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REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D. 

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



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BX 8992 .G6 1888 

Glasgow, W. Melancthon 1856- 

1909. 
History of the Reformed 

Prochvt or -i i^^n rOniirch in 




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DEC 23 1931 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



Reformed Presbyterian Ktiurcli 



IN 



AIMBRICA : 



WITH SKETCHES OF ALL HER MINISTRY, CONGREGATIONS, 

MISSIONS, INSTITUTIONS, PUBLICATIONS, Etc.. 

AND EMBELLISHED WITH OVER 

FIFTY PORTRAITS AND 

ENGRAVINGS. 



BY ^^, 

W. MELANCTHON GLASGOW, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 



BALTIMORE : 

HILL & HARVEY, Publishers. 
1888. 



Undertaken with the approval of the Synod of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church in . America, and by a resolution passed in its 
session at Newburgh, New York, June 8, 1887. 



COPYRIGHTED BY 

W. M. Glasgow, 



PRESS OF 

FiDDis, Beatty & Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 



PREFACE 



lIUMAN history will not be complete until man has 
j I arrived at his destination to give in the final testi- 
mony. Among the many millions of human beings, 
however, who have come, lived, and gone from earth,, 
there have always been some to fight the battles of right 
and to maintain the truth of God against error. Before 
passing hence, each generation of Christians built its stone 
of remembrance into the rising structure of the Church 
of God, and will continue to do so until the gilded dome 
of this divine institution shall penetrate the heavens. 
Recognizing this fact, no apology is made by the author 
for presenting to the members and friends of the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church this contribution to her 
history, and offering this stone of remembrance upon her 
two hundredth anniversary. No history of this Church 
has been written, although detached sketches have been 
printed in the magazines of the Church by the venerable 
historiographers, the Revs. Drs. James R. Willson and 
Thomas Sproull. This work is an attempt to place upon 
record an impartial, authentic, and continuous history of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America. It in- 
cludes, also, a biographical sketch and notice of every 
ordained minister and licentiate who has in any way been 



IV PREFACE. 

connected with the Church in America. In this depart- 
ment, free use was made of memoirs of the older min- 
isters, and the author did not study to avoid using the 
exact language of the biographers where the event re- 
lated was important, or where the sentiment expressed 
suited his purpose. Most of the sketches, however, were 
obtained directly from the families and descendants of 
the subjects, the dates being carefully compared with the 
ecclesiastical records, and are given as practically correct. 
The living ministry have answered for themselves, and 
delicacy forbade them speaking at length. Wherever a 
life was out of tune, the chords have been touched as 
softly, as could be done in order to retain the truth and 
yet cause the whole strain to be heard with profit. The 
Church has chosen her own Moderators of Synods, and 
these have been selected as the fairest representatives of 
the Church and subjects for portraits, so far as the like- 
nesses could be obtained. All the Moderators appear 
but five, and these never had any pictures taken, viz. : 
James Blackwood, John Cannon, William Gibson, John 
Kell and Robert Lusk. Some of the original pictures 
were in a very bad condition, and these portraits are 
pronounced excellent considering the old faded cards, 
oil paintings, and daguerreotypes, from which they were 
made. They were photographed several times before they 
were made into copper plates of a uniform size. The 
" Ives Process, " by Crosscup and West, Philadelphia, a 
new invention, was the only one that could give a true 
likeness at a reasonable price. These fifty illustrations 
have greatly added to the expense, but correspondingly 
enhanced the value of the book, which every reader 



PREFACE. V 

will appreciate. The best effect will be received by 
holding the portrait at a little distance from the eyes. 
Distance generally lends enchantment. This work con- 
tains, furthermore, a sketch of every Hving and extinct 
congregation ; its location, date of organization, successive 
pastors, and the names of some of the prominent mem- 
bers. It also contains a history of every Mission con- 
ducted by the Church, as well as the Theological and 
Literary Institutions, Catalogue of Students not com- 
pleting the course in the Seminary of the Church, a 
Chronological List of Synods, and the Magazines and 
Papers conducted in the interests of the Church and 
by her members. 

The facts comprising much of the local history were 
obtained from magazine sketches, and often the mem- 
ories of old members furnished interesting data. Much 
information of dates was obtained from the original and 
printed records of the Church. Many of the latter were 
found in ancient musty pamphlets which the tidy house- 
wife had consigned to oblivion in the old trunk in the 
garret. These were perseveringly brought to light from 
all parts of the Church, and used in furnishing material 
for this volume. The principal authorities consulted in 
the historical introduction were : " Hetherington's History 
of the Church of Scotland ; " " Wodrow's History of the 
Sufferings of the Church of Scotland;" "Reid's History 
of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland;" "Testimonies 
of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Scotland, Ireland 
and America ; " "Sprague's Annals of the American Pul- 
pit;" "Lathan's History of the Associate Reformed Synod 
of the South ; " " Scouller's Manual of the United Presby- 



vi PREFACE. 

terian Church;" "Dr. SprouU's Historical Sketches," and 
minor works and pamphlets found in the Congressional 
Library at Washington. 

To the many kind friends in Europe and America who 
have aided in the preparation of this volume, the author 
returns his sincere thanks, and asks their pardon for the 
liberty he was compelled to take in condensing and cor- 
recting some of the sketches. He was under special 
obligation to the late Mrs. Rebecca Junkin, of Steuben- 
ville, Ohio, for the loan of a copy of the original diary 
kept by the Rev. John Cuthbertson ; to the late Rev. 
Dr. John Forsythe for references ; to the Rev. Dr. J. B. 
Scouller for rare documents and references ; and to Drs. 
Thomas Sproull, T. W. J. Wylie, Josias A. Chancellor, 
Hevs. J. W. Sproull, D. B. Willson, C. D. Trumbull, 
J. C. K. Milligan, R. M. Sommerville, D. S. Faris, Henry 
Easson, A. M. Stavely, Robert Dunlop, and Messrs. 
S. R. Burns, J. C. McMillan, W. N. Elder, Dr. S. B. W. 
McLeod, and others, for numerous favors. It is a grat- 
ification to know that among the many hundreds of 
letters received, no less touching and kind were those 
from ministers who have gone out from the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church, thus showing that they have not 
forgotten the home of their birth and training, and to 
which they are much indebted. The manuscript prepared 
for the composition of this book was sufficient to make 
two volumes each of the present size, and the copy had 
to be cut down about one-half in order that the whole 
scope of the contemplated work might be included in one 
volume of reasonable size and price. 

This work is far from being perfect, and the writer is 



PREFACE. Vii 

just as cognizant of that fact as any of his critics. 
Indeed the result of his Avork gives little evidence of 
the time and labor expended upon it, and he only regrets 
that abler hands had not at an earlier period gathered 
and published what is attempted in this volume. If 
there is any eloquence in this book, it is that of facts 
and not sentiment. While it has been a labor of years, 
it has also been a labor of love. While it has been a 
real task, it has also been a great pleasure to gather up 
these leaves of history which had been blown in all direc- 
tions ; to remove them from their otherwise unnoticeable 
destiny; to place them in a bundle by arranging the 
stems of events one upon the other ; to unfold the incom- 
plete parts by explanation ; to tie them together with 
the cord of publication ; and now hang them upon the 
wall of memory for preservation in the homes of the 
friends of the Covenants. And, finally, the author feels 
that he will be doubly compensated for the pains he has 
taken, should his imperfect work prove acceptable and 
interesting to those for whom it has been gathered, and 
to whom it is now affectionately dedicated. 

W. M. GLASGOW. 

Baltimore, Md., June, 1888. 



Table of Contents. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 

Rise of Covenanter Church — Claims — Ancient Covenanting Socie- 
ties — Position of early Christian Church — Presbyterian 
form of Government — Matter of worship — Persecuted by 
Jewish bigotry — Constantine establishes Christianity — De- 
fection — Prelacy — Papacy — Faithful witnesses — Columba — 
Culdees — Waldenses — Albigenses — Persecution — Banish- 
ment — First Reformation — Covenants — German reformers 
— Protestants — Pope at London — Church of England — 
Puritans — Dissenters — Reformation in Scotland — Covenan- 
ters — Scottish reformers — Knox — Covenants — Popery ban- 
ished — Presbyterianism established — National Covenant — 
Duty of Nations — Reformation overthrown — Episcopacy 
established — Liturgy — Use of Covenants — Covenants re- 
newed — Presbyterianism restored — High attainments — 
Purest days — Westminster Assembly — Church Standards — 
Solemn League and Covenant — Its importance — Its ne- 
cessity — Its unjust criticism — James swears the Covenant 
— Second Reformation attainments — Object of the Cov- 
enanter Church — Defection — Covenants broken — Invasion 
of Hamilton — Treachery of Charles II — His exile — Crom- 
well — Charles II recalled — Killing times — Prelacy restored 
— Terrible persecution of Covenanters — Testimony of Cov- 
enanters — Ejected Ministers — Defence of Martyrs — Bold 
Declarations — Ministers executed — Destitute condition — 
Ministerial help — Revolution settlement — Unsatisfactory to 
Covenanters — Their protests — Defection of Ministers — 
Without a Ministry — John McMillan joins the Cov- 
enanters — Others espouse the cause — Associate Presbytery 
— Constitution of the Reformed Presbytery — Testimonies 
emitted in Scotland and Ireland — Covenanters in America. 
Pages 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix- 

POSITION OF CHURCH. 

Terms of Communion in the Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
America — Position of this Church in America — Dissent 
from the Constitution of the United States — Reasons for 
it — Moral support — Reformers — Church and State — Na- 
tional Reform Association — Covenanter Church a necessity 
— Social Covenanting — Secret Societies — Psalmody — Music 
— Forms of Church — Unpopular position — Fidelity to Truth. 
Pages 52-6r 



ORGANIC HISTORY. 

Persecution of Covenanters — First Settlement in America — Rev. 
Alexander Craighead — His acceptance of Covenanter 
principles — He leads them in Covenanting — Rev. John 
Cuthbertson — Condition of Societies — Rev. Alexander 
McDowell — Rev. Daniel McClelland — Rev, William Martin 
— Revs. Matthevi^ Linn and Alexander Dobbin — Consti- 
tution of the First Reformed Presbytery in America — 
Revolutionary War — Covenanters were Whigs — Mecklenberg 
Declaration of Independence — Declaration of Octorara — 
Writer of National Declaration — Covenanters favor Re- 
public — Loyal to the Colonies — William Martin and the 
British — His imprisonment — Cause in the South — Consti- 
tution defective — Infidelity — Enthusiasm of Covenanters — 
Church Union — Seceders — Position of Associate Church — 
Inconsistent with their beliefs — Agitating a Union — For- 
mation of Associate Reformed Church — Defection of 
Covenanter Ministers — Sentiments of Rev. Matthew Linn 
— Basis of Union — Members of new body — William 
Martin — Defection in Associate Reformed Church — Cove- 
nanters formed into Societies — Rev. James Reid sent 
from Scotland — Rev. James McGarragh — Rev. William 
King — Rev. James McKinney — Scottish Committee — In- 
surrection in Ireland — Emigrants to America — Covenan- 
ters, not "United Irishmen" — Rev. William Gibson — Con- 
stitution of Reformed Presbytery — Position of dissent 
from United States Constitution — Slaveholders excluded — 
Slavery in the South — Commissioner to Europe — Emis- 
sion of Testimony — Dissenting Presbytery desire Union — 
Deliverance on the Jury question — Draught of Covenant — 
Terms of Communion — Book of Discipline — Directory for 
Worship — Theological Seminary — Synod Constituted — 
War of i8i2 — Oath — Defenders of Country — Dr. McLeod's 
War Sermons — Argumentative part of the Testimony — 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Proposal for Covenanting — Sitting on Juries — Old Law 
sustained — Formation of General Synod— Action on Slavery 
and Secrecy — Correspondence with Presbyterian Church — 
Criticism of Associate Church — Civil relations — Free Dis- 
cussion — New Light on important subjects — Division of the 
Church — The real issue — Historical position maintained 
by the majority — Testimony on the subject — Sessional 
Records — Constitutional Law — Pastoral Letter — Publication 
of dangerous Documents — Some abandon principles — Check 
put to defection — Pro re nata meeting of Eastern Sub- 
ordinate Synod — Ministers suspended and libeled — In- 
subordination to Church Courts — Disorderly Congregational 
proceedings in New York — Regular meeting of Eastern 
Subordinate Synod — Parties withdraw — They are cited 
and suspended — General Synod of 1833 — A disturbance 
by suspended Ministers — Synod constituted in another 
Church — New School body organized — Comparison of 
Terms of Communion — New School body abandon dis- 
tinctive principles — Omit important paragraphs in Tes- 
timony — Fail to bring up Testimony to meet present 
evils — Their name a misnomer — Declension of New 
School body — Position of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church — Retains the old position — Faithful application of 
principles — Names erased from the roll — Education of 
young men — Flourishing condition of the Church — Atti- 
tude towards the Colonization Society- — Publication of 
important Documents — Organization of Theological Sem- 
inary — Seminaries at Coldenham and Allegheny — Slavery 
question — Decline to attend a Convention of Churches — 
Allegheny Seminary— Missions— Defection of two Ministers — 
Voluntary Associations — The liquor traffic — The Deacon 
question — Educational interests — Correspondence with 
sister Synods in Europe — Draft of Covenant — New Min- 
isters and organizations — Mission operations — The Deacon 
controversy — Board of Domestic Missions — Change of 
Seminary — Foreign Mission — Election of Missionaries — Es- 
tablishment of Geneva Hall and Westminster College — 
Defection of Foreign Missionary — Hayti Mission abandoned 
— The Church and Slavery — Change of Theological Sem- 
inary — Suspension of Seminary — Fugitive Slave Law — 
Rev. William Wilson — Temperance — Conference with New 
School bod)' — Missionaries — Organization of Seminary at 
Allegheny — Slavery — Elective affinity — Basis of union with 
New School body — Union never effected — Basis of union 
with United Presbyterian Church — Addition to Testimony 
— Abolitionists — Memorials to Congress — War of the Rebel- 
lion — Attitude of the Church — Missions in the South — State 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi 

of the Country — Army Oath — Covenanters for the Union — 
National Reform Association — Visit the President — Duty of 
the Nation — Close of the War — Voting for Amendments — 
Paper established — Holding Office in Canada — Education of 
Colored race — Jury question — Geneva Hall — Sabbath 
Schools — Secret Societies — Signing of Covenant — The Cove- 
nant — Memorial Building — Homestead Oath — Allegheny 
Seminary — Grangers — National Reform — Exchange of Pul- 
pits — Conference with New School body — Various deliver- 
ances — Church Fellowship — Removal of Geneva College — 
— Covenanting — Temperance — Secrecy — Voting on Amend- 
ments — National Reform — Baptism — Tokens — Deliverance 
on voting on Amendments — Conference with Psalm-singing 
Churches — Offerings — Hymns — Secret Societies — Tobacco 
— Knights of Labor — Conducting public worship — Elec- 
tion of Theological Seminary Professor — Students preach- 
ing — Pastoral Letter — Jury Act — Condition of Church — Bi- 
centenary. Pages 62-164 



CONGREGATIONS AND SOCIETIES. 



MARITIME PROVINCES. 
St. John — Barnesville — Mill Stream — Moncton — Other Preaching 

Stations — Amherst — Horton — Cornwallis — Wilmot. Pages. 165-175 

NEW ENGLAND. 
Houlton — New Hampshire — Ryegate — Barnet — Craftsbury — Top- 
sham — Saint Johnsbury — Lowell — Boston — Connecticut. 
Pages .., 175-186 

CANADA WEST. 
Ramsey — Perth — Carleton Place — Lochiel — Oneida — Hamilton — 

Gait — Guelph — Toronto — Morpeth. Pages 187-193 

NEW YORK. 

New York City — Brooklyn — Newbvirgh — Coldenham — Argyle — 
Troy — Lansingburgh — Albany — Schenectady— Duanesburgh 
— Princetown — Gal way — Milton — Broad Albin — Johnstown 
— Utica — New Hartford — Milford — Kortright — Bovina — 
Walton — Colchester — White Lake — Syracuse — Rochester — 
Buffalo — York — Caledonia — Galen — Clyde — Sterling — Lis- 
bon. Pages. , 193-228 

NEW JERSEY. 

Perth Amboy — Persecution of Covenanters — Names of first Cover 
nanters in America — Their Covenant and Testimony — Their 
treatment — Dangerous voyage — Settlement in New Jersey — 
Paterson — Newark. Pages 228-235 



xii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

DELAWARE. 
Wilmington. Page 235 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Philadelphia — Cumberland Valley — Milton — Octorara — Muddy 
Run — Pequea — Donegal — Colerain — Paxtang — Derry — 
Lower Chanceford — Rock Creek — Junkin Tent — Carlisle — 
Rocky Spring — Scotland — Green Castle — Conococheague — 
Congregational Meetings — Rules — Certificates — Vari- 
ous meetings — Petition to Ireland — Rev. James Mc- 
Kinney — Societies — Dicipline — Cause in Cumberland Valley 
— Ballibay — Clarksburgh — Bear Run and Mahoning — 
Salem — Rehoboth — New Alexandria — Greensburgh — Brook- 
land — Parnassus — Middletown — Pine Creek — Union — Oil 
City — Oil Creek — Adamsville — Springfield — Centreville — 
Shenango — Slippery Rock — New Castle — Little Beaver — 
Beaver Falls — Pittsburgh — East End — Allegheny — Wilkins- 
burgh — McKeesport — Monongahela — Miller's Run. Pages. 235-312- 

WEST VIRGINIA. 
Middle Wheeling. Pages 312-313 

OHIO. 
Youngstown — Greenfield — Londonderry — North Salem — Browns- 
ville — New Concord — Muskingum — Tomica — Jonathan's 
Creek — Utica — Mansfield — Sandusky — Miami — Rushsyl- 
vania — Bellefontaine — Belle Centre — Macedon — Cedar- 
ville — Xenia — Brush Creek — Beech Woods — Cincinnati. 

Pages 313-333 

MICHIGAN. 

Cedar Lake — Detroit — Novi — Southfield — Fairgrove. Pages 333-335 

INDIANA. 
Garrison — Indianapolis — Walnut Ridge — Princeton — Bloomington 

— Lake Eliza. Pages 335-342 

ILLINOIS. 
Old Bethel — Bethel — Church Hill — Elkhorn — Staunton. Pages... 342-346- 

WISCONSIN. 
Vernon — Waupaca. Pages 346-348 

MINNESOTA. 
Elliota— St. Paul— Lake Reno— Alexandria— Round Prairie. Pages 348-350 

IOWA. 
Sharon — Kossuth — Linn Grove — Morning Sun — Rehoboth — Wash- 
ington — Burlington — Davenport — Hopkinton — Grove Hill — 
Hickory Grove— Walnut City — Clarinda— Long Branch. 
Pages 350-358- 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii 

MISSOURI. 

St. Louis — Sylvania — Cameron — Kansas City. Pages 358-360 

KANSAS. 
Olathe — Pleasant Ridge — Winchester — North Cedar — Eskridge — 
Hebron — Tabor — Jewell — Holmwood — Sterling — Rochester 
— Quinter— Burdett. Pages 360-364 

NEBRASKA. 
Wahoo — Superior — Beulah — Eckley. Pages 364-365 

COLORADO. 
Evans — La Junta — Denver. Pages 365-366 

WASHINGTON TERRITORY. 
Sunnydale — Kent. Page 366 

CALIFORNIA. 
Oakland — Santa Anna. Pages 366-367 



COVENANTERISM IN THE SOUTH. 

MARYLAND. 
Baltimore. Pages 368-375 

VIRGINIA. 
Suffolk. Page 375 

TENNESSEE. 
Hepbzibah — Duck River — Rodgersville. Pages 375-377 

ALABAMA. 
Selma — Camden. Pages 377-378 

GEORGIA. 
Louisville. Page 378 

NORTH CAROLINA. 
Charlotte — Statesville. Pages 378-379 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Chester District — Mrs. Ellet's Sketch — War of Revolution — 
Martin's Preaching — Preaching places — Names of old 
families — Sepulchres — Slavery — Cause of emigration — Cov- 
enanterism extinct in the South. Pages 379-398 

THE CONGREGATIONS. 
Alphabetically arranged. Pages 399-429 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



THE MINISTRY. 



List of Portraits. 



Beattie, Joseph 436 

Black, John 440 

Bowden, Samuel. 446 

Carlisle, Samuel 454 

Christie, James 456 

Crawford, S. W 470 

Crozier, John 474 

Dodds, R.J 484 

Donnelly, Thomas 487 

Paris, D. S 498 

Galbraith, John 509 

George, H. H 513 

Gibson, John 517 

Gibson, Robert 519 

Gregg, David 531 

Johnston, J. B 547 

Kennedy, James 559 

McAllister, David 575 

McClurkin, H. P 581 

McCracken, Joseph 585 

McKee, C. B 597 

McKee, David 599 

McLeod, Alexander 609 

McMaster, Gilbert 617 

Wylie, S. O 



Metheny, David 624 

Milligan, A. M 628- 

Milligan, James 631 

Milligan, J. C. K 635 

Milroy, William 635, 

Roberts, W. L 655. 

Roney, Moses 659 

Scott, David 663 

Sloane, J. R. W 673 

Sproull, Thomas 682 

Sterrett, Samuel 690 

Stevenson, Andrew 691 

Stevenson, T. P 695 

Stott, John 699 

Thompson, J. R 706 

Trumbull, CD 709 

Wallace, James 711 

Willson, D. B 720 

Willson, J. M 721 

Willson, J. R 722 

Willson, S. M 728 

Wylie, P. H 736 

Wylie, Samuel 738 

Wylie, S. B 741 

742 



SKETCHES OF MINISTERS 



Acheson, T. H 430 

Acheson, W. A 430 

Allen, J. S 431 

Allen, Nathaniel 432 

Allen, R. C 433 

Allen, T. J 433 

Allen, W. C 434 

Armour, J. M 434 

Bayles, J. O 435 

Beattie, Joseph 436 

Beattie, J. M 437 

Black, A. W 438 

Black, John 440 

Black, John, Jr 442 



Black, J. A 442 

Blackwood, James 443 

Boggs, J. H 445 

Bovard, J. A. F 445 

Bowden, Samuel 446 

Boyd, J. C 447 

Boyd, P. P 448 

Brown, James 449- 

Buck, J. S 449 

Cannon, John 451 

Cannon, R. B 452 

Carithers, W. W 453 

Carlisle, J. F 454 

Carlisle, Samuel 454 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Carson, J. F 456 

Christie, James 456 

Clarke, Alexander 459 

Clyde, Robert 460 

Coleman, E. M 461 

Coleman, W. J 461 

Conner, S. G 462 

Cooper, Ebenezer 463 

Coulter, D. H 464 

Craighead, Alexander 464 

Crawford, John 468 

Crawford, S. W 470 

Crowe, A. D 471 

Crowe, S.J 473 

Crozier, John 473 

Crozier, John F 475 

Crozier, John M 475 

Cuthbertson, John 476 

Dauerty, W. M 479 

Diokson, J. M 479 

Dill, J. W 481 

Dobbin, Alexander 481 

Dodds, Josiah 483 

Dodds, R. J 484 

Donnelly, Thomas 487 

Douglas, James 489 

Easson, Henry 491 

Elder, T. M 492 

Elliot, G. M 493 

Elsey, E. G 494 

Engles, W. M 494 

Ewing, G. T 496 

Faris, D. C 498 

Faris, D. S 498 

Faris, Isaiah 499 

Faris, James 500 

F'aris, J. C. K 501 

Faris, J. M 502 

Finley, J. M 503 

Fisher, John 503 

Foster, F. M 505 

Foster, J. M 505 

French, John 506 

French, J. C. B 507 

Fulton, W. S 507 

Gailey, Francis 508 

Galbraith, John 509 



Galbraith, S. R 510 

Gault, M. A. 511 

Gayley, S. M 512 

George, Henry. . ; 513 

George, R. J 514 

George, S. A 515 

George, W. F 516 

Gibson, John 517 

Gibson, Robert 518 

Gibson, William 521 

Gill, Jonathan 524 

Gillespie, W. J 525 

Glasgow, W. M 526 

Graham, David 527 

Graham, John 529 

Graham, William 530 

Gregg, David 53° 

Guthrie, T. C 53i 

Hamilton, Joseph 533 

Hanna, Thomas 534 

Hargrave, Ruther 535 

Hawthorne, Hugh 535 

Hawthorne, John 536 

Henderson, Joseph 537 

Hill, J. R 538 

Holmes, John 539 

Hood, John 54° 

Hunter, Joseph 54^ 

Huston, J. J 542 

Hutcheson, Robert 542 

Jerridinia, Jacoub 544 

Johnston, Archibald 544 

Johnston, A. W 54^ 

Johnston, J. B 547 

Johnston, J. M 549 

Johnston, J. R 55° 

Johnston, Lewis 551 

Johnston, N. M 552 

Johnston, N. R 553 

Johnson,' Robert 554 

Johnston, S. D 556 

Johnston, W. P 556 

Kell, John 557 

Kennedy, George 558 

Kennedy, James 559 

Kennedy, Joshua 560 

Kilpatrick, Alexander 560 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



King, William 561 

Laird, W. R 562 

Latimer, J. R 563 

Lawson, J. R 563 

Linn, Matthew 564 

Little, John 566 

Love, James 567 

Lusk, Robert 568 

Lynd, John 570 

Madden, Campbell 570 

Martin, D. C 572 

Martin, William 572 

McAllister, David 574 

McAuley, John 575 

McBurney, G. R 577 

McCartney, John 577 

McClelland, Daniel 578 

McClurkin, A. W 579 

McClurkin, H. P 580 

McClurkin, J. J 580 

McClurkin, J. K 582 

McClurkin, S. R 582 

McClurkin, T. Z 583 

McConnell, Thomas 583 

McCracken, Joseph 584 

McCready, R. H 585 

McCullough, Boyd 586 

McDonald, J. M 587 

McDowell, Alexander 588 

McElhinney, J. M 589 

McFall, David 590 

McFall, Thomas 590 

McFarland, Armour 591 

McFarland, A. J 592 

McFarland, Joseph 592 

McFarland, William 593 

McFeeters, James 593 

McGarragh, James 594 

McKee, C. B 596 

McKee, David 598 

McKee, J. A 599 

McKee, Robert 599 

McKinney, James 600 

McKinney, Robert 604 

McKinney, Samuel 605 

McKinney, William 606 

McLachlane, James 606 



McLeod, Alexander 608 

McLeod, J. N 611 

McMaster, A. S 612 

McMaster, E. D 614 

McMaster, Gilbert 616 

McMaster, John 619 

McMillan, Gavin 620 

McMillan, Hugh 621 

McMillan, W. W 623 

McNaugher, J. W 624 

Metheny, David 625 

Middleton, John 626 

Milligan, A. M., Sr 627 

Milligan, A. M., Jr 629 

Milligan, E. M 630 

Milligan, James 630 

Milligan, J. C. K 632 

Milligan, J. R. J 633 

Milligan, J. S. T 634 

Milligan, O. B 635 

Milroy, William 635 

Milroy, William 636 

Milroy, W. M 637 

Montgomery, Andrew 638 

Montgomery, R. C 639 

Morton, J. W 639 

Neill, James 641 

Neill, William 642 

Newell, J. R 643 

Newell, John 644 

Orr, R. G 645 

Patton, James 646 

Patton, Thomas 646 

Pinkerton, J. L 647 

Pinkerton, W. A 647 

Pollock, J. T 648 

Reed, H. W 648 

Reed, Robert 649 

Reed, R. C 650 

Reid, Daniel 650 

Reid, James 651 

Reilly, John 653 

Rice, John 654 

Robb, T. P 655 

Roberts, W. L 655 

Robinson, Samuel 657 

Roney, Moses 658 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Rusk, T. A 626 

Samson, W. L. C 662 

Scott, David 662 

Scott, George 664 

Shanks, W. M 665 

Sharp, B.M 666 

Sharpe, R.J 667 

Shaw, D. J 668 

Shaw, J. W 668 

Shaw, S. G 669 

Shields, Robert 670 

Slater, William 671 

Sloane, J. R. W 672 

Sloane, William 676 

Smith, E. M 677 

Smith, J. C 678 

Sommerville, R. M 678 

Sommerville, William 679 

Speer, J. A 681 

Sproull, J. W 682 

Sproull, R. D 682 

Sproull, Thomas 6S3 

Sproull, T. A 6S4 

Sproull, T. C... 685 

Sproull, William 686 

Stavely, A. M 687 

Steele, David 688 

Sterrett, Samuel 690 

Stevenson, Andrew 691 

Stevenson, Hugh 692 

Stevenson, S. M 693 

Stevenson, T. P 694 

Stewart, J. S 695 

Stewart, J. W 695 

Stewart, Robert 697 

Stott, John 698 

Stuart, A. C 69S 

Symmes, J. H 700 

Wylie, T. A. H... 



