ordered us to 
make our escape, if we could, but the enemy was too close, 
and his fire too severe, to admit of safe retreat to many of us. 
I was shot through the right hand and am now a prisoner." 

Colonel \\\ Scott with the 44th Virginia Infantry was 
stationed at the western base of Rich Mountain, during the 
battle on Rich ^Mountain. Scott heard the muskets and ar- 
tillery, but supposed that the fighting was at the fort six 
miles distant. Scott obeyed orders and remained guarding 
the old road at its junction with the pike. However, becom- 
ing suspicious and impatient, .*~^cott sent Jno. N. Hughes, a 
lawyer who lived in Beverly, to Pegram's headquarters for 
information. Hughes never returned, ^^^^en at the turn of 
the road, a few hundred yards east of Hart's house, he was 
fired on by mistake by the Confederates and killed. Hughes 
was a brilliant lawyer, but was addicted to drink, and it has 
been charged that he was intoxicated when he undertook to 
discharge this dangerous service. Colonel Scott denies that 
Hughes was drinking the day he lost his life. 

Lieutenant James Cochrane, of the Church\ille Cavalry, 
in a report to Colonel Scott, of the exciting and interesting 
events in which he participated on the day of the Rich Moun- 
tain fight, says : 

"I was sent out with a squad of six men by Ca])tain De- 
Lagnel, who commanded our forces engaged in the fight, to 
bring up some cavalrv that he had fired on througii mistake. 
In going down the turuj^ike I unexpectedl}- met witli youi 
regiment drawn u]) in the road about a mile and a half from 
Beverlv. 1 told v<ju \-our regiment was needed at the battle 


which was then going on ; that the enemy to the number of 
four or five thousand had gotten around Colonel Pegram's 
left flank, and were engaged with a few hundred of our men 
about a mile and a half in the rear of Colonel Pegram's camp; 
that the enemy were on the left, and our men in and on the 
right of the turnpike as you would approach the camp; that 
our men had but one piece of artillery. You asked me if I 
would go with you and act as guide. I consented. You in- 
stantly put your regiment in motion in double-quick time. I 
remonstrated ; told you we had to go between four and five 
miles up the mountain before we could reach the battlefield, 
and if the men traveled at that rate they would not be fit to 
fight when they got there. You then brought them down 
to quick time. 

"In going u]i the mountain we met with several men on 
horseback who had been in the battle ; one I recollect, of my 
company, who had been shot through the foot, and another 
whose coat had been shot across the shoulders. The latter 
told us that he was aid to Colonel Pegram, and that Colonel 
Pegram had 1:)een killed. Some of these men turned back 
and went with us part of the way up the mountain, but they 
all disappeared before your regiment stopped. On our way 
up I informed you of the death of Hughes, and you requested 
me not to mention it to your men, as it might dampen their 
spirit. When we arrived within about a mile of the battle 
the firing ceased, and in a few moments a loud huzza was 
heard coming from the position our forces had occupied when 
I left them. You asked me what that huzza meant. I told 
you that I was fearful the Yankees had driven our men from 
the field and captured our artillery, for the shout came from 
about the place where our artillerv and fortifications stood. 
You continued your march to within half a mile of the battle- 
ground, when I informed you that it was unsafe to go farther, 
that you could not with one regiment encounter successfully 
four or five thousand of the enemy, with the advantage of 
position, fortifications, and a piece of artillery. You halted 
your regiment, you and I dismouted and in company with 
some of your ofificers passed around a turn in the road that 
we might see, if possible, how things stood at the pass on 


top of the mountain, when we did see more men, as I toUl you 
at the time, exuhing and shouting, than Colonel Pegram had 
in his entire command. You were yet unwilling to go back. 
but requested me either to go myself or to send some of my 
men to reconnoiter. I told you I would not go, nor should 
any of my men go, for I was perfectly satisfied as to how- 
things stood. A young man named Lipford, of your regi- 
ment, stepped forward and proposed to go if he could get a 
pistol and horse. Thus equipped, he went off up the road, 
but in a very short time we heard the shout from many voices, 
"Halt, shoot him," and the firing of several guns, and then 
another loud Inizza. It being now plain that the enemy had 
either killed or taken Lipford prisoner, you were satisfied that 
I was right, and that the eneni}- did have possession of the 
field. You appearing still unwilling to go back, some of your 
officers suggested that as the enemy's pickets could piamly 
be seen around the fields on each side of the road in which 
we stood, if }'OU went forward the enemv would receive vou 
in ambuscade, whereas if you went back they would probably 
follow, and then you could take them in ambuscade. This 
suggestion l^eing approved fiy all of us who expressed any 
opinion, you marched your regiment down tlie mountaii, 
leaving men in the rear to give you information of the ap- 
proach of the enemy. In going down, information was 
brought you that the enemy were in pursuit, when you put 
your men in position to receive them. After remaining there 
some time, and the alarm proving false, and all being qrict 
on the mountain, }'ou returned to Beverly."" 

Lipford, referred to above, was not killed but was cap- 
tuerd by the Federals. Colonel Scott correctly conjecturing 
the true state of affairs on the mountain lop, retreated, setting 
an ambuscade on the way for the Federals, who were be- 
lieved to be in pursuit. This proved to lie a mistake and 
Scott returned to Beverly, reaching that place about dark. 
Colonel Scott held a conference with Confederate symj:a- 
thizers in Beverly, and concluded to march that night to 
Laurel Hill, but on going into tlie street, wliere he had left 
his regiment, he found that his 1 ieutenant Colonel, acting on 
erroneous information, had tjone in the direction of Muttons- 


A'ille. Coldiiel Scott mounted his liorse and dashed up the 
pike, oxertakini; his troop about two miles above Beverly. 
He turned his regiment in the direction of Laurel Hill, and on 
his return to lieverly, was informed that General (jarnett 
was retreating-. Accordins^ly, about 10 o'clock on the nig'ht 
of the 11th, Colonel Scott started from lieverly on his retreat 
by way of Huttonsville, across Cheat Mountain. On the 
night of July 11th, General Garnett sent a message to Colonel 
Scott to hold the Federals in check on the pike west of Bev- 
erly, until daylight next morning. The message was not re- 
-ceived by Colonel Scott until the morning of the 12th, when 
he had reached a point seven miles south of Beverly. The 
victorious Federals did not seem eager to follow the retreating 
'Confederates, as the forces under Rosencranse camped on the 
field of battle on the night of the 11th, and did not occupy the 
abandoned Confederate fortifications at the western base of the 
mountains until July 12th. The Federal forces entered Bev- 
erly July 12th, about one o'clock. General Garnett had ample 
time to retreat south l^y way of Beverly and Huttonsville, but 
a messenger, whom he sent to Beverly on the evening of the 
12th, mistaking Colonel Scott's regiment for Federals, reported 
to him that McLellan's army was occupying Beverly. 

While the Federal troops were entering the town and 
crossing the w^ooden bridge over the Tygarts \"alley River, 
Captain Richards, a Conferedate, rode up Main Street, and 
■when opposite the bridge, fired into the approaching Fed- 
erals. The Federal cavalry pursued him for about a mile 
south of Beverly, when Captain Richards entered a by-road 
and escaped. The day following the Rich ^fountain fight, 
many of the sympathizers in Beverly left their hom^s and 
refugeed to Eastern A^irginia. 

Garnett's Retreat. 

General Garnett heard the artillery on Rich Mountain on 
the afternoon of Julv 11th, and interpreted its meaning". He 
received intelligence that evening that McLellan had reached 
Pegram's rear ; however, he incorrectly believed that the Fed- 
eral troops had gained Pegram's rear by a road north of the 
turnpike. It was then he sent a message to Colonel Scott to 


hold the Federals in check west of Beverly until he could re- 
treat up the valley, but as stated elsewhere, this order did 
not reach Colonel Scott until he was some miles south of 
Beverly on his retreat across Cheat Mountain. Garnett left 
Laurel Hill and retreated up the valley within about 3^/2 miles 
of Beverly, when he was falsely informed that McLellan's 
army occupied Beverly. He then turned back and retreated 
to Cheat River, by way of Leading Creek and Pleasant Run. 
General Alorris, who had been feigning preparations for an 
attack on General Carnett's army at Laurel Hill, moved for- 
ward and took possession of the deserted camp on the 12th,. 
but on account of shortage of supplies, was not in position to 
make effective pursuit. The Federal forces advanced to 
Leadsville on the evening of the 12th, and encamped there 
until next morning, when with a detachment of 3,000 men, 
General Morris pursued the retreating Confederates into 
Tucker County. At 6:10 A. AI. Captain Benham, sent a 
message to Major \\'illiams that the Federals had reached 
a point \y2 miles east of Xew Interest (now Kerens) and 
that the Confederates were supposed to be about six miles 
ahead. The Federal army was compelled to subsist largely 
on beef, procured in the vicinity, without bread or salt. Cap- 
tain H. W. Benham, in his report of the pursuit of Garnett,. 
and action at Carrick Ford, says : 

"At about noon we reached Kaler's, or the first ftird of 
the Shaver Branch or ]\Iain Cheat River, having within the 
previous two or three miles, fired at and driven in several 
pickets of the enemy protecting those who were forming the 
barricades, and at one place we broke up a camp where ihe 
meals were being cooked. At the ford near Kaler's and about 
one-half of the distance to another ford, which we afterwards 
met with about one mile farther on. we saw the baggage train 
of the enemy, apparently at rest. This I proposed to attack 
as soon as strengthened by the arrival of Steedman's second 
battalion, with Dumont's regiment, when the thoughtless fir- 
ing of a musket at our ford set the train ra])idl_\' in motion, 
and long lines of infantrv were formed in order of battle to 
protect it. In a few minutes, however, the arrival of Barnett's 
artillery, witJi Dumont close upon it, enal)lc(l the command 


to push forward in its orii^inal order, l)iit the train and its 
guard had retired, leaving only a few skirmishers to meet us 
at the second ford, where, however, cjuite a rapid firing was 
kept up by the advance regiment, and the artillery opened 
for some minutes to clear the adjacent woods the more com- 
pletely of the enemy. 

"We then continued our march rapidly to the ford, and 
as we approached it we came upon their train, the last half 
of it just crossing the river. The eneni}^ was found to have 
taken a strong position, with his infantrv and artillery upon 
a precipitous bank of some fifty to eighty feet in height upon 
the opposite side of the river, w^hile our own ground was upon 
the low land, nearly level with the river. Steedman's regi- 
ment, in the advance, opened its fire most gallantly upon them, 
which w^as immediatly returned by their strong force of in- 
fantrv and bv their cannon, upon which Barnett's artillery 
was ordered up and opened upon them with excellent efl:'ect. 

"As I soon perceived a position by which their left could 
be turned, six companies of Colonel Dumont's regiment were 
ordered to cross the river about three hundred yards above 
them, to pass up the hill obliquely from our right to their 
left, and take them in rear. By some mistake, possibly in 
the transmission of the order, this command crossed at al^out 
double this distance and turned at first to their right, which 
delayed the effect of the movement. After some fifteen minu- 
tes, however, this error was rectified, and, the hill being re- 
ported as impracticable, this command, now increased to the 
whole regiment, were ordered down to the ford, under close 
cover of this hill on their side, and there to take them directly 
in front at the road. 

"The firing of Steedman's regiment and of Milroy's, now 
well up and in action, with repeated and rapid discharge of 
the artillerv during this movement, decided the action at 
once. As Dumont reached the road, having passed along and 
under their wdiole front, the firing ceased, and the enemy 
fled in great confusion, Dumont's regiment pursuing them 
for about one mile farther, having a brisk skirmishing with 
their rear for the first half of that distance, during which Gen- 
eral Garnett was killed. The enemv would still have been 


followed up most closely, and probably to the capture of a 
large portion of their scattered army, but this was absolutely 
impossible with our fatigued and exhausted troops, who had 
already marched some eighteen miles or UK^re, in an almost 
incessant, A'iolent rain, and the greater part of them without 
food since the e^'ening, and a portion of them e\'en from tlie 
noon of the yesterday, so warm had been the pursuit on their 
hasty retreat from Laurel Mountain, twenty-six miles dis- 
tant. The troops were, therefore, halted for food and rest 
at about 2 P. M. 

"The result of the action proves to be the capture of 
about forty loaded wagons and teams, being nearly all their 
baggage train, as we learn, and including a large portion 
of new clothing, camp equipage, and other stores ; their head- 
quarter papers and military chest ; also two stands of colors 
and one fine rifled piece of artillery; while the commanding 
general, Robert S. Garnett, is killed, his body being now 
cared for by us, and fifteen or twenty more of the enemy are 
killed and nearly fifty prisoners are taken. Our loss is two 
killed and six or seven wounded ; one dangerously." 

We have fuller details of Garnett's retreat and battle of 
Carrick's Ford in the report of Colonel W. B. Taliaferro of 
the Confederate 23rd, \^irginia Infantry. He says : 

"On the evening of the 12th of July, General Garnett 
bivouacked at Kaler's Ford, on Cheat River, the rear of his 
command being about two miles back on Pleasant Run. On 
the morning of the 13th July the command was put in mo- 
tion about 8 o'clock, the Thirty-seventh Virginia and Colonel 
Jackson's regiment and Lieutenant-Colonel Hansborough's 
battalion, with a section of artillery, under Captain Shumaker, 
and a squadron of cavalry under Captain Smith, forming the 
advance; then the baggage train, and then Colonel Ramsey's 
First Georgia and the Twent}'-third \*irginia Regiment, con- 
stituting, with Lieutenant Lanier's section of artillery and a 
cavalry force under Captain Jackson, the rear of the command. 
Before the wagon train (which was verv much im])ede(l by 
the condition of the county road over which it had to pass, 
rendered very bad by the heavy rains of the preceding night) 
had crossed the first ford half a mile alxn-e Kaler's, the cav- 


airy scouts reported that the enemy were close upon our 
rear with a very lar_c:e force of infantr}% well supported by 
cavalry and artillery. The h'irst (Georgia Regiment was im- 
mediatelv ordered to take position across the meadow on the 
river side and hold the enemy in check until the train had 
passed the river, and then retreat behind the Twenty-third 
\'irginia Regiment, which was ordered to take position and 
defend the train until the Georgia troops had formed again 
in some defensil)le position. 

"By the time the Georgians had crossed the river, and l)e- 
fore some of the companies of that regiment were thrown out 
to ambuscade the enemy could be brought over, the enemy 
appeared in sight of our troops, and immediatelv commenced 
firing upon them. This was briskly returned by the Georgia 
regiment, who after some rounds retired, in obedience to tiie 
orders received. The Twenty-third \^irginia and the artillery 
were halted about three-quarters of a mile below the cross- 
ing, and were ordered to occupy a hill commanding the valley 
through which the enemy would have to approach and a wood 
which commanded the road. This position they held until the 
Georgia regiment was formed some distance in advance of 
the Virginians, then the former command retired and again 
reformed in advance of the Georgians. This system of re- 
tiring upon eligible positions for defense admirably selected 
by Captain Corley, adjutant-general to General Garnet, was 
pursued without loss on either side, a few random shots only 
reaching us, until we reached Carrick's Ford, three and a 
half miles from Kaler's. This is a deep ford, rendered deeper 
than usual by the rains, and here some of the wagons be- 
came stalled in the river and had to be abandoned. 

"The enemy were now close upon the rear, which con- 
sisted of the Twenty-third Regiment and the artillery ; and as 
soon as this command had crossed Captain Corley ordered me 
to occupy the high bank on the right of the ford with my 
regiment and the artillery. On the right this position was 
protected by a fence, on the left only by low bushes, but the 
hill commanded the ford and the approach to it by the road, 
and was admirably selected for defense. In a few mjnutes 
the skirmishers of the enemv were seen runnine alonsf the 


opposite bank, wliicli was low and skirted by a few trees, and 
were at first taken for the Georgians, who were known to 
have been cut ofT ; but we were soon undeceived, and a hearty 
cheer for President Davis having been given bv Lieutenant 
Washington, C. S. Army, reiterated with a simuhaneous shout 
by the whole command, we opened upon the enemy. The 
enemy replied to us with a heavy fire from their infantry and 
artillery. W^e could discover that a large force was brought 
up to attack us, but our continued and well-directed firing 
kept them from crossing the river, and twice we succeeded 
in dri\'ing them back some distance from the ford. They 
again, however, came up with a heavy force and renewed the 
fight. The fire of their artjllery was entirely ineffective, al- 
though their shot and shell were thrown very rapidly, but 
they fiew over our heads without any damage, except brmg- 
ing the limbs of trees down upon us. The working of our 
three guns under Lieutenants Lanier, AVashington, and Brown 
w'as admiral:)le, and the efi^ect upon the enemy very destruc- 
tive. AA'e could witness the telling efifect of almost every shot. 

"After continuing the fight until nearly every cartridge 
had been expended, and until the artillery had l)een with- 
drawn by General Garnett's orders, and as no part of his 
command was within sight or supporting distance, as far as 
I could discover, nor, as I afterwards ascertained, within four 
miles of me, I ordered the regiment to retire. I was induced, 
moreover, to do this, as I believed the enemy were making 
an efi^ort to turn our flank, and without support it would have 
been impossible to have held the position, and as already 
nearly thirty of my men had been killed and wounded, llie 
dead and severely wounded we had to leave upon the field, 
but retired in perfect order, the officers and men manifesting 
decided reluctance as being withdrawn. After marching half 
a mile I was met bv Colonel Starke, (leneral Garnett's aide, 
who directed me to move on with my regiment to the next 
ford, a short distance in advance, where 1 would overtake 
General Garnett. 

"On the farther side of this ford I met General Garnett. 
who directed me to halt my regiment arcnmd the turn of the 
road, some hundred and fifty yards ofi", and to detail for him 


leii good riHcmen, remarking- to me, "This is a good place be- 
hind this driftwood to post skirmishers." I halted the regi- 
ment as ordered, l)Ut from the difficulty on determining who 
were the best shots, I ordered Ca])tain Tompkins to report 
to the general with his whole company. The general, how- 
ever, would not permit them to remain, but after selecting ten 
men, under Lieutenant l)ei)riesl, ordered the com])an^■ l)ack 
to the regiment. 

"P)V (leneral (iarnett's orders, conveyed l^v Colonel 
Starke, 1 ])osted with that officer three of my c<:)mpanies on 
a higii bluiif o\'erlooking the river, but, finding the under- 
growtli So tliick that the approach of the enemy could not be 
well obser^'ed, they were withdrawn. A few minutes after 
these companies rejoined the regiment, Colonel Starke rode 
up and said that General Garnett directed me to march as 
rajiidlv as I could and overtake the main Ixxly. In a few 
minutes afterwards Lieutenant Depriest reported to me that 
General Garnett had l)een killed. He fell just as he gave the 
order to the skirmisliers to retire, and one of them was killed 
bv his side. 

"It gives me jdeasure t() l)ear testimonv to the coolness 
and spirit displaced b}- officers and men in this affair. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Crenshaw and Major Pendleton set an example 
of courage and gallantrvto the command, and the company 
officers behaved admirabl}". doing their whole duty. It would 
be invidious, when all behaved so well, to distinguish between 
them. The gallantry of Lieutenant A\'ashington was con- 
spicuous. After the 6-pounder rifled piece had been disabled 
and it was discovered it had to be abandoned, he spiked it 
under a heavv fire. 

"It is not ni}' province, perhaps, in this report to speak of 
officers outside of my own command, but I trust I shall be 
pardoned for bearing testimony to the coolness and judg 
nient that characterized the conduct of Colonel Starke and 
Captain Corlev during the wdiole of this dav and afterwards 
on the march. These officers, but more particularly the lat- 
ter, selected every position at wdiich our troops made a stand, 
and we were never driven from one of them. 

"The loss to the enem^• in this section must have been 


very great, as thev had from their own account three regi- 
ments engaged, and the people in the neighborhood whom I 
have seen since report a heavy loss, which thev state the 
enemy endeavored to conceal by transporting the dead and 
wounded back to Belington in covered wagons, permitting no 
one to approach them. 

"After receiving the order of General Garnett I marched 
my regiment four miles farther on to Parson's Ford, a half 
mile beyond which I overtook the main body of our troops, 
who had been halted there by General Garnett, and which had 
been drawn up to receive the enemy. 

"The enemy did not advance to this ford, and after halt- 
ing for some time our whole command moved forward, and 
marching all night on the road leading up to the line of Horse- 
shoe Run, reached about daylirht the Red House, in Mary- 
land, a point on the Northwestern turnpike near West Union. 
At this last place a large force of the enemy under General 
Hill was concentrated. This body did not attack us, and we 
moved the same day into \ irginia as far as Greenland, in 
Hardy County." 

General Alorris did not pursue the Confederates further 
after the battle of Carrick's Ford, but returned by way of St. 
George and Clover Run, reaching Belington Julv 15th. His 
army was practically without rations, and had l^een marching 
and fighting without food for twenty hours, (ieneral Garnett's 
arm}' had a narrow escape from capture at the Red House on 
the Northwestern pike. Federal troops to the number of 
6,000 concentrated at that point to intercept the Confederate 
retreat, but they arrived there about one hour after Garnett's 
army had passed. The Confederate army retreated to Mont- 
erey, \'a. without further molestation. At the battle of Car- 
rick's Ford the Confederates lost 13 killed and 15 wounded. 
The Federals lost 2 killed and 7 wounded. At Laurel Hill 
the Confederates lost 2 killed and 2 wounded. H^e Federals 
lost 4 killed and 6 wounded. At Rich Mountain tlic Con- 
federates lost 45 killed and 20 wounded. The I'ederals had 
12 killed and 49 wounded. 

It is an undis])uted fact that both Federals and Confed- 
erates made serious blunders in the cami)aign in western 


Virginia. However, the result could not have been different 
with the great disproportion in the size of the two armies. 
General McLellan, though regarded by many as the greatest 
General on the Union side in the Civil War, betrayed in the 
West Virginia campaign a weakness in not vigorously pur- 
suing an advantage, that was later manifested at Malvern 
Hill and z*\ntietam. That General McLellan was a man of 
great civic and military attainments is universally conceded, 
yet it is interesting to know how he underestimated the mili- 
tary resources of the Confederacy. On Jnly 7th, 1861, he 
wrote to General Scott that with 10,000 troops in eastern 
Tennessee, in addition to his West Virginia army, he could 
"crush the backbone of secession." However, in January, 
1862, when made Chief Commander of the army, he estimated 
that 273,000 men would be necessary for the main army 
operations, aside from those needed for the defense of 

Roth in his proclamation to the Union men of West Vir- 
ginia and in his reports to the general government, he showed 
a strong devotion to the Union, but an equally strong oppo- 
sition to the abolition of slavery. In his instructions to 
Colonels Irvine, Kelly, Steedman and others, he invariably 
closed his admonitions with, "see that the rights and property 
of the people are respected, and repress all attempts at negro 
insurrection." In his proclamation to the people of West 
Virginia, he said : 

"Notwithstanding all that has been said by the traitors 
to induce you to believe that our advent among you will be 
signalized by interference with your slaves, understand one 
thing clearly — not only will we abstain from all such inter- 
ference, but we will, on the contrary, with an iron hand, crush, 
any attempt at insurrection on their part." 

Woodley's Reminescence of Rich Mountain. 

Willis H. Woodley, then a lad in his teens, joined a com- 
pany of Upshur County Confederates, known as the Upshur 
County Grays, and was a participant in the battle of Rich 
Mountain. We are indebted to him for the following inter- 
esting^ narrative : 


"In compliance with your request I am giving you my 
personal recollections of the events immediately preceding and 
those occuring in the battle of Rich Mountain. After our 
stampede at Philippi we returned to Huttonsville, and in the 
course of a week or ten days we were reinforced by troops 
from Virginia, Infantry and Cavalry, and under the command 
of Colonel Heck, we came back to the western foot of Rich 
Mountain and went into camp near Alexander Hart's, where 
we began to fortify and commenced a systematic course of 
drilling, in the meantime completing a line of breastworks 
from the top of one ridge down across the pike and small 
ravine to the top of a parallel ridge to the north. There vvcre 
very few tents in the command of about 2,500 men. We, the 
Upshur Grays, Co. B. 25th Va. Infantry, known at that time 
as Reger's Batallion, which was afterwards united to lians- 
bury's Batallion, forming the 25th \'a. Infantry, made our 
tents of brush under which we managed to sleep the best we 
could, with water dripping on our faces. 

"A few days before the battle at the top of the hill, we, 
the Upshur Grays, under command of Captain John Hig^en- 
botham, were ordered to go to Middlefork Bridge on a recon- 
noitering expedition. Below Fords, the half-way house, we 
ran into the advanced pickets of the enemy, drove them in, 
and also drove in a second outpost, when we discovered that 
we were confronting McLellan's army, who were encamped at 
the bridge. Bugles blowing, the long roll beating, warned us 
of our danger. We immediately began a hasty retreat which 
we accomplished without being pursued. The next evening- 
General McLellan advanced and camped at the llillearv place, 
known as Fisher, and made his headquarters in the old log 
house, known at that time as the Hilleary House and is still 
standing, and w^as about two miles from our fortification. 
Next morning our videttes wounded and captured a h'ederal 
Sergeant and brought him in c:)n a stretcher, the first person 
in blue that any of us had ever seen and he was quite a 
curiosity. The night before the battle on top of the moun- 
tain at S. B. Hart's house and farm, the Upshur Grays, under 
Captain Higginbotham, were ordered to do picket duty on 
the middle rid"e immediatelv above Colonel Pegram's head- 


(|uarters, wild had recently sn])erce(led Colonel lleck in com- 
mand. All throUi;h the night we distinctly heard the sound 
of axes to our left and Captain Higgenbotham sent twice to 
notify Colonel I'eii'ram of the fact, and receiviny- the curt 
reply from Colonel Pegram 'to mind his own business,' which 
of course ended all communications between Colonel and 
Captain for the remainder of the ni.ght. 

"It it worthy of mention and hxed indelibly on my mind, 
the most beautiful comet, the head extending to the south- 
ern horizon, the tail reaching across the entire heavens, was 
clearly visible the whole night and presented the most beau- 
tiful appearance, surrounded by myriads of constellations and 
stars, so peaceful, so sublime, so glorious, a sad commentary 
of the brutality of man to man to be enacted on the morrow. 

"Diverging slightly from a continuation of the narative 
to inject a few personal interrogations. Why did Colonel 
Heck select the foot instead of the top of the mountain?' 
When Hanibal in the Carthagenian wars with Rome, demon- 
strated the fact that where one man can go 100,000 or more 
can go also, and Napoleon Bonaparte confirmed the fact when 
he scaled the Alps under almost the same identical conditions. 

"Resuming the incidents as occurred earlv next morn- 
ing, the Upshur Grays were ordered to the top of the moun- 
tain, and when we had passed the O'Donnell turn. Colonel 
Pegram overtook us and asked Captain Higgenbotham if he 
thought the boys — for we were all boys — would stand fire. 
Immediately the reply came from the boys themselves, 'try 
us, tr}- us.' ^^'hen we reached the top we were halted right 
at the very summit, and for a few moments we were exposed 
to a volley from an unseen foe, whose numbers were entirely 
unknown, realizing to the fullest extent the danger of being 
shot down under such conditions without having a ghost of 
a show to retaliate, made me weak kneed for sure, but as 
soon as w-e fronted and marched into the w^oods and were told 
to conceal ourselves by any natural or artificial object, all 
fear seemed to go out, and as soon as I placed myself behind 
a good sized tree, almost immediately thereafter the racket 
commenced in earnest by vollies fired by Federal companies, 
the bullets pattering against the trees way above us. We, of 


course returned the fire, aiming for the most part at the smoke 
arising from the edge of the woods. This desultory firing was 
kept up for an hour, neither side knowing the strength of the 
other. DeLagniel with his one 6 pound cannon certainly must 
have produced consternation in our foes, for they at once 
began to reconnoiter with the most satisfactory results to 
them, for availing themselves of a temporary cessation of 
firing occasioned by quite a shower coming up, to send one 
body of men to flank the cannon, and another to cut us olT 
from our camp at the foot of the mountain, and when the 
shower was over the enemy had a clear insight as to position 
and numbers confronting them, and they advanced with the 
certainty of victory. The firing in front was renewed with 
increased activity, while the flanking parties were getting in 
their work. The party that gained the pike between us and 
the camp, came up crying reinforcements, at almost the same 
time another flanking party rushed the one cannon and took it. 
At about the same time a boy the same age as myself, from 
Buckingham Lee Guards, with their Captain Irving com- 
manding, stepped up behind me and said, 'do you care if I 
stand behind you?' We fired several shots almost at random, 
when he called my attention to a group of officers who had 
come out of the woods and were in plain view, about two 
or three hundred yards in the open field above Hart's house, 
and said 'watch one fall.' We had both loaded, my musket 
being held against the tree, as he sidestepped to take delil^er- 
ate aim, I watching on the other side of the tree. He never 
fired the gun. The flanking party that had come up the pike, 
calling out "reinforcements," had deployed along the pike and 
three men had crept behind a big rock, one of the three had 
put a bullet through the head of my comrade, and for the 
first time in my life I heard the "thud"' of a bullet against 
flesh. In turning from looking at my fallen comrade I caught 
a glimpse of three men in blue with brown hats tiptoeing 
and gazing at the boy in gray whom they had just shot to 
death. Instantly I jumped to the opposite side oi the tree 
from the three men, at the same time bringing my Spring- 
field musket to bear on the middle man. I saw him scringe 
and all lliree heads dissappeared behind the rock at my shot. 


Trepidation seized me and 1 ran up the hill, and every bullet 
that passed me knocked up the leaves around me which only 
accelerated my speed. In fact there is no telling how fast a 
fellow can go with l)ullets pattering around his feet. I have 
always attributed my life to the fact of having on a blue U. 
S. Army overcoat which my oldest brother obtained while a 
station agent in Kansas in '58 and '59, in the employ of Russel 
Magor & W^adell. who had the government contract of trans- 
porting supplies to Albert Sydney Johnson who \yas in I'tah 
quelling the depredations of the Mormans. Running about 
100 yards I concealed myself behind a large chestnut tree, got 
my nerve, loaded and let slip a bullet at random, where the 
Federals were yelling over the capture of DeLagnel's gun. I 
at once resumed my retreat up the hill and overtook several 
of the Upshur Grays including Captain Higgenbotham, John 
Fuchert, Third Lieutenant, Bill McFadden, Orderly Sergeant, 
and Ben Patterson, and others numbering twelve of the same 
company. We spent the remainder of the evening in an aim- 
less wandering on Rich Mountain until finally we arrived in 
the \"alley at Caplinger settlement, when we took possession 
of an old log stable and went to sleep on the floor which was 
covered with hay. Some time during the night I was awaken- 
ed by the regular tramp of marching men. I nudged my com- 
panion when we held a subdued conversation and concluded 
it was the Federals. The next morning we were at sea. We 
did not know which way to turn, when fortunately one of the 
Caplingers came by and said the way was clear to Beverly, 
as the enemy had not advanced. We at once took up our line 
of march for Beverly, where Mrs. Leonard, the kindlv dis- 
posed matron of the Old Valley House, gave us our break- 
fast. We proceded up the valley and reached Mrs. Bradley's 
at now Valley Bend, who kindly gave us our dinner. Lying at 
full length on the green sod after dinner, along came a soli- 
tary cavalry man who said 'boys, get out of this, the Yankee 
Cavalry are in Beverly.' We lost no time in getting a move 
on us, and when we reached Huttonsvillle, Scott's 44th Va. 
Regiment were just pulling out for Cheat Mountain. They 
left us some hard-tack and bacon, and as soon as we had fried 
it on the smouldering fire, left bv the 44th, we too headed for 


Cheat Mountain, and the first clear field we came to on the 
mountain side about five miles from Huttonsville, we laid 
down under the canopy of Heaven and slept the sleep of utter 
exhaustion, disturbed once by the yell of a wild cat or panther. 
Next morning we resumed our weary way, and upon reaching 
the top found the 44th on the move again ; they kindly left us 
something to eat. We were actually the rear guard without 
knowing it. After resting and eating our breakfast, we pulled 
out again, twelve of us, and upon arriving in the valley be- 
tween what it now Durbin and Travellers' Repose, we blund- 
ered into the camp of the 12th Georgia, who had come so tar 
and had orders to fall back to McDowell. They left us beef 
and hard-tack, which we JDroceeded to cook and devour. After 
a good long rest we followed across the Alleghenies, Crabbot- 
tom, Monterey and finally reached McDowell, where we found 
the 1st Georgia, 3rd Arkansas, 12th Georgia, 44th Virginia, 
two batteries and a lot of cavalry. We moved to Monterey, 
and daily stragglers came in bunches, the most woe begone, 
foot sore, demoralized set of men it is impossible to describe. 
During our stay at Monterey and McDowell we were re- 
viewed by General Lee, and my impression of him as he sat 
on a bay stallion, with his dark mustache and hair, his whole 
bearing of calm repose, with a pent up reserved force, com- 
municated to us by some invisible magnetic force that in- 
stantly gave us renewed energy and faith, and there was not 
one of us West Virginia snakes who would not have followed 
him to death at a moment's notice. 

"One more incident. George King, a little awkward 
Upshur County boy, was so unfortimate as to get a flint-lock 
musket, that of necessity, he had to keep. My father came on 
from Staunton and joined us at Monterey, when the strag- 
glers were coming in, father jokingly said to George, "Well, 
George did you kill a Yankee at Rich Mountain?' 'No,' said 
George, I didn't.' 'Why?' said my father. 'Because,' George 
replied, 'I could not get my gun ofif.' The rain wet the powder 
in the pan, and poor, brave simple George had stood during 
the whole engagement, flashing powder in the pan of his old 
flintlock without being able to fire a single shot. Tf there 
ever was a hero, George deserves to be ranked with the 
bravest of the brave." 


General Lee at Elkwater. 

On July 22, 1861, (ieiieral McLellan was called to Wash- 
ing'ton to take charge of the military forces there. General 
Reynolds succeeded him as Commander of the Federal forces 
in northwestern Virginia, with headquarters at Ueverly. The 
Federal forces had been reduced by the expiration of enlist- 
ments and by sending detachments to other fields. In the 
course of a few months Cieneral Reynolds moved to lluttons- 
ville and remained in undisputed possession of that section 
until September. However, the I'nion army and especially 
its scouts were in the meantime greatly annoyed by Con- 
federate irregulars, who used their superior knowledge of the 
country to fire upon the Federals from ambush and then 
make their escape into the mountain fastnesses. Union sym- 
pathizers resorted to the same tactics when opportunity 

The Confederate g^overnment planned to retrieve their 
fortunes and regain the territory of northwest Virginia. Early 
in September, 1861, General Loring established himself at 
Huntersville, in Pocahontas County with 8,500 men. Gen- 
eral H. R. Jacksoii with 6.000 men was stationed on the 
Greenbrier River, where the Staunton and Parkersburg pike 
crosses that stream in Pocahontas County. General Robert 
E. Lee was commanded to take charge of these forces by the 
Confederate government and drive the Union army out of 
northwestern Virginia. Accordingly General Lee concen- 
trated his forces, which now numbered 14,500, at Big Springs, 
Pocahontas County. General Lee planned to drive Reynolds 
from the valley and march northward to the B. & O. railroad 
at Grafton. General Reynolds' armv in the vallev numljered 
about 9,000 men and he prepared to resist the approach of 
Lee by fortifying two advanced positions at Elkwater and 
Cheat Mountain. These positions were 18 miles apart by 
way of Huttonsville, but General Reynolds establislied com- 
munication between the two fortifications by a bridal path 
seven miles distant. General Lee advanced to the valley and 
skirmishing between the opposing armies began. The Con- 
federates occupied a position between Elkwater and Cheat 
Mountain and also the pike leading toward Huttonsville. 


In the three days skirmishing, which followed, the Union 
army lost 9 killed, 15 wounded and 60 prisoners. Among the 
killed of the Confederate army was General John A. Wash- 
ington, a relative of General Lee and President Washington. 
The W^ashington and Lee families were closely related. 
Lnider a flag of truce General Washington's l^ody was con- 
veyed to the Confederate lines. General Lee decided to at- 
tack the Federal forces at Elkwater and Cheat Mountain 
simultaneously, on the morning of September 12. Loring 
and Jackson were to attack the Federals on the Huttonsville 
side of the mountain and Rust was to open the attack from 
the rear, which he had gained by crossing Cheat Mountain 
and descending Cheat River. Loring and Jackson in front 
and Lee at Elkwater were to await the signal of Colonel Rusfs 
artillery, when they would also assault the Federal forces. 
With loaded guns and fixed bayonets. Colonel Rust was ready 
to make the assault, whe|i a captured picket made him believe 
that 5,000 Federal troops awaited his attack. This ruse of 
the picket with the approach of dawn and the sight of the 
strong fortifications- so terrified Colonel Rust that the in- 
tended signal., to the other detachments of the Confederate 
army was never sounded. A\'ith the want of concert of ac- 
ton of Colonel Rust and his own army hungry and without 
rations General Lee did not make the proposed attack at Elk- 
water. General Lee, in order to be nearer base for supplies, 
withdrew to the Greenbrier river in Pocahontas County. 

General Lee was greatly disappointed by the failure of 
his campaign in northwestern \"irginia. In writing tn his 
wife he said : "I cannot tell you my regret and mortification 
at the untoward events that caused the failure of the plan. 
I had taken every precaution to insure success and counted 
on it, but the Ruler of the I'niverse willed otherwise and sent 
a storm to disconcert the plan." 

General Lee, perhaps, referred to the rain storm that on 
the previous day destroyed the provisions of his army. It 
will be observed that the operations of Lee himself were suc- 
cessful, but there was no communication between the de- 
tachments of his army, which rendered a favorable termina- 
tion from concerted action improbable. 


Raids into Randolph. 

General John I). Iniboden, of the Confederate army, 
made a raid through Pendleton, Tucker, and Randolph coun- 
ties in August. 1862. Mis object was to destroy the B. & O. 
railroad bridge at Rowlesburg in Preston County. With 300 
men he set out from Franklin, Pendleton County, x^ugust 14, 
1862. lie fnlldwed the Seneca Trail to Dry Fork, and thence 
down that stream to the Abram Parsons Mill, where the town 
of Parsons now stands. He expected to surprise and capture 
a scjuad of forty Federals, who were stationed at that place. 
However, Miss Jane Snyder, daughter of John Snyder, of Dry 
Fork, had divined their intention as they passed down the 
Fork and mounting her horse and taking a by-path hastily 
rode to Parson's Mill and gave warning to the Federals, who 
retreated to Rowlesburg. Imboden, realizing that the plans 
and destination of his raid had become known to the Federal 
army, retreated through the forests and mountains to the 
south and in three days reached Slaven's Cabin on the Staun- 
ton and Parkersburg Pike in Pocahontas County. 

General Tmboden made a second raid into Randolph in 
November, 1862. Rowlesburg was again his objective point. 
How^ever, he ventured no farther than St. George. W'ith 310 
men he marched in a severe snowstorm on the night of No- 
vember 7, 1862, down Red Creek to its junction wnth Dry 
Fork and thence down that stream and Cheat to St. George, 
where he surprised and captured forty Federals. Believing 
that further operations against Rowlesburg would be futile, 
he again retreated southward this time by way of Glady Fork 
and the Sinks and thence into Pendleton and Hardy counties. 
He was compelled to subsist upon the resources of the coun- 
try through which he passed, obtained by force or otherwise. 
To compensate the Union sympathizers for their losses and 
to avoid surprises in the future by Confederate invaders Cap- 
tain Kellogg, issued very stringent orders of assessment and 
notification directed to numerous southern sympathizers. The 
assessments largely exceeded the losses sustained by the 
Union sympathizers and ranged from $7 to $800. As a sample 
of the general order we give below the one directed to xAdam 


St. Georg^e, Tucker County, Va., Nov. 28, 1862. 

Mr. Adam Harper, Sir: In consequence of certain rober- 
ies which have been committed upon Union citizens of this 
county by Bands of GuriHes you are hereby assessed to the 
amount of ($285.00) Two Hundred and Eighty-five Dollars 
to make good their losses. And upon your faihire to make 
good this assessment by the 8th day of December, the fol- 
lowing order has 1)een issued to me by Brigadier General 
R. H. Milroy: 

"You are to burn their houses, seize their property and 
shoot them. You will be sure that you strictly carry out 
this order. You will require of the inhabitants for ten or 
fifteen miles around your camp on all the roads approaching 
the town upon which the enemy may approach that they 
must dash in and give you notice and that upon any one fail- 
ing to do so you will burn their hous-es and shoot the men." 
By order of 


Captain Kellogg Commanding 123 Ohio. 

Raid Under Jenkins. 

General A. G. Jenkins, with a Confederate cavalry force 
of 550 men, made a raid across AA'est Virginia into Ohio in 
August and September, 1862. He passed through Randolph 
above Huttonsville and planned an attack on Beverly, with 
the co-operation of General Imboden. The Federal forces at 
Beverly consisted of 450 men, but on being informed that 
General Kelley had reinforced the Beverly garrison with 1,500 
men, General Jenkins abandoned his intended attack upon that 
place and moved to Buckhannon In- crossing from the valley 
to head of the Buckhannon River, and thence over to French 
Creek and down that stream to the town of Buckhannon, 
which he surprised and captured. He also captured Weston, 
Glenville, Spencer and Ripley on the Oliio Ri\er. .At Buck- 
hannon he destroyed considerable military stores. A Federal 
scout by the name of Gibson, who refused to surrender to 
Jenkin's troops was killed above Huttons\-ille. 


In his report General Jenkins says that the population 
along French Creek was among the most disloyal in Western 
Virginia and that liis forces emerged so suddenly from the 
mountains that the inhabitants could scarcely comprehend 
that they were Southern troops. The truth of this statement 
is easily accounted for when we reflect that the French Creek 
settlement consisted, largely, of emigrants from New Eng- 
land, who, no doubt, believed that their situation west of the 
mountains protected them from Conferedate invasion. 

Imboden's Raid of '63. 

In the spring of 1863 a Union force of 878 men, with two 
canon were garrisoned at Beverly. Colonel George R. Latham 
was in charge. General Jones and Imboden to execute a 
policy planned and outlined by General Lee, were to invade 
West Virginia. (Teneral Jones was to march through Hardy 
County to Oakland, thence to Grafton, where he was to form 
a junction with General Imboden, who was to cross Cheat 
^fountain by way of the Staunton and Parkersburg Pike, 
thence by way of Philippi to Grafton, whence their combined 
forces would move west. General Imboden commanded 3,365 
and General Jones 1,300 men. General Imboden, after a four 
day's march in a drenching rain, entered Tygarts Valley above 
Huttonsville, on April 23. He had crossed Cheat Mountain 
by way of the Staunton and Parkersburg Pike. He planned 
to surprise and capture the Federal garrison at Beverly. How^- 
ever, when he reached Huttonsville he found that the Federal 
pickets had been withdrawal and believed that the forces at 
Beverly had received intelligence of his approach. Believing 
that he had lost his opportunity to surprise the Federals at 
Beverly, Imboden camped for the night at Huttonsville. The 
next day he resumed his march and when about six miles 
above Beverly, the advance guard of Imboden's armv at- 
tempted to halt Jesse F. Phares, Sheriff of Randolph County. 
Mr. Phares refusing to surrender, was fired upon and shot 
through the lungs. He succeeded in reaching Beverly, re- 
covered from wdiat at the time was thought to be a mortal 
wound and lived many years after the war. It developed that 
Sheriff Phares was the first man to give intelligence to the 


federal army of Imboden's approach. The skirmishing con- 
tinued during the day when the Federal army retreated to- 
ward Philippi. 

The object of these raids was to destroy the B. & O. 
railroad, which was an important means of transportation for 
Federal troops, destruction of military stores and to gain 
Confederate recruits west of the Alleghenies. 

Jackson's Raid. 

In July, 1863, General W. L. Jackson, with a force of 
1,200 men entered Randolph County by way of Valley Head 
and Cheat Mountain with the object of surprising and cap- 
turing General Harris and a garrison of 800 Federals at Bev- 
erly. General Jackson, with the main body of his men came 
down the Valley by way of Huttonsville. Major J. E. Lady 
with a detachment of 200 men by way of the back road 
reached and guarded the Buckhannon Pike west of Beverly. 
Colonel Dun detoured to the east of Beverly with a detach- 
ment with the object of reaching the Philippi pike in the 
rear of the Federals. At a signal of the firing of a cannon by 
General Jackson the Federal forces were to be attacked sim- 
ultaneously by the three detachments. Skirmishing began 
when the main body of the Confederates reached a point 
about two miles south of Beverly. General Jackson advanced 
to an eminence on the M. J. Coberly farm, one and one-half 
miles southwest of Beverly. At 2 o'clock General Jackson 
fired the gun that was to be the signal for a uniform attack 
but Colonel Dun failed to appear and General Jackson delay- 
ed the intended assault. In the meantime, a lively artillery 
duel was in progress. The Federals occupied Mt. Izer, where 
the Confederate monument now stands. The Confederate pro- 
jectiles did not reach the Federal fortifications, but exploded 
in Beverly and the Leonard Flotel as well as some other 
houses were damaged. The Federals moved their artillery 
to the D. R. Baker blufif, south of Beverly, after which their 
cannonading was more effectual. On the morning of July 
3, General Jackson, in observing the pike north of Beverly for 
the approach of Colonel Dun, discovered the advance of 
General Averill with a brigade of Union soldiers from Philii)pi 


to reinforce General Harris. General Jackson at once re- 
treated up the valley and over the mountains into Viri^inia. 
The Confederates lost four killed and five wounded. I'he 
Federals lost fifty-five prisoners. Colonel Dun finally reached 
Beverly, but not until after General Averill had come to the 
rescue of General Harris. Colonel Dun's delay had been 
attributed to the fact that a mountain still was on the line of 
his march, which he and his men were loth to leave as long 
as there remained a sparkling drop of the mountain dew. 

The writer, at the age of four years, was an involuntary 
participant in General Jackson's retreat. As the General re- 
turned up the \alley the main body of his army passed where 
the writer's parents resided in Valley Bend District. As the 
Confederates slowly and unheedingly passed the house, the 
Federal cannon balls fiew over our heads and exploded against 
the hillside to the west. One projectile became so uncom- 
fortably familiar and informal as to cut the branches from a 
chestnut tree under which the writer, with James Morrison 
and a few other Confederate soldiers were standing. Captain 
J. A\'. Marshall is held in grateful remembrance for appearing 
on the scene at the time of the most spirited cannonading and 
directing the family and assembled neighbors to a place of 
comparative safety. The cannon of which there has been so 
much controversy is distinctly remembered and the appear- 
ance of the ordnance as well as the statements of the cannon- 
eers was to the effect that the axel of the cannon had been 
broken not by a shell from the Federal batteries but in recoil 
when the instrument was discharged. 

Hill's Raid. 

At 5 o'clock A. M. on the morning of October 29, 1864, 
Major Benjamin Hill with 300 men made an attack on about 
an equal number of Federals stationed at Beverly, under the 
command of Colonel Robert Youart. Major Hill had flanked 
the pickets and approached to within 150 yards of the Fed- 
eral camp, when upon a challenge from a picket, the Confed- 
erates raised a yell and charged the Federals. The attack 
had been delayed too long and instead of finding the Fed- 
erals asleep they were in rank for reveille roll call. The Con- 


federates succeeded in reaching the Federal quarters. In the 
darkness friend and foe could not be distinguished. At the 
break of day the Federals organized and drove the Confed- 
erates from the field. The Federal loss was eight killed, 
twenty-three wounded and thirteen captured. The Confed- 
erate loss was four drowned in crossing the river, twenty-five 
wounded and ninety-two captured. 

Rosser's Raid. 

In the early morning before the break of day, January 
11, 1865, General Rosser with 300 Confederates surprised the 
Federal garrison at Beverly, consisting of about 1,000 men, 
taking 580 prisoners, killing six and wounding twenty-six. 
About 400 Federals escaped capture and marched to Philippi. 
Rosser's loss was slight. It was one of the most remarkable 
military feats of the war. The Federal forces were command- 
ed by General Robert Youart. It was in mid-winter and the 
high waters and severe weather lulled the Federals into a 
feeling of security. There was a ball in the town on the 
evening previous, largely attended by the officers, wdio re- 
mained until a late hour. The Federals had pickets posted 
during the day at Russell's, a mile l)elow town, at the Burnt 
Bridge, two miles above town, and at the bridge in Beverly 
on the Buckhannon Pike, a corporal and three men. At dark 
the pickets were withdrawn from Russell's and the Burnt 
Bridge and in their stead single sentinels were posted. Rosser 
crossed Cheat Mountain by way of the Staunton and Park- 
ersburg Pike, came down the Valley on the east side of the 
river, made a detour around Beverly and formed their line 
of battle in a hollow within 450 yards of the Federal camp. 
The sentinel saw the Confederates and challenged them, "Who 
comes there?" Tlie reply, "Friends" threw the sentinel off 
his guard, who moved toward the Confederates and was cap- 
tured. The Federals were awakened by having the doors of 
their quarters forced open and they were asked to surrender. 
Many of the officers were quartered in the town and Colonel 
Youart was asleep in Alfred Buckey's Hotel in Beverly when 
the attack was made. Many of the prisoners marched from 
Beverly to Staunton barefoot in the snow and suffered great- 
h- from hunger and cold. 


Burnt House Incident. 

Ca])tain David Poe, of Jiuckliannoii, in his "Personal 
Reminiscences of the Ci\il W ar'" relates his experience in 
capturing^ a scpiad of I'^derals, who were stationed at the 
John Taylor lUirnt J louse on Cheat Kiver, about a mile above 
the ])resent \illage of Bowden. He says: "After we left the 
Upper Sinks and got down Shavers Mountain near the Glady 
Fork of Cheat we were informed that there was a company 
of h'ederal soldiers encamped over on the Main Cheat River 
at the Taylor P>urnt House. So we got together and held a 
council of war. The strength of the enemy at the Burnt 
House was one (juestion to be settled. I was made guide and 
we took up the line of march, crossing the mountain between 
Glady Fork and Cheat River through the woods. The rain 
was falling in torrents, so fast that a red deer, wdien scared 
up, came near running over Ed. Boor of Marion County. We 
crossed up toward the top of the mountain, on the opposite 
side of the Burnt House. It was then nearly night. It had 
been so rainy that day I think the blue coats felt no fear of 
danger, ^^'e had no dinner and for supper ate hard sweet 
apples that chanced to be on a tree in a nearby field. We all 
remained on the mountain until 2 o'clock in the morning, when 
the moon rose and we moved down to the bank of the creek, 
near their camp. 1 went down into the creek and standing in 
the shade of some timber on the bank, counted the horses, 
finding only t\venty in camp. They had ten pickets. I went 
back and told the men all al)out it, eighteen of us and twenty- 
two of them. All said we could take them. I suggested to 
the officers that we cross the creek near the tents and wait 
until day light came; that I could pilot them across without 
being seen by the enemy, but that when we got to the bank 
of the creek we would have to crawl along the ground oppo- 
site the tents in the grass and weeds. When daylight was 
sufificient to tell blue from gray I was to raise up and give 
the order to remove the tents, which were what we called fly 
tents for cavalry. The sentinel was walking the beat. The 
order was for no firing unless the blue coats commenced it. 
At the proper time I arose and gave the order, which was 


promptly obeyed. Lem Tenant was next the sentinel; he was 
a tall slim man and by the time he got straightened up the 
sentinel fired his gun, but the bullet went wild. The tents 
were removed at once and the boys in blue in confusion. 
Some seized their guns, others surrendered at once. I took 
one tent from two boys ; one surrendered, but the other point- 
ed his carbine square at me. I knocked it away so that the 
bullet missed me, but he tried to shoot me until I fired my 
revolver close enough to his body to burn him, and then he 
surrendered. He was but a boy about fourteen years old 
and as pretty as a girl. The Captain had not yet surrendered,, 
but was contending with two of the boys, Buck Carter of 
Barbour and Tom Alton of Marion County. He was trying 
to mount his horse and when he threw his belt around to put 
it on his pistol slipped off the belt. He drew his sabre and 
cut the hitch strap of his horse when the bovs seized him 
and demanded his surrender. Buck Carter's patience wore 
out and he drew his spencer rifle and stepped back and said, 
T will make you surrender.' Just then I caught his gun and' 
pushed his muzzle down so the ball went into the ground. I 
slapped the Captain on the shoulder and said, Captain, you 
had better surrender; and he did. Tom Alton took charge of 
him and the fight was over. Two or three of the boys in 
blue were wounded and two horses were wounded. We piled 
the tents, bent the guns and set fire to them. We took Cap- 
tain Farrow of Miami County, Ohio and another man with 
us as pisoners and sent them to Richmond and paroled the 
rest. I asked my little boy why he was in the army, and he 
replied that his mother was a widow and that he could make 
more money for her in the army than anywhere else. I told' 
him I was going to set him free and told him he had better 
go home to his mother and keep out of the army. He said; 
he did not know about that. I w\\\ put you on parole ; you will 
go home until you are exchanged, I said. T may do that' he 
said. I do not know what he did, as I did not get his name, 
only that he lived in Miami County, not far from Dayton, 
Ohio. We got breakfast and some rations to last us through 
to Crabbottom. We were all well mounted. I got a very 
good horse and kept him seven years. The man who rode 


him while he served the hlue, while he was getting his wife's 
and child's pictures from the saddlept^ckets, said 1 had a good 
tough horse, which I found to he true." 

Ca])tain I'oe does not give the date of this exploit, but it 
was in the latter ])art of the summer of 1864. 

Confederate Soldiers. 

Below is a list of Confederate soldiers from Randolph. 
This list was compiled by George W. Printz for Maxwell's 
History of Randolph : 

James Anthony, Joseph H. Anthony, killed at Fort Stead- 
man : Jackson Apperson, Jefiferson Arbogast, killed at the 
"Bloody Angle," Spottsylvania Court House; Moses Bennett, 
John \\". Bosworth Lieutenant, S. X. Bosworth Sergeant, 
Joseph Chenoweth ]\Iajor, killed at Port Republic ; Z. T. 
Chenoweth, Eli Currence, Emmett Craw^ford, Burns Craw- 
ford, died of wounds, 1863 ; Jacob Currence Captain, N. S. 
Channell, Cyrus Crouch, killed at Eredericksburg ; Milton 
Crouch, killed at Cold Harbor; Garland Cox, died in prison; 
Peter Cowger, Henson Douglass, killed at the "Bloody 
Angle," Spottsylvania Court House ; William Daft, Edward 
Daft, Adam E. Eolks Corporal, John Eolks, killed at the 
\\'ilderness ; George Gainor, Eugene Hutton, killed at Bunker 
Hill, Va. ; George E. Hogan, Levi Hevener, Adam Hevener, 
killed at Spottsylvania ; Andrew Hevener, sctout for Lee, 
killed at Elkwater; J. E. Harding Captain, after Major of 
Cavalry, Marion Harding, killed at Elkwater, October, 1862 ; 
George Harding, died in camp ; Thomas Herron, Edward Kit- 
tle, killed at "Bloody Angle," Spottsylvania Court House; 
Marshall Kittle, killed in Beverly at the Hill Raid 1864; Asa 
Kelly, died of wounds at McDowell ; Charles Kelley, John 
Logan, G. W. Louk, John Louk, Claude Louk, Dudley Long,. 
Third Lieutenant, killed at Petersburg; J. H. Long Corporal,, 
killed at Port Republic ; Thomas Long, died in hospital ; O.. 
H. P. Lewis, Lieutenant, Walter Lewis, died in hospital; 
Thomas Lewas, killed at Fort Steadman ; Stephen D. Lewis> 
John Lewis Jr., killed at Cedar Mountain ; John Lewis Sr., 
William Lemon, died of wounds at McDowell ; Jacob Lemon, 
died in hospital ; James \\' . Lemon, John D. Moore, died in, 


hospital; Andrew C. Mace, Elisha McCloud, John B. Pritt, 
Newton Potts, John Quick, died from wounds; Claude Rader, 
George W. Rowan, Corporal, Jacob Riggleman, Washington 
Riggleman, Joshua Ramsay, died from wounds ; Thomas 
Ramsay, l^ranch Robinson, George Salsbury, Lieutenant, 
Hiram Smith, Chesley Simmons, David Simmons, Joseph 
Simmons, Franklin Stalnaker, died in hospital : Absalom 
Shitflett, D. H. Summers, John C. Swecker, John M. Swecker, 
Thomas Shelton, David Shelton, Joseph Stipes, killed at 
"Bloody Angle" Spottsylvania Court House; William Stipes, 
Joseph Vandevander, Adam Vandevander, W^illiam H. Wil- 
son, Lieutenant, David O. Wilson, James R. XA'ilson, James 
D. Wilson, Corporal, James W. Wilson, W. H. Wamsley, 
Enoch Wamsley, L. D. Westfall, John M. Wood, Joseph 
Wood, Randolph Wise, lost arm at Chantilly. 

Dudley Long, J. H. Long and Thomas Long, mentioned 
above were brothers, all losing their lives in the Southern 

In the above list John A\\ Lewis Sr. was the father and 
O. H. Lewis, Walter Lewis, Thomas Lewis, Stephen D. 
Lewis and John Lewis Jr. were sons. 

There were fixe Kittle l^rothers in the Conferedate ser- 
vice; George Kittle, Marshall Kittle, Ira Kittle, Edward 
Kittle, and Squire B. Kittle. 

Eighteenth Virginia Cavalry. — j. D. Adams, John Ben- 
nett, Jacob Chenoweth, Judson Goddin, Sergeant, Charles 
Myers, L. G. Potts, William Powers, George Powers, Thomas 
Powers (killed), Adam C. Stalnaker, Eli Taylor, Judson Tay- 
lor, Haymond Taylor (killed at Winchester, I, 1864), Elam 
Taylor, Lieutenant, H. H. Taylor, F. M. Taylor, Perry Tay- 
lor, J. W. Triplett, Oliver Triplett, iM-ank Triplett (killed at 
the Sinks), James D. Wilson, George Ward, Perry Weese, 
Duncan Weese, Haymond A\'eese, Lafayette Ward. 

Twentieth Virginia Cavalry. — J. N. C. Bell. W illiam H. 
Coberly, A. C. Crouch, Jolm II. Dewitt, Claude Goff, Elihu 
Hutton, Colonel, John Herron, Eugenus Isner, ]\Iorgan Kittle, 
John Killingsworth, M. P. H. Potts. Jacob Salisbury (killed 
at Winchester), Sheldon Salisbury, Adam Stalnaker, Harri- 
son Westfall, Fred \\'hite. 


Nineteenth Virginia Cavalry. — John leaker, J. H. Cur- 
rence, Archibald Earle, Simon Fowler, Nathan Fowler, Ira 
Kittle, John Kinney, Thomas G. Lindsey, James A. Logan, 
Thomas Logan, David 11. Lilly, John Manley, James Morri- 
son (killed at Droop Mountain), Adam Propst Jr., Jesse W. 
Simmons, Jonas Simmons, Nimrod Shifflett, J. S. Wamsley, 
Captain, Randolph Wamsley, Samuel B. Wamsley, Adam H. 
Wamsley,- George F. Wamsley, George Ware, John Ware, 
Allen Ware, Elihu B. Ward, Jacob G. Ward, Lieutenant, R. 
S. Ward, L. M. Ward, Jacob Wilmoth, David J. Wilmoth. 

M'Clanahan's Battery. — Andrew Chenoweth, Adam C. 
Caplinger, C. L. Caplinger, John Caplinger, Parkison C. Col- 
lett, Lieutenant, Andrew J. Collett, Sergeant, Hoy Clark, 
James Daniels, Bugler, Harper Daniels, Calvin C. Clark, C. 
B. Clark, John Marstiller (died at Bridgewater), David B. 
Marstiller, Blackman Rummell (died in prison), Jacob Weese, 
Andrew C. Weese. 

Sixty-seventh Virginia Infantry, — A. Canfield, S. B. Kittle, 
William Keasy, Cyrus Myers, Randolph Phillips, Moses Phil- 
lips, George Phillips. 

Churchville Cavalry. — Andrew C. Goddin, Lieutenant. 

Twenty-fifth Virginia Infantry. — Jacob Heator, Dock 
Heator, lierbert Murphy, Jacob Mathews, Captain, Charles 
Mathews, James Shannon, Michael Shannon, Martin Shan- 
non, Curtis Taylor, W. T. Ware, Sturms Gainer, Andrew 
J. Murphy. 

Scouts. — \\'illiam Nelson (killed on Dry Fork), and 
Thomas Wood. 

Remarkable Recoveries. 

On the night of March 20, 1864, a squad of Confederate 
scouts, consisting of Adam C. Stalnaker, Jasper Triplett, 
Oliver Triplett, Anthony Triplett, Taylor Chenoweth, James 



D. Wilson, Jacob Wilmoth, Luther Parsons, Lafe Ward and 
Dow Adams were fired upon by thirty-three Home Guards, 
known as Swamps, while they were sleeping before a camp- 
fire at the Sinks on the head of Dry Fork. Oliver Triplett 
was killed instantly. Anthony Triplett and Adams were so 
severely wounded that they were thought to be dead. How- 
ever, upon the removal of their boots they showed signs of 

Rich Mountain Battle Field. 

life and were clubbed with muskets and left for dead. Later 
they regained consciousness and Adams, in a dazed condition, 
fell into the fire and was severely burned. Mr. Teter, who 
lived near, found the wounded men next day and cared for 
them at his home. Adams had been hit by eighteen missiles, 
yet both he and Triplett recovered. Those escaping injury 
fled to the adjacent woods. Messrs. James D. AAMlson and 
Adam C. Stalnaker, having departed the camp without their 
shoes, wrapped their feet in the capes of their coats, tied them 
on with their handkerchiefs, and waded through the snow 
several feet deep to Hightown, eight miles distant. ^Messrs. 
Perry Weese, John and Eli Taylor were with the Confederate 
scouts, but Mr. W^eese stopped for the night with a Mr. 
Teter, who lived near. He was surprised and captured be 


fore the soldiers at the camp were fired upon, but was help- 
less to warn his comrades. Messrs. John and Eli Taylor, fear- 
ing a night attack, did not remain with the main body of the 
scouts, but were passing the night about a half mile distant, 
when the discharge of muskets warned them of their danger. 
They made their escape. Mr. Weese was turned over to the 
Federal authorities and sent to Camp Chase, where he remain- 
ed until the close of the war. These Confederates were re- 
turning from a visit to their homes in this section. They also 
designed to surprise and capture the Federal wagon train of 
supplies on its way from Webster Station to Beverly. Prepar- 
ration was made for the attack a few miles below Beverly, 
but when the train appeared the guard was too strong for their 
small force and their object was abandoned. 




"The world advances and in time outgrows 
The laws that in our father's days were best, 
And doubtless after us some purer scheme 
Will be shaped by wiser men than we." 

RANDOLPH COUNTY was g-overned by the constitution 
and statutes of Virginia from the time of its settlement to 
1861. From 1863 to the present time the constitution and 
statutes of West Virginia have been the laws of the land. The 
study of the laws of an epoch or a country is interesting and 
instructive from the fact that they reflect the customs, usages, 
intelligence and civilization of a people. Blackstone defines 
statute law as, "A rule of action, prescribed by the supreme 
power of a state, commanding what is right and prohibiting 
what is wrong. Accepting this definition, we can determine 
from the laws of a country what its people regard as right and 
wrong. The consideration of the laws of the past is also 
interesting in throwing light upon the advancement of society. 
As mankind progresses in civilization there decreases the 
necessity for harsh, punitive and deterrent laws. A com- 
parison of the laws of today with the statutes of a century 
ago is sufificient to convince the most skeptical and pessi- 
mistic that there has been real progress. The fact that laws 
were not repealed, is not evidence that they were not dis- 
tasteful to a majority of the people. They often remain on the 
statute books long after they ceased to be enforced. 

The laws that governed Randolph County, as a part of 
Virginia, during the first half century of its existence, were 
framed or inspired by the most distinguished statesmen our 
country has produced. They were largely responsible for the 
laws, whether good or bad. These men not only provided the 
State of Virginia with its code of laws, but dominated the 
policies of the general government as well. Among this 


galaxy of statesmen may be mentioned Patrick Henry, George 
Washington, John Randolph, John Marshall, James Madison, 
James Monroe, William Wirt and Thomas Jefferson. If some 
of the laws of their day seemed incompatible with their learn- 
ing and wisdom, as we view them today, we must remember 
that they were intended for a people more primitive. A 
people steeped and inured in king-craft, with many laws and 
usages venerable with age. The laws may have been in- 
harmonious with the spirit of the age, but they were hallowed 
by the usages and traditions of their ancestors and they were 
loth to alter or change them. If these laws, the product of 
the brain of these sages and statesmen, fall below our expec- 
tations, it may serve the purpose of removing the glamour and 
illusion that often attaches to the lives and teachings of those 
who have preceded us and leave us free to fashion our own 
destiny in the light of present day conditions. 

In 1792 a law was enacted in the interests of good morals 
and the suppression of vice and provided a penalty of eighty- 
three cents for swearing, or getting drunk and in default of 
payment, the offender was to receive ten lashes on the bare 

For working on the Sabbath the fine was one dollar and 
sixty-seven cents. In the early records of Randolph there is 
frequent reference to the violation of the Sunday law; in 
most instances for going to mill on the Sabbath. However, 
mitigating circumstances set the offender free in most 

For stealing a hogshead or cask of tobacco, found lying 
by the highway, the punishment was death. 

By act of the Virginia Assembly of December 19, 1792. 
it was a crime punishable with death for any one to be found 
guilty of forgery. The same penalty was attached to the 
crime of eracing, defacing or changing the inspector's stamp 
on hemp or flour. A similar penalty was attached to the 
crime of stealing land warrants. 

The individual, who made, passed, or possessed counter- 
feit money with knowledge that it was counterfeit, was to be 
put to death without benefit of clergy. 

In the earlv davs of Virginia laws were often classed as 


"clergible" and "unclergible." Benefit of clergy was a privi- 
lege which arose from the pious regard paid by Christian 
princes to the church in its infant state. Clergymen were ex- 
empt from criminal processes before the secular judge in a 
few particular cases. This exemption of the clergy, ar they 
increased in wealth, power and honor was ex-tended to every 
subordinate officer belonging to the church or clergy. For 
a time the clergy could have his clerks or subordinates re- 
mitted out of the courts as they were indicted. This privi- 
lege was later changed so that the prisoner could only claim 
benefit of clergy after conviction in arrest of judgment. Be- 
fore the general dissemination of learning the fact that the in- 
dividual could read was competent evidence that he was a 
clerk or clericus and entitled to the benefit of clergy. There- 
fore, in the early history of our county, when the offender 
was found guilty and sentenced to expiate his crime with 
his life without benefit of clergy, it did not mean that the 
tribunal was essaying to extend its jurisdiction beyond earthly 
courts, but that the prisoner should not plead benefit of 
clergy in arrest of judgment. The principal argument upon 
which the clergy of that day claimed exemption of the law, 
was founded upon that text of Scripture, "Touch not mine 
annointed and do my prophets no harm." 

In 1789, an act was passed by the Assembly of Virginia, 
making arson, burglary, the burning of a courthouse or 
prison, church, robbing a house in the presence of its occu- 
pants, breaking into and robbing a dwelling house by day, 
after putting its owner in fear, murder in the first degree, 
punishable with death without benefit of clergy. 

By a law put on the statute books in 1792, gossip was dis- 
couraged in the following terms : 

Whereas, many idle and busy headed people, do forge 
and divulge false rumors and reports, be it 

Resolved : By the General Assembly, That what person 
or persons whomsoever shall forge or divulge any such false 
report tending to the trouble of the country, he shall be by 
the next Justice of the Peace, sent for and bound over, to 
the county court, where if he produce not his author, he shall 
be fined forty dollars or less if the court sees fit to lessen it, 


and besides give ])ond for his g-ood behaviour, if it appear to 
the court that he did mahciously publish or invent it." 

Hog- steaHng was a very grave crime in the eyes of the 
early Virginia law makers. Special penalties were provided, 
perhaps for the reason of the opportunities and temptations 
for appro]iriating another's swine. Hogs, more than other 
stock, were inclined to roam farther from the settler's cabin 
and clearing and remain for months or years without the care 
or attention of their owners. They were marked and turned 
loose to live, fatten and multiply upon the nuts and roots of 
the forest. A law enacted in 1792, provided that a person 
stealing a hog, shoat or pig should receive thirty-five lashes 
on the bare back, or pay a fine of thirty dollars and in either 
event he should pay the owner eight dollars for each animal 
stolen. For the second ofifense he should stand in the pilories 
with both ears nailed to the pilories on a court day. For the 
third offense the culprit was to be put to death without the 
benefit of clergy. The laws of marks and brands made the 
possession of a hog without ears sufificient evidence that the 
possessor had stolen it. Indians, under the law, were pro- 
hibited from selling the settler hogs unless the ears were 
produced to indicate the ownership. 

Slaves whether regarded as property, or as men, severe 
laws were passed for their restraint and regulation. His- 
torians differ as to the precise date of the introduction of 
slaves into Virginia. Smith, the first historian of Virginia 
thus expresses himself: "About the last of August came in 
a Dutch man of warre that brought us twenty Negars." 

Prior to 1788 it was no punishable offense for the owner 
to accidentally kill his slave, by stroke or blow, intended for 
their correction. This law was repealed by act of the As- 
sembly, November 21, 1788. 

The assemblage of slaves at any school for teaching them 
reading or writing either in the day or night, was denied an 
unlawful assembly and the offenders were subject to corporal 
punishment, not to exceed twenty lashes. 

Prior to 1806 an emancipated slave remaining in the State 
more than one year forfeited his or her freedom. Xo free 
negro or mulatto was permitted to migrate into the State 


under the penalty of receiving thirty-nine lashes for every 
week while he should remain in the State. 

The General Assembly of Virginia in 1785, in order to 
prevent the further introduction of slaves into the State, 
passed an act that slaves brought into the Commonwealth and 
kept therein one year should be free. 

It was unlawful for a slave to leave the premises of his 
master without a permit. No person was allowed to sell to 
or purchase from a slave any commodity without the master's 

In the same year the General Assembly declared all per- 
sons to be mulattoes, whose grandfathers or grandmothers 
shall have been negro, although all his other progenitors shall 
have been white persons. Also, every person, who shall have 
one-fourth part or more negro blood should be deemed a negro. 

The early laws of Virginia recognized another species of 
servitude ; that of servants. The legal status between ser- 
vant and master was clearly defined by statute. Many poor 
persons in the mother country contracted for service on Vir- 
ginia plantations in consideration of transportation. Then 
the mother country from motives of economy of gibbets and 
jail room at home transported a number of individuals who 
had not displayed a proper ethical consideration for the rights 
and properties of others in England. This class of individuals 
were sold to the American planter. In a new environment, 
with the inspiration of the opportunities of a new and growing 
country, removed from the scenes of their crimes, these ex- 
ported convicts, as a rule, became upright and exempulary 

No negro, mulatto or Indian could purchase any servant 
other than their own complexion. 

By act of the Assembly of 1792, the servant could not be 
compelled to perform a contract exceeding seven years. In- 
fants under fourteen years of age, with consent of parents or 
guardian could serve until of age. Servants, whose compen- 
sation was limited to transportation, food, lodging and cloth- 
ing were to receive at the end of their service a suit of clothes, 
suited to the season : to-wit, a coat, waist coat, pair of 


breeches, and shoes, two pair of stockings, two shirts, a hat 
and a blanket. 

A Justice of the Peace could convict a servant for lazi- 
ness and have him corrected with stripes. No servant was 
permitted to sell or receive any commodity. 

In oflfenses by free persons punishable by fines, servants 
were punished by lashes. Every servant upon the expiration 
of his or her time, was upon proof, to receive a certificate from 
the cleark of the court where he or she last served. 

The Virginia Assembly passed an act November 13, 1788, 
to prevent the importation of convicts into Virginia, as 
follows : 

"Whereas, it has been represented to this general assem- 
bly by the United States in congress, that a practice has pre- 
vailed for some time past of importing felon convicts into 
this state, under various pretences, which said felons convict 
so imported and sold and dispersed among the people of this 
state, whereby much injury hath been done to the moral, as 
well as the health of our fellow citizens : for remedy whereof, 

"Be it enacted, that from and after the first day of Janu- 
ary next, no captain or master of any sailing vessel, or any 
other person, coming into this commonwealth, by land or 
water, shall import or bring wnth him, any person who shall 
have been a felon, convict, or vmder sentence of death, or any 
other legal disability incurred by a criminal prosecution, or 
who shall be delivered to him from any prison or place of 
confinement, in any place out of the United States." 

Religious Freedom. 

Virginia had originally an established church with some 
of the intolerance of the mother church of England, but under 
the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, who is justly venerated 
as the father of religious liberty in Virginia, the legislature 
incorporated the liberal views of this distinguished statesman 
in the statutes of the state. In 1776 a committee had been 
appointed to revise the statutes of the state and the most im- 
portant of these bills were enacted into law in 1785 and 1786. 
Among the bills recommended was one for establishing re- 
ligious freedom, which became a law in October 1785. Patrick 


Henry was at that time Governor of Virginia. The preamble 
and act was as follows: 

"Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free; 
that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or 
burdens, or by civil incapacitations, tend only to beget habits 
of hypocricy and meanness, and are a departure from the plan 
of the Holy author of our religion who being Lord both of 
body and mind, yet choose not to propogate it by coercion on 
either, as was in his almighty power to do ; that the impious 
presumption of legislators and rulers civil as well as eccle- 
siastical, who being themselves but fallible and uninspired men, 
have assumed dominion over the faith of others, setting up 
their own opinions and modes of thinking as the only true 
and infallible, and as such endeavoring to impose them on 
others, hath established and maintained false religions over the 
greatest part of the world, and through all time ; that to com- 
pel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propo- 
gation of opinions which he disbelieves, is sinful and tyran- 
ical ; that even the forcing him to support this or that teacher 
of his own religious persuasion, is depriving him of the com- 
fortable liberty of giving his contributions to the particular 
pastor, whose morals he would make his pattern, and whose 
powers he feels most persuasive to righteousness, and is 
withdrawing from the ministry those temporary rewards, 
which proceeding from an approbation of their personal con- 
duct, are an additional incitement to earnest and unremitting 
labours for the instruction of mankind ; that our civil rights 
have no dependence on our religious opinions, any more than 
our opinions in physics or geometry ; that therefore the pro- 
scribing any citizen as unworthy the public confidence by 
laying upon him incapacity of being called to offices of trust 
and emolument, unless he profess or renounce this or that 
religious belief, is depriving him injuriously of these privileges 
and advantages to which in common with his fellow citizens 
he has a natural right ; that it tends only to corrupt the prin- 
ciples of the religion that it is meant to encourage, by bribing 
with a monopoly of worldly honors and emoluments, those 
who will externally profess and conform to it ; that though 
indeed these are criminal who do not withstand such tempta- 


tion, yet neither are those innocent who lay the bait in their 
way ; that to suffer the civil mag'istrate to intrude his powers 
into the field of (i])ini(ni, and to restrain the profession or 
propogation of principles on supposition of their ill tendency, 
is dani^erous fallacy, which at once destroys all religious 
liberty, because he being of course judge of that tendency will 
make his opinions the rule of judgment, and approve or con- 
dem the sentiments of others only as they shall square with or 
differ from his own ; that it is time enough for the rightful 
purposes of civil government, for its officers to interfere when 
principles break out into overt acts against peace and good 
order; and finally, that truth is great and will prevail if left 
to herself, that she is the proper antagonist to error, and has 
nothing to fear from the conflict unless by human interposi- 
tion disarmed of her natural weapons, free argument and 
debate, errors, ceasing to be dangerous when it is permitted 
freely to contradict them : 

Be it Enacted by the General Assembly, That no man 
shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious wor- 
ship, place or ministrv whatsoever, or shall be enforced, re- 
strained, molested or burthened in his goods, nor shall other- 
wise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief ; but 
that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to main- 
tain, their opinion in matters of religion, and that the same 
shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil ca- 

And though we well know that this assembly elected by 
the people for the ordinary purposes of legislation only, have 
no power to restrain the acts of succeeding assemblies, con- 
stituted with powers equal to our own, and that therefore to 
declare this act irrevocable would be of no effect in law ; yet 
we are free to declare, that the rights hereby asserted are of 
the natural rights of mankind, and that if any act shall be 
hereafter passed to repeal the present, or to narrow its opera- 
tion, such an act will be an infringement of natural right." 

