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Full text of "History of Ray County, Mo."

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HISTORY 



OF 



RAY COUNTY, MO., 

CAREFULLY WRITTEN AND COMPILED 

f 



FROM THE 



MOST AUTHENTIC OFFICIAL AND PRIVATE SOURCES, 



INCLUDING A HI6TORT OF IT6 



Townships, City, Towns and Villages, 



TOGETHER WITH 



A CONDENSED HISTORY OF MISSOURI; THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 

AND STATE OF MISSOURI; A MILITARY RECORD OF ITS VOLUNTEERS IN EITHER 

ARMY OF THE GREAT CIVIL WAR; GENERAL AND LOCAL STATISTICS; 

MISCELLANY; REMINISCENCES, GRAVE, TRAGIC AND HUMOROUS; 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PROMINENT MEN AND CITIZENS 

IDENTIFIED WITH THE INTERESTS OF THE COUNTY. 



ILLUSTRATED. 

' ' " ■ ■ I, » ' i ■■-■■ ' 



St. LOUIS: 
MISSOURI HISTORICAL COMPANY. 

1881. 



THE r. 
PUBLIC LIB- 

10628^ • 

* 

TILD. L 



• 






PREFACE. 



The publishers of this work flatter themselves that it is worthy of 
public confidence, and that it will meet with the acceptance and approval 
of those for whom it is intended, namely: the people of Ray county, 
Missouri. It has been very carefully prepared from sources of informa- 
tion both official and private, and entirely authentic and reliable. No 
pains have been spared in making the history thorough, accurate and 
exhaustive ; and that it has reclaimed from oblivion much valuable data 
concerning the early history of the county, and is a faithful record of facts 
worthy of preservation in permanent and readable form, is earnestly 
believed. 

In prosecuting this work to completion, we received material assistance 
from citizens in various parts of the county; from old settlers, county 
officials and others, to all of whom we are profoundly grateful. Our 
acknowledgments, however, are especially due to Col. James W. Black, 
who is a contributor, to whatever merit the book may possess; to George 
W. Trigg, county clerk; to John R. Green, circuit clerk, and to Lewis 
Slaughter, recorder, for kindly permitting us to examine the records of 
their respective offices, and for gentlemanly courtesies extended during 
that work; to Wm. E. Ringo, deputy county clerk, for polite assistance; 
to James A. Davis, county collector; to Capt. Thomas McGinnis, ex- 
sheriff, and to Frank G. Gibson, ex-prosecuting attorney; to Dr. G. W. 
Buchanan and George I. Wasson, Esq.; to Judge Joseph E. Black, for loan 
of books and for files of the Richmond Herald; to Col. Jacob T. Child, 
editor Richmond Conservator, for files of that paper, and to Col. Thomas 
D. Bogie, editor Richmond Democrat ; to Thomas N. Deacy, school com- 
missioner; to Professor B. F. Duncan; and to Holland Vanderpool, 
William R. Blythe, R. L. McCoskrie, Edwin Odell and John Cleavenger, 
old settlers. 

We desire, also, to acknowledge our indebtedness to Prof. James M. 
Long, an obliging, scholarly gentleman, for valuable suggestions. 

The history of the county begins prior to its organization as such, and 
with the first settlements on lands which it afterwards embraced and now 
embraces, and is brought down to the present (June 1881). 

In point of age, as a state, the twenty-fourth in the American Union, 
and in the scale of greatness, the fifth, Missouri is the just pride of every 



2 PREFACE. 

honest man and true patriot within her borders. Inexhaustibly rich in 
natural resources; fortunate in geographical position; convenient and 
beautiful in surface configuration; finely situated for commercial inter- 
course with her sister states and with the world; of generous soil, 
salubrious air and intelligent population, every throb of the Missourian's 
heart is a pulsation of love for his state — then, would the " History of 
Ray County" be complete without at least a sketch of Missouri? A 
condensed view of the state is essential to an intelligent history of the 
county. 

A very brief abstract of the laws of Missouri will, it is believed, enhance 
the value of the work, by affording to farmers and business men a con- 
venient and reliable reference for every day use. 

Part Second is devoted to brief biographical sketches of prominent 
citizens; of early settlers, and of those who, having the welfare of the 
county at heart, have contributed to its growth, wealth and development. 

All history is but a recital of past events, and the great aim of him who 
places a series of those events, affecting the day in which he lives, of 
record, to be read by future generations, should be, above all things, 
Truth. He who records faithfully, impartially, truthfully, the important 
passing events of his own time, as well as the yet unwritten history of 
former days, for the guidance, instruction or amusement of those who are 
to come after him, is indeed a benefactor. It has not been our ambition 
to achieve merely the distinction of being called a benefactor, but, if we 
have succeeded in making a book worthy its subject, we are satisfied, and 
shall regard the people's gratitude as our best reward. 

That it will fully meet the expectations of the public, and supply a 
needed demand is sincerely hoped, and with that hope it is submitted to 
the people of Ray county by 

The Publishers. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



PAGE. 

Historical and Political 9 

Prehistoric Missouri 10 

The White Race in Missouri 15 

Missouri as a State 25 

Summary of Events and Dates .... 25 

Counties and Population 26 

Census Report, 1880 27 

State Finances 29 

Presidential Votes from 1820 to 1880 . 30 

Governors from 1820 to 1880 31 

United States Senators 31 

Members of Congress 32 

Public School System 34 

Protectional Laws 40 

Homestead Exemption 40 

Exemption of Personal Property. . . 42 

Rights of Married Women 43 

Taxation 43 

Public Debt Limitation 44 

Comparative Tax Rate 45 

Federal Officers in the State 4ft 

Missouri's Distinguished Men — 

Daniel Boone 47 

Thomas H. Benton 47 

James B. Eads 48 

Carl Schurz 49 

Prof. Charles V. Riley 49 

Missouri in the Civil War 50 



PAGE. 

Geology and Minerals 66 

Geological Chart 67 

Mineral Resources 72 

Earths, Clays, Ochres, etc. 77 

Geography of Missouri 78 

Rivers and Watercourses 81 

Notable Springs- 82 

Soils and their Products 83 

Wild Game 85 

Climate 87 

Heal thf ulness of the State 89 

Agriculture 90 

Staple Crops 91 

Horticulture 93 

The Grasshopper 96 

Navigation and Commerce 99 

The Lewis & Clark Expedition 100 

First Steamboats in Missouri 101 

The Barge System 103 

Railroads in Missouri 104 

Manufacturing in Missouri 107 

Principal Cities in Missouri 108 

Constitution of the United States 113 

Constitution of Missouri 124 

Abstract of State Laws and Forms. . . 160 

Practical Rules for Every-day Use . . . 190 
Names of the States of the Union and 

their Significance 196 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY 



Topography 199 

The Pioneer 202 

Early Settlements and Settlers 205 

Indians 212 

Organization 215 

First County Seat, etc 218 

Removal of the County Seat 226 

First Instruments Recorded 231 

Townships 238 

County Officers 248 

Ray County War Record 264 

The Great Civil War 281 

Confederate Soldiers 282 

Union Soldiers 297 



Religious 324 

Educational 347 

Societies 362 

Newspapers of Ray County 366 

Towns and Villages 383 

Terrible Cyclone 389 

Incorporation of Richmond 399 

Ordinances City of Richmond.. ...... 413 

The sole surviving witness of the Au- 
thenticity of the Book of Mormon . . 456 

Geology 461 

Incidents 468 

Statistical 482 



CONTENTS 



BIOGRAPHICAL DIRECTORY. 



NAME. TP. R. 

Akers, James R. . . .51 28 
Alspaugh, A. P.... 54 27 

Allen, Abraham 51 29 

Anderson, Thornton 51 28 
Aslmry, James S. . .58 29 

Artman, Wm 50 28 

Austin, G. M 50 28 

Asbury, J. W... .53 29 
Allison, Wesley M. 53 29 

Banister, John T 

Ball, J. E 

Barr, Adam J 

Black, Joseph E 

Black, James W 

Bogie, Thomas D 

Brown, John C 

Brown, B. J 

Botts, A. J 

Burgess, H. C 

Burgess, T. J 

Burgess, I. L 

Buchanan, Geo. W 

Baum, Louis 

Babcock,B.B 52 26 

Boggess, H. C 51 26 

Brown, Chas. W...52 26 
Bohannon, L. C...52 26 
Boggess, Henry. . . .52 26 

Bush, George H 52 26 

Bell, Ross P 52 26 

Bates, James F . . .52 26 
Bankston, John T. .52 26 

Bryan, J. H 52 26 

Bowman, J. H 52 26 

Ballinger, Wm. R..52 27 
Bowen, Chas. L. . .53 26 
Barham, John L. . .53 26 

Bowman, D. B 53 26 

Burgess, Wm.P 54 58 

Bright, Wm. H 53 27 

Bates, Chas. F., Sr.53 27 
Brown, Alfred A... 51 28 

Brockman, Asa 51 28 

Brown, Thomas A. .51 28 

Bates, R. W 52 29 

Blythe, Wm. R....51 29 
Bailey, Elijah B...51 29 

Bogart, John 51 29 

Brock, F 53 29 

Bacon, C. B 54 29 

Brock, Wm. H 53 29 

Berten, John R 53 29 

Buist, James 51 29 

Brown, Wm. T 51 28 

Brumrield, John F.52 26 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Camden 610 

Georgeville 699 

Orrick 644 

Orrick 649 

Vibbard 650 

Orrick 626 

Camden 625 

Lawson 661 

Lawson 675 

Richmond 564 

Richmond 526 

Richmond 546 

Richmond 551 

Richmond 540 

Richmond 515 

Richmond 535 

Richmond 544 

Richmond 562 

Richmond 573 

Richmond 574 

Richmond 574 

Richmond . . . .575 

Richmond 580 

Hardin 806 

Hardin 807 

Morton 801 

Morton 800 

Morton 799 

Morton 797 

Hardin 796 

Morton 795 

Hardin 789 

Nor borne 785 

Morton 788 

Richmond 593 

Wilmot 734 

Fox 731 

Morton 739 

Knoxville 706 

Millville 760 

Millville 763 

Camden 605 

Camden 609 

Richmond 622 

Vibbard 629 

Orrick 646 

Orrick 638 

Orrick 654 

Lawson 659 

Lawson 694 

Lawson 674 

Lawson 682 

Missouri City. ..655 

Richmond 614 

Hardin 808 



Child, Jacob T Richmond 513 

Crispin, S. R Richmond 516 



NAME. TP. R. 

r Conrow, A. H.T 

Crain, Wm. A. T 

Con row, Wm. S. .". 

Creel, M.J .T 

Creer, Wm. B.T...52 26 
Clampitt, C. W..-. .52 26 
Cunningham, O. .". .52 26 
Collier, James G. ..52 26 
Cunningham, J. F.52 26 
Chenault, A.K.-T..51 27 
Campbell, James»T.53 26 
Cato, E. W., Rev r. 53 26 
Clemens, Geo. W..53 26 
Craven, Joseph D.-.54 27 
Coffman, Martin . . .54 27 
Clark, John... ^...54 28 
Carter, J. M..r. . ..53 27 
Cramer, J.F..r*. ...53 27 
Craven, R. C* ..53 27 

-Crispin, M. W. r. ..53 27 
Crithfield, M. M.:.53 27 
Cramer, Daniel, r. .53 27 
Cramer, John H.\ .53 28 
Clark, A. D. ..'... .53 28 

Clark, H. J..- 53 28 

Craven, Jacob T. ..53 28 
Campbell, Jeremiah 53 28 

Calley, Samuel 53 28 

Craven, MB 53 28 

Crenshaw, Granvijle53 28 
Cummins, JasT.... 52 28 

Cooper, Thos M 51 28 

Cox, William.. T. . . 51 28 

Collier, S W 53 29 

Creason, Rial 51 29 

Canada, Benj. F.r.5128 

Cook, Isaac. 53 29 

Cates, PH...' 53 29 

Crowley, James M. .53 29 
Crowley, William. .54 29 
Cleavinger, John . . .53 29 

Crowley, Sam'l J 

Cates, SI., T 54 29 

Crowley, S N 53 29 

Crowlev, John. ...53 29 

Cummins, M B 53 29 

Crowley, Thomas. .53 29 
Carpenter, -Wm. B.53 26 

Dawson, Chas. W.-.52 26 
Deacy, Thomas M? .52 26 

Davis, B F 52 26 

Davis, T J 52 26 

Davis, S C..-T 52 27 

Degraffenreid S H, 51 29 
Duvall, Leonidas.-r.53 27 
Duval, James Rev • 53 27 
Dorton, EllaS. ...51 29 
Dorton, ET 51 29 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Richmond 517 

Richmond 528 

Richmond ....568 

Richmond 570 

Hardin 807 

Hardin 810 

Hardin 793 

Hardin 783 

Hardin 786 

Henry 596 

Fox 729 

Wilmot 734 

Fox 735 

Taitsville 699 

Georgeville 703 

Knoxville 712 

Millville 750 

Millville 749 

Millville 749 

Millville 762 

Millville 766 

Millville 771 

Knoxville 774 

Knoxville 781 

Knoxville 782 

Knoxville 782 

Knoxville 783 

Rayville 716 

Vibbard 719 

Knoxville 720 

Rayville 604 

Camden 612 

Jtichmond 620 

Vibbard 649 

Orrick 653 

Camden 606 

Lawson 660 

Lawson 661 

Lawson 662 

Converse 665 

Vibbard 692 

Lisbonville 670 

Lisbonville 670 

Vibbard 679 

Lawson 686 

Lawson 690 

Lawson .692 

Fox 727 

Hardin 816 

Morton 798 

Morton 814 

Morton 817 

Richmond 593 

Orrick 643 

Millville 755 

Millville 776 

Orrick 642 

Orrick 644 



CONTENTS. 



NAME. TP. K. 

Donoven, A C 53 29 

Doniphan, A W. ."?. . .. 
Dunn, George W..t. .. 
Davis, Nathaniel M D . . 

Davis, James A. 

Duval, Dan. T..M 

Devlin, Joseph H..~. .. 

Duncan, B F 

Dickenson, Oliver T. -. . 
Duvall, J P...-. ... 53 27 
Duval, Isaacs 53 27 

Esrey, Niles —...52 26 
Ewing, George S.-.52 27 
Edgar, SC ...-:... .52 27 
Endsley. S V .^. ...53 26 

Evans, John H 53 26 

Ellis, RB.-. 53 27 

Evans, Houston 51 28 

Elliott, Andrew 51 28 

Elliott, Arthur.... .51 28 
Endicott, James C. .51 28 

Erwin, W R 5129 

Endsley, E M..T...51 28 

Estill, Wm. G 53 29 

Earhart, Wm 53 29 

Esrey, Septer P 52 26 

Esteb, Elijah P . ~ .... 

Ewing. W W..: 

Elliott, Richard S..52 28 
Ellis, Robert H ....53 27 

Frazier, George. T. .51 26 
Flournoy, Wm. H-.52 26 
Ferree, Wm W. ~ . .52 26 
Ferree, Ephraim. . .52 26 
Ferree, F M.r. .. .53 26 
Flournoy, John S.-.53 27 
Frazer, John H. :. .51 29 

Frank, George 52 28 

Fowler, MR 54 29 

Finch, Robert H.T.53 29 

Farris, James L 

Fisher, Wm. D ..... . 

Francis, John W 

Ferree, Boyd W 53 26 

Grandstaff, A 52 26 

Grove, John H 22 26 

Gasney, John R. . . .52 56 
George, Reuben. . . .51 27 

Gentry, BB..7 53 26 

Grimes, John. .T. . .54 28 
Gant, J D...T. ....54 28 
Gordon, Adrian. .'. .54 28 
Grimes, John P. ". . .53 27 

Guy, John. r. 53 27 

Grimes, James Mr. 53 27 
Garner, John C.T. .53 28 

Gibson, John 52 28 

Gaston, CG 51 28 

Gossage, Joseph ... 51 28 
Garrett, Wm. C Rev 52 '29 
Gant, Cyrus D..-.-..53 29 
Greene, James. ... .53 29 
Gorton, T W 50 28 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Vibbard 673 

Richmond 498 

Richmond 502 

Richmond 521 

Richmond 522 

Richmond 569 

Richmond 569 

Richmond 576 

Richmond 568 

Millville 756 

Millville 777 

Hardin 811 

Richmond 592 

Richmond 594 

Fox 736 

Hardin 739 

Millville 753 

Camden 604 

Camden 614 

Richmond 616 

Camden 617 

Orrick 638 

Orrick 628 

Vibbard 676 

Lawson 687 

Hardin 812 

Richmond 553 

Richmond 553 

Swannick 600 

Millville 755 

Hardin 813 

Morton 798 

Hardin 792 

Morton 784 

Fox 727 

Millville 769 

Orrick 645 

Swanwick .... 586 
Lisbonville . . . .670 

Lawson 684 

Richmond 522 

Richmond 566 

St. Louis 580 

Fox 728 

Hardin *12 

Hardin 796 

Hardin 791 

Henry 790 

Wilmot 733 

Knoxville 705 

Knoxville 705 

Knoxville 707 

Millville 750 

Millville 759 

Millville 774 

Richmond 780 

Richmond 600 

Camden 607 

Richmond 713 

New Garden . . . 630 

Vibbard 657 

Vibbard 658 

Orrick 627 



NAME. TP. K. 

Greenawalt, A J ... 54 29 
Gant, Thomas R. .53 29 
Gant, Joseph P. .-..53 29 
Gordon, George A.. 53 29 
Gant, Joshua B....53 29 
Goodman, John H.53 29 

Garner, H C.r. 

Green, John R. 

Garner, C T... 

Grow, Henry P 

Garner, James W. .".' . . . 

Hall, John W 52 26 

Henderson, Moses. .51 26 
Hinman, George B 52 26 

Hurst, James R 51 27 

Harbison, AD 52 27 

Haynes, James P. .52 27 
Huskisson Jacob. . .54 26 
Haynes, J H. .*:... .53 27 
Hughes, Ami...". ...53 27 

Hamil, H. E 51 28 

Harrison, Jno. L. : .51 28 
Happv, Harvey.. T. .51 28 
Happy, Elijah.. "..51 28 
Hamilton, H. B. . . .52 29 

Harris, LC 52 29 

Hannah, Jos. J 51 29 

Hauser, Adam 53 29 

Hewlett, Thos. B. ..52 28 
Hines, Joseph R. . . . 52 28 
Haligan,R. B. . . . . .50 28 

Hatfield, H.D 53 29 

Hunter, Robt M....54 29 
Huntsman, W. A... 53 29 
Hightower, Elias. ..53 29 

Holman, L. A 53 29 

Holman, J.R...-. ...58 28 
Hurt, James T..:.. 53 29 

Hannas, Wm 54 29 

Hurt, Wm. J 53 29 

Hess, Moses 53 28 

Hughes, Joseph S 

Hughes, James. ..... . 

Hughes, Chas. J.. 7.. .. 

Hamilton, Jno. R. .7*. .. 
Holman, W. A..T„.. .. 

Hughes, Burnett. 7. .. 

Hughes, Eli. . .-" 

Hamacher, Jno. R. ._r". .. 

Hubbell, Wm. P 

Hamacher, O. N. . . . 
Harper, Addison.. .53 26 

Johnson, James. .". .52 26 
Jackson, Andrew J . .51 28 

Jones, Jno. R 52 29 

Johnson, Jno. V...52 28 

James, W. C 53 29 

James, G. W 53 29 

James, J. H 54 29 

Jackson, Wm. R." 

Jacobs, M. C. . r 

Johnson, Chas 

Jacobs, R. L. 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Lawson 666 

Vibbard 672 

Vibbard 673 

Vibbard 678 

Vibbard 679 

Lawson 687 

Richmond .... 524 

Richmond 570 

Richmond 538 

Richmond 574 

Richmond 523 

Hardin 805 

Hardin 811 

Morton 797 

Morton 591 

Richmond 595 

Richmond 595 

Tinney's Grove 726 

Millville 757 

Millville 752 

Camden 607 

Richmond 616 

Camden 618 

Richmond 625 

Crab Orchard ..631 

Orrick 633 

Orrick 648 

Vibbard 651 

Richmond 587 

Richmond 588 

Orrick 627 

Lawson 658 

Lawson 663 

Lawson 693 

Vibbard 677 

Vibbard 678 

Vibbard 680 

Lawson 682 

Lawson 683 

Lawson .... .689 

Vibbard 691 

Richmond 508 

Richmond 510 

Richmond 511 

Richmond 518 

Richmond 525 

Richmond 558 

Richmond 558 

Richmond 561 

Richmond 563 

Richmond . . . .565 
Fox 738 

Morton 784 

Camden 610 

Vibbard 652 

Swanwick 589 

Lawson 662 

Lawson 662 

Lisbonville 671 

Richmond 527 

Richmond 527 

Richmond 566 

Richmond 579 



CONTENTS. 



NAME. Tl' l< 

King, Jno. 8 52 20 

Keyea, Thos. H. . . .52 26 

Kell, D. W 52 27 

Kavanamrh.Chas. B.54 2K 

Kelmel, Wm 54 28 

Kincaid, James 53 27 

Kincaid, A. C 53 27 

Kincaid, Ricliie. . . .53 27 

Kincaid, A.J 54 28 

King, Wm. G 5128 

King, Adriel 5128 

Kite, Martin V 51 28 

Killgrove, J. 0....52 29 
Kirkham. Wm. N .51 29 
Knight, William... 53 29 
Kice, R. M.(D.D.S).. .. 



I'lHT-Oh'PIUE. PAGE. 

Hardin 804 

Hardin 788 

Richmond 590 

Millville 724 



Lentz, James H.... 52 26 
Lentz, Nathan A... 52 26 
Lavelock, Geo. W. .52 26 
Lancaster, Wm. P. .52 27 
Linvill, Thomas... 54 28 
Linvill, John E.... 54 28 

Larkov, John 52 28 

Lilian!, Stanton R. .51 28 
Letorgee. Milton 8.51 29 
Lovd, Anderson D..51 28 
Life, Thomas H-..53 2!) 
Lavelock, Thas. N 



Moore, John J 52 

Mapel, Elijah T 52 

Mcintosh, Thomas. 52 

Mens, Isaiah 52 

McGuire, 8am'l0..52 
Mason, Samuel O. .52 
McBee, Franklin. . .53 
Mason, Robert W. .52 
McCuisiion, J. H. .53 

Miller, Robert G 

Miller, Winfleld. ...54 
McVev.Mrs. Harriet54 

Milstead, John 54 

Morris, Levi 54 

Mathena, J. S 52 

Mansur, Isaiah. . . .52 

Maitlaud, Alex 52 

Magill, Lorenzo S. 53 
Mullin. Rev. Win... 53 
Maddux, Julius A. .53 
Magill, William... 52 
Magill, Thomas' . . .52 
Merideth, Willis... 51 
McEnroe, James... 51 

Miller, Joseph 51 

McGinnis, Capt. T.51 
Mri tinnia, .lames T.. . 
McKissack, Wm. ..51 
Mitchell, Geo. W. .51 
MeVVharter, R. II .51 

Mason, John 51 

McGaugh, John J . .51 

Mason, Oscar 51 

Montgomery, G. W.53 

Miller, Wm. A 53 

M Donald, R 54 



26 
26 
26 
26 

26 
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26 

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26 



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28 
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28 
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28 
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Knoxville. -711 

Knoxville 773 

Knoxville 773 

Knoxville 773 

Knoxville 599 

Camden 606 

Richmond 615 

Camden 619 

New Garden. . .631 

Orrick 643 

Vibbard 681 

Richmond 557 

Hardin 803 

Morton 793 

Morton 792 

Richmond 589 

Knoxville 712 

Knoxville 695 

Richmond 599 

Orrick 621 

Orrick 636 

Orrick 644 

Vibbard 680 

Richmond 554 

Hardin 808 

Hardin 810 

Hardin 818 

Hardin 788 

Morton 785 

Richmond 590 

Fox 730 

Richmond 591 

Fox 737 

672 

Knoxville 708 

Knoxville 713 

Knoxville 697 

Knoxville 696 

Millville 758 

Millville 760 

Richmond 770 

Richmond 779 

Knoxville 715 

Richmond 753 

Richmond 603 

Richmond 606 

Camden 610 

Camden 613 

Camden 614 

Richmond 617 

Richmond 527 

Orrick 634 

Orrick 637 

Orrick 640 

Orrick 647 

Orrick 652 

Orrick 654 

Lawson 659 

Vibbard 668 

Lisbonville 669 



NAME, tp. r. 

Moss, A. P 54 29 

McDonald, W.G 

McGaugh, Wm M..53 29 
Mellon, John H....53 29 

Mosby, W.W., M. D 

McCuistion, Alex. A. t . . 

Miller, Felix G 

Marshall, Wm. 

McDonald, M. F..r.. .. 

Morton, John P. . .- 

Mosby, C. A., M. D 

Mansur, M., M. D.-.53 26 
Mayes, David T. .. .54 28 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Lisbonville 669 

Lisbonville ....671 

Vibbard 691 

Lawson 691 

Richmond .... 549 

Richmond 520 

Richmond ....559 

Richmond 564 

Richmond.. ..567 

Richmond 569 

Richmond. ...579 

Fox 743 

Knoxville 707 



Noble, Lewis H 52 26 Hardin 809 

Nelson, Wm. W....53 26 Morton 742 

Noel, James B.....53 27 Millville 748 

Nation, Issa H 52 29 Crab Orchard. .632 

Norvell. Maj. J. P. .-r. . . Richmond 560 

Ohphant, Ralph.-. .52 27 Richmond 762 

Ogtr, Thos. J. ...... .52 28 Crab Orchard . .597 

Ogg, N. B 52 28 Richmond 598 

Oliphant, Alexander. . . (Deceased) 584 

Oster, Leonard G. . .54 26 Wilmot 744 



Paxton, S. A 51 

Proctor, James B. . .52 

Porter, Jno. C 52 

Peeler, Rev. N. B.\52 

Peters. Wm. S 52 

Pope, Abraham. . . .53 
Pugh, James M r. .53 

Post, Nelson 54 

Pettus, Joseph 53 

Pickering, Joseph. .52 
Prichard, Robt. A:. 51 
Pinekney, William. 51 

Pieg, N. B 51 

Painter, Wm. D 52 

Page, Henry 52 

Palmer, C. N 53 

Piercey, Milton. . . 54 
Porterfield, Thos. .1.51 

Patton. Wm. C.r. 

Patton, J no. T. ."?.... 
Palmer, Randolph . . . 
Perry, Joseph B...54 

Priest, LukeD 51 

Perdue, Henry C.^. .51 



29 Orrick 656 

26 Hardin 804 

26 Morton 796 

27 Richmond 592 

27 Richmond 596 

26 Pox 729 

26 Morton ...738 

27 Georgeville . . . .703 

27 Millville 774 

28 Richmond 601 

28 Camden 608 

28 Camden 617 

29 Orrick 639 

28 Swanwick 589 

28 Richmond 586 

29 Lawson 663 

29 Lawson 667 

36 Hardin 806 

. . Richmond 563 

. . Richmond 565 

. . Richmond 575 

26 Tinney's Grove. 722 

28 Richmond ....624 

29 Orrick 636 



Quarles, Wm. M. . .53 27 Millville 751 

Quesenberry, D. H Richmond 544 

Quesenberry, Jno. P. . . Richmond 572 



Roach, Wm. J ....52 26 

Reyburn,Jno. D 52 26 

Remelins, Frank. . .52 27 

Russell, Wm 53 26 

Robinson, Silas CV.53 26 
Rhodes, David B...53 26 
Ross, Jno. A. . .-. . . .54 26 

Ritter, Moses. . . . . .54 27 

Ren fro, Henry. /:. .53 27 
Robertson, Cleason.53 28 
Robinson, Geo. E..53 28 



Hardin 805 

Hardin 816 

Richmond 594 

Fox 726 

Fox 732 

Fox 740 

Tinney's Grove. 745 

Taitsville 704 

Millville 747 

Richmond 714 

Vibbard 719 



CONTENTS. 



NAME. TP. B. 

Russell, J. B 53 28 

Rowland, Jesse D. .52 29 
Ross, Franklin J. ..51 29 
Rhodes, Dennis A. .51 29 

- Rothrock, Thos. A . . 51 29 

Riffe, Isaac M 51 29 

Rimmer, William.. 51 29 

Riffe, A.J 5128 

Reniley, Arthur B. .51 28 

Ralph," Z. D 51 28 

Roberts, Jesse T. . .54 29 

Robinett, E. M 54 29 

Raum, Joseph H ... 53 29 

"» Reyburn, Adam K 

Seward, Riley V...52 26 
Simmerman, R R. .52 2(5 
Spurlock, MM.... 52 26 
Starr, Alexander. . 52 26 

Starr, John A 52 26 

Sitterman, Henry J 51 27 
Shrum, John C. . . .54 26 
Stratton, Daniel H.53 26 
Shirkey, Samuel B.53 26 
Stephenson, S H. . .54 27 

Switzer, John 54 27 

^Sater, Henry W ... 54 27 
\Shimniin, Thomas. 54 28 

* Smith, HC 53 27 

• Sc.hooler,Nathan H 53 '27 

Stanley, Jacob 53 27 

Schooler, Wm. M..53 27 

Settle, Hiram P 53 27 

Sloan, Henderson. .53 38 
Sanderson, George. 5:-} 28 
Smith, Wm. J..'. ..53 28 
Smith, Pevton T...52 28 
Searcy, Orville H..53 29 
Suits, James M. . . .51 28 

Sacry, John 51 28 

Stout, Elijah 51 28 

Stevinson, John. . . .51 28 
Shepard, David B. .51 29 
Sisk, Allen, Rev... 52 29 
Sturgis, Benjamin. .54 29 
Starkey, John R . . . 53 29 
Stockwell, J M . . . 54 29 
Scantling, Henry A 53 29 

Swiekard, AP 54 29 

Spencer, Joel F 53 29 

Scantling, Wm. J. .53 29 
Sloan, Thomas A. .53 29 
Savage, Stephen . . .53 29 
Smith, Joseph A. . .53 29 
Smith, Jedediah. . .53 29 
Smith, Wm. W....53 29 

Sevjer, Robert 

Shotwell, John W 

Shaw, Thomas L. .-. . . 

Stone, George A 

Smith, J W, M D 

Shoop, Joseph S 

Sevier, Charles 

Singleton, WT 

Trigg, Haden 52 26 

Thompson, Austin. 52 26 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Vibbard 720 

Orrick 634 

Orrick 635 

Orrick 637 

Orrick 642 

Orrick 647 

Orrick 649 

Orrick 628 

Orrick 626 

Camden 629 

Lawson 695 

Lawson 668 

Lawson 685 

Richmond 578 

Hardin 803 

Hardin 818 

Morton 794 

Hardin 790 

Hardin 791 

Henry 789 

Tinney's; Grove 724 

Fox 737 

Fox 741 

Georgeville . . .700 

Taitsville 700 

Georgeville . . . .702 

Kuoxville 710 

Millville 758 

Millville 766 

Millville 769 

Millville 775 

Richmond 777 

Rayville 717 

Vibbard 718 

Vibbard 722 

Richmond 585 

Crab Orchard. .602 

Camden 609 

Camden 611 

Richmond 623 

Orrick 623 

Orrick 641 

New Garden. . .651 

Lawson 664 

Vibbard 639 

Lawson 6U^ 

Vibbard 6W, 

Lisbonville . . : . .674 

Vibbard 6*?6 

Vibbard ..676' 

Vibbard ..678 

Vibbard 680 

Lawson 683 

(Deceased 688 

Lawson 688 

(Deceased) 506 

Richmond 519 

Richmond 519 

Richmond 554 

Richmond 557 

Richmond 560 

Richmond 571 

Richmond 579 

Hardin 813 

Morton 793 



NAME. TP. R. 

Tait. John.. 54 27 

Tiffin, Jno. C 54 28 

Tiffiu, Clayton.. ...54 28 
Teegarden, Aaron. .53 28 
Thomas, Geo. W...51 28 

Taylor, M. G 51 29 

Tucker, Dan'l H. Sr.51 29 
Tucker, James L... 51 29 
Tarwater, Samuel. .51 29 

Thomas, W. F 53 29 

Trout, James M. C.54 29 
-Tiffin, Edward P...53 29 

Turner, John W 

Thompson, J. B.... 53 29 

Taylor, James D 

Trigg, Geo. W 

Thompson, D. A...53 28 
Tompkins, Wm. S... .. 



Vanderpool, H 52 28 

Vantrump, Reuben. 53 26 
Vantrump, Jacob. .53 26 
Van bebber, James. .53 27 
Vaughn, Thos. S...52 29 
Vandeveer, James . . 50 28 

Wall,Robt.V 52 26 

Walker, F. J... . .52 26 

Wright, L. B. .....52 26 

Williams, W. A. ...51 27 

Weekes, Mifflin B.. 54 26 
Weekes, Jacob A. . .54 26 
Wollard.Wm. S....53 26 

Wollard, Thos. Hr.53 26 
Wilson, Wm. T....53 26 

Walters, Jackson. . .54 27 
Withers, Wm. P...54 28 

Wells, Andrew 53 27 

Wall, Kedar. .... ..53 27 

Wood, Robert A.-. .53 27 
Wilson, J W C, Sr.53 28 
Wilson, William. . .52 28 
Weigles, John P...51 28 
Woodroof, RH....51 28 

White, Wm. A 5128 

Worley, Willis. . 51 28 
Wells, William A.. 51 29 
Weber, John E. . . .52 29 

'Wood, L H 5129 

Weakley, J C 53 29 

Winger, Griffin. .. .54 29 
Williams, G W S..53 29 

Wright, C P 53 29 

Watkins, WL.. 

Whitmer, David P 

Woodson, Thos. D 

Wasson, George I 

Woodson, Philip J 

Wasson, John A 

"Fates, Win. F, M D. 52 26 

Yates, James T 51 26 

Young, Ambrose. . .53 27 
Young Sebron S...53 27 
Young, John T....53 27 
Young, Warren. . . .53 27 
Zeiseness, Henry. . .54 27 
Zur Megede Louis. .— . . 



POST-OFFICE. PAGE. 

Knoxville 701 

Knoxville 709 

Knoxville 697 

Knoxville 721 

Camden 611 

Orrick 641 

Orrick 654 

Missouri City . .655 

Orrick 656 

Lawson 667 

Lisbonville 674 

Vibbard 675 

Lawson 681 

Lawson 682 

Richmond 555 

Richmond 555 

Richmond 778 

Richmond 577 

Richmond 583 

Fox 732 

Fox 746 

Millville 772 

Crab Orchard.. 632 
Orrick 626 

Morton 802 

Morton 791 

Morton 7*>7 

Henry 789- 

Tinney's Grove. 723 
Tinney's Grove. 723 

Fox 730 

Fox 741 

Fox 747 

Taitsville 701 

Kuoxville 710 

.Millville 757 

Millville ..764 

Millville 767 

Knoxville 779 

Richmond .598 

Camden 619 

Orrick 620 

Richmond 621 

Orrick 624 

Orrick 639 

Vibbard 652 

Orrick 653 

Law r son 660 

Converse ...... 664 

Lawson 666 

Lawson 685 

Lawson 689 

Richmond 529 

Richmond 533 

Richmond 537 

Richmond 535 

Richmond 529 

Morton 802 

Morton 794 

Millville 764 

Millville..... ..765 

Millville..., ....765 

Millville 767 

Georgeville.. . .698 
Richmond . . . .571 



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History of the State of Missouri. 



PART L— HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

When a book is written, it is presumed that the writer had some object 
in view and some end to achieve by his labor in collecting the material 
and writing the book; and it is right that he should put himself on good 
terms with his readers at the outset by making a brief, but frank and 
honest statement of his object, plan and purpose in the book which he 
offers to public patronage. The writer of this History of Missouri has 
aimed to embody in a brief space the greatest amount of solid and reliable 
information about things which directly hinge and center upon or within 
the territory of this State — this international commonwealth, which holds 
by right divine the royal prerogative of a destiny imperial and grand, if 
she can acquire or develop human brain and muscle adequate to utilize 
wisely, honorably and energetically her magnificent natural resources, 
both of commercial position and of agricultural and mineral wealth. The 
writer's desire and effort has been to present nothing which would not be 
read with deep interest by every intelligent citizen of Missouri at the 
present time; and also stand as a permanent body of information, at once 
useful and reliable for future reference. Discussion of theories, problems 
or doubtful matters has been avoided; solid facts have been diligently 
sought after; and the narrative has been made to embody as many facts 
and events as possible without falling into the dry-bones method of mere 
statistical tables. In fact, the limit of space allotted him has compelled the 
writer to condense, epitomize, shorten up — and therefore continually to 
repress his desire to embellish the narrative with the graces of rhetoric 
and the glow of an exuberant and fervid enthusiasm. This, however, 
secures to the reader more facts within the same space. 

In preparing this work more than a hundred volumes have been con- 
sulted, to collate incidents and authenticate dates and facts, besides much 
matter gathered from original sources and not before embraced in anv 
1 



10 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

book. It is not presumed that there are no mistakes or errors of state- 
ment herein made; but it is believed that there are fewer of such lapses 
than commonly occur with the same amount of data in similar works. 
The classification of topics is an attempt to give them a consecutive and 
consistent relative place and order in the book, for convenience of inci- 
dental reference or of selective reading. 



PRE-HISTORIC MISSOURI. 



THE MOUND-BUILDERS, Etc. 

Every State has a pre-historic history — that is, remains and relics are 
found which show that the land was inhabited by a race or races of men 
long before its discovery and occupation by a race sufficiently advanced 
in the arts of civilization to preserve a written record of their own 
observations and doings. It is now well established that every portion of 
the United States was inhabited by a race of men grouped under the 
general name of " Mound-builders," who preceded the modern hunter 
tribes called "Indians." It further appears, from all the evidence accumu- 
lated, that the Mound-builders were a race that made permanent settle- 
ments, and built earthworks of considerable extent for defense against 
enemies, both man and beast; also for sepulture, for religious rites, and 
for memorial art; it is also evident that they cultivated the soil to some 
extent, made rude textile fabrics and clay pottery, and wrought imple- 
ments of domestic use, ornaments, charms, toys, pipes, etc., and weapons 
of war and of the chase, from flint, porphyry, jasper, hornstone, granite, 
slate, and other varieties of rocks; also from horn, bone, shells, and other 
animal products; and from native copper. But they had no knowledge 
of iron, nor any art of smelting copper; they merely took small pieces of 
the native ore and hammered it cold with their stone tools until it took 
some rude shape of utility, and then they scoured and polished it to its 
utmost brilliancy; and it is altogether probable that these articles were 
only possessed by the chieftains or ruling families. Plates of mica are 
also found among their remains, with holes for suspension on cords 
around the neck or body; and lumps of galena or lead ore sometimes 
occur, but these must have been valued merely as trinkets or charms, 
because of their lustre. Remains of this people are found frequently 
both on the bluffs and bottom lands of the Mississippi and Missouri 
rivers, and, in many States, far inland, also. 

The first mention of such remains in Missouri is made by a U. S. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 11 

exploring expedition under Major S. H. Long, in 1819. This expedition 
went in the first steamboat that ever purled and paddled its way against 
the swift, muddy current of the Missouri river: *the boat was named 
" Western Engineer, 1 ' but it had a double stern-wheel, or two wheels, one 
of them named in large letters, 'James Monroe," and the other '-John 
C. Calhoun," in honor of the then President and Secretary of War. 
This steamer had to stop at St. Louis for some repairs; and two members 
of the expedition, Messrs. Thomas Say and T. R. Peale, improved the 
time bv surveying a group of twenty-seven ancient mounds which occu- 
pied ground that is now all covered over by the modern city of St. Louis. 
This occurred in June, 1819; Mr. Say prepared a map of the mounds 
and a brief account of them, and this appears to be the first authentic 
record of such ancient works within the territory now constituting the 
State of Missouri; his notes on these mounds were published in 1S23, in 
the report of Major Long's expedition, but his map of them was never 
published until 1862, when it appeared on page 387 of the " Smithsonian 
Report" for the year 1861. In his account Mr. Say says: 

"Tumuli and other remains of the labors of nations of Indians (?) that 
inhabited this region many ages since are remarkablv numerous about 
St. Louis. Those tumuli immediately northward of the town and within 
a short distance of it, are twenty-seven in number, of various forms and 
magnitudes, arranged nearly in a line from north to south. The common 
form is an oblong square, and they all stand on the second bank of the 
river. * It seems probable these piles of earth were raised 

as cemeteries, or thev may have supported altars for religious cer- 
emonies." 

It was from these mounds that St. Louis derived her pseudonym of the 
"Mound City"; but this name is now almost entirely obsolete, since the 
city has risen up to claim the prouder title of "Inter-Metropolis of North 
America". When the largest one of the mounds was leveled some 
skeletons were found, and some thick discs with holes through them; 
they had probably served as beads, and were wrought from shells of a spe- 
cies of fresh water clam or mussel. Numerous specimens of -wrought flints 
were found between St. Louis and Carondelet, in 1860; and in 1861 an 
ancient flint shovel was dug up while building military earthworks. 

In Mississippi county, in the southeastern corner of the State, there is a 
group of mounds covering ten acres, in section 6, t. 24, r. 17, varying 
from ten to thirty feet in height. About 1S55 these mounds were 
explored by two gentlemen from Chicago, and they found some pottery, 
with men represented upon its sides; one figure appeared to be a priest 
or some official personage, as shown by his head-dress, and the other 

* Campbell's History of Howard County says: " May 28th, 1819, the first steamboat — 
the ' Independence,' Capt. Nelson, time from St. Louis, including all stops, twelve days — 
landed at Franklin on her way up the [Missouri] river." Thus it seems that Major Long's 
boat was really the second one to go up, although in most histories it is mentioned as the 
first — and it was the first that went up any great distance. 



12 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

represented a captive bound with thongs. Both figures showed the 
peculiar contour of head and features which marks the mound-builder 
race. 

In December, 1868, some laborers engaged in grading Sixth street, in 
East St. Louis, dug up a nest of unused flint hoes or shovels, and another 
deposit of shells with string-holes worked in them, and another deposit of 
boulders of flint and greenstone, ready to make more tools or weapons 
from. These deposits were on high ground, and about half-way between 
two ancient mounds. 

In 1876 or 1877 some ancient mounds were discovered on the banks of 
the Missouri river near Kansas City. They were in groups of three 
and five together, at different points for five miles up and down the river. 
Some were built entirely of earth, and some had a rude stone chamber or 
vault inside, but covered with earth so that all looked alike outside. They 
were of an irregular oval shape, from four to six feet high, and had 
heavy growths of timber on top. Mr. W. H. R. Lykins, of Kansas 
City, noticed a burr-oak tree five feet in diameter, growing on top of 
one of them, and the decayed stump of a black walnut of about the same 
size, on another. In describing the exploration of some of these mounds 
Mr. Lykins gives some points that will be of interest to every one. He 
says : 

" We did not notice any very marked peculiarity as to these bones 
except their great size and thickness, and the great prominence of the 
supraciliary ridges. The teeth were worn down to a smooth and even 
surface. The next one we opened was a stone mound. On clearing off 
the top of this we came upon a stone wall inclosing an area about eight 
feet square, with a narrow opening for a doorway or entrance on the 
south side. The wall of this inclosure was about two feet thick; the 
inside was as smooth and compactly built and the corners as correctly 
squared as if constructed by a practical workman. No mortar had been 
used. At a depth of about two feet from the top of the wall we found a 
layer of five skeletons lying with their feet toward the south." * 

None of the other walls examined were so skilfully laid as this one. 
The bones were crumbly, and only a few fragments were preserved by 
coating them well with varnish as quickly as possible after they were 
exposed to the air. One stone enclosure was found full of ashes, char- 
coal and b»rnt human bones, and the stones and earth of which the 
mound was composed all showed the effects of fire. Hence it is pre- 
sumed that this was either a cremation furnace or else an altar for human 
sacrifices — most probably the latter. Some fragments of pottery were 
found in the vicinity. 

L. C. Beck in 1823f reported some remains in the territory now con- 
stituting Crawford county, Missouri, which he thought showed that there 

* Smithsonian Report, 1877, p. 252. 

f Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, published by L. C. Beck, in 1826-23. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 13 

was in old time a town there, with streets, squares, and houses built with 
stone foundations and mud walls. He also mentions the ruins of an 
ancient stone building described to him by Gen. Ashley, as situated on a 
high cliff on the west side of the Gasconade river. And another one said to 
be in Pike county, is thus described: " It presents the dilapidated remains 
of a building constructed of rough, unhewn stones, fifty-six feet long and 
twenty-two broad, embracing several divisions and chambers. The 
walls are from two to five feet high. Eighty rods eastward of this 
structure is found a smaller one of similar construction. The narrow 
apartments are said to be arched with stone, one course overlapping the 
.other, after the manner of the edifices of Central America." 

I. Dille, Esq., of Newark, Ohio, reported that he had examined some 
of these pre-historic town ruins, in the vicinity of Mine-la-Motte and 
Fredericktown, in Madison county, Missouri. He speaks of them as 
groups of small tumuli, and says: "I have concluded they are the 
remains of mud houses. They are always arranged in straight lines, 
with broad streets intervening between them, crossing each other at right 
angles. The distance apart varies in different groups, but it is always 
uniform in the same group. * * I have counted upwards of 
two hundred of these mounds in a single group. Arrow heads of jasper 
and agate, and axes of sienite and porphyry have been found in their 
vicinity." * 

Mounds or other pre-historic structures have been found on Spencer's 
creek in Ralls count v; on Cedar creek in Boone county; on Crow's Fork 
and other places in Callaway county; near Berger Station in Franklin 
county; near Miami in Saline county; on Blackwater river in John- 
son county; on Salt river in Pike county; on Prairie Fork in Mont- 
gomery county; near New Madrid; and in many other parts of the 
State. 

The class of ancient ruins, partly built of stone, said to exist in 
Clay, Crawford, Pike and Gasconade counties, Missouri, are not found 
further north, but are frequent enough further south, and are supposed 
to indicate a transitional period in the development of architectural 
knowledge and skill, from the grotesque earth-mounds of Wisconsin to 
the well-finished adobe structures of New Mexico, and the grander stone 
ruins of Yucatan. But, no matter what theory we adopt with regard to 
these pre-historic relics, the present citizens of Missouri can rest assured 
that a different race of human beings lived and flourished all over this 
region of country, hundreds — yes, thousands of years ago, and that they 
were markedly different in their modes of life from our modern Indians. 

* Many large and costly works have been published by scientists, devoted to the general 
subject of Pre-Historic Man; but of cheap and popular works for the general reader, the 
best are Foster's "Pre-Historic Races of the United States"; and Baldwin's "Ancient 
America". 



14 * HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

And there are at least two discoveries known which show that these people 
were here before the extinction of the mastodon, or great American 
elephant. In the " Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences," 
1857, Dr. Kock reports that in the year 1S39 he dug up in Gasconade 
county [as that county then was] the bones of a mastodon, near the 
Bourbeuse river. The skeleton of this gigantic creature was buried in 
such a position as to show that it had got its hind legs down in a bog so 
deeply that it could not climb out, although its fore feet were on dry 
ground. The natives had attacked it with their flint arrows and spears, 
most of which were found in a broken condition; but they had finally 
managed to build a big fire so close to its head as to burn it to death, the 
head-bones and tusks being found all burnt to coals. The account of 
this discovery was first printed in the Philadelphia Presbyterian, Jan. 12, 
1839, and copied into the "American Journal of Science " the same year. 
The authenticity of the incident has been disputed, on the assumed 
ground that man did not exist as long ago as when the mastodon roamed 
over these pre-historic plains; but science now has indisputable evidence 
that man existed even in the Tertiary age of the geological scale, (see 
note to chart in chapter on Geology) long before the glacial epoch; hence 
that objection has no force at present. 

Dr. Koch further reports that about a year after unearthing the Gas- 
conade countv monster, he again found in the bottom land of the Pom- 
me-de-Terre river, in Benton county, a nearly complete skeleton of the 
great extinct beast called Afissonriuni, with arrow-heads under it in such 
a way as to show beyond question that they were made and used while 
the animal was alive. This skeleton is now in the British Museum. * 

Unman footprints have been found in the rocks at De Soto in Jefferson 
•county, also in Gasconade county, and at St. Louis. H. R. Schoolcraft, 
in his book of travels in the Mississippi river country in 1821, said of 
these footprints: "The impressions in the stone are, to all appearance, 
those of a man standing in an erect posture, with the left foot a little 
advanced, and the heels drawn in. The distance between the heels, by 
accurate measurement, is 6£ inches and between the extremities of the 
toes 13^ inches. The length of these tracks is 10^ inches; across the 
toes 4^ inches as spread out, and but 2£ at the heel." 

Our eminent U. S. Senator, Thomas H. Benton, wrote a letter April 
29th, 1822, in which he says: "The prints of the human feet which you 
mention, I have seen hundreds of times. They were on the uncovered 
limestone rock in front of the town of St. Louis. The prints were seen 
when the country was first settled, and had the same appearance then as 
now. No tradition can tell anything about them. They look as old 
as the rock. They have the same fine polish which the attrition of the 

* Sec Foster's " Pre-Historic Races of the United States," pp. 62-3-4-5-6. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 15' 

sand and water has made upon the rest of the rock which is exposed to 
their action. I have examined them often with great attention. They 
are not handsome, but exquisitely natural, both in the form . and position. 
* * A block 6 or 8 feet long and 3 or 4 feet wide, containing the 
prints, was cut out by Mr. John Jones, in St. Louis, and sold to Mr* 
Rappe, of New Harmony, Indiana."* 

Prof. G. C. Broadhead, and some other writers, think these were not 
natural impression of human feet, but sculptures made by hand. This 
theory requires a belief that the pre-historic men of Missouri had tools 
with which thev could cut the most delicate lines in hard rocks; and that 
they studied the human form in its finest details ot muscular action and 
attitude, and had the art of sculpturing these things so as to look "exqui- 
sitely natural" as Col. Benton expresses it — thus rivalling, if not excelling 
the most famous sculptors of ancient Greece; all of which is wholly incon- 
sistent with the known facts. And besides this, there is no better geolog- 
ical reason for doubting their genuineness as natural footprints, than there 
is in the case of the famous bird and reptile tracks in the sandstones of 
Connecticut, or those found by Prof. Mudge in Kansas, in 1873. There 
is no valid reason, either of an aesthetic, historical, or scientific nature, for 
pronouncing them anything but just what the) 7 show themselves to be — 
fossil footprints of a man wno stood in the mud barefooted ; and in course 
of time that mud became solid stone, preserving his footprints just as he 
left their exact impression in the plastic material. 



THE WHITE RACE IN MISSOURI. 



SPANISH AND FRENCH DISCOVERERS. 

In 1512 the Spanish adventurer Ponce de Leon discovered Florida; and 
at this time and for some years after the old countries of Europe were filled 
with the wildest and most extravagant stories about the inexhaustible mines 
of gold, silver and precious stones that existed in the country north of the 
Gulf of Mexico ; also of great and populous cities containing fabulous wealth,, 
beyond what Pizarro and Cortes had found in Peru and Mexico. And 
besides all this, the "fountain of perpemal youth," which all Europe had gone 
crazy after, about this time, was supposed to be in that region. Indeed, 
it can hardly be doubted that the Spaniards in Mexico had gathered from 
the natives some inkling of the wonderful healing waters now known as 

'* See Smithsonian Report, 1879, pp. 357-58. Also "American Antiquities," by Josiah, 
Priest, 1833, pp. 1850-51-52. 



16 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

Hot Springs, Arkansas, and the brilliant quartz crystals found in that 
region, as well as the glittering ores of Missiouri. 

Ferdinand de Soto was a wealthy cavalier who had won fame as a 
leading commander in Pizarro's conquest of Peru; he imbibed deeply the 
current imaginings about tin* undiscovered wonders of the new world, 
and was eager to immortalize his name by bringing to his king and coun- 
try the glory of still more important conquests and discoveries; and he 
especially desired to find the supposed " fountain of perpetual youth." 
Accordinglv, in L538 lie received permission from the king of Spain to 
conquer Florida at his own cost — "Florida" then meaning all the 
unknown country from the Gulf of Mexico to the Northern ocean. He 
collected a band of more than six hundred young bloods who were able 
to equip themselves in all the gorgeous trappings and splendor of a Span- 
ish cavalier dress parade, and with this plumed and tinselled troupe, very 
like the grand entree riders of a modern circus, he landed in Tampa Bay,. 
Florida, in 15:}!'. From here he boldly struck out into the inierior, wan- 
dering about and pushing forward with dogged perseverance, in spite of 
bogs and streams and bluffs; in spite of tangling thickets and dense for- 
ests; in spile of heats and rains; in spite of the determined hostility of 
the natives — until in May, 1541, he discovered the Great River, a few 
miles below where the city of Memphis now stands: and thus he made 
his name memorable for all time. After some delay, to construct boats,. 
they crossed the river and pushed on northward as far as where the city of 
New Madrid now stands; and this was the first time that the eyes of white 
men looked upon any portion of the soil now comprised within the State 
of Missouri." But, so fruitless was this visit that no white man set foot 
within our present State boundary again until one hundred and thirty-two 
years afterward, when the French missionaries, Marquette and Joliet, 
came from the great lakes down the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, to 
the mouth of the Missouri, in June, 1673. This was the first time white 
men had beheld the waters of this great stream, and they named it Pcki- 
tonoui, or "Muddy Water River". It was known by this name until 
about 1710 or 1712, when it began to be called "the river of the Mis- 
souris," referring to a tribe of Indians that dwelt at its mouth, chiefly on 
the lands now comprised in St. Louis county. Marquette and Joliet went 
on down the river as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas river, of course 
making several camping stops on Missouri soil, and discovering the Ohio 
river. From the Arkansas they returned northward the same way they 

• De Sold and his army came into Missouri trom the south, twice crossing the Ozark 
mountains. He Bpenl the winter of 1541-42 in Vernon county, in the extreme western 
part of the State. Ruins Of their winter camp structures and smelting operations are still 
found there. They melted lead ore for silver, and the glittering, lustrous, yellow, zinc 
blende or Smithsonite for gold; but were deeply disgusted to find at last that they had 
been handling only the basest metals 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 17 

came down, and reached Green Bay, Wisconsin, again in September of 
that year— 1673. 

The next visit of white men to this State was in 1682. In 167S the 
French had built a fort with a missionary station and trading post, near 
where the city of Peoria, Ills., now stands. During the winter of 1681 
-82, Robert de la Salle made preparations, first in Canada, and then at 
this Illinois fort, to explore the Mississippi river to its mouth. He left the 
fort with a company of twenty Frenchmen, eighteen Indian men and ten 
squaws, in such boats and canoes as he could provide. They rowed down 
the Illinois river and reached its mouth on the 6th of February; a few 
days were spent here making observations, repairing boats, preparing 
food, and establishing signals that they had been there and taken posses- 
sion of the land in the name of their great king. By February 13th La Salle 
was ready to push on, and started with his little fleet to solve the great 
mystery of a navigable waterway to the Gulf of Mexico. Of course this 
expedition passed along the eastern border of Missouri, but no points are 
mentioned to identify any landing which they may have made within our 
State. Early in April La Salle accomplished the grand object of his ven- 
ture by discovering the three principal mouths of the Mississippi; and on 
the nearest firm dry land he could find from the mouth he set up a col- 
umn bearing the cross and the royal arms of France, while the whole 
company performed the military and religious rites of loyalty to their 
king and country — and La Salle himself, acting as chief master of cere- 
monies, in a clear, loud voice proclaimed that, he took possession of all 
the country between the great gulf and the frozen ocean, "in the name of 
the most high, mighty and victorious prince, Louis the Great, by the 
grace of God king of France and Navarre, 14th of the name, this 9th day 
of April, 1682." In honor of his sovereign he named the whole vast 
region Louisiana — that is, Louis' land, and named the river itself St. 
Louis. And thus it was that our State of Missouri first became a part 
of historic Louisiana, and passed under the nominal ownership and 
authority of France. 

The next historic appearance of white men within our State was in 
1705. The French settlers in this vast new country had kept themselves 
entirely on the east side of the Mississippi river; but during this year 
they sent an exploring party up the Missouri river in search of gold ; it 
prospected as far as the mouth of the Kansas river, where Kansas City 
now stands, without finding anything valuable, and returned disheartened 
and disgusted. On September 14, 1712, the king of France, Louis XIV, 
gave to a wealthy French merchant named Anthony Crozat, a royal patent 
of " all the country drained by the waters emptying directly or indirectly 
into the Mississippi, which is all included in the boundaries of Louisiana." 
Crozat appointed his business partner, M. de la Motte, governor, and he 
2 



18 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

arrived in 1713; Kaskaskia, Illinois, was then the provincial headquarters, 
and source of supplies for Upper Louisiana, which was also sometimes 
called Illinois; but New Orleans was the nominal seat of government for 
the whole Louisiana territory. The old town of Mine-la-Motte, in Mad- 
ison county, commemorates this first governor. Crozat expected to find 
inexhaustible mines of gold and silver in this territory, and spent immense 
sums of money in vain efforts to attain his object. Practical miners were 
sent everywhere that the natives reported any glittering substance to exist. 
The explorers found iron, zinc, copper, lead, mica, pyrites, quartz crystals, 
etc., in great abundance, but no gold, silver or diamonds; and after five 
years of disastrous failure and disappointment, in 1717, Crozat returned his 
luckless charter to the king. 

Next, in 1716 an adventurous Scotchman named John Law, got up a 
grand scheme for making everybody rich without work, and induced the 
French king and court and people to engage in it. This wild financial 
venture is known in history as the " Mississippi bubble," the " South Sea 
bubble," etc. The charter of Louisiana and monopoly of all its trade was 
given to a corporation, called the " Company of the West," whose cap- 
ital stock was to be 100,000,000 francs, with power to issue stock in small 
shares, and establish a bank, etc. Shares rose to twenty times their 
original value, and the bank's notes, though essentially worthless, were 
in circulation to the amount of more than $200,000,000. Law himself 
sunk $500,000 in the scheme; but it bursted, as bodiless as a bag of wind; 
while he, the originator and manager of it, had to escape from Paris for 
his life, and died poor at Venice in 1729. In 1731 the charter of Louis- 
iana was again returned to the crown. However, the excitement over 
this great scheme for making fabulous wealth out of nothing, had 
brought man}- adventurous Frenchmen into the territory as gold-hunters, 
who failing in that, worked some of the lead mines, and sent their pro- 
ducts back to Europe. 

In 172<> or 1721, an enterprising Frenchman named Renault took 
charge of a large lead mining enterprise. He brought M. La Motte, 
who was a professional mineralogist, with about two hundred expert 
miners and metallurgists, and five hundred negroes, to develop the mineral 
wealth that actually did exist. He made his headquarters at Fort de Char- 
tres, on the Illinois side, ten miles above St. Genevieve, and sent out explor- 
ing and working parties to locate mining camps west of the Great River. 
Mine-la-Motte, in Madison county, was one of the first of these loca- 
tions; also Potosi and Old Mine in Washington county; and many 
others. In 1765 a few families located at Potosi. Much of the mining 
was surface work — hence, scattered and transitory; and their smelting 
operations were merely to melt the ore in a wood fire and then clear away 
the ashes and gather up the lumps of lead. This was carried to 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 19 

the river on pack-horses or on rude ox-carts, and thence shipped to New 
Orleans by fleets of drifting keel-boats, which returned laden with for- 
eign goods. Many of the immigrants of this period also engaged in 
agriculture, especially in Illinois, so that there really began to be a settled 
occupation of the country, as a final outcome of the greatest speculative 
delusion known to history. Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World says: 
" Fort Orleans, near where Jefferson City now stands, was built by the 
French in 1719"; this was a temporary safeguard for John Law's crazy 
gold-hunters, but did not make a permanent settlement. Kaskaskia, now 
in Randolph county, Ills., was settled by the French in 1673, and was 
for about a century the metropolis of the vast territory sometimes called 
"Upper Louisiana," sometimes "Illinois," and sometimes the "Northwestern 
Territory." And in 1735 some emigrants from Kaskaskia, moved across 
the Great River and made a settlement at what is now St. Genevieve, 
Missouri, which was the first permanent white settlement made and 
maintained within the State; the previous adventurers in search of min- 
eral wealth had located mining camps at several points, but had not 
established any permanent town or trading post. 

The next settlement that can be historically traced to its origin was 
that of St. Louis. A Frenchman named Pierre Liguest Laclede,* who 
lived in New Orleans in 1762, organized the " Louisiana Fur Company," 
under a charter from the director-general of the province of Louisiana; 
this charter gave them the exclusive right to carry on the fur trade with 
the Indians bordering on the Missouri river, and west of the Mississippi, 
" as far north as the river St. Peter" (the same that is now called the Min- 
nesota river, and empties into the Mississippi at Fort Snelling). Laclede 
seems to have formed a definite plan and purpose to establish a permanent 
trading post at some point in Upper Louisiana, for he made up a company 
of professional trappers, hunters, mechanics, laborers, and boatmen, and 
with a supply of goods suitable for the Indian trade, they left New 
Orleans in August, 1763, bound for the mouth of the Missouri river. 
The manner of navigating these boats against the current of the Missis- 
sippi for a distance of 1,194 miles, was of the most rude, primitive and 
laborious sort. Sometimes when the wind was favorable they could sail 
a little; but the main dependence was by means of push-poles and tow- 
ropes. The boats were long and narrow, with a plank projecting six or 
eight inches on each side. The boat would of course keep near the shore; 
a man at each side, near the bow of the boat, would set his pole on the 
river bottom, then brace his shoulder against the top of the pole with 

* Campbell's Gazetteer of Missouri says this man's family name was Liguest; B. 
Gratz Brown gives it in Johnson's Cyclopedia as Lingueste; but the man himself appears 
to have written his name Laclede, of the firm of Laclede, Moxan & Co., who constituted 
the historic "Louisiana Fur Company." 



20 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

all his might, and as the boat moved under him he would walk along 
the narrow plank until he reached the stern, and the boat had thus been 
propelled forward the distance of its length ; then he would walk back 
to the bow, dragging his pole along in the water, set it on the bottom 
and push again as before. And thus it was that the rugged pioneers of 
civilization in the new world for more that a hundred years navigated 
the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and some other rivers, 
with what were in later years called keel-boats. But sometimes, for a 
rest, or when the beach was favorable, a gang of men would go ashore 
with a long rope attached to the boat, and thus tow it along against the 
current, or they would tie the forward end to a tree or snag and let those 
on the boat pull in the rope and thus draw the boat along — meanwhile 
those on shore going ahead with another rope, making another tie — and 
so on; this was called "warping"; but when it was necessary to cross 
the stream they had recourse to oars or paddles. It took Laclede three 
months in this way to get from New Orleans up to St. Genevieve, or 
Fort de Chartres, the military post on the east side a few miles further up 
the river, where he arrived on the third of November. Here he left his 
goods and part of his company, but taking a few picked men, he himself 
pushed on to the mouth of the Missouri. He seems to have had a sort of 
prophetic forecast that this was the right spot,to locate the future trading 
post for all that vast region of country which was drained by the two prin- 
cipal great rivers of the new world. At the mouth of the Missouri he 
found no site that suited him for a town, and he turned back down the 
Mississippi, carefully exploring the west bank until he reached the high, 
well protected and well drained location where the city of St. Louis now 
stands. This was the nearest spot to the mouth of the Missouri which 
at all met his idea, and he began at once to mark the place by chopping 
notches in some of the principal trees. This was in December, 1763. 
He then returned to the fort and pushed on his preparations for the new 
settlement, saying enthusiastically to the officers of the fort that he had 
"found a situation where he was going to plant his colony; and the site 
was so fine, and had so many advantages of position for trade with all 
this region of country, that it might in time become one of the finest cities 
in America" 

Early in February, 1764, a company of thirty men, in charge of 
Auguste Chouteau, set out from Fort de Chartres and arrived at the 
chosen spot on the 14th. The next day all hands went to work clearing 
the ground and building a storehouse for the goods and tools, and cabins 
for their own habitation. In April Laclede himself joined them and pro- 
ceeded to lay out the village plat, select a site for his own residence, and 
name the town Saint Louis, in honor of his supposed sovereign, Louis XV. 
This very territory had been yielded up to Spain in 1762, but these loyal 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 21 

Frenchmen in naming their new town after the French king never 
dreamed that thev were then and for nearly two years had been Spanish 
subjects, instead of French; the unwelcome news had reached New 
Orleans in the same month, April, but did not arrive at St. Louis until late 
in the year; and when it came the inhabitants were appropriately wroth 
and indignant, for they hated Spain with a fighting hatred. However, the 
change made very little practical difference to the town or its people. In 
1763 all the French possessions on the east side of the Mississippi river, 
and also Canada, had been ceded to England, but it was late in 1764 
before the English authorities arrived to take possession of Kaskaskia, or 
Fort de Chartres, and other military posts; and when they did come, 
many of the French settlers moved over to St. Louis, giving it a consid- 
erable start, both in population and business. The Indians, too, being 
generally more friendly toward the French than the English, came over 
to St. Louis to trade their peltries, instead of going to Kaskaskia, as they 
had formerly done; and this fact gave the new town a powerful impulse. 

From this time forward new settlements began to- spring up within our 
present boundaries. New Bourbon was settled in 1789. In 1762 a 
hunter named Blanchette built a cabin where the city of St. Charles now 
stands, and lived there many years; but just when the place began to be 
a town or village does not appear to be known.' However, in 1803, St. 
Charles county was organized, and then comprised all the territory lying 
north of the Missouri and west of the Mississippi; thus taking in all of 
north Missouri, and the entire States of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, and on 
west to the Pacific ocean. This was the largest single " county " ever 
known in the world, and St. Charles city was the county seat. 

In 1781 the Delaware Indians had a considerable town where New 
Madrid now stands; and that year Mr. Curre, a fur trader of St. Louis, 
established a branch house here. In 1788 a colony from New Jersey 
settled here, and laid out a plat for a large city, giving it the name of New 
Madrid, in honor of the capital of Spain. But they never realized their 
high hopes of building up a splendid city there. 

Among the historic incidents of early settlement worthy of mention at 
this point, is the case of Daniel Boone, whose hunter life in Kentucky 
forms a staple part of American pioneer history. Boone came to this 
territory in 1797, renounced his citizenship in the United States, and took 
the oath of allegiance to the Spanish crown. Delassus was then the 
Spanish governor; and he appointed Boone commander of a fort at 
Femme Osage, now in the west part of St. Charles county. He roamed 
and hunted over the central regions of Missouri the rest of his life, and it 
was for a long period called the "Boone's Lick country," from some salt 
licks or springs which he discovered and his sons worked, and which 
were choice hunting grounds because deer and other animals came there 



22 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

to lick salt. Col. Boone died Sept. 26, 1S20, in St. Charles county, but 
was buried in Marthasville in Warren county, as was his wife also. 
Their bones were subsequently removed to Frankfort, Kentucky. 

THE AMERICAN PERIOD. 

In 1801 the territory west of the Mississippi was ceded back to France 
by Spain; in 1803 President Jefferson purchased from the French 
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, the entire territory of Louisiana, for $15,- 
000,000; the formal transfer was made at New Orleans, December 20, 
1803. On the 26th of March, 1804, Congress passed an act dividing this 
vast accession into two parts, the lower one being named the "Terri- 
tory of Orleans," with its capital at New Orleans; the upper division 
was called the " District of Louisiana," with its capital at St. Louis. 
This latter district comprised the present State of Arkansas and all from 
that north to nearly the north line of Minnesota, and west from the Mis- 
sissippi river to the Rocky Mountains. Don Carlos Dehault Delassus 
had been the last Spanish governor at St. Louis, and no change was 
made after its re-cession to France, until in March, 1804, when he delivered 
the keys and the public documents of his governorship to Capt. Amos 
Stoddard, of the United States army, who immediately raised the first 
American flag that ever floated west of the Mississippi river, over the 
government buildings at St. Louis. There it has floated proudly and 
uninterruptedly ever since, and there it will float until St. Louis becomes 
the central metropolis and seat of empire of the entire North American 
continent. 

It should be mentioned here that the war of the American Revolution 
did not involve any military operations as far west as the Mississippi river ^ 
hence the little French fur-trading village of St. Louis was not affected 
by the clash of arms which was raging so desperately through all the 
States east of the Ohio river. But the success of the colonies in this 
unequal conflict gave them control of all south of the river St. Lawrence 
and the great lakes, as far west as the Mississippi river; and when Napo- 
leon had sold to the new republic the extensive French possessions west 
of the Mississippi, he remarked that this accession of territory and con- 
trol of both banks of the Mississippi river would forever strengthen the 
power of the United States; and said he, with keen satisfaction, "I have 
given England a maritime rival that will sooner or later humble her 
pride." 

On the 3d of March, 1805, Congress passed at act to organize the 
Territory of Louisiana; and President Jefferson then appointed as territo- 
rial governor, Gen. James Wilkinson; secretary, Frederick Bates; judges, 
Return J. Meigs and John B. Lucas. Thus civil matters went on,, 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 23 

and business increased rapidly. When the United States took pos- 
session of this district or territory it was reputed to contain nine thous- 
and white inhabitants and about three thousand negroes. The first cen- 
sus of St. Louis was taken in 1799, and it then had 897 inhabitants. 
This is presumed to have included the village of Carondelet also, which 
was started as a rival town soon after the founding of St. Louis. 

In June, 1812, Congress passed another act with regard to this new 
country, and this time it was named the Territory of Missouri, instead of 
Louisiana. The President was to appoint a governor; the people were 
to elect representatives in the ratio of one for every five hundred white 
male inhabitants; this legislative body or lower house, was to nominate 
to the President eighteen of their own citizens, and from those he was to 
select and commission nine to form a senate or legislative council. The 
house of representatives was to consist of thirteen members at first; they 
were to hold their office two years, and must hold at least one legislative 
session at Saint Louis each year. The territory was also authorized to 
send one delegate to Congress. 

In October, 1812, the first territorial election was held, and these peo- 
ple experienced for the first time in their lives the American privilege of 
choosing their own law-makers. There were four candidates for Con- 
gress, and Edward Hempstead was elected. He served two years from 
December 7th, 1812; then Rufus Easton served two years; then John 
Scott two years; Mr. Easton was one of the four candidates at the first 
election ; and Mr. Scott was one of the members from St. Genevieve of 
the first legislative council. The first body of representatives met at the 
house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on December 7th, and consisted 
of the following members: 

From St. Charles — John Pitman, Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis — David Musick, B. J. Farrar, Wm. C. Carr, Richard Caulk. 

St. Genevieve — George Bullet, R. S. Thomas, Isaac McGready. 

Cafe Girardeau — G. F. Ballinger, Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid — John Shrader, Samuel Phillips. 

They were sworn into office by Judge Lucas. Wm. C. Carr of St. 
Louis, was elected speaker. The principal business of this assembly was 
to nominate the eighteen men from whom the President and U. S. Sen- 
ate should select nine to constitute the legislative council; they made their 
nominations and sent them on to Washington, but it was not known until 
the next June who were selected. June 3d, 1813, the secretary and acting 
governor, Frederick Bates, issued a proclamation declaring who had been 
chosen by the President as thte council of nine, and they were — 

From St. Charles — James Flaugherty, Benj. Emmons. 

St. Louis — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., Samuel Hammond. 

St. Genevieve — John Scott, James Maxwell. 



24 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

Cafe Girardeau — Wm. Neely, Joseph Cavener. 
JVezv Madrid — Joseph Hunter. 

In July of this year the newly appointed governor, Wm. Clarke, took 
his seat, and held it until Missouri became a State in 1820.* 

December, 1813, the second session of the territorial legislature was 
convened in St. Louis, and continued until January ID, 1814. This year 
the second territorial election occurred, and the new general assembly 
met December 5, this being the third sitting of the territorial leefisla- 
ture. The fourth commenced in November, 1815, and continued until 
about the last of January, 1S16. And it was during this session that the 
common law of England, and her general statutes passed prior to the 
fourth year of James I, were adopted as the laws of Missouri, except 
such changes as were necessary to phrase them for the United States 
and its system of government, instead of England. 

April 29, 1816, Congress again legislated for this territory, and pro- 
vided that the legislative council or senate should be elected by the peo- 
ple instead of being appointed by the President; that the legislature 
should meet biennially instead of annually; and that the U. S. judges 
should be requited to hold regular terms of circuit court in each county. 
The fifth legislative session (being the first under this act) met the first 
week in December of this year, and continued until February 1, 1817. 
Then there was no further legislation until the regular biennial session 
which met about December first, 1818. But during 1817, Henry S. 
Gayer, Esq., compiled a digest of all the laws, including those of French, 
Spanish, English and American origin, which were still in force in this 
territory. This was a very important work, in view of the fact that 
there were land titles and instances of property inheritance deriving 
their legal verity from these different sources; and it was now desirable 
to get all titles and vestitures clearly set upon an American basis of law 
and equity. The next or sixth session of the legislature continued 
through December, 1818, and January, 1819; and the most important thing 
done was applying to Congress for Missouri to be admitted as a State. 
John Scott, of St. Genevieve county, was then the territorial delegate in 
Congress, and presented the application. A bill was introduced to 
authorize the people of Missouri to elect delegates to a convention which 
should frame a State constitution. The population of Missouri territory 
at this time (or when the first census was taken, in 1821,) consisted 
of 59,393 free white inhabitants and 11,254 slaves. A member of 
Congress from New York, Mr. Talmadge, offered an amendment to the 
proposed bill, providing that slavery should be excluded from the proposed 
new State. This gave rise to hot and angry debate for nearly two 

* Gov. Clarke died Sept. 31, 1838, at St. Louis. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 25 

years, and which at times seemed to threaten an immediate dissolution of 
the- National Union. But the strife was finally quieted by the adoption in 
Congress on March. 6, 1820, of what is famous in history as the " Mis- 
souri Compromise," by which it was agreed that Missouri might come 
into the Union as a slave-holding State; but that slavery should never be 
established in any State which might thereafter be formed from lands 
lying north of latitude 36 deg. 30 min. The elections were held for dele- 
gates, the constitutional convention met at St. Louis, accepted the terms 
of admission prescribed by Congress, and on July 19th, 1820, Missouri 
took her place as one of the sovereign States of the National Union. 



MISSOURI AS A STATE. 



July 19, 1820, Missouri laid off the vestments of territorial tutelage and 
put on the matronly robes of mature statehood, as the constitutional conven- 
tion was authorized to frame the organic law and give it immediate force 
without submitting it to a vote of the people, and this constitution stood 
in force without any material change until the free State constitution of 
1865 was adopted. The first general election under the constitution was 
held in August, 1820, at which time Alexander McNair was chosed gov- 
ernor and John Scott representative in Congress. Members of legisla- 
ture had been chosen at the same time, comprising fourteen senators and 
forty three representatives; and this first general assembly of the State 
convened in St. Louis in the latter part of September. The principal 
thing of historic interest done by this assembly was the election to the 
United States Senate of Thomas H. Benton, who continued there unin- 
terruptedly until 1851, a period of thirty years, and was then elected in 
1852 as representative in Congress from the St. Louis district. The 
other senator elected at this time was David Barton, who drew the "short 
term," and was re-elected in 1S24. 

EPITOMIZED SUMMARY OF EVENTS AND DaTES. 

Application made to Congress for a state government March 16, 
1818, and December 18, 1818. — A bill to admit was defeated in Congress, 
which was introduced February 15, 1819. — Application made to Congress 
for an enabling act, December 29, 1819. — Enabling act (known as the 
Missouri Compromise) passed by Congress March 6, 1S20. — First state 
constitution formed July 19, 1820. — Resolution to admit as a state passed 
Senate December 12, 1S20; rejected by the House February 14, 1821. — 
2 



26 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



Conditional resolution to admit approved March 2, 1821. — Condition 
accepted by the legislature of Missouri and approved by governor, June 
26, 1821. — By proclamation of the President, admitted as a state August 
10, 1821. 

The State capital was first at St. Louis; then at St. Charles about five 
years; but on October 1st, 1S26, it was moved to Jefferson City, and 
has remained there ever since. 

COUNTIES AND POPULATION. 

The first census of the State was taken in September, 1821, and showed 
the population by counties as follows: 



Boone county 3,692 

Calloway 1,797 

Cape Girardeau 7,852 

Chariton 1,426 

Cole 1,028 

Cooper 3,483 

Franklin 1,928 

Gasconade 1,174 

Howard 7,321 

Jefferson 1,838 

Lillard (afterward called La- 
fayette) 1,340 

Lincoln 1,674 



Marion 1,907 

Montgomery 2,032 

New Madrid 2,444 

Perry 1,599 

Pike 2,677 

Ralls 1,684 

Ray 1,789 

Saline 1,176 

St. Charles 4,058 

St. Genevieve 3,181 

St. Louis 8,190 

Washington 3,741 

Wayne 1,614 



The total was 70,647, of which mumber 11,254 were negro slaves. 
The area of the State at this time comprised 62,182 square miles; but in 
1837 the western boundary was extended by authority of Congress, to 
include what was called the " Platte Purchase," an additional area of 
3,1 6S square miles, which is now divided into the counties of Platte, 
Buchanan, Andrew, Holt, Nodaway and Atchison. This territory was 
an Indian reservation until 1836. 

The last census was taken in June, 1880, when the state had an area of 
65,350 square miles, divided into one hundred and fourteen counties, with 
populations as follows: 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



27 



CENSUS REPORT OF THE STATE FOR THE YEAR 1880. 



Counties. Total. 

Adair 15,190 

Andrew 16 318 

Atchison 14,565 

Audrain 19,739 

Barry 14,424 

Barton 10,332 

Bates 25,382 

Benton 12,398 

Bollinger 11,132 

Boone 25.424 

Buchanan 49,824 

Butler 6,011 

Coldwell 13,654 

Calloway 23,670 

Camden 7,267 

Cape Girardeau 20,998 

Carrroll...., 23,300 

Carter 2,168 

Cass 22.431 

Cedar 10,747 

Chariton 25,224 

Christian 9,632 

Clark 15,031 

Clay 15,579 

Clinton 16.073 

Cole 15,519 

Cooper 21,622 

Crawford 10,763 

Dade 12,557 

Dallas 9,272 

Daviess 19,174 

De Kalb 13,343 

Dent 10,647 

Douglass 7,753 

Dunklin 9,604 

Franklin 26,536 

Gasconade 11,153 

Gentry 17,188 

Greene 28,817 

Grundy 15,201 

Harrison 20.318 

Henry 23,914 

Hickory 7.388 

Holt 15,510 

Howard 18,428 

Howell 8,814 

Iron 8.183 

Jackson 82,328 

Jasper 32,021 

Jefferson 18,736 

Johnson! 5 28 177 

Knox 13'047 

Laclede 11,524 

Lafayette 25,731 

Lawrence 17,585 

Lewis 15,925 

Lincoln 17,443 

Linn 20 016 

Livingston 20,205 

McDonald 7,816 

Macon 26,223 

Madison 8,860 

Maries 7.304 

Marion 24,837 



Male. 



Female. Native. Foreign. Whtte. Col'd. 



7,915 


7,275 


14,719 


471 


14.964 


226 


8,387 


7,931 


15,432 


880 


15,950 


368 


7,936 


6.629 


13,538 


1,027 


14.524 


41 


10,417 


9,322 


18,982 


757 


17,896 


1,843 


7,311 


7,113 


13,975 


449 


14,413 


11 


5,425 


4.907 


10,086 


240 


10.316 


16 


13,630 


11,752 


24,674 


708 


25,135 


247 


6,357 


6,041 


11,438 


900 


12,127 


271 


5,698 


5,434 


10,766 


366 


11,108 


24 


12,928 


12,496 


25,084 


340 


20,397 


5,027 


27,045 


22,779 


42,920 


6,904 


40,093 


3,731 


3,221 


2,790 


5,848 


163 


5,871 


140 


7,060 


6,594 


13,023 


631 


13,241 


413 


12,280 


11,390 


23,064 


600 


19,268 


4,402 


3,756 


3,511 


7,166 


101 


7,152 


115 


10,812 


10,186 


18,612 


2,386 


19,004 


1,994 


12,298 


11,002 


22,359 


941 


21.827 


1,473 


1,138 


1,030 


2,154 


14 


2,157 


11 


11,884 


10.547 


21,830 


601 


21,681 


750 


5,479 


5.268 


10,659 


88 


10,601 


146 


13,145 


12,079 


23.916 


1,308 


21,266 


3,958 


4,871 


4,761 


9,425 


207 


9,435 


197 


7,717 


7,314 


14,283 


* 748 


14,723 


308 


8,138 


7,441 


15,136 


443 


14.066 


1,513 


8,310 


7 763 


15,375 


698 


15,098 


975 


8,437 


7,082 


13,369 


2,150 


13.648 


1,871 


11,085 


10,537 


20,057 


1,565 


18,120 


3,502 


5,586 


5.177 


10,197 


566 


10,640 


123 


6,415 


6.142 


12,463 


94 


12,310 


247 


4,671 


4,601 


9,189 


83 


9,184 


88 


9 983 


9,191 


18,794 


380 


18,723 


451 


7,008 


6,335 


12,723 


620 


13.216 


127 


5,635 


5,012 


10,365 


282 


10,580 


61 


3,891 


3,802 


7,732 


21 


7,727 


26 


5,161 


4,443 


9,569 


35 


9,436 


168 


13,885 


12,651 


22,101 


4,435 


24,469 


2,067 


5,824 


5,329 


8,435 


2,718 


10,988 


165 


8,947 


8,241 


16,712 ' 


476 


17,160 


28 


14,649 


14,108 


28,010 


807 


26,009 


2,808 


7,762 


7,439 


14,662 


539 


14,997 


204 


10,518 


9,800 


19,824 


494 


20,245 


73 


12.301 


11,613 


23,096 


818 


22.925 


989 


3,775 


3,613 


7,169 


219 


7,338 


50 


8,291 


7,219 


14,621 


889 


15,285 


225 


9,554 


8.874 


17,955 


473 


13,195 


5,233 


4.495 


4.319 


8,736 


78 


8,723 


91 


4.232 


3,951 


7,592 


591 


7,783 


400 


45,891 


36,437 


71,653 


10,675 


72,445 


9,883 


16,763 


15,258 


30,686 


1,335 


31,249 


772 


9,873 


8,863 


15,755 


2,981 


17.731 


1,005 


14,797 


13,380 


27,231 


946 


26,164 


2,013 


6,774 


6.273 


12,341 


706 


12,8:9 


228 


5,889 


5,635 


11,145 


379 


11,048 


476 


13,370 


12,361 


23,679 


2.052 


21,313 


4,418 


8,990 


8,595 


16.835 


750 


17,284 


301 


8,157 


7.768 


15,080 


845 


14,520 


1,405 


9,010 


8,433 


16.606 


837 


15,299 


2,144 


10.349 


9,667 


18,823 ' 


1,193 


19.184 


832 


10,365 


9,840 


18,952 


1,253 


19,062 


1,143 


4,101 


3,715 


7,777 


39 


7,804 


12 


13,449 


12,774 


24,383 


1,840 


24,726 


1,497 


4.463 


4,397 


8,506 


354 


8,552 


308 


3,806 


3,498 


6,974 


330 


7,292 


12 


12,622 


12,215 


22,828 


2,009 


21,123 


3,714 



23 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



CENSUS REPORT OF THE STATE FOR THE YEAR im.— Continued. 



Counties. Total. 

Mi rcer 14,674 

Miller 9807 

Mississippi 9,270 

Moniteau 14,349 

Monroe 19,075 

Montgomery. . . . .' 16,250 

Morgan 10,134 

New Madrid 7,694 

Newton 18,948 

Nodaway 29,560 

Oregon 5,791 

Osage 11,824 

Ozark 5,618 

Pemiscot 4,299 

Perry 11,895 

Pettis 27,285 

Phelps 12,565 

Pike 26,716 

Platte 17,372 

Polk 15,745 

Pulaski 7,250 

Putnam 13,556 

Ralls ".... 11,838 

Randolph 22,751 

Ray 20,193 

Reynolds 5,722 

Ripley 5,377 

St. Charles 23,060 

St. Clair 14,126 

St. Francois 13,822 

St. Genevieve 10,390 

St. Louis 31,888 

Saint Louis (City) 350,522 

Saline 29,912 

Schuyler 10,470 

Scotland 12,507 

Scott 8,587 

Shannon 3,441 

Shelby 14,024 

Stoddard . . . . : 13,432 

Stone 4,405 

Sullivan 16,569 

Taney 5,605 

Texas 12,207 

Vernon 19,370 

Warren 10,806 

Washioston 12,895 

Wayne 9,097 

Webster 12,175 

Worth 8,208 

Wright 9,733 



Male. 


Female. 


Native. 


Foreign. 


White. 


Col'd. 


7,510 


7.164 


14,486 


188 


14.57:! 


101 


5,070 


4,787 


9,561 


246 


9,577 


230 


5,131 


4,139 


9,020 


250 


7,129 


2,141 


7,257 


7,092 


13,177 


1,172 


13,376 


973 


9,942 


9,133 


18,739 


336 


16,925 


2,150 


8,t>8o 


7,S67 


15,304 


946 


14,334 


1,916 


5,182 


4,952 


7,399 


735 


9,719 


415 


4,145 


3,549 


7,587 


107 


5,813 


1,881 


9,767 


9,181 


18,324 


624 


18,345 


603 


15,669 


13,891 


27,936 


1,624 


29,447 


113 


2,995 


2,796 


5.772 


19 


5,772 


19 


6,201 


5,623 


9,848 


1,976 


11,422 


402 


2,920 


2,698 


5,602 


16 


5,604 


14 


2,300 


1,999 


4,267 


32 


4,033 


266 


6,120 


5,775 


10,588 


1,307 


11,424 


471 


14,150 


13,135 


25,428 


1,857 


24,278 


3,007 


6,478 


6,087 


11,729 


836 


12,059 


506 


13,645 


13,071 


25,888 


828 


21,340 


5,376 


9,055 


8,317 


16,645 


727 


15,754 


1,618 


7,886 


7,859 


15,649 


96 


15,459 


286 


3,719 


3,531 


6,987 


263 


7,190 


60 


6,953 


6,603 


13,333 


223 


13,536 


20 


6,162 


5,676 


11,452 


386 


10,625 


1,213 


11,830 


10,921 


21,302 


1,449 


19,937 


2,814 


10,637 


9,556 


19,765 


428 


18,472 


1,721 


2,901 


2,821 


5,679 


43 


5,708 


14 


2,803 


2,574 


5,277 


100 


5,367 


10 


12,097 


10,963 


18,774 


4,286 


20,650 


2,410 


7,243 


6,883 


13,839 


287 


13.817 


309 


7,246 


6,576 


12,739 


1,083 


13,169 


653 


5,338 


5,052 


9,296 


1,094 


9,833 


557 


16,988 


14,900 


25,299 


6,589 


28,009 


3,879 


179,484 


171,038 


245,528 


104,994 


328,232 


22,290 


15,619 


14,293 


28,657 


1,255 


24,987 


4,925 


5,334 


5,136 


10,132 


338 


10,461 


9 


6,398 


6,109 


12,238 


269 


12,378 


129 


4.631 


3,956 


7,972 


615 


8,036 


551 


1,742 


1699 


3,430 


11 


3,441 


— 


7,126 


6,898 


13,320 


567 


13,087 


937 


6,924 


6,508 


13,320 


112 


13,399 


33 


2,327 


2,078 


4,395 


10 


4,377 


28 


8,589 


7,980 


16,202 


367 


16,487 


82 


2,900 


2,705 


5,586 


19 


5,601 


4 


6,223 


5,984 


12,013 


194 


12,178 


29 


10,184 


9,186 


18,900 


470 


19,268 


102 


5,743 


5,063 


8,917 


1,889 


9,852 


954 


6,457 


6,438 


12,478 


417 


11,857 


1,038 


4,764 


4,333 


8,925 


172 


8,990 


107 


6,201 


5,974 


12,044 


131 


11,928 


247 


4,220 


3,988 


8,031 


177 


8,207. 


1 


4,903 


4,830 


9,559 


174 


9,471 


262 



The classification footings of the census of 1880 show 



Males • • 1,127,424 

Native born 1,957,564 

White 2,023,56S 



Total population in June, 1880, 2,16S,804. 



Females 1,041,380 

Foreign born 211,240 

Colored* 145,236 



*This includes 92 Chinese, 2 half-Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 29 

The following table shows the population of Missouri at each Federal 
census from 1810 to 1880: 

Years. White. 

1810 17,227 

1820 55,988 

1830 114,795 

1840 323,888 

1850 592,004 

1860 1,063,489 

1870 1,603,146 

1880 2,023,568 



Free 
Colored. 


Slaves. 


Total Popu- 
lation. 


607 


3,011 


20,845 


376 


10,222 


66,586 


569 


25,091 


140,455 


1,574 


58,240 


383,702 


2,618 


87,422 


682,044 


3,572 


114,931 


1,182,012 


118,071 




1,721,295 


145,236 




2,168,804 



STATE FINANCES. 



THE STATE DEBT. 

The bonded indebtedness of Missouri has various periods to run. The 
following table is compiled from the State Auditor's report for 1879- 
1880, and embodies all state bonds that will become payable from 1882 
to 1897, at 6 per cent interest. 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad series $1,361,000 

Cairo & Fulton Railroad 267,000 

North Missouri Railroad , 1,694,000 

State Debt proper 439,000 

Pacific Railroad 2,971,000 

Consolidation 2,727,000 

Platte County Railroad 504,000 

State University 201,000 

Northwestern Lunatic Asylum 200,000 

State Bank Stock, refunding 104,000 

State Funding 1,000,000 

Penitentiary Indemnity ■ • * * 41,000 

Renewal Funding 3,850,000 

School Fund Certificates 900,000 



Total $16,259,000 

In addition to this there are $250,000 of revenue bonds, issued June 1, 
1879; and $3,000,000 bonds issued to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 
Company. 

THE STATE INCOME. 

The receipts of the State from all sources during the years 1879 and 
1880 were as follows: 



30 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



State Revenue Fund $3,024,084.39 

State Interest Fund 2,429,040.71 

State School Fund 335.55 

Swamp Land Indemnity Fund 15,408.05 

Insurance Department Fund 31,096.40 

Executors' and Administrators' Fund 6,790.07 

State School Moneys 241,080.00 

State Seminary Moneys 3,660.00 

Earnings Missouri Penitentiary 214,358.97 

Militia Fund 82.25 

Total $5,965,936.39 

The total balance of all moneys in the State treasury January 1, 1881, 
was $517,517.21. 

During the year 1879, the state paid a total of $6,458.00 as bounty on 
wolf scalps; but in 1880 the amount was only $1,428.50. 



WHO MISSOURI VOTED FOR. 



PRESIDENTIAL VOTES OF MISSOURI FROM 1820 TO 1880. 



Presidential Candidates 
Voted lor in Missouri. 



Political Parties. 



Year. 

1820 James Monroe Democratic 

1«24 John Q. Adams Coalition 

Andrew Jackson Democratic 

Henry Clay Democratic 

1828 Andrew Jackson Democratic 

John Q. Adams National Republican. 

1832 Andrew Jackson* Democratic 

1836 Martin Van Buren Democratic 

W. H. Harrison Whig 

Hugh L. White Independent 

1840 W. H. Harrison Whig 

Martin Van Buren Democratic 

1844 Jas. K. Polk Democratic 

. Henry Clay Whig 

1848 Zachary Taylor Whig 

Lewis Cass Democratic 

1852 Franklin Pierce Democratic 

Winfield Scott Whig 

1856 Jas. Buchanan Democratic 

Millard Fillmore American 

1860 Abraham Lincoln Republican 

J. C. Breckenridge State Rights Dem'cr't 

John Bell Old Line Whig 

Stephen A. Douglas . . .Union Democrat. . . . 
1864 Abraham Lincoln Republican 

Geo. B. McClellan Democratic 






311 

987 

1,401 

8,232 

3,422 

10,995 
7,401 
936 
22.972 
29,760 
41,369 
31,251 
32,671 
40,077 
38,353 
29,984 
58,164 
48,524 
17,028 
31,317 
58,372 
58,801 
72,750 
31,678 



S£ 



9 

11 



Vice-President 
Candidates. 

D. D. Tompkins. 
Nathan Sanford. 
John C. Calhoun. 
Andrew Jackson. 
John C. Calhoun. 
Richard Rush. 
Martin Van Buren. 
R. M. Johnson 
Francis Granger. 
John Tyler. 
John Tyler. 
R. M. Johnson. 
Geo. M. Dallas. 
Th. Frelinghuysen. 
Millard Fillmore. 
Wm. O. Butler. 
Wm. R. King. 
Wm. A. Graham. 
J. C. Breckenridge. 
A. J. Donelson. 
Hannibal Hamlin. 
Joseph Lane. 
Edward Everett. 
H. V. Johnson. 
Andrew Johnson. 
George H. Pendleton. 



* This year Gen. Jackson received 5.192 majority, but the popular vote of Missouri for this year does 
not appear m any of the statistical tables. The other presidential candidates this year were: Henry 
Clay, National Republican; John Floyd, Independent; Wm. Wirt, Anti-Mason. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



31 



PRESIDENTIAL VOTES OF MISSOURI FROM 1820 TO 1880.— Continued. 



Tear. 
1868 

1872 



Political Parties 



p, OJ 



1876 



1880 



Presidential Candidates 
Voted for in Missouri. 

Ulysses S. Grant Republican 86,860 

Horatio Seymour Democratic 63,628 

Ulysses S Grant Republican 119,196 

Horace Greeley Dem. and Liberal. . . .151,434 

Chas. O'Connor Democratic 2,429 

Thos. A. Hendricks 

B. Gratz Brown 

David Davis .~ 

Rutherford B. Hayes . . . Republican 145,029 

Samuel J. Tilden Democratic 203,077 

Peter Cooper Greenbacker 3,498 

G. C. Smith Prohibitionist 64 

Scattering 97 

James A. Garfield Republican 153,567 

W. S, Hancock Democratic 208,609 

James B. Weaver Greenback 35,135 



11 



6 

8 
1 

15 



13 



Vice President 
Candidates. 

Schuyler Colfax. 

F. P. Blair, Jr. 
Henry Wilson. 
B. Gratz Brown. 
Geo. W. Julien. 
John M. Palmer. 
T. E. Bramlette. 
Willis B. Machem. 
W r illiam. A Wheeler. 
Thomas A. Hendricks. 
Samuel F. Carey. 

G. T. Stewart. 

Chester A Arthur . 
W. H. English. 
B.J. Chambers. 



LIST OF GOVERNORS FROM 1820 TO 1880. 

YEAR. NAME. REMARKS. 

1820 AlexanderMcNair 

1824 Frederick Bates died in office. 

1825 Abraham J. Williams vice Bates. 

1826 John Miller , 

1828 John Miller 

1832 Daniel Dunklin resigned; appointed Serv. Gen. U. S. 

1836 Lilburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin. 

1840 Thos. Reynolds died 1844. 

1844 M. M. Marmaduke vice Reynolds. 

1844 John C. Edwards 

1848 Austin A. King 

1852 Sterling Price 

1856 Trusten Polk resigned. 

1857 Hancock Jackson vice Polk. 

1857 Robert M. Stewart " " [State Convention. 

1860 C. F. Jackson office declared vacant by Unionist 

1861 Hamilton R. Gamble appointed governor by State Conven- 

1864 Willard P. Hall vice Gamble. [tion; died in office. 

1864 Thos. Fletcher 

1868 Joseph W. McClurg 

1870 B. Gratz Brown 

1872 Silas Woodson 

1874 Charles H. Hardin 

1876 John S. Phelps term now 4 years instead of 2. 

1880 Thos. T. Crittenden 

LIST OF UNITED STAES SENATORS FROM 1820 TO 1880. 



Year. Names. 

1820 Thomas Hart Benton 

1824 David Barton 

1826 Thomas Hart Benton 

1830 Alexander Buckner died in 1833 

1832 Thomas Hart Benton 

1833 Lewis Field Linn vice Buckner 



Year. Names. 

1857 Trusten Polk 

1861 Waldo Porter Johnson 

1862 Robert Wilson 

1863 B. Gratz Brown 

1863 John B. Henderson 

1867 Chas. D. Drake resigned 1870 



32 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



LIST OF UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM 1820 TO 1880.— Continued. 



Year. Names. 

1836 Lewis Field Linn 

1838 Thomas Hart Benton 

1842 Lewis Field Linn died 1843 

1843 David R. Atchison vice Linn 

1844 David R. Atchison 

1844 Thomas Hart Benton 

1849 David R. Atchison 

1851 Henry S. Geyer 

1857 Jas. S. Green 



Year. Names. 

1869 Carl Schurz 

1870 Daniel F. Jewett vice Drake 

1871 Francis P. Blair, Jr 

1873 Lewis V. Bogy 

1875 Francis M. Cockrell 

1879 Daniel H. Armstrong 

1880 James Shields vice Bogy 

1881 George G. Vest . 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FROM 1820 TO 1881. 



< 



o 

o 






1820 17 

1822 18 

1824 19 

1826 20 

1828 21 

1830 22 

1831 22 

1832 23 

1834 24 

1836 25 

1838 26 



1838 26 
1840 27 

1842 28 



1844 29 



1846 29 
1846 30 



1848 31 



1850 32 



1852 33 



NAMES. 

John Scott 

John Scott 

John Scott 

Edward Bates 

Spencer Pettis 

Spencer Pettis, died 1831 . . . 
Wm. H. Ashley, vice Pettis. 

Wm. H. Ashley 

John Bull 

Wm. H.Ashley 

Albert G. Harrison 

Albert G. Harrison 

John Miller 

Albert G. Harrison, died in 

1839 

John Miller 

J.Jamison, vice Harrison.. 

John Miller 

John C. Edwards 

James M. Hughes 

James H. Relfe 

John Jamisom 

John B. Bowlin 

Gustavus M. Brown 

James B. Bowlin 

James H. Relfe 

Sterling Price, resigned 

John S. Phelps 

Leonard H. Sims 

"Wm. McDaniels, vice Price. 

James B. Bowlin. ... 

John Jameson 

James S. Green 

Willard P. Hall 

John S Phelps 

James B. Bowlin 

William V. N.Bay 

James S. Green 

Willard P Hall 

John S.Phelps 

John F. Darby 

Gilchrist Porter 

John G. Miller 

Willard P Hall 

John S.Phelps 

Thos H. Benton 

Alfred W. Lamb 



< 



o 
o 



x 



1852 33 



1854 34 



1855 34 

1856 34 



1857 35 

1858 36 



1860 36 
1860 37 



1862 37 
1862 38 



3 

4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
5 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
3 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
3 
5 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



NAMES. 

John G.Miller 

Mordecai Oliver 

John S. Phelps 

James I. Lindley, at large. . 
Samuel Carruthers, at large. 

L. M. Kennett 

Gilchrist Porter 

John I. Linjlley 

Mordecai Oliver 

John G. Miller, died 1855. . . 

John S. Phelps 

Samuel Carruthers 

Thos. P. Aiken, vice Miller. 

Francts P. Blair 

T.L.Anderson [1857 

Jas. S. Green, elec. U. S. Sen. 

James Craia: 

James H. Woodson 

John S. Phelps 

Sam'l Carruthers 

John B. Clark, vice Green. . 
J. Richard Barrett, declared 

not elected 

Thos. L. Anderson 

John B. Clark 

Jas Craig 

Jas. H. Woodson 

John S. Phelps 

John W. Noell 

Francis P. Blair, Jr., resigned 
J. Richard Barrett, vice Blair 

Francis P. Blair, Jr 

Jas. S. Rollins 

John B. Clark, expelled 

E. H. Norton 

John W. Reid, expelled 

John S. Phelps 

John W. Noell 

Wm. A. Hall, vice Clark 

Thos. L. Price, vice Reid . . . 

Francis P. Blair 

Henry T. Blow 

John W. Noell, died 1863. . . 

Sempronius S. Boyd 

Joseph W. McClurg 

Austin A. King 

Benjamin F. Loan 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



33 



MEMBERS OP CONGRESS FROM 1820 TO 1880.— Continued. 






2 h 

° s 



1862 38 



1864 39 



1866 40 



1867 
1868 



40 
41 



1870 42 



1872 43 



8 
9 
3 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
3 
5 
1 



4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 



NAMES. 

W. A. Hall 

John S. Rollins 

John G. Scott, vice Noell . . . 

John Hogan 

Henry T. Blow 

Thos.E. Noell 

John R. Kelsoe 

Joseph W. McClurg 

Robert T. Van Horn 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson 

William A. Pile 

C. A. Newcombe 

Thomas E. Noell. deceased. . 

J. J. Gravely 

Jos. W. McClurg, resigned 

Robert T. Van Horn 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson 

J. R. McCormack, vice Noell 
John H. Stover,vice McClurg 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finkelnburg 

J. R. McCormack 

S. H. Boyd 

Samuel S. Burdett 

Robert T. Van Horn 

Joel F. Asper 

John F. Benjamin 

David P. Dyer 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finkelnburg 

J. R. McCormack 

H. E. Havens 

Samuel S. Burdett. 

A. Comingo 

Isaac C. Parker 

James G. Blair 

Andrew King 

E. O. Stanard 

Erastus Wells 

W. H. Stone 

Robert A. Hatcher 

Richard P.Bland 

Harrison E. Havens 

Thomas F. Crittenden 

Abram Comingo 

Isaac C. Parker 

Ira B. Hyde 

John B. Clark, Jr 

John M. Glover 

A. H. Buckner 



< 
a 



o 

o 
o 



1874 44 



1876 45 



1878 46 



1879 46 



1880 47 



g NAMES. 

a 

1 Edward C. Kerr 

2 Erastus Wells 

3 William H. Stone 

4 Robert A. Hatcher 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Charles H. Morgan 

7 John F. Philips 

8 Benjamin J. Franklin 

9 David Rea 

10 Rezin A. DeBolt 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 John M. Glover 

13 Aylett H. Buckner 

1 Anthony Ittner 

2 Nathan Cole 

3 Lyne S. Metcalfe 

4 Robert H. Hatcher 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Charles H. Morgan 

7 Thos. T. Crittenden 

'8 Benjamin J. Franklin 

9 David Rea 

10 Henry M. Pollard 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 John M. Glover 

13 Aylett H. Buckner 

1 Martin L. Clardy 

2 Erastus Wells 

3 Richard G. Frost 

4 Lowndes H. Davis 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 James R. Waddi 11 

7 Alfred M. Lay, died 

7 John F. Philips, vice Lay. 

8 Samuel L. Sawyer 

9 Nicholas Ford 

10 Gideon F. Rothwell 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 Win. H- Hatch 

13 Aylett H Buckner 

1 Martin L. Clardy 

2 Thomas Allen 

3 Richard G. Frost 

4 Lowndes H.Davis 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Ira S. Hazeltine 

7 Theron M. Rice 

8 Robert T. Van Horn 

9 Nicholas Ford 

10 J. H. Burroughs 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 Wm. H. Hatch 

13 Aylett H. Buckner 



The election for members of the legislature and members of Congress 
occurs biennially on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of 



34 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. * 

the even numbered years — as 1830, 1882, etc.; and the legislature meets 
on the first Wednesday after January 1st, in the odd numbered years — 
as 1881, 1883, etc. The governor is elected every four years, at the same 
time with the presidential election. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS. 



THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

The State of Missouri has made liberal provision for the support of 
public schools, equal to any other state in the Union.* The main fea- 
tures of our school system are well epitomized in a report made by the 
state superintendent in 1S79, as follows: 

School Revenue — Is derived from invested state funds, bearing inter- 
est at the rate of six per cent per annum, and one-fourth of the state reve- 
nue collections, annually, equal to a tax of five cents on the $100 of valu- 
ation; from the invested county funds at rates from 6 to 10 per centum 
annually, secured by real estate mortgages; from the sixteenth section or 
township fund invested and producing income in the same manner as the 
county funds. 

The state and township permanent funds arise principally from the sale 
of lands donated by the general government. The income is used only 
for teachers' wages, and is apportioned upon the number of children to 
districts having maintained the minimum term of school. 

The deficiency is supplied by local taxation, limited in amount, and con- 
trolled in the first instance by boards of directors, and second, by the 
tax-payers in annual meeting assembled. 

State Boards. — State Board of Education consists of the super- 
intendent of public schools, the governor, secretary of state, and attorney- 
general. The duties, practically, are simply the investment and care of 
the state permanent fund. 

Board of Curators of the State University — Consists of nine 
members, appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, lor 
a term of six years, three being appointed every two years. They con- 
trol and manage the university, agricultural college and school of mines 
and metallurgy. 

Boards of Regents — Of normal schools consist of six members 

* The first free day school ever opened in Missouri was by the Church of the Messiah, 
in St. Louis. This church was organized in 1834, by Rev. Wm. G. Elliott, D. D., who was 
the founder, and is now Chancellor of Washington University. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 35 

to each school, appointed by the governor, with consent of the senate, 
from the locality. The state superintendent of public schools is ex 
officio member of each board. 

Boards of Control — Of other institutions vary in name and num- 
ber of members. They are usually appointed by the governor. 

Superintendent of Public Schools — Has general supervision of 
the public schools; collects and tabulates the school statistics of the state; 
apportions the state school funds to the counties; gives information to 
school officers upon construction of school law ; prepares and furnishes 
blanks for use of school officers ; spends five days in each congressional dis- 
trict of the state, yearly, consulting and advising teachers and other school 
officers, and delivering lectures; is a member of the board of regents of 
the normal schools, and president of state board of education ; receives 
reports from the county commissioners and state institutions of learn- 
ing; makes annual reports to the governor and general assembly alter- 
nately; and is the executive manager of the state school fund under the 
direction of state board of education. 

County School Commissioners — Elected at the annual school meet- 
ings of the various school districts for the term of two years; compen- 
sation varies according to population of county, from twenty to forty 
dollars per annum and a fee, additional, of one and one-half dollars from 
each teacher undergoing examination; examines teachers, grants and 
revokes certificates; has final jurisdiction over appealed cases of changes 
of district boundaries, appealed from the annual meetings; condenses 
and reports to state superintendent of public schools the educational 
statistics of the county, as received by him from the district boards of 
directors; supplies the districts with copies of the law, and all blanks 
needed; performs any and all duties required by the State Superintend- 
ent, and in counties where the people have voted in favor of it, employs 
his whole time in supervision and school work. 