Taylor, J. C 701 

Teaz, John 702 

Telfair, David 702 

Temple, H. W 704 

Thompson, D. G 704 

Thompson, J. A 704 

Thompson, J. R 705 

Thompson, J. S 706 

Thompson, R. M 706 

Todd, A. C 707 

Trumbull, C. D 708 

Walkinshaw, Hugh 708 

Wallace, James 710 

Wallace, John 711 

Wallace, Robert 712 

Wallace, S. R 714 

Wilkin, Matthew 714 

Williams, J. B 715 

Williams, Matthew 716 

Williams, M. B 7^7 

Willson, D. B 720 

Willson, J. M 720 

Willson, J. R 723 

Willson, R. Z 727 

Willson, S. M 729 

Wilson, William 73° 

Wright, Alexander 732 

Wylie, J. H 733 

Wylie, J. Milligan 734 

Wylie, John M 734 

Wylie, J. Ralston 735 

Wylie, J. Renwick 735 

Wylie, Oliver 73^ 

Wylie, P. H 737 

W^ylie, R. C 73^ 

Wylie, Samuel 739 

Wylie, S. B 74o 

Wylie, S. O 743 

744 



STUDENTS NOT COMPLETING THE COURSE. 

Abraham, R. H 747 Black, J. K 747 

Acheson, J. J 747 Boxley, D. W 748 

Barber, W. H 747 Conger, Joseph 748 

Beattie, F. S 747 Gumming, William 74^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Echols, J. H 748 

Elder, J. M 748 

Esker, Abood 748 

Frazier, M. R 748 

George, R. A 748 

Gibson, R. C 749 

Gibson, W.J 749 

Gray, James 749 

Hamilton, John 749 

Hamilton, W. R 749 

Huggart, T. S..! 749 

Hutcheson, Martin 749 

Johnston, J. H 750 

McClelland, J. B 750 

McKelvy, J. A 750 

McKinley, Thomas 750 

McKinney, Archibald 750 

Willson, Z. G 



Mogee, Alexander 750 

Montgomery, S. D 750 

Murphy, J. G 751 

Neeley, Lorenzo 751 

Nightingale, J. C 751 

Purvis, L. B 751 

Quarles, J. F "751 

Robinson, John 751 

Sloane, T. S , 752 

Smith, S. F 752 

Sproull, Theophilus 752 

Sproull, W. 752 

Stewart, G. E 752 

Taggart, S. B 752 

Thompson, William 752 

Trumbull, Robert 753 

Williams, C. L 753 

753 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 
Constitution — Established in Philadelphia — Suspension— Colden- 
ham — Allegheny — Cincinnati — North wood — Allegheny — 
Professors — Students. Pages 753-755 



LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 
Geneva Hall — Westminster College — Allegheny City College — 

Knox Academy. Pages 755-759 



View of Geneva College. Page 754 

Photographs of Literary and Mission Buildings. Page 759 



THE MISSIONS. 

Foreign Missions. 
Hayti — Syrian — Latakia — Aleppo — Tarsus — Cyprus. 



760-764 



Balph, J. M 

Balph, E. J....... 

Beattie, M. E... 

Dodds, A. J 

Dodds, E. M 

Dodds, L. M 

Dodds, W. A. S. 
Easson, M. J. .., 
Edgar, M. B...., 



SKETCHES OF MISSIONARIES 

764 

765 

765 



765 
766 
767 
767 
767 
768 



Galbraith, A. M 768 

Jerridinia, H. C 768 

Joseph, L. B 769 

Martin, R. C 769 



Metheny, E. G . 
Metheny, M. E. 
Sproull, E. C. ... 
Sterrett, E. M. . 
Wylie, M. R 



769 
770 
770 
771 
771 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



DOMESTIC MISSIONS. 



Port Royal — Fernandina — St. Augustine — Little Rock — Duvall's 
Bluff — Natchez — Washington — Selma — Camden — New York 
City — Chinese — Indian. Pages 772-777 



SYNODS AND PRESBYTERIES. 
General Meeting — Reformed Presbytery — List of Meetings — Dis- 
organization — Reorganization of Reformed Presbytery — 
List of Meetings — Constitution of Synod — List of Meet- 
ings — Presbyteries : Illinois — Iowa — Kansas — Lakes — 
Middle Committee and Presbytery — New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia — New York — Northern Committee and Presby- 
tery — Ohio — Philadelphia — Pittsburgh — Rochester t- South- 
ern Committee and Presbytery — Vermont — Western 

Pages ^ 778-785 



PUBLICATIONS. 

Evangelical Witness" — "American Christian Expositor" — 
"Albany Quarterly " — " Reformed Presbyterian " — " Cove- 
nanter " — "Reformed Presbyterian and Covenanter" — 
" Christian Statesman " — " Our Banner " — " College Cabi- 
net " — " Monthly Advocate " — " Christian Nation " — " Guid- 
ing Star" — "Herald of Mission News." Pages 785-788 



"TiiK Idngdom is tho Lord's; nml IIo is the Governor among tlie 
nations. * * King of kings and Lord of lords. * * Tlie wicked 
shall bo turned into hell and the nations that forget dod. * * He 
wise now, tluMefoic-, O ye kings. * * Kiss the Son. * * I'or tlie 
nation and kingdom that will not serve Thee shall p(>rish. * * The 
Lord reigiieth. * * Hy Me kings roign. * * Phe powers l)ia( l>e 
are ordained of (iod. " — Tlw lUI>lt\ 

"Wk, the people of the United States, flo ordain and est.d)lish 
this Constitution. " — Unilfil States Constitution. 

"Till': ( i(>\(<rnini'nt of the I'nited Sialics of America, is not in any 
sense, louuilcd on the Christian religion."- -T. S. Tiraty 7vil't Trif^o/i. 

" In vain iloes the nation attempt to pnrchasu liberty with the best 
blood of her citizens, while delivering it into the keeping of men un- 
acijuainted with, or regardless of, the supreme legislative autluMity 
of (lod. " — A'<-:'. ynttii-s AAA'inHcy. 

" No consideration will justify the franiers of tl\e IVder.il (\>nsli- 
tnlion and the administration of the Cio\enuiienl. in wilhholiling a 
recognition of the Loril and llis .Vnointeil from the gr.ind charter 
of the nation. " — A'^'. .l/cx<i/fJ<-r .)/,/,.•(>,/. />. /> 

"In tlie Cnited Stales the refus.il to ackiiowiedm- Cod in the Con- 
stitiitioM has probably been more explicit than it e\er was in any 
other nation. " — AVr. J.im.'s A', ll'i/hoii, /l />. 

" liiK I'ederal Constitution of the United States does not recognize 
the existence of Crtid, the Kiiij,' o( n.itions; * * and shall a nation 
,ict as if independent of the ChhI of the Univei-se. and expect to be 
guiltless? * * The principles of reformation are not fashionable. 
They were once, however, consiilered as the glory of Presbyterians. 
For civil and ecclesiastical reformation, for a glorious covenanted cause, 
thousands bled and died. * * 1 have endeavored to advocate M<// 
<;tn.\Y because I thought it the doctrine of tlu> Bible, and the cause 
of Christ."— AV,". S,nnih/ A. //>•//>. /). D. 



HISTORY OF THE 

REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

IN AMERICA. 



Historical Introduction. 



THE Reformed Presbyterian Church in America is the 
lineal descendant and true representative of the 
Church of Scotland in her purest days, and embraces 
in her Testimony the principles of the Second Reform- 
ation as exhibited between the years 1638 and 1649. 
The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was a Covenant- 
ing Church, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
this age is not a branch of any Presbyterian body but 
the remnant of the original stock. While the Synod 
of this Church is among the small ecclesiastical assem- 
blies, yet for that reason she should not be regarded 
with reproach. Her principles are both scriptural and 
unpopular, and neither the paucity of her members nor 
the unpopularity of her principles prove that the position 
of the church is unsound or impracticable. She claims 
to be a Reformed Church, a Presbyterian Church, and 



22 irisrORV OF THE REFORMED 

a Covenanting Church ; and to fully substantiate this 
claim a cursory review of the history of the Christian 
church will be necessary. 

From the earliest period in the world's history the 
church of God has been a Covenanting Church, and 
a dissenter from immoral constitutions of Church and State. 
The antediluvians bore faithful testimony to the character 
and moral government of God, and by the call of Abraham 
this covenanting society received a more perfect organization. 
The patriarchs were constant witnesses to the truth of God 
against idolatry and immorality either national or individual. 
Under the Mosaic dispensation also the nation of Israel 
was brought into a solemn league and covenant with 
God, and the Church erected in the wilderness was a 
witnessing society for the rights of God. When the 
*' fullness of time " had come, and the predicted Messiah 
came into the world as the "Mes.senger of the Cove- 
nant," He was a witness for the truth, and not only 
bore constant testimony to His Sonship before Jewish 
priests, but also claimed His right to the Headship over 
the nations before the Roman government. These two 
articles have formed the chief points of Christ's witnesses 
in all ages, and are the cardinal principles of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church in this age. When Christ com- 
missioned His apostles to go forth and preach the gospel, 
He gave them to be witnesses for Him and to His 
rights upon earth, even to the end of the world. The 
commission then implies that every minister of Christ 
is to bear like testimony. At the organization of the 
Apostolic church and in accordance with the directions 
of the Divine Head, members were to be received into 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 23 

it by an expression of their belief in the Saviour, and 
a confession of the scheme of grace as revealed in God's 
Word, with a life and conversation as becomes the same 
profession. In this the requirements of the Christian 
church should be uniform. The government and order 
•of the primitive church were evidently Presbyterian. It 
was distinguished for the purity of its doctrines and 
the simplicity of its worship. Nothing of human inven- 
tion was tolerated and it was scriptural in all its appoint- 
ments. In this system of government, moreover, the 
Headship of Christ and the subjection of all things to Him 
were clearly displayed. At an early period of the life 
of this scriptural church and covenanting society were 
the fires of persecution kindled, and they raged with 
increased fury because many had not grown weary of 
purity and witness-bearing. For three hundred years 
were they persecuted under Jewish bigotry, until 
Constantine the Great wrapped the imperial robe around 
him, and signally overthrew the policy of the Roman 
power, and established pure Christianity as the religion 
of the empire. Under his eventful reign Christianity 
spread rapidly, but co-incidently the spirit of Anti-Christ 
was at work. The condition of the church was such 
that men were not willing to return to the pure state 
■of the primitive church, nor to become witnesses for 
the rights of King Jesus. Preachers of the gospel were 
lead to defection by vain philosophies and worldly 
ambition. Discipline was relaxed and the lives of members 
gradually became more corrupt. They had broken cove- 
nant with God and iniquity was being visited upon them. 
The union of Church and State doubtless promoted 



24 IIIS'IORV OF THE REFORMED 

defection and corruption, and the spiritualit}- of the 
church became very low. The favors of the State soon 
developed a hierarchical system of Prelacy, which system 
was directly antagonistic to the teaching of the Apos- 
tolic church. The same causes also gave rise to Papacy, 
and the bishop of Rome assumed the title of the 
Universal Bishop. Seemingly the whole world "wondered 
after the beast," and the unmutilated Word of God 
was not only prohibited to be read, but the worship 
was conducted in an unknown tongue. During all these 
periods of the prevalence of Papacy, there were faith- 
ful witnesses for Jesus to be found. Before the papal 
power had reached the Western church, God had raised 
up the faithful Athanasius to contend against the Arian 
heresy ; Vigilantius to expo.se the strongholds of super- 
stitution, and the learned Augustine to overthrow the 
Pelagian and Semi-Pelagian heresies. 

Away to the north and west faithful witnesses for revealed 
truth and scriptural church-life had been preserved, who- 
uncompromisingly refused to hold communion with the 
church of Rome. In England, Scotland and Ireland the 
pure gospel was preached and the church conducted after 
the Apostolic model. Patrick and Columba, with their con- 
temporaries and successors, multiplied witnesses for Jesus 
and established a church in opposition to Rome. Many 
of these witnesses were denominated Ceilide, or servants 
of God, and have been known in history as Culdees. 
They were Covenanters in theory, Presbyterians in 
government, and Reformed Presbyterians in sentiment. 
They held firmly to the Word of God and supremacy 
of Christ, and maintained a separate existence until the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2$ 

time of the Reformation. In parts of Europe, Roman 
persecutors found faithful witnesses for the rights of 
Christ, who opposed the Anti-christian system. The 
Waldenses in the valleys of Piedmont, and the Albigenses 
in the south of France, had continued their existence since 
Apostolic times. They were a covenanting society separated 
from, or rather never had been in connection with, the 
church of Rome, and propogated a truly evangelical creed 
and a Presbyterian form of government since the Apos- 
tolic age. This fact is admitted by nearly every histo- 
rian. But these witnesses for Christ were soon discovered 
in vast congregations and caused to suffer most violent 
and terrible persecution. Many of them were banished, 
and, as so many sparks from the burning stake, they 
kindled anew their principles in other parts of Europe. 
They were afterward found in Germany, Bohemia, France 
and t^ngland. In the fourteenth century eighty thou- 
sand of these Covenanting Presbyterians were found in 
Austria and maintained their principles to the death. 
In the fifteenth century the Reformation from Popery 
began, although its work is generally attributed to the 
sixteenth century. Wyckliffe, John Huss, the Lollards, 
and Jerome of Prague espoused the principles of the 
covenanting Waldenses, and in their maintenance of 
truth prepared the way for the Reformation. All those 
in sympathy with the cause of pure religion formulated 
a covenant, which was entered into by the whole Wal- 
densian Church. Some of the reformers of this period 
had been reared within the pale of the Romish Church 
and experimentally knew the errors against which they hero- 
ically contended. God brought out such eminent witnesses as 



26 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Luther, Zwinglius, Melancthon, Calvin and Farel, who in 
Germany, Switzerland and France were the effective instru- 
ments in God's hand for propogating the cause of the 
First Reformation, and shook Papal Europe to her very 
foundations. As might be expected the Reformation met 
with a great deal of opposition. The hands of the 
reformers were held up by the Lutheran Church, which,, 
in 1534, solemnly swore the famous League of Smalkalde. 
In 1537, a similar covenant was sworn by the followers 
at Geneva. Unhappily the Lutherans and Reformed differed 
in some points, and especially in regard to sacraments,, 
but with reference to the pure Word of God and the 
errors of the Romish church they were agreed. The 
Reformed churches of France and Hungary also swore 
similar covenants and all were known as Protestants 
against the corruptions of the church of Rome. The 
cause of the Reformation did not find such rich soil 
in England. The despotic Henry the Eighth was King. 
He was a most irreligious man, and, in order to gratify 
his own lusts, established the Church of England, and 
arrogated to himself the power of a Pope at London, 
Although this church was separated from that of Rome,, 
yet it retained much of the doctrine and order of the Papacy. 
The Reformation made some progress under the brief 
reign of Edward the Sixth, but its friends were caused 
to pass through fiery persecution under the reign of 
bloody Mary. Upon the accession of Queen Elizabeth 
the protestant faith was again restored, but through the Eras- 
tian measures of the Queen the cause did not flourish. The 
chief hindrance was from the fact that the anti-christian hier- 
archy of the2Romish church was retained almost unaltered 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2/ 

in the Established Church of England. For all intents 
and purposes it zvas Romish, and the bitter enemy of 
the Reformation. There were some again in England 
who contended for purity in doctrine and government, 
who were called Puritans, and because they would not 
take the communion of the corrupt English church, entered 
the Tole of Dissoitei's. The Reformation began to spread 
rapidly in Scotland in the early part of the sixteenth 
century, and owed little or nothing to the favor of 
the state. God raised up several eminent witnesses for 
the truth who suffered martyrdom, and, notwithstanding 
the fact that they sealed their testimony with their own 
blood, the truth continued to progress. Among these 
faithful witnesses were Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart 
and John Knox. The latter returned from the Continent 
in 1555, when the cause of the Reformation was languishing, 
and he was the means of awakening the multitude by 
his powerful preaching, and caused the Queen to fear 
his prayers more than an army of soldiers. Through his 
indomitable courage and consecrated devotion to the 
cause of the Reformation the people entered into several 
solemn covenants for the purpose of uniting the friends 
of the cause. Various covenants adapted to the times 
were sworn at Edinburgh in 1557; at Perth in 1559; 
at Stirling in 1 560 ; and at Leith in 1 562, in which 
they pledged their lives and their substance to maintain 
the cause of Christ. 

In 1560, the Parliament abolished Popery, and the first 
General Assembly emitted the First Book of Discipline^ 
fixing and defining the government and order of the 
church after a scriptural and Presbyterian plan. In I578'» 



28 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

a Second Book of Discipline was prepared and adopted and 
the Presbyterian Reformation was fully established. The 
most memorable step in the progress of the Reforma- 
tion was the adoption of the NATIONAL Covenant of 
Scotland. It was drawn up by Rev. John Craig of 
Edinburgh, and was the nation's solemn protest against 
Popery and the bond for the maintenance of the Reformed 
faith. It was sworn and subscribed by the King and 
most of the nobility with their households, in 1581. 
In all these covenants it is expressly agreed that the 
"Bible should be the supreme law, and that nations 
should frame their laws according to the Divine standard ; 
that there is a conscience toward God paramount to 
human control, and the Word of God is the rule for 
the government of the conscience ; that there is no 
lord of conscience but the Lord Jesus Christ who alone 
is the Head of the Church and the lawful Governor 
among the Nations ; that it is the duty of every nation, 
as well as the individual, to incorporate these principles 
in its constitution and live a life in conformity to this 
profession." 

In 1590, the National Covenant was again subscribed. 
In 1 592, the Presbyterian form of church government 
was ratified by the King and parliament, and this has 
been denominated the GREAT CHARTER. In 1 596, the 
General Assembly renewed the National Covenant again, 
at which time over four hundred ministers and elders 
with uplifted hands to God solemnly engaged in His 
name to purge the church of all corruption. This was 
a reviving time from the presence of the Lord, and 
the Reformation was in the meridian of its life. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 29 

Partly by craft and partly by arbitrary interference with 
•ecclesiastical courts, James attempted to overthrow the 
Scottish Reformation and establish Episcopacy. This 
perfidious ruler favored Popery, interfered with the election 
of members to the highest judicatory of the church, and 
introduced prelacy in 1610. In 1618, the "Five Articles 
of Perth" were forcibly carried and ratified, and because 
some ministers refused to subscribe to these Popish 
requirements, they were ejected from their charges and 
visited with heavy penalties. At the accession of Charles 
the First to the throne, in March, 1625, the Presbyterian 
Church of Scotland witnessed a deadly foe, and his deter- 
mination was to destroy every vestage of Presbyterianism 
and compel them to conform to the English Episcopal Liturgy. 
In 1536, a Liturgy and Book of Ecclesiastical Canons were 
introduced, and had the effect of abolishing the ecclesiastical 
polity of the Church of Scotland. Lamentably too many com- 
plied with these prelatic innovations and arbitrary measures. 
These tyrannical proceedings aroused the independent 
spirit of many of the Scotch, and, after earnest deliberation 
and fervent prayer, they resolved to flee to the strength 
received by their ancestors, and took steps to renew the 
National Covenants. The Covenants were the source of 
Scotland's strength and the crown of her glory ! The 
National Covenant had served a good purpose in con- 
summating the First Reformation, and it was brought into 
service in the Second. 

To now adapt it to the circumstances of the church 
and nation, Archibald Johnston specified several acts of 
former Parliaments to prove that the course taken by the 
Covenanters was constitutional ; and Alexander Henderson 



30 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

applied the sacred bond to the condemnation and rejection 
of all prelatical innovations. They say in this bond : 

"We promise and swear by the great name of the Lord our God, 
to continue in the profession and obedience of the true religion ; that 
we shall defend the same, and resist all those contrary errors and cor- 
ruptions according to our vocation, and to the utmost of that power 
which God hath put in our hands, all the days of our life." 

And they also declare : 

•'We shall, to the utmost of our power, stand to the defence of our 
Sovereign, the King, in the defence and preservation of the aforesaid 
true religion, liberties, and laws of the kingdom." 

And with regard to the original covenant that was now 
renewed, they said : 

" The present and succeeding generations in this land are bound to 
keep the aforesaid national oath and subscription inviolate." 

The Covenant was now sworn and subscribed at Grey- 
friar's Church in Edinburgh, March i, 1638, by sixty 
thousand persons, amid scenes of joy and sorrow. They 
laid the precious document upon the mossy tombs, and 
many wrote their names with blood from their own veins, 
while others were but permitted to subscribe initials, because 
the document was full, and there was no more room. 
The renewing of the Covenant was followed by the happiest 
effects and manifest tokens of the Divine blessing. It was 
the means of awakening the people to their vows and the 
signal overthrow of Episcopacy. The Covenanters acted 
with prudence and decision in demanding the General 
Assembly to redress their grievances, and a meeting of 
Parliament to rectify disorders. This assembly met in the 
city of Glasgow, November 20, 1638, and was presided 
over by the great Alexander Henderson. This assembly 
condemned the "Five Articles of Perth," the Liturgy 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX AMERICA. 3 1 

and Canons, the Book of Ordination, the High Commission^ 
Court, and the civil places and powers of churchmen. 
Prelacy was rejected, bishops and prelatical leaders were 
deposed and excommunicated. The renovation of the 
Covenant was approved ; the Presbyterian form of govern- 
ment was fully restored ; the power of the church to 
convene in her annual assembly was granted, and the 
right of the church to preserve order, discipline, educa- 
tion and religious worship was acknowledged. These were 
among the purest days of the Covenanting Presb}'terian 
Church of Scotland, and the faithful witnesses for Jesus 
were triumphant in their rights and liberties. Although 
armies were brought down to crush the success of the 
Covenanters and to restore prelac}', they were ineffectual 
in destroying the witnesses, and the work of the Scottish 
Reformation was fully confirmed by Parliament in 1640. 
The exiled ministers were recalled, the order of the 
church restored, and the ordinances of religion were again 
dispensed to the people to the utter dismay of the 
prelates, and Spottiswood, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, 
mournfully exclaimed, "Now, all that we have been doing 
these thirty years by past is at once thrown down." 

While the cause was flourishing in Scotland, the Cove- 
nanters in Ireland were inhumanly massacred. Charles 
the First closed his ears against the cry for help, and 
he was justly suspicioned for his complicity with the 
Romish power. 

By an application of the English Parliament, June 12, 
1643, an assembly of learned and godly men was called, 
composed of one hundred and twenty ministers and thirty 
elders, the majority of which were strict Presbyterians, 



32 ■ HISTORY OF THK REFORMED 

This was called the WESTMINSTER Assembly, and met 
in the Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster, London, July 
I, 1643, and continued its sessions for a period of jfiive 
years, six months and twenty-two days. They drew 
up from the Word of God the Confession of Faith, 
the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, a Form of Church 
Government and a Directory for Worship. These all 
received the sanction of the P^nglish Parliament and 
were adopted by the General Assembly of the Church 
of Scotland. A joint application by the Parliament 
and Westminster Assembly was made to the Conven- 
tion of P^states in Scotland and the General Assembly, 
August 17, 1643, to enter into a SOLEMN LEAGUE 
AND Covenant, embracing the civil and religious in- 
terests of the three kingdoms. A draft was made by 
Alexander Henderson and cheerfully subscribed by the 
Assembly of Divines at Westminster, by both Houses 
of Parliament, and by persons of all ranks in P^ngland. 
.It was then carried over into Ireland and signed gen- 
erally by the congregations in the province of LHster. 
This famous document bound the United Kingdoms to 
the preservation of the Reformed religion, to its doc- 
trines, discipline and government according to the Word 
of God. It simply brought the Church back to its 
Scriptural basis and its allegiance to King Jesus and 
His Law in all transactions, civil and ecclesiastical. Had 
it not been for the Solemn League and Covenant, the 
three Kingdoms would have been cast into absolute 
despotism, and the liberty and civilization of the world 
would have received an irrecoverable shock. The great 
principles of this sacred bond are those of God's Word, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX A>H':RICA. 33. 

and nothing more nor less. While England was not 
quite ready, but should have been, to fully adopt them 
as her principles of national government, yet they are 
none the less Scriptural, and there will a time come 
when all the Kingdoms of the earth will be united under 
a similar and one grand Solemn League and Covenant ; 
when God's Anointed shall be practically acknowleded 
King of nations ; and when these Scriptural principles 
of the heavenly-minded Covenanters of Scotland shall 
gloriously triumph. It cannot be otherwise, for the 
nations that neglect or refuse to enter into such a cove- 
nant with the King of Kings shall perish. No inter- 
national document has ever been so -much misrepresented 
and maligned as the Solemn League and Covenant. 
Statesmen should pause and read it carefully, compare 
it to the demands of God's Law, and fully digest what 
is in it, before they vent their eloquence in undue criti- 
cism. A sacred principle was then, and by this docu- 
ment infused, into the heart of that nation, which has 
never perished ; and, having taken root in the new em- 
pire of America, ma}- be regarded as the dawn of a 
better day for the cause of King Jesus. The Covenanters 
never attempted to force Presbyterianism upon England 
or any other nation, for they entered into the Covenant 
without an}^ such stipulations, and it has always been 
contrar}' to their principles to force Christians to the 
acceptance of any position. But they do feel it their 
duty to teach men and nations their allegiance to Christ 
and to use every legitimate means to bring them to an 
acceptance and acknowledgment of the same. 

James the First had signed the first National Cove- 
nant, and Charles the Second, on being crowned at 



34 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Scone, January i, 1651, solemnly swore to keep both 
the National and Solemn League and Covenant. And 
when the oath to defend the Church of Scotland was 
.administered to him, kneeling and holding up his right 
hand, he uttered the following solemn vow : " By the 
Eternal and Almighty God, who liveth and reigneth 
forever, I .shall observe and keep all that is contained 
in this oath." 

A blessing followed the course of the Church at this 
time, and many of the breaches in Church and State 
were healed. The Solemn League and Covenant was 
a necessity, and not until all nations are bound to- 
gether and to God b}- a holy Covenant, and true liberty 
flowing from Bible principles recognized, will universal 
peace prevail. The attainments of the Second Reforma- 
tion are worthy of record. The supreme Headship of 
Christ over the Church was exhibited ; the Church was 
priviledged to call her own assemblies ; the policy of 
the government was brought into conformity to God's 
Word ; the nation owned its allegiance to King Jesus ; 
and rulers were to be set up who should be God's 
ministers for good and a terror to evil doers. This 
was the church's purest period and the nation's happiest 
hour. The object of the existence of the Covenanter 
Church in America as true witnesses for the royal 
perogatives of King Jesus, is to bring this nation to 
the enjoyment of the blessings and duty of this period 
in the life of the British nation. It is the required 
attitude of every church and nation to its Divine Head. 