The military spirit prevailed in the early history of this 
county, to a much greater extent than today. The long con- 
test with the Indians and French had imbued the people with 


a military spirit and inured them to the hardships of war. 
After the revolution the masses of the people gladly returned 
to the pursuits of peace, but the thunder and mutterings of 
the war god in Europe, echoed in the New World and the 
drill and efficiency of the militia was the constant care and 
patronage of the state. Musters for military drills were gala 
days in the pioneer period. In that day, when physical prowess 
was at a premium from an environment of danger and hard- 
ship, it was not an unusual occurrence for the participants of 
the muster, to test their physical skill and endurance in a 
fistic encounter. 

The law under which musters were held was passed 
October 17, 1785. Patrick Henry was at that time Governor 
of Virginia. Several salient sections of the law are produced 
below : 

"That all free male persons between the ages of eighteen 
and fifty years, except the members of council of state, judges, 
millers, ministers of the gospel, etc., shall be inrolled or form- 
ed into companies, of three Serjeants, three corporals, a drum- 
mer and a fifer, and not less than forty and not more than 
sixty-five rank and file ; and these companies shall again be 
formed into regiments of not more than one thousand, nor 
less than five hundred men, if there be so many in the county. 
Each company shall be commanded by a captain, lieutenant, 
and an ensign ; each regiment by a colonel, and a major ; and 
the whole by a county lieutenant. There shall be a private 
muster of every company once in two months, except Decem- 
ber and January, at such convenient time and place as the 
captain or next commanding- officer shall appoint : a muster 
of each regiment on some day in the month of March or April 
in every year, and a general muster of the whole on some day 
in the month of October or November, in every year, to be 
appointed by the county lieutenant. 

"Every officer and soldier shall appear at his respective 
muster field on the day appointed, by eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon, armed, equipped and accoutered as follows : The 
county lieutenants, colonels, lieutenant colonels, and majors, 
with a sword, the captains, lieutenants, and ensigns, with a 
sword and espontoon, every non-commissioned officer and 


private, with a good clean musket, carrying an ounce ball 
and three feet eight inches long in l)arrel, with a good bayonet 
and iron ramrod well fitted thereto, a cartridge box properly 
made, to contain and secure twenty cartridges fitted to his 
musket, a good knapsack and canteen, and moreover, each 
non-commissioned officer and jM'ivate shall liave at every 
muster one pound of good powder, and four pounds of lead, 
including twenty blind cartridges; and each Serjeant shall 
ha\e a pair of moulds fit to cast Ijalls for their respective 
companies, to be purchased by the commanding officer out 
of the monies arising on delinquencies. 

"Provided, that the militia of the counties westward of 
the Blue Ridge, and the counties below adjoining thereto, 
shall not be obliged to be armed with muskets, but may have 
good rifies with proper accouterments, in lieu thereof. 

"And whereas it will be of great utility and advantage in 
establishing a well disciplined militia, to annex to each regi- 
ment a light company to be formed of young men, from 
eighteen to twenty-five years old, whose activity and do- 
mestic circumstances will admit of a frequency of training and 
strictness of discipline, not practical for the militia in general, 
and returning to the main body, on their arrival at the latter 
period, will be constantlv giving thereto a military pride and 
experience, from which the best of consequences will result. 

"If any non-commissioned officer or soldier shall behave 
himself disobediently or mutinously when on duty, on, or 
before any court or board directed by this act to be held, the 
commanding ofiicer, court or board, may either confine him 
for the day, or cause him to be bound neck and heels for any 
time not exceeding five minutes. If any by-stander shall 
interrupt, molest or insult any officer or soldier while on duty 
at any muster, or shall be guilty of the like conduct before 
any court or board, as aforesaid, the commanding officer, or 
such court, or board may cause him to be confined for the day. 

And when any militia shall be in actual service, they shall 
be allow^ed pay and rations as follows : A brigadier general, 
one hundred dollars per month, and twelve rations of pro- 
visions and five rations of forage for himself and family, per 
day ; an aid-de-camp, thirty dollars per month ; a colonel. 


seventy-five dollars per month and six rations of provisions 
and two rations of forage per day ; a brigade major, thirty 
dollars per month, four rations of provisions and two rations 
of forage per day ; a brigade quartermaster, thirty dollars per 
month, and three rations of provisions and one ration of forage 
per day ; a lieutenant colonel, sixty dollars per month, and five 
rations of provisions and two rations of forage per day ; a 
major, fifty dollars per month and two rations of forage per 
day ; a captain, forty dollars per month and three rations of 
provisions per day ; a lieutenant, twenty-seven and two-thirds 
dollars per month and two rations. of provisions per day; an 
ensign, twenty dollars per month and two rations of provisions 
per day : a surgeon, sixty dollars per month and three rations 
of provisions and two rations of forage per day ; a quarter- 
master, twenty dollars per month and two rations of provi- 
sions and one ration of forage per day ; a paymaster, forty 
dollars per month and two rations of provisions and one ration 
of forage per day ; an adjutant, twenty-four dollars per month 
and two rations of provisions and one ration of forage per day;. 
a quartermaster sergeant, eight dollars per month and one 
ration per day ; a sergeant, eight dollars per month and one 
ration per day ; a corporal, seven dollars per month and one 
ration per day ; a private, five and one-half dollars per month, 
and one ration per day. A ration shall consist of one pound 
of fresh beef or pork, or three-quarters of a pound of salt 
pork, one pound of wheat bread or flour, or one pound and a 
quarter of corn meal, one gill of rum, when to be had, and one 
quart of salt, one quart of vinegar, two pounds of soap, and 
one pounds of candles, to every hundred rations; but in case 
salt meat be issued, the salt to be withheld ; and a ration of 
forage, of ten quarts of corn or oats, and fourteen pounds of 
hay or fodder. 

The pioneer depended, much more than people of the 
present day, upon the local grist mill for converting his corn 
and wheat into meal and flour, whereof was obtained the 
"stafif of life." The miller was an important and conspicuous 
personage in the community and an object of much consid- 
eration by the law making bodies. Unless the mill was es- 
tablished bv court, the owner could collect no toll nor receive 


any compensation for grinding^ grain. The law, in part, gov- 
erning the operation of grist mills was as follows : 

"All millers shall well and sufficiently grind the grain, 
l^rc night to their mills for the u^ual consnm])tion of all per- 
sons hringing the same and their families: and in due turn as 
the same shall he brought and may take for the toll, one- 
eighth part and no more, of all grain of which the remaining 
part shall be ground into meal and one-sixteenth part and no 
more of all grain of which the remaining part shall be ground 
into hominy or malt. 

"And every miller or occupier of a mill, who shall not 
well and sufficiently grind as aforesaid, or not in turn as the 
same shall l)e l^rought, or take or exact more toll, shall, 
(whether such mill be estal)lished by law or not) forfeit and 
pa_\' to the party injured, five dollars for each and every of- 
fense, recoverable with costs before any justice of the peace 
of the county where such offense shall be committed. And 
where the miller shall be a slave free or mulatto, he shall, 
upon the first conviction for such offense, receive ten lashes, 
and on the second conviction twenty lashes, on his or her 
bare ])ack, well laid on, in lieu of the forfeit aforesaid ; but 
upon a third conviction, the master of such slave, where the 
party is a slave, or his overseer or agent, shall be liable to pay 
to the party injured, five dollars, recoverable as aforesaid, and 
so for every offense by such slave afterward committed ; pro- 
vided that every owner, or occupier of a mill, shall have a 
right at any time to grind his or her own grain for the con- 
sumption of his or her family ; And provided. That no miller 
shall be obliged to run more than one pair of stones, for the 
purpose of grinding grain brought to his mill for the con- 
sumption of the persons bring the same and their families. 

"Every owner or occupier of a mill established, or grind- 
ing for toll, as aforesaid, shall keep therein sealed measures, 
of half bushel and peck, and toll dish sealed, and shall measure 
all grain bv strike measure under the penalty of paying two 
dollars and fifty cents for every such failure, recoverable with 
costs, before a justice of the peace for the county wherein such 
mill shall be, to the use of the informer, and if the miller be 


a slave or servant, his master or owner shall be liable to 
the penalty.' 

According- to the code of Virginia of 1819, in case of 
trespass by horses and catde upon the lands of another, for 
the third offense the "party injured may kill the beast without 
being liable to an action." 

In the question of the lawfulness of a fence, in case ot 
trespass the justice was compelled to issue his order for "three 
honest and disinterested house keepers," to view the fence and 
their testimony was good evidence to the jury. 

Persons injuring trespassing live stock, when their fence 
was not up to the legal standard, were mulcted in double 
damages. The statute read as follows: "If any person dami- 
fied for want of such sufficient fence shall injure or cause to 
be injured, in any manner, any of the kind of animals above 
mentioned, he shall pay to the owner double damages, with 
costs recoverable as aforesaid." 

The penalty for making a fence across a public road was 
one dollar and sixty cents for every twenty-four hours the 
fence remained. 

On November 7, 1787, an act was passed by the Virginia 
Assembly of considerable historic interest. John Fitch, ot 
Pennsvlvania was granted exclusive privilege to navigate 
steamboats upon all waters within the jurisdiction of the state 
for a term of fourteen years. This act was to become void if 
he did not have his boats or crafts in use at the expiration of 
three years from the passage of the act. The preamble of the 
bill cited that John Fitch "hath constructed an easy and ex- 
peditious method of propelling boats through the water by 
force of fire or steam." Several years previous, while sailing 
on the great western rivers, the idea occurred to him that 
they might be navigated by steam. He applied for pecuniary 
assistance to several states without success. However in 
1786, he succeeded in forming a company for the ])rosecution 
of his enterprise, and a steam packet was launched on the 
Delaware. The undertaking proved a losing one and IMr. 
Fitch, in poverty and disappointment, committed suicide in 
1798. James Rumsey disputed Fitche's claim to be the in- 


ventor of steam navigation, but, he as well as Robert Fulton, 
who in 1806, succeeded in propelling a boat through the 
water by the use of steam, perhaps, appropriated the ideas 
conceived and suggested by Fitch several years previous. 

District courts were established by act of the Virginia 
Assembly December 22. 1788. Randolph, Harrison, Monon- 
galia, and Ohio composed one of the circuits. Court for this 
district was to be held at Monongalia court house on the 3rd 
day of May, and the 20th day of September of each year. 
Judges were elcted by joint ballot of the both houses of the 
Assembly. There were to be two judges for each circuit. 
Where the charge was of such a nature as to subject the party 
to capital punishment or burning in the hand, two judges 
were required to try the issue, whether in law or fact. Their 
jurisdiction obtained in civil causes, only, where the matter in 
controversy amounted to 3000 pounds, or more, of tobacco. 

On November 20, 1788, the Virginia Assembly apportion- 
ed the state into ten Congressionad districts and passed an 
act for the election of representatives pursuant to the consti- 
tution of the United States, which had been ratified by Vir- 
ginia in June of the same year. Randolph county was linked 
with Harrison, Hampshire, Berkeley, Frederick, Shenandoah, 
Ohio, Monongalia and Hardy in the formation of one con- 
gressional district. This congressional district, with a few^ 
variations, remains much the same today. 

On December 9, 1795, the General Assembly of Virginia 
passed an act for removing the obstructions for the passage 
of fish in the Tygarts Valley river. There is no record or 
tradition that anything was ever accomplished and the agita- 
tion for this project, though hoary with the frosts of many 
winters, today shows the vitality of vigorous youth. The 
falls referred to exist a few miles below the city of Grafton. 
The narrows, near Cornelius Westfall's, has reference to the 
passage of the Valley river through the mountains, a few 
miles below^ Elkins. A copy of the act is produced below: 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That Robert 
Maxwell, Abram Kittle, John Pancake, Abram Springstone, 
Jacob Stornaker, Benjamin Hornbeck, Simon Reader, Heze- 
kiah Roincrantz, and Jonas Friend, gentlemen, shall he and 


are hereby constituted and appointed commissioners, for tak- 
ing and receiving subscriptions for the purpose of defraying 
the expense of removing the obstructions to the passage of 
fish, in the Tygarts Valley River between the falls and the 
narrows near Cornelius Westfall's. 

"If any person shall neglect or refuse, when required to 
pay the money by him subscribed, it shall be lawful for the 
said commissioners or the survivors of them, to recover the 
same by motion in the court of the county where the sub- 
scriber resides : Provide, the party has ten days previous 
notice of such motion, and the clerk shall endorse on every 
execution issued by virtue of this act, 'No security to be 

"The commissioners, or a majority of them, shall have 
power to contract and agree with one or more fit person or 
persons for remo\-ing the obstruction to the passage of fish in 
Tyger's A^alley river between the falls thereof and the nar- 
rows near Cornelius Westfall's and take a bond or bonds with 
sufficient security for the due and faithful performance of the 
undertaking: and of the money arising from the subscrip- 
tion as aforesaid, to pay the expense thereof. 

"This act shall commence and be in force from and after 
the passing thereof." 

The Virginia Assembly on December 10, 1793 passed an 
act authorizing the county of Randolph to open a wagon road 
from the court house at Beverly to the State Road at David 
Minear's on Cheat River. Under this act the surveyors of the 
different precincts of the county were to compel all persons 
in their precincts, who were subject to the road law, to assist 
in the construction of this road. The road law at that time 
compelled "all male labouring persons, of the age of sixteen 
years or more, except such as are masters of two or more male 
labouring slaves of the age of sixteen years or more to work 
on some public road." The penalty for the violation of this 
statute was seven shillings and six pense for each day's of- 
fense. The following is a copy of the act referred to above : 

"Whereas it has been represented to the present general 
assembly that the inhabitants of Randolph County have long 
laboured under many disadvantages for the want of a wagon 


road from the court house thereof to the state road at David 
Manear's on Cheat River, which can not be effected by the 
ordinarv mode of prescril)ed by law: 

"Be it therefore enacted by the i^eneral assembly, That it 
shall and may be lawful for the court of the said county of 
Ran(lol])h to order the attendance and services of the several 
surveyors of highways in Tyg'er's Valley, Leading- Creek and 
Cheat River, with the hands assigned to work thereon, to 
open and complete a wagon road from Thomas Skidmore's, in 
Tyger's Valley, to David Manear's on Cheat River, where the 
state road crosses the same. 

"And be it further enacted. That any person failing to 
comply with the requisitions of this act, shall be subject to 
the same fines and ])enalties as are inflicted l)v the act entitled, 
'An act concerning public roads.' 

"This act shall commence and be in force from and after 
the passings thereof." 

Tavern keepers were for many years in the early history 
of the state licensed by the Governor, but from the time of 
the formation of this county the licenseing" power was vested 
in the county court. A special penalty, forfeiture of license, 
was attached to the offense of permitting "any person to 
tipple or drink more than is necessary on the Lord's day or 
any day set apart by public authority for religious worship." 
Prices to be charged by the innkeeper for diet, lodging, liquors, 
and horse feed were left to the discretion of the countv court. 

The culture of tobacco was for many years the principal 
pursuit in the early history of Virginia and it was the only 
staple commodity to which the first settlers could be induced 
to turn their attention. \^arious laws were, at first enacted by 
the legislature, wth a view to improve its quality and lessen 
the quantity, the distance at which the plants should be set 
apart, the number of plants to be attended by each labourer, 
and the number of leaves to be gathered from a plant, were 
all prescribed by act of Assembly. At one period a law was 
in force, declaring that no tobacco should be planted after a 
certain day in the year : at another there was a total suspen- 
sion from planting- for a year, which was called a cessation or 
stint. The size of a hogshead of tobacco was, for a number 


of years, three hundred and fifty pounds weight. Before any 
warehouses were stablished, the inspection of tobacco was 
performed by an order from a commander of plantations, two 
men in the neighborhood, who were to view it and if of bad 
quahty to burn it. 

Postage Rates. Laws of the United States of April 9, 
1816: For every letter, of a single sheet, conveyed not ex- 
ceeding thirty miles, 6 cents ; over thirty and not exceeding 
eighty miles, 10 cents ; over eighty and not exceeding one 
hundred and fifty miles, 12^ cents; over one hundred and 
fifty and not not exceeding four hundred miles, 18^4 cents ; 
over four hvmdred miles, 25 cents. For every double letter, 
or one composed of two pieces of paper, double those rates ; 
for a triple letter, or one composed of three pieces of paper, 
triple those rates. One newspaper could be sent by each 
printer to every other printer free of charge. The postage of 
newspapers was one cent for any distance not more than one 
hundred miles and one and one-half cents for any greater 
distance. The postage of magazines and pamphlets was one 
cent a sheet for any distance not exceeding fifty miles, one 
and one-half cents for any distance over fifty. 

We give below the Act of the General Assembly creating 
Randolph County, That portion of Harrison County em- 
braced in the territory west and east of the lines given, hound- 
ed on the west by Pendleton, south by Greenbrier, constituted 
the county at the time of its formation. 

Be It Enacted by the Geenral Assembly of \"irginia : That 
from and after the first day of May, 1787, the county of Har- 
rison, shall be divided into two distinct counties, that is to 
say, so much of the said county, lying southeast of the fol- 
lowing lines, beginning at the mouth of Sandy Creek, thence 
up Tyger's Valley River to the mouth of Buckhannon River, 
thence up said river including all the waters thereof, thence 
down Elk River, including the waters thereof to the (ireen- 
brier line, shall be one distinct county and called and be 
known by Randolph and the residue of said county shall re- 
tain the name of Harrison. A court for the said county of 
Randolph shall be held by the Justices thereof on the fourth 


Monday of every montli after the said division shall take 
place, in such manner as is provided by law for other counties, 
and shall be by their Commissioners directed. The Justices 
so named shall meet at the house of Benjamin Wilson in 
Tyger's Valley in said county, upon the first court day after 
the said division shall take place, and having taken the oaths 
prescribed by law and administered the oaths of ofifice to, 
and taken bond of the Sheriff according to law, proceed to 
appoint and cpialify a Clerk, and fix upon a place for holding 
court in the said county at or near the center thereof as the 
situation and convenience will admit of, and thenceforth the 
said court shall proceed to erect the necessary public build- 
ings at such place and until such public buildings are com- 
pleted, appoint any place for holding courts as they may think 
proper. * * * * * * * In all elections of a senator, 
the said county of Randolph shall be of the same district as 
the said county of Harrison. 

AMien a new county was organized the Governor com- 
missioned a number of men to act as "Worshipful Justices." 
They were not only Justices of the Peace, but were also a 
board of County Commissioners. They held ofifice for life, 
except that the Governor might remove them for cause. Vac- 
ancies were filled by new men recommended by the Court, 
and commissioned bv the Governor. The Court was there- 
fore self perpetuating. 

This was the law of the land until 1852. The senior Jus- 
tice in point of service became Sheriff. The Justices were 
selected from the influential and land owning class ; they 
alone were entitled to the title of "Squire" or "gentlemen." 
The ofifice often descended from father to son. To be eligible 
to vote or hold office in that day, it was necessary to own a 
plat of ground of 25 acres and have a house thereon of the 
dimensions of 12 x 12 feet or in lieu thereof, a plat of fifty 
acres of unimproved land. 

From the formation of the government of Virginia until 
1794, tobacco was the legal currency of the state, one hundred 
pounds being equivalent to one pound in coin. One pound 
was the equivalent of 3^ cents. 


By an act of 1788. the county court was for the trial of all 
presentments and criminal prosecutions, suits at common law 
and in chancery, where the sum exceeded five pounds or 500 
pounds of tobacco, depending therein and continuing for the 
space of six days unless the business should be sooner de- 
termined. It had general police and probate jurisdiction, con- 
trol of levies, of roads, actions at law, and suits in chancery. 
The Justices served without pay, and their number was not 
limited by law. A quorum consisted of four. The grand jury 
of twenty-four meml:)ers, sworn for an "inquest on the body 
of the county" was selected by the Sheriff from the freeholders. 





Till"' nicnibers of the lei^al ])rofessi()ii have ever left a mark- 
ed im})ress upon the times in which thev lived. They 
were, not onK- the ])rinci])al factor in framino- laws, ])nt were 
largely inHnential in moulding public sentiment, which found 
expression in the statutes of the state. Since the organiza- 
tion of the county. Randolph has had a bar that would bear 
favorable comparison with that of any other county in the 
state. Many of the lawyers that became prominent at the 
Kandolph count}- bar received their legal training and tute- 
lage from such learned and eminent jurists as Tucker, Minor, 
and Brockenborough. More than 200 lawyers have been ad- 
mitted to practice in Randolph county, a list of whom is given 
below, with tlie date when the name of each first appeared 
on the record : 

William McCleary 1787 

Alexander Addison 1787 

Maxwell Armstrong 1790 

Adam See 1793 

Francis Brook 1793 

Isaac White Williams ..1794 

Gilbert Christie 1795 

Pat'-ick Hendrin 1797 

Nathaniel Davisson 1798 

Christopher Lamberton 1801 

John G. Jackson 1801 

Isaac Morris 1802 

James Wilson 1803 

James Evans 1803 

John M. Smith 1804 

William Tingle .., 1805 

George C. Davisson 1807 

Samuel McMeechen 1809 

Nathaniel Pendleton 1809 

Noah Lindsey 1809 

Philip Doddridge 1809 

William G. Payne 1809 

George I. Davisson 1809 

William Parinlaw 1810 

Oliver Phelps 1810 

Lemuel E. Davisson 1910 

Edwin S. Duncan 1811 

Jonathan Jackson 1813 

James Gilmore 1813 

William Colwell 1814 

Thomas Wilson 1815 

James McCally 1815 

Marmaduke Evans 1915 

James McGee 1815 

John Brown 1817 

Phineas Chapin 1818 

Thomas C. Gordon 1820 

John J. Allen 1820 

Jefferson Phelps 1822 

Lewns Maxwell 1825 

.John Ramsell 1823 

Daniel G. Morrell 1823 

George C. Baxter 1823 

William L. Jackson 1824 

Edgar C. Wilson 1825 

George J. Wilson 1826 

Joseph Lovell 1827 

Solomon Wyatt 1827 

Blake B. Woodson 1827 

Reuben W. Short 1827 

Gideon D. Camden 1827 

Augustine L. Smith 1828 



W. W. Chapman 1828 

W. G. Brown 1829 

W. G. Naylor 1829 

James H. Craven 1829 

William C. Haymond 1830 

William R. Crane 1830 

Frederick M. Wilson 1830 

William A. Harrison 1832 

George H. Lee 1832 

Beverly H. Lurty 1832 

Charles McClure 1832 

Robert Wallace 1832 

Leroy E. Gaston 1833 

Burton A. Despard 1834 

John G. Stringer 1834 

Cabell Tavener 1834 

David Goff 1834 

Thomas Brown 1835 

William McKinley 1836 

Hyre Jackson 1836 

Joseph Hart 1837 

Wesley C. Kemp 1838 

John S. Carlisle 1840 

Matthew Edmiston 1840 

Bernard L. Brown 1840 

John L. Duncan 1841 

Richard M. Whiting 1841 

James M. Jackson 1841 

Edgar M. Davisson 1842 

John D. Stephenson 1842 

Charles A. Harper 1843 

Alpheus F. Haymond 1843 

Uriel M. Turner 1843 

Preston W. Adams 1844 

Edwin L. Hewitt 1844 

Benjamin F. Myers 1845 

Samuel Crane 1847 

Caleb Boggess 1847 

Jonathan Koiner 1847 

Phillip M. Morrill 1847 

Jonathan M. Bennett 1847 

Joseph C. Spalding 1848 

Nathan H. Taft 1848 

Benjamin Wilson 1850 

Philip Williams 1851 

Daniel A. Stofer 1852 

John N. Hughes 1852 

Edwin Maxwell .1852 

William H. Ferrill 1853 

Thomas A. Bradford 1853 

Samuel Woods 1853 

Charles Hooton 1853 

George W. Lurty 1854 

James Bennett 1855 

Edgar M. Williams 1855 

Claudius Goff 1856 

David M. Auvil 1856 

David H. Lilly 1858 

Thomas B. Rummell 1858 

John W. Barton 1858 

William H. Gibson 1858 

John W. Crawford 1859 

Charles W. Cooper 1859 

William Ewin 1859 

John Kearanans 1860 

Spencer Dayton 1863 

Thomas J. Arnold 1863 

C. J. P. Cresap 1863 

Charles J. Pindall 1863 

Joseph Thompson 1863 

Fontain Smith 1864 

James W. Dunnington .1866 

W. C. Carper 1866 

Cyrus Kittle 1866 

Willis J. Drummond 1866 

Charles S. Lewis 1866 

James M. Seig 1867 

Alexander M. Poundstone 1867 

John S. Hoffman 1870 

Lorenzo D. Strader 1870 

Thomas P. R. Brown 1873 

A. G. Reger 1873 

E. T. Jones 1873 

Stark W. Arnold 1873 

Gustavus Cresap 1873 

Adonijah B. Parsons 1873 

J. L. Hall 1873 

W. G. L. Totten 1873 

C. C. Higginbotham 1873 

Jasper N. Hall 1875 

Henry Brannon 1875 

Bernard L. Butcher 1876 

William T. Ice 1876 

W. B. Maxwell 1876 

Philetus Lipscomb 1877 

Shelton Leake Reger 1877 

William L. Kee ." 1878 

Alston G. Dayton 1879 

Cyrus H. Scott 1879 

A. C. Bowman 1880 

Leland Kittle 1880 

H. C. Thurmond 1880 

B F. Martin 1881 

William G. Brown 1881 

John W. Mason 1881 

W. W. Haden... 1881 

John E. Wood 1881 

R. S. Turk 1881 

John Bayles Ward 1881 

A. S. Bosworth 1882 

L. S. Auvil 1883 

Frank Woods 1884 

William E. Clark 1884 

E. D. Talbott 1884 

James A. Bent 1884 

Jared L. Wamsley 1884 



J. F. Harding 1885 

S. M. Reynolds 1885 

H. N. Ogden 1887 

A. Jay Valentine 1887 

W. C. Clayton 1887 

Charles W. Russell 1888 

Melville Peck 1888 

C. W. Dailey 1890 

Charles W. Lynch 1890 

L. H. Keenan 1892 

W. G. Wilson 1893 

Geo. B. Scott 1893 

Geo. M. Curtis 1893 

A. M. Cunningham 1893 

W. T. Woodyard 1893 

Andrew Price 1894 

Henry C. Ferry 1895 

W. H. Baker 1895 

Lew Greynolds 1895 

C. O. Strieby 1896 

J. F. Strader 1896 

W. E. Baker 1896 

H. E. Wilmoth 1896 

W. B. Kittle 1896 

C. W. Harding 1897 

Malcolm Jackson 1897 

J. N. McMullen 1897 

E. P. Durkin 1897 

Geo. B. Scott 1897 

J. C. McWhorter 1897 

W. T. George 1897 

C. P. Guard 1897 

B. F. Bailey 1897 

S. H. Summerville 1897 

W. T. Ice, Jr 1898 

C. W. Maxwell 1898 

F. A. Rowan 1898 

B. W. Taylor 1898 

W. H. Cobb 1898 

Michael King 1899 

C. M. Murphy 1899 

J. B. Ware 1899 

Russell Allen 1902 

B. M. Hoover 1902 

G. H. A. Kunst 1902 

E. A. Bowers 1902 

S. T. Spears 1903 

J. C. Canfield 1903 

W. W. Brown 1903 

E. Clark Ice 1903 

S. H. McLean 1903 

Roy See 1905 

W. G. Bennett 1905 

Myron Clark 1905 

Fred L. Cox 1905 

H. G. Kump 1905 

E. F. Morgan 1905 

Thos. Horner 1906 

H. H. Rose 1906 

W. J. Strader 1906 

D. W. Bauske 1907 

D. E. Cuppett 1907 

H. P. Camden 1907 

Haymond Maxwell 1907 

L. M. McClintic 1907 

R. H. Waugh 1907 

Tucker H. Ward 1907 

C. N. Pew 1908 

H. S. Rucker 1908 

Geo. A. Vincent 1908 

T. A. Bledsoe 1909 

T. M. Beltzhoover 1909 

B. H. Hiner 1909 

P. R. Kump 1909 

Earl H. Maxwell _ 1909 

J. W. Robinson 1909 

R. S. Spillman 1909 

R. E. Swartz 1910 

F. E. Tallman 1910 

John F. Brown 1911 

W. A. Arnold 1912 

Chas. Richie 1912 

C. H. Marstiller 1912 

Robert Irons 1913 

Geo. W. McClintic 1913 

Cecil Crickard 1914 

Neil Cunningham 1915 

Wm. McLeary, the first attorney to be admitted to prac- 
tice in Randolph, was also the first Prosecuting Attorney of 
the county. Record or tradition gives little information in 
regard to him. He received the mtinificent sum of $13.33}^ 
per annum "should the court think it proper to continue him 
for that term." In 1791 Air. McLeary moved to Morgantown 
and became the Clerk of the District Court. He was succeed- 
ed as Prosecuting Attorney iDy Thomas Wilson. 


Thomas Jackson, who was admitted to practice in 1813, 
was the father of General Stonewall Jackson and was a mem- 
ber of the Clarksburg- bar. He was a son of Edward and 
Mary (Haddan) Jackson. His father Edward Jackson, was 
a member of the pioneer family of Randolph by that name. 

AA'illiam L. Jackson, who was admitted to the Beverly 
bar in 1824, became a General in the Confederate army and 
was repulsed in an attack upon the Federal forces at Beverly. 

John S. Carlisle, admitted to the Randolph county bar in 
1840, was a member of the Secession Convention at Rich- 
mond, Virginia, 1861, and was expelled for voting against the 
Ordinance of Secession. Air. Carlisle and A\\ T. Wiley were 
the first representatives of the new state in the United States 

Alpheus Haymond. admitted in 1843, Samuel \\'oods, ad- 
mitted in 1853, and Henry Brannon, admitted in 1875, were 
at a later date, elevated to the Supreme bench of the state. 

\Y . W. Flayden. for a time located in Beverly, and ad- 
mitted to the Beverly bar in 1881, was a native of Fincastle, 
Virginia. He returned to his nati\e town. 

H. N. Ogden. admitted to the Randolph county bar in 
1887, for a time practiced his profession in Beverly, but re- 
turned to his native town of Fairmont, where he achieved 
success and prominence. 

Cyrus Kittle, admitted to the bar in 1866, was the grand 
father of W. B. Kittle, the present Judge of the Randolph- 
Barbour Circuit. 




When two single cells were joined in one embrace, 
Fraternity was born, time never could efface. 

Traced in the mammal's maternal instinct wild. 
She gave her substance for the welfare of her child. 

Man in his cave home first felt another's grief and pain; 
He then upward turned his course to God again. 

His love toward man He then deigned to reveal, 
Conformed man to His image with power to heal. 

THAT period of the past, contemporaneous with the inter- 
\al from the early settlement of Randolph to the present 
day, marked the transition of medicine from an empiric art to 
a precise science. Among the epoch making achievements 
embraced within that period, may be mentioned vaccination 
for small pox, the germ theory of disease, anesthetics and 
serum therapy. The physician of the present day deprived of 
.these aids and instruments in his warfare against disease 
would be tempted, no doubt, to hoist the wdiite flag of truce 
and abandon mankind to the fates. However, what the phy- 
sicians of that period lacked in methods and equipment, was 
compensated by faith in his remedial agents and the benevo- 
lence with which he ptirsued his profession. The ethics of 
the time forbade the question of fee or reward, and whether 
amid the storms and snows of winter, the sultry heat of 
summer, in the glare of the noonday sun, or the midnight 
hour, when deep sleep falleth upon men, the calls of human 
need were obeyed with equal cheerfulness into the hut of the 
pauper or the palace of the prince. Then, as now, other men 
might by proxy, by reason of fortutitious circumstances, re- 
lieve the suffering and afflicted, bttt the physician must give 
the sweat of his own brow, the fatigue of his own body, the 
toil of his own intellect and the anxieties of his own sotil. 

The old-time physician, in a degree that cannot be con- 
ceived todav, was regarded as a friend and advisor of the 


community. To the credit of his time, let it be said that he 
seldom was rewarded for his sacrifice and unselfish devotion 
to duty by criticism and ingratitude. 

The dangers and liardships of the pioneer physician were 
augmented by the sparsely settled condition of the country, 
with poor roads and few bridges. A night call of thirty or 
forty miles, across mountains, following a bridal path, was 
not an infrequent occurrence. He shared with his horse the 
fame and afifection of the community. So much depended 
upon the ability of the animal to carry its rider safely and 
swiftly through the forest, over mountain and stream, to the 
bedside of his patient. As a rule it was the most magnificent 
and stalwart specimen the community could produce: spirited, 
sure and fleet of foot, trained to swimming swollen streams, 
carrying its rider safely over, while elevated above high 
water mark, suspended from his own shoulders, were his shiny 
saddle bags. 

Because of the distance from the physician, the early 
settler often had recourse to home remedies. To "draw out 
the fire" apple butter or a poultice of corn meal or scraped 
potatoes was applied to burns and scalds. The juice of roast- 
ed onions had the reputation of being a specific for croup. 
The Virginia snake root, Serpentaria, was the standard remedy 
to produce perspiration and abort a fever. Other remedies 
were boneset, horehound, chamomile, wild cherry and prickly 
ash. As late as 1777 the physicians in Rockingham County, Ya.., 
were authorized to inoculate persons living within three miles 
of a smallpox infected locality. Previous to the introduction 
of vaccination, the method of preventative treatment by what 
was known as inoculation had been employed. This consisted 
of introducing into the system — in a similar way to the 
method commonly employed in vaccination — the smallpox 
virus from a mild case with a view to introducing the disease 
also in a mild form in the person inoculated and thus ofifering 
him protection from a further attack. The testimony of phy- 
sicians was to the efifect that this practice made a marked im- 
pression upon the fatalitv of the disease. However, it was a 
prolific source of the spread of the contagion. 

From the fact that a medical societv did not exist in 


Randolph until a recent period no records have been kept and 
perhaps several physicians, who should live in local history, 
by reason of the merit df their work and li\es, have i)assed to 
oblivion. The sketches given are the result of the best infor- 
mation now obtainable, in some instances brief and frag- 
mentary : 

Robert Maxwell was the first man to locate in Randolph 
who made an\ pretense to the practice of medicine — perhaps. 
'Jdie early records of the county show^ that he did not l>ear the 
title of 1 doctor, yet in 1789 he was appointed Coroner and in 
the same vear lie was surgeon for the county militia. He was 
also a preacher and performed many marriage ceremonies in 
the pioneer period. Nothing is known of his education or 
parentage and that branch of the Maxwell family is now ex- 
tinct in Randolph. He resided about one mile below the site 
of Elkins on Leading Creek. He died in 1818. 

Dr. Benjamin Dolbeare was, perhaps, the first man in 
Randolph to pursue the ])ractice of medicine as a profession. 
He was a man of education and superior ability in his pro- 
fession. He came to Randolph from Connecticut, the precise 
date is not known. He w^as a brother-in-law to Lorenzo Dow 
and that eccentric genius made Dr. Dolebeare's home in 
Beverly a place of a few day's rest and recuperation in his 
annual pilgrimages as a missionary through the wilds of 
America. After practicing a few years at Beverly, perhaps 
from about 1810 to 1815, he removed to Clarksburg. 

Dr. Squire Bosworth, student under and successor of Dr. 
Dolebeare, was born in Hampshire county, ^lassachusetts, in 
1794. He was born in the same year and in the same county, 
and was a fellow student at ^^'illiams College of \\'illiam Cul- 
len Bryant. After his graduation at A\'illiams College Dr. 
Bosworth came to Virginia as a volunteer soldier in the war 
of 1812. On reaching Parkersburg on his way to Norfolk, 
Virginia, the companv to which he belonged was disbanded, 
peace having been declared. He remained in Parkersburg as 
a Deputy County Clerk under a Mr. Neal for two years. He 
then came to Randolph to assume the same duties for Mr. 
Archibald Earle, then Clerk of the Circuit Court of Randolph 
countv. Soon thereafter, he married Hannah, daughter of 


Peter Buckey of Beverly and with his bride returned to Park- 
ersburg' and opened an Academy. A few years later he again 
became a resident of Beverly and began the study of medicine 
under Dr. Dolbeare. At a later period he attended lectures, 
in Richmond, Va. For many 3^ears he was the only physician' 
in Randolph and a night trip to Tucker, Barbour, or Webster 
was not an unusual occurrence. There is an authentic tradi- 
tion that Drs. Bosworth and Dolbeare successfully perform- 
ed the operation of tracheotomy nearly a century ago. In his. 
religious faith he was a Presbyterian and practiced the strict 
tenets of an early-day New England Puritan. He carried 
tracts of a religious nature for distribution in the communi- 
ties in which he was called and, in remote districts, would call 
the settlers together and hold prayer meeting. He was Clerk: 
of the Circuit Court two terms and represented Randolph and 
Tucker in the Virginia legislature of 1855 and 1856. He died 
in the year of 1870 in the 76th year of his age after more than 
half a century's active practice in the county. 

Dr, Samuel H. Dold practiced his profession in Beverly 
from 1870 to 1873. He returned to Augusta county Virginia. 
He received his medical education as a student of his brother- 
in-law. Dr. J. W. Bosworth, at Philippi, and at the Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia. 

Daniel S. Raymond, M.D., born in Taylor County in 
1838, graduated in the medical department of the University 
of New York in 1867. He began the practice of medicine at 
Simpson, Taylor County, and moved to Leads ville, Randolph 
County, in 1869. He w^as an active practitioner for a quarter 
of a century. 

Eugene B. Wilmoth, M.D., son of Oliver and Louisa 
Taylor Wilmoth, was born in 1859, died 1895. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools at Philippi, Grafton, and the Nor- 
mal School at Fairmont. He received his education in medi- 
cine at the University of Maryland, where he graduated in 
1888. He practiced at Meadowville, Harmon and then located 
at Elkins. Although a comparatively young practitioner at 
the time of his death, he attained an eminent place in the 
medical profession of Randolph. 

Dr. George W. Yokum was born in Randolph County 


Deceml)er 19, 1831, and was the eldest of five children born to 
John and Melinda (Kuykendall) Yokum. The paternal grand- 
father, William Yokum, was a native of Virginia, On his 
father's farm in Randolph County Dr. Yokum spent his early 
life and received a limited education in the log schoolhouse 
of those days. In 1849 he l)egan the study of medicine with 
Dr. William Briggs and in 1853 and 1854 attended lectures at 
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. In May, 1854, he 
began to practice and in 1859 located in Beverly, where he 

practiced imtil the time of his death, He was 

well read and a very successful physician. In 1858 he married 
Miss Mary C. ^^'ard, a native of this county and a daughter 
of George W. Ward. Although not a politician, because of 
his wide range of knowledge and strong mentality he was 
called upon to serve the people four years as President of the 
County Court and six years as Commissioner of the County 
Court. Dr. Yokum was honored by the party of which he was 
a member by being selected as a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention which assembled in Chicago in 1892. 

Dr. Oscar Butcher was the eldest son of Baliss G. and 
Patsy McNeil Butcher, and was born in Randolph County, 
December 24, 1820. He moved to Indiana with his father and 
studied medicine under Dr. Creigh, of Delphi, that state, and 
later attended medical lectures in Chicago. He returned to^ 
Virginia and commenced the practice of medicine at Falling 
Springs, Greenbrier County. He married Sarah J. Beard of 
that county May 16, 1849. In 1851, he moved to Green Bank, 
Pocahontas County, where he practiced until he moved to- 
Huttonsville, this county, in 1860. He practiced at Huttons- 
ville until the outbreak of the war, when he became identified! 
with the Confederate army. He was with the advance on- 
Elkwater and Cheat Mountain, also at Stewart Run and Camp- 
Bartow and Allegheny Mountain. In declining health for- 
several years, he died at Lockwillow, in Augusta County,. 
December 21, 1861. Although always in delicate health he 
was energetic and a very successful physician. 

Dr. George White located at Huttonville in the early 
forties. He was from eastern Virginia. After several years'' 
practice in that locality he returned to his native county.. 


Dr. -James Hamilton of Bath County, Virginia, located at 
Huttonsville, about 1850. He moved to Parkersburg prior 
to the outbreak of the civil war. 

Dr. Jones located in Hutton.sville about the commence- 
ment of the civil war. He returned to Virginia during the 
progress of that conflict. 

Dr. Blair was located at Huttonsville for a short time 
subseijuent to the war of the rebellion. 

Dr. David W. Gibson was born in Pocahontas County in 
1829 and was the son of David and Mary Gibson. He was 
married in 1861 to Martha, daughter of Ellen and Jacob 
Stalnaker. He studied in Richmond, practiced in Buckhannon 
a few years, then located near Elkwater, where he practiced 
until the time of his death. 

Dr. Charles Rice, son of Rev. John and Susan ( Denton ) 
Rice, was l)orn December 3, 1855. He was educated in the 
public schools and at the Fairmont Normal school. He re- 
ceived his medical education at the University of Maryland, 
where he graduated in 1884. He was married to Miss Georgie 
Brown of Louisville, Kentucky, May 9, 1888. He died of 
typhoid fever, October 14, 1888 From the time of his gradu- 
ation until his death, Dr. Rice was engaged in the practice of 
his profession at Kerens, this county. During his short pro- 
fessional career he revealed a marked adaptability to his 
chosen profession and attained a success that gave promise of 
a useful and honorable career. 

W. F. Snyder, M.D. was born in Charleston, Virginia, in 
1859, son of David H. and Mary Snyder, was married to Isis, 
daughter of J. Harvey Woodford. He was educated at the 
Military Institute, Lexington. Virginia. After graduating 
from the medical department of the University of Maryland, 
he located at Huttonville, where he entered upon the practice 
of his ])rofession in 1887. He received the Democratic nomi- 
nation for House of Delegates in 1888, and died suddenly a 
few hours later of an affection of the heart. He had built up 
a large practice and was regarded as one of the foremost 
])hysicians of the c<iuntry. 

Dr. William B. Collett, son of Solomoji and Fditli Da\is- 
son Collet was born in 1832. Dr. Collett was perhai)S, the 


first physician in Randolph County to receive a dii)loma from 
a medical school. When 23 years old in 1855, he graduated 
from the Winchester Medical College, a school then conduct- 
ed 1)\- Dr. 1 lunter McGuire, who in later years became one of 
the noted surgeons of the country. After the war Dr. Mc- 
(iuire moved to Richmond, Virginia, and founded the College 
of Medicine. Dr. Collett was regarded as a very skillful and 
successful surgeon and performed operations before the days 
of asepsis and anaesthesia that would do credit to modern 
surgery. In 1885, he visited Brazil as a surgeon for a com- 
mercial company and contracted an illness which compelled 
him to return to his native country. However, he did not 
regain his health and died at Beverly in 1860. 

Dr. John T. Huff practiced at Beverly, Huttonsville, and 
Valley Bend for several years in the eighties. 

J. C. Irons, M.D., born in Monroe County, Virginia, 1853. 
He was educated in the public schools of Monroe County. 
Prior to studying medicine Dr. Irons taught school several 
terms. He graduated in medicine from the Central University 
of Louisville, Kentucky, in 1881. He has practiced his pro- 
fession at Huttonsville and in Elkins and is at present phy- 
sician for the Wildell Lumber Company at Wildell. He has 
been three times mayor of Elkins and was the first mayor 
of the city in 1890. 

Dr. O. L. Perry, M.D. born in 1861, m Upshur County. 
He was educated in the public schools and graduated in medi- 
cine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore 
in 1891. He has practiced his profession at Belington and 

A. M. Fredlock, M.D. was born 1866, in Maryland ; was 
educated in Roanoke College, Virginia, and State LIniversity 
at Morgantown. Dr. Fredlock took his degree in medicine 
from the University of Maryland. He was one of the first 
residents of the city of Elkins and was a member of the first 
city council. Dr. Fredlock is serving his fourth term as 
mayor of the city. 

Perry Bosworth, M.D., son of G. W^. and Mary (Currence) 
Bosworth, born in 1867. He was educated in the public 
schools. He erraduated in medicine in 1892 from the Balti- 


more Medical College and has since practiced his profession 
at Huttonsville. He is also a licensed pharmacist. 

J. L. Bosworth, M,D., son of G. W. and Mary (Currence) 
Bosworth was born in 1856. He was educated in the public 
schools, West Virginia College and graduated from the 
Fairmont Normal School in 1881. He graduated in medicine 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore in 
1889. He was health officer for Randolph County for several 
terms. Prior to studying medicine he was for seven years 
editor of the "Randolph Enterprise." 

Dr. A. S. Bosworth, M.D., son of George W. and ]\Iary 
(Currence) Bosworth, was born January 12, 1859. He was ed- 
ucated in the public schools and at the Fairmont Normal 
School, where he graduated in 1881 and was elected superin- 
tendent of the schools of Randolph County the same year. 
He studied law at the University of Virginia and has been ad- 
mitted to practice in the Circuit and Supreme courts. He was 
eight years editor of Randolph Enterprise, and from 1884 to 
1886 was in Nebraska where he was editor and owner of the 
Culbertson Sun and the Trenton Central. He graduated from 
the Baltimore Aledical College in 1892 and has practiced at 
Beverly and Elkins. He is vice president of the State Medical 
Association and w^as elected delegate to the American Medical 
Association in 1910. 

Dr. Thomas B. Crittenden was born in King and Queens 
County, Virginia, in 1862 ; was educated in the schools of 
that county and graduated from the medical department of 
Georgetown University, Georgetown, D. C. in 1895. Dr. 
Crittenden was attached to the clinical service of the Emer- 
gency Hospital for two years. Since 1897, he has been phy- 
sician for the Parsons Pulp and Eumber Company at Horton. 

Decatur Montony, M.D., was born in 1868. in Pendleton 
County. He was educated in common schools and at the 
Fairmont Normal School ; graduated in medicine from the 
Baltimore Medical College in 1894. He has practiced his 
profession at Harmon since graduation. 

C. H. Hall, M.D. was born at Boothsville, W. Va., in 
1876. He was educated in the public schools and at the Fair- 


mont Normal School. He graduated in medicine from the 
University of Kentucky in 1904. Dr. Hall was a member of 
the Elkins city council in 1912-15. 

R, R. Mcintosh, M.D. was born in Boston, Massachusetts 
in 1875. He was educated in the Boston public schools. He 
graduated in medicine from Tufts College in 1897. After tak- 
ing his degree. Dr. Mcintosh spent three months in Floaty 
Hospital, Boston, one year in St. Johns Hos])ital, Lowell, 
Mass., was two years in charge of eye clinic of Methodist 
Hospital, Boston and has taken post graduate wc.-k in Eye 
and Ear Hospital in New York City. Since 1908, Dr. Mc- 
intosh has l)een a specialist as occulist and aurist in Elkins. 

William W. Golden, M.D. was born in Russia in 1866. 
He was educated at \'ilna and Bielostock. Dr. Golden gradu- 
ated from the medical department of the University of the 
City of New York in 1892. The same year he located in Elkins 
and is surgeon of the Davis Memorial Hospital. He is an ex- 
President of the State Medical Society and the State Board of 
Health and is at present a member of the State Health Com- 

S. G. Moore, A.B., M.D., was born in Barbour County in 
1877. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the 
State University at Morgantown. Dr. Moore graduated from 
the College of Physician and Surgeons in Baltimore in 1906, 
and took a post graduate course in the Harvard Medical 
School in 1914. He is Professor of Biology in the Davis-Elkins 
College, Elkins, W. Va. 

Humbolt Yokum, M.D., son of Dr. G. AW Yokum, was 
born in 1860. He was educated in the public schools and at 
the State University. In 1885 he graduated from the JefTer- 
son Medical College, Philadelphia, Penna. He has been en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine at Beverly since his gradu- 
ation. He has also been prominent in business circles and is 
President of the Beverly Bank. 

Dr. L. W. Talbott, son of W'illiam Woodford and Sarah 
(Simon) Talbott was born in Barbour County in 1855. He 
was educated in the public schools, West Virginia College 
and Jefferson College. He graduated in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland in 1883. Dr. Talbott took a post gradu- 


ate course in New York City in 1894, and located in Elkins 
in 1896, where he has since practiced his profession. 

William R. Dove, M.D. was born in Pendleton County in 
1880. Dr. Dove was educated in the public schools and 
Normal School. Prior to studying medicine he was nine 
years a teacher. iVfter graduating in medicine from the Medi- 
cal College of Virginia at Richmond, in 1907. he located at 
Harmon, where he has since had a large and lucrative practice. 

Dr. D. P. Buckey was born in 1871, son of Alpheus and 
Lizzie (Daniels) Buckey. Dr. Buckey 's preliminary educa- 
tion was obtained in the Conference Seminary, Buckhannon 
and in the public schools. He graduated at the Baltimore 
Medical College in 1894 and entered upon tlie practice of 
medicine at Parsons. After remaining" there about two years 
he located at Be\'erly, wdiere he remained about two years 
and moved to Flemington, Taylor County, as surgeon for a 
mining company. After about two years' successful practice 
of his profession at Flemington he met an accidental death. 

Dr. Stuckey practiced medicine at Helvetia in this county 
from 1872 to 1889. a period of seventeen years. He was a 
native of Switzerland and a graduate of the University of 
Berne. Before coming to America he was a student in a 
Paris hospital for one year. Dr. Stuckey had an extensive 
practice and his fame as a successful physician was not limit- 
ed to the locality in which he practiced. He died in 1889 in 
the 72nd year of his age. 

Otto W. Ladwig, M.D. was born at West Milford, W. 
Va., October 11, 1875. He was educated in the public schools 
and at the Fairmont Normal School, where he graduated in 
1901. He taught school a number of years and was principal 
of one of the Clarksburg schools. Dr. Ladwig was graduat- 
ed from the Louisville Medical College in 1905. He practiced 
for a short time in Harrison and Lewis counties and ha^ licen 
located at Evenwood, this county, since 1908. 

Dr. G. C. Rodgers, son of \\'m. G. and Rachel (Campbell) 
Rodgers, came to Randolph County in 1902. lie was graduat- 
ed from the University College of Medicine. Richmond, \"a., 
in 1900. He has taken postgraduate course>^ in surgery in 


the hospitals of Pliiladelpbia and has been sur_<^eon at the 
City Hospital since 1907. 

Dr. H. W. Daniels, son of Rev. Wm. P. and Minerva 
(McLean) Daniels, was educated in the jniblic schools and 
at the Bnckhannon Wesleyan College. He graduated in medi- 
cine at the P)altimore Medical College in 1894. He has been 
a member of the citv council and health officer for the city of 
Elkins since 1905. 

B. L. Liggett, M.D. was born in I'raxton County, W. Va., 
in 1887. He was educated in the common schools and Wesle- 
yan College at Bnckhannon. He graduated at the Hanneman 
Medical College, Kansas City, Mo., in 1910 and in the medical 
department of the University of Maryland in 1914. Dr. Lig- 
gett was located at Fort Worth, Texas, three years and has 
practiced his profession at Mill Creek since 1914. 

Thomas H. Chaney, M.D. was born in Marshall County, 
W. Va., November 21, 1871. He was educated in the West 
Virginia Conference Seminary, Buckhannon, W. Va. He 
graduated in medicine from the Starling Medical College, 
Columbus, Ohio, in 1896. He commenced practice at Little- 
ton, W. Va. and has practiced at Montrose and Elkins. 


Dr. David S. Strock, son of Jacob and Letitia Strock, vvas 
born April 16, 1871 in Champaign County, Ohio. Dr. Strock 
was educated in the public schools and at the Ohio Normal 
University. In 1899, he graduated from the Pennsylvania 
Dental College w^ith the degree of D.D.S. Dr. Strock has 
been in active practice in Elkins for eleven years. Dr. Strock 
was married on April 23, 1895 to Edith Russell, daughter of 
Mahlon and Arabella Russell. Dr. and Mrs. Strock have one 
child, Richard Junior. 

Dr. John U. Baker, son of Daniel Randolph and Margaret 
(Chenoweth) Baker, was born in 1879. He was educated at 
the \\>slevan College, Buckhannon. Dr. Baker married Lena 
Mae (Bedell) Schuyler. Phillip Schuyler, the ancestor of 
that family in America came from Amsterdam, Holland, and 
settled in New Amsterdam, New York, in 1683. Dr. Baker 


graduated from the Baltimore Dental College in 1906, since 
which time he has practiced his profession in Elkins. Dr. and 
Mrs. Baker have three children : Rosalind, Margaret Chris- 
tina, and Daniel Randolph. 

Dr. G. C. Baker, son of Eli and Margaret (Sexton) Baker 
was educated in the public schools and the Wesleyan College 
at Buckhannon, and was graduated from the Baltimore Col- 
lege of Dental Surgery in 1906. He practiced his profession 
at Gassaway from 1906 to 1908. He came to Elkins in 1909, 
since which date he has practiced dentistry in that city. 

Dr. Nathaniel Barnard was born in Westernport, Mary- 
land in 1887. He graduated from high school and attended 
the Davis and Elkins College at Elkins. He received the de- 
gree of D.D.S. from the University of Maryland in 1913. After 
practicing at Mill Creek for a short time he moved to Elkins 
where he has practiced about two years. 




"The rudiments of empire here 
Are plastic yet and warm, 
The chaos of a mighty world 
Is rounding into form." ' 

DA\^ID HUNTER STROTHER, author and artist, was 
born at Martinsburg, Va., September 26, 1816. He stud- 
ied tmder Sam. F. B. Morse of New York and also spent five 
years as a student in Europe. From 1852 to 1861 he con- 
tributed to Harper's Magazine a series of illustrated articles 
chiefly on Virginia and the South, some of which appeared 
in book form under the title of "Black water and Virginia Il- 
lustrated." At the outbreak of the civil war he volunteered 
into the United States service and was appointed Captain, 
rising to Brigadier General in 1865. He served as Consul to 
Mexico from 1879 to 1885. He died in Charleston, \\'. \'a., 
March 8, 1888. These sketches appeared in Harper's Maga- 
zine in 1852. Though often somewhat exaggerated, they 
reveal a people primitive in their habits and aspirations. This 
section, because of its mountainous isolation, long retained 
pioneer customs and characteristics. However, a half cen- 
tury and communication with the outside world by means of 
a railroad have wrought marvelous changes and Dry Fork dis- 
trict today rivals any other section of the county in all that 
goes to make up a moral, cultured and intelligent people. 

Porte Crayon summarized the gratification of his visit 
to Dry Fork as follows: 'Tt has been one of the supreme en- 
joyments of my life to wander among these wild communi- 
ties, until I have become familiar with their occupations, in- 
stincts and aspirations as one 'to the manor born,' learning 
thereby to respect their unsophisticated manhood, and appre- 
ciate their simple virtues, and it has sometimes appeared to 
me there was a grace in the woodland blossoms, and a flavor 



in the crabbed fruit not to be found in the cultivated gardens 
of civiHzation." 

The Country Store. 

Adamson's Store. 

Although Adamson's store was located at the mouth of 
Seneca in Pendleton Count}', it was for years the emporium 
for the section described in this cha])ter and the characters 
mentioned were mostly residents of Randol])h. The inci- 
dents chronicled by Strothers, moreover, were so typical of 
the country store of an earlier ])eriod that we reproduce the 
narrative. Mr. Sylvester Rains, to whom reference is made, 
is spoken of by his former employer, Mr. George Adamson, 
who is now a resident of Elkins, as hav^ing been a faithful 
clerk and an honoral)le and upright gentleman. As the irony 
of fate would have it, Mr. Rains lived a life of single blessed- 
ness, heart whole and fancy free and has long since gone to his 
reward, an alien and stranger to the joys, charms and delights 
of "domestic Idiss, the only source of ]iaradise below that 
hath survived tlu' fall." 


"The junction of the North Fork Turnpike and the Pack 
llorse Road, across the Alleghanies from Beverly, has grown 
up ci little settlement at this place, consisting of a half dozen 
families, with the conveniences of a store, postofftce, black- 
smith shop, a schoolhouse. and 1 believe a meeting house and 
apple-jack distillery. There was no tavern or regular place 
of entertainment, but to atone for this deficiency, any of the 
householders were ready to take in travelers as a special favor. 

"J laving been recommended to Adamson, the proprietor 
of the merchantile establishment al)out a mile up the creek, 
"*\ve presented ourselves and were hospitably received. Here 
we dined and spent the afternoon lounging about the store 
and hooking a mess of trout from the Seneca. Adamson is 
an exotic, a Scotch Irishman, who had the reputation of being 
a shrewd and intelligent trader and a worthy and upright 
citizen. He has set up shop at this outpost to barter the knick- 
knacks of civilization for the products of the mountains and 
to furnish clothes for one class of the natives in exchange for 
the coats which they strip from another class. 

"The place retains many of the characteristics of those 
frontier trading posts, which we read of in the days when the 
United States had frontiers and they skinned the aboriginees 
as well as bears. 

"All sorts of queer people congregated here, bringing in 
peltries, ginseng, venison, yarn stockings, maple sugar, home- 
made cloth, oats, corn, potatoes, butter and eggs to exchange 
for gay colored dry goods, crockery, tin and hardware, gun- 
powder, tobacco. snuf¥. infinitesimal packages of cofifee, and 
corpulent jugs of whiskey. Some came on foot, others in 
sleds, most on horseback, and very few in wheeled vehicles, 
the country in general not being addicted to this mode of 
transportation. Adamson's fancy salesman is the model of a 
mountain beau, in his own conceit at least. Going to the 
desk to jot down some notes of our journey, I took up a scrap 
of paper with the following inscription legible, amidst a maze 
of inky smirks and flourishes : "Sylvanus Rains is my name 
and happy is the gal that gits me for a man." Thrice happy,. 
Sylvester, may your delusions be perennial ! They will help 
to keep you amiable and obliging, and enable the mountain 


belles to make better bargains in calicoes and ribbons. After 
this accidental insight I observed Sylvester more closely, and 
remarked that when a wrinkled dame, overladen with butter 
and eggs, or a sallow matron, encumbered with babies rode 
up, she was allowed to dismount as best she could, and might 
tumble off if she could do no better, but when a frisky lass, 
all bouncing and blooming, appeared coming up tlie lane, 
down went pen, yard stick and molasses jug and out rushed 
the gallant clerk all smiles and empressment. Although 
either Mahala Armentrout, Susie Mullenix, or Peg Teters 
could have jumped from the saddle, or meal bag, to the 
ground, without discommoding a flounce and after landing, 
shouldered Sylvester and carried him into the store, never- 
theless, he must drop everything, run out with a chair and 
hold the critter, carrying the basket in and then giving his 
roach, and shirt collar each a sly twig as he passed the fly- 
specked looking glass, take his stand behind the counter 
with, 'Well Miss Susan, what can I have the pleasure of show- 
ing you today?' ■Meanwhile Dame Wrinkle with her bundle 
stands waiting and grumbling. 'Take a seat on the tobacco 
box, I'll attend you presently, mum.' 

" 'Lookee here man ; I can't stop here all da}^ a foolin,' 
I can't, eh, I'm in a desput hurry, I am eh.' 

"But here comes Mr. Adamson himself, and the impa- 
tient grannv prefers to deal with him in person rather than 
wait for that fool feller that hain't no manners for old folks, 
but only for his likes. So she trucks off to the best advantage 
the contents of her basket and gets her measure of calico for 
her daughter's dress, two hats for her grandsons, a quarter 
of pound of coffee, not forgetting the complimentary paper 
of snuff — the invariable conclusion of all trades and pur- 
chases in these stores. Meanwhile Sylvester has denuded the 
shelves of gay prints, and the drawers of ribbon boxes. He 
and his fair customers, mutually inclining over the barrier 
of dry goods, continue to discuss 1)usiness in a more quiet and 
rather indirect manner : 

" 'I say. Miss Susan, how's folks over on Dry Fork about 
these times?.' 


" "Well, all about our settlemeut is luiddliu* hearty, they 

"'Have you beeu havin" an\' fun over there lately?' 

" 'Ve— es indeed, we had a turrible good time at Zed. 
Kyle's last week, we had, eh. You see Zed had a wool pickin', 
he had, and all the gals and fellers was there, they was, and 
danced the holen joren night, we did.' 

"Sylvester looked radiant at the thought and then with a 
sly leer asked in a lower tone, 'was Jess there?" 

"Susan's face seemed to have caught the reflection from 
tlie l)ox of pink ribbons which she was examining with sud- 
den interest. 'Pshaw, Mr. Rains, what account was it to me 
if Jess was there? He mostly hunts with them Kyles and 
Armcntrouts, he does, and I shouldn't wonder ef he mought 
have been there.' 

" 'And he seen you home after the dance now didn't he?' 
whispered the clerk with a smart diplomatic wink. 

" 'Me done no sich thing' replied Susan, sharply, 'cause 
he only come as fur as the Fork with me and Marta and Dilly 
and Emily.' 

" 'And I'll bet a new dress he carried you across.' 

" 'And I'll take the dress jist now off this red and yaller 
piece, I will : for we all waded across, we did, eh, so we did.' 

" 'Mr. Rains, Old Sam Bonner from over the mountain 
has just brought in a lot of bear skins. Go out and receive 
them. Miss Susan I can wait on you. Have you selected 
a dress yet?' " 

Soldier White's. 

Porte Crayon, in this chapter, narrates incidents and ex- 
periences of customs long since obsolete. Goose-picking or 
any form of labor which would be a tedious task for one per- 
son in that day, was interchanged and a frolic and a dance 
was the result. Soldier White, as well as most other charact- 
ers referred to by Porte Crayon, have gone to their reward. 
Their lives were simple, moral and happy. The innocence and 
isolation of their primitive environment gave them a child- 
ish zest and appreciation of life that the modern man, striving 



for the material rewards, in order to shine, dazzle and out- 
strip his neighbor, can neither enjoy nor comprehend. 

"At Soldier White's we found a regular two-storied log- 
house, containing half a dozen rooms, which serves as a place 
of entertainment to drovers who come from below to sum- 


mer their cattle on the Fork, and to the occasional traveler 
who ventures to cross the wilderness by pack horse road from 
Seneca to Beverly, the county seat of Randolph. Here is also 
a tub mill, driven by a pretty stream of water, which has 
been caught and utilized before being swallowed by the dry 
river. This combination of circumstances makes Soldier 
White's rather a notable place in the Dry Fork community, 
and as the proprietor himself observed somewhat boastfully, 
'ther's not a month passes but he sees a stranger of one sort 
or another under his roof.' The soldier is personally a man 


worthy of consideration, lie is upward of sixtv years old and 
for his pectiliar opportunities for seein^^- the world, is more 
cosmopolitan in his s])eech and views than most of his nei'^^h- 
bors. lie wears shoes hal)itually, and his residence exhil)its 
the grade of civilization pertaining- to a pack horse road. His 
face, including his stack of hair, looks as if cast in bronze, 
wdiile his scpiare sinewy hands are of the tyj)e most frequently 
carved and i)a'nted l)y Michael Angelo. His tall, athletic 
figure is a model of strength and endurance. Its j)roportions 
are slightly modified at ])resent, owing to an accident. Al^out 
six weeks ago, at the saw mill, a log about three feet across 
the butt rolled o\-er him, and flattened him out considera1:)ly ; 
but he thinks he is drawing up to his natural shape again by 
degrees, and his ribs and backbone getting set back in tlieir 
places. To assist Nature in her praisworthy efforts at re- 
construction, he distends himself as much as possil:)le by eat- 
ing heartily, and greases his exterior with bear's fat. 

"Having never been in the military service, he cannot 
explain how he got the sobriquet of 'Soldier,' but thinks it was 
simply a tribute to his youthful strength and activity, which 
were extraordinary. Being a justice of the peace for Ran- 
dolph, he is now sometimes more properly addressed as Squire 
White, which title of dignity he prefers. The Squire has a 
partner who is worthy of him, and a daughter 'rising of six- 
teen' who assists in the house keeping. 

"Martha White is entirely too pretty to be sketched as a 
type of the mountain maiden. A sparkling brunette, lithe and 
graceful as a fawn, she is also, from the habit of meeting 
strangers, more afTable in her manners than most of her moun- 
tain cousins. On being asked if she understood cooking trout, 
she replied smartly, 'You'd better catch a mess first and try 
me,' indicating at the same time that there was good fishing 
just below the mill. 

"The Major and myself took the hint, and soon hooked 
a pretty string of medium and small sized fish. There were, 
however, some magnates we saw moving about in the crystal 
water who could not be tempted by any bait we had to offer. 
They would glide out from beneath the cool shadows of the 
boulders, approach our traps with a certain majestic delibera- 



tion, sometimes even rubbing their noses against the hooks, 
then, as satisfied that it wasn't worth the risk, would retire 
contemptuously and let the minnows take a bite, tickled no 
doubt at seeing how rapidly the youngsters snapped and 
went up. W^hile we were worrying with the sly old rogues, 
Martha came down armed with a hickory wand with a running 
noose of horse hair attached to the end. With an arch smile 

Noosing Trout. 

she requested us to hold off a while and let her try her hand. 
Creeping like a cat over the rocks, she marked a grand old 
voluptuary half dreaming among the shadows. Silently and 
gradually dropping her slender noose into the water, she drew 
it toward him. As the enticing hair touched his fin, it sug- 
gested a slight suspicion of mischief, and he slowly retreated 
to a distance of about half of his length, then resuming his 
indifference again, lay balanced and immobile, very possibly 


felicilalin^ himself on the superior wisdom whicli had enabled 
him to tietect the .qilt and feathered shams displayed to de- 
ceive the small fry of his race, and the lofty virtue which had 
tauji^ht him to resist the allurements of casual appetite. The 
next moment he was wdiipped from the water by an invisible 
noose of horse hair, and wrigi^lin,y" in Martha's cat-like 
clutches, and her plump cheeks pitted with rosy dimples. 
Ouietiui^- our a])plause with a j^esture, she readjusted her trap, 
and presently lifted out another beauty, then another, and 
another, until she had captured four of the largest fish we had 
seen, one weighing two and a half pounds, and surpassing 
any we had taken with the hook. Having thus justified her 
own skill, she handed her angle to the Major, at the same time 
instructing him how to use it ; Init neither he nor I had the 
dainty glibness of hand to execute the trick successfully, and 
after several awkward failures each, we gave up and returned 
to the house. The trout at dinner were as brown as fritters, 
and verified another of the pretty maid's accomplishments. 

"The afternoon was whiled away with smoking, sleep- 
ing, and discoursing with Squire White and his sprightly 
daughter. We were given to understand that if we could con- 
tent ourselves to remain a couple of days we might partici- 
pate in some fun at the house, as there was to be a goose- 
plucking, at which all the gay society of the Fork would be 
gathered. Mr. Rains, from Seneca, had sent word he would 
be over. Dilly AVyatt also would be there with her fiddle, 
and when she played it would set a cripple to dancing. 

"And who was Dilly Wyatt? 

"'Ye never heard of Dilley?" exclaimed the Squire, with 
an expression of gratified surprise as if he had discovered a de- 
feet in our education. 'She's our brag gal over here, she is, 
and strangers like to hear about her.' 

"Then do tell us her story, to pass away the long evening, 

"The Squire thrust his nervous square-cut fingers into 
the shock of iron wire which stood for his hair, and after a 
preliminary rustling and scratching proceeded to deliver the 
following narrative, which we will endeavor to translate into 
smoother English, at the risk of losing something of its origi- 
nal naivete and graphic point : 


"Several years ago there was a young stranger from the 
lowlands who was in the habit of spending the greater part of 
the summer months roaming about the mountains. What 
brought him liere was never clearly understood, nor could 
the limited fancies of the natives ever suggest a plausible mo- 
tive for his frequent visits and long sojourning. Some sup- 
posed he might be a drover seeking a lost steer; others reck- 
oned he was one of these 'inchimists' who could tell brass 
from gold, and was prospecting minerals; a third respectfully 
suggested that he must be an en'^ineer locating a railroad — a 
nefarious cntrivance to increase taxes and the price of land, 
which would scare all of the game out of the country. Shrewd- 
er gossips insinuated he was possibly a refugee from the op- 
pressions of lowland law or society, whose vague terro^^s o''- 
casionally chilled the hearts of free-born mountaineers even 
in their most secluded retreats. 

"lUit neitlier the stranger's appearance nor ways seemed 
to justify any of these surmises. He was a handsome youth, 
with a wild romantic eye and a contract of blonde hair falling 
over his shapely shoulders. Reticent of speech and shunning 
companionship, he seemed to take delight only in savage and 
solitary places. The hunters sometimes met him in the re- 
cesses of the forest, tearing through the laurel as if pursuing 
or pursued by some wild 'varmint.' Then he would lie for 
hours basking beside a sec|uestered brook, idly watching the 
gambv^ls of the trout or the movements of the unci\'ilized 
creattn.e^ that came down to drink and prey upon each other. 
Again they would tell of his reckless activity in scaling fright- 
ful precipices, or how he stood upon the summit of inacces- 
sible peaks looking down upon the eagles, always carrying 
rifle and haversack, he was so heedless of sport that he was 
never seen to bring in any game. \\^ith pencils and tablets in 
his pockets if he ever sketched or wrote, the world never 
heard of it. A worshiper of Xature. who sung no anthem to 
her praise, and laid no votive offering on her altars; an Al- 
pine climber who kept no record of the nameless heights he 
scaled, or the lonely dangers he encountered, a romantic vol- 
uptuary, content to revel in beautv and sublimitv without the 
courage or ambition to rehearse his emotions before a cynical 


and uiiappreciative world. A poet without verses, an artist 
without works, a dreamer, an idler, a genius, whose life was 
a bold defiance, or perhaps an unconscious protest against a 
society domineered by mercenary traders in stock; 'whose 
speech is of oxen' or of meaner speculators in stocks, whose 
voices are modulated by the rise and fall of gold. As time 
wore on he ceased to shun the friendly faces of the settlers, 
and was freciuently seen warming himself at their hearths, 
sitting at their tables, and even sleeping in their beds. They 
,vere entertained with the novelty of his conversation, and 
amazed at tlie extent and variety of his conversation, while 
he found in their society gratification of his natural longings 
for human speech and presence without the risk of intrusion 
into the hallowed precincts of his ideal w^orld. 

"Dilly Wyatt was the only child of a widower, a stout 
herdsman and mighty hunter of the wild valley, whose cabin 
stood in one of the most savage and secluded passes. She 
was a tall, fine looking girl after the mountain pattern', beam- 
ing with health and good humor, and uncommonly smart in 
all the learning pertaining to her people. She could cook or 
keep house equal to any maid or wife on the Fork. She could 
shear a sheep, card and spin the wool, then knit a stocking 
or weave a gown with a promptness and skill that were be- 
yond rivalry. Besides these feminine accomplishments, she 
could fish, shoot with a rifle, swim, or skin a bear, in a man- 
ner to challenge the supremacy of the other sex. 

"Our wandering artist had frequently stopped at Old 
Wyatt's cabin, where, among other attractions, he found an 
ancient fiddle with which the proprietor had once amused his 
roistering youth. Being an expert on the instrument, he 
sometimes tuned it up and played for hours, to the great de- 
light of father and daughter. When the men were gone Dilly 
took up the fiddle herself and being one of those who could 
turn a hand to any thing, she soon learned to play several 
airs upon it. Next time the visitor returned she surprised 
him with her new^ accomplishment, and he, perceiving that she 
had both taste and will to learn, undertook to initiate her 
regularly in the mysteries of the art. His time and teachings 
were not wasted, for she learned with surprising rapidity, and 


soon developed very decided talent. 

"Thenceforth it might have been observed that the er- 
ratic stranger was less frequently heard of in the wilderness, 
and oftener seen in the vicinity of old Wyatt's sociable dwell- 
ing, while Billy's acquaintances were annoyed with her in- 
creasing absent mindedness and continued humming of danc- 
ing tunes, both in and out of seison. But it was natural 
enough, when wearied with his owi ■ lonesome ways, the teach- 
er should find a solace in the comp my of so apt and willing a 
pupil, and that a mountain maiden, amidst her rude surround- 
ings, should become enamored of her gentle and engaging art. 
Fortunately there were no meddlesome gossips at hand to 
suggest that it might be the artist instead of the art. 

"One morning, after giving Dilly her musical instruction 
as usual, the artist stored his haversack with some cold vic- 
tuals, and promising to return by evening, struck across the 
dry river and disappeared in the forest. The cottagers were 
so accustomed to his eccentric courses that his failure to ap- 
pear at the appointed hour excited no surprise or uneasiness. 
Next day was stormy. A windy tempest swept the woods, 
and the rain came down like a water-spout. During the night 
that followed the storm swelled to a hurricane. Tree-tops 
were hurled through the murky air like thistle down, and the 
forest shrieked and howled for the downfall of the tallest 
chieftain. The Wyatts sat beside their lowly hearth glaring 
with pine knots, and occasionally enveloped in clouds of 
smoke and ashes, to which the father responded defiantly with 
counter-pufTs from his root pipe, while Dilly concealed any 
vague uneasiness she might have felt behind her darling fiddle. 
Soon the old man removed his pipe, and pricking his ears as 
if to catch some special note of the tumultuous chahivari 
without, exclaimed, 'D'ye hear that, Dilly?' 

"She answered, with a nervous start, '\\'hat is it. daddy? 
Did you heary anybody?' 

"He motioned silence, and her straining ears became 
presently aware of a low rushing sound distinguishable amidst 
the fitful voices of the tempest by its steadiness and con- 
tinuity. As they listened there was a sudden swelling of the 
storm, followed bv a crash so enormous and stunning that it 


seemed as if the whole mai^azine of thunder bolts had blown 
up at once. Old Wyatt started to his feet, staring wildly up- 
ward at the roof of his trembling cabin, while the daughter 
snatched a flaming brand and rushed out into the darkness. 
By the flash of her torch she saw near at hand a freshly up- 
heaved wall of earth and roots higher than the chimney top, 
and stretching away across fences and cabbage patches lay 
the prostrate body of a mighty hemlock tree which had long 
overshadow-ed their humble dwelling. 

" 'Come back gal,' cried the father, resuming his ]Mpe 
and his stolidity at once. 'The Fork is up, and the big hemlock 
is down, so we might as well go to bed.' 

"The second morning dawned through clouds and mists, 
whicli hung on hillsides and tree-tops like sloppy rags put 
out to dry. .liolus was quietly folding up his flaccid wind- 
bags, and Aquarius resting languidly on his empty watering 
pot, l)Ut the dry river was full from l)ank to bank, and career- 
ing like a mad bull. After breakfast the old man mounted 
his nag and rode away toward Soldier White's to gossip anent 
the storm and look after a grist he had carried there some 
days before. Dilly was left alone to tend her household af- 
fairs and nurse a vague uneasiness about her absent friend. 
The day passed wearily enough between spinning, fiddling, 
and strolling up and down the stream, vainly listening for 
some signal call, and straining her eyes into the depths of the 
opposite forest. Late in the afternoon she was startled by 
hearing a distant rifle shot, and hurrying up the stream a 
half mile or more she discerned through the midst the figure 
of a man emerging from the wood on the further shore. Flush- 
ed with the sight, she gave a ringing halloo which evidently 
struck the wanderer's ear, and was answered by a feebler 
shout, about like a cry for help. Then the figure tottered for- 
ward, sunk, and disappeared among boulders and thickets. 

"Agitated with mingled hopes and fears, she repeated her 
calls again and again, awakening the echoes away up in the 
mountains, but no response from any living voice. Then, as 
if struck with a sudden thought, she hurried back to the house, 
and in a short time returned clad in a scanty linsey gown, 
bare armed and bare footed, with a stout package tied firmly 


on the top of her head. Her eyes sparkled, her lips com- 
pressed, and there was resolution expressed in every featvire 
and in every movement. Scanning the savage torrent above 
and below, she hesitated for a few moments, as if instinctive- 
ly calculating its force and speed, she nimbly descended to 
the stream, flung herself into the raging water. A few bold 
strokes brought her to the mid-current, which swept her away 
light as a feather in a whirlwind. 

"The girl had evidently underrated the power of the 
stream, but she was a strong and confident swimmer, and in 
spite of the resistless downward sweep, continued to strike 
vigorously for the further shore, holding her head erect, as 
if intent on keeping her bundle dry at all hazards. Amidst 
the heaving and boiling of the mad current her downward 
course was so rapid that it was difficult to estimate her trans- 
verse progress ; but as she approached a bend in the river, just 
at the head of a succession of falls, it might have been noted 
that the color forsook her cheek, and her efforts became more 
hurried and spasmodic. Suddenly, as if caught up in a water 
spout, she was heaved over a submerged boulder and dashed 
headlong into the foaming eddy below. For a moment she 
was lost to sight, then her head popped up through a bed of 
yellow froth, blinded and gasping. Clearing her eyes with a 
quick movement of her hand, she saw that the bend and cur- 
rent had helped her on her way, and she was almost in reach 
of shore. Another desperate effort and she succeeded in 
grasping a trailing root, by which she drew herself to land. 
Once more on firm footing she felt for the package on her 
head, and finding it still in place, hurried up the bank to search 
for the object of her solicitude. 