Miscellaneous. — To draw public money, districts must maintain at 
least three months public school in each year, but the law requires and 
provides that four months shall be taught. Any person between the 
ages of six and twenty years may attend the public schools. In cities, 
towns and villages, the boards are authorized to hold from five to ten 
months term of school each year, and in the country districts the people 
may vote an extension of term over four months. The rate of taxation 
for school purposes, in addition to the distributed state, county and town- 
ship, or sixteenth section funds, is limited to forty cents on the $100 valu- 
ation, except that the people, at the annual school meeting, may vote an 
increase not to exeed sixty-five cents on the $100, by a majority vote of 
tax-payers. To raise funds by taxation for building purposes, requires 



36 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

that the increased rate be voted by two-thirds of the qualified voters 
voting at the annual or special meeting. 

Annual School Meeting — Meets at the district school house annu- 
ally, and elects a director for a full term, and fills vacancies in the board; 
determines the length of time in excess of four months, that the schools 
shall be kept open, and orders the proper levies within the limitations to 
be made therefor; votes a sum not exceeding $20 per annum for pur- 
chase of books for district library; decides for or against proposed changes 
of district boundary lines; directs the sale of property no longer required, 
and determines the applications of proceeds; designates their choice for 
county school commissioner every second year; directs the loan of 
money to aid in erecting school houses; directs the levy of tax for the 
erection of school houses; determines the location of the school house or 
houses; by a two-thirds vote changes location of school house; receives 
the reports of school district board as to financial condition, and itemized 
receipts and disbursements for the year ending. 

District .Boards — Consist of three members in the country districts, 
and six members in the city, town and village districts; each elected for 
a term of three years; one, annually, in the country, and two in the city, 
town and village districts; they elect one of their number president, and 
appoint a clerk who may not be a member of the board, if it so chooses; 
they are the executive officers of the school corporation, which each dis- 
trict is, being created by law ; they serve without compensation ; have 
custody of school property; execute the orders of the annual meeting; 
take the school census; make and rile the estimates for tax levies; con- 
trol the disbursements of all school money; keep the district records; 
visit the schools; employ teachers; provide for a four months term of 
school without consulting the people; make rules for organization, gra- 
ding and government of the schools, suspend or expel pupils; admit and 
prescribe fees for non-resident pupils, and in general do all things neces- 
sary to carry on the schools. 

In city, town and village districts the board has power to establish 
higher grades of schools, but are subject to the same tax restrictions. 

Some cities have special charters giving other privileges than those 
enumerated, but subject to the same tax restrictions, they being constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Educational Directory. — University of Missouri, located at Colum- 
bia; number of students, 577; legislative appropriation for 1S79 and 1SS0, 
$39,000. State Agricultural College constitutes a department of the 
University. Three State Normal Schools, located respectively at Kirks- 
ville, Warrensburg and Cape Girardeau .* The appropriation to each of 

* St. Louis supports its own normal school, for the preparation and training of its 
teachers, the greater number of whom are graduates of this normal school. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 37 

normal schools is $7,500 per annum. Deaf and Dumb Asylum, located 
at Fulton; legislative appropriation for 1S79 and 1880, $91,000. Blind 
Asylum, located at St. Louis; legislative appropriation for 1879 and 18S0, 
$46,000. Lincoln Institute,* located at Jefferson City; legislative appro- 
priation, $10,000 for 1S79 and 1880; devoted to training colored teachers 
for colored public schools of the state. School of Mines and Metallurgy, 
located at Rolla; legislative appropriation, $15,000 for 1879 and 1880; 
constitutes a department of the state university. State teachers' associ- 
ation, meets annually at places selected at each session, during the last 
week in June. 

Statistics of 1S7S. — School population, 6S8,248; school enrollment, 
448,033; No. of ungraded school districts, S,142; No. of graded school 
districts, 279. No. of school houses, 8,092; estimated value of school 
houses and sites, $8,321,399; average school year in months, 5; average 
school year in months, in graded school districts, 9; total number of 
teachers employed, 11,268; total wages of teachers, $2,320,430.20; aver- 
age wages of teachers per month, males, $36.36, females, $28.09; aver- 
age wages of teachers per month, in grades schools, estimated, males, 
$87.81, females, $40.73. 

Revenue. — From interest on state permanent fund, $174,030.15; 
from one-fourth state revenue collections, $363,276.32; from county and 
township permanent funds, $440,191.37; from district taxes, $2,446,- 
910.71. Total, $3,424,40S.55. 

Permanent Funds.— State fund, $2,909,457.11; county fund, $2,388,- 
368.29; township or sixteenth section fund, $1,980,678.51. Total $7,278,- 
046.80. 

The state auditor's report for 1879 and 18S0 furnishes the following 
school items; and they make a very favorable showing for the public 
school interests of Missouri: 

1879. 1880. 

Amount distributed to the counties $502,795.18 $515,286.09 

Maintenance of State University 19,500.00 19,500.00 

Support of Lincoln Institute 5,000.00 5,000.00 

Support School of Mines and Metallurgy 7,500.00 7,500.00 

JNormal School, 1st district 7,500.00 7,500' 00 

2d " 7,500.00 7,500.00 

" " South Missouri district 7,500,00 7,500.00 

Distribution of school laws 308.58 436.50 

* Lincoln Institute was first projected by the 62d Regiment U. S. Colored Infantry, 
while on duty in Texas, in 18G5, and was designed for the higher education of colored 
people. In January, 1866, the state attached a state normal department to it, to provide 
suitable teachers for the public schools for colored children. The school was opened 
Sept, 17, 1876, but was not finally provided for by law as a state normal school until Feb. 
14, 1870, since which time it has gone steadily forward and done a good work for the 
negro population. 



38 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

MASSACHUSETTS AND MISSOURI SCHOOL RATES. 

Massachusetts is taken almost universally as the standard of measure- 
ment for other states. The state reports of Massachusetts and Missouri, 
for 1879, show that in the former there was applied to the educa- 
tion of every child of school age the sum of $13.71 — in the latter, 
$4.37. But it must be remembered that school age in Massachusetts is 
between five and fifteen years; in Missouri between six and twenty; a 
difference of four years in school. 

The report of the secretary of the Massachusetts board of education, 
for 1879, states the "per centage of valuation appropriated for public 
schools," as two and seventy-two one hundredths mills. In Missouri it 
was over five mills. That is, every tax-paying Missourian paid nearly 
twice as much for the maintenance of public schools on the same amount 
(of value) of property as the tax-payer of Massachusetts. 

DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOLS. 

DATE 
^•™* ™ NAME OF INSTITUTION. WHERE LOCATED. DENOMINATION. 

ORG ZED. 

1871 Central College Fayette M. E. Church South. 

1856 Christian College Canton Christian. 

1859 College Christian Brothers . St. Louis Roman Catholic. 

1873 Drury College Springfield Congregational. 

1868 Hannibal College Hannibal M. E. Church South. 

1865 Lewis College Glasgow Methodist Episcopal. 

1870 Lincoln College Greenwood United Presbyterian. 

1853 McGee College College Mound. . . Cumb. Presbyterian. 

1867 St. Joseph College St. Joe Roman Catholic. 

1832 St. Louis University St. Louis Roman Catholic. 

1844 St. Paul College Palmyra Protestant Episcopal. 

1844 St. Vincent College Cape Girardeau. .Roman Catholic. 

1857 Washington University. . .St. Louis Non-Sectarian. 

1852 Westminster College Fulton Presbyterian. 

1853 Wm. Jewell College Liberty Baptist. 

1869 Woodland College Independence .... Christian. 

1 835 St. Charles College St. Charles M. E. Church South. 

1852 Central College Fayette " " " 

1843 Arcadia College Arcadia " " " 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 

1839 Concordia College St. Louis Evangelical Luth'ran 

1844 St. Vincent College Cape Girardeau. .Roman Catholic. 

Theological School of West- 
minster College Fulton Presbvterian. 

1869 Vanderman School of The- 
ology Liberty Baptist. 

In addition to the above, the Baptists have: Stephens College, Columbia* 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 39 

Mt. Pleasant College, Huntsville; Baptist Female College, Lexington; La 
Grange College, La Grange; Baptist College, Louisiana; Liberty Female 
College, Liberty ; St. Louis Seminary for Young Ladies, Jennings Sta- 
tion; Fairview Female Seminary, Jackson; Booneville Seminary for 
Young Ladies, Booneville; North Grand River College, Edinburg; 
Ingleside Academy, Palmyra. 

The Christian connection has Christian University, at Canton, in Lewis 
county. 

The Congregationalists have Thayer College, at Kidder, in Caldwell 

county. 

The German Evangelicals have Missouri College, in Warren county. 

The Methodist Episcopals (North) have Johnson College at Macon 
City. 

The Presbyterians have Lindenwood Female College, at St. Charles. 

A good feeling prevails amongst these different schools. Each attends 
to its own work in its own way, caring for the patronage of its own peo- 
ple and the community at large, as a good neighbor of every other 
worker. A most liberal and impartial legislative policy is pursued, by 
dealing with all alike before the law, whether in the maintenance of 
vested rights or in the matter of taxation. By constitutional provision 
all property actually used for school and religious purposes may be 
exempted from taxes, and the same constitution most explicitly interdicts 
all discrimination, and also all favor or partiality. 

LAW SCHOOLS. 

FOUNDED. NAME LOCATION. 

1872 Law College of State University Columbia. 

1867 Law Department of Washington University St. Louis. 

MEDICAL SCHOOLS. 

FOUNDED. NAME. LOCATION. 

1869 Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons . . Kansas City. 

1873 Medical College of State University Columbia. 

1840 Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

1841 St. Louis Medical College 

1858 Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri 

1865 Missouri Dental College 

1864 St. Louis College of Pharmacy 

SCIENTIFIC SCHOOLS. 

1870 Agricultural and Mechanical College (State Uni- 

versity) Columbia. 

1871 Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy (State 

University) Rolla. 

1857 Polytechnic Department of Washington University.St. Louis. 



u 
a 



40 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



o 







t*i . 



a 2 - £ ** 

RELIGIOUS DEKOMINATIONS-1379-80. .2 <-3 o^l 

c ~ c a £ *"* 

£ o o" <= 2 

w >z ESS 

Catholic 21G 204 200,000 

Protestant Episcopal 65 50 25,000 

Lutheran Independent Evangelical 25 20 1,000 

English Evangelical G 6 1,000 

German " 76 68 3,633 

Presbyterian, O. S. North 210 151 11,143 

" South 135 73 7,662 

Cumberland 361 169 15,823 

United 10 12 700 

" Reformed 3 4 165 

Conerresational 71 47 3,747 

Baptist: 1,385 823 86,999 

Christian, about 500 500 70.000 

Methodist Episcopal, South 559 648 53,882 

North 359 420 42,888 

African 58 59 4,954 

African Methodist Episcopal, Zion ) 

Colored " " " ^ about 116 118 9,908 

Methodist, Protestant and Free Methodist Episcopal Church ) 

Unitarian 5 5 

Total 4,160 3,437 539,004 

Bote.— Church members of the Catholic and Protestant Episcopal Churches include all persons bap- 
tized into the church. The others count only communicants in good standing. 



PROTECTIONAL LAWS. 



Our state legislature has made ample and discreet provision for the 
protection of a home-place from sale on execution. The home and property- 
rights of married women, widows and orphans, are guaranteed by 
statute as far as is practicable. A limit has also been fixed to the amount 
of indebtedness which may be incurred by the people in voting bonds to 
railroads, or other enterprises in which they may feel a friendly interest, 
but in aiding which, too generally, so many western communities have 
burdened themselves and their posterity with debts and taxation that are 
grevious to be borne. 

HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION. 

The laws of Missouri reserve from execution, in the hands of every 
head of a family living in the country, a homestead, consisting of one 
hundred and sixty (160) acres of land, not exceeding $1,500 in value; to 
every head of a family, in cities of over 40,000 inhabitants, a homestead 
consisting of not more than eighteen square rods of ground, and of a 
valuation not exceeding $3,000; and in cities and towns of less than 40,- 
000 inhabitants, a homestead, consisting of not more than thirty square 
rods of ground, and of the value of not more than $1,500. Thus it is 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 41 

seen that a farmer's homestead in Missouri consists of one hundred and 
sixty acres of land and the improvements thereon, not exceeding in value 
$1,500; the homestead of the residents of the smaller towns is of the 
same value: while that allowed to the inhabitants of St. Louis, St. 
Joseph and Kansas City, where land is more valuable, and the cost of 
living greater, is fixed at $3,000. 

The homestead is in the nature of a lien or charge, in favor of the 
wife and children, upon certain property of the husband, defined in 
extent, and limited in value. A declaration of what this property is may 
be recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds, and notice is thus 
imparted to all persons having dealings with the owner, that this particu- 
lar property is not subject to execution, and that they ought not to give 
credit on the faith of it. The state, under this head, provides that: "Any 
married woman may file her claim to the tract or lot of land occupied or 
claimed by her and her husband, or by her, if abandoned by her husband, 
as a homestead. Said claim shall set forth the tract or lot claimed, that 
she is the wife of the person in whose name the said tract or lot appears 
of record, and said claim shall be acknowledged by her before some 
officer authorized to take proof or acknowledgment of instruments of 
writing affecting real estate, and be filed in the recorder's office, and it 
shall be the duty of the recorder to receive and record the same. After 
the filing of such claims, duly acknowledged, the husband shall be de- 
barred from, and incapable of selling, mortgaging and alienating the 
homestead in any manner whatever, and such sale, mortgage or alienation 
is hereby declared null and void; and the filing of any such claims as 
aforesaid with the recorder shall impart notice to all persons of the con- 
tents thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and mortagors shall be 
deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice; provided, however, 
that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the hus- 
band and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alienating, and, in 
any other manner, disposing of such homestead, or any part thereof." 

Such a law, while securing the benefits of a homestead to the debtor, 
works no injustice to the creditor. He sees that the debtor has certain 
property recorded as his homestead. He never gives credit on the faith that 
this propertv will be subject to his execution; but he looks simply to the 
other property of the debtor, or to the state of his business and his char- 
acter for honesty. 

It may be added that the supreme court of this state has construed the 
homestead laws liberally, with the view of carrying out the benevolent 
purposes of the legislature. If the debtor is ignorant or timid, when the 
sheriff comes with an execution to lev}', and fails to claim his right of 
homestead, his family are not, therefore, to be turned out of doors. The 
3 



42 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

sheriff must summon appraisers and set the homestead apart, whether the 
debtor claims it or not; and if he does not do this, his sale will pass no title 
to the purchaser so far as the debtor's homestead is concerned. If the 
debtor makes a conveyance of property embracing his family homestead, 
for the purpose of hindering or defrauding his creditors, this does not 
work a forfeiture of his homestead right; his wrongful act is not thus to 
be appealed to in prejudice of his wife and children. If the cruelty of 
the husband drives the wife from the homestead, this does not put an end 
to her interest in the homestead. She may return and claim it after his 
death, and his administrator must set it apart for her. 

EXEMPTIONS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY. 

Pursuing the same wise and benevolent policy, the statutes provide 
that the following personal property shall be exempt from attachment and 
execution when owned by the head of a family: "1. Ten head of choice 
hogs, ten head of choice sheep, and the product thereof in wool, yarn or 
cloth; two cows and calves, two plows, one axe, one hoe, and one set of 
plow gears, and all the necessary farm implements for the use of one man. 
2. Two work animals of the value of one hundred and fifty dollars. 3. 
The spinning-wheel and cards, one loom and apparatus, necessary for 
manufacturing cloth in a private family. 4. All the spun yarn, thread 
and cloth manufactured for family use. 5. Any quantity of hemp, flax 
and wool, not exceeding twenty-five pounds each. 6. All wearing apparel 
of the family, four beds, with usual bedding, and such other household and 
kitchen furniture, not exceeding the value of one hundred dollars, as may 
be necessary for the family, agreeably to an inventory thereof, to be re- 
turned, on oath, with the execution, by the officer whose duty it may be 
to levy the same. 7. The necessary tools and imolements of trade of 
any mechanic while carrying on his trade. 8. Any and all arms and 
military equipments required by law to be kept. 9. All such provisions 
as may be on hand for family use, not exceeding one hundred dollars in 
value. 10. The bibles and other books used in a family, lettered grave- 
stones, and one pew in a house of worship. 11. All lawyers, physicians, 
ministers of the gospel and teachers, in the actual prosecution of their 
calling, shall have the privilege of selecting such books as shall be neces- 
sary to their profession, in the place of other property herein allowed, at 
their option; and doctors of medicine, in lieu of other property exempt 
from execution, may be allowed to select their medicines." In lieu of this 
property, each head of a family may, at his election, select and hold 
exempt from execution any other property, real, personal, or mixed, or 
debts or wages not exceeding in value the amount of three hundred dol- 
lars. 

The legislature of the state has wisely considered that the debtor ought 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 43 

not to be permitted to plead poverty as against the claims of creditors 
equally necessitous. It is accordingly provided that the foregoing 
exemption cannot be claimed when the debt is for wages due to a house 
servant or common laborer to the extent of $90, and when the action to 
recover the same is brought wiffain six months after the last services were 
rendered. Nor can the purchaser of goods make this law an instrument 
of fraud by claiming goods which he has purchased on credit against an 
execution for the purchase money. 

RIGHTS OF MARRIED WOMEN. 

State legislation is extremely careful of the rights of married women. 
If a wife is unjustly abandoned by her husband, the circuit court will 
sequester his property for the purpose of maintaining her and the children 
of the marriage. If he abandons her, or from worthlessness or drunken- 
ness fails to support her, the court will not only allow her to sell her own 
real estate without his joining in the deed, but will require any person 
holding money or property to which he may be entitled in her right, to 
pay the money over to her. 1. Under such circumstances she is entitled 
to the proceeds of her own earnings and those of her minor children. 2. 
If her real estate is damaged for railroads, or other public works, the 
damages accrue exclusively to her. 3. If her husband gets into the peni- 
tentiary, she becomes to all intents and purposes a femme sole . 4. And if he, 
by ill usage, compels her to live separate and apart from him, she may 
claim the sole and exclusive enjoyment of her property as if she were un- 
married. Rents, issues and profits of her real estate cannot be taken in 
execution for his debts, except when contracted for family necessaries. 
Moreover, by a very broad statute lately enacted, a wife may hold all her 
personal property free from her husband's control and exempt from liabil- 
ity for his debts. If he becomes incompetent to lead in the marital part- 
nership, she may take the reins in her hands, engage in trade, accumulate 
property, and no act of his will create a charge upon it. Finally, at his 
death, the family homestead descends to her and the children, if any there 
be, to be held by her for life; if there be any children, in common with 
them; if not, by herself alone. She also takes dower in one-third of all 
the real estate of which her husband may have been seized at any time 
during marriage, in which she has not conveyed her right of dower, 
diminished, however, by the homestead which is set apart to her. She 
takes also a child's share of his personal estate; and, in addition to all 
this, she is allowed to retain as her absolute property a large amount of 
personalty. 

TAXATION. 

The constitution places it beyond the power of reckless or dishonest 



44 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

public agents to burden the people with excessive taxation. Taxes for 
state purposes, exclusive of the taxes necessary to pay the bonded debt 
of the state, cannot exceed twenty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; 
and 'whenever the taxable property of the state shall amount to $900,000,- 
000 the rate shall not exceed fifteen cents. The rate of taxation for 
county, city, town and school purposes, is likewise strictly limited. 
Counties, cities, towns, townships and school districts cannot become 
indebted beyond the revenue provided for each year without a two-thirds 
vote of all voters therein, nor, in any event, to an amount exceeding five 
per cent on the value of the taxable property. 

The statutes of limitation in Missouri provide that an open account can- 
not be collected after it has run five years; a note is uncollectible if held for 
ten years after due; and a judgment expires by limitation in ten years. 

The standard legal rate of interest in this state is six per cent; but a 
higher rate not exceeding ten per cent may be contracted for. 

PUBLIC DEBT LIMITATION. 

The state debt, according to the State Auditor's last report, [1S78], is 
$16,758,000. This mostly grew out of the various issues of bonds given 
in aid of railroads, and bears interest at the rate of six per cent per annum. 
To liquidate this debt the constitution provides for the annual levy of 
taxes, now fixed by law at twenty cents on the $100 of the valuation. 
With the sum thus raised the interest of the debt is first to be paid, and of 
the remainder not less than $250,000 is to be set apart as a sinking fund 
for the purchase and retirement of the bonds themselves. Hence, in a 
few years, with the vast increase in the taxable wealth, which is sure to 
come, the whole of the debt will be extinguished. There is an additional 
state tax of twenty cents on the $100 for current expenditures, a large 
share of which is devoted to the support of the common schools. This 
tax is ample for the purposes for which it is intended, and there is a con- 
stitutional provision that it shall be reduced to fifteen cents on the $100 as 
soon as the taxable property of the state shall aggregate a total valuation 
of $900,000,000. 

The state, and all its municipal subdivisions, whether counties, cities or 
towns, are forbidden by the constitution to loan their credit to any corpora- 
tion, so that there is no method by which the public indebtedness can be 
increased in the usual way. Owing to the great zeal of the people to for- 
ward public improvements of all kinds, a municipal indebtedness, aggre- 
gating, according to the auditor's last report, $35,727,56(5.49, has been 
contracted. Of this amount the debt of the city of St. .Louis is shown to 
constitute $22,712,000, leaving for the agricultural portion of the state and 
the other cities, towns, townships and school districts only a little over 
$13,000,000. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 45 

The present organic law prevents any municipality from contracting 
liabilities, in any one fiscal year, beyond the amount of the levy made for 
that year, and in no county can the rate of taxation for local purposes, 
aside from the school tax, exceed fifty cents on the $100 valuation, unless 
two-thirds of the voters shall assent to the levy of a larger sum. Neither 
can the school tax in country districts exceed forty cents on the $100 
without the consent of the tax-payers, to be obtained by a vote of the ma- 
jority of the residents. 

COMPARATIVE TAX RATE. 

It will be interesting to note how the tax rate of our own state com- 
pares with that of adjoining states. 

The average tax levy for all purposes in Missouri is about $1.30 on the 
$100; adding to this 70 cents on the $100 for the payment of bonded 
indebtedness where it exists, there is an average of $2 on the $100 as 
the rate, and a certainty of its steady decrease. This is given as an average, 
and while in a few counties the tax rate is higher, in the majority it is 
much lower. 

By the report of the state auditor of Kansas, for the year ending June 
30, 1878, the tax levy for state purposes is shown to be 55 cents on the 
$100, and the average levy for local debts and expenses $3.82 on the $100, 
making a total average tax of $4.37 on the $100. The taxable property 
of Kansas in 1878 aggregated the sum of $13S,698,S10.98, and the local 
indebtedness was reported by the state auditor at $13,473,197.51. In 
Nebraska the tax levy for state purposes alone is 62-| cents on the $100, 
exclusive of taxes to pay local debts and expenses. 

In Iowa, the average rate of taxation for the year 1878 was $2.67 on the 
$100. In Illinois the tax levy for 1877, the last given in the auditor's 
report, was $3.24 on the $100, and the local indebtedness of that state 
was then the sum of $51,811,691. 

Thus, it is clear that Missouri has a lower rate of taxation than any of 
the neighboring states above mentioned; and, in addition to this, under 
her wise constitutional provision, the rate of taxation must continually 
decrease every year, until only a sufficient amount of taxes to liquidate 
current expenses will be collected. 

There are twenty counties that have no indebtedness whatever, and 
forty more the debt of which is merely nominal ; so that their burden of 
taxation will be lighter than in any other portion of the United States. 



46 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



FEDERAL AFFAIRS IN THE STATE. 



FEDERAL COURTS. 

The United States is divided into nine supreme court circuits, to each of 
which one of the supreme court judges is assigned. Missouri is now in 
the eighth circuit, which includes Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Nebraska and Colorado; and George W. McCrary, of Iowa, 
who was secretary of war, in President Hayes' cabinet, is now the 
judge of this circuit. Missouri is divided into an east and west United 
States judicial district; and Samuel Treat, of St. Louis, is United States 
judge of the east district, while Arnold Krekel, of Jefferson City, presides 
over the west district. 

FEDERAL REVENUE. 

Missouri paid the following amounts of internal revenue to the United 
States during the year ending June 30, 1880: On distilled spirits, $2,151,- 
643.98; on tobacco, $2,391,989.93; on fermented liquors, $711,654.53; on 
banking, $182,929.25; on other items, $1,360.27. Total, $5,448,344.83. 
Illinois, Kentucky, New York and Ohio were the only states which paid 
a larger sum of revenue on spirits; Illinois, New Jersey, New York, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia paid larger on tobacco; Illinois, New 
York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin paid larger on fermented 
liquors (chiefly lager beer); California, New York and Pennsylvania are 
the only states which paid larger on banking transactions. 

In 1878, Missouri paid $115,729.64 as penalties for violation of U. 
S. internal revenue laws, which was the highest amount on this item paid 
by any state — the next highest being Pennsylvania, which w r as " caught 
at it" to the amount of $27,867.20. 

U. 8. LANDS AND LAND OFFICES. 

There are now three U. S. land offices in Missouri, to-wit: at Boon- 
ville, Ironton and Springfield. The report of the general land office for 
1879 showed 41,836,931 acres of government land still open to home- 
stead entry in Missouri. 

LEGAL TENDER IN MISSOURI. 

Gold coins of the United States (unmutilated), and the " greenback" 
paper currency are legal tender for the payment of any possible amount 
of indebtedness. Silver coins are legal tender for any amount not exceed- 
ing $10 at one payment — but the standard silver dollar is legal tender for 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 47 

any amount, unless the contract specially provides otherwise. The baser 
coins of nickel, copper and alloy (3 cent pieces), are legal tender for any 
sum not exceeding 25 cents. The "trade dollar," and national bank 
notes are not legal tender; neither is any foreign coin, either of gold or 
silver, nor the u stamped bullion " gold pieces of California. 

U. S. 'CUSTOM HOUSE. 

St. Louis is a port of entry for foreign goods; and the imports received 
here during the year 1880, amounted to (foreign value), $1,401,180; on 
which the import duties paid was $537,257.83. A fine custom house 
building is in process of erection, and will be completed in 1881. 

MILITARY. 

In the south part of St. Louis, on the river, there is a United States 
arsenal, and six miles below the city,^fefferson Barracks are situated, a sta- 
tion for a small part of the regular army. A few squares from the 
arsenal there is a United States marine hospital. 



MISSOURI'S DISTINGUISHED MEN. 

Within our allotted space we can only give a brief sketch of those citi- 
zens of Missouri who have so pre-eminently distinguished themselves as 
to have achieved a solid national, and in some cases a world-wide fame. 
First among these is — 

Daniel Boone. The adventures of this famous hunter and Indian 
fighter have become a staple part of the world's perennial stock of daring 
exploits and hair-breadth escapes. He was born in Bucks county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 11, 1735; emigrated to North Carolina and there mar- 
ried. In 1773 he emigrated with his own and five other families to Ken- 
tucky, and founded the present town of Boonesborough. In 1795 he 
removed to the Missouri river country, and settled in St. Charles county, 
about forty-five miles west of St. Louis, where he died in 1820, aged 85. 
His remains, together with those of his wife, were many years after- 
ward removed to Boonesborough, Kentucky, and a monument reared 
over them. 

Thomas H. Benton. Col. Benton was, in his lifetime, recognized as 
one of the foremost statesmen of the nation, and the hearts of all good 
Missourians kindle with pride at the mention of his name. He was a 
specimen type of the best sort of Democrat; he always stood with Gen. 



48 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

Jackson and opposed the state-rights doctrines of John C. Calhoun; in 
congress he opposed the repeal of the "Missouri Compromise;" and during 
Gen. Jackson's presidency Col. Benton was so vigorous a champion of 
hard money, as against the old U. S. bank swindle, that he came to be 
familiarly known all over the United States as "Old Bullion." Col. Benton 
was born near Hillsborough, North Carolina, March 14, 17S2; studied law 
at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1810. In the war of 1S12 he served as a Colonel 
under Gen. Jackson ; settled at St. Louis in 1815. In 1S20 he was elected as 
the first U. S. Senator from Missouri, and continued to be re-elected every 
term for thirty years; the longest period that any man in the nation has 
filled a senatorial seat. In 1852-3 he served one term as member of con- 
gress from the first district. In 1856 he was defeated in his candidacy for 
governor by the state-rights party, to whose doctrines he was strongly 
opposed, from the time of the nullification acts of South Carolina in 1832, 
up to the day of his death. In 1S54 he published his great work, "Thirty 
Years in the United States Senate," in two large volumes, and these are 
held in high esteem as standard authority by politicians and statesmen of 
every class. Col. Benton died April 10, 1858, mourned by the whole 
nation as one of her worthiest sons. 

James B. Eads, a citizen of St. Louis. His marvelous achievements as 
a civil engineer have made his name familiar in all civilized countries on 
the face of the earth; and his last great work, the jetties at the mouth of 
the Mississippi river, has revolutionized the commerce of three continents. 
Mr. Eads was born at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, May 28, 1S20; emigrated 
with his parents to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1829; and in 1S33 settled at 
St. Louis. In July, 1861, the government advertised for seven gun-boats 
of about 600 tons burden, drawing not over six feet of water, plated with 
iron 2^ inches thick, to steam nine miles an hour, and carry thirteen guns.* 
Mr. Eads contracted to build those seven vessels in sixty-five days. At 
this time the timber for them stood uncut in the forest; the iron for their 
plating was still in the mines, and no machine yet in existence of capacity 
to roll such enormous plates; and not a pound of iron or steel yet wrought 
or cast for the construction of the twenty-one steam engines and thirty- 
five boilers required to propel the fleet. But within twenty-four hours 
from the signing of the contract at Washington, he had all the iron works, 
foundries and machine shops of St. Louis, started on the work; and inside 
of two weeks he had more than 4,000 men working in alternate gangs by 
night and day, Sundays included, so that not an hour should be lost. The 
boats were built at St. Louis, but the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota and Missouri were all drawn upon for material, 
while large works in Cincinnati and Pittsburg were also whirling every 

*See Major Boynton's "History of the United States' Navy." 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 49 

wheel to hasten forward the great undertaking, all being under the direc- 
tion and control by telegraph or in person of this one man; and he filled 
the contract. The world's history shows no parallel to the wonderful 
mastery of resources and the tremendous vigor of executive and super- 
visory talent which this achievement involved. He projected, planned 
and built the magnificent railroad bridge across the Mississippi river at 
St Louis, which ranks among the greatest works of its kind on this round 
globe. He projected and built the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi, 
which enable the largest sea-going vessels to pass in and out freely, thus 
making possible the barge system of shipping grain and other products 
from St. Louis and Kansas City direct to foreign countries, and which 
has within two years revolutionized the entire international commerce of 
the Mississippi and Missouri valley states. He is now engaged in devel- 
oping a ship railway across the Isthmus of Panama, which will take the 
heaviest loaded ships into a dry-dock on wheels and trundle them from 
ocean to ocean, as easily and safely as they are now towed through the 
ship canal at Suez. 

Carl Schurz. Born near Cologne, Prussia, March 2, 1829; educated 
at the University of Bonn ; took part in the revolutionary agitations of 
Europe in 1848 and following years, involving Germany, Austria, Italy, 
Hungary, etc.; and in which Kossuth in Hungary, and Garibaldi in Italy 
were prominent leaders, whose names are familiar to and honored by all 
Americans. Mr. Schurz came to the United States in 1852; settled as a 
lawyer at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1859; in 1861 was appointed minister 
to Spain; resigned and came home, and in 1862-3-4, was a major-gen- 
eral of volunteers in the Union army. In 1867 he settled at St. Louis as 
editor of the Westliche Post; was United States senator from Mis- 
souri from 1869 to 1875, and was secretary of the interior in President 
Hayes' cabinet. Mr. Schurz has thus won the highest positions ever held 
in the United States by any foreign-born citizen, and has reflected honor 
upon Missouri, his adopted state, by his masterful ability as a public 
speaker, and his strong, earnest, humanitarian efforts as an executive offi- 
cer. 

Prof. Charles V. Riley, was born in London, England, September 
12, 1843; came to the United States in 1860. In 1868 established in St. 
Louis, in company with Benjamin D. Walsh, a scientific journal called the 
American Entomologist, and was the same year appointed state entomol- 
ogist of Missouri ; this position he filled to the great benefit and honor of 
the state for eight years; then he was called to come up higher, and took 
position as entomologist of the national department of agriculture at 
Washington. Prof. Riley's valuable investigations and discoveries with 
regard to the Colorado beetle (potato bug), the Rocky Mountain locust 
4 



50 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

(grasshoppers), the cotton worm, and the phylloxera, or grape insect, have 
placed his name in the foremost ranks in the world of science, and among 
the greatest of benefactors to the agricultural and horticultural industries 
of the world. This he achieved while serving Missouri as state entomol- 
ogist, and through the publication by the state of his annual reports. 
Hence, the name and good repute of our noble commonwealth is insepar- 
ably associated with his honor and fame, which has reached the farthest 
confines of every land where potatoes, cotton or grapes are cultivated. 



MISSOURI IN THE CIVIL WAR. 

Missouri was powerfully agitated by the controversy on the slavery 
question in 1818-19-20, which resulted in the "Missouri Compromise." 
This was a compact, mainly carried through congress by the eloquence 
and influence of the great senator, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, by which 
it was agreed that Missouri should be admitted to the Union as a slave- 
holding state ; but that slavery should be forever excluded from any states 
which might thereafter be formed out of new territory west of the western 
boundary of Missouri, and north of the parallel of 36 degrees, 30 minutes 
of north latitude. This line practically corresponds with the southern 
boundary of Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado and Utah, 
as they now stand. 

In May, 1854, congress passed a bill organizing the territories of 
Kansas and Nebraska, in which it was declared that the Missouri Com- 
promise of 1820 did not apply to them. This was an indirect way of 
repealing or rendering nugatory the bargain made between the northern 
and the southern states in that compromise; and the floodgates of angry 
debate, contention and strife were at once opened. This became the issue 
upon which all elections turned. Instead of slavery being prohibited, as the 
compromise of 1820 had declared it should be, it was thrown open for the 
territorial legislature to decide whether it should be free or slave territory. 
In view of this, there was a rush and race of settlers from the free states 
and the slave states into Kansas, to see which party should get control of 
the first territorial legislature; and in this movement Missouri, as a slave 
state, took a prominent part. It was a border country conflict, and there- 
was illegality and violence on both sides, making a chapter in our state 
history the details of which might profitably be dropped out and forgotten. 
Suffice to say, the free state party carried the election; and this conflict 
was a precursor of the great civil war. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 51 

In 1860 C. F. Jackson was elected governor of Missouri. Abraham 
Lincoln had been elected President of the United States at the same time. 
Governor Jackson took his seat January 4, 1S61; the question of secession 
was then already in warm discussion in some of the southern states, and 
Governor Jackson in his inaugural address maintained that " Missouri 
must stand bv the other slave-holding states, whatever course thev mav 
pursue." The general assembly ordered an election to be held February 
18th, for members of a state convention; the proposed object of this con- 
vention was " to consider the then existing relations between the United 
States, the people and government of the different states, and the govern- 
ment and people of the state of Missouri; and to adopt such measures for 
vindicating the sovereignty of the state and the protection of its institutions 
as shall appear to them to be demanded." This convention met, first at 
Jefferson City, and afterward at St. Louis, and had a decided majority of 
Unionists — that is, of men opposed to secession; some because they 
believed in the doctrine of " Federal Nationality," as against the doctrine 
called "State Rights;" others because, like A. H. Stevens, of Georgia, 
they saw with a clear eye that secession must inevitably result in the 
overthrow of slavery. And thus the Union men themselves were strongly 
divided into northern and southern sympathizers. The convention sat at 
St. Louis, without any important results, from March 9th to 2'2d, when it 
adjourned, subject to the call of its committee on federal relations. 

National events rushed on rapidly to a crisis which would admit of no 
temporizing. In April, Fort Sumter was fired upon; President Lincoln 
called for 75,000 troops ; and men must now take sides for or against the 
national sovereignty of the lawfully constituted Federal authorities. Our 
legislature was in session; its measures and discussions were almost 
entirely of the "State Rights" type; and in a message to the legislature 
on May 3, 1861, Governor Jackson said the President's call for troops "is 
unconstitutional and illegal, tending toward a consolidated despotism. * * 
Our interest and sympathies are identical with those of the slave-holding 
states, and necessarily unite our destinv with theirs." While these 
influences were working in the central and western parts of the state, and 
organizations of " state guards " were being rapidly formed to resist the 
federal authority, Gen. Nathaniel Lyon and Col. F. P. Blair were actively 
enlisting men and organizing regiments in St. Louis and vicinity, to main- 
tain the federal authority. The most intense alarm and consternation 
prevailed ihroughout the state. Several minor conflicts occurred between 
state militia or "guards" and Union troops, all hinging upon the question 
of which power had the right of paramount sovereignty. The state 
troops were mostly under command of General Sterling Price, subordinate 
only to the governor of the state; while the federal troops were under 



52 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

command of General Lyon, by authority of the President of the United 
States.* 

Governor Jackson finally tried to make terms with Gen. Lyon, that no 
federal troops should be stationed in or allowed to pass through the 
state. This was refused; and the governor then immediately issued a 
formal call, June 12, for 50,000 state militia. About April 20th, nearly 
two months before this, the " state guards " had seized the United States 
arsenal at Liberty, in Clay county, and taken its stores and arms for 
their own use. This was several weeks before the celebrated "Camp 
Jackson" affair. The wager of battle was now fairly joined in Missouri 
between different parties of her own citizens, although volunteers from 
other states soon began to pour in. The following is a chronological list 
of the more important actions and events: 

April 12, 1S61. — Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter, which was 
yielded up and evacuated on the 14th. 

April i j. — President Lincoln's proclamation, calling for 75,000 volun- 
teers to sustain the government, and calling a special session of congress. 

y^ SUCCEEDING EVENTS IN MISSOURI.+ 

April ip. — Gov. Jackson wrote to David Walker, President of the 
Arkansas Convention, thus: "I have been from the beginning in favor of 
decided and prompt action on the part of the southern states, but the 
majority of the people of Missouri, up to the present time, have differed 
with me. " 

April 20. — The U. S. arsenal, at Liberty, in Clay county, was seized 
and garrisoned by about a hundred "state guards," and the arms and 
cannon were distributed to their friends throughout the county, with the 
concurrence of the governor.;}: 

April 22. — Governor Jackson officially resented the president's call for 
troops, and called an extra session of the legislature, to arm and equip 
state troops. State militia ordered to go into encampment on May 3, for 
one week. 

* It is not the purpose of this history to give a detailed narrative of events of the war 
time; neither to discuss the right or the wrong of the views of either party in the conflict. 
We only give a brief mention of some of the most important incidents and leading actors, 
to show how and wherein the people of Missouri were themselves divided in opinion, 
what motives moved them, and what events stand out as of chief historic celebrity. 
Indeed, we would gladly skip this period of our state history entirely, if it were permissible 
in such a work. 

fThe events here given, in their chronological order, have been collated from more 
than thirty different volumes containing different items or parts of Missouri's war history. 
The narratives, dates and statistics were found often conflicting; and we have endeavored 
to use those only which seemed to be the best authenticated, or the most probable under 
the circumstances — and to localize events as closely as possible by naming the towns, 
streams, counties, etc., where they occurred. 

JThe governor had already (April 20th) seized the United States arsenal at Liberty, and 
had distributed among his friends the arms it contained. "—Draper's History of the Civil 
War, Vol. II, p. 228. 



HISTORY- OF" THE STATE OF' MISSOURI. 53 

April 25, Night. — Capt. Lyon secretly removed the war stores in U. 
S. arsenal at St. Louis, by steamboat, over to Alton, Illinois. 

April 28. — Gov. Jackson wrote secretly to J k W. Tucker, Esq., of St. 
Louis: "I want a little time to arm the state, and I am assuming every 
responsibility to do it with all possible dispatch. * * * We should 
keep our own counsels. * * * Nothing should be said about the time 
or the manner in which Missouri should go out. That she ought to go, 
and will go at the proper time, I have no doubt. She ought to have 
gone last winter, when she could have seized the public arms and public 
property and defended herself. " * 

May j. — Legislature met. Governor Jackson denounced the presi- 
dent's call for troops as " unconstitutional and illegal. " Mean wnile Col. 
F. P. Blair, Jr., member of congress from the 1st district, of St. Louis, 
had enlisted one full regiment, and had four others in course of organiza- 
tion, within ten days from the issue of the president's call. 

May 10. — A body of " state guards," under command of Gen. D. M. 
Frost, acting under Governor Jackson's authority, had established a camp 
near St. Louis, called "Camp Jackson." Capt. Lyon, who had been 
since February in charge of the U. S. arsenal at St. Louis, with a few 
soldiers of the regular army (less than 500), discovered that the Camp 
Jackson men were receiving arms and ammunition by steamboats from 
the south, in boxes marked " marble. " Accordingly, on the morning of 
May 10th, he with his regulars, and Col. Blair with his Missouri volun- 
teers, surrounded, surprised and captured the camp, taking as prisoners 
of war 639 privates and 50 officers. The arms captured consisted of 20 
cannon, 1200 new rifles, several chests of muskets, and large quantities of 
shot, shell, cartridges, etc. 

May 12. — Gen. Wm. S. Harney took command of the Union forces in 
Missouri. Meanwhile the legislature had passed an act making every 
able-bodied man subject to military duty. All public revenues for 1860-61 
(about $3,000,000) were authorized to be used by the governor for military 
purposes. 

May 21. — Gen. Harney made a truce or compromise of peace with 
Gen. Price, commander of the state troops. 

June 1. — The president repudiated Gen. Harney's truce with Price; 
also removed him from his command and gave it to Gen. Lyon, who had 
on May 17th been appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers. 

'June 4. — Governor Jackson issued a circular claiming the Harney- 
Price compact to be still in force. 

'June 11. — Gen. Price and Gov. Jackson sought a "peace conference" 
with Gen. Lyon and Col. Blair. The governor stipulated as a vital con- 

*See official address of the state convention, issued to the people July 31, 1861. ' 






54 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

dition of peace, that no Federal troops should be stationed in or pass 
through Missouri. The proposition was rejected. 

yunc 12. — Gasconade railroad bridge burnt; also, Osage river bridge; 
and telegraph lines cut that connected with St. Louis. 

yunc ij. — Governor Jackson issued a call for 50,000 state militia, to repel 
federal invasion; referred to the president as " the military despotism which 
has introduced itself at Washington;" and said to the people, "your first 
allegiance is due to your own state." He appointed ex-Governor Ster- 
ling Price as major general; and M. L. Clark, John B. Clark, Parsons, 
Slack, Harris, Rains, McBride, Stein and Jeff. Thomson, as brigadier- 
generals. The state militia were called to rendezvous at Boonville and 
Lexington. The governor and other officers left Jefferson Citv for Boon- 
ville this day,* while at the same time General Lyon was embarking with 
1,500 men at St. Louis, to take and hold the state capital. 

yunc ij. — General Lyon arrived at Jefferson City. 

yunc 16. — Re-embarked his troops for Boonville. 

yunc iy. — Battle of Boonville. Colonel Marmaduke defeated. State 
troops retreated to Warsaw, with loss of fifty killed. Federal loss, two 
killed. 

yunc 18-19. — Colonel O'Kane, with 350 state militia, surprised in the 
night, a half-formed Union regiment at Cole Camp, in Benton county, under 
Capt. Cook. Pollard's " Southern History " says, in this affair the Union- 
ists lost 206 killed, a large number wounded, and over 100 taken prison- 
ers, beside 362 muskets captured; O'Kane lost 15 killed and 20 wounded. 

yuly j. — Governor Jackson and General Price were at Montevallo, in 
Vernon county, with (Pollard says) 3,600 state troops. 

yuly j-6. — Battle of Carthage (or Dry Fork), in Jasper county; union 
loss, 13 killed and 31 wounded; state troops, under Price and Jackson, 
lost about 300 killed and wounded. Gen. Seigel, the union commander, 
fell back sixty miles, to Springfield and joined Gen. Lyon. 

yuly 8.— A small fight occurred at Bird's Point, in Mississippi county. 
Confederates lost 3 killed and S wounded. Federal loss, if any, not reported. 

yuly 22. — The state convention, which had adjourned subject to the 
call of its committee on federal relations, re-convened at Jeflerson City. 

yuly 2j. — Maj. Gen. Fremont arrived at St. Louis, as commander of 
the western department, which comprised Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, 
Kansas, and the territories westward. 

yuly jo. — State convention, by a vote of 56 to 25, declared the state 
offices and seats in legislature vacant, by reason of their occupants being 
engaged in treasonable and armed hostilities against the lawfully consti- 

" *The capture of Camp Jackson and the flight of the chief executive from the capital, 
was the occasion of a partial destruction of the Osage and Gasconade bridges [railroad], as 
well as those over Gray's creek, west of Jefferson City." — Annual report of state commis- 
sioner of statistics, 1806, p. 255. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 55 

tuted federal authorities, and that all legislative and executive acts in pur 
suance of such treason or armed hostility, pretended to be done in the 
name and by authority of the state of Missouri, zvcre null and void. 
They elected to fill the state office vacancies, H. R. Gamble, governor; 
W. P. Hall, lieutenant governor; Mordecai Oliver, secretary of state; 
and appointed the first Monday of November as a day of general election. 

'July J i. — Lieut. Governor Reynolds, whose office had been declared 
vacant by the state convention, issued a proclamation, dated at New Mad- 
rid, July 31, in which he said: " I return to the state, to accompany in 
my official capacity, one of the armies which the warrior statesman [Jef- 
ferson Davis], whose genius now presides over the affairs of our half of 
the Union, has prepared to advance against the common foe. * * 

You behold the most warlike population on the globe, the people of the 
lower Mississippi valley, about to rush with their gleaming bowie-knives 
and unerring rifles, to aid us in driving out the abolitionists and their Hes- 
sion allies. * * The road to peace and internal security is only 
through union with the south. * Rally to the stars and bars, 

in union with the glorious ensign of the grizzly bear."* 

August 2. — Battle of Dug Springs, in Lawrence county. General 
McCulloch, of Arkansas, in command of Confederates, marching to 
attack Springfield, was checked, and fell back to Sarcoxie; loss, 40 killed, 
44 wounded. General Lyon fell back to Springfield; loss, 8 killed, 30 
wounded. 

August j. — Confederate troops under Col. Martin E. Green, attacked 
Missouri state militia, under Col. Moore, at Athens, in Clark county, and 
were defeated with a loss of 43 killed. 

August 6. — Governor Jackson, being now at Carthage, and just hear- 
ing of the action of the state convention, also issued a proclamation, de- 
claring the union between Missouri and the other states totally dissolved, 
and proclaiming the state of Missouri to be " a sovereign, free and inde- 
pendent republic." 

August io.— Battle of Wilson's Creek. Gen. Lyon, Federal, had 
5,500 infantry, 400 cavalry, and 18 cannon. Gen. McCulloch, Confeder- 
ate, says that his "effective force was 5,300 infantry, 15 pieces of artillery, 
and 6,000 horsemen." (The Union officers imagined and reported more 
than double this number against them; one said 23,000, and another 
24,000.) The Confederates lost 421 killed, 1,317 wounded and 30 mis- 
sing. The Federals reported 223 killed, 721 wounded and 292 missing, 
and 5 cannon lost. Gen. Lyon was killed in this engagement. 

August 14.. — Federals evacuated Springfield and retreated to Rolla, but 

*Early in March the confederate congress had adopted the " stars and bars " as the flag 
of their confederacy. The state seal of Missouri has two grizzly bears among its emblems. 



56 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

were not pursued. Earthwork fortifications were this day commenced 
around St. Louis. 

August ji. — Gen. Fremont issued a general order proclaiming martial 
law in Missouri; the property of all persons who had taken up arms 
against the United States was declared to be confiscated, and " their 
slaves to be free men" (President Lincoln at once annulled this last 
clause.) 

September ij. — Siege of Lexington commenced by Gen. Price. His 
force has been variously estimated from 22,000 to 28,000, with 13 cannon. 
Col. Mulligan, Federal, had 2,780 troops, with six brass cannon, 
two howitzers, and forty rounds of ammunition. The same day, at 
Boonville, the Confederates, led by Col. Brown, attacked the Federal gar- 
rison in command of Col. Eppstein, and were repulsed with a loss of 12 
killed and 30 wounded; Federal loss, 1 killed and 4 wounded. 

September ij. — Battle of Blue Mills Landing, or Missouri Bottom, in 
Clay county. A body of Confederates, variously estimated at 600 to 1,000 
men, were on their way to join Gen. Price, at Lexington ; and being pur- 
sued by a body of TOO Iowa and Missouri Unionist volunteers, they laid 
in ambush, and were attacked. The Federals lost 16 killed and 80 
w r ounded; the Confederates lost 10 killed and 60 wounded, repulsed their 
assailants, and then crossed over to Blue Mills, in Jackson county, on the 
south side of the Missouri, and marched on to Lexington. 

September zS-zp. — Main battle of Lexington. 

September 20. — Col. Mulligan surrendered. Gen. Price honorably rec- 
ognized the pluck and splendid heroism of his opponents, who were out 
of both provisions and ammunition, and for two days had had no water 
except the night dews which settled in their blankets and was wrung out 
into camp dishes in the morning. He released the privates on parole, but 
retained the officers as prisoners. Of the Federals there were 42 killed 
and 108 wounded. Gen. Price reported 25 killed and 72 wounded, from 
his regular muster rolls. But nearly half the men there with him were 
not formally enrolled as soldiers, and the losses among them could never 
be ascertained with any certainty, though known to be pretty large. 

September 2Z. — A fight occurred at Papinsville, in Bates county, in 
which, as reported, 17 Unionists were killed, and 40 Confederates killed 
and 100 captured. 

September 27. — Gen. Fremont left St. Louis for Jefferson City, in pur- 
suit of Price, with an army of 15,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 86 
pieces of artillery; his chief officers were Generals Hunter, Pope, Siegel, 
McKinstrv and Asboth. But Price was too good a general to be caught 
at a disadvantage ; he however skillfully managed to lead the Federals on 
w r ild goose chases after him all over southern Missouri. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 57 

October ij. — Secretary of War Cameron, and Adj't. Gen. Thomas, 

visited Fremont at Tipton. 

On the same day the Federal garrison at Lebanon, in LaClede county, 

was attacked unsuccessfully by Confederates, who lost 27 killed, 12 

wounded, and 36 taken prisoners. Federal loss, 1 killed and several 

wounded. 

October 14. — On this day Fremont's army reported thus: 

1st division, Gen. Hunter, at Tipton 9,750 men 

2d " Gen Pope, at Georgetown 9,220 men 

3d " Gen. Siegel, at Sedalia 7,980 men 

4th " Gen. Asboth, at Tipton 6,451 men 

5th " Gen. McKinstry, at Syracuse 5,388 men 

Total 38,789 men 

They were all hunting for Gen. Price, to give him battle ; he was not 
yet ready for a pitched battle, but he worried the Federals a great deal by 
decoying them into many a long and fruitless march. 

About this time several small fights occurred in different parts of the 
state, but of which few particulars can be obtained. The " American 
Annual Cyclopedia," for 1861, gives the following statistics: Oct. 15, 
Big River bridge, Federal loss, 1 killed, 7 wounded, 52 missing; Confed- 
erate loss, 20 killed, 4 wounded. October 16, Bolivar Heights [in Polk 
county], Federal loss, 7 killed; Confederate loss, 150 killed. Oct. 17, 
Pilot Knob, Federal loss, 1 killed, 10 wounded; Confederate loss, 36 
killed. Oct. 19, Big Harrison Creek, Federal loss, 2 killed, 14 wounded; 
Confederate loss, 14 killed, 8 missing. Oct. 23, West Liberty [in Putnam 
county], Federal loss, 2 wounded; Confederate loss, 15 killed, 30 wounded.* 

October 16. — Recapture of Lexington by Major White, releasing Union 
prisoners, including two colonels of Mulligan's brigade. 

October 21. — Battle of Fredericktown, in Madison county. Confeder- 
ate Col. Jeff Thompson was defeated with loss of 200 killed, and made a 
hasty retreat, leaving 60 of his dead behind him. Federal loss, 30 killed. 

October 24. — Battle of Springfield. Major Zagonyi, with 300 cavalry, 
known as " Fremont's Body Guard, " attacked an irregular force estima- 
ted at 1,200 foot and 400 horsemen, and defeated them, losing 84 of his 
men killed or wounded; 100 of his troops were Kentuckians. The Con- 
federate loss was known to be considerable, but could never be fully ascer- 
tained; their dead were buried the next day, under a flag of truce. 

October 2j. — Gen. Siegel reached Springfield with his division. Fre- 
mont was concentrating his army at Springfield, to fortify and hold it as 

*In the greater number of battles in this state the Federals had the advantage of more 
artillery than the Confederates, and men better skilled in its use; and this is why the 
losses on the Confederate side so often seem out of proportion. 

3 



58 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

the key to southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas, where Price 
and McCulloch were operating. 

November 2. — Fremont was removed from command and Gen. Hunter 
placed in his stead. 

November 2. — A shaVp fight occurred on Bee Creek, between Weston 
and Platte City, in Platte county; the Confederate loss is given as 13 killed 
and 30 missing; Federal loss not known. 

November 7. — Gen. Hunter evacuated Springfield and fell back to Rolla. 
This same day the baftle of Belmont occurred; Federal loss, 84 killed, 
388 wounded, and 285 taken prisoners. Pollard's "Southern History" 
says the Confederate loss in this battle was 632. But the National Hand- 
Book reports the Confederate losses as 261 killed, 427 wounded, and 278 
missing. 

November 18. — Gen. H. W. Halleck arrived at St. Louis and took com- 
mand, in place of Gen. Hunter. 

November 21. — Gen. Halleck issued an order that no fugitive slaves should 
be permitted to enter the lines of any camp, nor of any forces on the march. 
(President Lincoln had some time before this annulled Gen. Fremont's 
order declaring certain slaves free.) 

November 27. — Gen. J. M. Scbofield placed in command of Missouri 
Federal troops. 

November and December. — During these months there occurred several 
irregular conflicts of no great importance, but still deemed worthy of cas- 
ual mention in Horace Greely's History of the War, because they served 
to show how the Missouri people were divided among themselves, and 
thereby suffered the more. The village of Warsaw was burned Nov. 19, 
and Platte City, Dec. 16, by guerillas; a small fight occurred at Salem 
Dec. 3, at Rogers' mill Dec. 7, and at or near Glasgow, Potosi, Lexing- 
ton, Mount Zion, and Sturgeon, on Dec. 28th. 

December J. — Col. Freeman with a regiment of Confederate cavalry, 
made a night attack on Federal troops under Col. Bowen, near Salem, in 
Dent county, and was defeated, with a loss of 16 killed, 20 wounded and 
10 prisoners. Federal loss, 3 killed, 8 wounded, 2 missing. Col. Free- 
man had suffered a sore defeat near Springer's mill, in the east part of 
the county, in August; but no further particulars could be obtained. 

December 13. — Gen. Pope captured 300 recruits and 70 wagons loaded 
with supplies, going from Lexington to join Gen. Price, who was then at 
Osceola with 8,000 men. 

December 18. — Col. J. C. Davis, of Pope's army, surprised a Confeder- 
ate camp at Milford, and captured 3 colonels, 17 captains, 1,300 soldiers, 
1,000 stand of arms, 1,000 horses, besides all their tents, baggage and 
supplies. Federal loss, 2 killed, 17 wounded. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 59 

December 20. — By a concerted night attack, the Hannibal & St. Joe 
railroad was broken, and bridges destroyed for about a hundred miles* 

OPERATIONS IN 1862. 

March j. — Price and McCulloch,*at Boston Mountain, Arkansas, were 
joined by Maj. Gen. Van Dorn, Confederate commander of the Trans- 
Mississippi department, and by Gen. Pike, with a brigade of Indians from 
the Indian Territory. This army now numbered about 20,000, all under 
Gen. Van Dorn. 

March y-8.— Battle of Pea Ridge. Although Pea Ridge is really in 
Arkansas (just over the line), the battle was fought by the Confederates 
to regain a foothold in Missouri, and it properly belongs to the history of 
Missouri military operations. The Federal forces under Gen. Curtis 
engaged in this battle were 10,500 men and 49 cannon. Gen. Van Dorn's 
army is variously given by different southern authorities, all the way 
from 16,000 to 30,000. The Federal loss was 203 killed, 972 wounded, 176 
missing. Count Paris' history states that the Confederates "left more 
than one thousand men in killed and wounded upon that long-contested 
battle-field." The Confederate Generals McCulloch and Mcintosh were 
mortally wounded in this battle, and Gen. Buckner was captured. The 
Confederates lost 1,100 killed, 2,500 wounded, and 1,600 taken prisoners. 

August 6.— Battle of Kirksville. Col. Porter, with 2,000 or 3,000 Con- 
federates, mostly raw recruits who had been destroying bridges, was 
attacked by Col. McNeil with 1,000 cavalry and 6 cannon. Battle lasted 
four hours. Confederates retreated, with loss of 180 killed and 500 
wounded, and some wagon loads of arms and other supplies. Federal 
loss, 28 killed and 60 wounded. 

August io. — Federals attacked 1,200 Confederates under Col. Poindex- 
ter while crossing the Chariton river. After a running fight of three or 
four days, Col. Poindexter's troops were all killed, captured or dispersed, 
and himself taken prisoner. 

August ii. — Col. Hughes captured the Federal garrison of 312 men of 
the 7th Missouri cavalry, stationed at Independence. 

August i j. — Battle of Lone Jack, in Jackson county. Col. Coffey and 
Col. Hughes, with 4,500 men, attacked the Federals under Major Foster, 
wounding him, capturing his two cannon, and compelling him to retreat 
to Lexington. The victorious Confederates were in turn pursued by 

. u *By order of Gen. Sterling Price, it [the North Missouri Railroad] was partially 
destroyed in June and July, 1861; and 6n the 20th of December, 1861, for a hundred miles, 
every bridge and culvert was broken down, and a perfect wreck made of everything that 
could be destroyed. In September and October, 1864, two trains of cars and seven depots 
were burned, and several engines injured." — Annual Report State Commissioner of Statis- 
tics, 1866 ; p. 258. 



60 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

stronger bodies of the National troops, and rapidly retreated toward 
Arkansas. 

September 24.. — Gen. Curtis placed in command of all Union troops in 
Missouri. 

October 1. — Battle of Newtonia, in Newton county. Gen. Salomon, of 
Wisconsin, was defeated by Confederate cavalry. Losses not known. 
Gen. Hindman was advancing from Arkansas with 13,000 to 20,000 Con- 
federates, poorly armed. Gen. Schofield came up with 10,000 troops to 
attack him at Newtonia, but he retreated back into Arkansas, closely 
pursued by the Federals. 

December 7. — Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. This, being just over the 
line, was practically a Missouri battle ; it was fought between the same 
armies which had been so long contending for the mastery in this state. 
Our own state Generals, Marmaduke, Parsons and Frost, were in com- 
mand, under Gen. Hindman. The Federal commanders were Generals 
Blunt and Herron. Federal loss, 495 killed, 600 wounded ; the Confeder- 
ates lost 1,500 in killed and wounded, and suffered a defeat. 

events in 1863. 

January 8. — Battle of Springfield. General Brown with 1,200 Mis- 
souri State militia, was attacked by Gen. Marmaduke with 1,870 Confed- 
erate troops. The battle lasted eight hours. Federal loss, 14 killed, 145 
wounded, 5 missing. Confederates lost, 41 killed and 160 wounded, 80 
of the latter being left as prisoners. 

"January II. — Battle of Hartsville. Firing commenced at 11 A. m., and 
continued until 4:30 p. m. Confederates under Generals Marmaduke and 
Porter lost 300 killed and wounded, and 29 taken prisoners. Among the 
killed were Gen. McDonald and Col. Porter, besides six other officers. The 
Federals were under Col. Samuel Merrill, (afterward Governor of Iowa), 
and lost 7 killed, 64 wounded and 7 missing. The Confederates retreated 
back into Arkansas. 

March 28. — Steamboat " Sam. Gaty " captured by Confederates at 
Sibley's landing, near Independence. 

April 26. — The Federal garrison at Cape Girardeau under Gen. Mc- 
Neil was attacked by Gen. Marmaduke with 10,000 men, and a battle of 
five hours ensued, in which the assailants lost 60 killed and over 300 
wounded. They retreated back into Arkansas, being pursued to the state 
line by Missouri militia, and a few more were killed or captured. 

May ij. — Gen. Schofield was placed in command in Missouri, succeed- 
ing Gen. Curtis. 

August ij. — Col. Coffey, Confederate, attacked the 6th Missouri cav- 
alry under Col. Catherwood, at Pineville, in McDonald county, and was 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 61 

repulsed, with loss of 200 killed, wounded and prisoners, besides his 
wagons, munitions and cattle. 

October i j. — Battle near Arrow Rock, Saline county. Confederates 
reported 2,500 in number, under Cols. Shelby and Coffey, were attacked 
by Missouri state militia under Gen. E. B. Brown, and defeated with a 
loss of 300 in killed, wounded and prisoners, besides all their artillery and 
baggage. Fight lasted five hours. Federal loss not known, though 
reported as " also large." 

events in 1864. 

January 28. — Gen. Rosecrans arrived at St. Louis and took command 
of the Department of Missouri. 

June — .The Belgian Consul, who was state commander of the secret 
order of "American Knights," or "Sons of Liberty," was arrested, with 
forty of the most prominent members, and held as hostages, because proof 
had been discovered that they were plotting against the Federal authori- 
ties. 

September 26. — Gen. Price, with 10,000 men, attacked the Federal gar- 
rison at Ironton (near Pilot Knob\ in command of Gen. Thomas Ewing, 
jr., with 1,200 men. After a day's hard fighting the Federals spiked their 
fort guns and retreated in the night to Rolla, having lost 200 killed and 
wounded. The Confederates lost 1,500. 

October 7. — Battle or skirmish of Moreau creek, in Cole county, which 
Gen. Price crossed, and formed his army in line of battle about four miles 
long around Jefferson City. But finding the Federal garrison intrenched, 
he marched on west without attacking them. (The Federals had 6,700 
men there). 

October 22. — Gen. Pleasanton's Federal cavalry defeated Col. Fagan at 
Independence, capturing two cannon. 

October 23. — Battle on the Big Blue creek, in Jackson county, lasting 
from 7 a. m., till 1 p. M. Confederates retreated southward. 

October 25. — Battle on little Osage Creek in Vernon county. Gen. 
Price was defeated, the Federals under Gen. Pleasonton capturing eight 
cannon, and Generals Marmaduke and Cabell, besides five colonels and 
1,000 men, with all equipments, supplies, etc. The fighting had been 
almost continuous by some part of the troops, all along the march from 
Independence to the Little Osage; and reports at this point give the Fed- 
eral loss at 1,000 killed and wounded, and about 2,000 taken prisoners; 
Confederate loss, 900 killed, 3,800 wounded and prisoners, and ten cannon 
captured from them. 

October 28. — Gen. Price again made a stand at Newtonia, in Newton 
county, and had a sharp fight with the Federals under Gens. Blunt and San- 
born, bfft was defeated and escaped into Arkansas. And this was the 



62 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

last encounter that can be called a "battle'' within the bounds of our state. 
The numbers engaged on either side, and their losses in this last tight are 
not reported. 

MEN AND MONEY FOR THE WAR 

Under President Lincoln's first call, April 15, 1861, for 75,000 volun- 
teers, Missouri furnished 10,501 men ; and she furnished a total of 108,773 
Federal or Union soldiers during the war. The total number of citizens 
of Missouri who took up arms on the Confederate side cannot be ascer- 
tained. 

During the war the state issued its indebtedness called "Defense War- 
rants" and "Union Military Bonds," for equipping and maintaining the 
militia organizations of the state; the total amount was $7,876,575. All 
of the defense warrants and one-half of the Union military bonds were 
made receivable for state taxes*, and a special fund was created for the 
redemption of the balance. The United States paid to the state of Mis- 
souri a total of $6,440,323.95, to reimburse her for military expenses 
incurred. 

ST. LOUIS IN THE WAR-TIME. 

Notwithstanding the strenuous competition of other cities, the superior 
advantages of St. Louis for distribution, and a due regard for its own 
interests, compelled the government to make St. Louis the western base 
of supplies and transportation. During the war the transactions of the 
government at this point were very large. Gen. Parsons, chief of trans- 
portation in the Mississippi Valley, submits the following as an approxi- 
mate summary of the operations in his department from 1S60 to 1865: 

AMOUNT OF TRANSPORTATION. 

Cannons and caissons 800 

Wagons • 13,000 

Cattle ' 80,000 

Horses and mules 25< >,000 

Troops 1,<)00,000 

Pounds of military stores 1,950,000,000 

Gen. Parsons thinks that full one-half of all the transportation employed 
by the government on the Mississippi and its tributaries was furnished bv 
St. Louis. From September, 1861, to December 31, 1865, Gen. Haines, 
chief commissary of this department, expended at St. Louis for the pur- 
chase of subsistence stores, $50,700,000. And Gen. Myers, chief quar- 
termaster of the department, disbursed for supplies, transportation, and 
incidental expenses, $180,000,000. 6 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 63 

HOSPITAL SERVICE. 

As a part of the war history of Missouri, the military hospitals of St. 
Louis claim at least a brief mention. After the battle of Wilson's Creek 
it became apparent that the government provision for hospitals was 
entirely inadequate to the emergency. A voluntary organization, called 
the Western Sanitary Commission, was formed, consisting of James E. 
Yeatman (now of the Merchant's National Bank), Rev. Wm. G. Eliot, D. 
D., (now Chancellor of Washington University), George Partridge, 
(recently Vice President of Trustees of State Blind Asylum), Carlos S. 
Greeley and John B. Johnson. Their purpose was to receive and distrib- 
ute hospital supplies furnished by the people, and in every practicable way 
aid and co-operate with the military authorities in the care of the sick and 
wounded. The first woman regularly mustered into the United States 
service as a hospital nurse, in Missouri, was Mrs. F. R. H. Reid, M. D., 
from Wisconsin, (now resides at Des Moines, Iowa). She was the 
woman coadjutor of U. S. Surgeon, Dr. Mills, in opening and starting the 
first large volunteer hospital, which was known as the Chestnut street 
hospital; and afterward she took the same part in the Fourth street hos- 
pital; and also with Dr. Melchior in the Marine hospital; also in a tem- 
porary post hospital at Sulphur Springs. 

To give an idea of the largeness of the hospital work, we quote from a 
circular printed at St. Louis, Nov. 22, 1861,* which says: "There are 
ten military hospitals in St. Louis alone, with a maximum capacity for 
3,500 patients. The number of patients varies every day, but on Wednes- 
day, November 20th, they reported patients under treatment as follows: 

House of Refuge hospital, [Sisters of Charity nurses] '. 475 

Fifth and Chestnut streets hospital, 461 

Good Samaritan hospital, [for measles,] 173 

Fourth street hospital, 328 

Jefferson barracks hospital 72 

Arsenal hospital, 16 

Camp Benton hospital, 106 

Pacific hospital, [depot for the hospital cars] 30 

Duncan's Island hospital, [for small-pox: cases all convalescent,]. ... 4 
Convalescent barracks, [known as Camp Benton,] 800 

Total, 2,46S 

" ( This does not include the company, regiment and brigade hospitals, 
of w r hich there are several.) The average mortality has been about four 
per cent. A hospital car, properly fitted up and manned, passes daily 
over the railroad to the interior, ,to bring in the sick and wounded. The 
arrangements for decent burial, registration of deaths, identification, etc., 



* Prepared and published by H. A. Reid, Associate Member for Wisconsin of the 'U. S. 
Sanitary Commission. 



64 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

are very complete. The body of any soldier who may die in any of the 
hospitals may be identified, and removed for other obsequies or burial by 
relatives or friends. There are no hospital chaplains; but nurses are in- 
structed by the sanitary commission, that every patient who asks for it, 
will be visited by a clergyman of his own choice, at any hour." 

There were hospitals also at Jefferson City, Rolla and Ironton at this 
time. This circular contained a classified list, prepared by Mrs. Reid, of 
over a hundred different articles needed for the care, comfort and welfare 
of the soldiers in hospital, beyond what the general government could 
furnish; the whole document was reprinted by state authority at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and widely circulated. In a letter dated St. Louis, Jan. 14, 
1862, Mr. Yeatman said: "Wisconsin has contributed most largely to- 
wards supplying comforts for the sick in camps and hospitals in this 
department, second to but one other state — Massachusetts. " 

There was a prison hospital for sick Confederate prisoners, to whom 
supplies were furnished from the stores of the sanitary commission, the 
same as to the Union soldiers; and wounded Confederates were cared for 
in the general hospitals the same as those of the Federal troops. The 
writer hereof was an eye-witness to this fact; and is glad to record it as a 
testimony of the true Christian spirit of the sanitary commission and the 
magnanimity of the Federal authorities. 

THE WARTIME STATE GOVERNMENT. 

The civil authority of the state remained vested in the state conven- 
tion from July, 1861, until July, 1863. This provisional body held the 
following sessions: 

1861— Jefferson City, February 28 to March 4. 
St. Louis, March 6 to March 22. 
Jefferson City, July 22 to July 31. 
St. Louis, October 10 to October 18. 

1862— Jefferson City, June 2 to June 14. 

1863 — Jefferson City, June 15 to July 1, when it adjourned sine die. 

The course of affairs had now become so far settled and pacified that 
civil proceedings were again possible, and the regular fall elections were 
held this year, 1863. On the 13th of February, 1864, the general assem- 
bly convened, and passed an act to authorize the election of sixty-six 
members to a state convention, "to consider such amendments to the con- 
stitution of the state as might by it be deemed necessary for the emanci- 
pation of slaves;* to preserve in purity the elective franchise to loyal 
citizens, and for the promotion of the public good." 

This convention met in St. Louis, January 6, 1865; and on the 11th of 

* President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, January 1, 1863, only applied to slaves 
■within such states or parts of states as were then controlled by the Confederate power. 



HISTORY OK THE STATE OK MISSOURI. 



05 



the same month it passed, by a vote of sixty ayes to four noes, an ordi- 
nance emancipating all slaves within the state, and providing that it 
should take effect immediately. The convention also framed a new con- 
stitution, in many respects quite different from the old one. The final 
vote in convention on the new instrument stood thirty-eight for, to thirteen 
against it. The convention adjourned April 10, sine die. In June the 
people voted on the new constitution, and the vote stood 43,670 for, to 
41,808 against it. 

The folio win"; are some of the most notable new features embodied in 
the organic law of the state, and will readily explain why there was such 
a large vote against its adoption : It established an oath of loyalty to the 
United States; and those who would not take the oath it excluded from 
the risrht to vote or hold anv civil office whatever, or act as a teacher in 
any public school, or to solemnize marriage as a clergyman, or to practice 
law in any of the courts. It limited the amount of land which any church 
or religious society might hold to five acres of land in the country, or one 
acre in town or city; provided for taxing church property; and declared 
void any will bequeathing property to any clergyman, religious teacher 
or religious society as such. There was a section designed to prevent 
the state from giving public property, lands or bonds, to railroad compa- 
nies. It provided that after January 1, 1870, no one could become a law- 
ful voter who was not sufficiently educated to be able to read and write. 

July 1, 1805, the governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, made proclamation 
that the new constitution had been duly ratified by a lawful majority of 
the people, and was thenceforth the organic law of the state. A few 
amendments have been since adopted; but in all important points it 
remains the same to this day. 




* . 



GQ HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



TART II.— PHYSICAL AND INDUSTRIAL. 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALS. 

The geological history of Missouri commences at the very bottom of 
the scale, or, in what may be termed the fire-crust period of geologic 
time. (See chart on page 67). Dana's "Manual of Geology" is the 
great standard work all over the United States on this subject. In his 
chapter on Archaean Time he gives a map and brief sketch of our North 
American continent as it existed at that remote period, which was, 
according to a calculation made for the Royal Society of London in 1879,* 
about 600,000,000 years ago. And as this is where Missouri first comes 
to light, we quote Prof. Dana's account of the very meagre areas and 
points of our continent which stood alone above the primeval ocean that 
then enveloped the entire globe with its bubbling, seething, sputtering 
wavelets — an enormous caldron of boiling, steaming silicious lye, rather 
than water. Dana says: 

" The principal of the areas is The Great Northern, nucleal to the con- 
tinent, lying mostly in British America, and having the shape of the letter 
V, one arm reaching northeastward to Labrador, and the other north- 
westward from Lake Superior to the Arctic. The region appears to 
have been for the most part out of water ever since the Archaean era.f 
To this area properly belong the Adirondack area, covering the larger 
part of northern New York, and a Michigan area south of Lake Supe- 
rior, each of which was probably an island in the continental sea before 
the Silurian age began. 

" Beside this nucleal area, there are border-mountain lines of Archaean 
rocks: a long Appalachian line, including the Highland Ridge of Dutch- 
ess county, New York, and New Jersey, and the Blue Ridge of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia; -a long Rocky Mountain series, embracing the 
Wind River mountains, the Laramie range and other summit ridges of 
the Rocky Mountains. In addition, in the eastern border region, there is 
an Atlantic coast range, consisting of areas in New Foundland, Nova 
Scotia and eastern New England. In the western border region, a 
Pacific coast range in Mexico; and several more or less isolated areas in 
the Mississippi basin, west of the Mississippi, as in Missouri, Arkansas, 
Texas, and the Black Hills of Dakota." — Dana's Manual, p. 150. 

*See Popular Science Monthly, May, 1879, p. 137. 

fThe "Archaean era," as used by Prof. Dana, in 1874, (the date of his latest revision) 
included both the "Azoic Age," and "Age of Zooliths," as shown on the chart^p. 67. When 
Prof. Dana wrote, it was still an open question whether the "eozoon" was of animal or 
mineral origin ; but the highest authorities are now agreed that it was animal ; and Prof. 
Reid has, therefore, very properly given it a distinct place in his " Zoic Calendar." 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



67 



GEOLOGICAL CHART; 

Including the Rock Scale of Geological Periods and the "Zoic Calendar of Creation." Compiled 
from the works of Agassiz, Lyell, Huxley, Haeckel, Dana, LeConte, and other first rank authorities in 
Science at the present time. By Hiram A. Rkid, Secretary State Academy of Sciences at Dcs Moines, 
Iowa. [Published by permission of the Author.] 



Explanation. — The side line 
at the left shows what portions of 
geological time are comprehended 
in the terms "eozoic," " paleo- 
zoic," etc. The first column 
shows the periods or "Ages" of 
geological time during which the 
different successive types of ani- 
mal life predominated, or were the 
highest types then in existence. 
And these two divisions form the 
"Zoic Calendar of Creation." 

The second column shows the 
great general groupings of rock 
strata,in which are found the fossil 
remains of the corresponding ani- 
mal types named in the first col- 
umn. But, at tne "Age of Rep- 
tiles" occurs a grand divergement, 
for it was during this age that an- 
imal life pushed out into its most 
wonderful developments ; and 
there came into existence strange 
and marvelous forms of swimming 
reptiles, four-footed and two-foot- 
ed walking reptiles, and two-foot- 
ed and four-footed flying reptiles. 
Here also the true birds began to 
appear, though with reptilian pe- 
culiarities; and likewise the mar- 
supial animals, which are a tran- 
sitional type, between reptiles 
that produce their young by laying 
eggs and the true mammals, that 
bring forth their young well ma- 
tured and then suckle them. 

The third column shows the les- 
ser groupings of rock beds as clas- 
sified by our American geologists; 
but many minor subdivisions and 
local groups are omitted for want 
of space. At the top of this col- 
umn are shown the geological pe- 
riods of first appearance of. races 
of man, so far as now authentica- 
ted by competent scientific au- 
thorities.* 

The fourth column shows the 
number of feet in thickness of the 
different groups of rock layers as 
indicated by the braces. 

This Chart is the most compre- 
hensive and thorough in its de- 
tails, and yet the most systemati- 
cally and graphically presented to 
the eye, of anything in its line 
that has ever yet been published. 
Here is the whole story of geol- 
ogy and the ascent of life con- 
densed into the space of a few 
inches, yet so plainly set forth as 
to readily fix itself in the memory 
like an outline map. Scientific 
terms in newspapers and maga- 
zines often catch the reader at a 
disadvantage; but a reference to 
this chart will at once show the 
relative place or period in crea- 
tional progress to which the best 
authorized geological terms apply. 
It reaches, like a Jacob's ladder, 
from the lowest inklings to the 
highest ideals of life on the earth, 
as taught by modern science and 
the Christian Bible. 



THIS CALENDAR IS TO BE READ FROM THE BOTTOM UPWARD. 



AGE OF ANGELS. 



See Psalms 8:5 Luke 50:36 
Mark 12:25 1 Cor.l5:44 
Heb.2:2to9 Rev.22:8,9 



_£L.gre of 

MAN. 



Age of 



MAMMALS 



Age of 



Reptiles, 



Age of 
Amphibians 



Age of 

FISHES 



Recent. 



Quaternary. 



TERTIARY. 



HISTORIC 
PERIOD. 



J3w 



MYTHIC 
PERIOD. 



Rude Agricul- 
ture. 



'Terrace .Epoch. 



Champlain Epoch. 



GLACIAL EPOCH. 



Feet in 
thickness 
of the 
geological 
group* of 
rock form- 
ations. 



11 
I 



Pliocene. 



Miocene. 



Eocene, 



500 



8,000 




Cretaceous 



{• 9,000 



J 



JURASSIC. 



TRIASSIC 



( 800 to 
j 1,000 

13,000 to 
j 5,000 



Carboniferous 



Devonian. 



PERMIAN. 



Coal 

.6,000 to 

Measures. I 14570 



Sub-Carboniferous, i 



Catskill. 



Chemung. 



Hamilton. 



9,050 to 
14,400 



Comiferous. 



AGE 



OF 



INVERTEBRATES 



Upper Silurian. 



Oriskany 



Helderberg. 



Salina. 



Niagara. 



i 6,000 to 
10,000 



Lower Silurian. 






Trenton. 



Canadian . 



Cambrian. 



12,000to 
15,000 



AGE of ZOOLITHS 

"This Age alone was 
probably longer in dura- 
tion than all subsequent 
geological time." — Peof. 
LeCONTE. 



Primordial Vegetation 



Eozoon Rocks. 



Graphite Beds. 



AZOIC AGE. 



o 

* 



Cnnvri?ht 187S::H. A.Reidl 



CO " 

o 

CD 



CO 

o 
© 



Huronian. 



Laurentian. 



Il0,000to 
\ 20,000 

[ 30,000 



Metamorphic Granites 



FIRE CRUST. 



1 



■ Unstrati- 
fied. 



( 350,0011.1100 years in cooling 



down to 200°" F. at the sur- '- Depth 
face [Prof. Hbi.iihoi.tz], a | unknown, 
temperature at which very 
low forms of vegetation can ' 
exist. j 



*"The existence of Pliocene man in Tuscany is, then, in my opinivj, an ac-iuir?d scientific fact." — Sae Appletons' International Scientific 
Series, Vol XXVII, p. 151. "The Miocene man of La Beauce already knrw the ose of fire, and worked flint." — lb. p. '-'43. See also, Prof. 
Winchell's "Pre-Adamites," pp. 426-7-8. " Hie human race in America is shown to be at lea '.t of as ancient a date aa that of the Europeau 
Pliocene." — Prof. J, D.Whitney. Similar views ar» held by Profs. Leidy, Marsh, Cope, Morse, Wyman, and other scientists of highest repute. 



6S HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

Thus, then, with the very first emergence of dry land out of the heav- 
ily saturated and steaming mineral waters of the primeval ocean, we have 
Pilot Knob, Shepherd Mountain, and a few smaller peaks in their vicin- 
ity, forming an island in the vast expanse. The next nearest island was 
a similar one at the Black Hills, in Dakota. There is no reason as yet 
known fior believing that any form of life, either animal or vegetable, had 
yet appeared in our Missouri region. The ocean water was still too hot, 
and still too powerfully surcharged with mineral salts, alkalis and acids 
to admit of any living tissues being formed; and the atmosphere was in 
like manner thickly loaded with deadliest acids in the form of vapors, 
which would partially condense as they arose, and fall upon the iron- 
headed islands to form a mineral crust, and then be broken and washed 
back into the sea. But this process being kept up and incessantly 
repeated for millions of years (see Prof. Helmholtz's estimate at bottom 
of the chart), both sea and air became gradually purified of its excess of 
minerals and acids; and the water sufficiently cooled to admit of living 
tissues being formed; and meanwhile the condensing and crust-forming 
elements precipitated from the vapor-laden air or deposited directly from 
the bulk waters of the shoreless sea, were busily forming the solid earth. 
The different incrustations would each be a little different in their com- 
ponent elements; and then being broken up and mixed together and 
recombined, partly in the form of rough fragments, partly in the form of 
dust or sand ground into this state by mechanical attrition, partly in the 
form of fluidized or vaporized solutions, and partly in the form of molten 
masses produced directly by the earth's internal fires, the process of com- 
bining and recombining, with continual variation in the proportions, went 
on through the long, dreary, sunless and lifeless Azoic Age. 

But as soon as the great ocean caldron got cooled down to about 200 
degrees Fahrenheit, it was then possible for a very low form of vegetation 
to exist; and although no fossil remains of tHe first existing forms of such 
vegetation have yet been found 7 or at least not conclusively identified as 
such, yet graphite or plumbago, the material from which our lead pencils 
are made, is found in connection with the transition rocks between the 
Azoic and the Zoolithian ages. Graphite is not a mineral at all, but is 
pure vegetable carbon, and is supposed to be the remnant carbon of these 
first and lowest forms of tough, leathery, flowerless sea-weeds. Some 
small deposits of graphite are reported to have been found in connection 
with the iron and metamorphic granites of our Pilot Knob island; and 
that would indicate the first organic forms that came into existence within 
the boundaries o£ what now we call the state of Missouri. Just think of 
it! All North America, except a dozen widely scattered spots or islands, 
was covered with an ocean that spread its seamy expanse all around 
the globe ; no sunlight could penetrate the thick, dense cloud of vapors 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 69 

that filled the enveloping atmosphere; according to our English author 
before cited, this was 600,000,000 years ago, a period which the human 
mind cannot grasp; but the Almighty Maker of worlds had even then 
commenced to make the state of Missouri and its living occupants. 

The earliest known forms of animal life, a kind of coral-making rhizo- 
pod (root-footed) called Eozoon Canadense, are not found in Missouri, but 
are found abundantlv in what are called the Laurentian rocks, in Canada 
and elsewhere. (See chart ). It is not to be supposed, however, that the 
enormous period called the " Age of Zooliths " passed, with forms of ani- 
mal life existing in Canada, but none in our iron island region, unless we 
assume that the mineral acidity of the waters coming in contact with this 
island was so intense as to require all that vast period for its purification 
sufficiently to permit the existence of the lowest and most structureless 
forms of protoplasmic matter known to science. Prof. Swallow says, in 
writing on the Physical Geography of Missouri, " below the magnesian 
limestone series we have a series of metamorphosed slates, which are 
doubtless older than the known fossiliferous strata; whether they belong to 
the Azoic, the Laurentian or Huronian, I am unable to say." 

The labors of our different state geologists have not discovered any 
fossil remains in Missouri lower down in the rock scale than what is called 
the " Lower Silurian " formations, which form the first half of the 
"Age of Invertebrates " in the zoic-calendar portion of Prof. Reid's chart. 
The term " Invertebrates " includes all forms of animal life that do not 
have a back-bone, such as polyps, mollusks, worms, insects, crustaceans, 
infusoria, etc. By the time this age (Silurian ) had commenced, our lone 
island had been joined by large areas northward, southwestward, eastward 
and northwestward, so that there began to be a continent; and several 
hundred species of animals and plants have been found fossil in the rocks 
of this period, but they are all marine species — none yet inhabiting the 
dry land. Our chart shows the Lower Silurian epoch sub-divided into 
Cambrian, Canadian and Trenton formations: but there are other local 
sub-divisions belonging to this period, the same as to all the other general 
periods named on the chart. The animals of this period were polyps or 
coral-makers: worms, mollusks, trilobites,asterias (star-fishes ), all of strange 
forms and now extinct. The trilobite, some species of which are found in 
Missouri, was the first animal on the earth which had eyes, although 
there were likewise a great many eyeless species of them; but the fact 
that any of them had eyes during this age is considered by some scientists 
to prove that the atmosphere had by this time become sufficiently rarefied 
to let the sunlight penetrate clearly through it and strike the earth. On 
the other hand, others hold that this did not occur until after the atmos- 
phere had laid down its surcharge of carbonic acid and other gases, in the 
forms of limestone from animal life and coalbeds from vegetable life; that 



70 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

is, there was nothing which we would now consider as clear sunshine 
until the carboniferous period. At any rate, Prof. Dana says of the 
Lower Silurian, "there was no green herbage over the exposed hills; 
and no sounds were in the air save those of lifeless nature, — the moving 
waters, the tempest and the earthquake." Having thus given the reader 
some idea of the beginnings of land and the beginnings of life in our old, 
old state, space will not permit us to linger with details upon the remain- 
ing geological periods. We have compiled the following table from vari- 
ous writings of our able state geologist, Prof. G. C. Swallow, of the State 
University : 

HOCK FORMATIONS OF MISSOURI. 

Igneous Rocks. — Granite, porphyry, syenite, greenstone, combined 
with those wonderful beds of iron and copper which are found in the 
Pilot Knob region. 

Azoic Rocks. — Silicious and other slates, containing no remains of 
organic life, though apparently of sedimentary and not of igneous origin. 

Lower Silurian — Feet thick. 

Hudson river group (3 local subdivisions) 220 

Trenton limestone 360 

Black-river and birds- eye limestone 75 

1st magnesian limestone 200 

Saccharoidal (sugar-like) sandstone 125 

2d magnesian limestone 230 

2d sandstone 115 

3d magnesian limestone 350 

3d sandstone 60 

4th magnesian limestone 300 

Total thickness of Silurian rocks 2035 

When the reader remembers that these were all formed successively 
by the slow process of the settling of sediment in water, he will get some 
idea of how it is that geology gives such astounding measurements of 
time. 

Upper Silurian — Feet thick. 

Lower Helderberg formation 350 

Niagara group 200 

Cape Girardeau limestone 60 

Total thickness 610 



history of the state of missouri. 71 

Devonian — 

{Chouteau limestone 85 

Vermicular sandstone and shales 75 

Lithographic limestone 125 

Hamilton group 40 

Onondaga limestone (extremely variable). 
Oriskany sandstone (doubtful). 

Carboniferous — 

Coal measures, consisting of strata of sandstones, limestones, 
shales, clays, marls, brown iron ores and coal 2,000 

In this formation there are from eight to ten good workable veins of 
coal; and the Missouri basin coal-bearing area is the largest in the world. 
It comprises the following: 

Square miles. 

In Missouri 27,000 

Nebraska 10,000 

Kansas 12,000 

Iowa 20,000 

Illinois 30,000 

Total 99,000 

The Sub-Carboniferous in Missouri is subdivided into: 

Feet. 

Upper Archimedes limestone 200 

Ferruginous (irony) sandstone 195 

Middle Archimedes limestone 50 

St. Louis limestone 250 

Oolitic limestone 25 

Lower Archimedes limestone 350 

Encrinital limestone 500 

Total sub-carboniferous 1570 

Cretaceous. — The Triassic and Jurassic formations have not been found 
in this state; but Prof. Swallow has classed as probably belonging to the 
Cretaceous epoch, six different formations which comprise a total thick- 
ness of 15S feet. He says no fossils have been found to certainly identify 
these beds, but their geological horizon and lithological characters deter- 
mine their place in the scale. 

Tertiary. — The beautiful variegated sands and clays and shales and 
iron ores, which skirt the swamps of southeast Missouri along the bluffs 
from Commerce to the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas, belong to this system. 

Quaternary. — In this Prof. Swallow includes what is separated under 



72 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

the name of "Recent" by Prof. Dana and others, as shown in the chart. 

The Quaternary of Missouri is subdivided by Prof. Swallow into — 

Alluvium 30 feet 

Bottom Prairie 35 " 

Bluff {Loess of other authors) 200 " 

Drift (altered drift, boulder beds, boulder clay) 155 " 

Total Quaternary formations. 420 " 

That brings the succession of geological formations consecutively from 
their beginning up to the present time: and now our own eves behold 
eveiy day the processes of nature going on very much the same as they 
have gone along through all the unthinkable lapse of time that has passed 
.since Pilot Knob first pushed its brazen brow up above the strange deso- 
lation of waters when "darkness was upon the face of the deep." And 
now our next consideration must be, the present aspects of the land sur- 
face of our state, together with its streams, its woodlands and its wonder- 
ful mineral wealth and resources. 

MINERAL RESOURCES. 

In the extent, variety, and practical value of her stores of mineral 
wealth, Missouri is not excelled by any other state in the Union. In the 
fall of 1880 the New York Economist published an article on Missouri, 
in which it said: 

"The state of Missouri is one of the most remarkable pieces of this earth's 
surface. Surface indeed! Missouri goes far enough under the surface 
to furnish mankind with one hundred million tons of coal a year for thir- 
teen hundred years. Think of 26,887 square miles of coal beds — nearly 
half the state — and some of the beds nearly fifteen feet thick. With 
regard to iron, it is not necessarv to penetrate the surface for that. They 
have iron in Missouri by the mountain. Pilot Knob, 581 feet high, and 
containing 360 acres, is a mass of iron; and Iron Mountain, about six 
miles distant from it, is 228 feet high, covers 500 acres, and is estimated 
in the last surveys, to contain 230,000,000 tons of ore, without counting 
the inexhaustible supply that may reasonably be supposed to exist below 
the level. There is enough iron lying about loose in Missouri for a 
double track of railroad across the continent. 

" The lead districts of Missouri include more than 6,000 square miles, 
and at least five hundred points where it can be profitably worked. In 
fifteen counties there is copper in rich abundance. There are large depos- 
its of zinc in the state. There is gold, also, which does not yet attract 
much attention, because of the dazzling stores of this precious metal farther 
west. In short, within one hundred miles of St. Louis the following met- 
als and minerals are found in quantities that will repay working: gold, 
iron, lead, zinc, copper, tin, silver, platina, nickel, emery, coal, limestone, 
granite, marble, pipe-clay, fire-clay, metallic paints, and salt." 

It can hardly be said that gold, silver, tin, platina or emery have been 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 73 

found in faying quantity as yet, although they are known to exist in some 
of our mining districts, in combinations with other minerals. Our state 
board of immigration has published many well prepared and judicious 
papers on the various advantages and resources of our state, which care- 
fully avoid making any extravagant or overdrawn statements. They 
give the real facts as accurately as they could be ascertained up to 1879- 
80, and form the most reliable body of knowledge on many matters of 
state interest, that is now accessible; and from this source we gather the 
more essential points. 

Coal. — The Missouri coal fields underlie an area of about 26,000 
square miles. The southern outcrop of the coal measures has been traced 
from the mouth of the Des Moines through the counties of Clark, Lewis, 
Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Henry, St. Clair, P3ates, 
Vernon and Barton, into the Indian Territory, and every county north- 
west of this line is known to contain more or less coal. Outside of the 
coal fields given above, coal rocks also exist in Ralls, Montgomery, War- 
ren, St. Charles, Callaway and St. Louis counties, and local or outlying 
deposits of bituminous and cannel coal are found in Moniteau, Cole, Mor- 
gan, Crawford, Lincoln and Callaway counties. 

The exposed coal in Missouri includes upper, middle and lower coal 
measures. The upper coal measures contain about four feet of coal, in 
two seams of about one foot each and other thin seams and streaks. The 
area of their exposure is about 8,400 square miles. 

The middle coal measures contain about seven feet of coal, including 
two workable seams, twenty-one and twenty-four inches thick, respect- 
ively, and one of one foot, which is worked under favorable circumstan- 
ces, and six thin seams. The exposure of the middle measures covers an 
area of over 2,000 square miles. 

The lower measures cover an area of about 15,000 square miles, and 
have five workable seams, varying in thickness from eighteen inches to 
four and a half feet, and thin seams of -six to eleven inches. 

Iron. — It has been said by experts that Missouri has iron enough "to 
run a hundred furnaces for a thousand years;" and the ores are of every 
variety known to metallurgical science. Iron Mountain is the largest 
body of specular iron and the purest mass of ore in the world. It was 
forced up through the crust of the earth in a molten state during the 
Azoic Age of geology. The different ores of the state are classed as red 
hematite, red oxide, specular or glittering ore, brown hematite or limo- 
nite, hydrous oxide, magnetic ore, and spathic or spar-like ore (carbonate 
of iron). Many other names are ustjd to indicate different combinations 
of iron with other minerals. Some of the iron deposits, instead of coming 
up in a fused mass from the bowels of the earth, as Pilot Knob, Shep- 
5 



f4 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

herd Mountain and Iron Mountain evidently did, were formed by the 
steam that attended those fiery upheavals, carrying its load of gaseous 
matter until it condensed and settled down at different points, and gradu- 
ally cooled or crystalized. This would occur sometimes in water and 
sometimes in the air, thus producing the great variety of ferruginous or 
irony compositions which we now find and utilize. And this mineral 
steam method of depositing iron and other products from subterranean 
gases must have occurred in Missouri at different periods of geologic 
time, and not all during the Azoic. The red ores are found in 21 coun- 
ties ; the brown hematite or limonite iron ores extend over 94 counties, 
and in 31 of them it occurs in vast quantity. 

Shepherd Mountain is 660 feet high. The ore, which is magnetic and 
specular, contains a large percentage of pure iron. The hight of Pilot 
Knob above the Mississippi river is 1,118 feet. Its base, 581 feet from the 
summit, is 360 acres. The iron is known to extend 440 feet below the 
surface. The upper section of 141 feet is judged to contain 14,000,000 
tons of ore. The elevation of Iron Mountain is 228 feet, and the area of 
its base 500 acres. The solid contents of the cone are 230,000,000 tons. 
It is thought that every foot beneath the surface will yield 3,000,000 tons 
of ore. At the depth of 180 feet, an artesian auger is still penetrating 
solid ore. Dr. Litton thinks that these mountains contain enough iron 
above the surface to afford for two hundred years an annual supply of 
1,000,000 tons. The ore is almost exclusively specular. It yields 56 per 
cent*, of pure iron. The iron is strong, tough and fibrous. 

Profs. Schmidt and Pumpelly, in their very learned work on the iron 
ores of Michigan and Missouri, have classified the iron-bearing region of 
our state as follows: 

Eastern Ore-Region. — 1. Ore-district along the Mississippi river. 2.. 
Iron Mountain district. 3. Southeastern limonite district. 4. Franklin 
county district. 5. Scotia district. 

Central Ore-Region. — 1. Steel ville district. 2. Ore-district on the up- 
per Meramec and its tributaries. 3. Salem district. 4. Iron Ridge 
district. 5. St. James district. 6. Rolla district. 7. Middle Gasconade 
district. 8. Lower Gasconade district. 9. Callaway county district. 

Western Ore-Region. — 1. Lower Osage district. 2. Middle Osage 
district. 3. Upper Osage district. 

Southwestern Ore-Region. — 1. White River district. 2. Ozark county 
district. 

The same authorities have classified the various kinds of iron ores 
found in Missouri, thus: 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 75 



Strata of red hematite. 

Disturbed or drifted deposits of red 

hematite. 
Deposits of limonite on limestone. 
Disturbed or drifted deposits o£ 

limonite. 



Deposits of specular ore in por- 
phyry. 

Deposits of specular ore in sand- 
stone. 

Disturbed deposits of specular ore. 

Drifted deposits of specular ore. 

Lead. — The annual lead product of Missouri is said now to exceed 
that of any other state or country; and it is conceded that its lead deposits 
are the richest in the world. The lead region all lies south of the Mis- 
souri river; the mineral is found chiefly in the magnesian limestone rocks, 
which are the great lead-bearing rocks of the world; but it is also found 
in ferruginous clays, in slates, in gravel beds, and in cherty masses in 
the clays. 

Mr. R. O. Thompson, mining engineer, of St. Louis, has written a 
sketch of the mode of origin of our lead and some other mineral deposits, 
which is plain, concise, and a clear statement of the teachings of science 
on this very interesting portion of Missouri's geological and mineralogical 
history. We quote: 

"The Azoic rocks in this region, when the great Silurian system began 
to be formed, were so many islands, their heads only elevated above the 
vast sedimentary sea. The beds upon which the limestones and sand- 
stones were deposited consisted of the weatherings of the Azoic rocks, 
which naturally sought the valleys and became a base for the sedimentary 
rock. This boundless sea held in solution lime, magnesia, alumina, man- 
ganese, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, iron, and other mineral substances. 
In this chemical condition gases were evolved and the work of formation 
commenced. The two gases forming the great creative power, and aiding 
solidification, were carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen; the former 
seeking its affinity in lime and forming limestone; the sulphur in the latter 
naturally combining with the other metals, forming sulphates, or sulphur- 
ets. The work of deposition and solidification being in harmony, it is 
eas)' to understand how those minerals exist in a disseminated condition 
in these rocks. The slates that we find so rich in galena, presenting the 
myriad forms of lingula, must also have been formed in the Silurian Age. 
The distribution among the magnesian limestones of these decomposing 
slates can be most easily accounted for. The decomposed feldspar pro- 
duced by the weathering of the porphyry became in its change a silicate 
of alumina, and the sulphur, combining with the lead, disseminated the 
same in the slate as readily as in the limestone." 

The Missouri lead region has been divided or classified into five sub- 
districts, as follows: 

I. The Southeastern Lead District, embraces all or parts of Jefferson, 
Washington, Franklin, Crawford, Iron, St. Francois, St. Genevieve, 
Madison, Wayne, Reynolds, and Carter counties, with some mines in the 
western portion of Cape Girardeau county. Mining has been longest 
carried on in this district, and the aggregate of the production has been 
very great, although the work has been chiefly surface mining. Mine- 



76 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

La-Motte, in this district, was discovered in 1720, by Francis Renault and 
M. LaMotte, and has been worked more or less ever since. 

II. The Central Lead District, comprises, as far as known, the coun- 
ties of Cole, Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan, Miller, Benton, Maries, Camden* 
and Osage. Much of the mining done here, again, has been near the 
surface, the lead first being found in clays, in caves, and in masses in clay 
but a few inches below the surface. Shafts, however, sunk in the mag- 
nesian limestone, find rich deposits in lodes and pockets. 

III. The Southern Lead District, comprises the counties of Pulaski, 
La Clede, Texas, Wright, Webster, Douglas, Ozark, and Christian. 

IV. The Western Lead District embraces Hickory, Dallas, Polk, St. 
Clair, Cedar, and Dade counties. Some rich deposits have been found 
in this district, especially in Hickory county. 

V. The Southwestern Lead District comprises Jasper, Newton, Law- 
rence, Stone, Barry, and McDonald. Here very extensive mining has 
been done, more especially in the two counties first named, which have, 
for the last few years, produced more than one-half of the pig-lead mined 
in the state. 

For several years past more than one-half the lead production of the 
United States has been from Missouri mines. Besides the numerous 
smelting works supported by them, the manufacture of white lead, lead 
pipe, sheet lead, etc., contributes materially to the industries and com- 
merce of the state. 

Copper. — Several varieties of copper ore exist in Missouri mines. 
Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, 
Maries, Greene, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and 
Wright counties. Some of the mines in Shannon county are now profit- 
ably worked, and mines in Franklin county have yielded good results. 

Zinc. — Sulphuret, carbonate and silicate of zinc are found in nearly all 
the lead mines of southwestern Missouri; and zinc ores are also found in 
most of the counties along the Ozark range. What the lead miners call 
" black-jack," and throw away, is sulphuret of zinc. Newton and Jasper 
counties are rich in zinc ores; and Taney county has an extensive vein of 
calamine, or carbonate of zinc. 

Cobalt.- — Valuable to produce the rich blue colors in glass and porce- 
lain, and for other purposes in the arts, is found in considerable quantities 
at Mine-La-Motte. 

Manganese. — Used in glass manufacture and the arts; it is found in 
St. Genevieve and other counties. 

Nickel. — Found in workable quantities at Mine-La-Motte. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 77 

BUILDING STONE. 

Missouri abounds in solid, durable materials for buildings; she has 
quarries of red and gray granites, and very fine limestones, sandstones 
and marbles. In Crawford, Washington and Franklin counties there are 
workable beds of " onyx marble," a stalagmite formation found in caves, 
and very rich and valuable for mantles, table-tops, vases, ornaments, etc. 
This marble is not found anywhere else in the United States, and has 
been imported from Algiers and Mexico, at great cost. As an illustration 
of the high repute abroad, and substantial home value ot Missouri 
products in the stone line, we give a case in point. 

The new state capitol at Des Moines, Iowa, which will cost $3,000,000, 
and is said to be the largest and finest public edifice in the United States 
outside of Washington city, is built mostly of materials from Missouri, 
except the rough masonry and brickwork. The Missouri stones and 
their cost is as follows: 

St. Genevieve buff sandstone $ 147,289.83 

Carroll county blue limestone 189,238.54 

Fourteen red granite columns, 18 feet, 4^ inches long, 2 

ft. 3 in. diameter, turned and polished at St. Louis.. . . 8,144.50 

Total paid by Iowa to Missouri on this one building . . $ 294,672.87 

Other examples of Missouri building stone will be of interest. The 
Archimedes limestone is used for the U. S. custom house in St. Louis. 
The encrinital limestone is used for the State University building, and 
court house at Columbia. The Trenton limestone is used in the court 
house at St. Louis. A stratum called " cotton rock " in the magnesian 
limestone formation, is used for the state house and court house at Jeffer- 
son City. Encrinital marble is found in Marion county, and other varie- 
ties occur in Cooper, Cape Girardeau, St. Louis, Iron and Ozark coun- 
ties. In the bluffs on the Niangua, a marble crops out twenty feet thick, 
which is a fine-grained, crystaline, silico-magnesian limestone, of a light 
drab color, slightly tinged or clouded with peach blossom. Some of the 
beautiful Ozark marbles have been used in ornamenting the national 
capitol at Washington. 

Lithographic limestone is found in Macon county. 

EARTHS, CLAYS, OCHRES, ETC. 

Kaolin, or decomposed feldspar, is a clay for making porcelain ware, 
and is found in and shipped from southeastern Missouri. Fine pottery 
clays are found in all the coal bearing region. North of the Missouri 
river many beds of best fire-clay are found, which is extensively manufac- 
tured at St. Louis into fire brick, gas retorts, metallurgists' crucibles, etc. 



78 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

Yellow and red ochres, ferruginous clays, and sulphate of baryta, all val- 
uable in the mannfacture of mineral and fire-proof paints, are found in 
great abundance all through the iron districts. Near St. Genevieve there 
is a bank of saccharoidal sand which is twenty feet in height, and miles 
in extent. The mass is inexhaustible. Two analyses give the following 
results : 

Silica 98.81 99.02 

Lime 0.92 0.98 

The sand is very friable, and nearly as white as snow. It is not oxy- 
dized or discolored by heat, and the glass made from it is clear and 
unstained. One firm in St. Louis has annually exported more than 3,500 
tons of this sand to the glass manufactories of Wheeling, Steubenville 
and Pittsburg. 



GEOGRAPHY OF MISSOURI. 



LOCATION AND AREA. 

The state of Missouri (with the exception of the Pan-Handle, in the 
southeast corner, which extends 34 miles further south), lies between the 
parallels 36 degrees 30 minutes and 40 degrees 30- minutes north latitude, 
and between longitudes 12 degrees 2 minutes, and 18 degrees and 51 min- 
utes west from Washington. Its southern boundaiy line, extended east- 
ward, would pass along the southern boundaries of Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia. The line of the northern boundary, extended in the same direction, 
would pass north of the centers of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and near the 
centers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Extending these lines west- 
ward, they would embrace the entire state of Kansas, and a considerable 
portion of Nebraska on the north and of the Indian Territory south. 

The length of the state north and south is 282 miles; its extreme width 
east and west, is 348 miles, and the average width, which is represented 
by a line drawn due west from St. Louis, is 235 miles. 

The area of the state is 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres. In 
size it is the eighth state in the Union, and is larger than any state east 
of or bordering upon the Mississippi, except Minnesota. It occupies 
almost the exact center of that portion of the United States lying between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic, and is midway between the 
British possessions on the north and the Gulf of Mexico south. 

The following list shows what other large cities of our own and 
foreign countries lie on the same latitude with the largest cities in our 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 79 

state: The latitude of 38 to 39 degrees north, embraces Annapolis, 
Maryland; Washington and Georgetown, D. C; Alexandria, Va.; Ports- 
mouth, Ohio; Lexington, Frankfort and Louisville, Ky.; Madison, New 
Albany and Evansville, Ind.; St. Louis and Jefferson City, Missouri; 
Sacramento and Vallejo, California; Yarkand, China; Tabreez, Persia; 
Smyrna, Turkey; Messina and Palermo, Sicily; Lisbon, Portugal. 

The latitude of 39 to 40 embraces the cities of Philadelphia, Dover, Wil- 
mington, Baltimore, York, Gettysburg, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indiana- 
polis, Terre Haute, Springfield, Quincy, Hannibal, Kansas City, St. 
Joseph, Leavenworth, Denver; Virginia City, Nevada; Marysville, Cali- 
fornia; Tientsin, Pekin and Kashgar, in China; Bokhara in Turkestan; 
Erzroom in Turkey; Valencia in Spain. 

The meridian of 90 to 91 degrees west longitude, takes in Grand 
Portage, Minnesota; Mineral Point, Wisconsin ; also Dubuque, Davenport, 
Rock Island, Galesburg, St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg and New 
Orleans. 

Missouri is half as large again a» New York, and more than eight 
times the size of Massachusetts. It would make a score of German prin- 
cipalities. Larger than England and Wales, or Scotland and Ireland, it 
is equal to one-third of the area of France. 

SURFACE FEATURES. 