The period in which the nation continued to avow 
and practically apply the principles of the Reformation, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX AMERICA. 35 

Avas too brief to fully test the blessings of the nation 
whose God is the Lord. The beauty of the Covenanted 
Reformation was soon marred by the duplicity of an 
unprincipled king and his followers. England was the 
first to make defection, because the danger which threat- 
ened her civil liberty was past, and she imagined that 
she no longer needed the help of the King of Heaven. 
Scotland soon also broke her solemn covenant engage- 
ments and departed from her attainments. The inva- 
sion of England, in 1648, by the Duke of Hamilton's 
army, was a wilful breach of the Solemn League and 
Covenant, and was afterwards condemned by both the 
Parliament and General Assembly. Charles the Second 
was totally unworthy of the homage of a loyal people, 
and happy would they have been had they never placed 
the crown upon him. The people had committed their 
trusts into the hands of a treacherous man. There 
was undue attachment to the house of Stuart, which 
ultimately lead to untold calamities. The King was 
forced to exile, and Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland 
wdth an English army, and gained a victory at Dunbar. 
Under Cromwell's usurped authority, and by intrigue, 
plans were formed to overthrow the Constitution. The 
faithful Presbyterians considered that they were bound 
to adhere to the Constitution ; and, because they opposed 
the malignants and their policy, were called protestors. 
Cromwell died in September, 1658, and his son Richard 
succeeded him. He was wanting in capacity and ambi- 
tion, and Charles the Second was restored to the throne 
in May, 1660. From this date to that of the Revolution 
Settlement in 1688, the period is denominated the "killing 



36 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

times." Now begin the sufferings of the Church of Scotland r 
and the history of this period may well be written in 
characters of blood. In i66i, the Parliament required 
an oath of unlimited allegiance from all members instead 
of a subscription to the Covenants. The order and 
government of the Church were reversed ; bishops were 
restored ; all proceedings of the Church and State on 
behalf of Reformation from 1638 to 1649 ^vere pro- 
nounced treasonable ; the Covenants, National and Sol- 
emn League, were pronounced unlawful oaths ; and all 
civil and ecclesiastical acts were regarded null and void. 
The covenants were ordered to be burned in public at 
Edinburgh, as they had been done at London ; and all 
those who owned the covenants were subjected to the 
penalties of treason. Nearly four hundred ministers of 
the Presbyterian Church were driven from their congre- 
gations b)' an act of the Privy Council. The whole work 
of the Reformation was overturned, and the Act of 
Supremacy, making the King judge in all matters civil 
and ecclesiastical, paved the way for the terrible perse- 
cution which immediately followed. Amid these bloody 
persecutions the Covenanter Church came into promi- 
nence as the faithful witnesses of the great principles 
of the Reformation. They bore constant testimony for 
the divine authority of the Presbyterian Church as con- 
trasted with Prelacy ; for the exclusive Headship of the 
Lord Jesus Christ over the Church ; for the supreme 
authority of the Mediator and His Law over the rulers 
of the nation ; for the perpetual obligation of the 
Covenants ; together with the rights and duties of sub- 
jects owning the authority of Christ to resist those 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 37 

wicked rulers who had usurped their authority and 
trampled under their feet the rights and liberties of 
a religious and covenanting people. Such was the testi- 
mony which the Covenanters bore, and sealed it with 
their blood. Among the first victims of this irresponsi- 
ble power were the Marquis of Argyle and Rev. James 
Guthrie, staunch Presbyterians and resolute defenders of 
the cause of the Redeemer. No less than twenty thou- 
sand Presbyterian and Covenanting witnesses suffered 
martyrdom in various ways, and many were banished 
to America and Jamaica ; and upwards of two thousand 
godly ministers were banished from their congregations 
in one day. Some renounced the Covenanted cause, but 
those who continued faithful were driven and chased like 
partridges on the mountains. The persecutions were 
horrible in their character, and one cannot read the his- 
tory of this period without feeling his blood boil at the 
atrocious slaughter of the Covenanters by the thousands. 
They refused to wait upon the ministrations of curates 
who had been thrust upon them by the bayonet, and if 
they were found waiting upon any of the ejected Presby- 
terian ministers either in private houses or conventicles, 
they were heavily fined and cruelly punished. Among 
the principal non-conforming ministers were Richard 
Cameron, John Welsh, Thomas Douglas and John Kid, 
and a reward was offered for the heads of these faithful 
divines, dead or alive. Even to the death the martyrs 
of Jesus bore testimony against their persecutors, and 
when given an opportunity to speak in their courts, re- 
plied to the perjured prelates in the following manner : 
" Every immoral constitution is disapproved of God. No 



38 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

man ought to swear allegiance to a power which God 
does not recognize. All kings are commanded to promote 
the welfare of the Church, and those who own allegiance 
to Christ cannot consistently pray for the prosperity of 
the Church's enemies, or for the establishment of thrones 
founded upon iniquity. It is certainly the duty of 
Christians to be meek and peaceable members of civil 
society. If they are permitted to enjoy their lives, their 
property, and especially their religion, without being 
required to make any sinful compliances, it is right that 
they should behave peaceably and not involve society in 
confusion, even though the power of the empire in which 
they reside be in evil hands. ?>ery burden which God 
in His Providence brings upon them, they must cheer- 
fully bear. But never are Christians called upon by 
their God to owri as His ordinance anything which is 
contrary to His Law. The civil powers of which He 
approves are a terror to them who do evil. Tyrants 
and persecutors, usurpers and despisers of religion may 
be set up in His holy and just Providence to answer 
valuable purposes in His hand, but He himself declares 
in His Word that such Kings are set up not by Him. 
The Pagan Roman government is described in Revela- 
tion as the empire of the dragon, and all the kings 
that support anti-Christ are said in the same infallible 
Word to have received from Satan their authority. God 
has declared their overthrow and destruction, and no 
Protestant should recognize them as the ordinance of God 
to which they must yield conscientious support. The 
present King, Charles the Second, has violated the 
Constitution of Scotland ; he has broken the covenant 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 39 

which he made with God and man ; he has claimed as 
an essential part of royal perogative, a blasphemous 
supremacy in the Church ; he has overturned our ecclesi- 
astical order ; banished the faithful ministry, and perse- 
cuted the most virtuous inhabitants of the land. Such a 
perjured usurper and profligate tyrant cannot be con- 
sidered as a lawful magistrate by the Reformed Presby- 
terian Covenanters." 

These were the sentiments of the martyrs of Jesus, and 
for these principles they freely gave their lives. Their 
position was exceedingly unpopular, but in it were the 
germs of future glory and greatness. Like John 
the Baptist, they were the forerunners of greater 
things, and like John the Baptist, many of them 
were beheaded. For over twenty years this cruel 
persecution lasted, and the Covenanting Church was re- 
duced to a few ministers and members. As the faithful 
remnant of the Church of Scotland in her purest days, 
they continued to assemble for worship in such places 
as they could, and their courts of judicature were pre- 
vented from rfteeting. They made several bold declara- 
tions of their principles, and aroused the indignation of 
the King. At the first anniversary of the return of the 
King, Charles the Second, May 27, 1679, bonfires had 
b>een kindled in Rutherglen in commemoration of the 
restoration. The Covenanters repaired to the scene, ex- 
tinguished the fires, and burned the Acts of Parliament 
and the Council as the Covenants had been burned. 
They formulated the notable " Rutherglen Declaration 
and Testimony," and after fixing it to the market cross, 
peacefully retired. This was regarded as open rebellion 



40 niSTORN' OF THE REFORMED 

again.'jt the power, and produced the fiercest indignation 
among the prelatic party. It was among the first fearless 
declarations of the principles of the Covenanters, and 
lead to the battle of Drumclog, where Graham of Claver- 
house was defeated. The Covenanters also issued the 
" Queensferry Paper" in June, 1680, in which they de- 
clared : " We do declare that we will set up over our- 
selves, and over what God shall give us power of, govern- 
ment and governors according to the Word of God ; that 
we shall no more commit the government of ourselves 
and the making of laws for us to any one single person, 
this kind of government being most liable to inconven- 
iences and aptest to degenerate into tyranny." This 
is .strong language, and a bold sentiment of Republican- 
ism. This was burning the bridge behind them, and they 
neither asked nor received any favors from the prelatic 
power or ministry. The Covenanters hereafter kept 
themselves aloof from prelatic assemblies and worshipped 
among themselves. Holding fa.st to the Covenants and 
the rights of the Church which had been established by 
the King and all subjects, they passed just sentence upon 
all backsliders and defectionists from the King to the 
humblest member of the once established Church. Rev. 
Donald Cargill excommunicated Charles the Second and 
six other noted profligates, September 17, 1680, in the 
presence of a vast congregation. They were guilty of 
the most atrocious crimes, and justly dealt with, but 
they were regarded as fit members of the Episcopacy. 
This again excited the blood-thirsty persecutors to frenzied 
madness. Richard Cameron, who was the leader of the 
Covenanters and a most fearless and pious man, fell at 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4 1 

Airsmoss, July 22, 1680, as a victim of the diabolical 
power. The blood-stained standard was not allowed to 
trail, and was borne aloft by Donald Cargill, until he 
also was apprehended and executed at Edinburgh, July 
27, 1 68 1. This left the Covenanters without a minister, 
but the followers were just as faithful to their King and 
the attainments of the Covenanting Church. They im- 
mediately organized a system of societies among them- 
selves and met as often as they could. Correspondents 
from all the societies met in a general meeting, usually 
every three months, and determined the course of the 
whole body, but never assumed to dispense any official 
work. The minutes of these General Meetings were 
kept by Michael Shields and are published in the " Faith- 
ful Contendings." While they were deprived of public 
ministrations and sealing ordinances, the Covenanters could 
not conscientiously be administered unto by any minister 
who had taken "the indulgence." Mr. James Renwick, 
one of their worthy young men and a youth of good 
education, was sent to the University of Groningen, 
Holland, where he studied theology, and was licensed 
and ordained by the Classis of Groningen, May 10, 1683. 
The same fall he returned to Scotland, and, as the sole 
minister of the Covenanters, labored faithfully for the 
rights of Jesus and the liberties of his people. He suffered 
many annoyances and was frequently outlawed and per- 
secuted. Every person was forbidden by the edict of the 
tyrannical King " to harbor him and his followers, or 
supply them with meat or drink ; but to hunt and per- 
sue them out of all their dens, caves and most retired 
deserts, and to raise the hue and cry after them." Not- 



42 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

withstanding these dangers and cruelties, the Covenanters 
kept March 4, 1685, as "a day of thanksgiving unto the 
Lord for the wonderful proofs of His love and good will, 
manifested to a scattered and distressed remnant in this 
land, by His delivering them in several places from the 
power and rage of enemies when they were ready to 
swallow them up." By the death of Charles the Second, 
they enjoyed a brief breathing spell, and improved the 
precious time by preparing the famous " Sanquhar Dec- 
laration." and nailing it to the market cross* In 1682,. 
Rev. Alexander Peden was called from Ireland, and 
assisted Mr. Renwick until his death, January 26, 1686. 
In December, 1686, Alexander Shields, who had been 
licensed by some Presbyterian ministers in London,, 
espoused the despised cause of the Cameronians. Mr. 
William Boyd, educated in the Netherlands by the Cove- 
nanters, was licensed by the Classis of Groningen in 
September, 1687, and all these held forth the rights of 
" Christ's Crown and Covenant " with fearlessness and 
power. Rev. James Renwick, the last martyr to the 
sacred cause of Scotland, was executed February 17, 
1688, for his devotion to the Crown rights of King 
Jesus. His charge was : " You, James Renwick, have 
shaken off all fear of God and respect and regard to 
his majesty's authority and laws ; and having entered 
yourself into the society of some rebels of most damn- 
able and pernicious principles and disloyal practices ; 
you took upon you to be a preacher to those traitors 
and became so desperate a villain that you did openly 

*For many of these notable documents, and the details of incidents, 
the reader is referred to any reliable history of the Church of Scotland. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 43 

and frequently preach in the fields, declaiming against 
the authority and government of our sovereign lord, the 
King ; denying that our most gracious sovereign, King 
James the Seventh, is lawful King of these realms ; as- 
serting that he was a usurper, and that it was not 
lawful to pay cess or taxes to his majesty ; but that 
it was lawful and the duty of subjects to rise in arms 
and make war against his majesty and those commis- 
sioned by him." What is asserted was true ; for 
the Covenanters held the principle that " the abuse of 
power abrogates the right to use it." With few ex- 
ceptions, all Protestants accept this principle. Thomas 
Lining, also educated by the Covenanters, was ordained 
by the Classis of Embden, in August, 1688, after an 
examination of twenty-one days. Revs. Shields, Boyd 
and Lining maintained the faithful Covenanted testimony 
until the Revolution. Those Covenanters residing in 
Ireland were ministered unto by the revered David 
Houston. The Revolution Settlement of 1688, which 
dethroned James the Second and placed the crown upon 
William, Prince of Orange, is a memorable period, and 
one worthy of careful consideration in the history of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church. The two hundredth 
anniversary of this event was celebrated by the Cove- 
nanter Church in America, as in other lands. 

All true hearted Presbyterians looked with favor upon 
the Prince of Orange, and regarded the circumstances, 
which placed the crown upon his head as a good omen 
and the dawn of a better day for Scotland. It was. 
regarded as a Divine interposition in behalf of a loyal 
people, and the course pursued fully vindicated some 



44 IIISTOkV OF THE REFORMED 

of the principles held by the Covenanting witnesses. 
The Scottish convention passed the following : " That 
King James, by his abuse of power, had forfeited all 
title to the crown, and that it be conferred upon the 
Prince of Orange." The English Parliament also de- 
clared " that King James the Second, having endeavored 
to subvert the Constitution by breaking the original con- 
tract between the King and the people, did abdicate 
the throne." Now it is plain that both these acts estab- 
lish these two principles, " that the abuse of power 
destroys the right to exercise it ; and that a people 
may depose their rulers." These same principles dissolved 
the union between the Colonies and Great Britain, and 
gave the United States their independence. The same 
principles now lead thousands of Covenanters to sacri- 
fice their lives, and the principles will be admitted as 
sound by ever}- intelligent reader. But the hopes of 
the faithful Covenanting witnesses were doomed to speedy 
disappointment. While the Presbyterian system was es- 
tablished in Scotland, the Church was left under Eras- 
tian control. The Revolution Settlement was unsatis- 
factory in many respects. It was characterized by 
several flagrant errors. The Covenants .were blasphe- 
mously cast aside as worthless ; the civil institutions no 
longer pretended to possess scriptural qualifications ; 
and prelacy was retained in the National Church. If 
the Revolution of 1688, which overturned the house of 
Stuart, justified the course of those who rejected the 
authority upon the principle now accepted by all, then 
certainly the Covenanters were justified in rejecting the 
"settlement" of King William when he openly vio- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 45 

lated the very principles which brought him to the 
throne. He wilfully betrayed the very cause he sol- 
emnly swore to defend. Because the Covenanters re- 
garded an oath of vast importance and binding until 
the ends for which it was made were accomplished ; 
because they, and others, solemnly swore to adhere to 
the doctrine and order of the Church of Scotland as 
constituted between the years 1638 and 1649; because 
they were sworn to oppose Popery, Prelacy and Eras- 
tianism as all the Kings and subjects were bound ; 
because the crown was offered to the new sovereign 
without the proper and required scriptural qualifica- 
tions ; because the evil institution, against which the 
whole Church of Scotland had borne constant testi- 
mony, was interwoven into the policy of King William ; 
and because he became the acknowledged head of the 
Church, and exercised authority over it contrary to 
the Word of God and the previously avowed position 
of the Church of Scotland, the Reformed Covenanting 
Church publicly protested against the ''settlement" and 
remained separate from it, both in its civil and ec- 
clesiastical relations. Their grounds of dissent are those 
of reason and justice. The Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, or because of its attachment to the Cove- 
nants, the Covenanter Church, of this day, occupies 
the same position as the Church of Scotland did 
between the years 1638 and 1649, and which was the 
purest and most blessed period in its history. The 
Covenanters hold that the Covenants were binding upon 
those who solemnly swore them, and who are repre- 
sented in them, and they are not willing to speedily 



46 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

relinquish the testimony for which the life-blood of 
thousands of their brethern was sacrificed. While they 
stood aloof from the government because of principle 
and the reasons heretofore mentioned, as peaceful and 
law-abiding citizens they claimed the right of the protec- 
tion of their lives and property, and paid all just dues in 
taxes, and bearing arms in defence of their country. 
Those in Scotland who held these principles of Bible civil 
government as they had always been maintained by a 
true scriptural policy, hoped for a reformation and a 
return to former attainments. As an expression of 
their hopes, at the first General Assembly after the 
Revolution "settlement" held in 1690, the Covenanter 
ministers, Revs. Shields, Boyd and Lining, presenting a 
paper asking the Assembly to carefully examine their 
position, to acknowledge and confess their sin of Cov- 
enant breaking, and the nation's sin of defection from 
the previous attainments. This they not only refused 
to do, but fully embraced the policy of the govern- 
ment, and subsequently deposed the Rev. John McMillan,. 
a Presbyterian minister and a member of their own 
court, for no other cause than pleading for the obli- 
gations of the Covenants which they had solemnly 
sworn, and now violated with impunity. 

In 1691, Revs. Thomas Lining and William Boyd 
made defection, and after being admonished for their 
faithfulness to the Covenanters, were received into the 
Established Church. After having preached the Gospel 
and held the principles of the Covenanting Church for 
several years at the risk of their lives, they could not 
withstand the unpopularity of their cause. They evea 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 47 

persuaded Rev. Alexander Shields, the author of "The 
Hind let Loose," to leave the glorious principles 
he had so ably defended, and he also joined the 
Established Church. Rev. David Houston, in Ireland, was 
now the sole minister of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, and he held her principles intact until his death. 
Alexander Shields continued in his course of defection 
and became a chaplain in an army which fought under 
the Pope, and he died abandoned and distressed in 
Jamaica. The Covenanters were without a minister for 
sixteen years, and continued to hold that it was in- 
consistent with their position to wait upon the minis- 
trations of a minister who had been unfaithful to 
Jesus and his solemn vows. They scrupulously con- 
tended for the whole truth once delivered to the saints, 
organized themselves into praying societies, and sup- 
plicated earnestly and importunately the Good Shepherd 
to send them a pastor for the scattered flock. They 
watched with interest the contendings of the Rev. 
John McMillan, who, until 1703, sought a recognition 
of the obligations of the Covenants, and had failed. 
Believing that he had received his commission to 
preach from Christ and not from men, and that he 
had been unjustly deposed by the Established Church, 
he resumed his ministrations among his former con- 
gregation, who cordially received him and embraced his 
views of the Covenants. After frequent conferences and 
serious deliberation, Mr. McMillan acceded to the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church in October, 1706, and 
began his labors among them in December, 1707. His 
labors were greatly blessed among scattered societies. 



48 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and many were built up in their most holy faith. 
About this time, Mr. John McNeil, a licentiate of the 
Established Church, and who had been deprived of the 
priviledge of preaching in that body because of his 
fidelity to Reformation principles, also joined himself 
to the Covenanting Church, and assisted Mr. McMillan 
in displaying a banner because of truth. They drew 
up a Protestation and Declinature, in which they clearly 
set forth the principles of the Covenanting Church, 
and their reasons of dissent. The following is the title 
of this notable document : Protestation and Testimony 
of the United Societies of the Witnessing Remnant of the 
Anti-popish, Anti-prelatic, Anti-crastian, Aiiti-sectarian, 
True Presbyterian Church of Christ in Scotland, against 
the sinful Incorporating Union luith England and their 
British Parliament, Concluded and Established, May, ijof. 
This famous document and many other copies of the 
original manuscripts of a similar nature, are in the 
possession of the author. In 1708, another paper en- 
titled "Protestation, Declinature and Appeal," was pre- 
pared and signed by these ministers, in which they 
-clearly exhibit their reasons for dissent from the Re- 
volution Church and declare their unfaltering attach- 
ment to the standards of the once pure Church of 
Scotland. In 1707, the union of Scotland and England 
was effected, and in 171 1, patronage was restored. 
These steps gave additional evidence of apostacy in 
the Church and Nation, and the Covenanters felt it 
their duty to take another stand against the incoming 
tide of Prelacy and Papacy. To this end, and to 
•strengthen their hearts, they renewed the Covenants at 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 49' 

Auchinsaugh, Lanarkshire, July 23, 171 2. All the 
societies assembled for this important transaction, and 
with their right hands lifted up to Heaven, solemnly 
pledged themselves to be for God, and not for another. 
This act of Covenanting was followed by a blessing. 
As Mr. McNeil was never ordained, Mr. McMillan was 
the only minister of the Covenanters for over thirty 
years. He was faithful in visiting the different locali- 
ties where the societies assembled and preached to 
them with great power. While there was defection all 
around him and reproach cast upon him for his fidelity 
to a persecuted remnant of Christ's witnesses, he was 
unmoved in his course, and is an example of moral 
heroism unparalled in the history of the Christian 
Church. He was constantly treated with disrespect by 
Church and State, yet held fast the true position and 
the attainments to which every Church and Nation 
must reach, viz : allegiance to the Lord Jesus Christ 
as the Divine Head and King. In November, 1733' 
Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, who was subsequently joined 
by Revs. James Fisher, Alexander Moncrieff and William 
Wilson, seceded from the Established Church on ac- 
count of the evils flowing from patronage, and other 
tyrannical measures, and constituted the Associate Pres- 
bytery. In 1747, they divided on the "Burgess Oath" 
into two Synods, and grew rapidly. It was hoped 
some of them might join the Covenanters so that a 
Presbytery could he erected, but in this there was 
disappointment. In the testimony emitted by these men 
who constituted the first Associate Presbytery, it is 
admitted that grievous defects existed in the Revolu- 



50 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tion "settlement," and that rulers did not possess scrip- 
tural qualifications ; yet these brethren continued to 
acknowledge that the government as constituted was 
an ordinance of God, and freely rendered it their sup- 
port. They limited the Mediatorial Headship of Christ 
to the Church, and that as Mediator Christ does not 
govern the nations; that nations are not bound to 
acknowledge Christ or His religion ; that magistrates 
are God's ordinance, no matter how immoral their 
characters may be; and that while scriptural quali- 
fications may be desirable in rulers, yet they are not 
at all necessary. This view is simply placing the whole 
of the Reformation attainments into the grave and 
erecting a tombstone. 

It is not at all strange that they and the Covenanters 
did not embrace each other. In the spring of 1743, 
however, one of the Associate ministers, the Rev. Thomas 
Nairn, did embrace the principles and joined himself to 
the Covenanters. He and the Rev. John McMillan now 
constituted the Reformed Presbytery, at Braehead, 
Parish of Carnwath, Scotland, August i, 1743. Accession 
of ministers and increase of members soon followed, and 
the persecuted and despised Covenanter Church of Scot- 
land began to exert an influence. In a popular sense, 
the Covenanter Church in Scotland was never very 
strong, because her principles were exceedingly unpopular, 
and not in harmony with the minds of the public. And, 
as Dr. Lathan, of South Carolina, truly says, " Her doc- 
trinal standards were too high and her practical require- 
ments too rigid to be at all palatable to the mass of the 
human family. Notwithstanding all this," he says, "the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 5 1 

Reformed Presbyterian Church has been, since its organi- 
zation, a mighty power in the world. It stands among 
all other Christian denominations like a gnarled oak in a 
forest of dwarfed undergrowth." They again renewed 
the Covenants at Crawford-John, in 1745. The Act, 
Declaration and Testimony was adopted at Plough- 
landhead in 1761, and soon afterwards published. The 
societies in Ireland, which, after the death of the Rev. 
David Houston, in 1696, were left without a minister, 
and only occasionally visited by the Rev. John McMillan. 
The societies in Ireland were placed under the care of 
the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland until the Reformed 
Presbytery of Ireland was erected in August, 1763. 
The Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
Ireland was constituted at Cullybackey, May i, 18 li. 
The Church now regularly constituted in both Scot- 
land and Ireland continues almost uninterruptedly 
to exist as a distinct denomination until the present 
time. The history of the Reformed Presbyterian Church 
is now transferred to America, and, after a brief statement 
of her beliefs and position, the organic history of the 
-Church in this country will be recorded. 



52 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 



POSITION OF THE REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH IN AMERICA. 



IN her testimony the Reformed Presbyterian Church 
embraces the plain and cardinal truths of the Bible 
and brings them to bear practically upon the lives of 
her members.* From the following "Terms of Com- 
munion " and a brief statement of the distinctive prin- 
ciples of the Church, her true position may be learned : 

TERMS OF COMMUNION. 

1. An acknowledgment of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments to be the Word of God, and the only rule of faith and manners. 

2. An acknowledgment that the whole doctrine of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, and the Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, are agree- 
able unto, and founded upon, the Scriptures. 

3. An acknowledgment of the divine right of one unalterable form 
of Church Government and manner of worship — and that these are, for 
substance, justly exhibited in that form of Church Government and 
the Directory for Worship agreed upon by the assembly of divines at 
Westminster, as they were received by the Church of Scotland. 

4. An acknowledgment of public covenanting as an ordinance of 
God to be observed by churches and nations ; and of the perpetual ob- 
ligation of public covenants ; and of the obligation upon this Church 
of the Covenant entered into in 1871, in which are embodied the en- 
gagements of the National Covenant of Scotland, and of the Solemn 
League and Covenant, so far as applicable in this land. 

5. An approbation of the faithful contendings of the martyrs of 

* See Testimony of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 53 

Jesus, and of the present Reformed Covenanted Churches in Britain and 
Ireland, against Paganism, Popery, and Prelacy, and against immoral con- 
stitutions of civil government, together with all Erastian tolerations and 
persecutions which flow therefrom, as containing a noble example for us 
and our posterity to follow in contending for all divine truth, and in 
testifying against all contrary evils, which may exist in the corrupt con- 
stitutions of either Church or State. 

6. An approbation of the doctrines contained in the Declaration 
and Testimony of the Reformed Presbyterian' Church in North America, 
in defence of truth, and in opposition to error. 

These, together with due subordination in the Lord to the authority 
of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, 
and a regular life and conversation, form the bonds of our ecclesi- 
astical union. 



From this clear and concise declaration and testi- 
mony it is learned that the position of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church in America is, and always has been, 
one of practical dissent from the Constitution of the 
United States. In this the practice of the Church has 
been uniform. The Constitution is radically and wil- 
fully defective in that it does not recognize the exis- 
tence of God, the supremacy of Christ the King of 
Nations, and the Word of God as the supreme law. 
On account of these radical defects, and the many im- 
moralities which naturally flow from them. Reformed 
Presbyterians cannot recognize it as a scripturally con- 
stituted civil government, nor swear allegiance to it, 
however much they may admire its many excellencies. 

The relation of Christ to the nation is that of a 
Sovereign to a moral subject — a moral person, upon 
whom the law of His Kingdom is binding.* While 

* Lecture of Dr. J. R. W. Sloane. 
3 



54 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

civil society is founded in nature, it is one of the 
"all things" that are put under Christ as Mediator, and 
the nation flourishes or decays as it is obedient or 
disobedient to His law. Now as our highest allegiance 
is due not to the state, but to Christ, it is the duty 
of every Christian to stand aloof from such a govern- 
ment and refuse to incorporate with the political society 
which refuses or neglects to acknowledge the authority 
of Christ and His word in its fundamental law. The 
document reads : " We, the people of the United States 
* * * do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America." This declaration 
is historically, philosophically and scripturally untrue. 
The Constitution in all its essential elements was 
in existence before the document thus called was 
penned ; constitutions are not ordained of men, but 
grow ; and the Scripture afifirms that the powers that 
are legitimate powers at all, are ordained of God. These 
glaring defects, with the denial of any religious quali- 
fication, the absence of the name of God from the 
oath, and the license of immorality and crime upon 
which it sets its official seal, give the document, 
called the Constitution, such a character of infi- 
delity and irreligion that no true Christian ought 
to give it his full sanction. For these reasons, Re- 
formed Presbyterians have never voted at any of 
the elections, nor held office under the govern- 
ment. They have never refused, however, to recognize 
the authority of the government in things lawful, and 
its right to legislate for the well being of men. They 
pay their taxes cheerfully as a lawful obligation ; bear 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 55 

arms heroically in its defence and for the protection of 
their rights ; and give it their moral support in every- 
way that does not involve them in its evil. They 
heartily aid the government in all that is right and 
true. They enter the role of defenders and not traitors ; 
reformers and not revolutionists. Theirs is the highest 
kind of patriotism. Theirs is a love of country which 
would lead them to make any sacrifice to bring it 
into the enjoyment of the blessedness of that nation 
whose God is the Lord. 