"Nearly a quarter of a mile above her landing place she 
stumbled upon the body of a man lying prostrate among the 
bushes. Beside him was a rifle, dropped from the nerveless 
grasp; his clothes were drenched and torn in shreds; his up- 
turned face, half hidden by the tangled hair and battered hat, 
was white and motionless as death. On the brave girl's 
face the dawning smile of recognition was suddenly quenched. 
With trembling hand she loosened the bundle from her head, 
and laying it on a rock, dropped on her knees beside the body. 


A few moments after she started from the cold embrace with 
a countenance all radiant with joy, and cjuickly opened her 
precious ])acka!;e, displayed its contents on the sward — a cold 
corn pone partially soaked in muddy water, some greasy slices 
of fried venison, and a small flask of liquor. 

"Dilh- claiiped her hands and laughed, 'Not dead yit, by 
a long- sight, but only jist half starved. See what I've brung 
ye, my pretty boy !" 

"But at the sight of the bread and meat the languid eyes 
closed again, as if in token of refusal. Then, tenderly en- 
circling the youth's clammy head with her plump arm, she 
raised him to a half sitting posture, and in coaxing tones half 
whispered, 'Now this ye won't refuse, I'm sure.' 

"Then followed the resonance of an osculatory smack, as 
his pallid lips met those of the, devoted girl's brandy bottle. 
The timely stimulant assisted exhausted Nature across the 
narrow bridge which led from death to life. The patient open- 
ed his eyes, sat up alone, and consented to nibl)le a little at 
the corn bread and venison. In the meantime the indefatigable 
nurse had collected a heap of wood, and by means of the rifle 
kindled a blazing fire, and warmed a portion of the food to 
render it more savory and wliolesome. 

'T^rink, food and fire had so far restored the wanderer 
that he was enabled to give a brief account of his absence. 
He had strolled many miles away toward the summit of the 
back-bone, where he was caught in the storm. Having eaten 
up his provisions, he undertook to return, fell from a ledge 
of rock and sprained his ankle, and thus crippled and half 
starved, he had spent two terrible days in endeavoring to drag 
himself back to the cabin. Now he required only shelter and 
rest ; but the stream was still impassable, and from his sprain- 
ed ankle and general exhaustion he w^as incapable of locomo- 
tion. To a cit}?- belle the situation might have appeared hope- 
less : but Dilly 'was not born in the woods to be scared by 
an owl.' In a marvelously short time, with moss and hem- 
lock twigs she had made a bed which, under the circumstances, 
might have been esteemed luxurious. A canopy of evergreen 
boughs sheltered it from the sky, while a blazing fire dispelled 
\inwholesome damps and dififused an air of cheerfulness 


around. The remnants of the meat and drink were placed be- 
side it, and the hollowed surface of a convenient rock con- 
tained several gallons of fresh rain water to quench the in- 
valid's thirst, if required. Regarding these arrangements with 
a smile of satisfaction, the mountain heroine cut short a g-rate- 
ful speech by ordering her patient to lie still and get a good 
night's sleep. 'By morning,' said she, 'the Fork will be down, 


and dad'll fetch ye over to the house on his horse.' The stars 
were shining when she took leave, and walking some distance 
up the stream to find a longer sweep of unbroken current, she 
boldly took the water again, and reached the cabin in safety. 
"Next morning the river bed was nearly dry, and by sun- 
rise the invalid had been transferred to old Wyatt's cabin. He 
had slept profoundly, and was refreshed ; but his ankle was 
fearfully swelled, and it took a fortnight's nursing to set him 
fairly on his feet again. When the time came for the stranger 
to leave he pressed a pretty sum of money into old Wyatt's 
hand, and thanked the daughter with a warmth and fullness 
of speech which ought to have been satisfactory ; but there 
was at the same time a reserve and even stateliness of man- 


ner which ratlier wounded the warm-hearted girl. He went 
and returned no more." 

" 'And did lie go otT and forget such a girl as that?' Ex- 
claimed Dick indignantly. '\\y thunder I'd liave married her!' 
'Very chivalric,' suggested the Major; 'hut in your case that 
might be thought poor return for a heroic service.' 

"'Tomorrow she will be at the goose-plucking, and we 
will tarry to see the heroine, and dance to her music' 

"Next morning we were out early, trying to earn our 
breakfast before we ate. After breakfast wdiile the materials 
for the frolic continued to arrive, I received a private invita- 
tion from Squire A\'hite to look in at the goose picking. As 
we slyly peeped between the logs of the barn the whole in- 
terior seemed to be a whirlwind of latighter, screeching, and 
flying feathers, so that it was hard to distinguish the pluckers 
frc^m the plucked. Occasionallv as the downy clouds sub- 
sided one might catch a momentary glimj^se of groups of 
worthy of the antique scenes that may be carved and paint- 
ed more elegantly and easilv than described — and as such we 
commend them to the Praxitileses and Photogeneses of mod- 
ern art; and for a more practical account of the subject we 
must refer our readers to those g(3od old-fashioned folks w^lio 
raise geese and sleep in feather beds. 

"Dilly Wyatt at length arrived, carrying her fiddle in a 
muslin bag slung over her shoulders. She was a buxom lass 
with grand black eye and regular features ; but we were dis- 
appointed in her appearance, as we usually are by the per- 
sonal presence of famous people. Nevertheless our mountain 
heroine showed the ameliorating influences, in dress and man- 
ners, of her association with the Muses. 

"After the midday dinner our party was swelled by a 
number of young bucks from the neighborhood, and the danc- 
ing commenced. The movements at first were rather shy 
and constrained, but a few rounds with the inspiring strains 
of Dilly 's music warmed their blood and started the wheels 
of gayety to buzzing. We had all done our best in playing 
the agreeable to the ladies to avoid offending the jealous sus- 
ceptibilities of their native beaux, and had nearly got through 
the afternoon without an accident. 



"With his usual luck however, Cockney narrowly escaped 
getting us in a row. Delighted with the opportunity of show- 
ing off his strong points he had been exceedingly gay and 
prominent in the dance, but becoming wearied and disgusted 
with the succession of jigs, reels and square figures, he asked 
Miss Roy if she understood the round dances. That young 
lady signified her willingness to shake a foot to any tune that 

The Dance. 

could be started, and promptly took her place on the floor be- 
side the gallant. Encircling her waist with his arm, Augus- 
tus politely recjuested the fiddler 'to please give us a polka.' 
The mystified musician was silent ; and the equally mvstified 
partner, red as a trout about the gills, delicately attempted 
to elude the embarassing embrace. He, entirely absorbed with 
the idea of electrifying the assembly with his graceful whirls, 
reiterated his call for a polka, mazourka, waltz or any round 
dance, and persisted in holding on to his retreating partner. 

"At length a tall, iron-bound forester, who had been 
squirming with jealousy, forgot his hosjiitable politeness, and 


laying- his heavy hand on Cockney's shoulder, exclaimed, 
'Lookee here mister. Our gals won't stand huggin" on sich 
short ac(|uaintance, they won't, eh.' Augustus was himself 
electrified, and the house buzzed with mingled laug-hter and 
indignation. The Major, prompt in all social engagements 
and emergencies, stepped forward and explained the situation. 
Cockney apologized to the lady and the company, and the big 
woodsman made amends for his rudeness by a grasp of the 
hand so friendly and penitent that it brought tears to the 
recipient's eyes." 

Shooting Contest. 

Shooting matches in which the prizes were usually turk- 
eys, were frequent occurrences in the earlier history of the 
county. So much depended in those days on the skilful use 
of the rifle, not in the way of self-defense only, but in obtain- 
ing the necessities of life, also, that the skillful marksman was 
a hero in the community. Porte Crayon here relates his ex- 
perience in a contest for markmanship with Tom MuUenix: 

"Observing that Jess Teter had conceived an extravagant 
admiration for a neat little powder flask I carried, I took oc- 
casion to present it to him. In the fullness of his gratitude he 
took me aside, and in a whisper, informed me that he was the 
best rifle shot on the Fork. I had heard as much. 

" 'Well, now, said he. wouldn't you like to learn the 

"'Then there is a secret?' 

" 'Yes, I can learn it to vou in a day, so that you can beat 
any of these fellers.' 

"Jesse's proposition accorded so exactlv wath my humor 
that 1 eagerly accepted it. A\ e got our guns, and privately 
slipped off together to the woods, where after exacting a 
promise not to reveal his trick, he proceded to put me through 
a course of instruction. 

"Whether there was any virtue in his teaching, or whether 
the mountain air had cleared my eye and braced my nerves, 
it is true that from a very indifferent marksman I presently 
became very expert with my rifle and after driving the center 


three consecutive times at sixty yards, I expressed myself 
satisfied, and my tutor slapped me on the shoulder and said 
emphatically, 'You'll do.' 

"After a most friendly leave taking, we mounted and 
rode down the valley toward Soldier White's. About two 
miles below we stopped at the cabin of Tom. Alullenix (com- 
monly known as Hunter Tom.), hoping to have a chat with 
him on the subject of hunting in these mountains. He was 
barely civil but not at all communicative. He told us very 
frankly that he ne\'er missed killing game when he went out 
alone, but he never had any luck when these gentlemen hunt- 
ers went along. They had too many patent fixings and talked 
too much. A\'ith his long flint-lock rifle, munitioned with an 
ounce of powder, and with from three to five bullets wrap]:)ed 
in greased buckskin patching, he could always kill more game 
than he could carry home. Some fellers pack so much am- 
munition and cold victuals that they ])roke down before they 
found any game, and couldn't hit anything if they happened 
to see it. For his part he couldn't see any sense in all these 
percussion traps. As the hunter made these disparaging re- 
marks, he cast a contemptuous glance at my ornate German 
rifle, which being observed by my companion, drew a laugh at 
my expense. 

" 'Mr. Mullenix,' said I, 'what do you value that bear 
skin at, which I see hanging upon the porch?" 

"That skin,' replied Tom. 'mought be worth about four 
dollars over at Franklin.' 

'A'ery well. Now I'll bet y(m five dollars in cash, against 
that bear skin that with this percussion grim-crack of mine, 
I can l)eat you shooting three best shots out of five, line 
measure, at any distance or in any way you may choose. 

"Tom eyed me for a moment as he would probably have 
stared at a rabbit suddenly turning and trying to bite him. 
His astonishment presently resolved into a fit of contemptu- 
ous laughter ; but as I had already put u]) my money in the 
Major's hand, and showed by my manner that I was in ear- 
nest. His cu])idity got the better of his contempt. 


" 'Well mister,' said he, takin<^ down and proceeding to 
load his long gun. 'Ilits not becoming of me to disappint a 
stranger in a liltle innocent s])ort, and if you kin beat me 
shootin', that bar skin's your'n !' and the hunter's face warmed 
with a smile of sinister benevolence. 

"'Laureate, said the Major, aside, 'I wouldn't give the 
churlish dog a chance to make hve dollars so easily.' 

"I answered, carelessly, there are always two sides to a 
question, and I've taken quite a fancy to that bear skin. 

" 'Laureate,' whispered Dick, 'try to make a good chance 
shot, and if you 1)eat him I'll gi\'e you my horse." 

"Dick's horse was a borrowed one, but his good-will was 
none the less aj^preciated. Meanwhile the preliminaries had 
been arranged — two best shots out of three, at sixty yards. 

"The Major stepped off the distance and Dick placed the 
target against the tree. The mark was a circle of white paper 
about the size of an ancient half-dollar, tacked upon a black- 
ened board. A\'e were to shoot alternately, and tossed a cop- 
per for the first fire. The hunter won it, and took his position 
accordingly, observing as he did so, 'I reckon Lll have to shoot 
a little wild to give you a opening.' 

"As Tom raised his rifle and leveled it at the mark all the 
slouchiness of his manner disappeared, and he settled into a 
pose of iron firmness. As his rifle cracked, the target fell for- 
ward on its face, and Dick ran at full speed, followed by the 
others at a more dignified pace, to verify the shot. 

"The ball had cut the left edge of the paper with half its 
diameter. Mullinx chuckled. "There's a leetle wind," said he, 
'and I forgot to allow for it ; but ther's the opening I promised 

"It was a good shot, however, and my friends looked blank 
enough as I took my stand. Their evident anxiety annoyed 
me, and for a moment a sense of responsibility unnerved me. 
Then I shut my eyes, recalled my lessons, and concentrated 
my mind on the work in hand. My shot parted, the target 
rattled and fell. The next moment Rattlebrain waved it tri- 
umphantly over his head, shouting, 'Centre!' It was impos- 
sible for Dick to be exact. It was not a centre shot, but the 


whole ball was in the paper, beating Mullenix by half a dia- 

" 'Can you do that again?' whispered the major. 

" 'I think I can do better." 

" 'Then we've got the rascal to a certainty,' said he, rub- 
bing his hands with hopeful satisfaction. 

"The gleam of benevolence had departed from Mullenix's 
face, and he proceeded to load his piece with a precision quite 
the reverse of his former half insolent carelessness. He 
waited for a lull in the almost imperceptible breeze, and when 
he took aim the steadiness of his attitude was statuesque. 

"Dick Rattlebrain looked as if he would burst during the 
process, and the result of the hunter's shot did not relieve 
his anxiety in the least. The paper was perforated just be- 
neath the central tack — so close that we wondered it had not 
been knocked out. 

"Tom looked vengefully benevolent again. 

" T reckon, mister, I hain't left ye much of an opening 
this time.' He said this with a wicked chuckle. 

"My friends looked grave again. Dick desired to give 
me some advice, but the Major restrained his zeal and per- 
suaded him to keep quiet. 

"On coming up for my second trial ] liad a more severe 
struggle with my nervousness than at the first. The open- 
ing was indeed a narrow one, and then my success had aroused 
hopes which must not be disappointed. I succeeded, however, 
in attaining the requisite coolness, and fired. 

"The board fell forward as usual. 

"Dick Rattlebrain gave a convulsive start, and then step- 
ping up to me said, 'By thunder, Larry, I haven't the heart 
to look at it !' But the Major presently approached with the 
board in one hand and the paper in the other. The tack was 
gone, and there was a clean hole exactly through the center 
of the mark. Dick uttered a triumphant yell, and nearly suffo- 
cated me in his rude embrace. 

" 'Come Dick; having won, we must triumph like gentle- 

"Tom Mullenix eyed me like a basilisk. 

" '\\>11 mister, the bar skin's vour'n ; vou've won two, and 


hit's not worth while to waste the third sliot. I'owder and 
lead is too scarce up here to waste on nothin'.' 

"I sincerely sympathized with tlie mortified mountaineer; 
so that wlien he came formally to deliver the l)ear skin I po- 
litely attempted to decline it. Fhit the Hash of his eye and 
sternness of his manner (piickly showed that 1 had made a 

■' 'Mister,' he said, 'I don't like any man to fool with me. 
The skin is fairly your'n and you must take it.' 

A rousing' swig" from the Major's flask was more a])])re- 
ciated than mv fanciful magnanimity, and we took leave with 
all due civility." 

Killed a Wolf. 

Porte Crayon here relates his experience in killing a wolf. 
His former rival in a shooting- match. Hunter Tom MuUenix, 
showed feelings of umbrage and resentment by Porte Crayon's 
competition in the wolf industry. Crayon says: 

"As I stood to gaze I saw something moving on a ledge 
thirty or forty feet above, and at length perceived two fiery 
eyes glaring downward, and my blood was stirred by a long- 
drawn savage howl. 

"I again remembered Jesse's secret, and steadying my 
rifle against a hemlock tree, took aim and fired. With a 
brushing sound, followed by a crash, the body of a large wolf 
fell into the thicket nearly at my feet. Neither my shot nor 
the fall had quite killed the savage beast, which writhing and 
snarling in its death agony, bit frantically at its wounds, sticks, 
leaves and everything within its reach. Staining the rocks 
and moss with its life blood, its struggles gradually subsided, 
and at length, with a spasmodic shiver, it stretched itself out 
and died. Drawing my knife, I approached the body, and 
discovered that the creature was a female, and evidently had 
a young family somewhere up the clifT. But this was no time 
to be speculating about game, so I was contented to take the 
scalp as a trophy, and congratulating myself that I had prob- 
ably broken up a whole family of robbers, proceeded to re- 
load my piece. 


"On the following- morning, as had been agreed, we left 
Soldier White's and started down Dry Fork to visit Roy who 
lived at Red Creek and to seek such other sports and ad- 
ventures as the country afforded. As we passed the mill we 
recognized several acquaintances among a group of moun- 
taineers, and stopped to exchange civilities and take leave. 
The Major politely offered his flask and drinking cup which, 
notwithstanding the early hour, was honored duly as it passed 
from hand to hand with, 'well, here's good luck, men.' My 
quondam antagonist, Tom Mullenix, however, put aside the 
cup with a scowl and, to the surprise of everybody, retired sul- 
lenly into the mill. The bear skin I had won of him was 
thrown over my saddle, and it occurred to me that the sight of 
this trophy had again recalled the mortification of the shoot- 
ing match. Anxious to leave good feeling behind us, I asked 
Jesse Hedrick to bring Tom out that we might drink and 
shake hands, burying all animosities before we parted. 

"Jesse laughed at the suggestion of the shooting match 
and then looked grave. 

" 'Hit's not that he minds ; sure Tom's got too much 
sense for that. But he's mighty riled about somebody a 
kilHn" of his wolf, and he 'lows hit was one of you men as 
done hit, and he swears vengeance agin ye, he does.' 

"At the mention of wolf I was electrified, and drawing 
Jesse aside, asked him earnestly if Tom had lost a pet wolf 

" 'Well not exactly that,' he replied, 'but ye see Tom 
makes his living pretty much by huntin', and there's a middlin^' 
high bounty on wolf scalps ; and so you see when he finds 
out where an old she has a den, instead of killin' of her he 
plays sharp and waits till she has young uns, and as they 
begin to come out and play around he kills them off and gits 
the premium on five or six scalps every season. So ye see 
when a feller finds the haunt of an old wolf he lays claim to 
her, and takes care of her, and she brings him a smart little 
income every year. And for any man to go and kill another 
man's wolf is a big spite, and a fightin' business, it is. And 
somebody killed Tom's wolf up here by the tunnel day be-- 


fore yesterday, the}- did ; and he's danijerous mad about it, 
so he is." 

"'And who does lie blame?' 1 asked in breathless curi- 

" 'Well,' said Jess, 'he lays it on that feller there — Mr. 
Rattlebrain — but he says he hain't sure of hit quite, or else 
there would a been trouble." 

"Now here were revelations and explanations and per- 
sonal responsibilities which admitted of no shirking- or hesi- 

"Taking Jesse by the arm, I entered the mill and cor- 
nered Mullenix so that he had to stand up and look me 
square in the face. 

" '^lullenix," I said, 'somebody killed your wolf, I under- 

" 'Yes, they did and took her scalp,' he replied grimly, 
'the sneaking- hounds, wdiich is jest about equal to highway 
rol)l)ery ; and durn him, I — I — ' 

" 'Well suppose the man who did it will tell you he 
meant no wrong, not being aware of your claim on the ani- 
mal, and will give you up the scalp and a fair reimbursement 
for any further loss you may sustain in the matter?' 

" 'Well, mister, that would look like the feller meant 
fair,' said Tom, 'and if he does that I'd bear him no grudge, I 

"I then handed ]\lullenix the scalp and put ten dollars into 
his hand, and ere he fairly recovered from his astonishment 
we mounted and rode off." 

A Crowded House — Domestic Bliss. 

The proverbial hospitality of an earlier period did not 
countenance the refusal of entertainment to any one. The 
rooms might be few and small, the table might be dearth of 
tempting viands, yet their all was shared with others with un- 
stinted liberality. Porte Crayon herewith narrates amusing 
incidents of the entertainment of his party in houses of two 
rooms : 

"As candles and kerosene lamps are reckoned among the 


superfluities in these parts, we lit our cigars and pipes and 
repaired to the starlight of the front porch. Then bedtime 
was announced, and being ushered into the proprietor's cham- 
ber, a single bed of moderate dimensions was assigned for 
the accommodation of our party ; we could arrange it to suit 
our convenience. 'As thick as three in a bed,' has become a 
by-word ; four in a bed surpasses the limits of proberbial phil- 
osophy, and being naturally addicted to seclusion, I yielded 
my share of the couch and took the Roor with a saddle for my 
pillow and a blanket for covering. 

"Sleep, like a loving lass, needed but a brief wooing. Ex- 
cept in romances virtue is not always rewarded, and in spite 
of doctor's promises — fresh air, exercise, and a temperate sup- 
per — will not insure the coveted repose. Mine was inter- 
rupted by nightmare dreams of creeping through subteranean 
passages to escape from robbers, and tinally plunging head 
foremost into an abyss of mud where I stuck, panting and 
suffocating. In my struggles I awoke, realizing the peculiar 
sensations whicli had doubtless suggested the dreams and 
which filled me with real alarm. There was a rumbling in my 
ear like the buzzing of a spinning wheel ; my head and face 
were so hot and oppressivelv hea\ \- that I could not rise from 
the saddle. Disengaging one hand from the blanket, I felt 
the upper side of my face and head covered with a sciuirming 
mass of soft, warm fur which, u]ion further exploration, de- 
veloped into five kittens, cuddled in a loving hea]i and pur- 
ring with contentment. I was far from satisfied with the ar- 
rangement and especially aggravated at having my rest dis- 
turbed, so I arose suddenly to a sitting posture, unceremon- 
iously tumbling the happy family out of their bed. They 
clung together, mewing and striving to climb back to their 
comfortable position. In my wrath I seized one by the back 
of the neck and slung it vindictively at the bed occupied by 
• the ancient couple. Considering the darkness, my aim was 
good, and the mauling missile struck the pillow with a rip 
. which stopped the old man's snoring. 

"'Scat! scat! Wife, here's one of these darned kittens 
jumped on the bed.' 

"'Well, fling it out, can't ve !' she muttered im]>atiently. 


Having found it in his fumbling, he dropped the animal 
quietlv on the floor, whence it quietly trotted back to its fel- 
lows on mv blanket. Meanwhile I directed another toward 
the same point. 

" 'Scat ! scat !' cried a shriller voice. 

" 'You old fool, yev'e flinig the nasty critter right in my 
face, ye hev now^ !' and giving the kitten a spiteful toss, she 
sent it over the bed where my three comrades lay. I heard a 
stifled snickering in that direction, and presently the shot was 
returned, flying with outspread claws, and tearing as it ric- 
ochetted across the coverlet. Then as the wrathful dame 
rose to grope for the offender, I let fly a plumper which car- 
ried away her nightcap. 

By this time there was a general tumult of scatting, maul- 
ing, pounding on the wall, and calling for the lights. As the 
patriarch got up to unbar the door I pitched the rest of my 
amunition on his back, where the little wretches clung with 
all their claws. 

"'Wife! wife!' he exclaimed, as he danced and stumbled 
around the room, 'I believe the devil himself is got among 
these cats. Take 'em off! scat! take 'em off!' 

"This suggestion of the presence of the evil one aroused 
the dame's superstitious fears, and redoubled her calls for 
Betsy and a light, declaring that she would not touch one of 
these creeters to save the old man's life. 

"The door was at length unbarred and Betsy came to the 
rescue with a pine torch. The light revealed the stranger 
guests all sleeping the sleep of untroubled consciences, and 
the five tempest tossed kittens wandering around mewing in 

" 'Them's all our cat's kittens,' said Betsy, 'all white and 
tortoise shell ; the pretty little dears.' 

" 'Haint there a big black cat somewhere around?' asked 
the old woman in a tremulous voice. The favorite mask of 
the Arch Enemy was nowhere to be seen. 

" 'Take 'em out ! take 'em out !' growled the patriarch, 'the 
devilish things hev well nigh scratched the shirt off me back.' 

"Betsv smiled audiblv. '^^■ell daddv, ve've alwavs achavin' 


of somebody to scratch yer back, and maybe hits done ye 
good, haint hit?' 

" 'Git out with you and yer cussed cats,' cried daddy. 'I'll 
drown the whole misbegotten litter tomorrow, so I will." 

"At this direful threat Betsy snatched up her pets, and 
smothering her youthful felines in her apron, went out with 
the light, and there was peace until morning. At sunrise the 
door opened again, and a pleasant, manly voice called out, 
'Men git up and rinse your countenances; folks is goin' to git 
up !' 

"Breakfast went ofif very civilly, and on observing the 
clawed faces of the seniors I felt a twinge of remorse for my 
deeds of darkness. Dick Cockney and Betsy, however, had 
got up a triangular giggle which broke out at the slightest al- 
lusion to cats. At length the matron, with a severe and sig- 
nificant glance toward her junior guests, observing that she 
had never knowed them kittens to behave so before, and she 
had a suspicion there mought be wuss devils in the house than 
sich as come in the shape of black cats." 

Another incident and experience of Porte Crayon's is 
here reproduced as explanatory of old time customs. Owing 
to their isolation, primitive ways were still in vogue at the 
time of Strother's visit : 

"The cabin was so small and the flaring pine knots re- 
vealed such a multitude of good humored faces, that we be- 
gan to entertain some doubts whether we should not have 
done better to have remained and enlivened the bachelor's 
lonely hall and helped him cook his solitary supper. Still 
everybody, young and old, seemed glad to see us, and there 
was no hint of crowding or inconvenience. The family con- 
sisted of husband and wife, four sons, two grown to manhood, 
and a daughter between ten and eleven years old, a grandson, 
and a hired boy. The other domestics were three hounds and 
a cat with kittens. 

"The cabin was eighteen by fifteen feet in the clear, di- 
vided into two rooms. Although limited in space, all the san- 
itary arrangements in regard to ventilation had been espec- 


iall}' attended to. The cabin l)uilt of logs, turkey pen fashion, 
were only partially chinked with moss and still more imper- 
fectly tapestried with male and female garments, bunches of 
dried herbs, with deer and fox skins stretched on the outside. 
This open space did away with the necessity and expense of 
glass and had several other advantages, as we afterward as- 
certained. A\'e could study the planets at ease, and tell the 
character of the weather without the inconvenience and awk- 
wardness of getting up to look out of the window. Jess also 
informed us that of nights when he wasn't sleepy, he could 
chaw tobacco and spit through the cracks without siling the 
old man's tloor, which was a pleasing indication of filial con- 
sideration. We experienced the fact that a family of nine 
persons with four guests could be comfortably fed, enter- 
tained ,and lodged in such apartments, but during our sojourn 
of several days, we never understood how it was done. 

"The head of the family was a native of the mountains, 
about fifty years of age, with good features, light hair and 
complexion, broad chested and powerfully built. His coun- 
tenance was amicable and his manner frank and obliging; 
consenting to everything that was said with the grace of a 
courtier, and closing every sentence with an echo and twang, 
a habit common to the whole region — ye-as ; oh ye-as, I 
wouldn't wonder now, ah, ye-as indeed, as — at the same time 
confusing you with the universality of his admissions, com- 
ing back with opinions of his own which he sustained with 
true courtier like tenacity. 

"Dick Rattlebrain attempted to pump him on the sub- 
ject of politics, and to our astonishment, knew neither the 
names of the opposing political parties nor the names of their 
presidential candidates. 

" 'Oh,' exclaimed Dick somewhat airily, T see you do not 
read the papers up here.' 

" 'Mister, yer'e mistaken, I tell ye ye are, ah ; we do git 
newspapers up here we do, ah. There was a feller fetched one 
up here last summer and my wife read it to me, she did, ah. 
Wife look if that newspaper haint in the chest under the head 
of the bed.' 

" 'No, it haint, for ye know ye lent it to Zed Kyle. Hits 


three weeks today and he haint fetched it back yit. But he ort 
to have fetched it back, he ort, fer I heerd of him having of hit 
up to Teter's last Sunday a readin' of hit to them, and he 
mought git hit tore, so he mought, and hit will be many a day 
afore he sees another one.' 

"Madam it seems can read, and the only book larnt mem- 
ber of the family. She showed me the only specimen of Guten- 
berg's art, except the newspaper, in the settlement, an ex- 
tremely aged and well thumbed copy of a Methodist hymn- 
book. In this precious volume, she assured me, she had read 
a hymn or two every Sunday for thirty years, and kept it up 
regular for fear she mought forgit how. 

"Having thus established a sort of literary fellowship with 
the old woman, I seated myself on the chest while she was 
getting dinner and continued the conversation. This was not 
difficult for after the sluices were fairly opened, my share 
consisted in listening. She opened on polemics and naming 
all the religious sects and denominations she had ever heard 
of, gave each a passing punch or two, quite intelligently de- 
livered. As the}' all fared alike in her hands, 1 at length in- 
quired what church she belonged to. 

" 'None.' 

"Here was something of an anomaly. A Christian of no 
sect, pious on her own hook ; unguided except by the tradi- 
tions of her childhood and the greasy old hymn book, yet as 
far as my observation extended her conscience and practice 
were as near the purest Christian standard as if she had all 
her life enjoyed the advantages of a five thousand dollar pew 
under the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Plumpcushion in the great 
and enlightened city of ITul)adub. And so the worthy dame, 
on hospitable deeds intent, brimming over with smiles and 
amiability, went on baking, boiling and stewing and frying 
her viands and her neighbors, mitil everything was done up 
and dished up. By the time our meal was over, Jess then 
announced that there was to be a yoking of a ])air of steers 
over at Nelson's that afternoon, and offered to introduce us to 
the sport if we were so minded. Augustus requested him to 
oblige us by describing the nature of the diversion. 

" 'Oh,' said Jess, 'they have turrible times specially if 



the steers happen to be fractious. They hook and kick and 
beller, run off and jump fences, and sometimes break a fel- 
ler's le^ : ihey mostly cripple themselves or something else 
afore they are done with it. Then they hev a keg uv licker 
and there is some as thinks there is right smart fun in it.' 

On the whole we thanked Jess for his civility and de- 
clined going. He did not appear much disappointed and care- 
lessly observed that he would slip over to Tom Mullenix's 
and proceed to put some extra touches on his toilet. Jess 

A Flirtation. 

was evidently the pet and pride of the family and it was amus- 
ing to observe the general solicitude in his toilet. The old 
woman picked at his waistcoat and shirt collar; the little sis- 
ter Jane tugged his coat tails straight; Job pulled the wrinkles 
out of his breeches legs, wdiile the boy Harvey pulled them 
up again to make the red morocco boot tops show. Jess got 
off at length and soon after his father, excusing himself to us, 
followed in the same direction. About the middle of the after- 
noon the old man came back with an unusual solemn coun- 
tenance, shaking his head as he announced the doleful tidings: 
■' "W'a-al wife, thev've had orful bad luck down to Mul- 


lenix's. That brindle cow of hisn had two desput fine calves 
this mornin', and they're both of 'em dead, yes, they are, ah. 
The old woman she just sot down and cried, she did, and 
Suze, she was afeard to milk her, ye-as she wuz-ah, till Jess 
he drew her up in a corner and hilt her by the horns, then 
Suze she milked her. she did, and they wuz two turrible fine 
calves, yes, indeed, they \\uz, so they wuz, ah. 

A Sylvan Golgotha. 

A S34van Golgotha was Porte Crayon's apt and poetic 
description of a "deadening." The appellation applies today 
to the entire forested area of the country. The destruction of 
our forests has been an improvident blunder and an economic 
sin. Large areas have been denuded, suited neither for graz- 
ing nor agriculture. Porte Crayon gives this description of an 
"improA-ement" as it impresses his poetic imagination. 

"Savage and lonely as are these vast tracts of primitive 
forests, there is yet a virgin freshness in their haunts ; a variety 
.and affluence of natural life which relieves their monotony and 
charms away their solitude. But on issuing from the pillared 
aisles and verdant archways of nature's temples into a moun- 
tain, 'improvement,' one feels as if approaching the lair of 
some obscure and horrible dragon. Death, desolation, and 
decay are visible on every hand. Skeleton forests, leafless, 
lifeless, weather-beaten, and fire blasted; heaps of withered 
branches, split rail fences, warped and rotten ; in the midst of 
a space from whence every green thing and graceful form has 
been banished. " 

Trout Fishing. 

"Thus am I teased, my vision pleased, 
Commingling sport with idle wishing, 
Time moves as if his wheels were greased, 
While I half dreaming sit, half fishing. 

Strothers and his party are now on (landy, a tributary of 
the Dry Fork, and at that time teeming with the vermillion 


spotted, saliiKin tinted trcmt. The exjdosion of a stone he- 
neath a tislierman's coffee pot and frying pan, while not on 
the pr(),L;rani, when it does occur, adds zest and excitement to 
piscatorial pleasures and largely com])ensates for the loss sus- 
tained. In this case it supjdied an interesting incident for 
Porte Crayon's pen and pencil. He gives the following nar- 
rative of tlie ludicrous incident: 

"Pleased with the idea of cooking our own meal, we soon 
raised a tire whose smoke circled above the tree tops. I was 
detailed to make the cofifee while the Major superintended 
the prei)aration of the hsh. The Major discoursed with the 
assurance of an expert and sliced his middling with a certain 
affectation of nicety which impressed his assistants with the 
idea of his ])rofoun(l science. Laying a cut on one of the heat- 
ing stones, he exclaimed, 'It is just in trim. Now boys bring 
your trout !' The scullions hastened to obey the order, each 
bearing a tin platter with a dozen selected fish. The chief 
picked them off with a forked stick and daintily arranged them 
side by side in the bubbling fat. 

"A tall mountaineer, on an absurd little horse, who had 
stopped in tlie road to look at us, now approached with gaping 
countenance and outstretched neck, as if deeply interested in 
the proceedings. 

" 'My friend, won't you 'light and take dinner with us?' 
" 'Xo,' said the fellow bluntly, 'I don't want none of your 

victuals, l:)ut I'm cur'us to see ve cook them fish.' 

" 'Just wait a moment then," said the culinary director 

with a complacent wink, 'and you'll see something to surprise 


"At the word there was an explosion like that of a ten- 
pound shell ; a fragment of a cooking stove whizzed by the 
spectator's head and a hot trout slapped him in the face. 
'Heavens,' he shouted, 'I've seen enough!' and putting whip 
to his horse he started up the road at full speed. Then in 
quick succession there followed a whole battery of explosions, 
sending stones, fish, firebrands and tinware in every direction, 
some cutting through the branches of the adjacent trees, oth- 
ers sizzed into the stream ; the horses broke loose and scam- 


pered away; the cook and attendants dodged behind trees or 
scampered after the horses. I deftly dropped behind a syca- 
more log, creeping under the opposite side where I remained 
during the bombardment. I had been watching the coffee, 
and after the firing ceased, ventured to raise my head above 
the log parapet to look after my charge. Its place was vacant, 
but I saw the pot overturned near the margin of the stream 
some twenty yards oft". 

" 'Hello, Laureate! Are you all safe and do you think it's 

"1 saw the Major peeping from behind a large maple 
with a queer expression as if he was undetermined whether 
to laugh or swear. As the fire was pretty well scattered and 
not a trace of our cooking visible, I thought we might leave 
cover and so we did. 

"Searching land and water and l)ranches of trees we 
recovered most of our tinware, dented and battered, but still 
available for all purposes. The actual loss consisted of two 
dozen trout and a boiler of coffee. Nevertheless, it behooved 
the ^Nlajor to explain the result of his cooking arrangements, 
which he did in this wise: 'For the sake of shape and clean- 
liness we selected stones from the bed of the stream ; they 
contained cells filled with water, which as they became heated, 
generated steam and l)Iew everything to pieces.' Agustus 
plucked up : 

" T've seen flying fish in Barnum's museum, but scarcely 
expected to see flying fish in the mountains.' 

" 'Pepper away, pepper away, young gentlemen ; but mind 
your work and don't let the dinner lag. \\'ithout accident 
you will find the receipt a good one.' 

"Said I, Tt will appear in the cookery books as a "saute" 
of trout with capers, furnished by an officer of the United 
States Artillery.' 

•"'Bravo, Laureate! excellent! Xow,' said the annoyed 
chief,handing me a hot fish on a biscuit, ']nit that under your 
ribs and then comment on my receipt.' 

"The hot stones had been again heated and cooked our 
fish very quietly. Their flavor fully justified the Major's 


boasts, and we made a delightful meal, all the merrier because 
of the preliminary misadventure. 

"Expanded by a dozen or more of his brownest specimens, 
a stiff t(>d(l\' and an excellent cu]) of cofifee, the culinary chief 
answered all our rallying good naturedly and even kept his 
temper when the Dry Forker stopped to gibe at us on his re- 

" 'I say men, is them fish done yit?' 

"Dick asked him how he liked the specimen he got. 

" 'It was something hotter than T ginerally take "em,' 
said he facetiously, 'and then instead of bread ye gim me a 
stone, which is agin scripter, haint hit?' 

" 'Oh, you didn't quote scripture as you rode off a while 
ago,' rejoined Dick. 'But get down and we will give you the 
receipt for cooking the fish which you can teach to your wife.' 

" 'Excuse me mister, my wife don't want none of your 
receipts for blowin' up things ; she's got a way of her own 
which is more convenient.' 

" 'Come neighbor, 'light and be sociable,' said the Major, 
holding up his flask in an insinuating manner. 

" 'Now that's the kind of talk I understand,' said the na- 
tive, dismounting and joining our party. 'Gentlemen, here's 
luck !' and when the drink was swallowed he seated himself 
upon the log and laughed long and loud. 'Well for all the 
world Ed like to know what was in them devlish stones.' 

"The Major explained everything to his satisfaction, in 
return for which he told us his name was Roy. We engaged 
to visit him and said he, as he took leave, 'Ell show you how 
to cook 'em without blowin' your head off.' " 

Poetic Pleasure. 

Anyone who cast a line in "Gaudy's amber waters" a 
half of a century ago will appreciate this stanza of Strother's : 

"On an afternoon in blooming June, 
I sit by Candy's amber water 
'Mid vernal bowers and scented flowers, 
And trout in plenty to be caught there. 


Rhetorical Dry Fork. 

Here is a poetic description of Dry Fork by Porte Crayon 
that merits preservation : 

"Brawling- brooks come tumbling- down from the wooded 
hills, full of noisy confidence, like provincial capitalists rush- 
ing into \\'all Street to find themselves 'sucked up' ere they 
can find a puddle deep enough to float a trout. Thoughtless 
little cascades, tripping and skipping through thorny bowers, 
jumping down from moss clad ledges, and are lost before they 
reach the channel. So they come, one after another, like joy- 
ous children with their dimpled faces and tinkling voices, 
sinking to death and silence in this cruel sepulchre. Oh re- 
morseless grave, to whose dark prison the loveliness, the mu- 
sic, and the glories of earth are ever hastening, when shall 
thy ravening cease, or when thy mysteries be revealed? 

"At certain points, by placing the ear close to the loose 
stones which form the river's bed, we mav hear or imagine we 
hear, the Avhispering and moaning of the lost waters deep 
down below, as if the ogre stream was dragging its innocent 
captives through subterranean passages to some deeper, 
darker prison. Then again, the Dry Fork is not always a val- 
ley of dry bones, for sometimes during the season of melting 
snows or after one of those diluvial thunder showers common 
in this region, the silent, grinning skeleton awakens to life 
and comes down roaring and foaming like a maniac broke 
loose. For a day or two the stream is dangerous and im- 
passable, then sinks again into its deathlike trance.'' 



Trial by Fist and Skull. 

IN the earlier history of the county the delays and intrica- 
cies of the law were not always invoked to settle disputes 
of title to land and other property. Near the Old Brick 
Church in Huttonsville District, James \A"arwick built a cabin 
and made a clearing, by virtue of which he claimed the con- 
tiguous bottom. John and William White claimed the land 
also. The \\'hite brothers proposed to settle the title by a 
resort to a fight, fist and skull. Mr. Warwick fearing the re- 
sult traded lands with Andrew Crouch, who was to clear his 
title by accepting the challenge of the other claimants. Mr. 
Crouch met and vanquished AMlliam WHiite who accepted the 
result with satisfaction and Mr. White and Mr. Crouch be- 
came close friends. John \Miite was killed in the battle of 
Point Pleasant and A\'illiam \\"hite fell a victim to Indian 
savagery in what is now l^pshur County. 

Major Andrew Crouch. 

Price's History of Pocahontas County records the follow- 
ing interesting reminiscences of JNfajor Andrew Crouch : 

"In a visit to Major Andrew Crouch May, 1857, this aged 
man related a reminiscence of his boyhood. 

"WHien he was six years old his father took him to the 
corn field and while the father worked the little boy sat on 
the fence. One of his uncles came up in great haste, bringing 
the news that Lewis Canan (Kinnan) and three children had 
just been killed by the Indians. The Crouches hurried their 
families to the home of James \\'arwick, not far from where 
the Old Brick Church stood. In their hurrv the Crouch broth- 


ers and Warwick seized their guns to go to help the faniihes 
exposed to the Indians farther up the river; they neglected to 
barricade the fort, and so the little boy and the two little girls 
went out to the branch. \Miile the little boy was washing 
the blood from his face, caused by his nose bleeding, the little 
girls became frightened and without saying anything, ran 
back into the fort and left him alone. When his bleeding 
stopped he went back and found the fort barricaded. The 
Crouch brothers had been met by some persons from the lower 
fort, took them along, and so their wives and children were 
left to themselves at Warwick's to make the best they could 
of a perilous situation. 

"When the boy, AndrcAv Crouch, came to the fort, he 
heard his aunt in a loud voice giving orders as if there was 
quite a number of men in the fort, when in fact the force con- 
sisted of three white women and one colored man and wife 
and some little children. An Indian climbed to the roof of the 
fort buildings after night and set it on fire. The colored man 
put it out. Then the stable was fired. The black man said 
they should not burn the horse. He went out and carefully 
approached the place. Seeing an Indian by the light he shot 
at him and let the horse out and safely returned to the fort. 
He dared the Indians to come on and as there seemed to be 
but two or three that showed themselves it seems they were 
not disposed to storm the loud but little garrison. 

"When the barn burned down and became dark the col- 
ored woman insisted on leaving the fort and giving the alarm 
farther down. She was allowed to do so and the next day 
the men came up and moved all farther down. Then the 
little boy and eight of the others went to bury the dead, Lewis 
Kinnan and the three children. He says no one wept nor 
did any feel afraid while the funeral was going on. 

"After the burial the men seeing no signs of Indians be- 
lieved they had withdrawn and so they disbanded. But late 
in the evening an Indian killed Frank Riffle near where the 
Brick Church stood and burned two houses not far away be- 
longing to James Lackey. Major Crouch remembers seeing 
Lackey not long after the battle of Point Pleasant. He could 
show the rock on which Lackcv sat and sung a war song. 


then very popular anion^ tlic mountaineers, in commemor- 
ation of the battle of Point I'lcasant, that eventful stru_s4gle. 

"In subsequent years Mr. Warwick moved to Ohio and 
rewarded his faithful negro with his freedom for his gallantry 
in saving the fort and the property. I'his Mr. Warwick was 
the ancestor of the Ohio Congressman of that name who, rep- 
resented McKinlev's district a few years ago." 

Lackey's wdv song was as follows : 

Let us mind the tenth day of October, 

Seventy four, which caused woe, 
The Indian savages did cover 

The pleasant banks of the Ohio. 

The battle beginning in the morning. 

Throughout the day it lasted sore 
Until the evening shades were turning down 

Upon the banks of the Ohio. 

Judgment proceeds to execution, 
Let fame through all ages go, 
Our heroes fought with resolution 
Upon the banks of the Ohio. 

Seven score lay dead and wounded 

Of champions that did face the foe, 
By which the heathen were confounded 

Upon the banks of the Ohio. 

Elk Horns Found. 

In 1913, Chas. Collett discovered Elk horns in a cave 
or sink on the Pritt farm, at the head of Files Creek, that 
measured eight feet from tip to tip. The horns and the skele- 
ton of the animal were in a good state of preservation. The 
sink was about twenty feet deep and its sides almost perpen- 
dicular. The animal probably fell into the cave and perished 
from the fall or starvation. 

The Formation of Randolph County. 

Randolph County was formed from Harrison by act of 
the Virginia Assembly, C)ctober, 1786. The following is a 
copy of the act : 

BLY, That from and after the first day of May one thousand 


seven hundred and eighty seven, the county of Harrison shalL 
be divided into two distinct counties, that is to say, so much', 
of the said county lying on the southeast of the following 
lines, beginning at the mouth of Sandy Creek, thence up Ty- 
ger's Valley to mouth of Buchanan river, thence up the said 
river including all the waters thereof to the Greenbrier line, 
shall be one distinct county, and called and known by the name 
of Randolph and the residue of said county shall retain the 
name of Harrison. A court for the said county of Randolph, 
shall be held b}' the justices thereof on the fourth Monday 
in every month after the said division shall take place, in such 
manner as is provided by law for other counties and shall be 
by their commissioners directed. The justices to be named 
in the commission of the peace for the said county of Randolph 
shall meet at the house of Benjamin Wilson, in Tyger's Val- 
ley, in the said county, upon the first court day, after the said 
division shall take place, and having taken the oath of office 
to, and taken bond of the sheriff, according to law, proceed to 
appoint and qualify a clerk, and fix upon a place for holding 
courts in said county, at or as near the center thereof as the 
situation and convenience will admit of ; and thenceforth the 
said court shall proceed to erect the necessary public build- 
ings at such place, and until such buildings be completed to 
appoint any place for holding courts as they may think proper. 
Provided always. That the appointment of a place for holding 
courts, and of a clerk, shall not be made unless a majority of 
the justices of said county be present, where such, majority 
shall have been prevented from attending by bad weather, or 
their being at the time out of the county, in such case the 
appointment shall be postponed until some court day when 
a majority shall be present. The Governor with the advice of 
the council, shall appoint a person to be first sheriff" of the 
said county, who shall continue in office during the term, and 
upon the same conditions, as is by law appointed for other 
sheriffs. It shall be lawful for the sheriff of the said county of 
Harrison to collect and make distress for any public dues or 
office fees, which shall remain unpaid by the inhabitants there- 
of at the time such division shall take place, and shall be ac- 


countable for the same in like manner as if this act had not 
been made. The court of the said county of Harrison shall 
ha\e jurisdiction of all actions and suits in law or ecjuity, de- 
pending before them at the time of said division, and shall try 
and determine the same, issue, process, and award execution 

II. AXl) BE IT FURTHER ENACTED, That the court 
of the said county t)f Harrison, shall account for and pay to 
the said county of Randoli)h, all such sums of money as shall 
or may be paid by the inhabitants of the said county of Ran- 
dolpii, toward defraying the expense of erecting a court house 
and other public buildings in the said county of Harrison. In 
all elections of a senator, the said county of Randolph, shall 
be of the same district with the said county of Harrison. 

The Whiskey Insurrection. 

In the }'ear of 1794, there occurred in the Monongalia Val- 
ley and adjacent territory, a series of acts in resistance to the 
Federal Re\'enue Laws, known in history as the "Whiskey 
Insurrection." L^pon the recommendation of Alexander Ham- 
ilton, Secretary of the Treasury, Congress passed an Act, tak- 
ing effect June 30, 1791, that there should be paid on every 
gallon of spirits distilled in the United States, duties ranging 
from 9 to 25 cents. There was great dissatisfaction with 
this provision and Western Pennsylvania determined to resist 
its enforcement, and endeavored to sectire the co-operation of 
Monongalia, Ohio, Harrison, and Randolph counties. This, 
conflict between government offtcials and the distillers has 
found expression in violence and bloodshed in the mountaiir 
districts of the Southern States for more than a century. The 
incident is of historical interest as it was the first test of the 
efficiency of the general government in dealing with the oppo- 
sition to the enforcement of Federal laws as well as indicating 
the trend of public sentiment toward the nullification of such 
laws by sections and states. 

Governor Lee, of Virginia, sent a circular letter to Hon. 
Thomas Wilson of Morgantown. The following reply was 
borne to the Governor by an express rider. \Mlliam McCleary 


or McCreery was the first prosecuting attorney of Randolph 
County and married Barbara, daughter of Michael See. 

Colonel McCreery 's letter to Governor Lee was as fol- 
lows : 

Morgan Town, Va. 
28th of Aug. 1794. 
Sirs : 

Your express arrived here today with sundry letters ad- 
dressed to the care of Thomas Wilson, who happened not to 
be at home ; thinking it right (in this alarming time) I re- 
ceived the papers & Passed a receipt for them. Mr. Wilson 
will be at home tomorrow & no doubt will send them instantly 
forward to their address. 

We are all in this, Harrison & Randolph counties in 
Peace & also Ohio with some exceptions ; a state of neutrality 
is all we are able to support, and indeed, we are in this town 
much threatened now for lying still by our Powerful neigh- 
bors. However I trust we will support it until the Govern- 
ment takes steps to bring aboutPeace — the Commissioners 
who attended at Pittsburg, by order of the President of the 
United States, and also by the order of the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, but nothing has yet transpired that can be relied 
upon ; a Committee of 12 men from the insurgents met them, 
and it is reported that no terms but the repeal of the Excise 
Law will be accepted by the People — however this is only re- 
port. I am in heast Sir. 

Your Excellency's Obedient Servant, 

William McCreery. 

Mr. McCreery had become a citizen of Monongalia sev- 
eral years previous to this incident. 

Randolph Representatives in the Assembly of Virginia, 


Below are given the names of the Representatives, Del- 
egates and Senators from Randolph County in the General 
Assembly of Virginia from 1782 to 1865, a period of eighty- 
three years. The senatorial and delegate districts were often 
changed and the name is given of the Delegate or Senator of 


the district of which Randolph was a part. This, also, applies 
to the representatives from Monongalia at the time the pres- 
ent territ()r\- of Randolph formed a part of that county. 


Thomas Wilson 1793 

John Raymond 1798 

Thomas Wilson 1803 

Phillip Dodridge 1806 

James Pindall ^ 181 1 

Noah Zane 1814 

Geo. I. Davisson 1818 

Edwin S. Duncan 1822 

Chas. S. Morgan 1826 

John J. Allen 1830 

Chas. S. Morgan 1831 

Richard Watts 1833 

Francis Billingsley 1836 

William J. Willey 1839 

John S. CarHsle ..' 1847 

Albert G. Reger 1852 

Lewis Steenrod 1854 

Albert G. Reger 1856 

John Brannon 1858 

Delegates from District Including Randolph. 

Benjamin Wilson 1782 

Geo. Jackson 1786 

Johnathan Parsons 1788 

Johnathan Parsons and Cornelius Bogard 1789 

Cornelius Bogard and Abraham Claypoole 1790 

John Haddan and Cornelius Bogard 1792 

John Haddan and Abraham Claypoole 1793 

Robert Green and Cornelius Bogard 1795 

Robert Green and John Chenoweth 1796 

Adam See and John Haddan 1798 

William B. Wilson and John Haddan 1799 


Adam See and William B. Wilson 1801 

John Haddan and William B. Wilson 1803 

John Haddan and Mathew Whitman 1804 

William Wilson and William Ball 1805 

AVilliam Wilson and Jacob Kittle 1806 

William Marteney and Nicholas Gibson 1807 

Adam See and William Marteney 1810 

William Marteney and James Booth 1811 

Edwin S. Duncan and William Marteney 1813 

John M. Hart and William Marteney 1814 

Adam See and W'illiam Marteney 1815 

Adam See and William Daniels 1816 

Isaac Booth and William Marteney 1817 

Samuel Ball and Isaac Booth ..-.. ...1820 

• Daniel Hart and William Marteney 1821 

Isaac Booth and \\'illiam ]\Iarteney ..1822 

Isaac Booth and Adam See 1823 

William Daniels and William ^Marteney 1824 

Robert Crum and William Alarteney 1826 

William Daniels and Isaac Booth 1827 

Joseph Hart and William Daniels 1828 

Benjamin Dolbear and Adam Myers .-.-. 1829 

Joseph Hart and Isaac Booth 1830 

Joseph Hart 1831 

Isaac Booth 1833 

V\'illiam Marteney 1835 

William C. Haymond 1837 

Henry Sturms 1838 

Samuel Elliott 1841 

Henry Sturms 1843 

Washino^ton J. Long 1846 

Henry Sturms 1847 

David Goff 1849 

Chas. S. Hall 1850 

Henry Sturms 1851 

John Taylor 1852 

John Phares 1854 

Dr. Squire Bosworth 1856 

Jacob Conrad 1858 


Samuel Crane 1860 

B. W. Crawford 1864 

John and lienjamin Wilson re])rcscnted Randolph County 
in the Constitutional Convention of 1788. 

Adam See represented Randolph County in the Constitu- 
tional Con\'ention of 1830. 

John N. Hughes was a delegate from Randolph to the 
Constitutional Convention which met at Richmond, Va., in 
1861. He was succeeded by Jacob W. Marshall, after his 
death on the Rich Mountain battle field. 

Josiah Simmons represented Randolph County in the 
Constitutional Convention which convened at AMieeling, No- 
vember 26, 1861. This was the convention to form a consti- 
tution for the new state. 

First Auditor of West Virginia from Randolph. 

Joseph Hart, Milton Hart and AW J. Drummond were the 
delegates from Randolph to the first State Convention of 
Union men. held at Parkersburg, AV. Va., ]\Iay 6, 1863. Sam- 
uel Crane, of Randolph County, A. I. Boreman, of AVood 
County, and Peter VanAA^inkle, also of AA^ood, were presented 
to the convention b}' their friends for the nomination for Gov- 
ernor. No nomination was made on first ballot as neither as- 
pirant received a majority of the votes cast. Before the sec- 
ond ballot was taken, Mr. Crane withdrew his name and 'Sir. 
Boreman was nominated. Mr. Crane was then unanimously 
nominated for State Auditor. 

Samuel Crane, the first Auditor of AA'est Virginia was 
born in Richmond, Va. AAMien a mere boy he moved to Tuck- 
er County, where he grew to manhood. He married a lady 
near Richmond, A^a., and moved to Randolph County. He 
practiced law at Beverlv until the breaking out of the Civil 
AA'ar, when he became active in politics. His wife died in 
AAHieeling in 1863 and in 1866 he moved to Missouri to as- 
sume the management of the family and property of a de- 
ceased brother. Soon after going to ^Missouri he entered the 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church. 


The Vote of Randolph for State Capitol. 

On the first Tuesday in August, 1877, there was held 
throughout the state an election on the question of the per- 
manent location of the state capitol. The places voted for 
were Martinsburg-, Clarksburg- and Charleston. In that con- 
test Randolph cast 859 votes for Clarksburg, 31 for Charleston 
and 2 for Martinsburg-. The vote of the state was: Charles- 
ton, 41,243; Clarksburg, 29.942, and Martinsburg, 8,046. 


The vote of Randolph County, March 26, 1863, to accept 
or reject the amended constitution of the new state was as 
follows: For ratification 167, Against ratification 13. 

In the election for state officials held ]\Iay 22, 1863, Ran- 
dolph County cast 78 votes for F. H. Pierpoint for Governor, 
76 for Daniel Posely for Lieutenant Governor, and 65 votes 
for James S. Wheat for Attorney General. 

Members of the Legislature. 

The following persons have represented Randolph County 
in the Legislature since the formation of the state : 

Cyrus Kittle 1863 

Jesse F. Phares 1865 

Chas. W. Burke 1867 

James W. Dunington 1868 

John A. Ilutton 1869 

Lemuel Chenoweth 1871 

John A. Hutton 1872 

John Taylor 1873 

Elihu Hutton 1877 

C. J. P. Cresap 1881 

A. B. Parsons 1883 

Harmon Snyder .1885 

J. F. Harding A887 

W. L. Kee 1889 


J. B. Finley 1891 

G. H. Daniels 1893 

J. F. Harding 1895 

T. P. R. Brown 1897 

J. A. Cunningham 1899 

W. G. Wilson 1901 

Lew Greynolds 1903 

Warwick Hutton 1905 

J. F. Strader 1907 

James W. Weir 1909 

John T. Davis - 1911 

E. D. Talbott 1913 

James W. Weir 1915 

In the second Constitutional Convention held at Charles- 
ton in 1872, J. F. Harding was a delegate from Randolph and 

Beverly Threatened to Secede. 

Prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1851, none but 
freeholders could participate in the elective franchise in Vir- 
ginia. All offices were appointive except members of the Leg- 
islature, overseers of the poor and town trustees. It was 
claimed that the territory west of the mountains received very 
unfair treatment in the distribution of power. The proposed 
constitution of 1830 gave one hundred and three members of 
the House of Delegates to the counties east of the mountains 
and thirty-one to the territory west of them. Randolph was 
much opposed to the new constitution and a public meeting 
was held at Beverly, March 10, 1830. In the discussion of the 
merits of the proposed constitution at that meeting, it was 
stated that in one company of seventy-four soldiers from a 
covmty of Virginia in the war of 1812, only two had the right 
to vote. The Beverly mass-meeting adopted the following res- 
olution : 

Resolved, That we would sooner commit to the flames. 


the new constitution and vote for a division of the state than 
to vote for its adoption. 

The opposition west of the mountains availed nothing and 
the constitution was ratified by a vote of 26,055 for and 15,563 
against. However, the opposition of the people resulted twen- 
ty years later in the adoption of the constitution of 1851, which 
granted the right of sufifrage to all white males of the state 
of more than 21 years of age, and made most offices elective 
instead of appointive. 

Fined Four Hundred Pounds of Tobacco. 

The first superior court for the territory west of the 
Alleghenies, under the Act of the Virginia Assembly of 1788, 
was to be held at Morgantown, May 4, 1789. This district 
embraced Randolph, Ohio, Harrison, and Alonongalia Coun- 
ties. .No court was held on that date owing to the attendance 
of an insufficient number of grand jurors. Robert Maxwell, 
Cornelius Bogard, Peter Cassedy, Edward Jackson, and 
George Jackson had been summoned from Randolph but failed 
to attend. The court fined each four hundred pounds of to- 
bacco. However, at the September term of the court these 
fines were remitted. 

Tory Camp Run. 

Big and Little Tory Camp Runs are the only two objects 
in Randolph that perpetuate memories of the Revolution. Lit- 
tle Tory Camp Run is a tributary of the Dry Fork on the east 
side about a mile above the town of Harnian. Big Tory Camp 
Run is a tributary of the same stream on the same side about 
two miles farther south and a short distance below the village 
of Job. 

Tory was a term that designated one who favored the 
mother country. The revolutionist was called a Whig. The 
feeling between these two classes of citizens was very bitter 
during and for many years subsequent to the Revolution. 
Midnight raids of neighbor against neighbor in which murder 
and arson were the objects sought were frequent occurrences 


in comniunitics in \vliicli there was a division of sentiment. 

\'irL;inia enacted drastic laws against the Tories. Many 
left the conntry and sont^ht protection under the flag' of Great 
Brittain. A number from the counties of Hardy, Hampshire 
and i'endleton entered the wilderness and established camps 
in the eastern pari of Randolph. A few years ago evidences 
of their encami^ments were still visible. 

The First Settlement on Lower Middle Mountain. 

The first man to make settlement on the lower Middle 
Mountain, lielow the Seneca Road, was Jacob W. Car. In 
1874, he married Mar}- Ann Kerens and with his bride, for 
better or worse, to car\'e otit their fortunes from the vir- 
gin forests, located many miles from human habitation. 
However, the fates favored their adventurous s])irits and they 
ha^•e a large landed estate to transmit to their children in a 
communit\- i^f churches, schools, stores and railroads. Twelve 
children have blessed their union, all living except one son, 
French, who died in his fifteenth year. Children living: 
James H., Albert L., Asa Martin, Enos, Jacdl), Jol), John, 
Hulda Jane, Rarliara E., and Eliza Jane. 

Neighbors in Pendleton and Randolph. 

The ancestors of several prominent families in Randolph 
were friends and neighbors in Pendleton. The Caplingers and 
Harpers who were pioneers in Randolph were close neighbors 
in Pendleton before locating in this county. These two fam- 
ilies have been on terms of neighborly intimacy in Randolph 
ft^r a centur}-. The same can be said of the Wards, the Col- 
letts and the Phareses. Representatives of these families were 
constables a|:)pointed by the Governor in the organization of 
Pendleton in 1787. They were Gabriel Collett, Johnson 
Phares and William Ward. 

Abraham Springstone. 

Springstone Run, emptying into Leading Creek about a 



mile northwest of Kerenes, is supposed to have received its 
name from the fact that it has its source in the mountains, 
where the springs flow from stony beds. However, this sup- 
position is erroneous as it was named for Abraham Spring- 
stone, who settled on its banks in the pioneer period. Little 
is known of his antecedents or decendants. He married Mary, 
daughter of William Innis, in 1797. 

Imprisonment for Debt. 

Imprisonment for debt was a legal barbaritv in vogue 
(luring the earlier years of the history of Randolph. The 
court records ran as follows : 

Thereupon came A. B. and undertook for the said de- 
fendant in case he be cast in this suit, he shall pay and sat- 
isfy the condemnation nf the court, or render his body tt) 
prison in execution for the same, or that he, the said A. B. 
would do it for him. 

Trustees of Mocrefield. 

Moses Hutton. Jolmathan Heath and (leo. Rennock were 
the trustees of the town of Moorefield in 1777. Closes Hutton 
was, perhaps, the son of Abraham, who was the first of the 
Hutton famlv to come to America. Geo. Rennix was sheriff 
of Randol])h in 1808 and captain of militia in 1798. Whether 
it was the same Geo. Rennix is not known. Ashael Heath 
was sheriff of Randolph in 1803 and lieutenant of militia in 
1799. The name Rennock has been changed to Renix. 

Early Church History. 

In 1748, at Frederick, Md., a log church was built by the 
settlers who were German reformers. Among the members of 
this church were names of families identified with the settle- 
ment of Randolph County : Lingenfelders, P)uckeys. Kuntzs, 
Witmans, now Whitman and Weiss, now Weese. 

A Lutheran church was built at Monocacy, Md., in 1747. 
Among the members of this congregatimi were the Ebberts, 


Jenkins, Myers, and Conradts, afterward spelled CcMirad ; 
Poes, Whites, W'ilhides, Hedges, Wiers. William White 
moved from Monocacy, Aid., to the Shenandoah Valley in 
1734. Probably his decendants settled in the valley in the vi- 
cinity of Hadden's Fort. 

Elkins Weather Bureau. 

This station was established January 1, 1899. Albert Ash- 
enberger was in charge from that date until October 31, 1903. 
Louis Dorman succeeded him and was in charge until June 
1, 1911, when he was succeeded by Harry M. Howell, who 
remained in charge until November, 1914, when upon his own 
request he was transferred to the Philadelphia station and 
later to Washington, D. C. Mr. H. H. Jones, of Tennessee, 
has been in charge of the station since the transfer of Mr. 
riowell. Mr. Jones is ably assisted by Jesse Robinson, a Ran- 
dolph County young man. Mr. Howell commenced as an as- 
sistant to Mr. Dorman and his promotion has been rapid. Be- 
sides his position as chief of the Elkins bureau and his pres- 
ent situation in Washington, D. C, he has held important 
positions in the service at Savannah, Georgia, and Louisville, 

The Socialist Movement in Randolph. 

The Socialist party was first organized in Randolph, 
March 5, 1908, when a few adherents of that economic philoso- 
phy met at the M. P. church in Elkins and organized a local. 
Dr. A. S. Bosworth was chairman of the meeting and W. G. 
Howell was secretary. An address was made by J. E. Kildow. 
Those who were present and became members of the local 
were : J. E. Kildow, Dr. A. S. Bosworth, A. R. Conoway, S. W. 
Hayden, Adam See, R. M. Stalnaker, W. G. Howell, Edward 
Tucker, and H. M. Howell. 

Indian Ring. 

On Conrad Street in the village of Mill Creek can be seen 
what is called an "Indian Ring." It is about 50 feet in diame- 
ter. The ring was more distinct before the land was culti- 


vated. Large trees originally grew on the spot, indicating 
many years since the ring was the scene of occupancy by the 
Red Man. The soil forming the elevation was about one foot 
high. The ring is too large to have been a wigwam and is 
in all probability the remains of an ancient palisade. In the 
adjoining" county of Pendleton there is evidence of a ring en- 
closing almost an acre of ground. 

Indian mounds exist on the farm of \A'ill Harper, in 
Leadsville District and on the adjacent farm of Arch Lytle in 
Beverly District. From the mound on Lytle's farm stone 
hatchets have been taken. From the mound on the Currence 
farm, a mile south of Daily, two stone pipes and parts of a 
human skeleton were removed. 

The Inter-Mountain, 

The Inter-Mountain, the first Republican paper in Ran- 
dolph County, was established in 1892, in the town of Elkins. 
Professor N. G. Keim was its first editor under the manage- 
ment of a pu1:)lishing company. Professor Keim remained in 
charge two years, when he was succeeded by M. S. Cornwell, 
of Hampshire County. Mr. Cornwell remained editor two 
years or until 1896, when he resigned on account of failing- 
health. \\'illiam S. Ryan edited the paper for a few months 
and was succeeded by Chas. E. Beans. Air. Herman Johnson 
succeeded Mr. Beans in August, 1898. Air. Johnson is still ed- 
itor and owner of the pa]ier. A daily edition has been pul:)- 
lished since October, 1907. 

Randolph Men in the French and Indian War. 

Quite a few of the early settlers of Randolph had been 
soldiers in the French and Indian War of 1754-60. The fol- 
lowing is a partial list. However, in a few instances the de- 
scendants of these men, only, became residents of Randolph. 
Friend Jonas, Sergeant : Phares John, Corporal ; Briggs Sam- 
uel, Conrad Ulrich, Coplinger George, Cunningham James, 
Cunningham Rc^bert. Cunningham William, Eberman Jacob, 
Haigler Benjamin, Ilaigler Jacob, Harman (George, Harper 


Adam, ]lar])er IMiilli]), llcxener Michael, Kile George, Kile 
Valentine, Skidnidre James, Skidmure Joseph, Ward William, 
Wise Jacob. 

Population of Randolph. 

The population of Randolph in 1790 was 951. The first 
ten years the population nearly doubled and in 1800 the cen- 
sus figures show Randolph to have had 1826 souls. The rate 
of increase in subsequent years was not so large, but in 1810 
the population had increased to 2854. When we remember 
that the area of the county was so much greater than at pres- 
ent, we know that the population was sparse in 1820 when the 
census of that period gives the population of the county as 
3357. The assessors for the year 1792 returned 87 white per- 
sons and 18 colored as proper subjects for poll tax in John 
Jackson's District. In John Hadden's District 57 whites and 
4 colored. In the remainder of the county 15 white persons 
were eligible for poll tax; making in the entire county 159 
whites and 12 colored, or 181 in all. John Hadden's District 
embraced very nearly the same territory that constitutes 
Randolph County today. In that district according to the 
estimate of five persons to each tithe, there was in the pres- 
ent territory of Randolph a population of 305 in 1792. There 
were 260 horses in Randolph county that year. 

From 1820 to 1910 the population of Randolph County 
has varied as follows : 

1830 5,000 

1840 6,208 

1850 5,243 

1860 4,990 

1870 5,563 

1880 8,102 

1896 11,633 




Population of incorporated towns in Randolph County 
according- to the census of 1910: 

Beverly '. 438 

Elkins 5,260 

Harding 105 

Harmon 149 

Huttonsville 251 

Mill Creek 740 

Montrose : 112 

Whitmer :... 650 

W'omelsdorf 665 

An Old Field School. 

The building- was a rude round log structure. A chimney 
made from split sticks cemented together with mud. A roof 
of clapboards held on by weight poles. Greased paper cover- 
ing an aperature caused by the removal of a log was substi- 
tuted for a window. No floor overhead and none beneath but 
the bare earth. Puncheon seats, no blackboard and few 
slates, goose quill pens; pupils reading or spelling aloud. A 
constant supply of hickory gads to enforce discipline. Such 
was the first school attended by the writer in Valley Bend 
District in 1866. 

Swiss Colony at Alpena. 

In April, 1879, a colony of about one hundred Swiss emi- 
grants settled at Alpena, on the eastern slope of the Shaver 
Mountain. In a strange environment, unaccustomed to the 
tillage of the crops suitable to this soil and climate, they be- 
came discouraged and all but about half dozen families aban- 
doned the country within the first year. About a half dozen 
families remained and prospered and constitute a valuable ac- 
quisition to our population. Those who became permanent 
residents of the county are Emiel Knutti, Jacob Ratzer, Chris- 
tian Herdig, Godfrey Herdig and John Herdig. 




An Orator in Disguise. 

Mark Twain, in his "Life on the Mississippi," pub- 
lished in 1906, in referring to his visit to Keokuk, Iowa, relates 
an amusing' incident in the life of Henry Clay Dean. An ac- 
count of Dean's relation to Randolph County is narrated in 
another chapter. Mark Twain says : 

"Keokuk, a long time ago was an occasional loafing place 
of the erratic genius, Henry Clay Dean. I believe I never saw 
him but once, but he was much talked of when I lived there. 
This is what was said of him : 

"He began life poor and without education, but he edu- 
cated himself on the curb stones of Keokuk. He would sit 
down on a curb stone with his book, careless or unconscious 
of the clatter of commerce and the tramp of the passing 
crowds, and bury himself in his studies by the hour, never 
changing his position except to draw in his knees now and 
then to let a dray pass unobstructed ; and when his book was 
finished, its contents, however, abstruse, had been burned into 
his memory, and were his permanent possession. In this way 
he acquired a vast hoard of all kinds of learning, and had it 
pigeon-holed in his head where he could put his intellectual 
hand on it whenever it was wanted. 

"His clothes differed in no respect from a 'wharf rat's' 
except that they were raggeder, more ill-assorted and in- 
harmonious (and therefore more extravagantly picturesque) 
and several layers dirtier. Nobody could infer the master 
mind in the top of that edifice from the edifice itself.' 

"He was an orator by nature in the first place, and later 
by training of experience and practice. When he was out on 
a canvass, his name was a lode stone which drew the farmers 
to his stump from fifty miles around. His theme was always 
politics. He used no notes, for a volcano does not need 
notes. In 1862, a son of Keokuk's late distinguished citizen, 
Mr. Claggett, gave me this incident concerning Dean : 

"The war feeling was running high in Keokuk in '61, 
and a great mass meeting was to be held on a certain day in 
the new Athenaeum. A distinguished stranger was to ad- 
dress the house. After the building had been packed to its 


Utmost ca])acity with sweltering- folk of both sexes, the stage 
still remained vacant — the distinguished stranger had failed 
to connect. The crowd grew impatient, and liy and by indig- 
nant and rebellious. About this time a distressed manager 
disco\ered Dean on a curl) stone, explained the dilemma to 
him, took his book away from him, rushed him into the build- 
ing the back way and told him to make for the stage and save 
his country. 

"Presently a sudden silence fell upon the audience, and 
everybody's eyes sought a single point — the wide, empty, car- 
petless stage. A tigure appeared there whose aspect was fa- 
miliar hardly to a dozen persons present. It was the scare 
crow Dean in foxy shoes, down at the heels ; socks of odd col- 
ors, also down ; damaged trousers, relics of antiquity and a 
world too short, exposing some inches of naked ankle; an un- 
buttoned vest also too short and exposing a zone of soiled, 
wrinkled linen between it and the waistband ; shirt bosom 
open ; long, black handkerchief wound round and round his 
neck like a bandage ; bobtailed blue coat, reaching down to the 
small of the back, with sleeves which left four inches of the 
forearm unprotected ; small stiff-brimmed soldier cap hung 
on a corner of the bump of whichever bump it was. This fig- 
ure moved gravely out upon the stage and with sedate and 
measured step down to the front, where it paused and dream- 
ily inspected the house, saying no word. The silence of sur- 
prise held its own for a moment, then was broken by a just 
audible ripple of merriment which swept the sea of faces like 
the wash of a wave. The figure remained as before, thought- 
fully inspecting. Another wave started — laughter this time. 
It was followed by another, then a third — this last one 

"And now the stranger stepped back one pace, took ofif 
his soldier cap, tossed it into the wing and began to speak 
with deliberation, nobody listening, everybody laughing and 
whispering. The speaker talked on unembarrassed, and pres- 
ently delivered a shot which went home, and silence and at- 
tention followed. He rivited their attention quick and fast 
with other telling things ; warmed to his work and began 


to pour his words out instead of dripping them ; grew hotter 
and hotter and fell to discharging lightning and thunder, and 
now the house began to break into applause to which the 
speaker gave no heed, but went hammering straight on ; un- 
wound his black bandage and cast it away, still thundering ; 
presently discarded the bobtailed coat and flung it aside, fir- 
ing up higher and higher all the time ; finally flung the vest 
after the coat, and then for an untimed period stood there 
like another Vesuvius, spouting smoke and flames, lava and 
ashes, raining pumice stone and cinders, shaking the moral 
earth with intellectual crash upon crash, explosion upon ex- 
plosion, while the mad multitude stood upon their feet in a 
solid body, answering back with a ceaseless hurricane of 
cheers, through a threshing snow storm of waving handker- 

"AA'hen Dean came," said Claggett, "the people thought he 
was an escaped lunatic; but when he went, they thought he 
was an escaped archangel." 

Stocks and Pillories. 

In the pioneer period each court house yard was supplied 
with stocks and pillories. The pillories were for the punish- 
ment of a higher grade of crimes than the stocks. The court 
house groimds of Randolph County were provided with these 
primitive methods of penal punishment. At the February 
term 1794, an allowance of $10 was made for the construction 
of stocks and pillories. Next year Edward Combs was put in 
the stocks five minutes for contempt of court. Three years 
later St. Leger Stout was ordered to the stocks five minutes 
for the same ofTense. Stocks consisted of a framework of 
heavy timbers, having holes in which legs and arms were 
confined. Pillories were made of a wooden post and frame, 
fixed on a j)latform several feet abo^•e the ground, behind 
which the culprit stood, his head and liands being thrust 
through holes in the frame, so as to l)e exposed in front of it. 
The intention of setting a criminal in the pillor\- was that he 
should l)ecome infamous. 




Marks and Brands. 

For many years in the earlier history of this country no 
attempt was made to confine horses, cattle, sheep or hogs in 
enclosed fields. None except cultivated fields were put under 
fence. Horses, cattle and sheep were belled and turned loose 
to roam upon the range. Horses were branded and cattle, 
sheep and hogs were marked. Each individual owner selected 
a brand or mark of his own, which he had recorded with the 
court of the county. Proving this brand or mark was suffi- 
cient to recover stock in dispute. Recording ear marks and 
brands constituted a large part of the business of the court 
in those days. As an example of these marks, at the June 
term, 1794. it was ordered that the "ear marks of Jacob West- 
fall, which consists of a swallow fork in the left ear l)e admit- 
ted to record." 

Arrow Heads. 

Arrow heads are made from quartz of various colors. 
Some have been found in the country of such rare quality that 
it is not known where the Indians obtained the material from 
which they w^ere made. A quantity of flint would be carried 
perhaps for many miles and handed down for generations as 
an inheritance. Maxwell's history says there is a ledge of 
flint near Brady's Gate in Mingo District. Sprawls are found 
in some localities, especially about the mounds, showing that 
the Indians stopped there long enough to replenish their sup- 
ply. A notable dift'erence between some arrow heads and 
other arrow heads is that which distinguishes the point made 
for hunting game from that made for use in war. In the ar- 
row heads, made for hunting, at the base of the triangular 
part there is an indented portion, enabling the huntsman to 
fasten the point to the shaft with a thong, so that ho could 
recover the weapon in its entirety. The war points, however, 
are perfect triangles or triangles with a concave curve at the 
base. The war points have thus not only one but three sharp 
points. The war arrow heads were not fastened to the shaft 


with ihongs, l)ut simply inserted in the split end of the shaft. 
When they strnck and wounded a brave he pulled at the shaft, 
which became loose, but the pronged point remained in the 
tlesh. The war points are long and narrow of design, well 
calculated to give a death blow to the stoutest warrior who 
did not know how to encase himself in armor, and was in fact 
ignorant of the use of iron or any other metal until he met the 
strangers across the sea. A battle-ax, made of stone, was 
found near the Indian mmind on the Lytle i)lace, about three 
miles south of Elkins. 

Wooden Wagons. 

Although the pack saddle was the pioneer's main depend- 
ence in matters of transportation, yet for local purposes he 
constructed a wagon entirely of wood. Therefore, the order 
of the court that wagon roads were to be constructed did not 
signif\- that wagons of modern design were in use. However, 
the first wag<ms, in the modern sense, used in this county 
were built 1)}- local workmen. The iron used was brou:;ht to 
the county by pack horses. In the first years of the settlement 
of the county, wagons constructed entirely of wood were in 
general use. The axles were made of hickory and wheels were 
sawed from the swamp gum tree. Harness, especially tugs 
and traces, w^ere made from raw hide, buffalo skins being a 
favorite material for this purpose. 

Bees and Birds. 