As explained in the chapter on geology, there occurred away back 
in the earliest geological ages, some subterranean force which pushed up 
through the crust of the earth, a series of knobs and irregular ridges and 
hills in a region extending from St. Genevieve, in a southwest direction, 
to Shannon and Texas counties, taking in some portions of Madison, St. 
Francois, Washington, Iron and Reynolds counties. After this, these 
knobs and ridges were islands in the ocean, which covered the rest of 
Missouri and adjoining states. On the bottom of this ocean the solid 
strata of limestone, sandstone, and other rocks, were formed. In course 
of time the rest of the country was raised above' the ocean, and the sur- 
face presented a broad, undulating plateau, from which projected the hills 
and ridges above named. The rains descended upon this plateau, and the 
waters collected into branches, creeks and rivers, and flowed away to the 
ocean, as now; and during the succeeding cycles, the channels and valleys 
of the streams were worn into the rocks as they now appear. These 
facts respecting the formation of our state, give some idea of its surface 
features. It may be described as a broad, undulating table-land or 
plateau, from which projects a series of hills and ridges extending from St. 
Genevieve to the southwest, and into which the branches, creeks and 
rivers have worn their deep broad channels and valleys. In that portion 
of the state north of the Missouri river, the northwest part is the highest, 



SO HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

and there is a general descent to the south and east, as shown by the 
course of the Missouri river and its north side tributaries. In the eastern 
part of this region there is a high dividing ridge which separates the 
small east-flowing tributaries of the Mississippi from those flowing south- 
ward into the Missouri; the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern railroad 
follows this highland from Warren and Montgomery counties to Coats- 
ville on the north line of the state, in Schuyler county; and railroad sur- 
veys show that in a straight line across the state, the Missouri river at the 
city of Weston, in Platte county, is 320 feet higher than the Mississippi at 
Hannibal. 

South of the Missouri the highest part is a main ridge extending from 
Jasper county through Law r rence, Webster, Wright, Texas, Dent, Iron, 
St. Francois and Perry counties, striking the Mississippi river at Grand 
Tower. This ridge constitutes what is called the Ozark range, which 
for three-fourths of its course across Missouri is not mountainous, or com- 
posed of peaks, but is an elevated plateau of broad, level, arable land, and 
divides the northward flowing tributaries of the Missouri from the waters 
which flow southward into the lower Mississippi. It is a part of that 
great chain of ridge elevations which begins with Long's Peak, about fifty 
miles northw r est of Denver, in Colorado; crosses the state of Kansas 
between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers ; crosses Missouri through the 
counties above mentioned; passes into Illinois at Grand Tower and thence 
into Kentucky opposite Golconda; and is Anally merged into the Cumber- 
land Mountains. This ridge probably formed the southern shore of that 
vast inland sea into which the upper Missouri and Platte rivers emptied 
their muddy waters for a whole geological age, and deposited over the 
states of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, their sediment from the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary beds of the mountain regions in Dakota, Montana, 
Wyoming, etc., and the "Bad Lands" of northwestern Nebraska. This 
great sea or lake had its chiefs outlet at Grand Tower,-' where for 
thousands of years its waters plunged over the rocky limestone ledges 
and flowed off to the Gulf of Mexico, which then extended nearly or quite 
up to the mouth of the Ohio river at Cairo. But as it gradually wore 
down the rocks of this southern high ridge barrier, of course the channel 
through this narrow pass became gradually deeper and deeper, and as 
gradually drained off the mighty lake, leaving four great states covered 
chiefly with a kind of sediment which Prof. Swallow has termed " bluff 

* Dr. Shumard in his report on a geological section from St. Louis to Commerce, — p. 151, 
says: "The Grand Tower rises from the bed of the Mississippi, an isolated mass of rock, 
of a truncated-conical shape, crowned at trie top with stunted cedars, and situated about 
rifty yards from the Missouri shore. It is eighty-five feet high, and four hundred yards 
in circumference at the base. During high water, the current rushes around its base with 
great velocity. * * About half a mile below the Tower, near the middle of the river, is 
a huge mass of chert. * In the next two miles the Missouri shore is bounded by hills 
from 75 to 200 feet in altitude." It is rocky and bluffy for six miles or more along here, 
some of the elevations reaching 330 feet. 



u 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 81 

deposit," though called by other writers loess. At Grand Tower, where 
the Mississippi has worn for itself this narrow gorge or pass through the 
rocks, the current rushes and roars and tumbles along at such a mill- flume 
rate, that the passage by boats either up or down stream, is difficult and 
dangerous.* And it was here that the river pirates had their stronghold 
in the early days of keel-boat traffic between St. Louis and New Orleans. 
They permitted no traders to pass this point without paying such tribute 
as they chose to levy; and upon the least show of resistance, they would 
rob, murder and plunder without remedy. If the human history of this 
place could be written, it would be full of blood-curdling incidents, and 
deeds of violence by rude and murderous men. 

The following table of elevations above tide water in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico will give a general idea of the heights reached by this southern 
upland region: 

Granby, Newton county, (farthest southwest) 1,030 feet. 

Marshfield, in Webster county, 96 miles from the west line 

of the state 1,462 

Ohio City, opposite mouth of the Ohio river 272 

New Madrid, 30 miles farther south 247 " 

St. Louis directrix, (or register) 372 " 

Base of Pilot Knob 909 " 

Top of Pilot Knob 1,490 " 

It will thus be seen that the top of Pilot Knob, at the eastern end of 
our south border highlands, is only twenty-eight feet higher than Marsh- 
field, near the western end. 

RIVERS AND WATER COURSES. 

The Mississippi river bounds the state on the east for a distance of more 
than 500 miles. The Missouri washes the western boundary of the state 
from the northwest corner southwardly, some 250 miles, to the mouth of 
the Kansas, whence it takes a course south of east, through the heart of 
the state to its junction with the Mississippi, a distance of nearly 400 
miles, presenting a river front from these two majestic streams of 1,550 
miles. Besides these mighty streams, are many smaller rivers, more or 
less navigable for steamboats and barges. On the south, or the right 

*A small work published at Davenport, Iowa, in 1856, describes this place as "a gorge 
where the river has in some remote geological age burst through a limestone mountain 
ridge, making a dangerous rocky pass, and washing the cliff into strange, fantastic forms." 
And a western poet nearly 30 years ago, thus described the spot: 

" Here Nature sports with Art in rocky towers, 
Quarried by the wave, or lilts in Doric state 
Abraded pillars to the corniced cliff; 
And through sharp angles, narrows, flume and gorge, 
The wildered waters, plunging, roar and foam — 
c. Scylla and Charybdis of no mythic tale." 



82 [STORY OF THE STATE OK MISSOURI. 

bank of the Missouri, the Gasconade, Osage and La Mine are navigable; 
on the Osage, steamboats make regular trips as high as Warsaw, and 
barges and keel-boats may pass as high as the state line. On the left 
bank of the Missouri, the Platte, Chariton and Grand rivers are naviga- 
ble for keel-boats and barges; and small steamers have made a few trips 
on their waters. The other important streams of the state are the Des 
Moines, Salt, Meramec, St. Francis and White rivers, all of which on 
rare occasions have been navigated by steamers. There are large num- 
bers of smaller streams called rivers and creeks. 

There are places in all our streams, except the Mississippi and Missouri, 
where they might be dammed and made to drive the machinery of mills 
and factories. Rock beds to support dams and make them permanent 
are to be found in many localities on the Osage, Niangua, Pomme du 
Terre, Sac, Spring river, Big river, Castor, Bourbeuse, Gasconade, St. 
Francis, Current, White, Grand, La Mine, Meramec, etc. No country is 
better supplied with bold springs of pure water. Many of them are 
remarkable for their size and volume. 

There is, on the whole, no state in the Union better supplied with an 
abundance of wholesome, living water for stock and domestic uses; and 
it abounds in springs, splendidly situated for dairy business, with water at 
a uniform temperature below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. There are no 
lakes in the state except a few small ones in the extreme southeastern 
counties. 

NOTABLE SPRINGS. 

Mineral Springs occur in every part of the state. There are excellent 
salt springs in Cooper, Saline, Howard and adjoining counties. Sulphur 
springs that have become known as places of summer resort, are: The 
Chouteau springs in Cooper county; Monagan springs in St. Clair county; 
Elk springs in Pike county : Cheltenham springs in St. Louis county. 
And Prof. Swallow says there are sulphur springs in half the counties of 
the state. Sweet springs, on Black water creek, are what are called chaly- 
beate waters, containing some of the salts of iron ; and there are a few 
others of this class. Petroleum or tar springs occur in Carroll, Ray, 
Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties, and fur- 
nish a good lubricating oil in large quantities. In the south part of the 
State there are numerous fresh water springs of such great flowage as to 
be utilized for water power. One called Bryce's spring, on the Niangua 
river, which runs through Dallas, Hickory and Camden counties, dischar- 
ges 10,927,872 cubic feet of water per day, drives a large flouring mill, 
and flows away a river 42 yards wide. This is the largest one, of these 
big springs. The temperature of its water is steadily at 60 degrees Fahr- 
enheit, and the flowage uniform throughout the year. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 83 

SOILS AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 

As late as 1830 the greater part of Missouri was still marked on com- 
mon school geography maps as part of the great American desert; and in 
1820, even our own great statesman, Thomas H. Benton, had written: 
"After you get 40 or 50 miles from the Mississippi, arid plains set in and 
the country is uninhabitable except upon the borders of the rivers and 
creeks." But our present knowledge of Missouri's climate, soils and prod- 
ucts show how widely mistaken our wisest people were on this subject 
in those early days. 

Prof. Swallow, Dean of the State Agricultural College at Columbia 
(State University), has given the soils of the state a classification adapted 
to the popular understanding, by using names that everybody can read 
and know what they mean, instead of technical scientific terms known 
only to a few who have had a college education. And as this history is 
designed for the masses of the people, and to a large extent for the farm- 
ers, we give a condensed statement of Prof. Swallow's classification. 

Those known as hackberry lands are first in fertility and productiveness. 
Upon these lands also grow elm, wild cherry, honey locust, hickory, white, 
black, burr and chestnut oaks, black and white walnut, mulberry, linden, 
ash, poplar, catalpa, sassafras and maple. The prairie soils of about the 
same quality, if not identical, are known as crow foot lands, so called from 
a species of weed found upon them, and these two soils generally join each 
other where the timber and prairie lands meet. Both rest upon a bed of 
fine silicious marls. They cover more than seven million acres of land. 
On this soil white oaks have been found twenty-nine feet in circumference 
and one hundred feet high ; linden twenty-three feet in circumference and 
quite as lofty; the burr oak and sycamore grow still larger. Prairie 
grasses, on the crowfoot lands, grow very rank and tall, and by the old 
settlers were said to entirely conceal herds of cattle from the view. 

The elm lands, are scarcely inferior to the hackberry lands, and pos- 
sess very nearly the same growth of other timber. The soil has about the 
same properties, except that the sand is finer and the Clay more abundant 
The same quality of soil appears in the prairie known as the resin-weed 
lands. 

Next in order are hickory lands, with a growth of white and shellbark 
hickory, black, scarlet and laurel oaks, sugar maple, persimmon and the 
haw, red-bud and crab-apple trees of smaller growth. In some portions 
of the state the tulip tree, beech and black gum grow on lands of the same 
quality. Large areas of prairie in the northeast and the southwest have 
soils of nearly the same quality, called mulatto soils. There is also a soil 
lying upon the red clays of southern Missouri similar to the above. These 
hickory lands and those described as assimilating to them, are highly 



84 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

esteemed by the farmers for the culture of corn, wheat and other cereals. 
They are admirably adapted to the cultivation of fruits, and their blue 
grass pastures are equal to any in the state. Their area may be fairly 
estimated at six millions of acres. 

The magnesian limestone soils extend from Callaway county south to 
the Arkansas line, and from Jefferson west to Polk county, an area of 
about ten millions of acres. These soils are dark, warna, light and very- 
productive. They produce black and white walnut, black gum, white 
and wahoo elms, sugar maple, honey locust, mulberry, chestnut, post, lau- 
rel, black, scarlet and Spanish oaks, persimmon, blue ash, and many trees 
of smaller growth. They cover all the country underlaid by the magne- 
sian limestone series, but are inconvenient for ordinary tillage when they 
occupy the hillsides or narrow valleys. Among the most fertile soils in 
the state, they produce fine crops of almost all the staples ; and thrifty and 
productive fruit trees and grape vines evince their extraordinary adapta- 
tion and fitness to the culture of the grape and other fruits. 

On the ridges, where the lighter materials of the soil have been washed 
away, or were originally wanting, white oak lands are to be found, the 
oaks accompanied by shellbark and black hickory, and trees and shrubs 
of smaller growth. While the surface soil is not so rich as the hickory 
lands, the sub-soil is quite as good, and the land may be greatly improved 
by turning the sub-soil to the surface. These produce superior wheat, 
good corn, and a very fine quality of tobacco. On these lands fruits are 
abundant and a sure crop. They embrace about ©ne and a half million 
of acres. 

Post oak lands have about the same growth as the white oak lands, 
and produce good crops of the staples of the country, and yield the best 
tobacco in the "West. Fruits of all kinds excel on this soil. These lands 
require deep culture. 

The blackjack lands occupy the high flint ridges underlaid with horn- 
stone and sandstone, and under these conditions are considered the poor- 
est in the state, except for pastures and vineyards. The presence, how- 
ever, of black jack on other lands does not indicate thin or poor lands. 

Pine lands are extensive, embracing about two millions of acres. The 
pines {finis mitis, yellow pine), grow to great size, and furnish immense 
supplies of marketable lumber. They are accompanied by heavy growths 
of oak, which takes the country as successor to the pine. The soil is 
sandy and is adapted to small grains and grasses. 

Bisecting the state by a line drawn from the city of Hannibal, on the 
Mississippi river, to its southwest corner, the half lying to the north and 
west of this line may be described as the prairie region of the state, with 
the rare advantage that every county is bountifully supplied with timber 
and with rivers and smaller streams of water. That which lies east and 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 85 

south of the bisecting line is the timbered or forest section, in which are 
found numerous prairies of greater or less extent. 

The prairie lands are again divided into bottom and upland prairies. 
The bottom prairies closely resemble in soil the river bottoms. In a cer- 
tain sense, the formation is identical; each came from accretions, one from 
the rivers and the other from the higher or upland prairies. The marl 
formation is the foundation of both and in both it is deeplv buried under 
the modern alluvium. 

The celebrated and eloquent orator, Henry Ward Beecher, paid the fol- 
lowing brilliant tribute to our grand state: 

"The breadth of land from the Red River country of the far North, 
stretching to the Gulf of Mexico, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Texas is one of the most wonderful agricultural 
spectacles of the globe! It is one of the few facts that are unthinkable! 
In this ocean of land, and at nearly its centre, stands the imperial state 
of Missouri. Even a Kansas man admits that in natural qualifications it 
leads all the rest, and is the crown and glory of the Union! It has bound- 
less treasures of coal, iron, lead and other minerals; lands richer there 
cannot be, nor finer streams; its forests are more equally distributed all 
over the state than in any other; its climate, wholesome and delightful, 
blends the temperature of the northern lakes and the great southern gulf." 

Horace Greely said: "Missouri possesses the resources and capacities 
of a nation within the boundaries of a State." 

WILD GAME. 

Animals. — Missouri has been the feeding ground for vast herds of the 
choicest of the large game animals up to the present generation. Old 
hunters and trappers, still living, tell marvelous stories of their exploits 
with the gun. As civilization and population advanced westward their 
numbers decreased, yet Missouri is still furnishing a very large proportion 
of the game for the markets of all the large cities of the United States. 
Even London receives large shipments, every winter, from St. Louis. 
From October 1st to February 1st, of every year, there is not an express 
car arriving in St. Louis which does not bring large consignments of 
game. The quantity is enormous, and far beyond the knowledge of 
every one except those engaged in the trade, or whose duties bring them 
in contact with the facts. 

Elk, buffalo, antelope and bear formerly abounded in this state, but 
are now nearly or quite driven entirely beyond our borders. Red deer 
are still plentiful in some parts of the state. In fact, the Ozark Moun- 
tains and the swamp lands of southeast Missouri constitute a great deer 
park and game preserve, and will continue to do so until immigration 
crowds out the game. It is a notorious fact, that venison sells as cheaply 
as good beef in St. Louis markets, during the winter season. 



86 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

The rabbit, as it is popularly called here, is a species of hare, and is 
about the average size of the domestic cat. The} r are so numerous in 
Missouri as to be considered a pest; are found in every field and forest 
in the state. Squirrels are very numerous, especially in the swampy and 
hilly regions. The two principal varieties are the grey squirrel and the 
red fox-squirrel. One of these varieties is to be found in every clump of 
timbered land in the state. 

Birds. — Wild turkeys, the finest game birds in the world, abound in the 
same region. Prairie chickens, or pinnated grouse, are abundant in all 
the prairie regions ot" the state, and are shipped from St. Louis to eastern 
markets by hundreds of barrels during the fall months; but the game 
laws of the state strictly prohibit their being killed or trapped during the 
breeding season. Quails, or Virginia partridge, or "Bob- Whites," are 
found everywhere, so common that partridge pie, or " quail on toast," is 
no great rarity in thrifty farm houses. 

Wild ducks, wild geese, snipe, plover and several species of the rail 
frequent Missouri during their annual migrations north and south. Dur- 
ing March, April and May the migratory birds pass through Missouri, 
going north to their nesting and brooding places, probably near the 
Arctic circle. In October, November and December they return, on 
their journey southward to spend the winter. There is no state in the 
great Mississippi basin more frequented by these migratory game birds 
than Missouri. 

Fishes. — The earl}' settlers found the rivers and lakes teeming with 
many fine varieties of game and food fishes, and there is still a bountiful 
supply. Black bass, perch, catfish, buffalo fish, suckers and pike consti- 
tute the leading varieties of native fishes. Black bass of several varieties 
inhabit every stream of considerable size in the state, and every lake con- 
tains them. It is the best game fish in the state. The perch family is 
represented by several dozen species; and perch of several kinds are 
found in every body of water in the state, which does not actually dry up 
in the summer time. The catfish of Missouri are not only numerous, but 
famous the world over. There are at least a dozen species in the waters 
of this state. The yellow catfish grows to great size, often reaching a 
weight of 175 pounds; the black catfish, maximum weight about 45 
pounds; blue or forked-tail catfish, reaching- 150 pounds and upwards in 
weight; the channel catfish, weighing from one to fifteen pounds, and the 
yellow mud catfish, often weighing as high as 100 pounds. The sucker 
family includes the buffalo fish, chub, sucker and red horse. The first of 
these is highly prized, abundant, and grows to a maximum weight of 40 
pounds. The last named is very abundant during certain seasons of the 
year, and valuable; they weigh from 6 ounces to 8 pounds. Pike of sev- 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 87 

eral species are found throughout Missouri, and rank with black bass as 
game fish ; they are found in the clearer and rapid streams. 

The above lists constitute the leading fishes of the state, but by no means 
all, as there are many minor species. 

The state board of fish commissioners receives $3,000 annually from 
the state, to defray expenses of propagating desirable kinds of food fishes, 
that are not found native in the state. In 1878 Mr. Reid distributed 100,- 
000 fry of the California salmon, in the state. In May and June, 1879, 
the commission distributed 250,000 shad fry in the rivers of southeast, 
south and southwest Missouri, and planted 5,000 young trout in the 
springs and sources of the same rivers. Later they have planted 100,- 
000 fry of the California salmon in the same sections of the state. In 1880 
two or three hundred thousand fry of German carp were planted. All 
the waters of Missouri are adapted to this fish, more especially the lakes 
and sluggish streams. The carp can be as easily cultivated as pigs or 
turkeys, and it is hoped that in a few years all the streams of the state 
will be stocked with them. 



THE CLIMATE. 



For nearly forty years Dr. George Engelmann, of St. Louis, kept sys- 
tematic records of the meteorology of St. Louis and vicinity; and by 
compiling similar records kept during long or short periods, by other per- 
sons in different parts of the state, he has been able to report pretty cor- 
rectly the dates and weather-facts which go to furnish a comprehensive 
estimate of the general nature of the climate, at each season of the year, 
in different parts of the state. The following facts of great practical 
interest and value are gathered from the doctor's work : 

Our winters, taken in the usual sense, from the first of December to 
the last of February, have in the city an average temperature of 33.3 
degrees, and may be estimated for the surrounding country at 32 degrees; 
but they vary in different seasons between 25 degrees (winter of 1855-6 
and 1872-3) and 40 degrees (winter 1844-5). Our summers (from June 
1st to August 31st) have in the city a mean temperature of 76.8 degrees, 
and are calculated to reach in the country 75 degrees, ranging between 
the coolest summer, 71.5 degrees mean temperature (1835, 1839 and 
1848), and the warmest of 80 degrees mean temperature, (1838, 1850 and 
especially 1854). 

The last frosts in spring occur between March 13th and May 2d, on 
an average about April 5th, and the earliest autumnal frosts between 
October 4th and November 26th, on an average about October 27th; the 



88 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

period between these two terms extends in different years from 184 to 
252 days, on an average 205 days. In the southeast part of the state 
these limits^ of the freezing point will, of course, be much wider apart, 
and in the northwest they are narrowed down considerably. Our spring 
opens in March, though in some favored seasons vegetation breaks 
through its wintry bounds already in the latter part of February, while 
in a few very late springs it cannot be said to have fairly commenced 
before the middle of April. * * We find the first in bloom is the 

alder and the hazel; next — not rarely retarded by intervening cold spells — 
the soft or silver leaf maple; our common white elm blooms a few days 
after this, between February 24th and April 15th, on an average, March 
19th. During the next following days, roses, syringas, gooseberries and 
many other bushes, and the weeping willows, show their young leaves. 
About two weeks after, the elm — between March 18th and April 25th, 
on an average about April 3d — the peach trees open their first blossoms, 
and are, one week later, in full bloom. Plum and pear trees and sweet 
cherries blossom about the same time, or a few days later, and then sour 
cherries and the glory of our rich woods, the red buds, get in bloom. 
Between March 21st and May 1st, (mean, April 14th) the early apple 
trees begin to bloom, and between March 28th and May 10th, (mean, 
April 20th) they may be said to be in full bloom. 

The maturity and harvest of winter wheat immediately succeeds the 
catalpa bloom, between June 10th and July 1st, usually about June 20th. 
The mean summer temperature varies but little throughout the state. In 
the summer of 1873 the mean temperature in the southeast was found 
only one-half degree higher than that of the northeast, and the difference 
between St. Louis and the west was even less. "Winter temperatures, 
however, show a wide range. The mean temperature of the southeast- 
ern part of the state is 2^ to 3 degrees higher than at St. Louis, and 
5£ degrees higher than in the northeastern angle, and the mean tem- 
perature of Leavenworth, and the adjacent parts of Missouri, is fully 2 
degrees less than that of the region about St. Louis. 

In connection with our winter temperature it must be mentioned that 
the Mississippi at St. Louis freezes over about once in four or five 
years, partly, no doubt, in consequence of the heavy ice floating down 
from the north; and it then remains closed for one or two, or even four 
or six weeks, sometimes passable for the heaviest teams. Our river has 
been known to close as early as the first week in December, and in 
other years, to be open as late as the last week in February, while the run- 
ning ice may impede or interrupt navigation between the end of Novem- 
ber and the end of February, sometimes as low down as the southeast 
corner of the state ; the river is said, however, never to freeze over below 
Cape Girardeau. The Missouri river is sometimes closed in the latter 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 



89 



part of November, and has been known to remain firmly bridged over 
into the first week of March. 

The climate of Missouri is, on the whole, a dry one, with strong evap- 
oration, and an atmosphere but rarely overloaded with moisture. 



Clear or nearly clear days 

Partially clear and variable days 

Days when the sun remains obscured. 



Winter Spring 

30 
39 



21 



33 
47 
12 



Summer Autumn 



40 

48 
4 



40 
39 
12 



Whole Yr. 



143 
173 

49 



Our summer rains mostly descend with great abundance, and in a com- 
paratively short time, so that the average (13 inches) of summer rain falls 
in 70 hours, distributed over twenty-four days, while the 7 inches of win- 
ter rain (and snow) descend in 160 hours and on 22 days. The days on 
which it rains vary between 68 and 115 in the year. On the average we 
have 92 days in the year on which it rains. Our rains last from a frac- 
tion of an hour to a few hours, and very rarely extend through the 24 
hours. 

Snow is rather scarce in our climate, and rarely continually covers the 
ground for more than a few days or a week. In some years, it amounted, 
when melted to 5f inches; in others to only one-half inch; the aver- 
age is about 2-J inches. 

The atmospherical pressure (indicated by the stage of the barometer) is 
with us, in summer, more uniform and regular than on the Atlantic coast, 
while in winter it fluctuates considerably, and often very rapidly. The 
average barometrical pressure is highest in January, falls till May, and 
gradually rises again until January; it is most variable from November to 
March, and least so from June to August. 

HEALTHFULNESS OF THE STATE. 

Authentic reports to the Health Board of St. Louis is have shown that 
the annual sickness rate of the city of St. Louis about seventeen and a half 
days to each member of the population. Dr. Boardman, of Boston, has 
ascertained the sickness rate of the city of Boston to be about twenty- 
four days of annual sickness to each individual. The general correctness 
of these conclusions are further substantiated by army statistics. Dr. 
Pla}rfair, of England, after careful inquiry, computed the ratio of one 
death to twenty-eight cases of sickness in a mixed population. 

The state of Massachusetts has for many years had a state board of 
Health, by whom sanitary improvements have been diligently and scien 
tifically prosecuted, under state authority; and the annual death-rate has 
thereby been somewhat reduced. In 1870 Massachusetts had a popula- 
tion of 1,457,351 and there were during the same period 25,859 deaths 
from all causes. A mortality equal to 1.77 per cent of the population. At 
' 6 



90 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

the same time Missouri had a population of 1,721,295, and there were 
during that year 27,982 deaths from all causes. A mortality rate equiva- 
lent to ].(>:> per cent, of the population. It thus appears, if the calculation 
is made and the relative proportion between the populations and the death 
rates of the two states maintained, that vital security is greater in Mis- 
souri, as compared with Massachusetts, to an extent represented bv 
the annual saving of 2,474 lives. But this is not all. The authorities on 
vital statistics estimate that two persons are constantly sick for every one 
that dies; and Dr. Jarvis shows, from the experience of health-assurance 
companies in this country, that on an average each person loses from 19 
to 20 days per year by sickness. Then we have this result: Two 
persons sick to one death, equal 4,948, multiplied b}- 20, gives 98,960 days 
per year less of sickness in Missouri than in Massachusetts, in proportion 
to population. Then reckon the amount of care and anxiety and suffering 
and the loss of time, and cost for nursing and medicines and doctor's bills — 
and you will begin to get some idea of what these figures really mean, in 
favor of our state, with its dry, salubrious climate, in comparison with 
Massachusetts, the only other state for which the figures were at hand 
to make the comparison. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The Missouri state board of agriculture was created a body corporate 
by statute, in 1877, and it was provided that the governor, the state sup- 
erintendent of schools, the president of the state university and the 
dean of the state agricultural college, should be ex-officio members of 
the board. The officers of the secretary and treasurer are required to be 
at the agricultural college, at Columbia, in Boone county ; and the annual 
meetings are to be held there, on the first Wednesday of November in 
each year. The presidents or duly authorized delegates of county 
agricultural societies, are rightful members of the state board, "for delib- 
eration and consultation as to the wants, prospects and condition of the 
agricultural interests of the state, to receive the reports of district and 
county societies, and to fill by elections all vacancies in the board." 

The law further provides that, " It shall be the duty of all agricultural 
and horticultural societies, organized and established in accordance with 
the laws of this state, to make a full report of their transactions to the 
Missouri state board of agriculture, at each annual meeting thereof." 

The state board is required " to make an annual report to the general 
assembly of the state, embracing the proceedings of the board for the 
past year, and an abstract of the reports and proceedings of the several 
agricultural and horticultural societies, as well as a general view of the 
condition of agriculture and horticulture throughout the state, accom- 
panied by such recommendations, including especially such a system of 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 91 

public instruction upon those subjects as may be deemed interesting and 
useful." Provision is then made for printing fourteen thousand copies 
(two thousand in the German language), for distribution to all who will use 
them. 

OUR STAPLE CROPS. 

First of all the crops grown in the state, in amount and value, is Indian 
corn. There is not a county in the state in which it is not successfully 
and profitably grown. The broad alluvial bottoms along our great rivers 
yield immense crops of this valuable cereal, and our fertile prairies are 
but little, if any, behind them in their yield. 

Next in importance among the cereals is wheat, which grows and yields 
well in every part of the state. Except in a few northern counties, spring 
wheat is but little grown, the main attention being bestowed upon the 
winter varieties, which are especially a favorite crop upon the loess and 
clay loams, and upon the oak uplands of the state. The well known fact 
that the best flour to stand transportation and exposure in hot and humid 
climates, is made from wheat grown toward the southern border of the 
wheat zone, has made Missouri flour a favorite for shipment to South 
American markets. Flour made in Missouri, from Missouri wheat, won 
the Medal of Merit at the World's Exposition, at Vienna, in 1873. The 
average yield and the certainty of the wheat crop in Missouri, give the 
state a high rank among the states producing this cereal. 

Oats grow and yield well in the state, producing heavy straw, plump 
and heavy grains; but the crop does not figure very largely in our 
markets, being mainly grown for home consumption. 

Tobacco, of two or three varieties, grows well, and Missouri tobacco 
enjoys a fine reputation for excellence. The state embraces some of the 
best tobacco lands in the country. It is a staple in nearly every county in 
the state, and some of the counties make it a leading crop. Missouri 
ranks sixth in its production. 

Cotton, except in small patches for home use, is raised only in the 
southern counties of the state. Stoddard, Scott, New Madrid, Pemiscot, 
Dunklin, Mississippi and Lawrence, all raise more or less for shipment, 
and, in some of the counties named, it is an important crop. 

Potatoes grow well, and on most of our soils yield large crops. They 
are of fine quality generally. 

Sweet Potatoes grow upon our sand}' - soils to great size and excellence, 
and our farmers raise a great abundance for home use, and the city 
markets are always well supplied. 

Sorghum, and other varieties of the Chinese sugar cane, are exten- 
sively grown, and many thousands of gallons of syrup are annually made 
for home use. Recent improvements in manufacturing sugar from these 



02 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

syrups bid fair to increase the value and importance of this branch of 
husbandry. 

Broom Corn is extensively grown in Missouri, and the brush being 
longer and finer than that grown in the eastern states, commands a much 
better price in market. 

Buckwheat, Castor Beans, White Beans, Peas and Hops, are all success- 
fully grown and made profitable crops. 

Garden Vegetables are produced in great profusion and variety, and 
the more arid regions of western Kansas and New Mexico, and the 
mining districts of Colorado, afford an ever-increasing market for these 
and other agricultural products from our state. Watermelons, musk- 
melons, etc., grow to great perfection, and are shipped in large quantities 
from some portions of the state to cities farther north. 

The U. S. forestry statistics of 1875, give Missouri 21,707,220 acres of 
land in farms; 20,116,786 acres not in farms; of wood land in farms there 
were 8,965,229 acres, and the total woodlands in the state was reported 
as 19,623,619 acres. 

There is a curious bit of agricultural history which illustrates the rapid 
development of the western country, and at the same time shows, by 
the inevitable logic of events already transpired, the magnificent position 
of Missouri as the greatest wheat center on the globe. In 1849 the cen- 
ter of the wheat product of the United States was the meridian of 81 ° 
west of Greenwich, passing north and south through the eastern border 
counties of Ohio. In 1859 that line had moved westward a little more than 
two degrees of longitude, and passed through the eastern border counties 
of Indiana, the city of Fort Wayne being on the line. In 1869 the wheat 
center had moved not quite two degrees further west, and was that year 
a few miles west of Chicago and Milwaukee; and the center of our 
National corn crop was on the same line at this time. In 1877 this line 
had moved still further west, and was now represented by a line drawn 
on a map of the United States from Marquette, on Lake Superior, down 
through Janesville, Wisconsin, and through Mendota, LaSalle, Vandalia 
and Cairo, in Illinois. The corn center will not move much if any further 
west ; but the wheat center, by reason of the rapid development of this 
crop in Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, is now, in 1881, as far 
west as St. Louis; and it will not be likely to migrate further than Jeffer- 
son City at any time in the future, because there is no important wheat- 
growing territory further west still unoccupied. The new settlements 
westward must be chiefly by mining and manufacturing peoples, hence, 
consumers rather than producers of the great cereal crops. 

The conclusion of the whole matter, then, is that St. Louis is now, and 
will for several decades continue to be, practically on the center line of 
the aggregate product of wheat and corn in the United States, propor- 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 93 

tioned from east to west limits of the national domain. And this fact 
assures Missouri of pre-eminent commercial rank among the grand sister- 
hood of states. 

The following table shows the number of pounds weight which con- 
stitute a lawful bushel in Missouri, of the different articles named, as 
established in 1879: 

No. lbs. No. lbs. 

Articles. per bu. Articles. per bu. 

Wheat 60 Orchard Grass 14 

Corn, shelled 56 Buckwheat 52 

Corn in ear 70 Onions 57 

Corn Meal 50 Top Onion Sets 28 

Rye 56 Peas, whole, dry 60 

Oats 32 Split Peas 60 

Barley 48 Dried Apples 24 

Irish Potatoes 60 Dried Peaches 33 

Sweet Potatoes 56 Malt 38 

Beans,White .60 Salt 50 

Castor Beans 46 Coal - 80 

Bran 20 Peanuts, dry Southern 22 

Clover Seed 60 Cotton Seed 33 

Timothy Seed 45 Parsnips 44 

Hungarian Seed 48 Common Turnips , 42 

Hemp Seed 44 Carrots 50 

Flaxseed 56 Rutabagas 50 

Millet Seed 50 Green Peas, unshelled 56 

Red-top Seed or Herd's Grass 14 Green Beans, unshelled 56 

Osage Orange Seed 36 Green Apples 48 

Sorghum Seed 42 Green Peaches 48 

Kentucky Blue Grass Seed ... 14 Green Pears 48 

The standard bushel for coke and charcoal is to contain 2,680 cubic 
inches; apple barrels, length, 28£ inches; chines, f of an inch at ends; 
diameter of head, 17J inches; inside diameter at the center of the barrel, 
20| inches. 

HORTICULTURE. 

The state horticultural society was organized in January, 1859, and 
has kept up its annual meetings in spite of all difficulties. Each congres- 
sional district of the state is classed as a separate horticultural district, and 
is represented in the society by a vice-president, who is expected to keep 
himself posted on the interests of this industry in his district, and make 
report (or procure some one to do it), at the annual meeting. The officers 
of this society for 1880, were: President, Hon. Norman J. Colman, St. 
Louis; Vice Presidents: 1st congressional district, H. Michel, St. Louis; 
2d, Dr. C. W. Spaulding, Cliff Cave; 3d, J. Rhodes, Bridgeton; 4th, 
H. D. Wilson, Cape Girardeau; 5th, W. S. Jewett, Crystal City; 6th, M. 



94 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

S. Roundtree, Springfield; 7th, E. Brown, Sedalia; 8th, Z. S. Ragan, 
Independence; 9th, J. Madinger, St. Joseph; 10th, W. H. Miller, Chili- 
cothe; 11th, G. Husmann, Columbia; 12th, J. Hawkins, Hannibal; 13th, 
W. Stark, Louisiana. 

Apples.— All the standard varieties of the temperate zone are raised 
in their highest perfection in the state of Missouri; but in such a large 
area of country as our state comprises, and with such a great variety of 
soils, and other conditions, each different kind has its locality of best suc- 
cess. It is therefore not possible to indicate what varieties are best for 
the state ; each district will have its favorites. At the national exhibit, in 
1878, Missouri showed one hundred and forty plates of apples. Distin- 
guished pomologists assert that ten counties in north Missouri can show 
apples in as great'variety and perfection as any ten other states in the 
Union. 

Perhaps no better proof can be given of the general excellence of 
Missouri fruits than the fact that at the meeting of the American pomo- 
logical society, in September, 1878, medals were awarded to Missouri for 
the best displays of apples, pears and wines, and also one for the best 
general display of fruits.* These honors were gained in competition with 
every state in the union, represented by their choicest fruits, and at an 
exhibition held at Rochester, New York, which had long been regarded 
as the very center of the fruit growing interests of the country. The 
fruits exhibited on that occasion were from different parts of the state. 
St. Joseph, Independence, Morrison, Columbia, Hermann, St. Louis county, 
Boone county, and other districts were represented, and shared the hon- 
ors of our great victory. 

The varieties that appear to have received most favor at the meeting 
of our state agricultural society, in 1880, were Ben Davis, Winesap, 
Jonathan, Dominie, Rawle's Janet, Milam, Northern Spy, Carthouse, 
Newtown Pippin, Summer Pippin, Red June, Early Harvest, Red 
Astrachan, Late Summer, Dutchess of Oldenburg, Early Pennock, St. 
Lawrence, Maiden Blush, Rambo, Grimes' Golden, Limber Twig, Little 
Romanite. 

Peaches. — The southeastern portion of the state, along the line of the 
Iron Mountain railroad, and the western portion, where the marly deposits 
are so rich and extensive, are pre-eminently the peach districts, and in 
these regions the peach seems almost indigenous, never failing to produce 
abundant crops; and yet fruit-growers in these districts say that they are 
never able to supply the demand, Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado taking 
all from the western region, and St. Louis having to draw upon other states 
for her supplies. Peaches may be relied upon as a profitable crop in all 
that part of the state south of the Missouri river, and, indeed, are largely 
grown much further north, St. Joseph exporting large amounts. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 95 

In some localities the trees have occasionally been winter-killed, when not 
in suitable soil or not sheltered ; but, on the whole, Missouri may fairly be set 
down as a peach-growing state. Mr. R. Lynn, of Rockport, in the 
northwest part of the state, says he has raised three good paying crops 
of peaches in seven years, the first crop being the third year from plant- 
ing; his best crop was in 1878. 

Pears. — Pears do well throughout the state, especially in the region 
of Clay, Jackson and Cass counties. The trees attain a great size and 
age — a diameter of from twelve to fifteen inches is common ; and there 
are trees a short distance south of St. Louis over two hundred years old, 
and still bearing full crops. The pear, although the most luscious fruit 
grown in northern latitudes, is also one of the most difficult to raise suc- 
cessfully — hence it is a matter of reasonable pride and gratification that 
this fruit has done so well in our state. At the national pomological 
exhibition, of 1878, there were from this state: From the Missouri Val- 
ley horticultural society, Kansas City, twenty varieties of pears; from 
Jacob Rhodes, Bridgeton, nine varieties; from J. Madinger, St. Joseph, 
six varieties; from W. Stark, Louisiana, two varieties. Some of the 
finest specimens at the exhibition were grown near St. Louis, on stocks of 
the white thorn. 

Grapes. — For several years the chief fruit-growing interest of our state 
seemed to center on the grape — at least, it was more discussed and advo- 
cated in fashionable circles, than all the other fruits put together. The 
anti-prohibition sentiment rallied around the grape-growing industry for 
the manufacture of native wines, as the great panacea for all the ills and 
horrors of intemperance. But aside from any matter of sentiment in the 
case, it does seem as though we excel all other states of the Union in the 
variety and richness of our grapes, both of native and cultivated varieties. 

From Prof. Swallow's report on the country along the lines of the 
southwestern branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad, published in 1859, 
we learn that seven different native grapes have been found in Missouri. 
1. Vitis Labrusca, commonly called "fox grape." The Isabella, Catawba, 
Schuylkill and Bland's seedling, are cultivated and popular varieties derived 
from this wild grape. 2. Vitis Aestivalis, or "summer grape." This 
is found in all parts of the state. 3. Vitis Cordifolia; winter grape, or 
"frost grape " as it is more commonly called. 4. Vitis Rtyaria, or "river 
grape," grows along streams and is quite large. 5. Vitis Vulpina ; called 
also Muscadine. It grows mostly in the south part of the state, and is a 
large fine fruit. The cultivated grape called Scuppernong is derived from 
this wild variety. 6. Vitis Bipinnata; found in Cape Girardeau and 
Pemiscot counties. 7. Vitis Indivisa; found in central and western 
counties. 



96 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

GRASSES. 

There are few or no grasses that are -peculiar to Missouri; and fortu- 
nately so, for there is no permanent advantage in being adapted to pecu- 
liar crops any more than in being a peculiar people. The great blessings 
of life are universal and widespread. It results that all the valuable 
members of this great and beneficial family of plants are adapted to and 
capable of being introduced and cultivated in this state. Flint, in his 
standard work on grasses, says: "Whoever has blue grass has the basis 
of all agricultural prosperity, and that man, if he have not the finest 
horses, cattle and sheep, has no one to blame but himself. Others, in 
other circumstances, may do well. He can hardly avoid doing well if he 
will try." 

Blue grass is indigenous in Missouri. When the timber is removed it 
springs up spontaneously on the land, and, when the prairie is reclaimed, 
it soon takes possession and supersedes all other grasses. This famous 
grass is the foundation on which the mighty stock industry of Kentucky* 
has been built, and has given a world-renowned reputation to its fine 
blood horses, cattle and sheep. The combing-wool sheep and the fine 
mutton breeds have obtained a national reputation for wool and mutton in 
that state, and their usefulness has but begun. What blue grass has done 
for Kentucky, it is now doing for Missouri. An acre of this grass is 
worth an acre of corn. 

Recent experience has proved that alfalfa or lucerne, that most fatten- 
ing of all grasses, grows luxuriantly in this region, yielding each year 
three or four good crops of hay. 

THE "GRASSHOPPER" IN MISSOURI. 
As early as 1867, our state board of agriculture reported destruction by 
grasshoppers (the Rocky Mountain locust,) in the western part of the 
state the previous fall; and also, that there had been visitations more or 
less injurious in former years. But their greatest and most grievous 
invasion occurred in the fall of 1874, when 33 counties of western Mis- 
souri suffered from their ruthless ravages. Our state entomologist, Prof. 
C. V. Riley, made such a thorough, diligent and masterful study of their 
origin and habits, and the causes, methods and consequences of their migra- 
tions, that he became the standard authority on grasshoppers all over the 
civilized world. In 1876 the government appointed a special commission 
of entomologists to investigate the character and movements of these 
pests, and report for the benefit of the whole infested region, which com- 
prised the country west of St. Paul, Minnesota, Jefferson City, Missouri, 
and Galveston, Texas, ranging from the Gulf of Mexico on the south, to 

* "Kentucky blue grass," (so-called), is not native to that state : it is the same as the En- 
glish spear grass, the New England June grass, or meadow gross — or, in botanical lan- 
guage, poa pratmsis. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. U? 

Lake Winnipeg and Manitoba in the British possessions northward, and 
as far west as the headquarters of the Columbia river. The most prom- 
inent scientists on this commission were our own Prof. Riley, and Prof. 
Samuel Aughey, of the state university of Nebraska. 

The results of this United States commission were little if anything 
more than a tedious elaboration of what Prof. Riley had presented in 
three annual reports as state entomologist of Missouri. No new points 
of any special importance were discovered concerning them. The devel- 
opment of this subject, therefore, belongs to the history of what Missouri 
has done for science, for agriculture and for the public weal. In his 
seventh annual report to our state board of agriculture, 1875, Prof. Riley 
says: 

"There is some difference of opinion as to the precise natural habitat and 
breeding places of these insects, but the facts all indicate that it is by- 
nature a denizen of high altitudes, breeding in the valleys, parks and 
plateaus of the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado, and especially of 
Montana, Wyoming and British America. Prof. Cyrus Thomas, who 
has had an excellent opportunity of studying it, through his connection 
with Hayden's geological survey of the territories, reports it as occurring 
from Texas to British America, and from the Mississippi westward to the 
Sierra Nevada range. But in all this vast extent of country, and espe- 
cially in the more southern latitudes, there is every reason to believe that 
it breeds only on the higher mountain elevations, and where the atmos- 
phere is very dry and attenuated, and the soil, seldom,. if ever, gets soaked 
with moisture. Prof. Thomas found it most numerous in all stages of 
growth, along the higher valleys and canyons of Colorado, tracing it up 
above the perennial snows, where the insects must have hatched, as it 
was found in the adolescent stage. In crossing the mountains in Col- 
orado, it often gets chilled in passing snows, and thus perishes in 
immense numbers, where bears delight to feast upon it. My own belief 
is that the insect is at home in the higher altitudes of Utah, Idaho, Col- 
orado, Wyoming,-. Montana, northwest Dakota, and British America. It 
breeds in all this region, but particularly on the vast hot and drv plains 
and plateaus of the last named territories, and on the plains west of the 
mountains; its range being bounded, perhaps, on the east by that of the 
buffalo grass. 

" Mr. Wm. N. Byers, of Denver, Colorado, shows that they hatch in 
immense quantities in the valleys of the three forks of the Missouri river 
and along the Yellowstone, and how they move on from there, when 
fledged, in a southeast direction, at about ten miles a day. The swarms 
of 1867 were traced, as he states, from their hatching grounds in west 
Dakota, and Montana, along the east flank of the P.ocky Mountains, in 
the valleys and plains of the Black Hills, and between them and the main 
Rocky Mountain range. It all this immense stretch of country, as is well 
known, there are immense tracts of barren, almost desert land, while 
other tracts for hundreds of miles bear only a scanty vegetation, the short 
buffalo grass of the more fertile prairies giving way now to a more luxu- 
riant vegetation along the water courses, now to the sage bush and a few 
cacti. Another physical peculiaritv is found in the fact that while the 



J>8 HISTORY OK THE STATE OK MISSOURI. 

spring on these immense plains often opens as early, even away up into 
British America, as it does with us in the latitude of St. Louis, yet the veg- 
etation is often dried and actually burned out before the first of July, so 
that not a green thing is to be found. Our Rocky Mountain locust, 
therefore, hatching out in untold myriads in the hot sandy plains, five or 
six thousand feet above the level of the sea, will often perish in immense 
numbers if the scant vegetation of its native home dries up before it 
acquires wings; but if the season is propitious, and the insect becomes 
fledged before its food supplies is exhausted, the newly acquired wings 
prove its salvation. It may also become periodically so prodigiously mul- 
tiplied in its native breeding place, that, even in favorable seasons, every- 
thing green is devoured by the time it becomes winged. 

" In either case, prompted by that most exigent law of hunger — spurred 
on for very life — it rises in immense clouds in the air to seek for fresh 
pastures where it may stay its ravenous appetite. Borne along by pre- 
vailing winds that sweep over these immense treeless plains from the north- 
west, often at the rate of fifty or sixty miles an hour, the darkening locust 
clouds are soon carried into the more moist and fertile country to the 
southeast, where, with sharpened appetites, they fall upon the crops like 
a plague and a blight. 

" Many of the more feeble or of the more recently fledged perish, no 
doubt, on he way, but the main army succeeds, with favorable wind, 
in bridging over the parched country which offers no nourishment. The 
hotter and dryer the season, and the greater the extent of the drouth, the 
earlier will they be prompted to migrate, and the farther will they push 
on to the east and south. 

"The comparatively sudden change from the attenuated and dry atmos- 
phere of five to eight thousand feet or more above the sea level, to the 
more humid and dense atmosphere of one thousand feet below that level, 
does not agree with them. The first generation hatched in this low coun- 
try is unhealthy, and the few that attain maturity do not breed, but 
become intestate and go to the dogs. At least such is the case in our own 
state and the whole of the Mississippi valley proper. As we go west or 
northwest and approach nearer and nearer the insect's native home, the 
power to propagate itself and become localized, becomes, of course, greater 
and greater, until at last we reach the country where it is found per- 
petually. Thus in the western parts of Kansas and Nebraska the pro- 
geny from the mountain swarms may multiply to the second or even third 
generation, and wing their wa}^ in more local and feeble bevies to the 
countrv east and south. Yet eventually they vanish from off the face of 
the earth, unless fortunate enough to be carried back by favorable winds 
to the high and dry country where they flourish. 

" That they often instinctively seek to return to their native haunts is 
proven by the fact that they are often seen flying early in the season in a 
northwesterly direction. As a rule, however, the wind which saved the 
first comers from starvation by bearing them away from their native 
home, keeps them and their issue to the east and south, and thus, in the 
end proves their destruction. For in the Mississippi valley they are 
doomed, sooner or later. There is nothing more certain than that the 
insect is not autochthonous in west Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, 
or even Minnesota, and that when forced to migrate from its native home, 
from the causes already mentioned, it no longer thrives in this country." 



HISTORY OF THE STATF, OF MISSOURI. \>'.t 

February 23, 1877, our state legislature passed a law providing for 
the payment of a bounty of one dollar per bushel in March, fifty cents 
per bushel in April, and twenty-five cents per bushel in May, for grass- 
hoppers; and five dollars per bushel for their eggs at any time. Nebraska 
did still better, by making every road supervisor in the state a grasshop- 
per policeman, and giving him authority to call out every man from six- 
teen to sixty years old, to spend two days killing young grasshoppers 
from the time they begin to hatch in the spring. 

All the grasshopper states now have some sort of protective laws; and 
if another invasion occurs, by concerted and organized effort the amount 
of damage suffered can be reduced to a small per cent as compared with 
our last " plague of the locusts." 



PART III.— NAVIGATION AND COMMERCE. 
NAVIGATION— ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

It is not certainly known just what modes of navigation were used bv 
the prehistoric mound-builders, although we hare some relics of their 
time, or possibly of a still earlier race, which are deemed to show that 
they made wooden dug-outs or troughs, by burning them into a sort of 
boat-like shape and condition. And it is supposed that, prior to this they 
lashed together logs or fragments of drift-wood, and made rude rafts 
upon which the}' could cross rivers or float down, but of course could 
not return with them. Some remains have been found in northwestern 
Iowa* which are supposed to prove that men used wooden dug-out boats 
during the age when Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska were the 
bottom of a vast inland sea or lake, into which the Missouri and Platte 
rivers emptied their muddy waters and deposited what Prof. Swallow 
calls the "bluff formation " over these states; and Prof. Whitney found 
in California undisputable proof of man's existence there a whole geolog- 
ical age prior to the period when the great fresh water Missouri sea 
existed, (see note to chart, on page 67); hence the fact that raft and dug- 
out navigation was in use among the islands and shallows of this immense 
mud-lake or inland sea, seems not improbable. 

However, the modern Indians, before the white man appeared in these 
western wilds, had the art of making light and elegant canoes of birch 
bark, and could manage them in the water with wonderful skill. They 
made long journeys in them, both up and down stream; and when they 
wanted to go from one stream to another these canoes were so light that 
two men could carry one on their shoulders and march twenty or twenty- 
five miles a day with it if necessary. But they were too light and frail 
for the freighting service of the white man's commerce. 

» , . 

* Reported to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at its St. Louis 
meeting, in August, 1878, by W. J. McGee, geologist, of Farley, Iowa. 



100 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

The European explorers of this new world utilized the Indian canoes 
as far as practicable, often making considerable voyages in them; some- 
times two were lashed together by means of coupling poles laid across 
on top of them, thus making a boat with two hulls. This rig could not 
be upset, and was easy to tow or paddle, besides making a sort of over- 
deck on which to carry baggage. But the thin, frail material was too 
easily punctured to be safe, and boats made of plank were always in 
demand. At first the boats were built in the "scow" fashion, with full 
width flat bottom and full width sled-runner bow. But they soon learned 
that in order to make any headway going up stream they must adopt the 
keel bottom and water-cutter prow style; and for more than a hundred 
years the traffic of all our navigable western rivers was carried on mainly 
by means of what were called keel-boats. The manner of propelling 
them up stream we have described elsewhere. 

THE LEWIS AND CLARKE EXPEDITION. 

The Missouri river was first opened to commerce and geography by 
Lewis and Clarke, who were commissioned by President Jefferson, in 
1803, to explore it. They Lit St. Louis May 14, 1804. The outfit con- 
sisted of twenty-six men; one keel-boat fifty-five feet long, drawing three 
feet of water, and provided with one large square sail and twenty-two 
oars. Also, two open boats, one of six, and one of seven oars. May 16th 
they were at St. Charles ; on the 25th they reached LaCharrette, a small 
village sixty-five miles above the mouth of the river, not far from where 
Marthasville, in Warren county, is now located, and which was the last 
white settlement up the river. June 1st they reached the mouth of the 
Osage river, which was so called because the Osage tribe of Indians 
dwelt along its course. June 26th, they reached the mouth of the Kansas 
river, where Kansas City now flourishes in all her glory, and remained 
here two days for rest and repairs. The Kansas tribe of Indians had two 
villages in this vicinity. July 8th they were at the mouth of the Nodawa, 
where now is the village of Amazonia, in Andrew county; and on the 11th 
they landed at the mouth of the Nemaha river. On the 14th they passed 
the mouth of the Nishnabotna river, and noted that it was only 300 yards 
distant from the Missouri at a point twelve miles above its mouth. 

This was their last point within the boundaries of the present state of 
Missouri. St. Louis was then the territorial capital of the whole region 
they were to explore through to the mouth of the Columbia river on the 
Pacific coast. This was one of the great exploring adventures of the 
world's history, and its narrative is full of romantic and thrilling interest, 
but space forbids its presentation here. The party followed up the entire 
length of the Missouri river, then down the Columbia to the Pacific 
ocean, reaching that point November 14th, 1805. Here they wintered; 
and on March 23d, 1806, they started on their return trip by the same 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 1<»1 

route, arriving at St. Louis September 23d, at 12 o'clock — not a man 
missing from the party that first started out; and the people of St. Louis 
gave them an enthusiastic ovation. 

FIRST STEAMBOATS IN MISSOURI. 

Steam came at last, and revolutionized the business of navigation and 
commerce throughout the world. The first steamboat that ever lashed 
the Missouri shore with its waves, or made our river hills and forests echo 
back her pulsating puffs, was the " General Pike," from Louisville, which 
landed at St. Louis, August 2, 1817. Such boats had passed a few times 
up and down the whole length of the Ohio river, and between Louisville 
and New Orleans, before this, so that the people of St. Louis had heard 
about them from the keel-boat navigators. They were therefore over- 
joyed when the first one landed at the foot of their main business street, 
and thus placed them for the first time in steam communication with the 
rest of the civilized world. The event was celebrated with the most 
enthusiastic manifestations of delight by the ringing of bells, firing of 
guns, floating of flags and streamers, building of bonfires, etc. The 
second one, the "Constitution," arrived October 2; and from that onward 
the arrival of steamboats became a very commonplace affair. 

The first boat that ever entered the Missouri river was the "Independ- 
ence," commanded by Captain Nelson. She left St. Louis May 15, 1819, 
and on the 28th arrived at Franklin, a flourishing young city that stood 
on the north bank of the Missouri river, opposite where Boonville is now 
located. There was a U. S. land office at Franklin, and it was the 
metropolis of the up-Mjssouri region, or as it was then called, the 
" Boone's Lick Country." * When this first steamboat arrived the citi- 
zens got up a grand reception and public dinner in honor of the captain 
and crew. The boat proceeded up as far as the mouth of the Chariton 
river, where there was then a small village called Chariton, but from that 
point turned back, picking up freight for St. Louis and Louisville at the 
settlements as she passed down. The town site of Old Franklin was 
long ago all washed away, and the Missouri river now flows over the 
very spot where then were going on all the industries of a busy, thriving, 
populous young city. 

The second steamboat to enter the Missouri river (and what is given in 
most histories as the first) was in connection with Major S. H. Long's TJ. 
S. exploring expedition, and occurred June 21, 1819, not quite a month 
after the trip of the " Independence." Major Long's fleet consisted of 
four steamboats, the " Western Engineer," " Expedition," " Thomas Jef- 
ferson" and "R. M.Johnson," together with nine keel-boats. The 
"Jefferson," however, was wrecked and lost a few days after. The 

*Daniel Boone had first explored this region and discovered some rich salt springs, and 
two of his sons manufactured salt and shipped it from Franklin for several years. 



102 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

"Western Engineer" was a double stern wheel boat, and had projecting 
from her bow a figure-head representing a huge open-jawed, red-mouthed, 
forked-tongued serpent, and out of this hideous orifice the puffs of steam 
escaped from the engines. The men on board had many a hearty laugh 
from watching the Indians on shore. When the strange monster came 
in sight, rolling out smoke and sparks from its chimney like a fiery mane, 
and puffing great mouthfuls of steam from its wide open jaws, they 
would look an instant, then yell, and run like deer to hide away from 
their terrible visitor. They thought it was the Spirit of Evil, the very 
devil himself, coming to devour them. But their ideas and their actions 
were not a whit more foolish than those of the sailors on the Hudson 
river, who leaped from their vessels and swam ashore to hide, when Ful- 
ton's first steamboat came puffing and glaring and smoking and splashing 
toward them, like a wheezy demon broke loose from the bottomless pit. 
Major Long was engaged five years in exploring all the region between 
the Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains which is drained by the 
Missouri and its tributaries; and his steamboats were certainly the first 
that ever passed up the Missouri to any great distance. Long's Peak, in 
Colorado, 14,272 feet high, was named after him. 

From this time forward the commerce and travel by steamboats to and 
from St. Louis grew rapidlv into enormous proportions, and small towns 
sprung up in quick succession on every stream where a boat with paddle 
wheels could make its way. For half a century steamboating was the 
most economical and expeditious mode of commerce in vogue for inland 
traffic; and Missouri, with her whole eastern boundary washed by the 
" Father of Waters," and the equally large and navigable " Big Muddy " 
meandering entirely across her territory from east to west, and for nearly 
two hundred miles along her northwestern border, became an imperial 
center of the steamboating interest and industry. 

About 1830 the art of constructing iron-railed traffic-ways, with steam- 
propelled carriages upon them, began to be developed in our eastern 
states. But it was not until 1855 that these new devices for quick transit 
began to affect the steamboating interests of Missouri. (The first rail- 
roads to St. Louis were opened in that year; the railroad history of the 
state will be found in another place.) Then commenced the memorable 
struggle of the western steamboat interests, with headquarters at St. 
Louis, to prevent any railroad bridge from being built across the Missis- 
sippi, Missouri or Ohio rivers. They held that such structures would 
inevitably be an artificial obstruction to the free and safe navigation of 
these great natural highways. But it was evident enough to clear- 
thinking people that the steamboat business must decline if railroads 
were permitted to cross the great rivers without the expense of breaking 
bulk, and this was the "true inwardness" of the anti-railroad bridge 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 103 

combination. The issue was made against the first railroad bridge that 
ever spanned the Mississippi, the one at Rock Island. Illinois. In a long 
course of controversy and litigation the railroads came out ahead, and 
steamboating gradually declined, both in the freight and passenger traffic, 
to less than half its former proportions. 

However, the tables have been turned again; and now, in 1881, 

THE BARGE SYSTEM 
has suddenly leaped forth to break the threatening power of monopolv 
which the great east and -west railroad lines for a while enjoyed. 

The first step in the historic progress of this grand revolution in the 
commercial relations and connections of the entire Mississippi and Mis- 
souri valley regions, was the successful construction of the jetties at the 
mouth of the Mississippi river by Capt. James B. Eads, a worthy and 
distinguished citizen of St. Louis. This great enterprise was undertaken 
by Capt. Eads under an act of congress approved March 3d, 1875. It 
required him to obtain a channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide at the 
bottom, within thirty months from the passage of the act, upon which a 
payment of $500,000 would be made; and upon obtaining channels of two 
feet additional depth, with correspondingly increased widths at bottom, 
until a depth of 30 feet and a width at bottom of 350 feet was secured, 
payments of $500,000 were to be made, with additional payments for 
maintenance of channel. The total cost to the government of a channel 
30 feet deep by 350 feet wide would be $5,250,000. Capt. Eads was also 
to receive $100,000 per year for twenty years, to keep the works in repair 
and maintain the channel. 

Before the jetty works were commenced, there existed an immense bar 
of sand or silt, with a depth of only eight feet of water over it, between 
the deep water of the Mississippi and the navigable water of the Gulf. 
But at the close of the year there was a wide and ample channel of 23J- 
feet; and for the greater portion of the distance between the jetties, over 
this same bar, there was a channel from 28 to 35 feet deep. The scheme 
has been so entirely successful that it has attained a world-wide celebrity 
and commercial importance, owing to the fact that the largest class of 
sea-going vessels can now be towed in and out of the Mississippi river 
without risk or difficulty; and it is this achievement by our honored fellow- 
citizen which has made possible the success of the grain-barge system of 
shipments from St. Louis direct to Europe, that is now revolutionizing the 
entire trade and commerce of the major half of the United States. The 
following facts will serve to show what has already been accomplished in 
this direction. 

The total shipments of grain by the barge lines from St. Louis to New 
Orleans in the month of March 1881, was 2,348,093 bushels. 

The St. Louis Republican of April 2d, 1881, stated: 



104 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

" There were started from St. Louis yesterday about eighty trains of 
grain to New Orleans, or what amounts to the same thing, three different 
barge companies started tows down the river with 567,000 bushels of 
grain. This amount would have filled about 1,200 railway cars, and 
would have taken eighty trains of fifteen cars or sixty trains of twenty 
cars each to transport. All this grain was put into fifteen barges, and r 
matter of 2,600 tons of miscellaneous freight besides. All these three 
tow-boats started down the river with a freight list that would have filled 
between thirteen and fourteen hundred railway cars, and will be delivered 
to New Orleans in from five to nine days. 

"The exact statement of the cost of transportation of flour from St. 
Louis via New Orleans to Liverpool and to Boston, per barrel, is ninety 
cents freight and four cents drayage to boat at levee at St. Louis, or ninety- 
four cents to Liverpool, while the freight per barrel to Boston by rail, "in 
car-loads of one hundred and twenty-five barrels, from East St. Louis, is 
ninety-one cents, or from St. Louis (eight cents transfer across the bridge 
added,) ninety-nine cents, or five cents less to Liverpool by river and 
ocean, than by rail to Boston. This rate to Liverpool via New Orleans 
was negotiated March 30 by the St. Louis, New Orleans and Foreign 
Dispatch Company." 

George H. Morgan, Esq., secretary of the St. Louis "Merchant's 
Exchange," furnished the writer of this history with the following state- 
ment of grain shipments by barge line from St. Louis to New Orleans: 
1881. Wheat. Corn. Oats. Rye. 

February 232,248 126,770 22,423 

March 796,710 1,541,505 25,162 

April 819,038 1,312,432 24,916 

Total 1,847,996 2,980,707 50,078 22,423 

Thus it will be seen that the tide has fairly turned ; that St. Louis is now 
practically a commercial seaport, and will, within the next twelve months, 
become the greatest grain-shipping city on the American continent. 



RAILROADS IN MISSOURI. 

The earliest account of any movement in this state with regard to rail- 
roads is to the effect that on the 20th of April, 1835, a railroad convention 
was held in St. Louis, and resolutions were adopted in favor of building 
two railroads — one from St. Louis to Fayette, in Howard county; and the 
other one southward to Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, etc.* The reason for 
projecting a railroad from St. Louis into the great iron region is obvious 
enough; but why they should at that early day have thought of building 
more than one hundred and fifty- miles of railroad to reach a town that 
was only twelve miles from Old Franklin, on the banks of the Missouri 
river, is an unsolved mystery. It indicates, at least, that those " early 

*The first steam railroad in this country was the Baltimore and Susquehanna line, in 
1830; though horse railroads had been used before, especially at coal mines and marble 
quarries, and in two cases engines had been used on such roads. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 105 

fathers" were not under the control of any narrow or shallow views con- 
cerning the practical value of railroads, or the future grandeur of St. 
Louis as the central point for all trans-Mississippi traffic. In this first 
railroad convention ever held west of the Allegheny Mountains there 
were sixty-four delegates in attendance, representing eleven counties ; but 
practically nothing ever* came of their deliberations. 

In 1840 a State Board of Internal Improvement was created, and it 
made a survey for a railroad from St. Louis to the Iron Mountain, by the 
way of Big River. February 7th, 1849, Col. Thomas H. Benton, sena- 
tor from Missouri, introduced into the U. S. senate a bill to provide for 
the location and construction of a central national road from the Pacific 
ocean to the Mississippi river, to be an iron railway where practicable, 
and the rest a wagon way. February 20th, same year, a public meeting 
was held in St. Louis, which petitioned the legislature for a charter and 
right-of-way for a railway across the state from St. Louis to the western 
boundary; and on the 12th of March this charter was granted. 

Next a meeting was held which called a national convention at St. 
Louis to consider the project of a national Pacific railway across the 
continent. This convention was held October 15, 16, 17, 18, 1849. Fif- 
teen states were represented ; the grand project was warmly commended, 
and a strong memorial sent to Congress asking the public authorities to 
take some action in the matter. 

Such was the beginning of definite moves toward a trans-continental 
railroad. 

The Missouri Pacific was the first railroad commenced and first finished 
in the State. Incorporated March 12, 1849; authorized capital $10,000,- 
000; opened to Cheltenham, March 23, 1852; amount of state aid, 
$7,000,000; St. Louis county aid $700,000; land sold, 127,209 acres; 
entire length from St. Louis to Kansas City, 382 miles; total cost, $14,- 
382,208. 

The successive stages of its construction were: Chartered, March 12, 
1859; first ground broken, by Mayor Kennett of St. Louis, July 4, 1851; 
road opened to Cheltenham, Dec. 23, 1852; to Kirkwood in May, and to 
Franklin July 23, 1853; completed to Washington, February 11, 1855; to 
Hermann, August 7, trie same year ;* and to Jefferson City, March 12, 1856 ; 
completed to California in Moniteau county, May, 14, 1858; to Tipton, 
July 26, same year; and to Syracuse, August, 1, 1859; opened to Otter- 

*November 1, 1855, a large excursion train left St. Louis to celebrate the opening of the 
railroad through to Medora station, about twenty miles beyond Hermann. It was a long 
train filled with business men of ths city and their families, and the occasion was one ot 
great festivity and rejoicing. But, while the train was crossing the Gasconade river the 
bridge gave way, and plunged cars, bridge and people in one mixed and horrible wreck 
into the gulf of waters fifty feet down. The president and chief engineer of the road, and 
30 prominent citizens of St. Louis were killed, while scores of others were more or less 
injured. It was the first and the most terrible railroad accident that has ever occurred in 
the state. 

7 



106 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

ville, August 24, 1860; to Smithton, November 1, same year; and to 
Sedaliain February 1861. Here it stopped during the first two years of 
the war. But Pettis county voted $75,000 to aid it, and Jackson county 
$200,000. Commenced running trains to Dresden, May 10, 1863; to 
Warrensburg, July 3, 1864; in 1865 the road was opened to Holden, May 
28; to Pleasant Hill, July 19; to Independence, September 19. Meanwhile 
work had been going on from Kansas City westward, the two gangs of 
workmen meeting at Independence; and on this 19th day of September, 
1865, the last rail was laid and the last spike driven, which connected 
Missouri's two principal cities with iron bands unbroken from east to west 
line of the noble commonwealth. On the next day, the president of the road 
Mr. Daniel R. Garrison, left Kansas City at 3 A. m., and arrived in St. Louis 
at 5 p. m., thus making the first through trip over the completed line. 

There is now not a county north of the Missouri river which has not 
one or more railroads within its limits; and of the seventy counties south 
of the Missouri, only 22 have no railroad reaching them. However, new 
roads and branches are being built each year, so that within a few years 
every county will be provided with good railroad facilities. 

January 1, 1880, there were, in round numbers, 3,600 miles of railroad 
in operation in the state, embraced in about fifty different main lines and 
branches, allowned by thirty-five different corporations, and operated by 
twenty-five different companies, as shown in the following table: 

Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe 22 Missouri Pacific 375 

Burlington and Southwestern 64 Quincy, Missouri and Pacific 75 

Cherry Valley 6 St. Joseph and Des Moines 45 

Chicago and Alton 264 St. Louis, Hannibal and Keokuk 48 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 169J^ St. Louis, Iron Mount'n and Southr'n 380 

Crystal City 4 St. Louis, Keokuk and Northwestern 132^ 

Hannibal and St. Joseph 291% St. Louis, Salem and Little Rock 45 

Kansas City and Eastern 43 St. Louis and San Francisco 363% 

Kansas City, Ft. Scott and Gulf 8 Springfield and Western Missouri . . 20 

Kansas City, St. Joe and Council Biff's 198 Union Railway and Transit Company 1 

Little River Valley and Arkansas 27 Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 655 

Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska 70 West End Narrow Guage 16 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas 284 



Total 3,607 

POSTA.L AND TELEGRAPH FACILITIES. 

There are within the state 15,208 miles of postal routes, of which 
10,426 miles are by stage and horseback, 575 miles by steamboat, and 
4,207 miles by railroad, the whole involving a cost for the year 1878-9 of 
$768,904. There are 1,700 post towns — but four states in the union have 
a greater number. These are all offices of registration, where letters and 
parcels can be registered for transmission through the males to all 
parts of this and foreign countries. In 200 of these post-offices, money- 
orders may be purchased, payable at all similar offices in the United 
States, and a portion of them issue orders drawn on Great Britain, France, 
Germany, Italy, Switzerland, etc. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 107 

There are in the state 562 telegraph stations, whence messages can be 

sent all over the telegraph world; 2,428 miles of line and 6,000 miles of 

wire. 

MANUFACTURING. 

The following statistics of the capital employed in manufacturing indus- 
tries, and the amount of production, is collated from careful estimates 
made in 1876, the latest at hand, although it is well known that great 
increase of these industries has been made since that date. These esti- 
mates showed that the state then contained 14,245 manufacturing estab- 
lishments, using 1,965 steam engines, representing 58,101 horse-power, 
465 water wheels, equaling 7,972 horse-power, and employing 80,000 
hands. The capital employed in manufacturing was about $100,000,- 
000; the material used in 1876 amounted to about $140,000,000; the 
wages paid were $40,000,000, and the products put upon the market 
were over $250,000,000. Outside of St. Louis the leading manufacturing 
counties of the state are Jackson, about $2,000,000 ; Buchanan, $7,000,- 
000; St. Charles, $4,500,000; Marion, $3,500,000; Franklin, $3,000,000; 
Greene, $1,500,000; Cape Girardeau, $1,500,000; Platte, Boone and 
Lafayette, upwards of $1,000,000 each, followed by several counties 
nearly reaching the last sum. 

The products of the different lines of manufacturing interests are, 

approximately, as follows: 

Flouring Mills $30,000,000 Furniture $5,000,000 

Carpentering ". . 20.000,000 Paints and painting 4,500,000 

Meat Packing 20,000,000 Carriages and Wagons 4,500,000 

Iron and Castings 15,000,000 Bricks 4,500,000 

Tobacco 14,000.000 Marble, Stone-work and Masonry. 4,000,000 

Clothing 11,000,000 Bakery Products 4,000,000 

Liquors 10,000,000 Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron 4,000,000 

Lumber 10,000,000 Sash, Doors and Blinds 3.250,000 

Bags and Bagging 7,000,060 Cooperage 3,000,000 

Saddlery 7.000,000 Blacksinithing 3,000,000 

Oil 6,000,000 Bridge Building 2,000,000 

Machinery 6,000,000 Patent Medicines 2,500,000 

Printing and Publishing 5,500,000 Soap and Candles 2,500,000 

Molasses 5,000,000 Agricultural Implements 2,000,000 

Boots and Shoes 5,000,000 Pfumbing and Gas-fitting 2,000,000 

Of the manufacturing in Missouri, more than three-fourths is done in 
St. Louis, which produced, in 1879, about $275,000,000 of manufactured 
articles. The city has, for some years past, ranked as the third in the 
United States in the amount of her manufactures, leaving a wide gap 
between her and Chicago and Boston, each of which cities manufactures 
a little more than one-half as much in amount as St. Louis, and leaves a 
doubt as to which of them is entitled to rank as the fourth manufactur- 
ing city. 

Flour. — In St. Louis there are twenty-four flouring mills, having a 
daily productive capacity of 11,000 barrels. The total amount of flour 
received and manufactured by the dealers and millers of St. Louis, in 



Kj8 history of THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

1879, was 4,154,757 barrels, of which over 3,000,000 were exported. They 
also made 425,903 barrels of corn meal and 28,595 barrels of hominy and 
grits. Of their exports, 619,103 barrels were sent to European nations 
and to South America. 

Cotton. — There are in the city two mills, which consume from 15,000 
to 20,000 bales annually. To supply the manufactured cotton goods 
annualiy sold in St. Louis will*require mills of ten times the capacity of 
those now in operation. 



PRINCIPAL CITIES. 



Si. Louis is the commercial metropolis not only of the state of Missouri 
but also of the Mississippi and Missouri valley regions of country; and 
the history of Missouri is to a very large extent the history of St. Louis. 
There is so much concerning this imperial city embodied in other parts of 
this work that little need be added here. 

St. Louis is situated upon the west bank of the Mississippi, at an altitude 
of four hundred feet above the level of the sea. It is far above the highest 
floods that ever sw r ell the Father of Waters. Its latitude is 38 deg., 37 
min., 28 sec, north, and its longitude 90 deg., 15 min., 16 sec, west. It is 
twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 200 above the conflu- 
ence of the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the falls of St. Anthony, and 
1194 miles above New Orleans. Its location very nearly bisects the 
direct distance of 1,400 miles between Superior City and the Balize. It 
is the geographical center of a valley which embraces 1,200,000 square 
miles. In its course of 3,200 miles the Mississippi borders upon Missouri 
470 miles. Of the 3,000 miles of the Missouri, 500 lie within the limits 
of our own state, and St. Louis is mistress of more than 16,500 miles of 
river navigation. 

The Missouri Gazette^ the first newspaper, was establised in 1808, by 
Joseph Charless, and subsequently merged in the present Missouri 
Republican. The town was incorporated in 1809, and a board of trustees 
elected to conduct the municipal government. In 1812 the territory of 
Missouri was designated, and a legislative assembly authorized. The 
Missouri Bank was incorporated in 1814. The first steamboat arrived at 
the foot of Market street in the year 1815, followed soon by others. 
In 1S19 the first steamer ascended the Missouri, and the first through 
boat from New Orleans arrived, having occupied twenty -seven days in 
the trip. In 1821 a city directory was issued. The facts stated in this 
volume show that the town was then an important and thriving one. In 
L825 Lafayette visited the city and received a grand public ovation. This 
year the United States arsenal and Jefferson barracks were established. 



HISTORV OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 109 

In 1827 there were hardly a dozen German families in" St. Louis, where 
now there are as many thousands of them. In 1830 the population was 
6,654. In 1835 the first railroad convention was held. [See page 106.] 
In 1837 the population was 16,187, and 184 steamboats were engaged in 
the commerce of the city. The decade between 1840 and 1850 saw 
increased advancement in all kinds of industry, and in architectural 
growth. We find that in 1840 there were manufactured 19,075 barrels 
of flour, 18,656 barrels of whisky, and 1,075 barrels of beef inspected, 
and other branches of business had correspondingly increased. In 1846, 
the now extensive Mercantile Library was founded. The, close of the 
decade, 1849, brought upon the city the double misfortune of fire and 
pestilence. On May 19th, the principal business section was swept away 
by a conflagration originating in a steamboat at the levee; and, during 
the summer of the same year, the population was scourged by cholera. 
In 1851, the first railroad enterprise — the building of the Missouri Pacific 
—was inaugurated, and quickly followed by others. [See page 105.] 
The decennial increase of population has been as follows: 

Year. Pop. Year. Pop. Year. Pop. 

1799 !»25 1830 5,862 1860 160,733 

1810 1,400 1840 16,469 1870 310,864 

1820 4,928 1850 74,439 1880 350,522 

During 1880 St. Louis received 1,703,874 barrels of flour; manufactured 
2,077,625 barrels; and shipped 3,292,803 barrels. Of this amount 975,970 
barrels were shipped in sacks to England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Hol- 
land, France, Belgium, German}-, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. During the 
same year St. Louis shipped 11,313,879 bushels of wheat; and of this 
amount 5,913,272 bushels went to foreign countries via New Orleans, 
while the rest went eastward by rail. The receipts of corn were 22,298,- 
077 bushels; shipments, 17,571,322 bushels, of which 9,804,392 went by 
barges to New Orleans for foreign ports, 3,1 57,684 to the south for con- 
sumption, and 4 591,944 eastward by rail or Ohio river. The receipts of 
cotton were 496,570 bales, and shipments 478,219 bales. 

During the packing season of 1879-80, there were 927,793 hogs packed. 
The shipments of coffee reached $5,000,000, and that of sugar $8,500,000. 

The above principal items are gleaned from the commercial pantheon 
of statistics published in Januarv, 1881, by the Merchants' Exchange of 
St. Louis. 

Kansas City. — In 1724 the Kansas tribe of Indians had their chief town 
a few miles below the mouth of the Kansas river, and M. DeBourgmont, 
the French commandant of this region, held a grand peace council with 
different tribes gathered at this place for the purpose, on July 3d of that 
year. This is the earliest historic record of white men in the vicinity of 
where Kansas City now stands. In 1 808 the U . S. government established 



110 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

a fort and Indian agency here, calling it Fort Osage, which was not 
abandoned until 1825, when the Indian title to a certain strip of country 
here was extinguished. In 1821 Francis G. Chouteau established a trad- 
ing post on the Missouri river about three miles below the site of Kansas 
City, but a flood in the spring of 1826 swept away everything he had, and 
he then settled six miles up the Kansas river. 

The original town plat of Kansas City consisted of 40 acres, and was 
laid out in 1839. In 1816 some additional ground was laid .off, and a 
public sale of lots netted $7,000, averaging $200 per lot. 

The first charter was procured in the winter of 1852-3, and in the 
spring of 1853* was organized the first municipal government. The first 
established newspaper made its appearance in 1854, with the title of the 
" Kansas City Enterprise," now known as the " Kansas City Journal." 
During the years 1855-6-7, the border troubles very visibly affected the 
prosperity of the city, so that business in those years did not exceed, all 
told, the sum of $2,000,000; but at the close of the struggle, in 1857, busi- 
ness began to revive, and it was then stated, in the St. Louis "Intelligen- 
cer," that she had the largest trade of any city of her size in the world. 
This may be distinguished as the great steamboat era. It was estimated 
that, in the year 1857, one hundred and twenty-five boats discharged at the 
Kansas City levee over twenty-five million pounds of merchandise. In 
May of this year, also, the steamboats were employed to carry the United 
States mail, and in 1858 the first telegraph pole in Jackson county was 
erected. 

The first bank established in Kansas City was a branch of the Mechan- 
ics' Bank, of St. Louis, organized May 1, 1859, and the second was a 
branch of the Union Bank, organized in July of the same year. The first 
jobbing dry goods house opened in July, 1857. The first city loan for 
local improvement was made in 1855, amounting to $10,000, all taken at 
home, and expended in improving and widening the levee; and, in 1858, 
another loan of $100,000 for street improvements. Only in the matter of 
railroads was Kansas City seriously affected by the panic of 1857; gov- 
ernment moneys, immigration over the border, and the New Mexican 
trade tiding her safely over the sea of financial excitement and prostra- 
tion. She had also become, even as early as the year 1854, a noted mart 
for the purchase and sale of live stock, the immense freighting across the 
plains inviting trade in this direction, and in the annual reviews of the 
papers it is said that, in 1857, the receipts for that year, in mules and cattle, 
were estimated at $200,000, and also that, in 1858, about 20,000 head of 
stock cattle were driven here from Texas and the Indian territory. In 
1857 over six hundred freighting wagons left Kansas City with loads for 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

The principal railroads centering at Kansas City are, the Hannibal & 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. Ill 

St. Joseph railroad, the Kansas Pacific railroad, tiie Kansas City, Law- 
rence & Southern railroad, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf railroad, 
the Chicago & Alton railroad, the Atchison & Nebraska railroad, the 
Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroad, the Missouri Pacific 
railway, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway, the Wabash, St. Louis 
& Pacific railway, the Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe railroad, the Kansas 
City & Eastern railroad, (narrow gauge). The Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe railroad has extended its road to Albuquerque, New Mexico, 
and to Guyamas, on the Pacific coast; to San Francisco, California, and 
is building to the City of Mexico. 

The elevator storage capacity in the city January 1, 1881, was 1,500,- 
000 bushels. In 1879 about 1,600 new buildings were erected, costing 
$1,500,000. The U. S. postoffice and custom house building cost $200,- 

000. The union depot building cost $300,000. The Kansas City stock 
yards rank as second only to those of Chicago in the extent and com- 
pleteness of their facilities for the cattle trade. 

The population of Kansas City, by U. S. census in June, 1880, was 
62,977 Taxable wealth, $13,378,950. Cost of new buildings erected 
during the year 1880, $2,200,000* 

.57. Joseph. In 1803 Joseph Robidon, a French fur trader, located 
here, and continued to occupy his place and trade with the Indians for 33 
years. Up to 1843 the place contained only two log cabins, and a small 
flouring mill on Black Snake creek. In June, 1843, Mr. Robidoux 
received his title from the government to 160 acres of land, and laid out 
the city, which was called St. Joseph in his honor, and not, as is commonly 
supposed, in honor of the Saint Joseph of the church calendar. January 

1, 1846, the town had 600 inhabitants, having been incorporated as a vil- 
lage February 26, 1S45, with Joseph Robidoux as president of the board 
of trustees. The-first city charter was obtained February 22, 1851, but it 
has been many times amended. The population was: In 1850, 3,460; in 1860, 
8,932; in 1870, 19,625; in 1880, 32,461. 

St. Joseph is situated on the east bank of the Missouri, 545 miles from 
its mouth, 2,000 miles from the great falls, nearly 1,300 miles below the 
mouth of the Yellowstone, 310 miles from St. Louis by railroad, with 
which it is connected by three different lines, and 565 miles from St. Louis 
by river; but it is only 180 miles on an air line from the Mississippi river. 
The latitude of St. Joseph is 39 degrees 47 minutes north, and the same 
parallel passes through Indianapolis, and within less than four miles of 
Denver, Colorado, Springfield, Illinois, and the famous Mason and Dixon's 
line, separating Maryland and Pennsylvania, reaching the Atlantic coast 
half way from Cape May to New York City, and the Pacific, two degrees 

*These statistics are gathered mostly from the able annual reports of W. H. Miller, Esq., 
who has been secretary of the Kansas City Board of Trade continuously since 1873. 



112 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

north of San Francisco, near Cape Mendicino. A straight line drawn on 
the map from Augusta, the capital of Maine, to San Diego in California, 
passes through Detroit, Chicago, and St. Joseph, and this last citv is just 
halfway from end to end of this line 

St. Joseph has an altitude of about 1,030 feet above the sea, which is 
200 feet higher than St. Paul, 400 feet higher than Chicago, and nearly 
600 feet higher than St. Louis. The city is romantically and beautifully 
situated, the business portion lying in a huge basin on a great bend in the 
Missouri river, while the residence part of the city clambers up the 
mound-shaped hills, which rise on all sides like a vast amphitheater. 

The wholesale and retail trade is figured above $40,000,000 annually, 
while it is said that there are no fewer than eight commercial houses which 
have a cash capital of $1,000,000 each. It is stated on reliable authority, 
that there is handled at this point 15,000,000 bushels of corn, 5,000,000 of 
wheat, 250,000 rye, and 500,000 barle} r , per annum. The stock yards cover 
seven acres, and belong to a stock company. There are received at the 
yards 120,000 to 150,000 hogs per annum, and 10,000 to 12,000 cattle. 
The figures do not include direct shipments to several large packing 
houses, which will increase the number of hogs to 300,000. There are 
four packing houses in the city — one having a capacity of 15,000 hogs 
per day. 

The railroad lines which connect St. Joseph with the rest of the busi- 
ness world are the Hannibal & St. Joseph, the pioneer road of the state, 
extending east across the entire state to Hannibal and Quincyon the Miss- 
issippi river; the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, forming a direct line to St. 
Louis: the St. Joseph & Western, extending across the great iron bridge, 
through Kansas and Nebraska, to a junction at Grand Island with the 
Union Pacific, of which it is really a part; the Missouri Pacific, another 
connecting line with St. Louis; the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council 
Bluffs, extending south to Kansas City and north to Omaha, with its 
Nodaway Valley branch, extending through the Nodaway valley, and its 
Chicago branch, making connection with the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy; the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe; the St. Joseph & Des 
Moines, now owned and operated by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Atchison & Nebraska. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



A*TOn, LKNOX 
DKN FOUNDATIONS 




• 




'o^i, 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 

AND ITS AMENDMENTS. 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more -perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, -promote the general -welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitu- 
tion for the United States of America. 

ARTICLE I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house 
of representatives. 

Sec 2. The house of representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the state legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent 
term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The num- 
ber of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but 
each state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumer- 
ation shall be made the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 
three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, 
Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, and 
Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the exec- 
utive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec 3. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years; 
and each senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 
tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one- 
third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resig- 
nation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the 
executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of 
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who 
8 



114 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall 
be chosen. 

The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, 
but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president fro 
tempore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise 
the office of president of the United States. 

The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
president of the United States is tried, the chief-justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and 
punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators 
and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state b}' the legislature 
thereof; but the congress may at any time by law make or alter such 
regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators. 

The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meet- 
ing shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law 
appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on 
any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place 
than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury 
of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and 
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at 
the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from 
the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be 
questioned in any other place. 

No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office 
under the United States shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 115 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of 
representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and 
the senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president of 
the United States; if he approve he shall sign it; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and pro- 
ceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and 
if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cas e s the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, prevents its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the senate 
and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of 
adjournment), shall be presented to the president of the United States, 
and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or, being 
disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the senate and 
house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States; 
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
states, and with the Indian tribes; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin, and fix 
the standard of weights and measures; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and cur- 
rent coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads; 

To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, for 
limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respec- 
tive writings and discoveries; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; 
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; 
and offenses against the law of nations; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 
To provide and maintain a navy; 
To make rules for government and regulation of the land and naval forces ; 



116 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union* 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline 
prescribed by congress; 

To exercise legislation in. all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular states, and 
the acceptance of congress, become the seat of the government of the 
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by 
the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department 
or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by 
the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but 
a tax of duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall hot be suspended, unless 
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex -post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to 
the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 
another. 

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of the 
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no per- 
son holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money: emit bills of credit; 
make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; 
pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obliga- 
tion of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or 
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty on tonnage, 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 117 

keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement 
or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in 
war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit 
of delay. 

ARTICLE II. 

Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the 
United States of America. Fie shall hold his office during the term of 
four years, and, together with the vice-president chosen tor the same term, 
be elected as follows: 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and 
representatives to which the state may be entitled in the congress; but no 
senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit 
under the United States shall be appointed an elector. 

[*The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the 
same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons 
voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United 
States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the sen- 
ate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open 
all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be 
a majority of the whole number of electors appointed: and if there be 
more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of 
votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose by bal- 
lot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from 
the five highest on the list the said house shall in like manner choose the 
president. But, in choosing the president, the vote shall be taken by states, 
the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this 
purpose shall consist of a member, or members, from two-thirds of the 
states, and a majority of all the states shali be necessary to a choice. In 
every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the great- 
est number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if 
there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall 
choose from them, by ballot, the vice-president.] 

The congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the 
day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the t time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to 
the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office 
who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen 
years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, res- 
ignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, 
the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the congress may by law 
provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of 
the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as 

*This clause between brackets ha? been superseded and annulled by the twelfth amend- 
ment. 

i 



IIS ' CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be 
removed, or a president shall be elected. 

The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compen- 
sation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period 
for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive during that 
period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

Before he enters upon the execution of his office he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath, or affirmation : 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office 
of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, pre- 
serve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive depart- 
ments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, 
and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against 
the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, 
to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and 
he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the senate, shall appoint 
embassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme 
court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are 
not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; 
but the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers 
as they think proper in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the 
heads of departments. 

The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen 
during the recess of ihe senate, by granting commissions which shall 
expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the congress information 
of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such 
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraor- 
dinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of 
disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he 
may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
embassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, 
treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

ARTICLE III. 

Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their office during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, 
arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 119 

embassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty 
and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall 
be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state 
and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between 
citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states; 
and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or 
subjects. 

In all cases affecting embassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have 
appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and 
under such regulations as the congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; 
and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall 
be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony 
of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 
the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand of 
the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to 
be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by congress into this Union; but 
no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more 
states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the 
states concerned, as well as of the congress. 

The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to 
the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as 
to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union 
a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion, and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when 
the legislature can not be convened), against domestic violence. 



120 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



ARTICLE V. 

The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it neces- 
sary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application 
of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states shall call a conven- 
tion for proposing amendments, which, in either case shall be valid to all 
intents and purposes as part of this constitution, when ratified by the leg- 
islatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three- 
fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be pro- 
posed by the congress. Provided, that no amendment which may be 
made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first 
article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
suffrage in the senate. 

ARTICLE VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption 
of this constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this 
constitution as under the confederation. 

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anvthing in 
the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both 
of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or 
affirmation to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be 
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 
States. 

ARTICLE VII. 

The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for 
the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the 
same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and 
of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof we 
have hereunto subscribed our names. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON, 

President, and Deputy from Virginia. 



New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Oilman. 

Massachusetts. 
Nathaniel Gorham, 
Rufus King. 

Connecticut. 
Wm. Samuel Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
Wil. Livingston, 
Wm. Patterson, 
David Brearley, 
Jona. Dayton. 



Delaware. 
George Reed, 
John Dickinson, 
Jacob Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

Maryland. 
James M'Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Tiios. Jenifer. 

Virginia. 
John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount. 
Hu. Williamson, 
Richard Dobbs Spaight. 



Pennsylvania. 
B. Franklin, 
Robt. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geowge Clymer, 

JARED InOFRSOLL, 

Gou.v. Morris. 

South Carolina. 

J. RUTLEDGE, 

Charles PmcKNEY, 

Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney 

Pierce Butler. 

Georgia. 
Wm. Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary. 



amendments to the constitution. 121 

Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
of the United States of America. 

Proposed by Congress and Ratified by the Legislatures of the several 
States -pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

ARTICLE I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, 
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to 
petition the government for a redress of grievances. 

ARTICLE II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, 
the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

ARTICLE III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things*to be seized. 

ARTICLE V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger: nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall 
be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

ARTICLE VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the 
accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assist- 
ance of counsel for his defense. 

ARTICLE VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 
tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
•States than according to the rules of the common law. 



122 AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

4 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor 
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

ARTICLE IX. 

The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- 
strued to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

ARTICLE X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to 
the people. 

ARTICLE XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend 
to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the 
United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any 
foreign state. 

ARTICLE XII. 

Sec 1. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for president and vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots 
the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person 
voted for as vice-president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons 
voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and 
of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and 
transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, 
directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall,. 
in presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certifi- 
cates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the great- 
est number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person 
have such majorit}', then from the persons having the highest numbers not 
exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of 
representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in 
choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representa- 
tives from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall con- 
sist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority 
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of rep- 
resentatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice 
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, 
then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or 
other constitutional disability of the president. The person haying the 
greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if 
such number be the majority of the whole number of electors appointed 
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on 
the list the senate shall choose the vice-president; a quorum for that pur- 
pose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible 
to that of vice-president of the United States. 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 123 

ARTICLE XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a pun- 
ishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 
diction. 

Sec 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropri- 
ate legislation. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of 
the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the law. 

Sec 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to vote 
at any election for the choice of electors for president and vice-president 
of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judi- 
cial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied 
to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of 
age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged except for 
participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein 
shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens 
shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age 
in such state. 

Sec 3. No person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or 
elector of president and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, 
under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken 
an oath as. a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any state to support the constitution of the United States, shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or 
comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress may, by a vote of two- 
thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be 
questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or 
pay any debt or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of 
any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal 
and void. 

Sec 5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 

ARTICLE XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec 2. The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 



Constitution of the State of Missouri, 

ADOPTED BY A VOTE OP THE PEOPLE, OCTOBER 30, 1875. WENT INTO OPERATION 

NOVEMBER 30, 1875. 



PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme 
Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for his goodness, do, for the better 
government of the state, establish this constitution. 

ARTICLE I.— BOUNDARIES. 

Section 1. The boundaries of the state as heretofore established by 
law, are hereby ratified and confirmed. The state shall hare concurrent 
jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the 
state, so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to this state 
and any other state or states; and the river Mississippi and the navigable 
rivers and waters leading to the same, shall be common highways, and 
forever free to the citizens of this state and of the United States, without 
any tax, duty, import or toll therefor, imposed by this state. 

ARTICLE II. — BILL OP RIGHTS. 

In order to assert our rights, acknowledge our duties, and proclaim the 
principles on which our government is founded, we declare: 

Section 1. That all political power is vested in, and derived from the 
people; that all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will onlv, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 2. That the people of this state have the inherent, sole and exclu- 
sive right to regulate the internal government and police thereof, and to 
alter and abolish their constitution and form of government whenever 
they may deem it necessary to their safety and happiness: Provided, 
Such change be not repugnant to the constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That Missouri is a free and independent state, subject only to 
the constitution of the United States; and as the preservation of the 
states and the maintenance of their governments, are necessarv to an 
indestructible Union, and were intended to co-exist with it, the legislature 
is not authorized to adopt, nor will the people of this state ever assent to 
any amendment or change of the constitution of the United States which 
may in any wise impair the right of local self-government belonging to 
the people of this state. 

Sec. 4. That all constitutional government is intended to promote the 
general welfare of the people ; that all persons have a natural right to life, 
liberty and the enjoyment of the gains of their own industry; that to give 
security to these things is the principal office of government, and that 
when government does not confer this security, it fails of its chief design. 

Sec. 5. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; that no 

(124) 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 125 

person can, on account of his religious opinions, be rendered ineligible to 
any office of trust or profit under this state, nor be disqualified from testi- 
fying, or from serving as a juror; that no human authority can control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person ought, by anv law, 
to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persua- 
sion or profession; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured, shall not 
be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, nor to justify practices 
inconsistent with the good order, peace or safety of this state, or with the 
rights of others. 

Sec. 6. That no person can be compelled to erect, support or attend 
any place or system of worship, or to maintain or support any priest, min- 
ister, preacher or teacher of any sect, church, creed or denomination of re- 
ligion; but if any person shall voluntarily make a contract for any such 
object, he shall be held to the performance of the same. 

Sec. 7. That no money shall ever be taken from the public treasury, 
directly or indirectly, in aid of any church, sect or denomination of religion, 
or in aid of any priest, preacher, minister or teacher thereof, as such; and 
that no preference shall be given to, nor any discrimination made against 
any church, sect or creed of religion, or any form of religious faith or wor- 
ship. 

Sec. 8. That no religious corporation can be established in this state,, 
except such as may be created under a general law for the purpose only 
of holding the title to such real estate as may be prescribed by law for 
church edifices, parsonages and cemeteries. 

Sec. 9. That all elections shall be free and open ; and no power, civil 
or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the 
right of suffrage. 

Sec. 10. The courts of justice shall be open to every person, and cer- 
tain remedy afforded for every injury to person, property or character, 
and that right and justice should be administered without sale, denial or 
delay. 

Sec. 11. That the people shall be secure in their persons, papers, 
homes and effects, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no war- 
rant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, shall issue without 
describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized, as 
nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affir- 
mation reduced to writing. 

Sec. 12. That no person shall, for felony, be proceeded against crimi- 
nally otherwise than by indictment, except in cases arising in the land or 
naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or pub- 
lic danger; in all other cases, offenses shall be prosecuted criminally by in- 
dictment or information as concurrent remedies. 

Sec. 13. That treason against the state can consist only in levying 
war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; 
that no person can be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on his confession in open court; that 
no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the general assembly; 
that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; 
that the estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall 
descend or vest as in cases of natural death; and when any person shall 
be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof. 

Sec. 14. That no law shall be passed impairing the freedom of speech; 



126 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

that every person shall be free to say, write or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty; and that in 
all suits and prosecutions for libel, the truth thereof may be given in evi- 
dence, and the jury, under the direction of the court, shall determine the 
law and the fact. 

Sec. 15. That no ex -post facto law, nor law impairing the obligation 
of contracts, or retrospective in its operation, or making any irrevocable 
grant of special privileges or immunities, can be passed by the general 
assembly. 

Sec. 16. That imprisonment for debt shall not be allowed, except for 
the nonpayment of fines and penalties imposed for violation of law. 

Sec. 17. That the right of no citizen to keep and bear arms in defense 
of his home, person and property, or in aid of the civil power, when thereto 
legally summoned, shall be called in question; but nothing herein con- 
tained is intended to justify the practice of wearing concealed weapons. 

Sec. 18. That no person elected or appointed to any office or employ- 
ment of trust or profit under the laws of this state, or any ordinance of 
any municipality in this state, shall hold such office without personally 
devoting his time to the performance of the duties to the same belonging. 

Sec. 19. That no person who is now, or may hereafter become a col- 
lector or receiver of public money, or assistant or deputy of such collector 
or receiver, shall be eligible to any office of trust or profit in the state of 
Missouri under the laws thereof, or of any municipality therein, until he 
shall have accounted for and paid overall the public money for which he 
may be accountable. 

Sec. 20. That no private property can be taken for private use with or 
without compensation, unless by the consent of the owner, except for pri- 
vate ways of necessity, and except for drains and ditches across the lands 
of others for agricultural and sanitary purposes, in such manner as may be 
prescribed by law; and that whenever an attempt is made to take private 
property for a use alleged to be public, the question whether the contem- 
plated use be really public shall be a judicial question, and as such, judi- 
cially determined, without regard to any legislative assertion that the use 
is public. 

Sec. 21. That private property shall not be taken or damaged for pub- 
lic use without just compensation. Such compensation shall be ascer- 
tained by a jury or board of commissioners of not less than three free- 
holders, in such manner as may be prescribed by law; and until the same 
shall be paid to the owner, or into court for the owner, the property shall 
not be disturbed, or the proprietary rights of the owner therein divested. 
The fee of land taken for railroad tracts without consent of the owner 
thereof, shall remain in such owner, subject to the use for which it is 
taken. 

Sec. 22. In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to 
appear and defend, in person, and by counsel; to demand the nature and 
cause of the accusation; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; to 
have process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a 
speedy, public trial by an impartial jury of the county. 

Sec. 23. That no person shall be compelled to testify against himself 
in a criminal cause, nor shall any person, after being once acquitted by a 
jury, be again, for the same offense, put in jeopardy of life or liberty; but 
if the jury to which the question of his guilt or innocence is submitted 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 127 

fail to render a verdict, the court before which the trial is had may, in its 
discretion, discharge the jury and commit or bail the prisoner for trial at 
the next term of court, or if the state of business will permit, at the same 
term ; and if judgment be arrested after a verdict of guilty on a defective 
indictment, or if judgment on a verdict of guilty be reversed for error in 
law, nothing herein contained shall prevent a new trial of the prisoner on 
a proper indictment, or according to correct principles of law. 

Sec. 24. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, ex- 
cept for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

Sec. 25. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

Sec. 26. That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall never 
be suspended. 

Sec. 27. That the military shall always be in strict subordination to 
the civil power; that no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 28. The right of trial by jury, as heretofore enjoyed, shall remain 
inviolate; but a jury for the trial of criminal or civil cases, in courts not of 
record, may consist of less than twelve men, as maybe prescribed by law. 
Hereafter, a grand jury shall consist of twelve men, any nine of whom 
concurring may find an indictment or a true bill. 

Sec. 29. That the people have the right peaceably to assemble for 
their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of gov- 
ernment for redress of grievances by petition or remonstrance. 

Sec. 30. That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property 
without due process of law. 

Sec. 31. That there cannot be in this state either slavery or involun- 
tary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted. 

Sec. 32. The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall 
not be construed to deny, impair, or disparage others retained by the 
people. 

ARTICLE III. — THE DISTRIBUTION' OF POWERS. 

The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct depart- 
ments — the legislative, executive, and judicial — each of which shall be con- 
fided to a separate magistracy and no person, or collection of persons, 
charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of those 
departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the 
others, except in the instances in this constitution expressly directed or 
permitted. 

ARTICLE IV.— LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The legislative power, subject to the limitations herein 
contained, shall be vested in a senate and house of representatives, to be 
styled "The General Assembly of the State of Missouri." 

representation and apportionment. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall consist of members to be 
chosen every second year by the qualified voters of the several counties, 
and apportioned in the following manner: The ratio of representation shall 
be ascertained at each apportioning session of the general assembly, by 



128 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

dividing the whole number of inhabitants of the state, as ascertained by 
the last decennial census of the United States, by the number two hun- 
dred. Each county having one ratio, or less, shall be entitled to one rep- 
resentative; each county having two and a half times said ratio, shall be 
entitled to two representatives; each county having four times said ratio, 
shall be entitled to three representatives; each county having six times 
such ratio, shall be entitled to four representatives, and so on above that 
number, giving one additional member for every two and a half additional 
ratios. 

Sec. 3. When any county shall be entitled to more than one repre- 
sentative, the county court shall cause such county to be subdivided into 
districts of compact and contiguous territory, corresponding in number to 
the representatives to which such county is entitled, and in population as 
nearly equal as may be, in each of which the qualified voters shall elect 
one representative, who shall be a resident of such district: Provided^ 
That when any county shall be entitled to more than ten representatives, 
the circuit court shall cause such county to be subdivided into districts, so 
as to give each district not less than two, nor more than four representa- 
tives, who shall be residents of such district; the population of the districts to 
be proportioned to the number of representatives to be elected therefrom. 

Sec. 4. No person shall be a member of the house of representatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-four years, who shall not be 
a male citizen of the United States, who shall not have been a qualified 
voter of this state two years, and an inhabitant of the county or district 
which he may be chosen to represent, one year next before the day of his 
election, if such county or district shall have been so long established, but 
if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been 
taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax within one year 
next preceding the election. 

Sec. 5. The senate shall consist of thirty-four members, to be chosen 
by the qualified voters of their respective districts for four years. For the 
election of senators the state shall be divided into convenient districts, as 
nearly equal in population as may be, the same to be ascertained by the 
last decennial census taken by the United States. 

Sec. 6. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the 
age of thirty years, who shall not be a male citizen of the United States, 
who shall not have been a qualified voter of this state three years, and an 
inhabitant of the district which he may be chosen to represent one year 
next before the day of his election, if such district shall have been so long 
established; but if not, then of the district or districts from which the same 
shall have been taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax- 
within one year next preceding the election. When any county shall be 
entitled to more than one senator, the circuit court shall cause such county 
to be subdivided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, and of 
population as nearly equal as may be, corresponding in number with the 
senators to which such county may be entitled; and in each of these one 
senator, who shall be a resident of such district, shall be elected by the 
qualified voters thereof. 

Sec. 7. Senators and representatives shall be chosen according to the 
rule of apportionment established in this constitution, until the next decen- 
nial census by the United States shall have been taken and the result 
thereof as to this state ascertained, when the apportionment shall be revised 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 129 

and adjusted on the basis of that census, and every ten years there- 
after upon the basis of the United States census; or if such census be not 
taken, or is delayed, then on the basis of a state census; such apportion- 
ment to be macle at the first session of the general assembly after each 
such census: Provided, That if at any time, or from any cause, the general 
assembly shall fail or refuse to district the state for senators, as required 
in this section, it shall be the duty of the governor, secretary of state, and 
attorney-general, within thirty days after the adjournment of the general 
assembly on which such duty devolved, to perform said duty, and to file in 
the office of the secretary of state a full statement of the districts formed 
by them, including the names of the counties embraced in each district, 
and the numbers thereof; said statement to be signed by them, and 
attested by the great seal of the state, and upon the proclamation of the 
governor, the same shall be as binding and effectual as if done by the 
general assembly. 

Sec. 8. Until an apportionment of representatives can be made, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, the house of representa- 
tives shall consist of one hundred and forty-three members, which shall be 
divided among the several counties of the state, as follows: The county of 
St. Louis shall have seventeen; the county of Jackson four; the county of 
Buchanan three; the counties of Franklin, Greene, Johnson, Lafayette, 
Macon, Marion, Pike, and Saline, each two, and each of the other coun- 
ties in the state, one. 

Sec 9. Senatorial and representative districts may be altered, from 
time to time, as public convenience may require. When any senatorial 
district shall be composed.of two or more counties, they shall be contigu- 
ous ; such districts to be as compact as may be, and in the formation of 
the same no county shall be divided. 

Sec 10. The first election of senators and representatives, under this 
constitution, shall be held at the general election in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, when the whole number of representa- 
tives, and the senators from the districts having odd numbers, who shall 
compose the first class, shall be chosen; and in one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, the senators from the districts having even num- 
bers, who shall compose the second class, and so on at each succeeding 
general election, half the senators provided for by this constitution shall 
be chosen. 

Sec 11. Until the state shall be divided into senatorial districts, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, said districts shall be con- 
stituted and numbered as follows: 

The First District shall be composed of the counties of Andrew, Holt, 
Nodaway and Atchison. 

Second District — The counties of Buchanan, DeKalb, Gentry and 
Worth. 

Third District — The counties of Clay, Clinton and Platte. 

Fourth District— The counties of Caldwell, Ray, Daviess and Harrison. 

Fifth District — The counties of Livingston, Grundy, Mercer and Carroll. 

Sixth District — The counties of Linn, Sullivan, Putnam and Chariton. 

Seventh District — The counties of Randolph, Howard and Monroe. 

Eighth District — The counties of Adair, Macon and Schuyler. 

Ninth District — The counties of Audrain, Boone and Callaway. 
9 



130 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Tenth District — The counties of St. Charles and Warren. 

Eleventh District — The counties of Pike, Lincoln and Montgomery. 

Twelfth District — The counties of Lewis, Clark, Scotland and Knox. 

Thirteenth District — The counties of Marion, Shelby and Ralls. 

Fourteenth District — The counties of Bates, Cass and Henry. 

Fifteenth District — The county of Jackson. 

Sixteenth District — The counties of Vernon, Barton, Jasper, Newton 
and McDonald. 

Seventeenth District — The counties of Lafayette and Johnson. 

Eighteenth District — The counties of Greene, Lawrence, Barry, Stone 
and Christian. 

Nineteenth District — The counties of Saline, Pettis and Benton. 

Twentieth District — The counties of Polk, Hickory, Dallas, Dade, 
Cedar and St. Clair. 

Twenty-first District — The counties of Laclede, Webster, Wright, 
Texas, Douglas, Taney, Ozark and Howell. 

Twenty-second District — The counties of Phelps, Miller, Maries, Cam- 
den, Pulaski, Crawford and Dent. 

Twenty-third District — The counties of Cape Girardeau, Mississippi, 
New Madrid, Pemiscot, Dunklin, Stoddard and Scott. 

Twenty-fourth District — The counties of Iron, Madison, Bollinger, 
Wayne, Butler, Reynolds, Carter, Ripley, Oregon and Shannon. 

Twenty-fifth District — The counties of Franklin, Gasconade and Osage. 

Twenty-sixth District- — The counties of Washington, Jefferson, St. 
Francois, Ste. Genevieve and Perry. 

Twenty-eighth District — The counties of Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan 
and Cole. 

St. Louis county shall be divided into seven districts, numbered respec- 
tively, as follows: 

Twe ity-seventh, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, 
Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth. 

Sec. 12. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which 
he shall have been elected, be appointed to any office under this state, or 
any municipality thereof; and no member of congress or person holding 
any lucrative office under the United States, or this state, or any munici- 
pality thereof, (militia offices, justices of the peace and notaries public 
excepted,) shall be eligible to either house of the general assembly, or remain 
a member thereof, after having accepted any such office or seat in either 
liouse of congress. 