Reformed Presbyterians hold that the Church and 
State are two divine institutions, supreme in their own 
spheres, yet touching at so many points that they 
cannot be entirely separated. The one should not arrro- 
gate to itself the powers of the other, for under 
Christ the one is His spiritual kingdom, and the other 
His moral dominion. They should, however, assist each 
other in dangerous emergencies, and in the universal 
spread of the gospel. 

The National Reform Association, organized with the 
hearty support and indorsement of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church, in 1863, has for its object "the main- 
tenance of the existing Christian features in the Ameri- 
can government ; the promotion of needed reforms in 
the action of the government touching the Sabbath, 
the institution of the family, the religious element in 
education, the oath, and public morality as affected by 
the liquor traffic, and other kindred evils ; and to 
secure such an amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States as will declare the nation's allegiance 
to Jesus Christ, and its acceptance of the moral laws 



56 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of the Christian religion ; and so indicate that this is 
a Christian nation and place all the Christian laws, 
institutions, and usages of our government upon ah 
undeniable legal* basis in the fundamental law of the 
land." This Association has drawn to its support 
many of the most learned theologians and able jurists 
in the country, and all true Christian patriots are fall- 
ing into line with this theory of civil government as 
the only safe and true course for the preservation of 
America. It is often asked, Is the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church a necessity ? This question is answered 
in the affirmative. It is the only distinct religious 
body in America that is bringing its principles to bear 
on the government for its reformation, and has the 
grandest object for which to live and labor. A practi- 
cal protest against evil is the only testimony that is 
weighty. The intelligent reader can understand the 
necessity and attitude of this Church, and that it is 
not for a trifling reason that Reformed Presbyterians 
forego priviledges dear to every freeman, and subject 
themselves to the reproach of men. 

As it is not the province of the historian to discuss 
theological differences between Christians, an elaborate 
argumentation of the distinctive principles of the Church 
will neither be expected by the readers, nor required 
by the author to carry out the design of this book. 
The distinctive principles will be briefly stated. Re- 
formed Presbyterians hold that social religious Covenant- 
ing is an ordinance of God to .be entered into by the 
individual, the church, and the nation. They acknow- 
ledge the perpetual obligation of the National and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 57 

Solemn League and Covenant entered into by their 
fathers in Scotland, so far as they are applicable in 
this land, and until all the objects therein specified are 
accomplished. While they acknowledge that many of 
the objects for which those precious documents were 
sworn have been accomplished, yet they are binding 
upon the present Covenanting Church in America until 
Papacy is removed from our land, and this Man of 
Sin recognizes the perogatives of Christ. In 1871, they 
entered anew into Covenant with God, the bond of 
which will be found on another page. There is no 
doctrine of the Bible more clearly revealed than the 
descending obligation of Covenants. We recognize the 
principle every day in our commercial and national 
life, and it is alike applicable in our spiritual life. 
Because Reformed Presbyterians hold tenaciously to 
former Covenants of ' the Church and conscientiously 
display the principle, they are rightly called Covenanters. 
Reformed Presbyterians exclude from their communion 
all members of secret oath-bound societies. They re- 
gard all such associations as the creatures of the 
Prince of darkness. The example and the spirit of the 
religion of Christ condemn such societies, for He said 
nothing in secret, and His acts of charity were done 
towards those very characters which are excluded from 
secret societies. Did Christ not minister to ivovian in 
all her needs } Did He not minister to the viaivied^ 
the halt and the blind ? And yet these special objects 
of Christ's love and charity are the very ones secrecy 
excludes from any benefit. Charity towards the rich, 
the famed, and the healthy, is not charity, but rather 



58 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

selfishness and malevolence. Secrecy is held up in a 
very unfavorable manner in the Eighth Chapter of 
Ezekiel. Neither the Church nor the State has ever 
delegated to any association of men the power to ad- 
minister the horrible oaths that are administered to the 
unfortunate candidates of secrecy, and who are in the 
dark as to what they are swearing to perform. On 
account of their blasphemous oaths, irreverent use of 
God's titles and attributes, banding together for selfish 
and wicked purposes, Christless Scriptures which are 
used to accommodate all classes of persons and beliefs^ 
and the tyrannical measures and dreadful penalties for 
revealing their benevolent (i") Avork, Reformed Presby- 
terians forbid their members to join or to belong ta 
associations of this character. 

Reformed Presbyterians do not use hymns of human 
composition in the service of divine worship. They be- 
lieve that God has given to His Church the matter of 
praise in the Book of Psalms, and has never delegated 
to any uninspired man the authority to substitute humart 
for divine matter of praise. The Psalms of the Bible 
were used in the temple and synagogue worship and it 
would have been considered a corruption of the worship 
to substitute any thing else. Christ and the Apostles 
used the Psalms in divine worship under the present 
dispensation, and on the night of the institution of the 
eucharistic feast they sang a part of the Great Hallel,, 
z. e., a portion of the six Psalms from the one hun- 
dred and thirteenth to the one hundred and eighteenth^ 
inclusive. Hymns, or human compositions, were un- 
known in the Christian Church until several centuries 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 59 

after Christ. It is a remarkable fact that the periods 
in which Hymns were introduced were generally those 
characterized by defection and spiritual ignorance. The 
Presbyterian Church never introduced human composi- 
tions into worship until she made defection from the 
attainments of the Second Reformation, and in some 
parts of the world this Church still clings to the Songs 

of Zion. For the reasons that God has not delegated 
to an uninspired person the right to introduced into 
His worship that which is already provided ; that Christ 
and the New Testament Church sanction the use of 
the songs of the Bible ; that many of the hymns are 
untrue, frivolous and sectarian, the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church use exclusively the one hundred and fifty 
Psalms of the Bible in divine worship, and they have 
always found them beautifully adapted and truly com- 
forting in all the circumstances of the Church, and pre- 
eminently so because they are the words of God to 
all His people. 

Another peculiarity of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church is that no instruments of music are used 
in divine worship. They believe that instruments were 
used in the tabernacle and temple worship by the 
Levites, and at " the time of the offering up of sacri- 
fices by the priests. As these services were wholly 
typical and were done away with at the coming of 
Christ, so also all the accompaniments and material 
supports of that service. At the advent of Christ the 
building was completed and the scaffolding was taken 
down. Christ and the Apostles never used an instru- 
ment of music in the synagogue worship, although they 



60 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

used the Psalms. If instruments had been necessary to 
acceptable worship, the example or direction of Christ 
in this matter would have been given. Christ requires 
a spiritual service — the melody of the heart with the 
fruit of the lips. The leading writers and fathers of 
the Church give instruments no place in the worship. 
They were introduced by Pope Vitalian, in A. D., 660, 
to "augment the eclat of religious ceremonies." Being 
of Romish origin, all true Protestants should look upon 
the innovation with suspicion. The true principle of 
Christian worship is " What has the Lord required," 
and not what He has not forbidden. All Presbyterians 
recognize the Westminister standards, and the Confes- 
sion of Faith says we are to " sing Psalms with grace 
in the heart," and "the acceptable way of worshipping 
the true God is instituted by Himself, and is so limited 
by His own revealed will that He may not be wor- 
shipped according to the imaginations and devices of 
men." It is an admitted fact that instruments and 
operatic choirs destroy congregational singing, and sub- 
stitute a meaningless service for that which every heart 
should render unto God. Instruments are used for the 
express purpose of making the service attractive, and 
the praise offering is often rendered for the worship- 
pers by those whose lips and hearts have never been 
touched by the love of God. When the worship is 
thus rendered by machinery, God is robbed of that 
heart service and spiritual communion which each wor- 
shipper should have with Him in the ordinances of grace. 
Among the forms still retained in the Church are 
the distribution of tokens at the communion season, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 6 1 

the "fencing of the tables" with table addresses, and 
an explanation of a portion of a Psalm each Sab- 
bath morning. They are opposed to any change 
with reference to the doctrines and practice of the 
house of God. Their services are plain and simple, 
and aim at the purity rather than the attractiveness of 
divine worship. While many of their doctrines and 
practices are unpopular, Reformed Presbyterians choose 
to bear the criticism, and even the reproach, of men, 
if they can only please God and bring glory upon 
His name. They desire to be approved of God in the 
maintenance of a purely scriptural Church, and to bring 
prominently before the world the sacrificial and medi- 
atorial work of the Lord Jesus Christ. While often 
despised of men for their exclusiveness, they do not 
expect their reward for their accommodations to the 
likes of sinful men, but for their fidelity to Christ and 
and His truth, and whose angel speaks to them as to 
the Church of Smyrna, " Be thou faithful unto death 
and I will give thee a crown of life." They plead 
the promise to the Apostles, " Fear not, little flock, 
for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you 
the kingdom." They maintain these doctrines and prin- 
ciples in the spirit of love and charity for all men 
and Christians, and with the sanguine belief that their 
principles will ultimately prevail and fill the whole 
earth with liberty and happiness. 



62 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 



ORGANIC HISTORY OF THE REFORMED PRES- 
BYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 



INURING the persecution in Scotland, members of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church were banished, or vol- 
untarily found an asylum, in America. They mostly 
settled in Eastern Pennsylvania, New York and South 
Carolina ; and where two or three families were located 
in the same community, they organized themselves into 
a society upon the basis of the Reformation, and kept 
themselves distinct from other denominations. The 
majority of the Covenanters previous to 1750, were 
settled in Eastern Pennsylvania. Those residing in the 
vicinity of Octorara were joined by the Rev. Alexander 
Craighead of the Presbyterian Church, who espoused 
their principles in 1743, lead them in Covenanting, and 
dispensed the ordinances to them for several years. 
A session was constituted, and among the first elders 
were Robert Laughhead and Josiah Kerr. The con- 
gregation was often called the "Craighead Society. "^ 
In maintaining the principles of the Covenanters, Mr. 
Craighead aroused the displeasure of his former breth- 
ren and the civil society. He published a pamphlet 
of a political nature, in which he set forth his pecu- 
liar views on civil government which were offensive to^ 
the Presbyterian Church because it was loyal to the 
Crown. After co-operating with the Covenanters for 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 63 

several years, and failing to obtain help for them from 
the mother country, he abandoned the society, returned 
to the Presbyterian Church, and removed to North 
Carolina. 

The societies were again left destitute of a minister, 
and made urgent applications to the Reformed Presby- 
tery of Scotland for help. The first Covenanter minis- 
ter who came to America was the Rev. John Cuth- 
bertson, from Scotland, who arrived in August, 1751. 
He continued to visit the scattered societies of Cove- 
nanters throughout Pennsylvania, New York, and other 
States, for a period of twenty-two years. He made 
his home at Little Octorara, Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, where the chief society was located. A few 
rude log houses of worship were erected, but the preach- 
ing services were held either in the open air in some 
pleasant grove, or in private houses and barns, and his 
travelling was wholly done on horseback. The amount 
of travel, and the hardships endured by this pioneer 
missionary are perfectly marvelous, and almost incred- 
ible to those enjoying the accommodations and luxuries 
of this age. 

In 1759, the Rev. Alexander McDowell left the 
Presbyterian Church, and espoused the cause of the 
Covenanters. He ministered principally to the societies 
in Connecticut and Massachusetts, but assisted Mr. 
Cuthbertson in Eastern Pennsylvania. He was called to- 
the congregation of Rock Creek (Gettysburgh), but de- 
clined, and in a few years returned to New England, 
and was lost to the Church. In 1766, the Reformed 
Presbytery of Ireland sent out the Rev. Daniel 



64 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

McClelland, who ministered to the societies in Con- 
necticut and Eastern Pennsylvania for a few years, but 
neither of these ministers was of any material assist- 
ance to the cause. Mr. Cuthbertson had a great deal 
to contend with in several ways. He suffered many an- 
noyances from the British government, which was doing 
all in its power to subject the struggling colonist to 
carry the doubly grievous yoke of tyranny and Episco- 
pacy. He encouraged the societies to assert their rights 
as freemen and to fight for the defence of their 
country. He inspired them to perseverance and the 
hope that God would vindicate the cause of the op- 
pressed and give them civil and religious liberty. In 
1772, the Rev. William Martin came out from Ireland 
with a colony of his people and settled along Rocky 
Creek, in South Carolina. 

In the Spring of 1773, a Commissioner was sent to 
Ireland from Paxtang society, Pennsylvania, to secure 
one or two ministers to come to the assistance of Mr. 
Cuthbertson. He was successful in his mission, and the 
Reformed Presbytery of Ireland sent out the Revs. 
Matthew Linn and Alexander Dobbin, who landed in 
Philadelphia, December 13, 1773, where they were met 
by Mr. Cuthbertson and conducted to his home. Revs. 
John Cuthbertson, Matthew Linn and Alexander Dobbin 
constituted the first REFORMED PRESBYTERY IN America, 
at Paxtang, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, March 10, 
1774. At this time each of these ministers was as- 
signed to his respective field of labor in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania, and with Mr. Martin in South Carolina, these 
four ministers held forth the cause of the Reformation 
in the new world. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 6$ 

The country was now thrown into the excitement 
and turmoil of the Revolutionary war, and every colo- 
nist who loved civil and religious liberty was called 
upon to defend his country and his rights. To a man 
the Covenanters were Whigs. An unsound Whig made 
a poor Covenanter^ and a good Covenanter made a loyal 
Whig. The colonists declared themselves independent 
of Great Britain, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia, and a 
five years' war ensued. North and South the Covenan- 
ters went hand and heart into the struggle for inde- 
pendence. When the Rev. Alexander Craighead re- 
moved to North Carolina he was thoroughly imbued 
with the principles of the Covenanter Church, and dis- 
seminated them among the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians of 
that community. The consequence was the First De- 
claration of Independence was emitted by his followers 
in May, 1775, a year or more previous to the Na- 
tional Declaration. From reliable histories a few in- 
teresting facts are gleaned. Mr. Bancroft says : " The 
first public voice in America for dissolving all con- 
nection with Great Britain came not from the Puritans 
of New England, the Dutch of New York, nor the 
Planters of Virginia, but from the Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterians of the Carolinas." He evidently refers to the 
influence of Rev. Alexander Craighead and the Meck- 
lenberg Declaration ; and this influence was due to 
the meeting of the Covenanters of Octorara, where in 
1743, they denounced in a public manner the policy 
of George the Second, renewed the Covenants, and 
swore with uplifted swords that they would defend their 
lives and their property against all attack and confis- 



66 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

cation, and their consciences should be kept free from 
the tyrannical burden of Episcopacy. Here was the 
fountain of Southern patriotism, and the Octorara 
meeting was the original germ of American independ- 
ence which was transplanted in Charlotte and then in 
Philadelphia. More than this. Thomas Jefferson says in 
his autobiography, that when he was engaged in pre- 
paring the National Declaration that he and his 
colleagues searched everywhere for formulas, and that 
the printed proceedings of Octorara were before him, 
and he used freely the ideas in the Mecklenberg 
Declaration.* No doubt this accounts for the similarity 
of expressions in the two documents. Sometimes it 
does happen that the discover or the inventor does 
not enjoy the right which should be bestowed upon 
him. 

A writer in the Nezv York Revieiv, reviewing the 
"Life of Thomas Jefferson," by Tucker, clearly shows 
that the Preamble to the Bill of Rights, the Mecklen- 
berg Declaration, and the Virginia Bill of Rights con- 
tain nearly everything of importance in the Declara- 
tion of Independence of July 4, 1776, upon which rests 
so much of Mr. Jefferson's fame.f Of this latter in- 
strument, and the Mecklenberg Declaration, Judge 
Tucker, says: (Vol. II., p. 627.) "Every one must be 
persuaded, at least all who have been minute observers 
of style, that one of these papers had borrowed from 
the other." (See also the observations in the writings 
of Thomas Jefferson, by H. Lee, Philadelphia, 1839). 

* Wheeler's Reminiscences, p. 278, in Congressional Library, 
f Wheeler's Reminiscences, p. 278. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 6/ 

The spirit which moved Rev. Alexander Craighead to 
the use of expressions frequent in documents prepared 
and used on similar occasions in Scotish history, evi- 
dently influenced the mind of Thomas Jefferson, when 
he indited the National Declaration of Independence. 
The printed proceedings of Octorara and Mecklenberg 
were both in circulation in Philadelphia at that time, 
and account for kindred expressions. 

It is now difficult to tell whether Donald Cargill, 
Hezekiah Balch or Thomas Jefferson wrote the National 
Declaration of American Independence, for in sentiment 
it is the same as the " Queensferry Paper" and the 
Mecklenberg Declaration. 

The " rash " declaration of Rev. Donald Cargill, the 
■Covenanter, was, *' We do declare that we shall set 
up over ourselves and over what God shall give us 
power of, government and governors according to the 
Word of God ; that we shall no more commit the 
government of ourselves and the making of laws for 
us to any one single person, this kind of government 
being most liable to inconveniences and aptest to 
degenerate into tyranny." This sentiment of thorough 
Republican independence was in circulation long before 
Balch or Jefferson was born, and the proceedings of 
Octorara preceeded those of Charlotte or Philadelphia 
fully a third of a century. " Honor to whom hopor is 
due." To stigmatize Covenanters as " anti-government 
people " is unjust aud untrue, and they are only objects 
■of derision because their accusers are totally ignorant 
•of their principles. They are heartily in favor of 
government, and the republican form of government, 



68 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and only object to the Constitution for its omission 
to acknoivlcdge the source from which all government 
comes, and a practical application of that doctrine. 

These humble and sincere followers of Jesus, who 
would conscientiously desire to erect a church and 
government after God's pattern, have been the truest 
and best friends the American government has ever 
possessed, and to a man they have been faithful to 
their country and to their God in every national 
struggle. To them, more than to any other people, 
the American government is indebted for liberty, and 
they demonstrated to the world that "there can be a 
church without a bishop and a government without a 
king." 

At the house of Captain Paxton, in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania, July 2, 1777, after a patriotic and powerful 
sermon, the Rev. . John Cuthbertson, and many of the 
Covenanters, swore fidelity to the cause of the Colonists. 
They took no immoral oath to an immoral constitution, 
for there was none in existance ; they simply said 
they were heartily in favor of the Revolution, and would 
be faithful to its cause. It was a similar act to that 
of Rev. Alexander Craighead and the Covenanters in 
1743. In South Carolina, the old Covenanter minister, 
William Martin, than whom no man in the South was 
better^ known, was doing all in his power for the cause 
of the Whigs. He preached rebellion against an unlaw- 
ful and tyrannical King, and incited the people to rise 
up in arms against British oppression. For the expres- 
sion of his sentiments he was apprehended by the 
Tories, and lay in the prison-house at Rocky Mount 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 69 

and Camden for over six months. When he was 
brought before Lord Cornwallis at Winnsboro, he made 
no retraction of his sentiments, and said he might 
do with him as he pleased. The Covenanters went 
heartily into the bloody conflict, and the battles of 
Fridus Fort and Eutaw Springs were so fierce and 
hotly contested, that their guns came to a blue heat 
in the conflict.* Such bravery in battle as was dis- 
played by William Anderson, John Smith, John Faris, 
Thomas McClurkin, Thomas Neil, and other Covenan- 
ters, deserves record. Wherever Covenanters and staunch 
Presbyterians were settled, there were the strongholds 
of the cause of American independence. 

While the colonists had a right and just reason to 
declare their independence of Great Britain in 1776, 
they had not a right nor a just reason for declaring 
their independence of the God of battles in 1789. 
The Declaration of Independence was right, but the 
Constitution of the United States was wrong. The 
spirit of liberty that animated the Revolutionary patriot 
was the same spirit that beat in the true heart and 
unyielding courage of the Scotch Covenanters, although 
many of the heroes and patriots of the struggle were 
irreligious men. The trouble was, French infidelity 
mingled with American patriotism at the helm of 
State, and was the cause of the perversion of loyalt}- 
to the Divine Being in the instrument of the newly 
erected government. 

During this excitement of war, and the disturbed 
state of the country, there was a slight change going 

*Rev. D. S. Paris, in R. P. & C, 1876, p. 56. 
4 



70 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

on in the minds of some of the Covenanters in Eastern 
Pennsylvania. The religious element in this country at 
that time was in a chaotic state. It was a new 
country being settled up by emigrants from the old. 
There, they were trammelled with tyrannical measures 
in church and state ; here, they were free to assert 
their independence of thought and action, and they 
were not as cautious as they should have been. 
Covenanters enthusiastically threw themselves into the 
struggle without immorality, thinking for aught they 
knew the Constitution when framed would be of the 
nature and make the acknowledgments which they 
desired. In this state of things Covenanters freely 
mingled with other Christians without respect to national 
or denominational peculiarities. The Covenanters hailed 
with joy the destruction in America of the govern- 
ment that had oppressed and persecuted them to the 
death in Scotland. Besides this, another branch of the 
Scottish Church was taking root in the same com- 
munity, which had originally been of the same stock 
and race in Britain, and now cotemporaneously planted 
in America. These circumstances all pointed to the 
practicability of seeking a union of the Covenanters 
and the Associate Church. Churches ought to unite 
and cause the body of Christ to become one when 
there is no immorality or departure from principles 
demanded. So far as the practical application of this 
movement at that special period was concerned it was 
a good move, but theoretically it was a bad move- 
ment. When the union was effected there was no 
Constitution, moral or immoral, but the Seceders held 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 7 1 

the principle that we are bound to recognize as the 
ordinance of God any government that may be set up 
without respect to qualifications, and here the Seceders 
showed their inconsistency. They bitterly opposed the 
Covenanters in Scotland and America for disowning the 
British government as an ordinance of God, and now 
they turn around and do all they can to overthrow 
that very government which they declared was an ordi- 
nance of God. Under the same government they were 
loyal in Scotland and disloyal in America, and seek 
union with a body that was always opposed to an 
unscriptural, tyrannical and oppressive government. The 
Seceders declared at the Revolutionary war that the 
doctrine of passive obedience, which they had cherished 
with seeming sincerity, was simply absurd ; and that 
the principles of the Covenanters, and those upon 
which the colonists acted, were true, and that "we are 
not bound to own as God's ordinance every one, with- 
out exception, who may providentially have power in 
his hands." 

In the coalescence, the Covenanter ministers never 
thought of giving up their principles, but they should 
have known the dangers of a compromise of principle. 
No sooner had the fair building of Covenanterism been 
erected in America upon Reformation principles, than 
the builders began to hew down the carved palace by 
affiliating with men who were opposed to the design 
of the structure. And this thing was not done hastily. 
They had been deliberately agitating the question for 
at least five years, and consummated it in the erection 
of the Associate Reformed Church, November i, 1782. 



72 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

They called the new organization b}- both names^ 
although it was practically an Associate Church still. 
As soon as the Constitution was framed a few years 
later, they all came under it as the Associate Church 
had done in Britain ; .they swore allegiance to it as 
the ordinance of God, although God, or Christ, or the 
Bible, is not recognized in it. If not in 1782, cer- 
tainly in 1789, it became an Associate Church, and 
we are not surprised to learn that some of the Cove- 
nanter ministers hung their heads in shame and re- 
gretted the step they had taken. 

The Reformed Presbytery lost its name and organiza- 
tion in America. No doubt Matthew Linn was the 
best Covenanter among them. In all the conferences, 
the minutes of which are published in " Miller's 
Sketches," hot debates were prevalent, and all the dif- 
ferences between the two bodies were discussed with 
marked ability. Upon one occasion the blood of the 
old Covenanter Matthew Linn became stirred, and he 
concluded an able and eloquent address upon a proposi- 
tion in these words : " You may agree to what proposi- 
tions you please, but we Covenanters will agree to 
none but with this interpretation, that all power and 
ability civil rulers have are from Christ the Prophet of 
the Covenant ; and all the food and raiment mankind 
enjoy are from Christ the Priest of the Covenant." 
And if he and his colleagues had added that no 
government is lawfully constituted without the acknowl- 
edgment that Christ is the King of nations, and clung 
to these sentiments, there would have been no dis- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 73 

astroLis union. The following is the basis of union 
finally agreed upon and adopted : 

1. That Jesus Christ died for the elect only. 

2. That there is an appropriation in the nature of faith. 

3. That the Gospel is indiscriminately addressed to sinners of 
mankind. 

4. That the righteousness of Christ is the alone proper condition 
of the Covenant of grace. 

5. That civil power originates from God the Creator, and not 
from Christ the Mediator. 

6. That the administration of the kingdom of Providence is com- 
mitted to Jesus Christ the Mediator ; and magistracy, the ordinance 
appointed by the moral Governor of the world to be the pillar or 
prop of civil order among men, as well as other things, is rendered 
subservient by the Mediator to the welfare of His spiritual kingdom, 
the Church, and beside the Church has the sanctified use of that and 
every common benefit, through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

7. That the law of nature and the moral law revealed in Scrip- 
ture are substantially the same, although the latter expresses the will 
of God more evidently and clearly than the former; and therefore 
magistrates among Christians ought to be regulated by the general 
directory of the Word as to the execution of their offices in faithful- 
ness and righteousness. 

8. That the qualifications of justice, veracity, &c., required in the 
law of nature for the being of a magistrate, are also more clearly 
and explicitly revealed as necessary in Scripture. But a religious test 
any farther than an oath of fidelity can never be essentially neces- 
sary to the being of a magistrate, except when the people make it a 
condition of government ; then it may be among that people neces- 
sary by their own voluntary deed. 

g. That both parties, when united, shall adhere to the Westmins- 
ter Confession of Faith, Catechisms Larger and Shorter, Directory for 
Worship, and Propositions concerning Church Government. 

10. That they shall claim the full exercise of church discipline 
without dependence on foreign judicatories. 

The union was consummated at the house of William 
Richards, in the city of Philadelphia, November i, 



74 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1782, at which time and place the Synod of the 
Associate Reformed Church was constituted, with the 
Rev. John Mason, Moderator. The following members 
composed the new body as then organized : 

Associates: Revs. James Proudfit, Matthew Hender- 
son, John Mason, Robert Annan, John Smith, John 
Rodgers, Thomas Clark, William Logan, John Murray 
and David Annan. Elders — Joseph Miller, Thomas 
Douglas and William McKinley. 

Covenanters : Revs. John Cuthbertson, Matthew Linn, 
Alexander Dobbin and David Telfair. Elders — James 
Bell, John Cochran and Dr. Robert Patterson. 

The great majority of the Covenanters in the North 
followed their misguided pastors into the union. Rev. 
William Martin, in South Carolina, was the only 
Covenanter minister left in America, and no doubt he 
would have gone in too if he had been in good stand- 
ing and had had the opportunity. The Covenanters 
in the Sou.th were little effected by the union. While 
in the ten articles of agreement there are many con- 
cessions to the principles of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, yet there are some radical departures. To the 
concessions all the Seceders did not agree, and to 
the departures all the Covenanters did not agree. The 
consequence was, three bodies were formed instead of 
one. While it is said " in union there is strength," 
it depends largely upon the basis of that union. The 
moral strength of the Church depends upon purity of 
doctrine and not upon the mass of individuals. The 
sparkling rill from the mountain side is smaller and 
purer than the large turbid river that flows through 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 75 

the valley. Two ministers of the Associate Church 
did not go into the union, and this Church was re-or- 
ganized and grew rapidly. 

In an edition of their Testimony, emitted about fifty 
years after the union, we read : '• Nearly fifty years 
have now elapsed since the organization of the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Church ; and the correctness of the 
[former] remarks on her Constitution, has been clearly 
exhibited. For some time she continued to observe 
the usages of the Associate Church from which she 
separated. But becoming numerous and popular some 
of her ministers began to manifest symptoms of dis- 
satisfaction with many of these usages, acted contrary 
to them, wrote against them, and attempted their 
abolition." Among their devisive courses enumerated 
were the doing away with days of fasting and pre- 
peration before communion, holding open communion, 
singing hymns, freely exchanging pulpits with all 
denominations, and agitating a union with the Pres- 
byterian Church. The history of the Associate Re- 
formed Church was marked with so much declension, 
that the body divided into three distinct Synods in 
the North, South and West. 