The honey bee was inported from Europe to America by 
the first settlers. Its first home is supposed to have been in 
Asia. In pioneer days wild bees were found in great numbers 
far from human habitation. However, in the beginning they 
escaped from the settlers' apiary. Crows, black birds, and 
song birds also followed the advent of the white man. The 
English sparrow, the recent feathered nuisance, is an impor- 
tation into this country of the last few decades. The common 
house rat and the common house mouse wdiich have played 
such an important role in tlie spread of contagious diseases. 


belong to the mammalia of India, although some specimens 
are supposed to be indigenous to China. However, the white 
man is responsible for their existence in America. 

Mill Creek. 

Mill Creek has the distinction of being the second town 
in Randolph county. It has a population of 740 according to 
the census of 1910. The community had prosperous stores, 
churches, school- house and a blacksmith shop at the junction 
of the Valley Pike and the Mountain road, many years before 
the extension of the railroad up the valley. However, the 
completion of the railroad gave the impetus to the growth 
of the present town of Mill Creek. For many years the com- 
munity bore the not euphonious name of "Dog Town.'' For 
about a decade before the building of Mill Creek the village 
was called Crickard, in honor of Patrick Crickard, who was 
its first postmaster. Mill Creek is now the site of several 
large saw mills and is (juite an im])ortant industrial center as 
well as the emj^c^rium of a wide agricultural territory. 

Spanish War Volunteers. 

Following is a list of the volunteers in the Spanish- 
American war of 1898. They were mostly in Company E 
First W'est Virginia Volunteer Infantry : Zan F. Collett, 
captain ; James Hanley Jr., first sergeant : John J. Xallen, sec- 
ond Sergeant; H. B. O'Brien, third sergeant; C. D. Poling, \\\ 
C. Kennedy, T. J. Collett, T. J. Goddin, David F. Foy and 
J. E. Weese, corporals ; F. A. Rowan, C. L. Weymouth and H. 
Platz, musicians in the Regimental band ; G. W. Buckey. 
Wagoner; privates: Bruce Phares, James R. Collier, C. L. 
Lewis, Cyrus J. Warner, John S. (iarber, Leslie Harding, 
William Russell, C. Lloyd, J. Lloyd, K. Bennett, W. Welch, 
S. Knox, Wm. Stefifey, F. W. Orris, T. J. Smith, II. Crawford 
Scott, P)raxton O. Meeks. Stewart Anthnu}-, Wamsley. Ran- 
dolph had three regular soldiers in the battle of Santiago. 
They were: Robt. L. Hamilton, first lieutenant; ^^"alter Phil- 
lips, hospital steward, and a Mr. Wolf, of the Twenty-second 



Infantry. Colonel Davis Elkins was on General Coppinj^er's 

The City of Elkins. 

The site of the present City of Elkins, was a place of more 
than local distinction before the railroad was amongf the prob- 

Historical Round Barn, Built About 1832, Elkins, W. Va. 

abilities in Tygarts Valley. Leadsville and the Round Barn 
were the scenes of many stirring events during the Civil War. 
The City of Elkins was laid off into lots in 1889. It was 
named for Hon. S. B. Elkins, who with Honorable H. G. 
Davis and Ilonorable Richard Kearns, built magnificent re- 
sidences on adjacent eminences. On August 18, 1889, trains 
commenced rvmning into the town. The railroad was ex- 
tended to Beverly and Belington in 1891. and to Huttonsville 
a few years later. A branch was also built, known as the C. 
tS: I., connecting with the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad at Dur- 
bin. The Coal & Coke, though entering the city over the 
Western Maryland tracks, entered the city over its own road 
bed in 1911. The county seat, which from the organization 
of the county, had been located at the ancient town of Beverly, 
was wrested from that place in an election in 1898, and the 


records were moved to Elkins eighteen months later. The 
clerk's offices were kept in the Western Maryland railroad 
building until the completion of the present court house about 
two years later. 

The Elkins Electric Railway commenced running its cars 
on December 1, 1909. It is slowly extending its line down the 
river in the direction of Belington and is at present carrying 
passengers to Roaring Creek Junction and Harding. 

In the fall of 1910, the magnificient Odd Fellows Home 
was dedicated in the western suburbs of Elkins. In this pala- 
tial home, in the midst of parks, driveways, artificial lakes and 
beautiful landscape, there is cared for the aged Odd Fellow 
and the orphaned children of deceased brethren. This home 
is supported by the order in \\^est Virginia. 

The same year marked the completion, also, in Elkins, of 
the Orphans Home, a State institution, supported by general 
taxation. The population of Elkins according to the census 
of 1910, was 5,260. 

Indian Trail Still Visible. 

An Indian trail leading over the mountain from the Val- 
ley to Fishing Hawk is still visible according to good au- 
thority. The trail followed the divide between the forks of 
Files Creek for some distance and then took its course along 
the north side of the mountain to the gap between the heads 
of Files Creek and Fishing Hawk. Evidences of the existence 
of this trail can be traced through the pasture fields and in 
the woods on the mountain side. The information of its ex- 
istence was orally transmitted by Wm. Daniels to his grand 
son, Harrison Daniels, who lives near where the trail starts 
up the mountain side. Several "licks" of salt sj^rings were 
near the course of the trail, which, ]:)erhaps, partially ac- 
counted for its location, llie county court of Randolph or- 
dered a sur\ey of a road from Beverly up VWes Creek to the 
top of the Alleghany Mountain in 1799, but the grade of the 
road now traveled is not as good as was the old Indian trail. 



Salt is an in(lisi)ensal)le condiment. It is an essential in- 
gredient of food for most mammals. ( )l)tainini4- a sufficient 
supply of salt was one of the most difficult problems that con- 
fronted the pioneer. Not a few of the roads leading to older 
communities were opened for the purpose of importing salt. 
At an early day some salt was made in this country from sa- 
line springs, frequented by deer and buffalo. The water was 
evaporated by boiling. However, the greater part of the sup- 
ply was carried on pack saddles from Bull Town, Braxton 
County. In an inventory of a personal estate, admitted to rec- 
ord in 1803, salt was valued at $6.00 per bushel. 

Names of Streams. 

Tygarts Valley River was named for David Tygart, who 
settled on its banks near Beverly, in 1753. In the early rec- 
ords of the county the name is spelled Tygers. After the 
massacre of the Files famil}-, Tygart abandoned the Valley. 
However, a family by the name of Taggart was among the 
first permanent settlers of the county and tradition says they 
were of the same stock as the David Tygart family. It is 
therefore probable that the name of the Valley and the river 
should be Taggart rather than Tygart. 

Cheat River is so called from the deceptive appearance of 
the depth of the river, due to its freedom from foreign sub- 
stances. Estimating the depth of Cheat River from the stan- 
dard of other streams the eye is much decei^•ed. The stream 
was called \\'ilmoths River for a number of years in the 
early history of the county for the reason that the \\'ilmoths 
were the first settlers on its banks. 

Files Creek was named for Robert Files who settled near 
its mouth in 1753. 

Mill Creek was called Currence's ]\Iill Creek in the pion- 
eer period. It was one of the first streams in the county to 
furnish power for grinding grain. \Vm. Currence erected a 
grist mill on the site of the present mill of Jesse Rosencranse 
in 1794. In the course of time the word Currence was drop- 


ped from the name and it now bears the abbreviated name of 
Mill Creek. 

Gandy Creek was named in honor of Uriah Candy who 
was the first settler on the waters of that stream. 

Dry Fork is so called for the reason that this stream is 
wont in man}' places to seek subterranean passa^g^es and leave 
a dry bed. 

The origin of the names of Mud Lick, Gum Lick, Pond 
Lick, Laurel Fork, Middle Fork, Roaring Creek, Beaver 
Creek. Flkwater, Leading Creek, Otter Fc^rk, AVindy Run, is 
indicated by the names they bear. , 

Beccas Creek was named for a man by the name of Becky 
or Beckay, who settled on that stream in an early day. 

Board of Registration. 

From 1866 to 1870, the elective franchise in Randoljjh 
County was subject to the whims and discretion of a Board 
of Registration appointed by the Governor. Those charged 
with disloyalty to the government during the war, then just 
closed, were tried before the Board. The accused was found 
lo}'al or disloyal as the evidence indicated and was either dis- 
franchised or left on the list of eligibles. W^illiam Apperson 
was the first to be tried and 1)eing unal)le to establish his loy- 
alty was disfranchised. 

The following are samples of findings of the Board : 

State vs. Squire Bosworth. 

The defendant, a resident of Beverly District, being called 
appeared. No witnesses appearing this cause is dismissed. 

State vs. Christopher N. Schoonover. 

Christopher N. Schoonover having been struck off ap- 
peared and asked to be reinstated. Ordered that he stay off. 

The Board adjourned to meet no more in 1870 and thus 
ended an incident that had done much to foster and keep ac- 
tive the passions and prejudices of the war. 

Board of Supervisors. 

A Board of Supervisors managed the affairs of this coun- 
ty from 1866 to 1872. Their jurisdiction Avas similar to the 


county courts. T^'ollowino' is a list of sui)crvisors and the dates 
of entering office : 

1866 — Elijah Kittle, John K. Scott, John M. Haney, John 
M. Crouch, John A. Button, Powhatan A. Lolly, Sampson 
Snyder, Elijah M. Hart, Charles VV. Burk, William Rowan, 
James II. Lambert. 

1867 — l:')Cnjamin E. Wilmoth, William D. Armstrong, Or- 
lando Woolwine, Geo. Buckey, Crawford Scott, Oliver Wil- 
moth, A. E. Harper. 

1869— Samuel Tyre, Eli Kittle, Riley Pritt, A. J. Swecker, 
Melvin Currence, John W. Phares, Jacob Vanscoy, Elijah 

1871 — John Cain, Adam Yokum. 

During- the time the county was managed by a Board of 
Supervisors the county was divided into townships. The dis- 
tricts of Mingo, Dry Eork and Beverly were named and 
bounded very much as they are today. Clay corresponded to 
New Interest, Clark to Valley Bend, Reynolds to Huttons- 
ville, Scott to Roaring Creek, Cnion to Middle Eork, and 
Greene to Leadsville. 

Lorenzo Dow. 

Lorenzo Dow, the noted Methodist Missionary, visited 
Beverh^ in his annual pilgrimages through the frontier set- 
tlements of America. In addition to his enthusiasm as a mis- 
sionary, Dow had another purpose in visiting Beverly. His 
brother-in-law. Dr. Benjamin Dolbear, was a resident of that 
place. Mrs. Dow was a sister of Dr. Dolbear. Tne house 
in which Dr. Dolbear lived and which sheltered Dow is still 
standing on the Archibald Chenoweth lot near the eastern end 
of the A^alley Ri\er bridge. Dow made his appointments a 
year ahead and seldom disappointed his congregation. In 
Beverly he usually preached in the eastern suburbs near the 
Creed Butcher homestead. He would lav his hat, coat and 
watch on a log and would preach about two hours. He was 
a man of unusual magnetic presence and power. It was not 
unusual for manv of his congregation to become aiTected with 


the "jerks" in which the individual would vindergo strange and 
peculiar contortions. These manifestations were variously 
interpreted. Some believed that these extraordinary expres- 
sions of emotion were the wrestling of the spirit of the Evil 
One wnth the soul of the convicted sinner. Dow refers to these 
mental states in his writings and evidently they were as much 
a mystery to him as to any one else. Today psychologists 
would readily attribute them to the power of suggestion. 
These phenomena heralded his reputation and magnified his 
power and influence. He visited P2urope in 1799 and in 1805. 
His dress and manner was that of the frontierman and he at- 
tracted great crowds to see and hear him. His Polemical 
works were published in 1814, and the history of a Cosmopo- 
lite and a short account of a Long Travel in 1823. He was 
born in Connecticutt in 1777, and died Fel^ruary 2, 1834. 

The Tygarts Valley News. 

The Tygarts Valley News made its initial bow to the 
public Septeml:)er 13, 1889. The first owners and editors were 
James A. Bent and Floyd J. Triplett. In January, 1891, Zan. 
F. Collett and John F. Ferguson succeeded Messrs. Bent and 
Triplett, the latter having been elected clerk of the county 
court, temporarily left the newspaper held to assume official 
duties. At the expiration of his term of office Air. Triplett, 
with Mr. Collett, conducted the paper until the breaking out 
of the Spanish American war in May, 1898, when Mr. Collett, 
having been elected Captain of Volunteers entered the mili- 
tary service. Mr. Triplett a few years later sold the paper to 
a joint stock companv which still owns and manages the 
paper. The paper has since suspended. 

The Randolph Enterprise. 

The Randolph Enterprise was the first paper published in 
Randoli)h County. The first issue appeared in May, 1874. 
Its first editor and owner was Geo. P. Sargent. The paper 
was a five column (piarto and was printed on a \\'asliington 


hand press. The nearest raih-oad station was VVel)ster, Taylor 
County, and Idank pai^er and other supphes were hauled from 
that point by road wai^ons. Mr. Sargent, after a few years 
management of the paper sold it to d\ Irvin Wells. V. B. 
Trimble and B. L. Butcher succeeded Mr. Wells. Mr. Butch- 
er, having- been elected Prosecuting- Attorney, sold his inter- 
est to Mr. Trimble. J. I., and A. S. Bosworth purchased the 
paper of Mr. Trimble. They sold to John Hutton and he 
sold it to J. L. Bosworth and E. D. Talbott. Mr. Talbott sold 
his interest to F. J. Triplett, who about two years later sold 
his interest to A. S. Ijosworth. J. L. and A. S. Bosworth con- 
ducted the paper about eight years and sold it to a stock com- 
pany with G. W. Lewis and S. A. Rowan as editors. The pa- 
per followed the county seat to Elkins and has been under 
the editorial management of James W . Weir for several years. 
and was succeeded by J. Slidell Brown, the present editor. 

The Randolph Review. 

The Randolph Review was the second paper published 
in Randolph County. It was founded by J. L. and A. S. Bos- 
worth and after publishing it for about six months purchased 
the Randolph Enterprise and sold the Review plant to Buckey 
Canfield, who moved it to Huntersville and started the Times, 
the first paper published in that county. These events oc- 
cured in 1882. 


The town of Huttonsville was named in honor of the 
Hutton family. Before the war the village was the educa- 
tional center of the county. Until the coming of the W^est 
Virginia Central railroad, it was a county hamlet with post- 
•ofifice, hotel, church, school house and blacksmith shop. It is 
-now an incorporated town with a population of 251 according 
to the census of 1910. 



This town is situated in the center of the Roaring Creek 
coal fields. The existence of the village is cotemporaneous 
with the entrance of the railroad into the town in May, 1894. 
Until recently it was called Womelsdorf for O. C. Womels- 
dorf, who founded the town and was the pioneer in the devel- 
opment of that section. It is now a flourishing village with 
a population of 650 according to the census of 1910. 


The town of Harman is situated near the junction of the 
Dry Fork and Horse Camp Run. For many years a quiet 
country hamlet, with the advent of the railroad it has grown 
into a prosperous village with a bank, hotels, graded school 
and a system of water piped from an adjacent mountain 
spring. It is surrounded by a rich agricultural community 
with neat and attractive farm houses. According to the cen- 
sus of 1910 the town has a population of 159 and is incor- 

The Frost of '59. 

On the morning of June 5, 1859, occurred a notable frost 
in Randolph County. The spring had been warm and aus- 
picious and the farmers were looking forward to a bountiful 
harvest. However, on the day previous the weather became 
unseasonablv coM. Furs and overcoats were taken from their 
winter recesses. Some farmers presaged the coming calamity 
and entered their corn fields with horse and plow and covered 
the growing crop with the mellow earth, which was removed 
when the weather moderated. Their pains were rewarded 
with the usual harvest. All unprotected crops of corn and 
W'heat and every other green and growing thing were frozen. 
To compensate for the disaster the farmer went to work with 
renewed energy. Corn was replanted and ]:)artially matured. 
A large acreage of l^uckwheat was sown. The local supply 
of seed was exhausted and the Glades of Preston and darrett 


were drawn u])on. Winter found tlie farmer's graneries with 
their wtjiitcd plethora. 

First Foreigner Naturalized. 

The first foreigner to he naturahzed in Randolph was 
John Lambertson in 1787. He came from Ireland. William 
Currence witnessed his good character and the fact that he 
had lieen a resident of the State one year. The second was 
A\'m. Bock in 1806, and the third was William Nearbeck in 

Emancipation Paper. 

So far as the records show the bearer of the following 
paper was the first negro to receive his liberty in Randolph 
County : 
Randolph County, Ya. 

Dec. 30, 1791. 

1 do hereby certify that I have set the bearer hereof, 
Negro Tom, at full liberty from servitude to act and do for 
himself as a free man, as witness my hand the day and date 
above written. 


Town of Beverly. 

The General Assembly of the State of Virginia passed 
an Act December 16, 1790, creating the town of Beverly, as 
follows : 

That twenty acres of land, the property of James West- 
fall, as the same are already laid off into lots and streets in 
the County of Randolph adjoining the land whereon the Court 
House now stands, shall be established a town by the name of 
Beverly; and that John Wilson, Jacob AVestfall, Sylvester 
\\'ard, Thomas Philips, Hezekiah Rosecrouts, William W^orm- 
sley, and Valentine Stornaker, Gentlemen, shall be and are 
hereby constituted Trustees thereof. 

The names Rosecrouts, A\'omsley, and Stonaker, as they 


appear in the Act reproduced above, should be Rosencranse, 
Wamsley and Stahiaker. 

The original name of the town was Edmonton, in honor 
of Edmond Randolph. The \ irginia Assembly changed the 
name to Beverly in honor of Beverh^ Randolph. The town, 
as indicated by the charter, consisted of 20 acres. This tract 
was divided into 40 half-acre lots and were sold at $16,667^ 
each and the purchaser bound himself to build a house 16x16 
feet with stone or brick chimney within five years. An an- 
nual rent of 36 cents for each lot was to be paid to James West- 
fall or his heirs forever. There is no evidence that this stip- 
ulation in the deeds was ever enforced. 

The town has a population, according to the census of 
1910, of 438. 

Historic Beverly. 

In the years subsequent to the Civil War, isolated aud 
unassuming, nestled among the mountains, many miles from 
the marts of trade, stood the village of Beverly. But this ham- 
let possessed a wealth of men that entitled it to a higher rank 
than larger and more pretentious towns — a class of honest 
yeomanry so aptly described by Dr. Goldsmith in his poem 
of the "Deserted Village." To each of whom is applicable 
Mark Anthony's tribute to Caesar: "Flis life was gentle and 
the elements so mixed in him that nature might stand up and 
say to all the world this was a man." Intelligent, honest and 
upright, with good counsel and good example to the young, 
they sought neither pelf, place nor power, and living simple 
and unselfish lives, the higher self unfolded. Such men were 
B. W. Crawford, Adam Crawford, Adam Rowan, Claude Goff, 
David Gofif, George Printz, Lemuel Chenoweth, Archibald 
Chenoweth, Dr. Geo. W. Yokum, Nelson Fitzwater, Fountain 
Butcher, Creed Butcher, Henry Suiter, Geo. W. Leonard, John 
Leonard, John B. Earle, Elias Earle, Alpheus Buckey, John 
Buckey, Dr. Squire Bosworth, Chas. W. Russell, C. J. P. 
Cresap, Parkinson Collett, Isaac Baker, Eli Baker, James H. 
Logan, Solomon \\'arner, Samuel Gilmore, Jacob Suiter, L. 
D. Grevnolds, lacob M. \\'eese, Cahin Collett, facob Collett, 


Johnathan Arnold, L. 1). Strader, Bernard L. Brown, George 
Buckey, William Rowan, Judson Blackman, James D. Wilson, 
Rev. Robert Scott, John B. Morrison, Emmett Buckey, James 
A. Vaughan. 

These men have gone to reap their recompense in that 
"country from whose bourn no traveler returns," but they 
merit a permanent place in the annals of their town and 
county, which they so highly honored. Accepting Walt Whit- 
man's definition of the greatest city, which we append, the an- 
cient village of Beverly should live in history for having pro- 
duced a superior class of men : 

The greatest city is that which has the greatest man 

or woman. 
If it be a few ragged huts, it is still the greatest city 

in the whole world. 
The place where the greatest city stands is not the 
place of stretched wharves, docks, manufactures, 
deposits of produce, 
Nor the place of ceaseless salutes of newcomers, or 

the anchor-lifters of the departing. 
Nor the place of the tallest and costliest buildings, or 

shops selling goods from the rest of the earth. 
Nor the place of the best libraries and schools — nor 

the place where money is plentiest, 
Nor the place of the most numerous population. 
Where the city of the faithfulest friends stands, 
Where the city of the cleanliness of the sexes stands, 
Where the city of the healthiest fathers stands, 
AVhere the city of best-bodied mothers stands, 
There the greatest city stands. 

Wild Pigeons. 

The wild pigeon or the passenger pigeon appeared in 
very large flocks in Randolph County until a comparatively 
recent date, perhaps for a decade following the civil war. 
They visited this section as a rule in September and October, 
and were evidently attracted to the wooded districts of Ran- 
dolph by acorns and beech nuts. They came in such flocks as 


to obscure the sun light and present the appearance of the 
sky being overcast by dark and ominous clouds. Trees and 
their branches were often broken and crushed by the weight 
of their numbers. Some flocks were estimated to contain 
many millions of birds. It is supposed their breeding ground 
was in Western Canada and the backwoods of the Western 
United States. The passenger pigeon was about the size of 
the common turtle dove, but with a long wedged shape tail. 
The male was of a dark slate color above and a purplish bay 
beneath, the sides of the neck being enlivened by gleaming 
violet green and gold. The female was drab colored and 
dull white beneath, with only a slight trace of the brilliant 
neck markings. This species of pigeon is now supposed to be 
extinct and fabulous prices are offered for a male and female 

Prisoners at Fort Delaware. 

Lenox Camden, William Salisbury and his son, 

Salisbury, Pugh Chenoweth, Levi Ward, Allen Isner, Philip 
Tsner, William Clemm, Smith Crouch, Thomas Crouch, John 
Caplinger, John Leary and Charles Russell, were sent to Fort 
Deleware near Philadelphia, to be held as hostages for a num- 
ber of Union sympathizers taken to Richmond by General W. 
L. Jackson, in his raid of 1863. All died but the last four 
from drinking the pointed water of Delaware Bay. Frank 
Phares went to Philadelphia and secured the release of the 

The Settlement of Adolph. 

This settlement was established in 1880-1 by imigrants 
from Switzerland. However, a few Swiss families that moved 
to Adolph had lived temporarily in other States of the Union. 
Fred Iseley, a single man, and the following heads of fam- 
ilies were the permanent settlers of the colony: Jacob Ruth- 
enbuler, John Rush, Albert Brenwald, Jacob Pheister. Gotlieb 
Schorer, Joseph Koefle, and Jacob Schmid. A few families 
not mentioned above came, but not finding conditions to their 
liking, settled elsewhere. 


The village consists of eleven dwellings, store, postoffice, 
blacksmith shop, school house and grist mill. Carl Lutz was 
the John Smith of this colony, having directed and inspired its 

Adolph is situated in a picturesque little valley at the 
junction of Mitchel Lick Run with the Middle Fork of Buck- 
hannon River. The site of the village was a heavy forest 
of virgin timber. 


In 1869, a real estate company of New York induced a 
number of Swiss immigrants to establish a settlement on a 
branch of the Buckhannon River. In honor of their native 
village, the colony was called Helvetia. In June, 1879, Carl 
Lutz, agent for the company that owned a large boundary of 
land arrived. He was a man of practical qualities of mind 
and his services were invaluable to the colonists. 

Among the first to locate in the settlement were : Henry 
Asper, Ulrich Miller, Mathew Marty, Joseph Zillman, Jacob 
Haider, John Andregg, J. Benziger, Jacob Zumbach, Max 
Lehman, Gotlieb Deitwiller, Christian Zumbach, John Engler, 
John Teuscher, Alfred Teuscher, John Merkle, John Huber, 
Fritz Zumbach, Ernest Hassig, George Sutton, John Hofer, 
John Carlen Jr., John Farhner, John Better, George Andregg, 
Christian Burky, Jacob Andregg, Edwin Vogel, John Wenger, 
Jacob Loser, and Fritz Hasselbach. Most of these imigrants 
were craftsmen and without experience in clearing land and 

For groceries and other supplies the settlers were com- 
pelled to go to French Creek, a distance of eighteen miles. 
Having no horses, this trip was made on foot, requiring two 
days. These conditions remained until 1872, when Gustave 
Senhauser arrived from New Philadelphia, Ohio, and estab- 
lished a general store. Soon thereafter another store was es- 
tablished by Randolph See. Still the settlement was handi- 
capped for want of a saw mill, and lumber for building houses 
and other purposes had to be manufactured by hand. 

The larger number of these settlers were members of the 
German Reformed Church, but a few were Roman Catholics. 


In 1872, a Sunday School was organized in Air. Senhauser's 
store with store boxes for seats. A little later, Rev. Andreas 
Kern, from Zurich, Switzerland, organized a German Re- 
formed Church to which about twenty members subscribed. 
Rev. Kern is still affectionately remembered by his former 

At present the congregation owns a neat and comfortable 
church and parsonage and one acre of land. Dr. Carl Stuckey, 
of Bern, Switzerland, the first physician to locate in Helvetia, 
was much interested in religious matters and was instrumen- 
tal in organizing churches and Sunday schools in the commu- 
nity. The first public school was opened in 1873-4. The first 
trustees were Gustav Senhauser, John Dever, and Jesse Sharp. 
The first teacher was a Mr. Wilson. 

By frugality and industry these pioneers succeeded in 
converting the forests into farms, producing various grains 
and cereals, but they did not swerve from their original pur- 
pose of engaging in the dairy business. Accordingly, John 
Kellenberger, of Appenzell, Switzerland, imported, at the in- 
stance of the settlers, a herd of 'arown Swiss cattle, and a 
company was organized to manufacture Sweitzer cheese. The 
business lasted several years but was abandoned because of 
the distance from the railroad and the limitations of local 
markets. John Teuscher, a member of the companv remained 
in the business and is still making Swiss cheese on his own 
account. In 1873, Geo. Betz, of W'ertemberg, (Germany, 
erected a saw and grist mill. l)Ut for some reason his enter- 
prise did not flourish and both .enterprises have been 

After nearly half a century, the lumber industry invaded 
the community, and modern frame houses supplanted the 
round log structures that had so long sheltered the settlers. 
JLyen the painter found opportunity to pl_\- his art. .\t last 
the fruits of their earlier hardships began to be realized. In 
the trying times, son and daughter had supplemented the in- 
come of the families at home, bv going tn older coiunumities 
and sending home their savings. 

These people still retain the customs and usages of the 
Fatherland, the most ci\-ilized countrv on earth; where laws 


are made and administered for rich and poor alike; where 
compulsory education has been in effect for centuries, and 
from whence comes the progressive laws that recently are 
being- ado[)ted in this and other countries. They think it is 
no harm to take a drink of wine or cider, but he who would 
go beyond the bounds of moderation would be disgraced and 
ostracised by the community. The stranger is always treated 
to tlie \intage of the grape. Picnics and sociables are fre- 
quent where the people enjoy themselves with music and song. 

The best of care is taken of domestic animals and they 
think it cruel to expose the horse, the cow, or the sheep, to 
the storms of winter without shelter. The horse was not in 
common use in the early years of the settlement and it was 
not an infrequent sight to see oxen single or in pairs hitched 
to sleds, drawing the plow, or with packsaddles on their backs, 
at the mill or store. 

Before the days of railroads and the luml)er industry, 
produce of the farms commanded very low prices ; butter and 
eggs often as low as six cents per pound and dozen respec- 
tively. The first to engage in the lumber business in Helvetia 
was Floyd Brown, who later gained the sobriquet of Cherry 
Brown. The extention of the lumber business to their com- 
munity gave many the opportunity to sell their remaining 
timber for many times the price they paid for the land in 
the first place, viz : $3.00 per acre. 

A few years subsequent to the coming of the Swiss to 
Helvetia, a colony was located nine miles southwest of that 
town on Turkey Bone Mountain. Among the colonists were: 
Mark Egglison, John Zender, Casper Winkler, John Hartman 
Sr., and John Hartman Jr., Horles Zimmerly, John Lassy, 
Peter Swint and a Mr. Stadler, who for a number of years 
operated a tannery. Although undergoing many privations, 
this colony did not suffer the inconveniences and hardships 
experienced by the older colony. However, no preparation 
was made for their arrival and many lived in tents and houses 
without windows until better ones could be afforded. Heads 
of families, in nian-\- instances, were compelled to leave home 
to obtain work in order to maintain their families and pay 
for their lands. Cloudbursts and thunderstorms were com- 


mon and in many instances higher ground had to be reached 
in the midst of darkness and downpour by the women and 
children, whose husbands and fathers were absent from home. 
At least in one instance, a mother of thirty, as the result of 
these experiences, had her hair to turn gray in one night. 
Let it be said to the credit of the Adolph and Helvetia 
colonists that, while under such conditions some bickerings 
were inevitable, yet their distance from home amongst a 
people of a dififerent tongue, cemented their friendship and 
developed a co-operative spirit, and all were ready to give a 
helping hand in time of need or distress. Industry and in- 
telligence has triumphed over obstacles and today these peo- 
ple are happy, prosperous, and contented. They are attached 
to their homes and their adopted country and have all the at- 
tributes and characteristics of good and patriotic citizens. 


The first preacher of the Presbyterian faith to hold ser- 
vices in the valley was, perhaps, Rev. Chas. Cummins, who 
was licensed to preach by the Tinkling Springs Presbytery 
in 1766. His field of labor consisted largely of Albemarle 
and Amherst Counties. In 1772 he was directed to preach 
eight sermons a year in Greenbrier Countv and Tygarts 

Rev. Wm. Foote, in his sketches of A^irginia, gives the 
following interesting account of the manner in which religious 
services were held in that day : 

"On Sabbath clay morning, Air. Cummins dressed him- 
self, then put on his shot pouch, shouldered his rifle, mounted 
his dun stallion, and rode ofif to church. There he met his 
congregation, each one with rifle in hand. When thus seated 
in meeting house it presented a solemn spectacle. The 
preacher would walk through the crowd, deposit gun and 
pouch in the corner and then commence his discourse." These 
precautions were necessarv as an attack In- Indians was at 
all times imminent. 


In 1786 Rev. Edward Crawford i)reaclied two sermons 
in the valley. Tfe was from llie Valley of A^irginia In the 
followinc^ year Rev. William Wilson, of the Old Stone 
Church of Au.^nsta, preached two sermons. In ahout 1820, 
Rev. Asa Brooks, of New England, visited the valley as a 
missionary. In that year Daniel McLean, Johnathan Hntton 
and Andrew Crawford met at the latter's residence and or- 
ganized a churcli. Mathew Whitman was elected ruling elder. 
In 1823 Adam See gave three acres on which to build a 
church. In 1826 Rev. Geo. I^>axter, of Lexington, Va., 
preached in the ^■alley. In 1831 the church had sixty mem- 
bers and five elders: Mathew Whitman, Daniel McLean, An- 
drew Crawford, Squire Bosworth, and Johnathan Hutton. 
The Mingo church was organized in 1841 with W. H. W^ilson 
and William Logan as elders. 

At that time there w^ere eighty Presbyterians in the val- 
ley. Rev. Enoch Thomas was in charge of the churches in 
the valley in 1844-60. Me was also one of the pioneer school 
teachers of the county. Rev. Robert Scott was in charge of 
the Presbyterian churches in the county from 1867 to 1875, 
and was instrumental in organizing churches in the outlying 
districts. Rev. Plummer Bryan was for many years located 
at Beverl}' and later at Huttonsville. He was the leading 
spirit in the building of the Huttonsville Presbyterian church. 
In about 1881 he moved to Chicago, in which place he has 
since held a pastorate. Rev. Samuel J. Baird was pastor of 
the Beverly church in 1884. Rev. J. X. Vandevander in 1887, 
Rev. Chas. D. Gilkesson in 1891. 

The Methodists. 

The Methodists were active in religious matters at a very 
early day in Randolph. The first society of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in Randolph was formed in 1786, directed 
and inspired by Rev. Joseph Chevuront, of Clarksburg. 

Rev. Lorenzo Dow also often visited the \alley in the 
thirties. He was a man of magnetic personality and his an- 
nual visits were lookefl forward to with much interest. His 
name was a household word among the pioneers for many 


years. His iniluence over his hearers was marked and his 
camp meetings were events of great importance in the com- 
munity. Under the spell of his eloquence the emotions of his 
audience became uncontrolable and was attributed by many 
to mysterious agencies. 

Hanning Foggy, for nearly half a century, a local preacher 
of the M. E. church, lived a few miles south of Elkins. He 
was a man of unusual gifts of mind and character and wielded 
an influence in his community for many years that falls to the 
lot of very few men. He died in 1893. 

Rev. Samuel Clawson, a pioneer Methodist, often preach- 
ed in the valley. He was noted for the unreserved manner in 
which he spoke his mind, his eccentric manner, and his 
energetic language. In closing a meeting at Mill Creek 
he thus summarized the results of his efforts : I have 
been fishing and after thumping and threshing among the 
thorns and thickets of perdition, and wading and floundering 
in the nasty pools of abomination, my only reward is that I 
have caught one shad, two herring, and two old roosters." 
In another instance he voiced his disappointment as follows: 

"Thank God the day is not very far distant when you 
miserable and unrepentant sinners will be chained down to 
hell's brazen floor, and the devil with his three-pronged 
harpoon will pierce your reeking hearts, and pile upon you 
the red hot cinders of black damnation as high as the Pyra- 
mids of Egypt, and fry the pride out of your hearts to grease 
the gudgeons of the rag wheels of hell." 

Again being informed that the residents of the commu- 
nity not of his own way of thinking on theological subjects, 
had been in the habit of disturbing public worship, he gave 
notice in opening his discourse in the following vigorous 
language : 

"I understand that there is a gang here who call them- 
selves 'No-Hellers,' and that they are in the habit of attacking 
preachers who come here to expound the gospel. I serve no- 
tice on you that if any of you speak to me here tonight or 
any other time, I will knock you higher than the Tower of 


The "No-1 Icllers" discreetly made no eftori to interview 
Re\-. Clawson. 

Bishop Asbury's Visit to the Valley. 

Re\'. l-'rancis Asbury, l) of the Methodist church 
passed tlirou^li the valley on his way to Clarksburg- in the 
year 1788. He traveled on horseback from North Carolina by 
way of Bedford, Greenl)rier, and Pocahontas counties to Clo- 
ver Lick. His destination was Clarksburg- where he was to 
hold a quarterly meeting. His journal descril)es his impres- 
, sions of the valley as follows: 

Thursday, July 10, 1788. 

We had to cross the Allegheny Mountains again at a 
bad passage. Our course lay over the mountains and throug-h 
valleys, and the mud was such as might scarcely be expected 
in December. We came to an old forsaken habitation in Ty- 
garts Valley. Here our horses grazed about while we boiled 
our meat. Midnight l)rought us up at Jones after riding 
forty, or perhaps fifty miles. The old man, our host, was kind 
enough to wake us up at four in the morning. We journeyed 
on through devious lonely wnlds, where no food might be 
found except what grew in the woods or was carried with us. 
We met with two women who were going to see their friends 
and attend the quarterly meeting at Clarksburg. 

Near midnight we stopped at A — s, who hissed his dog 
at us, but the women were determined to go to the quarterly 
meeting- so we went in. ( )ur supper was tea. Brother Phoe- 
bus and Cook took to the woods, old gave up his 

bed to the women. I lay along the Hoor on a few deer skins 
with the fleas. 

M}- mind has been severely tried under the great fatigue 
endured both b}- myself and my horse. Oh, how glad I should 
be of a plain, clean plank to lie on, as preferable to most of 
the beds, and where the beds are in a bad state the floors are 
worse. The gnats are almost as troublesome here as the mos- 
quitoes in the lowlands of the seal:)oard. This country will 
require much work to make it tolerable. The people, many 
of them, are of the boldest cast of adventurers, and with some 


the decencies of civilized society are scarcely regarded. The 
great landholders, who are industrious, will soon show the 
aristocracy of wealth by lording it over their poorer neigh- 
bors, and by securing to themselves all the ofifices of profit 
or honor. On the one hand savage warfare teaches them to 
be cruel, and on the other the teaching of Antinomians poisons 
them with error in doctrine. Good moralists they are not, 
and good Christians they can not l)e unless they are better 

The Primitive Baptists. 

This church was one of the leading and influential re- 
ligious organizations in the early history of the country. Its 
membership was large and many of the prominent pioneers 
were adherents of its religious tenets. Elder Thomas Collett, 
born 1788 and died 1870, was, perhaps, the first preacher of 
this denomination in Randolph. Other preachers of this 
church who have occupied a prominent place in the religious 
afifairs of the county may be mentioned : Rev. Ezra P. Hart, 
Rev. Nathan Everet, Rev. Elam Murphy, Rev. Joseph Poe, 
Rev. James Murphy, and Rev. Stephen D. Lewis. 

Missionary Baptist Church. 

This church was organized in Elkins in 1870 by Rev. 
W. E. Powell. It then had seventeen members. Rev. Amos 
Robinson was its first pastor. A splendid new edifice has 
recently been erected. Other prominent preachers who have 
occupied the pulpit of that denomination in Randolph are, 
Rev.- H. M. P. Potts, Rev. H. P. Loomis, and Rev. W. H. 

Left Pulpit for Melon Patch. 

Henr}^ Clay Dean preached in the valley in 1846. He 
is remembered by many now living. More about that eccen- 
tric genius can be found in another chapter. A survivor of the 
days of Rev. Dean's preaching in the valley tells of a pro- 
tracted meetiu"- held bv him at Mill Creek. He was a \erv 


effectual re\i\alist and it was not an uncommon occurrence 
for his con^res^ation to lose control of their emotions and 
engage in a general shout. On such an occasion at Mill 
Creek, Rev. Dean was noticed by a few to put the meeting 
in cliarge of an assistant and leave the house. His protracted 
absence alarmed those who knew of his departure. Some 
feared he was ill. Others said he had repaired to the adjoin- 
ing woods to engage in silent and secluded prayer. Two 
members concluded to investigate. Rev. Dean was found 
"cutting a melon" in a neighbor's patch nearby the church. 


An Old Letter. 

Superintendent of Schools Troy \Vilmoth has in his 
possession a letter that has been handed down in the Wilmoth 
family for more than two centuries. It was written in 1697 
by Richard Wilmoth, of Derb3^shire, England, to Louis Wil- 
moth, of Rappahannock, Virginia. The name as explained 
by its origin in the chapter on surnames, in another part of 
this book, was spelled AA'ilmot. Richard and Louis Wilmot 
were ancestors of the A\'ilmoth familv in fiandolph. 

The Irish Settlement. 

"I've heard whispers of a country that lies beyant the say, 
Where rich and poor stand equal in the light of freedom's day. 
Oh! Erin must we leave you, driven by the tyrant's hand, 
Must we ask a mother's welcome from a strange but happy land. 
Where the cruel cross of England's thralldom never shall be seen 
And where thank God, we'll live and die still wearing of the green?" 

Xo event in the history of the countv will leave more 
permanent traces than the settlement on Roaring Creek by the 
Irish in 1840-50. This is true from a business, educational, po- 
litical and religious point of view. These settlers, strong of 
body and intellectually alert, inured to toil and hardship, soon 
converted the wilderness into a prosperous communitv of 
comfortable homes, churches, and schools amid which sprang 
up the village of Kingsville, with the conveniences of a store, 
postoffice and blacksmith shop. These settlers were not only 
eminently successful themselves in their undertakings, but 


bequeathed sons and daughters, who took front rank in the 
business and professional life of the county. 

The first to locate in what is known as the Irish settle- 
ment was Patrick Flanigan. He was a contractor and was 
engaged in the building of the Staunton and Parkersburg 
pike. He li\'ed for a while after the completion of the pike 
in the valley, and then bought land and moved to Roaring 
Creek in 1840-50. Perhaps nearer the former than the latter 

John O'Connell was the next to locate in that vicinity in 
about 1850. He was a strong southern sympathizer and in 
attempting' to communicate with the Confederate army at 
Philii)pi, in the first year of the war, he was shot and killed 
near Laurel, from ambush, generally supposed by Union 

Patrick O'Connor, who had been engaged in the con- 
struction on the Staunton and Parkersburg Pike, bought land 
of Patrick Flanigan and with his family added to the nucleus 
of a settlement in its earliest days. He li\ed to the ripe old 
age of 108 A-ears. 

Daniel Tahan}-, who came in 1852, was among the first 
settlers. About sevent\- families in all located in that section, 
among whom may he mentioned ]^lichal O'Connor, Peter 
King, Patrick Riley, Patsy King, Miles King, Edward King, 
Owen Riley, Andrew Durkin, John Madden, Owen Gillooly, 
Andrew Durkin, Patrick Gillooly, I'atrick O'Connor, Richard 
Ford, John Ford, Patrick Rafl^erty, Morris Hanifan, John Nal- 
len Sr., Thomas Burke, Alexander Burke, John Conley, 
Mathew Davis, John Cain, Patrick Movies, John A. King, 
Thomas C>'Connor, John Staunton. 

The following facts have been ascertained concerning 
some of the members of the Irish settlers: 

John Cajn, liorn in County Mayo, Ireland, married in 1848 
to Mary Movie ; children, Peter, Ellen, Sarah, Bridget, Ther- 
esa, John, James, Patrick, Ignatius and Maggie. He settled 
on Roaring Creek in 1860 and died in 1871. 

John Conlev, 1)orn in 1834, Ireland, died 1903. Married 


Marv AlcCiiniiis: cliildrcii, I'alrick, Anna, John, Mary and 
Joseph. Settled on Roarini^- Creek m 1866. 

Thomas Burke, born 1845, I,oni?fort Coiinly, Ireland ; son 
of Michael and Margaret (Rowan) Ikirke. Married Mary 
Ellen, daughter of John A. and Margaret Xallen; children, 
Patrick F., John Thomas, Margaret A., James and Michael, 
twins; Mary Ellen and Alexander. He settled on Roaring 
Creek in 1866 and died in 1890. 

Chas. Durkin, born in County Mayo, Ireland, 1818: mar- 
ried Catherine Durkin, daughter of Andrew Durkin Sr., in 
1847; children, Edward, Catherine, Andrew, Ellen, Mary and 
Bridget. He settled on Roaring Creek in 1864 and died at 
Coalton, W. \'a. 1908. 

I'alrick Durkin, l^orn in Count^' Mayo, Ireland, 1830. He 
married Margaret, daughter of John and Margaret King in 
1855 ; children, Mary A., John T., William A'., Catherine, Ed- 
ward, ^largaret, Alice Ag'nes, Joseph and Teresa. He settled 
on Roaring Creek in 1857 and died in 1887. 

Alexander Burke, born in Ireland 1842, Longfort County. 
Son of Michael and Margaret (Rowan) Burke. ^Married 
Bridgett Burke in 1865; children, Michael A\'., Mary A., 
Bridget D., Catherine, Margaret, John D., James, Dennis, 
Sarah, Elizal)eth, Joseph and Agnes. He died in 1900. 

Andrew D. Durkin Jr., born in 1841, Mayo County, Ire- 
land. Married Mary Jo}ce, daughter of Thomas and Mary 
Joyce. After the death of his wife, Mary Ellen Joyce, he 
married Ida Xa}'. He settled on Roaring Creek in 1866 and 
died in 1902. 

Andrew Durkin Sr., born in County ^layo, Ireland. Set- 
tled (Ml Roaring Creek in 1854 and died in 1867. 

^klathew Davis, born in Roscommon County, Ireland, in 
1820. Married Anna Brady; children, James, Peter, ]Mary, 
William, Thc^mas, Patrick, John, Catherine, Ellen, Agnes, 
Winifred and Mathew. Mr. Davis died in 1906. 

Michael H. King was born in Ireland in 1814. He came 
to this country in 1855 and settled on Roaring Creek. He 
married in Ireland, to Bridget Alorgan. Thev had cliildren, 
John A. and Patrick ]\I., both of whom were born in Ireland. 
He was treasurer of Roarine Creek District 1865-9. 


John A. King, son of Michael and Ih-idget (Morgan) 
King was born in 1844, County Galway, Ireland. He came 
to America with his father, Michael H. King, and with him 
settled on Roaring Creek. In 1867 he married Mary O'Con- 
nor, of Philadelphia. Fifteen children were born to this union, 
Maria, Michael W., Owen J., Anna T., Patrick F., John T., 
Alice B., Frances G., Stephen, James, Winifred, Oscar B., 
William V., Alfred G. and Mary A. 

Owen J. King, son of John A. and Mary (O'Connor) 
King, was born in 1872. He was educated in the public 
schools. Mr. King has been for a number of years promin- 
ently connected with the business interests of the cit\' as 
merchant and in real estate and insurance, and as member of 
the City Council. In 1913 he was appointed postmaster of 
Elkins, which position he holds at the present time. He mar- 
ried Gertrude Collins, of Logansport, Indiana, who died Feb- 
ruary 6, 1913. Children, Madeline, Mildred and Clarence. 

Patrick O'Connor was born in Ireland in 1830 and came 
to America in 1855. He was a contractor in the building of 
the B. & O. railroad. After practicing law for a while in 
Grafton, W. Va., he came to Randolph and purchased land 
on Roaring Creek in 1865. He was an uncle of Hon. John T. 
McGraw, of Grafton. He died in 1901. 

Thomas O'Connor was born in County Galway, Ireland, 
in 1824. He came to Roaring Creek in 1866. He married at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1854; children, John P., James, Michael V., 
and Mary. He died in 1891. 

Owen Riley, born in Count)' Galway, Ireland, in 1825. 
In 1845 he married Mary Malia and came to America in 1852. 
He came to Roaring Creek in 1855. Children, Bridget, Mich- 
ael, Patrick, Mar}^ Ann, John, Maggie and James. He died in 

Patrick Naughton was born in County Mayo, Ireland, 
and came to America in 1845. After working on the construc- 
tion of the B. & O. railroad from Cumberland to Grafton in 
1851, he came to Roaring Creek in 1856. Children, William, 
Mary, Maggie, Ellen, Anna and Kate. He died in 1899. 

Morris Hanifan, born in County Cavny. Ireland, 1820, 
came to America in 1840. He worked on the C. & O. Canal 


in its conslriiction to ( "unihcTland, then on the W inchestcr and 
Strawsburo- Pike to New Market, V^a., then on the Staunton 
and Parkersl)urg- Pike to I iuttonsville. He settled on Roar- 
ing Creek in 1847. lie married Bettie Kittle. Children, John, 
Patrick and Isaac. He died in 1868. 

John Nallen Sr., was born in County Mayo, Ireland, in 
1825. lie married in 1845 and came to America in 1846 and 
settled in Roaring Creek in the same year. Children, James, 
John, Margaret, Mary E. and Elizabeth. He died in 1901. 

Patrick O'Connor, son of Michael O'Connor, was born 
in County Galway, Ireland, in 1844. In 1876 he w^as married 
to Mary McCauley. He settled on Pike near Middle Fork 
River in Roaring Creek District. Children, Mary, Mathew, 
Thomas, James and Pearl. He died in 1915. 

Daniel Tahany was born in the County Sligo, Ireland, in 
1815. He came to America in 1835. He married Bridget Mc- 
Can in New York City in 1837. After working on the con- 
struction of the Staunton and Parkersburg Pike, he settled on 
Roaring Creek in 1846. Children, Mary, Margaret, Patrick. 
John, Charles and Jane. He died in 1872. 

John O'Donnell w^as born in Ireland in 1817, and came to 
America in 1834. Married Margaret Foy. Children, John, 
Margaret and Maria. He died June 5, 1861, from gun shot 
wound. He worked on S. & P. Pike in its construction 
through Roaring Creek District. 

The first priest to celebrate Mass in the Kingsville Parish 
was Father Stack, of Staunton, Va., at Patrick Flanigan's 
house in 1865. In 1863 F"ather O'Connor with the aid of his 
people commenced the erection of a log church, the first Cath- 
olic church in Randolph. In 1872 Father Dacey came as res- 
ident priest, but died soon thereafter. In 1873 Father Fitz- 
patric came to take charge of the Mission. Soon the growing 
congregation became too large for the little church and under 
the leadership of Father Fitzpatrick, thev built a commodious 
■church and rectory in the growing village of Kingsville. 
Father Fitzpatrick also commenced the erection of a church 
at Coalton, but it was completed by his successor, Father 


Father Fitzpatrick was twenty-eight years in Kingsville^ 
but has since died at Wheeling, W. Va. Father Fitzpatrick 
was for many years one of the leading figures of the county 
and had many friends throughout Randolph and adjoining^ 
counties among the Protestants as well as the adherents of 
his own religious faith. 

The Rev. AVilliam Sauer succeeded Father Fitzpatrick,. 
who in turn was succeeded by Rev. AVilliam Flail, who was. 
succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. John H. Cochran. 

The opportunities of a new country with cheap lands, to- 
gether with the oppression of English landlordism at home 
were, perhaps, among the principal reasons for Irish immi- 
gration to America. The average price paid by Irish settlers 
for Roaring Creek lands was about $1.25 per acre. These 
same lands at the present time command fabulous prices, in 
manv instances, as a result of the discovery of very rich veins 
of coal in that vicinity. 

Owen Gilluly. born in 1816, in the Parish of Killgaffln, 
County Roscommon, Ireland, son of John and Mary (John- 
son) Gilluly. He came to America in 1847, landed in Xew 
York, and from there came to West Virginia. In 1842 he 
married Mary White at AA'eston, W. Va. He was a stone 
mason and cutter by trade. In 1853 he moved to St. Louis, 
Mo., from there to Prairie. Wis., and later to St. Paul, Minn. 
After spending about five years in the west he returned to 
W^est Virginia and settled in Roaring Creek 13istrict, Ran- 
dolph County. In 1858 he purchased a farm of 90 acres and 
made some improvements on it. After the war he returned to 
his trade and was foreman on the construction work of the 
Weston Asylum for 13 years, he also did the mason work on 
the Wesleyan Academy, at Puckhannon, in 1882. and was con- 
tractor on the first Catholic church built in Randoljih County 
in the year of 1864. He spent the last few }ears of his life on 
his farm. An incident which goes to show that he was not 
easily outdone happened in 1863 in the time of the Civil War. 
W^ien General Imboden raided this county one of his soldiers 
took a horse belonging to him, he being awav from home at 
the time, and on his return he (luickly followed after by a 
near cut. overtakinij- the soldier on the west bank (^f the ^lid- 


die l'\)rk l\i\er and catchiiii^ his horse by the bridle, command- 
ing- the soldier to dismount which he did, and the captain be- 
in<4 near l)y seeing Ids nndaunted courage told the soldier to 
let him have his horse. 

lie died December 25th. 1886, at the age of 69 years, and 
was l)uried in St. X'ineents cemetery near Kingsville, \X . Va. 
His wife died July 2nd, 1903, and is buried at the same place. 

Their children's names were as follows: John, Mary, Ella, 
James J., Annie, Bridget, Margaret, Katherine, Owen, Wil- 
liam, Joseph, Agnes, Elizabeth, Teresa, and Sarah. 

Edward Joyce was born in County Galwa}-, Ireland, in 
the year of 1833 : married Bridget Joyce in 1857. He worked 
on the B. & (). railroad for a while, coming to Roaring Creek 
District in 1859, and purchased 220 acres of land in the Roar- 
ing Creek Coal fields, which he improved and farmed. He 
also dealt in cattle and sheep. He spent some time in the em- 
ploy of the go\ernment in repairing roads in 1864, and served 
a term as justice of the peace in 1863-1867. He was a remark- 
able leader and very honorable in all his dealings. Chil- 
dren's names were John T., James, Mary A., WMlliam L., Mar- 
tin, Miles, Edward, Annie, Peter, Stephen and Isaac. 

Michael King, born in 1839, in Parish of , 

County Galway, Ireland, son of Owen and Bridget (Morgan) 
King, came to America in 1850, and learned the plastering 
trade. He was in the government employ for three or four 
years during the Civil War, after which he went to Baltimore, 
Md., and in 1865 married Delia Joyce, sister of State Senator 
Eugene Joyce, who served one or two terms in that capacity, 
and was later elected municipal judge of Baltimore. He then 
came to Randolph County, W'. Va., settled in Roaring Creek 
District, where he erected a house and store, this beine th'^' 
only store in that district for five or six years. He afterward 
bought a farm of 120 acres in the Roaring Creek coal field, 
which he improved and farmed for a number of years. 
Through his efforts a postoffice was established' which was 
known as the Kingsville postoffice, and he was appointed post- 
master, and served in that capacit}^ during all the time he re- 
mained at Kingsville, with the exception of a couple of short 


In 1895 he purchased eight acres of land at Fisher, (now 
known as Mabie) and built the Mountain View Hotel, of 
which he is proprietor. He is engaged in the mercantile bus- 
iness, and is also postmaster at Mabie. His home is located 
almost on the spot where General McClellan's headquarters 
were when he camped at Roaring Creek just before the battle 
of Rich Mountain, July 11, 1861. 

Children's names are Eugene, Joseph M., William, A\'al- 
ter, Anna S., Katherine, Ada and Lillian. 

Michael H. King, born in County Galway, Ireland, in the 
year of 1814, son of Owen and Anna King, married in Ireland 
in 1834 to Bridget (Morgan) King, immigrated to America 
in 1850, and settled in Roaring Creek District. In 1856 he 
purchased 400 acres of land which he farmed. He was elected 
Township Treasurer in 1865 and served a term of four years. 
Children were John A. and Owen. 

Patrick Moyle was born in 1834, Parish of Cross Malina, 
County Mayo, Ireland, and came to America in 1855, landed 
at Baltimore, Md. He married Mary Cain, who was also from 
same Parish. He remained there until 1860, when he came to 
Roaring Creek and bought 150 acres of land in the Roaring 
Creek coal fields where he built a home, improved and farmed 
the land and lived the remainder of his life. He also bought 
other land and property in Elkins, W. Va. 

He died in 1902, and was buried in St. \"incent's ceme- 
tery near Kingsville, W. Va. His wife died a vear or two 
later and is also hurried at the same place. Children's names 
are as follows: John, James, Matthew, Daniel, Patrick, \A'il- 
liam, Mary Anna and Sarah. 

Elihu A. Madden, son of John Madden and Cecelia 
(Dwire) Madden, w^as born in 1849 in Randolph Count}-, W. 
Va., and married Anna Gilluly, daughter of Owen and Mary 
(White) Gilluly, November 5, 1883. He received his educa- 
tion in the public schools. In 1868 he started to work at stone 
work and learned the stone cutting and masoning trade after 
which he was employed on the locks on the Eittle Kanawha 
River, later by the Edgar Thompson Compaii\- in the con- 
struction of their steel plant at ISraddock, Pa., then on the wa- 
ter works in Pittsburgh, returning to his home in 1880 wiiere 


he worked on the farm until he was married. 1 le purchased a 
farm of 100 acres adjoining 72 acres willed to him by his 
father. iJoth tracts were in Roaring- Creek coal field and he 
farmed them until the city of Kll<ins begun to build, when 
he was employed on the construction of the West Virginia 
Central Railway shops, the Hotel Randolph, National and 
Trust Bank buildings, court house, Davis and Elkins College 
and the central high school building. In 1900 he moved his 
family to Elkins, which place has been his home since that 
time. Children, Mary E., B. Gertrude, Patrick F., Thomas J., 
Elizabeth B., Charles C. A., Leo C, Jerome L. A., Bernard, 
Agnes and John. 

Thomas Madden, son of John and Cecelia (Dwire) Mad- 
den was born in 1846. He received his education in the pub- 
lic schools of the state. During the war he was in the employ 
of the government as teamster and later was made wagon 
master or manager of a train of wagons. He was present at 
the battles of Bull Run, Antietem and South Mountain. After 
the war was over he returned home and again entered school 
and studied for a couple of terms, and in 1870 took up the pro- 
fession of teaching, at which he was considered very success- 
ful, and taught until the time of his death. He died May 5th, 

Martin Madden, son of John and Cecelia (Dwire) Mad- 
den, was born in 1858 in Randolph County, W. Va. He was 
educated in the public schools. He married Norah ]\Ioore in 
1882. He taught school for about 20 years. He went west in 
1888 and stayed about a year and then returned to West Vir- 
ginia. In 1894 he w^ent into the mercantile business at Coal- 
ton, which he has followed all the time since, either at Mabie 
or at Coalton. He is located at Mabie at the present time. 

William P., son of John and Cecelia (Dwire) Madden was 
born in Randolph County in 1857. He received his education 
in the free schools from 1867 to 1870. He worked on pub- 
lic works in Maryland in 1871 and 1872, and in 1873 w'ent to 
Weston, W. Va., where he w^as employed on the stone work 
of the Weston Asylum for a short time, going from there to 
Pittsburgh where he worked on the Pittsburgh W^ater ^^'orks 
until 1875. He then returned home and worked on the farm 


until 1877, when he took up the profession of school teaching 
at which he was fairly successful. In 1884 he again returned 
home and went to work on the home farm, later purchasing 
50 acres of land in the Roaring Creek coal field, and his father 
willed him 72 acres adjoining it, making 122 acres in all, which 
he still owns. At the death of his father, upon him fell the re- 
sponsibility of keeping up the home, where he lived with his 
mother and sister until the death of his mother, after which 
he and his sister Sarah moved to Coalton, W. Va., where they 
now reside. He served as a member of the Book Board for 
five years. 

Edward D., son of John and Cecelia (Dwire) Madden, 
was born at Old Town, Md., in 1840. He married Katherine, 
daughter of Patrick and Bridget O'Connor in 1874. He en- 
tered the government service in 1861 and was employed as a 
teamster until 1865, being present at the battle of Gettysburg. 
In 1865 he enlisted in the Seventh West Virginia Regiment 
and served as a soldier until the close of the war, being mus- 
tered out of service at Wheeling, W. Va., in July 1865. 

In 1871 he purchased a farm of 50 acres in the Roaring 
Creek coal fields, and on the death of his father was willed 
100 acres of land, making a total of 150 acres. He made his 
home here and farmed until 1908, when he moved to Elkins 
where he owns property and now resides. Children, ]\Iary, 
Dennis, Edward D., Annie, Joseph. 

Francis P. Aladden, son of John and Cecelia (Dwire) 
Madden, was born in 1856, in Randolph Count}-, AW \'a. He 
received his education in the free schools of the State, and in 
1871 he took up the profession of school teaching which he 
followed for a few years, but wishing to further liis education 
he entered the Flemington College where he studied for a 
couple of terms, and then returned to teaching. In 1887 he 
was elected County Superintendent, and in 1889 resigned to 
accept a position in the Census Dejiartment at A\'ashington 
D. C, where he remained until 189vS, at which time he returned 
to Randolph County and taught school for a short time, and 
later went into the merchandising business at Beverh- and la- 
ter at Coalton, A\'. Va., where he remained until the time of 


his death. Ifc died in 1902 and was l)uried in St. Vincent's 
cemetery near Kingsville. 

John Madden, son of W'ilHam and Mary (lirennan) Mad- 
den, was born in the Parish of Kiltormer, County Galway, 
Ireland, in 1815. In 1834 he came to America,- landed in New 
York City, and after a short stay in the State of New York 
he came to Baltimore, Md., and was employed on the con- 
struction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal from that point 
to Cumberland. In 1839 he was married to Cecelia Dwire. 
He then went to work on the State road from Winchester to 
Staunton, A'a., and later was employed on the Staunton and 
Parkersburg pike to Huttonsville, W. Va. He then located in 
Tygarts Valley near Huttonsville, where he worked as a 
tenant on the farms of Moses and John Hutton, also on the 
Nagler farm. In 1859 he moved to Roaring Creek District, 
and in 1863 purchased 350 acres of land in the Roaring Creek 
coal held from C}'rus Kittle, which he lived on and farmed 
the remainder of his life. He died February 9th, 1877, and 
was buried in St. \"incents cemeterv near Kingsville, \\\ Va. 
His wife died August 15th, 1900, and is buried at the same 
place. Their children's names were as follow^s : Edward D., 
John, Thomas, AA'illiam P., Elihu A., James, Mary A., Michael, 
Francis P., Martin, Peter and Sara A. 

John Stanton was born in Ireland, County Galway, Par- 
ish of Kiltormer, in 1826. He received an education in the Na- 
tional schools of his country, and was married to Bridget 
Morrisey ; immigrated to America in 1850, landed in New 
York, going from there to Connecticut where he located and 
being a shoemaker, worked at that trade for three years, then 
he came to Grafton, ^^^ Va., and worked along the B. & O. 
railroad from that point to Kingwood, A\\ \'a. In 1857 he 
came to Randolph County, W V^a., and settled in Roaring 
Creek district, where he purchased 250 acres of land, im- 
proved it and farmed ; also worked at the shoemaker's trade. 
After the war he taught in the free school of the district. He 
was appointed postmaster at Middle Fork postoffice, Roaring 
Creek district, in Grant's second administration, 1873, in 
which capacity he served until 1884, when he was removed 
bv Grover Cleveland but was reinstated under William yic- 


Kinley and served the remainder of his Hfe. He died in 1895 
and was buried in St. Vincent's cemetery near Kingsville. 
Seven of his children lived to be grown. Their names are 
Patrick, Thomas, George, Peter, Elizabeth, Mary and 

Luke White, born in the Parish of Kiltevin, County Ros- 
common, Ireland, came to America in 1854, landing in New 
York City. He came to West Virginia and married Margaret 
Burke, a widow. He worked on the B. & O. for a time and 
later settled in Roaring Creek district, and in 1858 purchased 
a farm of 100 acres where he made his home for the rest of his 
life. He donated two acres of land to the Catholic congrega- 
tion for church property and cemetery, and later when more 
ground was needed he sold them seven and one-half acres 
more to be used as garden, pasture, etc. The priests who vis- 
ited that Parish prior to the time a Parish house was erected, 
stayed at his house where they were made to feel very much 
at home. In 1872 a Parish house was built, that being the 
time at which Rev. Michael Fitzpatrick became pastor. He 
died in 1881 and was buried at St. Vincent's cemetery near 
Kingsville, AW \^a. His wife died a few years later and was 
buried at the same place. 



Origin of Surnames. 

OVR surnames, like everything else, had a beginning. In 
England they were confined to the higher and land hold- 
ing class prior to the fourteenth century. Many of the names 
familiar in the history of this county first appeared in Domes 
Day IJook, written in England in 1086. It consisted of a list 
of land holders at that time. Its authority was not to be ques- 
tioned in disputes as to title to land and for this reason was 
called the Domes Day Book or book of judgment. 

Surnames were originally written over the other name 
and is derived fr(3m the Eatin surnom or the Erench super 

Many names weie derived from their baptismal ones by 
adding the suffix son to the name of the father as John-son, 
^^'il-son, A\'il]iam-son, Peter-son, Kichard-son, Adam-son. 

The practice of using diminutives was often adopted by 
the people to multiply the comparatively limited number of 
names at their command. The Saxon diminutives commonly 
used were kin, cock, ock, and the Norman ones at, et, on, or 
in. Therefore it is ascertainable whether names so ending are 
Norman or Saxon in their origin. 

Before surnames came into vogue it was by no means an 
uncommon practice to give all the sons of one family one 
name, as William for example. They would be called W'il-kin, 
\\'ill-cock, AA'ill-ot, Will-mot, which in the process of time 
has changed to Wilmoth. 

The suffixes ham, nam, an, and er were often used for 
man. Thus originated the name Rowan, Rose-an, being iden- 
tical with Rose-man, has passed through changes in orthog- 
raphy, as Rows-an, until we have at present Rowan. 


Likewise we have the name Cuningham, derived from 
Coney, Teutonic for rabbit and ham Norman for man. The 
old form of spelHng- Coney was Cunyng. In the regulation of 
the Scottish Privy Council, August 6, 1602, regulating the 
Masters and Barons of the University of Glaglow, amongst the 
viands mentioned were "with ane fouU or cunyng or a pair of 
dovis and ciclyk to their Supper." Another probable origin 
of the name is from the Anglo-Saxon Cyning for leader and 
ham, Norman for man. Then we have Cyningham, the leader 

The suffix lea, leah now ley is Anglo-Saxon, meaning an 
untilled tract of land or pasturage, used as a shelter for an- 
imals. In the origin of the name Woodley we have the Anglo- 
Saxon word Wudu, meaning wood and lea or leah, meaning 
land or pasturage. We then have WTidu-lea, now Woodley, 
meaning a lea on which there is a wood. 

Roman names were derived from mental or physical char- 
acteristics. Such words are Wise, Sharp, Dear, Able, Long, 
Crouch, and Armstrong. The Romans were also partial to 
animals covered with wool. It is probable that such names 
as Fox, \^'olf, and Bear had a Roman origin. 

A very large number of other names had their origin in 
the occupations as Weaver, Carpenter, Miller, etc. 

.Surnames in some instances had their origin in the sneers 
of the vulgar, as is evidenced in the name Proudfoot. 

ALLEN — Gaelic, exceedingly fair. In Domes Day Book 
as Alan. 

ARMSTRONG — Strength in battle. An ancient King 
of Scotland had his horse killed under him and Fairburn, his 
armour bearer, taking him by the thigh, set him in his own 
saddle. The King gave him the appellation of Armstrong. 
See Scott's Lay of The Last Minstrel. 

AP, MAB, and AB are Welsh words meaning son. In 
the early history of Randolph w-e find Morgan ap Morgan. 

AT or ATTE was used to describe the place of residence 
as John-at-W^ood, now Atwood. 

BENT — English, a plain or Moor. 

BELL — The name Bell was taken from the sign of an 
inn or tavern. Tlie sign of a bell was frc<|uenth' used to desig- 


nale tlial the house was an inn. john-at-the-bell l)ecame John 
Bell. Belle in h^rench means beautiftil. 

BARNARD — The name Barnard is from P>ean or Bairn, 
a child and ard, Teutonic for nature. Tlie wc^rd I'arnard, 
therefore, described one of a child-like nature, or affection. 

BING — The surname Bing is from the Danish Binge, an 
inclosure or a ])lace where supplies are ke])t. 

BOGART — German, Boomelgard, an orchard. 

BOSELEY — The name Boseley is derived like Bosworth 
except that the suffixes "lea" and "worth" have reference to 
small estates slightly different in their characteristics. 

BOSWORTH — The Anglo-Saxon words, wirth, worth, 
urth, means a small estate. This word combined with the old 
Norse word Bass, middle I'Jiglisli Bose or Boose, "a stall in 
which cattle are kept in winter," gives us Bose-worth or 
Booseworth, now Bosworth. Bosworth would then mean 
a worth on which there is a boose or an estate on which there 
is a cattle stall. However, there is another probable origin of 
the word Bosworth. This Bos is from the personal name Bosa 
or Boso, found more than a score of times in the Ononiasticon. 
In this case Bosworth means the wxirth or estate of Boso, 
getting its name from the owner. 

BRADLEY — The name Bradley is from the Anglo-Saxon 
word Bradlea, Brad meaning l)road and "lea" or "leah" a 

BUTCHER — Norse as Buoker, Danish as Boedker, Ger- 
man as Boettcher, blemish as lUiker or Buscher, Erench as 

CAR — Erench as Carre, meaning broad shouldered, Norse 
as Karr. In Domes Day Book as Carr. 

CASSIDY — Gaelic from cassaideach, apt to complain. 

CHENY — French, a grove. 

COB — German as Kobe, Scotch as Kobbes. The name 
appears in the Domes Day Book as Copsi. The English Cob 
originated from Jacob. 

COLLETT — The word Collett is from the ecclesiastical 
word Acolyte, attendant, and is from the Greek. The Acolyte 
was one of the minor order of clergy in the ancient church. 
We learn from the canons of the fourth council of Carthao^e 


that the Archdeacon at the ordination put into the hands of 
the Acolyte a candlestick with a taper and an empty pitcher 
to imply that they were appointed to light the candles of 
the church and to furnish wine for the eucharist. Their dress 
was the cossack and the surplice. The name and the office 
still exist in the church. 

COLLIER — French as Coulier. 

CRAWFORD — The name Crawford is Gaelic in its or- 
igin, and means a pass of blood. From "cru," bloody and 
"ford" a way. The name was first assumed by the barony 
of Crawford in England. 

CURTIS — The name Curtis is derived from and is an ab- 
breviation of courteous. The name was perhaps first applied to 
a person noted for his urbanity. 

DANIELS — The name Daniels is from Daniel, signifying 
the judgment of God. The "s" added is a contraction of son. 

DAVIS — French as Devis. 

DENTON — Denton is derived from "Den" a valley and 
"ton" a town, meaning a town in a valley. 

DICK — Dyck, German bulwark thrown against a sea or 

DILWORTH— French, Diluerth. 

DOVE — Norse, Dufan, German, Dove. 

DOWNING — A local name in A\'orchester. England. 

FERGUSON — From the Gaelic and Celtic Feor, mean- 
ing man and Guth, meaning voice or word. The two words 
meaning the man of the word or commander. A fierce and 
brave chieftain. 

GILMORE— From the Irish, McGiolla Muire. 

GOFF — Goff is the variation of the German word Gough 
or Gow, being the German for the English Smith, and is, 
therefore, occupational in its origin. 

HANSFORD — The name Hansford is deri\'ed from the 
Welsh words, "Han" meaning old and "ford" meaning way. 
The name Hanford, now Hansford, therefore, means the old 

HARDING — Norse as Haddingf. Harding from "here" 
or "har," meaning an army and "ing" a meadow. A meadow 
in which an army is encamped. 


HARMAN^ — The name Harman is from the German 
"Har" originally meaning soldier and man. The name, there- 
fore, was perhaps first applied to a military man. 

HART — Norse as Hyortr. In Domesday Book as Hard. 

HARPER — Some names as Harper may be either Ger- 
man or English in their origin. Harper, meaning one who 
contributes to musical entertainments, w^onld lead to the con- 
clusion that the name is of English etymology, being occu- 
pational in its origin. However in the early records of Shen- 
andoah Valley, the word as Herber and Herrber. This makes 
it probable that the name is German. 

HARRIS — Norse as Harri, Domesday Book as Harries. 

HAZELTINE, from Hazeldine. 

HERON— Welsh, a hero. 

HILL — German, Hille. 

HUTTON — The Anglo-Saxon words "tun" and "ton" 
mean small enclosed farmsteads or villages. In the derivation 
of the word Hough-ton, now Hutton, we have the Anglo- 
Saxon words "Hough" or "Hoh," meaning a heel and "tun" 
or "ton" meaning an enclosed village or farmstead. The 
name Houghton, now Hutton, was probably ap])lied originallv 
to a resident of an enclosed village or farmstead in the shape 
of a "hoh" or heel. 

JACKSON — English, Danish as Jacobson, French as 

JOYCE — Irish, Normandy as Joyeus. 

KENDALL — An English word derived from the two 
words Kent and Dale. Kent-dale, now Ken-dall. meant a dale 
on the River Kent, so the name was probably applied origi- 
nally to a people living in such a locality. 

KELLY — The surname Kellv is derived from the Gaelic 
and Celtic Kill or Cille, a church. The name was, perhaps, 
first applied to an individual who was in some manner con- 
nected with the church. 

KENNEDY — Irish, O'Ceannfhada, originally. 

KYLE — The name Kyle is from a district in Scotland, 
through which the River Coyle flows. 

KITTLE — A name introduced into England, perhaps, 
at the time of the Norman conquest. Thor, the Supreme God 


of the Norsemen, is the root word of many of our surnames. 
The sacrificial kettle or cauldron was an important article in 
the worship of Thor. Thor-Kettle or Thyr-Kittle is a com- 
mon name in England to this day. llie word now appears 
in this country as Kittle. 

LONG — It is said that the name Long originated from 
a very tall attendant of Lord Treasurer Hungerford. The 
Longs were very numerous in Oxfordshire, Cambridge, Eng- 
land, in the reign of Edward the h'irst. 

LLOYD — From the Gaelic Lhuyd and signifies gray or 

MARSHALL — The name Marshall originated in the 
north of England and was at first spelled ]^larechal. It means 
master of the horse. 

MAXWELL — The Maxwells took their name from a 
village in Roxburgshire, England. 

McLEAN — The name McLean is derived from MacGil- 
ean, a highland chieftain and a celebrated warrior. 

McINTOSH— "Mac," son, and "tosh," leader. Then .AIc- 
Intosh means son of a leader. 

MOORE — The name Moore is from the Celtic word 
"morh," meaning big. 

MULLENIX — French as Molynix, from "moulin" a mill. 

McQUAIN — Irish, and is probabh^ derived from "Mac, ' 
son, and "cairn," a heap of stones erected by the early inhabi- 
tants of the British Islands as sepulchral monuments. The 
name was originally McCairn. 

PHILLIPS — The surname Phillips is from a Greek word 
meaning a lover of horses. 

PRITT — From the Norse Prudi. 

RUSSEL- — French from Roussel, a stream or brook. In 
Domesday Book as Rozell. 

RYAN — Normandy as Royan, Danish as Ryan,. 

SCHOONOVER — Derived from Schoonoven, a ])lace in 
South Holland. The word is from "Schoon," an old Dutcli 
word meaning fine and "h(nen," a garden or court. 

SCOTT — The origin of the name Scott is clouded in 
doubt. Scotylle, Anglo-Saxon for winnowing fan is given by 
some writers as the original word. Other scholars say the 


word meant rulers or possessors. Again it is maintained that 
the Scotts wlu) inxadcd Argyle in 360 were so called because 
the word "Scotti" meant sacred painters or sculptors, an art 
in which these people were proficient. 

SEE — German, lake. Thunersee, the lake of Thun. 

SHANNON — The name Shannon is derived from the 
Shannon Ri\er in Ireland. I'he word was originally Slien- 

SHREEVES — Derived from "Schir," a Shire, division, or 
township and reeve, the Bailiff. The word then means a Bail- 
iff of a Shire. 

S — The \\ elsh merely appended "s" instead of son as 
Edwards and Davis. 

SMITH — The word Smith was an occupational one ; the 
original word was "smote," the art of striking the anvil. The 
name is a very common one because, at the time of the adop- 
tion of surnames, the smith made almost everything used in 
the arts of war and peace. A very large number of people 
were engaged in the trades of gunsmith, blacksmith, tinsmith, 
silversmith, etc. 

STALXAKER — Derived from the German word "Stahal" 
or "Stahl" meaning Steele, and "Xagel," a sharp point or 
spear. Then the original word was Stahl-nagel, meaning a 
sharp pointed Steele spear. So the name was, perhaps, first 
applied to a warrior who was armed with such a weapon. 

TAGG/\RT — Appears as McTaggart in Scotch. 

TALBOTT — English, and appears in the Domesday 
Book as spelled at present. 

TYRE — Derived from "Tyreman," a dresser. From the 
fact that the Xorman suffix "er" is used to abbreviate the 
word, it is to be presumed that it is of Xorman origin. 

WARD — From the Anglo-Saxon "weard," a watchman. 

^^'ARXER — Appears in the Domesday Book as Warn. 

WEESE — From the German "w^eiss" meaning white, or 
"waas" meaning bold. 

WAMSLEY — Derived from a Eancashire township of 
that name. 

WEYMOTH — The name A\'eymoth is provincial in its 
origin, being first, perhaps, applied to residents about the 


mouth of the small River Wey in England. The City of Wey 
at the mouth of this river, is ver_v ancient. The Anglo-Saxon 
word was Wagemuth, from "wage" meaning a wave or pas- 
sage way, and "muth" meaning a mouth. 

WHITE — Derived from the Anglo-Saxon "hweit," mean- 
ing fairness of complexion. 

WILMOTH — derived from the baptismal name of Wil- 
liam as explained elsewhere. Originally the name was spelled 

Nicholas was a favorite name in the Wilmot family in 
England. Sir Nicholas was Knight in the seventeenth cen- 
tury in England. His grandfather was named Nicholas. It 
is significant that the eldest of the Wilmoth brothers to lo- 
cate in Randolph was named Nicholas. 

YEAGER — Danish, huntsman. Yagere also means a 

Variation in Surnames. 

Individual peculiarities in pronunciation largely accounts 
for the variations in spelling of surnames. In the earlier his- 
tory of the county names were seldom written and the ear 
was the only guide to the spelling and in some cases the only 
method of transmitting names from one generation to another. 
Then the settler often coming direct from European countries, 
embraced the opportunity to simplify and abbreviate a cum- 
bersome name. This was particularly true of German names. 
The object was sometimes to change the form into English. 
Thus we have Armikast changed to Arbogast, Herman tracht 
to Armentrout, Bauman to Bowman, Kromet to Crummett, 
Kerper to Carper, Dahle to Dolly, Herber to Harper, Herr- 
man to Elarman, Hefifner to Hevener, Huber to Hoover, Loch 
to Lough, Roeder to Rader, Sieman to Simmons, Schaefer to 
Shaver, Schneider to Snyder, Sponaugen to Sponaugle, Tehudi 
to Judy, Wetzel to Whetsell, W'ildfang to Wilfong, Zwickcn- 
fus to Zickafoose. 