Sec. 13. If any senator or representative remove his residence from 
the district or county for which he was elected, his office shall thereby be 
vacated. 

Sec. 14. Writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either 
house of the general assembly, shall be issued by the governor. 

Sec 15. Every senator and representative elect, before entering upon 
the duties of his office, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirm- 
ation: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will support the constitution 
of the United States and of the state of Missouri, and faithfully perform 
the duties of my office, and that I will not knowingly receive, directly or 
indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, for the performance or 
non-performance of any act or duty pertaining to my office, other than the 
compensation allowed by law." The oath shall be administered in the 






CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 131 

halls of their respective houses, to the members thereof, by some judge of 
the supreme court, or the circuit court, or the county court of Cole 
county, or after the organization, by the presiding officer of either house, 
and shall be filed in the office of the secretary of state. Any member of 
either house refusing to take said oath or affirmation, shall be deemed to 
have thereby vacated his office, and any member convicted of having vio- 
lated his oath or affirmation, shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and be 
forever thereafter disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit in 
this state. 

Sec. 16. The members of the general assembly shall severally receive 
from the public treasury such compensation for their services as may, 
from time to time, be provided by law, not to exceed five dollars per day 
for the first seventy days of each session, and after that not to exceed one 
dollar per day for the remainder of the session, except the first session held 
under this constitution, and during revising sessions, when they may re- 
ceive five dollars per day for one hundred and twenty days, and one dollar 
per day for the remainder of such sessions. In addition to per diem, the 
members shall be entitled to receive traveling expenses or mileage, for any 
regular and extra session not greater than now provided by law; but no 
member shall be entitled to traveling expenses or mileage for any extra 
session that may be called within one day after an adjournment of a regu- 
lar session. Committees of either house, or joint committees of both 
houses, appointed to examine the institutions of the state, other than those 
at the seat of government, may receive their actual expenses, necessarily 
incurr/d while in the performance of such duty; the items of such ex- 
penses to be returned to the chairman of such committee, and by him cer- 
tified to the state auditor, before the same, or any part thereof, can be 
paid. Each member may receive at each regular session an additional sum 
of thirty dollars, which shall be in full for all stationer)'- used in his official 
capacity, and all postage, and all other incidental expenses and perquisites ; 
and no allowance or emoluments, for any purpose whatever, shall be made 
to, or received by the members, or any member of either house, or for their 
use, out of the contingent fund or otherwise, except as herein expressly 
provided; and no allowance or emolument, for any purpose whatever, 
shall ever be paid to any officer, agent, servant or employe of either 
house of the general assembly, or of any committee thereof, except such 
per diem as may be provided for by law, not to exceed five dollars. 

Sec. 17. Each house shall appoint its own officers; shall be sole judge 
of the qualifications, election and returns of its own members; may deter- 
mine the rules of its own proceedings, except as herein provided ; may 
arrest and punish by fine not exceeding three hundred dollars, or imprison- 
ment in a county jail not exceeding ten days, or both, any person, not a 
member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house by any disorderly or 
contemptuous behavior in its' presence during its sessions; may punish its 
members for disorderly conduct; and with the concurrence of two- thirds 
of all members elect, may expel a member; but no member shall be ex- 
pelled a second time for the same cause. 

Sec 18. A majority of the whole number ot members of each house 
shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may ad- 
journ from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 



132 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 19. The sessions of each house shall be held with open doors, 
except in cases which may require secrecy. 

Sec. 20. The general assembly elected in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six shall meet on the first Wednesday after the 
first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven ; and 
thereafter the general assembly shall meet in regular session once only in 
every two years ; and such meeting shall be on the first Wednesday after 
the first day of January next after the elections of the members thereof. 

Sec. 21. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assembly 
for more than three days, shall have the effect of and be an adjournment 
sine die. 

Sec. 22. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assembly 
for three days or less, shall be construed as not interrupting the session at 
which they are had or taken, but as continuing the session for all the pur- 
poses mentioned in section sixteen of this article. 

Sec. 23. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn 
for more than two days at any one time, nor to any other place than that 
in which the two houses may be sitting. 

LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 

Sec. 24. The style of the laws of this state shall be: "Be it enacted 
by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, as follows .-" 

Sec. 25. No law shall be passed, except by bill, and no bill shall be so 
amended in its passage through either house, as to change its original 
purpose. 

Sec. 26. Bills may originate in either house, and may be amended or 
rejected by the other; and every bill shall be read on three different days 
in each house. 

Sec. 27. No bill shall be considered for final passage unless the same 
has been reported upon by a committee and printed for the use of the 
members. 

Sec. 28. No bill (except general appropriation bills, which may em- 
brace the various subjects and accounts for and on account of which moneys 
are appropriated, and except bills passed under the third subdivision of 
section forty-four of this article) shall contain more than one subject, which 
shall be clearly expressed in its title. 

Sec. 29. All amendments adopted by either house to a bill pending 
and originating in the same, shall be incorporated with the bill by engross- 
ment, and the bill as thus engrossed, shall be printed for the use of the 
members before its final passage. The engrossing and printing shall be 
under the supervision of a committee, whose report to the house shall set 
forth, in writing, that they find the bill truly engrossed, and that the 
printed copy furnished to the members is correct. 

Sec. 30. If a bill passed by either house be returned thereto, amended 
by the other, the house to which the same 'is returned shall cause the 
amendment or amendments so received to be printed under the same super- 
vision as provided in the next preceding section, for the use of the mem- 
bers before final action on such amendments. 

Sec. 31. No bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the 
vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the members voting for and 
against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members 
elected to each house be recorded thereon as voting in its favor. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 133 

Sec. 32. No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in 
by the other, except by a vote of a majority of the members elected thereto 
taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against 
recorded upon the journal, thereof; and reports of committees of confer- 
ence shall be adopted in either house only by the vote of a majority of the 
members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those 
voting recorded upon the journal. 

Sec. 33. No act shall be revived or re-enacted by mere reference to 
the title thereof, but the same shall be set forth at length, as if it were an 
original act. 

Sec. 34. No act shall be amended by providing that designated words 
thereof be stricken out, or that designated words be inserted, or that desig- 
nated words be stricken out and others inserted in lieu thereof; but the 
words to be stricken out, or the words to be inserted, or the words to be 
stricken out and those inserted in lieu thereof, together with the act or 
section amended, shall be set forth in full, as amended. 

Sec. 35. When a bill is put upon its final passage in either house, and, 
failing to pass, a motion is made to reconsider the vote by which it was 
defeated, the vote upon such motion to reconsider shall be immediately 
taken, and the subject finally disposed of before the house proceeds to any 
other business. 

Sec. 36. No law passed by the general assembly, except the general 
appropriation act, shall take effect or go into force until ninety days after 
the adjournment of the session at which it was enacted, unless in case of 
an emergency, (which emergency must be expressed in the preamble or in 
the body of the act), the general assembly shall, by a vote of two-thirds 
of all the members elected to each house, otherwise direct; said vote to be 
taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal. 

Sec. 37. No bill shall become a law until the same shall have been 
signed by the presiding officer of each of the two houses, in open session; 
and before such officer shall affix his signature to any bill, he shall suspend 
all other business, declare that such bill will now be read, and that, if no 
objections be made, he will sign the same, to the end that it may become a 
law. The bill shall then be read at length, and if no objections be made, 
he shall, in presence of the house, in open session, and before any other 
business is entertained, affix his signature, which fact shall be noted on the 
journal, and the bill immediately sent to the other house. When it reaches 
the other house the presiding officer thereof shall immediately suspend all 
other business, announce the reception of the bill, and the same proceedings 
shall thereupon be observed, in every respect, as in the house in which it 
was first signed. If in either house any member shall object that any sub- 
stitution, omission, or insertion has occurred, so that the bill proposed to be 
signed is not the same in substance and form as when considered and 
passed by the house, or that any particular clause of this article of the 
constitution has been violated in its passage, such objection shall be passed 
upon by the house, and if sustained, the presiding officer shall withhold his 
signature; but if such objection shall not be sustained, then any five mem- 
bers may embody the same, over their signatures, in a written protest, 
under oath, against the signing of the bill. Such protest, when offered in 
the house, shall be noted upon the journal, and the original shall be an- 
nexed to the bill to be considered by the governor in connection therewith. 

Sec. 38. When the bill has been signed, as provided for in the preced- 



134 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

ing section, it shall be the duty of the secretary of the senate, if the bill 
originated in the senate, and of the chief clerk of the house of representa- 
tives, if the bill originated in the house, to present the same in person, on 
the same clay on which it was signed as aforesaid, to the governor, 
and enter the fact upon the journal. Every bill presented to the governor, 
and returned within ten days to the house in which the same originated, 
with the approval of the governor, shall become a law, unless it be in vio- 
lation of some provision of this constitution. 

Sec. 39. Every bill presented as aforesaid, but returned without the 
approval of the governor, and with his objections thereto, shall stand as 
reconsidered in the house to which it is returned. The house shall cause 
the objections of the governor to be entered at large upon the journal, and 
proceed, at its convenience, to consider the question pending, which shall 
be in this form: "Shall the bill pass, the objections of the governor thereto 
notwithstanding?" The vote upon this question shall be taken by yeas 
and nays, and the names entered upon the journal, and if two-thirds of all 
the members elected to the house vote in the affirmative, the presiding 
officer of that house shall certify that fact on the roll, attesting the same 
by his signature, and send the bill, with the objections of the governor, to 
the other house, in which like proceedings shall be had in relation thereto; 
and if the bill receive a like majority of the votes of all the members elected 
to that house, the vote being taken by yeas and nays, the presiding officer 
thereof shall, in like manner, certify the fact upon the bill. The bill thus 
certified shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, as an au- 
thentic act, and shall become a law in the same manner and with like effect 
as if it had received the approval of the governor. 

Sec. 40. Whenever the governor shall fail to perform his duty, as pre- 
scribed in section twelve, article V, of this constitution, in relation to any 
bill presented to him for his approval, the general assembly may, by joint 
resolution, reciting the fact of such failure and the bill at length, direct the 
secretary of state to enrol the same as an authentic act in the archives of 
the state, and such enrollment shall have the same effect as an approval by 
the governor: Provided, That such joint resolution shall not be submit- 
ted to the governor for his approval. 

Sec. 41 . Within five years after the adoption of this constitution all 
the statute laws of a general nature, both civil and criminal, shall be re- 
vised, digested, and promulgated in such manner as the general assembly 
shall direct; and a like revision, digest, and promulgation shall be made 
at the expiration of every subsequent period of ten years. 

Sec. 42. Each house shall, from time to time, publish a journal of its 
proceedings, and the yeas and nays on any question shall be taken and 
entered on the journal at the motion of any two members. Whenever the 
yeas and nays are demanded, the whole list of members shall be called, 
and the names of the absentees shall be noted and published in the journal. 

LIMITATION ON LEGISLATIVE POWER. 

Sec. 43. All revenue collected and moneys received by the state from 
any source whatsoever, shall go into the treasury, and the general assem- 
bly shall have no power to divert the same, or to permit money to be drawn 
from the treasury, except in pursuance of regular appropriations made by- 
law. All appropriations of money by the successive general assemblies 
shall be made in the following order: 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 135 

First, For the payment of all interest upon the bonded debt of the 
state that may become due during the term for which each general 
assembly is elected. 

Second, For the benefit of the sinking fund, which shall not be less an- 
nually than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Third, For free public school purposes. 

Fourth, For the payment of the cost of assessing and collecting the 
revenue. 

Fifth, For the payment of the civil list. 

Sixth, For the support of the eleemosynary institutions of the state. 

Seventh, For the pay of the general assembly, and such other purposes 
not herein prohibited, as it may deem necessary; but no general assembly 
shall have power to make any appropriation of money for any purpose 
whatsoever, until the respective sums necessary for the purposes in this 
section specified have been set apart and appropriated, or to give pri- 
ority in its action to a succeeding over a preceding item as above enumer- 
ated. 

Sec. 44. The general assembly shall have no power to contract or to 
authorize the contracting of any debt or liability on behalf of the state, or 
to issue bonds or other evidences of indebtedness thereof, except in the 
following cases: 

First, In renewal of existing bonds, when they cannot be paid at matu- 
rity, out of the sinking fund or other resources. 

Second, On the occurring of an unforeseen emergency, or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue when the temporary liability incurred, upon the rec- 
ommendation of the governor first had, shall not exceed the sum of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars for anv one year, to be paid in not 
more than two years from and after its creation. 

Third, On the occurring of any unforeseen emergency or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue, when the temporary liability incurred or to be incur- 
red shall exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for 
any one year, the general assembly may submit an act providing for the 
loan, or lor the contracting of the liability, and containing a provision for 
levying a tax sufficient to pay the interest and principal when they become 
due, (the latter in not more than thirteen years from the date of its crea- 
tion) to the qualified voters of the state, and when the act so submitted 
shall have been ratified by a two-thirds majority, at an election held for 
that purpose, due publication having been made of the provisions of the 
act for at least three months before such election, the act thus ratified 
shall be irrepealable until the debt thereby incurred shall be paid, princi- 
pal and interest. 

Sec. 45. The general assembly shall have no power to give or to lend, 
or to authorize the giving or lending of the credit of the state in aid of or 
to any person, association or corporation, whether municipal or other, or to 
pledge the credit of the state in any manner whatsoever, for the payment 
of the liabilities, present or prospective, of any individual, association of 
individuals, municipal or other corporation whatsoever. 

Sec. 46. The general assembly shall have no power to make any 
Errant, or to authorize the making of any grant of public money or thing of 
v^alue to any individual, association of individuals, municipal or other cor- 
poration whatsoever: Provided, That this shall not be sO construed as to 
prevent the grant of aid in a case of public calamity. 



136 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 47. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize any 
county, city, town or township, or other political corporation or subdivision 
of the state now existing, or that may be hereafter established, to lend its 
credit, or to grant public money or thing of value in aid of, or to any indi- 
vidual, association or corporation whatsoever, or to become a stockholder 
in such corporation, association or company. 

Sec 48. The general assembly shall have no power to grant, or to 
authorize any county or municipal authority to grant any extra compensa- 
tion, fee or allowance to a public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after 
service has been rendered or a contract has been entered into and per- 
formed in whole or in part, nor pay nor authorize the payment of any claim 
hereafter created against the state, or any county or municipality of the 
state under any agreement or contract made without express authority of 
law ; and all such unauthorized agreements or contracts shall be null and 
void. 

Sec 49. The general assembly shall have no power hereafter to sub- 
scribe or authorize the subscription of stock on behalf of the state, in any 
corporation or association except for the purpose of securing loans hereto- 
fore extended to certain railroad corporations by the state. 

Sec 50. The general assembly shall have no power to release or 
alienate the lien held by the state upon any railroad, or in anywise change 
the tenor or meaning, or pass any act explanatory thereof; but the same 
shall be enforced in accordance with the original terms upon which it was 
acquired. 

Sec 51. The general assembly shall have no power to release or ex- 
tinguish, or authorize the releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, 
the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or individual, to 
this state, or to any county or other municipal corporation therein. 

Sec 52. The general assembly shall have no power to make any ap- 
propriation of money, or to issue any bonds or other evidences of indebted- 
ness for the payment, or on account, or in recognition of any claims audited, 
or that may hereafter be audited by virtue of an act entitled " An act to 
audit and adjust the war debt of the state, " approved March 19, 1874, or any 
act of a similar nature, until after the claims so audited shall have been 
presented to and paid by the government of the United States to the state 
of Missouri. 

Sec 53. The general assembly shall not pass any local or special law: 

Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens: 

Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards or school 
districts: 

Changing the names of persons or places: 

Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases: 

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining roads, 
highways, streets or alleys: 

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge compa- 
nies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form 
boundaries between this and any other state: 

Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys: 

Relating to cemeteries, grave yards or public grounds not of the state: 

Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children: 

Locating or changing county seats: 

Incorporating cities, towns or villages, or changing their charters: 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 137 

For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the 
places of voting: 

Granting divorces: 

Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or the lines of 
school districts: 

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in 
counties, cities, townships, election or school districts: 

Changing the law of descent or succession: 

Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evi- 
dence in any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, justices of the 
peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators or other tribunals, or providing 
or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judg- 
ments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate: 

Regulating the fees or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, 
justices of the peace, magistrates or constables: 

Regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing 
of school houses, and the raising of money for such purposes: 

Fixing the rate of interest: 

Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability: 

Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 
paid into the treasury: 

Exempting property from taxation: 

Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing: 

Creating corporations, or amending, renewing, extending or explaining 
the charter thereof: 

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or 
exclusive right, privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or 
individual, the right to lay down a railroad track: 

Declaring any named person of age: 

Extending - the time for the assessment or collection of taxes, or other- 
wise relieving any assessor or collector of taxes from the due performance 
of their official duties, or their securities from liability: 

Giving effect to informal or invalid wills or deeds: 

Summoning or empanneling grand or petit juries: 

For limitation of civil actions: 

Legalizing the unauthorized or invalid acts of any officer or agent of 
the state, or of any county or municipality thereof. In all othei cases 
where a general law can be made applicable, no local or special law shall 
be enacted; and whether a general law could have been made applicable 
in any case, is hereby declared a judicial question, and as such shall be ju- 
dicially determined without regard to any legislative assertion on that 
subject. 

Nor shall the general assembly indirectly enact such special or local 
law by the partial repeal of a general law ; but law r s repealing local or 
special acts may be passed. 

Sec 5i. No local or special law shall be passed unless notice of the 
intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where 
the matter or thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall state 
the substance of the contemplated law, and shall be published at least 
thirty days prior to the introduction into the general assembly of such 
bill, and in the manner to be provided by law. The evidence of such 
notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the general assembly 



138 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

before such act shall be passed, and the notice shall be recited in the act 
according to its tenor. 

Sec. 55. The general assembly shall have no power, when convened 
in extra session by the governor, to act upon subjects other than those 
specially designated in the proclamation by which the session is called, or 
recommended by special message to its consideration by the governor 
after it shall have been convened. 

Sec. 56. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
seat of government of this state from the city of Jefferson. 

ARTICLE V.— executive department. 

Section 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor,, 
lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, 
attorney general and superintendent of public schools, all of whom, except 
the lieutenant governor, shall reside at the seat of government during 
their term of office, and keep the public records, books and papers there,, 
and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The term of office of the governor, lieutenant governor, sec- 
retary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general and super- 
intendent of public schools, shall be four years from the second Monday 
of January next after their election, and until their successors are elected 
and qualified; and the governor and state treasurer shall be ineligible to 
re-election as their own successors. At the general election to be held in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, and every four 
years thereafter, all of such officers, except the superintendent of public 
schools, shall be elected, and the superintendent of public schools shall be 
elected at the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-eight, and every four years thereafter. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the above named officers 
shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning officers to the secre- 
tary of state, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who 
shall immediately, after the organization of the house, and before proceed- 
ing to other business, open and publish the same in the presence of a 
majority of each house of the general assembly, who shall for that pur- 
pose assemble in the hall of the house of representatives. The person 
having the highest number of votes for either of said offices shall be 
declared duly elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the 
highest number of votes, the general assembly shall, by joint vote, choose 
one of such persons for said office. 

Sec. 4. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a chief mag- 
istrate, who shall be styled "the governor of the state of Missouri." 

Sec. 5. The governor shall be at least thirty-five years old, a male, 
and shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, and a resi- 
dent of this state seven years next before his election. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall take care that the laws are distributed and 
faithfully executed; and he shall be a conservator of the peace through- 
out the state. 

Sec. 7. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia of 
this state, except when they shall be called into the service of the United 
States, and may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrec- 
tion and repel invasion; but he need not command in person unless 
directed so to do by a resolution of the general assembly. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 139 

Sec. 8. The governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses, except treason and 
cases of impeachment, upon such condition and with such restrictions and 
limitations as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be 
provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall, 
at each session of the general assembly, communicate to that body each 
case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, stating the name of the 
convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, 
the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve, and the reason for grant- 
ing the same. 

Sec. 9. The governor shall, from time to time, give to the general 
assembly information relative to the state of the government, and shall 
recommend to its consideration such measures as he shall deem necessary 
and expedient. On extraordinary occasions he may convene the general 
assembly by proclamation, wherein he shall state specifically each matter 
concerning which the action of that body is deemed necessary. 

Sec. 10. The governor shall, at the commencement of each session of 
the general assembly, and at the close of his term of office, give informa- 
tion by message, of the condition of the state, and shall recommend such 
measures as he shall deem expedient. He shall account to the general 
assembly, in such manner as may be prescribed by law, for all moneys 
received and paid out by him from any funds subject to his order, with 
vouchers; and at the commencement of each regular session, present esti- 
mates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all 
purposes. 

Sec. 11. When anv office shall become vacant, the governor, unless 
otherwise provided by law, shall appoint a person to fill such vacancy, 
who shall continue in office until a successor shall have been duly elected 
or appointed and qualified according to law. 

Sec. 12. The governor shall consider all bills and joint resolutions, 
which, having been passed by both houses of the general assembly, shall 
be presented to him. He shall, within ten days after the same shall have 
been presented to him, return to the house in which they respectively 
originated, all such bills and joint resolutions, with his approval endorsed 
thereon, or accompanied by his objections : Provided, That if the general 
assembly shall finally adjourn within ten days after such presentation, 
the governor may, within thirty days thereafter, return such bills and res- 
olutions to the office of the secretary of state, with his approval or reasons 
for disapproval. 

Sec. 13. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items 
of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more items while 
approving other portions of the bill. In such case he shall append to the 
bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, 
and the appropriations so objected to shall not take effect. If the general 
assembly be in session, he shall transmit to. the house in which the bill 
originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be 
separately reconsidered. If it be not in session, then he shall transmit the 
same within thirty days to the office of secretary of state, with his approval 
or reasons for disapproval. 

Sec. 14. Every resolution to which the concurrence of the senate and 
house of representatives may be necessary, except on questions of adjourn- 
ment, of going into joint session, and of amending this constitution, shall 



140 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

be presented to the governor, and before the same shall take effect, shall 
"be proceeded upon in the same manner as in the case of a bill: Provided, 
That no resolution shall have the effect to repeal, extend, alter or amend 
any law. 

Sec. 15. The lieutenant governor shall possess the same qualifications 
as the governor, and by virtue of his office shall be president of the senate. 
In committee of the whole he may debate all questions; and when there 
is an equal division he shall give the casting vote in the senate, and also in 
joint vote of both houses. 

Sec. 16. In case of death, conviction, or impeachment, failure to qual- 
ify, resignation, absence from the state, or other disability of the governor, 
the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office for the residue of the 
term, or until the disability shall be removed, shall devolve upon the lieu- 
tenant governor. 

Sec 17. The senate shall choose a president fro tempore to preside in 
cases of the absence or impeachment of the lieutenant-governor, or when 
he shall hold the office of governor. If there be no lieutenant-governor, 
or the lieutenant governor shall, for any of the causes specified in section 
sixteen, of this article, become incapable of performing the duties of the 
office, the president of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy 
is filled, or the disability removed; and if the president of the senate, for 
any of the above named causes, shall become incapable of performing the 
duties of governor, the same shall devolve upon the speaker of the house 
of representatives, in the same manner, and with the same powers and 
compensation as are prescribed in the case of the office devolving upon 
the lieutenant-governor. 

Sec 18. The lieutenant-governor, or the president fro temfore of the 
senate, while presiding in the senate, shall receive the same compen- 
sation as shall be allowed to the speaker of the house of representatives. 

Sec 19. No person shall be eligible to the office of secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, or superintendent of public 
schools, unless he be a male citizen of the United States, and at least 
twenty-five years old, and shall have resided in this state at least five years 
next before his election. 

Sec 20. The secretary of state shall be the custodian of the seal of 
the state, and authenticate therewith all official acts of the governor, his 
approval of laws excepted. The said seal shall be called the " Great Seal 
of the State of Missouri," and the emblems and devices thereof, hereto- 
fore prescribed by law, shall not be subject to change. 

Sec 21. The secretary of state shall keep a register of the official acts 
of the governor, and when necessary, shall attest them, and lay copies of 
the same, together with copies of all papers relative thereto, before either 
house of the general assembly whenever required to do so. 

Sec 22. An account shall be kept by the officers of the executive 
department of all moneys and choses in action disbursed, or otherwise dis- 
posed of by them severally, from all sources, and for every service per- 
formed; and a semi-annual report thereof shall be made to the governor 
under oath. The governor may at any time require information, in writ- 
ing, under oath,- from the officers of the executive department, and all 
officers and managers of state institutions, upon any subject relating to 
the condition, management and expenses of their respective offices and 
institutions; which information, when so required, shall be furnished by 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 141 

such officers and managers, and any officer or manager who at any time 
shall make a false report, shall be guilty of perjury and punished accord- 
ingly. 

Sec. 23. The governor shall commission all officers not otherwise pro- 
vided for by law. All commissions shall run in the name and by the 
authority of the state of Missouri, be signed by the governor, sealed with 
the great seal of the state of Missouri, and attested by the secretary of state. 

Sec. 24. The officers named in this article shall receive for their ser- 
vices a salary to be established by law, which shall not be increased or 
diminished during their official terms; and they shall not, after the expir- 
ation of the terms of those in office at the adoption of this constitution, 
receive to their own use any fees, costs, perquisites of office, or other com- 
pensation. All fees that may hereafter be payable by law for any service 
performed by any officer provided for in this article shall be paid in 
advance into the state treasur}'. 

Sec 25. Contested elections of governor and lieutenant-governor 
shall be decided by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, 
in such manner as may be provided by law ; and contested elections of 
secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, and su- 
perintendent of public schools shall be decided before such tribunal, and 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

ARTICLE VI.— judicial department. 

Section 1. The judicial power of the state, as to matters of law and 
equity, except as in this constitution otherwise provided, shall be vested 
in a supreme court, the St. Louis court of appeals, circuit courts, crim- 
inal courts, probate courts, county courts, and municipal corporation courts. 

Sec 2. The supreme court, except in cases otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-ex- 
tensive with the state, under the restrictions and limitations in this consti- 
tution provided. 

Sec 3. The supreme court shall have a general superintending con- 
trol over all inferior courts. It shall have power to issue writs of habeas 
corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, certiorari, and other original remedial 
writs, and to hear and determine the same. 

Sec 4. The judges of the supreme court shall hold office for the term 
of ten years. The judge oldest in commission shall be chief justice of the 
court; and, if there be more than one commission of the same date, the 
court may select the chief justice from the judges holding the same. 

Sec 5. The supreme court shall consist of five judges, any three of 
whom shall constitute a quorum; and said judges shall be conservators of 
the peace throughout the state, and shall be elected by the qualified voters 
thereof. 

• Sec 6. The judges of the supreme court shall be citizens of the 
United States, not less than thirty years old, and shall have been citizens 
of this state for five years next preceding their election or appointment, 
and shall be learned in the law. 

Sec 7. The full terms of the judges of the supreme court shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next ensuing their election, and those 
elected to fill any vacancy shall also enter upon the discharge of their 
duties on the first day of January next ensuing such election. Those ap- 
pointed shall enter upon the discharge of their duties as soon as qualified. 



142 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

■ 

Sec. 8. The present judges of the supreme court shall remain in 
office until the expiration of their respective terms of office. To rill their 
places as their terms expire, one judge shall be elected at the general 
election in eighteen hundred and seventy-six, and one every two years 
thereafter. 

Sec. 9. The supreme court shall be held at the seat of government at 
such times as may be prescribed by law; and until otherwise directed by 
law, the terms of said court shall commence on the third Tuesday in Octo- 
ber and April of each year. 

Sec. 10. The state shall provide a suitable court room at the seat of 
government, in which the supreme court shall hold its sessions; also a 
clerk's office, furnished offices for the judges, and the use of the state 
library. 

Sec. 11. If, in any cause pending in the supreme court, or the St. 
Louis court of appeals, the judges sitting shall be equally divided in opin- 
ion, no judgment shall be entered therein based on such division ; but the 
parties to the cause may agree upon some person, learned in the law, to 
act as special judge in the cause, who shall therein sit with the court, and 
give decision in the same manner and with the same effect as one of the 
judges. If the parties cannot agree upon a special judge, the court shall 
appoint one. 

Sec. 12. There is hereby established in the city of St. Louis an appel- 
late court, to be known as the " St. Louis court of appeals," the jurisdic- 
tion of which shall be coextensive with the city of St. Louis and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren. Said court shall have 
power to issue writs of habeas corpus, quo warranto, mandamus, certiorari, 
and other original remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same; and 
shall have a superintending control over all inferior courts of record in said 
counties. Appeals shall lie from the decisions of the St. Louis court of ap- 
peals to the supreme court, and writs of error may issue from the supreme 
court to said court in the following cases only: In all cases where the 
amount in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum of two thousand rive 
hundred dollars; in cases involving the construction of the constitution of 
the United States or of this state; in cases where the validity of a treaty or 
statute of, or authority exercised under the United States is drawn in ques- 
tion; in cases involving the construction of the revenue laws of this state, 
or the title to any office under this state; in cases involving title to real 
estate; in cases where a county or other political subdivision of the state, 
or any state officer is a party, and in all cases of felony. 

Sec. 13. The St. Louis court of appeals shall consist .of three judges, 
to be elected by the qualified voters of the city of St. Louis, and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren, who shall hold their 
offices for the period of twelve years. They shall be residents of the dis- 
trict composed of said counties, shall possess the same qualifications as 
judges of the supreme court, and each shall receive the same compensation 
as is now, or may be, provided by law for the judges of the circuit court of 
St. Louis county, and be paid from the same sources: Provided, That 
each of said counties shall pay its proportional part of the same, according 
to its taxable property. 

Sec. 14. The judges of said court shall be conservators of the peace 
throughout said counties. Any two of said judges shall constitute a quo- 
rum. There shall be two terms of said court to be held each year, on the 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 143 

first Monday of March and October, and the first term of said court shall 
be held on the first Monday in January, 1876. 

Sec. 15. The opinions of said court shall be in writing, and shall be 
filed in the cases in which they shall be respectively made, and become 
parts of their record ; and all laws relating to the practice in the supreme 
court shall apply to this court, so far as the same may be applicable. 

Sec. 16. At the first general election held in said city and counties 
after the adoption of this constitution, three judges of said court shall be 
elected, who shall determine by lot the duration of their several terms of 
office, which shall be respectively four, eight and twelve years, and certify 
the result to the secretary of state; and every four years thereafter one 
judge of said court shall be elected to hold office for the term of twelve 
years. The term of office of such judges shall begin on the first Monday 
in January next ensuing their election. The judge having the oldest 
license to practice law in this state, shall be the presiding judge of said 
court. 

Sec. 17. Upon the adoption of this constitution the governor shall 
appoint three judges for said court, who shall hold their offices until the 
first Monday of January, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and until 
their successors shall be duly qualified. 

Sec. 18. The clerk of the supreme court at St. Louis shall be the clerk 
of the St. Louis court of appeals until the expiration of the term for which 
he was appointed clerk of the supreme court, and until his successor shall 
be duly qualified. 

Sec. 19. All cases which may be pending in the supreme court at St. 
Louis at the time of the adoption of this constitution, which by its terms 
would come within the final appellate jurisdiction of the St. Louis court of 
appeals, shall be certified and transferred to the St. Louis court of appeals, 
to be heard and determined by said court. 

Sec. 20. All cases coming to said court by appeal, or writ of error, 
shall be triable at the expiration of fifteen days from the filing of the tran- 
script in the office of the clerk of said court. 

Sec. 21. Upon the adoption of this constitution, and after the close of 
the next regular terms of the supreme court at St. Louis and St. Joseph, as 
now established by law, the office of the clerk of the supreme court at St. 
Louis and St. Joseph shall be vacated, and said clerks shall transmit to the 
clerk of the supreme court at Jefferson City all the books, records, docu- 
ments, transcripts and papers belonging to their respective offices, except 
those required by section nineteen of this article, to be turned over to the 
St. Louis court of appeals; and said records, documents, transcripts and 
papers shall become part of the records, documents, transcripts and papers 
of said supreme court at Jefferson City, and said court shall hear and 
determine all the cases thus transferred as other cases. 

Sec. 22. The circuit court shall have jurisdiction over all criminal 
cases not otherwise provided for by law ; exclusive original jurisdiction in 
all civil cases not otherwise provided for; and such concurrent jurisdiction 
with, and appellate jurisdiction from inferior tribunals and justices of the 
peace as is or may be provided by law. It shall hold its terms at such 
times and places in each county as may be by law directed; but at least 
two terms shall be held every year in each countv. 

Sec. 23. The circuit court shall exercise a superintending control over 
criminal courts, probate courts, county courts, municipal corporation 



144 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

courts, justices of the peace, and all inferior tribunals in each county in 
their respective circuits. 

Sec. 24. The state, except 'as otherwise provided in this constitution, 
shall be divided into convenient circuits of contiguous counties, in each of 
which circuits one circuit judge shall be elected; and such circuits may be 
changed, enlarged, diminished or abolished, from time to time, as public 
convenience may require; and whenever a circuit shall be abolished, the 
office of the judge of such circuit shall cease. 

Sec. 25. The judges of the circuit courts shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters of each circuit ; shall hold their offices for the term of six years, 
and shall reside in and be conservators of the peace within their respective 
circuits. 

Sec 26. No person shall be eligible to the office of judge of the cir- 
cuit court who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, been a citi- 
zen of the United States five years, a qualified voter of this state for three 
years, and who shall not be a resident of the circuit in which he may be 
elected or appointed. 

Sec 27. The circuit court of St. Louis county shall be composed of 
five judges, and such additional number as the general assembly may, 
from time to time, provide. Each of said judges shall sit separately for 
the trial of causes and the transaction of business in special term. The 
judges of said circuit court may sit in general term, for the purpose of 
making rules of court, and for the transaction of such other business as 
may be provided by law, at such time as they may determine ; but shall have 
no power to review any order, decision or proceeding of the court in 
special term. The St. Louis court of appeals shall have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of all appeals from, and writs of error to circuit courts of St. Charles, 
Lincoln and Warren counties, and the circuit court of St. Louis county, in 
special term, and all courts of record having criminal jurisdiction in said 
counties. 

Sec 28. In any circuit composed of a single county, the general assem- 
bly may, from time time, provide for one or more additional judges, as the 
business shall require ; each of whom shall separately try cases and per- 
form all other duties imposed upon circuit judges. 

Sec 29. If there be a vacancy in the office of judge of any circuit, or 
if the judge be sick, absent, or from any cause unable to hold any term, or 
part of term of court, in any county in his circuit, such term, or part of 
term of court, may be held by a judge of any other circuit; and at the re- 
quest of the judge of any circuit, any term of court, or part of term in his 
circuit, may be held by the judge of any other circuit, and in all such cases, 
or in any case where the judge cannot preside, the general assembly shall 
make such additional provision for holding court as may be found necessary. 

Sec 30. The election of judges of all courts of record shall be held as 
is or may be provided by law, and in case of a tie or contested election be- 
tween the candidates, the same shall be determined as prescribed by law. 

Sec 31. The general assembly shall have no power to establish crim- 
inal courts, except in counties having a population exceeding fifty thousand. 

Sec 32. In case the office of judge of any court of record becomes va- 
cant by death, resignation, removal, failure to qualify, or otherwise, such 
vacancy shall be filled in the manner provided by law. 

Sec 33. The judges of the supreme, appellate and circuit courts, 
and of all other courts of record receiving a salary, shall, at stated times, 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 145 

receive such compensation for their services as is or may be prescribed by- 
law ; but it shall not be increased or diminished during the period for which 
they were elected. 

Sec. 34. The general assembly shall establish in every county a pro- 
bate court, which shall be a court of record, and consist of one judge, who 
shall be elected. Said court shall have jurisdiction over all matters per- 
taining to probate business, to granting letters testamentary and of admin- 
istration, the appointment of guardians and curators of minors and persons 
of unsound mind, settling the accounts of executors, administrators, cura- 
tors and guardians, and the sale or leasing of lands by administrators, 
curators and guardians; and, also, jurisdiction over all matters relating to 
apprentices: Provided, That until the general assembly shall provide by- 
law for a uniform system of probate courts, the jurisdiction of probate 
courts heretofore established shall remain as now provided by law. 

Sec. 35. Probate courts shall be uniform in their organization, juris- 
diction, duties and practice, except that a separate clerk may be provided 
for, or the judge may be required to act, ex-officio, as his own clerk. 

Sec. 36. In each county there shall be a county court, which shall be 
a court of record, and shall have jurisdiction to transact all county and 
such other business as may be prescribed by law. The court shall consist 
of one or more judges, not exceeding three, of whom the probate judge 
may be one, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 37. In each county there shall be appointed, or elected, as many 
justices of the peace as the public good may require, whose powers, duties 
and duration in office shall be regulated by law. 

Sec. 38. All writs and process shall run, and all prosecutions shall be 
conducted in the name of the "state of Missouri;" all writs shall be 
attested by the clerk of the court from which they shall be issued; and all 
indictments shall conclude " against the peace and dignity of the state." 

Sec. 39. The St. Louis court of appeals and supreme court shall 
appoint their own clerks. The clerks of all other courts of record shall 
be elective, for such terms and in such manner as may be directed by law ; 
■provided, that the term of office of no existing clerk of any court of record, 
not abolished by this constitution, shall be affected by such law. 

Sec. 40. In case there be a tie, or a contested election between can- 
didates for clerk of any court of record, the same shall be determined 
in such manner as may be directed by law. 

Sec. 41. In case of the inability of any judge of a court of record to 
discharge the duties of his office with efficiency, by reason of continued 
sickness, or physical or mental infirmity, it shall be in the power of the 
general assembly, two thirds of the members of each house concurring, 
with the approval of the governor, to remove such judge from office ; but 
each house shall state on its respective journal the cause for which it shall 
wish his removal, and give him notice thereof, and he shall have the right 
to be heard in his defense, in such manner as the general assembly shall 
by law direct. 

Sec. 42. All courts now existing in this state, not named or provided 
for in this constitution, shall continue until the expiration of the terms of 
office of the several judges; and as such terms expire, the business of said 
court shall vest in the court having jurisdiction thereof in the counties 
where said courts now exist, and all the records and papers shall be trans- 
ferred to the proper courts. 
10 



146 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 43. The supreme court of the state shall designate what opin- 
ions delivered by the court, or the judge thereof, may be printed at the ex- 
pense of the state; and the general assembly shall make no provision for 
payment by the state for the publication of any case decided by said court, 
not so designated. 

Sec. 44. All judicial decisions in this state shall be free for publica- 
tion by any person. 

ARTICLE VII.— IMPEACHMENTS. 

Section 1. The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general, superintendent of pub- 
lic schools, and judges of the supreme, circuit and criminal courts, and 
of the St. Louis court of appeals, shall be liable to impeachment for high 
crimes or misdemeanors, and for misconduct, habits of drunkenness, or op- 
pression in office. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate, and, when 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be sworn to do justice according 
to law and evidence. When the governor of the state is on trial, the chief 
justice of the supreme court shall preside. No person shall be convicted 
without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present. But judg- 
ment in such cases shall not extend any further than removal from office, 
and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under this 
state. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be 
liable to prosecution, trial, judgment and punishment according to law. 

ARTICLE VIIL— SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS. 

Section 1. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tues- 
day next following the first Monday in November. The first general elec- 
tion under this constitution shall be held on that day, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-six; but the general assembly may, by 
law, fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each house con- 
senting thereto. 

Sec. 2. Every male citizen of the United States, and every male per- 
son of foreign birth, who may have declared his intention to become a citi- 
zen of the United States according to law, not less than one year nor more 
than five years before he offers to vote, who is over the age of twenty-one 
years, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at 
all elections by the people: 

First, He shall have resided in the state one year immediately preceding 
the election at which he offers to vote. 

Second, He shall have resided in the county, city or town where he 
shall offer to vote, at least sixty days immediately preceding the election. 

Sec. 3. All elections by the people shall be by ballot; every ballot voted 
shall be numbered in the order in which it shall be received, and the 
number recorded by the election officers on the list of voters, opposite the 
name of the voter who presents the ballot. The election officers shall be 
sworn or affirmed not to disclose how any voter shall have voted, unless 
required to do so as witnesses in a judicial proceeding: Provided, That in all 
cases of contested elections the ballots cast may be counted, compared with 
the list of voters, and examined under such safeguards and regulations as 
may be prescribed by law. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 14:7 

Sec. 4. Voters shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, 
and in going to and returning therefrom. 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall provide, by law, for the registra- 
tion of all voters in cities and counties having a population of more than 
one hundred thousand inhabitants, and may provide for such registration in 
cities having a population exceeding twenty-five thousand inhabitants and 
not exceeding one hundred thousand, but not otherwise. 

Sec. 6. All elections, by persons in a representative capacity, shall be 
viva voce. 

Sec. 7. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have 
gained a residence by reason of his presence, or lost it by reason of his ab- 
sence, while employed in the service, either civil or military, of this state, 
or of the United States, nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters 
of the state or of the United States, or of the high seas, nor while a student 
of any institution of learning, nor while kept in a poor house or other asy- 
lum at public expense, nor while confined in public prison. 

Sec. 8. No person, while kept at any poor house, or other asylum, at 
public expense, nor while confined in any public prison, shall be entitled to 
vote at any election under the laws of this state. 

Sec. 9. The trial and determination of contested elections of all public 
officers, whether state, judicial, municipal, or local, except governor and 
lieutenant governor, shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the 
judges thereof. The general assembly shall, by general law, designate the 
court or judge by whom the several classes of election contests shall be 
tried, and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto; but 
no such law, assigning jurisdiction or regulating its exercise, shall apply to 
any contest arising out of any election held before said law shall take effect, 

Sec. 10. The general assembly may enact laws excluding from the 
right of voting all persons convicted of felony or other infamous crime, or 
misdemeanors connected with the exercise of the right of suffrage. 

Sec. 11. No officer, soldier or marine, in the regular army or navy of 
the United States, shall be entitled to vote at any election in this state/ 

Sec. 12. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this 
state, civil or military, who is not a citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not have resided in this state one year next preceding his election or 
appointment. 

ARTICLE IX, — counties, cities and towns. 

Section 1. The several counties of this state, as they now exist, are 
hereby recognized as legal subdivisions of the state. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
county seat of any county, but the removal of county seats shall be pro- 
vided for by general law ; and no county seat shall be removed unless two- 
thirds of the qualified voters of the county, voting on the proposition at a 
general election, vote therefor; and no such proposition shall be sub- 
mitted oftener than once in five years. All additions to a town, which 
is a county seat, shall be included, considered and regarded as part of the 
county seat. 

Sec. 3. The general assembly shall have no power to establish any 
new county with a territory of less than four hundred and ten square miles, 
nor to reduce any county, now established, to a less area or less population 



148 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

than required for a' ratio of representation existing at the time; but when 
a new county is formed, having a population less than a ratio of represent- 
ation, it shall be attached for representative purposes to the county from 
which the greatest amount of territory is taken until such ratio shall be 
obtained. No county shall be divided or have any portion stricken there- 
from, without submitting the question to a vote of the people of the county, 
nor unless a majority of all the qualified voters of the county or counties 
thus affected, voting on the question, shall vote therefor ; nor shall any new 
county be established, any line of which shall run within ten miles of the 
then existing county seat of any county. In all cases of the establishment 
of any new county, the new county shall be held for and obliged to pay its 
ratable proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county or coun- 
ties from which said new county shall be formed. 

Sec. 4. No part of the territory of any county shall be stricken off and 
added to an adjoining county, without submitting the question to the qual- 
ified voters of the counties immediately interested, nor unless a majority of 
all the qualified voters of the counties thus affected, voting on the question, 
shall vote therefor. When any part of a county is stricken off and attached 
to another county, the part stricken off shall be holden for, and obliged to 
pay its proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county from 
which it is taken. 

Sec. 5. When any new county, formed from contiguous territory taken 
from older counties, or when any county to which territory shall be added 
taken from an adjoining county, shall fail to pay the proportion of indebt- 
edness of such territory, to the county or counties from which it is taken, 
then it may be lawful for any county from which such territory has been 
taken, to levy and collect, by taxation, the due proportion of indebtedness 
of such territory, in the same manner as if the territory had not been 
stricken off. 

Sec. 6. No county, township, city or other municipality, shall here- 
after become a subscriber to the capital stock of any railroad or other cor- 
poration or association, or make appropriation or donation, or loan its credit 
to, or in aid of any such corporation or association, or to or in aid of any 
college or institution of learning, or other institution, whether created for 
or to be controlled by the state or others. All authority heretofore con- 
ferred for any of the purposes aforesaid by the general assembly, or by 
the charter of any corporation, is hereby repealed: Provided, however \ 
That nothing in this* constitution contained shall affect the right of any 
such municipality to make such subscription, where the same has been au- 
thorized under existing laws by a vote of the people of such municipality 
prior to its adoption, or to prevent the issue of renewal bonds or the use of 
such other means as are or may be prescribed by law, for the liquidation or 
payment of such subscription, or of any existing indebtedness. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the 
organization and classification of cities and towns. The number of such 
classes shall not exceed four; and the power of each class shall be defined 
by general laws, so that all such municipal corporations of the same class 
shall possess the same powers and be subject to the same restrictions. The 
general assembly shall also make provisions, by general law, whereby any 
city, town or village, existing by virtue of any special or local law, may 
elect to become subject to, and be governed by, the general laws relating 
to such corporations. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 149 

Sec. 8. The general assembly may provide, by general law, for town- 
ship organization, under which any county may organize whenever a ma- 
jority of the legal voters of such county, voting at any general election, 
shall so determine ; and whenever any county shall adopt township organ- 
ization, so much of this constitution as provides for the management of 
county affairs, and the assessment and collection of the revenue by county 
officers, in conflict with such general law for township organization, may 
be dispensed with, and the business of said county, and the local concerns 
of the several townships therein, may be transacted in such manner as may 
be prescribed by law: Provided, That the justices of the county court in 
such case shall not exceed three in number. 

Sec. 9. In any county which shall have adopted " Township Organiz- 
ation," the question of continuing the same may be submitted to a vote of 
the electors of such county at a general election, in the manner that shall 
be provided by law; and if a majority of all the votes cast upon that 
question shall be against township organization, it shall cease in said 
county; and all laws in force in relation to counties not having township 
organization shall immediately take effect and be in force in such county. 

Sec. 10. There shall be elected by the qualified voters in each county, 
at the time and places of electing representatives, a sheriff and coroner. 
They shall serve for two years, and until their successors be duly elected 
and qualified, unless sooner removed for malfeasance in office, and shall be 
eligible only four years in an)' period of six. Before entering on the duties 
of their office, they shall give security in the amount and in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. Whenever a county shall be hereafter 
established, the governor shall appoint a sheriff and a coroner therein, who 
shall continue in office until the next succeeding general election, and until 
their successors shall be duly elected and qualified. 

Sec. 11. Whenever a vacancy shall happen in the office of sheriff or. 
coroner, the same shall be filled by the county court. If such vacancy hap- 
pen in the office of sheriff more than nine months prior to the time of 
holding a general election, such county court shall immediately order a 
special election to fill the same, and the person by it appointed shall hold 
office until the person chosen at such election shall be duly qualified; 
otherwise, the person appointed by such county court shall hold office 
until the person chosen at such general election shall be duly qualified. 
If any vacancy happen in the office of coroner, the same shall be filled for 
the remainder of the term by such county court. No person elected or 
appointed to fill a vacancy in either of said offices shall thereby be ren- 
dered ineligible for the next succeeding term. 

Sec. 12. The general assembly shall, by a law uniform in its opera- 
tion, provide for and regulate the fees of all county officers, and for this 
purpose may classify the counties by population. 

Sec. 13. The fees of no executive or ministerial officer of any county 
or municipality, exclusive of the salaries actually paid to his necessary 
deputies, shall exceed the sum of ten thousand dollars for any one year. 
Every such officer shall make return, quarterly, to the county court of all 
fees by him received, and of the salaries by him actually paid to his depu- 
ties or assistants, stating the same in detail, and verifying the same by his 
affidavit; and for any statement or omission in such return, contrary to 
truth, such officer shall be liable to the penalties of willful and corrupt 
perjury. 



150 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 14. Except as otherwise directed by this constitution, the general 
assembly shall provide for the election or appointment of such other 
county, township and municipal officers, as public convenience may 
require; and their terms of office and duties shall be prescribed by law; 
but no term of office shall exceed four years. 

Sec. 15. In all counties having a city therein containing over one hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, the city and county government thereof may 
be consolidated in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 16. Any city having a population of more than one hundred 
thousand inhabitants, may frame a charter for its own government, con- 
sistent with and subject to the constitution and laws of this state, by 
causing a board of thirteen freeholders, who shall have been for at least 
five years qualified voters thereof, to be elected by the qualified voters of 
such city at any general or special election; which board shall, within 
ninety days after such election, return to the chief magistrate of such city 
a draft of such charter, signed by the members of such board or a majority 
of them. Within thirty days thereafter, such proposed charter shall be 
submitted to the qualified voters of such city, at a general or special elec- 
tion, and if four-sevenths of such qualified voters voting thereat, shall rat- 
ify the same, it shall, at the end of thirtv days thereafter, become the char- 
ter of such city, and supersede any existing charter and amendments 
thereof. A duplicate certificate shall be made, setting forth the charter 
proposed and its ratification, which shall be signed by the chief magistrate 
of such city, and authenticated by its corporate seal. One of such certifi- 
cates shall be deposited in the office of the secretar}- of state, and the other, 
after being recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds for the county 
in which such city lies, shall be deposited among the archives of such city, 
and all courts shall take judicial notice thereof. Such charter, so adopted, 
may be amended by a proposal therefor, made by the law-making author- 
ities of such city, published for at least thirty days in three newspapers of 
largest circulation in such city, one of which shall be a newspaper printed 
in the German language, and accepted by three-fifths of the qualified 
voters of such city, voting at a general or special election, and not other- 
wise; but such charter shall always be in harmony with and subject to the 
constitution and laws of the state. 

Sec. 17. It shall be a feature of all such charters that they shall pro- 
vide, among other things, for a mayor or chief magistrate, and two houses 
of legislation, one of which at least shall be elected by general ticket; and 
in submitting any such charter or amendment thereto to the qualified 
voters of such city, any alternative section or article mav be presented for 
the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately, and accepted or 
rejected separately, without prejudice to other articles or sections of the 
charter or any amendment thereto. 

Sec. 18. In cities or counties having more than two hundred thousand 
inhabitants, no person shall, at the same time, be a state officer and an 
officer of any county, city or other municipality; and no person shall, at 
the same time, fill two municipal offices, either in the same or different , 
municipalities; but this section shall not apply to notaries public, justices 
of the peace or officers of the militia. 

Sec. 19. The corporate authorities of any county, city, or other munic- 
ipal subdivision of this state, having more than two hundred thousand in- 
habitants, which has already exceeded the limit of indebtedness prescribed 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 151 

in section twelve of article X of this constitution, may, in anticipation of 
the customary annual revenue thereof, appropriate, during any fiscal year, 
toward the general governmental expenses thereof, a sum not exceeding 
seven-eighths of the entire revenue applicable to general governmental 
purposes (exclusive of the payment of the bonded debt of such county, city 
or municipality) that was actually raised by taxation alone during the pre- 
ceding fiscal year; but until such excess of indebtedness cease, no further 
bonded debt shall be incurred, except for, the renewal of other bonds. 

ST. LOUIS. 

Sec. 20. The city of St. Louis may extend its limits so as to embrace 
the parks now without its boundaries, and other convenient and contiguous 
territory, and frame a charter for the government of the city thus enlarged, 
upon the following conditions, that is to say: The council of the city and 
county court of the county of St. Louis, shall, at the request of the mayor' 
of the city of St. Louis, meet in joint session and order an election, to be held 
as provided for general elections, by the' qualified voters of the city and 
county, of a board of thirteen freeholders of such city or count)-, whose 
duty shall be to propose a scheme for the enlargement and definition of the 
boundaries of the city, the reorganization of the government of the county, 
the adjustment of the relations between the city thus enlarged and the 
residue of St. Louis county and the government of the city thus enlarged, 
by a charter in harmony with and subject to the constitution and laws of 
Missouri, which shall, among other things, provide for a chief executive 
and two houses of legislation, one of which shall be elected by general 
ticket, which scheme and charter shall be signed in duplicate by said board 
or a majority of them, and one of them returned to the mayor of the city 
and the other to the presiding justice of the county court within ninety 
days after the election of such board. Within thirty days thereafter the 
city council and county court shall submit such scheme to the qualified 
voters of the whole county, and such charter to the qualified voters of the 
city so enlarged, at an election to be held not less than twenty nor more 
than thirty days after the order therefor; and if a majority of such qualified 
voters, voting at such election, shall ratify such scheme and charter, then 
such scheme shall become the organic law of the county and city, and such 
charter the organic law of the city, and at the end of sixty days thereafter 
shall take the place of and supersede the charter of St. Louis, and all 
amendments thereof, and all special laws relating to St. Louis county in- 
consistent with such scheme. 

Sec. 21. A copy of such scheme and charter, with a certificate thereto 
appended, signed by the mayor and authenticated by the seal of the city, 
and also signed by the presiding justice of the county court and authenti- 
cated by the seal of the county, setting forth the submission of such scheme 
and charter to the qualified voters of such county and city and its ratifica- 
tion, by them, shall be made in duplicate, one of which shall be deposited 
in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, after being recorded in 
the office of the recorder of deeds of St. Louis county, shall be deposited 
among the archives of the city, and thereafter all courts shall take judicial 
notice thereof. 

Sec 22. The charter so ratified may be amended at intervals of not 
less than two years, by proposals therefor, submitted by the law-making 
authorities of the city to the qualified voters thereof at a general or special 



152 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

election, held at least sixty days after the publication of such proposals, 
and accepted by at least three-fifths of the qualified voters voting thereat. 

Sec. 23. Such charter and amendments shall always be in harmony 
with, and subject to the constitution and laws of Missouri, except only, 
that provision may be made for the graduation of the rate of taxation for 
city purposes in the portions of the city which are added thereto by the 
proposed enlargement of its boundaries. In the adjustment of the rela- 
tions between city and county, the city shall take upon itse.l *he entire 
park tax; and in consideration of the city becoming the proprietor of all 
the county buildings and property within its enlarged limits, it shall as- 
sume the whole of the existing county debt, and thereafter the city and 
county of St. Louis shall be independent of each other. The city shall be 
exempted from all county taxation. The judges of the county court shall 
be elected by the qualified voters outside of the city. The city, as en- 
larged, shall be entitled to the same representation in the general assem- 
bly, collect the state revenue, and perform all other functions in relation to 
the state in the same manner as if it were a county, as in this constitution 
defined; and the residue of the county shall remain a legal county of the 
state of Missouri, under the name of the county of St. Louis. Until the 
next apportionment for senators and representatives in the general assem- 
bly, the city shall have six senators and fifteen representatives, and the 
county one senator and two representatives, the same being the number of 
senators and representatives to which the county of St. Louis, as now or- 
ganized, is entitled under sections eight and eleven, of article IV, of this 
constitution. 

Sec. 24. The county and city of St. Louis, as now existing, shall con- 
tinue to constitute the eighth judicial circuit, and the jurisdiction of all 
courts of record, except the count)'- court, shall continue until otherwise 
provided by law. 

Sec. 25. Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, the general 
assembly shall have the same power over the city and county of St. Louis 
that it has over other cities and counties of this state. 

ARTICLE X. — REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The taxing power may be exercised by the general as- 
sembly for state purposes, and by counties and other municipal corpora- 
tions, under authority granted to them by the general assembly, for 
county and other corporate purposes. 

Sec. 2. The power to tax corporations and corporate property shall 
not be surrendered or suspended by act of the general assembly. 

Sec. 3. Taxes may be levied and collected for public purposes only. 
They shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects within the territorial 
limits of the authority levying the tax; and all taxes shall be levied and 
collected by general laws. 

Sec. 4. All property subject to taxation shall be taxed in proportion 
to its value. 

Sec. 5. All railroad corporations in this state, or doing business 
therein, shall be subject to taxation for state, county, school, municipal and 
other purposes, on the real and personal property owned or used by them, 
and on their gross earnings, their net earnings, their franchises and their 
capital stock. 

Sec. 6. The property, real and personal, of the state, counties and 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 153 

other municipal corporations, and cemeteries, shall be exempt from taxa- 
tion. Lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of the limits 
of any such city or town, to the extent of one acre, and lots one mile or 
more distant from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the 
buildings thereon, may be exempted from taxation, when the same are 
used exclusively for religious worship, for schools, or for purposes purely 
charitable; also, such property, real or personal, as may be used exclusively 
for agricultural or horticultural societies : Provided, That such exemptions 
shall be only by general law. 

Sec. 7. All laws exempting property from taxation, other than the 
property above enumerated, shall be void. 

Sec. 8. The state tax on property, exclusive of the tax necessary to 
pay the bonded debt ot the state, shall not exceed twenty cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation ; and whenever the taxable property of the state 
shall amount to nine hundred million dollars, the rate shall not exceed fif- 
teen cents. 

Sec. 9. No county, city, town, or other municipal corporation, nor the 
inhabitants thereof, nor the property therein, shall be released or discharged 
from their or its proportionate share of taxes to be levied lor state pur- 
poses, nor shall commutation for such taxes be authorized in any form 
whatsoever. 

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall not impose taxes upon counties, 
cities, towns or other municipal corporations; or upon the inhabitants or 
property thereof, for county, city, town or other municipal purposes; but 
may, by general laws, vest in the corporate authorities thereof, the power 
to assess and collect taxes for such purposes. 

Sec. 11. Taxes for counry, city, town and school purposes, may be 
levied on all subjects and objects of taxation; but the valuation of property 
therefor shall not exceed the valuation of the same property in such town, 
city or school district for state and county purposes. For county purposes 
the annual rate on property, in counties having six million dollars or less, 
shall not, in the aggregate, exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valua- 
tion; in counties having six million dollars and under ten million dollars, 
said rate shall not exceed forty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in 
counties having ten million dollars and under thirty million dollars, said 
rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; and in 
counties having thirty million dollars or more, said rate shall not exceed 
thirty-five cents on the hundred dollars valuation. For city and town pur- 
poses the annual rate on property in cities and towns having thirty thou- 
sand inhabitants or more, shall not, in the aggregate, exceed one hundred 
cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and towns having less 
than thirty thousand and over ten thousand inhabitants, said rate shall 
not exceed sixty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and 
towns having less than ten thousand and more than one thousand inhabi- 
tants, said rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; 
and in towns having one thousand inhabitants or less, said rate 'shall not 
exceed twenty-five cents on the hundred valuation. For school purposes in 
districts, the annual rate on property shall not exceed forty cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation: Provided, The aforesaid annual rates for school 
purposes may be increased, in districts formed of cities and tow r ns, to an 
amount not to exceed one dollar on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in 
other districts to an amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the hundred 



154 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

dollars valuation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are 
tax-payers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in counties, cities 
or school districts, the rates of taxation herein limited may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended 
shall have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 
qualified voters of such county, city, or school district, voting at such elec- 
tion shall vote therefor. The rate herein allowed to each county shall be 
ascertained by the amount of taxable property therein, according to the 
last assessment for state and county purposes, and the rate allowed to each 
city or town by the number of inhabitants, according to the last census 
taken under the authority of the state, or of the United States; said re- 
strictions, as to rates, shall apply to taxes of every kind and description, 
whether general or special, except taxes to pay valid indebtedness now ex- 
isting or bonds which may be issued in renewal of such indebtedness. 

Sec. 12. No county, city, town, township, school district or other polit- 
ical corporation or subdivision of the state, shall be allowed to become 
indebted in any manner or for any purpose to an amount exceeding in any 
year the income and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of 
two-thirds the voters thereof, voting at an election to be held for that 
purpose; nor in cases requiring such assent shall any indebtedness be 
allowed to be incurred to an amount including existing indebtedness, in 
the aggregate, exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable prop- 
erty therein, to be ascertained by the assessment next before the last as- 
sessment for state and county purposes, previous to the incurring of such 
indebtedness: Provided, That with such assent any county may be allowed 
to become indebted to a larger amount for the erection of a court house or 
jail: And -provided further, That any county, city, town, township, school 
district or other political corporation, or subdivision of the state, incurring 
any indebtedness, requiring the assent of the voters as aforesaid, shall, be- 
fore or at the time of doing so, provide for the collection of an annual tax, 
sufficient to pay the interest on such indebtedness as it falls due, and also 
to constitute a sinking fund for payment of the principal thereof, within 
twenty years from the time of contracting the same. 

Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken or sold for the payment 
of the corporate debt of a municipal corporation. 

Sec. 14. The tax authorized by the sixth section of the ordinance 
adopted June sixth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, is hereby 
abolished, and hereafter there shall be levied and collected an annual tax 
sufficient to pay the accruing interest upon the bonded debt of the state, 
and to reduce the principal thereof each year by a silm not less than two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the proceeds of which tax shall be paid 
into the state treasury, and appropriated and paid out for the purposes 
expressed in the first and second subdivisions of section forty-three of arti- 
cle IV of this constitution. The funds and resources now in the state in- 
terest and state sinking funds shall be appropriated to the same purposes; 
and whenever said bonded debt is extinguished, or a sum sufficient there- 
for has been raised, the tax provided for in this section shall cease to be 
assessed. 

Sec. 15. All moneys now, or at any time hereafter, in the state treas- 
ury, belonging to the state, shall, immediately on receipt thereof, be 
deposited by the treasurer to the credit of the state for the benefit of the 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 155 

funds to which they respectively belong, in such bank or banks as he may, 
from time to time, with the approval of the governor and attorney gen- 
eral, select; the said bank or banks giving security, satisfactory to the gov- 
ernor and attorney general, for the safe keeping and payment of such 
deposit, when demanded by the state treasurer on his checks; such bank 
to pay a bonus for the use of such deposits not less than the bonus paid by 
other banks for similar deposits; and the same, together with such interest 
and profits as may accrue thereon, shall be disbursed by said treasurer for 
the purposes of the state, according to law, upon warrants drawn by the 
state auditor, and not otherwise. 

.Sec. 16. The treasurer shall keep a separate account of the funds, and 
the number and amount of warrants received, and from whom; and shall 
publish, in such manner as the governor may designate, quarterly state- 
ments, showing the amount of state moneys, and where the same are kept' 
or deposited. 

Sec. 17. The making of profit out of state, county, city, town or school 
district money, or using the same for arty purpose not authorized by law, 
by any public officer, shall be deemed a felony, and shall be punished as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18. There shall be a state board of equalization, consisting of the 
governor, state auditor, state treasurer, secretary of state and attorney 
general. The duty of said board shall be to adjust and equalize the valu- 
ation of real and personal property among the several counties in the state, 
and it shall perform such other duties as are or may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 19. No moneys, shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this 
state, or any of the funds under its management, except in pursuance of 
an appropriation by law; nor unless such payment be made, or a warrant 
shall have issued therefor, within two years after the passage of such ap- 
propriation act; and every such law, making a new appropriation, or con- 
tinuing or reviving an appropriation, shall distinctly specify the sum appro- 
priated, and the object to which it is to be applied; and it shall not be. suffi- 
cient to refer to any other law to fix such sum or object. A regular state- 
'ment and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money 
shall be published from time to time. 

Sec. 20. The moneys arising from any loan, debt or liability, con- 
tracted by the state, or any county, city, town, or other municipal corpora- 
tion, shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained, or to 
the repavment of such debt or liability, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 21. No corporation, company or association, other than those 
formed for benevolent, religious, scientific, or educational purposes, shall be 
created or organized under the laws of this state, unless the persons named 
as corporators shall, at or before the filing of the articles of association or 
incorporation, pay into the state treasury fifty dollars for the first fifty 
thousand dollars or less of capital stock, and a further sum of five dollars 
for every additional ten thousand dollars of its capital stock. And no such 
corporation, company or association shall increase its capital stock without 
first paying into the treasury five dollars for every ten thousand dollars of 
increase: Provided, That nothing contained in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the general assembly from levying a further tax on the 
franchises of such corporation. 



156 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

ARTICLE XI.— EDUCATION. 

Section 1. A general diffusion of knowledge and intelligence being 
essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people, the 
general assembly shall establish and maintain free public schools for the 
gratuitous instruction of all persons in this state between the ages of six 
and twenty years. 

Sec. 2. The income of all the funds provided by the state for the sup- 
port of free public schools, shall be paid annually to the several county 
treasurers, to be disbursed according to law ; but no school district, in 
which a free public school has not been maintained at least three months 
during the year for which the distribution is made, shall be entitled to 
receive any portion of such funds. 

Sec. 3. Separate free public schools shall be established for the educa- 
tion of children of African descent. 

Sec. 4. The supervision of instruction in the public schools shall be 
vested in a " board of education," whose powers and duties shall be pre- 
scribed by law. The superintendent of public schools shall be president 
of the board. The governor, secretary of state and attorney-general shall 
be ex-officio members, and with the superintendent, compose said board 
of education. » 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall, whenever the public school fund 
will permit, and the actual necessity of the same may require, aid and 
maintain the state university, now established, with its present depart- 
ments. The government of the state university shall be vested in a board 
of curators, to consist of nine members, to be appointed by the governor, 
by and with the advice and consent of the senate. 

Sec. 6. The proceeds of all tends that have been, or hereafter may be 

f ranted by the United States to this state, and not otherwise appropriated 
y this state or the United States; also, all moneys, stocks, bonds, lands 
and other property now belonging to any state fund for purposes of educa- 
tion; also, the -net proceeds of all sales of lands, and other property and 
effects that may accrue to the state by escheat, from unclaimed dividends 
and distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons; also, any pro- 
ceeds of the sales of the public lands which may have been or hereafter 
may be paid over to this state, (if congress will consent to such appropria- 
tion); also, all other grants, gifts or devises that have been, or hereafter 
may be, made to this state, and not otherwise appropriated by the state or 
the terms of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the state treasury, 
and securely invested and sacredly preserved as a public school fund; the 
annual income of which fund, together with so much of the ordinary reve- 
nue of the state as may be by law set apart for that purpose, shall be faith- 
fully appropriated for establishing and maintaining the free public schools 
and the state university in this article provided for, and for no other uses 
or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 7. In case the public school fund now provided and set apart by 
law, for the support of free public schools, shall be insufficient to sustain a 
free school at least four months in every year in each school district in this 
state, the general assembly may provide for such deficiency in accordance 
with section eleven of the article on revenue and taxation ; but in no case 
shall there be set apart less than twenty-five per cent, of the state revenue 
exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, to be applied annually to the 
support of the public schools. 






CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 157 

Sec. 8. All moneys, stocks, bondsj lands and other property belonging 
to a county school fund; also, the net proceeds from the sale of estrays; 
also, the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures, and of all fines 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or mili- 
tary laws of the state, and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as 
an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall belong to and be 
securely invested, and sacredly preserved in the several counties, as a 
county public school fund; the income of which fund shall be faithfully 
appropriated for establishing and maintaining free public schools in the 
several counties of this state. 

Sec. 9. No part of the public school fund of the state shall ever be 
invested in the stock or bonds, or other obligations of any other state, or 
of any county, city, town or corporation ; and the proceeds of the sales of 
any lands or other property which now belong, or may hereafter belong, 
to said school fund, shall be invested in the bonds of the state of Missouri, 
or of the United States. 

Sec. 10. All county school funds shall be loaned only upon unincum- 
bered real estate security, of double the valve of the loan, with personal 
security in addition thereto. 

Sec. 11. Neither the general assembly, nor any county, city, town, 
township, school district or other municipal corporation, shall ever make 
an appropriation, or pay from any public fund whatever anything in aid of 
any religious creed, church or sectarian purpose; or to help to support or 
sustain any private or public school, academy, seminary, college, univers- 
ity or other institution of learning, controlled by any religious creed, 
church or sectarian denomination whatever; nor shall any grant or 
donation of personal property or real estate ever be made by the state, or 
any county, city, town or other municipal corporation, for any religious 
creed, church or sectarian purpose whatever. 

ARTICLE XII.— CORPORATIONS. 

Section 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive priv- 
ileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place, 
and business been commenced in good faith, at the adoption of this con- 
stitution, shall thereafter have no validity. 

Sec. 2. No corporation, after the adoption of this constitution, shall be 
created by special laws; nor shall any existing charter be extended, 
changed or amended by special laws, except those for charitable, penal or 
reformatory purposes, which are under the patronage and control of the 
state. 

Sec. 3. The general assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the 
charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend such forfeited 
charter, or pass any other general or special laws for the benefit of such 
corporations. 

Sec. 4. The exercise of the power and right of eminent domain, shall 
never be so construed or abridged as to prevent the taking, by the general 
assembly, of the property and franchises of incorporated companies already 
organized, or that may be hereafter organized, and subjecting them to the 
public use, the same as that of individuals. The right of trial by jury 
shall be held inviolate in all trials of claims for compensation, when in the 
exercise of said right of eminent domain, any incorporated company shall 
be interested either for or against the exercise of said right. 



158 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 5. The exercise of the police power of the state shall never be 
abridged, or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their busi- 
ness in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals, or the 
general well-being of the state. 

Sec. 6. In all elections for directors or managers of any incorporated 
company, each shareholder shall have the right to cast as many votes in 
the aggregate as shall equal the number of shares so held by him or her 
in said company, multiplied by the number of directors or managers to be 
elected at such election; and each shareholder may cast the whole number 
of votes, either in person or by proxy for one candidate, or distribute such 
votes among two or more candidates ; and such directors or managers shall 
not be elected in any other manner. 

Sec. 7. No corporation shall engage in business, other than that ex- 
pressly authorized in its charter or the law under which it may have been 
or hereafter may be organized, nor shall it hold any real estate for any 
period longer than six years, except such as may be necessary and proper 
for carrying on its legitimate business. 

Sec. 8. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds, except for money 
paid, labor done or property actually received, and all fictitious increase of 
stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness 
of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general law, 
nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value 
of the stock first obtained at a meeting called for the purpose, first giving 
sixty days public notice, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 9. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means 
as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be indi- 
vidually liable in any amount over or above the amount of stock owned 
by him or her. 

Sec. 10. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the con- 
sent of all the stockholders. 

Sec. 11. The term "corporation," as used in this article, shall be con- 
strued to include all joint stock companies or associations having an}- pow- 
ers or privileges not possessed by individuals or partnerships. 

RAILROADS. 

Sec. 12. It shall not be lawful in this state for any railway company 
to charge for freight or passengers a greater amount, for the transportation 
of the same, for a less distance than the amount charged for any greater 
distance, and suitable laws shall be passed by the general assembly to en- 
force this provision; but excursion and commutation tickets may be issued 
at special rates. 

Sec. 13. Any railroad corporation or association, organized for the 
purpose, shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between 
any points within this state, and to connect at the state line with railroads 
of other states. Every railroad company shall have the right, with its 
road, to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and shall receive 
and transport each the other's passengers, tonnage and cars, loaded or 
empty, without delay or discrimination. 

Sec. 11. Railways heretofore constructed, or that may hereafter be 
constructed in this state are hereby declared public highways, and railroad 
companies common carriers. The general assembly shall pass laws tc 
correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 159 

of freight and passenger tariffs on the different railroads in this state; and 
shall, from time to time, pass laws establishing reasonable maximum rates 
of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight on said railroads, 
and enforce all such laws by adequate penalties. 

Sec. 15. Every railroad or other corporation, organized or doing busi- 
ness in this state under the laws or authority thereof, shall have and main- 
tain a public office or place in this state for the transaction of its business, 
where transfers of stock shall be made, and where shall be kept, for public 
inspection, books in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock 
subscribed, the names of the owners of the stock, the amounts owned by 
them respectively, the amount of stock paid, and by whom, the transfer of 
said stock, with the date of transfer, the amount of its assets and liabilities, 
and the names and places of residence of its officers. The directors of 
every railroad company shall hold one meeting annually in this state, pub- 
lic notice of which shall be given thirty days previously, and shall report 
annually, under oath, to the state auditor, or some officer designated by 
law, all of their acts and doings, which report shall include such matters 
relating to railroads as may be prescribed by law. The general assembly 
shall pass laws enforcing, by suitable penalties, the provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

Sec. 16. The rolling stock and all other movable property belonging 
to any railroad company or corporation in this state, shall be considered 
personal property, and shall be liable to execution and sale in the same 
manner as the personal property of individuals; and the general assembly 
shall pass no law exempting any such property from execution and sale. 

Sec. 17. No railroad or other corporation, or the lessees, purchasers or 
managers of any railroad corporation, shall consolidate the stock, property 
or franchises of such corporation, with, or lease or purchase the works or 
' franchises of, or in any way control any railroad corporation owning or hav- 
ing under its control a parallel or competing line; nor shall any officer of 
such railroad corporation act as an officer of any other railroad corporation 
owning or having the control of a parallel or competing line. The ques- 
tion whether railroads are parallel or competing lines shall, when demanded, 
be decided by a jury, as in other civil issues. 

Sec. 18. If any railroad company organized under the laws of this 
state shall consolidate, by sale or otherwise, with any railroad company 
organized under the laws of any other state, or of the United States, the 
same shall not thereby become a foreign corporation; but the courts of this 
state shall retain jurisdiction in all matters which may arise, as if said con- 
solidation had not taken place. In no case shall any consolidation take 
place, except upon public notice of at least sixty days to all stockholders, 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 19. The general assembly shall pass no law for the benefit of a 
railroad or other corporations, or any individual or association of individ- 
uals, retrospective in its operation, or which imposes on the people of any 
county or municipal subdivision of the state, a new liability in respecc to 
transactions or considerations already past. 

Sec. 20. No law shall be passed by the general assembly granting the 
right to construct and operate a street railroad within any city, town, vil- 
lage, or on any public highway, without first acquiring the consent of the 
local authorities having control of the street or highway proposed to be 



160 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

occupied by such street railroad; and the franchises so granted shall not 
be transferred without similar assent first obtained. 

Sec. 21. No railroad corporation in existence at the time of the adop- 
tion of this constitution shall have the benefit of any future legislation, 
except on condition of complete acceptance of all the provisions of this 
constitution applicable to railroads. 

Sec. 22. No president, director, officer, agent, or employe of any rail- 
road company shall be interested, directly, or indirectly, in furnishing ma- 
terial or supplies to such company, or in the business of transportation as 
a common carrier of freight or passengers over the works owned, leased, 
controlled or worked by such company. 

Sec. 23. No discrimination in charges or facilities in transportation 
shall be made between transportation companies and individuals, or in 
favor of either, by abatement, drawback or otherwise; and no railroad com- 
pany, or any lessee, manager or employee thereof, shall make any prefer- 
ence in furnishing cars or motive power. 

Sec. 24. No railroad or other transportation company shall grant free 
passes or tickets, or passes or tickets at a discount, to members of the gen- 
eral assembly, or members cf the board of equalization, or any state, or 
county, or municipal officers ; and the acceptance of such pass or ticket, by 
a member of the general assembly, or any such officer, shall be a forfeiture 
of his office. 

BANKS. 

Sec. 25. ,No state bank shall hereafter be created, nor shall the state 
own or be liable for any stock in any corporation, or joint stock company, 
or association for banking purposes, now created or hereafter to be cre- 
ated. 

Sec. 26. No act of the general assembly authorizing or creating cor- 
porations or associations with banking powers (except banks of deposit 
or discount,) nor amendments thereto, shall go into effect, or in any man- 
ner be enforced, unless the same shall be submitted to a vote of the quali- 
fied voters of the slate, at the general election next succeeding the pass- 
age of the same, and be approved by a majority of the votes cast at such 
election. 

Sec. 27. It shall be a crime, the nature and punishment of which shall 
be prescribed by law, for any president, director, manager, cashier or other 
officer of any banking institution, to assent to the reception of deposits, or 
the creation of debts by such banking institution, after he shall have had 
knowledge of the fact that it is insolvent, or in failing circumstances ; and 
any such officer, agent or manager, shall be individually responsible for 
such deposits so received, and all such debts so created with his assent. 

ARTICLE XIII.— militia. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this state between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, 
or have declared their intention of become such citizens, shall be liable to 
military duty in the militia of this state: Provided, That no person who is 
religiously scrupulous of bearing arms, can be compelled to do so, but may 
be compelled to pay an equivalent for military service, in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly, in providing for the organization, 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 160A 

equipment and discipline of the militia, shall conform, as nearly as practi- 
cable, to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United 
States. 

Sec. 3. Each company and regiment shall elect its own company and 
regimental officers ; but if any company or regiment shall neglect to elect 
such officers within the time prescribed by law, or by the order of the gov- 
ernor, they may be appointed by the governor. 

Sec. 4. Volunteer companies of infantry, cavalry and artillery, may 
be formed in such manner and under such restrictions as may be provided 
by law. 

Sec. 5. The volunteer and militia forces shall in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at musters, parades and elections, and in going to and returning 
from the same. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall appoint the adjutant general, quarter- 
master general and his other staff officers. He shall also, with the advice 
and consent of the senate, appoint all major generals and brigadier generals. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide for the safe keeping of 
the public arms, military records, banners and relics of the state. 

ARTICLE XIV. — MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. 

Section 1. The general assembly of this state shall never interfere 
with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States, nor with any 
regulation which congress may find necessary for securing the title in such 
soil to bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the prop- 
erty of the United States ; nor shall lands belonging to persons residing 
out of the limits of this state ever be taxed at a higher rate than the lands 
belonging to persons residing within the state. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be prosecuted in any civil action or criminal 
proceeding for or on account of any act by him done, performed or exe- 
cuted between the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-one, and the twentieth day of August, one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-six, by virtue of military authority vested in him, or in pursu- 
ance of orders from any person vested with such authority by the govern- 
ment of the United States, or of this state, or of the late Confederate 
states, or any of them, to do such act. And if any action or proceedings 
shall have been, or shall hereafter be instituted against any person for the 
doing of any such act, the defendant may plead this section in bar thereof. 

Sec. 3. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in the 
same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, 
or agree to go out of this state to fight a duel, shall hold any office in this 
state. 

Sec. 4. No person holding an office of profit under the United States, 
shall, during his continuance in such office, hold any office of profit under 
this state. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers now or 
nereafter elected or appointed, subject to the right of resignation, shall 
hold office during their official terms, and until their successors shall be 
duly elected or appointed and qualified. 

Sec. 6. All officers, both civil and military, under the authority of this 
state, shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take 
and subscribe an oath, or affirmation, to support the constitution of the 
10* 



160b constitution of Missouri. 

United States and of this state, and to demean themselves faithfully in 
office. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall, in addition to other penalties, 
provide for the removal from office of county, city, town and township 
officers, on conviction of willful, corrupt or fraudulent violation or neglect 
of official duty. 

Sec 8. The compensation or fees of no state, county or municipal 
officer shall be increased during his term of office; nor shall the term of 
any office be extended for a longer period than that for which such officer 
was elected or appointed. 

Sec 9. The appointment of all officers not otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall be made in such manner as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec 10. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize lot- 
teries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the 
sale of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the 
nature of a lottery, in this state ; and all acts or parts of acts heretofore 
passed by the legislature of this state, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, 
and all acts amendatory thereof, or supplemental thereto, are hereby 
avoided. 

Sec 11. It shall be the duty of the grand jury in each county, at least 
once a year, to investigate the official acts of all officers having charge of 
public funds, and report the result of their investigations in writing to the 
court. 

Sec 12. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the 
session of the general assembly, and for fifteen days next before the com- 
mencement and after the termination of each session ; and for any speech 
or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

ARTICLE XV. — mode of amending the constitution. 

Section 1. This constitution may be amended and revised only in 
pursuance of the provisions of this article. 

Sec 2. The general assembly may, at any time, propose such amend- 
ments to this constitution as a majority of the members elected to each 
house shall deem expedient ; and the vote thereon shall be taken by yeas 
and nays, and entered in full on the journals. The proposed amendments 
shall be published with the laws of that session, and also shall be published 
weekly in some newspaper, if such there be, within each county in the 
state, for four consecutive weeks next preceding the general election then 
next ensuing. The proposed amendments shall be submitted to a vote of 
the people, each amendment separately, at the next general election there- 
after, in such manner as the general assembly may provide. If a major- 
ity of the qualified voters of the state, voting for and against an}- one of 
said amendments, shall vote for such amendment, the same shall be deemed 
and taken to have been ratified by the people, and shall be valid and 
binding, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. 

Sec 3. The general assembly may at any time authorize, by law a 
vote of the people to be taken upon the question whether a convention 
shall be held for the purpose of revising and amending the constitution of 
this state; and if at such election a majority of the votes on the question 
bein favor of a convention, the governor shall issue writs to the sheriffs of 
the different counties, ordering the election of delegates to such a conven- 






CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 160c 

tion, on a day not less than three and within six months after that on which 
the said question shall have been voted on. At such election each senato- 
rial district shall elect two delegates for each senator to which it may then 
be entitled in the general assembly, and every such delegate shall have 
the qualifications of a state senator. The election shall be conducted in 
conformity with the laws regulating the election of senators. The dele- 
gates so elected shall meet at such time and place as may be provided by 
law, and organize themselves into a convention, and proceed to revise and 
amend the constitution ; and the constitution when so revised and amend- 
ed, shall, on a day to be therein fixed, not less than sixty days or more than 
six months after that on which it shall have been adopted by the conven- 
tion, be submitted to a vote of the people for and against it, at an election 
to be held for that purpose; and, if a majority of all the votes given be in 
favor of such constitution, it shall, at the end of thirty days after such elec- 
tion became the constitution of this state. The result of such elec- 
tion shall be made known by proclamation by the governor. The general 
assembly shall have no power, otherwise than in this section specified, to 
authorize a convention for revising and amending the constitution. 

SCHEDULE. 

That no inconvenience may arise from the alteration and amendments 
in the constitution of this state, and to carry the same into complete effect, 
it is hereby ordained and declared: 

Section 1 . That all laws in force at the adoption of this constitution, 
not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force until altered or re- 
pealed by the general assembly; and, all rights, actions, prosecutions, 
claims and contracts of the state, counties, individuals or bodies corporate 
not inconsistent therewith, shall continue to be as valid as if this constitution 
had not been adopted. The provisions of all laws which are inconsistent 
with this constitution, shall cease upon its adoption, except that all laws 
which are inconsistent with such provision of this constitution, as require 
legislation to enforce them, shall remain in force until the first day of July, 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, unless sooner amended or 
repealed by the general assembly. 

Sec. 2. That all recognizances, obligations and all other instruments, 
entered into or executed before the adoption of this constitution, to this 
state or to any subdivision thereof, or any municipality therein ; and all 
fines, taxes, penalties and forfeitures, due or owing to this state, or any 
such subdivision or municipality; and all writs, prosecutions, actions and 
causes of action, except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue and 
remain unaffected by the adoption of this constitution. All indictments 
which shall have been found or may hereafter be found, for any crime or 
offense committed before this constitution takes effect, may be proceeded 
upon as if no change had taken place, except as otherwise provided in 
this constitution. 

Sec. 3. All county and probate courts, as now constituted and organ- 
ized, shall continue with their jurisdiction, until the general assembly 
shall by law conform them in their organization to the requirements of this 
constitution. „ 

Sec. 4. All criminal courts organized and existing under the laws of 
this state, and not specially provided for in thio constitution, shall continue 
to exist until otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 5. All courts of common pleas existing and organized in cities 



160d constitution of Missouri. 

and towns having a population exceeding three thousand five hundred in- 
habitants, and such as by the law of their creation are presided over by a 
judge of a circuit court, shall continue to exist and exercise their present 
jurisdiction, until otherwise provided by law. All other courts of common 
pleas shall cease to exist at the expiration of the present terms of office of 
the several judges thereof. 

Sec. 6. All persons now filling any office or appointment in this state, 
shall continue in the exercise of the duties thereof, according to their re- 
spective commissions or appointments, unless otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 7. Upon the adoption of this constitution, all appeals to, and 
writs of error from the supreme court, shall be returnable to the supreme 
court at the city of Jefferson. 

Sec. 8. Until the general assembly shall make provision for the pay- 
ment of the state and railroad indebtedness of this state, in pursuance of 
section fourteen of article ten of this constitution, there shall be levied 
and collected an annual tax of one-fifth of one per centum on all real estate 
and other property and effects subject to taxation, the proceeds of which 
shall be applied to the payment of the interest on the bonded debt of this 
state as it matures, and the surplus, if any, shall be paid into the sinking 
fund and thereafter applied to the payment of such indebtedness, and to 
no other purpose. 

Sec. 9. This constitution shall be submitted to the people of this state 
for adoption or rejection, at an election to be held for that purpose only, on 
Saturday, the thirtieth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five. Every person entitled to vote under the constitution and 
laws of this state shall be entitled to vote for the adoption or rejection of 
this constitution. Said election shall be held, and said qualified electors 
shall vote at the usual places of voting in the several counties of this state; 
and said election shall be conducted, and returns thereof made, according 
to the laws now in force regulating general elections. 

Sec. 10. The clerks of the several county courts in this state, shall, at 
least five days before said election, cause to be delivered to the judges of 
election in each election district or precinct, in their respective counties, 
suitable blank poll books, forms of return and five times the number of 
properly prepared printed ballots for said election, that there are voters in 
said respective districts, the expense whereof shall be allowed and paid by 
the several county courts, as other county expenditures are allowed and 
paid. 

Sec. 11. At said election the ballots shall be in the following form: 
New constitution ticket, (erase the clause you do not favor.) New consti- 
tution, — Yes. New constitution, — No. Each of said ticket sshall be 
counted as a vote for or against this constitution, as the one clause or the 
other may be canceled with ink or pencil by the voter, and returns thereot 
shall be made accordingly. If both clauses of the ticket be erased, or if 
neither be erased, the ticket shall not be counted. 

Sec. 12. The returns of the whole vote cast for the adoption and 
against the adoption of this constitution shall be made by the several 
clerks, as now provided by law in case of the election of state officers, to 
the secretary of state, within twenty days after the election ; and the re- 
turns of said votes shall, within ten days thereafter, be examined and 
canvassed by the state auditor, state treasurer and secretary of state, or 
any two of them, in the presence of the governor, and proclamation shall 
be made by the governor forthwith of the result of the canvass. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



160E 



Sec. 13. If, upon such canvass, it shall appear that a majority of the 
votes polled were in favor of the new constitution, then this constitution 
shall, on and after the thirtieth day of November, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-five, be the supreme law of the state of Missouri, and the 
present existing constitution shall thereupon cease in all its provisions; 
but if it shall appear that a majority of the votes polled were against the 
new constitution, then this constitution shall be null and void, and the 
existing constitution shall continue in force. 

Sec. 14. The provisions of this schedule required to be executed prior 
to the adoption or rejection of this constitution, shall take effect and be in 
force immediately. 

Sec. 15. The general assembly shall pass all such laws as may be 
necessary to carry this constitution into full effect. 

Sec. 16. The present secretary of state, state auditor, attorney-general,, 
and superintendent of public schools, shall, during the remainder of their 
terms of office, unless otherwise directed by law, receive the same com- 
pensation and fees as is now provided by law ; and the present state treas- 
urer shall, during the remainder of the term of his office, continue to be 
governed by existing law, in the custody and disposition of the state 
funds, unless otherwise directed by law. 

Sec. 17. Section twelve of [the] bill of rights shall not be so construed 
as to prevent arrests and preliminary examination in any criminal case. 

Done in convention, at the capitol, in the city of Jefferson, on the second day of August, 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States the one hundredth. 

WALDO P. JOHNSON, President, St. Clair county. 
N. W. WATKINS, Vice President, Scott county. 
Letcher, Wm. H., Saline. 



Adams, Washington, Cooper, 
Allen, DeWitt O, Clay. 
Alexander, A. M., Monroe. 
Black, Francis K., Jackson. 
Boone, Henry, DeKalb. 
Bradfield, George W., Laclede. 
Broadhead, James O., St. Louis. 
Brokmeyer, Henry C, St. Louis. 
Carleton, George W., Pemiscot. 
Chrisman, William, Jackson. 
Conway, Edmund V., St. Francois. 
Cottey, Louis F., Knox. 
Crews, T. W. B., Franklin. 
Crockett, Samuel R., Vernon. 
Davis, Lowndey Henry, Cape Girardeau. 
Dryden, Leonidas J., Warren. 
Dysart, Benjamin Robert, Macon. 
Edwards, John F. T., Iron. 
Edwards, James C, St. Louis. 
Eitzen, Charles D., Gasconade. 
Farris, James L., Ray. 
Fyan, Robert W. Webster. 
Gantt, Thomas Tasker, St. Louis. 
Gottschalk, Louis, St. Louis. 
Hale, John B., Carroll. 
Halliburton, W., Sullivan. 
Hammond, Charles, Chariton. 
Hardin, Neil Cameron, Pike. 
Holliday, J. A., Caldwell. 
Hyer, John, Dent. 
Johnson, Horace B., Cole. 
Johnston, T. J., Nodoway. 
Lackland, Henry Clay, St. Charles. 

Attest • 



Lay, Alfred M., Cole. 
Mabrey, Pinckney, Ripley. 
Massey, B. F., Newton. 
Maxey, James Harvey, Howell, 
McAfee, Charles B., Greene. 
McKee, Archibald V., Lincoln. 
McCabe, Edward, Marion. 
McKillop, Malcomb, Atchison. 
Mortell, Nicholas A., St. Louis. 
Mudd, Henry Thomas, St. Louis. 
Nickerson, Edmund A., Johnson. 
Norton, Elijah Hise, Platte. 
Pipkin, Philip, Jefferson. 
Priest, William, Platte. 
Pulitzer, Joseph, St. Louis. 
Ray, John, Barry. 
Rider, J. H., Bollinger. 
Ripey, J. R., Schuyler. 
Roberts, James C, Buchanan. 
Ross, J. P., Morgan. 
Ross, John W., Polk. 
Rucker, John Fleming, Boone. 
ShackelfoRd, Thomas, Howard. 
Shanklin, John H., Grundy. 
Shields, George H., St. Louis. 
Spaunhorst, Henry J., St. Louis. 
Switzler, William F., Boone. 
Taylor, John H., Jasper. 
Taylor, Amos Riley, St. Louis. 
Todd, Albert, St. Louis. 
Wagner, L. J , Scotland. 
Wallace, Henry C, Lafayette. 

G. N. NOLAN, Secretary. 

J. Boyle Adams, Assistant Secretary 




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Abstract of Missouri State Laws. 



BILLS OF EXCHANGE. 



A bill of exchange is a written order from one person to another, direct- 
ing the person to whom it is addressed to pay to a third person a certain 
sum of money therein named. 

The person making the bill is called the maker. The person to whom 
it is directed is called the drawee, and the person in whose favor the bill 
of exchange is made payable, is called the payee, and the person who 
acceepts a bill of exchange, is called the acceptor. 

A bill of exchange may be negotiable or non-negotiable; if negotiable, it 
may be transferred either before or after acceptance. To make it negotia- 
ble it must be payable to the order of the payee, or to the bearer, or must 
•contain other equivalent or operative words of transfer. 

Bills of exchange containing no words of transfer, are non-negotiable. 

The usual form of accepting bills of exchange, is by writing " accepted " 
across the bill, and signing the acceptor's name. 

After such acceptance the acceptor becomes liable for the payment of 
the bill upon its maturity. 

No person within this state shall be charged as an acceptor of a bill of 
•exchange unless his acceptance shall be in writing signed by himself, or 
his lawful agent. 

If such acceptance be written on a paper other than the bill, it shall not 
bind the acceptor. Except in favor of a person to whom such acceptance 
shall have been shown, and who upon the faith thereof shall have received 
the bill for a valuable consideration. 

An unconditional promise in writing to accept a bill before it is 
drawn, will be binding upon the acceptor in favor of any person who 
upon the faith of such written promise shall have received the bill for a 
valuable consideration. 

Every holder of a bill presenting the same for acceptance, may require 
that the acceptance be written on the bill, and a refusal to comply with 
such request, shall be deemed a refusal to accept, and the bill may be pro- 
tested for non-acceptance. 

Every person upon whom a bill of exchange may be drawn, and to 
whom the same shall be delivered for acceptance, who shall destroy such 
bill or refuse within twenty-four hours after such delivery, or within such 
period as the holder may allow to return the bill accepted or non-accepted 
to the holders, shall be deemed to have accepted the same. 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 1G1 

When any bill of exchange expressed to be for value received, drawn 
or negotiated within this state, shall be duly presented for acceptance or 
payment, and protested for non-acceptance or non-payment, there shall be 
allowed and paid to the holders by the drawer and endorsers having due 
notice of the dishonor of the bill, damages in the following cases: Firsts 
if the bill shall have been drawn by any person, at any place within this 
state, at the rate of four per centum on the principal sum specified in the 
bill. Second, if the bill shall have been drawn on any person, at any 
place out of this state, but within the United States or territories thereof, 
at the rate of two per centum on the principal sum specified in the bill. 
Third, if the bill shall have been drawn on any person, at any part or 
place without the United States and their territories, at the rate of 
twenty per centum on the principal sum specified in the bill. 

If any bill of exchange expressed to be for value received, shall be 
drawn on any person, at any place within this state, and accepted, and 
payment shall not be duly made by the acceptor, there shall be allowed 
and paid to the holder, by the acceptor, damages in the following cases: 
First, if the bill be drawn by any person, at any place within this state, 
at the rate of four per centum on the principal sum therein specified. 
Second, if the bill be drawn by any person, at any place without this 
state, but within the United States or territories, at the rate of ten per 
centum on the principal sum therein specified. 

The damages herein allowed shall be recovered only by the holder of 
a bill, who shall have purchased the bill or acquired some interest therein, 
for valuable consideration. In cases of non-acceptance or non-pavment 
of a bill, drawn at any place within this state, on any person at a place 
within the same, no damages shall be recovered, if payment of the prin- 
cipal sum, with interest and charges of protest, be paid within twenty 
days after demand, or notice of the dishonor of the bill. 

If the contents of a bill be expressed in the money of account of the 
United States, the amount due and the damages therein, shall be ascer- 
tained and determined without any reference to the rate of exchange 
existing between this state and the place on which the bill shall have been 
drawn, at the time of demand of payment or notice of the dishonor of the 
bill. 

If the contents of such bill be expressed in the money of account or 
currency of any foreign country, then the amount due, exclusive of dam- 
ages, shall be ascertained and determined by the rate of exchange, or the 
value of such foreign currency at the time of payment. . 

Every bill of exchange, draft or order drawn either within this state or 

elsewhere upon any person residing within this state, payable on its face 

at sight, or on demand, shall be deemed and considered to be due and 

payable on the day it is presented, or demanded, any usage or custom 
11 



162 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

here or elsewhere to the contrary notwithstanding, and if not so paid, 
may be protested for non-payment. 

If in any suit founded upon any negotiable promissory note or bill of 
exchange, or in which such bill or note is produced, might be allowed in 
the defense of any suit, it appear on the trial that such note or bill was 
lost while it belonged to the party claiming the amount due thereon, 
parol or other evidence of the contents thereof, may be given on such 
trial, and such party shall be entitled to recover the amount due thereon 
as if such note or bill had been produced. 

To entitle a party to such recovery, he or some responsible person for 
him, shall execute a bond to the adverse party in a penalty at least double 
the amount of such note or bill, with two sufficient securities, to be 
approved by the court in which the trial shall be had, conditioned to 
indemnify the adverse party against all claims by any other person on 
account of such note or bill, and against all costs and expenses by reason 
of such claim. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE AND PROMISSORY NOTES. 

A promissory note is a written promise to pay a certain sum of money 
at a future time, unconditionally. 

The person to whom the money is payable is called the payee. 

The maker is the one who promises to pay the money when the note 
becomes due. 

A note payable to bearer is negotiated or transferred by mere delivery, 
and the possession of the note is prima facie proof of title, 

A note payable to the order of a particular person is transferred or 
negotiated by writing the name of the person upon the back of the note, 
which is called an endorsement. The person making the endorsement 
is called the endorser. The person for whose benefit it is made is called 
the endorsee. 

Every promissory note for the payment of money to the payee therein 
named, or order or bearer, and expressed to be for value received, shall be 
due and payable as therein expressed and shall have the same effect and 
be negotiable in like manner as inland bills of exchange. 

The payee and endorsers of every such negotiable note payable to them 
or order, and the holder of every such note payable to bearer may main- 
tain actions for the sums of money therein mentionefl, against the makers 
and endorsers of them in like manner as in cases of inland bills of exchange, 
and not otherwise. 

Such negotiable promissory note made payable to the order of the 
maker thereof, or to the order of a fictitious person shall, if negotiated by 
the maker, have the same effect and be of the same validity as against the 
maker, and all persons having knowledge of the facts, as if payable to 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 163 

bearer. Provided, That negotiable note in the hands of the purchaser of 
the same from the makers by way of discount or investment if protested 
for non-payment at maturity, shall not be subjected to damages. 

When the day of payment of any bond, bill of exchange, or promissory 
note, shall according to its terms, be a Sunday, Christmas day, Thanks- 
giving day (State or National), New Years day, or a Fourth of July, its 
payment shall be deemed due and be demandable on such day next before 
its day of payment, according to its terms, as shall not be one of the days 
above specified. 

A notarial protest is evidence of a demand and refusal to pay a bill of 
exchange or negotiable promissory note, at the time and in the manner 
stated in such protest. 

FORM OF NEGOTIABLE NOTE. 

$1,000. Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 1, 1869. 

Thirty days after date, I promise to pay Richard Roe, or order, 
One Thousand Dollars, value received, with interest after due at the rate 
of ten per cent per annum. Louis Roy. 

NON-NEGOTIABLE NOTE. 

$100.00. Kansas City, Mo., Aug, 1, 1869. 

Thirty days after date, I promise to pay Richard Roe, 
One Hundred Dollars, value received, with interest from date, at the rate 
of ten per cent per annum. Louis Roy. 

INTEREST. 

The legal rate of interest is six per cent. 

Parties may agree in writing for the payment of interest not exceeding 
ten per cent. 

Money due upon judgments or order of court, shall draw interest from 
the day of rendering the same. All such judgments and orders for money 
upon contracts, bearing more than six per cent., shall bear the same inter- 
est borne by such contracts. All other judgments and orders for money 
shall draw six per cent. 

If a greater rate of interest than ten per cent, is contracted for, and suit 
brought upon the same, judgment will be entered for six per cent., and 
the whole interest shall be set apart for, and become a part of the com- 
mon school fund. 

Parties may contract in writing for the payment of interest upon inter- 
est; but interest shall not be compounded oftener than once a year. 
Where a different rate is not expressed, interest upon interest shall be at 
the same rate as interest on the principal debt. 



164 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

DESCENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY. 

Property in this state shall be distributed in the following course, sub- 
ject to the payment of debts and the widow's dower: 

First. To the children or their descendants in equal parts. 

Second. If there be no children or their descendants, then to the father, 
mother, brothers and sisters, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Third. If there be no children, or their descendants, father, mother, 
brother or sister, or their descendants, then to the husband or wife. 
If there be no husband "or wife, then to the grandfather, grandmother, 
uncles and aunts, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Fourth. If there be no children or their descendants, father, mother, 
sister, brother or their descendants, husband or wife, grandfather, grand- 
mother, uncles, aunts, nor their descendants, then to the great-grandfather, 
great-grandmother, and their descendants, in equal parts, and so on in 
other cases without end, passing to the nearest lineal ancestors and their 
children, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Posthumous children, or descendants of the intestate, shall inherit in 
like manner as if born in the lifetime of the intestate. This does not 
apply to anyone other than the children or descendants of the intestate 
unless they are in being and capable in law to take as heirs at the time of 
the intestate's death. 

If there be no children or their descendants, father, mother, brother or 
sister, nor their descendants, husband or wife, nor any paternal or mater- 
nal kindred capable of inheriting, the whole shall go to the kindred of the 
wife or husband of the intestate in the like course as if such wife or hus- 
band had survived the intestate and then died entitled to the estate. 

If any of the children receive any real or personal estate in the lifetime 
of the intestate by way of advancement, shall choose to come into par- 
tition with the other heirs, such advancement shall be brought into 
hatchpot with the estate descended. 

Maintaining, educating, or giving money to a child under majority 
without any view to a portion or settlement, shall not be deemed an 
advancement. 

Bastards shall inherit and be capable of transmitting inheritance on the 
part of their mother, and such mother may inherit from her bastard 
child or children in like manner as if they had been lawfully begotten of 
her. 

The issues of all marriages decreed null in law or dissolved by divorce 
shall be legitimate. 

Persons of color shall inherit as above set forth, providing it shall 
appear to the court that they are residents of this state, or if residents of 
some other state, are free persons. 

The children of all parents who were slaves, and who were living 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 165 

together in good faith as man and wife at the time of the birth of such 
children, shall be deemed to be the legitimate children of such parents. 
All children of any one mother who was a slave at the time of her birth 
shall be deemed lawful brothers and sisters for the purposes of this 
chapter. 

WILLS. 

The term will, or last will and testament, means the disposition of one's 
property, to take effect after death. No exact form of words is neces- 
sary in order to make a will good at law. 

Every person of twenty-one years of age and upward, of sound mind, 
may, by last will, devise all his estate, real, personal and mixed, and all 
interest therein, saving the widow her dower. Every person over the 
age of eighteen years, of sound mind, may by last will, dispose of his 
goods and chatties. Every will must be in writing, signed by the testator 
or by some person by his direction, in his presence, and shall be attested 
by two or more competent witnesses, subscribing their names to the will 
in the presence of the testator. 

No will in writing, except in cases hereinafter mentioned, nor any part 
thereof, shall be revoked, except by a subsequent will in writing, or by 
burning, canceling, tearing or obliterating the same by the testator, or in 
his presence, and by his consent and direction. 

If, after making a will disposing of the whole estate of the testator, 
such testator shall marry, and die, leaving issue by such marriage living 
at the time of his death, or shall leave issue of such marriage born to 
him after his death, such will shall be deemed revoked, unless provisions 
shall have been made for such issue by some settlement, or unless such 
issue shall be provided for in the will, and no evidence shall be received to 
rebut the presumption of such revocation. 

A will executed by an unmarried woman shall be deemed revoked by 
her subsequent marriage. 

If a person make his will and die leaving children not provided for, 
although born after making the will, he shall be deemed to die intestate, 
and such children shall be entitled to such proportion as if he had died 
intestate. All other heirs or legatees must refund their proportionate part. 

The county court or clerk thereof in vacation subject to the confirma- 
tion or rejection of the court, shall take the proof of the last will of the 
testator. 

GENERAL FORM OF WILL FOR REAL AND PERSONAL 

PROPERTY. , 

I, Richard Johnson, of Carroll county, in the state of Missouri, being 
of sound mind and memory, and of full age, do hereby make and publish 
this, my last will and testament, hereby revoking all former wills, by me 
made. 



166 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

First. I direct the payment of all lawful claims against my estate, to 
be made out of the proceeds of the sale of my personal property. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to my eldest son, John B. Johnson, 
the sum of five thousand dollars of bank stock, in the First National 
Bank of Lexington, Missouri, and the farm owned by myself in the town- 
ship of , in the county of Saline, consisting of 100 acres, with all 

the houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging, to have 
and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Third. I give, devise, and bequeath to each of my daughters, Mary E. 
Johnson and Clara B. Johnson, each five thousand dollars in bank stock,. 
in the First National Bank, of Lexington, Missouri; and also, each one 

quarter section of land owned by myself, situated in the township of > 

Ray county, Missouri. 

Fourth. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank R. Johnson, the 
farm owned by myself, situated in Chariton county, Missouri, consisting 
of six hundred and forty acres, together with all stock, houses, and 
improvements, thereunto belonging. 

Fifth. I give to my wife, Elizabeth Johnson, all my household furni- 
ture, goods, chattels and personal property about my house, not hitherto 
disposed of, including six thousand dollars of bank stock, in the First 
National Bank of Lexington, Missouri, and the free and unrestricted use, 
possession and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live- — said 
farm being my present place of residence. 

Sixth. I give and bequeath to my mother, Martha Johnson, the income 
from rents of my store building, at No. 905 Pine street, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, during the term of her natural life, said building and land therewith 
to revert to my sons and daughters, in equal proportions, upon the demise 
of my said mother. 

Seventh. It is also mv will and desire that at the death of mv wife, Eliz- 
abeth Johnson, that the above mentioned homestead may revert to my 
above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

Eighth. I appoint as my executors of this, my last will and testament, 
my wife, Elizabeth Johnson, and my eldest son John B. Johnson. 

In witness whereof, I, Richard Johnson, to this, my last will and testa- 
ment, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of June, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-five. Richard Johnson. 

Signed and declared by Richard Richard Johnson, as and for his last 
will and testament, in the presence of each other, have subscribed our 
names hereunto, as witnesses thereof. 

Edward Davison, Sedalia, Missouri. 

Frederick Jones, Marshall, Missouri, 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 167 

CODICIL. 

Whereas, I, Richard Johnson, did, on the fourth day of June, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, make my last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as part thereof. 

Whereas, By the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Clara B. 
Johnson, has deceased, March the first, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
six; and whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
David S. Johnson, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands and bank stock, and chattels bequeathed 
to my deceased daughter, Clara B., in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day 
of March, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven. Richard Johnson. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us, by the testator, Richard 
Johnson, as and for a codicil, to be annexed to his will and testament; and 
we, at his request and in his presence, and in the presence of each other 
have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Peter Brown, Lexington, Missouri. 
Robert Burr, Richmond, Missouri. 

% TAXES. 

For the support of the government of the state, the payment of the 
public debt, and the advancement of the public interest, taxes shall be 
levied on all property, real and personal, except as stated below: 

No tax shall be assessed for or imposed by any city, county, or other 
municipal corporation, or for their use upon the following property: All 
houses, necessary furniture and equipments thereof, used exclusively for 
public worship, and the lot of ground on which the same may be erected. 
All orphan or other asylums, for the relief of the sick or needy, with their 
furniture and equipments, and the lands on which they are erected and 
used therewith, so long as the same shall be held and used for that pur- 
pose onlv ; all universities, colleges, academies, schools, and all other sem- 
inaries of learning, with the furniture and equipments, and land thereto, 
belonging or used immediately therewith, and their endowment fund, 
when not invested in real estate, so long as the same shall be employed 
for that purpose only. Provided, That the land hereby exempted from 
taxation, belonging' to any of the last named institutions, in any city or 
town, shall not exceed two acres, and in the county, not exceed five acres. 
And further -provided, That such property, so exempted, shall not be 
under rent to any person, corporation, or society, and shall not, in any 
way or manner, be paying or yielding any rent or profit. Cemeteries 
and graveyards set apart and used for that purpose only. All real estate 
and other property belonging to any incorporated agricultural society, so 



168 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

long as the same shall be employed for the use of such society and none 
other. All libraries and their furniture and equipments, belonging to any 
library association or society. Nothing in this section shall be construed 
as to exempt from municipal or local taxation any description of property, 
when the same is held for the purpose of pecuniary profit or speculation. 

Lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of the limits of 
such city or town, to the extent of one acre, and lots, one mile distant 
from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the buildings 
thereon, when the same are used exclusively for religious worship, for 
schools, or for purposes purely charitable, shall be exempt from taxation 
for state, county, or local purposes. 

There shall be annually assessed and collected on the assessed value of 
all the real estate and personal property subject by law to taxation in the 
state one-fifth of one per centum for state revenue and one-fifth of one 
per centum for the payment of all state indebtedness. 

The assessor or his deputy or deputies shall, between the first days of 
August and January, and after being furnished with the necessary books 
and blanks by the county clerk, at the expense of the county, proceed to take 
a list of the taxable personal property in his county, town, or district, and 
assess the value thereof in the manner following, to-wit: He shall call at 
the office, place of doing business, or residence of each person required 
by this act to list property, and shall require such person to make a cor- 
rect statement of all taxable property owned by such person, or under 
the care, charge, or management of such person, except merchandise, 
which may be required to pay a license tax, being in any county in this 
state, in accordance with the provisions of this act, and the person listing 
the property shall enter a true and correct statement of such property in 
a printed or written blank prepared for that purpose, which statement, 
after being filled out, shall be signed and sworn to, to the extent required 
by this act. by the person listing the property, and delivered to the 
assessor, and such assessor's book shall be arranged and divided into two 
parts: The "land list" and the "personal property list." If any tax- 
payer shall fail or neglect to pay such collector his taxes at the time and 
place required by such notices, then it shall be the duty of the collector 
after the first day of January then next, to collect and account for as 
other taxes, an additional tax, as a penalty, of one per cent per month 
upon all taxes collected by him after the first day of January, as afore- 
said, and in computing said additional tax or penalty a fractional part of 
a month shall not be counted as a whole month. Collectors shall on the 
day of their annual settlement with the county court, file with said court a 
statement under oath of the amount so received, and from whom received, 
and settle with the court therefor; -provided, however, that said interest 
shall not be chargeable against persons who are absent from their homes 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 169 

and engaged in the military service of this state, or of the United 
States, or against any taxpayer who shall pay his taxes to the col- 
lector at any time before the first day of January in each year; provided 
that the provisions of this section shall apply to the city of St. Louis so 
far as the same relates to the addition of said interest, which in said city 
shall be collected and accounted for by the collector as other taxes, for 
which he shall receive no compensation. 

Every county collector shall on or before the fifteenth day of each 
month pay to the state treasurer all taxes or licenses received by him 
prior to the first day of the month. 

The sheriff's deed executed to the purchaser of real estate under a sale 
for delinquent taxes, which shall be acknowledged before the circuit court 
of the county or city as in ordinary cases; shall convey a title in fee to 
such purchaser of the real estate therein named, and shall be -prima facie 
evidence of title, and the matters and things therein stated are true. 

COURTS OF RECORD— THEIR JURISDICTION. 

SUPREME COURT. 

At the general election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-eight, all the judges of the supreme court shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the state and shall enter upon their office on the first 
Monday of January, next ensuing. At the first session of the courts there- 
after, the judges shall by lot determine the duration of their several terms 
of office, which shall be respectively, two, four and six years, and shall 
certify the result to the secretary of state; at the general election every 
two years after said election, one judge of said court shall be elected to 
hold office for the period of six years from the first Monday of January 
next ensuing. The judge having at an)- time the shortest term to serve, 
shall be the presiding judge of the court. 

The supreme court shall hold two sessions annually in the capitol, at the 
.seat of government, on the second Monday in January and the first Mon- 
day in July ; two sessions annually at the city of St. Joseph, on the third 
Monday of February and August, and two sessions annually at the city of 
St. Louis, on the third Mondays in March and October. 

CIRCUIT COURT. 

The circuit courts in the respective counties in which they may be held 
shall have power of jurisdiction as follows: First, as courts of law in all 
criminal cases which shall not be otherwise provided by law. Second, 
exclusive original jurisdiction in all civil cases which shall not be cogniza- 
ble before the county court and justices of the peace and not otherwise 
provided by law. Third, concurrent original jurisdiction with justices of 
the peace in all actions founded upon contract, when the debt, or balance 



170 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

due, or damages claimed, exclusive of interest, shall exceed fifty dollars 
and not exceed ninety dollars; in all actions on bonds and notes for the 
payment of any sum of money exceeding fifty dollars, exclusive of interest, 
and not exceeding one hundred and fifty dollars; and in all actions for 
injuries to persons, or to personal or real property, wherein the damages 
claimed shall exceed twenty and not exceed fifty dollars. Fourth, appel- 
late jurisdiction from the judgments and orders of county court and justices 
of the peace ; in all cases not expressly prohibited by law, and shall possess 
a superintending control over them. Fifth, a general control over exec- 
utors, administrators, guardians, curators, minors, idiots, lunatics, and per- 
sons of unsound mind. 

COUNTY COURTS. 

The county courts shall be composed of three members, to be styled 
" the justices of the county court," and each county where the court is 
composed of three justices, may be districted by the county court, if they 
think the good of the county will be promoted thereby, into three dis- 
tricts, as near equal in population as practicable without dividing munic- 
ipal townships, and each district shall elect and be entitled to one of the 
justices of the county court. 

The justices of the county court shall be elected by the qualified elec- 
tors in the several counties in this state, and shall hold their offices for the 
term of six years, and until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 

The several county courts shall, when not otherwise provided by law, 
have exclusive original jurisdiction in all cases relative to the probate of 
last wills and testaments; the granting letters testamentary, and of 
administration, and repealing the same; appointing and displacing the 
guardians of orphans, minors, and persons of unsound mind; in binding 
out apprentices, and in the settlement and allowance of accounts of exec- 
utors, administrators and guardians. To hear and determine all disputes 
and controversies whatsoever, respecting wills, the right of executorship, 
administration and guardianship, or respecting the duties or accounts of 
executors, administrators or guardians, and all controversies and disputes 
between masters and their apprentices. To hear and determine all suits 
and other proceedings, instituted against executors or administrators 
upon any demand against the estate of their testator or intestate, when 
such demand shall not exceed one hundred dollars; and concurrent juris- 
diction with the circuit court in all such cases, when the demand shall 
exceed that sum, subject to appeal in all cases to the circuit court in such 
manner as may be provided by law. 

The said courts shall moreover have the control and management of 
the property, real and personal, belonging to the courts, and shall have 
full power and authority to purchase or receive by donation, any prop- 
erty, real or personal, for the use and benefit of the county. To sell and 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 171 

cause to be conveyed, any real estate, goods or chattels belonging to the 
county, appropriating the proceeds of such sale to the use of the same, 
and to audit and settle all demands against the county. 

PROBATE COURT. 

A probate court is a court of record, consisting of one judge, and has 
jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to probate business, to granting 
letters testamentary, and of administration; the appointment of guar- 
dians and curators of minors and persons of unsound mind; settling the 
accounts of executors, administrators, curators and guardians, and the 
sale or leasing of lands by administrators, curators, and guardians, and 
over all matters relating to apprentices; and such judges shall have the 
power to solemnize marriages. 

LIMITATION OF ACTIONS. 

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. 

Offenses punishable with death or imprisonment in the penitentiary dur- 
ing life, may be prosecuted at any time after the offense shall have been 
committed. 

For felonies other than above mentioned, within three years after the 
commission of the offense. 

For any offense other than felony or fine or forfeiture, within one year 
after the commission of the offense. 

Actions and suits upon statute for penalty or forfeiture given in whole 
or part, to any person who will prosecute within one year after the com- 
missions of the offense. 

When penalty is given in whole or in part to the state, or county or city 
or the treasurer of the same, suit must be brought within two years. 

Actions upon any statute for any penalty or forfeiture given in whole or 
in part to the party aggrieved within three years. 

Actions against moneyed corporations, or against the directors or stock- 
holders of the same, shall be brought within six years of the discovery. 

LIMITATION OF PERSONAL ACTIONS. 

Civil actions other than those for the recovery of real property, must 
be commenced within the periods here prescribed. 

Actions upon any writing, whether sealed or unsealed, for the pay- 
ment of money or property, within ten years. 

Actions brought on any covenant of warranty in deed, or conveyance 
of land, within ten years. 

Actions on any covenant of seizure contained in any such deed, within 
ten years. 

Actions upon contracts, obligations, or liabilities express or implied, 
except as above mentioned, and except upon judgments or decrees of a 
court of record, within five vears. 



172 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

Actions upon liability created by statute, other than penalty or forfeiture, 
five years. 

Actions for trespass on real estate, five years. 

Actions for taking, detaining, or injuring any goods or chattels, includ- 
ing actions for the recovery of specific personal property, or for any other 
injury to the person or rights of another not arising on contract and not 
. otherwise enumerated, five years. 

Actions for relief on the ground of fraud, five years. 

Actions against a sheriff', coroner, or other public officer upon a liability 
incurred by doing an act in his official capacity, or the omission of an 
official duty, non-payment of money collected, etc., three years. 

Actions upon a statute for a penalty or forfeiture where the action is 
given to the party aggrieved, or to such party and the state, three years. 

Actions for libel, slander, assault and battery, false imprisonment, or 
criminal conversation, two years. 

LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS RELATING TO REAL PROPERTY. 

Actions for the recovery of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or 
for the recovery of the possession thereof, shall be commenced by any 
person whether citizen, denizen, alien, resident or non-resident, unless 
his ancestor, predecessor, grantor, or other person under whom he claims 
was seized or possessed of the premises in question, within ten years 
before the commencement of such actions, except in case of military bounty 
lands, which must be brought within two years. 

No entry upon any lands, tenements or hereditaments shall be valid as a 
■claim, unless the action be commenced thereon within one year after the 
making of such entry, and within ten years from the time when the right 
to make such entry accrued. 

If any person entitled to bring an action as above stated, shall be under 
twenty-one years of age, or imprisoned for less than life, or insane, or a 
married woman, the time during such disability shall continue, shall not be 
deemed any portion of the time limited for the commencement of such 
action or the making of such entry after the time so limited, and may be 
brought in three years afoer the disability is removed. 

If any person having the right to bring such action or make such entry, 
die during the disability mentioned, and no determination be had of the 
right, title, or action to him accrued, his heirs or any one claiming under 
him, may commence such action within three years. 

JURIES. 

SELECTION OF GRAND JURY. 

A grand jury shall consist of twelve men, and, unless otherwise ordered, 
as hereinafter provided, it shall be the duty of the sheriff of each county 
in the state to summon within the time prescribed by law a panel of 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 173 

grand jurors, consisting of twelve good and lawful men, selected from 
the different townships of his county, as near as may be in proportion to 
the number of male citizens in each, to be returned to each regular term 
of the courts in his county having criminal jurisdiction. 

Every juror, grand and petit, shall be a male citizen of the state, 
resident in the county, sober and intelligent, of good reputation, over 
twenty-one years of age, and otherwise qualified. 

In all counties having a population less than twenty thousand inhabit- 
ants, every juror, grand and petit, shall be a male citizen of the state, 
resident in the county, sober and intelligent, of good reputation, over 
twenty-one years of age, and otherwise qualified. 

No exception to a juror on account of his citizenship, non-residence, 
state, or age, or other legal disability, shall be allowed after the jury is 
sworn. 

No person being a member of any volunteer fire department duly 
organized and ready for active service; no person employed in any paid 
fire department, and no person exercising the functions of a clergyman, 
practitioner of medicine, or attorney-at-law, clerk or other officer of any 
court, ferry-keeper, postmaster, overseer of roads, coroner, constable, 
miller, professor or other teacher in anj* school or institution of learning, 
judge of a court of record, or any person over the age of sixty-five years 
shall be compelled to serve on any jury. 

No person shall be summoned to serve at more than one term of court, 
either as grand or petit juror, within the period of one year in any court 
of record. Each person summoned under this act shall receive one dollar 
and fifty cents per clay for every- day he shall serve as such, and five cents 
for every mile he may necessarily travel in going from his place of resi- 
dence to the court house and returning to the same, to be paid out of the 
county treasury. 

All persons duly summoned as grand or petit jurors may be attached 
for non-attendance, and fined by the court for contempt in any sum not 
exceeding fifty dollars, in the discretion of the court. 

In all suits which hereafter may be pending in any court of record in 
this state the clerk shall, if a jury be sworn to try the same, tax up as 
other costs against the unsuccessful party a jury fee of six dollars, which 
shall be collected by the sheriff, and paid into the hands of the county 
treasurer, who shall keep an account thereof, in a separate book to be 
provided for that purpose, and the money so collected and paid in shall 
constitute a jury fund. 

Grand jurors shall not be compelled to serve on a petit jury during the 
same term. 

In all civil cases in courts of record, where a jury is demanded, there 
shall be summoned and returned eighteen qualified jurors; but in appeal 



174 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

cases the number shall be the same as allowed by law in the courts from 
which the appeals are taken, and the number of peremptory challenges in 
addition. 

In the trial of civil causes, each party shall be entitled to challenge per- 
emptorily three jurors. 

MARRIED WOMEN. 

The homestead of every housekeeper or head of a family, consisting of 
a dwelling-house and appurtenances, and the land used in connection there- 
with, which shall be used by such housekeeper or head of a family as such 
homestead, shall be exempt from attachment and execution. Such home- 
stead in the country shall not include more than 160 acres of land or exceed 
the total value of $1,500; and in cities having a population of 40,000 or 
more such homestead shall not include more than eighteen square rods of 
ground, or exceed the total value of three thousand dollars; and in cities 
or incorporated towns and villages having a less population than 40,000, 
such homestead shall not include more than thirty square rods of ground, 
or exceed the total value of $1,500. After the riling by the wife of her 
claim upon the homestead as such, the husband shall be debarred from 
and incapable of selling, mortgaging or alienating the homestead in any 
manner whatever. 

A husband and wife may convev the real estate of the wife, and the 
wife may relinquish her dower in the real estate of her husband, by their 
joint deed, acknowledged and certified as herein provided, but no covenant 
expressed or implied in such deed shall bind the wife or the heirs except 
so far as may be necessary effectually to convey from her or her heirs all 
her right, title and interest expressed to be conveyed therein. 

A married woman may convey her real estate or relinquish her dower 
in the real estate of her husband by a power of attorney authorizing its 
conveyance, executed and acknowledged by her jointly with her husband, 
as deeds conveying real estate by them are required to be executed and 
acknowledged. 

If any married woman shall hold real estate in her own right, and her 
husband, by criminal conduct toward her, or by ill usage, shall give such 
married woman cause to live separate and apart from her husband, such 
woman may by her next friend petition the circuit court, setting forth such 
facts, and therein pray that such estate may be enjoyed by her for her 
sole use and benefit. 

Any personal property, including rights in action, belonging to any 
woman at her marriage, or which may have come to her during coverture 
by gift, bequest or inheritance, or by purchase with her separate money 
or means, or be due as the wages of her separate labor, or have grown 
out of any violation of her personal rights, shall, together with all income, 
increase and profits thereof, be and remain her separate property, and 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 175 

under her sole control, and shall not be liable to be taken by any process 
of law for the debts of her husband. 

EXEMPTIONS FROM EXECUTION. 

Whenever the personal property of any homestead or head of a family 
shall be attached or taken in execution, the debtor therein shall claim that 
the same, or any part thereof, is the product of such homestead, the officer 
taking the same shall cause appraisers to be appointed and sworn, as in 
the case of the levy of execution on real estate, and such appraisers shall 
decide upon such claim and settle the products of such homestead to such 
debtor accordingly, and the proceedings therein shall be stated by such 
officer in his return. 

Any policy of insurance heretofore or hereafter made by any insurance 
company on the life of any person, expressed to be for the benefit of any 
married woman, whether the same be effected by herself or by her hus- 
band, or by any third person in her behalf, shall inure to her separate use 
and benefit and that of her children, if any, independently of her husband 
and of hi? creditors and representatives, and also independently of such 
third person effecting the same in his behalf, his creditors and representa- 
tives. 

The following property only shall be exempt from attachment and exe- 
cution when owned by any person other than the head of a family: First, 
the wearing apparel of all persons. Second, the necessary tools and 
implements of trade of any mechanic while carrying on his trade. 

The following property, when owned by the head of a family, shall be 
exempt from attachment and execution. First, ten head of choice hogs, 
ten head of choice sheep, or the product thereof, in wool, yarn or cloth ; 
two cows and calves, two plows, one axe, one hoe and one set of plow 
gears and all necessary farm implements for the use of one man. Second, 
working animals of the value of one hundred and fifty dollars. Third, 
the spinning wheel and cards, one loom and apparatus necessary for man- 
ufacturing cloth in a private family. Fourth, all the spun yarn, thread 
and cloth, manufactured for family use. Fifth, any quantity of hemp, flax 
and wool not exceeding twenty-five pounds each. Sixth, all wearing 
apparel of the family, four beds with their usual bedding, and such other 
household and kitchen furniture not exceeding the value of one hundred 
dollars, as may be necessary for the family, agreeably to an inventory 
thereof to be returned on oath, with the execution, by the officer whose 
duty it may be to levy the same. Seventh, the necessary tools and imple- 
ments of trade of any mechanic, while carrying on his trade. Eighth, 
all arms and equipments required by law to be kept. Ninth, all such 
provisions as may be found on hand for family use, not exceeding one 
hundred dollars in value. Tenth, the bibles and other books used in a 



176 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

family, lettered grave stones, and one pew in a house of worship. 
Eleventh, all lawyers, physicians and ministers of the gospel shall have 
the privilege of selecting such books as may be necessary in their profes- 
sion, in the place of other property herein allowed at their option; that 
doctors of medicine in lieu of the property exempt from execution, 
may be allowed to select their medicines. In all cases of the sale of per- 
sonal property, the same shall be subject to execution against the pur- 
chaser on a judgment for the purchase price thereof, and shall in no case 
be exempt from such judgment and execution for the purchase price as 
between the vendor, his assignee, heir or legal representative and pur- 
chaser. 

FENCES. 

All fields and inclosures shall be inclosed by hedge, or with a fence 
sufficiently close, composed of posts and rails, posts and palings, posts and 
planks, posts and wires, palisades or rails alone, laid up in the manner com- 
monly called a worm fence, or of turf with ditches on each side, or of 
stone or brick. 

All hedges shall be at least four feet high, and all fences composed of 
posts and rails, posts and palings, posts and wire, posts and planks or pal- 
isades shall be at least four and a half feet high; those composed of turf 
shall be at least four feet high and w r ith ditches on either side, at least 
three feet wide at the top and three feet deep; and what is commonly 
called a worm fence shall be at least five feet high to the top of the rider, 
or if not ridered shall be five feet to the top of the top rail or pole and 
shall be locked with strong rails, poles or stakes ; those composed of stone 
or brick shall be at least four and a half feet high. 

Wherever the fence of any owner of real estate now erected or con- 
structed, serves to enlose the lands of another, or which shall become a 
part of the fence enclosing the land of another, on demand made by the 
person owning such fence, such other person shall pay the owner one- 
half the value of so much thereof as serves to enclose his land; and upon 
such payment shall own an undivided half of such fence. 

Provided, The person thus benefitted shall have the option to build 
within eight months from date of such demand, a lawful fence half the 
distance along the line covered by the above mentioned fence. The 
demand shall be made in writing and served on the party interested, his 
agent or attorney, or left with some member of the family over fourteen 
years of age, at his usual place of abode. If the party notified fails to 
comply with the demand within the specified time, the party making the 
demand may, at his option, proceed to enforce the collection of one-half 
the value of such fence, or remove his fence without any other or further 
notice. 

Every person owning a part of a division fence, shall keep the same in 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 177 

good repair, according to the requirements of the act, and upon neglect 
or refusal to do so, shall be liable in double damages to the party injured 
thereby. 

If the parties interested shall fail to agree as to the value of one-half 
of such fence, the owner of the fence may apply to a justice of the peace 
of the township, who shall, without delay, issue an order to three disinter- 
ested householders of the township, not of kin to either party, reciting the 
complaint, and requiring them to view the fence, estimate the value 
thereof, and make return under oath to the justice on the day named in 
the order. 

If the person thus assessed or charged with the value of one-half of 
any fence, shall neglect or refuse to pay over to the owner of such fence 
the amount so awarded, the same may be recovered before a justice of the 
peace or other court of competent jurisdiction. 

ROADS, HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES. 

The overseers of highways in each road district in each township, shall 
have care and superintendence of all highways and bridges therein, and 
it shall be their duty to have all highways and bridges kept in good repair, 
and to cause to be built all such bridges as public necessity may require, 
said bridges to be built by contract, let. to the lowest responsible bidder, 
and to be paid for out of anv money in the overseer's hands, or in the 
treasury for road or bridge purposes. But in no case shall the overseer 
take such contract, either for himself or by his agent. 

It shall be the duty of the overseer of highways to name all residents 
of the district against whom a land or personal tax is assessed, giving 
them two days notice to work out the same upon the highways, and he 
shall receive such tax in labor from every able bodied man, or his or her 
substitute, at the rate of $1.50 per day, and in proportion for a less 
amount, provided that any person may pay such tax in money. The 
township board of directors shall have the power to assess upon all real 
estate and personal property in their township made taxable by law for 
state and county purposes, a sufficient tax to keep the roads and highways 
of the various road districts in their township in good repair, which tax 
shall be levied as follows: for every one mill tax upon the dollar levied 
upon real and personal property, as valued on the assessor's roll of the 
previous year, the township board of directors shall require one day's 
work of each person subject to work on roads and highwavs, and no 
more. 

SUPPORT OF THE POOR. 

Poor persons shall be relieved, maintained and supported by the county 

of which they are inhabitants. 

Aged, infirm, lame, blind, or sick persons who are unable to support 
12 



178 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

themselves, and where there are no other persons required by law and 
able to maintain them, shall be deemed poor persons. 

No person shall be deemed an inhabitant within the meaning of this 
chapter, who has not resided for the space of twelve months next preced- 
ing the time of any order being made respecting such person in the county, 
or who shall have removed from another county for the purpose of impos- 
ing the burden or keeping such person on the county where he or she last 
resided for the time aforesaid. 

LANDLORDS AND TENANTS. 

Every landlord shall have a lien on the crops grown on the demised 
premises in any year for the rent that shall accrue for such year; and such 
lien shall continue for eight months after such rent shall become due and 
payable, and no longer. When the demised premises or any portion 
thereof are used for the purpose of growing nursery stock, the lien shall 
exist and continue in such stock until the same shall have been removed 
from the premises and sold. 

No tenant for a term, not exceeding two years, or at will, or by suffer- 
ance, shall assign or transfer his term, or interest, or any part thereof to 
another, without the written assent of the landlord, or person holding 
under him. 

Either party may terminate a tenancy from year to year, by giving 
notice in writing of his intention to terminate the same, of not less than 
three months next before the end of the year. 

A tenancy at will, or by sufferance, or for less than one year, may be 
terminated by the person entitled to the possession, by giving one month's 
notice, in writing to the person in possession, requiring him to remove. 
All contracts or agreements for the leasing, renting, or occupation of stores, 
shops, houses, tenements, or other buildings in cities, towns, or villages, not 
made in writing, signed by the parties thereto, or their agents, shall be 
held and taken to be tenancies from month to month; and all such tenan- 
cies may be terminated by either party thereto, or his agent, giving to the 
other party or his agent one month's notice in writing, of his intention to 
terminate such tenancy. \ 

No notice to quit shall be necessary from or to a tenant whose time is 
to end at a certain time, or where by special agreement, notice is dis- 
pensed with. 

A landlord may recover a reasonable satisfaction for the use and occu- 
pation of any lands or tenements, held by any person under an agreement 
not made by deed. 

Property exempt from execution shall be also exempt from attachment 
for rent, except the crops grown on the demised premises on which the 
rent claimed is due. 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 179 

If any tenant for life or years, shall commit waste during his estate or 
term, of any thing belonging to the tenement so held, without special 
license in writing, so to do, he shall be subject to a civil action for such 
waste and shall lose the thing so wasted and pay treble the amount at 
which the waste shall be assessed. 

BILL OF SALE. 
A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party for a considera- 
tion to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The pur- 
chaser must take actual possession of the property, or the bill of sale 
must be acknowledged and recorded. 

COMMON FORM OF BILL OF SALE. 

Know all men by these -presents, That I, David Franklin, of Lexington, 
Missouri, of the first part, for and in consideration of three hundred dollars, 
to me in hand paid by Albert Brown, of the same place, of the second 
part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and by this 
instrument do convey unto the said Brown, party of the second part, his 
executors, administrators and assigns, my undivided half of forty acres of 
corn now growing on the farm of William Mason, in the township of Jackson, 
Lafayette county, Missouri; one pair of horses, twenty head of hogs, and six 
cows belonging to me and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and 
to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his heirs, executors, and 
assigns, forever. And I do for myself and legal representatives agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the aforementioned property and chattels, 
unto the said party of the second part, and his Jlegal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand this first day of 
June, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

David Franklin. 

BENEVOLENT, RELIGIOUS, AND EDUCATIONAL ASSOCI- 
ATIONS. 

Any lodge of Free Masons, or Odd Fellows, division of Sons of Tem- 
perance or any other association organized for benevolent or charitable 
purposes, or any library company, school, college, or other association, 
organized for the promotion of literature, science, or art, or any gymnastic 
or other association, organized for the purpose of promoting bodily or 
mental health, and all societies, organized for the purpose of promoting 
either of the objects above named, and for all similar purposes, by what- 
ever name they may be known, consisting of not less than three persons, 
may be constituted and declared a body politic and corporate, with all the 
privileges, and subject to all the liabilities and restrictions contained in this 
act. Acts 1868, page 28. 



180 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

All associations incorporated under the provisions of the above law shall 
file a copy of all amendments to their articles of association, certified as 
such under their seal, with the clerk of the circuit court, within sixty days 
after their passage. 

Any number of persons, not less than three in number, may become an 
incorporated church, religious society, or congregation, by complying 
with the provisions of this chapter, except that it will be sufficient if the 
petition be signed by all the persons making the application, and when so 
incorporated, such persons and their associates and successors shall be 
known by the corporate name specified in the certificate of incorporation, 
and shall be entitled to all the privileges, and capable of exercising all the 
powers conferred, or authorized to be conferred by the constitution of this 
state upon such corporation. Acts 1871-2, P. 16, Sec. 1. 

Any such corporation shall have power to raise money in any manner 
agreed upon in the articles of association. 

INTOXICATING LIQUORS. 

A dramshop-keeper is a person permitted by law to sell intoxicating 
liquors in any quantity not exceeding ten gallons. 

No person shall directly or indirectly sell intoxicating liquors in any 
quantity less than one gallon without taking out a license as a dramshop- 
keeper. 

Application for a license as a dramshop-keeper shall be made in writing 
to the county court, and shall state where the dramshop is to be kept, and 
if the court shall be of opinion that the applicant is a person of good 
character, the court may grant a license for six months. 

Any sale, gift or other disposition of intoxicating liquors made to any 
minor without the permission or consent herein required, or to any hab- 
itual drunkard, by any clerk, agent, or other person acting for any dram- 
shop-keeper, druggist, merchant, or other person, shall be deemed and 
taken to be as the act of such dramshop-keeper, druggist, merchant, or 
other person. 

Intoxicating liquors may be sold in any quantity not less than a quart 
at the place where made, but the maker or seller shall not permit or suffer 
the same to be drank at the place of sale, nor at any place under the 
control of either or both. Any person convicted of a violation o f the 
provisions of this section shall be fined a sum not less than $40 nor more 
than $200. Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be so con- 
strued as to affect the right of any person having a wine and beer house 
license to sell wine and beer in any quantity not exceeding ten gallons at 
any place. 

Any dramshop-keeper, druggist, or merchant selling, giving away or 
otherwise disposing of any intoxicating liquors to any habitual drunkard, 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 181 

after such dramshop-keeper, druggist, or merchant shall have been noti- 
fied by the wife, father, mother, brother, sister, or guardian of such per- 
son not to sell, give away or furnish to such person an}- intoxicating 
liquors, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than $40 nor more than $200, 
and upon conviction of any dramshop-keeper it shall work a forfeiture of 
his license to keep a dramshop, and also debar him from again obtaining 
a license for that purpose. 

GENERAL WARRANTY DEED. 

This Indenture, made on the. . . .day of. . . . A. D. one thousand eigfct 
hundred and . . . . , by and between .... of ... . part .... of the first part, and 
.... of the . . . . of . . . . , in the state of ... . part . . of the second part. 

Witnesseth, That the said part . . of the first part, in consideration of 
the sum of .... ^dollars, to ... . paid by the said part . . of the second 
part, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, do . . by these pres- 
ents, grant, bargain, and sell, convey, and confirm, unto the said part . . of 
the second part,. . . .heirs and assigns, the following described lots, tracts, 
or parcels of land, lying, being and situated in the .... of ... . and state of 

. . . ., to-wit: , 

[Give description of property.] 

To have and to hold the premises aforesaid, with all and singular, the 
rights, privileges, appurtenances, immunities, and improvements thereto 
belonging, or in any wise appertaining unto the said part, .of the second 
part, and unto .... heirs and assigns, forever ; the said .... hereby cov- 
enanting that .... will warrant and defend the title to the said premises 
unto the said part . . of the second part and unto .... heirs and assigns 
forever, against the lawful claims and demands of all persons whom- 
soever. 

In witness whereof, the said part . . of the first part ha . . hereunto set . . 
hand . . and seal . . the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us. 

[seal] 

[seal] 

state of missouri, ) 

.... of ... . f * Be it remembered, that on this .... 

day of .... A. D. 18 .... , before the undersigned, a . . . . within and for the 
.... of ... . and state of ... . personally came .... who are personally known 
to me to be the same persons whose names are subscribed to the fore- 
going instrument of writing as parties thereto, and they acknowledged 
the same to be their act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. 
And the said .... being by me first made acquainted with the contents of 
said instrument, upon an examination separate and apart from .... hus- 
band . . . . , acknowledged that .... executed the same, and relinquishes 



182 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

dower, in the real estate therein mentioned, freely and without fear, 

compulsion or undue influence on the part of ... . said husband . . . . ; and 

I certify, that my term of office as a notary public will expire 18 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in ... . this day and year first above written. 



QUIT-CLAIM DEED. 

This indenture, made on the .... day of . . . . , A. D. one thousand eight 

hundred and . . . . , by and between , of the county of , and state of 

.,-.., part of the first part, and , of the county of , and state of 

, part of the second part, 

Witnesseth, That the said part of the first part, in consideration of the 

sum of loo dollars, to .... paid by the said part of the second part, 

the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, do by these presents, 
remise, release, and forever quit-claim unto the said part of the second 
part, the following described lots, tracts, or parcels of land, lying, being 
and situate in the county of . . . . , and state of , to wit: [Give descrip- 
tion of propert}'.] 

* [This deed of quit-claim being made in release of, and satisfaction for 
a certain deed dated the . . day of . . . ., 18. . ; recorded in the recor- 
der's office, within and for the county of . . ? . aforesaid, in deed book . . , 
at pages . . . . ] 

To have and to hold the same, with all the rights, immunities, privileges 
and appurtenances thereto belonging, unto the said part of the second 

part, and heirs and assigns, forever; so that neither the said part 

of the first part nor heirs, nor any other person or persons for 

or in .... name or behalf, shall or : will hereafter claim or demand any 
right or title to the aforesaid premises, or any part thereof, but they and 
every of them shall, by these presents, be excluded and forever barred. 

In witness whereof, That said part of the first part ha hereunto set 
hand and seal , the day and year first above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us. 

[seal] 

[seal] 

[Acknowledgment same as in General Warranty Deed.] 

MORTGAGE DEED. 

Know all men by these presents, that, of the county of , in the 

state of for and in consideration of the sum of ... . dollars, to the said 

.... in hand paid by of the county of .... in the state of ha . . 






* Omit this clause in case this deed is not made in release of some other instrument. 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 183 

granted, bargained and sold, and by these presents do . . grant, bargain 
and sell, unto the said.... the following described .... situated in the 
county of. . . .in the state of . . . .that is to say: 

[Give description of property.] 
To have and to hold the property and premises hereby conveyed, with 
all the rights, privileges and appurtenances thereunto belonging, or in 
anywise appertaining, unto said .... heirs and assigns forever; upon this 
express condition, whereas, the said .... on the .... day of .... A. D. one 
thousand eight hundred and .... made, executed and delivered to the said 

. . . .certain . . . .described as follows, to- wit: 

[Give description of notes, time of payment, etc.] 

Now, if the said .... executor or administrator, shall pay the sum of 
money specified in said .... and all the interest that may be due thereon, 
according to the tenor and effect of said .... then this conveyance shall be 
void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and virtue in law. 

In witness whereof, . . . . , the said grantor .... and mortgagor .... ha . . 
hereunto subscribed .... name .... and affixed .... seal .... this day of 

[seal.] 

[seal.] 

[Acknowledgment same as General Warranty Deed.] 

CHATTEL MORTGAGE. 

Know all men by these presents, That .... of the county of .... , and 
state of . . . . , in consideration of the sum of ... . i~oo dollars, to ... . paid by 
.... of the county of . . . . and state of .... do sell and convey to said .... 
the following goods and chattels, to-wit: - * 

[Here describe goods.] 

Warranted free of incumbrances, and against any adverse claims: 

Upon condition, That. . . . pay to the said. . . .the sum of . . . .10^ dollars, 
and interest, agreeably to. . . .note, .dated on the. . . .day of . . . ., 18. ., 
and made payable to the said .... as follows, to-wit : . . . . then this deed 
shall be void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and effect. 

The parties hereto agree That, until condition broken, said property 

may remain in possession of but after condition broken, the said. . . . 

may at ... . pleasure take and remove the same, and may enter into any 
building or premises of the said .... for that purpose. 

Witness our hands and seals, this . . . : day of . . . A. D. 18 . . 

Signed, sealed and delivered in 
presence of us. ... [seal.] 

.'. [seal.] 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of j Ss * 

Be it remembered, That on the. . . .day of A. D. 18. ., before the 

undersigned, a . . . . within and for the county aforesaid, personally came 



184 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

.... who .... personally known to me to be the same person .... whose 
name .... subscribed to the foregoing chattel mortgage as part .... 
thereto, and acknowledged the same to be ... . act and deed for the uses 
and purposes therein mentioned. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed 
my .... seal, at my office in .... in said county, the day and year afore- 
said. My term of office as notary public will expire on the . . . day of 
18. . 

HOUSE LEASE. 

This article of agreement witnesseth, That .... ha . . this day rented to 
... .in the present condition thereof , the .... for the period of.... from 

the day 18 . . , on the following terms and conditions, to-wit: 

For the use and rent thereof, the said .... hereby promise . . to pay said 

or to ... . order .... dollars, per .... for the whole time above stated, 

and to pay the same- at the of each ; that will not 

sub-let or allow any other tenant to come in with or under .... without 
the written consent of said. . . . ; that .... will repair all injuries or dam- 
ages done to the premises by him or them during. . . .occupancy, or pay 
for the same ; that all of ... . property, whether subject to legal exemption 
or not, shall be bound, and subject to the payment of rents and damages 
thereof; that .... will take good care of the buildings and premises and 
keep them free from tilth, from danger of fire or any nuisance and from 
all uses forbidden in any fire insurance policy issued thereon, .... and pro- 
tect, defend and indemnify the said .... from all damages .... and charges 
for such, that the houses and premises shall be kept clean, fairly treated 
and left so; that in default of the payment of any. . . .installment of rent 
for .... day . . after the same becomes due, .... will, at the request of the 
said. . . .quit and render to. . . .the peaceable possession thereof; but, for 
this cause, the obligation to pay shall not cease, and, finally at the end of 

.... term .... will surrender to said .... heirs or assigns, the peaceable 
possession of the said house and premises, with all the keys, bolts, latches 
and repairs, if any, in as good condition as ... . received the same, the 
usual wear and use and providential destruction or destruction by fire 
excepted. 

In witness whereof, the parties have set .... hand .... and seal .... to 

.... cop . . hereof to be retained by ... . 

Dated this .... day of .... 18 . . 

[seal.] 

MECHANICS' LIENS. 

Every mechanic or other person who shall do or perform any work or 
labor upon, or furnish any materials, fixtures, engine, boiler or machinery 
for any building, erection or improvements upon land, or for repairing the 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAW'S. 185 

same under or by virtue of any contract with the owner or proprietor, or 
his agent, trustee, contractor or sub-contractor, shall be entitled to a lien 
upon such building, erection, or improvement, and upon the land belong- 
ing to such owner or proprietor on which the same are situated. The 
original contractor must within six months, and every journeyman and 
day laborer within thirty days, and of every other person seeking to 
obtain the benefit of the provisions of this chapter, within four months 
after the indebtedness shall have accrued, file with the clerk of the cir- 
cuit court of the proper county, a just and true account of the demand due 
him or them, after all just credits have been given, which is to be a lien 
upon such building or improvement, and a true description of the property 
or so near as to identify the same upon which the lien is intended to apply, 
with the name of the owner or contractor, or both, if known to be the 
person filing the lien which shall in all cases' be verified by the oath of 
himself or some credible person for him. 

Every person except the original contractor, who may wish to avail 
himself of the benefits of the provisions of this chapter, shall give ten days 
notice before filing of the lien as herein required, to the owner, owners, or 
agent, or either of them, that he or they hold a claim against such build- 
ing or improvements, setting forth the amount and from whom the same is 
due. 

All mechanics' lien holders shall stand on equal footing, without refer- 
ence to date of filing, and upon sale of property they shall take pro rata 
on the respective liens. 

We only attempt to give an outline of the law of mechanics' liens to aid 
the general business man. Should any complicated questions arise, it is 
best to consult an attornev in regard to the same. 

MECHANIC'S LIEN. 

Now, at this day, come .... and with a view to avail .... of the benefit 
of the statute relating to mechanics' liens, file . . the account below set 
forth for work and labor done, and materials -furnished by .... under 
contract with .... upon, to and for the buildings and improvements 

described as follows, to-wit: 

(Give description of buildings.) 
and situated on the following described premises, to-wit: 

(Give description of the property upon which the building is erected.) 
said premise, buildings, and improvements, belonging to and being 
owned by .... which said account, the same being hereby filed, in order 
that it may constitute a lien upon the buildings, improvements, and prem- 
ises above described, is as follows: 

[Set the account out in full.] 

State of Missouri, county of . . . . , ss., being duly sworn, on his 

oath says that the foregoing is a just and true account of the demand due 



186' ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

.... for work and labor done, and materials furnished by .... upon, to 
and for the buildings and improvements hereinbefore described, after all 
just credits have been given ; that said work and labor were done, and 
said materials furnished upon, to and for said buildings and improvements 

by .... at the instance and request of, and under contract with that 

the foregoing description is a true description of the property upon, to and 
for which said materials were furnished, and said work and labor done, 
and to which this lien is intended to apply, or so near as to identify the 
same ; that said demand accrued within .... months prior to the riling of 

this lien, and that on the day of , 18. ., and at least ten days 

prior to the riling of this lien .... gave notice to .... of his claim against 
the amount thereof, from whom due, and of ... . intention to file a lien 
therefor; that said .... as affiant is informed and believes, the owner. . 
of the above described premises, and the buildings and improvements 
thereon, which said premises, buildings, and improvements are intended 
to be charged with this lien. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this .... day of . . . . , 18 . . 



BILL OF SALE OF GOODS. 

Know all men by these presents, that .... of .... for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of .... dollars to . . in hand paid by .... of the 

receipt whereof . . do hereby acknowledge, by these presents do bargain 
and sell unto the said .... all the goods, household stuff, implements and 
furniture, and all other goods and chattels whatsoever mentioned in the 
schedule hereunto annexed: To have and to hold all and singular the 
said goods, household stuff, and furniture, and other premises above bar- 
gained and sold or intended so to be, to the said .... and . . assigns for- 
ever. And .... the said .... for ... . and . . heirs, all and singular, the 
goods and chattels of whatever description, unto the said .... and . . 
assigns against .... the said .... and against all and every other person 
and persons whomsoever, shall and will warrant and forever defend 
by these presents. Or all and singular which said goods, chattels, 
and property, .... the said .... have put the said .... in full pos- 
session by delivery to . . , the said .... one .... at the sealing and delivery 
of these presents, in the name of the whole premises hereby bargained 
and sold, or mentioned, or intended so to be unto . . , the said .... as 
aforesaid. 

In witness whereof, . . have hereunto set . . hand . . and affixed . . seal 
this day A. D. 18 . . 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of [l. s.] 



Note. — If the bill of sale is to be recorded in the county recorder's office, it must be 
acknowledged before some officer authorized to take acknowledgment of deeds — other- 
wise not. 



abstract of missouri state laws. 187 

State of Missouri, ) 

County of ) 

Be it remembered, that on this .... day of . . . ., A. D. 18. ., before the 
undersigned, a . . . . within and for the county of and state of Mis- 
souri, personally came .... who . . personally known to me to be the 
same person. . whose name. . subscribed to the foregoing instrument 
of writing, as part . . thereto, and acknowledged the same to be 
voluntary act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in .... the day and year above written. 



DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL TERMS. 

$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to; ft> for pounds, and bbl. for barrels; !$} for per 
or by the. Thus, butter sells at 20 @ 30c f lb, and flour at $8@12 f bbl. 

°| for per cent., and ft for number. 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20@$1.25, "seller June." Seller June 
means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has 
not the stock on. hand. It is for the interest of the person selling "short" 
to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and 
fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts" are called " bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise in prices. The " longs" are termed 
" bulls," as it is for their interest to " operate " so as to " toss " the prices 
upward as much as possible. 

ORDERS. 
Orders should be worded simply, thus: 
Mr. F. H. Coats: St. Louis, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. Silva. 

RECEIPTS. 
Receipts should alwavs state when received and what for. thus: 



188 ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 

$100. St. Louis, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Reeived of J. W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for services 

rendered in grading his lot in Sedalia, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 

BILLS OF PURCHASE. 

W. N. Mason, Marshall, Missouri, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 $6 00 

2 Seamless Sacks " 30 60 



Received payment, $6 60 

A. A. Graham. 

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT. 

An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 

general form of agreement. 

This agreement, made the second day of June, 1878, between John 
Jones, of Marshall, county of Saline, state of Missouri, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whitesides, of the same place, of the second part — 

Witnesseth, That the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good 
and marketable condition, at the village of Slater, Missouri, during the month 
of November, of this year, one hundred tons of prairie hay, in the fol- 
lowing lots, and at the following specified times, namely: Twenty-five 
tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the 
fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whitsides, in consideration of the prompt fulfill- 
ment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts 
to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per 
ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other, one hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, the day and year 
first above written. John Jones. 

Thomas Whiteside. 



ABSTRACT OF MISSOURI STATE LAWS. 189 

AGREEMENT WITH CLERK FOR SERVICES. 

This agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, between Reuben Stone, of Marshall, county of 
Saline, State of Missouri, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Sedalia, county of Pettis, state of Missouri, party of the second part — 

Witnesseth, That said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently 
to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during 
the space of one year from the date hereof, should both live such length of 
time, without absenting himself from his occupation; during which time he, 
the said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of Marshall, will carefully and 
honestly attend, doing and performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects as directed and desired by the 
said Stone. * 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Bar- 
clay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one 
thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon 
the last day of each month : provided that all dues for days of absence 
from business by said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise 
by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay. 
Witness our hands: Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 



Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 



How to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling -price are 
given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost price; 
the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gjold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount of currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner's share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 
business. 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quotient 
will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be each 
one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight, or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note. — It is generally assumed that the gross weight of hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 
per cent, of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by % or 25 per cent. Of 
itself equals the gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the g ross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 6308, 
and point oft' one decimal place— the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and point 
off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 
by 4£ ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 

be the answer in bushels. 

Note. — In estimating corn in the ear, quality and the time it has been cribbed must be 
taken into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the winter and spring. 
This rule generally holds good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided it is 
sound and clean. 



PRACTICAL RULES FOR EVERY DAY USE. 191 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all in 
feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one decimal 
place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31£ gallons. 

Hozv to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length (all 
in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the tens; 
multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point oft one 
decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and divide 
the product by 12— the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantling's, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together, (the 
width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide the 
product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods) and divide the pro- 
duct bv 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a remain- 
der); the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, add 
them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in afioor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and divide 
the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

Haw to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22£. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the 
shingles are exposed 4^ inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches . 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths); at one-third pitch by .6 
(tenths); at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at one-half pitch, 
by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from the apex 
to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be taken 
into consideration. 



192 PRACTICAL RULES FOR EVERY DAY USE. 

Note. — By Jj or % pitch is meant that the apex or tomb of the roof is to be \£ or ^ 
the width of the building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 

Hozv to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, and 
remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure gram. 

Rule. — Level the grain; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 

feet; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 

the left. 

Note. — Exactness requires the addition, to every three hundred bushels, of one extra 
bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2 to find the 
number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, an 
ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on the 
average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
stright ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote; and, in walking, 
keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 
measure. 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of the 
left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the left 
arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find hozv many rods in length will make an acre, the width being 
given. 

Rule. — Divide 160 by the w r idth, and the quotient will be the answer. 

How to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Hozv to find the diameter when the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 



PRACTICAL RULES FOR EVERY DAY USE. 193 

To find hotv many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and then 
multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in inches 
by twice the length in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1.10 to 1.15 
according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard 's new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest on 
any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal point 
two places to the left; for ten times that time, remove the point one place 
to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three places to the 
left. 
• Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note. — The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting the rate; thus 3 per cent, per 
month, inverted, becomes *« of a month, or ten days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, by 
400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 

U. S. GOVERNMENT LAND MEASURE. 

A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 

An eight section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter of a 
mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 

The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east 
corner. 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the cardinal 
points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The description of 
a forty-acre lot wculd read: The south half of the west half of the 
south-west quarter of section 1, in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be; and sometimes will fall short, and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 



13 



rq- 



194 



PRACTICAL RULES FOR EVERY DAY' USE. 



SURVEYORS' MEASURE. 

7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4 rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barleycorn ; 
three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly speaking 
a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal to 3.45 stat- 
ute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to 1^ yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 

HOW TO KEEP ACCOUNTS. 

Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic manner. 
For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity of acquiring a 
primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here present a 
simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, and well 
adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics and 

1875. A. H. JACKSON. Dr. Cr. 



Jan. 

u 

Feb 



10 
17 
4 
4 
March 8 
8 
13 
27 
9 
9 
6 
24 
4 



« 



u 



April 
May 



To 7 bushels wheat at $1.25 

By shoeing span of horses 

To 14 bushels oats at $ .45 

To 5 ft., butter at .25 

By new harrow 

By sharpening 2 plows 

By new double-tree 

To cow and calf 

To half ton of hay 

By cash 

By repairing corn-planter 

To one sow with pigs 

Bv cash, to balance account 



$ 8.75 

6.30 
1.25 



48.00 
6.25 



17.50 



$88*.05 



$. 



2.50 



18.00 
.40 

2.25 



25.00 
4.75 

35.15 

$88.05 



PRACTICAL RULES FOR EVERY DAY USE. 



11)5 



1875. 



CASSA MASON. 



Dr. Cr. 



March 21 
March 21 
March 23 
May 
May 
June 



1 
1 
19 
26 
10 
29 



June 

July 
July 

Aug. 12 
Aug. 12 
Sept. 1 



Bv 3 day's labor at $1.25 

To 2 shoats at 3.< >0 

To 18 bushels corn at .45 

By 1 months labor 

To cash 

By 8 days mowing at $1.50 

To 50 lbs. flour 

To 27 lbs. meat at $ .10 

By 9 days harvesting at 2.00 

By 6 days labor at 1.50 

To cash 

To cash to balance account 



$ 6.00 
8.10 



10.00 

2.75 
2.70 



20.00 
18.20 



$67.75 



$ 3.75 

25.00 
12.00 



18.00 
9.00 



$67.75 



INTEREST TABLE. 

A Simplk Rule for Accubatelt Coxpbtixg Interest at Ant Given Per Cent fob Ant Length 

or Time. 

Multiply the principal (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to days; then divide thie 
product by the quotient obtained by dividing- 360 (the number of days in the interest year; by the per 
cent of interest, and the quotient thus obtained will be the required interest. 

ILLUSTRATION. Solution. 



Require the interest of $462.50 lor one month and eighteen days at 6 per cent. An 
interest month is 30 days; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. $462.50 
multiplied by .48 gives $222.0000; 360 divided by 6 (the per cent of interest) gives 
60, and 222.0000 divided by 60 will give the exact interest, which is $3.70. If the 
rate of interest in the above example were 12 per cent, we would divide the $222.- 
0000 by 30 (because 360 divided by 12 gives 30); if 4 per cent, we would divide by 90; 
if 8 per cent, by 45. and in like manner tor any other per tent. 



$462.50 
.48 



6(360 | 



370000 
185000 



60 ) $222.0000 
180 

420 
420 

00 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLE. 



12 unite or things, 1 dozen . 
12) dozen, 1 gross. 
20 things, 1 score. 



196 pounds, 1 barrel of flour. 
200 pounds, 1 barrel of pork. 
56 pounds, 1 firkin of butter. 



24 eheete of paper, 1 quire. 

20 quires of paper, 1 ream. 

4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8ft. long, 1 cord wood. 



196 NAMES OF THE STATES AND THEIR SIGNIFICATION. 

NAMES OF THE STATES OF THE UNION, AND THEIR 

SIGNIFICATIONS. 

Virginia. — The oldest of the states, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoraticn of the day, which was 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for "smoky water." Its pre- 
fix was really arc, the French word for "bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called " Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky is the Indian name for "at the head of the river." 

Ohio means "beautiful;" Iowa, "drowsy ones;*" Minnesota, " cloudy 
■water," and Wisconsin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word Illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-weir, which was 
so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortez named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " the country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying " Long River. 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of Eng- 
land. 

JSfew JTork was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its original owner. 

Delaware after Lord De la Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was gov- 
ernor of the island of Jersey, in the British channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine, in France, in compliment 
of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 



n 



SUGGESTIONS TO THOSE PURCHASING BOOKS BY SUBSCRIPTION. 197 

Vermont, from the French words vert mont, signifying green mountain. 

New Hampshire, from Hampshire county, in England. It was formerly 
called Laconia. 

The little state of Rhode Island owes its name to the island of Rhodes, 
in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly resemble. 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 

SUGGESTIONS TO THOSE PURCHASING BOOKS BY SUB- 
SCRIPTION. 

The business of -publishing books by subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publisher, in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described by the pros- 
pectus and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, and 
not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional, or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by the pros- 
pectus and sample, in order to bind the principle, the subscriber should see 
that such condition or changes are stated over or in connection with his 
signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

* All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can 
not be altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be done 
in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contemplating sub- 
scribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the sub- 
scription is made is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as can- 
vassers The\' are agents appointed to do a particular business in a pre- 
scribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other way to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any 
other matter. They cannot collect money, or agree that payment may be 
made in anything else but money. They cannot extend the time of payment 
beyond the' time of delivery, nor bind their principal for the payment 0/ 
expenses incurred in their business. 

// would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; if they cannot read themselves, 
call on some one disinterested who can. 



History of Ray County, Missouri. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

Boundary, Geographical Position, and Physical Features. — Ray county, 
Missouri, is situated in the northwestern part of the state, and is bounded 
as follows: 

North by Caldwell county; east by Carroll county; south by the Mis- 
souri river, separating it from Lafayette and Jackson counties, and west 
by Clay and Clinton counties. 

Richmond, the county seat of Ray county, is in longitude seventeen 
degrees west from Washington, ninety-four degrees west from Greenwich, 
and the northern part of the county is crossed by parallel thirty-nine 
degrees, thirty minutes of north latitude. It embraces all that portion of 
Missouri lying between the range line separating ranges twenty-five and 
twenty-six, and the range line separating ranges twenty-nine and thirty, 
west of the fifth principal meridian, and extending from the township line 
between townships fifty-four and fifty-five, north, southward to the middle 
of the main channel of the Missouri river. 

The townships bordering on the Missouri river are numbered fifty and 
fifty-one, and are fractional. 

The above limits, greatly less than the original, are the result of 
repeated formations of new counties from the territory allotted to Ray 
by the act establishing it as a county, and include a superficial area of 
561.64 square miles, or 359,449.6 acres. 

The twelve congressional townships north of the line between town- 
ships fifty-one and fifty-two are integral, and therefore, aggregate four 
hundred and thirty-two square miles; those south of that line extending 
to the Missouri river, are fractional, as above stated, and contain, in all, 
129.64 square miles. 

Ray county is twenty-four miles in width. The issouri river, as it 
passes the southern border of the county, is quite sinuous, thereby mak- 
ing the distance from its northern to its southern line irregular. The 
greatest length of the county, north and south, is twenty-six and one-half 
miles from the point where the section line between sections seventeen 
and eighteen, township fifty, of range twenty-eight, touches the issouri 
river — due northward. 

The longest straight line that may be drawn within the limits of Ray 
county, would extend from the northwest corner of section six, township 



200 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

fifty-four, range twentv-nine, to the southeast corner of fractional section 
twenty-four, township fifty-one, range twenty-six. 

Ray county is most happily situated in the heart of the most beautiful 
and productive agricultural and mineral region of northwest Missouri. 
Kansas City is distant but forty-four miles from its county seat; St. Joseph 
sixty-seven miles, and St. Louis, the metropolis of the Mississippi valley, 
is only two hundred and thirty-seven miles to the southeastward. 

Natural and artificial lines of transportation are ample and convenient, 
and the great western and southern markets are easily and cheaply 
accessible at all seasons of the year. The citizens of Ray have reason, 
therefore, to rejoice at the fortunate position of their county; and her 
inexhaustible natural resources, coupled with the thrift, industry and 
enterprise of her people, justify the hope that she will ever retain the 
rank she now deservedly holds, as one of the very first counties of 
Missouri. 

The southern border of the county is laved by the waters of the great 
Missouri — reckoning from its source *o the gulf, as is proper, the longest 
river in the world — and while one might reasonably suppose that the 
low lands bordering on so turbid and sluggish a stream are marshy, sub- 
ject to frequent inundation, and therefore well-nigh valueless, such is — in 
Ray county at least — far from the case. These bottoms are highly cul- 
tivable, and the soil is deep, fertile and enduring. 

Stretching across the southern pa-t of the county — save at one or two 
places where bluffs intervene— at ar average width of about five miles, 
and at from fifteen to thirty feet above the average watermark, they have 
good, natural drainage, and are, at almost all times, most admirably 
adapted to the purposes of husbandry. 

These low lands were overflowed in June, 1827; again in June, 1844, 
and again in April, of the present year, 1881; but they are now -May — 
being prepared for the ensuing crop. It will be observed that the inter- 
vals between overflows are so exceedingly long as to scarcely interfere 
with the cultivation of the bottoms; and their generous soil seldom fails to 
yield the industrious husbandman a bountiful harvest. 

In the rear, and on the east and west sides of Camden, an old riparian 
hamlet, in sections twenty-six and twenty-seven, township fifty-one, range 
twenty-eight, the " bluffs" rise to a considerable hight, and present a scene 
picturesque and beautiful —especially in the spring-time, when the trees 
that crown their summits, are freighted with exuberant foiiage. 

The face of the county is beautifully, as well as conveniently diversified 
with prairie land, woodland, groves, valleys and arable hills or knolls. 
The last mentioned, however, in many places are covered with timber. 
The irregular surface configuration is an advantage to husbandry, making 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 201 

the land self-draining, while, from its peculiar nature, it is capable of re- t 
aining moisture during a protracted drought. 

Looking from the summit of a towering hill in the suburbs of Richmond, 
the extensive and variegated landscape, stretching away to the north and 
northeastward, dotted here and there with attractive farm-houses, is an 
exceedingly agreeable sight. Far in the distance, "timber ridge " appears 
looming above the intervening hills, and presenting an even, unbroken 
range that charms the beholder. 

In many localities, more particularly on the water courses, the forests 
are dense, and the timber, in abundant variety, is very fine. Oak, elm, 
ash, hickory, pecan, blackwalnut, sugar maple, white maple, linden, Cot- 
tonwood and other kinds are found. 

Abundant and excellent building material occurs throughout the county, 
though, as yet, it has not been extensively utilized. In various parts of 
the county there are beds of limestone from which rock of almost any de- 
sired size, both durable and agreeable in appearance, might be obtained. 

Ash-blue hydraulic limestone is found two miles northeast of Richmond, 
and similar rock exists at most of the coal banks near Richmond and 
Camden. A strip of limestone country some five miles in width, and 
about eight miles in length, extends through Grape Grove township, in 
the vicinity of Tu ney's Grove. On David Teagarden's land in the north- 
west part of township fifty-three, range twenty-eight, is a limestone quarry. 
The rock is excellent for building purposes, and when first taken from the 
quarry is easily worked, but becomes hard on exposure to the air. * 

Free-stone is also found in the bluffs along the streams. 

The coal mines of the county are extensive, and worked with great 
profit; but we dismiss them here, with cursory notice, for a fuller descrip- 
tion further on. 

On section nine, township fifty-four, range twenty-six, there is every in- 
dication of lead; indeed a considerable quantity of very rich ore has been 
taken out. The hill in which the ore is found is about three hundred feet 
high. There have also been found in this section, some fair specimens of 
silver and copper ore; likewise in section twenty-seven, township fifty- 
three, range twenty-eight. 

* The following is Mahon's definition of limes : "Common or air-lime will air-slake, 
or slake by having water poured over it, and will only harden in the air. Hydraulic lime 
slakes thoroughly like common lime, when deprived of its carbonic acid, and does not 
harden promptly under water. Hydraulic cement does not slake, and usually quickly 
hardens under water. Fat limes give a paste which is unctuous to the sight and touch ; 
meagre limes yield a thin paste. Common limes are fat; hydraulic limes are meagre; but 
all meagre limes are not hydraulic. 

"The limestones which yield hydraulic limes and cements, are either argillaceous or mag- 
nesian, or argillo-magnesian. The hydraulic energy differs according to the proportion 
of lime and clay in their composition. It is necessary that a certain proportion of clay 
should enter into the composition of the limestone. These rocks are generally some shade 
of drab, or gray, or of dark grayish- blue; compact-texture, fracture, even or conchoidal, with 
a clayey or earthy smell and taste. " 
13 



202 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

In township fifty-two, range twenty-nine, are indications of oil; the first, 
second and third sand formations existing the same as in the famous oil 
regions of Pennsylvania. This locality has been prospected, and the indi- 
cations examined by experts, who are confident that, at a depth of from 
seven hundred and forty to eight hundred feet oil will be found . About 
fifteen years ago, a Mrs. Overman, residing on section thirty-four, town- 
ship fifty-two, range twenty-nine, sunk a shaft to the depth of eight hun- 
dred feet; but owing to some defect in the boring, water could not be kept 
out, and the undertaking was not rewarded with success. Samples of the 
drillings, however, were examined by experts' and declared to be the same 
as found in all the oil districts of the country. 

Near the mouth of Rocky fork of Crooked river, there are similar gen- 
uine indications of oil. A petroleum company was organized some years 
ago for prospecting in that locality, and made several borings, but for 
want of sufficient capital the enterprise proved a failure. At different 
places, where the stream flows over the land of White, Long and Adkins, 
oil is actually seen on the surface of the water. 

Ray county is well watered, being traversed by numerous small streams, 
affording sufficient perennial supply of good fresh water for stock and other 
purposes agriculture and industry. 

The following are the principal streams: Crooked river and its tribu- 
taries, East, Middle and West Fork, flowing across the county from north- 
west to southeast, drain the entire central portion ; Wakanda, South 
Wakanda and Cottonwood creek,the northeastern portion; Fishing river, 
Keeny and Rollins creeks, the southwestern, and Willow creek the south- 
central portion. The course of all these streams, except Cottonwood creek, 
is southeasterly. 

The Mirsouri bottoms and prairies constitute probably one half of the 
county. The rest consists of small, fertile valleys, low hills, woodland 
and bluffs— the last named being confined to the Missouri river, except at 
a few points along the banks of streams in the interior [of the county. 

We have thus given a brief topographical outline of the county whose 
history these pages are intended to recite. 

No effort will be made at rhetorical adornment, but we shall endeavor 
to write plainly, and correctly and truthfully, in language to be appre- 
ciated by the people. 



THE PIONEER. 



When the first settlements within what are now the limits of Ray 
county were made, the country was almost wild. Nature was unsubdued. 
The prairies were covered with rank grass. The Indian's bark canoe 
floated on the streams, and the jackal's wail on the midnight air. Wild 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 203 

honey was in the hollows of trees, and a man's life in the hollow of his 
hand. In spring-time, when nature donned her emerald robe, the air was 
freighted with the breath of flowers; feathered warblers thronged the 
wildwood, and the shadowy dale was resonant with the voice of song. 
Birds of plumage were there, but so were birds and beasts of prey — 
the latter sleeping in the da) r , but prowling in the night. It is ever 
thus: the enemies of innocence and beauty lurk secluded till opportunity 
offers to steal a blow. The primeval forests, as yet scarcely scathed by 
the hand of husbandry, were inhabited by ferocious, as well as by a 
great variety of harmless wild animals, including almost every species 
of American game. The panther, bear, jackal, lynx, wildcat, catamount, 
wolf and fox were among the destructive denizens of the tangled wild- 
wood. Myriads of wild turkeys flocked in the groves and ravaged the 
little corn-fields. The streams were full of fishes. Bison browsed on the 
prairie, and elk and deer were abroad in the forest. Hunting, trapping, 
and the gathering of wild honey were the most profitable employments. 
The skins of wild animals afforded raiment for the body — their flesh, food. 
Indeed, the pioneer lived largely on the fruits of the chase. Hunting was 
at once a pleasant and profitable pastime. People living from fifteen to 
forty miles apart were considered near neighbors, and numbers of them 
would often assemble, especially in the autumn, to 

"Drive the fleet deer the forest through, 
And homeward wend with evening dew." 

On these occasions everybody was gleeful; the very dogs were blithesome, 
and leaped for joy; the granting horse, with beaming eye and distended 
nostril, seemed eager for the fun. Peace prevailed and good fellowship 
reigned supreme. As the cold, gray dawn of a November morning 
flooded the frost-crowned trees, with a sea of silver the merry hunter 
would 

" Sound! Sound the horn! To the hunter good 
What's the gully deep, or the roaring flood? 
Right over he bounds, as the wild deer bounds, 
At the heels of his swift, sure, silent hounds. 
Oh, what delights can a mortal lack, 
When he once is firm on his horse's back, 
With his stirrups short and his snaffle strong, 
And the blast of the horn for his morning song? " 

But the sound of the hunter's horn is no longer heard in the land. 
Where it once reverberated the iron horse rends the air from his lungs of 
fire; and the zephyr's wing wafts the din of industry over the felled 
forest, where the jackal screamed and the night-bird piped his plaintive 
strain. 

For several years after the first settlement within the present bounda- 



204 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

ries of the county, the Indian, steadily driven before the advancing front 
of civilization, found a safe asylum in the wilds of the west. The first 
families, therefore, who planted themselves here permanently to remain, 
were subjected to a close intimacy with the savages. Happily, however, 
they were not seriously molested, as the tribes noted for fell barbarities 
failed to visit this immediate region. 

Pioneer life had its pleasures, but also, its hardships and dangers; and 
the latter far more than counterbalanced the former. To leave home 
and kindred and friends, the attachments of early associations, the scenes 
of childhood, the influences of education and refinement, and every fond 
endearment that binds one to the place of his birth, or to the subjects of 
his parental esteem ; to venture far out on the western border, where ani- 
mated and inanimated nature are alike unreclaimed, to face the perils "and 
endure the hardships of frontier life, required a high order of courage — 
a resolution not easily baffled — an iron will. This is quite as it should be; 
those who stock a country with inhabitants should be of the very 
best character, morally, intellectually and physically. So were the men 
and women <who came to people the then remote northwestern frontier 
of Missouri territory — all of which subsequently became, and the richest 
portion of which is now Ray county. 

In writing of the pioneers of this county, the reader will understand 
that our meaning is broad enough to include those who settled within its 
original limits, from the Missouri river to the Iowa line. 

They may have been, as a rule, illiterate, because school advantages 
were extremely meager; some of them — many of them— were wild and 
wayward, for they lived on the "outskirts of civilization," and had to 
battle with the hardships of frontier life. The ruffian anon stole into their 
midst, but he was not of them — yet among them and of them were 
Christians; and if there were no church buildings, the groves — "God's 
first temples" — in summer, and the primitive dwelling of some pious 
neighbor in winter, afforded them a sacred fane for the worship of the 
Infinite One. They wore " hodden gray " — cloth woven by the frugal 
house-wife from nettles, gathered by the boys from the woods and river 
bottoms; aye, thev wore even the tanned skins of wild animals; and 
dined on " homely fare." But what of that, they were honest men. 

They occasionally fought, it is true, but fought like men — forgave each 
other, and were friends. Prejudice, jealousy or suspicion found no lodg- 
ment in their hearts; neither was there room there for treachery or decep- 
tion. They spurned all littleness, scorned bickering and smothered the 
flames of rankling revenge. They worshipped no god but God, and 
looked with contempt on the fawning sycophant, the sharker and the 
charlatan. Of their number, the modern " politician " was not one. 
While their independence of thought gave each an opinion of his own, 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 205 

the one respected the views of every other. Individuality asserted itself 
in their adherence to different political parties, but they were wedded 
to no organization, and in reality, their test of merit for public official 
position, was the JefFersonian test. The pioneer is not a time-server; 
he loves independence. 

Amon<i the females, the "common scold" was unknown. A venial 
fault was not expanded to a crime. A neighbor's misfortune caused 
them genuine sorrow. They were frugal, but not sordid; liberal, not 
lavish; cheerful and diligent. Vanity failed to entice them. They were 
happy in their homespun garb. They were content to work. The hus- 
band, home at night, " free from care, from labor free," was lulled'to rest 
by the steadv whir of the spinning-wheel. Their ready hands shaped 
fells into garments, drove the shuttle, swayed the batten, whirled the dis- 
taff — and their owners were never peevish, because never idle. 

Such was the character, with rare exceptions, of the men and 
women, who left their homes in Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, and 
other southern states, to participate in the settlement, ultimately in the 
organization, and to contribute to the growth and prosperity of Ray 
county; from among whom her first officers were chosen, and of whom 
many of her best citizens of to-day are descendants. But they are gone, 
let us hope, to dwell with "just men made perfect." We know that, on 
earth, theirs were the homes of peace and contentment; that they dwelt 
together in harmony, in love. 

"Dwelt in the love of God and of man. Alike were they free from 
Fear, that reigns with the tyrant, and envy, the vice of republics. 
Neither locks had they to their doors, nor bars to their windows; 
But their dwellings were open as day and the hearts of their owners." 



EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND SETTLERS. 

t 

The first settlers within the boundaries afterwards embracing Ray 
county, came in the summer of 1815. 

The country was not a wilderness, not a dreary waste ; it was a broad 
expanse of diversified area, rich, productive, beautiful; but undeveloped, 
unpolished by the hand of art, undisturbed in the embrace of nature's God. 

The pioneers' old fashioned Virginia wagons, covered with white 
canvas, drawn by three horses, forming a " spike team," guided by a 
single line attached to the rein of the leader's bridle, and in the hands of 
a driver seated on the rear horse at the left wheel, halted on the east 
bank of Crooked river, not far above its mouth. It was August. The 
trees were crowned with luxuriant foliage. The forest was resonant with 
its own music, and redolent of summer's perfume. Spread out before 






206 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

* 

the travel-worn immigrant in all its pristine beauty, nature's handiwork 
presented a scene too inviting to pass. The opposite was the more attract- 
ive shore, but the stream was swollen, and how to cross was a problem 
to solve. It was quickly done. Trees were felled, a raft made, and the 
party swimming their horses, passed safe to the other shore, and went 
into camp. Thus, though its privations continued for a time, a long and 
toilsome journey, all the way from the sterile hills of East Tennessee, was 
brought to a welcome ending; and the first white families, who paused 
to remain, west of Grand river from the Missouri to the Iowa line, passed 
the first night within what afterwards became the limits of Ray county. 
Their tents and canvased wagons afforded them sufficient shelter for 
the summer and early fall, but not from the rigors of winter. Quarters 
more substantial and capacious had to be built of logs, and ere this work 
could be completed, autumn's golden glamour was fading in the " sear 
and yellow leaf." Winter was coming on apace, and soon 
" The embattled forests, erewhile armed with gold, 

Their banners bright with every martial hue, 
Stood like some sad, beaten host of old, 

Withdrawn afar in Time's remotest blue." 

But their hovels were finished in time to shield them from the severity of 
winter, and that season was doubtless passed with little suffering and 
in comparative comfort, considering the proximity of savages and fero- 
cious wild animals. 

The place of the first settlements was called Buffalo, probably because 
frequented by that animal, and was not far from the present site of Har- 
din, in what is now Crooked River township, in the southeastern part 
of the county. 

The settlement at Buffalo, or the Buffalo settlement, more properly, 
perhaps, was made by immigants from Tennessee, Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia. The very first settler was John Vanderpool, a Tennessean. He 
located, as above stated, on the west side of Crooked river,* in August, 
J 81 5. With him was his wife, Ellen Vanderpool, and the following chil- 
dren: Winant, Meaddors, Kinman, Mary, Delilah, Holland, and John. 
Lydia and James were born in Ray county. The latter, at the age of 
seven years, was drowned in the Missouri river. Winant, Kinman and 
Delilah, are dead ; the rest still living. Meaddors is living in Oregon, and 
although ninety years of age, continues to survey land. He, in 1819, 
taught the first school ever taught in Ray county. He also surveyed 
this county, and afterwards Chariton, Clay, Carroll, and Caldwell. His 
life has been one of many hardships, of continued labor, yet he is still 
active and energetic. Mary and John also reside in Oregon. Holland, 
to whom the writer is indebted for much interesting information con- 
cerning the early history of the county, is still a resident of Ray, making 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 207 

his home with a friend near Richmond. Ray county has been his home 
from early childhood, and he is now in his seventy-sixth year. No man 
knows any harm of Holland Vanderpool; he is a true Christian, inno- 
cent, emotional and warm-hearted. The entire family is remarkable for 
longevity. John Vanderpool lived to be quite old, and his father died at 
the advanced age of one hundred and nine. 

Isaac Martin, who came from Kentucky, Lewis Richards, and Stephen 
and Joseph Field, from Tennessee, settled in the Buffalo neighborhood the 
same year. Isaac Martin became prominent as a local politician; was 
among the first representatives of the county in the general assembly, 
and held other county offices. He was unlettered, but of strong natural 
sense, and was a good neighbor, and a true gentleman. In one of his 
races for the legislature, Martin's competitor was Dr. W. P. Thompson, 
a Virginian, an educated, as well as a most worthy gentleman. A public 
meeting was held at old Bluffton. Dr. Thompson made a speech of 
some length, in which he mentioned with an air of pride, that he was 
from Virginia, and modestly referred to his scholarship and the school 
from which he graduated. Martin replied in the following words: 

" Gentlemen and fellow-citizens : I was born in Kentucky. I never went 
to school but three days in my life; the third day I whipped the teacher and 
left. What little I got was in the field, and it's right in here;" (pointing to his 
head). 

Martin was a democrat, and was elected. Living in the county at that 
time was a poor old man, named Wallace, a revolutionary soldier, who 
had never received a pension. Approaching Martin, he told him of this 
neglect, whereupon Martin replied: "Old man, I appreciate your serv- 
ices in the cause of independence ; rest assured that PI! see that you get 
the pension you justly deserve." The pension was secured through Mar- 
tin's efforts, and the old soldier lived to the end of his few remaining 
years in comparative comfort. 

The following year, 1810, Abraham Linville, Aaron Linville, John 
Proffitt, and a man named Wood, with their families, joined the first set- 
tlers. They were all from Tennessee. 

From this first settlement are derived, of course, the first incidents of 
early history. We mention some of them, as follows: 

The first marriage solemnized between persons living within the pres- 
ent boundaries of Ray county, was that of Winant Vanderpool to Miss 
Nancy Linville, about Christmas, 1815. There being no minister in the 
neighborhood, they were compelled to go many miles eastward to find 
one to perform the ceremony. 

A son born to Katie, wife of John Proffitt, in the year 1810, was the 
first white male child born in the county ; but it died in infancy. 

Missouri, daughter of Winant and Nancy Vanderpool, born in 1810, 



208 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

was the first female child born in what subsequently became Ray county 
The father, an Old School Baptist preacher, is now dead. The mother 
as well as the daughter, are still living, the former in Mercer county. 

The first death was that of an infant son, mentioned above, of John 
Profhtt and wife, occurring in 1816, followed soon after by the death ot 
Peggy, daughter of W. and Nancy Vanderpool. Both decedents were 
buried on Crooked river, in the Buffalo settlement. 

Dr. William P. Thompson, from Virginia, an educated, genial, and 
obliging gentleman, was the first practicing physician. He died in 
Grundy county, Missouri. 

Reverend Finis Clark, of the Baptist denomination, Old School, was 
the first preacher. He was a good man; one among many others, 
who wore and wears religion not as a cloak to conceal the designs of a 
wicked heart. The first religious services were held at the house of 
Isaac Martin. In the winter season preaching was held in the neighbors 
dwellings. In the summer time 

* * * "In the darkling wood, 
Amidst the cool and silence, they knelt down, 
And offered to the Mightiest solemn thanks 
And supplication." * * * 

Men carried their guns to church, not to shoot their fellow-man, but to 
defend themselves against the attacks of wild animals. They also wore 
leather breeches, hunting-shirts, moccasins, and coon-skin caps. The 
ladies were attired in dresses of cloth, made from nettles, gathered from 
the bottoms, after partially decaying, and " broken," as flax. They also 
wore leathern aprons. 

The first school house was built by the settlers on Ogg's branch, in 
section four, township fifty-one, range twenty-eight. The thing built was 
but a rude, unsightly hut. The logs were unhewn; the roof was of 
rough boards, weighted to the rafters with heavy poles; the chimney was 
made of sticks, and the floor was the naked ground. The seats were 
puncheons, set on pegs, inserted into holes near either end. The writing 
desk was of the same material, but larger, and placed on longer pegs. A 
log, taken from either side of the house, and the apertures closed with 
greased paper, formed the windows. A hobby-horse stood in the corner, 
for the accommodation of refractory pupils. 

In this house, in the spring and summer of 1819, was taught the first 
school ever taught in the county, and Meaddors Vanderpool was the 
teacher. It was a subscription school, and the master was paid in calves, 
buck-skins, and wild honey. 

All the first settlers did their own domestic labor. The weaving of 
cloth was done at home by mothers and daughters, and, in many cases, as 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 209 

already stated, the cloth was the product of nettles or thistles, with which, 
at that day, the country abounded. 

Corn meal was made by putting the grain into a mortar, and pulver- 
izing it by pounding with a pestle. The meal was sifted through home- 
made sieves, formed of buckskin and wire. 

In 1817 the settlers, anticipating an attack from the Indians, and for 
their general safety and protection, built, on the Missouri, southeast of 
where Camden now stands, what they called a fort. A circular enclosure, 
made by setting cottonwood posts in the earth, formed the stockade. In 
the center of this was a block-house, made of heavy timber, and provided 
with loop-holes. The fort was called North Bluffton, and was the first 
village founded in Missouri territory west of Grand, and north of the 
Missouri river. It stood close to the river bank, but the stream has long 
since changed its channel, and the site of North Bluffton is overgrown 
with trees and herbage. 

All the settlers entered the fort and lived therein for some time, but 
really to no purpose, as it was never necessary to use it as a barrier of 
defense. The Indians were friendly, and seemed influenced more by a 
desire to pilfer, than by motives of hostility. 

The first settlement was a nucleus around which others were rapidly 
formed. In March, 1818, John, Richard, Samuel, Zachariah, William, 
and Jesse Cleavenger, Isaac Allen, John Hutchings, Lewis, Samuel, and 
Jacob Tarwater, James Wells, and William R. Blythe (a trapper), settled 
in Fishing river bottom, in the southwestern part of the county. They, 
too, were all from middle and east Tennessee. 

The next year R. Lewis McCoskrie, a native of Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky, settled in the same locality; Captain Jacob Rifle, from Casey 
county, Kentucky, a little further to the east, in township fifty-one, range 
twenty-eight, and Dorcdle Rowland and David Fletcher, on sections three 
and ten, township fifty-one, range twenty-nine, respectively. They came 
from Indiana directly; originally from North Carolina. 

The above settlers all came to stay, and were sober, industrious, hon- 
est men. Several of them held county and township offices at different 
times. 

John Cleavenger was the first settler between his house and the Iowa line. 
He afterwards became a justice o fthe peace ; served two years as sheriff, 
and from 1856 to 1858, represented the county in the state general assem- 
bly. He was a worthy and useful citizen, and many of his descendants 
are yet living in the county. 

Jesse Cleavenger lost his life by falling from a second story window of 
a farm house, in which religious services were being held when the acci- 
dent occurred. 



210 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY 

R. Lewis McCoskrie still lives where he settled sixty-two years ago. 
His name is untarnished. 

Jas. Wells was appointed, by the first state legislature, one of the com- 
missioners to locate the permanent seat of justice of Ray county. 

Capt. Jacob Rifle was widely known and esteemed. His name is yet 
familiar in every part of the county. His marriage to Miss Rutha Mar- 
tin, February 15, 1821, by B. D. Bowmer, a justice of the peace, was 
among the first solemnized in the county; and his son, William C, was 
the first white child born in what is now Richmond township. 

Samuel Cleavenger served several terms as justice of the county court. 

William R. Blythe was twice elected to represent Rav in the general 
assembly, and was her first state senator. 

Isaac Allen became a judge of the county court. The settlement was 
called " the Tarwater settlement," in honor of Jacob Tarwater. 

The physicians who practiced in the neighborhood^ 1818, and thereaf- 
ter, were: Dr. W. P. Thompson, Dr. A. B. Ralph, who is now (April, 
1881,) living at Albany, this county, and Dr. John Sappington, an emi- 
nent physician, who died at his home, near Arrow Rock, in Saline county, 
September 7, 1856. (Dr. Sappington was the originator and proprietor 
of "Sap-pi lights Anli Fever Pills" which attained immense popularity 
and were extensively sold — in some places passing as a medium of 
exchange — throughout the eastern, middle, western, and southern states.) 

The first ministers were Rev. William Turnage and Rev. Finis Clark, 
Baptists. Services were held at the house of Jacob Tarwater, a pious, 
pure-minded man, in section 10, township 51, 29. 

The school house was a mean little cabin, similar to the one already 
described, situated near the Tarwater place. The teacher was one Mun- 
holland; the number of pupils twenty, and the tuition $2.50 per quarter 
per pupil, a slight improvement, surely, on the Vanderpool school in the 
matter of compensation. If, in point of fact, less remunerative, it showed 
progression in method, at least. 

The early settlers were, of course, compelled to endure many hardships 
and privations. To detail all these would require greater space than the 
plan of this work will allow. Suffice it to say that mills, markets, etc., 
were from forty to seventy miles distant, and, as there were no roads, or 
at best very inferior ones, the mills and markets were accessable only 
with difficulty. 

For a long time the nearest horse-mill was forty miles distant, and sugar 
and coffee (tea being a luxury in pioneer life rarely indulged in.) were to 
be obtained only at Fort Osage, on the south bank of the Missouri, in 
Jackson county. 

In 1818 Isaac Martin built a horse-mill near his residence on Crooked 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 211 

river, and shortly afterward John C. Bates erected a similar mill in Bluff- 
ton. 

These mills had each a capacity of about twenty-rive bushels per day. 
The roads leading to them were poor and lonely, but necessity forced 
persons living from twenty-five to thirty miles away to patronize them. 
Having reached the mill, the applicant was compelled to remain from 
three to five days, waiting for his grain to be ground, meanwhile subsist- 
ing on game and wild hone)-, using parched corn in lieu of bread. 

Trade in live-stock, other than "swapping'' horses, was almost 
unknown. There were few cattle; and they could be bought, when 
found, at from three to twenty dollars, according to age, size or quality. 

The average price of pork, which was exceedingly scarce, was about 
one dollar and fifty cents per hundred weight, and a market for that com- 
modity was not easily found. In fact, the first settlers had no hogs. 
Much time in the early fall was spent in laying in a supply of meat for 
the winter, and venison hams, nicely cured, formed a considerable portion of 
the pioneer's food. 

The wild hog was in the woods, and the pioneer, being an unerring 
marksman, never failed to bring him down, save when his usually faithful 
flintlock " hun<r fire." 

The streams abounded with fish, and "gigging" was a favorite recrea- 
tion of the early settler. But this pastime could be enjoyed only at night 
and when the streams were clear and shallow. Near the front end of a 
canoe, five or six boards were laid crosswise, thus forming a small plat- 
form, which was covered with mud or mortar. On this a fire was built 
of dry wood, a supply of which for the night was prepared and placed 
in the canoe. One man sat at the rear, and with a paddle noiselessly pro- 
pelled the canoe, while another stood near the front and thrust his long- 
handled gig into the fish as he saw it by the light of the fire. 

But little money was in circulation, and happily little was required. 
The scalps of wolves and foxes, for which the law provided a pecuniary 
reward, were often used to pay taxes; and furs, buckskins, beeswax and 
wild honey were bartered in the stores. Many of the settlers being with- 
out gold or silver, the only medium receivable by the government in pay- 
ment of lands entered, actually deposited with the land agent, at his office 
in Franklin, doe-skins and beeswax in payment of their indebtedness for 
land. From this fact the skins so deposited acquired the appellation of 
"land office money." 

Bank notes of all the states were in circulation, and were received at par 
as a medium of exchange between the settlers, but were not "land office 
money." A United States bill was very seldom met with, and gold and 
silver were extremely scarce, being used only in entering land and in the 
payment of expenses incident to the land office. 



212 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Of course none of the vast multitude of labor and time-saving inven- 
tions, wrought out by the ingenuity of man, were in the hands of the early 
settlers, on the wild western borders. All domestic and mechanical labor 
was performed by the settlers. There were few carpenters among them ; 
skilled artisans were scarce; hence, every man was his own mechanic. 
Many agricultural implements; all wearing apparel, and nearly all house- 
hold articles were made at home. Rude and unshapely as they were, 
they answered every purpose, and nobody complained because they were 
no better. 

The idler was not tolerated; the housewife was untiring; the husband 
provident; the children dutiful. 

Thus lived the First Settlers. 

"Nor you, ye proud, impute to them the fault, 
If memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise, 
Where thro 1 the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault, 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise." 



INDIANS. 

The Indians inhabiting this section when first visited by white settlers, 
and for several years afterwards, were the Sacs and Iowas. They 
claimed the country as their own, and, of course, regarded the whites as 
intruders; yet they were friendly, and, though perhaps regretfully, with- 
out resistance yielded dominion to the superior, incoming Caucasian. 

A few deeds of blood and plunder were committed by savages who 
occasionally stole into the country from more war-like tribes, but tradition 
has no graver charge to prefer against the Sacs and Iowas than begging, 
pilfering and the like. They were not given to such dastardly deeds of 
despoliation and murder as the ancient Iroquois ; nor were they so barbar- 
ous as the neighboring Osage. 

The white men, women and children soon became thoroughly familiar 
with the "poor Indian," and the latter's appearance excited no alarm. 

One day in July, 1818, a band of marauding savages, belonging to the 
Osage tribe, camped in the yard of a Mrs. Macelroy, a widow, living near 
the mouth of Fishing river. The Indians built fires in the yard, and 
began cooking and eating roasting ears, pilfering, shooting pigs, and 
driving away the horses. The only inmates of the house were the two 
persons who lived there — the widow and her little son, aged ten. The 
latter was sent to the house of Mr. Martin Parmer, a near neighbor, to 
tell him of the presence of the savages; of their depredations, and to seek 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 213 

his assistance. Parmer, on receiving the message, seized his gun; a 
grown son did the same, and, accompanied by the boy, the two hastily 
proceeded to the widow's house, on reaching which, the boy entered by 
the back door. By this time all the Indians had left but seven, who were 
still in the yard. Parmer and his son fired upon them, killing two. The 
rest ran into the house, where the mother and son were trembling with 
fear. With their tomahawks, the savages cut off two of the boy's fin- 
gers, and inflicted other severe wounds, but failed to kill him. The elder 
Parmer climbed upon the roof and commenced tearing off the boards, 
whereupon one of the Indians ran out of the house, attempting to escape; 
but Parmer fired upon him from the house-top, and brought the savage 
to the ground. His firearm discharged, Parmer drew a butcher-knife, 
hastily descended, and ran to the wounded Indian. The latter, insolent 
even in the moment of death, turned upon his back and attempted to spit 
in the face of his antagonist, when Parmer, with his butcher-knife, cut 
the Indian's throat " from ear to ear." 

The father and son killed three of the four remaining savages; the 
other, though severely wounded, made his escape. The six dead Indians 
were dragged to a deep gully and thrown in. 

This bloody rencounter alarmed the settlers; they expected the Indians 
to seek revenge; the latter, however, showed no disposition to retaliate. 

Stephen Fields, who will be remembered as one of the original settlers 
in the Buffalo neighborhood, about 1820, moved to the bluffs, on Crooked 
river, near where the present poor farm is situated. The Indians com- 
menced killing his hogs. At this Fields was greatly enraged, and, taking 
his gun, one morning, went into the woods, and came upon three Indians, 
also with guns. Fields told the Indians they had been killing his hogs, 
and to faickachec (get away). The savages bitterly denied the accusa- 
tion, but Fields insisted that he was not mistaken; he knew they had 
been killing his hogs. Unable to pacify the old man, the three Indians 
seized him, stripped off his shirt, and, with the ramrod of his own gun, 
flogged him unmercifully, lacerating his back in a horrible manner, 
they told him to -puckachee. That he did, is not a " rash presumption. 

This outrageous affair caused great excitement. Mr. Fields was an 
old man, sixty years of age, and greatly esteemed by his neighbors. The 
people were aroused. A company was raised to follow and punish the 
savages. The latter, anticipating retaliation, decamped long before sun- 
rise the following morning. When their pursuers, about sunrise, reached 
the camp the Indians had deserted, their tires were still burning. Hair, 
bones, feet and flesh of the hogs they had killed were scattered around. 
The indignant whites pursued the Indians as far as Grand river, which 
the latter swam, thus baffling their pursuers. 

Returning to their homes, the whites found, at many places in the 



21i HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

woods, venison hams hanging in the trees. They had been hung up by 
the Indians to dry. 

A venerable gentleman, who was living near the scene of the occur- 
rence just related, at the date thereof, who was one of the party of orig- 
inal settlers, and has always lived in the county, assures the writer that 
he remembers of no other deeds of violence committed by the Sacs and 
Iowas. They were generally very friendly. 

On one occasion, a party of surveyors ( Meaddors and Holland Vander- 
pool being two of the party, the former surveyor-in-chief), was camped 
in the woods. It was a rainy day in autumn, and the men remained in 
their tent for shelter — availing themselves, meanwhile, of the excellent 
opportunity of washing their leather breeches and hunting shirts. 
About ten days were required in which to complete their survey. The 
party was busily engaged in washing their wearing apparel, when, out of 
the rainfall, six Indians stepped into the tent. They at once began making 
a variety of significant gestures, such as picking up ashes and putting 
them to their lips, plainly indicating that what they wanted was salt, an 
article of which the party had on hand in a little bag lying in sight, about 
a quart. Their request not being complied with, the Indians proposed to 
exchange for the salt a butcher-knife they had brought along, and their 
powder and bullets, ejaculating, as they held out the articles, "how swap!" 
"how swap!" The reply came, "no swap!" " no swap." Meantime, the 
white men had begun to sniff, and hold their noses, as an odor, not agree- 
able to evenr olf actor, was permeating the atmosphere of the little tent; 
and suddenly, a big Indian thrust from under his blanket, next to his skin, 
a genuine skunk, exclaiming, " how swap pony cat," " how swap pony 
cat," his companions, at the same time, gabbling like a flock of geese. 
The whites, at once comprehending the ruse, failed to disperse, and again 
replied, "no swap," "no swap." Foiled in this trick, the big Indian at 
once invented another; a mark was made on a tree, some paces in front 
of the tent, at which five of the Indians, standing in the tent door, consec- 
utively shot. No sooner had the fifth fired, than the five ran toward the 
tree, as if to see which had won. This was to attract the white's atten- 
tion—and it did so. In the excitement the big Indian deftly slipped the 
bag of salt under his blanket, and ran in the direction of the mark, but 
he never stopped there. The surveyors were compelled to eat fresh 
meat without salt about ten da} r s. 

It is a well-known fact, that the Indians were exceedingly fond of honey, 
and yet remarkably afraid of bees. Holland Vanderpool and Daniel 
Riggs — youngest son of Timothy — were one day cutting a bee tree in the 
forest. Two Indians came up, but being afraid, not of the men, but of 
bees, stood at some distance looking on. The tree was soon felled to the 
ground, and the large, rich, delicious comb taken from its hollow. While 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 215 

the process of " robbing " was going on, the Indians stood making signs, 
by thrusting out their hands in a grasping manner and returning them to 
their mouths, which stood ajar, to indicate that they wanted some honey. 
Mr. Vanderpool, proverbially generous, took a large piece to each of them. 
They expressed their gratitude by tenderly stroking him on the breast, 
and by the exclamation, " good muck-a-man, " "good muck-a-man. " Be- 
sides being afraid of bees, the Indians were too lazy to cut the trees. 
Laziness is one of the chief characteristics of the Indian. All heavy work 
and drudgery are forced upon the squaws. 

It will be seen, then, that the early settlers of Ray county suffered little 
on account of the Indians. They were fortunate in locating in the midst 
of friendlv tribes — the Sacs and Iowas. 



ORGANIZATION. 



Ray county was originally a part of Howard county, but by act of the 

legislature, approved November 16, 1820, to take effect January 1, 1821, 

it was formally organized as a separate and distinct county, and named in 

honor of the Hon. John Ray, one of the delegates from Howard county to 

the convention which met in St. Louis, in June, 1820, for the purpose of 

framing a state constitution preparatory to the admission of Missouri into 
the union. 

The legislative act establishing Ray county denned her territory to be, 
" all that part of Howard county west of Grand river to the boundary 
line of this state ;" and then went on to declare that all that portion of 
country lying north of the county of Ray, and west of the range line 
dividing ranges twenty-one, and twenty-two, to the northern and western 
boundary of the state should be attached to said county of Ray for all 
purposes, civil, military and judicial. 

Ray, it should be remembered, was organized while the rich and beau- 
tiful area acquired under the celebrated " Platte Purchase " was yet an 
Indian reservation. It was not till 1836, that that sagacious, far-seeing states- 
man, Thomas H. Benton, succeeded in procuring the passage of a bill 
through congress providing for the removal of the Indians farther west- 
ward, and the adding of their territory to Missouri. When Ray county, 
therefore, was established it extended to the western border of the state, 
or to what has since become that portion of Missouri containing the coun- 
ties of Andrew, Atchison, Buchanan, Holt, Nodaway and Platte, known 
as the " Platte Purchase;" and it then comprised within its limits all that 
broad and beautiful expanse of country now divided into the prosperous 
counties of Worth, Gentry, DeKalb, Clinton, Clay, Ray, Harrison, Mer- 
cer, Grundy, Livingston and Carroll. 



216 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Article VI. of the act organizing Ray county, provides that, " when a 
division of said county of Ray may become necessary, the boundary line 
of said county shall be as follows, to-wit: Beginning in the middle of the 
main channel of the Missouri river, at the range line between ranges 
twenty-five and twenty-six; thence with said line north to the township 
line dividing townships fifty-five and fifty-six; thence west with said line 
to the line dividing ranges twenty-nine and thirty ; thence south with said 
line to the middle of the main channel of the Missouri river; thence down 
the middle of the main channel thereof to the place of beginning." 

It will be observed that the present limits of the county correspond with 
those set forth in the above article, save as to the northern boundary line, 
which, in fact, is that separating townships fifty-four and fiftv-five, instead 
of those numbered fifty-five and fifty-six. The latter townships are in 
Caldwell county. 

Section XX of "an act defining the limits of the several counties in 
this state," approved February 16, 1825, provides as follows: "That all 
that portion of territory bounded as follows, to-wit: Beginning at a point 
in the middle of the main channel of the Missouri river, due south of the 
termination of range line between ranges twenty-five' and twenty-six, 
north of said river, and running thence north, with range line to the town- 
ship line dividing townships fifty-three and fifi ty-J our; thence with said line 
west to the range line between ranges twenty-nine and thirty; thence 
south with said range line to the middle of the main channel of the Mis- 
souri river; thence down said river, in the middle of the main channel 
thereof, to the beginning, shall compose the county of Ray: Provided, 
That all the territory not included in said boundaries, lying east of 
the ranges twenty-nine and thirty, south of the northern boundary 
of the state, west of Chariton county, and north of the Missouri river; and 
all that part of the county of Ray which is stricken oft" by the before men- 
tioned boundary line lying north of the before mentioned boundry of said 
county, be attached to, and form part of said county of Ray for all pur- 
poses, civil and military, until otherwise provided by law." 

It will thus be seen that — excluding the territory attached for "civil and 
military purposes" — the above mentioned boundaries are the same as the 
present confines of the county, except that, this time, the northern limit is 
the township line separating townships fifty-three and fifty four, whereas, 
Article VI of the act establishing the county provided that when- 
ever it should become necessary to divide the county, its northern 
boundary should be the township line between townships fifty-five and 
fifty-six. This line is the space of one township north, and that mentioned 
in the act of February, 1825, the same distance south of the existing 
northern boundary line — which was fixed December 26, 1836, when Cald- 
well county was formed out of the northern part of Ray. Clay county was 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 217 

erected January 2, 1822, from the western part of Ray, and Carroll Jan- 
uary 2, 1833, from the eastern portion. The formation of these counties, 
together with Caldwell, above mentioned, left Ray with her present 
boundaries. 

Isaac Martin, James Wells, John Harris, John Turner, and Jonathan 
Liggett were appointed by the legislature commissioners, " with full power 
and authority to point out and fix upon the most suitable place in the 
county of Ray, whereon to erect a court house and jail ; " and the place 
they, or a majority of them, selected was to be the permanent seat of 
justice for said county of Ray. The act provided that the first courts of 
the county should be holden at the town of Bluffton, unless the com- 
missioners should previously point out another place for holding said 
courts. The commissioners were authorized bv law to receive as a dona- 
tion, a good and sufficient title in fee simple to such tract of land or 
town lots as they, or a majority of them, should deem most convenient for 
a county-seat for the county of Ray, containing not less than fifty, nor 
more than two hundred acres of land ; and if such donation could not be 
obtained,, the commissioners, in that event, were empowered to purchase 
a similar quantity of land, without any reservation whatever, for the pur- 
poses aforesaid. They were to pay in cash, ten dollars per acre. The 
deeds by them received were to be submitted to the circuit court for 
approval, and if approved by the court, the commissioners were to cause 
the land to be laid off' in town lots, or squares. They were further 
authorized to sell said lots, first reserving such as might be necessary for 
public buildings, and the money received from their sale was to be applied, 
first, "to the building of a good and sufficient jail, and the remainder 
toward the building of a court house and other public buildings." The 
commissioners were notified of their appointment, by the governor, and 
were required to take an oath, or affirmation before some judge, or justice 
of the peace of Ray county, to faithfully and impartially discharge the 
duties assigned them, and that they would not select any place for a seat 
of justice, wherein they, or any one of them, were directly or indirectly 
interested in the soil. They were required to render a true account of 
their proceedings to the circuit court at each term thereof, after their 
several appointments; they were also required to give bond, with at 
least two sufficient sureties, to be approved by the judge of the circuit 
court. 

On and after the first day of January, 1821, the county of Ray was 
vested with all the powers, privileges and immunities of a separate and 
distinct county. It then became lawful for the sheriff, coroner and con- 
stable to " do and perform" all duties which those officers were required 
to do in the county of Howard; and all suits and actions then pending in 
U 



218 HISTORV OF RAV COUNTY. 

the count}' of Howard, were to be tried and determined in the same man- 
ner as though no division had taken place; all fees, fines, forfeitures, 
judgments, due on the first day of January, or to become due in pursu- 
ance of suits, processes, taxes, or proceedings then commenced, were to 
be collected in the same manner as if the act creating the county of Ray 
had never been passed. Justices of the peace in the county of Ray, who 
acted as such while it was included within the county of Howard, had 
full power and authority to proceed in all cases commenced, or judgments 
given before them as justices of the peace for the county of Howard. 
Any person who acted as justice of the peace for that part of the county 
of Howard which fell into the county of Ray, was required to deliver to 
some justice of the peace of the township in which he resided " all dock- 
ets, documents, papers, and books," which belonged or related to his 
office of justice, "whole, safe and undefaced." The justice to whom they 
were delivered, receipted for the same, and it became his duty to proceed 
on such dockets, etc., in the same manner as the justice would have done 
had the act never been passed. 

The first circuit court convened at Bluffton, on the Missouri river, in 
February, 1821, and the first county court at the sarne place in April of 
the same year. A district judge, three count)- justices, a county and cir- 
cuit clerk, and a sheriff, whose names will be given at the proper place in 
a succeeding chapter, were duly appointed. Thus was the municipal 
machinery of Ray county set in motion ; and, save during a memorable 
period due to no default of her citizens, it has ever since continued to run 
smoothly and without retardation. 



FIRST COUNTY SEAT, AND EARLY MUNICIPAL HISTORY. 

The legislature, as already stated, by the act organizing Ray as a sep- 
arate county, made Bluffton, on the Missouri river, its temporary set of 
justice. There, of course, the courts were to be held, and all county 
business transacted, until the commissioners appointed to select a site for 
the permanent location of the county seat, should have performed that 
dutv according to law : and until the title papers, conveying the land 
donated to, or purchased by them should be duly approved by the judge 
of the circuit court as the law provided. Such approval, as the sequel 
will show, was most tardily obtained; and, owing to the difficulty in 
selecting a more eligible place, to which a perfect legal title could be 
given, Bluffton continued to enjoy the distinction of being the " Seat of 
Justice " of a new, but large and prosperous county, for nearly seven 
years. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 219 

Tradition tells many interesting stories of " Old Blufrton," once a smil- 
ing village on the banks of the broad Missouri, 

" Where health and plenty cheered the laboring swain " — 

but it no longer exists, save in name, on the early official records, by 
traditional evidence, and in the memories of the oldest living inhabitants. 
In the latter repositories it must soon perish, as the oldest residents are fast 
joining the "innumerable caravan that travel to the pale realms of shade;" 
by the other means, however, aided — let us indulge the hope — by the 
pages of this volume, it will, no doubt, enjoy a longevity extending far 
beyond the limits of the present generation. In 1821, William B. Martin, 
Robert Nicholson and Timothy Riggs were the tavern-keepers of Blufi- 
ton. They received their licenses— for which each paid a "tax" of ten 
dollars — from the county court. Martin afterwards became a justice of 
the county court, and held other public positions of trust and profit. 
Timothy Riggs was a man of some prominence — a naive, garrulous, 
good-natured landlord, in whose house the first circuit and county courts 
were held. The records contain no mention of Nicholson and tradition 
fails to hand him down. 

Ray county was organized before the ingenuity of man made the very 
elements subservient to his will. Not yet did the "rail-car snort from 
strand to strand ; " and, in order to reach the seat of justice, on its south- 
ern border, persons in remote parts of the county, which then extended 
northward to the Iowa state line and westward to the Indian reservation, 
were compelled to traverse many miles either afoot or on horseback, as 
necessity required; and were often on the road from four to six days. 
This fact, doubtless, more than any other, made " tavern-keeping " profit- 
able even in the country; and many persons were licensed by the 
county court to "keep tavern," at their residences, in different local- 
ities in the county — a privilege lasting one year, and for which each 
licensee was required to pay a "tax" of ten dollars. Besides those 
already enumerated, Isaac Martin and Martin Parmer were among the 
early " tavern keepers." Of the former we shall have more to say here- 
after. Parmer, familiarly known as "Ring-Tail Painter," was a noted 
pioneer. He came to this county about the year 1S16. In the fall of 
1817 he built a log cabin near Grand river, in what is now De Witt town- 
ship, Carroll county, and established himself for the winter to engage in 
trapping. The cabin erected by Parmer is said to have been the first 
ever built within the present limits of Carroll county. Parmer was a 
celebrated Indian fighter, and in another place in these pages it shall be 
our pleasure to give an account of his heroic defense of helpness inno- 
cence. He was exceedingly eccentric in habit, rough in manners, unlet- 
tered, but warm-hearted, brave, generous and daring. He preferred the 
seclusion of the wilderness to the abodes of civilization: vet he became a 



220 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

politician, joining this pursuit to that of trapper and Indian fighter; and 
was the first man to represent Chariton county in the state general assem- 
bly. He first settled in Howard, afterwards Ray county, where he lived 
a number of years, endearing himself by deeds of valor, as well as by 
offices of kindness, to all his fellow-pioneers. 

William Turnage, an Old School Baptist, was the village preacher 
of Bluffton. He also conducted religious worship at various places in the 
county. He was among the first settlers, and will be remembered as one 
of the pioneer preachers of the west; a devout and pure-minded man, 
whose earnest exhortations taught many souls to " flee from the wrath to 
come." But Rev. Turnage was not the only minister. Others, whose 
names will be mentioned hereafter, labored with him, and with equal 
fervor and fidelity. 

The first legal judicial tribunal that ever sat in Ray county, was the 
circuit court, and it was held in the town of Bluffton, Monday, the 19th 
day of February, 1821. 

David Todd personally appeared, and produced a commission from the 
governor of Missouri, appointing him judge of the first judicial circuit — 
Ray being one of the counties of that circuit. As this was among the 
first commissions granted by the first governor of the state, it is sub- 
joined in full: 

" Alexander McNaie, Governor of the State op Missouri: To all who 
shall see these Presents, Greeting: — Know ye, that reposing special trust and 
confidence in the integrity, learning and ability of David Todd, Esq., I have 
nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, do appoint 
him circuit judge of the first judicial circuit in the state of Missouri, and do 
authorize and empower him to discharge the duties of said office according to 
law. To have and to hold the said office, with all the rights, privileges and 
emoluments thereunto appertaining unto him, the said David Todd, during good 
behavior, unless removed according to law. 

" In testimony whereof, I have hereunto affixed my private seal (there being 
no seal of state yet provided.) 

" Given under my hand at St. Louis, the 5th day of December, A. D., 1820, 
and of the independence of the United States, the 45th. 

"A. McNair. [seal.] 

"By the governor: 

"Joshua Barton, Secretary of State." 

Hamilton R. Gamble, appointed by the supreme court, commissioned by 
the governor, was the first prosecuting attorney for the first judicial cir- 
cuit. He was present and entered upon the duties of his office. John 
Harris was appointed sheriff, and William L. Smith, clerk. 

The following persons composed the 

FIRST GRAND JURY: 

John Vanderpool, foreman; William Tunnidge, Josiah Barns, Joseph 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 221 

Dickson, William Scott, John Dickson, Daniel Shackelford, Samuel Prew- 
ett, William Rawlings, Charles Scott, James R. Walker, Jesse Fletcher, 
David Bryant, Daniel Duvall, Samuel Oliphant, William Ragan and Hugh 
Valandingham. 

The grand jury retired and consulted, but having nothing to present 
were discharged. 'Twere better for the country, if modern grand juries 
were generally discharged for a similar reason. 

At this first term of court, Hamilton R. Gamble, Peyton R. Hayden and 
John T. McKinney, were the lawyers present. They were authorized to 
practice in the circuit court of Ray, and after allowing Timothy Riggs 
three dollars for the use of his house, the court adjourned till " court in 
course " — having been in session one day. 

The following are the first bills of indictment, and they were presented 
at the second term of the circuit court, held June 18, 1821 : 

The State of Missouri, 

vs. 
Lewis Richards: 

" Indictment for selling less than twenty gallons of whisky, without having 
obtained a license for retailing spirituous liquors. A true bill." 

The State of Missouri, 

vs. 
lovell snowden and 

Zadoc Martin: 

" Indictment for an affray. A true bill. " 

Richards plead "not guilty," but a verdict was rendered against him, 
and he was fined one hundred and twenty dollars and costs. The fine, 
however, was subsequently remitted by the governor. 

Snowden and Martin plead " guilty," and were fined five dollars each. 

The first civil suits were instituted in the circuit court as follows: 

February Term. 1822. 

Samuel Sweet, Plaintiffs \ 

vs. > In case. 

Joel Estes, Defendant. ) 

October Term, 1822. 

Henry Guest, Plaintiff, ) 

vs. > In case. 

Samuel Crowley, Defendant. ) 

March Term, 182J. 

William Hunter, Plaintiff, \ 

vs. [ In trespass. 

Solomon Odell, Defendant. ) 

AmonL r the items of interest connected with the now extinct Blufiton, 
worth}- to be noted on the historian's page, is the number of eminent law- 
yers who practiced there. 



222 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Nearly, if not quite all of the following persons who practiced at the 
Blufrton bar, distinguished themselves either as jurists, advocates, orators 
or statesmen: 

Hamilton R. Gamble, Peyton R. Hayden, Jno. T. McKinney, George 
Tompkins, Cyrus Edwards, Dabney Carr, Almstead S. Grundy, Corne- 
lius Burnett, Jno. F. Ryland, Amos Rees and Gen. Duff' Green. So 
bright a constellation of forensic talent rarely illumines the court room of 
more modern times. 

A deep interest is always associated with first occurrences in the history 
of a country or community — with the first act beginning, or leading to, 
an important era, or great event — with the first person to do a thing 
memorable for its consequences — with first instruments of writing. Men 
of after times love to move backward, " through the vista of departed 
years," to the beginning of universal history, and then, specifically, to the 
first events, acts, things, men and documents of their own nation, state or 
county. The first performers in any great political, social, or military 
epoch are remembered simply because they were first. Even the person 
first to do an act, in itself insignificant, is often held in long remembrance, 
provided it happens to be the first in a series of paramount importance. 
First papers, documents, records, after the lapse of years, are looked upon 
with reverence. So with a particular spot, marking the scene of some 
first important historic event. 

Jamestown, Virginia, is remarkable only because it is the site of the 
first permanent English settlement in America. For that reason, the 
American heart holds its memory dear. 