The Covenanters were worse off than the remnant 
of the Associate Church, for they had no minister. 
But God graciously preserved the germs of Covenan- 
terism, and the few faithful ones rallied around the 
old flag. With the heroism of their martyred ancestry, 
they clung to their blood-bought principles and gathered 
themselves again into the praying societies. The 
Covenanter Church has a mission to fill and a grand 



76 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

object for which to live, or God would not have so 
tenderly and marvelously preserved her from total 
extinction both in Scotland and America. Nearly every, 
if not every, other denomination has either departed 
from some of her principles or become thoroughly 
Americanized ; but the old Covenanter Church retains 
her ancient principles intact, with her rugged Scottish 
forms of worship, and has successfully weathered every 
storm of innovation. 

The scattered societies of Covenanters now called 
loudly for help from Scotland and Ireland. They 
waited patiently seven years before their request could 
be granted. In the summer of 1789, the Reformed 
Presbytery of Scotland sent out the Rev. James Reid 
to examine into the condition and needs of the 
societies. He made an investigating tour among all 
the societies from New York to South Carolina ; 
preached and held communions, organized new societies 
and congregations, and returned to Scotland in a little 
less than a year. Doubtless in his elaborate report to 
the Scottish Presbytery, Mr. Reid showed the need of 
immediate action and the pressing claims of the 
American Covenanters. His visit lead the Churches in 
Europe to take immediate steps for sending ministerial 
help to this country. The Rev. James McGarragh was 
first sent out by the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, 
and he arrived in South Carolina in the Spring of 
1 79 1. Rev. William King was also commissioned by 
the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, and arrived in 
South Carolina in the Fall of 1792. Revs. McGarragh 
and King were now directed to act as a Committee 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. ^J 

of the Scottish Presbytery and to judicially manage 
the affairs of the Church ; they restored the Rev. 
William Martin, and he was added to the Com- 
mittee. In the Spring of 1793, the Rev. James 
McKinney came out from Ireland as an £xile for liberty, 
and preached throughout the Northeastern States and 
cities with great power and success. He also was 
connected with the work of the Committee, which 
now acted as a regularly constituted Presbytery in 
subordination to the Reformed Presbytery beyond the 
ocean. In August, 1795, Mr. McGarragh was suspended 
on account of intemperate habits, and Mr. Martin was 
silenced for the same reason, thus leaving Mr. King 
alone in the South to manage the affairs of the 
Church. Mr. McKinney held that it was not satisfac- 
tory to judicially manage the affairs of the Church in 
America by a Committee from Scotland ; but to un- 
derstand and judiciously apply the provisions for the 
needs of the societies, the Church here should have 
a separate and distinct Presbytery. This was necessary 
on account of the vast number of emigrants which 
were arriving, and efforts were made to carry this idea 
into execution. 

The Reformed Presbytery of Ireland was placed in 
a critical position with reference to the Irish insurrec- 
tion, and their troubles proved advantageous to the 
Church in America in the way of receiving ministers 
and members. For many years the Covenanters 
in Ireland were the sole advocates of liberty from the 
Crown. While they deeply sympathized with the cause 
of the oppressed, they could not join the society of 



78 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

United Irishmen, but disapproved of their proceedings. 
This society was organized at Belfast by Theobald 
Wolfe Tone. In a document published in 1796, entitled 
" A Seasonable and Necessary Information," the Re- 
formed Presbytery of Ireland vindicated its character 
in reference to this society known as the United Irish- 
men, by declaring its " highest abhorence of all such 
tumultuous meetings and disorderly societies," and 
signified its disapproval of " anything said or done 
prejudicial to the peace, safety and property of any 
individual or society." This document was published 
in the Northern Star, October 3, 1796, and was done 
in the name of the Covenanter Church in the counties 
of Antrim and Down.* Being thoroughly in sympathy 
with the cause that might overthrow monarchy and 
prelacy. Covenanters were suspected by the government 
of being in connection with this society, and were ofterk 
so regarded. They did sympathize with, but not adopt 
the methods of, this society, and many of them fled 
to America for safety and peace. Among those coming" 
in the Fall of 1797, were the Rev. William Gibson,, 
with John Black and Samuel B. Wylie, students of 
theology. Revs. King, McKinney and Gibson now 
made arrangements to constitute a Presbytery in 
America, but Mr. King died before it was effected. 
Revs. Gibson and McKinney, with ruling elders, con- 
stituted the Reformed Presbytery of America, at 
Philadelphia, in May, 1798, which had been dissolved since 
the coalescence of 1782. This court was fully recog- 
nized by the Presbyteries in Ireland and Scotland, and 
*Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 79 

a friendly correspondence was established with them. 
They were not placed under the same circumstances 
as the brethren in 1774, and the objectional features 
of the Constitution of the United States were clearly 
pointed out and testified against. Its wilful omission 
of all reference to God the Author, Christ the King, 
and the Word of God as the Supreme Law of nations 
and civil government ; its sanction and protection of 
human slavery, and other permissions of evil, excluded 
all conscientious Covenanters from swearing allegiance 
to it. The position of the Church was then, as it is 
now, one of practical dissent from the Constitution 
for these just and good reasons, and so it remains 
without change either in the testimony or the practical 
application of these principles. 

Among the first judicial acts of the Reformed 
Presbytery worthy of special notice, was the deliver- 
ance of this body, in 1800, on the subject of human 
slavery. They had always held this system to be a 
sin, and previous to 1798, the ministers in South 
Carolina had warned members against it. The matter 
was brought before them by Rev. Alexander McLeod 
refusing to accept a call to Coldenham, New York, 
because there were some members who owned slaves. 
The Presbytery enacted, without a dissenting voice, 
that " no slaveholder should be allowed the communion 
of the Church." They also appointed a Committee, 
consisting of Revs. James McKinney and Samuel B. 
Wylie, to repair to South Carolina with the message 
of this court that the Covenanters there must either 
emancipate their slaves or be refused the communion 



80 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of the Church. " The Committee were no less surprised 
than delighted to find with what alacrity those con- 
cerned came forward and complied with the decree of 
Presbytery. In one day, in the small community of 
Covenanters at Rocky Creek, not less than three 
thousand guineas were sacrificed upon the altar of 
principle," and the Church then and forever cleansed 
her hands from the guilt of human slavery. Cove- 
nanters were far in advance of other denominations in 
this matter. The Associate Reformed Synods of the 
North and West gave a very mild deliverance in 
1826, but the Synod of the South never made a 
deliverance upon the subject. Previous to the Revolu- 
tionary war there were few negroes in the South, but 
the traffic in human souls began immediately afterwards 
and the nefarious business became a great trade and 
industry. With the annual growth of slavery the 
annual emigration of Covenanters increased. They were 
thorough-going abolishionists, and established " under- 
ground railways " from the South into Canada. 

In 1802, the Rev. Samuel B. Wylie was sent as a 
commissioner to the sister judicatories of Europe, with 
the instructions of the Reformed Presbytery that 
he shall "give them a just representation of our 
present situation as a church in North America ; to 
intimate our unfeigned wish for a friendly connection 
and express our sorrow that the court had so long 
neglected making intimation to this effect ; and to 
endeavor to procure as many ministerial laborers as 
may be conveniently obtained." Although the Presby- 
tery had been constituted four years, the fact had not 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 8 1 

been ofificially announced to the Presbytery under whose 
care they had been. This state of affairs would seem 
to indicate the necessity of a common judicatory or 
supreme court under which Covenanters in all lands 
could be united. Mr. Wylie was received with cor- 
diality everywhere, and all the objects of his mission 
were obtained so far as practicable. 

The next important item in the organic history was 
the provision made for the emission of the Testimony. 
While they went upon the principle that truth is not 
local, and they desired a testimony that would be 
applicable in all lands, yet they felt the need of a 
testimony to apply to the Church in America in con- 
tending for all truth and testifying against local evils. 
A committee was appointed in 1802, to draught such 
a system and ask the co-operation and assistance of 
all the ministers in America and the Presbyteries 
in Scotland and Ireland. Rev. Alexander McLeod was 
the chairman of the committee, and different depart- 
ments were assigned to different ministers. 

In 1804, the Reformed Dissenting Presbytery proposed 
a union with the Covenanters, but they could not be 
admitted upon their basis, and the matter was dropped. 
In May, 1806, the "Declaration and Testimony of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in America " was unani- 
mously adopted and ordered to be published with all 
convenient speed. At this meeting it was also enacted 
that "sitting on juries in the civil courts of the 
United States, or in any State, is inconsistent with 
the Testimony;" and "an oath may be made before 
the constituted authorities provided such magistrates 



02 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

understand that the person doing so does not recognize 
thereby his official right to administer it, but the 
individual makes the oath voluntarily to the Supreme 
Being." In 1807, a committee was appointed to make 
a draught of a covenant, "embracing the spirit and 
design of the vows entered into by our fathers in the 
Reformation." This work was never attended to, and 
not until sixty-five years thereafter was the original 
purpose carried out. The "Terms of Communion" 
now in use were prepared, and the fourth term was 
changed in 1878 to apply to the renovation of the 
Covenants in 1871. At the same time the "Directory 
for Worship " was prepared by Rev. John Black, and 
the "Book of Discipline" by Rev. Alexander McLeod. 
They were both adopted in 18 19; but it seems the 
"Book of Discipline" was rewritten, several years spent 
in making amendments, and it was not authoritatively 
published as the law of the Church until 1863. The 
Presbytery also decided to establish a Theological 
Seminary, and it was opened in Philadelphia, May, 
1 8 10, with the Rev. Samuel B. Wylie as the professor. 

The Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
America was constituted at Philadelphia, May 24, 1809, 
which court ratified all the deeds of the Reformed 
Presbytery and changed the three Committees into 
Presbyteries. 

The next national struggle was what is known as 
the "War of 181 2." On account of "the impressment 
of American seamen, depredations on commerce and 
attacks upon armed vessels, the United States Con- 
gress declared war against Great Britain." The major- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 83 

ity of the Covenanters thought it their duty to again 
come to the defense of the country and their interests. 
As there were many members who were aliens and 
would not take the naturalization oath, and, for fear 
they would be suspected as enemies of the States, the 
Synod of 18 12, made a statement to Congress of her 
position as a Church. As no immoral oath was re- 
quired of them, the Covenanters were hearty supporters 
of the nation's rights and cheerfully bore arms in 
defense of the country. The failure of many of the 
Christian ministers of other denominations throughout 
the country to support the nation in its rights, many 
of whom were loyal to Great Britain and opposed to 
the measures adopted by the United States, lead the 
Rev. Alexander McLeod to preach a series of "War 
Sermons," which for truth and eloquence are unexcelled 
in modern sermonizing. They were published and 
received a large circulation. 

At the meeting of Synod in 18 17, the following 
resolution was passed : " Whereas, A judicial testimony 
for truth and against errors and immoral practices, 
unaccompanied with an argumentative defence of the 
one and refutation of the other, must be defective — ■ 
and as a promise has been given by the highest 
judicatory of this Church, that such a defence and 
refutation, as a third part of our testimony, may be 
expected ; therefore. 

Resolved, " That a Committee be appointed to inquire 
into the subject, and report on the propriety of redeem- 
ing their pledge at this time, and to suggest the fittest 
mode for accomplishing that purpose. 



84 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Resolved, " That this Committee consist of three mem- 
bers, viz : Revs. McLeod, Milligan and Lusk." The 
Synod also made arrangements for a more hearty and 
systematic support of the Seminary. 

At the meeting of Synod in i8i8, the following 
distribution of articles for the Testimony was made : 
" The Directories " to Rev. John Black ; the " Book of 
Discipline" and "Form of Covenanting" to Rev. Alex. 
McLeod; "Form of Church Government" to Rev. J. R. 
Willson ; "Forms of Process" to Rev. Gilbert McMaster ; 
and an "Address" to accompany the Covenant to Rev. 
Thomas Donnelly. These were to be ready by the 
next meeting. The most of the sessions of 1819 were 
consumed in considering the " Book of Discipline " and 
the " Directory for Worship." The tasks assigned at 
the previous meeting were not completed and the 
writers were continued. A Committee consisting of 
Revs. S. B. Wylie, Alex. McLeod and J. R. Willson 
was appointed to " address the sister Synods in Britain 
and Ireland and propose to them the propriety of 
entering into a Solemn League and Covenant, mutually 
binding us to God and to each other in the support 
of the cause of the Reformation in which we are all 
engaged ; and recognizing the obligation by which we 
are bound by the Covenants of our ancestors." 

At the meeting of Synod in 1821, a paper was 
received from Mr. James Willson, of Kaskaskia, Illinois,, 
asking for information with respect to the law of the 
Church in civil affairs, and especially on the subject 
of sitting on juries. The Synod stated " that no con- 
nection with the laws, the offices, or the order of the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 85 

State is prohibited by the Church, except what truly 
involves immorality." This action of Synod has 
frequently been used as an excuse and apology by 
those who subsequently became citizens. Now it is 
clear that there is no surrender of the position of the 
Church in this act, for the Testimony of the Church 
has declared over and over again that there was 
"immorality interwoven with the general and state's 
Constitutions," and members uniformly dissented from 
them. Until the Church published her Testimony it 
passed an act prohibiting members from sitting on juries,, 
for jurors are executive of^cers created by the Constitu- 
tion and represent the Nation in giving a verdict 
according to the law and testimony. The Synod gave 
no new deliverance on the question in 1821, and if Mr. 
James Willson had read the authorized Testimony he 
would have found that the law of the Church, as 
made in the meeting of Presbytery in 1806, was that 
" sitting on juries in the civil courts of the United 
States, or in any State, is inconsistent with the 
Testimony." This law never was repealed and it was 
not disannulled by the act of 1821. Although this 
act unsettled the minds of some who were anxious to 
lay down the Testimony, and lead to complaints from 
others who thought the Church was laying down her 
principles, the Synod in 1825, gave this clear and 
difinite deliverance which forever after should have 
closed the mouths of latitudinarians : " Some misunder- 
standing having occurred relating to the meaning of 
the act passed at our last session respecting serving 
on juries, the Synod passed the following resolution : 



S6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

" Resolved, That this Synod never understood any act of 
theirs relative to their members sitting on juries as 
contrary to the old common law of the Church on 
these subjects." The " old common law " was prohibitory 
and did hold sway, but there was a disposition on the 
part of some leading members of Synod to change 
the position of the Church as dissenting from the 
government, which lead to the formation of the party 
which abandoned this distinctive position in 1833. 

In 1823, the constitution of the supreme judicatory 
was changed into a General Synod by the following 
action : 

Resolved, That a General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, to meet bi-ennially, be formed by delegates from the several 
Presbyteries ; that each Presbytery shall have the right of sending two 
ministers and as many ruling elders, and that the ratio of increase 
of the number of delegates be, until further order be taken on the 
subject, two ministers and as many ruling elders, for every three 
ministers of which the Presbytery consists. 

By many this change was regarded as uncalled for 
and the means by which power was acquired to effect 
a change in the relation of the Church to the govern- 
ment. History confirms the fact that these suspicions 
were well-grounded. At this meeting also they reiter- 
ated the law of the Church that "no slaveholder can 
be held in the communion of the Church," and the 
Committee appointed to act on cases of discipline 
recommended Synod "to insert under the Chapter of 
Oaths, a new article to testify against the oaths taken 
by free-masons." 

In 1825, the General Assembly Presbyterian Church 
proposed a plan of correspondence, and delegates were 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 8/ 

appointed from the Reformed Presbyterian Church. 
They framed a treaty Avhich was ratified by the 
General Assembly, but rejected by the Synod of our 
Church. This was not satisfactory to those who were 
imbued with the spirit of the treaty and who 
manifested a disposition to not heed the decisions of 
Synod. Thus began a discord, and the peace and 
harmony of the Church were again disturbed. Those 
who began to maintain these principles of latitudina- 
rianism, and consider the testimony and decisions of 
the Church ' as of no force, are responsible for the 
disruption that soon followed. In 1827, the Synod was 
called upon to vindicate its course in criticizing the 
position of the Associate Church, and, as this body 
liad begun a correspondence with Synod upon the 
subject of union, after a free and full discussion of 
the principles of each body, the Synod, in 1828, 
declared that it would be useless to endeavor to effect 
a union with them, and the matter was dropped. 

In 1830, the Committee previously appointed to 
^'report concerning the propriety of making application 
to the several civil authorities of our, common country 
respecting the existing relations of this community to 
the Commonwealth," reported in an able and earnest 
paper that "there could be no change in the existing 
relations of the Church to the Nation in consistency 
with her testimony as witnessing for the authority of 
Christ as King of nations." This faithful report was 
galling to some who desired to modify the position of 
the Church, and, after a good deal of discussion, it 
was finally agreed to commit it to the examination of 



88 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

a Committee of four, and if they saw fit, to publish 
it as an overture before the next meeting" of Synod. 
The Committee framing the paper, and that to examine 
it, were made one, and it was hoped that the valuable 
part of it w^ould be preserved and the position of the 
Church maintained. The following is the action of the 
Synod of 1831, with reference to it: 

The object of appointing a committee on the civil relations, is to 
inquire into the propriety of making application to the civil authorities 
respecting the relations in which the members of this Church stand 
to them. The said committee accordingly submit to Synod a resolu- 
tion in these words : 

That an applicatiob be made to the Congress of the United States, 
when it shall have been ascertained from influential statesmen that 
such application shall probably prove successful, for a grant of the 
rights of citizenship to the members of this Church, not otherwise re- 
cognized as citizens, on other terms than swearing an oath of allegiance 
to the existing civil institutions of the land. 

Your committee are of opinion that influential statesmen have not, 
as yet, opened the door for a successful application to Congress, and 
therefore deem it most prudent to recommend to Synod a postpone- 
ment of the subject. 

While this report fails to accomplish the design for 
which the Committee was appointed, it certainly exalts 
the position and authority of the Synod in forbidding 
her members to swear allegiance to the government. 
A " rising party " was not yet satisfied because the 
iron laws of the Church held them down to a sub- 
mission to her Testimony. They wanted to breathe 
more freely, and so, at the same meeting of 1 831, it 
was " resolved that this Synod recommend that the 
points of difference on the application of our principles 
to the civil institutions of the United States be dis- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 89 

cussed through the medium of the American Christiaii 
Expositor, under the head of " Free Discussions," and 
that every member of Synod have full liberty to avail 
himself of this vehicle." 

Now the law of the Church and the acquiescence of 
members to the report both plainly declared that 
members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church could 
not, consistent with their position of dissent, swear 
allegiance to the government. As upon this vital 
question there was no difference of opinion, how could 
it be a matter of discussion .-* It was simply an oc- 
casion to repeal the action of Synod prohibiting 
incorporation with the government. The consequence 
was the pulpit and the press now became vehicles for 
the dissemination of doctrines subversive to the position 
of the Church. Some of the learned doctors, who had 
grown weary of testimony-bearing, wrote articles to 
show how easily Covenanters, in consistency with their 
principles, could incorporate with the government and 
not be charged with complicity in the sins of the 
nation. This was " new light " to those who had 
thought and held that the Constitution was defective 
and licensed immorality, and those who swore allegiance 
to it were justly implicated in the evil. Some of the 
leading men, who had spent their best days in upholding 
the principles of the Church and emitting publications 
in her defense, now " changed their minds " and 
repudiated the sentiments held when they were " beard- 
less boys." 

■ We have now come to a period in the history of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church when those errors, 



go HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

which were given too much countenance at first r 
developed into open rebellion against the true and 
historic position of the Church. It is now fifty-five 
years since the unpleasant controversy and division of 
the Church ; and, while we have no desire to revive 
the trouble, we have an earnest desire to vindicate 
the position of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. It 
is granted that mistakes and bad temper were dis- 
played upon both sides ; that the war of words and 
pamphlets aggravated the controversy and widened 
the separation ; but back of all this debris there was 
a righteous position to be held and a Bible principle 
to be maintained. Neither the righteousness of the 
cause nor the validity of the course consisted in which 
side had the learned doctors, the most worldly ambi- 
tion, held the most property, exerted the most influence 
in society, or held or withdrew from material buildings. 
All this is simply c/ust. The question is, Which side 
held the true I^ible theory of civil government, and 
which departed from the recognized position of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in America ? 

Now the trend of Scottish history, and the Testi- 
mony of the Reformed Presbyterian Church officially 
adopted in 1806, testify to the fact that Covenanters 
are dissenters from immoral Constitutions of Church 
and State. No candid and intelligent reader can deny 
this fact. No one thoroughly acquainted with the 
godly instruction of Covenanters and the true character 
of the American government could be mistaken as to 
the attitude of Reformed Presbyterians. Hear the Testi-r 
mony of 1806: 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 9 1 

Since the adoption of the Constitution in 1789, the members of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church have maintained a constant testimony 
against these evils. They have refused to serve in any office which im- 
plies an approbation of the Constitution, or which is placed under the 
direction of an immoral law. They have abstained from giving their 
votes at elections for legislators or officers, who must be qualified to act 
by an oath of allegiance to this immoral system. They could not 
themselves consistently swear allegiance to that Government, in the 
Constitution ot which there is contained so much immorality. In all 
these instances their practice has been uniform. 

And who wrote these sentiments ? A man who was 
now repudiating them ! And not only in the " His- 
torical Part " of the Testimony, but in the " Doctrinal 
Part," which was adopted at the same time, the holding- 
up of the United States government as an ordinance 
of God was an error to be condemned and testified 
against. The sessional records all over the country 
reveal the fact, that, previous to the " new light " 
which dawned upon the Church in 1833, members who 
sat on juries or voted at any elections were centered, 
and they either confessed their sin or left the Church. 

Without fear of contradiction it is afifirmed, and 
synodical reports corroborate the statement, that it was 
the settled policy and position of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church in America to refuse allegiance to the 
United States government on account of its defects and 
immoralities. The constitutional law of the Church has 
always been that members are absolutely prohibited from 
afifiliating with the government in any way that would 
involve them in its evil or give sanction to it as the 
ordinance of God.* The act of Synod in 1831, by which 

*This position of the Church is admitted in the Reformed Presbyterian-. 
Advocate, the organ of the New School Church, January, 1888. 



92 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

members were given the priviledge of free discussion, in 
no way gave them the liberty to change the constitutional 
law of the Church. The law on this subject was fixed, 
and it never was repealed, and stands to-day to the con- 
demnation of those who departed from it. 

At the meeting of the Eastern Subordinate Synod, 
held in New York, April 25, 1832, a paper, which was 
designed to be a pastoral letter to the Churches, was 
drawn up by the Chairman of a Committee appointed 
for that purpose. This paper embodied high enconiums 
and commendations of the United States government, 
which government was the same as it had been when 
the same gentleman had previously condemned it for its 
immoralities, and denounced those who were faithfully 
maintaining the Church's Testimony. This paper was 
adopted, after many malicious paragraphs were expunged 
because they were directly subversive to the principles 
of the Church and highly abusive of some of the 
members of Synod. Contrary to the decision of Synod, 
and in insubordination to the highest judicatory of the 
Church, the Chairman of this Committee, and a 
minority of the members of the. court, gathered to- 
gether and made arrangements for publi.shing the whole 
document with explanatory notes, and they spread the 
dangerous publication all over the Church. As a point 
of law, it is not whether the standards of the Church 
are correct or whether the pastoral letter taught doctrines 
contrary to them ; but, those who held these views, 
must either clear themselves according to the constitu- 
tional law of the Chnrch, or abandon her position. The 
existing law of the Church, however, condemned the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 93 

expunged paragraphs and the sentiments of those who 
sympathized with them, and they were compelled to do 
the other thing — leave the Church. If men do not 
believe the principles of the Church they are at liberty 
to step down and out. But many of these misguided 
brethren, by their writings and speeches, would condemn 
the standards and justify their opinions. 

In this state of things it was necessary to stay the 
progress of defection. The only and the proper thing 
to do, was to call a meeting of the court to which 
those who were departing from the principles were 
amenable. This was done. The Moderator of the 
Eastern Subordinate Synod, on the requisition of two 
Presbyteries, called a pro re nata meeting which was 
held in New York, November 25, 1832. The Synod 
was regularly constituted by prayer and the object of 
the meeting sustained. As might be expected, protests 
came in from six ministers upon whose conduct the 
meeting was to act. The Clerk refused to produce the 
minutes of the court, and, after three regular citations 
to do so, was suspended for insubordination. The 
meeting then proceeded to examine the " original draft 
of a pastoral letter " and the paragraphs which had 
laeen expunged, and a libel was founded thereon against 
those who signed it. The counts in the libel were 
five in number, viz : i. Following divisive courses. 
2. Contempt of the authority of Synod. 3. Error in 
Doctrine. 4. Abandonment ' of the Testimony of the 
Church. 5. Slandering Synod and its members. Copies 
of the libel were sent to all those to whom it applied. 



94 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and they were cited to' appear before the regular 
meeting of Synod, April 9, 1833, and answer to the 
charges in the libel. 

The pastor of the First congregation of New York 
paid no attention to the act of Synod, and introduced 
the suspended Clerk of Synod into the pulpit to the 
discomfiture of the majority of the members. These 
members who would be law-abiding and recognize the 
validity of the court of God's house, were excluded 
from church priviledges without charge, citation or 
trial, because they would not hear a suspended minister. 
In order to evade centure by the Presbytery for this- 
conduct, the pastor of the First congregation applied 
to the Philadelphia Presbytery to be taken under its 
care, with the congregation, for there were sympathizers 
with this divisive course in that city. Now everybody 
knows that such conduct as that would not be tolerated 
by any orderly body ; and besides this matter of order, 
the Synod had fixed the boundaries of the Presbyteries,, 
artd neither congregations nor Presbyteries had the 
power to alter them. The Philadelphia Presbytery, or 
some members of it, now installed the suspended 
minister over the congregation in New York. The 
congregation was placed under the Philadelphia Presby- 
tery, a call moderated, the pastor settled, and one 
hundred and forty members expelled in less than three 
days. Certainly the "King's business required haste." 
Any one at all acquainted with the rules and usage 
of the Presbyterian Church law at once will say that 
such transactions were unlawful and unpresbyterial. 

At the meeting of the Eastern Subordinate Synod,. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 95. 

April 9, 1833, the court was regularly opened with a 
sermon and constituted by prayer by the Moderator. 
The suspended Clerk attempted to force himself upon 
the court, but was checked by a motion to appoint a 
Clerk pro tcm. When this point of order was settled, 
the leader of the parties against whom the libel was 
framed, called upon his colleagues and they withdrew 
to another house without any ofificers. Here they set 
up an independent Synod, which they styled the 
"Eastern Subordinate Synod." They felt sure the 
regular court would sustain the libels, and they sought 
this mode of contending for the rights of the sus- 
pended Clerk in order to escape the application of 
discipline. Though these offenders had withdrawn, the 
Synod agreed that they were not free from their juris- 
diction, and they proceeded with the citations to appear 
and answer the libels. After citing them three times 
to appear, and notifying them if they did not, they 
would be proceeded against as if they were present,, 
the Synod, after patient waiting, proceeded to examine 
the conduct of those libeled. The Synod resolved that 
the parties were guilty of the five counts in the libel,, 
and were thereupon suspended from the exercise of the 
ministry and priviledges in the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. The five suspended ministers were duly notified 
of the action of the Eastern Subordinate Synod. 

The General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church met in Philadelphia, August 7, 1833. The 
former Moderator of this Synod was among those sus- 
pended, and for this reason was disqualified for taking 
his position until his case was adjudicated and he 



g6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

restored. The Synod, and the people whom they repre- 
sented, were not willing to trust their interests to those 
who had no regard for the high position of the Church 
as a witness for Jesus, and who trampled all Presby- 
terial law and order under their feet. They must make 
amends or be self-excluded from participation in the 
transactions of the court. Supposing the proceedings 
of the Eastern Subordinate Synod were held by some 
to be invalid or unjust, the General Synod could neither 
disannul nor act upon them, until it was constituted 
and the matter came regularly before it. The Modera- 
tor's alternate was then called upon to open the Synod 
by a sermon. At this juncture a disturbance was 
created ; and, as the church in which the Synod met 
was in possession of the party against whom the 
charges were made, and because they had invoked the 
aid of the police in case of a disturbance, for the 
sake of peace, the majority, who held the testimony 
intact, withdrew from the house, and met in another 
place where the sermon was preached and the Synod 
regularly constituted. It is not customary for majori- 
ties to secede, especially when they are in the right, 
but because of the peculiar circumstances of this case, 
and for the sake of peace, the majority manifested 
the Christian spirit and withdrew from the brethren 
who were walking disorderly. While those who 
abandoned the principles of the Church were minis- 
terially in the minority, the membership throughout the 
Church was about equally divided. The misguided 
brethren set up an independent Synod and styled it 
that of the "Reformed Presbyterian Church." Since 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 9/ 

that day the two denominations have been known as 
the " Old Light " and " New Light," because the one 
adheres strenuously to the distinctive principles of the 
Church as they had always been held, and the other 
abandoned them in 1833. 