Classification of Names. 

The following- classificalion of names though not free 
from error is in the main correct: 



Rlair. I'xisworth, FJell, Brown, Bradley, Barlow, Bent, 
Bennett, Bishop, Bond, I'.oseley, Blackman, Brandley. 

Chenoweth, Cook, Channell. 

Daniels, Day, Digman, D'avisson, Dawson, Denton. 

Earle, Elliott, England, Elza, Elkins. 

Eindley, Fox. 

Goddin, (iibon, Gandy, C^awthrop. 

Ha\-mond, Hart, Harding, Hansford, Hunt, Hutton, Har- 
ris, Henderson, Hadden, Holder, Howell. 


Jones, Jackson, Johnson. 

Kittle, Kelley, Kimble. 

Lamb. Lee, Long. 

Marshall, Morris, Mason. 

Porter, Powers, Payne, Pennington, Patterson, Potts. 

Russell, Roy, Reed, Robinson. 

Smith, Summerfield, Skidmore, Shreve. 

Taylor, Turner, Taft, Thompson, Triplett. 

Woodford, Williamson, Weymouth, W'amsley, Woodley, 
A\'ard, W'ilmoth, A\'hite. \\'ilson. 


Adams, Adamson. 

Burns, Bodkin, Boggs, Bradv, Bovles, Beaty. 
Clark, Collier, Connolly, Cain, CofT, Crickard. Cunning- 
ham, Currence. 

Donohoe, Daughcrty. Davis, Durkin. 

Ford, Ferguson Flanigan. 


Jordan, Joyce. 

Keenan, Kinnan, Kee, Kennedy. 


Murphy, Msl.ain, McAllister. 


Rains, Rooney, Ryan, Rowan. 




Alt, Arbogast, Armentrout. 

Bowers, Baker, Ball, Buckey, Bowman. 

Car, Conrad, Caplinger, Crummett, Carper, Canfield, Col- 
lins, Curtis. 

Dove, Dolly. 

Eberman, Eye. 

Fisher, Friend. 


Haigler, Halterman, Harman, Harper, Hedrick, Ilevener^ 
Hinkle, Hoover, Huffman. 


Ketterman, Kyle. 

Lantz, Lough. 

Marteny, Moyers, Marstiller. 

Rigleman, Rosencranse, Rader, Riffle, Rohrbaugh, 

Shaver, Simmons, Sites, Snyder, Sponaugle, Swadley, 
Smith, Stalnaker, See, Swecker, Schoonover. 

Teter, Tingle, Tolly. 

Vandevander, Vanpelt. 

Westfall, Weere, Wolf, Wimer, W'hetsell. 

Yokum, Yeager. 



Anderson, Armstrong. 

Collett, Cowgeer, Cunningham. Cam])l:)ell, Crawford. 
Lambert, Logan. 

McLeary, McMullen, McClung, McLean, McDonald, AIc- 
Ouain, ]\lcCorkel. 




Simpson, Skidmore. 






Capitio, Cassell. 
Montony, Alulleiiix. 



Extinct Families of Randolph. 

This list includes pioneer families of Randolph that have 
no descendants of the same name residing within the county. 
Families of the same name may live in the county, but they 
are not of the same strain of blood as the names here men- 
tioned. As a rule these families pushed farther west when 
Randolph assumed the staid aspect of older communities : 

Anderson, Armstrong, Adams, Alford. 

Barnhouse, Bingham, Blair, Bogard, Baxter, Bell, Blain, 
Bond, Botkin, Bruff, Bridger, Booth, Breckenridge, Bent, 
Brian, Bufifington, Briggs, Bozart, Bogard. 

Connonly, Cutright, Cade, Casto, Carpenter, Casey, Cass- 
ity, Claypool, Crane, Combs, Carney. 

Donohoe, Dougherty, Dolbeare. 

Evick, Eberman England, Friend, Fink, Files. 

Gandy, Gibson. 


Haigler, Heath, Holder, Hughes, Hiller, Harris. 
Kinnan, Kozer. 
Lackey, Leeky, Longacker. 

Mace, McLeary, McLean, McMullen, Maxwell, Myers, 
Petty, Powell. 

Ralston, Rummell, Reeder, Rollins. 
Springtone, Stout, Steers, Slagle. 
Taft, Taggart, Taffee, Troutwine, Turner. 
Warthen, Warwick, Whitman, Whiteman, Wise, \Volf. 


In this chapter will be found a brief history of the pioneer 
families of Randolph ; their origin, place of settlement and 
such other facts as are now obtainable : 


Arnold. In the year 1765 three brothers, Jonathan, An- 
drew, and Jesse Arnold removed from Chester County, near 
Philadelphia, the place of their birth, and located in the vicin- 
ity of old Fort Redstone (now Brownsville, Pa.). The his- 
tory of Chester County makes mention of but one family of 
the name of Arnold residing there prior to the date named, 
viz : Richard Arnold, who died in the year 1720 leaving a large 
family. He was presumably the grandfather of the three 
brothers named. At that time this section was claimed to be a 
part of Virginia, and the Arnold brothers supposed they were 
locating in that State. They brought with them their family 
slaves. Later when the controversy as to the State line was 
settled, leaving this section in Pennsylvania, their supposed 
slaves being in free territory were free.* 

L Jonathan, the first of the above named brothers, had 
married Rachel Scott. There was born to them children as 
follows: Samuel, Benjamin, Levi, Jonathan, William, of 

*The county records, of that period, containing enumeration of 
property includes the slaves and names of owners. 


whom furlhcr mention is made; James, Rachel, Hannah and 
Sarah. The said VVilHam and James were twin brothers. It 
may he mentioned as an interesting incident, that in a genea- 
ogical chart of the Arnold family on file in the Congressional 
Library in Washington, extending back to the eleventh cen- 
tury, inscri])tions are copied from four tombstones in England, 
of about the sixteenth century, and three of the four bear the 
same family names above given, viz : William Arnold, born 
1537, James Arnold died 1631, Sarah Arnold born 1623. 

II. William, son of Jonathan and Rachel (Scott) Arnold, 
was brought up and resided in what later became Greene 
County, Pennsylvania. He married Hulda Knotts, daughter 
of a prominent citizen of the same section. Here he owned 
a valuable farm and followed that occupation. Children, Jon- 
athan of whom further, William, Rachel, Sarah, Charles Pink- 
ney and Caroline. 

III. Jonathan (HI) the eldest son of W^illiam and Hulda 
(Knotts) Arnold was born and raised on his father's farm 
near A\'est Brownsville, Greene County, Pa., the date of his 
birth l)eing March 27th, 1802. He settled at Beverly, in Ran- 
dolph County, then Virginia, in 1822, where he continued to 
reside until his death which occured July 20th, 1883. 

Upon locating in Beverly, Jonathan Arnold established 
a tannery. He continued in this business a few years only, 
when he engaged in speculating and cattle grazing, being us- 
ually successful in his business ventures. He was an ardent 
Whig, and was for years one of the leaders of his party in his 
adopted county. He never sought nor would he accept oi^ce, 
but many a political battle was waged in the county under 
his leadership, the result leaving no doubt in the minds of the 
opposition as to his active participation therein. He was a 
conservative man of the soundest judgment, of unquestioned 
integrity, of a kind heart, sympathetic and considerate with 
those in distress, of uncompromising sternness with dishon- 
esty in any place, and a trusted friend who could always be 
relied upon. His advice and judgment w^ere frequently sought, 
and given freely to those whom he esteemed, and when ob- 
served rarely failing to benefit and profit the recipient. 

At the breaking out of the Civil War Jonathan Arnold 


was strongly opposed to the State seceding from the Union, 
and he voted in 1861, with the minority in his county, against 
the ratification of the Ordinance of Secession. Early in the 
war, however, when he saw the policy of the Federal admin- 
istration trending, in his opinion, beyond the limits of the 
Constitution, he experienced no great change in finding his 
sympathies more in accord with the seceding states, as they 
seemed to him more nearly in line with the tenets of the Con- 
stitution. He was fearless in adherence to his principles and 
convictions, and he strongly opposed and voted against the 
formation of the State of West Virginia, at a time when such 
a vote stamped one with disloyalty in the eyes of the Federal 
commanders stationed throughout the State, and subjected 
him to risk of arrest and imprisonment. In the autumn of 
1863, he was arrested by the United States authority; was 
never informed as to any charge against him except the gen- 
eral charge of disloyalty, and was held as a prisoner until the 
close of the war. Through the intercession of influential 
friends he was paroled within narrow limits shortly after his 
arrest, but was not allowed to return to the vicinity of his 
home until a short time preceding his release. 

Jonathan Arnold possessed one of the largest and most 
carefully selected libraries in his section of the State. En- 
dowed with an unusually retentive memory, he read his books 
and between the lines, the result being that he was a man of 
unusual information. 

In the year 1827 he united in marriage with Thursa, 
daughter of Eli and Elizabeth (Hart) Butcher, a prominent 
merchant and resident of Beverly. He lost his wife within a 
little over a year, one child only surviving the mother, but 
dying in youth. In 1841 he married Phoebe Ann, daughter 
of Solomon and Edith (Davisson) Collett, and was again un- 
fortunate, his wife dying in a few months. In September, 
1844, he was united in marriage with Laura Ann, daughter 
of Jonathan and Julia (Neale) Jackson, of Clarksburg, West 
Virginia, and the only sister of Thomas J., afterward Gen- 
eral "Stonewall" Jackson.* By this marriage there were four 

*See sketch of Edward Jackson. 


children, the youngest dying- in infancy, the three eldest 
being Thomas Jackson, Anna Grace, and Stark W., who died 
in 1898. Anna Grace became the wife of Major C, H. Evans, 
of Springfield, O. She died in 1878, having previously lost 
her two little children. 

IV. Thomas Jackson Arnold was born at Beverly, No- 
vember 3, 1845. He was the eldest son of Jonathan and Laura 
Ann (Jackson) Arnold. At the age of thirteen he was placed 
in school at Lexington, Va., making his home with his uncle. 
Major Jackson, afterward General "Stonewall" Jackson. In 
1863-4 he attended school at Parkersburg, West Va., under 
Rev. William L. Hyland, rector of Christ Church. In 1866 
he began the study ofMaw at Beverly, under Colonel David 
GolT, and afterward took the course in law and equity at 
^^'ashington and Lee L-niversity, Virginia, graduating from 
that institution in 1867, with the degree of LL.B. Judge John 
\\\ Brokenbrough at that time filling the chair. The next 
year he began the practice of his profession in his native town 
and in the autumn of that year was elected Prosecuting At- 
torney for Randolph. In 1879 he was re-elected by a largely 
increased majority, and in 1872 was for the third time elected 
with a still larger majority. The last term was for four years, 
under the new Constitution, then but recently adopted. 

On June 1, 1876, Mr. Arnold married Miss Eugenia Hill, 
daughter of Lieutenant-General D. H. Hill, a distinguished 
Confederate officer. General Hill was prominent in many 
battles of the Civil War. He was in command at Big Bethel, 
the first important Confederate victory. As Major-General 
his Division did some of the heaviest fighting in the Seven 
Days battles near Richmond, particularly at Fair Oaks, 
Gaine's Mill, and Malvern Hill ; later at Second Bull Run, at 
South Mountain and Antietam or Sharpsburg. At Chicka- 
mauga, as Lieutenant-General, he commanded an army corps. 
the right wing of Bragg's army. He surrendered with Joseph 
E. Johnston, April, 1865. After the war he was quite promi- 
nent in literary and educational work to the time of his death, 
September 24th, 1889. Miss Hill was a native of Lexington, 
Va., but from childhood her father's home was in Charlotte, 
North Carolina. 


In 1880, Mr. Arnold removed to San Diego, California, 
where he continued the practice of law. In 1886 he was ap- 
pointed by. President Cleveland, Collector of the Port of San 
Diego, and continued in that position throughout the re- 
mainder of Mr. Cleveland's term and for nearly two years un- 
der the Harrison administration. The duties of the office 
during the period of his incumbency were particularly ar- 
duous, in consequence of the rapid growth of San Diego from 
a town of 3,000 to a city of 25,000 inhabitants. The records 
of the Treasury Department show that during Mr. Arnold's 
administration the cost of collecting in the San Diego District 
was reduced to a lower percentage on the dollar collected than 
had ever been done before or since. The following newspaper 
extract is from the pen of his successor in office under the 
Republican administration : "Mr. Arnold yesterday surrend- 
ered the office of Collector of the Port of San Diego to his 
successor. Mr. Arnold has held the office for nearly a full 
term, and has administered it whh his characteristic integrity 
and fidelity. His rulings on close questions, upon which there 
were no decisions, have been sustained by the Department 
with much uniformity, and he has had the pleasure of seeing 
several of his suggestions adopted as Department rules of ad- 
ministration. The business of the office has increased largely 
during his term of office, and he turns it over to his successor 
in good condition." 

In 1896 Mr. Arnold, with his family, returned to \\^est 
Virginia to look after his business interests i.n that .State. He 
resided on one of his farms at Arnold Hill station, midway 
between Elkins and Beverly. There were ])()rn to Mr. and 
Mrs. Arnold four children, a daughter. Miss Isabel, and three 
sons, viz : Daniel Harvey Hill, Thomas Jackson and Eugene H. 

V. Daniel Harvey Hill, son of Thomas Jackson and Eu- 
genia (Hill) Arnold, was born at P)everly, W. Vs.. He was 
educated at the preparatory schools in San Die^^^o, Calif., later 
attended Davidson College. North Carolina, then Washington 
and Eee Cniversity, from which he graduated with the degree 
of bachelor of arts in the vear 1900. Later he tttok a course 
of law in the office of his uncle, judge Joseph M. llill. late 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Arkansas, h^rom there 


he went to the University of Michij^an, at Ann Arbor, where 
he completed his law course. He has been engaged since 1902 
in the practice of his profession at the city of Elkins, in which 
he has been successful and is an energetic and leading citizen. 
He is a director of the Peoples National I>ank, is a member of 
the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and of the Benevolent 
and Protective Orders of Elks. 

Mr. Arnold married at Monticello, Ma., Octol^er 24, 1906, 
Mary Ann, l)orn at Monticello, November 29, 1884, died at 
Elkins, September 1, 1909, without issue; daughter of James 
and Mary (liansell) Denbam. Her father served in the Con- 
federate Army in the Civil War, and was afterward a mer- 
chant and planter, living at Monticello. In Auguest, 1914, 
i\Ir. Arnold married the second time, Miss Rebecca Andrews, 
of Staunton, V^a. They have one child, a daughter. 

YI. Thomas Jackson, son of Thomas Jackson and Eu- 
genia (Hill) Arnold, was born in San Diego, California. He 
attended the preparatory schools there and later in Lexing- 
ton, Virginia. He then entered the A. and M. College at Ra- 
leigh, North Carolina, and afterward the Maryland Agricul- 
tural College near Washington City. After a few years of 
business life in Elkins, he decided to become a foreign mission- 
ary and was appointed by his church to become their business 
manager for the American Presbyterian Congo Mission, and is 
stationed at Luebo, Belgian Congo, Central Africa. In this 
work for the moral and spiritual uplift of these natives of 
Africa he is both happy and useful and constantly sees good 
results and would not excbange places with any one. In other 
words, life in Central Africa is not a hardship for him, and 
he has never felt that he was making a sacrifice. 

VII. Eugene Hill, son of Thomas Jackson and Eugenia 
(Hill) Arnold, was born in San Diego, California. He was 
educated at Davis and Elkins College, West Virginia, grad- 
uating with the degree of bachelor of arts. He later studied 
law at the Georgetown University, and having a strong in- 
clination for newspaper work became a reporter on the Wash- 
ington Herald. After a few months he changed to the Balti- 
more Sun and served as one of their Washington City re- 
porters. Later he was assigned by the Sun to report news 


of the White House and the departments, being called to Bal- 
timore during the National Democratic convention of 1912. 
After being on the Sun's staff for a year, he resigned this po- 
sition and again resumed the study of law, this he continued, 
subject to one interruption. He was prevailed upon to act as 
press agent for the State of West Virginia for the National 
Democratic committee in the Wilson campaign. After dis- 
charging this onerous duty in the interests of his party, he 
entered the law department of the State University at Mor- 
gantown, and completed the two years course at this institu- 
tion in a little over one year. Since then he has been in con- 
tinuous practice, being the junior member of the law firm of 
Arnold and Arnold, Elkins, West Virginia. He has recently 
been elected city attorney. Mr. Arnold is a member of the 
B. P. O. Elks, of the I. O. O. F. and of the Loyal Order of 

Rev. .Stark W. Arnold, son of Jonathan Arnold, was born 
in Beverly, December 20, 1851. Early in life he was appointed 
to a clerkship in the Interior Department in Washington, 
where he remained about seven years. During this period he 
took the course of law, graduating from the Columbia Law 
School. He then came to Beverly, locating soon afterward 
at Buckhannon, engaging in the practice of his profession. 
In the fall of 1876 he was a candidate for the office of Prose- 
cuting Attorney of Upshur County, and was elected by an 
overwhelming majority, the largest that had been given a can- 
didate in that county at that time. On account of his father 
failing in health, requiring his personal attention, he returned 
to Beverly to reside in the year 1879, and continued there un- 
til after his father's death in 1883. During this last residence 
at Beverly he was elected to the senate from that senatorial 
district, serving out the full term of four years, introducing 
and successfully carrying through several measures of legisla- 
tion that attracted considerable attention throughout the 
State, notably, the election law, the changes then made lead- 
ing up to the present system. It was while serving in the 
Senate that he concluded to do that which had long been a 
subject of deep consideration with him, \iz : to go into the 
ministry. In order to prepare himself for this, he entered 


Drew Theological Seminary, where he remained and complet- 
ed his theological course. Shortly afterward he began his 
ministerial work in the State of New York, where he con- 
tinued in active work to the end of his life, August, 1898, 
preaching his last sermon only three weeks preceding his 
death. In December, 1880, he married Miss Lizzie Gohen, of 
Cincinnati, O. She and four children survive him. 

The Arbogast Family. This family, numerously repre- 
sented in Randolph, is of German descent, and settled in 
what is now Highland County, Virginia, prior to 1779. The 
name was originally spelled Armikast. Adam Arbogast was 
Captain of a company of Pendleton militia in 1793. 


The Armentrout Family. This family is of German de- 
scent. The name was originally spelled Erhmantrout. Chris- 
topher Armentrout moved from Rockingham County, Vir- 
ginia, to what is now Grant County prior to the Revolution. 
The immediate ancestors of the Armentrouts in Randolph 
lived in Grant and Pendleton counties. 

Hiram, son of Christopher, was born in Pendleton Coun- 
ty in 1811. He married Amanda Smith. Their children were, 
John A\'., who married Martha Dolly ; Christopher, who mar- 
ried Pheoba Mullenix; Aaron, Mary, Martha, Isaac, Anne, 
Susan, Adina and Nevada. 

John W. Armentrout was born in 1843 and was married 
in 1868 to Martha, daughter of John and Susan Dolly. Their 
children are Robert E., Laura V., Stella C, Jasper C. and 
Wilbur E. 

Christopher Armentrout was born in 1845. Children, Ola 
E., Vista G., Carrey L., Elva T., Viva and Orgie. He came 
from Pendleton to Randolph in 1872 and w^as elected a mem- 
ber of the countty court in 1888. His grandfather, Christopher 
Armentrout, was born in Grant County in 1775. In 1792 he 
entered 218 acres of land in the vicinity in which his grand- 
son, Christopher, is now a resident, but he did not occupy it. 
His greatgrandmother, Catherine Peterson, was captured at 
Fort Sevbert bv the Indians in 1758. About fortv settlers 


were in the fort and all were massacred but two who were 
held in captivity and taken to their village near Chilicothe, 
Ohio. Catherine Peterson was among the number spared. 
The Shawnee Trail by which they returned to Ohio passed 
through or near the city of Elkins. A brave had pity on Mrs. 
Peterson and gave her a pair of moccasins that she might 
travel with greater comfort. She remained in captivity for 
six years. Two hundred captives w.ere rescued by General 
Boquet, who attacked the Indian towns in Ohio in 1764. They 
were returned to Fort Pitt. Mrs. Peterson was among the 
number and from there returned to her home in Pendleton. 
In 1788 Uriah Gandy sold to Christopher Armentrout 
131 acres on_ Gandy Creek, Randolph County. The name was 
spelled in the conveyance Plermantrout. 


The Bosworth Family. The first of the Bosworth family 
to locate in what is now West A^irginia were Joshua and a 
brother whose name is now not known. The brother after a 
brief sojourn in Virginia, moved farther west and located at 
Marietta, Ohio. Joshua Bosworth married in Massachusetts 
a Miss Squire and to this union were born, in the native State, 
the following children : Joshua, Amaziah, Squire, Parley, Har- 
riet, who married John Phillips, of French Creek, Upshur 
County ; Delaney, who married Alpheus Rude and moved to 
Illinois ; Rhoda, who married a Mr. Allen and moved to Ohio. 

Squire Bosworth was born in Montgomery, Alassachu- 
setts in 1785 and died at Beverly, West A^irginia, in 1870. He 
married Hannah, daughter of Peter Buckey, in 1816. Unto 
this union were born John W., Squire Xewton, George W., 
Elam B., Rebecca, who married Rev. C. S. M. See: Lucy, who 
married Capt. T. A. Bradford; Flarriet, who married Charles 

See; Martha, who married McGuffin, Christina, wlio 

married William Brown ; Mar}', who married Adam Crawford. 

Dr. John W. Bosworth married Mattie Dold. Child, 
Annje, who became the wife of Dr. Chas. Williams. 

Geo. W. Bosworth married Mary, daughter of John and 
Ann (Conrad) Currence. Children, Drs. John L., Albert S. 
and Perry. 

Joshua IJosworth came to A^irginia with the Xew Eng- 



land colony that settled on French Creek. He located on Tur- 
key Run, near the Upshur-Harrison line. Among the families 
that comprised that settlement were the Goulds, Burrhs, Mor- 
gans, Philli])s, Brooks, Sextons and the Phillips. They were 
well educated and de\(nit Christians and were of the best ma- 
terial for a new country. 



Dr. Squire Bosworth after teaching- school for a time in 
Parkersburg and Beverly studied medicine under Dr. Dolbear 
and attended lectures in Richmond, Virginia. He was for 
nearly half a centur}^ the only physician in Randolph. He 
was clerk of the county court of Randolph as well as deputy 
for a number of years under Archibald Earle. He also repre- 
sented Randolph and Tucker in the \irginia Assembly prior 
to the Civil War. 

Dr. J. L. Bosworth married Rachael, daughter of Ran- 
dolph and Katherine (Hutton) Crouch. Children, Mary, who 
married Tracy Fling-, of Gilmer County, and Hallie and John 

Dr. Perry Bosworth married in Pocahontas County, Lucy, 
daug-hter of Joseph Samuel and Abigail (Curry) Smith. 

Dr. A. S. Bosworth married in 1882, Julia AI., daughter of 
Geo. A\'. and H. Keziah (Boyers) Davis. Children, Stella AI., 
who married Blake Taylor. Mrs. Bosworth died in 1885. He 
married his second wife, Miss Eleanor, daughter of Henry and 
Elizabeth (Snyder) \A'eisgerber, of Baltimore, in 1894. One 
child, Stanley, has been born of this union. 

The original home of the Bosworths in En-^land was in 
Leicester County, an inland town. Bosworth Field and Bos- 
worth Market are historic places in Leicester. Benjamin was 
perhaps the lirst of the name to come to America in abtnit 
1630, settling at Iliohham, Massachusetts. The Bosworths 
in New England intermarried with the Alortons, Childs, Stur- 
devants and IMathers. 

Squire N. Bosworth, son of Dr. Squire and Hannah 
(Bucky) Bosworth, was born in 1841, married (1867) Florence 
A., daughter of Bernard L. and ]\lary (Daily) Brown. Chil- 
dren, Lutie Lee, Florence A., Mary E\'a, Ada, Churles B., 
Carroll L., Hellen, Xina and Willie. 

Mr. Bosworth served through the war as a Confederate 
soldier, belonging to the Thirty-tirst X'irginia Infantry, of 
which companv he was Sergeant. He still has in his ])osses- 
sion the flag of his regiment, presented by Stonewall Jackson, 
May 5, 1862. The flag was jjierced l)v a shell. 

Mr. Boswortli was for nianv vears postmaster of r)everly. 



Isaac l>aker ^vas the first representative of this family to 
locate in Randoli:)h, coming- here from Pendleton about 1825. 
He married Naomi (Morgan) Stalnaker. The children of this 
uni(Mi were. Isaac, Harriett, Eli, Catherine, ICllen, John and 
Daniel R. 

Isaac, son of Isaac and Naomi (Stalnaker) Baker, was 
born in 1833, and died in 1910. In 1859 he married Harriet, 
daughter of Zirus Weese. One child. Stark L. Baker, was 
the result of tliis union. 

Stark L. Baker was born in 1860; married Mable S., 
daughter of J. J. and Margaret (Stuard) Burns. One child, 
James. Mr. Baker was educated in the public schools and 
the Fairmont Normal, from which institution he graduated. 
He was deputy collector of Internal Revenue from 1889 to 
1893 : chairman of the Republican County Committee sixteen 
years; was V. S. District Court Commissioner and represented 
the Tenth District in the State Senate, being elected in 1898. 

Eli Baker, son of Isaac, born 1835, died 1898; mother's 
name, Maria Stalnaker ; married in 1862, Upshur County, Re- 
becca J., daughter of William Sexton. She died in 1867. One 
child, Jessie B., wdio married Clay Daniels, was born of this 
union. His second marriage was to Maggie E. Sexton. She 
died in 1916. The issue of this marrige were Wm. E., Chas. 
C, George C. and Anna G. 

Mr. Baker was postmaster at Beverly 24 years. 

Anna Greta married L. R. Fowler. Children, William, 
Richard and Baker. 

Dr. Geo. C. Baker married Katherine, daughter of J. 
Rier Wells, of Baltimore. Children, Frances Margaret, 
Katherine, Elizabeth and Virginia. 

W'm. E. married Martha Davidson, of Evansville, In- 
diana. Children, Janet Davidson. 

Charles C. married Hattie, daughter of A. D. and Bell 
(Russell) Barlow\ Children, Charles Baker, Margaret Bell. 


\\'illiam E., son of Eli and Margaret (Sexton) Baker, 
was born February 25, 1873. He was educated at Wesleyan 
University and State E^niversity, where he received the de- 
grees of A.B. and E.E.B. He was admitted to the bar in 1896. 
He is a director and a member of the finance committee of 
Davis Trust Company of Elkins. On March 28, 1906, he mar- 
ried Martha, daughter of William Da\-idson, of Evansville, 
Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Baker have one child, Janet Davidson. 

Daniel Randolph Baker, son of Isaac and ]\Iaria (Stal- 
naker) Baker, was born in 1846. He married, in 1868, ]^lar- 
garet Christina, daughter of Eemuel and Nancy (Hart) Chen- 
oweth. Children, Nora Lee, who married F. A. Parsons. 
Children, ]\!argerv, HalHe, Christina, Sail}-, Randolph and 
James who is dead; Hattie Maria, who married Dr. H. Yo- 
kum. Children, Baker, Virginia, George, Christine, Gertrude 
and Katharine are dead; Edgar D., Bernard L. and John Elys- 
ses, who married Eena Mae (Schuyler) of Nev^ York. Chil- 
dren, Rosalind Randolph, Margaret Christine and D'aniel 

The W'estfall Fort stood on Baker's farm near the mouth 
of Files Creek. 


The Booth Family. The names of Isaac, William, James 
and David Booth appear in the records of Randolph ]irior to 
1796. Isaac Booth was sheriff in 1813. James Boc^th was 
married to Pheobe Osborn in 1797. William Booth married 
Debora, daughter of Edward Hart, in 1803. 


(ieorge Elmer Bond, son of Wm. H. and Rebecca (Judy) 
Bond, was born May 11, 1866; married Ida J., daughter of C. 
S. and Amanda (Jeffries) Bowers. 

Mr. Bond has been chief of police at Iluttonsville two 
years, assistant chief at Elkins for one year, and chief at Whit- 
mer seven vears. He is now a farmer and poultry raiser at 


The Bogard Family. This family moved to Randolph 
at a very early day. The IJo^Qards and Pettys eame toi^ether 
from Pennsylvania. The exact date is not known. Samuel 
Currence son of the first William, married Elizabeth Bogard, 
daughter of Cornelius l^ogard in 1795. Cornelius Bogard en- 
tered land on (dady h'ork in 17(S9. He was assessor of Ran- 
dolph in 1783 and sheriff in 1796. 


The Buffington Family. Jonathan and William Buffing- 
ton were early settlers of Randolph. They located on Leading 
Creek. The Buffingtons, Rooneys, Hornbecks and Doughertys 
were neighbors on Leading Creek, in the vicinitv of the pres- 
ent village of Cilman. The Buffingtons came to Randolph 
from Hampshire. Johnathan Buffington's wife and children 
were murdered by the Lidians in the Leading Creek massacre 
of 1781. He escaped to Friends Fort. Mr. Buffington mar- 
ried for his second wife Madaline, daughter of Jacob Helmick, 
in 1801. 

The Blair Family. Wm. Blair came from Eastern Vir- 
ginia prior to 1789, as in that year the County Court ordered 
the sheriff to pay ]\Ir. Blair his pension for the years from 
1786 to 1789. He received a pension of $33.33^/5 for wounds 
received in the battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774. 

The Buckey Family. The Buckey family was one of the 
pioneer family of Randolph. Peter Buckey immigrated from 
German}^ to Maryland. After a few years residence at Hagers- 
town, that State, he moved to Beverly, a short time after the 
formation of the county. He was a tailor by trade, but there 
being no demand in a pioneer community for an individual of 
his occupation or trade he engaged in the hotel business and 
for more than a century his descendants were engaged in that 
business in Beverly, or as long as it was the county seat of 


I'eter Buckey married a daughter of Wm. Alarteny. Chil- 
dren, George, William, John, Alarteny, Eunice, Hannah, Chris- 
tina and Alary. Eunice married a man by the name of Carter ; 
Hannah married Dr. Squire Bosworth ; Christina married Da- 
vid Goff ; Alary married Archibald Earle ; Wm. Buckey moved 
to Sydney, Ohio ; John moved to Knoxville, Tennessee ; Dan- 
iel, son of Peter, married Virginia Ball ; Alarteny Buckey never 

married; Geo. Buckey, son of Peter and (Alartenyj 

Buckey, married Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Hart. Chil- 
dren, John, Alpheus, Emmett, Eugene, Daniel, Edith. 

Wirt Buckey, son of Alpheus and Rebecca (Chenoweth) 
Buckey, was born in 1860 ; married Eliza Alice, daughter of 
John B. and Elizabeth (Currence) Earle. Children, Wilbur, 
Clara, Stella and Lena R. 

Air. Buckey is a great grandson of Peter Buckey, one of 
the pioneers of Randolph. Air. Buckey was was many years 
foreman of the painters crew on the Western Maryland 


The Butcher Family. This family became indentified with 
Randolph County in 1790, when Samuel Butcher moved from 
Loudon County, Virginia, to Randolph, locating on a farm 
where the Odd Fellows Llome now stands. Samuel Butcher 
had moved to Virginia from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 
in about 1750. The Samuel that located in Randolph was the 
youngest son of the first Samuel. Samuel Butcher lived in 
Randolph until 1815, when he moved to W'ood County, where 
he resided until his death in 1846, in the 92nd year of his age. 

Samuel Butcher had three sons : Ely, Thomas and Balis G. 
Balis G. married Patsy AlcNeil, of Pocahontas County. Their 
first born, Oscar G., became a prominent physician of Ran- 
dolph. (See chapter of Physicians and Surgeons.) Ely Butcher 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Hart, in 1804. Chil- 
dren, Creed W., Fountain and Baxter. 


Brown Family. Bernard L. Brown was born in Albemarle 
Countv, \'irginia, near AA'hite Hall. His ancestors came to 



Virginia as early as 1621. They were men and women who 
were prominent in the early affairs of the colony ; most of them 
settling- in Hanover County, and in and near Richmond; but 
when ihc County of Alhermarle was formed, and settlers began 
to Hock to that locality, IJenjaniin Brown and Sarah (Thomp- 
son) Brown his wife, with their large family, remoA'ed from 


Hanover County as early as 1747, and entered the land on both 
sides of Moorman's River in Albemarle County — more than 
six thousand acres — twenty miles from Charlottesville. This 
land was divided among his sons, and all builded homes except 
one, ^^'illiam or Benjamin. Jr., who had his home in Hanover 
or Louisa County. Some of these homes are still owned and 
occupied by their descendants, and the neighborhood was and 
is still known as Brown's Cove. 


Benjamin Brown, the father, had his home called ''Trini- 
dad," at the head of this valley, and his sons had theirs along 
the sides of the stream known as Moormans River. 

Bernard, Sr., married Elizabeth Dabney, daughter of Gen. 
John Dabney, a Revolutionary soldier, and granddaughter of 
Cornelius Dabney or D'Aubigne. (The name has been angli- 
cized to Dabney). His second wife, grandmother of Eliza- 
beth, was Sarah Jennings. The mother of Elizabeth was 
Anne Harris Dabney, daughter of Major Robert Harris, mem- 
ber of the House of Burgesses from Hanover County, 1736, 
1738, 1740, 1742. His wife was Mourning Glenn. He was 
born 168----, died 1765. He was a son of William Harris and 
Temperance Overton, his wife, who was a daughter of Wil- 
liam Overton. W^illiam Harris was the son of one Robert Har- 
ris of Wales, and his wife who was Mrs. Mary Rice, a widow, 
daughter of William Claibome and his wife Elizabeth (But- 
ler) Clail)ome. This Robert Harris was born in 1630, died 
1700. \\ illiam Claibome was born in 1587, died 1676. He 
came to X'irginia with George W^yant in 1621, was secretary 
of the Colony of Virginia, 1625, 1635, 1652, 1660; ireasurer, 
1642, 1660; surveyor general, 1621, 1625; J. P. York &: North- 
umberland, 1653 ; member of the Council, 1623 ; commanded an 
expedition against the Indians, 1629, again in 1644. In the 
Northumberland records April, 1653, is an order referring to 
the Worshipful Col. William Claibome Deputv Governor. 

Bernard Brown, Sr., husband of Elizabeth Dabney and 
grandfather of Bernard L. Brown, was a soldier in the struggle 
for American Independence whose duty was to carrv dis- 
patches from New York to Charleston, South Carolina. He 
was born January 28th, 1750, died February 26th, 1800. His 
wife, Elizabeth Dabney, was born June 18th, 1751, died June, 
1826, 75 years of age. Bernard Sr. and Elizabeth, his wife, 
had twelve children, one of whom, Bernard M., married Mi- 
riam Maupin, also of French descent. 

Bernard L. Brown, the subject of this sketch, was their 
son. Their home was near White Hall, at or near the home 
of the first Bernard. (The name had been given to father and 
son through three generations and is still given to one cliiUl 
in almost everv familv of the descendants.) Bernard L. Brown 


was let I an orplian at the age of nine years, lie was the sev- 
entli of nine children. The others were, Thompson, Sarah 
Pyrena, Sidna, Allen Smith VV., Elizabeth Uabney, named 
for her orandmother, the wife of Bernard Sr. The youngest 
was James Dabney, who distinguished himself at the battle 
of Manasses, carrying dispatches from Beuregard to Jackson 
through such a lieavy hre that four horses were shot down un- 
der him while he escaped unhurt and received an honorable 
parole from his General Beureguard. 

Bernard L. Brown was born August 9th, 1816. After the 
death of his parents, both dying almost within a year, he lived 
with his uncle, Thomas H. Brown, in Albemarle, until he ob- 
tained a position as clerk in a store with a Mr. Moore in 
Scotts^'ille, Virginia, and afterward moved to Beverly, Ran- 
dolph County, in company with John S. Carlisle, the politican, 
with whom he was in partnership in a store for sometime. He 
was licensed to practice law in 1840. On account of loss of 
hearing he was compelled to relinquish the profession of law. 

Bernard I-. Brown was county surveyor of Randolph and 
clerk of the Circuit Court for about twenty years prior to the 
Civil War. At the beginning of the Civil War he returned 
to Albemarle County, Virginia, where he remained until the 
close when he returned to Beverly to find his home demol- 
ished. He was of a very ingenious turn and was therefore 
enable to furnish his familv with various conveniences during 
the war. 

A\'hen A\'m. J. Jackson made his raid into Beverly he 
captured the records of the office of the Circuit Court and took 
them to Brownsburg, Virginia, where Col. David Gofif and 
Judge Gideon D. Camden resided. They notified Mr. Brown 
that they were there and requested him to come and get them. 
He took his daughter, now Mrs. Earl, with him. They met a 
colony of their old friends, viz : Col. Gofif and family, Judge 
Camden and wife, B. W. Crawford and family, Absolem Craw- 
ford and family, Elam Bosworth and family and Eli Cheno- 
weth and wlie. They took the records to Albemarle County. 
At the close of the Civil War he returned to Beverly with a 
large amount of wild mountain land his only possession. Un- 
able to hold office on account of the "Test Oath" which he was 


unable to take conscientiously, he found it hard to provide for 
his large and helpless family, and although one of his Union 
friends, John B. Earle, who was Circuit Clerk at the time, had 
him appointed deputy under himself, it was still a struggle. 
Broken down in health and spirits, he died February 10th, 
1868 at the age of 52 years. He married March 4th, 1842, Mary 
Elizabeth Dailey, daughter of Hugh Dailey of Louden County, 
Virginia, and Edith P.utcher who was the daughter of Eli 
Butcher, of Beverly, \A^est \'irginia, and Elizabeth Hart, his 
first wife, who was a daughter of Edward Hart and Xancy 
Stout, his Avife, and a granddaughter of John Hart, signer of 
the Declaration of Independence from New Jersey. 

Mary Dailey Brown, wife of Bernard L. Brown, was l)orn 
January 20th, 1825. I-ong after Mr. Brown's death she mar- 
ried her cousin. Summers McCrum, of Aurora, Preston Coun- 
ty, West Virginia, and died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Page R. McCrum, May 18th, 1907. 

The children of B. L. Brown and Mary Dailey his w^fe 
were, first, Edith who died in infancy. Second, Adeliza who 
married Archibald Earl. Jr.. of Fort ^^'orth. Texas. (Both liv- 
ing at Fort Worth.) Three children, Bernard, Charles and 
Clay, deceased. Third, Florence, married S. X. Bosworth, 
Be\erly, West Virginia; nine children, Mrs. E. D. Talbott, El- 
kins; Mrs. Dr. L. A\'. Talbott, Elkins ; C. Bernard Bosworth, 
Beverly; Mrs. Clare Harding, Elkins and Beverly; Mrs. Helen 
Harding, Elkins ; Carroll L. and Miss Nina Bosworth, Bev- 
erly ; Florence and Miller, dead. Fourth. Laura Sidna, died 
when 13 years of age. Fifth. Oscar L., died 1888. Married 
Edith Dailey of Illinois. Two children. Bernard L. and Jesse 
Harold, of Pomona, California. Sixth, Lucy B., married Page 
R. McCrum, Aurora, Virginia. Two children living. 
Summer D., Aurora, and Harold Bernard, Fairmont, West 
Virginia. Clare and Paul deceased. Seventh, Edwin A., who 
died in infancy. Eighth, Charles Bernard, of Clinton, Iowa, 
married Mary Smith, of Albany, Illinois. Four sons, Earl F., 
Clarence, Leonard and Alva. X'inth, Clarence FTugh Dailey, 
died unmarried. Tenth, Alice G., married Porter, of Chariton, 
Missouri. Two living children, Clarence R. and Mrs. Edith 
Vedder, of Seattle. One child, John, died in infancy. Elev- 


enth, Roberta L., married Erastus Williamson, Cordora. Il- 
linois. Two livino- children, Mr. Aui^nsta Simpson, Cordova; 
and Ray l>ro\vn, Williamson. Two children, I'rcderick and Al- 
ma died in infancy. 


The Crouch Family. Three l)r(ithers l)y the name of 
Cronch immigrated to the American colonies from Wales in 
1750. Their names were John, James, and, perhaps, Andrew. 
James Cronch, in 1780, in company with a nnmber of men wdio 
were escorting" John and \\'illiam Warwick to their homes in 
(ireenbrier County, was ambushed l)y the Indians as related 
in another cha])ter of this book. Prior to this time Andrew 
Crouch was living in the vicinity of Haddan's Fort and it is 
known that his son, Joseph, was a man of maturity at that 
time. It is therefore probable, coupled with the fact that their 
lands were among the choicest in the county, that they came 
with the general rush to the \^alley in 1772-4. The Crouch 
brotliers were neighbors of the W'arwicks, Haddans, Cur- 
rences and Whites. 

John Crouch had three sons, John, Jacob and Andrew. 
Andrew is known to have had one son, Joseph. James Crouch 
escaped immediate death at the hands of the Indians in the 
tragedy near Haddan's Fort, but wdiether he finally recovered 
or died of his wounds is not known. John Crouch, the pioneer, 
died from the effects of a snake bite. He lived at the time on 
his farm a mile or so below- Huttonsville on the east side of the 
river, near the mouth of ShaA^ers Run. 

John, son of the first John, married Judy W'estfall. Their 
children were, Isaac, Abraham, Andrew, Marshal and one 
daughter whose name is not knowm. 

Andrew Crouch, son of John the pioneer, married Eliza- 
beth Hutton. Their children were Johnathan Jacob. Kitty, 
Moses, John and Abraham. 

Johnathan. son of Andrew and Elizabeth (Hutton) 
Crouch, married, in 1830, Delilah, daughter of Adam and 
Christian (Harper) Haigler. Children, Dorothy. Almira, Cv- 
rus, Martha. Christina, Elizabeth. ]\Iary. Robert. Eli H. and 
Henrv Clav. 



Abraham Crouch. The Crouch family, one of the wealth- 
iest and most prominent in the county, was first represented 
by three brothers, John, James and Andrew. Abraham 
Crouch, son of Andrew and Elizabeth (tlutton) Crouch, was 
born in 1832 and died in 1901. He married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John and Harriet (Lockridge) McNeal. Children, Lee, 
Ada. Eina, Bettie, Mav, Grace and Jackson. Abraham was 


the grandson of John and the great grandson of John, the pi- 
oneer. He was a memljer of a family that has been identified 
with the county from its earliest settlement to the present 
time. A family that has been prominent in every movement 
of interest and stands today in the front rank of prominent 
and substantial families. 

Abraham Crouch typified a class of an earlier day citizen, 
the greatest asset and product of any community, who sought 
neither place nor prominence, whose exemplary lives were em- 
bittered neither b}- poverty nor encumbered bv wealtli, whose 


counsels were invaluable and whose only ambition was to live 
honestly, serve their fellow man and leave the heritage of a 
good name. 

Lee Crouch, son of Abraham and Elizabeth (McNeal) 
Crouch, was born in 1859, married Amanda, daughter of John 
and Mary (Blake) Wallace. Children, Mary E., Wallace M., 
Maude and Eva. 

Mr. Crouch was deputy sheriff under A. J. Long and War- 
wick Hutton. He was elected county clerk in 1896 and re- 
elected in 1900, but resigned to accept a position as cashier 
of the First National Bank of Elkins, which place he held until 
1916 when he succeeded Hon. Henry G. Davis as president of 
that institution. 


The Collett Family. This was a pioneer family in Ran- 
dolph and Pendleton. Thomas Collett was the first of the 
name to locate in Pendleton. He had two children, 
Thomas and Gabriel. Thomas Collett lived in Buft'alo Hills in 
I'endleton in 1780. Gabriel Collett was constable in Pendle- 
ton in 1788. Thomas Collett is mentioned among the tithables 
of Pendleton in 1790. Thomas Collett in 1782 rendered a claim 
for material, food, etc., furnished the American troops in the 
war of the Revolution. Thomas Collett was on the muster 
rolls of Pendleton in 1794. 

Rev. Thomas Collett, the pioneer Baptist minister of Ran- 
dolph, was the son of Thomas Collett and perhaps the grand- 
son of Thomas Collett. He married Nancy, daughter of Henry 
Pedro. Rev. Collett died neceml)er 31, 1870. His wife Xancy 
Pedro Collett died during the Civil War. 

Parkison Collett, son of Rev. Thomas and Xancy (Pedro) 
Collett, was born in 1828, married 1866, Anzina, daughter of 
Alba and Emily (Wilmoth) Clienoweth. Children, Zan, Mit- 
tie, Thomas J., Emma, Louise Alba and Florence, who died 
in infancy. 

Mr. Collett was in the Confederate service and partici- 
pated in the battle of Gettysburg and other important engage- 
ments. He was First Lieutenant in McClanihan's batterv. He 


was four times assessor of Randolph, twice prior and twice 
subsequent to the Civil W^ar. 

A. J. Collett, son of Rev. Thomas and Nancy (Pedro) 
Collett, was born in 1837, married (1868) Xantippe, daughter 
of B. W. and Anzina (Earle) Crawford. Children, Beulah, 
who married Geo. \\\ Leonard ; Susan, who married Dr. 
Thompson ; Ora, who married Ceo. Curtis ; Katherine Ward, 
who married John Emmart ; Albert, Bushrod C, and Howard 
L„ and Laura, who is a graduate of Jefferson College Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, Philadelphia. 

Calvin C. Collett, born in 1818, son of Rev. Thomas and 
Nancy (Pedro) Collett, and died in 1880. Married (1859) 
Louise, daughter of William and Emaline (Vandevander) 
Hyre. Children, Columbus, Christina, J^^lorence, Afay, Lena, 
Birdie and William Thomas. 

Alba, son of Parkison and Anzina (Chenoweth) Collett, 
was born in 1882. On November 20, 1916, he was united in 
marriage to Nina, daug-hter of S. N. and Elorence A. (Brown) 
Bosworth. Mr. Collett is descended from three prominent pi- 
oneer families of Randolph, the Colletts, Chenoweths and 
Pedroes. He is at present Avith the IL L. Manning Drug 
store, Elkins, West Virginia. 

Howard L., son of A. J. and Xantippe (Crawford) Col- 
lett, was born in 1883. Mr. Collett was educated in ])ublic 
schools and Mountain State Business College where he grad- 
uated in 1904. For twelve years he has been teller in the 
Davis Trust Company, Elkins, West Virginia. 

Bernard C. Collett, son of Solomon and Mary (Hill) Col- 
lett, was born in 1885, married Bessie, daughter of Alartion 
Weese. Children, Russell. 

Mr. Collett is in the employ of the Crawford and Corroth- 
ers Lumber Company near Elkins. 

Chas. H. Collett, son of Solomon and Mary ( Hill) Collett, 
was born in , married Stella, daughter of (k^i>. and Chris- 
tina (Weese) Hill. Children. Richard. 

Mr. Collett is a foreman for Crawford and Corrothers 
Lumber Com])any near Elkins. 



The Channell Family. Tlie Channell family was among 
the first settlers of Randolph. Jeremiah was the first of the 
name to locate in this county. He came from Hardy in the 
first decade of the ])ioneer period in Randolph. He married 
Sallie Steele and they were residents of the county at the time 
of the massacre of the Connolly family l)y the Indians. Jere- 
miah located on land opposite the town of Huttonsville. The 
farm is now owned by Patrick Crickard. The children of Jere- 
miah and Sallie (Steele) Channell were, John, Samuel, An- 
drew, Susan, Elizabeth and Jemima. 

Enoch A\'., son of Noah .S. and Mary (Crickard) Channell, 

married Eliza, daughter of ]\lartin and (Bell) W'amsley. 

Children, Elenor and Carl. 

]\lr. Channell is of English and Irish descent and is a 
member of the pioneer famih^ of Channells of Randolph. ]\Ir. 
Channell is postmaster at Huttonsville. 

G. N. Channell, son of Samuel and Susan (Taylor) Chan- 
nell, was born in 1849, married Jemima Jane, daughter of 
James M. Wilmoth. Children, Tippie, Belva, Clay, Fletcher, 
Cletus and Ciro\er. Bernice and Clyde died in infancy. Mr. 
Chaiuiell was born and raised in the vicinity of Kernes, 
and is a grandson of Samuel Channell, the pioneer. 

(1. Clinton Channell, son of Noah S. and ^lary (Crickard) 
Channell, was born in Huttonsville, Febuary, 1884, married 
April 25, 1905, to Dora, daughter of Zacharia and Margaret 
Talbott. Children, Marguerite, Earl, W'oodrow and Garland. 

Mr. Channel came to Elkins in April, 1912. He is pro- 
prietor of the Grove Feed and Storage Co., and is vice-presi- 
dent of the AA'. yz. Feed and Flour Co. at Clarksburg. 

The Crickard Family. The Crickards are of Scotch-Irish 
descent. My great grandfather was a resident of that part of 
Ireland known as Ulster. He was an officer in King James 
army and fought at the battle of the Boyne, July 1, 1690. The 
Irish forces were defeated by AA'illiam III of England. After 
this battle many of the estates of the Irish were confiscated 
and divided among AA'illiam's followers who were largely 


Protestants. My great grandfather, being loyal to Ireland 
and a Catholic, his estate was confiscated. My grandfather 
resided in the County of Doun. My father, John Crickard, 
and his brothers came to America in 1834-40. They settled in 
Augusta County, Virginia. My father, John Crickard, and 
my uncle, Peter Crickard, built the Staunton and Parkersburg 
Pike from Greenbrier to Cheat Bridge. After the completion 
of this work, my father located on Shavers Run in Valley 
Bend District. My only brother, Peter Crickard, lived and 
died there. ?Ie was the father of the present sherifif of Ran- 
dolph, A. J. Crickard. Thos. Michael Plunkett, member of 
the British Parliament is a cousin of the Crickards of Ran- 
dolph. My mother's name was Mar^^ (Plunkett) Crickard. 
My grandfather, Michael Crickard, took part in the Emmett 
Rebellion of 1803.— Patrick Crickard. 

John R. Crickard, son of Patrick and Amanda (Currence) 
Crickard, was born in 1860, married Alverda, daughter of 
John and Hannali (Currence) Bell. Children, Patrick E., 
Nixon J., Robert B., Eva B., Peter \\'., Mary A., Jonas F., 
Anne C. and Rose P. 

Mr. Crickard was educated in public schools and at Rock 
Hill College, Maryland. He was for several years one of the 
prominent school teachers of the county and served several 
terms as president of the Board of Education of Mingo Dis- 
trict. He was also justice of the peace of Mingo District for 
twelve years. In 1910 he was elected justice of the peace of 
that district on the Socialist- ticket, giving him the distinction 
of being the only man having been elected by the adherents 
of that political faith in Randolph. Mr. Crickard is prominent 
in fraternal circles and is a member of the A. F. and A. M., 
I. O. O. F., K. P. and M. W. W. 

The Caplinger Family. This name is of German origin 
and was originally spelled Keplinger. in the early records 
of Pendleton the name was spelled Caplinger, Kaplinger, Kep- 
linger and Coplingcr. The Caplingers were among the pion- 
eers of Pendleton. Samuel Caplinger was the first of the 
name in Pendleton. lie died in that countv in 1769. He had 


a son named George, who died in 1773. He was a soldier in 
the French and Indian war of 1754-60, from Augusta, now 
Pendleton County. George, son of the first George, resided 
in Pendleton and was relieved from military duty on account 
of physical disability in 1792. Whether he was a soldier in 
the Revolution is not known, however, he submitted a claim 
for supplies furnished the American army in that war. 

George, grandson of the first George, was born February 
3, 1784. He moved to Randolph from Pendleton in about 
1800. He was the first of the name to locate in Randolph 
and founded the Caplinger settlement. Many of his descend- 
ants still live in the community and the original homestead 
remains in the possession of members of the family. 

George Caplinger married Sarah Collett in 1804. Their 
children were, Thomas J., George \\'., Solomon C, Adam D., 
Margaret and Flizabeth. 

Thomas J. Caplinger married Margaret Chenoweth, 
daughter of Jehu Chenoweth. Children, George, John, Jehu, 
Lloyd, Adam, Rachel, Eliza and Ann. 

Geo. \\'. Caplinger married Jane Heavener of Upshur 
County. Children, Alice, who married Marion Grose, and 
Caroline, who married Jacob Chenoweth. Two children, Elias 
and Jacob died in youth. 

Adam D. Caplinger married Elizabeth, daughter of \\\\- 
liam B. Wilson. Children, Theodore, Edwin Duncan, Wil- 
liam B., Ida E., Pattie C. and Lee Duncan. His second wife 
was Sabina Saulsbury. Children, Alary, Perrv L., Hattie B. 
and Addie W. Mary married Iddo \\'ard ; Flattie B. married 
Fritz Hanger and Addie W. married Michael A\"eese. 

Edwin Duncan Caplinger died when 18 years of age. Ida, 
daughter of Adam D. Caplinger married Randolph M. Harper. 
Pattie C. Caplinger, daughter of Adam D. Caplinger, married 
•Henry A. Harper. 

Wm. B. Caplinger married in 1839 Phoeba, daughter of 
Henry A. Harper. She died the same year and some years 
thereafter Mr. Caplinger married Elva Riggleman. 

Lee Duncan, son of Adam D. and Elizabeth (Wilson) 
Caplinger, married Lucy, daughter of Henry A. Flarper. Chil- 
dren, Frank and Hoke. Frank died when 12 years of age. 


Thomas J., son of George and Sarah (Collett) Caplinger, 
married Margaret Chenoweth. Children, Lloyd, George C., 
John C., Jehu C., Adam C, Rachel, Ann and Eliza. 

Lloyd Caplinger, born in 1849, married in 1892, Bernice, 
daughter of John B. and Bettie (Currence) Earle. Children, 
Earle. Some years later after the death of his first wife Mr. 
Caplinger married Ida Durett. Rachel, daughter of Thomas 
Caplinger, married Elisha Talbott ; Ann, daughter of Thom- 
as J., married Augustus Moore ; Eliza, daughter of Thomas J., 
married Edward Skidmore. 

John C. Caplinger, born in 1844, son of Thomas J. Cap- 
linger, married in 1873, Sydney, daughter of John W. and 
Mary \\'ood Moore. Children, Lena, Rizpaw, Lawrence and 

Jehu, son of Thomas J. Caplinger, born in 1848, married 
in 1873, Ida W ., daughter of Joseph Harding. Children, Viva, 
Marion F., Roberta B., Belva, Bernice F. and Geo. H. 

Adam C, son of Thomas J., married Mary Grose. Chil- 
dren, Martha, who married a McDaniel and Nettie, who mar- 
ried Charley Skidmore. 

Solomon Chenoweth Caplinger was born in 1811, died in 
1893. His first wife was Mary, daughter of Gabriel Chen- 
oweth. Children, Laban D., Phoeba C, Sarah E., Calvin L., 
Margaret and Maryette. The wife of his second marriage 
was Mary A., daughter of John Ryan. Children, Solomon C, 
Julius C, Delia W. and Robert Bruce. Laban D. and Sarah 
E. died in youth. Martha B. married Hanning Foggy : Phoe- 
ba C. married A. C. Rowan ; Calvin L. married Belle Wilson. 
Children. Lillie, wlio married Lee Chenoweth ; (irace, who 
married a ^Ir. Lough; Daisy married a Mr. Eslack, Rosa mar- 
ried S. M. Kendall; Margaret married John Hart. Maryette, 
daughter of Solomon C. and Mary Chenoweth Caplinger, 
married Rev. S. D. Lewis. Solomon C. Caplinger, Jr., went 
West when a young man and is now in Dawson City, Alaska. 
Robert Bruce, son of Solomon and Mary A. (Ryan) Cap- 
linger, married Jesse May, daughter of John W. Detter. 
Children, Hilda, St. Clair, Clyde, John, Guy, Mary Edith. Ju- 
lius and Richard died in early childhood. Julius, son of Sol- 
omon and .Mar\- ( l\yan) Caplinger, married .\leiua. daughter 


of Eli 11. Rowan. l)elia, daiiiiiiter of Solomon and Mary 
(Ryan) Capliniier, married Vernon Lout;h. 

Solomon C. Caplinger was sheriff of the county in 1857 
and commissitmer of the County Court in 1880. He was one 
of the prominent, intelligent and sul^stantial citizens in the 
early history of the county. 


The Coff Family. Patrick Coflf came to America from 
Ireland in about 1800, settling on Mill Creek, Bath County, 
A'irginia. He married Martha Lyle. To this union were 
born eight children, all living except second daughter. James 
Lyle Coff was born October, 1844. He learned the carpenter 
trade and later studied vocal music at Singers Glen, Virginia, 
under Joseph Funk and Aldine S. Keifer. Mr. Coff is promi- 
nent in the councils of the Democratic party and was justice 
of the peace of Mingo District four years. He married Diana 
F. Jordan, daughter of George and Frances Jordan, of Green 
Valley, Virginia, and moved to Randolph in 1877. 

Eight children have 1)een born to Mr. and Mrs. Coff. 
James W ., farmer, who lives with parents at Mingo; Martha, 
who married P. ( ). Louk and lives in Elkins ; Lena died in 
1893; Mary, who married K. D. Marshal and lixes in Mingo. 
They have one child, Xina, who is a student of the W'esleyan 
University, Buckhannon. Theodore L. never married and is 
orderly to Col. Treat of the U. S. Army, now stationed at 
Fort Sam Houston, Texas. John K., also single and li\'es 
with his parents at Mingo. Jacob F. married Laura Beale and 
lives at Dunmore, West A^irginia. She was the daughter of 
James Beale of Linwood, West Virginia. Commodore Coff, 
the third, son of James Lyle and Diana Coff is a photographer 
in Elkins. 


Thomas P. Curtis was born in Pittsylvania County, Vir- 
ginia, in 1804. He died in Randolph in 1856. He came to 
Randolph in 1828. He married Mary, daughter of Peter Con- 
rad. She was born in 1815 and died in 1880. Children, J. 
Milton, Laban B., Sarah, Thomas C, America, David Black- 
man, Emma, John C. and Almeda. 


Thomas P. Curtis had a store in what is now Elkins in 
1834. His storehouse was located in what is now known as 
Park View Addition. 

John Milton Curtis was assessor in 1864 and was twice 
re-elected. He was township clerk in 1865. He was collector 
of Internal revenue in 1862, 1863, 1864 and 1865. His terri- 
tory embraced Randolph, Tucker and AVebster counties. 

David Blackman Curtis, born in 1841, died in 1893. Mr. 
Curtis was for many years one of the prominent educators of 
the county. In 187.. ..he married Virginia, daughter of George 

George McLean Curtis was born in 1872. He studied law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1895. 

Mr. Curtis married Ora, daughter of Andrew^ and Xantip- 
pie (Crawford) Collett. He is connected with the Inter-State 
Commerce Commission, Washington, D. C, as chief clerk. 


The Cassity Family. John and Peter Cassity located in 
Valley Bend District prior to 1780. In the early records of 
the county the name is spelled Cashedy. They settled on 
land now owned by Lee Rosecranse. Peter Cassity w^as com- 
missioner of the Revenue in 1789, and was a member of the 
first County Court of Randolph County. He was captain of 
the militia at the time of leaving the State in 1792 and was 
succeeded by John Haddan. 


The Connoly Family. Wither's Border Warfare men- 
tions the Connolly family as being among the first settlers 
of Randolph. Thev settled in what is now Mingo District 
on a creek that has since borne their name. They were of 
Irish ancestry. Withers and other historians were in error 
in stating that the Darby Connolly family were killed by the 
Indians. Connolly himself was killed but his family had not 
come to Randolph at that time. He was placing the roof on 
his cal)in when he was shot and killed by the Indians. The 
murder occurred December, 1772. Tacob Conrad became the 


owner of the C'oniioll\- land and it has remained in possession 
of his heirs for more tlian a century. 


The Chenoweth Family. The Chenoweth family in 
America lias descended from John Chenoweth, who came to 
this country from Isle of Wright in 1652. lie settled in Mary- 
land and married Mary Calvert, dauijhter of Lord Baltimore. 
William, a son of this marriaije was a memher of a colony 
that settled in Frederick County, Maryland, j^rior to 1750. 
John, a son of Willaim was born in 1755. He was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary War and drew a pension. He was in 
Pendleton in 1790 and entered 50 acres of land in that county 
in that year. The Pughs who were related to the Chenoweths 
and came to Randolph wnth them, also entered land in Hamp- 
shire in the year of 1790. John Chenoweth entered land in 
Randolph in 1792, but perhaps he had been a resident of the 
county a few years previous. 

A monument was unveiled to the memory of John Chen- 
oweth about three miles south of Elkins on the Job Daniels 
place October 16, 1915. On one side is the inscription : John 
Chenoweth, Born November 15, 1755, Died June 16, 1831. A 
Soldier of the Revolution. On another sifle is the inscription 
to his wife as follows: ^lary Pugh, Wife of John Chenoweth, 
Born January 29, 1762, Died February 1, 1849. They were 
married f)n January 7, 1779. 

On another side are the names of all the children as fol- 
lows : Robert, W'illiam, Mary, John, Jehu, Gabriel, Nellie. 

John Chenoweth was captain of the militia in 1794: coro- 
ner in 1803: sherifif in 1810: justice of the peace in 1799. His 
son Robert w^as commissioner of the Revenue in 1816: sherifif 
in 1827. Z. T. Chenoweth was sherifif in 1884. 

The Crawford Family. Andrew and Robert Crawford, 
two brothers, came to Randolph a few years prior to 1800. 
The Craw'fords immigrated to Augusta County, Virginia, a 
few^ years previous to the revolution. They were of Scottish 
ancestrv. Andrew Crawford was tw-ice married. His first 


wife was a Miss Stephenson, who died in 1829. His second 
wife was a Miss Hyre, of Upshur County. Their children 
were, James C. Crawford, W. H. Crawford, Absalom Craw- 
ford, Adam Crawford, J. W. Crawford, Eliza Crawford, Rob- 
ert Crawford, Jennie Crawford, Andrew Crawford. Robert 
and Andrew Crawford located on Shavers Run on the farm 
at this time owned by D. R. Baker. Robert, a short time af- 
terward, moved to Lewis County this State and settled near 
Walkersville. J. S. Crawford moved to Clermont County, 
Ohio, and W. H. Crawford moved to Tuscaroras County, the 
same State. 

Absalom, son of Andrew, married Emily, daughter of 
Joseph Hart. Children, Emmett, Rush, Amanda, Cora, Delia, 
Jennie and Maggie. 

John W. Crawford married Edith, daughter of Peter 
Buckey. Children, Clay and Columbia. 

Adam, son of Andrew Crawford, married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Squire Bosworth. Children, Kent Bosworth Craw- 
ford, Lucy, Florida, Harriet, Augusta and Emily. 

Eliza, daughter of Andrew Crawford, married Elias Wil- 

Jennie, daughter of Andrew Crawford, died in youth. 

Bushrod W. Crawford, born in 1818, died in 1893 ; son of 
Andrew Crawford, married first, a Miss Wilson. Children, 
Xantippe, who married Andrew J. CoUett. Some years after 
the death of his first wife Mr. Crawford married in 1850, An- 
zina, daughter of Archibald Earle. Children, Laura, Earle, 
Jefferson and Andrew. 

Kent B. Crawford, born in 1848, son of Adam, married in 
1876, Mary A., daughter of Franklin and Lucinda (Earle) 
Leonard. Children, Herbert and Stella. 

Emmett Crawford, son of Absalom and Emily (Hart) 
Crawford, married in 1869, ^Margaret, daughter of Mathew 
and Eunice (Harper) Wamsley. Children, Burns, Rossie, 
Maggie, Ocia, Leah, Maud, ]\Iatie and Emmett. In 1882, af- 
ter the death of his first wife, he married Minerva, daughter 
of Sampson Shifflett. Mr. Crawford was a soldier in the Con- 
federate army and was a participant in many of the hard bat- 


ties of that war. He was highly esteemed by his comrades 
in arms as well as by his neighbors in civil life. 

Jefferson A. Crawford, son of Bushrod and Anzina 
(Earle) Crawford, married in 1887, Nora, daughter of George 
W. and Keziah (Boyers) Davis. Children, Earle, Davis, 
George Watts and Annie Laura. 

Rush Crawford, born in 1855, son of Absalom, married 
in 1880, Melissa Shreeve, and after her death he married in 
1895, lunma Yokum. Children, Plummer B., Dale \\\, Asa 
and Clinton. 

Andrew Crawford, the pioneer, was an adherent of the 
Presbyterian faith and was an active organizer of that de- 
nomination in Randolph. The early Presbyterians of Ran- 
dolph were of scrupulous Purintanical piety and did much to 
enforce and make respected the civil laws against immorality 
and the violation of Sabl)ath observance. 

Andrew Crawford was sheriff in 1820; commissioner of 
Revenue in 1818. John W. Crawford was county clerk in 
1845. B. \\\ Crawford was assessor in 1843. Absalom Craw- 
ford was assessor in 1849. K. B. Crawford was commissioner 
of the County Court. 


Coberly. James Coberly was the progenitor of the Co- 
berly family in Randolph. He married Julia Vanscoy. The 
name is of (Jerman origin. The children of James and Julia 
A'anscoy) Coberly, were Aaron Devi, born 1824, married 
Alarv Canfield in 1846; John, born 1829, married in 1854 to 
Janet Gainer; Randolph, born 1830. died 1884, married in 
1853 to Jane M., daughter of Archil^ald Wilson. Children, 
Helen, Martha E., John, Alfred T., .'\rchibald, James, Wm. H., 
Ida J. and Julia E. 

James A., son of Randolph and Jane M. (Wilson) Cober- 
ly, born in Barbour County, 1864; came to Randolph in 1883, 
locating in Elkins in 1894. He was deputy surveyor four 
years ; elected justice of the peace of Leadsville District in 
1892. After studying law at State University he was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1898. 

]\Ir. Coberly married (first) Delphia, daughter of Nicho- 


las and Amanda (Taylor) IMarstiller. She died in 1895. Chil- 
dren, Otto Glen, who is deputy assessor of Randolph County, 
Cleon Edwards, Ohley Francis, and Virgil J. Mr. Coberly 
married (second) Mary Hannagan, of Monroe County, West 


The Cunningham Family. In 1753, John, James and \\ il- 
liam Cunningham, three brothers from Dublin, Ireland, set- 
tled on the North Fork in what is now Pendleton County. 
James Cunningham had several sons and daughters among 
whom was William. Solomon, son of the second William 
was born in 1830. He married in 1857, Mary J., daughter of 
Lenox and Elizabeth Lantz. Children David S., James I., 
Abraham, Absalom M., Charles B. Y., Mary E., Arthena, 
Martha P., Anna B. and Solomon T. 

James Cunningham, the pioneer, was captured b}- the 
Indians in 1758. He was kept a prisoner for seven years and 
became nearly blind as a result of starvation while in captiv- 
ity. After his release and return to his people he moved to 
Randolph. John, James and W^illiam Cunningham were in 
the French and Indian war of 1754-60. John, James and Wil- 
liam Cunningham had their claims certified by the County 
Court of Augusta for supplies furnished the American Army 
in the Revolutionary W'ar. 

Joseph Arnold Cunningham, a member of another l)ranch 
of the Cunningham family, but a descendant of the pioneer 
family of Pendleton, was born April 27, 1861 ; son of Andrew 
J. and Eleanor (Wimer) Cunningham, was married Septem- 
ber 2, 1888, to Rosa Anna, daughter of Jacob and Catherine 
Knutti. Mr. Cunningham was constable of Dry Fork District 
for several years and later represented Randolph and Tucker 
in the State Legislature. He is at present a prominent farm- 
er and stock raiser of Alfena. 

Absalom Marion Cunningham, son of Solomon and Mary 
Jane (Lantz) Cunningham, born in 1864 in Upshur County, 
West Virginia. Mr. Cunningham was educated in the public 
schools of the State and at the age of sixteen entered the pro- 
fession of teaching which he followed for twelve years. Dur- 


ing" the last four years of his school work he applied himself 
to the study of law. In 1892 he opened a law offtce in Davis 
and sul)se(iuentlv moved to Parsons. In 1909 he moved to 

Mr. L"unnin^ham was prosecutiny- attorney of Tucker 
from 1893-7, and represented that county in the Legislature 
in 1903-4. 

Mr. Cunningham married hrst, Maude, daughter of Dan- 
iel and Eliza (Lantz) Auvil. Children, Eugene Blaine, Stan- 
ley Charles, Neil, McKinley Hobart and Absalom Marion Jr. 
Mr. Cunningham married second, Grace Isabel, daughter of 
John W. and Marv (Coston) Keith. Children, Marion Keith 
and Ruth Lantz. 

George W. Cunningham, son of Jackson and Eleanor 
(Wimer) Cunningham, born in 1858, married MoUie Hamick. 
Children, Babel, Delmar, Lois S., S. Lutie, Reta, Hurst J., 
Ella and Wimer W. Mr. Cunningham has taught school thir- 
ty-seven years and has always held a first grade certificate. 
He has taught three terms in Barbour and fifty-five terms in 
Randolph County. The first school attended by Mr. Cun- 
ningham was in a building without floor or chimney. Mr. 
Cunningham has gained a place among the prominent educa- 
tors of the county. 

Abraham L. Cunningham, son of Solomon and Mary 
(Lantz) Cunningham, born in Gilmer County, 1861, married 
Catherine B., daughter of Wm. and Martha (Waybright ) 
Hinkle. Children, Lelsa and Vista, Zenia, died aged 26: Wil- 
liam H., died at age of four, and Edith in the fifth year of her 
age. ^Ir. Cunningham is an undertaker and cabinet-maker 
at Job. 


The Cowger family live in the southwestern part of 
Randolph and are of German descent. Michael Cowger was, 
perhaps, the first of the name to locate in Virginia. He en- 
tered 900 acres in the Shenandoah Valley in 1753. His de- 
scendants moved to Pendleton where many families of that 
name now reside. Michael Cowger lived in Pendleton prior 
to 1782. George Cowger lived in Pendleton in 1775, when 
Pendleton was a part of Augusta. 



Conrad. The Conrad family moved to Randolph from 
Pendleton prior to 1792, the exact date is not known. Peter 
Conrad, the progenitor of the Conrad family in Randolph, 
settled on the farm which had been owned by Darby Con- 
nolly before he was murdered by the Indians. Peter Conrad, 
the pioneer, was the son of Jacob Conrad and the grandson 
of Jacob Conrad, who came to xA.merica and settled in Pendle- 
ton in 1750. He was born in 1705 and died December 1, 1775. 
He had a brother, Ulrich, who came to Pendleton with him. 
They were from Canton Berne, Switzerland. The Conrad 
brothers located on the South Branch, Jacob selecting a tract 
of land t^n which there was a "squaw patch," or a small clear- 
ing made by the Indians. 

Ulrich Conrad was a soldier in the French and Indian 
War from Pendleton, and represented that county in the Mr- 
ginia Assembly in 1792-3. 

Jacob Conrad was foreman of the first grand jury in 
Pendleton in 1787. 

Children of the first Jacob : Barbara, who married Chas. 
Hedrick; Elizabeth, who married Geo. Fisher, and Jacob, who 
married first, Hannah Bogard, and second, Barbara Probst. 

The second Jacob Conrad had the following children: 
Sabina, Frances, Barbara, Jacob, Benjamin, Peter, Daniel, 
John, Ulrich, Mary and Phoeba. Peter moved to Randolph; 
Daniel, John and Benjamin moved to Braxton; Ulrich lived in 
Pendleton and married Sarah Currence. He was born in 
1786, and died in 1867. Sabina married John Colaw ; 
Barbara married Adam Harper ; Jacol) married Magdalena 
Hedrick; Benjamin married Barbara Hedrick; Mary married 
Geo. Kyle, Phoeba married Samuel Kyle; Daniel married 
Margaret Shieldh ; John married Elizal)eth Currence. 

Peter Conrad, who located in Mingo District at an early 
date, was born in 1777. He had three sons, John, Jacob and 
Peter. His daughters were Elizabeth, who married Davitl 
Saulsl)ury ; Sarah, who married Joseph Wamslev ; Phoeba, 
who married Jeremiah Cowger ; Alcey, who married Daniel 
\\'amsley ; Diana, who married Lewis Cowger; Maria, who 
married Isaac Dodrill ; Pollv, wlio married Tliomas Curtis 


and Syrena, who married Marsliall Clarke. Two girls, Nancy 
and Barbara never married. Peter married Elsey Arbogast ; 
Jacob married Ann Bailey ; John B. Conrad married Mary 
Wilson. Children, Harmon J., Peter B., Samuel anfl Wil- 
liam H. 

The second Jacob was born in 1744. 

Mrs. W. H. Conrad, of Mill Creek, has in her possession 
the family Bible, which was the property of the second Ja- 
cob, and is one hundred and eight years old. The first Jacob 
was a weaver by trade. 

John Conrad, son of the second Jacob Conrad, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John and granddaughter of the first 
William Currence. Children, Currence, Rush, Jacob, Ann D., 
who married John Currence ; Eliza, who married William 
Currence ; Nancy, who married John Crawford ; Sarah, who 
married a Mr. Raymond ; Jemima married Crawford ; Mandy, 
who married Marshall Clark and moved to Missouri ; Cur- 
rence Conrad married a Miss Raymond ; Rush married a Miss 
Shingleton ; Jacob married a Miss Raymond. *Rush Conrad 
was county clerk of Braxton many years. Currence moved 
to Gilmore and w^as clerk of the County Court for about thir- 
ty years. Benjamin, son of Jacob, was clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Webster for many years. 

Bailey M., son of Johnathan and Mary (Beasley) Barco, 
was born in 1870, married in 1903 Estelle, daughter of Rar- 
man and Mary Conrad. Children Alary C. and Ruth M. 

Lewis C, son of Jacob and Ann ( Baily Conrad, was born 
in 1850, married Mary, daughter of Johnathan and Delila 
(Raigler) Crouch. Children, Grace, Harry and Bruce. 

Air. Conrad is a merchant at Alill Creek. Re has been 
four times mayor of Mill Creek ; constable of Huttonsville 
District, and member of Board of Education. Mr. Conrad's 
mother at the advanced age of 89, is still active physically, 
with no diminution of her mental faculties. 

Hiram J., son of John B. and Mary x\nn (Wilson) Con- 
rad, born 1847. married Mary, daughter of Jacob and Ann 
(Baily) Conrad. Children, Louella Ann, Estella Cecil and 
Jacob Wilton. 

Air. Conrad is a grandson of Peter Conrad, the pioneer, 

*Omar Conrad, son of Rush, married Alice, daughter of Conrad Currence. 
He is a prominent resident of Randolph. He is an ex-member of County Court 
and has held other positions of trust and honor. 


and first of the name in the county. Peter Conrad married 
Ann, daughter of the first William Currence. 

William Hall, son of John B. and Mary (Wilson) Conrad, 
was born in 1849, married 1892, Alice, daughter of Bryson 
and Mary (Stalnaker) PTamilton. Mr. Conrad selected his 
second wife in the person of Efiie, daughter of Randolph and 
Katherine (Hutton) Crouch. Mr. Conrad has traveled ex- 
tensively in Colorado, California, Florida and other Southern 
and W^estern States. He is constable of Huttonsville District. 

Wirt P. Conrad, son of Jacob P. and Elizabeth (Alkire) 
Conrad, was born in 1853. In 1873 he married Lydia Sar- 
gent and some years after her death he was united in marriage 
to Mary E. Brady. Children, Fenton, Fletcher, Ross W ., 
Hettie A., George P., John B., Grover L., C. O., Mary, Charles, 
Boyd, M3'rtle and Laura. Mr. Conrad was justice of the peace 
of Huttonsville District, and his father was for many years 
a lawyer and clerk of the Circuit Court of Webster County. 

The Currence Family. William was the paternal ances- 
tor of the Currence family in Randolph. He immigrated from 
Ireland to the colonies, locating in Maryland. He left his na- 
tive land when 16 years of age. x\fter remaining in ?^Iaryland 
for a few years he pushed farther into the wilderness and 
settled in the Valley, occupying the land where the town of 
Beverly is now located. Believing that the county seat would 
be located farther up the Valley, he traded lands with the 
Westfalls, obtaining 600 acres where the town of Mill Creek 
is now located. He built a tub mill on the river, near the 
mouth of Mill Creek. This is supposed to have been the first 
water mill within the present limits of Randolph County. 
Some years later his son, ^^'illiam, built a grist mill on "SlWl 
Creek, on the site of the present steam flouring mill of 
Jesse Rosencranse. That stream for many years in the i)ion- 
eer period bore the name of Currcnce's IMill Creek. Later 
the word Currence was dropped and it has since borne the 
abbreviated name of Mill Creek. He built the Currence Fort, 
which was located a few hundred yards southeast of the rail- 
way station in the present town of IMill Creek. It was built 


ill 1774. Withers incorrectly refers to it as Cassino's fort. 
In the early days of Randolph, the pioneers carried their iron. 
salt and other necessities that could not be manufactured at 
home, from Clarksburg on pack horses. It was while on one 
of these trips that Wilham Currcnce met a Miss Steele of 
Harrison County, whom he married. 