Sir Isaac Newton was a man of superior mind and great learning, but 
had he not been first to ascertain the existence of a great philosophical 
truth, he must have remained in comparative obscurity. 

Columbus was the first white man to set foot on the West Indies, and 
John and Sebastian Cabott, the first to touch the mainland of North 
America; therefore we cherish their memor}^. 

Edwin Ruffin, it is said, was the life-long personal and political friend 
of Calhoun, but that is a matter of no interest. On the morning of April 
12, 1861, however, a ball from a Confederate cannon crashed against the 
solid granite walls of Fort Sumter. It was the first shot of the civil war. 
Whether Edwin Ruffin ever fired another is not known, but he fired the 
first, and thereby gained a place in history. 

Things first are always prolific and proper material for the historian's 
pen. This is our apology for having already alluded to matters first in 
the history of Ray county, and for frequent similar mention which will 
occur in the progress of the work. 

Subjoined is the first declaration of intention presented to a Ray county 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 223 

tribunal, to become a citizen of the United States. It was presented and 
filed at the July term, 1828, of the circuit court: 

"This day came into court Patrick Darcey, and presented a petition, 
which is ordered to be recorded by the court, which is in the words fol- 
lowing: 

"To the honorable, the circuit court of Ray county: The petition of 
Patrick Darcey, a native of Swynford, of the parish of CellscondifT, of 
the county of Mayo, in Ireland — being twenty-four years of age on the 
10th of May, last; and who has lived in the United States of America 
since the month of April, 1820; and wishing to become a naturalized 
citizen of the said states, intending to make his residence in the county 
of Ray, of the state of Missouri, being in height five feet, seven inches 
and one half, with gray eyes, black hair, freckled face, pretty much 
marked with small-pox: And he would respectfully ask of this honor- 
able court to be permitted to avail himself of the several laws of the 
United States, in such cases made and provided, to enable him to become 
a naturalized citizen of the said states; 'and prays that this declaration 
• may be entered of record, and, as in duty bound, he will ever pray, and 
so forth. Patrick M. Darcey." 

"Patrick Darcey, the above named declarant, appears in open court and 
makes oath that the facts set forth in his said petition, as above, are true. 
July 15th, 1823. Jon. T. Burch, Clerk." 

"The undersigned, citizens of the state of Missouri, and residents of 
the county of Ray, make oath that they have been personally acquainted 
with Patrick Darcey, the within named declarant, for about six months 
past, that they believe him a well-disposed man, and have heard no 
charges against his general good character. 

W. Black. 
Joseph Porter. 
Wm. L. Black. 
Sworn to in open court, July loth, 1823. 

Jon. T. Burch, Clerk." 

And so, an "exile of Erin " was the first foreigner to become a natu- 
ralized citizen of Ray. We presume he made a worthy citizen, and a 
useful member of society. If a true representative of the Emerald Isle, 
we knozv he paid his debts and his taxes, and was brave, generous, and 
unselfish. He was afterwards appointed road-oVerseer, and for the year 
1831 was collector of the county. 

The circuit court continued to meet in Blufrton, at the house of Timothy 
Riggs, till its November term, 1828, when it adjourned to meet in Rich- 
mond. 

The first term of the county court was held in Bluffton, commencing 
Monday, April 2d, 1821. Like the circuit court, the county court used 
the " tavern " of Timothy Rigri£S as a court house. 

John Thornton, Isaac Martin and Elisha Camron were the justices. 
The last named, however, did not attend till the January term, 1822, when 
he produced his commission, was sworn in, and took his seat. 



224 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Following is the first entry of record in the proceedings of the court: 
'"'■State of Missouri: 

" Be it remembered, that upon the first Monday of April, one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-one, being the second day of said month, at the 
town of Bluffton, in the county of Ray, the same time and place being 
those appointed by laws passed at the last session of the legislature of said 
state, entitled, 'An act for the division of Howard county and the estab- 
lishment of certain counties therein,' one of which is the said county of 
Ray, and also entitled, ' An act to establish judicial circuits and districts, 
and appointing the times ot holding courts therein.' John Thornton and 
Isaac Martin, being a majority of the justices of the count}' court, appeared, 
took their seats, and presented their commissions." 

The commissions were signed by the governor. The justices took the 
usual oath of office before John Shields, a justice of the peace. 

William L. Smith was appointed clerk of the court. As previously 
stated, John Harris was sheriff. 

The county court, at this, its first term, seems to have had considerably 
more business to transact than the circuit court at its first session. Town- 
ships and county roads were established; county and township officers 
appointed; ferry rights, tavern, merchant, dram-shop, and peddler's 
licenses granted; commissioners nominated to "superintend and preserve 
from waste " all school lands in the county, and William Rollins was sum- 
moned to appear at the next term of the court to show cause why his 
children should not be taken in charge by the county court for protection. 

A county court was then, of course, a novelty to most of the citizens, 
for Franklin was many miles away, and few of the denizens on the west- 
ern border ever visited that town; but the judges, though perhaps unlet- 
tered, w r ere men endued with a goodly share of common sense, and per- 
formed their duties in a creditable manner. 

The first public road in the county, established in April, 1821, lead from 
Bluffton to John Thornton's mill. The first ferry license was granted to 
Isaac Martin, to keep a public ferry across Crooked river from his farm 
on the east half of the northwest quarter of section six, township fifty-one, 
range twenty-six. Rates for transportation by said ferry of " persons and 
things " were fixed by the county court. Isaac Martin was also the first 
road overseer. 

On the first Monday in August, 1822, an election was held at the house 
of Andrew Turpin, in Missouriton township, and at that of John Shields, 
in Bluffton township. 

The county was originally divided into two townships, Bluffton and 
Fishing River. The latter, however, was soon sub-divided, and Gallatin 
township formed thereout. Prior to the holding of the election referred 
to, and prior, also, to the May term, 1822, of the court at which that elec- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 225 

tion was ordered, voting precincts had been established bv the court, as 
follows: 

On the " Wyaconda, 7 ' to be called the " Wyaconda" precinct, to include 
the settlement from Grand river to the middle of range twenty-three. 
Place of holding elections, house of John McGaugh. 

On Crooked river, to be called Crooked River precinct, to include the 
country from the middle of range twenty-three to the Discharge (Willow 
creek). Place of holding election, house of Isaac Martin. 

At BlufFton, to be called Bluftton precinct, including the settlements 
from the Discharge to range line between ranges twenty-nine and thirty. 
Place of holding elections, Bluftton. 

Fishing River township. Place of holding elections, Robertsford. 

The court established the above precincts April 23, 1821, but no elec- 
tion was ever held in them, because previous to the time (August, 1822,) 
appointed for holding the first election, and at its May term, above men- 
tioned, the court reduced the number of townships to two- — Bluftton and 
Missouriton — establishing the voting places therein as stated above. 

The first census of the countv — an enumeration of the inhabitants only 
— was taken by the sheriff, John Harris, in September, 1821, a service 
for which he received thirty-four dollars. Returns were made to the 
county court, and that body found the population to be 1,789. The 
county's present population, as well as that of intervening years, will be 
given in another place; here, we will only add that it is gratifying to 
know, that, although reduced in area to one-twelfth its size in 1821, the 
number of inhabitants to-day is twelve times as great, and the increase of 
wealth a hundred fold. 

At its May term, 1822, William L. Smith resigned his position as clerk 
of the county court. He was an efficient officer; wrote a large, fair hand, 
and was a gentleman of more than ordinary intelligence. It is, perhaps, 
not traducing his character, to state that he was an old bachelor, and that 
the author finds in the records of the county court, the following entry: 

"Ordered, that the order of this court requiring that William L. Smith, 
the former clerk, should be charged with half the amount of the tax 
imposed upon bachelors for state purposes in 1821, be and the same is 
hereby revoked, and from henceforth discontinued." 

The first death by violence that occurred in the county, of which an 
official took cognizance, w r as that of James Buchanan, on whose body an 
inquest was held before William Miller, a justice of the peace, August, 
1823. 

The first bridge erected in Ray county, was that across the Discharge 
— now known as Willow creek — on the road leading from Jack's ferry, 
on the Missouri river, to Bluftton. For the erection of this bridge, a poll 



226 HIRTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

tax of eighteen and three-fourths cents was levied, to be collected with 
the county revenue. 

Atfer holding its sessions in Bluftton for seven years, the county court 
adjourned its special term of April 5th, 1828, to meet in Richmond, the 
newly made county seat. George Woodward, the clerk, was ordered to 
move the books, papers, etc., of the county court, to his residence, near 
Richmond, to keep them there, and Jhere to transact the duties of his 
office, until the necessary public buildings could be erected and ready 
for use. 

The basis of what we have written in this chapter is the proceedings of 
the early courts ; and we have, besides, told the reader something of the 
first county seat. With that, however, as such — save as necessity requires 
in the succeeding chapter — we are done — but 

* * * " When life is old, 
And many a scene forgot, the heart will hold 
Its memory of this." * * * 



REMOVAL OF THE COUNTY SEAT. 

The commissioners appointed by the general assembly to point out 
and determine upon a site for the permanent location of the county seat, 
were required, by law, to render to the circuit court, at each term thereof, 
until they accomplished the end of the work assigned them, a full and 
correct account of their proceedings. Accordingly, at the first term of 
the circuit court, February, 1821, they, with the exception of John Tur- 
ner, appeared, took the oath of office and executed bonds in the sum 
of ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the faithful performance of their 
duty. 

The task of the commissioners was far from an easy one. Although 
they labored assiduously, they failed to accomplish the object of their 
appointment, and the same is true of several succeeding commissions. 
Thus careful was Judge Todd that the title to' the property, on which was 
to be located the permanent seat of justice, should be genuine, complete 
and "unclouded." 

At the June term, 1821, of the circuit court, John Turner joined his 
co-commissioners, by taking the usual oath, and they then reported to the 
court that they had, in pursuance of their official duty, selected a site 
whereon to permanently locate the seat of justice, and that it was in the 
the tract of land, situated on the Missouri river, owned by Duff Green 
and Charles Simmons, and upon a part of which tract the town of Bluff- 
ton was laid out; that the proprietors of said tract of land offered a dona- 
tion of fifty acres for the use of the county, and that the commissioners 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 227 

were ready and willing to accept the same, as soon as the court approved 
the title thereto. The evidences of title were, accordingly, submitted to 
the court for his examination. This report was signed: James Wells, 
Jonathan Liggett, John Harris, John (his mark) Turner, committee. 

Green and Simmons entered into bond in the sum of fifteen hundred 
dollars to make their donation worth that amount; but we find no 
record of the court's opinion as to the title of the property donated, but 
since it was never accepted as the site for the permanent location of the 
county seat, it is certain that the evidences of title were not approved, 
although they were duly signed, delivered and recorded. 

The commissioners, with two notable exceptions, soon began to tire of 
their work. At the February term, 1822, John Harris and James Wells 
resigned. Liggett soon followed their example, and subsequent appointees 
served but a short time, till they either resigned or refused further to act, 
thus keeping up a continuous rotation. 

A second report was not rendered till the July term, 1823, when the 
commissioners presented their report locating the county seat in the town 
of Blunton, and praying the opinion of the court, as to the validity of the 
title to the property selected. The court suspended his opinion till " court in 
course" — March term, 1824 — when he decided, after having carefully 
viewed and examined the title papers, that the title was incomplete. 

At the November term — same year— the commissioners submitted a 
third report, selecting, this time, a tract of land containing fifty acres, in 
a New Madrid survey, near Blunton. Again their labors were in vain — 
the court interposing the fatal objection, that the proprietor of the New 
Madrid location could not convey a fee simple title to any portion thereof. 

Thrice frustrated in their efforts; doubtless, without hope of future suc- 
cess, and weary of prolonged, unrequited endeavor, the commissioners, 
with the exception of the untiring Martin and Turner, abandoned a work 
made memorable for repeated failures. 

The court supplied the places of those who resigned, by the appoint- 
ment of Samuel Prewitt, Samuel Cleavenger and Abraham Linville, but 
the question of the removal of the county seat was not again seriously 
agitated till the spring of 182*;. On Wednesday, the loth of March, the 
commissioners again appeared in open court, and reported that they had 
determined upon a site for the permanent establishment of the seat of jus- 
tice, in the southeast one-fourth of section ten, township fifty-one, range 
twenty-eight, west of the fifth principal meridian, on land of Jeremiah 
Crowley. 

The court took time to examine the title to the ground reported, and 
while we have been unable to find his opinion entered of record, it was 
certainly rendered, approving the title to Crowley's place; for, only six- 
days afterward, Crowley and wife conveyed the same by deed to the com- 



228 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

missioneers, to the use of the county of Ray, and subsequently, the 
county court " ordered that the title papers of Jeremiah Crowley, donating 
to the county of Ray, fifty acres of land, for the purposes of a county 
seat for said county, be committed for record." Accordingly on the 8th 
of October, 1827, the deed, having been property signed and acknowl- 
edged, was duly recorded in the recorder's office. The land donated was 
surveyed on the day of the execution of the deed, by one Weekly Dale> 
and contained fifty-one acres — one acre being reserved for " meeting 
house." But, the county seat was never moved to Crowley's place. At 
its May term, 1829, the county court appointed Hardy Holman commis- 
sioner on behalf of the county " to convey back to Jeremiah Crowley, a 
tract of fifty acres, donated by said Crowley to the county of Ray, for the 
purposes of locating thereon a county seat." The law provided that 
when the seat of justice was removed, it should be to some central situa- 
tion. Crowley's place was certainly far from the center of the county. 

Friday, August 18th, 1826, the county court — convened in special ses- 
sion — took up the consideration of the petition of sundry inhabitants of the 
county, praying for a removal of the seat of justice to some more central 
point. From a careful examination of the assessor's books, the court 
found the number of taxable inhabitants to be two hundred and thirty- 
nine, and on counting the legal subscribers to said petition, there were 
found to be one hundred and thirty-eight names of persons legally quali- 
fied to sign the same. This number not being three-fifths of the taxable 
inhabitants of the county — as the amended law then required, — the peti- 
tion was dismissed from further consideration. A change in the law, 
repealing the act of 1821, touching the removal of county seats, required 
the county court, on petitition of three-fifths of the taxable population of a 
county, praying for a removal of the seat of justice, to appoint five per- 
sons, non-residents of the county, desiring a change in the location of its 
county seat, as commissioners to " view, select and report to said court a 
proper situation, near the centre of the county, whereon to locate the seat 
of justice." 

At its November term, Monday, November 6, 1826, the county court 
considered a second petition, numerously signed, praying, as before, a 
removal of the seat of justice to a more central situation. The court was 
satisfied, after examination, that more than three-fifths of the signers were 
legally qualified; they therefore granted the prayer of the petition, and 
appointed the following persons commissioners to " view, select and 
report" a proper site for the permanent location of the county seat: John 
Stepp, James Warren and Markham Triston, of Lafayette county, and 
Elisha Camron and Charles English, of Clay county. 

The commissioners were required to meet at the house of Joseph Cox, 
of Ray county, and " there to discharge the duties enjoined on them by 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 229 

law." The sheriff was ordered to notify each commissioner of his apoint- 
ment. 

Whether this commission ever selected a site for the county seat, or 
whether it ever met, is not known, as the official records contain no further 
mention of it. It is quite certain, however, that it did nothing, as at a 
special term, held in April, 1827, the court again considered a similar peti- 
tion, and, for like reasons, appointed the following new commission: John 
Stepp, Markham Triston and William Owens, of Lafayette county; 
Andrew Robertson and Eppe Tillory, of Clay county. They were 
directed to meet at the residence of John Woolard, of Ray county, and the 
sheriff was ordered to advertise said meeting by posting placards in ten of 
the most public places in the county. 

The commissioners met promptly at the appointed time, May 5, 1827, 
and selected as a site on which to locate the permanent seat of justice of 
Ray county, the " Woolard place," in the southwest quarter of fractional 
section thirty, township fifty-two, range twenty-seven; and on the same day, 
in behalf of the county, received a deed thereto from John Woolard, Isaac 
Thornton, William B. Martin, and William Thornton, the proprietors 
thereof. The deed was duly acknowledged May 30, approved by the 
judge of the circuit court July 20, and so certified to the county court; 
filed for record October 2, and recorded October 8, 1827. 

Friday, July 20, 1827, the count} 7 court convened in special session, for 
the purpose of ordering an election for voting on a proposition to remove 
the county seat to the place selected by the commissioners. Judges of 
election were appointed for the four townships — Bluffton, Missouriton, 
Fishing River, and Crooked River — which then composed the county, and 
the 20th and 21st of the following August were appointed the days for 
holding said election. 

Monday, September 24, 1827, the county court again met in special ses- 
sion to canvass the result of the election. An examination of the poll- 
books of the several townships showed the whole number of " good " 
votes cast to be one hundred and sixty-three, of which one hundred and 
eight are a majority. The court, therefore, declared that " the place peti- 
tioned for, called ' Woolard's place,' should be the permanent seat of jus- 
tice " of Ray county. 

Thus, after a prolonged, varied, and arduous effort of more than six- 
years, a location for the permanent county seat was legally determined 
upon. But Blufiton, as a county seat, was not immediately abandoned. 
A new town was to be laid out, and the necessary public buildings 
erected — a work requiring twelve months to accomplish; hence, Bluffton 
remained, practically, the seat of justice during that period. 

William S. Miller was appointed commissioner of the new seat of jus- 
tice. 



230 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The land was to be surveyed and laid off into town lots, streets, and 
alleys, by October 15, 1827; and an order was issued, naming Thursday, 
the 25th of that month, as the time — to be continued from day to day — 
for their sale at public auction. It was ordered that the sale be advertised 
in some newspaper, published in the state; and, after bestowing on the 
embryo city the name of Richmond, in honor of the capital metropolis of 
the " Old Dominion," the court adjourned. 

At a special term, held Monday, October 22, 1827, a plat of Richmond, 
accompanied by his report, was submitted to the county court by Com- 
missioner Miller. The survey of the town had been completed, under 
the commissioners' direction, by Thomas N. Aubry, Esq., county sur- 
veyor. 

The court appointed William Thornton superintendent of county build- 
ings; and, at its special term, April 5, 1828, he submitted a plan for a jail, 
which the court accepted, provided the cost thereof would not exceed 
four hundred dollars. The contract for building was let to Sebourn J. 
Miller. 

The court, having no further business to transact, adjourned, having 
met for the last time in Bluflton. 

The first county court held in the county, outside of that town, con- 
vened Monday, May 5, 1828, at the residence of George Woodward, near 
Richmond. William P. Thompson, Sebourn J. Miller, and Isaac Allen 
were the justices; Larkin Stanley, sheriff, and George Woodward, clerk. 

Thomas Riggs' tavern w r as a substitute for a court house six years; 
after that the dwelling of George Woodward was improvised, till a court 
house could be erected. The latter was completed and ready for occu- 
pancy March 5, 1829. At the November term, of the preceding year, 
S. J. Miller informed the court that he had completed the jail agreeable to 
his contract. The court found, however, "that the corners to said build- 
ing had not been sawed down." This, Miller guaranteed to have done, 
and the court agreed to receive the jail, and pay the contractor his last 
installment, of $47.25. 

As may be readily inferred, the jail was a log fabric of a very rude and 
primitive kind. The only entrance was by a stairway, on the outside 
leading to a solitary door that opened into a kind of garret, in the floor of 
which was a trap-door, or hatchway: through this the prisoners, by 
means of a ladder, descended to the "dungeon." 

The court house — for those days — was really " a structure of majestic 
frame." It, too, was built of logs, nicely hewn, and skillfully fitted 
together at the corners; the apertures between them being "chinked" 
with seasoned mulberry blocks, and lined on the inside with "good, 
shaved oak boards." The floor was made of puncheons, and the chimney 
was a delicate wooden one, whose symmetrical framing rose gracefully 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 231 

above the gable end of a board roof; it was provided with a rock back, 
and the hearth and jambs were of the same incombustible material. 

Such is the description of Ray county's first public buildings: the one 
for the culprits' comfort, and the other wherein justice between man and 
man was dispensed at stated periods in ever}- year. But they no longer 
encumber the public square, having given place, years ago, to more com- 
modious buildings of improved architecture ; their very logs have crum- 
bled to dust under the withering touch of time's destructive fingers. 

In November, 1828, the county court notified the circuit court, in writ- 
ng, that a "good and sufficient jail" was erected in the town of Richmond, 
and also, that a court house would be ready for use by its next March 
term. The sheriff, therefore, made public proclamation, on the adjourn- 
ment of the circuit court that it would hold its next term in the town 
of Richmond. 

Pursuant to this proclamation, the circuit court convened in Richmond, 
for the first time, Thursday, March 19, A. D., 1829. David Todd was 
still judge; George Woodward, clerk; Larkin Stanley, sheriff. 

The following persons were on the grand jury: — 

William Black, foreman; Thomas Edwards, Noble Goe, Alex. Bogart, 
Fouche Garner, John Cleavenger, John Turner, John McCrosky, Wil- 
liam Mann, Benjamin Nichols, Robert Gragg, James R. Walker, Jesse 
Tivault, Branick Wilkinson, John Scott, and James Ball. 



FIRST INSTRUMENTS RECORDED. 

MARRIAGE CERTIFICATES. 

State of Missouri, 
County of Ray. 
Know all men by these presents, That I, a preacher of the gospel, did 
join in the holy state of matrimony, Owen Thorp and Elizabeth Hiett, 
as man and wife, this 10th day of June, 1821. 

Joel Estes. 
Recorded 18th June, 1821. 

Attest: William L. Smith, Clerk. 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of Ray. > Set. 

Township of Missouriton, ) 

Be it known, That, on this 15th day of February, 1821, I joined in the 
bonds of holy matrimony, Jacob Rifle and Ruth Martin; satisfactory 
proof having been first made of parental consent. 
Given from under my hand the day and date above. 

B. D. Bowmer, J. P. 
Recorded on this 20th day of July, 1821. 

William L. Smith, Clerk. 



232 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

State of Missouri, \c t 
County of Ray, j c ' 

I do certify that I joined in the bonds of matrimony, John Woolard and 
Nancy Liles, conformably to the laws of the State. , 

Given under my hand this 9th April, 1821. 

Isaac Martin, yustice Ray County Court. 
Recorded on this 17th day of December, 1821. 

Attest: William L. Smith, Clerk. 

State of Missouri, ) g . 
County of Ray. j 

I do certify I joined in the bonds of matrimony, Vincent Carlisle and 
Narcissa Black, conformably to the laws of this state. 
Given under my hand the 2d of December, 1821. 

Isaac Martin, y. C. C. 
Recorded on this 17th day of December, 1821. 

Attest: William L. Smith, Clerk. 

This is to certify, That on the 20th day of December, 1821, I did join 
in the holy state of matrimony, Mr. Robert Morris and Miss Heffsabe 
Pune, both of Gallatin township and county of Ray. 

Given under my hand and seal, the daj- and date above written. 

John Thornton, y. P. [seal.] 
Recorded on the 7th day of January, 1822. 

Attest: William L. Smith, Clerk. 

FIRST SHERIFF'S COMMISSION. 

Alexander McNair, to all who shall sec these presents, greeting: 
Know ye, that reposing special trust and confidence in the integrity, vig- 
ilance, and ability of John Harris, I do hereby appoint him sheriff of the 
county of Ray, and authorize and empower him to discharge the duties of 
said office according to law. 

To have and to hold the said office, with all the powers, privileges and 
emoluments to the same of right appertaining, unto him, the said John 
Harris, until the next general election, and until a successor be duly 
qualified. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto affixed my private seal (there 
being no seal of state yet provided.) 

Given under my hand at St. Louis, the first day of January, A. D. 1821, 
and of the independence of the United States the forty-fifth. 

A. McNair, [seal.] 

By the Governor. 

Joshua Barton, Secretary of State. 

FIRST OFFICIAL BOND. 

Know all men by these presents, That we, John Harris, Martin Parmer 
and Thomas Officer are held and firmly bound unto Alexander McNair, 
governor of the state of Missouri, and his successors in office, in the sum 
of five thousand dollars, current money of the United States, to which 
payment, well and truly to be made, we bind our heirs, executors and 
administrators, jointly and severally, firmly by these presents. 

Sealed and dated this 19th day of February, 1821. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 233 

The condition of the above obligation is such, that whereas* the above 
bound John Harris has been legally appointed and commissioned sheriff 
of the county of Ray in the said state of Missouri, and during the term, 
until the next general election, and until a successor shall be duly qualified. 
Now should he, the said John Harris, faithfully, as sheriff of the said 
county of Ray, execute, fulfill and discharge all the duties of said office of 
sheriff for and during the time of his continuance therein, then the above 
obligation to be void, else to remain in full force and virtue. 

John Harris, [seal.] 

Martin Parmer, [seal.] 
Thomas Officer, [seal.] 
Acknowledged in open court. David Todd, "Judge. 

BOND OF COMMISSIONERS TO SELECT SITE FOR PERMANENT SEAT OF 

JUSTICE. 

Know all men by these presents, That we, James Wills, Jonathan Lig- 
gett, John Harris, Isaac Martin, as principals, and John Shields, Martin 
Parmer, Thomas Officer, John Hutchings, of the county of Ray and state 
of Missouri, are held and firmly bound unto Alexander McNair, Esquire, 
governor of the said state of Missouri, and his successors in office, for the 
use of the county of Ray, in the just and full sum of ten thousand dollars 
of lawful money of the United States, to the payment whereof we bind 
ourselves, our heirs, executors and administrators, jointly and severally, 
firmly by these presents, sealed with our seals, and dated this nineteenth 
day of February, eighteen hundred and twenty-one. 

The condition of the above obligation is such, that whereas the above 
bound James Wills, Jonathan Liggett, John Harris and Isaac Martin, have 
been by law appointed commissioners with full power and authority to 
point out and fix on the most suitable plan in said county of Ray, whereon 
to erect a court house and jail. Now should they, the said Wills, Liggett, 
Harris and Martin, commissioners as aforesaid, faithfully and impartially 
discharge their duties as commissioners of said county of Ray, and appro- 
priate and dispose of all moneys or property that may come into their 
hands as commissioners aforesaid, to the sole use and benefit of said county 
of Ray; and that if there should be a surplus of said money or property 
remaining in their hands after having complied with the objects of their 
appointment, that they and each of them will, under the direction of the 
circuit court, pay the same into the county treasury, or to any person or 
persons the said court shall direct, and render at each term of the said 
circuit court a just and true account of how far they have performed the 
duties incident to the said appointment, as commissioners of the said county 
of Ray, then the above obligation to be void, else to remain in full force 
and virtue. James Wills, [seal.] 

Jonathan Liggett, [seal. ] 
John Harris, [seal,.] 

Isaac Martin, [seal.] 

John Shields, [seal.] 

Martin Parmer, [seal.] 
Thomas Officer, [seal. | 
John Hutch ins, [seal.] 

Sealed and delivered in my presence and in open court, 

15 David Todd, Judge. 



234 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The following are the first conveyances of land within the present Ray 
count)', made and recorded after its organization, to-wit: 

To all whom these -present shall come, greeting ; Know ye, 
that I, Duff Green, of the town of Chariton and state of Missouri, 
for and in consideration of one hundred and sixty acres of a New 
Madrid certificate* of three hundred and thirty arpens, in the name of 
James Brady, numbered two hundred and thirty-two (232), this day con- 
veyed to me by Thomas A. Smith, of the town of Franklin and state 
aforesaid, according to a certain agreement entered into between the said 
Smith and myself to liquidate the dispute then existing between us, as 
regards the town of Bluffton, which said agreement bears date the 6th 
of December, 1819, 1, the said Duff Green, do, for the consideration afore- 
said, grant, bargain and sell, transfer and assign to the said Thomas A. 
Smith and to his heirs and assigns forever, one undivided fourth part of a 
location of six hundred and forty acres of land, made by virtue of a New 
Madrid certificate, numbered four hundred and fifty-eight (458) in the 
name of Robert Lane ; said location made in township fifty-one, north, 
and range twenty-eight, west, north of Missouri river, reference being had 
to the office of the United States surveyor of this state, will more fully 
show the metes and bounds thereof; which said cited certificate, in the 
name of Robert Lane, located as aforesaid, I, the said Green, claim and 
own by virtue of a regular chain of conveyance from the said Lane to 
myself for either the land at New Madrid, or the certificate in him 
thereof. 

To have and to hold the said undivided fourth part of said location, 
together with all and singular the rights, privileges and advantages there- 
unto belonging, or in any wise appertaining to him, the said Thomas A. 
Smith, and to his heirs and assigns forever. 

Arid it is further and expressly understood that one-fourth part of the 
said town of Bluffton is hereby conveyed, and the advantages and per- 
quisites from lots sold, or hereafter to be sold, are held in common, is 
hereby conveyed to the said Thomas A. Smith, his heirs or assigns. 

In testimony whereof, I, the said Duff Green, have hereunto set my 
hand and seal, this 12th day of January, 1821. 

Duff Green, [seal.] 

*On the night ot December 16, 1811, at about two o'clock a. m., was felt the 'first great 
shock of the New Madrid earthquake in New Madrid county, Missouri. Shocks, compar- 
atively light, followed at intervals of from half an hour to an hour, till seven a. m., when a 
second earthquake occurred, scarcely less violent than the first. After this slight shocks 
were felt from time to time until January 7, 1812, when the country was again visited by an 
earthquake equally as violent as the first two, and which, also, was followed by slighter 
ones, at intervals, till February 17th, at which time a third very severe one occurred. A 
considerable extent of valuable farming land was utterly destroyed by this calamity ; and 
congress, carrying out the known wishes of the people, passed an act February 17, 1815, 
for the relief of those who had sustained losses of real estate caused by the earthquake in 
New Madrid county. This act was the origin of the " New Madrid Claims," and provided 
that any person owning lands within the boundaries forming the county on the 10th day of 
November, 1812, whose lands were materially injured by the earthquake, might locate a 
like qnantity on any of the public lands of Missouri territory; but no location was ot 
exceed 640 acres. A few of these locations were made on public lands within what is now 
Ray county. 

The above will explain what is meant by the term " New Madrid Location," or " New 
Madrid Certificate." 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 235 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 

Ch. Ventland, 
Franklin Township, ) James M. White. 

County of Howard, - ss. 
State of Missouri. ) 

This day came the within and above named Duff Green personally 
before the undersigned, a justice of the peace, within and for the county 
aforesaid, and acknowledged the foregoing deed as and for his volun- 
tary act and deed for the purposes therein named. 

Given under my hand and seal, this 12th day of January, 1821. 

George Chapman, J. P. [seal.] 
State of Missouri, ) 
County of Ray. f 

Recorded the within and foregoing instrument of writing on this 13th 
day of March, 1821, in book "A," pages 20 and 21. 

William L. Smith, 

C. R. C. C. [seal.] 

To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting : Know ye that I, 
Thomas A. Smith, of the town of Franklin and stateof Missouri, for 
and in consideration of one hundred and sixty acres of land, this day 
conveyed to me by Duff Green, of the town of Chariton and state 
aforesaid, in pursuance of a certain agreement bearing date the 6th 
December, 1819, between the said Green and myself relative to the 
town of Bluffton — reference being had to said Green's deed to me'will 
fully shew — do, for and in consideration aforesaid, grant, bargain, sell, 
transfer and assign to the said Duff Green, and to his heirs and assigns 
forever, one hundred and sixty acres, being an undivided part of a New 
Madrid, or Earthquake certificate, in the name of James Brady, numbered 
two hundred and thirty-two (232). 

To have and to hold the said undivided part of said certificate, and the 
land that is, or may be acquired by virtue thereof, to him, the said Duff 
Green, and to his heirs and assigns forever. 

In testimony whereof, I, the said Thomas A. Smith, have hereunto set 
my hand and seal, this 12th day of January, 1821. 

T. A. Smith, [seal.] 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 



Howard County, ) 
State of Missouri, f 



Ch. Ventland, 
James M. White. 



Be it remembered, that this day came the within named, Thomas A. 
Smith personally before the undersigned, a justice of the peace in and for 
the county aforesaid, and acknowledged the within deed as and for his 
his voluntary act and deed. 

Given under my hand and seal this. . . .day of January, 1821. 

George Chapman, J. P. [seal.] 
State of Missouri, ) 

County of Ray. j ss 

Recorded the within and foregoing instrument of writing on this 13th 
day of March, 1821, in book " A," page 22. William L. Smith, 

Clerk R. C. C. [seal.] 



236 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The following is the first patent recorded in Ray county, but the land 
is now in Carroll : 

yames Monroe, President of the United States of America : To all to 
xvlwmtlicse presents shall come, greeting ; Know ye, that in pursuance of the 
acts of congress appropriating and granting land to the late army of the 
United States, passed on and since the 6th day of May, 1812, William 
Blake having deposited in the general land office, a warrant in his favor, 
numbered 21,142, there is granted unto the said William Blake, late 
private in Donoho's corps of artillery, a certain tract of land, containing 
one hundred and sixty acres, being the southwest quarter of section two, 
of township fifty-three, north, in range twenty-three, west, in the tract 
appropriated (by the acts aforesaid) for military bounties, in the territory 
of Missouri, north. 

To have and to hold, the said quarter section of land, with the appurte- 
nances thereof, unto the said William Blake, and to his heirs and assigns 
forever. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused these letters to be made patent, 
and the seal of the general land office to be hereunto affixed. 

Given under my hand, at the city of Washington, this twenty-sixth day 
of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nine- 
teen, and of the independence of the United States of America the 
forty-third. James Monroe. 

By the president, 
Josiah Meigs, Commissioner of the General Land Office. 

FIRST POWER OF ATTORNEY. 

Know all men by these presents, That we, Bridget Lane, and John Lane, 
and Phenix Lane, and Jany Taylor, and Hannah Lane, and Daniel Lane, and 
Robert Lane, jr., all of us being the only heirs and legal representatives of 
Robert Lane, deceased, and all of us being of the county of New Mad- 
rid, and territory of Missouri, for divers good causes, and other valuable 
considerations to us hereunto moving, have made, ordained, constituted, 
and appointed, and by these presents do make, ordain, constitute and 
appoint Andrew M. Ramsey, of the county of New Madrid, and terri- 
tory of Missouri, our true* and lawful attorney in fact, irrevocable, for the 
purposes following, to-wit: 

Whereas, It is provided by an act of congress, approved the 17th day 
of February, in the year 1815, entitled, an act for the relief of the inhab- 
itants of the county of New Madrid, in the Missouri territory, who suf- 
fered by earthquakes, provides that those whose lands have been mate- 
rially injured by earthquakes, shall be authorized to locate the like, or a 
greater quantitv of E the public lands in Missouri territory, the sale of 
which is authorized by law; and we, the aforesaid heirs and legal repre- 
sentatives, as aforesaid, being persons who are entitled to the provisions 
of the aforesaid act of congress ; 

Now, know ye, That we, the aforesaid heirs and legal representatives of 
the aforesaid Robert Lane, deceased, have given, and do hereby give full, 
complete and ample authority to our said attorney, irrevocably to locate 
on any of the aforesaid public lands in the said territory, any quantity of 
lands which we may be entitled to by virtue of the aforesaid act of con- 
gress, for his own proper use, benefit and behoof, and that of his heirs 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 2?>7 

and assigns forever, and to sell, transfer and convey the same at his, our 
said attorney's own will and pleasure, at all times, to any person or per- 
sons whatsoever, for such price and consideration as he, our said attornev, 
shall think tit ; also, with power and authority to our said attorney, to 
transfer and convey unto the United States, our injured tract of land, sit- 
uated, lvintj and beino- in the county of New Madrid and territory of 
Missouri, and on the Mississippi river, containing six hundred and forty 
acres; it being the same tract of land which was confirmed to Robert 
Lane by the board of commissioners of land titles for the territory. And 
generally in the premises to do, execute and perform all and singular 
whatever shall be requisite and necessary in as fulhand ample a manner, 
as we might or could do, were we personally present; also, with power of 
substitution, hereby agreeing to ratify and confirm and hold valid all and 
whatever our said attorney shall lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue 
hereof. 

In testimony whereof, we, the several heirs and legal representatives, 
as aforesaid, have hereunto set our hands and seals, this 17th day of July, 
in the year of our Lord, 1818." 

J ■ Her 

Bridget X Lane, [seal.] 

Mark 

John Lane;, [seal.] 

Phenix Lane, [seal.] 

Her 

Jany X Taylor, [seal.] 

Mark. 

Hannah Lane, [seal.1 

His 

Daniel X Lane, [seal.] 

Mark. 
His 

Robert X Lane, Jr. [seal.] 

Mark. 

Attest: 

James Brady, 
Thomas Fletcher, 
Charles T. Ramsey. 

FIRST MORTGAGE. 

Know all men by these -presents : That I, Samuel Crowley, of Ray 
county, and state of Missouri, for and in consideration of the sum of one 
hundred dollars, current money of the United States, to me in hand paid 
by Jesse Mann, of the county and state aforesaid, hath given, granted, 
bargained and sold, and by these presents doth give, grant, bargain and 
sell unto the said Samuel Crowley, his heirs, executors, and administrators, 
one negro boy, called Chance, about seven years old. 

To have and to hold the said negro boy, Chance, unto the said Samuel 
Crowley, his heirs, executors, and administrators, or against any person 
or persons, claiming under, by or through me, them, or any of them : 
provided, and it is the true intent and meaning of these presents, that if 
the said Jesse Mann, or his heirs, shall well and truly, on or before the 
twenty-third day of April, next, pay unto the said Samuel Crowley, his 
heirs, executors" and administrators, the said sum of one hundred dollars, 
current money of the United States, with the legal interest thereon due, 



238 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

clear of all charges, then the above instrument of writing to be void, and 
of no effect, else to be and remain in full force and virtue in law. 

Witness my hand and seal, this twenty-third day of July, eighteen hun- 
dred and twenty-two. 

hie 

Jesse X Mann, [seal.] 

m'irk. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of 

Jon. T. Burch. 
State of Missouri, ) 
Ray County, j 
On this twenty-third day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-two, personally appeared before me, clerk of 
the circuit court of the county aforesaid, Jesse Mann, to me well known, 
party grantor within named, and acknowledged the foregoing instrument 
of writing to be his act and deed, hand and seal, for the purposes therein 
mentioned and particularly expressed; and the mortgaged property 
therein mentioned to be the right, property, and estate of the said Samuel 
Crowley, party grantor, therein named, his heirs, and assigns, for the 
purposes therein mentioned. 

Given under my hand and seal the day and year above written. 

♦ Jonathan T. Burch. [seal.] 

On this 24th day of July, 1822, received the foregoing instrument of 
writing, to be recorded, and same day was recorded in liber " A," (pages 
106 and 107), a land record of said county. 

Jon. T. Burch, Clerk, [seal.] 



TOWNSHIPS. 

FIRST TOWNSHIPS. 

At the time of the meeting of the first county court, in April, 1821, 
Ray county extended eastward to Grand river, northward to the Iowa 
line, westward to the Indian reservation, and southward to the Missouri 
river; hence, it will be understood, of course, that an account of the first 
townships is given not with exclusive reference to the present limits of the 
county. 

The act of the general assembly organizing the county, did not divide 
it into townships, but left that work to the county court; and on the second 
day of the hrst meeting of that tribunal in Ray county, (the second day 
being Tuesday, April 3d, 1821,) it was ordered, by the county court, that 
this county be divided into two townships, to be known as Bluftton and 
Fishing River townships. 

Bluffton township embraced all that part of what was then Ray county, 
lying between Grand river and the range line, separating ranges twenty- 
nine and thirty; Fishing River township, that part of the county situated 
between the last mentioned range line and the western boundary of the 
state. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 239 

The same day, strange as it may seem, on motion of John Hutehings, 
the court subdivided Fishing River township, forming " all that part of 
said township laying west of the first sectional line running north and 
south, on the east side of Squire Gilmore's farm," into a new township, to 
be called Gallatin township. We have been unable to locate " Squire 
Gilmore's farm," but are satisfied that Gallatin was formed from the west- 
ern portion of Fishing River township. 

Those who are familliar with the original limits of the county, will 
readily perceive that Bluffton township was little more than twice as large 
as Fishing River township, and that no part of the latter, as then laid off, 
is embraced in what is now Ray county. 

At its May term, 1822, the county court reduced the number of town- 
ships to two — Missouriton and Bluffton; the former including all that 
tract of country in Ray county on the east side of the main east fork of 
Crooked river, extending to the mouth thereof, thence east to the Chari- 
ton county line (Chariton county being then bounded south by the Mis- 
souri river); the latter lying on the east side of said main east fork of 
Crooked river, extending to the mouth thereof, thence west to dividing 
line between Ray and Clay counties. 

At the February term of court, 1823, Bluffton and Missouriton town- 
ships were sub-divided and three townships formed thereout, as follows: 

Bluffton township — Beginning at the line between Ray and Clay coun- 
ties, and running thence east to the range line, between ranges twenty- 
seven and twenty-eight. Crooked River township — beginning at the line 
between twenty-seven and twenty-eight, thence east to the line between 
twenty-five and twenty six. Missouriton township — beginning at the line 
separating ranges twenty-five and twenty-six, and running east to Chari- 
ton county line. 

Bluffton township then included all that part of our present county west 
of range twenty-seven; Crooked River township, all that part east of 
range twenty-eight, and Missouriton township, lying east of twenty-six, 
embraced an area, none of which is within the present limits of the 
county. The three townships were of equal size, and, that the reader 
may have some idea of their extent, it is stated that the county was twelve 
times as large as now. 

In the year 1826, at its November term, the county court established 
Fishing River township out of that portion of Bluffton township lying 
west of range twenty-eight. It embraced what is now Polk, and the 
western part of Camden township, besides that area which still retains 
the name Fishing River. In other words, Fishing River township was 
then simply that portion of range twenty-nine north of the Missouri river. 

In February, 1829, by order of the the county court, the name Bluffton 
township was changed to Richmond township, in honor of the new county 



240 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY 

seat, and the following boundaries established: Beginning at the range line 
between ranges twenty-eight and twenty-nine; thence, with north bank of 
Missouri river, east to section line between sections thirty-four and thirty- 
five (now in the river) in range twenty-seven, so as to embrace the space 
of four miles east from ran ge twenty-eight; thence, continuing due north 
to the northern boundary line of the county— which was then the line now 
separating Harrison countv from the state of Iowa; thence west, to range 
twenty-nine; thence south, to the beginning — containing one hundred and 
seventy-five taxable inhabitants. 

Crooked River township was changed in its boundary so as to include 
all the land, beginning at the last mentioned section line, on the Mis- 
souri river; thence east to section line between sections thirty-four and 
thirty-five, in range twenty-five, and extending thence due north to the 
northern boundary line of the county — now the boundary line between 
Mercer county and the state of Iowa — extending four sections east of the 
present county line, and including a strip of land four miles in width, now 
belonging to the counties of Carroll, Livingston, Grundy and Mercer. 
Missouriton was not changed, except that its western line was removed 
four miles farther eastward. It also extended to the Iowa line, including 
territory, all of which was in what at present — April, 1881 — are Carroll, 
Livingston, Grundy and Mercer counties. Fishing River township 
remained unchanged. Crooked River and Missouriton townships con- 
tained forty-eight and forty-four taxable inhabitants respectively. More 
than that number now reside in any single congressional township. 
Anderson Martin was appointed constable of Richmond township; Wil- 
liam Millsap, of Fishing River; James Neil, of Crooked River; and 
Joseph Johnson, of Missouriton township; each to hold his office one year. 

The county court, May 7, 1832, ordered that a new township be 
erected out of Richmond township, and named Marion township, with the 
following boundaries, viz: 

Beginning at the corner of sections twenty-three and twenty-six and 
of twenty-seven and twenty-eight, in congressional township fifty-three, 
range twenty-seven; thence due north to line between townships fifty-six 
and fifty-seven; thence west with said line to range line between ranges 
twenty-eight and twenty-nine; thence south with said range line to corner 
of sections nineteen and thirty, and of twenty-four and twenty-five, in 
congressional township fifty-three; thence east to beginning. 

It will be observed that Marion township included four congressional 
townships in what is now Caldwell count)-. It contained one hundred 
and five taxable inhabitants. 

At the Ma)- term, 1832, of the county court, a new township was 
established and named Grand River. It was the same width, and lay 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 24:1 

northeast of Marion township, just described, extending to the state line, 
and embraced an area no part of which is within the present Ray county. 

Shoal Creek township was established in June, 1S25, by the Ray 
county court. It lay due north of Marion township, and no part of it is 
in the Ray county of to-day. 

As has been stated, the territory embraced by the original limits was 
reduced from time to time till, in the year 1836, by the formation of Cald- 
well county, it was left with its present area. 

The description of townships thus far given, is of those established 
prior to the year 1836, and most of them were, at different times, either 
wholly or partially without the boundaries now forming the county. 

We now proceed to a more extended account of the townships as they 
exist at present.' 



CROOKED RIVER TOWNSHIP. 

Crooked River township, in the southeastern part of the county, 
embaces all of congressional township fifty-two north, range twenty-six 
west; seventeen integral, and six fractional sections in township fifty-one, 
same range; twelve sections in township fifty-two, range twenty-seven, and 
four sections in township fifty-one, same range. It borders on the Mis- 
souri river, on Carroll county, and on Grape Grove and Richmond town- 
ships; the former being on its north, the latter on its west side. 

The first settlement in this township was also the first in the county. 
It was made in the year 1815; but as a full account of this settlement will 
be found in the chapter devoted to early settlements and settlers, it were 
superfluous to recite it here. 

The southern portion of the township is bottom land; the north, cen- 
tral, and eastern portions gently undulating prairie, of deep Jand produc- 
tive soil. Timber abounds on Crooked river, and the larger portion of 
what is now Crooked River township was, when first settled, covered 
with dense forest. Hardin and Morton are the villages in this township, 
and will be mentioned in connection with the history of the towns in Ray- 
county, to be found in this volume. 

Population per census of 1880, 1,883. 



FISHING RIVER TOWNSHIP. 

Fishing River township was one of the three townships into which the 
county was originally divided. When established in 1821, it included the 
territory now occupied by the counties of Clay, Clinton, De Kalb, Gentry, 
and Worth. This territory, by act of the general assembly, became 



242 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Clay county, January 2, 1822, and, of course, Fishing River township 
was no longer a part of Ray county. A new township was established 
in Ray county in November, 1826, and named Fishing River township. 
It is the present Fishing River township, reduced to its present limits by 
the establishment of Polk and Camden townships. 

Fishing River township is in the western part of the county. It includes 
all of congressional township 52 north, 29 west; half of township 53 north, 
29 west, and sections one, two, three, ten, eleven and twelve, of township 
51, 29 west. It contains thirty-eight thousand four hundred acres. 

Fishing River township was settled in 1818, by the Cleavengers, 
Blythes, McCoskries, Hutchings, Aliens and others, from Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky and Indiana. A full account of this settlement having been given 
in another place, the writer omits it here. Vibbard, New Garden P. O., 
and El'khorn are in this township. Its population, June 1, 1880, was 1,961. 



RICHMOND TOWNSHIP. 



Richmond township was originally much larger than now. It has been 
reduced to its present area by the formation of new counties and of Knox- 
ville, Grape Grove and Camden townships; it having embraced at one 
time the greater portion of several counties, since organized, all of Knox- 
ville, two tiers of sections on the west side of Grape Grove, and nearly all 
of Camden township, east of range twenty-nine. 

This township comprises congressional township 52,28; twelve sections 
of 53, 28; eight sections of 53, 27; twenty-four sections of 52, 27; eight sec- 
tions of 51, same range, and twelve sections of 51,28, making one hundred 
sections, or 64,000 acres. 

Richmond, the county seat, Rayville and Swanwick, are in Richmond 
township. Its population June 1, 1880, according to the tenth U. S. cen- 
sus, was 6,070. 

The first settler in Richmond township was Captain Jacob Rifle. He 
located in the southwestern part of the township in 1818. 

The first marriage in this township was that of Captain Jacob Rifle to 
Miss Rutha Martin, daughter of Isaac Martin, who will long be remem- 
bered, not only as a Ray county pioneer, but as a genial, generous, warm- 
hearted gentleman, devoted alike to his family, his neighbors and his 
county. The marriage ceremony was pronounced by a Baptist preacher, 
named Kimsev. 

A son, William C, born of the union just mentioned, March 10th, 1S20, 
was the first white male child bom in Richmond township; and a daugh- 
ter, Mary A., born of the same union, April 17, 1821, was the first white 
female child born in said township. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 243 

The first death was that of Charles Woods, who died April 17, 1823. 
His remains, without the pomp of a funeral cortege, were borne to a last 
resting place on the farm of Capt. Jacob Rifle. No monument marks the 
spot; and thither no mourner goes to shed a tear, or "breathe a benison 
o'er his sleeping dust." 

The early ministers and teachers have been mentioned. 

The reader will understand that at the time of the happening of the 
above events, Richmond township was known as Bluftton township. The 
name was changed in 1829. 



GRAPE GROVE TOWNSHIP. 

Grape Grove township was established July 2, 1838, at the May 
adjourned term of the county court, with the following boundaries, to-wit: 

Beginning at the section corner of sections twenty-two and twenty-threes 
and twenty-six and twenty-seven, township fifty-three, range twenty- 
seven ; thence south to township line between townships fifty-two and fifty- 
three; thence east with township line to range line between ranges twen- 
ty-five and twenty-six; thence north to Caldwell county line; thence west 
to section corner of sections four and five, and thirty-two and thirty-three 
(the two latter in Caldwell county ), in range twenty-seven ; thence south 
to the section corner of sections twenty and twenty-one and twenty-eight 
and twenty-nine; thence east the space of two sections to the beginning 
corner. 

The boundaries of this township have not been changed since its organ- 
ization, forty-three years ago. It is in the northeastern part of the county, 
and contains, per census of 1880, a population of 3,091. 

Millville, Russellville, Georgeville, Wilmont and Tinney's Grove are in 
this township. 

Grape Grove township was not settled permanently prior to about the 
year 1830. 

In that year, probably, William Tinney, John Hendricks, and others, 
settled in the northern part of the township. Nathan Tinney, who settled 
on the site of the present town of Tinney's Grove in 1840, was among the 
early settlers of Grape Grove township; and so, also, were the following 
persons: Samuel Grove and James Miller, from Virginia; John Alexan- 
der and John Brown, from Ohio; Mathew Hafterty, John Endsley, John 
Elliot, Roland Ralph and Arthur B. Ralph, from North Carolina; James 
Homan, Edward Saunderson, Perry Maupin, B. McCuistion and James 
McCuistion, from Tennessee; Levi McBee, from Ohio; Willis Boyce, 
James Linnev, Julius and Dr. Mattock, Pleasant and Layton Ewell, from 
Kentucky; and John Sidden and John Hendricks from, East Tennessee. 



244 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Among the early marriages, were John Sidden to Martha Maupin, in 
1832; Austin Harlow to Susan Harlow, March 26, 1840, by James Tug- 
gle, justice of the peace; and John McBee to Sarah Matheney, in 1846. 

Among the early deaths: Mrs. William Tinney, who died in 1S32; 
Ellen Boyd, who died in 1839, and was buried at Tinney's Grove, and 
John Motherhead, who died in 1840. 

The physicians who practiced in Grape Grove township at an early 
day, were Dr. George Kelly, who, after some years practice in Grape 
Grove, went to California; Dr. Roland Ralph, now — 1881 — a citizen of 
Albany, in this county; Dr. McFadden, from Kentucky, now in Kentucky; 
Dr. Nathaniel Davis, from Knox county, Tennessee, a graduate of Jeffer- 
son medical college, Philadelphia, and who is now — 1881 — an honored 
citizen of Richmond, Ray county, Missouri ; and Dr. Roberts, from Ken- 
tucky, who was killed at Millville in 1879 by one James Keyes. 

Among the early ministers, who conducted religious worship in Grape 
Grove township, were Rev. Daniel Patton, of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian church. Services were held in a meeting house, constructed of 
logs, situated in township fifty-three of range twenty-seven. The house 
was torn down years, .ago; Andrew Jordan, also a Cumberland Presby- 
terian, preached in the same house; Rev. — Hatton, and Rev. Samuel 
Grove, of the M. E. Church, held services at Tinney's Grove, alternating 
between the residences of John Brown and Levi McBee, as places of 
divine worship. 

A man named Barton, taught, perhaps, the first school at Tinney's 
Grove. He had but five or six pupils, and as he proved inefficient as a 
teacher, received nothing for his services, they being rendered, doubtless, 
to the detriment, rather than to the advancement of the children entrusted 
to his training. 

Captain W. D. Fortune, now living in the vicinity of Tinney's Grove, 
was among the early teachers of Grape Grove township. He was a com- 
petent teacher, and is a worthy citizen. 

The following is a description of a building in which school was taught 
at Tinney's Grove, at an early day: The house was quite small, built of 
logs, and had been used by its owner as a place in which to garner his 
corn. The corn was, of course, removed previous to the commencement 
of school; but why the flooring was also taken out, the writer was not in- 
formed, and can not imagine. The stick chimney had been torn down, 
and the aperture left open, to answer the purpose of a door. A multitude 
of cracks obviated the necessity of windows. Seats were prepared by 
placing narrow planks across the sleepers — and 

" There in his noisy mansion, skilled to rule, 
The village master taught his little school. " 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 245 

Mrs. Winnegham and Mrs. Tinney were among the weavers of cloth 
and carpets; the settlers did their own domestic and industrial labor, and 
drew supplies, in the matter of groceries, principally from Lexington and 
Richmond. 

Such is the early history of Grape Grove township. It has ever been 
the abode of a refined and moral community, and is now, 1881, in point 
of population, the third township in the county. 



CAMDEN TOWNSHIP. 



Camden township was established July 5, 1841. Its boundaries are as 
follows: Beginning at a point in the middle of the main channel of the 
Missouri river, on range line, between ranges twenty-six and twenty-seven ; 
thence north with said line to northeast corner of section thirteen, town- 
ship fifty-one, range twenty seven; thence with a tier of sections west to 
Clay county line; thence south, with said line to middle of main channel 
of Missouri river; thence with said river in middle of the main channel 
thereof, to the beginning. 

The first election was held in Camden township, August 2, 1841. At 
its May term, May 2, 1842, the county court, on petition of a large num- 
ber of the inhabitants of Fishing River township, praying for a change in 
said township, made the following order: 

Ordered, That a part of Fishing River township be stricken off and 
attached to Camden township, and that the line between said townships, 
hereafter be as follows: Beginning on the range line between sections 
twenty-nine and thirty, at the township line between townships fifty-one 
and fifty-two; thence east to the northeast corner of section four, on said 
township line; thence south to southeast corner of section nine; thence 
west to range line aforesaid. 

In 1847 sections fifteen and twenty-two, in range twenty-seven, of Cam- 
den township, were attached to Richmond township. 

Camden, Albany, Orrick and Henry postoffices are in this township. 
It contained, June 1, 1880, 3,353 inhabitants. 

That part of Camden township, east of range twenty-nine, was origin- 
ally in BlufTton township, and subsequently in Richmond township; that 
west of range twenty-eight was formerly a part of Fishing River town- 
ship, hence, as already stated, the territory embraced in this township was 
settled at a very early date — as early as 1818. 

Among the first settlers we mention the following, nearly all of whom 
were from Tennessee: Jeremiah, Samuel and John Crowley, Thomas 
English, Richard and Aaron Linville, Branick Wilkinson, William and 
Henry Morgan, John C. Cates, Sen., Joseph E. Brockman, John Elliott, 



246 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Frank Jackson, Ballard Hudgins and others. In the days of the first set- 
tlers a physician's practice was co-extensive with the county. The same 
is true of a minister's preaching; hence, many of the physicians, men- 
tioned at different places in this work, practiced medicine in Camden town- 
ship, and the same is true of the ministers with respect to their preaching. 



KNOXVILLE TOWNSHIP. 



Knoxville township was established in 1841. It comprises all of con- 
gressional township fifty-four, range twenty-eight; twelve sections in 
township fifty-four, range twenty-seven ; eight sections in township fifty- 
three, same range, and twenty-four sections in township fifty-three, range 
twenty-eight. 

The sections, eight in all, are, of course, contiguous, and form an area 
of 51,200 acres. 

The number of inhabitants of the township, as shown by tenth census, 
including Knoxville and Taitsville, with a population of eighty-eight and 
one hundred and eight respectively, is 2,301 . 

Knoxville township was settled about 1833. In that year a man named 
Barnes (who became a useful and respected citizen), from Tennessee, set- 
tled on section seven, congressional township fifty-four, range twenty- 
eight; and Vincent Silk wood, the same year, settled in the township, as 
also did a family of Thompsons, from Kentucky. 

A settlement was made on the present sight of Knoxville, originally 
called "Buncombe," in the spring of 1834; the Hatfields, Stolins and oth- 
ers from Tennessee and Kentucky forming the settlement. 

Among the early practicing physicians of Knoxville township, were the 
following: 

Drs. Kelly and Davis, mentioned in connection with the history of 
Grape Grove township, and Dr. John C. Tiffin, from Ohio. Dr. Tiffin, a 
graduate of the Ohio medical college, of Cincinnati, is now retired from 
active practice, and is living at Knoxville. He has had a large and suc- 
cessful practice, and is an honored member of the community in which 
he lives. 

In addition to those already mentioned, John A. Stone, a Baptist, and 
Moses Rainwater, Methodist, preached in this township at an early day. 



POLK TOWNSHIP. 



By order of the county court, Polk township was formed out of the 
northern part of Fishing River township, July 29th, 1845. 

It coincides with congressional township fifty-four, range twenty-nine, 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 247 

and includes, besides, eighteen contiguous sections in the congressional 
townships immediately south. 

The township contains 34,560 acres, and a population, (including the 
town of Lawson, 223) of 1,534. 

Polk, though the smallest in both area and population, is one of the 
finest agricultural townships in the county. . 

This township was settled as early as 1825 — probably somewhat earlier. 
The statements as to who were the first settlers and when, and exactly 
where the settlement was made, are conflicting. 

It is certain, however, that in 1825 John Fields, from Kentucky, settled 
on section eleven, township fifty-four, of range twenty-nine. He was 
followed in 1830 by Samuel K. McGee, from Tennessee, and in 1834 by 
John Taylor, from Virginia. Taylor settled on section three of the last 
mentioned township. 

The following persons were among the very early settlers of the town- 
ship, viz: 

J. Allen, Archibald Moss, W. H. Moss and Randolph McDonald, from 
Kentucky; Milton Piercey, Robert G. Murray, John Halstead, Josiah Pat- 
ton, Henry S. Patton, Solomon Wilson, (a wine-maker and great hunter), 
James Rippey, Joshua Albright, (gun-smith), John A. Cooper, Henry 
Wilson and Whidby Wilson, from North Carolina; William Cox, John 
Cox, Jesse Mann, John Connard and A. B. Arnote, from Tennessee ; J. 
Whitsett, Benjamin McClain, (Guilford county, North Carolina); D. G. 
Stockwell, Stephen Goddard, William Stockard^William Sharpe and A. 
W. Boon. 

Drs. John C. Tiffin, Randolph McDonald and John Watson, the latter 
from Kentucky, practiced their profession in Polk township many 
years ago. 

The first school was taught in section two, township fifty-four, range 
twenty-nine, by one Henry Davis. The school was composed of fifteen 
pupils, and the teacher's salary was fifteen dollars per month. Mr. 
Davis is not now among the living; he died at Kingston, Missouri. 

The first school house was the one in which Davis taught the first 
school, and was built by Randolph McDonald, John Taylor and Archi- 
bald Moss, at no greater cost than their labor. 

Another school was taught about the same time on section eighteen, 
township fifty-four, range twenty-nine, by a widow, named Beckworth, 
now living in Clinton county. 

" Aunt " Hulda Allen did the first weaving. She was wont to weave 
coverlets, carpets, and wearing apparel. 

The first settlers in Polk township entered their land with money 
obtained from the sale of beeswax, made of wild honey. Salt was 
obtained at Goose creek salt works, about one hundred miles south; and 



248 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

other necessary supplies, which could not be manufactered at home, were 
drawn from distant markets. 



COUNTY OFFICERS. 



A list of the county officers of Ray county, from the meeting of the 
first circuit court, February 19, 1821, to the present — April 1, 1881: 

JUSTICES OF THE COUNTY COURT. 

Isaac Martin, Jno. Thornton, Elisha Cameron, from April, 1821, to 
March, 1822. 

Isaac Martin, James Snowden, from May, 1822, to August, 1822. 

Isaac Martin, Wm. B. Martin, James Snowden, from August, 1822, to 
February, 1823. 

James Snowden, Jno. McGaugh, Sam'l Cleavenger, from February, 
1823, to February, 1825. 

Wm. P. Thompson, Henry Brown, Sam'l Cleavenger, from February, 
1825, to September, 1825. 

Isaac Martin, William Black, Malachi Lile, James Stanley, from Feb- 
ruary, 1825, to Febuary, 1826. 

Wm. B. Martin, John McGaugh, Sebourn J. Miller, from September, 
1825, to February, 1826. 

Wm. Black, Wm. B. Martin, Henry Brown, Sebourn J. Miller, Joseph 
Porter, from February, 1826, to Febuary, 1827. 

James Taylor, Sr., Jno. Cleavenger, from February, 1827, to April, 1827. 

Sebourn J. Miller, Isaac Allen, Wm. P. Thompson, from February, 
1827, to February, 1828. 

Wm. P. Thompson, S. J. Miller, Isaac Allen, from February, 182S, to 
February, 1829. 

Wm. P. Thompson, Sebourn J. Miller, Isaac Allen, from February, 
1829, to August, 1830. 

Isaac Allen, Henry Jacobs, Sebourn J. Miller, from August, 1830, to 
August, 1831. 

Henry Jacobs, Wm. Thornton, Daniel Parker, from August, 1831, to 
August, 1834. 

James Dickie, Thomas Hamilton, Wm. B. Martin, from August, 1834, 
to August, 1836. 

Wm. B. Martin, Jabez Shotwell, Daniel Branstetter, from August, 
1836, to August, 1838. 

Wm. B. Martin, Jabez Shotwell, Daniel Branstetter, from August, 1838, 
to August, 1842. 

Levi Starkey, James Tuggle, from August, 1842, to August, 1844. 

Sam'l T. Burgess, from August 1842, to June, 1844. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 249 

Levi Starkey, James Tuggle, from August, 1844, to August, 1840. 

Daniel Branstetter, from June, 1844, to August, 1840. 

Daniel Branstetter, Wm. B. Martin, Jabez Shotwell, from August, 
1846, to August, 1852. 

Wm. B. Martin, Jabez Shotwell, Abraham Hayter, from August, 1852, 
to August, 1856. 

Daniel Branstetter, Daniel Parker, from August, 1856, to August, 1858. 

Eli Carter, from August, 1856, to June, 1858. 

M. N. Brown, from June, 1858, to August, 1858. 

Wm. A. Carroll, Amos A. Brice, Calvin W. Naramore, from August, 
1858, to August, 1860. 

Wm. A. Carroll, from August, 1860, to November, 1861. 

Calvin W. Naramore, Lorenzo H. Magill, from August, 1860, to Jan- 
uary, 1862. 

Willis Wariner, from March, 1862, to January, 1863. 

C. W. Naramore, L. H. Magill, Willis Wariner, from January, 1862, to 
January, 1863. 

C. W. Naramore, L. H. Magill, Samuel Colley, from January, 1862, to 
January, 1865. 

L. H. Magill, Saml. Colley, Daniel Parker from January, 1865, to May, 
1865. 

C. W. Naramore, Samuel Colley, William McKissack, from May, 1865, 
to January, 1 867. 

C. W. Naramore, Wm. McKissack, Wm. Crowley, from January, 1867, 
to January, 1869. 

C. W. Naramore, Wm. McKissack, Daniel Cramer, from January, 1869, 
to January, 1873. 

Wm. McKissack, Daniel Cramer, Chas. R. Shrewsberry, from January 
1873, to January, 1875. 

Chas. J. Hughes, from January 1875 to January 1879. 

Chas. J. Hughes, George W. Montgomery, Niles Esrey, from January, 
1879, to January, 1881. 

Charles J. Hughes, Robert Ralph, Thomas B. Hewlett, from January, 
1881, to . 

By act of the general assembly, passed January 7, 1825, the office of the 
county court in the various counties was vacated, and the powers of said 
office vested in the several justices of the peace. The justices were 
required to meet at the count v seat and organize the court on the first 
Monday in March after the passage of the act. In the event they failed to 
do so, however, the clerk of the county court was authorized to name the 
justices who should act as a county court for a term of one year. 

The justices of the peace for Ray having failed to meet and organize, 

16 



250 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

as the law directed, on the first Monday in March, 1825, Jonathan T. 
Burch, the clerk, in April of that year, appointed, as a county court, the 
persons whose names are represented in the list from William P. Thomp- 
son to James Stanley, inclusive. William B. Martin, John McGaugh and 
Sebourn J. Miller, were appointed in September to fill vacancies caused by 
resignation of the first three as given in the list, commencing with 
Thompson. 

James Taylor, Sr., and John Cleavenger, served but one term of court, 
February term, 1827. 

Samuel T. Burgess resigned, and Daniel Branstetter was appointed in 
his stead. 

At the February term, 1862, C. W. Naramore and L. H. Magill, who, 
with Wm. A. Carroll, were elected in August 1860, presented new com- 
missions, from Gov. Gamble, with the oath of loyalty endorsed thereon, 
duly sworn to and certified by Robert Crenshaw, a justice of the peace 
for Ray county. 

The oath of loyalty was taken in obedience to an ordinance of a state 
convention held at St. Louis October JO to 18, 1861. Carroll failed or 
refused to take the oath; hence he was not recommissioned, and his con- 
nection with the county court ceased. 

By act of the general assembly, approved March 14, 1874, entitled an 
act to reorganize the county court of Ray county, Missouri, and to reduce 
the number of justices of said court to one, to make the justice thereof 
judge of the probate court, and declare his jurisdiction, — it was provided 
that from and after the first day of January, A. D. 1875, the county court 
of Ray county should be composed of one justice, to hold his office for the 
terms of four years, and to have the same powers and discharge the same 
duties required of the justices of the county court. 

At the general election in November, 1874, Charles J. Hughes was 
elected sole judge of the county court, and entered upon the duties of his 
office the following January. 

April 27, 1877, the general assembly repealed the law reducing the 
number of county court justices to one, by enacting that, 

"The county court shall be composed of three members, to be styled 
the judges of the county court, and each county shall be districted by the 
county court thereof into two districts, on or before the first day of April, 
1878, of contiguous territory, as nearly equal in population as practicable, 
without dividing municipal townships. 

"At the general election in the year 1878, and every two years there- 
after, the qualified electors of each of said districts shall elect and be enti- 
tled to one of the judges of the county court, who shall hold their offices 
for the term of two years, and until their successors are duly elected and 
qualified; and at said election, and every four years thereafter, the other 
judge of said court shall be elected by the qualified electors of the county 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 251 

at large, who shall be president of the court, and shall hold his office for 
the term of four years, and until his successor is duly elected and quali- 
fied: Provided, That the judges of the county court, elected under the 
provisions of this chapter, shall enter upon the discharge of their duties 
on the first day of January next after they shall have been elected and 
qualified, according to law." 

Accordingly, at the November election, 1878, Messrs. Hughes, Mont- 
gomery, and Esry were duly elected, and became the first county court 

under the new law. 

COUNTY CLERKS. 

William L. Smith, from April, 1821, to May, 1822. 

Jonathan T. Burch, from May, 1822, to February, 1826. 

William P. Thompson. 

George Woodward, from August, 1826, to November, 1835. 

John H. Morehead, from November, 1835, to January, 1842. 

William M. Jacobs, from January, 1842, to August, 1858. 

Robison Jacobs, from August, 1848, to June, 1852. 

Humphrey J. Comer, from June, 1852, to September, 1852. 

James B. Turner, Sr., from September, 1852, to October, 1864. 

James B. Turner, Jr., from October, 1864, to January, 1867. 

Geo. N. McGee, from January, 1867, to January, 1875. 

A. A. McCuistion, from January, 1875, to January, 1879. 

George W. Trigg, from January, 1879, to — 

The first four persons whose names are given in the above list dis- 
charged the duties of both circuit and county clerk at the same time, 
and were appointed by the county and circuit courts. The rest were 
elected by the people. 

Wm. P. Thompson acted as county clerk for the May term of court, 
1826, and no longer. 

Messrs. Smith, Burch, and Woodward each resigned. 

Robison Jacobs died in office, and Humphrey J. Comer was appointed 
to fill the vacancy. 

In obedience to the provisions of an ordinance adopted by the Missouri 
state convention, at St. Louis, October 16,1861, James B. Turner, Sr., at 
the February term, 1862, of the county court, subscribed an oath of loy- 
alty, and was re-appointed clerk by the county court, for the residue of 
his term, after giving bond in the sum of five thousand dollars, with W. 
R. Holman and J. F. Hudgins as sureties. 

James B. Turner, Sr., died in office, and his son, James B. Turner, Jr., 
succeeded him by appointment of the governor. 

George W. Trigg's term will expire January, 1883. 

CIRCUIT CLERKS. 

William L. Smith, from April, 1821, to May, 1822. 

Jonathan T. Burch, from May, 1822, to February, 1826. 



252 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

George Woodward, from August, 1826, to May, 1835. 

William P. Thompson, from May, 1835, to August, 1835. 

Wiley C. Williams, from November, 1835, to April, 1844. 

Benjamin Oliver, from May, 1844, to March, 1845. 

Robert Sevier, from April, 1845, to August, 1845. 

Robert Sevier, from August, 1845, to April, 1865. 

A. J. Barr, from April, 1865, to January, 1867. 

A. J. Barr, from January, 1867, to April, 1870. 

J. H. Harmony, from April, 1870, to January, 1871. 

J. H. Harmony, from January, 1871, to January, 1875. 

John W. Spurlock, from January, 1875, to April, 1881. 

John R. Green, from April, 1881, to , . 

Messrs. Smith, Burch, and Woodward each resigned at the dates 
given. 

William P. Thompson was appointed by the court to serve temporarily 
only. 

Wiley C. Williams died in office, and so, also, did Benjamin Oliver 
appointed to fill his unexpired term. 

The death of Oliver necessitated the appointment of another clerk, and 
Major Robert Sevier was duly commissioned by the governor to fill the 
vacancy. Thus were three clerks required to serve out a term of one 
year. 

At the expiration of the term alluded to, Major Sevier became his own 
successor, having been elected to the position by the people. He con- 
tinued in office until April, 1865. By the constitution of that year, known 
as the " Drake constitution," it was declared that within sixty days after 
said constitution took effect, every person in the state of Missouri, holding 
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the constitution, or laws thereof, 
or under any municipal corporation, or any of the other offices, positions, 
or trusts mentioned in the third section of article second, of the constitu- 
tion then framing, should take and subscribe an oath of loyaly; and that 
if any such officer or person should fail to take said oath, his office, posi- 
tion, or trust should, ipso facto, become vacant — the vacancy to be rilled 
according to the law governing the case. The constitutional convention, 
pending its work of framing a new constitution, passed an ordinance, 
March 17, 1865, entitled " an ordinance for vacating certain civic offices, 
filling them anew, and protecting the citizens from injury and harass- 
ment," under the provisions of which Major Sevier — having refused to 
take the oath of loyalty — was removed, and Col. Adam J. Barr, who had 
been a member of the convention, appointed in his stead. 

The additional positions referred to as contained in section three of arti- 
cle second, were those of professor or teacher in any educational institu- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 253 

tion, or in any common or other school, and trustees for the use of any 
church, religious society or congregation. 

Col. Barr was elected by the people as his own successor at the Novem- 
ber election, 1866. 

March 29, 1870, the circuit court of the fifth judicial circuit, Philander 
Lucas, judge, at chambers, in Liberty, Clay count}' Missouri, issued an 
order temporarily removing A. J. Barr, clerk of the circuit court, from 
office, and appointing John H. Harmony temporary clerk. 

Col. Barr was not reinstated, but in justice to that gentleman, it is proper 
to state that it is believed that his removal is due to no default of his. 

At this writing, April, 1881, the offices in the court house at Richmond 
are draped in morning for John W. Spurlock, who died of consumption on 
the 1 7th inst. 

John R. Green was appointed by Governor Crittenden to fill the vacancy. 

Pursuant to a law passed by the general assembly of Missouri, in 1865, 
the county court of Ray county, at its February term, 1870, made an 
order separating the offices of circuit clerk and recorder; and the same 
month James T. Harris was commissioned by Governor McClurg to serve 
as recorder till the next general election, at which time he was elected for a 
term of four years. 

RECORDERS. 

James T. Harris, from February, 1870, to January, 1871. 
James T. Harris, from January, 1871, to January, 1875. 

Lewis Slaughter, from January, 1875, to , . 

SHERIFFS. 
John Harris, from February, 1821, to May, 1822. 
William Miller, from May, 1822, to February, 1823. 
Thomas Edwards, February, 1823, to November, 1824. 
Adam Black, from November, 1824, to February, 1827. 
Larkin Stanley, from February, 1827, to November, 1 S30. 
John Cleavenger, from November, 1830, to November 1832. 
Thomas W.Jacobs, from November, 1832, to November, 1836. 
Hardy Holman, from November, 1836, to August, 1838. 
Benjamin J. Brown, from August, 1838, to August, 1842. 
Hardy Holman, from August, 1S42, to August, 1846. 
George I. Wasson, from August, 1846, to August, 1850. 
Benjamin J. Brown, from August, 1850, to August, 1854. 
George Carson, from August, 1854, to August, 1856. 
George Allen, from August, 1856, to August, 1860. 
John C. Cates, from August, 1860, to August, 1862. 
Clayton Jacobs, from November, 1862, to May, 1865. 
A. K. Rayburn, from May, 1865, to January, 1868. 
John W. Francis, from November, L868, to November, L872. 



254 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

John C. Brown, from November, 1872, to November, 1876. 

Thomas McGinnis, from November, 1876, to November, 1880. 

James T. McGinnis, from November, 1880, to , . 

The first four persons whose names appear in the above list were 
appointed the rest elected by popular vote. Geo. I. Wasson was twice 
elected; each time for a term of two years, embraced within the dates 
given in the list. The same is true of George Allen, Clayton Jacobs, J. 
W. Francis, John C. Brown, and Thomas McGinnis. Benjamin J. Brown 
was elected four times. Clayton Jacobs was ousted for refusing to take 
the oath prescribed in the " Drake constitution." 

SURVEYORS. 

William Shields, from April, 1821, to January, 1823. 

Timothy Riggs, from March, 1823, to February, 1827. 

Meaddors Vanderpool, from February, 1827, to October, 1827. 

Thomas N. Aubry, from October 1827, to August, 1835. 

Meaddors Vanderpool, from August, 1835, to August, 1839. 

Moses A. Rainwater, from August, 1839, to August, 1843. 

Henry Wilson, from August, 1843, to August, 1847. 

Alex. Oliphant, from August, 1847, to August, 1855. 

O. H. Searcy, from August, 1855, to August, 1857. 

Alex. Oliphant, from August, 1857, to January, 1868. 

Mannis Buchanan, from January, 1868, to January, 1873. 

Frank G. Gibson, from January, 1873, to January, 1877. 

John T. Banister, from Januarv, 1877, to , . 

At the first term of the county court, April, 1821, William Shields made 
application for appointment as county surveyor. The court appointed 
David Manchester and William D. Wilson to examine him as to his qual- 
ifications for that office. The committee reported favorably, and Shields 
was duly appointed the first county surveyor. Similar proceedings were 
had on the application of Timothy Riggs, at the March term of court, 

1823. 

ASSESSORS. 

Zadoc Martin, from April, 1821, to January, 1822. 
Benjamin Gragg, from January, 1822, to May, 1822. 
Lovell Snowden, from May, 1822, to February, 1823. 
William Downey, from May, 1823, to Februarv, 1825. 
Robert Pritchard, from Februar\ r , 1825, to February, 1827. 
Adam Black, from February, 1827, to Februan-, 1828. 
Thomas Edwards, from February, 1828, to February, 1829. 
James Jordan, from February, 1829, to Februarv, 1830. 
Jesse Newlin, from February, 1830, to February, 1831. 
James Jordan, from Februan 1 , 1831, to February, 1832. 
Jesse Newlin, from February, 1832, to February, 1833. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 255 

Wiley C. Williams, from February, 1883, to February, 1834. 

Rowland Ralph, from February, 1834, to August, 1834. 

A. M. Harwood, from August, 1834, to February, 1835. 

Thomas N. Aubry, from February, 1835, to February, 1830. 

Jacob Adamson, from February, 1836, to February, . 

A. B. Beachamp, from , 1840, to , 1842. 

William P. Tisdale, from , 1842, to , . 

R. Metcalf, from , 1846, to , 1850. 

William P. Quarles, from , 1851, to , 1859. 

William B. Parker, from , 1861, to , . 

Humphrey J. Comer, from — — , 1861, to , 1862. 

Clayton Jacobs, from - -, 1862, to , 1863. 

Allen Markland, from , 1863, to , 1865. 

Anderson Spencer, from January, 1865, to January, 1867. 

John Albertson, from January, 1867, to January, 1869. 

George W. Sargent, from January, 1869, to January, 1871. 

Lilburn McLaughlin, from January, 1871, to January, 1873. 

A. P. Craven, from January, 1873, to January, 1875. 

A. P. Craven, from January, 1875, to January, 1877. 

John S. Flournoy, from January, 1877, to January, 1879. 

John S. Flournoy, from January, 1879, to January, 1881. 

George Sanderson, from January, 1881, to , . 

From 1823, to 1825 the county was assessed by townships, each town- 
ship having an assessor. William Downey was assessor for Crooked 
River township; Henry Brown, for Bluff ton township, and Nehemiah 
Woolsey, for Missouriton township. 

In 1859 a law was passed providing for the assessment of the county by 
ranges; and the county court appointed the following persons assessors 
to serve two years: William Berry, for range 26; John S. Flournoy, for 
range 27; William H. McGaugh, for range 28; Mathano Brown, for range 
29. William P. Parker was removed for incompetency, and Humphrey 
J. Comer appointed by the county court in his stead. 

COLLECTORS. 
Shubael Allen, from April, 1821, to December, 1821. 
Jesse Gilliam, from December, 1821, to May, 1822. 
John Scott, from May, 1822, to February, 1823. 
William S. Miller, from February, 1823, to February, 1825. 
William B. Martin, from February, 1825, to May, 1825. 
William S. Miller, from May, 1825, to February, 1826. 
William Morgan, from February, 1826, to February, 1827. 
Meaddors Vanderpool, from February, 1827, to October, 1827. 
John Elliott, from October, 1827, to February, 1828. 
James Snowden, Sr., from February, 1828, to February, 1829. 



256 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Robert Pritchard, from February, 1829, to February, 1830. 

Patrick M. Darcey, from February, 1830, to February, 1831. 

Andrew Martin, from February, 1831, to February, 1832. 

Maurice Jacobs, from February, 1832, to February, 1833. 

A. M. Harwood, from February, 1833, to February, 1834. 

Henry R. Winburn, from February, 1834, to February, 1835. 

Benjamin J. Brown, from February, 1835, to February, 1836 

W. W. Marczey, from February, 1836, to 

Thomas B. Fowler, from January, 1S73, to September, 18*75. 

Allen M. Fowler, from September, 1875, to January, 1879. 

James A. Davis, from January, 1879, to 

In 1836 the office of collector was abolished. The sheriff was made 
collector of state and count)- revenue, and so continued until 1873. In 
1872 the general assembly passed an act separating the offices of sheriff 
and collector, and in November of that year, Thomas B. Fowler was 
elected to the latter office, to enter upon its duties the following January. 
He died September 16, 1875, and his son, Allen M. Fowler, was 
appointed to serve till the next general election, at which time the people 
chose him as his own successor. 

The present incumbent, James A. Davis, has been twice elected. His 
term expires January. 1883. 

TREASURERS. 

Jonathan T. Burch, from May, 1822, to February, 182f>. 
Henry Brown, from February, 1826, to May, 1833. 
Thomas N. Cockerell, from May, 1833, to February, 1834. 
Jacob Gudgel, from February, 1834, to February, 1835. 
Hiram G. Parks, from February, 1835, to February, 1836. 
George Woodward, from February, 1836, to February, 1837. 
Luther T. Warder, from February, 1837, to March, 1843. 
Thomas A. King, from March, 1843, to August, 1848. 
Chas. R. Morehead, from August, 1848, to x\ugust, 1851. 
Aaron H. Conrow, from August, 1851, to August, 1856. 
Humphrey J. Comer, from August, 1856, to August, i >58. 
James F. Hudgins, from August, 1858, to November '862. 
Henry C. Garner, from November, 1862, to Noveml -, 1866. 
John Kelsey, from November, 1866, to November, 18 J. 
George W. Ewing, from November, 1872, to November, 1876. 
W. A. Holman, from November, 1876, to 

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS 

In 1874, L. B. Wright was county superintendent of public schools. 
March 26th of that year, the governor approved an act of the general 
assembly, as follows: 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 257 

Section 37. There is hereby created the office of county commis- 
sioners of public schools. There shall be one county commissioner for 
each county in the state, who shall be elected by the qualified voters at 
the annual district school meetings held in said counties on the first Tues- 
day in April, 1875, and every two years thereafter, and shall hold the 
office for two years and until a successor is duly elected and qualified. 
The said commissioner shall possess the qualifications of a competent 
teacher of ,the public schools, and be of good moral character. 

Mr. Wright continued in office till April, 1875, at which time he was 
succeeded by W. S. Tompkins, who served two years. On the first 
Tuesday in April, 1877, Thomas M. Deacy was elected county commis- 
sioner. Mr. Deacy was again elected in 1870, and also in 1881, and is 
now in office, serving out his third term, which will expire on the first 
Tuesday in April, 1883. 

PROBATE COURTS. 

In the year 1853, the first probate court for Ray county, was held at 
the county seat. It was established the same vear by act of the general 
assembly. 

James B. Turner, Esq., who served from 1853 to 1864, was the first 
probate judge. 

Nathaniel Banister was probate judge from 1864 to 1865; Solomon C. 
Watkins from 1865 to 1866; William D. Fortune from 1866 to 1867. 

By an act of the general assembly, approved March 14, 1874, to take 
effect from and after its passage, the county court of Ray county was 
reorganized, the number of justices thereof reduced to one, and that justice 
made e.x-officio judge of probate court. 

At the general election in November, 1874, Hon. Chas. J. Hughes was 
elected count}- and probate judge, agreeably to the provisions of the act 
referred to, for a term of four years from the first day of January, 1875. 

An act establishing probate courts in the city of St. Louis, and in every 
count}- in the state, was approved April 9, 1877. This act contains a -pro- 
vision, that in all counties where the county court, or any member thereof, 
has probate jurisdiction, there shall be elected at the general election in 
1878, and every, four years thereafter a judge of probate. The Hon. 
Charles J. Hugh ; is at present, 1881, presiding justice of the county 
court and judge < probate court. 

COURTS OF COMMON PLEAS. 

March 5, 1855, an act establishing a court of common pleas for Ray 
county was approved, and Hon. Aaron H. Conrow was appointed judge 
thereof, by the governor, to hold the office until the first Monday in 
August, 1855, and until his successor should be elected and qualified. 

Judge Conrow held but one term of the common pleas court. The 
court did not meet with public approbation, and was abolished at the en- 
suing session of the general assembly. 



258 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The next court of common pleas was established for Ray county by act 
of the general assembly, approved March 13, 1867. 

David P. Whitmer, Esq., was appointed by Governor Thomas C. 
Fletcher, judge of said court, and at the general election in 1868, he was 
elected to the office by the people. Judge Whitmer continued to serve 
as judge of the court of common pleas, till January, 1872, when Charles 
J. Hughes, having been elected at the previous November election, suc- 
ceeded him. Judge Hughes held the office till January 1, 1875. At that 
time an act of the general assembly abolishing the court of common pleas 
in Ray county, approved March 24th, of the preceding year, went into 
effect. 

All records, books, papers and proceedings belonging to said court 
were, in obedience to the act, turned over to the circuit court; and all suits, 
actions, process and proceedings pending in the court of common pleas, 
at the time of its abolition, were transferred to said circuit court for final 
judgment or determination. 

REPRESENTATIVES OF RAY COUNTY IN THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. 

We have been unable to ascertain who represented Ray county in the 
general assembly from 1822 to 1824, and from the latter year to 1826, 
from the fact that the early rolls of both houses have been destroyed by 
lire. 

It is believed by many who have lived in the county for years, that 
Isaac Martin was the first representative, while others place that honor to 
the credit of the memory of Martin Parmer. Both Martin and Parmer 
are long since dead, and both in their day, were leading local politicians. 
Roth were among the first settlers of the county, but Parmer moved from 
county to county, now living in Ray, now in Chariton, now in Carroll, 
while Martin became a permanent resident of Ray. Certain it is that 
Parmer was the first to represent Chariton county in the legislature; and 
as that county and Ray were organized at the same time, it is fair to con- 
clude that Isaac Martin was Ray county's first representative in the gen- 
eral assembly, it being settled that that position was held by one or the 
other of the two men in question. But Martin Parmer did represent this 
county in the general assembly, and it was doubtless from 1824 to 1826. 

The term of office of members of the lower house of the Missouri 
legislature has never been more nor less than two years. Therefore, in 
the following list, onlv the vears in which the person was elected is given: 

William B. Martin, 1S26. Wiliam R. Blythe, 1836. 

Isaac Martin, 1S28. Chas Morehead, 1838. 

James Holman, 1830. Hardy Holman, 1838. 

James Holman, 1832. Hardy Holman, 1840. 

William Pollard, 1834. William R.Blythe, 1840. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 259 

Philip Edwards, 1842. Aaron H. Conrow, I860. 

David Thompson, 1844. Ackm J. Barr, 1862. 

Charles Bowman, 1846. Christopher T. Garner, 1862. 

Ephraim B. Ewing, 1848. James W. Black, 1864. 

Thos. L. King, 1850. John Grimes, 1864. 

John C. Tiffin, 1850. Benjamin J. Waters, 1866. 

Daniel Barnstetter, 1852. Benjamin J. Waters, 1868. 

Jesse Esrey, 1852. Frederick Scoville, 1870. 

Louis C. Bohannon, 1854. Jacob T. Child, 1872. 

John Cleavenger, 1856. Walter King, 1874. 

Walter King, 1858. James L. Farris, 1876. 

Benjamin A. Rives, 1858. Louis C. Bohannon, 1878. 

Louis C. Bohannon, 1860. William T. Brown, 1880. 

The following state senators either lived or are now living in Ray 
county, to- wit: 

William R. Blythe, elected in 1842; Joseph Chew, in 1850; Benjamin 
A. Brown in 1854, and again 185S; William W. Mosby in 1862, and again 
in 1874. 

Messrs. Blythe and Chew each served four years: Brown and Mosby 
eight years each. 

Austin A. King, of Ray county, elected by the people in August, 1848, 
for a term of four ) r ears, was the seventh governor of Missouri. 

Ephraim B. Ewing, a citizen of Ray county, was appointed secretary of 
state in April, 1849, and served in that position four years. He was elected 
attorney general in August, 1856, and after holding the office till Septem- 
ber 1st, 1859, resigned to take his seat on the supreme bench, to which he 
had been called by a majority of his fellow citizens to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Judge Richardson. He was re-elected 
supreme judge November 5, 1S72, to serve eight years. 

Mordecai Oliver, also of Ray county, was a member of the lower house 
of congress from 1S52 to 1857; and Austin A. King from from 1862 to 
1864. 

JUDICIAL DISTRICTS AND JUDICIAL CIRCUITS. 

The general assembly of Missouri, by act approved November 25, 1820, 
entitled, " an act establishing judicial districts and circuits, and prescribing 
the times and places of holding courts therein," the state was divided into 
four judicial districts — the counties of Cole, Cooper, Chariton, Saline, Lil- 
lard, Ray, Howard and Boone, to form the first district. The supreme 
courts and the superior courts of chancery were held in the districts. 

The supreme court for the first judicial district was to be held at the 
town of Franklin, in the county of Howard, on the first Mondays of March 
and September. The superior courts of chancery were to be held at the 
same place, in the same county, on the first Mondays of January and July. 



260 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

For the purpose of holding circuit courts, the counties composing the 
first judicial district were declared to form the first judicial circuit. 

The times provided by the act for holding circuit court in Rav county, 
were the third Mondays of February, June and October. 

The act was to take effect and be in force from and after its passage; 
■provided, that no part thereof, which related to new counties established 
at that session of the general assembly, should have any effect till January 
1, 1821. 

Ray was one of the new r counties. 

By act of the general assembly, approved January 11, 1822, the state 
of Missouri w r as divided into four judicial districts, and subsequently the 
districts were subdivided into judicial circuit. 

The counties of Cole, Cooper, Lillard, (now Lafayette) Clay, Rav, 
Chariton, How r ard and Boone, composed the first judicial district. 

The Hon. David Todd was judge of this district till the year A. D. 
1831, commencing with the year A. D. 1821. 

By act of the general assembly, passed at its session of 1830-1, Saline, 
Lafayette, Ray and Chariton counties w r ere stricken oft' of the first 
judicial circuit, and, together with Randolph and Jackson, w r ere made to 
form the fifth judicial circuit. 

The circuit courts were to be held in Ray county as follows: Com- 
mencing on the first Thursdays after the first Mondays in February, 
June and October. 

The counties comprising the first judicial circuit, with the exception of 
the county of Franklin, and the counties composing the fifth judical cir- 
cuit, constituted the first judicial district. 

The general assembly of Missouri, March 17th, 1835, passed an act 
dividing the state into four judicial districts and seven judicial circuits, 
making the first judicial district to consist of the counties of Clay, Clin- 
ton, Cole, Callaway, Carroll, Cooper, Chariton, Saline, Lafayette, Ray, 
Johnson, Jackson, Morgan, Howard, Randolph, Monroe, Boone, Rives, 
Pettis, Benton, Polk, Greene, Barry and Van Buren; and the fifth judicial 
circuit, ot the counties of Clay, Clinton, Carroll, Chariton, Lafayette, Ray, 
Johnson, Jackson and Van Buren. 

The supreme court met in the first judicial district, at the town of Fay- 
ette, How r ard county, on the first Mondays after the fourth Mondays of 
April and August in each year. 

The time of holding the circuit courts in Rav countv was changed to 
the first Mondays of March, July and November. 

The Hon. John F. Ryland succeeded the Hon. David Todd, as judge of 
the fifth judicial circuit in 1831, and held the office until 1837. 

In the latter year, by act of the general assembly, Saline, Lafayette and 
Jackson, being south of the Missouri river, were stricken from the fifth 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 261 

and attached to the sixth judicial circuit, of which Hon. John F. Ryland 
was the judge. The fifth judicial circuit was then formed of counties 
lying north of the Missouri river. 

The Hon. Austin A. King, of Ray county, was appointed judge of the 
fifth circuit in 1837, and served with distinguished ability till his resigna- 
tion in 1848, to assume the duties of governor of Missouri, an office to 
which he had been elected by his fellow citizens. 

By act of the general assembly, approved January 31st, 1839, the 
fifth judicial circuit was declared to embrace Clinton, Caldwell, Clay, Ray, 
Platte and Buchanan counties. 

Again, by act of March 27, 1845, Platte and Buchanan counties were 
stricken from the circuit, and Carroll, Harrison, De Kalb and Daviess, 
added thereto. 

Judge King was succeeded by the Hon. George W. Dunn, who received 
his appointment from Gov. John C. Edwards, and was circuit judge from 
the year 1S48 to 1861. 

Bv appointment of Gov. Gamble, Austin A. King was again judge of 
the hfth judicial circuit from 1861 to 1863, when he was again succeeded 
by Judge Dunn, who served till 1865. 

Judge Dunn's successor was the Hon. Walter King, son of Austin A. 
King. 

Judge Walter King filled the office from 1865 to 1867, in which year 
he was succeeded by the Hon. Philander Lucas, who continued to serve 
till 1871. 

In the year last mentioned the Hon. George W. Dunn was elected by 
the people, for a term of six years, judge of the fifth judicial circuit, the 
boundaries of which were so reduced in 1866 as to include the counties of 
Ray, Clay, Clinton and Platte, which now (April, 1881,) form the circuit. 
Judge Dunn was again elected in November, 1880, and hence is the 
present judge of the fifth judicial circuit of Missouri. 

He has held the office up to this date, about twenty-two years in the 
aggregate; and in the discharge of all his official duties has been guided 
by a love of justice, deliberate judgment, impartial ruling, and a sincere 
desire to uphold the law in its every tendency to promote the well-being 
of society. Truly has it been written of him: " He has worn the ermine 
unspotted." Judge Dunn is a resident of Richmond, Ray county, Mis- 
souri. 

Till the year 1831, Ray was one of the counties of the first judicial 
circuit; since that time it has remained a part of the fifth judicial circuit. 
The judges of these circuits having been given in this article, we now 
append a complete list of the 

CIRCUIT ATTORNEYS. 
Hamilton R. Gamble, from February, 1821, to December, 1823. 



262 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Abiel Leonard, from December, 1823, to June, 1825. 

Charles French, from June, 1825, to June, 1826. 

Robert W. Wells (attorney-general), from June, 1826, to March, 1831. 

Amos Rees, from March, 1831, to February, 1837. 

Thomas C. Burch, from February, 1837, to February, 1840. 

Peter H. Burnett, from February, 1840, to January, 1841. 

George W. Dunn, from January, 1841, to July, 1848. 

Chas. J. Hughes, from September, 1848, to November, 1848. 

Mordecai Oliver, from November, 1848, to January, 1853. 

Christopher T. Garner, from January, 1853, to January, 1857. 

Aaron H. Conrow, from January, 1857, to January, 1861. , 

DeWitt C. Allen, from January, 1861, to— 

D. P. Whitmer, from February, 1862, to January, 1865. 

W. A. Donaldson, from January, 1865, to May, 1865. 

Elijah F. Esteb, from May, 1865, to January, 1869. 

John G. Woods, January, 1869, to January, 1873. 

Hamilton R. Gamble resigned, and Abiel Leonard was appointed by 
the supreme court to till the vacancy. 

The latter, after serving about a year and a half, was removed from 
office— for what cause, or whether for any cause, the writer has been 
unable to ascertain — and Charles French appointed in his stead. 

It is presumed that the charges against Judge Leonard — if there were 
any — were either trifling, or not well founded, as he was universally 
recognized as an able and faithful officer — a gentleman in every depart- 
ment and duty of life — an upright and honorable man. He was after- 
ward, for many years, judge of the supreme court of Missouri. 

In 1822 Abiel Leonard was appointed, by Hamilton R. Gamble, deputy 
circuit attorney, to prosecute in Ray, Clay, Lafayette, Saline, and Cole 
counties. 

An act of the general assembly, relating to the attorney-general and 
circuit attorneys, approved December 9, 1824, provided that the attorney- 
general shculd reside and keep his office at the seat of government; that 
it should be his duty to commence and prosecute all actions, suits, proc- 
esses, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in which the state or any 
county might be concerned; to defend all actions brought against the 
state; to prosecute forfeited recognizances, and all suits and actions for 
the recovery of debts, fines, penalties, and forfeitures accruing to the state, 
or to any county within the circuit in which the seat of government was 
located; when called upon by the governor, to aid any circuit attorney in 
the discharge of his duties; when required, to give his opinion and advice, 
without fee or reward, to any county court, or justice thereof, or to any 
tribunal established for the transaction of county business, or to any 
member thereof, or to any justice of the peace within his circuit, upon any 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 2*!:'. 

question of law relating to any criminal or other matter in which the 
state or any county was concerned ; and to perform such other and further 
duties as might be enjoined on him by law. 

In 1S26 the seat of government was removed to Jefferson City, in Cole 
county, and as that county was in the first judicial circuit, of which Re- 
count)- was also a part, the then attorney-general, Robert W. Wells, became j 
ex-officio circuit attorney for the first judicial circuit, and continued to act 
as such so long as he remained in office, but in the year 1831, as previ- 
ously stated, Saline, Lafayette, Ray, and Chariton were stricken from the 
first, and became part of the fifth judicial circuit, of which Amos Rees ' 
was then appointed circuit attorney. 

During Wells' incumbency, Amos Rees was frequently appointed cir- 
cuit attorney fro tempore. 

William T. Wood acted as circuit attorney for the October term of 
court, 1834; Charles French, for the November term, 1826; John Wilson, 
for the July term, 1826; and again, for the March term, 1828. 

Peter H. Burnett resigned, and Geo. W. Dunn was appointed for the 
remainder of his term, and elected by the people in 1844. 

George W. Dunn having been appointed judge of the fifth judicial cir- 
cuit, vice Austin A. King, elected governor, Chas. J. Hughes was 
appointed to discharge the duties of prosecuting attorney -pro tctnpore. 

DeWitt C. Allen was elected circuit attorney in November, 1860, but 
we have been unable to find an entry of record showing that his commis- 
sion was produced in the Ray circuit court. 

In the year 1861, during the intense public excitement, incident to the 
outbreaking of civil war, no regular, uninterrupted sessions of the 
circuit court, were held; and it is believed that Mr. Allen never attended. 
At all events, February, 1862, David P. Whitmer was commissioned by 
acting-governor Willard P. Hall, circuit attorney of the fifth judicial cir- 
cuit, to serve out the term for which Allen had been elected. 

Elijah F. Esteb was appointed, vice W. A. Donaldson, in conformity to 
the before-mentioned ordinance of the Missouri state convention of 1865. 
The office of county attorney was established in 1868, and James W. 
Black, Esq., was appointed county attorney for Ray county, taking 
charge of the office in January, 1869, and serving till January, 1873. He 
attended to county business only — the prosecution of criminal cases 
being still left to the circuit attorney. 

The office of circuit attorney was abolished in 1872. In November, of 
that year, James L. Farris was elected county attorney of Ray county, 
and served four years from the following January. He was succeeded 
by Frank G. Gibson as prosecuting attorney. 

Gibson served two years, and was succeed by James W. Garner, who 
has been twice elected, and is now in office. 



264 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Of the circuit attorneys given in the foregoing list, the following either 
lived, or are now living in Ray county: 

Amos Rees, Thomas C. Burch, George W. Dunn, Charles J. Hughes, 
Mordecai Oliver, C. T. Garner, Aaron H. Conrow, David P. Whitmer, 
W. A. Donaldson, and Elijah F. Esteb. 

The circuit has been composed of never less than four counties; yet it 
will be seen that a majority of the attorneys were citizens of Ray. 



RAY COUNTY'S WAR RECORD. 

At the time of the passage of the act of congress, approved February 
14, 187 1, granting pensions to the surviving soldiers of the war of 1812, 
and the widows of the deceased soldiers of the war of 1812, that were 
married before peace was declared between the United States and Great 
Britain, February 17, 1815, there were living in Ray county, Missouri, 
twenty soldiers and four widows, nearly all of whom were entitled to pen- 
sions under the provisions of said act of congress of February 14, 1871. 
They were as follows: 

Thomas Blain, at the age of twenty, enlisted for service in the war of 
1812, as a private in Capt. Samuel Lapsly's company, second regiment of 
Kentucky volunteers, on or about the 1st of April, 1813, in Lancaster, Gar- 
rard county, Kentucky. This regiment was comprised }in the army 
commanded by General William Henry Harrison. A short time after 
Thomas Blain enlisted, his regiment was ordered to take up their line of 
march to Fort Meigs, in the northwest part of Ohio. He remained in 
service in General Harrison's army for a number of months, and having 
served over his term of enlistment, he was honorably discharged from the 
said military service at Habanna, Ohio, the spring of 1814, and returned 
to his home in Kentucky. Some years afterward he removed to Missouri, 
and followed the business of farming many years, successfully. He was 
living near Camden, Missouri, at the time he commenced drawing his 
pension as a soldier of the war of 1812, in the year 1871. He died the 
same year, December 12, 1871, at the advanced age of seventy-nine 
years, at his home, greatly respected as an honest, upright man, by his 
large circle of neighbors and friends. 

John Brewer enlisted at the age of twenty, in Capt. Weslar's Chester 
county company, Valley Light infantry, at Chester county, Pennsylvania, 
on or about the 20th day of June, 1814. After enlisting in said Capt. 
Weslar's company, he was ordered to Philadelphia, and remained in camp 
there for two weeks, and then proceeded to a point on the Delaware 
river about twenty miles below Philadelphia, near Marcus Hook. He re- 
mained at this place doing duty as a soldier of said company, until some 



• J JLiC USKARTj 

Alton, LJSNOI 
aiiWEN FOUNDATIONS! 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 265 

time in October, 1814, when he was honorably mustered out of the service. 
He was a worthy, old gentleman, greatly endeared to his family and 
friends. He was a citizen of Ray county a number of years, and made 
application for pension in Richmond, Ray county, Missouri, in 1871. He 
died after a very short illness, in Caldwell count}', Missouri, December 3, 
1871, at the advanced age of eighty years. 

Thomas B.Brown was drafted as a soldier of the war of 1812, and 
mustered in as private in Capt. James C. Wade's company, Bedford 
county, Tennessee, on or about the 15th day of May, 1812, at the age of 
twenty-four years. After this company was duly organized, it took up 
its line of march from Fayetteville, Tennessee, to Fort Jackson, then in 
the territory of Indiana ; thence to Fort Decatur, in same territory; and 
after doing military service until late in the fall of 1812, his company re- 
turned home to Bedford county, Tennessee, and were honorably dis- 
charged from the service, after having been on duty six months and 
twenty days. Some years afterward, he removed to Missouri, and in the 
course of time settled in Ray county, and became one of its most valued, 
useful and energetic citizens. He was for many years an able and faithful 
minister of the gospel of the Baptist denomination, and performed the 
work of his great Master in an earnest and zealous manner. He became 
a pensioner in 1872, to date from February 14, 1871. He died at his 
home in Ray count}', at the great age of eighty-five. He was greatly 
beloved by a large circle of relatives and friends. The present representa- 
tive of Ray county, in the legislature of Missouri, is his grandson. 

Alexander Bogart, was drafted as a private in Captain Solomon 
Hendron's company of infantry, Colonel Bagley's regiment, General Coul- 
ter's brigade, constituting a part of the army of General Andrew Jackson, 
war of 1812. He was drafted and mustered into said company on or about the 
20th day of October, 1814, in Chaster county, Tennessee. He then marched 
with his company to Lookout mountain, thence to Fort Jackson, thence 
to Fort Claiborne, remaining in the service until after the news was 
received that peace had been declared between the United States and 
Great Britain, and was then honorably discharged with his company at 
Fort Claiborne, Alabama. Some years after his discharge from military 
service, when his country was making the onward march of prosperity, 
under the benign influences of peace, and the great developments of an 
active and energetic people, he shaped his course westward for Missouri, 
and for many years lived in Ray county, Missouri, near Albany, in Fish- 
ing River township. He died at the advanced age of eighty-four years, 
at his home near Albany, having been a worthy and exemplary citizen of 
this county for many years, greatly respected by all who knew him. 

John Bissell, a soldier of the war of 1812, volunteered to serve in 
17 



266 HISTORY OK RAY COUNTY. 

Captain Haslep's artillery company volunteers, at Youngstown* Ohio, on 
or about the 27th day of August, IS 12. This company of artillery con- 
stituted a part of General William Henry Harrison's gallant little army, 
that won distinction under the brave " Old Tippecanoe" on some hard 
fought battle-fields. After he enlisted in this company, he soon saw some 
severe active service. He was with his company in the siege of Fort 
Meigs, and was with it when sent to succor General Winchester's forces 
at the River Raisin, but failed to reach them before the massacre. At 
the expiration of his term of enlistment, he was honorably discharged at 
Lower Sandusky, Ohio, on the 27th of February, 1813. He married in 
Trumbull count)-, Ohio, (now Mahoning) to Miss Margaret Waters, 
November 16, 1815. He removed from Ohio to Ray countv, Missouri, 
in the year 1866, and was a successful farmer near Albany, Ray county, 
Missouri, for many years, and was highly respected by his neighbors as 
an honest, upright man. He died at his home, near Albany, in the spring 
of 1879, at the advanced age of eighty-five years. 

Wilitam Bales was a soldier of the war of 1812. He was mus- 
tered into Capt. Sharp's company, Tennessee militia, in December, 1814, 
at Knoxville, Tennessee, and serving for a short time, in said company, 
was honorably discharged a short time before peace was declared. He 
became a citizen of Ray county, Missouri, many years ago, having left 
Tennessee and become a resident of this county shortly after it was 
organized. He came to it when it was sparsely inhabited, when only a 
small portion of its fertile territory was under cultivation, and rewarded 
the hand of the industrious farmer with abundant crops. He has lived 
to see this county become one of the first of the northwestern counties of 
Missouri, in everything that pertains to a high degree of improvement and 
civilization. He has attained the great age of eighty-nine years. He 
has been one of the most energetic and worth)' farmers of the county, 
and is greatly respected by all his neighbors. He is greatly endeared to 
his family, who have grown up around him, and are regarded as being 
prominent and useful citizens of the county. 

John Cornelison enlisted as a private in Capt. Jacob Israel's company 
rifle volunteer infantry, at the age of twenty-four years, war of 1812, in 
Harrison county, Virginia, on or about the 20th day of November, 1814. 
After their company was duly organized, it rendezvoused at Clarksburg, 
Hardin county, Virginia, and was afterwards ordered to Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia. Before reaching Norfolk, however, the order was countermanded, 
and it was ordered back to Harrison county, Virginia, and discharged 
from the service on or about the 28th day of March, 1815, after peace had 
been declared between the United States and Great Britain. A number 
of years after the war of 1812, he removed from Virginia with his family 
to the west, and after living in various places finally settled in Ray county, 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNT?. 267 

Missouri. He died in the year 1872, about two miles northwest of Rich- 
mond, at his home, at the advanced age of eighty-two years. 