Now in order to show which party adheres to the 
true position of the Church, and is thereby entitled to- 
the name, a comparison of the " Terms of Communion " 
may be helpful. 

TERMS OF 1806. 

1. An acknowledgment of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ments to be the Word of God. , 

2. An acknowledgment that the whole doctrine of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, and the Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, are agree- 
able unto, and founded upon, the Scriptures. 

3. An acknowledgment of the divine right of one unalterable form 
of Church Government and manner of worship — and that these are, 
for substance, justly exhibited in that form of Church Government 
and Directory for Worship agreed upon by the assembly of divines at 
Westminster, as they were received by the Church of Scotland. 

4. An acknowledgment that Public Covenanting is an ordinance of 
God, to be observed by Churches and Nations under the New Testa- 
ment Dispensation — and that those Vows, namely, that which was 
entered into by the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, called the 
National Covenant, and that which was afterwards entered into by 
the three Kingdoms, Scotland, England, and Ireland, and by the 
Reformed Churches in those Kingdoms, usually called the Solemn 
League and Covenant, were entered into in the true spirit of that 
institution — and that the obligation of these Covenants extends to those 
who were represented in the taking of them, although removed to 
this or any other part of the world, in so far as they bind to duties 
not peculiar to the Church in the British Isles, but applicable in all 
lands. 

5. An approbation of the faithful contendings of the martyrs of 
Jesus, and of the present Reformed Covenanted Churches in Britain 
and Ireland, against Paganism, Popery and Prelacy, and against immoral 



•9o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

•Constitutions of civil government, together with all Erastian tolerations 
and persecutions which flow therefrom, as containing a noble example 
for us and our posterity to follow in contending for all divine truth, 
and in testifying against all contrary evils which may exist in the 
corrupt Constitutions of either Church or State. 

6. An approbation of the doctrines contained in the Declaration 
and Testimony of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, 
in defence of truth and in opposition to error. 

These, together with due subordination in the Lord to the authority 
of the Reformed Presbytery in North America, and a regular life and 
conversation, form the bonds of our ecclesiastical union. 



Those were the Terms in use by the whole body 
previous to 1833. Now' we will place side by side 
the Terms of each body at the present time for com- 
parison with those of 1 806 : 



Present Terms of Old School Body. Present Terms of New School 



1. An acknowledgment of the 
Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments to be the Word of 
God, and the only rule of faith 
and manners. 

2. An acknowledgment that the 
whole doctrine of the Westmins- 
ter Confession of Faith, and the 
Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, 
are agreeable unto, and founded 
upon, the Scriptures. 



3. An acknowledgment of the 
divine right of one unalterable 



1. An acknowledgement of the 
Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments to be the Word of 
God. 

2. An acknowledgment of the 
doctrines of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, Catechisms, 
Larger and Shorter, and Re- 
formation Principles Exhibited, the 
Testimony of the Church — as em- 
bodying, according to the Word 
of God, the great principles of 
the Covenanted Presbyterian Re- 
formation, to the maintenance of 
which this Church is obliged by 
solemn Covenant engagements. 

3. An acknowledgement that 
the Lord Jesus Christ, the only 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 



99 



form of Church Government and 
manner of worship — and that these 
are, for substance, justly exhibited 
in the form of Church Govern- 
ment and Directory for Worship 
agreed upon by the assembly of 
■divines at Westminster, as they 
were received by the Church of 
Scotland. 

4. An acknowledgment of public 
Covenanting as an ordinance of 
God to be observed by Churches 
and Nations ; and of the perpetual 
obligation of public Covenants ; 
and of the obligation upon this 
Church of the Covenant entered 
into in 1871, in which are em- 
bodied the engagements of the 
National Covenant of Scotland and 
of the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant, so far as applicable in this 
land. 

5. An approbation of the faith- 
ful contendings of the martyrs of 
Jesus, and of the present Reformed 
Covenanted Churches in Britain 
and Ireland, against Paganism, 
Popery, and Prelacy, and against 
immoral Constitutions of civil gov- 
ernment, together with all Erastian 
tolerations and persecutions which 
flow therefrom, as containing a 
noble example for us and our 
posterity to follow in contending 
for all divine truth, and in testi- 
fying against all contrary evils 
which may exist in the corrupt 
■Constitutions of either Church or 
■State. 



Redeemer and Head of His 
Church, has appointed one per- 
manent form of ecclesiastical 
government ; and that this form 
is, by divine right, Presbyterian. 



4. An acknowledgment that pub- 
lic, social covenanting, upon proper 
occasions, is an ordinance of God, 
and that such moral deeds as re- 
spect the future, whether ecclesias- 
tical or civil, are of continued obli- 
gation, as well as upon those repre- 
sented in the taking of them as 
upon those who actually covenant, 
until the ends of them be effected. 



5. An acknowledgment of the 
faithful contendings of the martyrs 
of Jesus, and a recognition of all as 
brethren, in every land, who main- 
tain a Scriptural Testimony in be- 
half of the attainments and cause 
of the Reformation, against all that 
is contrary to sound doctrine and 
the power of godliness. 



lOO HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

6. An approbation of the doc- 6. A practical adorning of the 

trines contained in the Declara- doctrine of God our Saviour, by a 
tion and Testimony of the Re- life and conversation becoming the 
formed Presbyterian Church in gospel, together with due subor- 
North America, in defence of dination in the Lord, to the author- 
truth, and in opposition to error. ity of the Synod of the Reformed 

These, together with due sub- Presbyterian Church in North 
ordination in the Lord to the America, 
authority of the Synod of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
North America, and a regular life 
and conversation, form the bonds 
of our ecclesiastical union. 

According to the spirit of the doctrines and history 
of the Covenanter Church, the Old School body re- 
newed the Covenants in 1871, after the example of 
their ancestors, and their fourth term of communion 
was changed in 1878, to embrace this step, and 
embodies in it all that is implied in the term of 1806. 
Previous to 1878, the term was precisely the same as 
that of 1806. At a glance, and with a clear percep- 
tion of truth, the candid reader can see that the New 
School brethren have cast out of their terms the 
peculiar and distinctive profession of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church. In the second term they slyly 
drop out the word " Avhole " from the Westminster 
standards- in order to make them more palatable to 
the tastes of those bodies with which they hoped to 
unite. In the third term they make no reference what- 
ever to the document which is the standard of the 
Church, and they have cut out all that refers to a 
form of worship, in order to leave matters open for 
the reception of innovations in the future. In the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. lOI 

fourth term, which is the distinguishing and important 
one, they make no allusion whatever to Churches and 
Nations Covenanting ; they have broken the link that 
bound them to the past ; they do not acknowledge 
any peculiar connection with the Covenants of our 
fathers in Scotland ; they have never Covenanted in 
America, and hence have repudiated the entire principles 
of the Reformation, and yet claim and demand the 
name Covenanter! In the fifth term, which is a strange 
conglomeration compared to the genuine one, they fail 
to give the true import of that term ; they leave out 
all that relates to " contending against immoral Con- 
stitutions of civil government," and yet claim and 
demand the name Reformed Presbyterian! They make 
no reference to the witnessing Church in Britain and 
Ireland, and, on the whole, this term is so indefinite 
that any Protestant could take it no matter what his 
views were about the martyrs of Scotland, or whether 
he knew" that for which they so heroicly contended. 
In the " Historical Part " of the Testimony it is a re- 
markable fact that they have left out that part which 
assigns a distinguished place to the Covenants. This 
omission is remarkable because the omitted paragraph 
is the only one which gives the organization of the 
first Reformed Presbytery, and refers to two occasions 
upon which the Church renewed the Covenants. That 
all may see the force of this important omission by 
the New School brethren, this paragraph Avill here be 
inserted : 

" For more than a third of a century, Mr. McMillan 
sustained alone the banner of a Covenanted Reforma- 



I02 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tion, until, b)- the accession of Mr. Nairn, the way 
was opened for the constitution of the Ref0RME1> 
Presbytery. This important event took place, August 
I, 1743. In the meantime, however, the scattered 
remnant had met at Auchinsaugh, July 24, 1712, and 
there renewed the Covenants, National and Solemn 
League, with confession of sins, and an engagement to 
duties ; as they also did. after the constitution of 
Presbytery, at Crawford-John, in the year 1745."* 

We regard that paragraph as of great importance, 
both for the date of the constitution of our Church 
and for the fact that they then Covenanted. In the " Doc- 
trinal Part " they have failed to bring up their Testi- 
mony to contend against evils of the present day, such 
as intemperance, secrecy, and others. No paragraph 
appears against slavery. Now we believe that while 
divine truth is unchangeable, the testimony of the 
Church is progressive, and should be brought up to 
apply to new aspects of evil as they arise. This is 
what the Testimony requires of the Church when it 
says : 

" Every generation is to take care that the truth, 
as stated and defended by their predecessors, shall be 
maintained and faithfully transmitted together with the 
result of their own contendings to the succeeding 
generation." 

We have no quarrel with our New School brethren 

because they do not believe as we do, but we do insist 

that they have no claim upon our name. It has been 

clearly shown that they neither dissent from immoral 

* Omitted from New School Testimony, page iii. 



i'RESBVTERIAN CHURCH IX AMERICA. IO5 

Constitutions nor hold or renew the ancient Co\enants, 
and since these two positions constitute it a Reformed 
Presbyterian Covenanting Church, they have no just 
claim to such a name. After the setting up of an in- 
dependent body in 1833, they flourished for awhile, but 
afifiiliating too freely with other bodies they lost their 
foreign mission ; and not only did ministers leave them, 
but whole congregations and Presbyteries w^ent into 
other denominations, and they have ceased to publish 
any statistics by which to determine their strength.* 
The obvious reason for their marvelous declension is 
that they have no distinct ground upon which to stand. 

The Synod of 1833, at Philadelphia, took the follow- 
ing action in regard to those who had separated 
from it : 

That the members of our subordinate and inferior judicatories, and 
all our people, be and hereby are warned not to recognize the authority, 
or admit the interference of such ministers as have been suspended for 
the maintaining of principles opposed to the standards of our church on 
the subject of civil government ; as likewise of all such ministers and 
others who may be confederated with them in corrupting the doctrine, 
contemning the authority, and violating the order of the church; inasmuch 
as these last, as well as the first, are, and hereby are declared to be, 
from the nature of the opinions they maintain, and the divisive course 
they pursue, prohibited from holding a seat in our courts, or exercising 
authority, or any way interfering in the judicatories or congregations of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, while maintaining such principles and 
pursuing such practices. 

At this same meeting, the Synod re-affirmed its 
attachment to the historic and true position of the 
Church in this country, by the following resolution : 

*The minutes of the General Synod of 1887, reveal the fact that they 
have twenty-four ministers, fourteen of whom are settled pastors ; and, 
by the accession of a native, they have one missionary in India. 



I04 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

That as it has alwajs been in the proceedings and history of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church, both in the land of our forefathers and 
in this land, a great and leading object to bear an explicit and prac- 
tical testimony to the truth respecting civil government as the ordinance 
of God, and the subjection of the nations to Messiah : so it is utterly 
inconsistent with our doctrinal standards and' judicial acts for any mem- 
ber of this church to sit on juries, to hold offices, or swear allegiance 
to the Constitution of the United States. 

From that day to this the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church has had little or no trouble in applying the 
principles of the Church, and the members feel that it 
is their duty to separate themselves from that civil 
institution which refuses to own Christ as its King, and 
His Word as its supreme law. If any pastors or ses- 
sions allow any members to violate the law of the 
Church in this respect, they deserve the same con- 
demnation as those brethren who separated from us 
in 1833. If any such there be, the fact is unknown 
to the Church, and when discovered will be dealt with 
as an offence. 

In the session of 1834, at Pittsburgh, the names of 
some ministers, who had identified themselves with the 
New School body, were stricken from the roll. Papers 
on important subjects were read and ordered published 
in overture. Measures were adopted for devising a 
plan by which young men could be prepared for the 
service of the ministry until the Theological Seminary 
was resuscitated. Arrangements were also made for 
the publication of another edition of the Testimony. 

At the meeting of Synod in 1836, at Pittsburgh, it 
was apparent that the Church was in a flourishing 
condition, and many ministers had been settled in 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX AMERICA. I05 

pastoral charges. At this meeting strong ground was 
taken against the sin of slavery. The Synod disap- 
proved of the plan of the Colonization Society con- 
sidered as opposed to the manumission of slaves. It 
was on the supposition that this Society would be 
favorable to the abolition of human slavery that the 
Synod had previously given it countenance. The Synod 
continued to maintain the duty of the immediate and 
universal emancipation of the enslaved, and disap- 
proved of their transportation to Africa. Parts were 
assigned to different ministers to write pieces for the 
argumentative part of the Testimony. Drafts of a 
"Book of Discipline" and also of "Church Govern- 
ment" were read and referred. The Theological Semi- 
nary was revived, located at New Alexandria, Penn- 
sylvania, and Rev. Dr. J. R. Willson was chosen pro- 
fessor. It • was also resolved, "That we recommend to 
our people, totally to abstain from traffic in ardent 
spirits." Ministers were instructed to preach on the sin 
and danger of Sabbath profanation. The " Book of 
Discipline and Church Government," as also the "Argu- 
ment on the Arminian Controversy " were published 
in overture. 

The Synod of 1838, met in New York. Rev. William 
Sommerville, missionary to Nova Scotia, was present 
and made an address on the cause of the Reformation, 
in that country. For disorderly conduct and abusive 
language, a licentiate, and some persons associated with 
him, were suspended from ecclesiastical priviledges. As. 
there were some difficulties in the way of establishing 
one Theological Seminary, according to the resolution! 



106 HISTORY OF THK REFORMED 

of the previous meeting, the Synod now agreed to 
abandon the idea of locating it at New Alexandria, 
and rescinded their former action. It was then resolved 
to establish two Seminaries — one at Coldenham, New 
York, in which Rev. Dr. J. R. Willson was continued 
professor ; and the other at Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in 
which Rev. Thomas Sproull was chosen professor. 
Boards of Superintendents were chosen, whose duty 
should be to arrange the course of study. The 
Church's relation to the Anti-Slavery society again 
came up for settlement, and the Synod declared its 
approbation and patronage of the cause of abolition, 
but warned its members against "voluntary associations" 
Avith men of erroneous principles and corrupt practices. 
If it was to become a political society, then Covenan- 
ters must withdraw. The Synod ■ then passed the 
following resolution : 

" That the Testimony of this Church is directed 
against, not only the practical evil of slavery, but also 
against the immoral principles in the Constitution of 
the United States, by which this wicked system is 
supported ; we, therefore, declare to the Church and 
to the world, that from all associations which propose, 
by an act homologating the Constitution of the United 
States, to remove the evil of slavery, it is our duty 
and determination to stand aloof." 

The Synod of 1840, met in the city of Allegheny. 
A letter from the Rev. Dr. John T. Pressly of the 
Associate Reformed Church in behalf of a " Convention 
of Reformed Churches " was received. The Committee 
appointed to examine the letter reported, in substance, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 107 

that " while this Synod laments schism in the Church, 
yet knowing that societies and individuals are more 
solicitous about the removal of evils than to ascertain 
their causes and natures; and because most of these 
schisms exist from the departure of some from Re- 
formation attainments ; and as there is no disposition on 
the part of those who have departed to retrace their 
steps, but desire to strike out of certain articles of 
agreement the doctrine of the power of the civil magistrate 
from the Confession ; and, as this Synod will not do 
any act that would be construed as implying an abandon- 
ment of any part of her terms of communion, resolved 
that they could not comply with the invitation to attend 
such a Convention." (^n motion Synod decreed the 
union of the Eastern and Western Theological Semi- 
naries under the joint care of both the professors, and 
the Seminary was located in the city of Allegheny, 
The members of the Church were urged to a hearty 
support of this important institution. A resolution was 
again presented to prohibit the traffic in ardent spirits 
or intoxicating liquors by members of the Church. 

The Synod of 1841, met at Utica, Ohio. A 
memorial from the Missionary Society of the Phila- 
delphia congregation was received, urging the Synod 
to take steps for the immediate establishment of a 
Foreign Mission. Since the last meeting of Synod, two 
ministers of the Ohio Presbytery had followed divisive 
courses and left the communion of the Church for the 
alleged reason that the Synod had postponed its 
deliverance on "voluntary associations," and they re- 
garded the Synod as unfaithful to its duty. These 



I08 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

misguided men erected the " Reformed Presbytery," and 
a few disciples gathered around them. The conduct of 
these schismatics brought the Synod to the fuller con- 
sideration of the question, and now adopted the follow- 
ing resolutions : 

1. That our solemn covenant obligations demand our social as 
well as individual adherence to the whole law of God, in dependence 
on whose grace all our endeavors and engagements are to be made 
for the performance of every duty and the attainment of every lawful 
object. 

2. That those confederated associations for declared moral purposes, 
which pay no express regard to a belief in the Lord Jesus Christ 
for salvation, nor to a dependence on His Spirit for guidance in all 
duty, And in the special duties of such associations in particular, but 
are based on principles of legalism, and admit promiscuously all 
classes of their members to perform religious as well as other duties, 
are not entered into in the true spirit of the solemn deeds of our cove- 
nant forefathers. 

3. That our ministers and people be admonished to refuse uniting 
unnecessarily in associations with the erroneous and wicked, when a 
bond of confederation is required to be signed implying identity with 
such persons. 

4. That in associations also of a merely civil nature, when in the 
prosecution of their respective charters they are known to have been 
guilty of immorality, such as turnpike companies, steamboats, &c., in 
the desecration of the holy Sabbath, Reformed Presbyterians should 
have no participation. 

If those men who went out were grieved only be- 
cause of Synod's negligence to do as it now did, they 
would have returned to the Church of their fathers. 
This they never did. The one died in obscurity in 
1845, ^'""^^ the other strenuously maintained his peculiar 
views alone until his death in 1887. 

The subject of the traffic in intoxicating liquors 
had often been a matter of consideration by Synod,. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. lOQ- 

and, against this sinful and nefarious business the Synod 
had taken only too mild measures. As the subject 
had been fully investigated, and the destructive employ- 
ment fully exhibited by Committees previous!}' appointed, 
the Synod was now prepared to adopt the following- 
preamble and resolutions : 

Whereas, The traffic in ardent spirits for hixitrious purposes and as 
a beverage has been a fruitful source of scandal and crime ; therefore 
resolved, 

1. That members of this church be and hereby are prohibited 
from engaging in or continuing in this traffic ; and 

2. That wherever there are individuals employed in this traffic, 
sessions are hereby directed to deal with them immediately in such 
a way that this evil may be removed from the church in the best 
and speediest manner. 

As the Church had always held as a term of com- 
munion that "the Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments are the only rule of faith and manners,'' 
this latter clause was directed to be inserted in its 
proper place in the first term of communion. A Com- 
mittee was also appointed to continue the " Historical 
Part" of the Testimony with emendations of the same. 
A Committee was appointed to prepare a "draft of 
the National Covenant and of the Solemn League and 
Covenant, adapted to the present circumstances of 
the Church and of the world." Mild complaints 
occasionally came before Synod in the matter of read- 
ing out the lines in pubic worship, but the court did 
not consider these difficulties of sufficient magnitude 
to justify the formation of a fixed law on the subject. 
Efforts were made for the permanent support of the 
Seminary. 



• lO HISTORY Ol-- THK KKFORMED 

The Synod of 1843, met in the city of Rochester. 
New York. The friendly correspondence with the Synod 
of Ireland, which had been disturbed by the gross 
misrepresentations of the Church by those who had 
abandoned her testimony in 1833, was now resumed, 
ami a most affectionate letter from the brethren beyond 
the sea was received. Friendly relations and fraternal 
greetings have since been annually exchanged with 
the Covenanted brethren in both Scotland and Ireland. 
The reports from all the Presbyteries were of an 
encouraging character, and revealed the fact that the 
number of congregations and missionary stations, as 
well as ministers and licentiates, had greatly increased 
since the last meeting. The Committee previously 
appointed for the purpose, reported the draft of a 
Covenant, which was published in overture, and sent 
down to the inferior courts for them to report upon 
at the next meeting. Copies were also sent to the 
sister judicatories in Scotland and Ireland for the same 
purpose. Several cases of discipline of a local interest 
were adjudicated, but nothing of vital importance was 
transacted at this meeting. 

The Synod of 1845, ^'^^^ ''I the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. Many new ministers appeared in this 
session. Reports revealed the fact that several new 
congregations had been organized in the West, and 
that missionary work was being done among the 
colored people who had fled to the North. The 
Church generally was in a healthy condition. There 
was manifest a general awakening on the subject of 
missions at home and abroad. The Committee previously 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN A>H-:RICA. Ill 

appointed to designate a field for missionar}' operations, 
and had selected the Island of St. Thomas, now were 
prepared to report that on account of the peculiar hin- 
drances in the way in that field they were undecided 
as to the practicability of beginning operations in that 
Island. A special Committee on Covenanting was ap- 
pointed, and the matter referred for the present. The 
subject of the " deacon '" again came regularly before the 
Synod, and, after some amendments and discussion, the 
following preamble and resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, The office of deacon is a divine institution, the functions of 
which are declared in the Form of Church Government to be "To take 
special care in distributing to the necessities of the poor," and of which 
it is said in Reformation Principles that he '■ has no power except about 
the temporalities of the Church," and — 

Whereas, Said office has fallen very extensively into neglect for many 
years ; and — 

Whereas, It is the desire of this court that uniformity in practice be 
maintained in all our congregations ; and — 

Whereas, Some misunderstanding seems to exist in relation to the 
ground of our Covenanted uniformity in practice in respect to the 
subject of deacons as settled at the Second Reformation ; and — 

Whereas, Faithfulness to the Church's Head requires the re-assertion 
of this ground of practical uniformity as it then obtained : therefore — 

Resok'tuf, 1st, That our Covenanted uniformity does not recognize as 
of divine right the congregational trustee, but the Scriptural deacon as 
stated in the preamble. 

Resoh',;i, 2d, That said Covenanted uniformity does not recognize as 
of divine right a Consistory of ministers, elders and deacons, having 
authority to enact, govern and control the Church, either in her spiritual 
or temporal concerns, or as having any authority or power whatever, 
except for consultation and advice for the well ordering of the temporal 
affairs of the congregation. 

A Board of Domestic Missions was appointed, consist- 
ing of six members, their duties being to receive and 



112 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

disburse monies to needy stations, and to open up new 
fields of labor at home. A plan for completing the 
"Argumentative Part " of the Testimony was considered, 
and subjects and writers were assigned for the comple- 
tion of this work. Some changes took place with 
reference to the Theological Seminary. Rev. Thomas 
Sproull resigned his professorate ; the location was 
changed from the city of Allegheny to the city of 
Cincinnati, Ohio ; the Board of Inspection resigned and 
a new one was appointed ; and Rev. Dr. J. R. Willson 
continued to be the professor in the Seminar)-. 

The Synod of 1847, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. By an appointment of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, the Rev. J. B. Johnston had made 
an exploring tour through the Island of Hayti, and 
the Board reported the selection of this Island as the 
field of operations, and the city of Port au Prince as 
the starting point and center of work. Several young- 
men were chosen as missionaries, but declined, and 
finally the Rev. Joseph W. Morton and Mr. Robert 
J. Dodds accepted appointments. Mr. Morton entered 
upon the work in Hayti the same year, a history of 
which Mission will be found in another part of this 
volume. Several generous bequests were made to the 
Theological Seminary, and efforts were made for the 
establishing of a literary institution under the care of 
the Synod. 

The Synod of 1849, met in the city of Philadelphia, 
The Lakes Presbytery reported that they had founded 
"Geneva Hall," at Northwood, Ohio, April, 1848, and 
that the institution was under the superintendence of 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. II 3 

the Rev. J. B. Johnston. The Pittsburg Presbytery also 
reported the establishment of Westminster College and 
Female Seminfiry, at Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, and 
that buildings were about to be erected. This enter- 
prise was largely carried on by the generous donations 
of Mr. James Kelly. The missionary to Hayti having 
changed his beliefs in reference to the Christian Sabbath, 
appeared in court, and, having been libeled, was cited 
to appear and answer the charges. The following is the 
report of Synod on this case : 

Order of the day, viz : the case of Mr. Morton called for, the libel 
was then read by the» Clerk ; when Mr. Morton having, in reply to the 
Moderator, answered that he was prepared for trial, the substance of 
the libel was again stated in his hearing. Mr. Morton was then called 
upon, according to the rule provided for such cases, either to confess 
the charge or put himself upon his trial. Mr. Morton in return ac- 
knowledged that he had denied that the day commonly called tha 
Christian Sabbath is so by Divine appointment, and then proceeded 
to plead the irrelevancy of the charge by endeavoring to prove the 
perpetuity of the law for the observance of the seventh day. While 
so doing he was arrested by the Moderator, who informed him that 
the charge contained in the libel was such that Mr. Morton could 
only prove its irrelevancy to censure by proving that the appropriation 
of the first day of the week, known as the Christian Sabbath, to 
secular employments, or teaching so to do, is not relevant to censure, 
which attempt the Moderator would consider disorderly, and would 
not allow. 

From this decision a member appealed, when the Moderator's 
•decision was unanimously sustained. Upon this, Mr. Morton declined 
the authority of the court. 

Resolved, That Mr. Morton's appointment as missionary to Hayti 
be revoked. 

Resolved, That inasmuch as Mr. Morton has now publicly declined 
the authority of this court, he be suspended from the exercise of the 
Christian ministry, and from the privileges of the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church. The Moderator then publicly pronounced the sentence 
of suspension on Mr. Morton, agreeably to the above resolution. 



114 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

By this defection the Hayti Mission was abandoned,, 
and Mr. Dodds was not sent out as was expected. Two 
ministers were admonished and warned that in the 
future they were not to teach doctrines contrary to the 
standards of the Church which are founded upon the 
Word of God. The Committee to which were referred 
certain memorials on the subject of slavery reported 
the following : 

The petitioners, lamenting the prevalent ignorance of our testimony 
against this great evil, and the countenance given to it by most Christian 
denominations in the United States, respectfully ask Synod, ist. To re- 
assert their position in regard to the exclusion of ^ave-holders from her 
fellowship, and her dissent from the United States Constitution, on 
this, with other grounds. 2d. They ask that, if practicable, some more 
efficient means may be employed for the diffusion of our doctrines and 
testimony on this subject, particularly that a remonstrance may be 
addressed to the principal slave-holding Churches. 

In regard to the first of these petitions, we remark that the declara- 
tions contained in the Historical part of our testimony, published, of 
course, by the Presbytery itself, furnish ample testimony of the 
position occupied on slavery by this Church. We refer to the follow- 
ing statements, "The Presbytery resolved to purge the Church of this 
dreadful evil : they enacted that no slave-holders should be retained in 
their Communion." "The Presbytery required of their connexions a 
general emancipation." "No slave-holder is since admitted to their 
Communion." See Hist. Test. pp. 154, 155, Ed. 1835. Now, while it is 
true, as stated in one of the memorials, that we have not in our 
hands the original acts, excluding all slave-holders, we have the 
Presbytery itself as evidence that this was the purport and design of 
their actions. This, with the uniform practice of the Church — for in 
the language of the testimony, "No slave-holder is. since (1800) ad- 
mitted to their Communion " — in the judgment of your committee as 
completely defines the position of this Church in regard to ecclesiastical 
fellowship with slave-holders as it is possible to do. A sight of the 
original acts might gratify curiosity, but could not shed any additional 
light upon that which is already as clear as the noon-day. No slave- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. II 5 

holder can have privileges in the Reformed Presbyterian Church. We 
say the same of our position as a Church in relation to the civil 
institutions of the country. The Historical Testimony, pp 152, 153, 
154, and the frequent incidental actings since are sufficiently explicit 
on this point. Covenanters have not sworn, and do not swear oaths 
to the institutions of the country, among other reasons, because the 
Constitution of the United States contains compromises with slave- 
holding interests, and guarantees for the institution itself protection 
so long as it exists in the slave-holding States. We have no further 
action to recommend on either of these points. 