^Villiam Currence was killed from aml)ush by the Indians 
May 12, 1791. Frank Riffle was killed by the savages on the 
same dav, on the same road, and in the same immediate vi- 
cinity. Wliether thev were together when they were attacked 
is not known. They were killed on the tlat between Beccas 
and Riffles Creek, near where the Old Brick Church stood. 
Mr. Currence was on his way to Haddan's fort, several miles 
up the river. He then lived in the vicinity of Currence's Fort. 
The settlers were apprehensive that Indians were in the com- 
munity and Mr. Currence's family in vain entreated him not 
to venture on such a perilous trip. His son was sent to the 
field for the horse and returned with the excuse that the ani- 
mal could not be caught. But the father was obdurate and 
under threats of punishment the lad brought the horse to his 
father. Mr. Currence was shot and killed by a shot from an 
Indian's rifle and the tradition that he came to his death by 
falling against a tree when his horse was shot from under him, 
is incorrect. 

Disagreement with his step mother was the cause of 
William Currence leaving home and coming to America. In 
the absence of his father a misunderstanding arose between 
the two. Believing that harmony was no longer possible, he 
at once entered upon his journey to America. W^hen a short 
distance from home he met his father, who enqtiired where 
he was going. The son replied, "To America."' The father 
after finding admonition unavailing, dismounted and a spirited 
foot race was the result. The young man finallv leaped a 
ditch which the parent could not cross and eluded the pur- 
suit of his father. 

Ten children were born to Mr. and Mrs. William (Steele) 
Currence. They were as follows: John, W^illliam. Samuel. 
Sydney, Jane, Sally, Ann, Lydia, and two girls whose names 
are not known. One of these girls married Samuel Bonner, 


of Elk, and the other married a man by the name of Shaw. 
John married a daughter of Jonas Friend ; Samuel married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Cornelius Bogard ; William married 
Mary, daughter of Sylvester Ward, Sydney married Nicholas 
Wilmoth ; Jane married Johnathan Smith ; Sally married 
Mathew \Vamsley ; Ann married Henry Mace ; Lydia married 
Benjamin Hornbeck. 

Samuel, son of \A'illiam and Lydia (Steele) Currence, 
married Elizabeth Bogard. Children, Cornelius, Henry, John 
and William. All went West except Henry, who married a 
Miss Zicafoose. Their children were Amanda, who married 
Patrick Crickard ; Mary, who married Adam Hornbeck ; An- 
drew, Haymond and Eliza, who married John Fox. 

John, son of William and Lydia (Steele) Currence, had 
six children ; John, who married a Miss Crouch ; William, who 
married Miss Nellie Daniels ; Ann, who married Peter Con- 
rad ; Elizabeth, who married John Conrad; Delilah, who mar- 
ried a ^IcLean and Sarah, who married L'lrich Conrad. 

The children of John Curence, who married Miss Crouch, 
were Abraham, P)ettie, who married a Parsons; Sarah, who 
married a Bell ; Mary, who married a man by the name of 
Weese, and Elizabeth, who married x\aron Bell. 

William, son of the first William, who married Miss 
Mary VA'ard, and after her death married the widow Dyer, 
had by his first wife, John,* Johnathan and William, and 
Elizabeth, who married Gabriel Chenoweth ; Jemima, who 
married Adam Carper; Virginia, who married Benjamin Scott. 
By his second marriage, Nancy, who married James McCall : 
Mary, who married Absalom Kyle ; and Catherine, who mar- 
ried Jesse Haigler. 

William, son of William and ]\Iary (\\'ard) Currence, 
married Eliza Conrad. Children, Jacob C, Melvin, Johna- 
than, Eliza and Elizabeth. Adam married a Miss Dodrill, 
Anthony married Mary, daughter of Aaron Bell, in 1870. 
Children, Eliza, William, Louisa, Melvin, Retha, Reuben D., 
and Addie. 

Col. Mehin Currence, son of William H. and Eliza Con- 
rad Currence, was born in 1829. In 1863 he married Matilda 
v., daughter of John B. Earle. Children, Mora, Frederick, 

*.John, son of William and Mary (Ward) Currence married Ann Conrad, 
daughter of .John and Elizabeth (Currence) Conrad Children: Laban, who mar- 
ried Alice Ward, Conrad, who married Edith Ruckey, and who was killed in the 

civil war, Perry, who married Nancy wlio married Stephen Shaver, 

Mary, who married Geo. W. Bosworth, Millie, who married F^li Croiich. and Rush, 
who died in youth. 


Elizabeth, William 11., llirani A., All)ert Ix, Eliza A. and 
Eelix E. 

Jacob C. Currence married Virginia, daughter of William 
and Nellie (Daniels) Currence. Children, William 1)., Page 
B., R. E. Eee, Marion Harding, Arthur, Melvin, Maud, Effie, 
Eliza, Elizabeth and Nellie. Page B. Currence married Di- 
ana Svvecker. Children, Christopher, Leland, Jacob, Hugh, 
Marion, Ruth, ^^lissouri, \'irginia and Rusia. Pie died in 1906. 

William, son of Jacob, married Ann Conrad. Children, 
Humboldt, Alice, Garland and Warren. 

Lee Currence, son of Jacob, was born in 1864, married in 
1891, Annie, daughter of Whitman Bradley. Children, Mary. 

Nellie, Mehin, Arthur and Eliza are dead. Eliza and Ar- 
thur died when adults, the others in childhood. 

Johnathan, son of William IP and Eliza (Conrad) Cur- 
rence, was born in 1832. He married in 1857, Nancy Geer. 
Children, W^illiam, Rlioda, Charles, x^dam, Austin, Eliza. 

W illiam Currence, son of John and grandson of the first 
William, married Nellie Daniels. Children, Lorenzo Dow, 
Squire Bosworth, William Dolbeare, PTlrich, Virginia, Thony, 
Ellen and Allen. 

Lorenzo D. Currence moved to Nebraska subsequent to 
the Civil War. He married Mary Deeper. Children, Florence 
and Brownson. 

\\ illiam, son of William and Nellie (Daniels) Currence, 
married Adaline, daughter of William and Mary Bradley. 
He was born in 1822 and died in 1809. Children, Maria, 
and Ann Laban. P^y a second marriage to Ellen Stalnaker, 
children, Delphie and Lewis. 

Squire B. Currence married Margaret Wamsley. Chil- 
dren, L. D. John. 

Laban Currence, son of William D. and Adaline Bradley 
Currence, married Edmonia Woolwine. Children, William, 
Ida, who married Wm. Phares; Sallie, who married R. E. 
Newlon, and Daisy. 

John Currence, son of William, who was killed by the 
Indians, was a member of the first grand jury drawn in Ran- 
dolph County in 1787. He was sheriff in 1806, captain of the 


county militia in 1805, overseer of the poor of John Haddan's 
District in 1803. 

William Currence, son of the first William, was lieuten- 
ant of militia in 1807. 

Jacob C. Currence was captain of the militia in 1853 and 
constable in 1854. 

William Dolbear Currence was constable for about twen- 
ty-five years, performing- the duties of that offtce up to within 
a short time of his death, at the advanced age of 88 years. 

Col. Melvin Currence was justice of the peace in 
1884. He was Colonel of the 107th X'irginia Regiment at the 
beginning of the Civil War. 

C. S. Currence, son of Page B. and Dianah (Swecker) 
Currence, was born June 18, 1885. Mr. Currence lives on part 
of the Currence homestead, near Daily, that has been in pos- 
session of the familv for more than a century. 

William D., son of Jacob and Virginia Currence, was 
born April 30, 1857, married Ann, daughter of Peter Conrad. 
Children, .Mice, Huml)oldt, Grace and Warren. The family 
name has passed down to him from the pioneer William Cur- 
rence, who was killed by the Indians. Mr. Currence is pro- 
prietor of the Cassidy Coal Mines that supplies the Upper 
Valley with duty diamonds. He is a voluminous reader and 
is well informed on past and passing events of the world. 

John W'., son of Squire Bosworth and Margaret (W'ams- 
ley) Currence, was born January 20, 1877, married, first, 
Mary Catherine Cooper, second, Floretta May Painter. Mr. 
Currence having misfortune in the loss of his first and sec- 
ond wives, choose a Frances Vandevander for his third 
wife. One child, John Franklin, survives his second wife and 
by Miss Vandevander he has a son, Lotry Clyde, and Jen- 
neatta and Winnona. Mr. Currence has been ])oliceman at 
Mill Creek for twelve years. He is a descendant of two j^rom- 
nent pioneer families of Randol])h. 

R. E. Lee Currence, son of Jacob and \'irginia Currence, 
■was born May 10, 1864, married, first, Anna, daugliter of 
Whitman I'radly. Children, Mary. Afarried. second, Arsella, 
daughter of George and Mary (Doyle) Pingley. Mr. Cur- 
rence is a prosperous farmer li\ing near Huttons\ille. Mr. 


Currence is a nieml)er of the pioneer Currence family of Ran- 

Johnathan J. Currence was born in 1843. Mr. Currence 
was a Confederate soldier in the Civil War and belonged to 
the 19th Virginia Cavalry, and was Sergeant of Couriers in 
Lonox Division of Early's Corps. Mr. Currence was con- 
stable of Huttonsville District seven years and served one 
term as Mayor of Mill Creek. 


The Daniels Family. William Daniels was the first of the 
name to locate in Randolph County. The exact date is un- 
certain, but it was prior to 1795, perhaps in 1792. John Chen- 
oweth and William Daniels came to Randolph together. W'il- 
liam Daniels located on Files Creek, a few hundred yards 
east of the present residence of Richard Wamsley, two miles 
east of Beverly. He married Catherine, daughter of Jacob 
Stalnaker, in 1795. 

William Daniels was a typical man of his day. Casting 
his lot in the wilderness, at the age of 16, remote from rela- 
tives, he learned to read by his own unaided efforts, and be- 
came an intelligent and prominent citizen. He represented 
Randolph in the Virginia Assembly, when the capital at Rich- 
mond was reached bv a perilous trip through the wilderness 
on horseback. He was sheriff of Randolph in 1818, justice 
of peace in 1808, constable in 1803. The family originally 
came from England where several of them were distinguished 
as poets, historians and scientists. 

The children of \\'illiam and Katherine (Stalnaker) Dan- 
iels were, Earle, Jacob, Johnathan, ■Madison, Nellie, who mar- 
ried William Currence; William, Elmere, Eli and Mary. 

Children of Madison: Rev. A^'illiam P. Daniels, Harri- 
■son. Harper, Allen, Bushrod, Samuel, Mary, who married 
Achem Harper; Elizabeth, who married Alpheus Buckey, and 
Christina, who married Geo. Elbon. 

Children of Johnathan: Jacob, Squire William, Flam. 
Hamilton, Catherine, Mona and Mattie. 

Children of Jacob: Welton, Parsons and Job. 

Children of Allison: Washington, John, Elijah Lafay- 


ette, Elmore, Isom David, Xancy, who married Absalom 
Pritt ; Harnett and Mary. 

Earle Daniels moved to the West. Children, James, Am- 
brose, Isom, Bernard, Rebecca, Mary and Elizabeth. 

Children of Eli: Orlando, Gabriel and Melvina. 

The children of the first AVilliam married as follows : 
Jacob married a Miss Parsons, Johnathan a Miss Weese, Wil- 
liam a Miss Chenoweth, Madison a Miss Skidmore, Allison a 
Miss Chenoweth, Earle a Miss Parsons, Elmore a Miss Coop- 
er, Eli a Miss Harper. 

Rev. Wm. P. Daniels, son of Madison and Ellen (Skid- 
more) Daniels, was born in 1849, married in 1869, Minerva, 
daughter of Hoy and Elizabeth !McEean. Children, Dr. H. 
W'., Floyd A., Dorsey M., Byron H. and Willie. 

Rev. Daniels was for years a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He rendered particularly valuable services 
to the church in his day, it seeming to appeal to his sense of 
duty to visit and serve the weak, isolated and neglected fields. 

Byron H., son of Rev. \Vm. P. and Minerva (^IcLean) 
Daniels, was born May 19, 1883, married June 12, 1914, Sara 
Virginia Ellifitts. Mr. Daniels was educated in the public 
schools. For twelve years Air. Daniels has been in charge of 
the money order and registry department of the Elkins post- 

Dorsey M. Daniels, son of Rev. Wm. P. and Minnie 
(McLean) Daniels, was born in 1877, married Earnie N. 
(Johnson) Ray. Children, Edgar, Eugene and Charles Cletus. 
Mr. Daniels' efficiency and faithfulness is attested by the fact 
that he has been in the emplov as clerk of the Elkins Hard- 
ware and Furniture Company for thirteen years. 

Page Cameran Daniels, son of Solomon W . and Alary 
(Gum) Daniels, was born in 1856, married Annie Grace, 
daughter of Fountain and (Ilamilton) lUitcher. Chil- 
dren, Howard L.. Ulah, Mabel, Ethel and Hallie B. are de- 
ceased. Mr. l)aniels is the great grandson of the first Wil- 
liam. Air. Daniels has been mavor of Iknerh- and member of 
town council. 

Alartin L. Daniels, son of G. 11. and Susannah (Sem- 
ple) Daniels, was born in 1868, married Carrie Shobe. Chil- 


dren, Ralston and Mary. Mr. Daniels was educated in ])ul)- 
lic schools and I'^airmont Normal, lie taught school several 
terms and was princij^al of Pickens i)ul)lic school. At present 
he holds a responsible position with the Western Maryland 

Oliver C. Daniels, son of Tieorije Harrison and Susannah 
(Semple) Daniels, was l-iorn in 1872, married 1898, Lovet, 
daughter of J. H. and Sydney (Weesej Schoonover. Mr. Dan- 
iels is the present postmaster of Beverly. 

\\'illiam G. Daniels, I">ench descent, was born in Au- 
gusta Count}-, \'irginia, in 1846; came to Randolph in 1878. 
His grandfather, Joseph Daniels, was seven years a soldier 
under Napoleon and though wounded many times, survived 
the war. Mr. Daniels was justice of the peace in Huttons- 
\ille in 1908. Mr. Daniels belongs to a family that is not re- 
lated to the other Daniels family in Randolph. 

George Harrison Daniels, son of Madison Daniels and 
grandson of ^^'illiam Daniels, was born in 1840, married in 
1862, Martha I, daughter of Martin and Susan Stemple. Chil- 
dren, Flora A., Jessup, Loretta E., Martin L., Calvin H., Oli- 
ver C, Louie B., George H., Plummer B., Lizzie J\L, Alta 
G. He represented Randolph and Tucker in the State Leg^is- 
lature in 1893. 


The Earle Family. Archibald Earle, son of Isaiah Earle, 
was the first of the name to locate in Randolph. He was 
born in Clark County, \"irginia, in 1788, and died in 1842. He 
came to Randolph wdien quite a young man and was elected 
county clerk in 1810, when 22 years of age. He was clerk of 
the County Court twenty-nine consecutive 3'ears. The Earle 
family is of English descent and the name is derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon, Eorle, a title of nobility. In 1812 Archibald 
Earle married Mary, daughter of Peter Buckey. Their chil- 
dren were John B., Sally Ann, Lucinda, Maria, Christina, 
Edith, Elias, Anzina, Archiliald, Jefferson, Mary E. and 
Creed L. 

Creed Luther Earle, born in 1837, son of Archil:>ald and 
Mary (Bucky) Earle. In 1878 he married Columbia J., daugh- 


ter of William Harrison and Ruth Ann (Hart) Coberly. Chil- 
dren, Charles, Harrison, Delbert, Archibald, Pearl and Mary 
Ruth. Mr. Earle was constable of Leadsville District in 1886 
and was postmaster of Leadsville under Cl.eveland. He own- 
ed the land which was the original site of the City of Elkins. 
John B. Earle was for many years clerk of the Circuit 
Court of Randolph. Arch and Jefferson Earle moved to Eort 
Worth, Texas, at the close of the Civil \Ynr. 


The Eberman Family. This family was among' the early 
settlers of Randolph. The name is not represented in the 
male line in Randolph today. John and Jacob Eberman, 
brothers, located on Eberman's Creek, now Chenoweth Creek, 
at an early day. They came from Pendleton. The Ebermans 
were of German ancestry. They were soldiers from Pendle- 
ton in the French and Lidian War of 1754-60. 


The Elza Family. This name is of English origin and in 
the early records of the County was spelled Elsey and Elzay. 
The Elza family was among the first settlers in the eastern 
part of the county. Thompson Elza moved to Randolph 
from Mineral the first decade of the county's history. Thomp- 
son Elza was captain of the militia in 1844. Sampson Elza 
was captain of the militia in 1860. 

Thompson Elza married Sarah White, and to this union 
were born Solomon, Taylor, William, Sampson, Alfred, La- 
fayette, Joseph, Adam and Caroline. 

Floyd Elza, son of Taylor Elza, was born in 1895. Mr. 
Elza is single and is a w^oodsman by occupation. 

Eli Elza, son of Taylor Elza, was born in 1888. married 
Ockie, daughter of Malcom and Sally A. Henry. Children, 
Emma, B. Y. and Hansel. Mr. ITza resides at Wymer, West 
Virginia, and his occupation is that of a woodsman. 

Adam Elza was born in 1854, married Almeda, daughter 
of Albertus White. Children, Sarah C. \'ictoria, Oliver Y., 
Lafayette, Albert N., Lustie, Selma, Wilbert, Lusta, Sana, 


Leon, l-'\)lsie, William and Kockford. Mr. Elza is engaged in 
farming and has lived twenty-six years in his present location. 


James H., son of John W. and Clara (Hnber) Elder, was 
born September 11, 1872, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Elder married Miss Mae, daughter of Martin and Eliza- 
beth (Sensney) Brown. Children, Ruth and Iluber. AL". 
Elder's ancestors were pioneers in l^'ranklin County, Pennsyl- 
vania. His paternal grandfather, J. G. Elder, was colonel of 
the 126 Pennsylvania volunteers in the war between the states. 
Mr. Elder came to Elkins in 1901. He is a stationer and 
book seller, having his place of business at Third Street, 


The Friend Family. The Friends were of German de- 
scent and came to Randolph from Pendleton. The date of 
their arrival is not certain, except as to Joseph, wdio settled 
in Randolph in 1789. Jonas Friend w^as Sergeant from Pen- 
dleton in the French and Indian War of 1754-60. He was 
constable of that County in 1767, when a part of Augusta. 
Jacob Friend was the father of Jonas, Joseph, Thomas and 
Johnathan. Jonas l""riend settled on Leading Creek, near its 
mouth, on the south side of that stream, w'here F"riends Fort 
w'as located. He was a neighbor of Robert Maxwell, who 
lived on the opposite side of the Creek, hi 1789 Robert Max- 
well gave notice to the County Court that he had applied to 
the General Assembly for the privilege of constructing a ferry 
across Leading Creek, betw^een the lands of Jonas Friend and 
his own. A ferry across Leading Creek would not seem to be 
necessary today, however, all streams were, perhaps, larger 
a century ago than today because of their more heavily tim- 
bered water basins. The Friend family is extinct in the male 
line in Randolph. They moved to the AX'est. Their names 
appear in the records of Randolph for the last time in 1807. 

The Ferguson Family. Robert Ferguson was the first of 
this name to locate in Randolph. He came from Greene 


County, Pennsylvania, in 1780. His father, James Ferguson, 
immigrated from Ireland to the colonies at an early day. 
Robert Ferguson was a blacksmith, and when a youth, shod a 
horse for General Washington near Pittsburgh. Robert Fer- 
guson married Deborah, daughter of Thomas W'ilmoth, in 
1807. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and died in 1868. 
His children were, Archibald, who married Anna Triplett ; 
Nancy, who married Elizabeth De Garmo ; Wyatt, who mar- 
ried Edith Schoonover ; Solomon, who married Mary J. Trip- 
plett ; Robert, who married Nancy Gainer ; Susan, who mar- 
riad Abel H. Kelly; and Elizabeth, who never married. 

The Gibson Family. James, Dudlc}', John and Mrginia 
Gibson, three brothers and a sister, came to Randolph prior 
to the Civil War from Virginia. Later Betsy, with her hus- 
band, James Trainum, also moved to the Valley. The chil- 
dren of James were, Alexander, Francis and Catherine Dudley 
twice married and had twenty-four children, none of whom 
reached manhood. James and Dudley were soldiers of the 
was of 1812. Alexander married Margaret, daughter of John 
and Joan (Harris) Currence. Children, J. N., Mary, J. A., 
Thomas, Alice, William, Samuel, Lafayette and Lottie. Al- 
ice married John Fansler, Willliam married Jane Fansler. La- 
fayette married a Miss Everett. Samuel and Thomas moved 
to the western part of the State. Mary married William Gib- 
son ; Lottie married Sampson Day. 

J. N. married Gilsae McLeod. Children, Rose, Dold, 
Daisy, Emerson, W. W., Kent, Alonzo and Sallie. J. Newton 

Gibson was a teamster in the Civil War at the age of years. 

J. A. (jibson married Virginia, daughter of John \\\ Alullenix. 
Children, Effie V., John, Ethel, Eddie, Flossie, Catherine and 
Dollie. Eddie died in early childhood, Effie and DoUie died 
at the age of 24. 

J. A. Gibson was the nominee of the Republican party for 
the Legislature in 1908 and more than carried the strength 
of his party. He also taught in the public schools of this 
County and the State of Nebraska for a number of years. 

Francis Dold Gibson, son of Jasper N. and Rosae (Mc- 


Lead) Gibson, was l)orn at Beverly in 1872, married Maggie 
Collett. Children, Ruth, Martha, Blanche, Frances D. and 
Eugent. Mr. Gibson was on the ])olice force, regular and ex- 
tra, in the City of Elkins for fi\e years. He was policeman 
for tlie Coal & Coke Com])any for three years. He is now en- 
gaged in the real estate business in h'lkins. 


The Goddin Family. The Goddin family is of English 
descent and were pioneers in the mother state, being among 
the first settlers of New Kent County, Virginia. Jefiferson 
Goddin came to Randolph in 1827 and settled near Elkins. 
He married Rachel Chenoweth. Their children were, Andrew 
J., Isaac P., Judson C, Thomas J., Clitis, George, Emmett, 
Melissa E., Virginia, Mary and Eliza. 

Judson Chenoweth Goddin, born in 184L married Susan 
(Ray) Corley. Children, Rachel J., Jacob L., Thomas J., Ben- 
jamin F., Hattie Lee and George Judson. 

Jesse W. Goddin, son of Jefiferson and Rachel (Cheno- 
weth) Goddin, married in 1856, Mar}^ E., daughter of Daniel 
and Sallie Ann (Earle) Flarper. Children, Floyd, Lucy, Ida, 
Betty, Jefiferson, ]\Iay and John. He was a member of the 
Board of Supervisors in 1870-1, and was president of the 
County Court in 1872-6. He was justice of the peace of Leads- 
ville District 1884-92, and was again a member of the County 
Court in 1892-93. 


The Gandy Family. Uriah Gandy w^as the leader of a 
band of Tories during the Revolution. He was active in he- 
half of the mother country in Pendleton, the eastern part of 
Randolph and adjoining counties. AA'ith a number of British 
sympathizers he established a camp on Tory Camp Run, a 
few^ miles south of the present town of Harmon. Notwith- 
standing the fact that he was not in harmony with the early 
settlers in the matter of politics, he attained a place of prom- 
inence in the early history of Randolph. Subsequent to the 
Revolution he settled on a branch of Dry Fork, which has 
borne the name of Gandy Creek. At that time he was miles 


from any other human habitation. His wife was a daughter 
of Jesse Hughes, the noted Indian fighter. He was one oi 
the justices of the peace appointed by the Governor in the 
organization of the County in 1787. Being the oldest justice 
of peace in point of service, he was promoted to sheriff in 
1793. He moved to Kentucky in 1797. Mr. Gandy located 
his cabin about fifty yards from the junction of Gandy Creek 
with Dry Fork between the two streams. 


The Goff Family. The Goff family, one of the most 
prominent and infiuential in the State, w^as first represented 
in Virginia by Job Goff, who settled in Harrison County in 
1805. The Goff family is of German descent and settled in 
Rhode Island is an early colonial period. 

David (joff, son of Job Goff, located in Randolph prior to 
1829, when he was united in marriage to Christina, daughter 
of Peter Buckey. Their children were Claude, Cecilia and 
Vernon. David Goff became prosecuting attorne}' in 1835, 
superintendent of schools in 1853. He represented the Coun- 
ty in the Virginia Assembly and also in the Senate after the 
formation of the new state. He was Colonel of the Virginia 
militia in 1844. General Nathan Goff, ex-Secretarv of the 
Navy, and now United States Senator, is a nephew of David 
Goff and studied law in his uncle's office at Beverly. 

Claude Goff, son of David and Christina (lUickey) Goff, 
was for many years a practitioner at the Beverlv bar and 
was a highly esteemed citizen. He married Anna, daughter 
of Franklin and Lucinda Leonard. Their children were Chas. 
P., David and Ralph Waldo. 

Ralph Waldo Goff, a very promising 3a)ung man who was 
preparing himself for the legal profession, died in the twenty- 
first year of his age at Beverly. 


The Hutton Family. Abraham Hutton was, ])erhaps, the 
first of the name to come to America, lie was of Welch de- 
scent, and located in what is now Hardy County. He married 
a Miss Evans, of Philadelphia. The children of this marriage 


were Isaac, Moses, Peter and Johnathaii. Aloses Huttoii en- 
tered 200 acres of land on Stony River in Hampshire County 
in 1789. .\l)raliani Mutton was living in Hardv County in 

Johnathan Mutton was born June 3, 1769, and married 
Mary, daui.; liter of l*"rederick and Ujarbara Troiftwiue, in 
Hardy County in May, 1790. He moved to Randolph and 
settled on the west side of the river, near the present village 
of Huttonsville in 1795. The children of Johnathan and Bar- 
bara (Troutwine) Hutton were Moses, Abraham, John A., 
Elizal)eth, Sarah, Nancy, Catherine, F"annie and Mary. Eliz- 
abeth married Andrew Crouch, Catherine married Chas. C. 
See, Mary married W. J. Long. 

Moses Hutton, son of Johnathan and Barbara (Trout- 
wine) Hutton, married Mary Haigler. Their children were 
Mary, Alfred, Elihu, Eugene, Virginia and Mozella. He died 
in the sixty-sixth vear of his age. 

John A. Hutton, son of Johnathan and Barbara (Trout- 
wine) Hutton, married Dorothy See in 1834. Their children 
were Margaret, Catherine, Rachel, Lucy, Caroline and 

Abraham Hutton, son of Johnathan and Barbara (Trout- 
wine) Hutton, married Phoeba Ann Wilson in 1836. Chil- 
dren, Mary Catherine, Phoeba. Amelia, Albert E., James S. 
Decatur B. and John. 

Lieutenant Eugene Hutton, son of Moses Hutton, gave 
his life to the lost cause at the battle of Bunkerhill, September 
3, 1864. He was a brave and intrepid soldier and was highly 
esteemed for many excellencies in civil life. 

Elihu, son of Moses and Mary (Haigler) Hutton, was 
born December 31, 1837, died April 19, 1916. He was reared 
on his father's farm in the vicinity of Huttonsville and was 
educated under private tutors and at the Huttonsville Acad- 
tmy, then the principal seat of learning in this section of the 
State. At the age of 24, in 1861, he organized Company C of 
the 20th Regiment Virginia Cavalry. He was elected Captain 
of his Regiment and by meritorious service arose to Colonel 
of the Regiment at the close of the war. He participated in 
the principal engagements of the war. He was wounded sev- 



eral times ; severely at Smithfield, Virginia. His brother, 
Eugene, a young man of much promise was killed at Bunker 
Hill in 1864. At the close of the war he resumed the pursuits 
of husbandry on the home farm. 


In 1872 he married Miss Sophrina, daughter of Harvey 
A\'oodford, of Barbour County. To this union were born two 
daug:hters, Mrs. Laone, wife of Ca]:)t. W. II. Cobl), of Elkins, 
and Mrs. licryl, wife of Flovd Strader, of Elkins; and three 
sons, Woodford, Forest and Ernest. 

Col. Hutton represented his county two terms in the 
State Eegislature and his genial and generous nature, cou])led 
with (|ualities of mind that incited admiration, made him very 
popular, alike in jjrivate and public life. 


C"()l. Ilutlon was prominently identified with the Confed- 
erate service during- the Civil War. He was with Lee at Elk- 
water. He accompanied Gen. \^^ L. Jackson in his raid in the 
Valley in 1863, and was with (icn. Tml)oden in his raid in 
West Virginia the same year. (,"ol. Hutton was one of (len. 
Early's subordinates upon whom he much depended in his 
campaign in the Valley against Sheridan. 

John A. Huttcjn was justice of the peace in 1841. He rep- 
resented Randolph and Tucker in the Legislature subsequent 
to the Civil War. He was assessor of lands in 1880. War- 
w^ick, son of Johnathan, also represented Randolph and d\ick- 
er in the State Legislature and w^as sherilT of Randolph in 

John A. Hutton in association with Alathew Whitman, 
Dr. Squire Bosworth, Andrew Crawford and others, were 
among the leaders in the organization of the Presbyterian 
church in Randolph and made it a power in motilding a moral 
and religious sentiment in the earlier years of the County. 
The Hutton family also deserve credit for fostering education 
in Randolph prior to the Civil A\'ar. It was largely through 
their efiforts that the academy was established in antebellum 
days. In this school, taught by Capt. Jacob I. Hill, many 
men of Randolph received an education which enabled them 
to take a leading part in the professions of teaching, law, med- 
icine, the pulpit, as well as in the civic affairs of the County 
and State. 

II. Woodford, son of Col Elihu and Sophina (Woodford) 
Hutton, was born February 26, 1876, married Lena, daughter 
of Seymour McCarty. Mr. Flutton w-as educated at Fair- 
mont Normal and at State l^niversity. He is engaged in 
farming and stockraising- near Huttonsville. 

Bedford Forrest, son of Elihu and Sophina (Woodford) 
Hutton, was born in 1885, married Ethelyn Virginia, daugh- 
ter of A. J. and E. V. (Robinson) Bonnafield. Children, Eli- 
hu Bonnafield, Frances Haigler and Ethelyn \*irginia. Air. 
Hutton was educated at Potomac Academy, Stetson Univer- 
sity, Florida, Pantops Academy, AA'ashington, and Washing- 
ton and Lee University, where he matriculated in the depart- 


ment of law. Air. Hutton is engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. • 


Joseph French Harding, born November 9, 1838, in Anne 
Arundle County, Maryland, son of Joseph and Alice (Elliott) 
Harding. He married in 1869, Luceba, daughter of Archibald 
and Caroline (Taylor) Wilmoth. Children, Clare W., French 
Leslie, Luceba M., Roella, Jo L. and Vie Owen. Mrs. Harding 
died April 8, 1910. Jo Lile died January 26, 1906. The name 
had a military origin and the Hardings have always had a 
bent toward the profession of arms, many of the name dis- 
tinguishing themselves in military life. Maj. Harding entered 
the Confederate service at the beginning of the war, when 23 
years of age. He remained until the close of the war firing 
the last shot of that conflict, perhaps, at Knapps Creek, in an 
engagement with Capt. Badger. He was in many hard fought 
battles and had many seeming miraculous escapes. Although 
several times wounded, Maj. Harding is today physically su- 
perior to the average man twenty years his junior. He rose 
to the rank of Major and was named for promotion to Colonel 
when the war closed. Maj. Harding has no characteristics of 
the man who yields and after Lee's surrender made an effort 
to reach the country beyond the Mississippi, where he be- 
lieved the Confederates were still holding out, but on learn- 
ing that all had surrendered, he wrote his own parole May 
23, 1865. 

Subsequent to the Civil War, Maj. Harding twice repre- 
sented Randolph and Tucker counties in the State Le,,;isla- 
ture and was a member of the Constitutitmal Convention of 
1872. He was Sheriff of Randolph from 1877 to 1881. Since 
1885, with his son Clare ^^ . Harding, as junior meml)er of 
the firm, he has been an attorney at law. 

Clare W. Harding, son of Major and Luccl)a ( W ilmotli ) 
Harding, was born in 1872, married Ada, daughter of S. N. 
and Katherine (Brown) Bosworth. Children, Mildred, Ev- 
elyn, Neil, Lyle and Josephine. Mr. Harding has served two 
terms as prosecuting attorncv of Randol])h County and was 
a])])ointcd commissioner in cliancer\- 1)\- [udgc Kittle. 



The Harper Family. The llarper family is of German 
ancestry. The name was originally spelled Herber or Herr- 
ber. Three brothers, Adam, Jacoli and I'hillip immigrated 
from the Rhine to the Shenandoah V^alley in about 1750. 
They were in tlie French and Indian War from Pendleton. 
Henry, a son of the first Jacob, was born in 1788 and died in 
1850. He was the ancestor of the Harper family in Randolph. 
He married Elizabeth Mouse. Tiieir children were Jacob, 
Jehu, Moses, Henry, Eva, Elizabeth, Abraham and Daniel. 
In 1799. Jacob C. Harper purchased two tracts of land of 
A1)raham Claypool on the east side of the river in the Cap- 
linger settlement. The Harpers and Caplingers were neigh- 
bors in Pendleton and it is probal^le that the report that the 
Caplingers gave of the country induced the Harpers to follow 
them to Randolph. There were two Jacob Conrad Harpers. 
The Jacob Conrad Harper who lived on Horse Camp Run was 
the son of Moses and Phoeba Conrad Harper and grandson 
of the first Jacob Harper. Jacob Harper also purchased 402 
acres of land in what is now the Caplinger settlement in 1799. 
The grantor was Geo. See of Hardy County, who had received 
a patent for the land in 1783. 

Geo. W. Harper, son of Daniel and Sally Ann (Earle) 
Harper, was born in 1849. Mr. Harper was married in 1870 to 
Louisa Ann Taylor. Children, W. G., Burtie M. and John 
T., wdio was a machinist and was killed by a boiler explosion 
in the ^^^estern Alaryland yards at Elkins. Mr. Harper was 
deputy sheriff in 1866-7, and was constable from 1881-7. 

\A\ AA\ Harper, son of Miles N. and Christina Lawrence 
Harper, was born in Pendleton County in 1881. He was edu- 
cated in the pul:)lic schools of his native county and came to 
Randolph in 1914. Mr. Harper married Margie Christina 
Teter. Two children have blessed this union, Freda and 
Lena. Mr. Llarper was clerk of the Circoit Court of Pen- 
dleton in 1913, and deputy sheriff' in 1908-12. At present he 
holds the responsible position of cashier of Stockman's P>ank 
at Harmon. 

Seymour Harper, son of Jacob C. and Susan (McDonald) 
Harper, was born in 1865, married Sallie (.Shober) Ours. 


Children, Carl, Earle C, Pearl S., William Jennings Bryan, 
Mabel, Brooks, Madaline, Neil Wood, Gail, Ruth. Dale died 
in infancy. Mr. Harper came to Elkins in 1907 and has been 
prominently identified with the business interests of the city. 

Isom Harper, son of Jacob C. and Susan (McDonald) 
Harper, was born near Harmon in 1868 ; married Phoeb 
(Bright) Carr. Children, Minor, Delia, Lexie, Theodore R., 
and Guy. Calvin died in the twenty-ninth year of his eage ; 
Claudie died, aged 21 ; Holmes R. died, in the eleventh year 
of his age, and Otos died in infancy. Mr. Harper was con- 
stable of Dry Fork District in 1895. 

Daniel A. Harper, son of A. E. and Amanda Virginia 
(Hinkle) Harper, was born in 1867 ; married Minerva, daugh- 
ter of Nicholas and Eliza (McLean) Wilnioth. Children, 
Caudy,, Mittie Virginia and Benton E. Mr. Harper was born 
and raised on what is known as the Harper Triangle in the 
City of Elkins. He was also the founder of Harper Town, a 
thriving suburb of the City of Elkins. 

Philip D. Harper, son of John D. and Ellen (Simmons) 
Harper, was liorn in Harmon, W. Va. in 1868; married ]\lintie 
E. (Gofif) Lantz. Children, Harmon, Iva, Nela, Nellie, Wil- 
bur, John, Bessie, Maggie, Lester, Ernest, Snowden, Ross, 
Scott. Five children of Mr. and Mrs. Harper died in infancy, 
making 18 children. It is a peculiar coincidence that ^Ir. and 
Mrs. Harper were born on the same day in the same year. 


Hart Family. The Hart family is of English descent 
and has been identified with the county since 1785, when two 
brothers, Daniel and Edward Flart, located at the present 
town of Beverly. Daniel settled about a mile above Beverly 
on Files Creek near the old Buckey mill site. They came to 
Randol])h from New Jersey. John and Daniel Hart were sol- 
diers in the Revolution, and were sons of John Hart, who 
signed the Declaration of Independence. 

Joseph Hart, son of Edward Hart, was born and reared 
near Beverly. He became a prominent lawyer, having been 
admitted to tlie bar of Randolph in 1837, and was also prom- 
inent in public and political affairs. He twice represented his 


coiiiUy in ilie Slate Lcs^islatvirc and was president of the 
counl\- court. He moved to the summit of Ivich Mountain in 
1855 for the l)enefit of his health, but continued to practice 
hiw until the beiiinnin*;- of the Ci\il War. llis farm on the 
mountain to]) became the site of the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain and his residence was between the lines of the contending 
forces. He died April 4, 1881. 

Squire Bosworth Hart, son of Joseph and Susan (Pick- 
ens) Hart, was born near Beverly in 1841. He enlisted in 
Battery E First West Virij;inia Artillery and served in the 
Valley of X'ir^inia. After the close of the war he taught 
school until 1867, when he was elected county superintendent 
of schools, and was re-elected in 1869. In 1849 a coal mine 
was opened a short distance west of the summit of the moun- 
tain on the Hart farm and supplied the demand in Beverly 
and vicinity until the building of the railroad up the Valley. 
In 1868 Mr. Hart married Maria L. Morgan, of Upshur Coun- 
ty. They had one child, who became the wife of Hon. Clyde 
Johnson, a prominent attorney of St. Marys, this state. 

William Camden Hart, son of Calvin C. Hart and Julia 
Hart, was born December 19, 1868 ; married Marietta E. Lo- 
gan, daughter of William Thomas Logan and Elizabeth F. 
Logan. Children, Shirlev D. Hart. Logan D. Hart, Dorothy 
Julia Hart, jMarion L. Hart, Sheftey B. Hart, and Calvin E. 
Hart. W^illiam Camden Hart has been constable twice and 
justice of the peace of Beverly District once. 


The Haigler Family. Though the family name in the 
male line is no longer represented in Randolph County, the 
Haigler strain of blood is transmitted in several prominent 
families in Randolph. The forebears of this family, Benjamin 
and Jacob Haigler, were soldiers in the French and Indian 
War from Pendleton County. The Haigler family is of Ger- 
man ancestry. 

Jacob and Perry Haigler moved to Iowa in 1856. Jacob 
Haigler, Sr., died April 9. 1842, aged S3 years. He died from 
the etTects of a burn received while burning brush in a clear- 
ing. Henry Clay Dean married a daughter of Jacob Haigler. 



The Haymond Family. Creed Haymond was born in 
Beverly, Randolph County, April 22, 1836. His father was 
Calder Haymond and his mother was Martha, daughter of 
Ben \\'ilson. Calder Haymond located in Beverly in 1830 
for the practice of law. When Creed Haymond was sixteen 
the family moved to California. Tn 1859 he entered upon the 
practice of law in his adopted state and rapidly rose to the 
leadership of his profession. He was counsel for Leland 
Stanford and prepared the papers for that gentleman's dona- 
tion for the foundation of that noted institution, the Leland 
Stanford University. He also became a national figure in 


The Haddan Family. A\'ithers in his Border ^^'arfare, 
mentions the Iladdans as among- the first settlers to occupy 
the A^alley in 1772-4. There were three brothers, John, Wil- 
liam and David Haddan. They came t ) Randol])h from New 
Jersey. The Haddans located above Huttonsville in the vi- 
cinity of the mouth of Elkwater, and Iniilt a fort on the farm 
now owned by Forrest See. Mary, daughter of David Had- 
dan, married Iidward Jackson. She was the grandmother of 
General Stonewall Jackson. She was the child of the first 
wife of David Hadden. For his second wife David Haddan 
married Rebecca Barr. They had three children, David, 
Margaret and Elizabeth. David died in youth. Margaret 
became the wife of Isaac White in 1797. Elizabeth married 
John Stalnaker in 1804. John Haddan was one of the justices 
of the peace appointed by the Governor in the formation of 
the county. He was also assessor in the same year. He was 
one of the first representatives of Randolph in the Virginia 
Assembly. He was captain of the militia in 1795 and major 
in 1800. In 1806 he moved to Indiana. The Haddan families 
mo\ed to the west and although extinct in Randolph in the 
male line, the strain of blood is represented in several promi- 
nent families of the countv. 



The Harris Family. Jerome B. Harris, son of Barnabus 
Tunis and Rachael Mar(|nis Harris, was born in 1836. He 
married Mary Crocket. Six children were born unto them, 
Lcnora, Gaylord, Jerrold, Tunis, Mary and Raphael. This 
branch of the Harris family is decendant of James Harris, 
who was born in Bristol, England, in 1700. 1 migrated to 
New Jersey in 1725. He married a Miss Boylen. A son, 
George Harris, was born in 1745. He married a Miss Tunis. 
A son, Barnalnis Harris, was born at ]\daski, Lawrence 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1768. He married Ester Miller. Of 
this marriage Barna C. Harris was born in 1811. I5arna C. 
Harris married Rachael Marf(uis, and unto them was born 
Barna Tunis Harris, who married Rachael Marquis. Their 
son, Jerome B. Harris, was the ancestor of this branch of the 
Harris family in Randolph. 

Jerrold Harris, son of Jerome I>. and Mary J. Harris, 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1876 ; married Birdie McGee, 
daughter of Adam and Mary A. McGee. Children, Erank, 
Clarence and Edith. Mr. Harris is an employe of the Laurel 
River Lumber Company, Jennington, AVest Virginia. 


The Hornbeck Family. Benjamin Hornbeck was the first 
of that line to locate in Randolph. He was of Irish ancestry 
and came to Randolph from Pendleton. Benjamin Hornbeck 
settled on Stalnakers Run, near where AA'hite Station is now 
located on the A\"estern Maryland Railroad. The remains of 
the chimnev of his cabin is still \isible on the farm of Obidiah 
Taylor on the north bank of Stalnaker Run. His wife and 
children were massacred by the Indians in 1781. His first 
wife was a Miss Vanscoy. His second wife was the daughter 
of A\'illiam Currence, the pioneer. 

Benjamin Hornbeck was born in 1754, and died Septem- 
ber 6, 1827. He was buried at the old Currence graveyard 
on the farm now owned by John AA'eese. The children of 
Benjamin and I^ydia (Currence) flornbeck were Sarah, who 
married Samuel Channell in 1804; Ann, who married James 
Carr in 1810; Mary, Joseph, ]Moses, John and Elizabeth. 


Moses moved to I'pshur County, Joseph moved to Illinois. 
John remained on the patrimonial estate. 

John, son of Joseph, who moved to Illinois, married Bet- 
tie, daughter of A\'illiam H. Currence. They had one son, 
John, who now li\es in Beverly. 

John, son of Benjamin and Lydia (Currence) Hornbeck. 
married Margaret Stalnaker. Their children were Adam, who 
married Mary, daughter of Henry Currence ; Margaret, Dor- 
cas and Elizabeth, who married AA'illiam Miles of Greenbrier 

Adam, son of John and Margaret (Stalnaker) Hornbeck, 
lives on the Benjamin H^ornbeck homestead near Daily Sta- 
tion. He had one son, AA'illiam, who was justice of the peace 
of Valley Bend District. He was killed by lightning in 1898. 


The Isner Family. A\'illiam Isner was the first of the 
name to locate in Randolph, perhaps. He lived in the Valley 
in 1775 on lands adjoining the lands of Benjamin Wilson 
(See Early Land Patents in another chapter.) Thomas Isner 
applied for a pension in the year 1833 on the grounds that he 
was an Indian sp}- in the Revolution. Michael Isner entered 
190 acres of land in 1789 in Tygarts \'alley. Michael Isner 
was a member of the first grand jury in Randolph County in 


The Jackson Family. The first of this Jackson family 
to come to America was John Jackson, who was from the 
north of Ireland. L'])on his arrival in America in 1748, he se- 
cured employment on the plantation of Lord Baltimore, in 
Calvert County, ]\Iaryland, where he met and married Eliz- 
abeth Cummins, a native of London, England, and a woman 
of intelligence and great force of character, .\fter a time, 
John Jackson moved to Hardy Count}', thence to Randol])h, 
now Lpshur County, where the town of lUickhannon now 
stands. Eight children were born to them. Five sons, George, 
Edward. Henry. Samuel and John, and three daughters. Ed- 
ward lackson married .Mar\-. ranghter of l)a\id liaddan. who 


resided in the \icinily <>f I^lkwaler; lulward Jackson moved 
to Harrison, now Lewis County, in about 1800. Tliree sons 
were horn to JMlward and Mary Iladdan Jackson, (ieorge, 
iJaxid and johnathan. 

Geori^e Jackson moved to Ckarkshnr^ and his parents 
made their home with him until their death. The father died 
in 1801, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. The mother died 
in 1825 at the very unusual age of 105 years. 

Johnathan, son of Edward and Mary (Hadden) Jackson, 
was an attorney of Clarksburg and married Julia Neal, of 
Parkersburg. Two sons and twt) daughters blessed this union, 
^\'arren and Thomas Johnathan and Elizabeth and Laura Ann. 

\\^arren and Elizabeth died in early life. Laura Ann be- 
came the wife of Johnathan Arnold, of Beverly. 

Edward and John Jackson were members oi tlie first 
County Court of Randolph County, and with their associate 
justices of the peace organized the county in 1787. Edward 
Jackson was the first surveyor of Randolph County ; was as- 
sessor in 1791, and sherifif in 1792. He was captain of the 
militia in 1787. Henry Jackson was surveyor in 1793. John 
Jackson was lieutenant of the militia in 1787. Edward Jack- 
son moved to the West Fork about five miles below the pres- 
ent town of Weston in a])out 1800. He died in 1827. 

The Kyle Family, l^his family is numerously represented 
in Randolph and is of (lerman ancestry. The name was origi- 
nally spelled Keil. The Keils came to Randolph from Pen- 
dleton. George and Valentine Kyle were soldiers in the 
French and Indian A\'ar from Pendleton. They lived at Upper 
Tract in Pendleton and moved there from Rockingham in the 
early days of Pendleton when it was a part of Augusta. The 
Kyles, Friends, Bogards, Harpers and Caplingers were all 
decended from Pendleton County ancestors. 


The Logan Family. This family became identified with 
this county in 1823, when William and Elizabeth Logan, hus- 
l)and and wife, located in ]\lingo District. Thev came from 


Rockbridge County, Virginia, ^^'illiam Logan erected and 
operated the first grist and saw mill in that section of the 
county. Mr. Logan was an elder in the Presbyterian church 
and co-operated with Mathew Whitman, Dr. Squire Bos- 
worth, Johnathan Hutton, Adam See, Daniel McLean and 
others in organizing that denomination in Randolph. He died 
in 1858 and his wife in 1831. 

James H. Logan, son of William and Elizabeth (Craw- 
ford) Logan, was third in order of birth of seven children, 
and was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, in 1818. and 
was five years old when he came to Randolph with his par- 
ents. Lie was educated at Washington and Lee University 
and for many years was a school teacher in Randolph. Many 
of his pupils in after life became prominent at the bar, in the 
pulpit and other professions. Tn later years, he followed sur- 
veying and civil engineering. A\'hile never an aspirant for 
ofifice, he was president of the board of education, member 
of city council and mayor of Beverly. He was a classical 
scliolar and was apt at quoting the best productions of poets 
and orators. His foresight was evident by obtaining large 
holdings in timber lands, which with the development of the 
county made him a man of wealth. Four children were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Logan, two of whom died in infancy. The 
eldest, Frances Irvine, married Cyrus H. Scott. She died 
August 5, 1893. Emma, the only surviving child, also became 
the wife of Cyrus H. Scott. 


The Levitt Family. Little is known of this family. With- 
ers does not mention the well authenticated fact that this 
family was massacred by the Indians. William Levitt entered 
200 acres of land on the east side of Tygarts Valley River, 
IMay 30, 1780. It is probable that he had occupied the land 
several }'cars prior to that time. His land was joined on the 
south l)y the lands of John Cassedy and on the north by the 
lands of Cartine White. The Indians secreted themselves 
behind a cluster of bushes that surrounded the spring, which 
was about one hundred yards south of the cabin. They wait- 
ed for some member of the family to a])pear in the yard. 


when the Indians lired. Mrs. Levitt and her children vvei e 
killed and scalped. Mr. Levitt escaped and when he re- 
turned to the scene with some neighbors, Mrs. Levitt had re 
vived, tied a handkerchief about her head and made her way 
to a clump of underbrush nearljy where she was in hiding. 
However, she survived her injuries but a few hours. The date 
of the tragedy is uncertain. The land is now owned by Drs. 
J. L. and Perry Bosworth. 


The Lough Family. This family is of German ancestry 
and came to Randolph from Lendleton in about 1840. The 
original (German name was spelled I-.och. Adam Lough was 
perhaps the first member of the family to come to America. 
He settled on Deer Run in Pendleton in 1772 and died in 1789. 
His wife's name was Barbara Conrad — perhaps. They had 
seven children, Elizabeth, Catherine, Barbara, Adam, George, 
John and Conrad. John married Sarah Harpole. They had 
eleven children. The fifth son, Elias R. Lough, was born in 
Pendleton in 1815 and died in Randolph in 1886. In 1843 
he married Dorcas, dauphter of George and Ruth (Alorgan) 
Weese. Children, Angeline, Rebecca, John Vernon, Leslie j. 
and George ^Morgan. 

John Vernon Lough was born in 1850 and in 1894 mar- 
ried Delila A\'ilson, daughter of Solomon and Abigail (Ryan) 
Caplinger. They had one child, Wilson. 

Geo. M. Lough, son of Elias and Dorcas (Weese) Lough, 
was born in 1845. He married Louisa, daughter of Alba and 
Emily (AVilmoth) Chenow^eth. Children, Guv and Leslie. 
Leslie, son of Geo. M. Lough, married Eva L. Grose. 


The Marteny Family. This w^as one of the prominent 
pioneer families of Randolph and was related by marriage to 
many of the early settlers of the county. William Marteny 
was born about 1770 and lived to be about 80 years of age. 
His first wife was Eunice Estburn. There children were 
William, Daniel, AA^ashington, Joseph, Charles, Jane, Lucre- 
tia, Deborah, Sarah, Ellen. Joseph died in Indiana, Charles 


was drowned in Leading Creek in childhood. Jane married 
Dr. Dolebar, Lncretia married Robert Ball, Deborah married 
William Corrick, Sarah married Thomas W'ilmoth, Ellen mar- 
ried John Phares. William Marteny lived near the Leading- 
Creek bridge, on what is now known as the Reed place. His 
second wife was a ^^liss Earle, sister of Archibald Earle, who 
was for many years clerk of the Circuit Court of Randolph 
County. Peter Buckey married a sister of William Marteny. 
^\'illiam Marteny, the pioneer, represented Randolph County 
in the Virginia Assembly for four vears and was sheriff in 


Nicholas Marstiller, the first representative of the Mars- 
tiller family in Rand()l])h, came from Pennsylvania. The ex- 
act date is not known. The name is of German origin. The 
first Nicholas was appointed master of brands and measures 
in nPS. The position was an important one at that time. 
He was elected overseer of the poor in 1803 for the Second 
District of Randolph. The Second District extended down 
from Files Creek, including Wllmoth's settlement and the 
Dry Fork. At that time overseer of the poor was practically 
the only office in the county that was elective, all other offices 
were appointive until the adoption of the constitution of 1852. 
Nicholas Marstiller, the pioneer, owned and lived on the farm 
now owned by Charles Crouch a few miles below Beverly. 

John Marstiller, son of the first Nicholas, had six chil- 
dren, Nicholas, AA'illiam, Godfrey, John, David Blackman 
and Squire Bos worth. 

Nicholas, son of John and grandson of the first Nicholas 
Marstiller, married Amanda, daughter of John Taylor. Chil- 
dren, Charles M., Lee, John D. and Deli)hia B. 

Charles M. Marstiller, son of Nicholas and Amanda 
(Taylor) Marstiller, married Agnes, daughter of David and 
Pernie (Skidmore) Gilmore. Children, O. G., Clare FL, Pear- 
line \A'. and Jeanne. The second Nicholas Marstiller was 
county surveyor about forty years from 1840-80. His son, C. 
M. Marstiller, was county surveyor for twelve years, deputy 
sheriff twelve vears and maA'or of Flkins in 1912-14. 


Stewart L. Marstiller, son of Pag^e and Sarah C. (Collett) 
Marstiller, married Mary (irace Ramsey. Children, Richard 
}., C'ahnor P., Ina Lee and Katherine I). .Marl S. died in in- 
fancy. Mr. Marstiller was consta1)le of Leadsville District 
two terms, from 1904-12. lie was deputy sheriff from 1912 
two terms, from 1904-12. He has been dei)Uty sheriff from 
1912 to the present time. He was elected slieriff in 1916. 


The McCollum Family. The McCollums were among 
the first settlers of Pocahontas County. From the best infor- 
mation obtainable the first of the name in America was Daniel 
McCollum, who settled in New Hampshire. He was Scotch- 
Irish and a son of a physician who was a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburg. The McCollum family settled near Dris- 
col on Brown's Mountain, in Pocahontas county in 1770. 
They came to Virginia from New Jersey. The children of 
Daniel McCollum, the pioneer, were Daniel, Jacob, William, 
Rebecca, ]\Iary and Sarah. Isaac, son of William and grand' 
son of Daniel, married Margaret Thomas and moved to Ran- 

Newton B. McCollum, son of Isaac and Margaret (Thom- 
as) McCollum, was born in Greenbrier County, W^est Vir- 
ginia, 1854; married Martha J. Marteny in 1875. Children, 
Clinton, Fenster, May, Ada. Children deceased, Ruth, Allie 
Ala}- and Delia. Mr. McCollum is in the employ of Pugh & 
Beavers Wholesale Grocery Co., at Elkins. 

J. Floyd, son of W. H. and M. E. (Simmons) McCollum, 
was born October 19, 1886, at Mill Creek; married July 2, 
1911, Lena, daughter of C. C. and Sarah (Elza) Carr. Mr. 
McCollum is a member of the McCollum family of Randolph 
and is of Scotch-Irish descent. Mr. McCollum is at present 
an employe of the Laurel River Lumber Company at Jen- 


The Morgan Family. Zedekiah Morgan was born in 
Connecticut in 1744. He was an officer in the Revolutionary 
\\'ar and came to Randolph subsequent to that period. He 
was twice married. His first wife was Ruth Dart of Con- 


necticut. His second wife was Rebecca Watson of Boston. 
Two of his daughters married into Randolph famihes, Ruth, 
wlio married George Weese and Naomi, who married Adam 
Stahiaker. They were both children of his first marriage. 
Zedekiah Morgan was a participant in repelling the Indian 
raid in which Adam Stalnaker was killed between Elkins and 
Beverly. His descendants have been influential in \\'est A"ir- 

Clark, son of J. R. and India (Rice) Morgan, was born 
in Taylor County, September 14, 1879 ; married Alary, daugh- 
ter of John J. and Nannie (Galvin) Gallohr. Children. Mil- 
dred, Velona and Geraldine. Mr. Morgan graduated from 
the Grafton high school in 1889. He came- to Randolph in 
1909 and is general manager for West Virginia and Eastern 
Telephone Company. He is a descendant of David Morgan, 
the Indian fighter. 

Camden J. Morgan, son of J. P. and \'irginia (Morgan) 
Morgan, was born in 1886, married Barbara, daughter of 
Dexter and Maude (Crites) Cutright. Children, Ralph and an 
infant not named. Mr. Morgan is clerk in the B. & O. Rail- 
road office at Pickens. He was educated in public schools. 
Mr. Morgan is of English descent and a member of the Mor- 
gan family that was prominent in the Monongalia X'alley in 
the pioneer period. His grandfather, Da\id Morgan, moved 
to Randolph from Marion County in 1856. He i.^ also a de- 
scendant of David Morgan, the noted Indian fighter. 

Hugh C)., son of Chester \\'. and Mary (Talbott) Mor- 
gan, was born at Erench Creek, West \"irginia, in 1863 ; mar- 
ried Isabelle M., daughter of Jolin (Gallman) Light. Chil- 
dren, Chas. E., Troy C. John L. died aged 10 years. Mr. 
Morgan moved to Randolph in 1868 and resides at Pickens. 
The paternal grandfather, Joshua Morgan, moved to Ran- 
dolph with the ^Massachusetts Colony that located in Upshur 
County in about 1800. Among those who came with this 
colony were the Burrhs, Philips, Goulds, Sextons and Bos- 
worths. Mr. Morgan's father, C. W. Morgan, was one of the 
first to settle in the section of Pickens. The nearest store and 
postoffice was twenty-two miles distant for vcars. 



The Maxwell Family. The Maxwell family as presently 
represented in Ivandolpli were of Scotch descent and came 
from Pennsyh'ania to the Monongahela Valley in 1800. 

Thomas Maxwell, son of Robert Maxwell, of Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, married Jane Lewis, near German- 
town. I'heir children were Abner, Levi, Lewis, Robert, Mary 
and Amy. Thomas Maxwell made a journey into Western 
Pennsylvania and was never heard of afterward. It is sup- 
posed he was drowned. His widow and six children moved 
from their home in Pennsylvania to Harrison County. Her 
son Lewis was three times elected to Congress. He lived 
at West Union. Rufus Maxwell, son of Levi Maxwell, was 
born in 1828, died in 1907, was the first prosecuting attorney 
of Tucker County. He was also a member of the Legislature 
from Tucker. He married Sarah L. Bonnifield and reared a 
familv of six children. 

Wilson B. Maxwell, son of Rufus and Sarah (Bonifield) 
Maxwell, was born in 1853. He was educated in the State 
University and began the practice of law at St. George in 
1876. He married in 1876 Miss Carrie I^indsay. Pie is an 
attorney of Elkins. 

Mr. Maxwell's grandfather, Levi Maxwell, married Sarah 
Haymond, whose mother, Mary A\'ilson, was the daughter 
of Col. Ben. Wilson, the Randolph pioneer. This explains the 
origin of the Wilson name in the ^Maxwell family. 

Claude Wilson Maxwell was born July 28, 1877. He 
graduated from the State University in 1897. He located in 
Elkins in 1900. Mr. Maxwell married Miss Nell M. White, 
daughter of Prof. I. C. White, of Morgantown. Children, 
Alay M., Chas. \\\ and Dorothy B. Mr. Maxwell is not only 
a successful lawyer and business man l)ut finds time to in- 
dulge a natural fondness for delving into the subjects of 
science and phylosophy. 

Earle Maxwell, son of W. B. and Carrie (Lindsay) ]\Iax- 
well, was born September 7, 1888. He was educated at the 
State University. He has been associated with his father 


in the practice of law for six years. He received the Demo- 
cratic nomination for prosecuting attorney in the 1916 


The McLean Family. Two distinct and non-related Mc- 
Lean families have lived in Randolph. John McLean was 
killed by the Indians near Haddan's Fort when AVarwick's 
Company was ambushed. Abner McLean, who in 1807, mar- 
ried Rhoeba Daniels was, perhaps, a member of this family. 
This branch of the family spelled their mane McLain. 

Daniel McLean was the first representative of the other 
branch of the family to locate in Randolph. He was of Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. Daniel McLean came to Randolph from An- 
narundell Count}^ Maryland, at a very early day. He mar- 
ried a Miss Wilmoth of this county. Their children were 
George, William, Joseph, John, Dawson, Floy, Noah, Eliza- 
beth, Ann and another daughter, whose name is not remem- 
bered, married Adam Westfall. Elizabeth married Daniel 
Weese. Ann married William Foggy. 

George McLean married a Miss Ryan. Children, Julia 
Sarah, Jane, Virginia and James F. 

James E. McLean studied law and although he died when 
a comparatively young man, he attained prominence at the 
bar. He was practicing his profession at iUickhannon when 
a fatal illness brought to a close a promising career. 

William McLean married a Miss Weese. Their chil- 
dren were Retus, Sarah, Martha, Mary, Jacob, Elizabeth, 
Minerva and Fleming 

Joseph, son of Daniel, moved to Illinois. Dawson died in 

John McLean married Delila Currence, daughter of John 
Currence. in 1815. 

Hoy McLean was twice married. His first wife was Ra- 
chael, daughter of Daniel \\>ese. Children, Emaline. His sec- 
ond wife was Miss Elizabeth Lytle. Children, Minerva, who 
married l\e\-. W. P. Daniels; Martha, who married Dr. Tlios. 
L. Daniels, and .Anna, who married F. M. A. Lawson. 


Noah McLean, son of Daniel, married Julia Meek of 
Augusta County, Virginia. Children, Eliza Ann, who mar- 
ried Nicholas Wilmoth, and Perry H. McLean, who mo\'ed to 
Miami County, Indiana, in 1865. 

Perry IL McLean, son of Noah and Julia (Meekj Mc- 
Lean married Ustena Myers of his adopted state of Indiana. 
Their children are Alonzo and J. F. McLean. 

The Potts Family. In the year 1847 Mathias C Potts 
bought a tract of land on the foothills of Cheat Mountain, 
about three miles from Valley Head, and moved from Bath 
County, Virginia, upon it with his family, consisting of him- 
self and wife and six children, five boys and one girl ; the old- 
est boy, Franklin, being about 14 years old. Mr. Potts was 
at that time a very vigorous man, about 40 years old. It re- 
quired much courage, rigid economy and much hard work to 
clear up a farm in the wild woods and support so large a 
family, but he and his wife and the older boys addressed 
themselves to the task and succeeded. In a few years he had 
a comfortable home and his farm stocked with horses, cat- 
tle, sheep and hogs. Xo one in the upper end of Randolph 
had more friends than he or was deserving- of more. His 
house being the most commodious in the community, became 
a preaching place. On one occasion when the question of 
character was being discussed in the "living room" in front 
of a great blazing log fire, he made this remark, "T do not 
expect to have very much property to leave to my children, 
but I want to live so that when I am gone it will be said of 
me 'he was an honest man.' " He was for a long time justice 
of the peace in his Magisterial District and his counsel was 
often sought in settling difficulties between neighbors. 

When the war broke out in 1861 his sympathies were 
with the South and in consequence he was compelled to 
leav'e his home and much of his property to the mercy of 
the enemy. He went as far into the interior as Bath County, 
but on the way his only -daughter died from sickness caused 
by exposure. He remained in Bath County till the fall of 
1865 when he returned to his devastated farm where he con- 


tinued to make his home until his death which occurred in 
1881 while he was on a visit to his son, Newton, in Hunting- 
ton, West Virginia. 

His second son, Warwick, was a very highly respected 
young man, a carpenter by trade, and died in Upshur County 
in the winter of 1861-2. Franklin and Newton entered the 
Confederate Army in May 1861 and served with distinction 
till the close of the war ; Franklin as Orderly Sergeant in 
McClannihan's Battery and Newton as Lieutenant in Com- 
pany G Eighteenth Virginia Cavalry, and in the fall of 1864 
he was promoted to the position of Adjutant. He had five 
horses shot under him during his service in the army. Gate- 
wood Potts enlisted in Company G Eighteenth Virginia Reg- 
iment. He was wounded and captured in Pennsylvania a few 
days before the battle of Gettysburg. He was kept in prison 
until the close of the war. 

Hamilton Potts enlisted in the Twentieth \ irginia Cav- 
alry and served until the close of the war. 

Franklin Potts married Miss Mary Ann Mathews. Three 
children, one daughter and two sons, were born of this union. 
The younger son, James C). Potts, is a minister in the C B. 

Newton Potts married Miss Maggie Stewart of Vir- 
ginia and moved to Huntington, \A"est Virginia. He has been 
a member of the city council, city clerk and "police judge of 
the City of Huntington. 

Rev. L. Gatewood Potts married, first, Miss Jane Woods, 
of Mingo, Randolph County. Of this union one child, Vernon 
Brown Potts, was born. He is at present a resident of Flor- 
ida. After the death of his first wife, Mr. Potts married Miss 
x-\nna \\'augh, of Pocahontas County, West A'irginia. Three 
children were born to this union, George, who resides in Cin- 
cinnati, ()hio, j. Forrest Potts, who holds a ixisilion witli the 
Western Maryland Railroad at Elkins, and Mrs. Maggie 
Isner, who is a popular school teacher. Rev. Gatewood Potts, 
while 1i\ing on liis farm near h'.lkins, is a ])r(iniincnt local 
preacher in the Methodist l^]iiscopal church. 

Rev. Hamilton Potts was twice married. I lis first wife 
was Miss Lizzie Logan and after her death he married .Miss 


Maggie Baxter. Rev. Potts was unfortunate in the death of 
both of his wives and he is now Hving alone in Alabama. Six 
children, four of whom are living, were born to them. His 
eldest daughter became the wife of Mr. Joe Bartlett, of El- 
kins. His youngest daughter, Miss Lizzie, is a school teacher. 
His son, Broadus, lives in Upshur County and Bucy lives in 
Clarksburg. While Rev. Potts is an ordained minister of the 
Baptist church he at present fills no regular pastorate, but 
preaches as a supply. He was one of the pioneer hotel men 
of Elkins and the Temperance Hotel was one of the land 
marks of the town. 


The Phares Family. This family is of Irish descent and 
came to Randolph from Pendleton in about 1796. This fam- 
ily was among the prominent pioneers of Pendleton, settling 
on Hedricks Run in tliat county in 1781. John, Robert and 
Johnson Phares were among the tithables in Pendleton in 
1790. Johnson Phares was a captain of the Pendleton mili- 
tia in 1793. In the organization of Pendleton in 1787, John- 
son Phares was selected as one of the constables of the 

Robert, who married Susannah Minnis in Pendleton in 
1795, was the first of the name to locate in Randolph. They 
settled on Leading Creek. Their children were Benjamin, 
Johnson, John, Jesse and Susan. 

John Phares, son of Robert and Susan (Minnis) Phares, 
married Martha Marteny. Their children were William, Ben- 
jamin I. and Jolinson. 

Benjamin I., son of Robert and Susannah (Minnis) 
Phares, was born in 1805, and married in 1834, Catherine, 
daughter of Jacob Slagle. Children, Jesse F., John R., Wil- 
liam S., Melissa E. George W. and Jasper \^^ 

Johnson, son of Robert and Susannah (Minnis) Phares. 
never married. 

Susan, daughter of Robert and Susannah (Minnis) 
Phares, married Edward Pritt. 

Wm. Phares, born in 1826. died 1892, son of John and 
Martha (Marteny) Phares. married Mary E., daughter of 


John B. Earle. Children, May, John T., Catherine, W. B. and 
Chas. H. Catherine married Hon. W. L. Kee, for several 
years a prominent attorney of Randolph. 

Benjamin I., son of John and Martha (Marteny) Phares, 
was born in 1826 and married Hellen, daughter of Geo. W. 
Ward. Children, Inez, Robert L., L. W., Maria, Page, Grace, 
Columbia, Tucker J. and Maud E. 

Johnson W. Phares, son of John and Martha ( Marteny "i 
Phares, was born in 1836 : married in 1872 to Mary A., daugh- 
ter of Levy D. Ward. Children, Bruce, Nettie B., Flora H., 
Charles, James Pindall, John L., Burl R., Flossie H. and Nel- 
He R. 

George \\'. Phares, born in 1824, son of William, married 
Eliza, daughter of William Wilmoth in 1848. Children, Squire 
B., William P., Hannah, Anzina, Mary Jane, Alice M., Aman- 
da, Ella M., Columbia A. and Philadelphia. 

Abel W. Phares, born in 1826, son of William and Anna 
(Stalnakeri Phares; married Elizabeth, daughter of Archi- 
bald and Jane (Corley) See. Children, Harriet, Angelina, 
Emmeline, Patsy Jane, Archibald Wilson, Xantippe, Lucy El- 
len, William R., Laura Virginia, Caroline, Augusta, Elizabeth, 
Bird and Charles Bruce. 

Jacob Phares, son of William, born in 1831. In 1853 he 
married Jemima, daughter of William and Mary (Taylor) 
Wilmoth. Children, Delia, Lydia, Amna, Leonard, Jasper N., 
Marian, Robert, Warner, Luceba, Dora and Walter. 

Jasper N. Phares, son of Jacob and Jemima (Wilmoth) 
Phares, born in 1861, near Elkins ; married Addie I., daughter 
of Eli and Margaret (Triplett) Taylor. Children, Stroller, 
May, Dora, Reta, Jemima, Arthur Clay and Ruth. Mr. 
'Phares has been assessor and deputy assessor of Randolph 

The Pedro Family. The Petro or l^edro family was per- 
haps the only representative of the .Spanish nationality among 
the pioneers of Randolph. 'I4ie names of Henry, Leonard 
and Nicholas Petro ai)])ear in the early records of Randolph. 
Nicholas Pedro was a memlx'r of the first grand iur\- of Ran- 


dolph. 'Iliomas lUitcher married Susan, daiit^hter of Henry 
Petro in 1807. Solomon Collett married Sarah, daughter of 
Henry Petro in 1815. Leonard Petro was captured by the In- 
dians, while guarding a trail that lead into the Valley, in 1777. 
He was taken to ( )hio and never heard from afterward. Al- 
though the name is extinct in Randolph the strain of blood 
is represented in se\'eral ijrominent families of the county. 


The Pritt Family. John Pritt was the first representative 
of the Pritt family in Randolph County. He settled in V^alley 
Bend District. He married a Miss Miller. Mr. Pritt came 
from Bath County, Virginia, in about 1812. Their children 
were John, Edward, James, \\'illiam and Jane. James Pritt 
married Sydney McLaughlin. Their children were Riley, Ed- 
ward, Joseph, Cornelius, Amelia and Sallie. 

Edward Pritt married Susan Phares. Their children 
were Holman, John, George, Benjamin, Robert, Johnson, Mar- 
tha, Naomi, \'irginia and Margaret. V^irginia married Sey- 
mour Phares ; Margaret married Jefferson Marteny. 

William Pritt, son of the first John, married Bettie A\"ool- 
wine. Children, Absalom, Washington, Sallie, Alary, Susan, 
Elizabeth and Agnes. Marv married Edmond Kittle; Susan 
married Seymour Stalnaker and Elizabeth married Hiram 

John Pritt, son of John the first, married Nancy Phillips. 
Their children were Wirt, Pierce, John Haddan, Margaret and 
Jane. Margaret married David Kelly ; Jane married Draper 

Riley, son of James and Sydney (McLaughlin) Pritt, 
married Katherine, daughter of Isom Channell. Children, 
Branch, Howard, Ernest. \\'arwick, Hellen and Hattie. 

Edward Pritt, son of James and Sydney (McLaughlin) 
Pritt, married Mary Jane Llo3'd. Children, Charles, Bert, 
Humboldt, Lord, Lora and Clem. 

Joseph Pritt, son of James and Sydney (McLaughlin) 
Pritt, married Margaret, daughter of Isom and Margaret 
Channell. Children, Katie, Ida, Vernie and Odie. 


Cornelius never married and died in middle age. Sallie 
married Jasper, son of Benjamin Phares. Amelia married 
William Herron. 

Holman Pritt married Columbia Woolwine. Children, 
Bruce, Clay, Minnie and Nina. 

John "Dixie" Pritt married a Miss Crickard. Children, 
Thadeus, Albert, W^ade, Lenora, Ella and Anna. 

Benjamin Pritt married Abbie Stalnaker, daughter of Sey- 
mour and Susan Stalnaker. Children, Ruth. 

Robert Pritt married (jeorgia, daughter of George and 
Melissa (Phares) Long. 

Johnson Pritt married Hannah Harper, daughter of Hen- 
ry Harper. Children, Hugh, Maggie, Susan, Hope and Ed- 

Absalom Pritt, son of William and Betty (Woolwine) 
Pritt, married Nancy, daughter of Allison Daniels. Children, 
Erench, Eli and George W . 

Washington Pritt, son of William and Bettie (Woolwine) 
Pritt, married Amelia Stalnaker, dauL' liter of John Stalnaker. 
Children, Jefferson and Laura. 

Edmond Pritt, son of the first John, married Susan R^an. 
Children. George. 

George, son of Edmond, married a Miss Stalnaker. 
Children, Erank, Bessie, Edmond and Wayne R. Wayne Pritt 
was clerk of the Circuit Court of Tucker for many years and 
is now a prominent attorney of that county. 

Riley Pritt was lieutenant of the county militia in 1866, 
and justice of the peace and member of the Comity Court in 
1873. He represented Valley Bend District as a member of 
the board of supervisors in 1869. Holman Pritt was justice of 
the peace and as such member of the County Court in 1876. 
Thadeus Pritt was sheriff in 1910 and is the present clerk of 
the County Court. 

Guy Pritt, son of Madden and Mar}- I'^lizabeth Pritt, wa.s 
l)orn November 1, 1876; married josie, daughter of John 
Smith. Children, Beulah, who died aged 7 vears, Marv Edith, 
Roy Madden, liessie Marie, all living. Mr. Pritt is track fore- 
man on the Valley Bend scctit)n of the Western Maryland 



The Ryan Family. The Ryans were among the early set- 
tlers of Randolpii County. The first of the name to locate in 
this county was Solomon. He located on a farm west of the 
V^alley River near IJeverly. 


The Riffle Family. Jacob Riffle settled in Randolph in 
about 1772. Withers mentions the Riffles as being among the 
earliest settlers of the county. They located on the stream 
that still bears their name in Huttonsville District. They 
were neighbors of the Crouches, Currences, the Warwicks 
and the Haddans. Jacob Riffle was one of the first constables 
of the county in 1787. Frank Riffle was killed by the Indians 
on the same raid in which William Currence and several mem- 
bers of the Kinnan family were murdered. 

The Rooney Family. The Rooneys, Hornbecks. Dough- 
erties and Bufifingtons were a necleus of an early settlement on 
Leading Creek. They were all of Irish descent and were per- 
haps acquainted in Pendleton and Hampshire before coming 
to Randolph. A man bv the name of Rooney was among the 
victims of the Fort Seybert massacre. Alexander Rooney 
was killed in the Indian raid of 1781. He lived on Rooneys 
Run near where it empties into Leading Creek on the east side 
a quarter of a mile south of Gilman station. 

The Rowan Family. Hie Rowan family is of Irish an- 
cestry. Rev. John Rowan was the first of the name to locate 
in Randolph. He was born in Maryland, April 12, 1749. He 
was a soldier in the Revolutionarv War and was wounded by 
being trampled upon by the British Cavalry at the battle of 
Brandy wine, and bore the impress of a horse shoe upon his 
bod}- to the time of his death. Subsequent to the Revolution 
he married Elizabeth Howard of Anne Rundell County, Mary- 
land. ()n April 12, 1809, he located one and one-half miles 
north of Beverlv and lived there about three vears. He then 


moved to Roaring Creek and located on 300 acres of land 
which he had purchased where the town of Coalton is now 
located. He lived there about ten years and lost his land in 
a law suit with Daniel Stringer. He then returned to the Val- 
ley and taught school and preached until the infirmities of 
age compelled him to abandon his labors. His death occurred 
at Beverly, December 29, 1833. His wife survived him about 
ten years, dying February 19, 1844. Their children were John, 
Thomas, Joseph Francis, William, Xancy, Elizabeth, Bathany 
and Labannah. He was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
church and officiated at many weddings in the pioneer period. 