John Davis volunteered as a soldier of the war of 1812, in Capt. John 
Crawford's company, Kentucky infantry volunteers, which formed a part 
of General Shelby's brigade, at Newport, Kentucky, on or about the 20th 
day of July, 1813. Soon after the organization of his brigade, they marched 
rapidly to reinforce General Harrison. After being reinforced by so 
strong a body of Kentucky troops under Gen. Shelby, Gen. Harrison 
embarked on lake Erie with his army, and soon after arrived at Maiden. 
On finding his post had been abandoned by the British, and that they had 
retreated up the river Thames, General Harrison rapidly pursued them, 
and succeeded in bringing them to action at the Moravian village on the 
Thames, and gained a decisive victory, October 5, 1813. The celebrated 
chief Tecumseh was slain in this battle by Colonel R. M. Johnson. Capt. 
John Crawford's company, in which John Davis was first sergeant, bore 
a conspicuous part in this battle on account of their gallantry, and con- 
tributed no little to the glorious result. On the expiration of his term of 
service he was honorably discharged at Chillicothe, Ohio, on or about 
October 30, 1813. John Davis and Selene McDougal were married in 
Morgan county, Kentucky, June 1, 1817. John Davis some years after 
his marriage, removed with his family to Ray county, Missouri, and after 
living in different portions of the county, finally made a permanent settle- 
ment about three miles west of Knoxville, Ray county, and followed the 
business of farming for many years successfully. He was a valuable citi- 
zen in his community, and greatly respected by his neighbors. He died 
on the 10th day of September, 1875, at his home near Knoxville, at the 
advanced age of 84 years. He left a very worthy family, who live in the 
same neighborhood. His widow, Selene Davis, lives with her son, Jasper 
N. Davis, on the old homestead. She is a pensioner, as the widow of 
John Davis deceased, a soldier of the war of 1812. 

James Humphreys enlisted in Capt. George Matthews' company, 
infantry, Major Hurt's battalion, Col. George Pogue's regiment, in the 
army of General William Henry Harrison, at Flemingsburg, Fleming 
county, Kentucky, on or about the 12th day of August, 1812. After 
enlisting, he, with his company, marched to Newport, Kentucky, and drew 
their arms, and took up their line of march toward the northwestern part 
of Ohio. They failed to reach their point of destination before winter set 
in, and were ordered back to Shawneetown to build a fort which was 
called " Fort Amanda." They remained in this fort until spring, when 
they were ordered to the relief of General Winchester, but were too late in 
reaching him by one day's travel. Their term of enlistment having expired, 
they returned home and were honorably discharged on or about April 15, 



268 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

1813. For a number of years before his death he was a citizen of Ray 
county, Missouri, living nearMillville. 

James Kinzon was a private in Capt. James H. Campbell's company, 
24th regiment U. S. infantry volunteers. He enlisted at Cumberland Gap, 
east Tennessee, on or about the 4th day of September, 1812. After serv- 
ing two years he was transferred with his company to the second rifle regi- 
ment corps, and served in it until the expiration of his term of enlistment, 
having enlisted for five years. He was honorably discharged at Rock 
Island, Mississippi, September 4, 1817. After enlisting he marched with 
his company to Knoxville, Tennessee, thence to Canada West, taking part 
in the battle of Mackinac, in the defense of Fort Meigs at the time of the 
siege, and in other engagements. Some years after the war of 1812 he 
came to Missouri. He married Miss Sarah Harlow, of Clinton county, 
Missouri, and lived many years near Turner's Grove, Ray county, Mis- 
souri. He died in Clinton county Missouri, on the 26th day of February, 
1875, at the advanced age of 80 years. 

James Mason was a private in Captain Elijah Harding's company, 
Forty -fifth regiment Virginia militia, commanded by Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Peyton, General Hungerford's brigade, war of 1812. He was mus- 
tered into the service in Stafford county, Virginia, Potomac court house, 
on or about the 1st day of July, 1814. He performed service with his com- 
pany in Westmoreland county, Virginia, along the Potomac, until he 
was stricken down with a severe attack of typhoid fever, and was 
sent home from Drummond's Field, Virginia, his company being on 
the march at that time up the Potomac river. On recovering, he found 
his company had returned to Stafford county, Virginia, and was dis- 
charged for the campaign. The war coming to a close shortly after, the 
services of his company were no longer required. He married in Vir- 
ginia, and lived there the greater portion of his life. He came to Rich- 
mond, Missouri, when a very old man, and lived up to the time of his 
death with his daughter, Mrs. O. S. W. Taylor. 

William McIntosh was mustered in as a private in Captain Black's 
company, Third regiment of Tennessee volunteers, war of 1S12, on or 
about the 10th day of July, 1814, and was honorably discharged on or 
about the 10th day of February, 1815, after peace was declared, at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. After enlisting in said service, his regiment took up 
their line of departure on flat-boats to New Orleans, Louisiana, and 
remained in that city until after the battle of New Orleans, having the 
honor of taking part in this glorious engagement, on the 8th of January, 
1815. After news of the peace was received, his company was ordered 
back to Tennessee, and were mustered out of the service honorably, at 
Nashville, Tennessee, as above stated. He lived a number of years 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 269 

before the close of his life in Hardin, Ray county, Missouri, and died 
there at the advanced age of eighty-two years. 

Thomas McCuistion was a lieutenant in Captain John B. Dempsey's 
company of mounted volunteers, commanded by Colonel Newton Can- 
non, in General Coffee's brigade, ihe division commanded by General 
Andrew Jackson. He volunteered and was mustered in at Shelbyville, 
Bedford county, Tennessee, on or about the 15th day of September, 1813, 
and was honorably discharged on or about the 25th day of December, 
1813. He was in the battle of Tallahatchie, on the 2d of November, 
1813, and in the battle of Talladega, «n the 8th olf November, 1813; in the 
Indian war, of the United States against the Creeks, and contributed 
greatly by his gallantry and intrepidity in these actions in achieving com- 
plete victories over the brave warriors of the hostile Creeks. He married 
Nancy Jordan, in Bedford county, Tennessee, on or about the 15th day of 
February, 1816, and moved with his wife to Ray county, Missouri, a few 
years after the organization of the county. He was a man of sterling 
integrity. All his dealings with his neighbors were characterized by the 
highest principles of honor and rectitude. He was greatly loved by a 
large circle of relatives and friends. After a long life of usefulness, he 
died in Richmond, Missouri, in 1880, at the advanced age of eightv-eight 
years. His widow, Mrs. Nancy McCuistion, is still living. 

Edward Sanderson enlisted as a private in Captain Scurry's com- 
pany of mounted riflemen, second battalion, Colonel Thomas William- 
son's regiment of Tennessee volunteers, at Gallatin, Tennessee, on or 
about the 9th day of February, 1814. His company, when he enlisted, 
was commanded by Captain George Elliott, who was afterwards pro- 
moted to be colonel of another regiment, and Captain Scurry succeeded 
him in the position of captain. Some time after enlisting, his company 
and regiment, with other forces, took up their line of march for New 
Orleans, Louisiana, and reached the point of their destination about the 
1st of January, 1815. He, along with the rest of his company, took part 
in the memorable engagement of the 8th of January, 1815, in which Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson gained a complete, decisive, and glorious victory 
over the veteran troops of Great Britain, who were thoroughly equipped 
and trained under the eye of Wellington, and who had met the conqueror 
of Europe, and driven back his legions. The war of the United States 
with the Creek Indians, that was the result of the interference of Great 
Britain, was the school in which Generals Jackson, Coffee, and Carroll 
became adepts in the tactics that made a Tennessee rifleman superior to 
a Wellington invincible, and qualified an army of citizen soldiers to defeat 
an army of veterans of superior numbers. Mr. Sanderson, shortly after 
this brilliant victory, returned, with his company, to Gallatin, Tennessee, 
and was honorably discharged there. Some years afterward he removed 



270 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY 

from Tennessee to Ray county, Misssouri, and was engaged in the busi- 
ness of farming for many years. He reared a large family of children, 
who are valuable citizens of the county. He was an upright man in 
every respect, and was greatly respected in his community. He died in 
1874, at the advanced age of eighty-one years. 

Jabez Shotwell enlisted as a soldier of the war of 1812, in Captain 
Stockton's company, first regiment of Kentucky dragoons, in the army 
commanded by Gen. William Henry Harrison, Dayton, Ohio, on or about 
the 1st of September, 1812, and was honorably discharged at Ft. Defiance, 
Ohio, on or about November 10, 1812. That he served with his companv 
under Gen. Harrison, in his campaign in northwest Ohio. He saw con- 
siderable active service during the term for which he was enlisted. Some 
years after the war of 1812, he removed to Ray county, Missouri, and 
became in a short time a prominent citizen of the county. He held a 
number of important offices. Among them may be mentioned the offices 
of county judge, count}' surveyor, county school commissioner, all of which 
he filled with ability, discharging the duties incumbent upon him in a 
faithful manner. He reared an interesting family of children, to whom he 
was greatly endeared. He died in Lexington, Missouri, in the year 1875, 
at the advanced age of eighty-four years. 

Gerrard Spurrier enlisted in Capt. Bayliss' company, 11th regiment 
light horse brigade, Kentucky volunteers, war of 1812, on or about the 
9th day of September, in Lewis county, Kentucky, and was honorably 
discharged the 9th day of November, 1813. After enlisting he took up 
the line of march with his company, to West Union, Adams county, Ohio, 
where the company was fully organized, thence they marched to Seneca, 
and a number of other points and finally to Moravianto vvn, in Canada West, 
and took part in the battle of the Thames, on the 5th of October, 1813, 
which resulted in the defeat of Gen. Proctor, and the death of the celebrated 
Indian chieftain and prophet, Tecumseh. Mr. Spurrier and all his fellow 
soldiers in his company and regiment, bore themselves gallantly in this 
hotly contested engagement and reflected bright and lasting honor upon 
the brave Kentucky troops. On leaving Kentucky, some years after the 
war of 1812, he came to Missouri and finally settled in Ray county, and 
has been a worthy citizen of it for many years. He has always borne a 
spotless character wherever he has lived. He is highly esteemed by all 
who know him. Some of his family live in Indiana and are prominent 
citizens of the community in which they live. Gerrard Spurrier is now 
eighty nine years old, but he retains, in a great measure, the vigor of his 
mind, and until very recently, could travel about with all the activity of a 
young man. 

William Thornton enlisted as a private in Capt. James Simpson's 
company, Major Peter Dudley's brigade, in the division of Gen. Duncan 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 271 

McArthur, war of 1812, on or about the 1st day of September, 1813, and 
was honorably discharged at Winchester, Kentucky, on or about the 25th 
day of September, 1814. He served with his company under Gen. 
McArthur the greater portion of his term of enlistment in Canada. He 
saw considerable active service in this campaign in which Gen. McArthur 
partly carried out his bold plan of conquering Upper Canada. He became 
a settler of Ray county, Missouri, a few years after it was organized. He 
was for many years a successful farmer, and stood high among his neigh- 
bors as a man of unswerving integrity, great firmness of purpose, and 
warmth ot feeling in his attachment. He never married, but for many 
years lived in his pleasant home with his sister, Miss Margery Thornton, 
and always had a warm welcome for his friends. After the death of his 
sister he lived in the family of Gen. Alexander Doniphan for a number of 
years, in Richmond, Missouri. He died in 1872, aged eighty-four years. 

John Turner was a soldier of the war of 1812. He enlisted in Capt. 
Burnett's company, Kentucky volunteers. Was taken prisoner at the 
battle of the River Raisin, and was a prisoner among the Indians and 
British one year and ten days. He was one of the early settlers of Ray 
county, and was for mam^ years a settler of Fishing River township, of 
this county. He reared a large family of children, who are good and use- 
ful citizens of the county. He was an industrious and energetic farmer, 
and showed the hand of the diligent man in making his home an attract- 
ive place for the family. He was a man of strong force of character, 
warm in his attachment to friends, and of unbending rectitude in all his 
dealings with his fellow man — a man that stood high with his neighbors 
for probity, and whole-souled honor and integrity. He died at an 
advanced age in 1872. 

Emilius Wood was mustered in as a private in Capt. Charles Duvall's 
company, Ohio volunteers, in General Harrison's army, on about Novem- 
ber 10, 1812, in Washington county, Ohio, and was honorably discharged 
at Marietta, Ohio, in or about May, 1813. He saw considerable active 
service during his term of enlistment, in the army of Gen. Harrison. He 
was not a citizen of Ray county, Missouri, man}' years. He was a 
farmer during the time he lived in this county, in Richmond township, 
not far from the Richmond and Lexington junction. 

Only two soldiers of the war of 1812 are now living in Ray county, 
Gerrard Spurrier and William Bales. All of those living at the time of the 
passage of the pension act, approved by congress, February 14-, 1871, are 
now dead, except the two above mentioned. 

Widows of soldiers of the war of 1812, that were entitled to pensions 
under the act of congress approved February 14, 1871, having been mar- 
ried prior to the declaration of peace, February 17, 1815. They were as 
follows: 



272 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Malinda Martin, widow of William B. Martin, deceased, who was a 
private in Capt. Brassfield's company, Kentucky volunteers, war of 1812. 
He enlisted at Winchester, Kentucky, on or about the 10th, of August, 
1812, and was honorably discharged at Fort Defiance, in December, 1812. 

Anna Routh, widow of Jeremiah Routh, deceased, who was a private 
in Capt. Inglish's company, Tennessee militia regiment, war of 1812. 
He enlisted in Sevier county, Tennessee, on or about the 25th of Novem- 
ber, 1813, and was honorably discharged on or about the 25th day of 
July, 1814. 

Heathy Mott, widow of Loann Orange Mott, deceased, who 
enlisted in Capt. John Dowden's company, Slack's tavern, between Wash- 
ington and Germantown, in Macon county, Kentucky, war of 1812, on or 
about the 10th day August, 1812, and was honorably discharged at 
Macon county, Kentucky, about the close of the year 1812. 

Mary E. Mayberry, widow of Frederick E. Mayberry, deceased, 
who enlisted in Capt. William Lock's company, Col. Colman's regiment, 
in the division commanded by Gen. Andrew Jackson, Tennessee volun- 
teers, on the 10th day of December, 1811, at Nashville, Tennessee, and 
was honorably discharged at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on or about the 
25th day of December, 1814. 

Only one of the above mentioned widows is now living. Mrs. Anna 
Routh still survives, having attained the great age of eighty-seven years. 
She lives about four miles from Richmond, Ray county, Missouri. 

Mary Comer, widow of John Comer, deceased, who was a soldier of 
the war of 1812, in Capt. Morris's company of Ohio volunteers, that did 
service in the arm)'- of Gen. Harrison. He enlisted at Chillicothe, Ross 
county, Ohio, on or about the 10th day of July, 1813, and was honorably 
discharged at Chillicothe, Ohio, on or about December 10, 1813. She 
was married to John Comer, on or about the 10th day of June, 1800, in 
Ross county, Ohio. Her name before marriage was Mar}- Baker. Mrs. 
Mary Comer moved from Ray county to Daviess county, Missouri, before 
her claim was completed, and died in Daviess county, eighty-seven years 
old. 

The act of congress approved March 9, 1878, extended the provisions 
of the act of February 14, 1871, to all widows of soldiers of the war of 
1812, without any reference to the time of their marriages. Those living 
in Ray county, Missouri, are as follows.: 

Selena Davis, widow of John Davis, deceased, who was a soldier of 
the war of 1812, in Capt. John Crawford's company, Kentucky volun- 
teers, forming a part of General Shelby's brigade. She lives about three 
miles from Knoxville, Ray county, Missouri. She was married to John 
Davis in Montgomery county, Kentucky, about June 1, 1817; her maiden 
name being Selena McDougal. She is now over eighty years old. 



HISTORY OF KAY COUNTY. 273 

Catharine Gunneel, widow of Nathaniel Gunnell, deceased, who 
was a soldier of the war of 181.2, having enlisted in a Virginia company 
of volunteers, in the southeastern part of Virginia, on or about the year 

1814. She was married to Nathaniel Gunnell, on the 8th day of Janu- 
ary 1848, in Ray county, Missouri, her name before marriage being Mrs. 
Catharine Albert. She is now seventy-five years old, and until recently 
lived about three miles from Millville, Ray county, Missouri. 

Nancy McCuistion, widow of Thomas McCuistion, deceased, late 
soldier of the war of 1812, in Capt. John B. Dempsey's mounted volun- 
teers. She was married to Lieut. Thomas McCuistion on or about the 
15th day of February, 1816, her name before marriage being Nancy Jor- 
dan. She now lives with her son, A. A. McCuistion, in Richmond, Mis- 
souri, and is now seventy-nine years old. 

Mary Reed, widow of David Reed, deceased, a soldier of the war of 
1812, who enlisted in Berkeley county, Virginia, on or about the 1st of 
August, 1814, and was honorably discharged on or about the 1st of March, 

1815. She was married to David Reed on or about the 1st day of 
December, 1820, in Warren county, Missouri, at that time forming a part 
of Montgomery county, Missouri. Her maiden name was Mary Bryan. 
She lives with her daughter, Mrs. Elijah Happy, about five miles from 
Richmond. She has attained the age of eighty-three years. 

Adaline Riffe, widow of John RifFe, deceased, a lieutenant in Capt. 
Wade's company of volunteers, from Casey county, Kentucky, war of 
1812. He enlisted on or about the 1st day of September, 1814, and was 
honorably discharged on or about February 15, 1815. She was married 
to John Riffe in Ray county, Missouri, on the 15th day of January, 1846. 
Her name before this marriage was Mrs. Adaline Ross. She lives in 
Albany, Ray county, Missouri, about one mile from Orrick, and is now 
seventy-two years old. 

Nancy Rush, widow of Job Rush, a soldier of the war of 1812 in 
Capt. George Allen's company of Virginia militia, who enlisted on or 
about the 15th of April, 1813, and was honorably discharged at Norfolk, 
Virginia, on or about the 1st of October, 1813. She was married to Job 
Rush in Madison county, Virginia, on the 10th day of February, 1819. 
She is now eighty-three years old, and lives with her relatives near Rich- 
mond, Missouri. 

Jane Smith, widow of Jedediah Smith, deceased, a soldier of the war 
of 1812, in Capt. McCuistion's company, in the second regiment of North 
Carolina militia. He enlisted in Guilford county, North Carolina, in 1814, 
and was honorably discharged, after serving a term of over three months. 
She was married to Jedediah Smith, January 6th, 1818, in Guilford county, 
North Carolina. Her name before marriage was Jane Close. She is 



274 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

now living about three miles from Lawson, with her son, William W. 
Smith, and has attained the great age of eighty-two years. 

BLACK HAWK WAR IN 1832. 
SOLDIERS OK WIDOWS OF SOLDIERS NOW LIVING IN RAY COUNTY. 

Henry Brown, in Captain Sconce's company; William Crowley; Wil- 
iliam R. Blythe, first lieutenant in Captain Pollard's company, Colonel 
Sconce's regiment; Winant Vanderpool, a private in Captain William C. 
Pollard's company; Priscilla Conklin, late widow of Andrew Pearce, 
deceased, a private in Captain William Pollard's company: .Ruth Rifle, 
widow of Jacob Rifle, deceased. 

FLORIDA WAR. 

In the Florida war, in the year 1837, the Missouri "spies," a company 
made up chiefly of recruits from Ray county, commanded by Captain 
John Sconce, Israel R. Hendly, first lieutenant, did good service in the 
swamps and everglades of Florida. 

In the battle of Okeechobee, December 25, 1837, the company suffered 
severely. Among the killed were Perry Jacobs and James Remley, and 
among the wounded were John W. Martin and William B. Hudgins, 
from this county. 

The following are the names of the soldiers, who were in the Florida 
war, who are now living in Ray county: William B. Hudgins, of Capt. 
Sconce's companv Missouri Spies; Beniah Hagan, of Captain Pollard's 
company; Jackson Mann, of Captain Pollard's company; James B. 
Smith, of Captain John Sconce's company; William L. Feur, of Captain 
Pollard's company; Pleasant Slover, of Captain John Child's company 
Tennessee volunteers: Dr. Moody Manson, surgeon. 

IIEATHERLY WAR. 
In 1836 two companies of Ray county militia, under command of Cap- 
tains Matthew P. Long and William Pollard, were ordered out as a part 
of Brigadier-General William Thompson's brigade, to serve in the Heath- 
erly war. The counties of Ray, Carroll and Clay, as late as 1836, 
extended from the Missouri river to the southern boundary line of Iowa 
territory. In June of that year (1836) the settlements in the northern por- 
tion of all these counties were sparsely peopled, and many miles apart. In 
the northern part of Carroll county, now embraced in the limits of Mer- 
cer and Grundy, near the line dividing tlu-st two counties, there was a 
comparatively small settlement, or a few families of pioneers residing. 
Of this number was an old man named Heatherly. and wife, some 
four grown sons, and two sons-in-law, and a family named Dunbar and 
another person, a near neighbor of Dunbar. The Heatherlys were at 
enmity with Dunbar and his neighbors, and availing themselves of the 
chance, always created in the unprotected settlements, they murdered 



HISTORY OP~ RAY COUNTY. 275 

Dunbar and his neighbor, and robbed their houses, and then fled into the 
more densely settled part of the country south, and reported that some 
Iowa Indians had made an irruption into that part of the country and had 
murdered and robbed these two persons. The clamor of the Heatherlys 
caused troops to be called out for the purpose of apprehending the 
Indians, and having them punished for these murders. 

Brigadier-General William Thompson was commander of the brigade, 
embracing the counties of Ray, Clay and Carroll, and resided in Ray. 
He immediately ordered out five companies, one from Carroll, two from 
Ray, commauded as above mentioned, and two from Clay, commanded 
respectively by Captain David R. Atchison and Smith Crawford, and the 
battalion was under the personal command of Shubael Allen. The bat- 
talion from Ray and Carroll was commanded by General Thompson in 
person. The last named battalion marched rapidly to the scene of the 
crimes, and succeeded in finding the bodies of the murdered men, but no 
trace of any Indians could be found. The two battalions were in con- 
stant communication, and after about eighteen days' service, General 
Thompson ordered them to disband. Facts ascertained by General 
Thompson, when he w r as at the scene of the murder, and facts that came 
to light, induced the belief that the Heatherlv gang were the murderers, 
and they were arrested and committed to jail in Carroll county, and after 
a delay of a year or more, some of them were convicted and sent to the 
penitentiary. The Heatherly family were more like gypsies than Amer- 
icans. The children were of every hue, from mulattoes to pretty fair 
Caucasians. The moving spirit and motive power of the family was the 
old woman, the mother of this motley progenv. She had great shrewd- 
ness, and was as fiendish as a Hecate. It was in proof that she instigated, 
planned, and had the crimes committed, and conceived the idea of 
attributing them to the friendly Iowa Indians. 

MORMON WAR. 
In the fall oi 1838, the Mormon war caused great excitement in Ray 
county. A considerable force of Mormons under their leader, Joe Smith, 
had assembled at Far West, in Caldwell county, Missouri, and serious 
apprehensions were entertained that they intended to make a descent upon 
Ray county. A portion of the force of Mormons, under the command of 
Capt. Patton. did march into Rav county, as far as what is now called 
" Bogart's Battle Field," on Crooked river, in the northwest part of the 
county, on, or about the loth of November, 1838, and met a company of 
Ray county militia, under the command of Capt. Samuel Bogart. After 
a sharp engagement, the militia were repulsed and fell back to the south- 
ern part of the county, leaving the Mormons the masters of the battle- 
field. In this engagement the Mormons lost Captain Patton, and the day 
following fell back to their main force at Far West, Caldwell county. 



276 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The wildest excitement prevailed in Ray county after this slight action. 
A large number of people in the northern part of the county removed 
their families and their effects to places of safety in the southern part of 
the county. 

Lilburn W. Boggs, who was then governor of Missouri, issued a proc- 
lamation and ordered Major-General David R. Atchison to call out the 
militia of his division, in order to put down the insurgents and enforce the 
laws. General Atchison called out a part of the hrst brigade of Missouri 
state militia, under the command of General Alexander W. Doniphan, 
who proceeded at once to the seat of war. 

There were called out in this expedition from Ray county four com- 
panies of militia, commanded respectively by Captains Samuel Bogart, 
Israel R. Hendley, Nehemiah Odell, and John Sconce. The militia were 
placed under the command of General John B. Clark. 

General Doniphan, on reaching Far West, in Caldwell county, Missouri, 
after some slight engagements, where the principal Mormon forces had 
assembled, numbering about 1,000 men, commanded by Colonel G. W. 
Hinkle, demanded their surrender, on the following conditions, viz: That 
they should deliver up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders for 
trial, and that the remainder of the Mormons should, with their families, 
leave the state. 

After some parleying, Joe Smith surrendered on General Doniphan's 
conditions. 

The leaders were taken before a court of inquiry at Richmond, Ray 
county, Judge Austin A. King, presiding. He remanded them to Daviess 
county to await the action of the grand jury on a charge of treason against 
the state. 

The Daviess county jail being very poor, they were taken to Liberty, 
Clay county, Missouri, and confined in the jail at that place. 

Indictments were presented against Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Sid- 
ney Rigdon, Lyman Wright, Colonel G. W. Hinkle, Charles Baldwin, 
^nd Amos Lyman. Sidney Rigdon was released on a writ of habeas 
corpus, at Liberty, Clay county, Missouri. 

The others applied for a change of venue, which was granted by Judge 
Austin A. King, and their cases were sent by him to Boone county for 
trial. On their way to Columbia, Boone county, under a military guard, 
Joseph Smith and his fellow-prisoners effected their escape. It is claimed, 
and believed by many, that the guard, or a portion of it was bribed. 

THE MEXICAN WAR. 

Almost thirty-five years have rolled around since the Mexican war. 

Since then many and great events have taken place. Many brilliant and 

illustrious achievements have been chronicled upon the historic page, and 

astounding inventions and marvelous discoveries have wrought revolu- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 277 

tions in all the affairs of life. The contemplation of them almost causes 
the reason to stagger and the imagination to flag. The grand triumphs 
of science, the crowning glory of the conquests of art, and the startling 
discoveries in the wide domain of nature in the last thirty-live years, all go 
to show that we live in an age that has reached a high mark of enlight- 
enment, and that the conquering car of progress is sweeping onward in 
its grand march. 

Yet, amid all these grand achievements and mighty changes, there is 
no American who would wish the proud deeds of our gallant armies in 
the Mexican war blotted from the pages of his country's history. These 
gallant and glorious deeds still speak trumpet-tongued of the fame of the 
soldiers that traversed the burning sands and dense chapparals of Mexico, 
and covered themselves with imperishable glory on hard-fought battle- 
fields, under the starry folds of the proud ensign of the republic, until it 
streamed forth in all its original lustre over the proud halls of the Mon- 
tezumas. 

The brave McKee, the impetuous Yell, the intrepid Hardin, the chival- 
rous Clay, and gallant Watson, and hundreds of their noble comrades, 
who went down amid the rushing squadron, the roaring cannon and the 
clashing steel, and baptised their love of country in their crimson life-blood, 
will never be forgotten. 

Every American in whose free-born bosom there throbs one pulsation 
prouder than another, will feel it throb whenever he hears these names. 
They will still continue to be the glowing theme of the annalist and the 
inspiring song of the bard. 

The reader of his country's history will always feel a glow of pride 
when he reads of the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monte- 
rey, and Buena Vista; of Vera Cruz, Contreras, Cherubusco, Molino del 
Rev, Chepultapec, and the City of Mexico; of Chihuahua, and Sacra- 
mento. Around the names of Taylor, Scott, Doniphan, Price, and their 
illustrious comrades, will be entwined laurels of everlasting verdure. 
Their fame will be like a mighty river that grows broader and deeper as 
it rolls onward. 

And does any one ask, "What have we gained by the Mexican war?" 

If such an one there be, let him forget, if he can, the national glory 
gained for our country by the gallant deeds of our soldiers, in giving 
increased military renown and glory in a war without a single defeat; and 
look at the grand and solid results of the Mexican war! It added two 
states and territories to our country, that are now teeming with a popula- 
tion full of energy, thrift, and prosperity, embracing millions of acres of 
land, whose valleys are of boundless fertility, and whose mountains con- 
tain inexhaustible quantities of minerals, of priceless value, the gold and 
silver alone yielding $80,000,000 per year. 



278 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

/ 

It gave to our own country an extended seacoast, with capacious bays, 
inlets, and harbors, affording an almost limitless commerce, foreign and 
domestic. 

" Glens where Ocean comes, 

To 'scape the wild winds' rancor, 
And harbors, worthiest homes, 

Where Freedom's fleets can anchor." 

The resources of this broad expanse of territory, acquired by the valor 
of our soldiers, have been developed by our own American people, show- 
ing the vast superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race over the mongrel race 
that once occupied it. 

History gives no account of such consequences resulting from any war, 
ancient or modern, in Europe or Asia. It stands in its glorious results 
without a parallel. 

In 1846, a company of volunteers was recruited from Ray county for 
the Mexican war. This company was mustered into the service August 
1, 1846, as company G, in the battalion of Missouri mounted riflemen, 
commanded by Lieut. Col. David Willock, (Col. Sterling Price's regiment) 
called into the service of the United States by President James K. Polk, 
under the act of congress, approved May 13, 1846. Israel R. Hendley 
was elected captain of company G; William M. Jacobs, first lieutenant; 
John W. Martin, second lieutenant, and William P. George, third lieu- 
tenant. 

This battalion was a part of Col. Sterling Price's regiment, and under 
the command of Kearney and Doniphan, won laurels of which the coun- 
try is justly proud. 

Capt. Israel R. Hendley, who had proved himself, a gallant officer, fell 
at Moro, New Mexico, January 25, 1847, and was succeeded in command 
of company G* by Capt. William M. Jacobs, who was a brave and 
efficient officer, and was greatly endeared to his gallant company. Com- 
pany G was mustered into the United States service August 1, 1846. It 
was a splendid company, well equipped, thoroughly disciplined, and 
efficient in every respect. It performed excellent service during the w r ar, 
and was honorably discharged at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, on the 17th 
day of September, 1847. 

A portion of this company accompanied Doniphan's regiment, so famous 
for its march to Santa Fe, Chihuahua, Monterey and the gulf, and for the 
battles of Bracito and Sacramento. The march of the regiment is known 
as Doniphan's expedition. 

After those brilliant victories, Doniphan's gallant little army took up its 
line of march homeward. At Saltillo they were reviewed by Gen. Wool. 

*Capt. William M. Jacobs was killed June 1, 1878, in the fearful cyclone that swept 
over Richmond, causing great loiss of life and devastation of property. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 279 

They reported to Gen. Taylor, at Monterey, on the 27th of May, 1847, 
and thence they marched to Matamoras, conveying with them their 
artillery, which Gen. Taylor permitted them to take home as trophies, in 
consideration of "their gallantry and noble bearing." They made the 
march from Chihuahua to Matamoras, nine hundred miles, in forty- five 

days. 

They arrived at New Orleans about the middle of June, 1847, were 
mustered out of service, and received a brilliant reception. The cele- 
brated orator, Sargent S. Prentiss, on the part of the people of New 
Orleans, welcomed their return in one of the most eloquent, touching and 
patriotic speeches ever heard from mortal lips. 

On the 2d of July, they arrived at St. Louis, where they received a 
grand, glorious welcome. Judge Bowlin received them at St. Louis, on 
the part of the people. A magnificent banquet was spread for them, and 
Col. Thomas H. Benton made a most eloquent and thrilling speech to the 
assembled mass of soldiers and people, recounting the events of their long 
and almost fabulous expedition with a minuteness and accuracy that aston- 
ished them. He traced their journey of five thousand miles from St. Louis 
and back again. In the course of his patriotic and impressive speech, he 
referred to the famous " Retreat of the Ten Thousand," and congratulated 
them that the march of the " one thousand " exceeded that of the " ten 
thousand " by some two thousand miles. Deservedly has Gen. Doniphan 
won the title of the " American Xenophon." 

Thirty-five years have rolled around since the commencement of the 
Mexican war, and many of the brave soldiers of the gallant armies of 
Taylor, Scott and Doniphan have gone to their last camping ground. 

"On fame's eternal camping ground, 
Their silent tents are spread; 
And glory guards with solemn round, 
The bivouac of the dead." 

A pension bill, for the benefit of the survivors of the Mexican war has 
been introduced into congress. It is ardently hoped that it will soon 
become a law, and afford some recognition of the gallant services of the 
soldiers whose deeds hold a conspicuous place on that pillar of glory, 
where the deeds of the American soldier are emblazoned for the admira- 
tion of mankind. 

The following is a list of the surviving soldiers of the Mexican war, 
now living in Ray county, Missouri: Company G, Captain Israel R. 
Hendley's company, Lieut.-Colonel David Willock's battalion, Colonel 
Sterling Price's regiment, has the following survivors in Ray county: 

William Albert, Anderson Elliott, Joel Estis, William Flournoy, Henry 
Jacobs, George W. Jacobs, Andrew J. Lillard, Henry Page, Moses Ritter, 
John D. Rayburn, Jacob Robinson, Anderson Spencer, James Sanderson, 



280 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Wilbum Snovvden, Marion Tucker, Lewis Vandever, Robert J. Williams, 
and Thomas Woolard. 

General Alexander Doniphan, Colonel First regiment Missouri mounted 
volunteers, Mexican war. 

William Nelson, company B, Captain Walton's company, Doniphan's 
regiment. 

Porter Mansur, company L, Captain William J. Slack's company Sec- 
ond Missouri regiment. 

John Saery, private in the Sixth company, Second regiment, Kentucky 
volunteers. 

Julius H. Searls, company B, Fourth Illinois regiment, infantry volun- 
teers. 

Charles B. Kavanaugh, company B, Captain Walton's company, Doni- 
phan's regiment. 

Thomas Jobe, Captain Simmons' company, Colonel Rail's regiment of 
mounted volunteers. 

James A. Delaney, Captain Daniel H. Bird's company K, First Georgia 
regiment of volunteers. 

James M. Fuller, Captain Thomas Jones' company Colonel Geles' 
regiment. 

Abner C. Roberts, sergeant, Captain Keen's company, Marix's regiment, 
Louisiana volunteers. 

Thomas D. Woodson, corporal company K, Captain Thomas May- 
field's Fourth Kentucky infantry. 

William A. Crane, company B, Third Kentucky infantry volunteers. 

Joseph A. Smith, Captain Perry Moss's company C, First regiment, 
Missouri volunteers, commanded by General A. W. Doniphan. 

Benjamin W. Hines, soldier in the Mexican war, company G, Colonel 
Rail's regiment. 

James O. Cooper, private, Captain O. Perry Moss's company, Doni- 
phan's regiment. 

Adam K. McClintock, company C, First regiment, commanded by 
Colonel A. W. Doniphan. 

Jasper N. Davis, Captain Henry Skillman's company, battalion of team- 
sters, organized by Colonel A. W. Doniphan. 

WIDOWS OF SOLDIERS OF MEXICAN WAR, LIVING IN RAY COUNTY, MISSOURI. 

Mrs. Sarah J. Davis, widow of Presly C. Davis, deceased, company C, 
Captain William H. Rogers, Oregon battalion, commanded by Colonel 
Powell. 

Fannie S. Craven, widow of John N. Craven, deceased, company C, 
Captain William H. Rogers, a soldier in Oregon battalion. 

Rachael Odell, widow of Francis Odell, deceased, a teamster in artil- 
lery company in Oregon battalion. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 281 

Deadunea Wilson, widow of Robert Wilson, deceased, a soldier of 
company -G, Lieutenant-Colonel David Willock's battalion, Colonel Ster- 
ling Price's regiment. 

Ellen Davis, widow of Ben]amin F. Davis, deceased, a soldier of Mexi- 
can war, company G, Lieut.-Colonel Willock's battalion. 

Sarah Armstrong, widow of Joshua Armstrong, company G, Lieut.- 
Colonel Willock's battalion, Colonel Sterling Price's regiment. 

Mrs. Dorothy Pritchet, widow of William Pritchett, deceased; company 
G, Lt. Col. David Willock's battalion. 

Mrs. Margaret Roberts, formerly widow of Lemuel Williams, deceased; 
a* soldier of W. P. Walton's company B, first regiment of Missouri 
mounted volunteers. 

Mrs. Mary A. Parker, widow of William C. Parker, deceased; Capt. 
William Dougherty's company, Col. McKee's regiment, Kentucky vol- 
unteers. 

Eleanor Conyers, widow of John Conyers, deceased; a soldier of the 
Mexican war. 

Mrs. BettieJ. Robb, widow of Joseph Robb, deceased; a soldier of the 
Mexican war. 

TEAMSTERS IN MEXICAN WAR, LIVING [N RAY COUNTY, MISSOURI. 

Benjamin C. Branch, teamster for Gen. Wool's staff. 
Robert W. Patton, teamster for Col. Price's regiment. 
John Lee, teamster. 



THE GREAT CIVIL WAR. 

Many years must elapse before the complete history of the great 
struggle between the Federal government of the United States, and the 
Southern Confederacy, can be written. A great civil war beyond all 
others, involves grave and complex questions that require the historian 
writing from the chancery of truth, to take a calm view of the whole field, 
which shall do full justice to both sections of the Union. The cessation 
of the war after the surrender of General Lee to General Grant at 
Appomattox, April 9, 1865, was followed by a flood of biographies, 
memoirs, reports and historical sketches, that will have to be laboriously 
collated, winnowed of their chaff, pruned of their partisan exuberance, 
and reduced to the correct standard of material for a history that makes 
truth its polar star, 

" Of whose firm fixed and resting quality, 
There is no fellow in the; firmanent. " 

It is true, some very important histories of the military events of the 
18 



282 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

war, have been written, but this is not the whole of the subject. The 
future will yet produce some annalist like Tacitus, in his histories and 
annals, who, with incorruptible virtue will adorn the literature of his age, 
in giving a history of the great civil war, in a style and manner character- 
ized by dignity, gravity, honesty and truthfulness. 

The European historian who has heretofore allotted only a spare chap- 
ter to America, regarding our affairs with a marked indifference, now 
assigns it a prominent place in the world's affairs. 

The magnitude of -the conflict, the immense armies marshaled mainly 
from the plow and work-shop into the field, the great battles, splendid 
generalship, dashing feats of arms, masterly strategy, brilliant tactics, 
bravery of soldiers, grand charges on terrible battle fields, vast resources 
of the two governments, the complete and wonderful sanitary system and 
regulations and the strong resolution and firm endurance of the people, all 
challenged the admiration of the people of Europe, and caused them to 
wonder that so great a people had sprung into existence beyond the Atlan- 
tic. Throughout the history of modern times there are no efforts more 
amazing, no sacrifices more unbounded, no achievements more brilliant 
on record, than those of the peoples and armies of the north and south. 

It was the people mainly of the same great Anglo-Saxon race that 
waged the mighty conflict. The same blood proudly coursed through 
the veins of the people of both sections of the country. 

At the close of the war the sublime spectacle was presented of the great 
armies on each side returning quietly and calmly to their homes, and gladly 
resuming the vocations of peace. 

There was not a single instance of a scene of bloodshed and violence to 
stain the honorable record of so large a body of brave soldiers of the north 
and south that had been disbanded and freed from all restraint. 

As time rolls onward, there will be no effort made by either the north or 
the south to cherish alone its own memories, its own tears, its own heroes, 
its own dead. Already throughout the broad expanse of our country, do 
we find many of our people, animated by the most noble sentiments, impar- 
tial in the offerings made to the memory of the dead. They strew flowers 
alike upon the graves of the Confederate and National soldiers. The gar- 
lands of roses and lilies are placed sweetly by affection's hand upon the 
green graves of the blue and grey as they sleep 

" Under the sod and the dew, 
Waiting the judgment day; 
Love and tears for the Blue, 
Tears and love for the Grey." 

CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS. 
Ray county furnished a large number of soldiers for both armies in the 
late civil war who bore themselves bravely in some of the hard fought bat- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 283 

ties of the war, adding new lustre to the military honors already won by 
the county. 

The number of volunteers from Ray county that enlisted in the 
southern armies is variously estimated at from five to eight hundred. A 
majority of this number enlisted under Gen. Sterling Price the first year of 
the war, 1861. 

The following is a list of some of the officers and soldiers from Ray 
county that served with distinction in the Confederate armies. A number 
of those that enlisted from Ray county, in 1861 and during the war, are 
not now living in the county, having sought new homes in other states or 
other portions of this state, after the close of the war. 

Col. Benjamin A. Rives, colonel Third Missouri infantry volunteers, 
was killed at the battle of Pea Ridge, March 8, 1862. 

Col. Benjamin Brown, inspector of the Fourth division of the " Missouri 
State Guards," was killed at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, August 10, 1861. 

Capt. Finley L. Hubbell, afterward promoted to be lieutenant-colonel 
of 3d Missouri infantry volunteers, was wounded in the battle of Cham- 
pion Hill, May 16, 1863, and died from the effects of the wound, at Coffee- 
ville, Mississippi. 

Capt. Kelsey McDowell was killed at Atlanta, Georgia, July 22, 1864, 
having been promoted to be lieutenant-colonel of 3d Missouri infantry 
volunteers, a short time before he was killed. 

Major Wm. C. Parker, company D, 1st Missouri cavalry volunteers, 
(Col. Gates' regiment), was killed at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, 
November 30, 1864. 

Capt. Dick Early, brother of Gen. Jubal Early, was wounded at the 
battle of Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861, and afterward died from the 
effects of said wound, at Springfield, Missouri, in the fall of 1861. 

Col. Aaron H. Conrow, was killed after the close of the war, in the 
year 1S65, in Mexico, by some of Juarez's guerrillas. He was a member 
of the Confederate congress, and represented the Fourth district of Mis- 
souri, embracing within its limits Ray county, from the commencement of 
the war of 1861 to the close of it. 

Capt. James L. Farris, was captain of 2nd Missouri battery. He was 
elected county attorney of Ray county, in 1872, and was a member of the 
constitution convention of Missouri in 1875. At the election in 1876, he 
was elected a member of the lower branch of the legislature of Missouri, 
to represent Ray county. 

Lieut. Hiram C. Warriner, was second lieutenant in the 2d Missouri 
battery. He is now a prominent attorney-at-law, at Memphis Tennessee. 

Major Robert Williams, 3d and 5th regiments Missouri infantry con- 
solidated, commanded by Col. James McCown, Warrensburg, Missouri. 

Capt. Guinn McCustion, company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 



284 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Lieut. Wm. A. Holman, company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Lieut. Wm. H. Mansur, company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Capt. John P. Quesenberry, company H, 11th Missouri infantry. 

Lieut. Frank Davis, company H, 11th Missouri infantry. 

Lieut. Berren J. Menefee, company D, 1st regiment Missouri cavalry. 

Capt. Wm. L. Nuckols, company B, 1st regiment Missouri cavalry. 

Lieut. Lewis Slaughter, company K, 17th regiment Virginia infantry. 
He is at present recorder for Ray county. 

Capt. Obadiah Taylor, company A, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Lieut. Richard Lamb, company A, 3d Missouri infantry, was killed at 
the battle of Allatoona, Georgia, October 5, 1864. 

Lieut. Robert Rives, company F, 3d Missouri infantry, was wounded 
at the battle of Lexington, Missouri, September 20, 1861, and afterward 
died in the state of Arkansas. He was a brother of Col. Benj. A. Rives. 

George Rothrock, company D, 1st Missouri cavalry volunteers, died 
near Demopolis, Alabama, July 2, 1865, from disease contracted in the 
service. 

William Duval, company C, 3d Missouri infantry, was killed at the bat- 
tle of Corinth, Mississippi, October 3, 1862. 

Thomas Duval and Henderson Duval, company C, 3d Missouri infan- 
try, were killed at Baker's Creek, May 16, 1863. 

Henry Allen, company C, third Missouri infantry, was killed at Vicks- 
burg, May 22, 1863. 

Calvin C. Brown, company A, 3d Missouri infantr}^ was killed at 
Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

Patrick Smith was wounded at the battle of Champion Hill, November 
16, 1863, and was afterward killed at Allatoona, Georgia, October 5, 1864. 
He was a member of company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Thomas Hale, company D, 1st cavalry Missouri volunteers, was killed 
at Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864. 

Malnar Hendley, company A, 3d Missouri infantry, was killed at Vicks- 
burg, May 22, 1863. 

Samuel Anderson, company A, 3d and 5th regiments Missouri infantry, 
killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

Capt. Alexander A. McCuistion, company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Dr. James D. Taylor, company D, 1st Missouri cavalry. 

Dr. William Quarles, color-bearer of company C, 3d Missouri infantry. 

Adrian C. Ellis, company A, 3d regiment Missouri infantry. Now an 
attorney-at-law in Nevada. 

Capt. Wm. C. Rifle, Missouri state guards. 

Capt. John WarrenstafT, Missouri state guards. 

Lieut. Lee White, Missouri state guards. 

Henry Ellis, Missouri state guards. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 285 

Louis C. Bohannon was colonel in Gen. Price's army, state service, 
and Gen. Holmes' command, C. S. A. He enlisted June 1, 1861, and was 
discharged July, 1865, at Little Rock. He was in the battles of Car- 
thage, Oak Hill, Lexington, Elk Horn, Independence, Lone Jack, Council 
Grove, Helena, and other engagements. West Point was the last. In 
the battle of Lone Jack he was wounded in the wrist, and also wounded 
in the right shoulder; a ball entered the right shoulder and came out at 
the left. He was never taken prisoner. He has represented Ray county 
three times in the Missouri legislature. He was elected in 1854, on the 
whig, or anti-Benton ticket, defeating ex-Gov. Austin A. King, by a few 
votes. In 1860 he was elected with Aaron H. Conrow, on an independent 
ticket, over various competitors. In 1878, he was elected to the legisla- 
ture on the greenback ticket, defeating James L. Farris, the democratic 
candidate. 

Capt. Robert J. Williams was captain of company A, Missouri volun- 
teers, state service, and enlisted in December, 1861; afterward went into 
the Confederate service. He was sworn into the state service, along with 
his company, at Richmond, Missouri, Col. Reeves' regiment, 3d Missouri 
infantry volunteers. Afterward, at Springfield, Missouri, he and his 
company went into the Confederate service, for twelve months, and on 
the expiration of this term, he and company were sworn in for a term of 
three years, or during the war, at Camp Rogers, Mississippi. His com- 
pany was the first one that made the movement for enlistment for the 
war. He was promoted to the rank of major, after being in the service a 
short time. His regiment (the 3d) was consolidated with the 5th Missouri 
regiment infantry, and was commanded by Col. James McCown,of War- 
rensburg, Missouri. He was in every battle in which his command was 
engaged but one. He was in Vicksburg forty-eight days and nights. 
He went into Vicksburg with over forty men, and came out with only 
fifteen men fit for duty, after the surrender. He still has the old mule 
that he had in the siege of Vicksburg. He was wounded, through his 
hip, in the battle of Allatoona, Georgia, and suffered intensely for weeks. 
He commanded a regiment after he was wounded, when he could not get 
on his horse without help. He was discharged from service May 13,1865. 

J. T. Craven was second sergeant in company H, Capt. Jack Patten's 
company, Elijah Gates' regiment, Gen. Cockrell's brigade. He enlisted 
September 6, 1861, at Howard's Mill, in Nodaway county, Missouri, and 
was discharged at the close of the war. He was in the battles of Blue Mills, 
Lexington, and Pea Ridge. His command was then transferred to East 
Mississippi, and he was afterward engaged in the battles of Farmington, 
Corinth, Iuka, second Corinth, Grand Gulf, Bogler's Creek, Black River 
Bridge, Vicksburg, Rome, Georgia, Kenesaw Mountain, and Peach-tree 
Creek. He was wounded at the second battle of Corinth, and subse- 



286 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

quently at Peach-tree Creek. The last wound was through the left 
wrist, and greatly disabled him. He was taken prisoner at the Vicksburg 
surrender, held about seven months, and exchanged. 

William S. Boon was a fifth sergeant in General Little's command. He 
enlisted December 7, 1861, and was discharged in May, 1865. He 
was in the battles of Pea Ridge, Farmington, Iuka, Corinth, Fort Gibson, 
Bogler's Creek, Big Black River Bridge, and Vicksburg. He was 
wounded at Vicksburg, in right arm, May 22, 1863. He was also 
wounded at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, in his left arm, causing the 
loss of his said left arm, June 20, 1864. He was taken prisoner July 4, 
1863, at Vicksburg. He also received several slight wounds besides those 
above mentioned. Since coming out of the service he has been constable 
of Richmond township, Ray county, Missouri. 

James M. Aken was a private in company A, commanded by Capt. 
Robert J. Williams, Col. B. A. Rives' regiment, 3d Missouri infantry. 
He enlisted November, 1863, and was discharged March, 1864. He was 
in the battles of Wilson's Creek, Boston Mountain, and Cross Hollow. 

John H. Moffitt was a private in Colonel Slayback's regiment, Mis- 
souri volunteers, under Gen. Sterling Price's command. He enlisted 
in Nodaway county, in 1861. He was in battles of Blue Mills and Lex- 
ington. He was stricken down with measles in 1862, and was discharged 
the same year. 

William Duval was first lieutenant in Capt. McDowell's company, C, 
Col. A. B. Rives' regiment, 3d Missouri infantry volunteers, the same 
company in which his two brothers, Henderson and Thomas, served. He 
enlisted on or about December 10, 1861, and was in all the battles in 
which his regiment was engaged up to the time of his death. He was 
killed at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, October 3, 1S62. William, 
Thomas and Henderson Duval were sons of Rev. James Duval, of this 
county. They were brave and gallant soldiers, and were greatly endeared 
to the soldiers of their command. 

Henderson Duval was a private in Capt. Kelsy McDowell's company, 
C, in 3d regiment, Missouri infantry, commanded by Col. B. A. Rives. 
He enlisted in his company at the time of its organization in 1861, and 
was in all the principal battles in which his regiment was engaged up to 
the time of his death, in the battle at Baker's Creek, Mississippi, May 16, 
1863. He was in every respect a faithful soldier. 

Thomas Duval was a private in Capt. Kelsy McDowell's company, C, 
in 3d regiment Missouri infantry, commanded by Col. B. A. Rives. He 
enlisted in his company at the time of its organization, in 1861, and was 
in all the principal battles in which his regiment was engaged up to the 
time he was mortally wounded, at the battle of Baker's Creek, Missis- 
sippi, May 16, 1863. He was a true and faithful soldier. He was brother 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 287 

of Henderson Duval and William Duval, both of whom were killed in the 
Confederate service. 

H. S. Trigg was an orderly sergeant in Col. Sterling Price's command, 
Gen. Slack's division. He enlisted in 1861; was in the battles of Carthage, 
Wilson's Creek, and Lexington. In the battle of Wilson's Creek he was 
taken prisoner, but made his escape in about fifteen minutes after he was 
captured. Parson's command was so close on the Federals that they had 
no time to look after prisoners. He was taken sick at the battle of Lex- 
ington, and could not go south with his command after battle. 

James Hall was a private in company C, Shank's regiment, from Jack- 
son county, Missouri, under General Shelby. Company C was com- 
manded by Captain Franklin. He enlisted October 16, 1864, and was 
discharged March 28, 1S65. He was in the Westport, Fort Scott, and 
Newtonia fights. He was left on the road sick, once, but was never 
wounded or taken prisoner. 

J, 

Robert T. Cowsert, was a private in company C, Third Missouri 
infantry. He enlisted December 10, 1861, and died in the service Febru- 
ary 4, 1862. 

J. H. Titus was a sergeant in General Price's command. He enlisted 
in September, 1864, and was discharged May, 1865. He»was in the battles 
oi Lexington, Pea Ridge, Corinth Farmington, Iuka, second battle of Cor- 
inth, and Grand Gulf. He was wounded in the battle of Grand Gulf, April 
29, 1863. He was taken prisoner at Port Gibson, May 2, 1863, while in hos- 
pital, and paroled, and afterward rejoined his command at Demopolis, Ala- 
bama, and remained there the most of the fall of 1863. In the spring of 
1864 he was detailed to do duty in commissary department, and remained 
there until the close of the war. 

C. N. Palmer was a surgeon in General Sterling Price's command. 
He enlisted in 1861, and resigned in 1863. He was in the battles of Wil- 
son's Creek, Lexington, Pea Ridge, Shiloh, Seven Pines, Chickahominie, 
seven days' battles near Richmond, Virginia. He was taken prisoner 
several times during the time he was in service, but was released at once. 

Fletcher Graham was a private in company C, Second regiment Mis- 
soury infantry, commanded by Colonel Benjamin A. Rives. Company C 
was commanded by Captain Kelsey McDowell. He enlisted at Spring- 
field, Missouri, in 1861, and was discharged at Van Buren, Arkansas, June, 
1862. He was in the battle of Pea Ridge or Elk Horn. He was 
wounded in this battle, losing an eye, and shot through the thigh, from 
the effects of which wound he is still disabled from the performance of 
any business which requires active exertion. 

R. R. Sumnermann was a private in Gen. Shelby's command. He enlisted 
in October, 1864, and was discharged June, 1865. He was in various 
engagements. 



288 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

W. H. Flournoy was a private in General Parsons' brigade. He enlisted 
the spring of 1862, and was discharged June, 1865. He was in various 
engagements during the war. 

Q. M. Baber was second lieutenant in company A, Third regiment 
Missouri volunteers. He enlisted December 9, 1861, and was discharged 
June 20, 1862. He was in the battles of Pea Ridge and Farmington. He 
was in Mexico one year during the war. After his return to Ray county, 
June 4, 1865, he has followed the business of farming near Richmond, 
and has been quite a. successful farmer. He is a prominent man among 
the grangers of Ray county. 

Henry Renfro was a private in company C, 3d Missouri regiment, 
infantry. He enlisted December 10, 1861, and was discharged June 26. 
1865. He was in the battles of Iuka, Corinth, Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, 
Big Black, Champion Hills, and Vicksburg. He was wounded at Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, May 20, 1863. He was taken prisoner at Springfield, 
Missouri, February 12, 1862, and taken prisoner at Vicksburg, Jul)- 4, 
1863. 

G. W. Montgomery was a private in Capt. R. J. Williams' company, 
1st brigade. He enlisted in 1861, and was discharged March 20, 1862, 
He was in the. battles of Springfield or Oak Hills, Dry Wood Creek, 
Lexington, Pea Ridge. He was wounded in the battle of Pea Ridge, 
Arkansas, March 8, 1862, and was taken prisoner on the road from Pea 
Ridge to Van Buren, Arkansas. 

Wm. B. Parker was a private in Gen. Price's command, and also a 
portion of the time he served in the command of Kirby Smith. He 
enlisted June, 1862, and was discharged May, 1865. He was in the bat- 
tles of Prairie Grove, Helena, Little Rock, Mansfield, Pleasant Hill, and 
Saline river. 

Marion M. Crithfield was a private in company H, Col. Hindman's 
regiment, 11th Missouri infantry. Company H was commanded by Capt. 
John P. Dusenberry. He enlisted October, 1862, and was discharged 
1865. He was in the battles of Prairie Grove, Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, 
Jenkins' Ferry, and Helena. He was wounded at Pleasant Hill, Louis- 
iana, but not severely* Was sick for some time at Clarksville, with a 
severe attack of measles. 

T. J. Davis and B. F. Davis, were lieutenant and captain respectively, 
in the command of General Sterling Price. They enlisted in June, 1861, 
and were discharged June 1865. They were in the battles of Carthage, 
Oak Hill, Lexington, Elk Horn, Helena, Cane Hill and Little Rock. 

N. A. Lentz was a private in Gen. Parsons' command. He enlisted 
June, 1S61, and was discharged June, 1865. He was in the battles of 
Oak Hill, Elk Horn, Mansfield, and was in some other minor engage- 
ments. He was never wounded or taken prisoner. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 289 

A. Thompson was a private in Gen. Price's command, and was dis- 
charged in the fall of 1861. He was in the battles of Carthage, Wilson's 
Creek and Dry Wood. 

J. F. Duval was a private in company C, first Missouri brigade, first 
division. He enlisted June, 1861, and was discharged April, 1865. He 
was in the following battles: Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Lexington, Pea 
Ridge, in Missouri; Iuka, Corinth, Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, Champion 
Hills, Big. Black, Vicksburg siege, in Mississippi ;^and in all battles in the 
Georgia campaign from Dalton to Atlanta. Not seriously wounded in 
any of these engagements. He was taken prisoner at Vicksburg; sur- 
rendered with second Missouri battery, Captain James L. Farns com- 
manding at Gainesville, Alabama, April 20, 1865. 

W. M. Quarles was a lieutenant and ensign bearer. He enlisted May 
10, 1861, and was discharged May 10, 1865. He was in the battles of 
Carthage, Lexington, Springfield, Pea Ridge, Corinth, Iuka, Vicksburg, 
Champion Hills, Allatoona, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, Fort Blakely, Grand 
Gulf, Port Gibson and Big Black. He was taken prisoner at Vicksburg, 
on the 4th day of July, 1863; also taken prisoner at Fort Blakely, April 
9, 1865. Never received any serious wounds, only slight ones, in his long 
service. 

A. J. Greenawalt was a private in General Sterling Price's army. He 
enlisted in 1861, and was taken prisoner at Pea Ridge, and afterward 
exchanged at Vicksburg. While in the service he was wounded twice 
slightly. 

F. J. Walker was a private in General Price's army. He enlisted 
December 10, 1861, and was discharged May 4, 1865. He was in the bat- 
tles of Elk Horn, Corinth, Springfield, Corinth, Iuka, Baker's Creek, Grand 
Gulf, Franklin, Tennessee, Farmington, campaign of Georgia, and other 
minor engagements. He was wounded at Corinth, Mississippi, October, 
1862. He was never taken prisoner. 

Joel S. Petty was a private in company D, 1st Missouri cavalry, under 
Captain Parker, James Adams' regiment, commanded by Colonel Elijah 
Gates. He enlisted in December, 1861, and was in the battles of Pea 
Ridge, Corinth, Mississippi, Iuka, second Corinth, Champion Hills, Big 
Black river. He was captured at Black river, and was taken as prisoner 
to Point Lookout, Maryland, where he was kept eight and one-half 
months, when he took the oath of allegiance and returned home, then 
went to the plains for five vears, then returned to his native place, where 
he now lives. 

J. W. Asbury was a private in 3d regiment Missouri infantry volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel Rives, and was discharged in August, 1865. He 
was in the battles of Pea Ridge, Corinth, Mansfield, Jenkins' Ferry, 



290 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Blackwater, Lexington and Independence. He was taken prisoner at 
Baldwin, Mississippi, but was not placed in a'ny prison. 

Reuben Shelton was a private in company G, 1st Missouri volunteer 
infantry. He enlisted in September, 1861, and was in the battles of Lex- 
ington and Pea Ridge, and in numerous skirmishes in Missouri and 
Arkansas. He was wounded at c Pea Ridge, in the right shoulder, by a 
spent ball. He was taken prisoner near Springfield, Missouri, and then 
took the oath of allegiance. 

Toliver Wood was a private of company C, 26th regiment, Tennessee 
cavalry; company was commanded by Captain E. Allen, and the reg- 
iment by Colonel J. M. Lillard. He enlisted in June, 1861, and was in 
the battle of Chickamauga, and numerous skirmishes in Tennessee and 
Virginia. 

Bartlett Sisk was a corporal in company A, 3d Missouri volunteer 
infantry, commanded by Colonel B. A. Rives. He enlisted December 27, 
1861, and was in the battles of Pea Ridge, first and second Corinth, Iuka, 
Grand Gulf, Port Gibson, and in numerous skirmishes in Arkansas and 
Mississippi. He was wounded at Port Gibson, May 1, 1863, losing his 
right arm just below the elbow. He was paroled at Grenada, Mississippi, 
after the surrender in May, 1865, and returned to Ray county in October, 
1865. 

J. O. Kilgore was a private in company A, 2d Arkansas volunteer 
cavalry, commanded by J. Phelps. He enlisted in July, 1863, and was 
discharged November 17, 1865. He was in Price's last raid in Missouri 
and Arkansas. He served over two years. 

James Burns was a private in company A, 3d regiment, Missouri volun- 
teer infantry, Confederate army. He was in the battles of Wilson's Creek 
and Lone Jack, August 16, 1862. He lost his right arm at the battle of 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. He was discharged in 1863. 

Thomas J. Leake was a private in the 2d Missouri light artillery, Gen- 
eral Dick Taylor's division. He enlisted December 9, 1861, and was in 
the battles of Pea Ridge, Corinth, Mississippi; second battle of Corinth, 
Thompson Station, Dalton, Georgia, Atlanta, Tennessee river, Elliott's 
marine fleet, Jackson, Mississippi; Fort Pillow and numerous skirmishes. 
He surrendered at the close of the war. 

M. G. Taylor was second lieutenant in company D, 1st regiment Mis- 
souri infantry. He enlisted December, 1861, and was in the battle of Pea 
Ridge, and was discharged in June, 1862, in Mississippi. 

Edward T. Dorton was a private and sergeant in Captain James Hobb's 
company, Colonel David McRea's regiment, Confederate army. He 
enlisted June 17, 1861, in company A, 15th Arkansas infantry; after the 
surrender at Vicksburg, mounted infantry. He was in the battles of Wil- 
son's Creek, Pea Ridge, Iuka, and numerous skirmishes. He was cap 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 291 

tured at Iuka, and sent to Camp Douglas, Chicago. He was also cap- 
tured at Walnut Grove, Arkansas, but escaped. He was discharged 
April 12, 1865. 

Henry C. Perdue was a private in company A, Colonel Reeves' regi- 
ment. He enlisted in April, 1861, and was in the battles of Carthage, 
July 5, 1861, and Wilson's Creek, August 10,1861. He was captured 
and imprisoned in the jail at Lexington, Missouri, and was paroled a few 
days thereafter. He was discharged in January, 1862. 

M. S. Leforgee was a private in company C, 2d Kentucky battalion, 
mounted rifles, under Colonel Tom Johnson, Confederate army. He 
enlisted September, 1862, and was in the battles of Louisa, Kentucky, 
Cave Gap, King's Saltworks, Chickamauga, McMinnville, Tennessee; 
Anderson's Cross Roads, Cumberland, Tennessee; Charleston, Mount 
Sterling, Kentucky, Smithville, and in numerous skirmishes. He was dis- 
charged May 3, 1865. 

Thomas Elder was a private in company C, 3d Missouri infantry, Gen- 
eral Sterling Price's army. He enlisted November, 1861. He was in 
the second battle of Corinth, Port Gibson, Baker's Creek, Big Black, 
Vicksburg, in the campaign through Georgia, and at Johnson's surrender. 
He was wounded at Kenesaw Mountain, June, 1864. He was taken 
prisoner at Springfield, Missouri, and was confined at Alton, Illinois, about 
seven months, and was exchanged at Vicksburg, August, 1863. 

Isaac M. Riffe was orderly sergeant in company A, 4th Missouri 
infantry. He enlisted in June, 1861, and was in the battles of Carthage, 
Dry Wood, Lexington, Pea Ridge, Wilson Creek, Corinth, first and sec- 
ond fight, and numerous skirmishes. He was wounded in the left hand 
at Pea Ridge, March 8, 1862, and was taken prisoner by Captain A. 
Allen, and released on parole. He forfeited his parole, and returned to 
the Confederate army. 

Samuel H. Long was a private in company C, 3d regiment, 1st brig- 
ade, Missouri infantry, General Price's army. He enlisted December 20, 
1861. He was in the battles of Elk Horn, Corinth, Magnolia Hills, 
Baker's Creek, and Vicksburg. He was taken prisoner at Vicksburg, 
and soon after paroled. 

Joseph Thomas Mulligan was a private in the Confederate army. He 
enlisted in 1863, and was killed at the battle of Champion Hill, May 16, 
1863. 

Turner Elder was a private in General Shelby's command. He enlisted 
in the fall of 1862. He was in the battle of Mansfield, and was wounded 
in that engagement. He was discharged when General Price surren- 
dered. 

Newton J. Parker was a private and sergeant, first under General Price, 
then General Vandorn, then General Pemberton. He enlisted in Septem- 



292 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

ber, 1861, and was in the battles of Lexington, Pea Ridge, Farmington, 
Mississippi; Iuka, Mississippi; Corinth, Grand Gulf, Baker's Creek and 
Vicksburg. He was taken prisoner May 16, 1863, at Baker's Creek, and 
was a prisoner eight months. 

Martin Elder was a private in company C, 3d Missouri infantry, General 
Price's army. He enlisted in November, 1861, and was in the battles of 
Corinth, Port Gibson and Baker's Creek. He was wounded and taken 
prisoner at Pea Ridge, in the spring of 1862, and was paroled. He was 
taken prisoner again at Baker's Creek and taken to Alton, Illinois, mili- 
tary prison. He was exchanged at Vicksburg, August, 1863. 

William B. Sanderson was a private in Colonel Reeves' regiment, Mis- 
souri cavalry, General Price's army. He enlisted in 1861 and was dis- 
charged in 1863. He was in the battles of Lexington, September, 1861, 
and Pea Ridge, March 8, 1862. 

John Rader was a private in General Hindman's command. He enlisted 
in the fall of 1862, and was discharged in December, 1862, and was in the 
battle of Prairie Grove. He was taken sick at Prairie Grove and was 
not able to re-enter the army. 

Stephen Frazier was a private in General Price's army, and was in 
most of the leading engagements. He enlisted in 1861 and was discharged 
in 1865. He was taken prisoner at Vicksburg, and was a prisoner for 
two months. 

George W. Keys was a private in General Sterling Price's army. He 
enlisted at Springfield, Missouri, in 1861, and was in the battle of Lexing- 
ton, Missouri, September, 1861. He was discharged in December, 1862. 

S. O. McGuire was a private in General Sterling Price's army. He 
enlisted, June, 1861, and was discharged in July, 1865. He was in the 
battles of Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge, Corinth, Iuka, Champion Hills, and 
Big Black river. He was taken prisoner at Big Black river about May 
17, 1863. 

L. B. Wright was a private in General Price's army. He enlisted in 
September, 1861; was in the battle ^of Lexington, September, 1861, and 
was taken prisoner there and banished to Indiana until hostilities ceased. 

John W. Gaulden was a private in Colonel Henry's Virginia reserves. 
He enlisted in 1864, and was discharged in the year 1865. 

James O. R. Walker, Thomas J. Walker, Davis Walker, Hardin 
Thompson, Robert Brozendine, Wm. McGaugh, Nicholas Gentry, Joseph 
Hamner, Henry B. McGill, John Odell, Jackson Odell, E. Porter, James 
Johnson, T. Reeves Grant, Lee White, Marcellus White, John Porter, 
(chaplain), Richard Craven, Jackson Craven, James Pointer, Wilson 
Shreeve and brothers, were in various commands in the Confederate ser- 
vice, enlisting in 1861 and 1862, and making excellent soldiers. They 
took part in many engagements and skirmishes while in the service. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 293 

George S. Ewing was a sergeant in company C, 3d Missouri infantry 
(General Price's army). He enlisted in the fall of 1801, and was dis- 
charged in the spring of 1865. He was in the battles of Corinth, Iuka, 
Vicksburg, Baker's Creek, Georgia campaign, Franklin, Tennessee, and 
other engagements. He was wounded in the battle of Franklin, Tennes- 
see, and slightly wounded at New Hope, Georgia. On returning to Ray 
county, Missouri, in the spring of 1865, he engaged in the business of 
farming. He has been treasurer of Ray county two terms, since 1872. 

Nathaniel D. Searcy was a private in company A, Colonel B. A. 
Reeves' regiment. He enlisted in the summer of 1861. He was in the 
battles of Carthage and Wilson's Creek. He was killed in the battle of 
Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861. 

James L. Lewis was a private in company H, commanded by Captain 
Parker, Colonel Reeves' regiment, Slack's division, General Price's 
brigade. He enlisted in 1861, and was discharged in 1864. He was in 
the battles of Lexington, Centralia, and Glasgow. He was captured at 
Columbia, Missouri, in 1864, and held ten days and paroled. 

J. L. Head was a private in company D, commanded by Captain John 
Castleman, 2d Kentucky regiment cavalry, commanded by Colonel Basil 
Duke, General Morgan's command. He enlisted, June 1, 1862, at Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee, for the war, and was discharged by surrender, at the 
close of the war. He was in the battles of Drainsville, Virginia; Dan 
No. 1 at Yorktown, Peninsula, Williamsburg, Snow Hill, Tennessee; 
Hartsville, Tennessee; Gallatin, Tennessee; Lebanon, Kentucky; Augusta, 
and several other engagements of less note. He was taken prisoner 
at Springfield, Kentucky, on or about July 8, 1863, and held in prison at 
Camp Douglas, Illinois, and exchanged March 2, 1865. He was once 
previously captured in Kentucky, and held at Lexington, Kentucky, four 
weeks, in a slave jail, converted into a prison by the federals, from which 
he escaped. 

William S. Tompkins, was a private in company F, Colonel B. A. 
Rive's regiment, 4th division Missouri state guards and company B, in 
the battalion commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert J. Woods, C. S. 
A. He enlisted August 10, 1861, and surrendered May 26, 1865, at 
Shreveport, Louisiana. He was in the battles of Oak Hills, Wilson's 
Creek, Dry Wood, Lexington, Blue River, Westport, Maria des Cygnes 
and Newtonia. He was wounded September 18, 1861, at Lexington, 
Missouri. He was taken prisoner November 18, 1861, by Captain 
Forbes of Missouri militia. Mr. Tompkins, since the close of the war, 
has been engaged in the business of teaching school. He has acquired a 
splendid reputation as a successful teacher. He is at present engaged as 
teacher in the intermediate department in the Richmond graded schdol in 
Richmond College, and has won golden opinions from the patrons of the 



294 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

school as a model educator. He was county school commissioner of Ray 
county for two years, from 1875 to 1877, and made a fine public officer. 

William Baber, was a private in company A, 3d infantry, Missouri 
volunteers, C. S. A. He enlisted December 7, 1861, and was discharged 
May 22, 1865. He was in the battles of Lexington, Missouri; Pea Ridge, 
Missouri; Port Gibson, Mississippi; Corinth, Iuka, Vicksburg, Mississippi; 
Atlanta, Georgia; Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee. He was taken 
prisoner at Vicksburg, Mississippi. After the war, he returned to Ray 
county, Missouri for some time. At the present time he is engaged in the 
business of grocer in Richmond, Missouri. 

John A. Ross was ordinance sergeant in company A, commanded by 
Captain David Boone, 1st battalion Missouri state guards, commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel John W. Payne, 8th division, commanded by General 
James S. Rains. He enlisted June 19, 1861, and re-enlisted June, 1863, 
and was discharged June, 1863. He was in the battles of Dug Springs, 
Wilson's Creek, Dry Wood, Lexington, Pea Ridge, Shiloh, and Farming- 
ton. He was the first to find General Lyon on the battle-field of Wilson's 
Creek. At Farmington, Mississippi, in consequence of having to wade 
through swamps for a considerable length of time, his life was greatly 
endangered. 

Nathan H. Schooler, was a private in company C, commanded by 
Captain Kelsey McDowell, in 3rd regiment, Missouri infantry volunteers. 
He enlisted at Springfield, December, 1S61, and was discharged at Jack- 
son, Mississippi, May 31, 1865. He was in the battles of Corinth, Farm- 
ington, Iuka, second battle of Corinth, and several other skirmishes. He 
was wounded at Corinth on the 4th of October, 1862, and disabled for two 
years. He was taken prisoner at Springfield, and held two months. He 
was again taken prisoner at the battle of Corinth the time he was wounded. 
He was sick on two different times with fever on account of exposure in 
the said service. 

Arthur B. Elliott was a private in company A, commanded by Captain 
Robt. J. Williams in 3d Missouri infantry volunteers. He enlisted in 1861 
and was discharged in 1S65. He was in the battles of Pea Ridge, Corinth, 
Iuka, Kenesaw Mountain, Allatoona, Georgia ; Vicksburg, Franklin, 
Tennessee, Latimore farm or mills, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Baker Creek. 
First taken prisoner at Vicksburg, next on picket line was captured. 

John C. Burgess was a private in company A, commanded by Captain 
Newton in 1st Missouri volunteers, in army of General Price. He enlisted 
in 1861 and was discharged same year. He w r as in the battles of Spring- 
field, Carthage and Lexington. 

Isaac H. Hale was a sergeant in General Price's army. He enlisted 
June 16,1861, and was discharged July 1, 1865. He was in the battles of 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 295 

Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Lexington, Pea Ridge, Prairie Grove, Helena 
and Saline river, Arkansas. 

John L; Harrison was a private in company A, 3d Missouri infantry- 
volunteers, and subsequently in the partisan rangers, 1st Missouri cavalry, 
company A. He enlisted December 7, 18G1, and was discharged from 
prison Julv, 1864. He was in the battles of Sugar Creek, Arkansas, 
October 17, 1862, Cotton Plant, Arkansas. While he was with the ran- 
gers he was in the Ozark fight and the Gasconade fight. He was taken pris- 
oner on Gasconade river on the 30th day of July, 1862. He was held as a 
prisoner until June 30, 1864, when he was discharged from prison. 

James Calvin Brown was a private in company A, commanded by 
Robert J. Williams, in the 3d Missouri infantry volunteers. He enlisted 
December 7, 1861, and was killed in the siege of Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
He was an accomplished scholar, and gave bright promise of rising to 
high distinction. He was a faithful, and gallant soldier, and greatly loved 
by his comrades. 

James Madison Suits was a private in company E, commanded by Cap- 
tain Davidson in 1st Virginia battalion of infantry. He enlisted in May, 
1863, and was discharged at Appomattox court house, April 9, 1865. He 
was in the battle of Petersburg, Virginia; Hatcher's Run, Virginia; Cold 
Harbor, Virginia, June 27, 1862, and other battles. He was made prisoner 
at the surrender at Appomattox court house, April 9, 1865. and paroled. 

B. F. Baber was a private in company A, commanded by Captain R. 
J . Williams in 3d regiment of infantry, Missouri volunteers, first Missouri 
brigade. He enlisted December 9, 1861, and was discharged at the close 
of the war. He was in the battles of Lexington, Missouri, Pea Ridge, 
Arkansas; Farmington, Mississippi; Iuka, Corinth, Grand Gulf, Port Gib- 
son, *Vicksburg, and in all the battles in front of Sherman in Georgia, 
Allatoona, Resaca, Egypt Station, Blakely, Alabama, last battle of the war, 
April 1865. He was captured at Vicksburg the 4th of July, 1863, Blakely, 
Alabama, April 9, 1865. 

William H. Wilson, jvas in Quantrell's independent command, enlisted 
in 1862, and was discharged in 1863. He was in the battle of Lone Jack, 
in Jackson county Missouri, August 16, 1862. 

John A. Wasson was a private in company G, sixteenth Mississippi 
volunteers. He enlisted in 1861, and was discharged in 1865, by surrender. 
He was in the battles of Front Royal, Virginia, Cross Keys, Virginia, 
seven days battle near Richmond, Virginia; Manassas Gap, Virginia; 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He was twice captured, and held a prisoner 
a short time. He was wounded in the battle of Cross Keys, in Virginia. 

A. R. Chenault was a private in General Price's army. He enlisted in 
the summer of 1861, and was discharged in the fall of 1S61. He was in 
the battles of Booneville, Carthage, Wilson's Creek and Lexington. On 



296 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

leaving the service, he followed the profession of teaching school for some 
time, and afterward engaged in farming. He has been a very successful 
farmer for some years, and owns a large farm near the Richmond and 
Lexington Junction. He also carries on, to some extent, the mercantile 
business at the R. and L. Junction. 

William Cox was a private in company D, Colonel Hughes' regiment, 
General Price's army, and afterward in the 1st Missouri brigade, com- 
pany H, 3d regiment, Confederate infantry volunteers. He was in the 
battles of Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Lexington, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, and Atlanta, Georgia, and several other engagements. He was 
taken prisoner twice ; first in Saline county, by Pleasonton, and kept in St. 
Louis one month. He was next captured in Chariton county, Missouri, 
and held eleven months in St. Louis, and then exchanged. He was 
paroled after the surrender. 

Martin V. Kite was a corporal in company H, commanded by Captain 
Rippatoe, in the 33d Virginia volunteers, commanded by Colonel Cum- 
mings, in General Stonewall Jackson's army. He enlisted at Lauray, 
Page county, Virginia, in 1861, and continued in the service until the close 
of the war, and the surrender of the Confederate troops. He was in the 
first battle of Manassas, and in a number of skirmishes while under Mosby. 
He was for some time in the hospital as steward, at Lynchburg. 

Thomas R. Gant was a corporal in company C, 3d Missouri infantry 
volunteers. He enlisted February 23, 1862. He was in the battles of 
Elkhorn Tavern, Arkansas, second battle of Corinth, Iuka, Grand Gulf, 
Hatchie Bridge, Big Black, siege of Vicksburg, Misssissippi; Atlanta, 
Allatoona, Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia; and Franklin, Tennessee. He 
was taken prisoner at Franklin, Tennessee, and was released at the close of' 
the war, at Camp Chase, Ohio. Mr. Gant has been in business for some 
years as a merchant in Vibbard, since the war, and has won the re- 
spect and confidence of a large circle of friends. 

Cyrus D. Grant was a corporal in company C, Third cavalry regiment. 
He enlisted in said company September, 1861, and re-enlisted December, 
1861, in company C, Third Missouri volunteer infantry, commanded by 
Colonel B. A. Rives, Confederate service. He was in the battles of 
Lexington, Pea Ridge, Corinth, first and second; battles of Vicksburg, 
Grand Gulf, Black river Bridge, Peach Tree Creek, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, through the campaign in Georgia in front of Sherman. He served 
under Johnson, Bragg, and Hood. He was wounded six times, princi- 
pally flesh wounds. Was captured in the battle of Franklin. He was 
discharged at the close of the war. 

Thomas J. Brooks was a private in James Johnston's company, state 
guards, Confederate service. Enlisted in June, 1861, and was dis- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 297 

charged December 2, 1861, and returned home. He was in the battle of 
Lexington. 

UNION SOLDIERS. 

The number of volunteers furnished by Ray county for the Federal 
army, is estimated at about 1,200. During the first year of the war the 
recruits for the Union army in this county were not many. The counties 
of Ray and Carroll, during the summer of 1861, furnished one company 
of volunteers, who, under the command of Captain Dick Ridgell, did 
service at Lexington, Missouri, until the surrender of General Mulligan to 
General Sterling Price, September 20, 1861. Some other volunteers 
from Ray county served in their companies at Lexington, at the time of 
the memorable siege. In the first week of December, 1861, a large force 
of Federal troops, under General B. M. Prentiss, passed through Ray 
county, halting for a few days at Richmond. The night after their 
arrival a company of volunteers was organized near the residence of 
John Elliott, near Camden, in this county. This company was enrolled 
on the 17th of December, 1861, and mustered into the service January, 
12, 1862. Andrew Elliott was elected captain, who was afterward suc- 
ceeded, September 28, 1862, by Captain George N. McGee. This coip- 
pany was company A, 3d Missouri state militia cavalry. 

The next company of volunteers, Missouri state militia cavalry, 3d reg- 
iment, was company B, mustered into service January 12, 1862, and 
commanded by Captain Abraham Allen, who was afterward promoted 
to be major of the 3d Missouri state militia cavalry, Captain Eli Hughes 
being the captain of said company B, which was afterward company K, 
of the 6th Missouri state militia cavalry. 

The next company was company D, same regiment, commanded by 
Captain Austin A. King, jr., afterward colonel of the 13th Missouri vet- 
eran cavalry volunteers. 

These companies were in the old 3d Missouri state militia cavalry, com- 
manded by Colonel Walter King, until consolidated, in accordance with 
special order No. 12, from headquarters of Missouri; February 1, 1863, 
they became part of the 6th regiment Missouri state militia cavalry, com- 
manded by Colonel E. C. Catherwood, and companies A and B became 
in the said 6th regiment companies I and K respectively; and companv 
D of the 3d regiment was distributed among the different companies of 
the 6th Missouri state militia cavalry. 

Company D of the 6th Missouri state militia cavalry, was from Ray 
county, and commanded at first by Captain William F. Kelso, who was 
succeeded by Captain Samuel E. Lanier. 

Ray county also furnished a large number of recruits for company D, 
Captain James M. Morganson, 35th Missouri volunteers; company F, 
19 



298 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

10th Missouri cavalry volunteers, Captain Fred R. Neet; company D, 
12th regiment cavalry Missouri volunteers, Captain Charles Ernst; com- 
panies B and D, 13th Missouri cavalry, Captains Joel H. Shelley and John 
E. Mayo, respectively; company I, 26th Missouri infantry volunteers, 
Captain John McFall; companies B, F, and H, 41th regiment Missouri 
volunteers, Captains William Drumhiller, Isaac N. Henry, and Wm. D. 
Fortune, respectively. 

Ray county also furnished a number of recruits for Kansas regiments. 
In addition to these, Ray county furnished a regiment of enrolled militia, 
the 51st E. M. M.. ten companies, that were frequently called into active 
service until the close of the war. 

In July, 1862, James W. Black was appointed and commissioned 
enrolling officer of Ray county, and mustering officer by General Benja- 
min Loan. 

The enrollment of all male persons in Ray county, between the ages of 
eighteen and forty-five years, was commenced July 21, 1862, and com- 
pleted in the month following. 

In August, 1862, a sufficient number of companies of the enrolled mili- 
tia, had been mustered in by J. W. Black, mustering officer, to form a reg- 
iment. The 51st regiment of enrolled Missouri militia was, therefore, 
duly organized. Two companies, Co's. I and K, were afterward mus- 
tered in, making ten companies in all, in said regiment. 

On application of James W. Black, arms and equipments were fur- 
nished the 51st regiment E. M. M., in October, 1862, from the ordinance 
department of the state of Missouri, by order of Governor Hamilton R. 
Gamble. Also a considerable supply of clothing, blankets, &c, were fur- 
nished at the same time, from the quartermaster's department, of the state 
of Missouri, Colonel E. Anson Moore being quartermaster general of 
Missouri. 

The regimental officers and company officers of the 51st regiment E. 
M. M., were as follows: 

FIFTY-FIRST REGIMENT E. M. M. 

A. J. Barr, colonel, commissioned October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

James W. Black, lieutenant colonel, November 9, 1863; vacated March 
12, 1865. 

John Grimes, major, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 1865. 

Rufus B. Finley, adjutant, December 12, 1862; vacated by special 
order 126, 1864. 

Joseph E. Black, adjutant, September 17, 1864; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

Elisha Riggs, quartermaster, December 12, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 299 

Wm. W. Mosby, surgeon, October 28, 1862; vacated by special order 
126, 1864. 

Wm. W. Mosby, surgeon, August 10, 1864; vacated by special order 
126, 1864. 

COMPANY A. 

Clayton Tiffin, captain, October 2, 1862; detailed to 4th provisional 
regiment by S. O. No. 41, 7th district. 

S. C. L. Watkins, first lieutenant, August 20, 1863; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

Isaac McKown, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; detailed to 4th 
provisional regiment by S. O. No. 41, 7th district. 

COMPANY B. 

Martin T. Reel, captain, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 1865. 

G. W. Ray, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; detailed to 4th provisional 
regiment by S. O. No. 47, 7th district. 

G. W. Haven, second lieutenant, June 16, 1863; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

COMPANY C. 

John Sacry, captain, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 1865. 

Asa Brockman, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

Anderson Elliott, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; vacated March 
12, 1865. 

COMPANY D. 

John Hawkins, captain, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 1865. 

James T. Lemar, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

Jesse C. Tunnage, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; killed by guer- 
rillas July 18, 1864. 

Wm. T. Gant, second lieutenant, August 3, 1864; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

COMPANY E. 

Patten Colley, captain, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 1865. 

John McKissock, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; detailed to 4th pro- 
visional regiment by S. O. No. 47. 

Miles Bristow, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

COMPANY F. 

D. P. Whitmer, captain, October 2, 1862; detailed to 4th provisional 
regiment by S. O. No. 47, 7th military district. 

John D. Page, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; killed in action July 8, 
1864. • 



300 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY . 

William F. Rolston, first lieutenant, July 9, 1864; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

William F. Rolston, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; promoted to 
first lieutenant July 14, 1864. 

Robert F. H. Goode, second lieutenant, July 19, 1864; vacated March 
12, 1865. 

COMPANY G. 

W. P. Milstead, captain, November 22, 1862; vacated by S. O. No. 
126, July 28, 1864. 

Lee Henry, captain, September 24, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

William Stone, first lieutenant, November 22, 1862; resigned April 22, 
1864. 

James Baker, first lieutenant, July 14, 1864; vacated March 12, 1866. 

Lee Henry, second lieutenant, October 2, 1862; revoked by S. O. No. 
126, 1864. 

Jacob Lebo, second lieutenant, August 3, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

COMPANY H. 

W. W. Mosby, captain, August 19, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

Solomon Craven, first lieutenant, October 2, 1862; vacated by special 
order No. 126, July 28, 1864. 

Stephen Lewis, first lieutenant, August 3, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

John W. Shotwell, second lieutenant, October 2, 3 862; vacated by S. 
O. No. 126, July 28, 1864. 

G. A. Sanford, second lieutenant, August 3, 1864; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

COMPANY I. 

J. E. Henderson, captain, December 13, 1862; vacated by S. O. No. 
126, July 28, 1864. 

John H. Cramer, captain, August 6, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

David Comer, first lieutenant, December 13, 1862; revoked by S. O. 
No. 126, July 28, 1864. 

Willy Basham, first lieutenant, August 8, 1864; vacated March 12, 1865. 

Thomas Baker, second lieutenant, December 13, 1862; vacated by S. 
O. No. 126, July 28, 1864. 

J. H. McGlothlin, second lieutenant, August 6, 1864; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

COMPANY K. 

Andrew J. Connor, captain, December 31, 1862; vacated March 12, 
1865. 

Burton Snowden, first lieutenant, December 31, 1862; vacated by S. O. 
No. 126, July 28, 1864. 

Marion Phillips, second lieutenant, December 31, 1862; vacated by S. 
O. July 28, 1864. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 301 

In July, 1863, James W. Black was appointed provost marshal of Ray 
county, Missouri, by Hon. Abram Comingo, provost marshal of the sixth 
district of Missouri, under the conscription act of congress, with orders 
to proceed to enrolling all mafe persons in Ray county, between the ages 
of eighteen and forty-five years, in three different classes, as specified in 
said orders, by suitable enrolling officers. In furtherance of these orders, 
J. W. Black appointed the following enrolling officers: 

Richmond township — Joseph E. Black. 

Camden and Fishing River townships — William A. Rothrock. 

Knoxville and Polk townships — Oscar White. 

Grape Grove and Crooked River townships — John N. Craven. 

The enrollment of the county was completed in the fall of 1863, and a 
full report made to District Provost Marshal Captain Abram Comingo, at 
Lexington, Missouri. A draft was not ordered until the spring of 1865, 
and only a few persons were drafted from Ray county. The war coming 
to a close shortly after, the drafted men were not required for the service. 

In the fall and winter of 1863, a large number of colored soldiers were 
recruited from Ray county, and mustered into the service in St. Louis, 
Missouri, (Benton barracks.) They were assigned to duty and did service 
in the 18th, 62d, 65th, 67th, and 68th regiments, United States colored 
troops. Companies A and B, 62d United States colored troops, and 
company A, 67th United States colored troops, were composed largely of 
colored troops, recruited from Ray county, Missouri, and continued in the 
service until after the close of the war. 

The first engagement in Ray county, Missouri, was in October, 1861, 
and was called McVeigh's fight, from the name of the farmer who owned 
the farm near the scene of the fight, about six miles northeast of Knox- 
ville, Missouri. The forces engaged were a portion of Major M. L. 
James' battalion of six months' men, on the side of the government, against 
Colonel John Bagby's and Captain Lewis M. Beet's force of Confederate 
recruits. It was a spirited little fight for a short time, but resulted in very 
little injury on either side. 

During the summer and fall of 1864, large bodies of guerrillas, under 
command of Todd, Thailkeld, Bill Anderson, and other noted leaders, 
passed through the county at different times, committing some depreda- 
tions, and once in a while having an engagement with the Ray county 
enrolled Missouri militia. 

On September 18, 1861, a portion of company F, 51st E. M. M., that 
were stationed at "Shaw's Shop " (Morton), in the eastern part of Ray 
county, under command of Lieutenant William F. Rallston, of said com- 
pany F, were surprised by a large force of guerrillas, under command of 
Todd. Before a retreat could be effected, a number of the soldiers of 
Lieutenant Rallston's command were killed. The following are the 



302 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

names of the soldiers killed in this action: William W. Harris, Elias 
McBee, Napoleon B. Petty, Joseph S. Salmon, John H. Phillips, and 
Nicholas C. Lozier. 

The guerrillas met with but slight loss, only one of their men being 
severely wounded. Robert P. Endsley, of company F, was taken pris- 
oner by the guerrillas, and after being detained some time, was released 
by them. 

The complete surprise at Shaw's Shop of company F, was owing to 
the guerrillas being clothed in Federal uniforms, and deceiving the 
pickets. 

On the 17th of July, 1864, an engagement took place near Fredericks- 
burg, Ray county, not far from the Ray and Clay county line. The forces 
engaged were Captain Moses' company (company M), of the 2d Colo- 
rado cavalry volunteers, and a large force of guerrillas and Confederates, 
amounting to about 300 in all, under command of Colonel Thailkeld. 
Captain Moses' company was badly routed, with the loss of six men killed 
and several wounded. The superior force of Colonel Thailkeld com- 
pelled a rapid retreat of the company. 

After the engagement, Thailkeld, with his command, marched rapidly 
in the direction of Richmond, Missouri, deflecting from their course at 
Elkhorn, in order to capture a company of men at Albany, Ray county, 
that had been recruited for the 44th Missouri volunteers (company B). 

They were, however, disappointed in capturing the company, as it had 
left Albany, and taken up its line of march for the assistance of the gar- 
rison at Richmond. They then returned the morning following, to the 
Richmond road. 

The news of the heavy force approaching Richmond was received 
there on Sunday, about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, and caused considerable 
alarm, as there were only thirty men of company F, 51st E. M. M., to 
guard the post, a number of the soldiers being on duty elsewhere at. 
that time. 

Captain David P. Whitmer was in command of the forces at Richmond r 
and made vigorous efforts to defend the post. He sent for reinforcements 
to Lexington, Missouri, and an urgent call for the company at Albany, 
Missouri, to come to his assistance. The company at Albany came at 
once that evening, but no reinforcements from Lexington, (Colonel 
McFerran commanding there) until the next day. 

The citizens of Richmond and vicinity were called upon by Captain 
Whitmer for assistance in protecting the city from the great danger 
threatened, and a large number of them nobly responded to the call. 
The small force of soldiers and citizens that had volunteered for the 
defense of the place, lay on their arms all that night, expecting an attack 
of the enemy at every moment. On the Monday morning following,. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 303 

Captain Clayton Tiffin, who had been stationed at Liberty, Clay county, 
Missouri, with his company C, of the 4th provisional regiment, arrived 
with his company, and was shortly followed by a battalion of the 2d 
Col. cavalry volunteers, under command of Major Prichard, and strongly 
reinforced the brave little garrison. The attack of the enemy was 
anxiously awaited, but Colonel Thailkeld, rinding the force too strong 
for him, changed his line of march, leaving the Richmond road, three 
miles west of Richmond; he took a northeast course, crossing the Knox- 
ville road north of Richmond, at Yokum's farm. 

Major Prichard, on learning this, gave hot pursuit of the enemy with 
his battalion of the 2d Col. cavalry volunteers. 

Captain Whitmer and his brave little garrison of thirty men, and the 
citizens of Richmond, who rallied to his assistance in defending their city 
from the threatened danger at that time, were highly complimented for 
their gallantry, as also, were Major Abraham Allen, Captain C. Tiffin, 
Major Prichard and others, who had so promptly and rapidly marched 
to the assistance of the garrison and the rescue of Richmond. 

On the 8th of July, 1864, a portion of company F, 51st E. M. M., 
engaged a considerable force of bushwhackers. 

Lieutenant John D. Page, of company F, while making a charge with 
some of his men, was drawn into an ambuscade, and received a heavy 
fire from the concealed enemy. In this fight Lieutenant Page was killed, 
Lieutenant Robert F. Goode badly wounded, and William Fields badly 
wounded, who afterward died of his wounds. Lieutenant John D. Page 
was an active, energetic officer, performed fine service in his company, 
and was greatly endeared to his fellow soldiers. 

On the 15th of July, 1864, an engagement took place on Waconda 
creek, in Carroll county, Missouri, with the forces under the command of 
Captain Clayton Tiffin, and a large body of bushwhackers, under the 
command of Bill Anderson. After a short but stubborn fight, the bush- 
whackers were repulsed, and dislodged from their well selected position. 
In this engagement James A. Hess was killed. He was a recruit for 
company B, 44th Missouri volunteers, that was then organizing. Howell 
Searcy, Joel Spitzer, and a number of others were also killed in this 
engagement, and George W. Elliott and others badly wounded. 

October 27, 1864, a heavy force of guerrillas, under the command of 
Bill Anderson, were repulsed near Albany, Ray county, by a portion of 
the 51st regiment, E. M. M., commanded by Major John Grimes, and a 
portion of the Daviess company E. M. M., commanded by Major Samuel 
P. Cox, of the 1st cavalry, M. S. M. In this engagement Bill Anderson, 
the noted bushwhacker, was killed, while making a desperate charge. 
The Ray county troops and the Daviess county troops in the action, 
behaved with great coolness and gallantry. The arrangement of the 



304 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

forces, and the planning of the method in which the attack was to be 
brought on, were well conceived, and admirably carried out. They 
reflected the highest honor upon the officers in command. On the fall of 
their leader, the bushwhackers, who had met with some loss from the 
well directed fire of the Ray county and Daviess county troops, made a 
hasty retreat, and left Ray county that night. 

The last engagement in Ray county, Missouri, was about six miles 
northeast of Richmond, near Dr. Horace King's farm, on the 23d of May, 
1865. The forces engaged were a portion of Captain Clayton Tiffin's 
command and a force of guerrillas under the command of Arch Clemens. 
It was a sharp engagement for a short time, and resulted in the rout of 
the guerrillas. 

In this engagement Madison S. Walker was killed. He had been a 
private in company D, 35th Missouri volunteers and 5th regiment of vet- 
eran reserve corps, and volunteered in the spring of 1865, in Captain 
Tiffin's company. 

On the following day after the fight a force of volunteers from Rich- 
mond gave Arch Clemens and the bushwhackers a hot pursuit. 

This engagement of Captain Tiffin's company with Arch Clemens' 
command on the 23d day of May, 1865, was emphatically the last one of 
the war. 

Captain Clayton Tiffin's company was the last one in active service in 
Ray county, Missouri. It was an efficient company in every respect, and 
performed splendid service during the war. The captain won a deserv- 
ing reputation for gallantry and bravery in his long term of service, and 
is greatly endeared to troops of friends. 

Captain Patton Colley, of company E, 51st regiment, E. M. M. ; Lieu- 
tenant John D. Page, of company F, and Lieutenant Jesse C. Tunnage, 
of company D, same regiment, were killed by guerrillas in July, 1864. 

Simon McKissack, company B, 3d M. S. M. cavalry, was killed at 
Springfield, January 8, 1863. 

Lieutenant Riley B. Riggs, company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volun- 
teers, was killed October 9, 1864. 

Thomas H. Elliott, of same company, was killed October 23, 1864, near 
Jefferson City at the time of the invasion of Missouri by General Sterling 
Price. 

Lieutenant John McKissack, company B, 44th Missouri volunteers, was 
killed at Spanish Fort, Alabama. 

FLAG PRESENTATIONS. 

At the time General B. M. Prentiss passed through Camden, Ray 

county, December 5, 1861, with a large Federal force, the Union ladies of 

the place presented him with a beautiful flag of the stars and stripes that 

they had wrought. The general, on receiving it, made a most eloquent 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 305 

speech, paying a beautiful tribute to the patriotism of the ladies, com- 
plimenting them highly for their efforts in behalf of their country; that 
it was the first mark of encouragement and sympathy his troops had 
received on their march from St. Joseph down to that place; that they 
would bear it to battle with them, and amid charging squadrons, the roar 
of artillery, and the clashing of steel in the fiery conflict of contending 
armies, they would proudly bear it aloft, and in gazing on its proud folds 
remember the noble donors, the fair and patriotic ladies of Camden . 

In April, 1862, a beautiful union flag was presented company A, 3d M. 
S. M. cavalry volunteers, commanded by Captain Andrew Elliott, by the 
ladies of Camden, near the residence of Willis Warriner, Esq., on the 
lofty eminence overlooking the Missouri river. 

J. W. Black, on behalf of the ladies of Camden, presented the flag to the 
soldiers of company A, with a neat and appropriate speech, as they were 
drawn up in a long and imposing line. It was received by them with 
great enthusiasm, and borne by them as the banner of their company 
through their long and arduous campaigns in southwest Missouri. 

On returning home after the close of the war, this flag was brought 
with them, and is now in the possession of one of the old soldiers of com- 
pany A, that afterward was company L, of the 6th M. S. M. cavalry 
volunteers. 

From the foregoing pages it will be seen that Ray county furnished a 
large number of soldiers for both the armies of the Federal government, 
and the southern Confederacy, and wherever her sons served they did 
their duty well. 

After peace was restored in 1865, the sublime spectacle was presented 
of the soldiers of the " blue and gray " living peaceably together and fol- 
lowing the same pursuits, glorying in the same common country, its pro- 
gress and renown, its great present and unbounded future. 

The Missouri militia in the counties of Ray, Clay, Platte and Clinton, 
were organized in 1865 by Robert S. Moore, colonel 14th regiment, Mis- 
souri militia, and Joseph E. Black, adjutant 1st regiment M. M. 

The war having closed shortly after this organization of the Missouri 
militia was completed, they were not required to perform any active 
service. 

The following are the names of the officers and privates who composed 
company B, 3d regiment, Missouri state militia volunteers. This com- 
pany was organized in December, 1861, and was mustered into the service 
of the United States in January, 1862, commanded by Captain Abraham 
Allen, who was afterward promoted to be major of the 3d Missouri state 
militia cavalry. The officers of the company when mustered into the 
service in January, 1862, were Abraham Allen, captain, to rank from 



306 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

January 11, 1862; Eli Hughes, 1st lieutenant, to rank from January 11, 
1862; Riley B. Riggs, 2d lieutenant, to rank from January 11, 1862. 

On promotion of Captain Abraham Allen to be major of 3d regiment, 
M. S. M. cavalry, to rank from June 12, 1862, Eli Hughes became captain 
of company B, to rank from July 1, 1862; Riley B. Riggs, became first 
lieutenant of company B, to rank from July 1, 1862; Wm. N. Perkins 
became second lieutenant of company B, to rank from July 1, 1862. 

This company was in the 3d regiment of Missouri state militia volun- 
teers, commanded by Colonel Walter King, until consolidated in accord- 
ance with special order number twelve, from headquarters state of Mis- 
souri, adjutant-general's office, St. Louis, Missouri, February 4, 1863, 
when company B, of the third M. S. M. cavalry volunteers was attached 
to 6th regiment, Missouri state militia volunteers as company K, in said 
6th regiment. 

PRIVATES IN COMPANY B. 

David O. Wallace, first sergeant, enrolled January 12, 1862, at Rich- 
mond, Missouri. 

George P. Cleavenger, second sergeant, enrolled January 11, 1862, at 
Richmond, Missouri. 

David McGuire, third sergeant, enrolled March 7, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Ambrose M. Watkins, fourth sergeant, enrolled January 1, 1862, at 
Richmond, Missouri. 

James H. Fountain, sergeant, enrolled January 8, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Andrew J. Odell, sergeant, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Abraham Zimmerman, sergeant, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

James B. Bowlen, sergeant, enrolled January 8, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William S. Gross, corporal, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William Scoggins, corporal, enrolled January 9, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Alfred W. Boon, corporal, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

John T. Soggins, corporal, enrolled January 9, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

John W. Nelson, corporal, enrolled January 1, 1861, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Joseph Proffitt, corporal, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Misouri. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 307 

Aaron Odell, corporal, enrolled February 17, 1862, Richmond, Missouri. 

Christian Overman, corporal, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

John H. Hightower, bugler, enrolled April 22, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Jeremiah A. Burchett, bugler, enrolled October 22, 1862, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

William J. Huchison, company smith, enrolled March 27, 1862, at 
Richmond, Missouri. 

William E. Allbright, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Austin P. Boon, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William A. Bogart, private, enrolled March 22, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Elijah Burgess, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

William Burnes, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Joseph Campbell, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

James H. Campbell, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

George W. Coombes, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Hiram M. Clark, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Richard B. Clarke, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

George Cleavenger, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William Dickie, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond,. 
Missouri. 

Thomas H. Elliott, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

John W. Earl, private, enrolled April 22, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Thomas J. Francis, private, enrolled January 9, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William Free, private, enrolled April 2, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Stephen J. Francis, private, enrolled January 24, 1862, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

William R. Gross, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

James P. Gross, private, enrolled May 21, 1863, at Richmond, Missouri. 



308 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Jesse W. Goodman, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Moses Hess, private, enrolled April 22, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Thomas H. Jones, private, enrolled December 31, 1861, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Thomas H. Lile, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Daniel P. Miller, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Edwin Munn, private, enolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Monroe B. Monaghan, private, enrolled January 9, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William C. Mullican, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

David Odell, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

John Odell, private, enrolled March 7, 1862, at Richmond Missouri. 

William R. Odell, private, enrolled November 27, 1863, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

George Olive, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Charles Overman, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. ♦ 

James Phoster, (James Foster) private, enrolled January, 1862, at Rich- 
mond, Missouri. 

George W. Pearce, private, enrolled November 26, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Jesse Quirk, private, enrolled April 2, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Lyman H. Roland, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Jesse E. Rowland, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

John Riggs, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Harvey C. Ray, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

George Robertson, private, enrolled March 2, 1862, at Richmond Mis- 
souri. 

George R. Rowland, private, enrolled November 27, 1863, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

James H. Stonns, private, enrolled January 8, 1862, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

Arthur Stonns, private, enrolled February 25, 1862, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

Thomas Sutton, private, enrolled April 22, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

Jas. A. Smart, private, enrolled March, 7, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 309 

Jonas Taylor, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

William E. Tegarden, private, enrolled January I, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Thomas Thacker, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

James L. Tucker, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William D. Tarwater, private, enrolled November 27, 1862, at Spring- 
field, Missouri. 

John E. Trendle, private, enrolled November 27, 1862, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

O. H. P. Vanosdoll, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Joseph Woods, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

Sam'l Woods, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, Missouri. 

John T. Warmoth, private, enrolled January 11, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

Lawson H. Worthington, private, enrolled March 15, 1862, at Rich- 
mond, Missouri. 

James O. Wallace, private, enrolled May 21, 1863, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

John T. Wallace, private, enrolled May 24, 1863, at Richmond, Mis- 
souri. 

Isaac A. Watkins, private, enrolled January 1, 1862, at Richmond, 
Missouri. 

William R. Lloyd, prfvate, enrolled January 25, 1864, at Springfield, 
Missouri. 

Jacob B. Kunkle, William Wilburn, John Hightower, Jesse E. Row- 
land. 

This company performed fine service in southwest Missouri and north- 
west Arkansas, and was in many engagements and skirmishes, until the 
expiration of its term of service in February, 1865. All its officers per- 
formed their duty well. Captain Eli Hughes made a fine record as a 
gallant and brave officer, and was honorably discharged from the service, 
greatly beloved by his men. He is now one of the most valuable citizens 
of the county. 

Company A, of the 3d M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, was mustered into 
the service at Chillicothe, Missouri, January 12, 1862, having volunteered 
for service December 17, 1861. After performing valuable service as 
company A, 3d M. S. M. Cavalry, it was consolidated with the 6th regi- 
ment, M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, by special order No. 12 from head- 
quarters of state of Missouri, dated February 4, 1863, and became com- 



310 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

pany I, in said 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. Company A was 
commanded by Captain Andrew Elliott until September 15, 1862, when 
he resigned. Captain George N. McGee was elected by the company to 
fill his place September 24, 1862. Joseph H. Jackson was first lieutenant 
of company A, which position he also held in company I, after consolida- 
tion with 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, until he resigned, February 19, 
1864. Arthur T. Parker was second lieutenant until April 18, 1863. 
Robert P. Ballew was second lieutenant from March 15, 1863, until he 
resigned, May 20, 1864. 

The following is a list of the soldiers in company I, 6th M. S. M. 
cavalry volunteers, at the time the company was mustered out of the ser- 
vice, January 16, 1865. A large number of the soldiers of the company 
enlisted in the veteran service, in 1864, mainly in the 13th regiment vet- 
eran cavalry volunteers. 

George N. McGee, captain, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Nathaniel H. Rone, first sergeant, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, 
December 17, 1861. 

William C. Reaves, commissary sergeant, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, 
December 17, 1861. 

Granville Linnville, sergeant, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 

17, 1861. 

Daniel McKay, sergeant, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Matthew Burnett, sergeant, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1S61 

Benjamin S. Proffitt, corporal, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Thomas H. Clements, corporal, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, Decem- 
ber 17, 1861. 

Charles H. Larkey, corporal, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Levi Harris, corporal, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Richard Adams, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Isaac Burnett, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Andrew Bailey, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Harden S. Bailey, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 311 

John H. Cooper, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

James M. Harvey, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Melancthon Haskell, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Edward Larkey, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17 
1861. 

Colonel Megonogel, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 
17, 1861. 

Lenhart Powless, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

John Parks, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 1861. 

Josiah P. Tribble, private, enlisted at Camden, Missouri, December 17, 
1861. 

Captain George N. McGee, captain of company A, 3d M. S. M. cav- 
alry volunteers, afterward company I, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, 
enlisted in company A as a private, but from his fine qualities as a soldier 
became a great favorite with all his felfow soldiers, so that on the resigna- 
tion of Captain Andrew Elliott, in September, 1862, he was elected to the 
position of captain, which he filled with honor and ability, until he was mus- 
tered out of the service, January 6, 1865. He won a splendid reputation 
for all the admirable qualities of a noble officer while in the service. On 
coming home, after he was honorably discharged from the service, he 
settled down quietly to the pursuits of civil life. His fellow citizens, how- 
ever, did not suffer him to remain in private life long. In the fall of 1866, 
he was elected clerk of the county court of Ray county, which position he 
held for six years, discharging his duties in the most eminently satisfactory 
manner. He was secretary of the school board of directors of Richmond 
graded school for many years, and did much by his liberal and energetic 
course to promote the interests of the Richmond schools. He was, in 
every sense of the term, a good citizen. He died, August 1, 1S80, after a 
short illness, greatly mourned, not only by his relatives, but by almost 
every one that knew him. 

SOME NAMES OF SOLDIERS IN FEDERAL SERVICE DURING THE LATE 

CIVIL WAR. 

Joseph Campbell was a private in company B, 3d regiment Missouri 
state militia cavalry volunteers ; afterward company K, 6th Missouri state 
militia cavalry volunteers. He enlisted in January, 1862, and was dis- 
charged in January, 1865. He was in the battles of Springfield, Missouri, 
and Neosho, Missouri. He was taken prisoner by General Shelby at 
Neosho, Missouri, October, 4, 1863. 