2d. In regard to a remonstrance to be addressed to slave-holding 
Churches, we agree with the petitioners that it is important that this 
Church take some measures to bring her testimony more directly 
before the Churches, and would recommend that a Committee of three 
be appointed to prepare a remonstrance of the kind contemplated, 
embodying the views and position of this Church on the whole 
question, said Committee to publish the remonstrance on their own 
responsibility, as to the argunJients and expressions which they may 
see fit to employ. 

The Theological Seminary was removed from Cincin- 
nati to Northwood, Ohio, and it and the Literary In.stitu- 
tion were taken under the care of Synod. Students now 
frequently persued their literary and theological courses 
at the same time. Rev. Dr. J. R. Willson was continued 
professor, and received the assistance of the professors of 
Geneva Hall in some departments of study. 

The Synod of 185 1, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. Quite a number of ministers had been 
ordained and installed over pastoral charges, and took 
their seats in the court. Several important cases of 
discipline came up for adjudication, and were judiciousl)- 
disposed of. Some of these related to the organization 
of congregations without deacons. Events arising out 
of conflicting interests and personal feelings, the Synod 



^Il6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

deemed it proper to suspend the Theological Seminary 
for the present, and the students were directed to prose- 
cute their studies under the care of their respective 
Presbyteries. Dr. Willson was honorably retired as 
emeritus professor. The librar)' and all monies were 
given into the hands of Committees to hold in trust for 
Synod. The Board of Domestic Missions reported that 
much mone)- had been contributed and that many pro- 
mising stations had been opened up. A systematic 
plan for the operations of home missions was inaugurated, 
and much interest manifested in this part of the work 
of the Church. The Committee appointed to express 
the views of the Church in reference to the Fugitive 
Slave Law. reported the following preamble and 
resolutions : 

As human enactments are to be tested by the Divine law ; and as 
it is the duty of the church to testify against all that is in opposition 
to the law of God ; and as her Head came " to proclaim liberty to 
the captive," so she should open her month for the dumb. Therefore, 

1. Resolved, That this Synod reiterate its uncompromising opposi- 
tion to the institution of slavery as a system of complicated and 
unmitigated wrong, and utterly repudiate all the arguments and excuses 
of slaveholders and their abettors for its continuance ; and recommend 
to all our people more vigorous and persevering efforts for its removal. 

2. That the fugitive slave law is essentially tyrannical ; not only 
securing the enslavement of those who are in fact free, but in for- 
bidding freemen to exercise the sympathies of Christian compassion, 
and commanding them to assist in returning men to cruel bondage. 
It brings deserved infamy upon our land, dishonors God, and is 
expressly contrary to the plainest precepts of this law — " Thou shalt 
not deliver unto his master the servant which is escaped from his 
master unto thee." "Bewray not him that wandereth." "Relieve the 
oppressed." .\nd it is the duty of all not only to refuse compliance 

swith its provisions, but to show others its hideous enormity. 

3. That the main element of the fugitive slave law naturally 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. II7 

flows from the provisions of the Constitution of the United States 
upholding slavery. Art. 4, Sec. 2. " No person held to service or 
labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, 
shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged 
from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of 
the party to whom such service or labor may be due." Art. 4, Sec. 
I. "Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public 
acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State." And we 
see in this another exemplification of the immorality of the United 
States Government, and it shows clearly the evil of swearing oaths of 
allegiance, and thus sustaining slavery. 

4. That those ministers of the gospel who teach the binding obliga- 
tion of this law to be obeyed for conscience's sake, and the conduct of 
-those Christians who sustain the law, hypocritically professing to love 
God while they hate the negro, bring reproach upon religion, en- 
courage infidelity, and rivet still more tightly the chains of the 
•oppressed. 

5. That it is the duty of the ministers of Christ to teach clearly 
ihat magistrates in Christian lands should yield to the authority of 
•God's law, and that any law that is in opposition to the precepts of 
the Bible does not bind the conscience, and ought to be resisted by 
•every means consistent with religion ; for we must obey God rather 
than men. 

6. That we recognize with gratitude the hand of God in making this 
infamous law the means of showing many the enormous evil of slavery, 
.and convincing them of their practical and constitutional connection 
with slavery ; and that we rejoice in the efforts that are making to free 
rsome of the Churches from the incubus of slavery. And we trust that 
the " Free Churches " will, ere long, see the sin of upholding a govern- 
ment that rejects the law of God ; and that they and we, upon the 

♦ broad ground of Christian principles, may labor to bring this nation 
into submission to God's higher law. 

The Rev. William Wilson of the New School body, 
who desired to return to the communion of the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church upon certain conditions con- 
.tained in papers laid before the court, learnin£^ that 



Il8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

he could not enter the body without a full reception 
of all her principles, withdrew his papers. 

The Synod of 1853, met in the city of New York. 
Synod re-affirmed its deliverance of 1847, that the con- 
sistory, an assembly composed of the pastor, elder.s 
and deacons to manage the temporalities of the Church,, 
is not an ecclesiastical court. The special Committee 
to which was referred the subject of civil legislation 
against the traffic in ardent spirits, reported the follow- 
ing which was adopted by Synod : 

The Church of Christ is a divinely instituted association, organized, 
not only for the conversion of sinners and sanctification ot saints, but 
for the reformation of society ; and as a reformatory association, she 
should be in advance of the world in all reformatory movements. la 
the temperance reform we would not only be active, but until the object 
of that reform is accomplished, would use all the means in our power 
to give a proper direction to the efforts put forth by others. We would 
not close our eyes to the fact that the tide of intemperance, now flood- 
ing this land, is truly alarming, calling not only for mourning and com- 
miseration, but for greater activity on the part of the Church to stem 
that torrent that the appalling amount of crime and misery, consequent 
upon the use of intoxicating drinks, may be speedily diminished, and 
the evil wholly removed. 

The principles involved in the law of the Church, and particularly 
set forth in the action of this Synod in 1841, should be carried out 
in civil legislation so as to forbid, and wholly prevent, the traffic in 
intoxicating drinks as beverages. Civil government is intended, among 
other objects, to protect the people against the wrongs inflicted by 
venders of ardent spirits. This can be done effectually only by utterly 
prohibiting the traffic. Therefore, 

Resolved, i. That we hail with joy the efforts that have been made 
recently in several of the States, to suppress entirely the traffic in 
intoxicating drinks, and we earnestly hope that the work may go on 
until there be no place where license will be given, or the protection 
of law afforded to that traffic, so wicked and so ruinous in Its 
consequences, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. II9 

Resolved, 2. That this Synod gives its hearty approbation to the 
principles involved in the law commonly called the Maine Liquor 
Law, viz ; the right and the duty of civil government to wholly prohibit 
the sale of intoxicating drinks, except for medicinal, chemical, mechani- 
cal, and sacramental purposes. 

Resolved, 3. That in the temperance reform we depend wholly upon 
the Spirit of God for success, and regard the gospel of Jesus Christ 
as the only efficient means of permanently removing the evil. 

The Synod embodied the following reformatory senti- 
ment in its proceedings at this session : 

There are two great evils which must be removed from the world 
before the state of society can be healthy : Popery, which directly 
enslaves the soul and indirectly the body ; Slavery, which directly 
enslaves the body and indirectly the, soul. We cannot, consistently, 
claim the character of Reformers if we do not untiringly employ the 
armour of light on the right and left against these great, and alas ! 
yet growing evils in our land. We may incur some temporary odium, 
and, perhaps, not only be reproached, but persecuted on this account ; 
but, assuredly, the advocates of impartial liberty for the souls and 
bodies of men will prevail, and their memories be savory if they die 
in the field of contest ; and their persons will be honoured if they 
survive the strife. 

The Synod of 1855, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. The reports of Presbyteries revealed the 
fact that there had been great emigration to the 
Western States and Territories, and that mission 
stations were springing up in various places, demand- 
ing the care of the Mission Board. A delegation from 
the New School body invited the Synod to attend a 
farewell missionary meeting in Pittsburg, and also ex- 
pressed the Christian affection and respect of the body 
they represented. The Committee preparing a " Form 
of Covenant," reported, and it was published in the 
appendix to the minutes of Synod. Arrangements were 



120 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

made to renew the Covenants, at the next meeting 
of Synod, if the way should be open. The organiza- 
tion of a Foreign Mission was recommended, as well 
as the resuscitation of the Theological Seminary. 

The Synod of 1856, met in the city of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. The Board of Foreign Missions selected 
Syria as the field of operations, and, after .several 
elections, the Rev. Robert J. Dodds and Mr. Joseph 
Beattie, licentiate, accepted appointments to that field. 
They left the same Fall for the scene of their labors. 

The Theological Seminary was reorganized. and 
located in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, where 
it has since remained. Revs. Drs. James Christie and 
Thomas Sproull were chosen professors. A friendly cor- 
respondence was carried on with the Associate Presby- 
terian Church and New School body, but nothing 
agreed upon as a basis of union. 

The Synod of 1857, met in Northwood, Ohio. There 
was a large delegation and much interest manifested 
in all the proceedings. The vexed question of " the 
deacon " disturbed some parts of the Church for many 
years, and the following paper, after being amended, 
was adopted, and is as follows : 

Whereas, Much of our troubles in the Church, and at our meetings 
of Synod for some years past, has originated in the attempts, too often 
successful, to form congregations on the principle known as that of 
"elective affinity;" as also in the formation of congregations by com- 
missions of Synod, and not by Presbyteries to whom the business of 
organizing congregations belongs ; therefore. 

Resolved, I. That hereafter no congregation shall be organized by 
any Presbytery on the principle of elective affinity, to evade discipline, 
or reconcile parties at variance, or to settle difficulties which properly 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 121 

belong to the discipline of the Church, or upon a difl'erence in prin- 
ciple, or the meaning of the Standards of the Church. 

Resolved, 2. Synod shall hereafter leave the organization of con- 
gregations to the Presbyteries to whom it belongs ; and 

Whereas, The Form of Church Government recognizes deacons 
as ordained officers in the Church, and "requisite" among the officers 
of a particular congregation, and this by the will and appointment of 
the Lord Jesus Christ ; and 

Whereas, The Form of Church Government defines the duty 
of the deacon to be " to take special care in distributing to the 
necessities of the poor," and the Testimony declares that the "deacons 
have no power except about the temporalities of the Church ;" and 

Whereas, This office has not yet been exemplified in all our 
congregations ; therefore 

Resolved, i. That Presbyteries be directed to exercise due care and 
diligence to have deacons chosen and ordained in congregations where 
they are still wanting, with no other powers than those defined in 
the Standards. 

Resohed, 2. That Presbyteries be enjoined in organizing new con- 
gregations, to see to it that deacons be chosen and ordained in them. 

Resolved, 3. That no action of last Synod was intended to rescind 
or repeal the resolutions of 1845 and 1847, on the subject of the 
deacon's office, the trustee or consistory, nor were they so affected. 

An elaborate and convincing report on "Systematic 
Beneficence and a Sustentation Fund " was submitted 
and its claims enforced. The reports from all the 
Presbyteries were full, satisfactory, and represented the 
Church to be ^in a generally good condition. Another 
lengthy report was submitted on the subject of slavery, 
and the Church resolved to plead with more earnest- 
ness for the cause of the oppressed, and work more 
diligently for the emancipation of the slave. Large 
contributions and bequests were made to the support 
of the Theological Seminary, and a plan of endow- 
ment was submitted. The Foreign and Domestic 
Mission Boards reported affairs to be in an encour- 



122 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

aging condition, and the Church was generally support- 
ing these departments of her work. The Synod was not 
yet ready to enter into the work of Covenanting. 

During the year 1858, a conference of two Com- 
mittees from the Synod and the General Synod of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Churches, met in the city of 
Allegheny, Pennsylvania, to confer on the subject of 
union. There were present of the Synod, Revs. 
Thomas Sproull, J. B. John.ston and J. M. Willson. 
Of the General Synod, Revs. Hugh McMillan, A. W. 
Black, William Wilson and J. N. McLeod. Dr. Sproull 
was chosen Chairman, and Dr. McLeod, Secretary. 
After much discussion and the reading of letters which 
had passed between the Committees and the Synods, 
and after holding several sessions, the delegates finally 
submitted the grounds upon which a union could be 
effected. Rev. J. B. Johnston submitted the following, 
in behalf of the Synod, as the only ground • upon 
which a reunion could be effected : 

The Committee present the brethren, the Committee of the other 
Synod, the following theses, as embracing for substance the ground on 
which we understand the Reformed Presbyterian Church stood in 
regard io civil relations anterior to 1833, and as the only ground on 
which we can give any encouragement to our brethren to expect that 
a re-union of the two Synods can be effected. 

1. That we dissent from the Constitution of the United States, 
because of its immoralities. 

2. That this dissent from the Constitution requires to abstain from 
the oath of allegiance, and from oaths of ofifice binding to support 
the Constitution. 

3. That it prohibits voting for officers who must be qualified by 
an oath to support the Constitution. 

4. That it prohibits sitting on juries, as e.xplained by our Testi- 
mony, understanding that such juries do not include various other 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 23 

juries, where there is neither an incorporation with the government, 
an oath to an immoral law, nor any implied engagement to support 
1he Constitution. 

Rev. Andrew W. Black then read the following 
statement on behalf of the General Synod, in reply to 
the these.s already presented : 

1. The ground occupied by the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
reference to the civil institutions of the United States, State and 
Federal, prior to the disruption, is as expressed in her own language 
in 1821, "That no connection with the laws, officers, or the order of 
the State, is forbidden by the Church, except what truly involves 
immorality." 

2. That in the application of the above principles, we regard our- 
selves as dissenters from immorally constituted civil establishments ; 
that is to say, whenever the recognition of an immoral law is made , 
essential to the action of the juror ; or to the exercise of the elective 
franchise ; or to holding civil oflfice ; or to the discharge of any other 
>civil duty. Reformed Presbyterians must abstain from all such acts, as 
involving immorality. 

3. That the moral character of the Federal Constitution of the 
United States, being a matter of opinion, and undecided by any com- 
petent authority, the recognition or non-recognition of it should not be 
jnade a term of ecclesiastical communion. 

4. We therefore recommend, that as the two churches are united in 
their views of the great principles of civil government, and in the belief 
and declaration of the fact that no communion should be held with im- 
morality, the ground of the re-union should be the exercise of forbear- 
ance in regard to those special governmental questions by which they 
are now divided. It is the belief of this Committee that the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church was divided, not by difference of religious princi- 
ples, but by other causes, as is shown in the letter, to which a reply is 
expected. 

5. Should the brethren of the other Committee and the Synod not 
agree to these grounds of re-union, we recommend to the ministers and 
members of these Churches to treat each other with Christian courtesy 
and respect, and to co-operate as far as possible on the large common 
ground they occupy as Reformed Presbyterians. 



124 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

A rc-union of these bodies has never been effected 
for the reason that the one party is not willing 
to come back to the high position from which it 
departed in 1833, and the other is not prepared to 
abandon the historic and true position of the Church. 

The Synod of 1859, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. A communication from the General 
Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church was 
received, with a basis of union. The following is the 
reply : 

Dear Brethren — Your letter containing a resolution of your Reverend 
Body, and inclosing a copy of the Basis of Union of the United Pres- 
byterian Church, was received during the session of our Synod. 

Your kind and fraternal greeting we most heartily reciprocate, and 
unite with you in the prayer that " the great King and Head of the 
Church will direct the way by which the friends of Zion and of the 
truth shall be led to see eye to eye." We have His sure promise 
that He will accomplish this in his own time. 

The steps by which you have arrived at your present position we 
have watched with attention and interest. It gives us joy to find in 
your Basis of Union the statement and assertion of some of the 
principles for which we have long contended. The supreme dominion 
of Messiah as Lord of all — Prince of the Kings of the earth — occupies 
a place in your Testimony, and our hearts rejoice on this account. 
It is the application of this and kindred principles to the civil insti- 
tutions of the country that has placed us in the position of dis- 
senters from a government that ignores the claims of our Prince. In our 
view it is only by maintaining this position that we can consistently 
carry out our principles, and succeed in bringing our land into sub- 
jection to its Lord and King. Our present standing has been delib- 
erately taken, and in the strength of Divine grace we purpose to- 
hold on till the great end — the enthronement of Messiah — shall be 
effected. 

In order to bring up the Testimony of the Church 
to prevaling evils, the following preambles and resolu- 
tion were adopted : 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 2 5. 

Whereas, Secret Associations and Slavery are present evils of 
enormous magnitude, and are rapidly extending their power and perni- 
cious influence in this land ; and 

Whereas, In our present Testimony, there is no direct and explicit 
utterance against these sins proportionate to their prevalence and 
heinous character ; and 

Whereas, There is a demand for a new edition ; therefore, 

Resolved, That Synod proceed to take, at once, the requisite steps for 
adding a section on Secret Societies, and a chapter on the subject of 
Slavery. 

The Reformed Presbyterian Church has always been 
consistent with her position and held that human 
slavery is a sin against God and men. In the fearless 
advocacy of the cause of the oppressed, the ministers 
of this Church have been mobbed, stoned, egged and 
burned in ef^gy. All manner of reproachful epithets 
have been pronounced upon them. Notwithstanding 
the unpopularity of the cause, they proclaimed fear- 
lessly the sin of the nation and the outrage committed 
upon humanity until God heard the cry of the op- 
pressed and sent them deliverance. 

A vacancy being created in the corps of professors 
in the Theological Seminary, the Rev. James M. 
Willson was chosen a professor. Geneva Hall was 
taken under the care of Synod and left under its 
present management. The reports from the Foreign 
and Domestic Missions pronounced both these depart- 
ments in a flourishing condition. The following memorial 
was prepared, generally signed throughout the Church, 
and transmitted : 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States: 

The memorial of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
now in session in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, showeth — That, desirous to 



126 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

promote the best interests of the country, and knowing that " the Most 
High ruleth in the kingdom of men ;" that the Lord Jesus Christ is 
" Prince of the kings of the earth " and " Governor among the nations ;" 
and that the law of God is the " law ;" knowing, also, that nations and 
rulers should acknowledge God and submit to our Lord Jesus Christ, 
obeying God's commands, your memorialists are also convinced that this 
nation does not thus submit itself to God in its Constitution, and exposes 
itself to the denunciations of God's wrath — "' the nations that forget 
God shall be turned into hell " — We, therefore, pray you to take 
measures for the amendment of the Constitution, so that it may contain, 

1. An express acknowledgment of the being and authority of God. 

2. An acknowledgment of submission to the auth&rity of Christ. 

3. That it should recognize the paramount obligation of God's law, 
contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. 

4. That it may be rendered, in all its principles and provisions, 
clearly and unmistakably adverse to the existence of any form of 
slavery within the national limits. 

The Synod of 1861, met in the city of New York. 
The dark political horizon indicated a speedy clash of 
.arms, and the war of the rebellion broke out. The 
position and duty of the Church in the present crisis 
were presented in the following report : 

That in view of the calamities brought upon this land by the 
iniquitous war now raging, in the interest of slavery, against the United 
States, Synod feels called upon to present, for the information of all 
whom it may concern, a brief outline of our position as a Church ; and 

1. We heartily acknowledge the numerous excellencies of the civil 
institutions of this land ; we appreciate its code of laws, as, in 
general, wholesome and just ; we prize the privileges and protection 
we here enjoy in our personal pursuits and rights, and take a 
•deep interest in this land of our birth or adoption, endeared to us 
as the early refuge of the friends of civil and religious liberty, as 
the scene of a noble conflict for national freedom and independence, 
as our home and that of our children. 

2. Notwithstanding all this, we are constrained, in conscience, to 
maintain, as we and our fathers have heretofore done, a state of 
dissent from the Constitution of the United States, inasmuch as there 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 27 

■is in this instrument no acknowledgment of the name of God, Most 
High and Eternal ; no recognition of the supremacy of His law con- 
tained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments ; no pro- 
fession of subjection to the Mediatorial authority of the Son of 
God, who is " King of kings and Lord of lords : " while on the other 
hand, this Constitution contains certain "compromises" in the interest 
of slavery and slaveholders. On these grounds we are compelled to 
withhold from said Constitution our oath in its support, and thus to 
deny ourselves certain privileges which we would gladly enjoy could 
we do so with good conscience toward God. But 

3. That our position may be fully and definitely understood, we 
declare, 

(i.) That we disclaim allegiance to the government of any foreign 
-nation. 

(2.) That we "consider ourselves under obligations to live peace- 
ably with all men, to advanca the good of society, and to conform 
to its order in everything consistent with righteousness." 

(3.) That we disown all sympathy, even the least, with the traitors 
styling themselves "the Confederate States," now in arms against 
these United States. 

(4.) That we will, as true patriots, defend this, our common 
.country, against these and all like enemies. 

The Synod re-affirmed its position on the jury question, 
and exhorted the members to firmness and confidence 
in this respect. 

The Synod of 1862, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. The Domestic Mission Board established 
Mission Schools among the freedmen in several localities 
in the South, and several missionaries were sent out to 
Port Royal, South Carolina, and other vicinities where 
the way was open for mission work. The Theological 
Seminary received the attention of Synod, and the 
professors reported a good attendance of students and 
an addition to the library. 

The Synod of 1863, met in Sharon, Iowa. The 



128 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Domestic Mission Board reported the establishment of 
mission schools in South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi 
and Arkansas, and missionaries and teachers had been 
sent to these respective fields. The Foreign Mission 
and Theological Seminary were in a flourishing con- 
dition and received the generous contributions of the 
Church. The Synod appointed a Committee to go 
to Washington and confer with the President of the 
United States, and heads of departments, in reference 
to the duty of the nation to submit to King Jesus. 
Presbyteries were directed to minister to the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the military hospitals within their 
bounds. Some objection being brought against the 
army oath, a Committee framed the following oath 
and sought the proper authorities for the sanction of 
the same, when members of the Church entered the 
army: " I do swear by the living God, that I wnll be 
faithful to the United States, and will aid and defend 
them against the armies of the Confederate States, 
yielding all due obedience to military orders." This 
oath neither encouraged members unduly to enter the 
conflict, nor pledged them to support an immoral Con- 
stitution. Covenanters regarded the government justi- 
fiable in the war so far as it was waged to maintain 
the integrity of the country and to overthrow the ini-^ 
quitous system of human slavery. Taking this position 
the members of the Church generously supported the 
cause of the Union with their substance and their 
lives. There was not a rebel within the pale of this 
Church. They believed that the Southren Confederacy 
was a conspiracy against God and humanity, and that 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 29 

Tier members were doing God's service when they 
•enlisted to break it up. While recognizing this fact 
they still claimed that the secession from a human 
government was not to be compared to rebellion 
against the divine government, and they would em- 
brace every opportunity to teach the nation this truth 
and insist upon the recognition of the same. There 
was no sin or inconsistency in aiding the government 
in a lawful and righteous work, and while Covenanters 
heroicly defended their homes and their country by 
suppressing their enemies, they in no sense became 
responsible for the immoralities of the government 
although some wicked men were the brave leaders in 
the conflict. 

In February, 1863, a number of ministers and 
members of several Christian denominations met in 
Xenia, Ohio, for the purpose of discussing the subject 
of amending the National Constitution. At a subse- 
quent meeting in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania* 
circulars were addressed to the supreme judicatories of 
several Christian denominations to appoint delegates to 
a convention in July, 1863, but to these invitations no 
bodies responded but the two Synods of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church. This was the origin of the present 
National Reform Association, and the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church has ever since been the chief supporter of 
the movement. Mr. John Alexander of Philadelphia, is, 
in many respects, the father of the Association, and has 
been the chief supporter of it in the way of personal 
contributions. Not a single religious paper in the 
country had a word of cheer to offer, and when the 



130 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Christian Statesman was founded for the propogation of 
the principles of the Association, some sneered at the 
project and others passed it by in silence. What a 
wonderful change in sentiment in twenty-five years ! 
The most able ministers and jurists of the country are 
now wheeled into line with its glorious principles, and 
soon the cause which it advocates will finally triumph. 
The good which this Association has done in the last 
quarter of a century is incalculable, and at the present 
time lecturers are in the field from different denomina- 
tions. 

The Synod of 1864, met in the city of Philadelphia. 
Among the first resolutions was this : 

Resolved, That this Synod recommend to the members of the Church 
entire abstinence from the use of tobacco. 

The Committee previously appointed to wait upon' 
the President of the United States, made the following 
report : 

The Committee appointed to confer with the President and heads of 
Departments touching the duty of the nation to recognize God and the 
claims of His Word, have attended to the duty imposed upon them. 
About the beginning of February we visited Washington, and had a 
pleasant and satisfactory interview with the President. We proffered 
and read in his hearing an address expressing the well-known views of 
our Church in regard to the duty of nations, and of the duty of this 
nation in particular, in the present exigency. A copy of the address is 
herewith submitted. The Committee also prepared, and caused to be 
laid before the National Congress, a memorial craving such changes in 
and amendments to the Constitution of the United States as are set 
forth in the address. 

The Committee took no steps toward securing an acceptance by the 
proper Department of the form of oath prepared by Synod. In view of 
the circumstances of the case, it was deemed unnecessary to do so. 
The Committee understand that the prescribed form of oath was^ 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 131- 

specially intended to meet the case of those who might be drafted under 
the new conscription law of the United States. It was ascertained that 
under this law no oath of any kind was required of the soldier, and 
also that in the case of those who had felt it to be their duty to offer 
their services to the nation in special emergencies, they had been ac- 
cepted without any oath. Under these circumstances no end was to be 
gained by pursuing the matter any further. 

The Synod of 1865, met in Utica, Ohio. Resolu- 
tions on slavery, and Committees to present the same 
to the President, were passed. Geneva Hall was revived 
for the education of colored persons as well as all 
others. The Mission Boards reported great encourage- 
ment and large results from the efforts put forth at 
home and abroad. The Theological Seminary was not 
as fully attended as usual owing to the disturbed state of 
the country. As the rebellion was now put down the 
Synod adopted the following resolutions : 

Resolved, ist. That this Synod congratulate the country upon the 
utter overthrow of the slaveholders' rebellion, which has for the past 
four years filled the land with mourning and aimed at the destruction 
of the nation. 

Resolved, 2d. That we recognize in the death of President Lincoln 
by the hand of an assassin, a severe chastisement from Almighty 
God, and the legitimate fruits of that system of wrong and blood- 
shed which inspired and animated the Southern conspiracy. 

Resolved, 3d. That inasmuch as it is a principle of the divine 
government that " he that justifieth the wicked, and he that condemneth 
the just, even they both are an abomination to the Lord ; " it is 
our calm and deliberate judgment, that it is the duty of the govern- 
ment, to inflict the penalty of death upon the leaders of the late 
rebellion. 

Resolved, 4th. That we recognize in the late war a signal mani- 
festation of the divine wrath against the sins of the nation, especially 
the rejection of the authority of Messiah and oppression of man. 

Resolved, 5th. That we heartily rejoice in every step which has 
been taken for the destruction of slavery, and urge the carrying for- 



132 HISTORY <3F THE REFORMED 

ward of the work, until every man in the nation, without regard to 
color, stands upon a perfect equality before the laws. 

Resolved, 6th. That we again call upon the nation to abandon its 
rebellion against God, acknowledge His name, submit to His authority, 
and recognize the mediatorial claims of His Son. 