William Rowan, son of John and Elizal^eth (Howard) 
Rowan, was born August 17, 1804, and married Anna, daugh- 
ter of John S. and Anna GoiT, in what is now Barbour County, 
April 10, 1827. Their children were John Addison, George W., 
David B., Eli H. and Adam C. Mr. Rowan was constable and 
deputy sheriff for more than thirty years. His wife, Anna 
Goft', was born September 2, 1804, and lived to be 94 years of 
age. She had living at the time of her death tliree great great 
grandchildren, (.ieorge W. Rowan moved to Bath County, 

John .Addison Rowan, l^orn in 1828, is still living on Roar- 
ing Creek. In 1832 he married Ellen, daughter of John and 
Ellen (Skidmore) Chenoweth. Children, Burns, William, Eli 
C, Kent, Lee, Delphia, Alartha, Alary, Thomas, Peggy and 


The Strader Family. 1 .orenzo Dow Strader, for many 
years one of the leaders of the Randolph County bar, was born 
in Upshur County, November 13, 1839. He came to Randolph 
in 1869 and opened a law office in the tcnvn of Beverl}-. In 
1871 lie married Alaria S., daughter of Judson and Philadel- 
piiia (Reese) Blackman. Before studying law Air. Strader 
was a soldier in tlie I'^ederal .Armv, l)olonging to Comjiany 
V. l-'irsi West \ irginia Cavalrv and was a {participant in the 
battle of Kicli Abiuntain as well as many other important en- 
gagements of tlie war. 

The Strader family came from Holland at an early pe- 


riod in the history of America. Tliey first settled in New 
Jersey, later moving to the South JJranch. John Strader, the 
paternal grandfather of L. I). Strader, moved to Upshur 
County from the South branch, settling near the mouth of 
Little Sand Run. 

Valentine Strader, son of John and father of L. 1). Stra- 
der, was l)orn in 1818 and married Mary Jackson, daughter of 
Edward II. Jackson. Edward Jackson, who was the grand- 
father of Stonewall Jackson, was the uncle of Edward H. 
Jackson. L. 1). Strader died at Beverly, January 10, 1905. 
Unto Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Strader were born Judson Floyd, 
^^'ilbur J., Philadelphia R., Mary Dow and Helen P.. 

Judson Floyd Strader is a member of the law firm of 
Strader (S: Tallman. He was educated at State University 
and at W'esleyan College at Buckhannon. He represented 
Randolph in the Legislature in 1907-8 and is at present chair- 
man of the Democratic Executive Committee of Randolph 
County. He was born September 13, 1872. 

Wilbur Jackson Strader was born at Beverly, December 
2, 1879. He was educated at the \\'esleyan College at Buck- 
hannon and at the State University. 


The Stalnaker Family. Jacob w-as the first of the name to 
locate in Randolph. \\ ithers mentions him in connection with 
the Haddans, the Connellys, the Whitmans, the Warwicks, 
the Nelsons, the Riffles and ^^ estfalls as being the first occu- 
pants of the \"alley after the murder of the Files family. The 
Stalnaker came to America from Holland. They were pion- 
eers of Greenbrier, Augusta and Rockingham before coming to 
Randolph. Jacob Stalnaker's children were John, Adam, An- 
drew, Jacob, Eunice and three daughters whose names are 
not remembered. 

Adam Cooper Stalnaker, born in 1832, son of George W. 
and Elizabeth (Piercy) Stalnaker; married Drusilla, daughter 
of ^^ illiam and Elizabeth ( Yokum) Isner. They had one child, 
Wilbur Lee. Mr. Stalnaker died in 1914. He was the grand- 
son of John A\'. and ]\Iary (Chenoweth) Stalnaker and the 
great grandson of John and the great great grandson of John, 


who was killed by the Indians. John W. Stalnaker, grand- 
father of Adam C, was born May 19, 1783. Mr. Stalnaker was 
a Conferedate soldier, participating in many of the hard 
fought battles. He lived on a farm near Elkins and owned 
property that became valuable because of its proximity to 
Elkins. He was an intelligent and upright citizen. 

Leonidas Stalnaker, son of Nimrod G. and Alildred 
(Thorne) Stalnaker, was born in 1866; married Icy, daughter 
of R. C. and Delilah (Canfield) Moore. One child, Opal, has 
been born to this union. Mr. Stalnaker is a member of the 
pioneer family of Stalnakers in Randolph. His grandfather, 
Edward Stalnaker, at one time owned the old Hart mill, east 
of Beverly, built by one of the first settlers, a Westfall. 

Thomas W., son of Alba and Rebecca (^Mouse) Stal- 
naker, was born in 1869 ; married Marietta, daughter of John- 
son and Mary (Hinkle) Phares. Children, Grace, Thomas \V. 
Jr., Mary Rebecca. Squire Stalnaker was educated in the pub- 
lic schools. He has served three terms as justice of the peace 
of Leadville District, being elected in 1900, 1904 and 1908. He 
is a descendant of the pioneer family of Stalnakers. His paren- 
tal grandfather was Asbury and great grandfather was Isaac. 

\\'ilbur L. Stalnaker, son of Adam C. and Drusella (Isner) 
Stalnaker, born June 18, 1870, was educated in the public 
schools and for a number of years engaged in teaching. He 
graduated in pharmacy from the Ohio Normal University in 
1898, since which time he has conducted a drug store in the 
city of Elkins. He was a member of the Elkins city council in 
1910. Mr. Stalnaker married in 1898, Ota, daughter of Ran- 
dolph and Ida (Caplinger) Elarper. Children, Alva, \\^innie, 
Camille and Harold. 


The Simmons Family. This family is of German origin 
and came to Randolph from Pendleton. The name was orig- 
inally spelled Sieman. The Simmons family came to Ran- 
dolph subsequent to the war of 1812. Leonard Simmons lo- 
cated on the South Fork in Pendleton in 1763. The Simmons 
family is verv numerous in Pendleton. 


Josiah Simmons represented Randolph in the first West 
Virginia constitutional convention, which assembled at Wheel- 
ing, November 26, 1861, and adjiuirncd I'el)ruary 18, 1862. 
ITe was a farmer and resided at Lcads\ille. 


The Snyder Family. Two distinct families of this name 
lia\c lived in Randolph since 1845. Harmon Snyder moved 
from llighland (dunty, X'irginia, to Randoph in 1845. He 
located in Alingo District. Mr. Sn}-der was born in Highland 
Connty in 1821 and in 1865 married Elizabeth (Teter) Law- 
son. Children, John 15., F^dizabeth, Mary C, Harmon E., Mar- 
tlia W'., Idaine 1'., (ieorge W ., William L, and James. Har- 
mon Snyder was justice of the peace of Mingo District for 
many years. He also served as president of the Board of Ed- 
ucation of that district. In 1884 he represented Randolph and 
Tucker in the state Legislature. The greatest elevation in 
Randolph, Sn^-ders T\nob, was named for him. It is located in 
Mingo District on the Snyder homestead. 

William L., son of Harmon and Melvina (Lawson) Sny- 
der, was born in 1881 in Mingo District; married Mamie, 
daughter of Arthur and Alice (Daft) Male. Children, Verl and 
Vernon. Mr. Snyder was educated in public schools and at 
^^'esleyan l'ni\ersity, Valpariso University and at Mountain 
State Lusiness College. Mr. Sn}-der taught in the ])ublic 
schools of the county six years and at present is clerk in the 
Gouthap store at Huttonsville. Mr. Snyder is the nominee of 
the Repul)lican party for the Llouse of Delegates from Ran- 
dol])h in the approaching election. 

Another branch of the Snyder family settled on the Dry 
Fork in Randolph County in about 1800. Snyder is a German 
name and was originally spelled Schneider. John Snvder, 
whose father was also named John, moved from the South 
Branch to Randolph. Lie married Lucinda Hensley of Al- 
bemarle County, Virginia. Children, Elizabeth, Sampson, 
Mary Jane, George ^^^, Henry, Pheoba, Lorenzo Dow and 
Hannah. During the Civil War he was prominently identi- 
fied with the Hnion cause and was a member of the Independ- 
ent Scouts and had many thrilling experiences /6nd hair 


breadth escapes. At one time he was thought to be mortally 
wounded but recovered. 

Capt. Sampson Snyder, son of John and Lucinda (Hensel) 
Snyder, was captain of a company of Independent Scouts dur- 
ing the Civil ^\'ar. V/hen the compau}^ disbanded at the 
close of the war it was composed of the following persons: 
Captain, Sampson Snyder; First Sergeant, John W. Summer- 
field; Second .Sergeant, Geo. W. Snyder; corporals, Jesse 
Keller, John Middleton, Jesse Harmon and Joseph Roy; pri- 
vates, Geo. Arbogast, Daniel Bennet, Geo. Bishop, John S. Dar- 
nall, Absalom Echard, Henry Echard, Geo. Jennings, Chas. 
Gray, Samuel Harmon, Joseph Harmon, William Helmick, 
John \X. Harper, Mathias Helmick, H. D. Jordan, Noah Jor- 
dan, Philip Keller, John Keller, John \\'. Long, Samuel Long, 
Absalom Mick, Elijah Nezelrod, Jesse Penington, John P. 
Roy, Isaac Roy, Solomon Roy, Henry Snyder, John Snyder,. 
Benjamin Snyder, Laban Smith, Isaac Smith, Alfred Stal- 
naker, Adam Wolf, Geo. ^^'olf, fieo. L. Rimer, Mathew Col- 
lins and Solomon Hofifman. 


The Smith Family. Johnathan Smith came to Randolph 
soon after the first ]:)ermanent settlement, the exact date is un- 
certain. He married Jane, daughter of William Currence. 
Their children were W^illiam, Jane, Lydia, Samuel Ctirrence 
and John. Johnathan Smith lived to be 99 years old. 

XA'illiam, son of Jonathan and Jane (Currence) Smith, 
married Ester, daughter of Joseph Pitman. He was born in 
1777 and died in 1852. Their children were Jane, who married 
Bennoni Lazure ; Samuel, who married Katie Alace ; Xancy, 
who married Jacol) Wilnioth : Judy, who married Ferdinand 
Mace; Christina, who married John Smith; Flizal)eth and 
Mary who died young. 

William, son of John and Mary Smith, had four children. 
John, wlio settled in l\andol])li. was born in 1755, and died in 
IS.^l. Ilo married Marv Pugh. 

Jolm 1). .Smith, son of .\ml)rose and Mary (Bland) Smith, 
was born in Pendleton in 1887; married Mary, daughter of 


Marian Sponaiig;le. Children, Virginia and Levince. Mr. 
Smith is a merchant at Whitner. 


The Skidmore Family. The Skidmores were pioneers in 
J'endleton as well as Randoli)h. James and Joseph Skidmore 
were in the Frencli and Indian W^ar from Pendleton. John 
Skidmore was president of the first County Court of Pendleton 
in 1787. Joseph Skidmore was a member of the first grand 
jury of Pendleton. James, John. Joseph and Andrew Skid- 
more were, perhaps, brothers and sons of Andrew Skidmore, 
who emigrated from England to Norfolk, Virginia, at an early 
period. John Skidmore was a captain under General Andrew 
Lewis at Point Pleasant, and Andrew, his brother was a pri- 
vate in his company and both were wounded. Andrew settled 
in Randolph a few miles north of the present city of Elkins. 
He undertook to construct a mill race by digging a ditch 
across the narrow neck between the two channels of the river 
about two miles Ijelow Elkins, but finding the fall insufficient 
he abandoned the enterprise. He died at Sutton, Braxton 
County in 1826. 

John Skidmore mentioned above was born in 1725. An- 
drew Skidmore was born in 1750. John Skidmore married 
Polly Hinkle, in Pendleton. The children of John Skidmore 
were John, who died on Holly River in Braxton County; Ed- 
die, who married Canfield ; Polly, who married George Bickle ; 
Mahala, who married Edward Robinson ; Edith, who married 
John Chenoweth, and Phoeba, who married Alexander Taylor. 

After the Revolution, old soldiers would meet at Circuit 
Courts, general musters and other public gatherings. On 
these occasions incidents of their soldier lives were rehearsed. 
Tradition says that at these reunions of former soldier com- 
rades, Andrew Friend was wont to tell an incident of the Bat- 
tle of Point Pleasant. During this battle some of the soldiers 
resorted to a hollow log for shelter. Andrew Skidmore and 
Andrew Friend and others had taken refuge in the log and 
it was becoming crowded. As Andrew Skidmore pointed to 
another log near by as a possible place of retreat, an Lidian 
shot ofT his finsier. 


Andrew Skidmore married Margaret Johnson of Ran- 
dolph, and settled on Tygarts Valley River, where he entered 
400 acres of land on November 24, 1777. His brother, Joseph, 
entered 350 acres adjoining. Margaret Johnson was a daugh- 
ter of Andrew Johnson and was the grandmother of President 
Johnson. She had six brothers, John, Charles, Robert, Oliver, 
Jacob and Levi. Jacob moved to Raleigh, North Carolina, 
and married a Miss McDonald. Jacob died in 1812, leaving 
one son, Andrew, four years old. He was born and reared in 
poverty and his wife learned him to read while lie was an ap- 
prentice to a tailor. He moved to Greenville, Tennessee, and 
worked at his trade as a tailor. He entered politics in 1828, 
and ascended the political ladder as member of the Legisla- 
ture, Congressman, Governor of Tennessee, Lnited States 
Senator and Vice President, succeeding to the presidency 
upon the assassination of President Lincoln. 

The Skidmores intermarried with the Chenoweths, John- 
sons, Coberlies, Kittles, Hinkles and Scotts. Rachael, daugh- 
ter of Andrew and Margaret Johnson Skidmore, was the moth- 
er of the Scott family of Randolph. The father, John K. 
Scott, weighed 225 and the mother 208 pounds. The weight 
of the sons were JeiTerson, 240: Charles, 275; Hugh, 250; 
James S., 258; Olover J., 276; Winfield, 225; John J., 276 and 
Edwin 340. 

Garfield L, son of D. E. and MartJia \'. (Corley) Skid- 
more, was born in Roaring (>eek District in 1880; married 
Mary, daughter of James and INlary P)rady. Children. Joseph. 
Leona and Margre. Mr. .Skidmore was educated in public 
school. He is prominent in politics and is the nomineee of 
the Democratic party for justice of peace in Leadsville Dis- 
trict. He is a member of the pioneer family of Skidmores of 

The See Family. Adam and ^lichael Frederick See were 
the first of the name to come to America. In 1734 they came 
to this country to escape religious persecution. They belong- 
ed to the Baptist sect and fled from Prussian Silessia with the 
colony of Schwenkfelders and first settled in Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania. 1lie persecution under which they tied is de- 


scribed in the nintli edition of the encyclopedia Britanica un- 
der the title of Schwenkfeld. Adam See's wife's was Barbara 
and Michael Frederick See's wife's name was Catherine. In 
1745 they moved to Hardy County. In 1760 Michael Freder- 
ick See moved to Greenbrier County and was killed by the In- 
dians, July 17, 1764. His wife and four children were carried 
by the Indians to Old Town, now Chilicothe, Ohio. They 
were all restored to their people after the treaty of peace at 
the close of the French and Indian War of 1765, except John 
See, a child se\ en years old, who eluded his relatives and re- 
turned to an Indian family, which had adopted him, but was 
ransomed l)y his uncle, Adam See, some years later. He 
became a soldier in the Revolution and was wounded at the 
battle of Brandywine. He died at Peoria, 111., in 1845, aged 
90 years. The first Adam See had one son, George, and sev- 
eral daughters. In about 1767 George See married Jemima 
Harness of Flardy County. He had a family of nine children, 
Adam, Michael, George, Charles and John ; daughters, Bar- 
bara, Hannah, Elizabeth and Dorothy. Michael See married 
Catherine Baker and raised a family of nine children, Adam, 
Anthony, Jacob, John, Solomon and Noah, and daughters. 
Mar}-, Elizabeth and Barbara, (leorge See and son Charles 
were killed by lightning while stacking hay in 1794. Adam 
and IMichael moved to Randolph in 1795. The second Xoah 
See was born September 19, 1815, and was educated at Bev- 
erly. He moved to Missouri in 1837, and was soon fol- 
lowed by his father, mother and three brother and two sisters. 

This family is of German descent and immigrated to 
Pennsylvania in the colonial period. Frederick Michael See 
was, perhaps, the first of the See family to come to America. 
His son, Michael See, was the first of the name to locate in 
Randolph. The Sees were pioneers in that part of Hampshire 
County that is now embraced in the territory of Hardy Coun- 
ty. Sees Run is an historic stream in Hardy County. 

Tlie children of Michael See were Anthony, Adam, 
George, John, Noah and Barbara. Anthony married Julia 
Leonard, Adam married Margaret \\^arwick, Barbary married 
Wm. ]\IcLeary, the first prosecuting attorney of Randolph 
Countv ; John married a Miss Stewart. 


Adam See, son of Michael, married Margaret Warwick. 
Their children were George, Jacob, Warwick, Charles C, 
Eliza, Dolly, Christina, Mary, Rachael, Hannah and Margaret. 

Chas. C. See, son of Adam and Margaret (Warwick) See, 
married Harriet, daughter of Dr. Scjuire Bosworth. 

Jacob, son of Adam and Alargaret (Warwick) See, mar- 
ried a daughter of Rev. Geo. A. Baxter. 

Dolly, daughter of Adam C. and Margaret (Warwick) 
See, married Hon. John A. Hutton. 

Christina, daughter of Adam C. and Margaret (Warwick) 
See, married Washington Ward. 

Hannah, daughter of Adam and Margaret (Warwick) 
See, married Henry Harper. 

Margaret, daughter of Adam C. and Margaret (W'ar- 
wick) See, married Hon. Washington Long. 

Key. C. S. M. See, son of Jacob See, married Rebecca, 
daughter of Dr. Squire Bosworth. 

Rachel, daughter of Adam C. and Margaret (Warwick) 
See, married Hon. Paul McNeil. 

George See, son of Adam C. and Margaret (Warwick) 

See, married .- Children, Adam, 

who married Dolly Crouch, Georgiana, who married Captain 
W\ Marshall. 

George See, son of ^Michael, the pioneer, disposed of his 
farm of 383 acres in Hampshire County in 1785 and purchased 
218 acres on the west side of the Tygarts Valley River, in the 
Caplinger settlement, in 1787. 

Adam C. See, son of George, was admitted to the bar of 
Randolph County in 1793, and was prosecuting attorney of 
the county in 1798. He was captain of the county militia in 

Lee Roy See, son of Randolph and Sarah E. (Hall) See, 
was born in Erench Creek, Upshur County, in 1873. Xiv. 
See was educated in the public schools, \\'esle}-an College and 
State University. He was the Democratic nominee for sher- 
iff of Upshur County in 1896; represented the same party as 
their candidate for prosecuting attorney in 1904. He was also 
the Democratic nominee for state Senate in the Thirteenth 
District in 1906. Although more than carrying his party 


Strength in each of these contests, he was defeated by the 
greatly superior vote of the opposing party. He occupied the 
bench as special judge in Randolph Circuit Court in 1916. 


The Schoonover Family. This pioneer family is of Ger- 
man ancestr}-, Pjcnjamin Schoonover was born in Connecticut 
in 1755 and settled at the mouth of Horse Shoe Run in Ran- 
dolph, now Tucker County. , A few years later he moved to 
Shavers Fork. His children were Joseph, David, Henry, Dan- 
iel and Amy. David married Susan, daughter of Thomas Wil- 
moth ; Henry married Mary, daughter of David Canfield. 

Joseph Schoonover married Anna, daughter of Nicholas 
]\Iarstiller. Children, Marshall, Eli, Assyrian, Charles, Leo- 
nard, Anna, Etna and Fredricka. 

Thomas Schooner, son of David and grandson of Benja- 
min, married Bashaba, daughter of Dr. Thomas C. Nutter of 
Barbour County. 

Coleman J. Schoonover, born in 1839, son of Thomas and 
Bashaba (Nutter) Schoonover, married in 1865 Susan, daugh- 
ter of James R. and Mahala Parsons. After her death he mar- 
ried in 1870 Rachel E., daughter of Henry V. and Margaret 
(W'ilmoth) Bowman. Children, Carl W., Harriet E., James 
T., Lillian Adaline, A. Ward, Sampson E. and Leslie Clare. 

Eli, son of Joseph and Anna (Marstiller) Schoonover, 
Currence. Children, Holman, W^illiam, Mary, John, Thomas 
married Julia Stemple. Children, John H., Sarah, Anzina and 
Leda B. 

John Schoonover, son of Eli and Anna (Marstiller) 
Schoonover, married Sydney, daughter of John Weese. Chil- 
dren, Lucetta, Violet, Lovett, Summaville, Lorena and 
Willis R. 

The Scott Family'. John and Mary Scott, of Irish descent, 
lived in that part of Hampshire County now embraced in 
Hardy County, prior to the Revolutionary War. Their son, 
Benjamin T. Scott, was born in 1788. He came to Randolph 
and married Jane, daughter of William and Mary (Ward) 


B. and Catherine. William married Susan Channell, Holman 
married a Miss Parsons. 

Thomas B. Scott was born near Huttonsville in 1823. He 
married Mary Ann, daughter of Moses and Mary (Haigler) 
Hutton. His second marriage in 1866 was to Martha, daugh- 
ter of Elias Wilmoth, and his third marriage was in 1875 to 
Rebecca, widow of Solomon Hull Parsons. Children of Thom- 
as B. and Mary (Hutton) Scott, Felix S., Lucy E., Cyrus Hall, 
Virginia, Annie, George Clinton, Clyde and Evaline C. Thos. 
B. Scott was justice of the peace in 1856 and was also presi- 
dent of the County Court. 

Cyrus Hall Scott was born in 1856. He was educated in 
the public schools and graduated from the Fairmont Normal 
in 1877 and from Roanoke College, Salem, Virginia, in 1877. 
He was admitted to practice law in 1879 and was elected prose- 
cuting attorney in 1880. He was elected to the state Senate 
from the Tenth District in 1892. Senator Scott has been twice 
married. I~Iis wives were sisters and the daughters of James 
H. Logan. Plis daughter Edna (Logan) Scott became the 
wife of Hon. H. G. Kump. Two children, Mildred and Logan, 
the issue of his marriage to Emma (Logan) Scott, remain at 

The Triplett Family. The Triplett family came from 
England and was among the settlers of Jamestown. John 
Triplett, the first in Randolph County, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland, August 28, 1778. He came to Virginia when a boy 
eighteen or nineteen years old, having run away from his mas- 
ter, a tanner to whom he was bound. He was married young 
to a Miss Kittle, who seems to have been of a dilTterent family 
from Abraham Kittle. To them were born fourteen children, 
two of whom died in infancy. Of those who lived to manhood 
and womanhood, E])hrain, Jacob, Moses and Jol) spent their 
lives and reared families in Randolph County. W illiam and 
Loami settled in Kanawha County, where they spent their 
lives, h'li and James went to Missouri after marrying in 
Randolph, Eli to Margaret Hart, a daughter of James Hart, 
and James to Deborah Harris, a daughter of Henrv Harris, of 


Leading Creek. Ann was the wife of Archibald Ferguson, and 
Mary, the wife of Solomon Ferguson. Eunice was the wife 
of Isaac Taylor. 

In April, 1829, after the death of the first wife, John Trip- 
lelt and Xancy Kittle were married. She was a Bennett, and 
came from I^^auquier County, and was born in 1798. Her first 
husband was the brother of his first wife. Her son by the 
first marriage was Maj. Ben Kittle, and a daughter was the 
mother of Lloyd and Hamilton Ismer. To this union were 
born Martha, who married Amasa Kittle, Rachael, who mar- 
ried Arnold Wilmoth, Harriet, who married William Fergu- 
son, (John J. Ferguson is the only living child) ; John J., who 
went to Montana when the trouble between the North and 
South came up and died there in the eighties ; Randolph Trip- 
lett, born August 28, 1837 ; Hickman, who went to Nebraska 
about twenty-five years ago and now lives in British Colum- 
bia ; and Anthony, who lives near Grafton in Taylor County. 

Jasper and Owen Triplett were sons of Jol). Elijah Trip- 
lett was the son of Jacob, and the sons of Ephriam were Mil- 
ton and David. 

Floyd J. Triplett, son of Randolph and Sarah (Kittle) 
Triplett, was born in 1863. He married Ella May, daughter 
of Archibald and Caroline (Taylor) A\'ilmoth. Children, Eva 
Belle, Samuel, Lucebia Maria, Sallie and Clare. Mr. Triplett 
has been editor of the Randolph Enterprise and Tygarts Val- 
ley News, and was county clerk in 1891-7. He is now editor 
of the Plymouth, N. C, Independent. 

Jasper AA'. Triplett, son of Job and Sydney (Wilmoth) 
Triplett, was born in 1842 and died in 1914. He married Eliza 
Chenoweth. Children, Wade H., George and Delphia, who 
married Rev. Wm. Flint. Wade married Louie Lambert. 
Children, Delphia, Mary, Hellen, Preston and Revely. Gray- 
don died in infancy. Jasper Triplett was assessor of Randolph 
twelve years. 


The Tallman Family. In the veins of this family flows 
the blood of the old pioneer and hero. Daniel Boone, of Ken- 
tucky, Boone Tallman having married Mary Logan, a sister 


of the late James H. Logan of Randolph County, and be- 
come the father of Robert L. Tallman, who was a farmer and 
surveyor of Barbour County, West Virginia. The latter mar- 
ried Harriet L. Blake, daughter of Herod and Elizabeth Blake, 
of which union there were born Floyd Ellis Tallman and four 
other children. 

Floyd Ellis Tallman, son of Robert L. and Harriet 
(Blake) Tallman, residents of Barbour County, West Vir- 
ginia, was born March 9, 1882, in Barbour County, West Vir- 
ginia. He spent his early years on the farm, during which 
time he attended the rural schools until the year 1900, when 
he became a teacher in the pul^lic schools of his native county, 
and during the years 1900-1905 he was a teacher in the rural 
schools of Barbour County and a student of \\'esleyan Col- 
lege at Buckhannon, West Virginia, from which institution 
he graduated in the year 1905. In the fall of 1905 he entered 
the college of law of the West A'^irginia l^niversity, where he 
continued for the school year of 1905-1906. In September 
1906, he was married to Bess Lillian Talbott, daughter of 
George E. and Ellen E. Talbott of Barbour County. During 
the winter of 1906-7 he taught in the public schools of Bar- 
bour County. In the fall of 1907 Mr. and Mrs. Tallman 
moved to Elkins, Randolph County, where the}' have since 
resided. ]\Ir. Tallman held the position of principal of the 
grammar school of the citv of Elkins for the years 1907-8 
and 1908-9, returning to the West Virginia University in the 
fall of 1909, where he again resumed his law studies, com- 
pleting his course in the spring of 1910. Lie was admitted to 
practice law in Randolph County in Xc^vember, 1910, and 
soon thereafter entered into partnership with the Hon. J. F. 
Strader under the firm name of Strader 8: Tallman, and has 
remained in the active practice of his profession since. In 
August, 1911, he was appointed commissioner in chancer\- of 
the circuit court of Randolph County, a position which he 
still holds, and in 1912 he was elected as a member of the 
Elkins city council from the Second ward, having been the 
candidate of the two leading jmrties. He is also a member 
of the Republican party. 

Mr. Tallman is a member of Delta Chapter of the Phi 


Sigma Kappa college fraternity at Morgantown, West Vir- 
ginia; a member of Elkins Chapter Royal Arcanum, and a 
member of the Masonic I' hie Lodge and Chapter at Elkins, 
West X'irginia. His wife, Bess Lillian Crall)Ott) Tallman 
graduated from W'esleyan College at Buckhannon in the year 
1904 in the literary and elocution courses, and is very active 
in the Methodist Episcopal church and its societies. Mr. and 
Mrs. Tallman have two daughters, Lucille and Mary Louise. 
Their home is at 220 Boundary Avenue. 


The Taylor Family. The progenitor of the Taylor family 
in Randol|)h was Isaac, who mo\'ed to the South Branch from 
Kentucky in about 1800, and thence to this county. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Hays of Hardy. Children, John, Washington, 
Polly, Jemima, Elizabeth, Sarah, Caroline, Susannah, Nim- 
rod, James and Isaac. 

John married Susannah, daughter of Levi Coberly. Their 
children were, Alfred, Amanda, Allen, Felix, Andrew, A\"m. 
H., wdio died while in the Confederate service during the Civil 
\\'ar, Elam B., and Percy. Washington married Melvina 
Chenoweth, Polly married W^illiam \\'ilmoth, Jemima mar- 
ried Samuel AVilmoth, Elizabeth married Edwin Stalna- 
ker, Sarah married Hamilton Skidmore, Caroline married 
Archibald AMlmoth, Susannah married Samuel Channel, Xim- 
rod married Margaret Coberly, James married Deborah Skid- 
more, Isaac married a Miss Triplett, Rebecca never married. 

Andrew, son of John and Susannah Taylor, was born in 
1835. In 1858 he married Louise Dyer daughter of Jacob 
and Elizabeth (Dyer) \\^ard. Mrs. Taylor's grandfather, 
James Dyer, was at the Fort .'^eybert massacre in Pendleton 
and was captured by the Indians. He remained in captivity 
three years when he made his escape and returned to his peo- 
ple. He was fourteen years old at the time of the massacre 
and capture. James and Nancy (Hall) Dyer had but one 
child, who married Jacob Ward. The children of Andrew 
and Louise (Dyer) \A^ard were Blain W., Annie Laurie, Ida 
B. and (iretta V. 


Ida B. married J. G. Nestor, Gretta V. married \V. L. 

The children of John and Susannah Coberly Taylor were 
Alfred, Amanda, Allen, Felix, Andrew, \Vm. H., Elam B. and 

Nimrod Taylor, born 1815, son of the first Isaac, married 
1834 Margaret, daughter of Levi Coberly. Children, Martha, 
Washington Kiner, Lucinda, Phoeba M., Hamilton S., John 
Columbus, James Monroe, Columbia Jane, Isaac Louis and 
Margaret E. 

Allen Taylor, born 1831, son of John and Susannah (Co- 
berly) Taylor, married first, Elizabeth Ward, and after her 
death Eltha, daughter of John K. and Sarah Chenoweth. Chil- 
dren, Louisa, Elizabeth, Rebecca, Florida and William C. 

Hamilton S. Taylor, son of Nimrod and the grandson of 
the first Isaac, was born in 1844. He married in 1866, Eliza- 
beth M. Vanscoy. Children, AA'illiam C, Dorsey F., Lacey 
M. and Lucy B. 

Felix Taylor, son of John and Susannah (Coberly) Tay- 
lor, was born in 1833, married in 1859 to Lucinda, daughter of 
Nimrod Taylor. Children, Shefi:"ey, \\'illiam Haymond and 
Emma Harriet. 

Washington Coyner Taylor, born in 1838, died in 1896, 
son of Nimrod and ^largaret (Coberly) Taylor; married in 
1861 Jane, daughter of Elijah Nelson. Children, Elam, Sam- 
uel Lee, Nimrod, Lizzie, French, Alice, Delphia, Maud and 

Elam E. Taylor, born in 1862, married in 1885 to Lydia 
Ann, daughter of Levi and Mary (Canfield) Coberly. One 
child, Marvin Lucius, who is a civil engineer in the govern- 
ment service. 

Isaac, son of the first Isaac Ta}'lor, married a Miss Trip- 
lett. Children, Judson, Levi, Eli and Elizabeth, who married 
Jesse Coberly. 

John, son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Hays) Taylor, was a 
prominent man in Randolph. He represented Randolph in 
the Virginia Assembly two terms and was a member of the 
West Virginia Legislature also two terms. 


Blain Ward Taylor, son of Andrew and Louise Dyer 
(Ward) Taylor, was educated in the public schools and the 
Fairmont Normal school, where he graduated in 1886. He 
taught in the public schools of the county a number of terms, 
teaching his first school when 14 years old. He served two 
terms as superintendent of schools of Randolph. He served 
two terms as committee clerk in the West Virginia Legisla- 
ture. In 1882 he was appointed to revalue the lands in the 
second assessment district of Randolph County. During Gov- 
ernor Fleming's administration he was chief clerk in the De- 
partment of State. In 1885 he was mail clerk on the B. & O. 
between Grafton and Baltimore, which position he held until 

1888. In 1894 he was appointed chief clerk in the Dead Letter 
Office in Washington. In 1895 he was promoted to the po- 
sition of superintendent of the division of postoffice supplies. 
In 1897 he was again promoted to chief clerk in the postoffice 
department, which position he held for eight years, resigning 
to assume the management of part of the state of W^est Vir- 
ginia for the campaign of Parker and Davis for President and 
Vice President. Mr. Taylor was secretary of the Second Dis- 
trict Democratic congressional committee during the cam- 
paign of Col. Thomas B. Davis. Mr. Taylor has been engaged 
in the practice of law in Elkins for the past ten years. 

Mr. Blain W. Taylor was united in marriage February 13, 

1889, to May (Paxton) Jackson, daughter of Col. Alfred H. 
Jackson of Weston, \\'est \^irginia. Col. Jackson was Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of the Thirty-first Virginia Regiment under 
Stonewall Jackson, and was killed at the battle of Slaughter 
^Mountain. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor have the following children : 
Mary Louise, Elizabeth Jackson, Beatrice W'ashington, ]\Iay 
Jackson, Jean Stuart died aged 3 years, and Beatrice AA^ashing- 
ton died aged 16 years. 

Children of Washington and Melvina (Chenoweth) Tay- 
lor were David B., who married Mary AA'ard, daughter of the 
second Jacob W^ard : Hayes, who married Mary Yoke. Of 
this union was born Francis ^I. Taylor, who was the father 
of Howard, a merchant of Elkins. 

Louise, daughter of Washington and Melvina (Cheno- 
weth) Taylor, married Oliver Wilmoth. 


Emaline, daughter of Washington and Melvina (Cheno- 
weth) Taylor, married Hyre Stalnaker, who were the parents 
of Rufus Stalnaker of Elkins. 

Mary, daughter of Washington and Melvina (Chenoweth) 
Taylor, married Isaac Stalnaker. 

Blake, son of O. \\'. and \'irginia (Wamsley) Taylor, was 
born June 2, 1879. He was educated in the public schools and 
Fairmont Normal where he graduated in 1893. After teaching 
a few years he entered the West Virginia University where 
he graduated in the department of civil engineering. He was 
for three years city engineer of Elkins and spent one year in 
Central Kentucky in the engineering department of railroad 
construction. For a number of years he has been engaged in 
highway work as a profession and is now engaged in per- 
manent road improvement in AVyoming County. He married 
Stella, daughter of Dr. A. S. and Julia (Davis) Bosworth. 
Mr. Taylor is the grandson of Washington and the great 
grandson of the first Isaac Taylor. Mrs. Stella (Bosworth) 
Taylor is a graduate and post graduate of Emerson College 
of Oratory, Boston, and has taught in Glenville Normal school, 
Randolph Macon, Danville, A'^irginia, and two years in (ireat 
Falls, Montana, high school. 

Captain W. H. Taylor of the Eighteenth Virginia Caval- 
ry was killed in the battle of Winchester. His brother, Elanl 
B. Taylor, first lieutenant, was severely wounded in the same 
engagement. The command of the company then fell upon 
the Second Lieutenant, Job Parsons. Captain Taylor is spok- 
en of by his comrades as having been a brave soldier and much 
above the average in military ability. 

Sheffey, son of Felix and Lucinda Taylor, was born in 
1860. In 1883 he married Mary Ellen, daughter of Jol) and 
Martha (Chenoweth) Daniels. Children, Earle, O'l^^rrell, 
Delia. Wesley, Odbert, Haymond, Mary Jackson, Opal Mamie 
and Alarion b'rancis. He was a merchant for a numl)er of 
years at Kerens, taught in the public schools of the county 
for a number of years, and was assessor of Randolph County in 



The Weese Family. This family is of German descent. 
For the orii^in of the surname see another chapter. Jacoh 
Weese was the progenitor of the Weese family in Randolph. 
He was born in 1733 and died in 1826. He came to Randolph 
in the early days of the county and the family had recourse to 
the Wilson Fort in times of Indian raids into the Valley. The 
sons of Jacob Weese were Jacob, George, Daniel and John. 
The sons of the second Jacob were Absalom, Jacob, John and 
Eli. The sons of George were Zirus, Zaiba and Jacob, and 
the daughters were Rebecca, Catherine, Dorcas and Martha. 
Daniel's sons were Judson, Haymond and Duncan. John's 
sons were Elijah, John and Job. 

Zirus \Veese, son of George and Ruth (Morgan) Weese, 
married in 1828 Abigail, daughter of John L. and Deborah 
Hart. Children, Harriet, Deborah, Ruth, Ziba and Perry 

Perry Hart Weese was born in 1840. In 1865 he married 
Alice Jewel, daughter of Joseph and Alice (Elliot) Harding. 
Children, Boyd, Kirk, Clyde, Glenn and Hope. 

Boyd Weese was born in 1866. He was educated in the 
public schools and at the State University. Mr. Weese is a 
merchant and his store has grown from a cross-roads coun- 
try store to one of the largest department stores in Elkins. 
Mr. Weese was the nominee of the Democratic party for the 
State Senate in 1908. He has twice been mayor of the city of 
Elkins and has served on the city council. Mr. Weese mar- 
ried Knight, daughter of James J. and Margaret Stewart 
Burns of Fairmont, W^est Virginia. Children, Dorothy Burns 
and Donald Stuart. 

The White Family. This family of Whites was among 
the first settlers in the Valley in 1772-4. The Border Warfare 
mentions John and AVilliam A\'hite as prominent participants 
in Indian warfare in Randolph in pioneer days. Lieutenant 
John White was shot and killed from ambush by the Indians 
in 1778. In October of that year, in the upper part of the Val- 
ley, the savages, in hiding near the road, fired several shots 


at Lieutenant \Miite but only wounded his horse which caus- 
ed him to dismount. On foot in open ground he was shot, 
tomahawked and scalped. \Mlliam White was captured by 
the Indians in 1777. He was taken to their villages in Ohio 
where he procured a gun by artifice, shot an Indian, took his 
horse and made his way safely to the settlements in Randolph. 
At a later period he was killed by the Indians near the present 
town of Buckhannon. 

John and William White settled in the Valley above 
Huttonsville and were the neighl^ors of the Crouches, the 
Haddans, the Currences and the Warwicks. Price's history 
of Pocahontas says: William White would frequently visit 
the home of Andrew Crouch, senior, and the Major had a vivid 
recollection of the impression White's appearance made upon 
his youthful luind as he walked the floor, he was so very tall 
and portly. 

Isaac, son of John AMiite, was Ijorn near Huttonsville in 
1776. He moved, when a young man, to Beverly District, 
about a mile southwest of Beverly where he lived the remain- 
der of a long life. This land had been entered prior to 1780 
by Cartine and Jacob White. 

Isaac White, was born September, 1776 ; married Mar- 
garet Haddan, February 1, 1798. Children, Polly H., born No- 
vember 9, 1798; John B., born April 27, 1800; Rachel, born 
February 28, 1802, and Eliza, born December 4, 1804. 

Children of John B. and Mary (Reger) AA'hite, Amanda, 
born November 9, 1831 ; Lorenzo Dow White, born January 
5, 1834: Margaret White, born September 2, 1836; F. M. 
White, born May 3, 1838, and Columbia W^hite, born Febru- 
ary 12, 1849. 

Amanda White married ?\lathew \\'ard ; L. 1). \\'hite mar- 
ried Emeline McLean; Margaret ^^'hite died in \'outlT ; F. M. 
White married Lewis \\^oolwine. 

F. M. WHiite married Mary E. Buckey ; Columbia White 
married Lewis W^oolwine. 

Children of F. M. and ]\Iary (Buckey) White, Kent, Liz- 
zie and Effie. Lizzie married S. P. Scott ; Effie died young. 
Rev. Kent \\'hite is a prominent minister in Denver, Colorado. 

Children of L. D. and Emeline (McLean) White were 


John B. and Laura. John B. White married Lucy, daughter 
of Job Daniels. Children, Beulah, Nellie and Howard. Beu- 
lah and Howard died in infancy. 

Eliza, daughter of Isaac and Margaret (Haddan) A\'hite, 
married Nathan Devine. 

Poll}-, daughter of Isaac and Margaret (Haddan) White, 
died Jul\- 22, 1885, aged seven years. 

Isaac White was justice of the peace in 1809. L. D. White 
was clerk of the Circuit Court in 1860; sheriff in 1873-6. 
F. M. White was sheriff in 1871-2. 

Nellie White, daughter of John B. and Lucy (Daniels) 
White, married Marion Ross Payne, April 16, 1913. One 
child, Cecil Arlington, has been born of this union, the date of 
its birth being- September 9, 1914. Mr. Payne was born in 
W^ebster County, West Virginia, January 1, 1886. A second 
child, Marion Ruth, was born to Mr. and Mrs. Payne April 
3, 1916. 

The best information now obtainable indicates that Thom- 
as \\'hite was the first of the White family that is now nu- 
merous in the eastern part of the county to locate in Randolph. 
He located on the head of Whites Run on the summit of the 
Allegheny Mountains, the exact date of which is not known. 
He made his will in 1802. He devised his property to his 
children, William Thomas and David. His wife's name was 
Abigail Summerheld. Pie immigrated to America from Eng- 
land says tradition. 

L. D. White, son of Laban and Kathcrine (Roby) White, 
was born May 28, 1870; married Frances, daughter of Aaron 
Day, in 1890. Children, C)mer C. Davy G., Page L., Lester, 
Londa May, Alpha, Dawson, Lula and Hansford. Mr. A\'hite 
is a farmer residing in Job. 

James W\ White, son of S. L. White and Etta White, 
was born 1878 ; married Cleo, daughter of A. L. and Katie 
Cunningham, in 1914. Mr. White was a farmer's son. He 
taught school three years, made an extensive trip to the west, 
returning to Randolph County and engaging in the mercantile 
business. Mr. W^hite is notary public and postmaster at W^y- 
•mer, AA'est \'irginia. He is acquiring considerable real estate. 


George White, son of James and Catherine E. (Nelson) 
White, was born March 16, 1873 ; married Julia Speck. Chil- 
dren, Dessie, Beulah, Don, Clare, Paul, Dale, Emerson, Stel- 
la M. and Letitia L., who died in infancy. Mr. White is a mem- 
ber of the numerous White families of this section and is a 
g-randson of Levi White and great grandson of Soldier White. 
He is a farmer living on Middle Mountain. 

Isaac C, son of Emanuel and Margaret White, was born 
in 1876; married a daughter of Sylvester and Elizabeth (Van- 
devander) Powers. Children, Nola, Carl, Chester, Thelma, 
Zellie and Wilson. Edgar Edison died in infancy. 

B. Y., son of James B. and Sarah (Carr) Wliite, was born 
in 1878; married Hettie C, daughter of Cyrus and Rachael E. 
(Harper) Teter. Children, Odbert, Sarah, Pauline and Ray- 
mond. Mr. White has been a merchant and school teacher. 
He was deputy assessor under A. W. Zinn. 

Daniel, son of James and Ellen (Nelson) White, was 
born in 1875 ; married Ada, daughter of Noah and Malinda 
(Smith) Montony. Children, Eva, Carl, Vistie, Edith, Her- 
sell, Opie, who died in the seventh year of her age ; Foster, 
who died in the fourth year of his age. Edith died in infancy. 
Mr. White is a blacksmith at Job. 

Grover C. W^hite, son of James and Ella (Nelson) W'hite, 
was born in 1893 ; married Mabel, daughter of Andreas and 
Sallie (Calhoun) Hartman. Children, one child, Othie, has 
been born unto them. Mr. White is a farmer near Job. 

Grover S. White, son of G. W. and Mary S. White, was 
born in 1886; married Ada, daughter of John and Frances 
(Harman) Kimmell. Children, Robert, Gladis, Frank, Guy, 
Mary and Ronald. Mr. \Miite is a farmer near Whitmer. 

Geo. W. White, son of Henry and Sarah C. (Roy) White, 
was born in 1860; married Mary S. White, daughter of Laban 
and Katherine \\niite. Children, Lenora C, Olive L. Grover 
Scott, Dennis, Dixon Carl, Roy and Jared. Air. White was 
constable for twelve years. He was mayor of Whitmer for 
three years and town sergeant two years and for three years 
he was deputy assessor. 

Benjamin F. White, son of Laban and Catherine \\'hite, 
was born in 1865 ; married Permelia, daughter of Joseph and 


Hannah (Eye) Elgard. Cliildren, Phocba, Lena, Charles and 
Virgil. Two children, Preston and Izetta died in infancy. Mr. 
W Iiite is a farmer and lives near Job. 

John W. White, son of Levi and Mary Ann (Davis) 
White, was born in 1850; married Columbia Jane Nelson. 
Children, Alonzo, Elizabeth, Sarah, Catherine. Mary Mar- 
garet died aged 35 years ; Susan A. died at the age of 22 and 
Francis died in the thirtieth year of her age. Mr. White has 
lived on the farm on which he now resides for forty-five years, 
having cleared his entire farm from an unbroken forest. 

Bernard, son of Edward and Mary A., (Houchin) White, 
was born in 1878 in Randolph County ; married May E., daugh- 
ter of Rillis and Elizabeth (Gawthrop) Hermon. Mr. White 
is of English descent. His father moved to Randolph from 
Highland County, Virginia, in 1877. Mr. White is proprietor 
of a garage at Mill Creek. 

S. L. White, son of Harvey and Martha White, was born 
in 1864. Children, James W"., Gertie, Amos, Corbett, Jason, 
Mason, David, Sallie, Arthur and Stanley. Mr. White is en- 
gaged in farming. 


Benjamin Wilson was born in Shenandoah County, Vir- 
ginia, in 1747. His father, \Mlliam Wilson, emigrated from 
Ireland in 1737, and located on Trout Run in what is now 
Hardy County. In about 1774 he moved to the Valley and lo- 
cated on what has since borne the name of Wilson Creek. He 
built the Wilson Fort in 1777. To retain his position of clerk 
of the County Court of Harrison County he moved to Clarks- 
burg when Randolph County was formed. He was a Federal- 
ist in politics and was the leader of his party in W estern Vir- 
ginia until lines were obliterated by the War of 1812. 

For his first wife Col. W^ilson married Ann Ruddell of 
Hampshire County. Twelve children were born to this union. 
For his second wife Col. W^ilson married Phoeba Davisson_ 
Seventeen children blessed this union. Colonel Wilson died in 
Harrison County, Virginia, in 1827, in the eightieth year of 
his age. 

Three brothers of Benjamin Wilson seem to have lived 
in Randolph, William, John and Moses. 


William Wilson, born in 1754, died in 1851. He held many 
offices in Randolph. 

John Wilson, born 1756, died 1827. He was the first 
county clerk in 1787 and first circuit clerk in 1809. 

Moses Wilson, born in 1761, died in 1784. 

William B. Wilson, son of Benjamin and Ann (Ruddell) 
Wilson was born in 1773. He married Elizabeth Davisson 
of Harrison County. Children, Prudence, who married Judge 
Edwin S. Duncan, Patsy, who married Lenox Camden ; Ann, 
who married Abraham Hutton ; Elizabeth, who married Adam 
D. Caplinger ; Alexander, Frederick, Daniel and Edwin 

Edwin Duncan Wilson married Martha Weese. Chil- 
dren, James Duncan, Florida, Rose Ann and Elizabeth. 

Below is an extract from an address made before the trus- 
tees and patrons of the Randolph Academy at Clarksburg, de- 
livered on the 29th day of December, 1799, by Col. AVilson, 
who was one of the trustees of the institution: 

"Sir: A\'e give you assurance that nothing shall be want- 
ing' to render you assistance to make this institution respect- 
able. Therefore permit us to enumerate some of the danger- 
ous ills which is to command your attention as well without 
the Seminary as within, viz: the wilful breach of the Sabbath 
Day, lying', cursing, swearing, quarreling, frequenting taverns 
or still houses by night or by day and in particular the infa- 
mous ills of gaming", together with all other ills not enumerat- 
ed. You will also please inspire such of your youths as have 
arrived at the age of discretion to avoid all low company, and 
at all times and places to sequester themselves from such." 

James D. Wilson, son of Edwin D. and ^lartha (Weese) 
Wilson, was born in 1844, and died in 1895. In 1866 he mar- 
ried Delia, daughter of Absalom and F.milv (Hart) Crawford. 
Unto this union was born Lottie Lee, who died in 1912, and 
Jessie May, who married Homer Houston and after his death 
Lee J. Sandridge, a prominent business man of Barbour Coun- 
ty. James D. W^ilson was a member of a distinguished family, 
being the grandson of William B. Wilson, who was the son 
of the first Benjamin W'ilson. Living in the formative period 
of Western Virginia, no other family, perhaps, has left, in so 



marked degree, the impress of their H\'es and influence upon 
the region now embraced in the state of West Virginia. Dur- 
ing the active period of liis Hfe no other individual in Randolph 
wielded a greater inlluence than James D. Wilson. W ith more 
than ordinary al)ilit_\' and with a peculiar fitness for clerical 



work, Mr. Wilson for eighteen years discharged the duties of 
county clerk with entire satisfaction to his constituents. In 
the true sense of the word, he was not a politician as he was 
open and fearless, following his convictions and opposing or 
espousing a cause in utter disregard of the consequences to 
himself. The county has not produced a more unique or noted 

Colonel Ben. Wilson, who for many years represented 
the Clarksburg District in Congress was a son of Josiah Wil- 
son and a grandson of the first Benjamin Wilson. 

William \\'oodrow, an ancestor of the Woodrow family, 
a member of which was the mother of President Wilson, in an 
early day entered land on Wilson Creek, this county, but it 
is not known whether he ever resided on his possessions. 

W^illiam H. W'ilson, son of John Q. and Harriet (W^ood) 
Wilson, was born in 1840; married Rachael, daughter of 
Abram and Catherine (McNeal) Crouch. Mr. W^ilsoti was jus- 
tice of the peace, deputy sheriff and clerk of the Circuit Court 
in 1884-96. 


The Woolwine Family. This family is of German an- 
cestry and the name was originally spelled Eolvine. Orlando 
AVoolwine was born about 1805. He lived in Valley Bend 
District. He had two sisters, Peggy, who married Isom Chan- 
nell, and Elizabeth, who married William Pritt. Orlando 
Woolwine married Sallie Clark. Children were Judson E., 
William, Columbia, Lucinda and Edmonia. 

\\ illiam Woolwine died in a Federal prison during the 
Civil War. Edmonia W^oolwine married Laban, son of \M1- 
liam Do]el)ear Currence. Lucinda married Carper Ward, Ed- 
monia married Holman Pritt. 

Judson r.. \\'()olwine married Amanda Smith. Children, 
Herman, ?^Iaynard, Stanley, Stella. 

Louis Woolwine was bcirn in 1848. Me married Colum- 
bia, daughter of John B. and Mary Reger White. Children, 
Lee, Nora, ley. Tucker, Dorpha, John, Howard, Burr, Cuy, 
Kent and Merlie. He owns the land on which was situated 
the pound Barn, a land mark of ante-l)ellum davs. 


Orlando W'oolwine was a member of the IJoard of Su- 
pervisors of Randolph County in 1867. 


The Warthen Family. Raphael Warthen was among the 
first settlers of Randolpli. Mis home was on the banks of 
Kings Run near the Staunton and l^arkersburg pike, in Bever- 
ly District. lie died in 1798, leaving a widow and two chil- 
dren. Elizabeth and Chlotilda. Chlotilda was born in 1798. 
The widt)w with her children moved to Kentucky in 1800. 
Chlotilda married a Montgomery, a member of a Maryland 
family. One son of this union, Hon. Zacliaria Montgomery, 
moved to California in 1849. He became a prominent citizen 
of his adopted state, and gained distinction as a writer oh po- 
litical and other subjects and was assistant attorney general 
under Cleveland's first administration. A grandson of Chlo- 
tilda Warthen ^Montgomery is the Right Reverend George 
Montgomery, a Catholic Bishop of Southern California. 

Prof. John J. Montgomery, son of Hon. Zacharia Mont- 
gomery, gained world wide fame as a pioneer in the field of ae- 
rial flight. Prof. Montgomery was recognized bv aviationists 
of every nation as one of the greatest inventors of heavier 
than air frying machines. He was in fact the father of the 
frying machine, but the Wright brothers following in his foot- 
steps and infringing on his patents received popular credit 
that belongs to Prof. Montgomery. He met his death in an 
effort to solve the problem of gliding without the use of powder, 
after the manner of the eagle and other soaring birds. 

The Westfall Family. George, Jacob, Job, \\'illiam, 
James and Cornelius \\>stfall settled in the Valley as early 
as 1772. They were, perhaps, brothers and came to Randolph 
from Pendleton. Withers says that one of the Westfalls found 
and buried the remains of the Files familv who were murder- 
ed by the Indians nearly twenty years previous. This is im- 
probable from the fact that the Westfalls settled near the 
mouth of Mill Creek and W^illiam Currence first owned and 
occupied the land where Beverly now stands and which had 


been abandoned by the Files family. Some years later Wil- 
liam Currence and the Westfalls exchanged lands. Jacob 
\\'estfall was a justice of the peace and a member of the 
court appointed by the Governor in the organization of the 
county. In the same 3'ear he was elected sheriff by his asso- 
ciate justices of the peace, and thus became the first sheriff of 
Randolph. The residence of James Westfall in Beverly was 
designated as the court house of Randolph County, May 29, 
1787, the first session having been held the day previous at 
the residence of Benjamin Wilson. Cornelius Westfall was 
the second sheriff" of Randolph in 1789. George and James 
A\^estfall were captains of the militia in 1787. Jacob West- 
fall was one of the trustees of the town of Beverly in 1790. 
James Westfall was major of the militia in 1794. The \\ est- 
falls were of German origin and the name was spelled \\'est- 
phal in the mother tongue. The Westfalls settled in Pendle- 
ton in 1752. Cornelius Westfall moved to Hamilton County, 


The Whitman Family. The Whitman famil}- was 
among the first settlers of Randolph. Mathew Whitman was 
the first deputy sheriff of Randolph. Me was captain of the 
militia in 1800 and was elected sheriff by the court the same 
year. He assisted in the organization of the first Presby- 
terian church in Randolph in 1820. Me was commissioner of 
revenue in 1831. The Whitman familv was of English de- 
scent and came from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, stopping 
temporarily in Hampshire County. JNIathew Whitman was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary War and received a pension. 


The Warwick Family. The AVarwick famih- came to 
Randol])li in the first years of its settlement. Jacob Warwick 
came from England to Williamsburg, A'irginia, in 1740-50. 
He was employed by the Crown to sur\ev land grants in I'o- 
cahontas County. It is to l)e presumed tliat he was the father 
of Jacob Warwick, who settled in Randolj)!!. The Warwicks 
became connected by marriage witli the Sees, the Marshalls, 
the Crouches and other jiromiiient families of Randol])!!. A 


descendant of this family of Warwicks became a prominent 
politician of the Buckeye State and had the distinction of de- 
feating- \\'m. McKinley for Congress some years before he 
was elected to the Presidency. 


The Wilmoth Family. The Wilmoth settlement was 
among the first permanent colonies in Randolph. The date is 
fixed by the records of Monongalia County, which show that 
the W'ilmoths obtained certificates for land on Cheat River 
on which they settled in 1776. These certificates were given by 
the commissioners of unpatented lands in 1781. They were 
of English descent and consisted of four brothers and two 
sisters. Their names were Nicholas, Thomas, James and John, 
and the sisters, Deborah and Susan. They immigrated from 
England to Virginia and thence to Randolph, sojourning, per- 
haps, in Pendleton. Thomas Wilmoth received a patent for 
71 acres of land in Pendleton on Hedricks Run in 1771. The 
\\'ilmoths probably lived in Pendleton from 1771 to 1776. For 
many years subsequent to their settlement on the river, the 
stream was called Wilmoths river. 

Nicholas, the eldest of the Wilmoth brothers, married 
Sydney, daughter of William Currence, the pioneer. The chil- 
dren of Nicholas and Sydney (Currence) W^ilmoth were, John 
W., Sarah, Thomas, William, Eli, Samuel, James and Cur- 

Thomas, brother of the first Nicholas, married in 1798 
Amy, daughter of Benjamin Schoonover. He owned the land 
where the stone house now stands. The stone house was 
built by Levi, son of Thomas. The children of Thomas and 
Amy (Schoonover) Wilmoth were, Absalom, John, Edmund, 
Levi, and three daughters whose names are not remembered. 

John Wilmoth, one of the pioneer brothers, married in 
1799 Mary Cunningham, daughter of James Cunningham. The 
names of their children were Elias, Peggy, James, Prudence, 
Wilson, Solomon, John Adam, Alary Ann and Dewy. James 
married Nancy Smith. 

James Wilmoth, the pioneer, was murdered by the In- 
dians. The date of the tragedy is uncertain, but it was prob- 


ably at the time of the Leading Creek massacre. The W'il- 
moth settlement was apprehensive of a raid by the Indians 
and had sought safety at Friends and Wilson's Fort. How- 
ever, James Wilmoth ventured to make a visit to the settle- 
ment, when his whereabouts was betrayed to the savages 
lurking in the community by the barking of a dog with him. 
The Indians killed him from ambush near where the stone 
house now stands. Susan AVilmoth married David Schoon- 

Eli, son of Nicholas and Sydney (Currence) Wilmoth, 
married Rebecca, daughter of Aaron Vanscoy. Their children 
were Archibald, Emily, Currence, James, Arnold, Louisa, Is- 
bern, Oliver and Elizabeth. 

Nicholas Wilmoth, born in 1824, son of William and 
Mary (Taylor) A\'ilmoth ; married in 1853 to Eliza, daughter 
of Noah McLean. Children, Simpson, Raymond, Theodore, 
Virginia, Emiline, Minerva, Lou A. and Julia. 

Benjamin F. Wilmoth, son of Wm. and Mary (Taylor) 
Wilmoth, was born in 1829. He was a member of the Ijoard 
of Supervisors during the Civil War. 

Oliver AMlmoth, son of Eli and Rebecca (Vanscoy) Wil- 
moth and grandson of Nicholas and Sydney (Currence) A\'il- 
moth, was born in 1835. He was a member of the Board of 
Supervisors in 1861-8 and was town sergeant, chief of police 
and city treasurer of the city of Elkins, holding one of these 
positions almost continuously during the first two decades 
of the city's growth. 

Archibald Wilmoth was born in 1824 and was the son of 

Eli and Rebecca (Vanscoy)' Wilmoth. He died in 19 He 

married Caroline, daughter of Isaac Taylor, in 1847. Chil- 
dren, Luceba, Alonzo, F. Ella and Rebecca. 

Luceba E. Wilmoth married Major J. F. Harding; Ella 
May Wilmoth married Floyd J. Triplett ; Rebecca C. Wilmoth 
married Ziba Weese. 

Alonzo F. AA'ilmoth, son of Archibald and Caroline (Tay- 
lor) Wilmoth, was born in 1854; married Nancy, davtghter of 
Thomas G. and lunily L. Black. Children, Emily, Josephine, 
Russell Woods, Edith Lorainc. Mr. \\'ilmoth graduated from 
Fairmont Normal school in 1881. He was principal of the New 


Martinsville public schools in 1882; from 1884-8 he was sec- 
retary to State Superintendent of Public Schools, V>. L. Butch- 
er. Vor \ears Mr. W ilmnth was a representative of the pub- 
lishing- house of (iinn cK; Co. He was elected county superin- 
tendent of schools in 1878 and served two terms. 


The Ward Family. Sylvester was the ancestor of the 
Ward faniiU' in Randolph. He came to Randolph from Pen- 
dleton in 1788 and married Mary Cunninc^ham of that county. 
He was one of the trustees of the tow^n of lieverly in 1790. 
The children of Sylvester Ward were Jacol^ Jemima, Phoeba, 
Le\i and .\donijah. Adonijah, Levi and two sisters, Phoeba 
and Jemima, moved to Ohio at an early date. They launched 
a boat on the Monongalia and floated down that stream and 
Ohio w^as their destination. The boat was constructed with 
sides too thick to be penetrated by the bullets of enemies. 
Tradition says that the Wards had more than one encounter 
with the Indians on their journey and that friends and com- 
panions of the trip, who were not so well prepared to repel 
attacks, perished on the way. 

Mary, daughter of Sylvester Ward, married William Cur- 
rence. L'nto this union were born John J., who married Ann 
Conrad and moved to Braxton ; William, who married Eliza- 
beth Conrad; \'irginia, who married Benjamin Scott; Jemima, 
who married Adam Carper; Elizabeth, who married Gabriel 

Jacob \\'ard, son of Sylvester, married first, Elizabeth 
Scott of the South Branch. Children, Scott, killed by falling 
on pitchfork; Adonijah, who married Miss Hull; Jacob, wdio 
married Miss Dyer; Levi, who married Miss Stalnaker ; Katie, 
who married William Parsons ; Mary, who married Solomon 
Parsons, and Jemima, who married Job Parsons. The chil- 
dren of Jacob and Elizabeth AA'hitman Ward were. Whitman, 
William L., \\'ashington G., Jesse and Phoeba. 

The children of Jacob and Elizabeth (Dyer) Ward were 
Levi D., Catherine, Mary, Jemima, Louisa D., Morgan Blaine 
and \\'illiam Thomas. 


Levi, son of the first Jacob Ward, married Katie Wliit- 
man. Children, Adonijah, George and Whitman. 

The children of Adonijah and Hannah (Hull) Ward 
were Hull, Levi and Scott Ward. 

WHiitman W^ard, born April 9, 1803, married ]\Iary Weese, 
daughter of John W'eese. Children, Washington C, born Oc- 
tober 28, 1831 ; Squire Bosworth, born October 10, 1833; John 
W., born February 28, 1836; ATary E., born August 7, 1838; 
Phoeba C. born July 8, 1840; Job, born January 28, 1843; 
Mathew \W, born Decemljer 28, 1850; \^'illiam K., born No- 
vember 13, 1853. 

WHiitman Ward was killed at Kerens, June 14, 1862, while 
attending a muster. He was shot from ambush by Confed- 
erate scouts, who mistook him for a Union sympathizer, who 
had been active in reporting Confederate partisans. 

Squire B. Ward, born in 1833, married in 1856 Mary Jane, 
daughter of Daniel and Catherine Dinkle. They had one 
child, Iddo. Mr. \\'ard married after the death of his first wife 
Ida Huffman. 

John I^aylis ^^'ard, an attorney of Beverly, was born in 
1852. He is the son of George W^ and Maria (Earle) W'ard. 
In 1882 he married Angelia, daughter of x\ndrew and Susan 
(Foggy) Scott. Children, (ieorge A., William M., Wilson 
P., John Baylis, Edgar Foggy and Mary Genevieve. 

James A., son of Levi D. Ward and Rebecca (Wamsley) 
W^ard, was born in 1860. Mr. Ward lives in Idaho. 

Elihu B. W ard, born in 1838, son of Jesse C. and Eliza- 
beth W^ard, married first, Eliza A. Crouch and after her death 
Eugenia Crouch. Children, Mittie L., Kent C. Jubal E., Mary, 
Emma Nora, Lenna, Bessie, Randall and i'ruce. Mr. Ward 
served through the Ci\'il W'ar as a Confederate soldier. 

Lee M. Ward, born in 1846, son of Wm. L. and Eliza 
(Myers) Ward. In 1867 he married Virginia, daughter of 
Moses and Mary (Haigler) Hutton. He served in the Con- 
federate army from 1862 to the close of the war. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Ward have been born Tucker IL, Russie L. and Lucy. 
Tucker Ward is a graduate of the law department (»f the 
State l^niversity. He married Ancath. daughter of Edwin 


Butcher of Parkersbtirg-, West Virginia. Children, Wm. L. and 
Brownie B. 

Levi Scott Ward, son of Adonijah and Hannah (Hull) 
W^ard, was born in 1819. In 1841 he married ^Martha, daugh- 
ter of John and Mary (Hornbeck) Wood. Children, Hannah, 
John, Luther, Asa, Paul and Sabina. Mr. W^ard was the great 
grandson of Sylvester ^\'ard. For many years he resided 
near the head of Files Creek in Valley Bend District. 

Hull Adam Ward was born in 1825. He was the son of 
Adonijah and Hannah (Hull) Ward. He married Melvina 
\A eese. 

Sterling Price Ward, son of George and Margaret E. 
(Wamsley) Ward, was born May 12, 1867; married May 
Martha, daughter of Charles and Virginia (Wllmoth) Crouch. 
Children, Maggie, who married John Petit. Mr. Ward was ed- 
ucated in the public schools and at Bingham Military Acad- 
emy, North Carolina. Mr. Ward is a prominent farmer of 
Huttonsville District, residing near Mill Creek. 

Ray Ward, son of Job and Catherine (Chenoweth) Ward, 
was born in 1873 ; married Hattie, daughter of Randolph and 
Sarah (Kittle) Triplett. Children, Lanier Ferrel, Freda Hel- 
en, Austin Job, Ada C, Dorotha ^Ma}^ and W^aldo Triplett. 
Mr. Ward is a farmer and lives near Elkins. 


The Yokum Family. This family is of German descent 
and was among the first settlers of the Valley. The name 
as it appeared in the early records was spelled Yoakum. The 
first ancestor of this family of which we have any record was 
Phillip Paul Yokum, who lived on the South Branch of the 
Potomac in what is now Hardy County, and married a Miss 

John and Michael Yokum settled in what is now Bar- 
bour County at a very earl}- date. They were brothers, per- 
haps. The commissioners appointed to adjust land titles, 
certified that John Yokum was entitled to 400 acres on Bar- 
ker's Creek to include his settlement made in 1773, and that 
Michael Yokum was entitled to 400 acres to include his set- 
tlement made in 1772 on Sugar Creek. Their names appear 


in the early records of the county and it is to be presumed that 
they moved to the Valley shortly after their settlement in 
what is now Barbour. 

A^'illiam Yokum, grandson of Phillip Yokum, married 
Sally, daughter of Solomon Ryan, who lived near the Beverly 
bridge on the west side. 

John Yokum, grandson of the first John, married a Miss 
Kuykendall. George W. Yokum. for many years a prominent 
physician of Beverly, w^as a son of this union. 

Bruce, son of Dr. G. \\'. and Mary C. (Ward) Yokum, 
was born in 1860; married in 1893 Mary Ervin, daughter of 
Morgan and Sallie (Long) Kittle. Mr. Yokum was educated 
at Washington and Jefferson College. He lives in the ances- 
tral home in Beverly and is extensively engaged in farming 
and stockraising, owning some of the Ijest agricultural and 
grazing lands in the county. 

Palmer R., son of Elam and Martha (Stalnaker) Yokum, 
was born November 15. 1888; married Xellie, daughter of 
Lafayette and Lucy (Clem) Daniels. Mr. Yokum is proprie- 
tor of the railroad restaurant and hotel at Mill Creek. He is of 
German descent and a descendant of the pioneer family of 



Alexander Addison. 
Alexander Addison was the second Prosecuting- Attorney 
of Randolph, lie succeeded William McCleary and held that 
office from 1787 to 1790. At the August term of the court, 
1787, he was licensed for one year to practice law. At that 
time the recommendation of some court was necessary to 
obtain a license. Mr. Addison was given one year to meet 
this requirement. Nothing is now known of his previous 
or subsequent history. 

Maxwell Armstrong. 

Maxwell Armstrong was Prosecuting Attorney of Ran- 
dolph from 1795 to 1798. He was practicing at the Randolph 
County bar as late as 1795, when he was engaged by the Coun- 
ty Court to bring suit against Edward Hart for failure to com- 
plete the court house in the time specified in the contract 
Another family of the same name settled in Randolph about 
this time. They were from Prince ^^'illiam County, Virginia 
\\'hether relatives of Maxwell Armstrong is not known. 

John M. Ball. 

John Marshall Ball, son of George W. and Malinda (Par- 
sons) Ball was born in 1836, married (1860) Christina, daugh- 
ter of Adonijah and Patsy (Carper) AA'ard. Children, Hattie 
and Maggie, both deceased. 

Mr. Ball has traveled extensively in the W^est and lived 
for several years in Kansas in the pioneer days of the Sun- 
flower State, when the homesteader came in conflict with 
hot winds, cyclones, grasshoppers and Indians. He is the only 
living representative of a pioneer family in Randolph. 

Andrew D. Barlow. 
Andrew D., son of Alexander Barlow, was born in Poca- 
hontas County in 1847, married ( 1874) Jennie Bell, daughter 
of C. W. and IMary (Collett) Russell. Children, Hattie, who 
married Chas. Baker ; Willis D., Agnes, Mattie, Russell. Ralph 


and Dr. C. A. Barlow who is superintendent of the Spencer In- 
sane Asylum. JNIattie is a graduate of Emerson College of 
Oratory, Boston, and for a number of years has been a teacher 
in a college in Oklahoma. 

Harry N. Barnard. 

Harry N. Barnard, son of Nathaniel and Nancy E. 
(Speers) Barnard, born in Rockwood, Pa., 1872, married Stel- 
la, daughter of D. P. and Caroline (Chenoweth) Harper. Chil- 
dren, Paul H., Chas. E., Harry N., Jr. 

Mr. Barnard came to Randolph in 1889 and is a dealer in 
hardware and plumbers' supplies. He is an active member of 
the Presbyterian church and is president of the Randolph Sun- 
day school Association. 

Rev. Frederick H. Barron. 

Rev. Frederick H. Barron, A.]\I., D.D., son of J. L. and 
Agnes (Jackson) Barron, w^as born in St. Marys, Province of 
Ontario, Canada, January, 1870. Rev. Barron took the degree 
of bachelor of arts from the University of Toronto, in 1897. 
In 1900 he graduated from Knox Theological Seminary. From 
1900 to 1902 he was pastor of Reid Memorial Church, Balti- 
more. Since 1902 he has been pastor of the Davis Memorial 
Presbyterian Church. Rev. Barron was president of Davis 
and Elkins College, 1905-6, and has been professor of Biblical 
Literature in that institution since 1904. 

Doctor Barron married Mary C, daughter of Capt. O. N. 
and Mrs. Mary S. Butler. Children, Mary Spence, Frederick 
Minto and William Wallace. 

Amos J. Bennett. 

Amos J. Bennett, son of Aaron and Elizabeth (Bennett) 
Bennett, was born in Pendleton County in 1849; married Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of Reuben and Margaret (McLaughlin) Teter. 
Children, Harrison, Gordon, Lottie, Annie Izerna, INIacie. Odie. 
Mamie. Alary died at the age of 29; Strigh died in the 13th 
year of his age ; ]\Iamie and Lester A. died in infancy. 

]\Ir. Bennett came to Randolph in 1870. He served several 
terms as president of the Board of Education of Dry I'ork 


District; was constable eigh years and was the nominee of the 
Republican party for deputy sheriff in 1908. lie is at present 
engaged in farming and stockraising. 

James Appleton Bent. 

James Appleton Bent, son of George B. and Elizabeth 
Bent, was born July 15, 1853, Roane County, West Virginia, 
married Maggie C. Butcher, daughter of C. W. and Manda 
Butcher, November 27, 1888, Beverly, W. Va. Children, Myr- 
tle M. Bent, Laura Gertrude Bent and Edgar M. Bent. Mr. 
Bent became a resident of Randolph County September, 1883. 

Mr. Bent has attained a place of prominence at the Ran- 
dolph county bar. He has been honored by his fellow prac- 
titioners by being chosen as special judge in important cases. 
He is also a law writer of note, being the author of Bent's 

Jefferson Seidell Brown. 

Jefferson Slidell Brown. The subject of this sketch was 
born at the old "Fairfax Manor" house near Kingwood, West 
Virginia, during the throes of the Civil W^ar. His father, 
Charles Mercer Brown, a lawyer, who died at the age of 32 
years, leaving a widow and two sons, the other, Ben L. Brown, 
now postmaster at Kingwood. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was A^irj^inia Caroline Fairfax, a granddaughter 
of Col. John Fairfax of Virginia, who was superintendent for 
seven years for Gen. Geo Washington at his plantation at 
Mount Vernon, Virginia, and Lawrence Washington, a half 
brother of General W^ashington, married a sister of Col. Fair- 
fax. The latter was a son of William Fairfax, a cousin to 
Lord Tom Fairfax of Greenaway Court, near \\'inchester, 
A^irginia. The great grandfather of the subject of this sketch 
was Capt. Thomas Brown of Prince W^illiam County, Virgin- 
ia, who served in the Revolutionary War and was wounded 
at the battle of the Cowpens in South Carolina while fighting 
imder General Morgan. He came to Preston County, this 
state, in 1805, and took up a large tract of land adjoining his 
friend and neighbor in C)ld Virginia, Col. John Fairfax, whc 
moved to Preston County in 1790. J. Slidell Brown, purchased 


the West \^irginia Argus at Kingwood in 1889 and edited it 
for almost a quarter of a century, when the late Cong-ressman 
W. G. Brown purchased the paper, and SHdell Brown came 
to Elkins in May. 1914, and took charge of the Randolph En- 
terprise, as editor and manager. Mr. Brown served as post- 
master of Kingwood for over four years, having been ap- 
pointed by President Grover Cleveland. He was the Dem- 
ocratic nominee for State Senator twice, once in the old Pres- 
ton-Taylor-AIonongalia District and once in the Fourteenth 
District composed of Preston, Tucker, (irant, Mineral and 
Hardy. He served as chairman of the Democratic committee 
of Preston County for sixteen years and served on all the va- 
rious committees, congressional, senatorial, judicial and was 
an alternate-at-large from West Virginia to the National 
Democratic Convention at Chicago tiiat nominated Bryan the 
first time. Mr. Brown served five terms as president of the 
West Virginia Editorial Association and is a prominent mem- 
ber of the Knights of Pythias, Masons, Odd Fellows, Red 
Men, Maccabees, Junior Order, Daughters of Rebekah, 
Pythian Sisters, etc. In 1902 he was married to Stella Maud 
Parsons, daughter of Capt. J. W. Parsons, formerly of Rich 
Mountain, Randolph County, and now residing at Kingwood. 
Five children, four boys and a girl, are the fruits of this union. 


Milford Carr, son of John and Isabel (White) Carr, was 
born in 1892, married Martha, daughter of Chas. and Carrie 
(Day) White. They have no children. Mr. Carr has taught 
in the public schools three years. 

Richard Chaffey. 

Richard Chafifey, born at Pittsburgh in 1850. son of H. F. 
and Hopewell Chafifey, was married in 1882 to Laura L., 
daughter of A. W. and Caroline Couse. Children, Ruth, 
Laura and Florence. He came to Randolph in 1889. In 
1897 Mr. Chafifey was elected to the Elkins City Council. He 
is president of the Peoples National Bank of Elkins. Al- 
though an active and successful business man, Mr. Chaffey 
is prominent in ci\il and church aft'airs, and mucli credit 


should be accorded him for the adoption of the proliihition 
amendment in West VirsT^inia. 

Abraham Clingerman. 

Abraham Clingerman, son of Peter and Julia Ann (Smith) 
Clingerman, was born in 1 Bedford County, Pennsylvania, mar- 
ried, first, Maggie E. Smith. Children, Oda E. For his second 
wife Mr. Clingerman married Bertha Ellen Elifif. Children, 
Herschell. Virgie V.. Pearl and Denver. Mr. Clingerman has 
been a carpenter and l)uilder since locating in Elkins. 

Capt. William H. Cobb. 

Capt. Wm. H. Cobb. William Henry Cobb was born 
June 30, 1859, in Hall County, Georgia. He was united in 
marriage in 1896 to Laone, daughter of Col. Elihu and So- 
phrina (Woodford) Hutton. This union has been blessed 
with four children, Elihu Hutton Cobb, Marion Cobb, W^il- 
liam Henry Cobb, Jr. and Langly Woodford Cobb. 

Capt. Cobb was reared on the typical southern planta- 
tion on the Oconee River, and received such early education 
as was afforded by the Old Field Schools of that time. Later 
he attended the North Georgia Military Academy and took 
his degree from the Georgia State University at Athens. Sub- 
sequently he took a course in law and located in Southern 
Florida for the practice of his profession. 

^^'ith military mien, talent and training, Capt. Cobb has 
always had a native bent toward the profession of arms. Ac- 
cordingly, when war with Spain was declared, he raised a 
company in his home town of Arcadia. Capt. Cobb's com- 
pany saw service in Santiago and Guantanimo, Cuba. He has 
held commissions from the President of the United States 
and from the Governors of three States, and was preparing to 
enter the service in the recent anticipated unpleasantness 
with Mexico. At the close of the Spanish American War 
Capt. Cobb's company was mustered out and he located in 
Elkins to practice the profession of law. Capt. Cobb has been 
active in the affairs of the city and has been a member of city 
council, mayor and six years president of the Board of Trade. 
He has been also, vice-president of the State Board of Trade. 


In a practical way he has been active in the upbuilding of the 
city by erecting several modern business blocks. 

The Cobb family is an old English one and the Cobham 
estates remain as landmarks in the mother country. The 
family came to America in 1655 and settled near Norfolk, 
Virginia, moving to the Carolinas prior to the Revolution. 
Representatives of this family have been prominent in the 
councils of both branches of the National law-making bodies 
and furnished governors for several States in Dixie. Capt. 
Cobb is also related to the Tanner and Langley families of 
Virginia that trace their lineage l^ack many centuries. 