312 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

William P. Cook was adjutant in the 3d M. S. M. cavalry, commanded 
by Colonel Walter King. He enlisted in December, 1861, and was dis- 
charged in November, 1862. 

Thomas J. Youngblood was a private in company D, 6th M. S. M. 
cavalry volunteers. He enlisted December 18, 1864, and was discharged 
July 18, 1865. 

G. B. Thacker, was a private in company B, 3d M. S. M. cavalry vol- 
unteers. He enlisted January, 1862, at Chillicothe, Missouri, and was 
discharged December 18, 1862, at Springfield, Missouri. He was injured 
by a horse falling with him while in the service, and was disabled for ser- 
vice on account thereof. 

Wm. J. Smith was a private in company A, Colonel James McFerrin's 
regiment, 1st regiment M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He enlisted in 
1862, and was discharged in 1865. 

J. W. Goodman was a private in company B, 3d regiment M. S. M. 
cavalry volunteers. He enlisted in said company B, commanded by 
Captain Abraham Allen, afterward by Captain Eli Hughes, January 9, 
1862, and was discharged May 27, 1865. 

Daniel Cleavenger was first sergeant in company A, in 44th Missouri 
volunteers. He enlisted August, 1864, and was discharged August, 1865. 

Matthew Lile, was a private in company F, 44th Missouri volunteers. 
He enlisted in August, 1864, and was discharged in August, 1865. He 
was in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. He died in 1872, from disease con- 
tracted in the service. 

Robert M. Lile was a private in the enrolled Missouri militia for a 
short time, and then entered the volunteer United States service. He en- 
listed as a private in company F, 44th Missouri volunteers, in August, 
1864, and was discharged August, 1865. He was in no battles. 

Jesse T. Roberts was orderly sergeant in Captain B. Dillon's company, 
1st Kentucky cavalry U. S. A. He enlisted at Camp Dick Robinson, 
Kentucky, August 16, 1861, and was discharged at Crab Orchard, Ken- 
tucky, in November 21, 1861, on account of disability caused by putting a 
blacksmith's forge into a wagon, November 1, 1861. He was in the battle 
of Wild Cat, Kentucky, October 21, 1861. 

William H. Callison, was a private in company D, commanded by Cap- 
tain Robert L. Butts, 16th regiment Missouri cavalry volunteers. He 
volunteered at Marshfield, Webster county, Missouri, on or about the 27th 
of May, 1864, and was discharged at Springfield, Missouri on or about 
the 30th of June, 1865. He bore an honorable part in every engagement 
that took place in the pursuit of General Price from Jefferson City, until 
he was driven from the state; he was along with his company and regi- 
ment in the advance on Booneville, on the extreme right of the advance 
at Independence, and also at the battle of the Big Blue, where his regi- 



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HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 313 

ment made a brilliant sabre charge upon an overwhelming number of the 
Confederates. He is now a farmer in Ray county, Missouri. 

Henry T. Whelchel, was a private in company D, 16th regiment Mis- 
souri cavalry volunteers. He enlisted at Marshfield,Webster county, Mis- 
souri, on or about the 27th day of , 1864, and was discharged on or 

about the 30th day of June, 1865, at Springfield, Missouri. He partici- 
pated in every engagement that took place in the pursuit of General Ster- 
ling Price, from Jefferson City, until his army was driven from the state in 
the memorable campaign of 1864, called the " Price Raid." He is now a 
farmer in Ray county, Missouri. 

Walter F. Becker, was a private in company L, of the 2d California 
cavalry volunteers. His company was commanded by Captain A. 
Brown. He enlisted September 24, 1862, and was discharged at Fort 
Laramie in 1865. He was in numerous skirmishes with Indians on the 
plains. He was wounded by an arrow in the left jaw in an Indian skir- 
mish. 

A. J. Narramore, was a sergeant in the 51st regiment, E. M. M. in 
Captain John Haukins' company. He enlisted in 1864, and was dis- 
charged in 1865. He was in the fight at Albany, Ray county, Missouri. 

Captain John Haukins, was captain of company D, 51st regiment, E. 
M. M. He enlisted in 1862, and was in considerable active service at 
different times until 1865. He was a farmer on Rocky Fork of Crooked 
river some miles northwest of Richmond, Missouri. He died several 
years after the close of the war. 

James S. Craig, was a private in company A, commanded by Captain 
Van Quirk in the 85th Pennsylvania regiment infantry volunteers, com- 
manded by Colonel J. B. Howell. He enlisted in September, 1861, and was 
discharged November 22, 1864. He served in the army of the Potomac. 
He was in the siege of Yorktown, battle of Williamsburg, Virginia; Savage 
vStation, Virginia; Seven Pines, Virginia; Jones Ford, Virginia; Malvern 
Hill, Virginia, Blackwater, Virginia; Southwest Creek, North Carolina; 
W^hite Hall, North Carolina; Goldsborough, North Carolina; siege of 
Morris Island, South Carolina; siege of Fort Wagner and Gregg, Gettys- 
burg, Pennsvlvania; battle of the Wilderness, and many skirmishes. He 
was only once slightly wounded at Petersburg, Virginia, thus going 
through many terrible battles without receiving a serious wound. 

James T. Cummins was a private in the 43d regiment Indiana volun- 
teers, and was transferred to the 85th regiment Indiana volunteers, in the 
army commanded by General Sherman. He enlisted at Terre Haute, 
Indiana, in 1862, and was discharged June 14, 1865, at Evansville, Indiana. 
He was in the battle of Resaca, Georgia, May 13 to 16, 1864, and in all 
the battles in which General Sherman's army was engaged in, from 

20 



314 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Resaca to Atlanta, November 9, 1864. He was wounded by a sabre 
stroke, at Resaca, Georgia, but not disabled. He was taken prisoner 
once, on Green river, Kentucky, but was paroled in twenty-four hours. 
He has been a farmer for a number of years since the war, in Ray countv, 
Missouri, and has held the position of justice of the peace in his township 
(Richmond township). 

Joseph Gossage was a corporal in the 51st regiment, E. M. M., and 
afterward in Captain Clayton Tiffin's company, 4th provisional regiment, 
E. M. M., commanded by Colonel John B. Hale. He enlisted in 1862, 
and was discharged in October, 1864. He was in the battle of Glasgow, 
Missouri, September, 1864, and in the fight with "bushwhackers," on 
Waconda creek, Carroll county, Missouri, in 1864. He was taken pris- 
oner at Glasgow, Missouri, and was paroled the same day. He has been 
engaged as a farmer, in Ray county, since the war, and for a number of 
years has been employed as farmer of the county poor house farm, and 
has managed it and improved it so greatly as to make it a model farm. 
His term expired last spring, and he is now cultivating another farm. 

George W. Carter was a bugler in company K, 3d and 7th regiments, 
M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, and 13th Missouri cavalry volunteers. He 
enlisted in 1861, and was discharged in 1865. He was in the battle of 
Independence, Missouri; Fort Scott, Kansas; Springfield, Missouri; 
Newtonia, Missouri; Fayetteville, Arkansas, and other battles. 

Samuel A. Harrison was a private in company F, commanded by Cap- 
tain D. P. Whitmer. He enlisted in 1862, and was discharged in 1865, 
having been in active service a portion of the time. He was in a skirmish 
at Shaw's Shop, in the fight with Todd's guerrillas, in 1864. 

Hiram Branso was a private in Captain John Haukin's company, of 
the 51st E. M. M. He enlisted in 1864, and was discharged in 1864. 
He was in the engagement at Albany, Ray county, Missouri, October 
27, 1864, in which Bill Anderson, the noted bushwhacker, was killed. 

John A. McGaugh was a private in company D, 51st regiment, E. M. 
M. He enlisted in 1864, and was discharged in 1865. 

J. M. Stockwell was a private in Colonel Peabody's 11th regiment, 
Missouri militia. He enlisted in 1861, and was discharged in 1861, on 
account of his health. 

Aaron Teagarden was a private in Captain Real's company B, 51st E. 
M. M. He enlisted in 1864 and was discharged in 1865. 

Milton Piercy was a private in Captain Martin T. Real's company B, 
51st regiment, E. M. M. He enlisted in 1862. 

Lafayette P. Branstetter was a sergeant in Captain Bradley's company 
A. He enlisted in Modena, Mercer county, Missouri. 

Alexander Holder was a private in company G, 51st regiment, E. M. 
M. He enlisted in 1862, and was discharged at the close of the war. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 315 

Ezekiel Stone was a private of company D, 51st regiment E. M. M. 
H enlisted in 1862, and was discharged in 1864. He was in an engage- 
ment near Waconda creek, Carroll county, Missouri, and in one at 
Albany, Ray county, Missouri, in which Bill Anderson, the noted guer- 
rilla, was killed. 

Robert Manley was a private in Major John Grimes's battalion. He 
enlisted in 1863. 

Levi A. Holman was a soldier in Sherman's army. He enlisted in the 
fall of 1862 and was discharged June, 1865. He was in the battle of 
Tupelo, Mississippi, May 6, 1863, Selma, Alabama, April 2, 1865, and 
several others. 

Joseph Proffitt, was a corporal in company B, 3d M. S. M. cavalry, 
afterward, by consolidation, company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, 
and then in the 13th Missouri cavalry volunteers. He enlisted Septem- 
ber, 1861, and was discharged May 7, 1866. He was in the battle of 
Springfield, Missouri; Van Buren, Arkansas; Jefferson City, Missouri; 
Prairie Grove, Arkansas; Osage Crossing, Big Blue, Missouri; Independ- 
ence, Missouri; Newtonia, Missouri; and Neosho, Missouri. He was 
wounded, by a bayonet thrust, at Osage. He was taken prisoner at 
Neosho and paroled. 

Richard O. Craven was a private in company B, 145th Indiana volun- 
teers. He enlisted in 1864, and died while in the service, July 4, 1865, at 
Cartersville, Georgia. He was a gallant young man, and greatly loved by 
his companions. 

J. H. Bowman was a private in General A. J. Smith's 16th army corps. 
He enlisted August 15, 1864, and was discharged August 15, 1865. He 
was in the battles of Franklin, Tennessee; Nashville, Tennessee; and 
Mobile, Alabama. 

William M. Roe was a private in company B, Captain Real's company, 
51st regiment, E. M. M. He enlisted in 1862 and was discharged in 1865. 
He was in the engagement at Albany, Ray county, Missouri, in the fight 
with Bill Anderson, the noted bushwhacker. His company was engaged 
in keeping down marauding parties during 1864 and 1865. 

James Roe was a corporal in company B, Captain Martin T. Real's 
company, 51st regiment, E. M. M. He enlisted in 1862, and was dis- 
charged at the close of the war. 

Andrew J. Legg was a private in company F, 51st regiment, E. M. M., 
and promoted to regimental forage master. He enlisted in July, 1862, 
and was mustered out in May, 1865. 

Joseph Burnett was a private in company I, 26th Missouri volunteers. 
He enlisted February, 1863, and was discharged August 13, 1865. He 
was in the battles of Jackson, Mississippi, Champion Hills, Black River, 
Vicksburg, Chattanooga, siege at Savannah, and in Sherman's march to 



316 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

the sea. He was wounded in the battle of Champion Hills, and was in 
the hospital a short time. He has been public administrator of Ray 
county, since the war, one term. 

Isaac Burnett was a private in company A, 3d M. S. M. cavalry, after 
consolidation with company I, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He 
enlisted December 17, 1861, and was discharged in January, 1865. He 
was in the battles of Newtonia, Springfield and Nt_osho. 

James Stewart was a private in company F, 10th Missouri cavalry vol- 
unteers. He enlisted August, 1862, and was discharged June 28, 1865. 
He was in a battle at Iuka, Mississippi, and in some skirmishes. 

Charles Z. Porter was a private in company B, 44th Missouri volun- 
teers. After he was in the service a short time, he was promoted to cor- 
poral, then to first sergeant. He was in the battles of Franklin, Tennes- 
see, Nashville, Tennessee, and Spanish Fort, Alabama. 

Houston A. Evans was a private in company B, 44th regiment, Mis- 
souri volunteers. He enlisted on the 9th day of August, 1864, and was 
discharged on the 14th day of June, 1865, at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, 
Missouri. He was in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. He was taken 
prisoner at Franklin, Tennessee, and was a prisoner about five months, 
the greater portion of the time being confined in Andersonville, Georgia. 
Since the war he has been engaged in the mercantile business in Camden, 
Missouri, and has served one term as justice of the peace. 

James T. Campbell was a sergeant in company D, 35th Missouri vol- 
unteers. He enlisted September, 1862, and was discharged July, 1865. 
He was in the battle of Helena, Arkansas, and some other small engage- 
ments. He has been living in Ray county since the war, and following 
the business of farming. 

Stephen H. Degraffinseed was a private in the 2d Ohio cavalry vol- 
unteers. He enlisted in 1863, and was discharged in 1865. He was in 
the battle of Brier Creek, Georgia. 

Alfred A. Brown was a sergeant in company D, 35th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted in said company D, commanded first by Captain 
Joseph H. Morganson, afterward by Captain Milton H. David, on or 
about the 12th of August, 1862, and was discharged at Little Rock, 
Arkansas, on or about the 28th day of June, 1865. After his discharge 
he returned to his home in Camden, Ray county, Missouri, and has been 
engaged in business there ever since. 

John J. Leake was a private, afterward orderly-sergeant, in company 
B, 13th Missouri cavalry volunteers. Said company was commanded by 
Captain Shelly. He enlisted in 1864, and was discharged in 1865. He 
was in an engagement at Springfield, Missouri, in 1863. 

Lilburn Harris was third corporal in company B, 44th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted August 9, 1864, and was discharged August 15, 1865, 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 317 

at Benton Barracks, St. Louis. He was in the battle of Duck River, 
November 28, 1864, and Spring Hill, Tennessee; November 29, 1864, and 
Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tennessee, Decem- 
ber 15 and 16; Cedar Point, Alabama, March 18, 1865; Spanish Fort 
from March 2 to April 8, 1865. 

Joseph Woods was a private in company B, 3d Missouri cavalry, after- 
ward company K, 6th Missouri cavalry volunteers. He enlisted October, 
1861, and was discharged February, 1865. He was in the battle of 
Springfield, January 8, 1S63. He served nearly four years in all, in both 
regiments, Colonel Walter King commanding 3d regiment Missouri state 
militia cavalry, and Colonel E. C. Catherwood commanding 6th regiment 
Missouri state militia cavalry volunteers. Since coming out of the service, 
Mr. Woods has been a farmer in Ray county, living near Elk Horn. 

Ephraim Clark was fourth sergeant in company B, 44th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted August 9, 1864, and was discharged in August, 1865, 
at St. Louis. He was in the battles of Cedar Point, Spanish Fort, Ala- 
bama, and numerous other skirmishes. He served one year in said 
company B, 44th regiment Missouri volunteers, company commanded by 
Captain Drumhiller, regiment by Colonel R. C. Bradshaw. 

J. H. Hightower was bugler in company K, 6th regiment Missouri cav- 
alry volunteers. He enlisted in March, 1862, and was discharged in April, 
1865. Was in the battles of Springfield, Brownsville, Westport, and New- 
tonia, Missouri, and in a great many minor engagements in southwest Mis- 
souri. 

David McGuire was a commissary sergeant in company D, 3d regi- 
ment Missouri state militia cavalry volunteers, afterward in consolidation 
in company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He enlisted February 
15, 1862, and was discharged in March, 1865. He was in the battle of 
Springfield, Missouri, January 8, 1863, and in the pursuit of General Price, 
in his raid in Missouri in 1864 He served in Missouri and Arkansas while 
in company D. He was in the 3d regiment M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel Walter King, after consolidation with the 6th reg- 
iment M. S. M. cavalry volunteers; it was commanded by Colonel E. C. 
Catherwood. 

James H. Shults was captain in the 28th regiment of Iowa volunteers. 
He was honorably discharged June 26, 1863. Was in the battle of Shiloh, 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

A. W. Boon was corporal in company K, 6th regiment Missouri volun- 
teer. He enlisted January 11, 1862, and was discharged January 23, 1865, 
at St. Louis. He was in the battles of Springfield, Neosho, Booneville, 
Jefferson City, Blue Mills, Independence and south of Kansas City, Fort 
Scott, and Mount Vernon, all in Missouri. He was taken prisoner at 
Neosho, Missouri, and paroled. 



318 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

J. C. Weakly was a private in the army of the Potomac, under General 
Hancock, 2d corps, 1st division. He enlisted in February, 1861, and was 
discharged in July, 1865. He was in the battles of the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, North Anna river, and Petersburg, 
Virginia. He was wounded June 16, 1861, at Petersburg, Virginia. 

C. H. Lebold was a private in General Huger's command, 161th Ohio 
regiment, in company C. He enlisted in said company C in October, 
1863, and was discharged in August, 1861. He was stationed in Wash- 
ington City, in the fort, while in the service. 

Alfred C. Kincaid was a sergeant in company B, 115th Indiana infantry. 
He enlisted in company B, commanded by Captain Vincent Williams, 
in said 115th regiment, commanded bv Colonel Wm. H. Adams, and was 
discharged February 1866, at Macon, Georgia. Since leaving the ser- 
vice he has been a farmer in Ray county, Missouri. 

Solomon McCall was orderly sergeant in company B, commanded by 
Captain J. H. Matheson, in the 1st Nevada battalion, commanded by Major 
Baldwin. He enlisted at Dayton, Nevada, June 21, 1863, and was dis- 
charged June 20, 1866, at Camp Douglas, Utah territory. 

Andrew J. Thompson, was a private in company B, commanded by 
Captain J. C. W. Hall, in 2d Colorado first two years, and then cavalry, 
commanded by Colonel Ford. He enlisted November 13, 1861, at Fair 
Play, Colorado, and was discharged December 19, 1861, at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas. He was in the battles of Valverde, or Fort Craig, New 
Mexico, February 21, 1862; Cabin Creek, July 1,2,5, and 20, 1863; 
Honey Springs, Independence, Missouri, etc. He was wounded at Val- 
verde, and disabled for two months. He was sick in the service about 
six months in the fall and winter of 1863-1. 

John Holder was a bugler in General Sanborn's command. He enlisted 
in January, 1862, and was discharged in the spring of 1865. He was in 
many skirmishes. 

L.J. Williams was a captain in company H, 35th Missouri volunteers, 
in C. B. Fisk's command. He was discharged July, 1865. He was in 
the battle of Helena, Arkansas. 

George Blackerby was a private in Colonel Catherwood's regiment. 
He enlisted in February, 1862, and was discharged in the spring of 1865. 
He was in the battles of Blue Mills, Pineville, Fort Smith, and Lone 
Jack. 

William S. Underwood was a corporal in General Prentiss' army. He 
enlisted November 25, 1861, and was discharged December 20, 1861. He 
was in the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, and in Sherman's grand 
march to sea. His command suffered greatly at Atlanta, Georgia, on 
account of supplies being cut off. 

P. L. Vanbebber, second lieutenant in company D, 6th M. S. M. cav- 



HISTORY OF RAV COUNTY. 319 

airy, commanded by Colonel E. C. Catherwood, and William P. Burgess, 
William T. Forson, and G. W. Burgess, privates in said company D, 
enlisted in 1S62, and were discharged in February, 1867. They were in 
the battles of Independence, Missouri; Osage, Kansas; and other battles. 
Lieutenant Vanbebber, in the Independence engagement, was wounded 
in the head. 

James M. Wilkerson was a bugler in Major King's command. He 
enlisted in July, 1861, in Captain Clayton Tiffin's company, 51st E. M. M., 
and was in the battle of Glasgow, Missouri, in which engagement he was 
taken prisoner. 

William P. Burgess was a private in company D, 6th M. S. M. cavalry 
volunteers. He enlisted February 3, 1862, and was discharged January 11, 
1866. He was in a number of skirmishes during the war. 

Thomas Clark was a private in Colonel Catherword's regiment, 6th M. 
S. M. cavalry. He enlisted February, 1862, and was discharged March 
1, 1865. He was in Pleasant Gap and Horse Creek skirmishes. 

James Ragland was a private in company D, 13th Missouri cavalry 
volunteers. He enlisted in 1862, and was discharged at close of war. 
He was in the battles of Independence, Big Blue and Osage river. 

B. F. Dillard, sergeant in 51st regiment E. M. M. Served under Col- 
onel Barr, Colonel Hale and Major Grimes. He enlisted in 1862, and 
was discharged in the fall of 1861. He was in the fight at Shaw's 
Shop, Ray county, Missouri, with the bushwhackers. 

John Dehart, Jerry Conine and Peter Storm were privates in the Fed- 
eral service, enlisting in the fall of 1862. 

Levi Payne was a private in company C, 8th Missouri cavalry, company 
commanded by Captain Demuth. He enlisted in 1861 and was discharged 
June, 1864, at St. Louis, Missouri, as a private. He was in the battles of 
Lookout Mountain, Little Rock, Arkansas, Duval's Bluff, Arkansas, and 
a great many skirmishes. He was taken prisoner at Trenton, Tennes- 
see, by Forrest; was paroled and afterward returned to regiment. 

Franklin Swoveland was a private in Captain Patton Colley's company, 
51st E. M. M. He enlisted in 1862, and saw some service in the pursuit 
of Poindexter and Porter. 

G. W. Riggs was 3d sergeant in company B, Captain Drumhiller's 
company, 41th Missouri volunteers. He enlisted at St. Joseph, Missouri, 
August 21, 1864, as a private from Ray county. He died May 16, 1865. 
He was in the battles of Franklin, Tennessee; Spring Hill, and several 
skirmishes. He died of chronic diarrhoea, May 16, 1865. 

William D. Fortune was captain of company H, 44th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted August 4, 1864, and was commissioned captain, Sep- 
tember 23, 1864, and was mustered out of the service August 15, 1865. 
He was in the battles of Spring Hill and Franklin, Tennessee, and capture 



320 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

of Spanish Fort. Since coming out of the service, Captain Fortune has 
been living near Tinney's Grove, Ray county, and given his attention to 
farming and teaching a portion of his time. He made a good officer 
while in the service, and is esteemed a worthy citizen. 

Thomas Barron enlisted August 4, 1864, and was discharged August 
15, 1865, and was in the battles of Spring Hill, Franklin, and capture of 
Spanish Fort. 

Abraham Barron enlisled in said company H, August 4, 1864, and 
was discharged on accoun'. of disability. 

Marcus D. L. Blevins was a private in said company H, and enlisted 
September 2, 1864, and was discharged August 15, 1865. He was in the 
battles of Spring Hill and Franklin, Tennessee, and in Spanish Fort, or cap- 
ture of Mobile. 

Henry J. Blevins was a private in said company H. He enlisted Sep- 
tember 2, 1864, and was discharged August 15, 1865. He was in the 
same battles. 

Matthias Lynch was a private in company H. He enlisted September 
22, 1864, and was killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, November 
30, 1864. 

George Silkwood was a private in company H. He enlisted August 
22, 1864, and was discharged August 15, 1865. He was in the battle of 
Spring Hill, November 29, 1864; Franklin, November 30, 1864; and 
Spanish Fort. 

John A. Hays was a private in company H. He enlisted August 22, 
1864, and was discharged February 1, 1865. He was in the battles of 
Spring Hill and Franklin. He was wounded in the hand at Franklin, 
Tennessee, November 30, 1864. 

David Tooma)' was a private in said company H, 44th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted August 4, 1864, and was discharged June 19, 1865. 
He was in the battles of Spring Hill and Franklin, November 30, 1864. 
He was taken prisoner at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. Thomas 
Barron, Marcus D. L. Blevin, Henry J. Blevin, and George Silkwood, 
were also in the two days fight before Nashville, Tennessee, and in the 
pursuit of General Hood's army. 

Christopher C. Garton was a private in company E, Colonel Henry 
Neil's regiment of E. M. M., afterward company F, and I, (Captain Sum- 
mer). He enlisted in 1862, and was discharged in 1S64. He was in some 
skirmishes with bushwhackers. He was taken prisoner at Lexington 
before he enlisted in the service, but was released in twenty -four hours. 
He now lives in Camden, Ray county, Missouri. 

Asa Brockman was first lieutenant of company C, 51st regiment E. M. 
M. He enlisted in said company C, commanded by Captain John Saery, 
in 1862. He was in the battle of Glasgow, in 1864, and taken prisoner in 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 321 

the fall of 1864 in said engagement. He was paroled and never after- 
ward entered the service. He has been a farmer near Camden, since the 
war. 

Willis Meredith was a private first in company C, 2d battalion, M. S. 
M., cavalry volunteers, and afterward in company B, 44th Missouri vol- 
unteers. He enlisted in 1862, and re-enlisted in 1864, and was discharged 
1865. He was in the battles of Lone Jack, Missouri; Duck river, Ten- 
nessee; Franklin, Tennessee; Spring Hill, Tennessee; Cedar Point, Ala- 
bama, and Spanish Fort, Alabama. He was wounded in the battle of 
Lone Jack, Missouri, August 16, 1862: he was shot twice while in the ser- 
vice, and is drawing a pension on account of having been wounded and 
disabled. 

George W. Thomas was a private in 1st battalion, 26th regiment of 
Missouri volunteers. He enlisted February 6, 1863, in Richmond, Mis- 
souri, and was discharged at Little Rock, Arkansas. He was in the bat- 
tle, of Port Gibson, Mississippi; Jackson, Mississippi; Raymond, Missis- 
sippi; siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi; Mission Ridge, Tennessee; Sher- 
man's march to the sea, siege of Savannah, and the Carolina campaign. 

Michael Feeney was a private in the gunboat service, number two, Rapi- 
dan gunboat. He enlisted in 1863, and was discharged in 1864. He was 
in engagements at Johnsonville, on the Tennessee river; Paducah, Ten- 
nessee; Mound City, etc. 

Samuel S. Burgess was a private in Captain Saunders' company, General 
James Lane's command in the Kansas war, of 1855 and 1856. He 
enlisted at Cole Creek, near Lawrence, Kansas, and was honorably dis- 
charged at expiration of term of enlistment. He was first sergeant in 
company D, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He enlisted at Knoxville, 
Missouri, on the 4th of February, and was mustered into service the 22d 
of March, 1862, and was discharged March 22, 1865. He was in a num- 
ber of skirmishes and minor engagements in southwest Missouri and 
Arkansas. Since coming out of the service he has been a farmer in Ray 
county. 

Captain John Saery was captain of company C, 51st regiment, E. M. 
M. He enlisted at Richmond, Missouri, in July, 1862, and was dis- 
charged at the close of the war in 1865. He was in the Albany fight with 
Bill Anderson, the noted bushwhacker, October 27, 1864. He is now 
living in Camden, Missouri, and has been a citizen of this place many 
years. He turns his attention to the business of carpenter and farmer, 
and derives considerable income from his valuable coal lands. 

Thomas Hare was a private in company F, 1st regiment of Kansas, six 
months infantry and eighteen months cavalry. He enlisted May 29, 1861, 
and was discharged June 20, 1864. He was in the battles of Wilson's 
Creek, Missouri; Corinth, Mississippi; Bayou Mason, Louisiana; Bayou 



322 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Tensas, Louisiana; Holly Springs, Mississippi; siege of Vicksburg, Mis- 
sissippi; Lake Providence, and many other battles of less note. 

Joseph Miller was a private first in company A, 3d M. S. M. cavalry 
volunteers, then in company I, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers, and then 
in the 13th regiment cavalry, Missouri volunteers. He enlisted 
December 17, 1861, at Camden, Missouri, and was finally discharged at 
Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1866. He was in the battles of Springfield, 
Missouri; Neosho, Missouri; Newtonia, Missouri; Glasgow, Missouri, 
and many skirmishes. He was taken prisoner at Neosho, Missouri, and 
immediately paroled. Afterward he was captured at Glasgow, and was 
exchanged in about two months afterward. On being exchanged he went 
west with his regiment, and performed service on the frontier. 

Andrew Elliott was captain of company A, 3d M. S. M. cavalry volun- 
teers. He enlisted in December, 1861, at Camden, Missouri and was 
shortly after elected captain of company A, by his fellow soldiers. He 
resigned in the fall of 1862, on account of being severely injured by the 
fall of his horse while in the service in southwest Missouri. He was a 
vigilant, active Union man, and did much to arouse enthusiasm in the 
cause of the government at the commencement of thfe war. He made a 
»fine officer and was greatly endeared to his men. Since the war he has 
been engaged in the business of farming, near Camden, Missouri. He is 
a worthy citizen and highly esteemed by his neighbors. 

James M. Campbell was a private in company F, 51st regiment E. M. 
M. He enlisted in 1864, and was discharged in 186-1. He was in the 
fight of Shaw's Shop, Ray county, with the bushwackers under 
Todd and Thailkeld. 

Benjamin Hagens, was a private in Captain D. P. Whitmer's company 
F, 51st regiment, E. M. M. 

William Pinkey, corporal in company M, commanded by Captain 
David Kane. 10th Missouri cavalry volunteers, commanded by Colonel 
Cornyn. He enlisted in August, 1862, and was discharged July 26, 
1865, at Nashville, Tennessee. He was in the battles of Champion 
Hills, Selma, Alabama; Guntown, Mississippi; Black River, Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, and other engagements. 

William W. Weiss was a sergeant in company D, 35th Missouri vol- 
unteers. He enlisted in August 21, 1862, and was discharged the 26th 
day of Ma}', 1865. His regiment served in Missouri, Kentucky, Arkan- 
sas, and Mississippi, doing fine service during the war. On his return 
from the service, he engaged in farming in the Missouri river bottom, as 
far as his health would permit, having broken down his constitution in the 
war, on account of severe exposure in Arkansas. He was compelled to 
leave his home in the bottom on account of the overflow of the Missouri 
river, in the last of April and first of May, 1881, and seek safety on the 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 323 

higher ground. The last of May, 1881, he returned to his home, and 
repaired the damage done to his farm by the overflow. 

Thomas A. Lile was a private in company B, 3d regiment, M. S. M. 
cavalry volunteers, afterward company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volun- 
teers. He enlisted in 1861, and was discharged in 1864. He "was in the 
battles of Springfield, Missouri; Lone Jack, Nevvtonia and Pineville, Mis- 
souri; and Sylamore, Arkansas. The only injury he received while in the 
service, was in the fore finger of the left hand. 

Thomas A. Sloan was a corporal in company I, 6th M. S. M. cavalry 
volunteers, afterward in company B, 13th Missouri cavalry volunteers. 
He enlisted May 2, 1862, and was discharged May 11, 1866. He was in 
the battles of Lone Jack, Springfield, Missouri; Prairie Grove, Cane Hill, 
Camden, Little Rock, Fort Smith, Van Buren, Arkansas; and Pilot Knob, 
Missouri. He was taken prisoner at Neosho, October 4, 1863, taken to 
Little Rock and paroled, and again taken prisoner while at Rock Prairie, 
July 28, 1864, by Captain R. Johnson's guerrillas, but got away the same 
night. 

Moses Hess was a private in company B, 3d M. S. M. cavalry volun- 
teers, afterward company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He en- 
listed March, 1862, and was discharged April, 1865. He was in the battles* 
of Springfield, Neosho, Newtonia, Missouri; Pineville, and Little Rock, 
Arkansas. He was taken prisoner at Neosho, Missouri, October 4, 1863, 
and was paroled, and afterward joined his command. 

Oliver G. Williams was a private in company F, 51st regiment E. M. 
M. He enlisted in 1863, and remained in service until 1864. 

Anderson Elliott was second lieutenant in company C, 51st E. M. M. 
cavalry volunteers. He enlisted in 1S62, and continued in the service 
until the close of the war. He made a fine energetic officer, and per- 
formed considerable service in Ray, and the surrounding counties. He 
has been a successful farmer for many years, in the vicinity of Camden, 
Ray county, Missouri. 

James L. Tucker was a private in company B, 3d M. S. M. volunteers. 
He enlisted first in September, 1861, in six months' service. He enlisted 
in said company B, January 11, 1862; said companv B becoming after- 
ward company K, 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He was in the 
battles of Springfield, Newtonia, Missouri; and Cane Hill, Arkansas. 
After serving about eighteen months, his company was consolidated with 
the 6th M. S.M. cavalry volunteers, as above stated, his company, B, be- 
coming company K, in 6th M. S. M. cavalry volunteers. He was dis- 
charged in January, 1865, at Springfield, Missouri. 

John Ellis was a private in companv D, 44th regiment Missouri volun- 
teer infantry, under Colonel Bradshaw. He enlisted August 9, 1864, and 



324 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

was discharged August 15, 1865, at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Missouri. 
He was in the battles of Franklin, Tennessee, and Spanish Fort, Alabama. 

Robert B. Ellis was a private in company K, of the 1st Missouri S. M. 
cavalry. He enlisted in 1862. 

John Bogart was a private in Captain Edgar's company, under Major 
Biggers. He enlisted in November, 1861, and was paroled. He was 
taken prisoner at Agency Ford, on Platte river; was paroled for the time 
of his service, and never was discharged. 

Charles F. Owen was a private in company B, 13th Missouri volun- 
teers. He enlisted in said company B, commanded by Captain J. H. 
Shelley, on or about the 1st of August, 1864, and was discharged at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas, on or about May 15, 1866. 

Stephen Savage was a private in Colonel Graham's regiment of Fed- 
eral troops. He enlisted in 1862, and after serving as a private was pro- 
moted to lieutenant of his company. He was in the battles of Redmont, 
Winchester and Snicker's Gap. He was wounded in the arm and thigh 
while in the service. He was honorably discharged in the year 1865. 
He is now living in Vibbard, Ray county, Missouri. 

Isaac C. Hill was a private in company D, regiment of Oregon mounted 
■ volunteers. He enlisted in said company on or about the 10th day of 
October, 1855, and was discharged on or about the 20th day of June, 
1856. In the late civil war he served in company C, 4th provisional regi- 
ment, E. M. M., said company being commanded by Captain Clayton 
Tiffin. 



RELIGIOUS. 



CHURCHES IN RAY COUNTY. 
NEW GARDEN, REGULAR BAPTIST. 

This church constitutes the oldest existing religious organization in Ray 
county. It was organized April 23, 1824, by Elders James Williams and 
William Turnage. 

The following list includes the names of all the original members, most 
of whom have been dead many years, to-wit: 

J. Fletcher, C. Odell, S. Hutchins, N. Odell, John Hutchins, John 
Turner, John Cleavenger, Mrs. Elizabeth Fletcher, Rachel Odell, Eliza- 
beth Hutchins, Jane Turner, Mary Odell, Patsy Turnage, Nancy Chap- 
man and Lucy Woods. 

A very rude log building was erected in 1824, as a place of worship. 
To accomplish its erection the out-lay in money was, of course, very 
trifling; probably the only real cost was the time and labor of the mem- 
bers who built it. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 325 

The first pastor of this church was the Reverend William Turnage, 
whose name is frequently mentioned in this work in connection with 
religious services, and as one of the pioneer preachers of the west. He 
preached in the Buffalo settlement as early as A. D. 1816, and subse- 
quently — prior to the organization of the church of which we write — at 
Old Bluffton, where he also kept a "tavern," in 1821. 

The other pastors of this church at an earlv day were, R. Hicks, 
Isaac Odell, William C. Garrett, and Aaron Odell. 

The number of the present membership is: Regular Baptists, thirty- 
six; others, fifty. 

About the year A. D. 1858, a new church house was erected. It is a 
frame, the dimensions of which are thirty by forty feet, with twelve foot 
posts. 

In 1862 a dissension arose between the members of this church, grow- 
ing out of the "test oath," prescribed by the St. Louis convention; a 
division took place, and the organization continues disunited, both factions 
retaining the original name, but attending different associations. 

NEW HOPE CHURCH — REGULAR BAPTIST. 

The New Hope Baptist Church building is located in Camden town- 
ship, about four miles north of Camden. The church was organized in 
the year A. D. 1827, and is, doubtless, the next oldest religious congre- 
gation, still existing, in the county. The names of the original members 
are as follows: James Holman, Nathan Smith, Joseph Ballew, John 
Bateman, and Aaron Linville. 

The first church house was built soon after the organization of the 
church. Its description is that of the early pioneer buildings of the west. 

In 1872 a new, neat frame building was erected, at a cost of six hun- 
dred dollars, and dedicated the same year, by Reverend William T. 
Brown. 

William Turnage was the first pastor. The present pastor is William 
T.Brown. The church has, now — 1881 — thirty-three members. 
todd's chapel, m. e. church south. 

This church was organized in 1828, but no building was erected till in 
1851. 

Following is a partial list of the original members: D. H. Thorpe, 
Jacob Anderson, Lewis Linville, Thomas Adkinson, J. W. Smith, Presley 
Carter, J. D. Elliott, and others. 

The church building was erected in 1851, at a cost of six hundred dol- 
lars, and named in honor of Reverend Joseph S. Todd, who was at one 
time its pastor. 

In 1852 the building was dedicated to the service of God, by Reverend 
William G. Caples, then presiding elder. 



326 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

The following ministers have been pastors of this church: George W. 
Bewley, Jacob Lannius, John Monroe, Jesse Greene, W. W. Redmon, 
George Smith, Daniel Penny, Edward Robinson, A. E. Sears, Benjamin 
S. Ashby, Thomas D. Clanton, Joseph Devlin, J. Y. Blakey, W. M. 
Newland, Joseph Metcalf, -W. C. Campbell, Rice H. Cooper, John G. 
Gibbons, J. W. Ellis, F. H. Sumpter, Stephen B. Tabor, and A. Spencer. 

At present — 1881 — there are worshiping at Todd's Chapel about sixty 
members of the M. E. Church South. 

Mr. Peyton T. Smith, who kindly furnished the information concerning 
this church, informed the writer that nearly all of the original members 
are dead. Todd's Chapel is located on section twenty-eight, township 
fifty-two, range twenty-eight, Richmond township. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, AT RICHMOND. 

This church was organized about 1830, at which time it was one of the 
churches composing the Fishing River circuit of Missouri annual confer- 
ence. 

For some years after its organization the church was without a build- 
ing, and held divine worship in the court house at Richmond. 

Mrs. J. H. Morehead and Mrs. David H. Quesehberry were the first to 
make an effort looking to the building of a church house; the former lady 
economizing her household expenditures that she might contribute the 
more liberally to that laudable undertaking. The example of these ladies 
was followed by others, and soon the proper preliminary steps were taken 
for the erection, in the town of Richmond, of a suitable edifice to be dedi- 
cated to the worship of the Almighty. 

By the quarterly conference held at Richmond, June 10, 1843, the fol- 
lowing trustees were appointed to receive and hold in trust, any property 
that the church might acquire by donation or otherwise, viz.: 

Ephraim January, Henry Lile, David H. Quesenberry, Austin A. King, 
John H. Morehead, David Bullock and Daniel J. Branstetter. 

The first church" edifice of the organization herein mentioned, was 
erected on the site of its present building about the vear 1845. It was a 
frame building, of which we have been unable to obtain an accurate 
description. It was, however, doubtless in keeping with the prevailing 
character of buildings in the town at that day, 

The first church house was subsequently supplanted by a more sub- 
stantial brick structure, which, in 1869, was demolished by a storm.* 

The present, 1881, edifice, a handsome and capacious brick, comforta- 
bly furnished, was erected shortly after the demolition of the other, at a 
cost of not less than six thousand dollars. 

The church owns other property in Richmond, including a parsonage, 
built during the pastorate of Reverend William M. Rush, in 1855 or 1856. 

♦The Christian Church, then in process of erection, was blown down by the same storm. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 327 

It has, at present, one hundred and forty members, and, under the pas- 
torship (1881) of Reverend C. Grimes, is faithfully prosecuting the work 
for which it was organized, more than half a century ago. 

Following is a list of the ministers who have served as pastors of this 
church: 

G. W. Teas, George W. Bewley, A. H. Spratt, John Monroe, Jacob 
Lannius, Condley Smith, David Kennier, Hugh L. Dodds, Lester James, 
Daniel T. Shearman, Thomas B. Ruble, Monarch Richardson, Robert 
H. Jordan, John A. Tutt (assistant), G. W. Love, Edwin Robinson, 
Daniel Penny, John M. Garner, James Barker, Joseph Devlin (whose 
remains are interred in the Richmond cemetery), Joseph S. Todd (assist- 
ant), A. E. Sears, T. D. Clanton, W. E. Dockery, William Plum (assist- 
ant), William M. Rush, Walter Tool, J. C. C. Davis, M. Pugh, D. M. 
Proctor, Thomas B. King, Tyson Dines, D. C. O'Howell, W. M. New- 
land, R. N. T. Holliday, M. R. Jones, W. H. Lewis, and C. Grimes 
(present pastor). 

In the year 1844 the Methodist Episcopal Church was, by the general 
conference in session in the city of New York, separated into a northern 
and a southern division, each to hold its own general conference, and the 
one to have no connection with the other. This division, as is well known, 
grew out of the question of slavery. Churches in the border states, like 
Missouri, were left free to unite with either branch they might prefer; 
and in the fall of 1844 the church at Richmond, in quarterly meeting, 
appointed Amos Rees, Henry Lile, and David H. Quesenberry a com- 
mittee to prepare a resolution in relation to the proceedings of the (then) 
late general conference in New York City. 

The committee presented the following report: 

The committed to whom was referred the subject of the action of 
the general conference of the M. E. Church as to separate organization, 
growing out of the subject of slavery, agitated at the late general con- 
ference in the case of Bishop Andrews, beg leave to report that they have 
had that matter under consideration, and in view of the great import- 
ance the question of slavery has recently assumed, and the effects it has 
upon the morals of men, and desiring the permanent peace and prosperity 
of the church, having a due deference and respect for the opinions of all 
the members thereof, and believing that that peace can only be secured 
by the proposed arrangement of holding a northern and a southern gen- 
eral conference; therefore, 

Resolved, That the quarterly meeting conference for the Richmond 
circuit, Missouri annual conference, do advise the adoption of the resolu- 
tions of the general conference. 

(Signed) A. Rees, Chairman. 

The church united with the southern general conference, and has stood 
in connection therewith ever since, under the name of the "Richmond M. 
E. Church South." 



328 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

MARION CHURCH — REGULAR BAPTIST. 

This was, organized on the fourth Saturday in June, A. D., 1832, with 
the following first members, to-wit: John Vanderpool, Winant Vander- 
pool, James Campbell, Levi Vanderpool, John Brown, Henry Miles, 
Elisha Butcher, Thomas English and Hiram Clark. 

The original church building was erected of logs, about 1846. It was 
burned some time in the pastorate of Reverend James Duval. 

In the autumn of 1880 the erection of a new frame church was begun. 
It was completed early in the succeeding year, having been on Christmas 
day, 1880, dedicated by Rev. William Brown and Rev. James Duvall. 

Rev. John Stone was the first pastor of this church, and was a good 
man, whose memory is fondly cherished. Rev. James Duvall was pastor 
upwards of thirty-three years (see biography). 

In the fall of 1880 the roll book of Marion Church showed a member- 
ship of twenty-eight. 

At the beginning of the war a division arose in the church from the 
same grounds that caused the schism in the New Garden Church, 
already mentioned. Part of the congregation joined fellowship with the 
Crooked River Church, and took no part in the erection of the present 
church building. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, AT KNOXVILLE 

was organized in 1837. .The Rainwaters, Kincaids, Milsteads and Bur- 
gesses were among the original members. 

The building formerly owned by this church was erected about thirty 
years ago, and has grown so unstable that it is no longer used as a place 
of worship. It was sold March 26, 1881, for one hundred dollars. A new 
frame building is in process of erection, which, when completed, will 
have cost about two thousand dollars. 

We were able to obtain only meager information as to this church. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH, AT SOUTH POINT. 

This church was organized at a school house, then situated two miles 
east of South Point, in Camden township, in April, 1840, with the follow- 
ing original members, viz: Jacob Warinner, Thomas Blair, John Rifle, 
Willis Warriner, George Blair, William Brockman, Joseph E. Brockman, 
Polly Warriner, Eliza J. New, and Mary Brockman. 

In 1854 the congregation erected a very handsome frame building for 
divine worship, at South Point. The building cost one thousand dollars, 
and was dedicated to the service of Almighty God in September of the 
same year of its erection, by Elder Moses E. Lard, a graduate of Beth- 
any College, Virginia — an institution then under the supervision of Alex- 
ander Campbell, the founder of the Christian Reformed Church, and one 
of the greatest theologians of any age. Elder Lard was one of the most 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 329 

eminent divines of his day. He was a brilliant, forcible, and impressive 
speaker, as well as a cogent and elegant writer. He married a lady who 
lived in Richmond, Ray county; subsequently moved to Kentucky, and 
died a few years ago, at his home in Lexington, that state, mourned by 
the church throughout the United States. 

On the dedication of the church house at South Point, the church was 
reorganized. The following is a list of those who were members at that 
time: John Rifle, E. T. Withro, Nancy Withro, Foster D. Tribble, 
Mary Tribble, Z. D. Ralph, Martha A. Ralph, A. Brockman, Sarah 
Brockman, James Winsor, Lucinda Winsor, Thomas Blair, John Tarkey, 
Lydia Tarkay, Jackson Riffe, A. B. Ralph, Mary Ralph, John W. Chas- 
tine, William Artman, Jesse B. Simpson, Elizabeth Simpson, James Riffe, 
Willis Warriner, Mahala Vaughn, J. B. Elliott, Sarah H. Elliott, Emily 
Young, and three others, whose names, as written on the manuscript con- 
taining the above list, were illegible. 

The following persons have been pastors of this church: 

Richard Morton, S. P. Johnson, N. B. Peeler, W. B. Fisk and James 
E. Dunn. William Trader is the present, 1881, pastor. 

The roll book shows the names of one hundred and fifty persons as 
members. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH, AT RICHMOND. 

The Christian Church at Richmond, was organized April 26, 1840, by 
Reverend Thomas N. Gaines, with a membership of forty-five, among 
whom were the following persons, viz: William B. Martin, Malinda 
Martin, Perneta E. Hendley, Mary A. McGee, Charles R. Morehead, 
John B. Warder, Joseph S. Shoop, William H. Warder, Elizabeth War- 
der, Clayton Jacobs, Mary A. G. Jacobs, Celenary Burch, Susan Warder, 
Roan Richardson, William Love, and others. 

Of the forty-five original members, there are now living only five, who 
hold membership in the congregation, to-wit: Clayton Jacobs and wife, 
Joseph S. Hoops, Celenary (Burch) Jacobs and Susan (Warder) Jacobs. 

For several years after the organization of the church, it was without a 
house of its own, in which to hold divine service, and the congregation 
worshiped in the court house at Richmond, and in school houses, until it 
was able to build a church edifice. In 1846 a frame building was erected, 
which, in 1869, was removed, and in its room now stands an imposing 
brick, of stable and beautiful architecture, built in the year last mentioned, 
at a cost of twelve thousand dollars. In an eloquent and appropriate ser- 
mon, delivered in April, 1870, by Elder Alexander Proctor, this structure 
was set apart as a sacred shrine for the worship of the Supreme Being. 

The following is a partial list of the ministers who have been pastors of 
this church: Thomas N. Gaines, Alexander Proctor, Thomas P. Haley, 

21 



330 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

(at this time pastor of a charge in St. Louis, and one of the brightest 
luminaries in the Christian church), A. H. F. Payne, Allen Wright, G. R. 
Hand, George Plattenberg, Josiah Waller, and James E. Dunn. 

Belonging to, and worshiping at this church at present (1S81), are 
upwards of one hundred and fifty members in good standing. 

Divine services have been regularly held every Lord's day and every 
Thursday evening (in prayer meetings) almost uninterruptedly since the 
organization of the church, more than forty years ago. A Sunday-school 
has also been conducted regularly, for the past thirty years. 

Few religious societies have more faithfully labored, or more success- 
fully accomplished the end of their formation, than has the Christian 
Church, at Richmond, Missouri. 

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF CHRIST, AT RICHMOND. 

This church was organized in March, 1842, by Rev. A. P. Williams, 
(afterwards D. D.) 

Following is a complete list of the original members, to-wit: 

Jabez Shotwell, Elizabeth Shotwell, Sarah Ballew, Anne E. Warder, 
Luther F. Warder, Sciotha McKinney, Marjory Thornton, Sarah James, 
Levina McKinney, M. J. Holman, James W. Sacry, Susan Sacry, Sarah 
A. Sacry, George M. Sacry, Elizabeth Tisdale, America Hunt, Mrs. 
Witcher, Daniel Parker, Polly Parker, Rebecca Smith, Lucinda Duncan, 
William P. Lanieear, and Rebecca, a woman of color. 

The church house was built and occupied, but not finished, in 1854; 
finished in 1855. It was a very good frame structure, and cost about 
fifteen hundred dollars. It was never formally dedicated. 

The following list includes all the pastors of this church from its organ- 
ganization to date (April, 1881,) with the length of service of each, viz: 

Rev. A. P. Williams, six years and nine months; Rev. Japtha L. Smith, 
(M. D.) three years and one month; Rev. William C. Bachelor, one year 
and five months; Rev. R. C. Hill, two years and nine months; Rev. 
Josiah Leake, four years and ten months; Rev. Jeremiah Farmer, one 
year and seven months; Rev. Thomas W. Barrett, eight months; Rev. 
J. W. Luke, one year and two months; Rev. A. Matchett, only a few 
months; Rev. S. E. DeRacken, one year; Rev. James Roan, six months; 
Rev. Thomas H. Graves, one year; Rev. William C. Barrett, two years 
and ten months; Rev. F. M. Wadley, not quite one year; Rev. Robert 
Livingston, the present pastor, entered on his work in May, 1880. 

The number of present membership is seventy-two, with a prospect of 
large increase, when a contemplated new building is erected. 

For two years prior to its organization as an independent body, in 1842, 
the church had been what is called an Arm of the Baptist Church at 
Lexington, Missouri. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 331 

Between several of the pastorates mentioned above, there were lengthy 
interims. 

A brick house, to cost about four thousand dollars, will be built the 
ensuing summer. The brick are made, and the whole matter is in the 
hands of a building committee, composed of the following gentlemen: 
J. W. Shotwell, J. C. Brown, Reuben E. Brown, L. D. Priest, A. K 
Reyburn, James Hughes, and Robert Livingston. Services are held, for 
the time being, in the M. E. Church. 

Robert Livingston, now pastor of the Baptist Church in Richmond, 
Missouri, is an Irishman, born and educated at Enniskillen, in the north of 
Ireland. He was a Pedo-Baptist minister many years, but embraced the ' 
principles of the Baptist Church, and became a minister thereof, in Clin- 
ton county, Missouri, in the year 1869. Robert Livingston came to 
America in 1855; was naturalized in 1876, and is now fifty years of age. 
He is deeply interested in the work in which he is engaged; is devoted 
to the members of his charge, and is a genial, obliging companion, as 
well as a pious, pure-minded man. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (OLD SCHOOL) AT RICHMOND. 

Organized, under an order from the Presbytery of Missouri, (O. S.) on 
the first Saturday in February, A. D., 1843, by J. L. Yantis, D. D., and 
Lewis Green, ruling elder. 

Following is a complete list of the original members, to-wit: Dr. 
Thomas Allen, James T. McCoun, Joseph M. Lapsley, Isaac White, A. 
M. Harrison, William Rives, Thomas Slaughter, Baldwin King, Mary 
McCoun, Margaret L. McCoun, Judith White, Susan M. Dunn, Judith 
Williams, Ann Sevier, Elizabeth Leeper, Sally J. Harrison, Susan E. 
Bullock, Nancy Hudgins, Ann Rives, Elizabeth Hooper, Ann Allen, 
Henrietta Watkins, Margaret Sibley, Harriet Tinney, Maria A. Davis 
and Margaret Turner, making a total of twenty-six. 

During the first eight years of its existence, the church was able to 
secure only occasional preaching, by Dr. Yantis and by Revs. Coulter, 
Fulton and others, who were engaged in missionary work. 

In 1851, the church was visited by Nathan H. Hall, D. D., and during 
his stay much interest was taken, and a number of persons were added to 
the church. 

From 1852 to 1858, the friends of Presbyterianism in this section 
exhausted their means and energies in a vain effort to establish and endow 
Richmond College. 

The failure of this enterprise, after so prolonged an endeavor, so par- 
alyzed the church that it had little more than a nominal existence till 1867, 
when it was visited by Rev. J. A. Quarles, of Lexington, Missouri. 
During a series of meetings then held, the session of the church was 
reorganized by election of officers; and a deep interest was awakened, 



332 HISTORY OF RAY COUNT V 

which largely pervaded the entire community. For the purpose of hold- 
ing these meetings, the members of this church availed themselves of the 
generous courtesy of other denominations in furnishing them places of 
worship. 

In the course of the two succeeding years, under the labors of the 
Revs. Quarles, Carson and Nail, there were large accessions to the mem- 
bership of the church, and it had thoroughly recovered its wonted life 
and prosperity. 

In November, 1869, a large, substantial brick church edifice was erected 
in Richmond, at a cost of ten thousand dollars, and dedicated by Nathan 
L. Rice, D. D. 

From 1867 to 1872 Rev. R. Carson was part of the time supply, and 
part of the time pastor. 

From 1872 to 1878 the church was partly supplied by the appointments 
of Presbytery and partly by Revs. Quarles and Cheney — each, for a 
time, holding preaching twice a month. 

June 1, 1878, the church was entirely destroyed by a terrific cyclone 
which swept through the town of Richmond, leaving a pathway strewn 
with debris, devastation and death. 

In consequence of this disaster there were no regular Presbyterian ser- 
vices in Richmond until the fall of 1880. At that time Revs. Quarles and 
Leyburn visited the church and for a few months past Rev. Quarles has 
been supplying the church, holding services twice a month in the hall of 
the opera house. 

STATISTICS. 

The church roll shows that in 1846, by removals and death the mem- 
bership was reduced to eighteen. 

The largest enrolled membership, at any one time, was in 1872, when 
it reached ninety-eight. That number has been reduced by the causes 
above stated, till the present membership is only forty-four. 

The whole number of persons enrolled as members of this church from 
its organization to the present, is one hundred and seventy-one. 

Of the twenty-six original members only five are remaining. 

Following is the list of those who have been elected ruling elders: 
1843— Dr. Thomas Allen, James T. McCoun, J. M. Lapsley; 1S51— I. 
N. White, James L. McCoun; 1856— R. W. Finley, G. W. Buchanan; 
1867— Josiah Turner, George W. Dunn, Robert Sevier; 1871— D. B. 
Palmer, Isaac Ruflner; 1881 — John Laforgee. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, AT HARDIN. 

The M. E. Church South, at Hardin, was organized in 1845, by Rev- 
erend B. H. Spencer. It worships in a new frame building, erected in 
1880, at a cost of $1,600. The building is owned by several denomina- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 333 

tions, in common, but we have been unable to obtain a report from any 
of them, save the Methodist, and what we have received of that is 
extremely meager. 

The following persons have been pastors of this church: Reverends 
Callaway, Ellington, Dunlap, Penny, Mattox, Bell, Penn, Cooper, 
McEwen, Johnson, Proctor, Alexander, Bone, Holliday, James, Meffert, 
Tanquary, and Babcock. 

Number of present membership, seventy-four. 

NEW SALEM CHURCH, (o. S. PRESBYTERIAN.) 

On petition of certain members of the Bethel, Liberty, and Richmond 
churches, and of other Presbyterians, residing on and near Crooked 
river, in Ray county, Missouri, the Presbytery of Upper Missouri 
appointed Reverends Richard H. Allen and Robert Scott, ministers, 
and Caleb Wilson, ruling elder, a committee 'to organize said petitioners 
into a church, to be called New Salem Presbyterian Church. 

The committee assembled at the place appointed, on the 18th day of 
June, A. D. 1849, and organized the church with the following original 
members: Josiah Morrow, Dicy Morrow, Vincent Morrow, Mary Emily 
Cummins, James Cummins, Jedediah Smith, Jane Smith, Calvin H. 
Cummins, Benjamin Snoddy, Susannah Snoddy, Sarah Snoddy, Ann K. 
Burton, William Murray, Eliza O. K. Murray, Thomas Cummins, Ann 
Cummins, Ann Rives, Ann L. Allen, Eupha Cummins, Madison B. 
Cummins, Robert Rives, William Henry Rives,and Elizabeth J. Parton. 

The congregation met on the same day, and chose William Murray 
and Jedediah Smith, ruling elders; and as such, they were ordained and 
installed. 

September 16, 1849, session met and was opened with prayer by Rev. 
R. H. Allen, moderator. After satisfactory examination, Susan A. and 
Emily J. Smith were received into the church. Session closed with 
prayer by Rev. R. H. Allen. 

September 17, session met and was opened with prayer by Rev. R. 
H. Allen, moderator, and by William Murray and Jedediah Smith, elders. 
Columbus P. Rivers, William Monroe Woods and Sarah Jane Parton, 
after satisfactory examination upon experimental religion, were received 
as members of the church. Closed with prayer by Rev. R. H. Allen. 

September 22, session met and opened with prayer by Rev. Allen, 
moderator. Mrs. Sarah Morrow, upon certificate, and Charlotte Jane 
Cummins, upon profession of her faith in Christ, were received into the 
church as members therof. Closed with prayer by Rev. R. H. Allen. 

September 23, session met and was opened with prayer by Rev. 
Allen, moderator. The following persons, after satisfactory examination, 
were received as members of the church: Mary Jane and John Joiner, 



334 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

William R. Burton and John G. D. Burton. Closed with prayer by Rev. 
Allen. 

September 25, session met and opened with prayer, as usual, by Rev. 
R. H. Allen. Joseph Cook, after professing his faith in Christ, was re- 
ceived into the church. After prayer by Rev. R. H. Allen, the session 
adjourned. 

At a meeting of the members of New Salem Church, October 30, 1869, 
J. A. Smith was elected ruling elder, and the following day, Sunday, was 
ordained to that office, Rev. D. Coulter, presiding. 

In 1872 the congregation erected a substantial frame church at Lawson. 
It is well furnished, stands on a commanding eminence, and is an attract- 
ive building. The number of present (1881) membership is thirty-nine. 

September 22, 1872, the session met, before public service, in their new 
house of worship, at Lawson, and was opened with prayer. Present, 
Reverend J. M. Scott, moderator, and Elder J. A. Smith. Mrs. Hen- 
rietta Rhaum and Miss Victoria Ann Smith appeared and desired mem- 
bership in the church; whereupon, after the usual examination, they were 
received into full fellowship, they having previously been baptized. 
Closed with prayer by Elder J. A. Smith. 

PISGAH CHURCH — MISSIONARY BAPTIST. 

Organized August 12, 1849, by Reverend Robert James. Original 
members: B. W. Howlin and wife, of Clay county, O. C. Brook, Mrs. 
A. A. McCoskrie, Jno. Cox, James Cox, Wm. Morris, Hiram Morris, 
Isaac Massingale, Belinda Garner, Mary Estes, Mary Nowlin, Adelia P. 
Wyman, Samuel Cleavenger, and Mary Cleavenger. 

The church house is a frame, and was erected in October, 1854. Not 
dedicated. 

Pastors: Robert James, Jeptha S. Smith, James W. Sacray, William 
McClellan, T. N. O'Bryant, G. W. Smith, J. W. Luke, John Harmon, S. 
H. Carter, J. N. Wheeler, and J. W. D. Hunt. 

Present membership, sixty-three. Pisgah Church is located in town- 
ship 52, range 29. 

NEW HOPE CHURCH — M. E. SOUTH. 

New Hope Church was organized in the year A. D. 1851. The build- 
ing, a substantial frame, commodious within, and comfortably furnished, 
was erected in 1869, at a cost of $3,000, and is situated near Millville, in 
Grape Grove township. The original members of this church are as fol- 
lows: Thomas H. Noble, Nancy Noble, James Elliott, Elizabeth Elliott, 
Thomas Kincaid, Louisa Kinkaid, Cecil B. McCuistion, Sarah McCuis- 
tion, D. Williams, Catherine McBee, David McBee and Catherine Craig. 

The church edifice was dedicated by Rev. W. M. Newlan, March 5, 
A. D., 1879. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 335 

The following is a list of the pastors since 1851, viz: Joseph Devlin, 

Joseph S. Todd, A. E. Sears, Blackwell, W. E. Dockery, Wtn, Penn 

(assistant), J. W. Mattox, William Sutton, Daniel Penny, Samuel Alex- 
ander, G. Tanquary, William Jordan, James A. Spencer, R. N. T. 
Holliday, C. Babcock and J. L. Meffert. 

New Hope Methodist Church has at present one hundred and four 
members, and is in a healthy condition, morally and materially. 

GROVE CHAPEL, M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, 

was organized May 2, 1859. The building is a frame, cost six hundred 
dollars, and is located in Grape Grove township. 

Original members: — John Brown, Matilda Brown, Caleb Brown, Mar- 
tha Brown, W. D. Fortune, Mary Fortune, Sally Brown, Perry Brown, 
Turner Elder, Polly Elder, Elizabeth Elder, D. C. Noffsinger, Mary C. 
Noffsinger, Fanny Noffsinger, John Noffsinger, Warren Hayes, Virginia 

Hayes, Allen Charlton, Narcissa Charlton, Eppa Holder, Mrs. Holder, 

William Holder, Austin Harlow, Susan Harlow, Martin Elder, Mrs. 

Water, Allen Rathburn, Mrs. Rathburn, Enoch Rathburn, Elizabeth 

Rathburn, Conrad Oester, Reverend Samuel Grove, Paulina Grove, Mar- 
garet Grove, J. A. Divelbiss, Julia Divelbiss, Samuel Davis, Dennis, and 
Lucinda Davis. 

WAKANDA CHURCH, GERMAN BAPTIST. 

Organized about 1866. 

Names of original members: — John Vantromp and wife, and Joel Spit- 
zer and wife. 

The church house — a frame — was erected in 1871, cost one thousand 
dollars, and is situated near Crooked river, in Crooked River township — 
extreme northern part. 

Reverend John Hayes was the pastor. 

S. B. Shirkey, Eli Metts, and Addison Harper are the present ministers. 

PLEASANT VIEW CHURCH, CHRISTIAN. 

Prior to 1866 there was no organization f the Christian Church in 
Polk township, although a number of persons in that township held fel- 
lowship with Christian congregations at Richmond and elsewhere, in 
adjoining counties. 

About the 1st of August, 1866, Elder John C. Lawson, a carpenter, as 
well as preacher, and at that time plying the former vocation in the 
neighborhood of the present site of Pleasant View, commenced a basket 
meeting in a beautiful grove in William Crowley's pasture, and continued 
the same nearly a fortnight. The result was several confessions and 
immersions. Great interest was awakened; and, at the close of the meet- 
ing, partial organization was effected, by electing David J. Bisbee and 
Thomas J. Crowley elders. Elder Lawson was engaged to labor for the 



336 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

church occasionally, and the place of worship was moved from Benton to 
Butler school-house. Here the church was reorganized, and Andrew J. 
Greenawalt elected elder, and William F. Potter and Samuel D. Osborn 
deacons. 

Services were held at Butler school-house till the following August, 
when at a protracted meeting, conducted bv Elders G. R. Hand, Joseph 
T. Rice, and J. C. Lawson, a resolution was passed to build a house of 
worship at Pleasant View. Martin T. Real, James A. Potter, and A. Bis- 
bee, Sr., were appointed a building committee, and vested with the power 
of trustees to receive and hold in trust property that the church might 
acquire. C. B. Bacon was chosen secretary and treasurer of the com- 
mittee. A subscription-book was opened, and therein appear the follow- 
ing names of subscribers and the amount contributed by each, viz: 

Martin T. Real $ 96.30 Milton Piercy $ 25.00 

Peter Clark 40.00 David J. Bisbee 161.70 

S. D. Osborn 220.00 M. Buchanan 20.00 

Win. Windsor 5.00 Peter Ptoney 10.00 

John Pallett 15.00 A. Douglass 10.00 

Wm. B. Chapman 15.00 Milton Becket 10.00 

Jas. M. Stockwell 330.00 A. K. Piercy 10.00 

E. V. Fowler 201.50 Cornelius Ebersol 5.00 

J. K. Luther 60.00 Fowler & Buchanan 6.50 

A. J. Greenawalt 105.00 Reuben Hawk 50.00 

J. Whitsett 15.00 Robert Finch 10.00 

W.F.Potter -. 30.00 John A. Goodman 5.00 

John A. Buchanan 25.00 Jesse T. Roberts 70.00 

Wm. Osborn 25.00 J. H. McDonald 2.00 

J. A. Potter 363.00 R. W. Babcock 10.00 

W. C. Halstead 11.00 Jas. Bronaugh 40.00 

H. H. McClelland 25.00 James Melon 10.00 

Chas. McClelland 25.00 James Green 2.50 

Wm. H. Bales 5.00 G. W. Stockwell, Jr 5.00 

John Hightower 5.00 Gideon Albright 5.00 

J. H. Raum 15.00 C.B.Bacon 389.37 

Frank Elston 10.00 



Win. Crowley 185.00 $2,743.87 

In due course of time the building was erected, and the same year, 
1867, duly dedicated by Elder G. R. Hand, to divine service. It is a 
well-built, neat, and attractive frame structure, and cost three thousand 
six hundred dollars. 

Pleasant View has (1881) seventy members. The edifice is situated in 
section twenty-seven, of congressional township fifty-four, of range 
twenty-nine. 

ELK HORN CHURCH — CHRISTIAN. 

The building is owned by the Christian and three other denominations, 
but we were unable to obtain information regarding any of the organ- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 337 

izations, other than the Christian. We regret the omission, which on the 
part of the writer, is unavoidable. 

The names of the original members of the organization of Disciples, 
worshipping at Elk Horn Church, are as follows: T. M. Stevenson, 
Joseph Craven and wife, G. A. Sanford and wife, T. S. Vaughan and 
wife, J. T. Ogg, Mary McCallum, Elizabeth McAfee, Moab Berry and 
wife, M. McGaugh, and several others. 

The church is a frame building, erected 1857, and when completed, 
cost $1,100. It was dedicated, as to the Disciples, or Christians, by Elder 
G. R. Hand and A. A. Pickeral. Reverend N. B. Peeler is the present 
pastor. T. J. Ogg and J. N. Smith are elders. William Ogg and T. S. 
Vaughan are deacons. Present membership, twenty-five. 

BETHLEHEM CHURCH — CHRISTIAN. 

Organized in September, 1868. Among the first members were: J. 
D. Gordon, Arch. Moss, R. Moss, J. Messmer, J. N. Davis and others. 

The church building was erected in 1869. It is a frame, located on sec- 
tion seventeen, township fifty-four, range twenty-eight, and cost $1,100. 
It was dedicated in 1869, by Wm. Morton and Anderson Pickeral. Pas- 
tors: A. Pickeral and N. B. Peeler. 

In 1875, a division occurred in this church, growing out of a difference 
in the views of its members on the subject of dancing. The faction favor- 
ing that amusement withdrew, and, building a house of worship, called it 
the 

V HOUSE OF PRAYER. 

It is situated on section thirty, township fifty-four, range twenty-eight; 
was built in 1876, at a cost of about four hundred dollars. About twenty 
members — having withdrawn, as stated above, from Bethlehem church — 
formed the original organization. They retain the name, Christian, meet 
regularly, and are in a prosperous condition — the membership having 
increased to sixty-two. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, AT LAWSON. 

Full reports of this church could not be obtained. It was pi obably 
organized about 1870. Among the original members we mention the fol- 
lowing: 

George James, Selina Morrow, Mary Cox, Mary Tiffin, Margaret 
Allen, Sarah Crowley, Alexander McDonald, Joseph McDonald, G. F. 
Crowley, Fanny Huff'. 

R. H. Jordan, Jesse Bird, W. C. Campbell, J. A. Hyder, J. Devlin, L. 
F. Linn, A. M. Kiergan and H. A. Davis, have been pastors of this 
church. It has seventy-five members. 

CHURCH OF CHRIST OF CHRISTIAN UNION, KNOXVILLE CHARGE. 

This church was organized in 1871. The original members were as 



t 



338 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 



follows: H. Whitsen, J. Greason, J. Cook, J. Turney, S. Leabo, Joel 
Leabo. The church owns no house, but holds services in a school house. 

Names of pastors: D. H. McLuse, H. Holman, Andrew Arnote, J. 
W. Horder. H. Holman is the present pastor. 

The number of present membership is about sixty. The church is 
prospering, and contemplates erecting a church edifice at an early date. 

The doctrines of the Christian Union are probably not so well under- 
stood by the general public as are those of most other religious denomina- 
tions. The church advocates an experimental religion, and endorses bap- 
tism, administering it to satisfy the conscience of the subject; and also the 
Lord's supper. It disfavors debate; its object being to bring all Christian 
people together. It differs from the Methodist church mainly in church 
government. 

Subjoined is a declaration of views on the unity of the Church of Christ, 
adopted by the general council of the Christian Union, held at Wesley, 
Indiana, May 15, 1878. Christian Union principles: 

1. The oneness of the Church of Christ. 

2. Christ the only Head. 

3. The Bible our only rule of faith and practice. 

4. " Good Fruits " the only condition of fellowship. 

5. Christian Union without controversy. 

6. Each local church governs itself. 

7. Political preaching discountenanced. 

The above is a distinct and formulated statement of the principles of 
the churches of the Christian Union. 

REORGANIZED CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS. 

The district in which this branch is located was organized in 1872, and 
contains six branches, with a membership of about two hundred in the 
aggregate. Original members, A. J. Blodget, J. S. Lee, L. W Babbitt, 
James Wood, W. C. Kinyon, J. W. Johnson, Joseph D. Craven, James 
Milligan, and E. W. Cato. 

The church house is a frame edifice, and was built in 1881, at a cost of 
seven hundred dollars. It is situated on section 33, township 51, range 26. 

Joseph D. Craven has been presiding elder of the district since the 
year 1872. His charge includes the membership of Ray, Platte, Carroll 
and Livingston counties. Rev. E. W. Cato is pastor of the church. 
Ray count}^ has only two branches, numbering about sixty-five members 
in all. 

We have received two conflicting statements concerning the branches, 
of the district referred to above, in this county, which we are unable to 
reconcile, but we have gleaned the information here presented from both, 
with the hope that it will be intelligible, at least, to those most interested. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 339 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, AT TAITSVILLE. 

The original members were, G. W. Cones and wife, John Tait and 
wife, S. F. Siler, John Reavis and wife, J. S. Barbee, Henry Myers and 
wife, Frances Bennett, and Sarah Shumate. 

The church house is a very neat frame, and was built in 1880. Its cost, 
when completed, was one thousand dollars. 

The following persons, among others, have been pastors of this church, 
viz: J. Bovee, N. A. Keyes, T. B. Bratten, — Henley, — Butler, — 
Mozier. 

The present membership is eighteen. Preaching twice a month. 

HICKORY GROVE CHURCH (UNION.) 

Hickory Grove Church building is in Crooked River township, situ- 
ated in a beautiful grove, not far from the river. It was erected in 1876, 
at a cost of one thousand two hundred dollars, and is owned by four 
denominations, all of which are prospering, and worship together in the 
most beautiful harmony. 

M. E. CHURCH SOUTH, IN KNOXVILLE TOWNSHIP. 

Original members: Emanuel Peter and wife, J. Switzer and wife y 
George Peter and wife, Jacob Jackson and wife, G. Vandever and wife. 
The church house is a frame, erected in 1876, at a cost of $2,500. J. 
Switzer, Perry, and Leeper have been pastors. 

This church has about one hundred members, and is doing well. A 
Sunday-school, of thirty-five pupils, convenes regularly every Lord's day. 

In connection with the church is a cemetery, established in 1876. 

PLEASANT VALLEY CHAPEL, CHRISTIAN UNION OF MISSOURI. 

This church was organized December 30, 1877, with the following origi- 
nal membership: Cleason Robertson, Susan Robertson, Jas. Snider, Mary 
Snider, Nathaniel Pike, George Porkony, Jeremiah Turner, Octavia 
Basham, Mary Fair, Annie Youngblood, and Emma McCall. 

The church building, a neat and attractive frame, conveniently and 
tastily furnished, was completed August 1, 1S80, at a cost of one thousand 
dollars, and dedicated the 26th of the same month, by Elder J. V. B, 
Flack, of Missouri City, Clay county, Missouri. 

Rev. Andrew Arnote is now (1881), and has been since its organization, 
pastor of this church. Under charge of Rev. Arnote the church is 
prosperous, progressive and harmonious. 

Its membership has increased until it now numbers eighty-seven. 

The edifice is located in Richmond township, about seven miles north 
of Richmond. 

It is appropriate to append the following, as reported to the thirty- 
sixth annual council of the churches of the Christian Union, of Missouri, 
convened at Salem Chapel, Clay county, Missouri, September 16, 17, 18 
and 19, A. D. 1880. 



340 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 
ON STATE AND WISHES OF THE CHURCHES. 

After careful examination, your committee finds the churches in a good 
and prosperous condition. New churches have been added to many of 
the charges; new chapels have been erected; pastors employed at stated 
salaries; new members quite frequently received in the churches; houses 
in good repair; peace prevails among the membership; the doctrine of 
Christain Union is well understood and maintained by our many live local 
churches; prayer meetings are held, and the attendance upon public 
preaching is often very large and universally good; our churches are lib- 
eral and generous toward all religious people. 

ON BIBLE CAUSE. 

We, your committee, report 1st, That we favor the general circulation 
of King James' translation of the bible; 2d, That we co-operate with the 
American bible society in its good work; 3d, That we recognize the 
bible as the great, grand, universal creed of the true church of Christ, 
and will have no other creed. 

ON CORRESPONDENCE. 

We, your committee on correspondence beg leave to report, 

1st. That we have continued to write numerous letters to different sec- 
tions of our common field of operation, in which letters we have earnestly 
presented the claims of this blessed Union cause. 

2d. We have written to the leading state meetings, and received words 
of cheer therefrom. 

3d. We have carried on a correspondence with the prominent workers 
in and out of the state, from whose pens we have personally learned that 
our cause was well entrenched in the hearts and minds of all our most 
useful and successful workers. 

4th. We have written to churches in various parts of the state, send- 
ing all the words of good cheer we possibly could. 

5th. In our correspondence at home and abroad, we find no apparent 
weakening on the part of Christian Union advocates; all are more confi- 
dent, with but very few exceptions. 

6th. We have extended our correspondence beyond our immediate borders 
and have received words of cheer and good fellowship from D. L. Moody, 
J. V. Farwell, J. Cook, President Abernethy, Dr. Lyman Abbott, Dr. N. 
F. Ravlin, H. L. Hasting, H. W. Beecher, and many others, whose 
worthy names we have not space to mention. 

7th. Our correspondence with Tennessee and Kentucky Christian 
Union assures us that the cause is rapidly gaining influence in those 
states. Good cheer reaches us from Brothers Deason, Cook, and others, 
giving accounts of the rapid and effectual advance of the work among 
their brethren. 

8th. Correspondence shows to us that the good brethren in the north- 
eastern portion of Missouri are pressing the work of Union with earnest- 
ness and faithful prayer. 

9th. We have many communications from Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio 
and elsewhere, written by private brethren, in which we have very cheer- 
ing news concerning the advance of our active preachers and church 
workers. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 341 

10th. From letters in our possession we learn that quite a large num- 
ber of members have united with us in the various states; that new 
churches have been established, and new chapels erected, and dedicated 
to the worship of Almighty God. 

11th. We receive urgent appeals to send ministerial help to destitute 
localities. 

12th. Great anxiety is manifest on the part of all our brethren, — 
whose hearts are in the work — in relation to our having a firmly estab- 
lished printing house. Letters reach us almost daily, urging that we 
advance and lead off in this undertaking. Many matters have presented 
themselves to us, which time and space will not permit recounting. 

ON RESOLUTIONS. 

We, your committee, report that, as resolutionsi expressive of our views, 
we refer our friends to the resolutions of the last state meeting, and those 
of the last general council. We stand upon the broad and catholic plat- 
form received and acknowledged by all Christians as essential to salvation. 
Our people are resolved to hold to no dogma calculated to produce and 
promote division in the church of God. 

ON BOUNDARIES. 

We, your committee, see no occasion for a change in boundaries, and 
recommend that they remain as heretofore; but suggest that district 
councils be held by the brethren of northeast Missouri. 

ON SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 

We, your committee, beg leave to report as follows: We would solicit 
the churches in different localities to establish Sunday-schools in their 
community without any sectarian principles connected with them; to 
establish them upon the principles and platform of American Union. 
Raise your children under the sway of the sceptre of Union and the one- 
ness of the church of Christ; create within them large Union hearts. We 
would further recommend that the council instruct the state evangelist to 
do all in his power to organize American Union Sabbath-schools in the 
different localities visited by him, believing that the Sabbath-school is the 
nursery of the church. 

ON FINANCE. * 

We, your committee, report that some of the charges do not support 
their pastors as liberally as should be done, and therefore we urge that 
every church should contract with its pastor and pay him -promptly. That 
every member be required to pay to the support of the gospel among 
them. That the elders see to it, that every attendant on our services 
be invited to contribute to the support of the minister, that no one may 
fail of 'an opportunity to do his duty; that our members be advised to 
pay as the Lord has prospered them, so that our pastors may not be 
embarrassed in their calling. 

ON FRATERNAL RELATIONS. 

We, to whose care the matter of fraternal relations was submitted one 
year ago, report as follows: 

1st. That brotherly love and peace pervades our home churches and 
membership, clerical and lay. 



342 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

2d. That the best of good feeling exists toward the brethren and 
the general work throughout the entire confines of the Christian ; Union 
field. 

3d. That the reports we receive from the fraternal messengers who 
have been appointed to the previous state councils, indicate the best of 
results. 

4th. As your committee, we hereby officially extend our right hand of 
fellowship to every Christian Union man and woman in the world. 

5th. That we herebv and herein declare that, as a people, we stand 
ready to fraternize with every Christian person or body of persons whose 
love and kindliness will prompt them to co-operate with us in our efforts 
to lead perishing mankind to the blood-stained cross of Jesus. 

6th. That in our fraternal overtures we draw no party lines nor pre- 
scribe any sectarian or sectional boundaries or edicts, but ask for broth- 
erly love and affiliation on the primal and essential truths of God's dear 
Son — our Savior. 

7th. We rejoice to know that partisanism and sectarian denomination- 
alism are rapidly dying out, and the great and holy principle of a soul- 
saving gospel getting hold upon and deeply in the hearts of good and true 
Christians in all the various religious organizations. 

8th. The indications, everywhere, justify the conclusion that the 
religious elements of our country are drawing closer and still closer 
together. 

ON PUBLISHING INTERESTS. 

We, your committee on publishing interests, report as follows: 

1st. That the Witness has been suspended, and we are, therefore, 
without a church organ at present. 

2d. That our cause is amply strong to maintain and support a print- 
ing house, at which all needed printing can be done at reasonable rates, 
and a good Christian Union paper provided for the promotion of our 
cause. 

3d. We therefore propose that this council appoint a committee of 
• five, whose duty it shall be to proceed and raise means sufficient to buy a 
printing office, with all needful appurtenances, to print a Christian Union 
paper, etc., etc. 

4th. That this committee be ordered by this body to use their wisdom 
in the plan of securing a publishing house, to-wit: That they induce one, 
two or more brethren to provide said office and have the proceeds there- 
of, and hire the editor; or, else, that said committee raise a general fund 
in a sum sufficient to buy an office complete — said sum to be raised by 
contributions throughout the brotherhood, by a canvass among the local 
churches; and that said office be the common property of the donors, and 
to be used, for all time to come, as the publishing house of the Christian 
Union. 

5th. That we, after buying this office, authorize this said committee of 
five to arrange with Bro. J. V. B. Flack, our former editor, to run the said 
office and edit a Christian Union paper for a period of, at least, five years; 
unless, in the judgment of the committee and donors, his services should 
be discontinued and another take his place, or said editor desires to relin- 
quish the office of his own motion. 

6th. Furthermore, we direct that said committee take under advise- 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 343 

ment the idea of the combined contributions of the Christian Union and 
public generally buying a printing office outfit complete, and then tender 
the use of said office for five years to Brother J. V. B. Flack, allowing 
him to have the use of the material, free of all expense, for said period, on 
condition that he provide a Christian Union weekly paper for our people, 
he, the said J. V. B. Flack, to receive all the proceeds for subscription and 
for job work done by the said office, he paying all the expenses for run- 
ning said office, and keeping up the same to a point of usefulness. 

With these suggestions we leave the matter with the council and the 
contemplated committee of five, should you in your wisdom appoint one. 

ON PUBLISHING MINUTES. 

We, your committee, advise that the proceedings of this council be 
printed in pamphlet form, and that means be raised at once to defray the 
expense thereof. 

ON EXAMINATION AND ORDINATION. 

We, your committee, report that, after careful examination, we com- 
mend as proper candidates to ordination, Bros. J. R. Franklin and A. S. 
Gechter. 

ON EDUCATION. 

We, your committee, commend to your notice the wisdom and propri- 
ety of sound education. We urge that our members seek to give their 
children the advantages of learning. We suggest that at an early period 
we adopt measures to secure in our council bounds a first-class college, 
and until then we commend Rutherford College, Happy Home, North 
Carolina, to the patronage of our people. We also desire to hereby express 
our thanks to the above named college and its learned faculty for the 
merited honor they conferred upon our fellow worker, Brother J. V. B. 
Flack, in constituting the said beloved brother a doctor of divinity. His 
learning and faithfulness have rendered him worthy of all honor. 

ON TEMPERANCE. 

Resolved, that we are a temperance people; that we co-operate with all 
movements tending to help lift up the fallen inebriate; that we condemn 
the manufacture, sale and use of ardent spirits as a beverage; that we do 
not believe in organizing political parties on the temperance question, but 
think we should promote the cause by the machinery of the church and 
the conversion of the souls of the unfortunate. 

ON UNFINISHED BUSINESS. 

We, your committee, after careful examination, do not find any unfin- 
ished business demanding attention. 

ON PUBLIC WORSHIP. 

We, your committee on public worship, submit the following complete 
report : Preaching, Thursday night, by Elder A. Arnote ; preaching, Friday, 
at 11 A. m., by Elder J. R. Franklin; preaching, Friday night, by Elder A. 
S. Gechter; preaching, Saturday, at 11 a. m., by Elder N. Nickeson; 
preaching Saturday night, by Elder N. H. French; social meeting, Sun- 
day, at 9 A. m., by Elder D. H. McClure; preaching, Sunday, at 11 a. m., 
by ( Elder G. W. Mitchell; sacramental meeting, at 3 p. m., by Elder H. 



344 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Holman; preaching at night, by Elder A. S. Gechter, followed by Elder 
J. V. B. Flack. 

ON MEMORIAL. 

Since, in the mysterious providences of God, our Heavenly Father, 
some of the beloved members of the Missouri Annual Council have been 
called from labor to reward, from earth-life to heaven-life, from mortal to 
immortal shores, from this valley of grief and partings, to the clime of 
glory and reunion : Therefore, we express our sense of their absence and 
our Christian condolence for the bereaved families of the deceased, by 
hereby recording their names, in token of the fact that their meritorious 
character and many exceeding excellencies are embalmed in the warm 
hearts of the members of this Annual Council. That the coming future 
and its generations may not be oblivious to the estimable and enviable 
memory of Elder Samuel Leabo, and Brothers G. W. Madden and Wil- 
son Samples, we hereby declare that those beloved brethren were true 
and worthy citizens of our common country, and of the Christian Union 
and the State Council of Missouri ; that they left behind them abiding 
evidences of their faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and the joyful assurance 
of an abundant entrance into the eternal City of God, and the endless fel- 
lowship of the saints. May the angels of heavenly wing ever watch over 
their silent graves. 

PLEASANT VALLEY CHAPEL. 

Brother Ephland writes the church report of the above-named church: 
This church is a new organization; was established by Elder Andrew 
Arnote; has sixty-two members in good standing; have enjoyed the spirit 
of revival during the last year; the pastor is very much appreciated for 
his ability, zeal and piety; have erected a commodious new church house, 
tastefully finished, and paid for; the house was dedicated by Elder J. V. 
B. Flack, D.D.; it was claimed that 2,000 persons were in attendance at 
the time of dedication; our future looks bright; we adhere to the doctrine 
of church union; the word of God is our only creed; we are living in 
daily evincement of the teaching of the 17th chapter of St. John. 

REPORT OF ELDER A. ARNOTE. 

Dear Brethren: Tongue cannot express the thankfulness of mv 
heart — to an allwise and loving Father — for the preservation of our lives 
and the many blessings extended to us during another year. It has 
pleased the good Lord to spare us so that we can meet once more and 
behold each other, face to face. I rejoice, brethren, that we can meet and 
congratulate each other that our work is prospering and Christian Union 
is moving forward every da}', but let us not think that we will gain the 
victory riding on flowery beds of ease. The devil trembles ' lest the 
prayer of our blessed Savior be fulfilled, and the world made to believe; 
therefore he contends for every inch of ground we pass over, and sectar- 
ianism turns its artillery upon us. As men increase in education and a 
knowledge of the Lord, they naturally desire to throw off the yoke of 
bondage and dwell together in unity and love, consequently sectarian lines 
are beginning to break, and many are deserting and coming over to our 
ranks, hence we may naturally expect a strong resistance from their lead- 
ers, but, dear brethren, stand firm fear; not to declare the doctrine of 
Union. Christ prayed for it, God ordained it, and as sure as God sits upon 



HISTORY OK RAY COUNTY. 345 

the throne, Christian Union will prevail, and God's people will be one. I 
have served as pastor of Graham, Union, Rocky Fork, and Pleasant 
Valley churches during the year past; have held rive protracted meetings 
on my work, all resulting in grand success; God's people were revived, 
sinners convicted, and mourners converted at each meeting; I have wit- 
nessed forty-eight conversions during the year, and received sixty.five 
members in the churches ; I leave my charges in good spiritual condition ; 
to God be all the glory. Pray for me that I may be an humble and suc- 
cessful co-worker with you for Christ and Union. 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CHURCHES OF THE CHRISTIAN UNION. 

In the beginning, when God created man, and then woman, and 
brought her to the man, he pronounced them one. Of one family, — most 
intricately united — he started the wheels of generations. The extensive 
domain of earth was to be thronged by one and the same stock of human 
beings. The early generations were kept in the favorite relation of unity 
and peace as long as they remained in favor of and under the guidance of 
the original All-One-Father. When, by the introduction and conquests of 
sin, the normal status and condition of man was changed; then war, dis- 
quiet, unrest, discord and division tided in upon the world's destinies, and 
consequently, the world's happiness. Satan and sin have ever been the 
fruitful, prominent and effectual causes of the absence of peace and union, 
and the presence of war and disunion. The position has historically dem- 
onstrated itself in all and every age of the past developments of human 
life and society. It would be doing an injustice to God, to intimate that 
He created intelligent, immortal, and undying souls, for the mere purpose 
of variance, inharmony, hate, and cruel vengeance. His spirit, and every 
attribute, puts the Great Maker on the side of quiet, peace, comfort, and 
joy to all beings into whose nostrils He breathed the breath of life. Jeho- 
vah has frowned upon and condemned every divisional and discordant 
note that ever broke its remorseless sound upon the ears of ever-living 
and eternally intelligent mankind; the angelkind, before the world's birth, 
or before the stars had hymned their songs of joyful praise, knew that 
peace and union must tranquilly ever play its balmy zephyrs around the 
dazzling throne; that there could not be a heaven with warring winds, 
and roaring storms; croaking raven, and screaming eagle; roaring lion 
and howling wolf, God carefully maintained the blessings of unity 
among his chosen people, until they turned their backs upon him. When 
any people, of any country, turn away from God, they are left to them- 
selves, and are riven and torn in twain. Had past generations remained 
loyal to the King of Kings, the floods of blood, carnage, conflagration, 
and death, that have devastated the earth, would never have occurred. 
The great hand and arm of God has been visible at all times, and the evi- 
dent maintenance of peace and pleasantness among his children, has ever 
written — in letters of adamant — that the Divine One was not pleased with 
the presence of the elements of discord and sin. Historic Israel teaches 
that God desires and designs to preserve a united commonwealth. Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, came heralded by peace messengers, and mes- 
sages of " Peace on earth, good will to men." Fittingly the Temple of 
Janus was closed, and the whole world was desirous of universal rest and 
peace. The angel host sang " good news," while the audience of har- 
22 



346 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

monious stars gave them noiseless reverence; and Bethlehem's happy, 
social, and united shepherds looked upon the scene with rapture and 
delight. Christ came to unite, and keep united, the hearts of his follow- 
ers; hence, he bound them with every common tie and sacred chord of 
love; finally, sealing the consummated union with his own royal and 
divine blood. One with the Father, he came to make his people likewise 
one. 

The same holy principle led and stimulated the mission and work of 
the apostles, and was proclaimed and clearly inculcated in all their teach- 
ing. Paul forcibly presented the necessity of this doctrine in his epistles, 
and doubtless urged it in all his wondrful and vivid discourses. The 
principle of the unity of God's people lies in the very genius of the gos- 
pel, and the effects of saving grace on the heart and life of every rescued 
sinner proves the naturalness of the holy and lovable sentiment: "As ye 
receive Christ Jesus so walk ye in Him." The good Christian, who 
can read the illustrious prayer of Christ, recorded in the 17th of John, and 
not believe in the union of Christians, has not been found. God never 
meant that his people should be divided. Christ emphatically taught us 
to be one, declaring that " there shall be one fold and one shepherd." Paul 
says: "Since there are wars and divisions among you, are ye not carnal, 
and walk as men?" 

For about two hundred years after Christ there was love, union, peace, 
and quiet, when wicked and ambitious priests created discord, schism, here- 
sies and sects. The long series of sins and mistakes that followed, until 
over six hundred rival sectarian bodies were formed, cannot be noticed in 
this connection. Now, what? The object of the Christian Union move- 
ment is to go directly back to first principles, take up the same doctrines 
of Christ and the apostles, ignore all the isms and dogmas that have caused 
sects, and seek to promulgate pure primitive Christianity, standing on 
essentials only. These churches, now numerous, and these Christians, now 
an army for multitude, declare that they adhere to and advocate the fol- 
lowing sentiments, common to every real child of God: (1) The oneness 
of the church. (2) God, our Creator and Father. (3) Christ, our Savior 
and only head. (4) The Holy Spirit, our regenerator. (5) The Bible, 
our only jcreed. (6) Good fruits, our only condition of fellowship. (7) 
Each local church governs itself. (8) The right of private opinion. (9) 
Christian and church union, without controversy about questions that 
neither save nor damn the soul. 

LAWSON BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This church was organized October 4th, 1879, by Elder W. C. Barrett. 
Following are the names of the original members: Mary Hollingworth, 
Josephine Palmer, Tillie Asbury, Lottie. Asbury, Mary Jones, Puss Hat- 
field, Mary L. Smith, Sarah Ahart, Jennie Robinett, Eliza Garrison, J. L. 
Smith, William Ahart, M. Nicholson and John Garrison. 

The house of worship is frame; was built in 1879, and cost $1,082.92. 
The building was dedicated on the first Lord's day in s August, 1880, by 
Revs. W. C. Barrett, of Plattsburg, and T. W. Barrett, of Jefferson City. 
The pastor of this church is Rev. W. C. Barrett. The present member- 
ship is seventeen. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 347 

EDUCATIONAL. 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF RAY COUNTY. 

It is to the interest of every man to live in a refined, moral and educated 
community. Ignorance is the handmaid of vice. Education promotes 
the happiness, harmony and general well-being of society. Where 
ignorance prevails, religion is neglected, progress impeded, crime increases, 
and disorder reigns. The only way of improving the social, mental and 
moral status of mankind is, by the dissemination of useful knowledge 
among all classes, in every community. The great aim of education, in 
the true meaning of that term, is to make mo?-al beings of those upon 
whom the advantages of learning are bestowed. Therefore, every mem- 
ber of society is equally interested in the diffusion of intelligence. Every 
man and woman in Ray county is mutually benefitted by the means of 
education, placed within the reach of all. The good of society demands 
that every member thereof shall receive at least a common school educa- 
tion. It is the one true way of promoting the peace, good order and pros- 
perity of the state. Where public instruction is fostered and maintained, 
men are prosperous and progressive in every department of life. Educa- 
tion upholds religion, propels the machinery of government, and sustains 
the whole fabric of society. To no community of Christian people is this 
fact better, or more appreciatively known, than to the citizens of Ray 
county; and to their encouragement and maintenance of common schools, 
under the laws of the state, is largely due the enviable prosperity the 
county enjoys. 

Section I. of Article VI. of the first constitution of Missouri, declared, 
that: " Schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged 
in this state; and the general assembly shall take measures to preserve 
from waste or damage such lands as have been, or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States, for the use of schools within each town- 
ship in this state, and shall apply the funds which may arise from such 
lands, in strict conformity to the object of the grant; one school, or more, 
shall be established in each township, as soon as practicable and neces- 
sary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." 

The general assembly subsequently provided for the appointment of 
commissioners by the county in each county court, to preserve from waste 
or damage the school lands mentioned above; and at the first term of the 
county court in Ray county, April 2, 1821, the court "ordered that John 
Shields, John Stanley, James Snowden, Sr., John Hutchings and Samuel 
Tilford be appointed to superintend and preserve from waste, all school 
lands in this county; and that they be empowered to lease or rent the 
same for any term not exceeding five years." 



348 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Thus, at a very early day, was an interest taken in free schools by the 
officials and residents of the county. 

As soon as possible after the completion of hovels in which to live, and 
of preparations absolutely necessary for their sustenance and comfort, 
the first settlers commenced the building of school houses. Such as they 
built were poor and mean, it is true, but they could do no better, and 
doing their best, they did well. 

The character of the first schools, and school houses, and where located, 
have been given elsewhere in this work. 

There are, at present, (May, 1881,) one hundred and twelve school 
buildings in the county. They are commodious, comfortable and sub- 
stantial, and comport well with the advanced and improved condition of 
the county, in other than educational affairs. 

The municipal townships are divided into school districts; and the 
employment of teachers and the control and management of the schools 
(except as to the authority of teachers) are vested in a board of directors, 
composed of three members, elected by the qualified voters of each dis- 
trict, at the annual school meeting, which is held on the first Tuesday in 
April, of each year. 

The public teachers of Ray county, who receive a certificate of qual- 
ification from the county commissioner, are liberally, though perhaps not 
quite adequately, paid for their services, and it is fair to say that, as a rule, 
they are exceptionally industrious and competent. 

Mr. Lindsey Dickey, a courteous, agreeable gentleman, now principal 
of the Taitsville public school, has, doubtless, been longer continuously 
engaged as teacher in the public schools of Ray county, than any of his 
brother teachers, he having taught in this county for fifteen successive 
years. 

Thomas M. Deacy, Esq., county commissioner, kindly furnishes us the 
following educational statistics of the county, for the year 1880. It is 
simply a copy of his report to the state superintendent of. public schools; 
and it is believed that, especially in after years, it will be of peculiar 
interest. 

Following is the report: 

To Hon. R. D. Shannon, Superintendent of Public Schools, Jefferson 

City, Missouri: 

Sir: — In obedience to section 38, school law of Missouri, I have the 
honor to submit the following report: 

Number of white children in the county between six and twenty years 
of age: Male, 3,535; female, 2,946. 

Number of colored children in the county between six and twenty years 
of age: Male, 329; female, 227. 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 349 

Number of white children attending school during the year: Male, 
2,448; female, 2,112. 

Number of colored children attending school during the year: Male, 
192; female, 153. 

Total number days attendance all such scholars, 306,720. 

Average number days attendance by each, 63. 

Number of days school has been taught: Summer, 34; winter, 102; 
total, 136. 

Average number of scholars attending school each day: Summer, 14; 
winter, 26 ; total, 40. 

Number of teachers employed during the year: Male, 102; female, 
28; total, 130. 

Average salary of teachers per month: Male, $37.52; female, $25.94 — 
$31.73. 

Number of school-houses in the county, 112. 

Number of buildings rented for school purposes, none. 

Number of scholars that may be seated in the various school-houses in 
the county, 5,432. 

Number of white schools in operation, 97. 

Number of colored schools in operation, 15. 

Value of school property in the county, $46,560. 

Average rate per $100 levied for school purposes in the county, 40 cents. 

Assessed value of property in the county, $39,415.95. 

Amount on hand at beginning of school year, $8,818.27. 

Amount received for tuition fees, $10. 

Amount received from public funds, state, county, and township, $11,- 
285.95. 

Amount paid for teachers' wages in the county during the year, $22,- 
484.60. 

Amount paid for fuel, $851.66. 

Amount for repairs or rent of school-houses, $632.44. 

Amount paid for incidental expenses in the county during the year, 
$615.95. 

Amount paid for erection of school-houses or purchase of sites, 
$1,548.55. 

Amount expended in defraying past indebtedness, $1,918.66. 

Amount paid for library, $30.10. 

Amount paid as salaries of district clerks, $81.55. 

Amount of unexpended school funds in the county at the close of the 
year, $7,895.48. 

Very respectfully, 

Thomas M. Deacy, County Commissioner, 

This 18th day of September, 1880. 



350 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

RICHMOND COLLEGE. 

In the year 1851, the ynod of the Presbyterian Church of Missouri 
realizing the importance of establishing a first-class college to be under its 
control, resolved, " That the time is come to arise and build," and 
appointed a committee composed of elders from different parts of the state, 
to examine such places as should offer inducements for its location and 
report at the next meeting of synod. 

In 1852, the committee reported, and four places were put in nomina- 
tion, Booneville, Richmond, Fulton and St. Charles. 

For some months preceding the meeting of synod in Fulton, October,. 
1852, the most vigorous efforts were put forth in Ray county to raise a 
large subscription in money and land in order to secure the location of the 
college at Richmond. 

The county was thoroughly canvassed by able speakers, who set forth 
the great advantages that would result, not only to Richmond, but the 
county, by securing the location of this institution of learning at our county 
seat. 

The Richmond Herald, the only newspaper published in the county at 
that time, the publication of which commenced in March, 1852, in a num- 
ber of able and spirited editorials and articles urged the great importance 
of this movement, and called upon the people of Ray county to present a 
liberal subscription to the synod that was to meet at Fulton in the ensu- 
ing October. 

After a thorough canvass the subscription realized from the county was 
$15,000 in money and ten acres in land within the limits of the city of 
Richmond. The subscription in money was subsequently increased to 
$18,00t). This was regarded as the best subscription made by any of the 
contending points. 

A delegation of citizens was selected to represent the county, and pre- 
sent its claims for the location of this institution of learning at Richmond, 
to the Presbyterian synod of Missouri that was to meet at Fulton, Cal- 
laway county, Missouri, on Tuesday. October 12, 1852. 

The delegation consisted of Dr. George W. Buchanan, Joseph S. 
Hughes, William Boyce, Dr. Henry C. Garner, James W. Black, and 
Captain William M. Jacobs. 

Reverend David Harbeson, Hon. Austin A. King, who was then 
governor of Missouri; Hon. E. M. Samuel, of Clay county, Missouri; 
Reverend T. A. Bracken, and a number of other prominent citizens from 
western Missouri, were present advocating the claims of Richmond as 
being the most eligible place for the location of this institution of learning. 

The claims of the other contending points were also ably presented, 
especially those of Fulton and Booneville. Hon. John Jameson, of Cal- 
laway county, and other prominent citizens, made the most earnest efforts 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 351 

in behalf of Fulton. Considerable influence was exerted by the citizens 
in Fulton and vicinity with whom the Presbyterian clergymen were 
quartered during the session of Synod. The delegation of citizens from 
Richmond, it is proper to state here, -were all quartered at Hackady's 
hotel and most hospitably entertained, but met with no Presbyterian cler- 
gymen entertained at this hotel from other portions of the state than 
western Missouri. 

Hon. John G. Miller, then a member of congress from the third district 
of Missouri, made a most eloquent and impressive speech in favor of 
Booneville, presenting its claims with great clearness and vigor of thought. 
The ingenuity of his arguments, in showing that Booneville was the most 
elegible point for the college, and the most flourishing central city of Mis- 
souri, was highly complimented by many in the audience. 

On taking the vote, after all the contending points had been duly heard, 
Fulton received a majority of the votes of the synod, and was consequently 
declared to be the most eligible place for the location of the Presbyterian 
College. Richmond received a large number of votes, being the only 
strong contending point against Fulton. Booneville and St. Charles 
received but a few votes. 

The Reverend Hiram P. Goodrich, after the question of the location of 
the college had been decided, suggested the name, Westminster, as the 
most appropriate name for the college, which was adopted by the synod. 

Considerable disappointment was manifested by the friends of Rich- 
mond, who had advocated its claims for the location of the college. An 
effort was therefore soon made by the Presbytery of Upper Missouri, to 
establish a Presbyterian College at Richmond, Missouri, on the endow- 
ment plan from scholarship. Vigorous efforts were at once made to place 
the projected scheme on a proper basis. The citizens of Ray county 
agreed to guarantee the building fund of $15,000, and the Presbytery of 
Upper Missouri to guarantee the endowment fund of $40,000. 

The act giving Richmond College its charter of incorporation was 
passed by the seventeenth general assembly of Missouri, February 23, 
1853. 

The preamble to the act of incorporation is in the following language : 

Whereas, The presbytery of Upper Missouri, (O. S.) in view of 
the rapidly increasing population of that portion of the state, denominated 
Upper Missouri, and the existing and prospective necessity of educational 
institutions of a high order, desire to locate, erect and endow, a college of 
said character, in or near the town of Richmond, in Ray county, to meet 
said necessities; therefore, 

Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state Missouri as follows: 
That William Dickson, R. S. Symington, A. V. C. Schenck, T. A. 
Bracken, Robert Scott, I. W. Canlield, J. B. Harbison, James Young, 
A. H. McFadden, A. W. Hutchins, John G. Taylor, J. B. Slaughter, E. M. 



352 HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 

Samuel, W. M. Paxton, Robert Sevier, James L. McCoun, R. H. Smith, 
Robert Clark, D. F. Green, N. Davis, J. R. Allen, and George W. Dunn, 
shall be, and they and their successors in office, are hereby constituted a 
body politic and corporate, by the name, "The Trustees of Richmond 
College." 

The first meeting of the board of trustees of Richmond College, was in 
the city of Richmond, on Thursday, the 29th of December, 1853. The 
following trustees were present: George W. Dunn, William Dickson, A. 
V. C. Schenck, Thomas A. Bracken, J. B. Harbison, I. W. Canrleld, James 
L. McCoun, Lewis Green, Nathaniel Davis, George I. Wasson, Robert 
Sevier (resigned). 

Soon after the complete organization of the board of trustees was 
effected, arrangements were made for building the college. The contract 
for building it was let to William Hunter, in the year 1856. The site 
selected for it was in the southern suburbs of the city of Richmond, on a 
beautiful eminence called College Hill, surrounded by a delightful and 
inviting "campus." 

The work of the building had progressed so far, and was so near com- 
pletion by September, 1856, that the lower stories could be occupied for 
the purposes intended by the board of trustees. Richmond College was 
therefore formally opened in September, 1856, for students. Reverend 
John L. Yantis, D. D., a distinguished Presbyterian divine, was duly 
installed as president of it. Prof. Oliver Cunningham, a teacher of great 
experience and ability, was selected as professor of languages. Professor 
Rufus B. Finley, a teacher of high standing, and a thorough mathemati- 
cian, was chosen for the position of professor of mathematics. There 
were also assistant teachers in the different departments. The college 
opened with the most flattering prospects; a large number of students 
was soon in attendance, and everything connected with this young insti- 
tution of learning seemed to progress most admirably, in every respect, 
for about two years. About this time it was ascertained that the resoures 
and liberality of the presbytery of Upper Missouri had been overesti- 
mated. The friends of Westminster College, at Fulton, charged a want 
of good faith, on the part of the presbytery of Upper Missouri, that had 
been one of the contestants for the synodical college; that having failed 
in obtaining it, it should have acquiesced in the decision of synod in estab- 
lishing the college at Fulton, in October, 1852; that it should not have 
engaged in an enterprise and movement that placed it in an opposing atti- 
tude to the interests of the synodical college at Fulton. This was the 
prominent cause of the enthusiasm waning for establishing a Presby- 
terian College at Richmond, and in a great measure caused the enterprise 
to give way. It was also ascertained at this time, that the financial 
scheme for endowing the college from scholarships, was far from being a 



HISTORY OF RAY COUNTY. 353 

success, and fell far behind the expectation of the friends of the college. 
At the end of two years it was found that the fund realized from the 
endowment plan by scholarships was only $13,000 of the $40,000 prom- 
ised, and agreed upon. Failing, therefore, to realize a sufficient amount 
from the endowment fund to meet the annual expenses of the college, and 
that a debt was rapidly accumulating, the presbytery of Upper Missouri 
submitted to the board of trustees of Richmond College the proposal that 
the presbytery would assume the entire indebtedness, not only the debt to 
the teachers, which had become a considerable one, but to relieve it of 
indebtedness of every kind, and cancel the guaranty bond of the citizens 
of Ray county for the building fund of $15,000 for Richmond College, on 
condition that the guaranty bond of the presbytery of Upper Missouri, 
for the endowment fund for $40,000, should also be canceled, and- the col- 
lege building revert to the people of Ray county. This proposition was 
accepted. The agreements were not fully complied with until some years 
afterward. The presbytery of Upper Missouri relinquished all claim to 
the college building and grounds, which reverted to the people of Ray 
county, Missouri. 

Some time, however, before this arrangement had been consummated, 
James R. Allen, of Ray county, had completed the Richmond college 
edifice, at his own expense, and received the grateful acknowledgments 
of the synod of upper Missouri in a resolution passed in session at Lex- 
ington, Missouri, September 29, 1860. The synod of Upper Missouri 
was organized some time after the presbytery of Upper Missouri had 
engaged in the work of locating, erecting, and endowing the Richmond 
college. This explanation is made to show the connection of the synod 
of Upper Missouri with the Richmond College, and all matters pertain- 
ing to it. 

Some of the original trustees of the college having resigned, the follow 
ing board of trustees were elected, and classed as required in the charter 
by the synod of Upper Missouri, at the session held at Lexington, Sep- 
tember 29, 1860: First class, composed of Judge George W. Dunn, Rev. 
Robert Scott, George I. Wasson, Lewis Green, and Rev. Ralph Harris; 
second class, Rev. I. Canfield, Dr. B. A. Rives, Preston Dunlap, James Fur- 
guson, and A. W. Hutchins; third class, Benjamin J. Brown, Geo. W. 
Buchanan, D. F. Green, Rev. D. Coulter, D. D., and Dr. I. M. Keith, 
any seven of which to constitute a quorum. 

After it was ascertained that Richmond College could no longer be 
-sustained on account of the reasons already mentioned, private sc