H. T. Conner. 

H. T. Conner, son of William and Minerva (Layman) 
Conner, was born in Frostburg, Maryland, 1883, married Alary 
Bowers. Children, Cathaline, Mildred and William G. 

Mr. Conner is proprietor of Elkins Baker}- and Confec- 
tionery, and has been a resident of Elkins since 1905. 


C. L. Corder son of Elam G. and Martha ( Hodges) Cor- 
der, was born in Upshur County in 1872, married Lula, daugh- 
ter of Rev. C. B. and Marian (Maxwell) Meredith. Children, 
Paul, Frances and Effie. 

Mr. Corder was educated in public schools, Buckhannon 
Academy and graduated from West Virginia Business Col- 
lege in 1893. After teaching school a number of years, he 
came to Elkins and engaged in the insurance business. He is 
now a rfiember of the clerical force of the Western Alaryland 
Railroad Com])any at Elkins and also maintains an insurance 

A. AVatt Curry. 

A. Watt Curry, son of William II. and Mar\- (Wilson) 
Curry, was born December 14, 1849, married Jennie, daughter 
of James and Rachel (Davis) Moyers. e'hild. Maud. 

Mr. Curry was born at Rock Cave, Cpshur County. Mr. 
Curry is one of the substantial citi.zens of Heverly. and has 
a jewelry store on Main street. 14ie Cm-r\- famil\- was a ])i(Mi- 


eer family in Augusta. James and Rebecca Curry, children 
of William Curry, were baptised by Rev. John Craig, D.D., in 
Augusta, in 1746. These names are in Rev. Craig's records 
of baptism. 

Gideon C. Corley. 

Gideon C. Corley, son of N. E. and Louisa (Wilson) Cor- 
ley, was born in 1840 in Barbour County, married Lydia 
Thorn. Children, Edward, Henry, Stella, Dora, Garfield, Mer- 
ta, and Lonna. 

Mr. Corley was a member of the County Court of Bar- 
bour County four years and justice of the peace eight years. 
Mr. Corley attended the convention that nominated Abraham 
Lincoln for first term. 

Dr. James L. Cunningham. 

James Lancashire Cunningham, born September 1, 1863, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; graduated from high school of Belmont 
County, Ohio, in 1881, and in medicine from the University 
of Baltimore in 1892. Dr. Cunningham located in Pickens in 
June of the same year where he has since engaged in the 
practice of his profession. Dr. Cunningham is a son of John 
and Selena (Cowell) Cunningham, who imigrated to America 
in 1836, locating in Pittsburgh. At the age of 21, Dr. Cun- 
ningham engaged in the profession of teaching and taught 
many terms, leaving the profession to take up the study of 
medicine as a student under Dr. John T. Huff. He was ap- 
pointed enumerator of the census for Hackers Valley Dis- 
trict, Webster County, in 1890. At present he is a member 
of the Board of Education of Middle Fork District and is 
surgeon for the B. & O. Railroad. 

Dr. Cunningham married Mary, daughter of W^illiam and 
Margaret (Reese) Roberts, in 1894, in the Pickens Presby- 
terian church by Rev. Brooks, and have children, Mabel Ma- 
rie and Ethel Selena. Dr. Cunningham has been successful 
in his profession and owns a beautiful home overlooking the 
town of Pickens. No physician in the State perhaps, serves 
so large a clientele in a non-competitive field. Socially and 
fraternally Dr. Cunningham has been a member of the Ma- 
sonic and K. of P. orders for many years. 


Hon. Henry G. Davis. 

Henry G. Davis. Henry G. Davis, second son of Caleb 
and Louisa (Brown) Davis, was born November 16, 1823. 
He was of Welch decent. He worked on a farm from early boy- 
hood until he was 19 years of age. He then became a freight 
brakesman on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad between Bal- 
timore and Cumberland. He was successively passenger con- 
ductor and supervisor of trains. 

At the age of 28 Mr. Davis married a daughter of Judge 
Bantz, of Frederick, Maryland. In 1854 he was made agent 
for the B. & O. at Piedmont. Soon thereafter, in partnership 
with his brothers, Thomas B. Davis and Wm. R. Davis, he 
engaged in business in shipping coal and lumber. Mr. Davis 
also founded the towns of Deer Park and Keyser. 

In 1866 Mr. Davis entered politics and was elected to 
the Legislature. Two years later he was elected to the State 
Senate. He succeeded Waitman T. Wiley in the United 
States Senate in 1870, which position he held until 1883. He 
was the leading spirit in the building of the C. I., C. & C. 
and Western Maryland railroads. 

Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Davis. Hallie, 
who married S. B. Elkins ; Kate, who married Lieutenant 
Brown, and Grace, who married Arthur Lee ; and two sons, 
Harry and John T. John T. Davis represented Randolph in 
the Legislature in 1910-2. 

In 1904 Mr. Davis was the vice-presidential candidate 
with Judge Parker on the Democratic ticket. 

Air. Davis died in 1916. 

A. E. Dann. 

A. E., son of William Henry and Christina A. (Hannah) 
Dann, was born in Kansas in 1877, married Eva (Hatfield) 
Wainer. Children, Martha and Dortha. Mr. Dann was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Kansas. He is at present and 
has several times previous represented his ward in the JMkin"s 
city council and is manager of the Elkins Furniture and 
Hardware Company. His father, \\'illiam H. Dann, came to 
.America from England in 1871. He was clerk of Grego Coun- 


ty, Kansas, in 1885, and for a number of years has resided at 
Beltsville, a suburb of Washington. 

Ralph Darden, 

Ralph Darden, son of Geo. G. Darden, was born in North 
Carolina in 1867, married Ada May, daughter of E. C. Har- 
wood. Mr. Darden was educated in the colleges of his native 
State and entered upon the study of law, but defective eye- 
sight precluded close application to study and Mr. Darden 
engaged in business pursuits. Mr. Darden has been promi- 
nent in the affairs of his adopted county. He was a member 
of the city council in 1896. 

Charles E. Dulaney. 

Chas. E., son of J. L. and Mary (Cain) Dulaney, was born 
February 9, 1875, married, first, Hedig, daughter of Mathas 
and Ada Sulsi. Children, Roy, Franklin and Thamer. 

The first wife of Mr. Dulaney died in 1901. Mr. Dulaney 
for his second wife married Bessie M., daughter of David and 
Mary Jane (Armstrong) Riffle. Children, Cecil, Charles, Nor- 
val, Claude and Mary Louise. Mr. Dulaney was born in 
Ritchie County and came to Randolph in 1894. He is of 
French descent. For fifteen years he has held his present po- 
sition of engineer of Pickens and Webster Springs Railroad. 

William F. Doerr. 

William F. Doerr, German descent, son of Henry and 
Ida (Lessenger) Doerr, was born in Butler County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1873, married Ida S. McCauly. Children, Roy I. 
and Ralph M. Mr. Doerr came to Randolph in 1895 and for 
nine years has been in the employ of the Gulland Clarke 
Wholesale Grocery Company at Elkins. 

■ Walter C. Dil worth. 
Walter C. Dilworth, son of James G. and Alcinda (Rat- 
liff) Dilworth, was born in Barbour County in 1879, married 
Daisy, daughter of Newton Gibson. Children, Mamie L., 
Hersell L., Kent G., Wanda and Marie. Mr. Dilworth came 
to Randolph in 1900. He is in the employ of the Elkins Elec- 
tric Railway Company as conductor and motorman. 


Henry Clay Dean. 
Henry Clay Dean. Henry Clay Dean was a native of Penn- 
sylvania and came to Randolph when a young man. He 
married a Miss Haigler of Valley Bend District. He taught 
school, then became a minister of the Methodist church. 
He moved to Missouri in about 1850. He soon gained prom- 
inence and was elected Chaplain of the United States Senate, 
which place he held for twelve years. He studied law and 
gained a national reputation as a criminal lawyer. At one 
time he was a candidate for the United States Senate from the 
State of Missouri and only lacked three votes of election 
against the combined opposition. The press commenting on 
his defeat said he would have been elected, without opposi- 
tion if he had donned a clean shirt at any time within six 
weeks prior to the election. 

During the Civil War Dean's oratorical battery was ever 
on duty in behalf of the Southern cause and the Federal 
Government was very anxious to get hands on the man who 
was giving them more trouble than a regiment of soldiers. 
His presence in Keokuk, Iowa, became known to the Federal 
authorities and while he was upon the streets of that city, 
some dark forms came out of the gloom and took Dean in 
custody. Rapidly he was hurried up to the tall blufifs over- 
looking the Mississippi River. A 100-foot drop and eternal 
silence. It was a magnificient place for an execution — pic- 
turesque, sublimely beautiful, fatal. The vitriol throwing 
Southerner looked piteously around at the determined aveng- 
ers, but read no compassion in their countenances. He raised 
his hand. 

"Xo speech," said the Captain peremptorily. He knew the 
danger of that marvelous tongue. "Just a short prayer, Dean, 
and then to the fishes." 

"Thank you Captain," said the condemned, as if impress- 
ed with the soldier's magnanimity, "I have no speech to make, 
nor A\ill 1 take up your time to pray. I have onU- this to ask." 
He began fumbling in his pocket, seemed perplexed for a 
moment as if something had been mislaid, and then brought 
out an old fashioned Barlow knife and a leather ])ocket book. 

"This knife. Captain," lie said. "I would have sent to my 


son, back on the old farm in Putman Connty. I promised to 

make him a kite when I got back home with it, but well, 

I don't want to disappoint the lad, you know. He'll be ex- 
pecting me tomorrow and will be down to the — the gate. Ex- 
cuse me comrades, but I love the boy 1 can't help it." 

The voice grew husky and the man under sentence of 
death turned and looked out over the great river. Some of 
the men shifted around to the rear. 

"It's childish weakness, I know," resumed Dean, turning 
his face toward the soldiers. "Don't mind it friends." The 
Captain took the old knife sheepishly. "Now this book con- 
tains an old picture of mine and some verses ; maybe a dollar 
or two also. I don't think you'll regard it of much conse- 
quence, but the dear angel back in old Missouri — my wife 
gentlemen- — the sweetest, truest, gentlest woman that ever 
blessed the life of man ; 1 can see her now as she kneels be- 
side her couch, praying to the God of the unfortunate to pro- 
tect her husband and bring him safely back to the old roof 
tree, where we've stood beside a cot over which the death 
angel hovered, and where we walked arm in arm through the 
clover fields to garland the grave of our dead. This is all I 
can send her comrades I'm poor. But she'll prize it be- 
yond the gift of kings. .She'll why where are your men. 

Captain? Come! I'm ready." 

During Dean's pathetic reference to his wife the militia- 
men had one by one slunk into the night shadows, leaving the 
orator alone with the leader. 

"Oh, they got tired and went home," said the Captain 
wearily. "Dean if you and the devil ever meet mv sympath}' 
will be with the gentleman of the forked tail." 

Mr. Dean died in Missouri in 1886, aged 63 years. 

Newton L. Downs. 

Newton L. Downs, son of Wm. H. and Elizabeth (Chis- 
holm) Downs, was born October 26, 1874, in Flintstone, Md. 
married, June 14, 1899, Minnie, daughter of W. F. and Ra 
cheal McClaskey. Children, (lenevieve, Walter and Julia. 

Mr. Downs was educated in common schools. Has becK 
an employe of \\>stern Maryland for twenty years as opera- 


tor and clerk at Coketon, Thomas and Mill Creek. Has been 
a member of town council of Mill Creek and is at present pres- 
ident of the Board of Education of Huttonsville District. 

Hon. S. B. Elkins. 

Hon. Stephen B. Elkins. Stephen B. Elkins was born in 
Perry County, Ohio, on the 26th of September, 1841, 
and died at Washington, D. C, January 5, 1911. During 
the childhood of Mr. Elkins his father removed with his fam- 
ily to the State of Missouri, where young Elkins attended 
the public school and was fitted for college. Entering the 
Missouri University, he graduated in 1860, at the age of eigh- 
teen. He was admitted to the bar in 1863. When the war 
broke out he joined the l^nion forces and attained the rank 
of Captain. In 1864, young F.lkins removed to New Mexico, 
where at that time dangers, hardships, and discomforts had 
to be met and overcome, but along with these came opportu- 
nities for success. Barely had the first year of his residence 
elapsed when he was elected to the Territorial Legislature. 
In 1867 he was made Attorney General of the Territory. In 
1869, President Andrew Johnson made him United States At- 
torney. After holding this place nearly four years, he re- 
signed under the Grant administration. 

Mr. Elkins was elected a Delegate in 1873 to represent 
the Territory in the Forty-third Congress of the United 
States. During Mr. Elkin's first term in Congress he visited 
Europe and while abroad was re-elected for a second term 
to the Forty-fourth Congress. In 1869 he became president 
of the First National Bank of Santa Fe. While in Congress 
he wedded Hallie, daughter of Senator H. G. Davis. 

His greatest national prominence came to him during the 
campaign of 1884, when he was chosen Chairman of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the National Republican Committee. 

In December, 1891, Mr. Elkins was nominated by Presi- 
dent Harrison for vSecretary of War to succeed Mr. Proctor. 

Mr. Elkins' father, Col. P. D. Elkins, was a native of Vir- 
ginia. His mother, Sarah (Withers) Elkins, was a member 
of a prominent Virginia family. By his first wife Mr. Elkins 
had two children, Mrs. A. E. Oliphant. of Xew Jersey, and 


Mrs. E. E. Brunner, of New York City. By his second wife 
Mr. Elkins had five children, four boys, Davis, Stephen B., 
Jr., Richard and Blaine, and one girl, Katherine. 

In 1878 Mr. Elkins became a citizen of West Virginia 
and associated himself with his father-in-law. Senator Davis, 
in building the West Virginia Central Railroad. 

Jn 1895, January 23, Mr. Elkins was elected as a Repub- 
lican to represent West Virginia in the United States Senate. 
He ser\ed continuallv until the time of his death in 1911. 
His son, Davis Elkins, was appointed by (lovernor Glasscock 
to fill the unexpired term. 

Enoch J. Evans. 
Enoch J. Evans, born in Green County, Pennsylvania, in 
1865, son of Alfred S. and Elizabeth (Brewer) Evans. He 
came to Randolph in 1883, married Mary M., daughter of 
Lovell and Phoeba (Taylor) Kelley. Children, H. B., Kent 
T., Clyde R., Barron L. and Ray, who died in the seventeenth 
year of his age. Mr. Evans has been a successful farmer and 
fruit grower. He has been road commissioner twenty-two 
of the thirty years he has resided in the county. 

A. Ross Ellis. 

A. Ross Ellis, son of Powell and Winnie Ellis, was born 
in Braxton County, 1876, married Linnie May Dingess. Chil- 
dren, Theron, Andrew, Wendel, Burl and Zudora. Mr. Ellis 
came to Randolph in 1906 and since has been in the employ 
of the Western Maryland Railroad as brakesman and con- 

John L. Eberly. 

John L. Eberly, son of W^m. and Martha (Barnard) Eb- 
erly, was born in Moorefield in 1873, married Lillian May 
Weese. Children, Myron, Arthur Lee, John L., Jr. He is 
proprietor of Eberly News Stand on Third Street. 

Clay Fitzwater. 
Clay Fitzwater, son of Nelson and Sarah (White) Fitz- 
water, was born in 1854, married Anzina, daughter of Jacob 
and Catherine (Phillips) Daniels. Children, Walter Nelson, 


Minnie, Clarence, Holland, Hattie, James, Herbert. Mr. Fitz- 
water is descended from a prominent pioneer family of Gar- 
rett County, Maryland. His brother. Rev. Holland Fitzwater, 
is an able minister of the Methodist Episcopal church in Ohio, 
filling- some of the highest offices in the church. 

H. F. Fisher. 
H. F. Fisher, son of J. H. and H. E. (Simmons) Fisher, 
was born in 1874, married Delia J. (Elliott) Johnson. Chil- 
dren, Loula Grace and Mary Louisa. Mr. Fisher has been a 
plumber in Elkins for eight years. 

W. C. Fowler. 

W. C. Fowler, son of Joseph C. and Margaret (Jones) 
Fowler, was born in 1885, at Town Marlborough, Md., mar- 
ried Tosa E. Brittan. Children, William xA.llan, George, Ben- 
jamin, Margaret, W. C. Jr., died at age of four years. Mr. 
h^owler has been proprietor of a tailoring establishment in 
Elkins since 1913. 

Bellas Gainer. 

Delias Gainer, son of Matthew Gainer, is one of Randolph 
County's best products. As a young man he was employed 
in the paymaster's ofifice of the West Virginia Central Rail- 
road in Elkins. In 1909 he entered professional baseball, 
joining the Grafton (W. Va.) team, where his excellent play- 
ing attracted the attention of the I^etroit managers of the 
American League. He was purchased from the Grafton 
management in the fall of 1909 for $1500.00, and finished the 
season with Detroit, assisting that team to win the league 
championship, and participated in the World's series against 
the Pittsburgh Pirates. 

In 1910 Dell played with the Ft. Wayne Club, of the 
Central League, but was taken back to Detroit in 1911. That 
year he was the baseball sensation until he had his rigiit arm 
broken, which practically kept him out of the game the re- 
mainder of that season. At the time of liis injury he was ])at- 
ting for an average of .376. 

In 1913 he was sold to the Boston Red Socks, of the 
same league, for $75000. and is still a member of that team. 


his batting average being .317. In 1915 he participated in the 
World's series against the Philadelphia National League team, 
assisting his club materially in winning the championship. 

By his consistent performance in his chosen profession, 
by his modest, unassuming, clean living, Mr. Gainer has a 
host of friends in every city he visits as a professional ball 
player, and, above all, is honored by the people of his home 
city and county. 


George E., son of Joseph and Rowana (Blair) Greynolds, 
was born in Harrison County in 1851, married in 1876, Verna 
M., daughter of John D. and Rachel (Dawson) Romine, of 
Harrison County. Children, Delbert L., Joseph, Mary C, 
John D. and Robert Lee. Mrs. Greynolds, Mary C. and Jo- 
seph are deceased. 

Mr. Greynolds has been justice of the peace of Beverly 
District for a number of years. Rev. Robert Greynolds is a 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

S. H. Godwin. 

S. H. Godwin, son of William S. and Mary (Cox) Godwin, 
was born in Barbour County in 1858. The first wife of Mr. 
Godwin was Sarah M. Gainer, and the children of this union 
were Raymond, Morris, Dennis, Austin and Belva Alice. 
Some years after the death of his first wife Mr. Godwin united 
in marriage Miss Nancy E. Phillip. To them were l)orn Ora 
Maude, Martha Efifie, vStark Daily, Cleet Durkin and Prentiss 
Page. Mr. Godwin taught school for several years, was jus- 
tice of the peace in Tucker eight years. He was elected jus- 
tice of the peace in Barbour in 1904 Ijut resigned to come to 
Elkins to become manager of Elkins Alarble and Granite 

Albert Gear. 

Albert Gear, son of Adam and Erances (Shifflett) Gear, 
was born in 1871 at Huttonsville, married Laura, daughter of 
John and Jane (Smith) Herron. Children, Lela, Ethel, Ar- 
thur Sewel, Phelix, Nora, George and Adaline. Mr. Gear is 
of Irish descent and his parents moved from Virginia to ^Vest 
Virginia before the Civil AA'ar. Austin Gear was the first ot 


the name to come to Randolph. The maternal grandfather, 
Absalom ShifBett, was the first of the Shifflett family to lo- 
cate in Randolph. Mr. Gear is a merchant at Mill Creek. Mr. 
Gear takes an active part in religious afifairs and is an elder 
in the Presbyterian church. 

Albert R. Hicks. 

Albert R., son of Franklin and Mary Hicks, was born 
April 13, 1879: married first Mar^^aret, daughter of John and 
Socia (Gladwell) Rothenbughler. Children, James Earle and 
Mary May. Mrs. Hicks died November 5, 1907. Mr. Hicks 
married for his second wife Nancy, daughter of Casper and 
Ida (Morgan) Winkler. Children, Casper Albert, Nancy Ida, 
Jesse Woodrow and Thadeus Cunning"ham. Mr. Hick's par- 
ents moved to Randolph from Braxton in 1888. The Hicks 
are of English descent and the family moved to West Virginia 
from the mother state before the Civil War. 

WiCKHAM Hansford. 

Acra and Katie (Wimer) Hansford came to Randolph 
from Rockingham County, Virginia, in 1820, and settled in 
what was then Randolph but is now Tucker County. Their 
children were \A'illiam, Mary, Wesley, John, David, Charles, 
Levi, Sarah and Julia. Chas. S. Hansford first married Sarah 
Allender. Children, Katherine, who married David Canfield. 
Married, second Amanda Hyre ; no children to this union. 
For his third wife Mr. Hanford married Amanda (Conrad) 
Curtis. Children, Laban. AN'ickham, Walter and Corder, who 
died young. 

Walter A. Hedrick. 

Walter A. Hedrick, son of J. C. and Martha (P.erkely) 
Hedrick, was born in 1881, in Pendleton County, \\^est \*ir- 
ginia. Mr. Hedrick never married. He has traveled exten- 
sively in south and west and was engaged in the real estate 
business in Florida for several years. In partnership with his 
brother, Frederick R. Hedrick. he is engaged in the restau- 
rant business in Elkins. 


Reuben H. Howell. 

Reuben H. Howell, son of Andrew and Frances (Rains) 
Howell, was born in 1860; married Verna, daughter of Eu- 
genis Isner. Children, Harley and Mary. Some years after 
the death of his first wife, Mr. Howell choose his second wife 
in the person of Mrs. Jones, of Barbour County. Mr. Howell 
is is an emplo3'ee of the Western Maryland Railroad. 

Howard Harmon. 

Howard Harmon, son of Samuel and Eva (Bil)le) Har- 
mon, was born in 1871 ; married a daughter of Jacob and Su- 
san (McDonald) Harper. Children, Neal, Handy and Cor- 
nell. Mr. Harmon has been a merchant at Harmon eight 
years and was at one time elected mayor of the village, but 
refused to serve. When 18 years of age Mr. Harmon drove 
a wagon from Summer County, Kansas, to Randolph, a dis- 
tance of 1800 miles, and was ten weeks on the journey. 

Geo. W. Hinchman. 

George W\ Hinchman, son of Joseph and Caroline (Rif- 
fle) Hinchman, was born in 1872; married Lottie L., daughter 
of John Haddan and Mary E. (Shufflet) Pritt. Children, Ster- 
ling W., Wilford and Clay. Mr. Hinchman has been a resi- 
dent of Elkins about ten years. He is mail porter for Coal 
& Coke and Western Maryland railroads. 

Joseph C. Hedrick. 

Joseph C. Hedrick, son of Leonard Hedrick, was born in 
Pendleton in 1848; married Martha Beckly. Mr. Hedrick 
came to Randolph in 1883. He is the grandson of Frederick 
Hedrick, who immigrated from Germany to Pendleton County, 
Virginia, in the pioneer period. 

Andrew Hedrick. 
Andrew, son of Adam C. and Rachael (Davis) Hedrick, 
was born in 1874, married Virginia, daughter of Michael and 
Catherine (Turner) Hedrick. Children, Bertha F., Ethel M., 
Thomas B., Merril G., Iva and Elaura. Mr. Hedrick was jus- 
tice of the peace in 1908-12, and mayor of WHiitmer, 1912-15. 


John W. Heltzel. 
John W. Heltzel and Cora (Johnson) Heltzel moved to 
Randolph from Rockingham County, Virginia, in 1885. Chil- 
dren, Jas. P., John W., Jr., Mona C, Glen D., Dona M., Con- 
nie M., Thomas P., Perry R., Nina, Bruce Woodrow and 
Mary E. who died at the age of three years. 

James P. Heltzel. 
Jas. P. Heltzel was born in 1886, married Eliza (Seitz) 
Robinson. Children, Lillian Wanda and Cane Keith. He has 
been deputy sherifif since 1908. 

Herman G. Johnson. 

Herman G. Johnson, born in Barbour County in 1875, son 
of Levi and Helen A. (Poling) Johnson, was educated in 
public schools, Fairmont Normal, Peabody Normal College, 
Nashville, Tennessee, and the University of Tennessee. After 
teaching school several years, he entered the field of journal- 
ism and accepted a place on the editorial staff of the Nash- 
ville American. Mr. Johnson has been editor of the Inter- 
mountain since 1898. 

Charles T. Jeffers. 

Charles T. Jeffers, son of James C. and Sarah N. (Math- 
ews) Jeffers, was born in 1884 in Monongalia County ; mar- 
ried Carrie, daughter of Hamilton and Sarah C. (Schoonover) 
Isner. Children, Ruth H. and Sarah Margaret. Mr. Jeffers 
has been clerk in Elkin's postoffice for ten years. 

Wayne Jackson. 

Wayne Jackson, son of Geo. S. and Jessie (Faun) Jack- 
son, was born in 1893, in Salem, West Virginia. Mr. Jack- 
son was educated in public schools and Davis & Elkins Col- 
lege. He is employed as bookkeeper for Peoples Hardware 
Co. at Elkins. He came to Randolph in 1905. 

Judge "Warren B. Kittle. 
Judge Warren B. Kittle. In the legal profession the man 
who rises to a position of prominence by his own efforts must 
necessarily possess more than ordinary ability. This is espec- 


iallv true in a community where his competitors are learned 
and abled men. A man of this class is Judye Warren B. Kit- 
tle of Philippi. Althous^h a resident of another county, he is 
identified with Randolph by his lineage, his association at our 
bar, and by his official position. By descent and intermarriage 
Judge Kittle possesses the same strain of blood with most of 
the old families of Randolph County. 

The first of the Kittle family of Randolph and 
Barbour counties was Abraham Kittle, Sr., who was born in 
New Jersey in January, 1731, and died in Ran(lol])h County, 
Septemlx'r 16, 1816. The exact date is not now known when 
Abraham Kittle, Sr., settled in Ra'ndolph, but it was prior to 
1781. for a deed of record bearing that date, shows he acquired 
lands here in that year ; and other records testify that mem- 
bers of his family took part in defending the community 
against the Indians about the same time. Tiie children of 
Abraham Kittle, Sr., were Abraham, Jr., Ricliard, Jacob, 
George, John and a daughter who married Henry Pedro. 

Judge Kittle is a direct descendent of Abraham Kittle, 
Jr., who was born in Randolph County, February 18, 1773, 
and married Margaret Marteney, and died April 17, 1814. 
His children were James, born January 6, 1803, died April 9, 
1839; Mary, who married a Mr. Skidmore, was born July 30, 
1795, died September 5, 1849; Elizabeth, married a Mr. Yates, 
was born March 29, 1804, died December 10, 1850; George, 
born July 20, 1809, date of death unknown; Ellenor married 
Mr. Holder, born January 7, 1798, date of death unknown ; 
Prudence, married Mr. Holden, born April 24, 1801, date of 
death unknown ; Elijah, born December 24, 1796, and died in 
1856; and Eli, born January 6, 1800, died November 12, 1863. 
Elijah Kittle was the father of six children, Cyrus, Amasa, 
David. Hulda, Harriet, Sallie, Louise and Emaline. Cyrus 
Kittle was the father of George M. Kittle, who was the father 
of Judge Warren B. Kittle. 

Judge Kittle was born December 23, 1872, was educated 
in the common schools and the A\'est Virginia University 
where he graduated with the degree of LL.B. in June, 1894, 
since which time he has been constantly in the practice of 
the law. He was married June 30, 1897, to Zona W^ilson, and 


is the father of three children, Virginia, born in 1898, Nellie, 
born in 1900, George born in 1904. 

Judge Kittle was elected prosecuting attorney of Bar- 
bour County in 1904, served four years ; was appointed Judge 
of the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit by Governor Glasscock on 
May 24, 1911, to fill the newly created Barbour-Randolph 
Circuit ; was elected in 1912, for a term of eight years as Judge 
of said circuit by 1167 majority, and has served as judge ever 
since. Judge Kittle is known as an incessant student, and 
owns one of the largest law libraries in the state. He takes 
great interest in and devotes his entire time to his profession; 
is the author of two well known law books, and is a member of 
the American Bar Association. 

Hon. H. G. Kump. 

Herman G. Kump, son of Benjamin Franklin and Frances 
Margaret (Rudolph) Kump, was born at Capon Springs, 
Hampshire County, West Virginia, October 31, 1879. He was 
educated in the public schools and the University of Virginia 
from which institution he graduated in 1903. In 1905 he re- 
ceived the degree of B.L. from the law department of the 
University of Virginia, and was admitted to the Randolph 
County bar the same year. He has served as prosecuting at- 
torney since 1908. Mr. Kump married in 1907, Edna, daugh- 
ter of C. H. and Fanny (Logan) Scott. Children, Cyrus Scott 
and Frances. ^^Ir. Kump's father, B. F. Kump, was a soldier 
in the Confederate Army, his grandfather, Jacob Kump, was 
a solider in the War of 1812, and his great grandfather, Henry 
Kump, was a soldier in the Revolutionary A\'ar from Virginia. 

Hon. N. G. Keim. 

Noah G. Keim was born in 1862, Flk Lick, Pennsylvania; 
son of Silas C. and Annie (Arnold) Keim. Mr. Keim was ed- 
ucated in the public schools and at Ashland College, Ohio and 
Juniatti College, Pennsylvania. He entered the profession of 
teaching and for a number of years was princi])al of the Som- 
merset, Pennsylvania schools. He came to Elkins as tutor 
for the sons of Senator Elkins. He has been a Republican 
in politics and was presidential elector on the McKinley 


ticket. He represents the Thirteenth Senatorial District in 
the State Legislature. Senator Keim was the Progressive 
party's nominee fur Congress in 1914. 

.Senator Keim married Clara, daughter of Kennedy H. 
and .Sarah E. (Rizer) Ikitler. Children, Howard H. and Eliz- 
abeth. Senator Keim's grandfather, James J. Keim, was an 
early settler in Western Pennsylvania. He was a member of 
the State Legislature and was for many years one of the 
judges of the court. 

Leland Kittle. 
Leland, son of Eli and Rebecca (Weese) Kittle, was born 
January 28, 1846; married Mary Margaret, daughter of James 
and Rachael (Davis) Moyers, in 1873. Children, Ruth Morgan, 
a graduate of Mary Baldwin vSeminary, Staunton, Virginia. 
She is a member of the D. A. R. and W. D. C. From 1873 to 
1878 Mr. Kittle was clerk of the Circuit Court of Randolph, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1879. His father, Eli Kittle, 
was justice of the peace and member of the County Court. 

Orville E. Kerr. 

Orville E., son of William B. and Mary E. (Burnside) 
Kerr, was born in 1880; married Jessie L. (Spanaugle) Lank. 
Children, Martha E., Oscar W\, Uniah and Cretus. Mr. 
Kerr resides at Bemis and is an employe of the Bemis Lum- 
ber Company. 

J. E. KiLDOW. 

J. E. Kildow, son of Michael V. and Mary (Root) Kildow, 
was born in 1862, German ancestry, married, Minnie, daugh- 
ter of Benoni Jordan. Children, Edna, William LaVelle, Eu- 
nice and Beulah. Mr. Kildow is a newspaper man of extensive 
experience. He has edited the Kingwood Argus, Randolph En- 
terprise and other newspapers. He is an ordained minister 
in the Methodist Protestant church. Mr. Kildow was the 
first active propagandist in the Socialist movement in Ran- 
dolph County. 

Isaac S. Kimmell. 

Isaac S. Kimmell, son of Adam and Lucinda (Shirk) 
Kimmell, was born in Pendleton in 1870; married Melcena 


T., daughter of Christian and Amanda (Jefferson) Bowers. 
Children, Estella, Howard and Myrtle. Hammond died in 
childhood. He has been in the lumber business for fourteen 


L. H. Keenan, Irish descent, son of John Payne and 
Mary (Lazelle) Keenan, was born in 1854; married Irene 
Donnelly of Albany, N. Y. Mr. and ]\Irs. Keenan have one 
child, J. Ed. Keenan. Mr. Keenan was educated in public 
schools and Mt. JNIorris Academy. He graduated from the 
law department of the State University in 1887. Prior to 
coming to Elkins in 1892, Mr. Keenan practiced law four years 
at Wichita, Kansas. He has a predilection for political eco- 
nomics but has refused to become a candidate for public of- 
fice, and is a Progressive in his political affiliations. He wields 
a trenchant pen. 

B. F. Knaggs. 

Benjamin F. Knaggs, son of John R. and Mary (Math- 
ews) Knaggs, was born in Taylor County in 1880 ; married 
Bessie Talbott Newlon. Children, Hazel E. and Owlan. 
Mr. Knaggs is a freight conductor on the Western Mary- 
land Railroad. 

Cam Lloyd. 

Cam Lloyd, son of James ]\Tadison and Louisa (Aimes) 
Lloyd, was born April 9, 1860; married Maggie, daughter of 
James McGuire. Children, Annie F. and Tolbard. Louisa 
died in infancy. Mr. Lloyd lived in Pittsburgh thirteen years. 
The Lloyds are of English ancestry ; the first of the name in 
America settled at Jamestown. The present generation is the 
sixth in America. Mr. Lloyd came to Randolph with his par- 
ents in 1866. Louisa was the home county in the mother 
state of Mr. Lloyd's parents. Mr. Lloyd was a member of the 
town council of Mill Creek from its incc^rporation until he was 
promoted to the mayorality in 1914. 

H. Grant Lucas. 
H. Grant Lucas, son of Joseph P. and Eliza J. Lucas, was 
born at Brooksville, Pennsylvania, 1869. Children, Joseph P., 
Jr., Frank Philip, Mary Edith and Gertrude. Mr. Lucas has 


been a resident of the county since 1896, during- which time 
he has been superintendent of the Parsons Pulp and Lumber 
Company, and has actively identified himself with the inter- 
ests of his adopted county. Mr. Lucas received his education 
in the public schools of l:>rookeville. 

Martin Lantz. 

Marian Lantz, son of Llenry and Elizabeth (Radabaugh) 
Lantz, was born June 6, 1859; married first, Sarah Radabaugh. 
Children, Lee Roy, Martha Jane and Julia Ann. Married, 
second, Martha Jane, (Heavener) Ward. Children, Lloyd, 
B. F., Albina, Ellen Bettie, Nora Odella, Everett ; Kinsy 
died aged one year and Zona died in the eighteenth year of her 

George Casselman Long. 

George Casselman Long, son of Washington J. and Polly 
(Hutton) Long, was born January 20, 1843; married Malissa 
Ellen, daughter of Benjamin and Catherine (Slagel) Phares. 
Children, Catherine, Anna Grace, O'Brien Branch and Carl 
are dead. The children living are W. J. Long, A. B. Long 
and George Ann, wife of Robert L. Pritt. Mr. Long's 
grandfather was George Long and his g'.randmother was 
Sarah Casselman. The Long family is of German descent 
and came to this country from Lancaster County, Pennsyl- 
vania. A. 1). Long married Russel, daughter of Z. T. Wams- 
ley. \\'. J. Long married Evangeline, daughter of Webster 
\\ amsley. Grandchildren, Ruby, daughter of R. L. Pritt, and 
Wilson J. and Gertrude, children of Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Long. 
Mrs. G. C. Long died in 1915. W . J. Long was county super- 
intendent of schools of Randolph several terms. 

LiNDLEY B. McLaughlin. 

Lindley B. McLaughlin, son of R. M. and Susan, (Gille- 
land) McLaughlin, was born in 1861, in Pennsylvania; mar- 
ried in 1878 to Sarah, daughter of Robert Boyer. Children, 
Levy E., Robert M., Annie E., who married Roy Davis, Or- 
lando D., A\'ilbur R. and Roy R. Mr. McLaughlin came to 
West Virginia in 1892. He has been justice of the peace of 


Beverly District and is one of the Democratic nominees for 
that office at the present time. 

Levi Wilmoth McQuain. 
Levi Wilmoth McQuain, son of Joshua and Mary Ann 
(Leary) McQuain. was born in 1864; married in 1891 Alary 
Elizabeth, daughter of Hiram and Elizabeth (Pritt) Hill. 
Children, Lutie, Hiram W., Elam Dowden. Mr. McQuain 
was constable in 1892 and has served several terms as assessor 
and deputy assessor. 

Patrick F. Martin. 
Patrick F. Martin, son of James and Anna (Cain) Mar- 
tin, was born in Baltimore in 1862 ; married Mary, daughter 
of Edward and Catherine Cogan. Children, Harry, James, 
Francis, Eleanor, Eileen, Ann and Edward. Edward died in 
infancy. Mr. Martin came to Randolph when a year old. He 
is janitor of the Randolph county court house and owns val- 
uable land in the Roaring Creek coal belt. 

Alexander Miller. 

Alexander ]\Iiller, son of Christian and Margaret (Smith) 
Miller, was born in Bedford County, Pennsylvania, in 1855 ; 
married Mary Ellen, daughter of Charles and Homer (!Mar- 
tin) Fletcher. Children, Guy, Emmett, Pearl, Charles, Carl 
and Espy. Mr. Aliller came to Randolph in 1896. He has 
been a resident of Mill Creek fourteen years and is at pres- 
ent an employe of the AX'ilson Luml:)er Company. 

B. P /. ■ NK Miller. 

B. Frank Aliller, son of B. B. and Amanda (O'Rouke) 
Miller, was born in Harrisburg, Virginia, in 1870; married 
Virginia (Hoover) Smith. Children, Charles, Olive, Lessie, 
Lillie, Mary, Georgia, Alinnie, Lucile, Elsie, who died at the 
age of five. Mr. Miller is now foreman in the mill of the Par- 
sons Pul]i and Lumber Co. 

John D. Moore. 

John D., son of G. J\L and Sarah A. (Simmons) Moore, 
was born in 1886; married Annie L., daughter of George and 


Elizabeth (Simpson) Ik-atty. Children, Maud, George, Fan- 
nie, Ralph, Kdgar, ( daddis, Harry, Irene and Walter who died 
in infancy. Mr. Moore is snperintendent of Alton Mill at Mill 
Creek. Me is of English descent. A\'ood Moore, the paternal 
grandfather, moved to Mingo District from Botetot County, 
Virginia, in about 1800. Joseph Moore, a brother of A\'ood 
Moore, came with him. 

Earle Morrison. 

Earle Morrison, son of Jerome and Susan (Heck) Morri- 
son, was born at Buckhannon, \\>st Virginia, May 9, 1879: 
married Eizzie, daughter of John and Kate Winger. Chil- 
dren, Harry, Hazel, Mabel, Helen and W'illard. Mr. Morri- 
son holds a responsible position with the Laurel River Lum- 
l)er Co., Jenningston, \\'est Virginia. Mrs. Morrison is a 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Winger, who were members of the 
Swiss Colony at Helvetia. Mrs. Morrison died March, 1916. 

H. L. Manning. 

H. L. Manning, son of J. A. Zerniah (Jefferson) Manning, 
was born in 1877 at Moundsville, West Virginia : married 
Chloe Failor. Children, Joseph, Robert and Helen. Mr. 
Manning was the nominee of the Republican party for county 
clerk in 1914-15, and more than carried the strength of his 
party. He was a member of the city council 1914-15. Mr. 
Manning's mother Avas a Jeft'erson and a distant relati\e of 
the author of the Declaration of Independence. 

Captain Jacob Williamson Marshall. 

Captain Jacob Williamson Marshall. Captain Jacob W. 
Marshall was born April 6, 1830, at Cairo, Ritchie County, 
West Virginia. He was the son of Joseph and Hannah 
(McKinney) Marshall. William Marshall, the j^aternal grand- 
father, lived in Xew York and \\'as a brother of the renowned 
Chief Justice John Marshall. The names Williamson and 
Piatt in the Marshall familv came down from John Piatt, who 
married Jane Williamson March 27, 1863. He lived at Tren- 
ton, Xew Jersey, and was high sheriff of Middlesex. They 
had five children, Jane, Frances, \\'illiam and Catherine. 



Frances moved to Virginia and married William McKinney, 
and their daughter, Hannah, was the mother of Captain Mar- 

In 1855, Capt. Marshall married Georgiana, daughter of 
George and Mary See. They were the parents of nine chil- 
dren. Joseph, Dixie, Mary E., Piatt, Cecil E., Ligon, Adam, 
Lucy and Arthur. Mrs. Marshall was the granddaughter of 


^Michael See, who with his brother (ieorge, came at an early 
day to Randolph from Hardy County. Mrs. Marshall died 
]\Iay 6, 1888, aged 56 years. 

At the age of 20 years, Captain Marshall sought higher 
altitudes for the benefit of his health and came to Randolph. 
For a time he clerked in the store of William Hamilton and 
then engaged in the mercantile business on his own account. 
He later retired to give his exclusive attention to his exten- 
sive landed estate. At the opening of hostilities l)ctween the 


States, Captain Marshall entered the serviee of his native 
state. I'Or a time lie was scout and guide for General R. E. 
Lee in his campaign in the I'pper Valley. In 1862 he or- 
ganized a company and was elected its captain. This com- 
pany was attached to the Nineteenth Regiment, W. L. Jack- 
son's Brigade. His command took part in the engagements 
at Strasburg, Winchester, Monocacy and Fishers Hill, where 
he was severely wounded in the righ lung from the effects ot 
which he never fully recovered. Although a captain, he fre- 
quently commanded his regiment. In battle he was cool, 
daring and resourceful with many of the other qualities of 
the great soldier. He was particularlv kind and thoughtful 
of the poor soldiers in his company, who had families at home 
and granted them furloughs at every available opportunity. 
He w^as never a candidate for office but held the position of 
deputy collector of internal revenue under Cleveland's ad- 

Samuel Mullenix. 

Samuel Alullenix, son of William and Susan (Teter) Mul- 
lenix, was born in 1879: married Stellar M., daughter of Job 
and Sarah (\Miite) Smith. Children, Grover C, William G., 
Preston, Galden H. (dead), Hoy A. (died, aged 11) and Mar- 
ven G. (died, aged 4). Mr. A/fullenix is an employe of the Par- 
sons Pulp and Lumber Company at Horton. 

Martin Muli^enix. 

Martin, son of John W. and Katherine (Judy) Mullenix, 
was b(»rn in 1865. Children, Dixon, Lena, Stella, Charles, Lil- 
lie, Vallie, Kenna, Martin and Rachael. Mr. Mullenix is one 
of the most extensive farmers and stockraisers of his section. 

William Morrison. 

William Morrison, son of John B. and Sidney (W^amsley) 
Morrison, was born in 1867; married in 1896 to Hattie, daugh- 
ter of Riley and Catherine (Channell) Pritt. Children, Byron 
and Hattie. Mr. Morrison's father, John B. Morrison, was a 
man of influence and prominence for many years in Randolph, 


and served several terms as clerk of the Circuit Court. Mr. 
Morrison is at present proprietor of a hotel in Beverly and 
has been a successful business man. 

J. G. Nestor. 
J. G. Nestor, son of Jacob J. and Rachel (Poling) Nestor, 
was born in Barbour County in 1870; married Ida B., daugh- 
ter of Andrew and Ida B. (Ward) Taylor. Children, Ersell 
G., Margaret and Edna Lee. Mr. Nestor came to Randolph 
in 1890. He is a photographer on Randolph Avenue. 

George H. Neal. 

George H., son of John and Lucina I (McConaughy) 
Neal, was born September 20, 1878, in Birmingham, Ohio; 
married Susie P., daughter of Graham and Nettie (]\IcCleary) 
Buchanan. Children, Winifred Louise, born May 8, 1914. Mr. 
Neal was educated in the public schools and graduated from 
Ohio Northern University in 1901 in the department of phar- 
macy. He came to AVest Virginia in 1904 and located in El- 
kins in 1906. Mr. Neal has drug stores at Elkins and Mill 
Creek. Dr. Neal's ancestors were among the early settlers 
of the Buckeye State, moving there from Virginia. 

Charles W. Parrish. 
Chas. W. Parrish, son of Richard G. and Julia (Zernian) 
Parrish, was born in Parkersburg, West Virginia, in 1875 ; 
married Mary Bell, daughter of George and Mary (Hill* Chen- 
oweth. Children, Sylvan G., Eva M. and Carl \\'. Mr. Par- 
rish came to Randol])h in 1897 since which t-ime he has been 
in the employ of the Western Maryland Railroad as engineer. 
He was in the 1915 wreck, on the Blackwater grade, in which 
some of his companitMis lost their li\-es and with serious in- 
jury narrowly escaped with his own. 

James Pickens. 

James, youngest son of James and Rachael (Talbott) 
Pickens, was born at Duffie, Lewis County. December 29, 
1840, and died in Randolph, December 2, 1912. Mr. Pickens's 
ancestors were among the earlv residents of Barbour County, 



this state, lie married Miss Mary (liamilton) Ileavener of 
Bath County, \'iri;inia. Some years siibse(iuent to her death, 
he was united in marriage to Miss Mary (Horner) X'ander- 



vort, of Weston, Lewis County, who survives him and occu- 
pies the beautiful Pickens Homestead near the town which 
bears his name. Both marriages were without issue. 

Mr. Pickens made some improvements on his holdings 
in Randolph in the fifties, but did not move to the county un- 
til 1868. He was a leading spirit in the location of the Swiss 
Colony at Helvetia and Florence and was largely instrumental 
in the building of the railroad from Buckhannon to Pickens, 
and was a director of the road before it was absorbed by the 
B. & O. He brought the first steam saw mill to the county in 

Mr. Pickens served through the war of the rebellion as a 
member of Company A Tenth West Virginia Volunteer In- 
fantry. Mr. Pickens was a leader in the development of the 
southwestern part of the county and the prosperous town 
which was named for him stands as a monument to his en- 
terprise and ability. 

John W. Poling. 

John AV. Poling, son of Sanford and Seyerna (Jones) Po- 
ling, was born in Barbour County in 1873 ; married Selma A. 
Hill in 1903. They have no children. Mr. Poling is engaged 
in the mercantile business in Elkins. 

Sampson Pennington. 

Sampson Pennington, son of V. R. and Phoeba (Flani- 
gan) Pennington, was born in Harmon, West Virginia, in 
1867; married Christina, daughter of John W. and Emil 
(Lantz) Thompson. Mr. Pennington has been constable of 
Dry Fork Districk for six years. 

David T. Probst. 

David T. Probst, German descent, son of Levi and Cath- 
erine (Weiner) Probst, was born in Pendleton County in 1859; 
married Marv J. Lambert. Children, I'irdie C, Alice, Mattie 
S. and Lucie J. Mr. Prol^st married Louise II. Laml)ert for 
second wife. Mr. Probst has been ?. resident of Randolph 
since 1883. 


Herbert E. Quick. 
Herbert E., son of William Henry and Polina Ann 
(Strickland) Quick, was l)orn in Valley Bend District in 1880; 
married Lula Savannah, daughter of C. P. and Esta (Lrye) 
Gatrell. Children, Ernest Doyle, Algie Elane, William Hugh, 
Mildred Geneva, Lonnie Herl)ert and Charles Eugenia. Mr 
Quick is of English ancestry and the family moved to Ran- 
dolph from Virginia in 1860. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Quick with 
their children were enroute from Nelson County, Va., to Iowa. 
While passing through Randolph Mr. Quick was taken sick 
and the trip was abandoned and they made Randolph their 
permanent home. 

Scott G. Ringer. 

Scott G. Ringler, son of Cyrus E. and Columbia C. (Bart- 
tell) Ringler, was born in Grafton, West Virginia, in 1883 ; 
married Mary J. Conley. One child, John J., has been the re- 
sult of this union. Mr. Ringler is the manufacturer of the fa- 
mous Ringler stogies and is also engaged in a general mer- 
cantile business. He came to Randolph in 1908. 

William G. Rains. 
W^m. G. Rains, son of J. F. and Ellen (Sites) Rains, 
was born in Pendleton County in 1879: married Rosie, daugh- 
ter of John and Virginia (Rains) Thompson. They had one 
child, Caroline. Mr. Rains has taught se^"eral terms in the 
public schools of Randolph. 

Martin J. Roy. 

Martin J. Roy, soij of Adam R. and Margaret (Carr) Roy, 
was born in 1875; married Zadie (McDonald) Cooper. Chil- 
dren, Herbert, Byron, Ernest and Ralph. Howard died in 
infancy. Mr. Roy has been a merchant at Harmon seven 
years. He was the Republican party's candidate for deputy 
sheriff in 1910. 

Thomas C. Russell. 
Thomas C, son of Chas. A\\ and Mary E. (Collett) Rus- 
sell, was born August 17, 1868; married Nannie, daughter of 
W. H. and Polina (Strickland) Quick. Mr. Russell married 


Nannie, daughter of Geo. W. and Sarah (Crickard) McCall 
for his second wife. Children of first marriage, W'illa L. and 
Clarence. Children of second marriage, Stanley Hugh, Ida 
Marie, Grace, Georgia, Helen, Missouri and Thomas C. Jr. 
Chas. ^^^ Russell, father of Thomas C, moved from Win- 
chester, \''irg'inia, to Randolph at an early day. He was a 
man of influence and prominence in the community. Mr. Rus- 
sell's mother was a sister of Dr. William Collett, the noted 
surgeon of Beverly before the Civil War. 

Clay C. Rosencranse. 

Clay C, son of Jesse and Mary (Riggleman) Rosencranse, 
was l)orn in 1887; married Lena, daughter of Albert Gear. Mr. 
Rosencranse is one of the owners of the Tygarts Valley Flour- 
ing Mill near Mill Creek. This mill is located on the site of 
one of the first mills in tlie county owned by \\'^m. Cur- 
rence, who was killed bv the Indians. Mill Creek was then 
called Currences ^^lill Creek. Mr. Rosencranse is a descend- 
ant of Hezekiah Rosencranse, who was one of the first trus- 
tees of the town of Beverly. He first located in what is now 
known as the Caplinger settlement and is l)uried in the Bap- 
tist burying gronnd on the east side of the ri\"er near Arnold 



J. G. S. Shaffer. 

J. G. S. ShaiTer, son of Christopher and Elizabeth (Har- 
desty) Shaffer, was born in Preston County, Mrginia, in 1843 ; 
married Christina S. Xine in 1863. Children, Sarah J.. Pearl, 
Bessie M., Clinton C, Verba (deceased), Lawrence (deceas- 
ed), Harold (deceased). Mr. Shaffer came to Randolph in 
1891. A\'ith the exception of three or four vears he has been 
in the service of the city of Elkins since coming to this county. 
He has served as assessor, street commissioner and as ])i •lice- 

Squire M. M. Smith. 

.Milton M. Smith, son of .\1)ram W. and l'ar<ilinc (Mi- 
chael) Smith, was born in 1859 in ( Irant County; married Fan- 
nie G., daughter of Henry and Sophronia (Iman) Thalaker. 
Children, Boyd, Milford and Helen Irene. Mr. Smith came 


to Elkins in 1889 and was the first recorder of the city. He 
was postmaster of Elkins nnder ( irover Cleveland and is now 
justice of the peace of Leadsville District. 

Hon. Howard Sutherland. 

Howard, son of John Webster and Julia P. (Reavis) 
Sutherland, was born in Kirkland, Missouri, September 8, 
1865. He was educated in the schools of St. Louis and re- 
ceived the degree of A.B. from West Minister College, Fulton, 
Missouri, in 1889. He was editor of Daily Republican, Ful- 
ton, Missouri, one year. Fie was chief of the Population Di- 
vision of Census Department from 1890-3. From 1903 to 1912 
he was employed by the Davis and Elkins interests and made 
his home in Elkins. He was State Senator from 1908 to 1912, 
when he was elected Congressman at large ; was Congress- 
man at large from 1912-16, when he received the Republican 
nomnation for United States wSenate. Mr. Sutherland married 
at Fulton, Missouri, May 28, 1889, Effie, daughter of James 
B. and Lucy (Crockrell) Harris. Children, Natalie, Richard 
K., Virginia, Katharine, Margaret Lindsay, Maria Elizabeth. 
Four children died in infancy. Mr. Sutherland was elected 
to the U. S. Senate. 


Rufus, son of Charles and Adelphia (Currence) Swecker, 
was born in 1902 ; married Jessie, daughter of George New- 
house. Mr. Swecker is a member of the family that moved 
to Randolph from Pocahontas and settled on the west side in 
Mingo District. 

Frank Seitz. 

Frank Seitz, son of Frederick and Josephine Seitz, Ger- 
man ancestry, Avas born in A\'illiamsburg, New York, in 1869: 
married Clementine Edwards. Children, Frances, Eunice and 
Franklin. One daughter. Rose, died aged 6 years. ]\Ir. Seitz 
came to Elkins in 1900 and is a bricklayer by trade. 

AViLLiAM A. Sturms. 

AN'illiam A., son of L. D. and Annie M. (Stephens) Sturms, 
was born in Calhoun County, \\>st Virginia, in 1866 ; married 


Louisa (Price) Sturms. Children, D. H., Ada, Jessie, Otto, 
Dewey, Lula, Russell, Merrill, Jeraldine and Ruth. Mr. Sturms 
came to Randolph in 1889. He is a track foreman on the West 
Virginia Southern Railroad at Job. 

Lemuel Sturm. 

Lemuel Sturm, son of David and Rebecca (Moore) 
Sturm, was born January 25, 1827; married first, Matisonia 
Martin. Mr. Sturms married second. Miss Ida Yokum. By 
his first marriage the following children were born : W. T., 
Carrie Keighron, Lourena, Minnie, Maud, Charles R., died 
aged 27. Mr. Sturm came to Randolph in 1894. The name is 
German in its origin. The paternal grandfather, Jacob Sturm, 
immigrated to America prior to the Revolution and settled 
in what is now Marion County, but then a part of Mononga- 
lia County. Mr. Sturm was mayor of Mill Creek in 1908. 
Notwithstanding his advanced age Mr. Sturm retains his men- 
tal faculties to a marked degree. 

Hon. E. D. Talbott. 

Elam Dowden Talbott, son of William Woodford and 
Sarah (Simons) Talbott, was born in Barbour County, No- 
vember 8, 1857; married June 15, 1886, Lutie Lee, daughter of 
S. N. and Florence A. (Brown) Bosworth. Children, Eva 
Bosworth, who married E. O. Fling; Marguerite, who married 
B. F. Downing; Eugenia Arnold, who married James Baker; 
Winifred Dewing, who married Cliflford Gross, and Donald. 

William Talbott, the great great grandfather of E. D. 
Talbott immigrated to Virginia from England, settling in Fair- 
fax County. Richard Talbott, the great grandfather of E. D. 
Talbott, settled in Barbour County in 1780. 

Mr. Talbott was educated in the pul)lic schools and in 
the universities of Virginia and West X'irginia. He ])racticed 
law at Beverly a number of years and came to Elkins with 
the removal of the county seat to this place. Mr. Talbott has 
been mayor of Elkins and represented Randolph in the state 
Legislature and has been for a number of years president of 
the Elkins Commercial Club. 


Dr. L. W. Talbott. 
Dr. L. W. Talbott, son of \'Villiam W. and Sarah (Si- 
mon) Talbott, was born No\'eniber 25, 1855 ; married in 1893 
Mary Evelyn, dauijhter of .S. X. and Morence A. (Brown) 
Boswortli. Children, Richard l)Oswort]i, William Brown, Vir- 
ginia, Lewis, James and Sara. Dr. Talbott has been engaged 
in the ])ractice of medicine in Randolph thirty-three years; 
longer than any other j^ractitioner. lie has attended more 
than 1.000 births. 

Simon Teter. 

Simon Teter, son of Joshua and Mary E. (Harper) Teter, 
was l3orn in Ran(lol])h County in 1870; married Rebecca, 
daughter of Samuel and Phoebe (Spielman) Mullenix. Mr. 
Teter is employed by the Parsons PHdp and Paper Company 
at Horton. 

Aaron Teter. 

Aaron, son of Cyrus and xAnnie (Harper) Teter, was born 
in 1868 in Pendleton County ; married Florence, daughter of 
Columbus and Jemima (Carr) Kernes. Children, Rosa Hos- 
ter, Columbus, Thamar, Lillie, Daisy, Sylvia, Lennie, Cyrus 
and Elsie. Howard Paul died in infancy. Mr. Teter was a 
merchant at W'vmer nine years. He is now postmaster and 
merchant at Job. 

W. W. Tyree. 

W. W. Tyree, son of W. W. and Virginia (Stinespring) 
Tyree, was born in 1871, in Bath County, Virginia; married 
Mary Ellen, daughter of 'Uriah and Susan (Hudson) Bird. 
Children, Ward B., Mary Gale and William Bird. Mr. Tyree 
came to Randolph from Pocahontas in 1906 and is at present 
engaged in general insurance business. 

W. D. Tyre. 
W. D. Tyre, son of J. M. and Mrs. Elizabeth J. Tyre, 
was born in Randolph County, W^est Va., near Elkins, July 
4th, 1879. Taught school in Randolph County for 11 years, 
was married to Miss Maud B. Curtis, youngest daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Milton Curtis, April 17th 1902. To this 
union six children have been born : Lela May, born May 5th, 


1903 ; Alma Louretta, Alay 23, 1905 ; Glenn Lawrence, Janu- 
ary 19th, 1908; Gladys Pearl, September 3, 1909; Earl Wash- 
ington, born February 22, 1912 and died June 24, 1913, at the 
age of 16 months of a complication of diseases ; Raymond 
Robert Bruce, born January 26, 1914. 

Was a member of the Randolph County School Book 
Board from Roaring Creek District from 1906 to 1910. 

Was Census Enumerator in Leadsville District in 1910. 
Was appointed as City Letter Carrier in Elkins, July 4th, 
1910 and has remained in the Government Service ever since. 

His father was a Union Soldier, belonging to Co. E, 
First West Virginia Light Artillery. 

Ulysses G. Trembly. 

Ulysses G. Treml^ly, born in Preston County, 1867, son of 
Michael and Margaret (Smith) Trembly. Came to Randolph 
in 1905. Mr. Trembly married Mary, daughter of T. B. and 
Isaac (Stalnaker) Webster. Children, Mary and Harry. Mr. 
Trembly is a jeweler and is proprietor of a store on Third 

Glenn Teter. 

Glenn, son of D. K. and Alice (Harmon) Teter, was born 
at Harmon, Randolph County in 1896. ^Ir. Teter is at pres- 
ent a clerk in the Whitmer Drug Company Store. 

Elmer G. Teter. 
Elmer G., son of D. K. and Christian (Bennett) Teter, 
was born in 1869; married Almeda, daughter of Isaac and 
Mary Raines. Children, Russell and Musa, who died in in- 
fancy. Mr. Teter is at present a clerk in the Parsons Pulp 
and Paper Company Store at Horton. 

John L. Thomas. 
John L. Thomas, son of William R. and Catherine 
(George) Thomas, was born February, 1878; married Iva, 
daughter of John W. and Anna (Martin) ^Morrison. Chil- 
dren, John, aged 10 years, and Owen Beryl, who died in in- 
fancy. The father, WilHam R. Thomas, was born in Con- 
northenshire, Whales, in 1846, and came to America in 1868, 


locating" in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Father and son came 
to Randolph in 1902. They are at present prominent citizens 
of Pickens. 

Phelix R. Tuning. 
Felix R., son of Thomas and Sarah (Tidd) Tuning, was 
born in Highland County, Virginia, in 1893. Mr. Tuning is 
a farmer and stockman. He is the Democratic committeeman 
for Middle Fork District. 

Dr. E. H. Updike. 
Dr. E. H. Updike was born in Bentonville, Virginia, in 
1877, and came to West Virginia in 1906. Dr. Updike re- 
ceived his professional education at West Virginia Universi- 
ty, Baltimore Medical College, University of Maryland and 
Loyola l^niversity of Chicago. Dr. Updike has practiced his 
profession at Elkins and Elk Garden and is now located at 
Mill Creek, West Virginia. 

Hon. William G. Wilson. 
\Mlliam Grant ^^'ilson, son of Isaac and Harriet Wilson, 
was born in ]\Iarion County in 1864. He married Mabel, 
daughter of Major J. H. and Katherine (Harwood) Fout. Mr. 
Wilson was educated in the public schools and at the Fair- 
mont Normal school. He was among the first residents of 
Elkins and was for several years the only representative of 
the legal profession in the city. He was three times Mayor 
of Elkins and represented Randolph in the state Legislature. 
His prominence in that law making body is evidenced by the 
fact that he was made speaker of the house, which position 
he filled with marked ability. For a number of years he has 
been president of the Davis Trust Company. 

Dr. John H. Weymouth. 

John H. Weymouth, D.D.S., son of John S. and Henrietta 
D. (Jenkins) Weymouth, was born at Richmond, Va., in 1843; 
married in 1873 Mary, daughter of Lemuel and Nancy (Hart) 
Chenoweth. Children, ]\Iyra May, who married G. N. Wil- 
son; Henrietta Blanche, who married Barton Jones; Charles 
Lee, and Nannie Chenoweth. After the death of his first 


wife, Dr. Weymouth chose his second wife in the person of 
Miss Marian Smith, daughter of Abraham and Margaret 
Harding Smith. Dr. AA'eymouth's family were pioneers in 
Richmond and the first house built in that city belonged to the 
family. Dr. Weymouth was a captain of artillery in the Con- 
federate service. He is a gifted writer and is the correspond- 
ent for several Metropolitan dailies. He was educated at Phil- 
adelphia Dental College. 

John B. Wilt. 

John B. Wilt, son of Wm. F. and Mary (Lantz) Wilt, 
was born in Preston County, West Virginia, in 1873. ^Ir. 
Wilt married Carrie, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Heed. 
Children, Carrie and Mary Jane. ]Mr. WWt taught school a 
number of years before coming to Elkins. He is now general 
manager of the large mercantile establishment of Posten & Co. 

Jared L. Wamsley. 

Jared L., son of Captain Jacob S. and Minerva (Hamil- 
ton) Wamsley, was born in 1854, died 1916; married Florence 
M., daughter of Eli B. and Elizabeth (Hutton) Butcher 
Mr. Wamsley graduated from the Fairmont Normal School 
and attended Roanoke College at Salem, Virginia. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1882 and was three times elected 
prosecuting attorney of Randolph. For years Mr. \Vamsley 
stood in the front rank of Randolph County attorneys. 

Hon. James W. Weir. 

Hon. James W. Weir, son of S. E. and May (Frothing- 
ham) Weir, was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1882, 
was educated in public schools at Covington, Virginia and 
Washington D. C. Prior to coming to Elkins Mr. W^eir was 
on the staff of the Wheeling Intelligencer and Columbus, 
Ohio, Dispatch. He was editor of Randolph Enterprise from 
1905 to 1911. From 1913 to the present time he has been edi- 
tor and publisher of the Randolph Review. He was private 
secretary to Senator Watson from 1911-13. Mr. Weir has 
represented Randolph in the Legislature two terms, in 1909 


and 191v3. In 1909 Mr. Weir married Vie, the youngest daugh- 
ter of J. F. and Lucebie (Wilmoth) Harding. 

J. A. Weimer. 
J. A. Weimer, son of Peter and Catherine Ellen (Kyle) 
Weimer, was born in 1878 in Pendleton; married Lena A., 
daughter of Jacob L. and Jeanetta (Thompson) Nelson. Chil- 
dren, Theodore Willard. When Mr. Weimer was two years 
old his parents moved to Lincoln, Nebraska. He returned 
to Randolph in 1900 and is now an engineer on the Western 
Maryland Railroad. His grandfather, Philip W^eimer, emi- 
grated from Germany to Pendleton County, Virginia, in the 
early history of the county. 

C. H. Wymer. 

C. H. Wymer, son of Perry and Catherine (Zebaugh) Wy- 
mer, was born in 1865, in Grantsville, Maryland ; married 
Martha, daughter of Archibald and Virginia (Hinkle) Har- 
per. Children, Carrie Leta, Mary Marvin, Frank C, Elma and 
Alma, Charles and Thomas. Mr. Wymer came to Randolph 
in 1889. For several years Mr. Wymer has been a meml)er of 
the livery firm of Warner & Reynolds. 

B. F. Whetzel. 

B. F. Whetzel, son of Ruckner P. Whetzel and Charlotte 

(Trem'bly) \\'hetzel, was born in 1863, in Preston County, 
"W^est Virginia ; married Bettie L., daughter of Jesse \\'. and 
Mary E. (Harper) Goddin. Children, Chas. V., Robert L., 
Dana C, Mary G., Cress E., Helen I. and Floyd G. His great 
grandfather, John Whetzel, moved from Frederick, Maryland, 
to four miles east of Kingwood, Preston County, in 1800 and 
founded what has since been known as the Whetzel settle- 
ment. He came to Randolph in 1889. before the advent of rail- 
roads. He started the first livery stable in Elkins. He is at 
present engaged in farming and fruit growing, and is the pion- 
eer fruit grower in this section in a commercial way. He owns 
extensive apple and peach orchards near Elkins and has dem- 
onstrated that such an enterprise can be made to pa}' in this 
countv if directed bv energv and intelligence. 


William Lee Wymer. 
William Lee Wymer, son of Joseph and Catherine (Span- 
augle) Wymer, was born in Hunting Grounds in 1866; mar- 
ried first a Aliss Cooper. Children, Clarence, Frank, Lexie, 
Alpha, Margie, and Blanche, who died in infancy. Clarence 
died at the age of 21. From his second marriage, Mr. ^^'ymer 
had no children. Mr. AA'3'mer chose for his third wife, j\Ia- 
linda, daughter of M. G. and Elizabeth White. The children 
of this union are Mona, Vernon, Blake, Raymond and Althea. 




111 this index no reference is made to Personal and Family 
sketches. These sketches are arranged alphabetically. 

Alfied, John, 42, 82. 
Alexander, John, 44. 
Abbott, Benjamin, 82. 
Anderson, Captain, 122. 
Avcrill, General, 148. 
Alton, Tom, 152. 
Arrow heads, 252. 
Adolj^h, settlement of, 266. 
Alpina, Colony of, 246. 

Baker, D. R., 10, 148. 

Bald Eagle, 20. 

Buflfington, 2.3. 

Bosworth, Perry, 27. 

Bosworth', J. l!, 27. 

Bozart, John, 38. 

Buckhannon Settlement, 28. 

Bogard, Cornelius, 40, 42, 82, 88, 104. 

Bosworth, S. N., 41. 

Beverly, 41 ; Threatened to 

secede, 239. 
Blair, Wni., 48. 

Ball, Samuel, 51. « 

Books, Old, 52. 
Bush, John, 52. 
Burial expenses, 53. 
Buckey, George, 57. 
Bosworth, Squire, 58. 
Boyles, Michael, 86. 
Booth, Isaac, 87. 
Banks, Henry, 107. 
Bradley, A. M., 113. 
Bosworth, J. L., 113. 
Benham, Captain, 130. 
Buckev, Hotel, 150. 
Benefit of Clergy, 161. 
Bees and Birds, 253. 
Bishop Asbury, 273. 
Baptists, Primitive, 274. 

Coberly, M. J., 10; D. E., 113. 

Currence Fort, 20. 

Conolv, Darby, 21. 

Cartwell, Thomas, 22. 

Crouch, James, 23; Joseph, 44; 

John, 56, 83, 87; Andrew, 229. 
Currence, William, 26 ; John, 44. 

Cassity, Peter, 39, SO, 103, 104. 

Cooper, Joseph, 46. 

Church History, 242. 

Cunningham, James, 55. 

Crown, Henrietta, 57. 

Clerks, County, 67; Circuit, 67. 

Commissioners, Revenue, 69. 

Coroners, 73. 

County Commissioners, 73. 

Circuit Judges, 73. 

Constables, 74. 

Colonels Militia, 77. 

Captains Militia, 77. 

Carpenter, Nichhlas, 80. 

Chane, Thomas, SO. 

Conrad, Jacob, 86. 

Chenoweth, John, 86; Maude, IIJ 

Mary, 86. 
Claypool, Abram, 106. 
Conveyances, Old, 97. 
Crawford, J. A., 104. 
Chapline, Moses, 107. 
Carpenter, Nicholas, 107. 
Constitution, 158. 
Canfield, J. B., 113; F. M., 113. 
Channel, Flora, 113. 
Civil War, 114. 
Cochrane, James, 126. 
Carricks Ford, 130. 
Corlev, Captain, 133. 
Collett, Solomon, 87. 

Dorman, Timothy, 25. 
Daily Station, 27. 
Deer, 37. 

Dowell, Gabriel, 47. 
Duval, John, 80. 
Delay, Henry, 80. 
Donahue, Joseph, 81. 
Daniels, T. L., 113. 
DeLagnell, Captain, 121. 
Domestic Bliss, 217. 
Dry Fork, 228. 
Dean, Henry Clay, 248. 
Dow, Lorenzo, 259. 

Elk, 37. 



Eberman's Creek, 41. 
England, Wm., 41. 
Ensigns Militia, 79. 
Elliott, James, 87. 
Education, 106. 
Evans, John, 107. 
Elections, 238. 
Enterprise, 260. 
Emancipation paper, 263. 
Extinct families, 297. 
Earle, A.. 5S. 
Elk Horns found, 231. 

Formation of Randolph, 231. 

First Auditor, 237. 

Files, Family, 18. 

Friend, Jonas, 40; Gabriel, 41; 

Joseph, 47. 
Fink, Henry, 42, 106. 
Formelson, Charles, 83. 
Fansler, Henrv, 86; Andrew, 86. 
Free Schools, 108. 
Ford, Kalers, 132. 
French and Indian War, 244. 
Family Histories, 298. 
Flints Furnished bv Government, 89. 
Frost of 1859, 262. 
Fined 400 lbs. Tobacco, 240. 

Gandy, 10; Gandy, Uriah, 55. 
Greenville, Treaty of, 31. 
Goff, Salathiel, 39; Thomas, 55. 
Garnett 's. General, Report, 117. 
Goose-plucking, 208. 

Helvetia, settlement of, 264. 

Hamilton, Miss, 22 ; John, 45 ; Pat., 
80, 82, 83; William, 82. 

Haddan, John, 22, 40, 106. 

Hart, Ed., 26, 44, 46, 50, 53, 86. 

Holder, Thomas, 40. 

Haymond, John, 39. 

Harris, Simeon, 41, 44. 

Hornbeck, Benj., 45, 81. 

Harness, John, 56. 

Henderson, David, 82. 

Haddan, David, 82. 

Hart, Naucv Ann, 86 ; David B.,118. 

Hill, Jacob I., 106. 

Harrison, Benjamin, 107. 

Hutton, John, 113. 

Hughes, John N., 114. 

Heck, Colonel, 115. 

Hansborough, Colonel, 132. 

Hill Raid, 149. 

Harmon, 262. 

Hedrick, Jess, 216. 

Harrison County Court Proceed- 
ings, 80. 

Indian Burial Ground, 13. 

Indian Trails, 12, 256. 

Isner, Michael, 42, 44; Thomas, 86. 

Imboden's Raid, 145. 

luter-Mountain, 244. 

Irish Settlement, 275. 

Indian Ring, 243. 

Jackson, John, 39, 41, 44, 87; Ed- 
ward, 41, 44, 48, 82; George, 107. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 108, 109. 
Jackson's Raid, 148. 
Jenkins, General, 146. 
Jones, General, 147. 

Killbuck, 22. 

Kinnan, Joseph, 25, 49, 53. 

Kittle, Abram, 45, 80, 104; F. H., 

113; Jacob, 52, 86. 
King, Mary, 113. 
Kellev, Benjamin F., 115. 
Kersey, E. H., 126. 
King, George, 142. 
Kyle, Zed., 221. 

Lytle, Archibald, 13. 

Lackev, Thomas, 22, 81 ; James, 41, 

82, 230. 
Lackey's War Song, 231. 
Leading Creek, 23. 
Leavitt, Wm., 27. 
Lancaster, Treaty of, 31. 
Lee, Thomas, 31. 
Log Rolling, 36. 
Lewis, Charles, 45, 48. 
Lieutenants Militia, 78. 
Lowther, Wm., 80. 
Land Patents, 93. 
Logan, James H., 106. 
Literarv Fund, 110. 
Litle, James B., 113. 
Lander, Colonel, 119. 

Relating to swearing, working on 
Sabbath, stealing tobacco, 159. 

.Against gossip, 160. 

Hog stealing, 161. 

Slaves, 161. 

Importation of Slaves, servants and 
masters, 162. 

Convicts and religious freedom, 163. 

Military drills and musters, 166. 

Salaries and rations of soldiers, 168. 

Grist mill, 169. 

Steamboat, 170. 

District court, congressional dis- 
tricts. Valley Falls, 171. 

Rates, postage, 174. 

Tobacco currency, 175. 



Lawyers, 177. 

Looislaturp, Members of, 238. 

Lower Middle Mountain, 241. 

McLean, James, 22; John, 22; Hoy, 

25; Annie, 113. 
Minear, Jrthn, 23; David, 86; 

Philip, 83. 
McCleary, Wm., 39, 44, 46, 107. 
MeMullen, Andrew, 56. 
Marriajje License 60. 
Maxwell, Alexander, 81; Robt., 42. 

107, 44, 48. 
McCally, John, 82. 
McDonald, Francis, 82. 
Moore, James, 82. 
Mason, George, 107. 
Mathews, Thomas, 107. 
Moore, C. S., 113. 
Marstiller Lee, 113 ; W. 113 ; Agnes, 

113; Delphia, 113. 
Madden, Thomas, 113 ; Martin, 113 ; 

W. P., 113. 
Morgan, H. B., 113. 
Morris, General, 115. 
Miller, Christopher, 119. 
McLellan's Proclamation, 137. 
Milroy's Order, 146. 
Marshall, Captain, 149. 
Methodists, 271. 

Nelson, John, 22; Chas., 44, 
Neville John 86 ; Nicholas Geo., 107. 

Pringle, Samuel, 19; John, 19; 

James, 42. 
Parson, John, 39; Chas., 42. 
Peterson, Wm., 41. 
Petty, Ebenezer, 41, 57, 80, 104. 
Phillips, John, 42, 51, Thomas, 43, 

44, 52, 104. 
Petro, Nicholas, 44, 82. 
Poffenl)arger, Peter, 52. 
Prosecuting Attorneys, 73. 
Powers, John, 80. 
Public schools, 112. 
Porterfield, A., 115. 
Pegram, Colonel, 116, 124. 
Printz, G. W., 153. 
Porte Crayon, 193, 217, 224. 
Physicians and Surgeons, 181. 
Population, 245. 
Presbyterians, 270. 

Ralston, James, 22, 23. 
Riffle, Jacob, 40. 
Rosencrai;se, Hezekiah, 40. 
Ryan, Solomon, 44. 

Revolutionary soldiers, 86. 

Reger, Jacob, 87. 

Randolph Academv, 106. 

Rice, Lemuel C, 113. 

Roads, 102. 

Ryan, John, 86. 

Rarvan, Marnev, 86. 

Ronald, Wm., i07. 

Residents in Randolph 1785, 83. 

Sinks, 10. 

Sitlington, Andrew, 22. 
Stalnaker, Jacob, 42, 44, 81; Valen- 
tine, 44. 
Stewart, Ralph, 42. 
Smitli, .John, 42. 

Summerfield, Josej^h, 45; Thomas, 49. 
Sheriffs, 67. 
Surveyors, 67. 
Smith, Wm., 81, 103. 
Skidmore, Andrew, 82. 
Snyder, Fortunatius, 86. 
Springer, Uriah, 86. 
Shreves, William, 86. 
Surveys, 100. 
School Statistics, 112. 
Scott, Angelia, 113; Alice, 113. 
Scott, Colonel, 117. 
Skidmore, K. R., 113. 
Simmons, Henry, 113. 
School Superintendents, 113. 
Surnames, 287, 295. 
Socialist Movement in Randolph, 243. 

Tavlor, B. W., 113: Sheffev, 113. 
Triplett, F. J., 113; L. B.,' 113. 
Thomas, Mollie M., 113. 
Taggart, James A., 119. 
Tenant, Lem., 152. 
T. V. News, 260. 
Tory Camp Run, 240. 
Trustees, Town of Moorefield, 242. 

Warwick, Jacob, 22; John, 42, 82; 

James, 229. 
Wilson, Benjamin, 22, 38, 40, 80, 87, 

107; John, 39, 42, 44, 107; Wm., 

43, 44, 82 ; Geo. 82. 
Weese, John D., 28. 
White, Isaac, 28; William, 229; 

John, 229. 
Westfall, Cornelius, 39, 80; Geo., 39; 

James, 40, 87, 106; Jacob, .39, 

40, 42, 44, 80, 107; Daniel, 44; 

William, 87, 43. 
Wolf, Nicholas, 52. 
Wilson's, Mill, 47. 
Mill, First, 55. 

448 INDEX 

Wilmoth, Thomas, 81; Ella, 113; Woodley, W. H., 137. 
Arnold, 113. Weather Bureau, 243. 

Whitman, Mathew, 86. Wild Pigeons, 265. 

Whitemau, Henry, 86. Whiskey Insurrection, 233.