The Synod of 1866, met in the city of Rochester, 
New York. Rev. R. J. Dodds. missionary from Syria, 
was present and addressed the court and presided over 
the deliberations. The question of voting for proper 
.amendments to State Constitutions came up, and 
received the following answer : 

That while there may be instances in which it would not be wrong 
to do so, yet as there are other ways by which countenance and approba- 
tion may be given to what is proper, as by petition, and by public and 
private expression, Synod does not recommend such a course. 

Strong resolutions were passed against the use or 
sale of intoxicants, and Synod gave its promise to aid 
the cause of temperance in every way. Cheering reports 
were received from the Southern and Foreign Missions, 
and the work of evangelization and reformation was 
liopefully progressing in all the Church's departments. 

The Synod of 1867, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. A plan for the endowment of the 
Theological Seminary was set before the Church. A 
weekly paper was established for the dissemination of 
the principles of the National Reform Association. 
Rev. Samuel O. Wylie was chosen professor of Theology 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Rev. 
Dr. James M. Willson. To an inquiry whether a mem- 
ber of the Church living in Canada may hold office 
in a case where no oath is required, the following 
.answer was given : 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 33 

The principle involved in this question is not local but general in its 
application. The position of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
regard to accepting office, the committee understand to be, not that it is 
sinful in itself and wrong in all cases, but that it may become sinful 
either by the imposition of an immoral oath or by involving an obliga- 
tion to perform a sinful service. When either of these conditions exists, 
-the law and practice of the church forbid the holding of office. 

Rev. Joseph McCracken was chosen President of 
Geneva Hall and Seminary, at Northwood, Ohio. The 
education of colored persons at this institution promised 
to be a success, and the Church was deeply interested 
in this work of elevating the condition of the sable 
race. 

The Synod of 1868, met at Northwood, Ohio. The 
Theological Seminary and Geneva Hall received special 
attention. Rev. Samuel O. Wylie having declined the 
professorate in the former institution, the Rev. J. R. 
W. Sloane was chosen to the position. Arrangements 
Avere made for Covenanting in the near future. Synod 
re-affirmed its position on the jury question and in- 
temperance, viz : that members are prohibited from 
sitting on juries, and that they are to cease touching 
intoxicants in any way. The law of the Church was 
declared to be positively prohibitory in these respects. 
Rev. Joseph McCracken having resigned the Presidency 
of Geneva Hall, Mr. S. J. Crowe, student of theology, 
had been appointed by the Board as Principal, and 
conducted the school several years in a most efficient 
Tnanner. 

The following deliverance of Synod upon the voting 
for amendments was given : 

The Reformed Presbyterian Church has deliberately taken the 
position of dissent from the civil institutions of the United States, not 



134 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

on the ground that participation in all the functions and operations 
of government is sinful in itself, but on account of the immoral char- 
acter of the Constitutions and laws under which the citizen must act. 
Hence the Church has applied this principle by prohibiting her 
members from holding office and voting at civil elections. 

The inquiry now demanding an answer is, Does voting for an 
amendment of State Constitutions involve, as in the other cases already 
determined by the Church, any thing sinful or inconsistent with the 
principle and practice of the Church ? Synod answers unequivocally, 
that it does. Inasmuch as voting for this object or any other, in- 
volves incorporation with the national society and imperils our dissent 
from it. Is. 8:12, "Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom 
this people shall say, A confederacy." It exposes the members of the 
Church to temptation, i Cor. 8:12, "But when ye sin so against the 
brethren and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against Christ." It 
encourages other Christians to continue their sinful connection with 
an ungodly nation, and renders nugatory the discipline of the Church. 
On these, and other grounds. Synod is resolved to abide by the dis- 
tinctive principles of the Church, and to apply the law of her exalted 
Head. "Abstain from all appearance of evil." i Thess. 5:22. " Lo 
the people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the 
nations." Numb. 23:9. And ere long "the kingdom and dominion and 
the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be 
given to the people of the saints of the Most High." Dan. 7:27. 

To the two inquiries : ist. In a State where there is no objection 
to the school law, except that it requires of all officers an oath of 
allegiance to the Constitution of the United States, as well as an 
oath to discharge the duties of their office, can members of the 
Church hold the office of school director, if they are only required to 
take an oath to discharge the duties of the office, provided they let 
it be known that they will not take the oath of allegiance prescribed 
by law ? 2d. Can members of the Church vote for an individual for 
school director who will take the oath of office with the above limita- 
tions and explanations ? In accordance with the principles stated in 
the foregoing case, Synod answers, No. 

The Synod of 1869, met in the city of Newburgh, 
New York. A most stirring and hopeful report was 
given of the cause of National Reform. The educa- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 135 

tional and Missionary Departments of the work of the 
Church were in a most healthy condition, and several 
new organizations of congregations and settlements of 
ministers were reported. The following resolutions on 
Secrecy were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That this Synod views with deep concern the reviving 
growth and influence of the Secret Orders in the United States. 

Resolved, That we condemn these associations, because their effect 
is to establish spurious and artificial social relations among men and 
a new code of duties founded upon these relations ; because the 
secrecy they practice and enjoin is inconsistent with the candor be- 
coming the Christian character ; and because they virtually assume to 
establish a religion distinct from the religion of Jesus, and therefore 
false. On these grounds we renew our traditional testimony that those 
who enter these associations are unworthy of ecclesiastical fellowship. 

Resolved, That we welcome with great satisfaction the rise of an 
earnest and wide-spread opposition to the Secret Orders, and we trust 
it shall increase and prevail till society be delivered from the dangers 
and purified from the corruptions which they occasion. 

The Synod of 1870, met in the city of New York. 
The Church was encouraged to organize Sabbath 
Schools in all the congregations, but not in such a 
manner as to supplant parental training or home in- 
struction. The Reformed Presbyterian Church has 
always excluded members of oath-bound secret societies 
from her Communion, the reasons for which action 
are embodied in the following timely report on the 
subject : 

Whereas, Secret Orders are institutions avowedly setting before 
themselves ends of no mere temporary character, but permanent as 
those of the Church and State ; and 

Whereas, Their boasted efforts of friendship and beneficence are 
designed not for the benefit of all men, nor for the aid of society and 
the Church in their work, but for the advancement of the orders 
themselves as rivals of the Church and State ; and 



136 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Whereas, The social relations formed by membership in these 
orders must therefore be artificial and false, and the performance of 
the duties imposed by their obligations an injustice to all outside, in- 
cluding the families of members ; and 

Whereas, Secrecy, which is an essential feature of these orders, 
however justifiable in exceptional circumstances, is in all ordinary cases 
needless, opposed to candor, unworthy of a benevolent enterprise, and 
unscriptural ; and 

Whereas, These orders become to many of the members a church 
and their ritual and services virtually a religion, and thus not only tend, 
as proved by fact, to keep men from uniting with the Church, but also 
induce professing Christians to abandon her ; and 

Whereas, In many of these orders the members are bound together 
by oaths, horrible in themselves, and administered by no civil or eccle- 
siastical authority, and may thus become ready instruments in the hands 
of designing leaders for the overthrow of our civil and religious liberties ; 
therefore, 

Resokh'd, i. That we emphatically condemn all these orders as wrong 
in principle and necessarily injurious in their operation. 

2. That it is as much the duty of the Church to prohibit the connec- 
tion of her members with these orders as to forbid their participation 
in a system of rebellion or oppression. 

3. That in view of the advocacy of Secret Orders by influential 
papers, and even by respected Christian men and ministers, we pledge 
ourselves to labor for the thorough agitation of the subject, believ- 
ing that a clearer understanding of their character and influences will 
lead to the withdrawal of their most effective support. 

There was a general and earnest desire upon the 
part of the Church to now go forward with the act 
of Covenanting, and definite arrangements were made 
to enter upon this important work at the next 
meeting. 

The Synod of 1871, met in the city of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. It is the most notable meeting because 
during its sessions the Synod entered into the solemn 
act of Covenanting. The "bond" of the Covenant 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. I 37 

and the "Confession of Sins" had been overtured by 
the Church. This important event in the history of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America took 
place in the Pittsburgh Church, May 27, 1871, after a 
sermon on "Covenanting" by Rev. Andrew Stevenson^ 
D. D. Rev. James M. Beattie then read the Covenant,. 
Rev. J. R. W. Sloane, D. D., addressed the Synod on 
"The Spirit in which we should Covenant," and Rev, 
Thomas Sproull, D. D., offered prayer. After a few 
moments of silent prayer, the Covenant-oath was 
taken by the members of Synod and others who 
joined them. The Covenant was then again read by 
Rev. Thomas Sproull, D. D., and at the close of each 
section all responded "Amen." At the close of the 
last section all repeated in concert Exodus 24 : 7, 
"All that the Lord hath said will we .do, and be 
obedient." The Covenant was then subscribed by 
seventy-four ministers, seventy elders, and by five 
licentiates, four students of theology, and nineteen 
elders not members of the Synod at that session. 
After the bond was signed, the Rev. William Milroy 
delivered an address on "Covenant-keeping," and the 
service closed by singing Psalm 72: 17-19. 

As the proceedings of this memorable occasion have 
been preserved to the Church in the "Memorial 
Volume," it is thought proper to insert nothing in this 
volume but the Covenant itself, in order that this 
sacred bond may meet the eye of the casual reader. 

COVENANT. 

"We, Ministers. Elders, Deacons, and Members of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, 



138 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

with our hands lifted up, do jointly and severally swear 
by the Great and Dreadful Name of the LORD OUR 
God: 

I. "That coming into the presence of the Lord God 
with a deep conviction of His awful majesty and 
glory, of His omniscience, His purity. His justice and 
His grace ; of our guilt and total depravity by nature, 
and our utter inability to save ourselves from deserved 
condemnation to everlasting punishment ; with renuncia- 
tion of all dependence on our own righteousness as 
the ground of pardon and acceptance with God, 
we receive for ourselves and for our children the Lord 
Jesus Christ as He is offered in the Gospel, to be 
our Saviour — the Holy Spirit to be our Enlightener, 
Sanctifier and Guide — and God, the Father, to be our 
everlasting portion ; we approve and accept of the 
Covenant of Grace as all our salvation and desire, 
and take the moral law as dispensed by the Mediator, 
Christ, to be the rule of our life, and to be obeyed 
by us in all its precepts and prohibitions. Aiming 
to live for the glory of God as our chief end, 
we will, in reliance upon God's grace, and feeling 
our inability to perform any spiritual duty in our own 
strength, diligently attend to searching the Scriptures, 
religious conversation, the duties of the closet, the 
household, the fellowship meeting and the sanctuary, 
and will seek in them to worship God in spirit and 
in truth. We do solemnly promise to depart from all 
iniquity, and to live soberly, righteously, and godly in 
this present world, commending and encouraging, by 
our example, temperance, charity and godliness. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 39 

2. "That after careful examination, having embraced 
the system of faith, order and worship revealed in the 
Holy Scriptures, and summarized as to doctrine in the 
Westminster Confession and Catechisms, and Reformed 
Presbyterian Testimony, and, as to order and worship, 
justly set forth in substance and outline in the West- 
minster Form of Church Government and Directory 
for Worship, we do publicly profess and own this as 
the true Christian faith and religion, and the system 
of order and worship appointed by Christ for His own 
house, and, by the grace of God, we will sincerely 
and constantly endeavor to understand it more fully, 
to hold and observe it in its integrity, and to transmit 
the knowledge of the same to posterity. We solemnly 
reject whatever is known by us to be contrary to 
the Word of God, our recognized and approved manuals 
of faith and order, and the great principles of the 
Protestant Reformation. Particularly, we abjure and 
■condemn Infidelity, under all its various aspects ; 
Atheism, or the denial of the divine existence ; Pan- 
theism, with its denial of the divine personality ; 
Naturalism, with its denial of the divine Providential 
Government ; Spiritualism, with its denial of the Bible 
redemption ; Indifferentism, with its denial of man's 
responsibility ; Formalism, with its denial of the power 
of godliness. W^e abjure and condemn Popery, with 
its arrogant assumption of supremacy and infallibility ; 
its corrupt and heretical teachings ; its dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception ; its hostility to civil and 
religious liberty, to the progress of society in civiliza- 
tion and intelligence, and especially its denial, in 



I40 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

common with Infidelity, of the right and duty of the 
State to educate in morality and religion by the use of 
the Bible in schools enjoying its patronage and support. 
Believing Presbyterianism to be the only divinely 
instituted form of government in the Christian Church,, 
we disown and reject all other forms of ecclesiastical 
polity, as without authority of Scripture, and as 
damaging to purity, peace and unity in the household 
of faith. We reject all systems of false religion and 
will-worship, and with these all forms of secret oath- 
bound societies and orders, as ensnaring in their nature, 
pernicious in their tendency, and perilous to the liberties 
of both Church and State ; and pledge ourselves to- 
pray and labor according to our power, that whatever 
is contrary to godliness may be removed, and the 
Church beautified with universal conformity to the law 
and will of her Divine Head and Lord. 

3. " Persuaded that God is the source of all legitimate 
power ; that he has instituted civil government for His 
own glory and the good of man ; that he has ap- 
pointed His Son, the Mediator, to headship over the 
nations ; and that the Bible is the supreme law and 
rule in national as in all other things, we will maintain 
the responsibility of nations to God, the rightful 
dominion of Jesus Christ over the commonwealth, and 
the obligation of nations to legislate in conformity 
with the written Word. We take • ourselves sacredly 
bound to regulate all our civil relations, attachments,, 
professions and deportment, by our allegiance and loyalty 
to the Lord, our King, Lawgiver and Judge ; and by 
this, our oath, we are pledged to promote the interests 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. I4I 

of public order and justice, to support cheerfully what- 
ever is for the good of the commonwealth in which we 
dwell, and to pursue this object in all things not for- 
bidden by the law of God, or inconsistent with public 
dissent from an unscriptural and immoral civil power. 
We will pray and labor for the peace and welfare of 
our country, and for its reformation by a constitutional 
recognition of God as the source of all power, of Jesus- 
Christ as the Ruler of Nations, of the Holy Scriptures- 
as the supreme rule, and of the true Christian religion ;. 
knd we will continue to refuse to incorporate by any 
act, with the political body, until this blessed reforma- 
tion has been secured. 

4. "That, believing the Church to be 07ie, and that 
all the saints have communion with God and with one 
another in the same Covenant ; believing, moreover, 
that schism and sectarianism are sinful in themselves^ 
and inimical to true religion, and trusting that divisions' 
shall cease, and the people of God become one Catholic 
Church over all the earth, we will pray and labor for 
the visible oneness of the Church of God in our own 
land and throughout the world, on the basis of truth 
and Scriptural order. Considering it a principal duty of 
our profession to cultivate a holy brotherhood, we will 
strive to maintain Christian friendship with pious* meii 
of every name, and to feel and act as one with all 
in every land who pursue this grand end. And, as a 
means of securing this great result, we will, by dis- 
semination and application of the principles of truth 
herein professed and by cultivating and exercising 
Christian charity, labor to remove stumbling blocks,. 



142 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and to gather into one the scattered and divided friends 
of truth and righteousness. 

5. "Rejoicing that the enthroned Mediator is not 
only King in Zion. but King over all the earth, and 
recognizing the obligation of His command to go into 
all the world and preach the gospel to every creature, 
and to teach all nations, baptizing them in the name 
of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, 
and resting with faith in the promise of His perpetual 
presence as the pledge of success, we hereby dedicate 
■ourselves to the great work of making known God's 
light and salvation among the nations, and to this 
end 'will labor that the Church may be provided with 
an earnest, self-denying and able ministry. Profoundly 
conscious of past remissness and neglect, we will hence- 
forth, by our prayers, pecuniary contributions and per- 
sonal exertions, seek the revival of pure and undefiled 
religion, the conversion of Jews and Gentiles to Christ, 
that all men may be blessed in Him, and that all 
nations may call Him blessed. 

6. "Committing ourselves with all our interests to 
the keeping of Him in whom we have believed : in 
faithfulness to our own vows, and to the Covenants 
of our fathers, and to our children whom we desire 
to fead in the right ways of the Lord ; and in love 
to all mankind, especially the household of faith in 
•obedience to the commandment of the everlasting 
God to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered 
to the saints, we will bear true testimony in word and 
in deed for every known part of divine truth, and 
for all the ordinances appointed by Christ in his king- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 43 

dom ; and we will tenderly and charitably, but plainly 
and decidedly, oppose and discountenance all and 
every known error, immorality, neglect or perversion 
of divine institutions. Taking as our example the 
faithful in all ages, and, most of all, the blessed 
Master himself, and with our eye fixed upon the great 
cloud of witnesses who have sealed with their blood 
the testimony which they held, we will strive to hold 
fast the profession of our faith without wavering, in 
hope of the crown of life which fadeth not away. 
Finally, we enter upon this solemn act of cove- 
nanting before the Omniscient God, with unfeigned 
purpose of paying our vow. All sinister and selfish 
ends and motives we solemnly disavow, and protest 
that we have no aim but the glory of God, and the 
present and everlasting welfare of immortal souls. 
And our prayer to God is and shall be, to strengthen 
us by His Holy Spirit to keep this our promise, vow 
and oath, and to bless our humble attempt to glorify 
His name and honor, His truth and cause with such 
success as will bring salvation to our own souls, the 
wider spread and triumph of truth and holiness, and 
the enlargement and establishment of the kingdom of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom, with the 
Father and the Spirit, one God be glory in the Church 
throughout all ages, world without end. Amen." 

With a very few exceptions, all the members of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America entered 
into and subscribed this same Covenant in the respective 
congregations. The Rev. Samuel R. Galbraith was 



144 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

chosen missionary to Syria, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of the Rev. Robert J. Dodds. Rev. 
David McAllister was appointed by Synod to give his 
whole time to the interests of National Reform. 

The Synod of 1872, met in York, New York. An 
offer was made by Mr. James Kelly of Wilkinsburgh,. 
Pennsylvania, and also by friends in Newburgh, New 
York, for the location of the Theological Seminary. 
The Pittsburgh Presbytery donated the buildings of 
Westminster College to the Seminary Board. Wilkins- 
burgh was chosen as the seat of the new Theological 
Seminary. Elaborate reports on Missions, Education,. 
National Reform, and other vital departments of the 
Church's work were submitted. The Committee on 
the " Homestead Oath " reported : 

That they have examined the Homestead laws of the United States, 
and find that every applicant must swear that he is a citizen, or that 
he has filed his declaration of intention to become such, as required 
by the naturalization laws of the United States. (See Brightley's. 
Digest of the Laws of the U. S., p. 288, sec. 41.) At the time the 
patent is made out, he niust swear that he has borne true allegiance 
to the government of the United States. (Idem., page 288, sec. 42.) 

There never has been a question in the Church as to the first 
oath. It has always been deemed wrong. As to the second, which 
both natives and foreigners must take, a majority of the Com- 
mittee think it inconsistent with our refusal to incorporate, by any 
act, with the government of the United States. 

The Committee recommended that Synod take steps to obtain such 
a modification of these oaths as may be consistent with our dissent. 

The Rev. H. H. George was chosen President of 
Geneva College, and has since continued to hold that 
position. 

The Synod of 1873, met in Northwood, Ohio. For 
several reasons the location of the Seminary at Wil-- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 145 

kinsburgh was not satisfactory to some parts of the 
Church, and the Synod adopted the following resolution: 

Resolved, That a Committee of seven persons be appointed to locate 
and erect the Theological Seminary Building in the city of Allegheny, 
and that the place and style of building and appurtenances be left 
to the judgment of the Committee ; and that the limit of expense be 
thirty thousand dollars ($30,000). 

The Synod of 1874, met in the city of Philadelphia. 
The Committee appointed to report on the " Patrons 
•of Husbandry" or "Grangers," after ascertaining facts, 
report the following : 

I. That this order was organized by Freemasons and Oddfellows ; 
is modelled after their forms in its rites, ceremonies and officers ; is 
largely under their control, and as a matter of fact furnishes recruits 
for these detestable orders. 

2. That it is in itself a secret and substantially oath-bound society, 
the candidate for admission being required to pledge his sacred word 
and honor, in the presence of God, to keep secrets, obey laws and 
assume responsibilities wholly unknown to him, and utterly incompatible 
with Christian integrity and simplicity. 

3. That the order in its constitution assumes the false and impossi- 
ble position of neutrality both with respect to religion and politics, 
and as a consequence of this its religious services are conducted 
indiscriminately in a Christian or Anti-Christian and pa^gan manner ; 
and instead of being neutral in politics, it is practically a political 
party. 

We therefore emphatically and unequivocally condemn this and all 
•other secret orders as ensnaring, deceptive and sinful in themselves, 
as prejudicial to the best interests of society, and as a lawless and 
inefficient way of obtaining redress of grievances. We also recom- 
mend that Synod enjoin it upon all sessions not to fellowship mem- 
bers of this or any secret order, and to warn all under their care 
to beware of the ensnaring influences of such organizations. "Have 
no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather 
reprove them." 

The Synod, as the representative of the Church, 
again pledged itself to the hearty support of the 



146 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

principles incorporated b}- the National Reform Associa- 
tion, and has unceasingly carried forward the pledge 
embodied in the following resolutions : 

Resoh'ed, That this Synod, and the whole Church, in whose interests 
it is met, regard with the liveliest interest all efforts to reform our 
nation, and to bring it, in its constitution, and administration, and 
into conformity with the revealed will and written Word of God. 

Resolved, That a distinct constitutional recognition of Jesus Christ, 
the Mediator between God and man, as the legislative head and ruler 
of nations is the indispensable duty of this nation, and that any pro- 
posed form of amendment to the national constitution, or States con- 
stitution, in which such recognition is omitted, is and will be held 
by this Church to be fundamentally defective. 

Resolved, That we will pray and labor for the reformation of our 
nation, nor cease our efiforts until we see it a Christian state, adminis- 
tering its authority in subserviency to the kingdom of Christ, in sup- 
pressing blasphemy, idolatry, licentiousness, and every other form of 
public hindrance to its progress, and in giving positive countenance, 
encouragement, and support to the Christian Church throughout the 
commonwealth as the great restorer and conservator of the true relig- 
ion, which, as a leaf of the tree of life, restores and heals the nations. 

The Synod of 1875, "^^t in Coultersville, Illinois. 
Rev. David B. Willson was elected to a professorate 
in the Theological Seminary. All the reports from 
the different agencies of the Church were full and 
satisfactory, and, with the exception of direction in the 
settlement of a few local cases of discipline, the 
proceedings of this Synod were routine. 

The Synod of 1876, met in the city of Allegheny,. 
Pennsylvania. Rev. Joseph Beattie, of Syria, was pres- 
ent, and presided over the sessions of Synod. 

Strong and definite resolutions bearing upon the 
different reforms of the day were passed at the meeting, 
and they were of such a character as to conclusively 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 4/ 

show that this Church is composed of thorough 
reformers. 

The Synod of 1877, met in the city of Allegheny,. 
Pennsylvania. The following report explains itself : 

The Committee appoiated to confer with a similar Committee ap- 
pointed by the General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
reports that, after several meetings of the joint Committee, it was 
agreed to report to the respective Synods, that while we recognize with 
thankfulness the identity in faith, and practice and testimony in many 
important respects of these closely related branches of the Church of 
Christ, we are constrained to admit that the obstacles in the way of 
organic reunion appear, for the present, to be insuperable. 

The special Committee, to which were referred peti- 
tions relating to inviting clergymen of other denomina- 
tions into our pulpits, report : 

1. That, while desiring to cultivate and cherish the most friendly 
and fraternal relations with our brethren of other evangelical denomina- 
tions, it has never been the custom of the Church to invite them to 
minister to our people in the preaching of the Word. 

2. That we see no good reason, in the present condition of the 
visible Church of Christ, for departing from existing usage. 

The Synod of 1878, met at Linton, Iowa. With 
reference to the conference on union with the New 
School body, the Committee made the following report : 

After a frank, earnest and friendly conference, it was agreed that 
there was not, at present, any special encouragement to take steps in 
the direction of attempting to heal the breach between these two 
branches of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and while it was 
agreed that we should foster in all proper ways friendly, fraternal 
feelings, that it was not advisable to continue the conference further. 

Synod thought it proper for women to speak and 
lead in prayer in social praying societies. The Fourth 
Term of Communion was revised, and is as printed. 

Synod advised the Missionary among the Chinese to 
baptize such persons as give evidence of " intelligent 



148 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

.and unfeigned faith and repentance." Synod also 
regarded " the language of the Testimony on the duties 
•of the Christian magistrate as the exhibition of the 
doctrines we hold upon this subject, and as properly 
interpreting the Confession of Faith." 

The Synod of 1879, met in the city of New York. 
Rev. David Metheny, M. D., Missionary to Syria, was 
present, and was chosen to preside over the sessions. 
Rev. A. M, Stavely, of New Brunswick, was also present, 
.and addressed the meeting. 

The following resolutions on tobacco were unani- 
mously adopted by Synod : 

Inasmuch as tobacco is extensively used throughout society, and in 
its use is a positive evil, which manifests itself — i. As an injury to 
physical health ; 2. As an offence to good manners ; 3. As an unneces- 
sary expenditure of money ; 4. As it is associated with much vice ; 
5. As it exerts a demoralizing influence upon the youth ; 6. As it is 
inconsistent with moral and spiritual purity. Therefore, 

Resolved, i. That this Synod condemn all indulgence in the use of 
tobacco. 

Resolved, 2. That we urge our people to abstain from it in every 
form except as prescribed by competent medical authority, and use all 
lawful and wise means to eradicate this evil from society. 

Resolved, 3. That Presbyteries be hereby advised to license no one 
to preach the gospel who indulges in the use of tobacco ; and sessions 
be advised not to ordain any officers in the Church who practice 
this habit for mere carnal gratification. 

Resglved, 4. That this Synod condemn the cultivation, manufacture, 
and sale of tobacco. 

With its earnest desire, and with the hearty con- 
<:urrence of the Irish Synod, the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia was received under the 
care of this Synod. The change of the location of 
Geneva College having been agitated for some time, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 49 

the Synod now chose to remove the institution from 
Northwood, Ohio, to Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, on the 
condition that ten acres of ground and twenty thousand 
dollars were given for the erection of buildings. This 
offer was made by the Economite Society and 
accepted by Synod. The College first opened in 
Beaver Falls in September, 1880, and the building 
erected for the purpose was occupied the following year. 
The 'Synod re-affirmed the law of the Church with 
reference to marriage with a deceased wife's sister, 
that it is prohibitory. In a concrete case of a member 
of the Church being summoned to sit upon a jury in 
Pittsburgh, and the Judge refusing to excuse him, a 
Committee of Synod was appointed to wait upon the 
Judge, who decided that he would not excuse the 
member, but was willing to accept, instead of the 
usual juror's oath, such an oath as would be approved 
by the Reformed Presbyterian Church, 

The Synod of 1880, met in the city of Philadelphia. 
General Rules for the organization and government of 
Geneva College were submitted. The following report 
explains the manner in which affairs were settled by 
the removal of the College to Beaver Falls : 

That the notes given to the endowment by persons in the vicinity 
of Northwood, on the condition that the College remain in that place, 
be returned to those who make this request. 

That the Board of Education, as connected with the College in 
Northwood, Ohio, be continued in existence until all business matters 
relating to the transfer of the College to Beaver Falls shall be fully 
accomplished, and that the Executive Committee of the Board be 
authorized to make a quit claim deed to a Committee to be appointed 
by members of the Church at Northwood, of all the buildings there 



ISO HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

belonging to Synod, on condition that the Northwood Committee meet 
all the expenses afterwards accruing. 

That the movable property of the College, such as the library, 
apparatus, &c., be removed to the College building at Beaver Falls. 

The Synod of 1881, met in the city of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. The following preamble and resolutions 
were adopted : 

Whereas, It is important for the interests of the Church to place 
before our people and others a statement and vindication of the prin- 
ciples professed by us, and to justify the practice grounded upoQ these 
principles, and particularly in connection with questions made of im- 
mediate and pressing urgency from the circumstances of the times ; 
therefore. 

Resolved, i. That Synod take measures for the issuing of a series of 
tracts, of not more than 4 pages, 12 mo., for distribution among our 
people, and for general circulation, so far as it can be accomplished. 

2. That D. S. Faris be appointed to write on the duty of our 
members in regard to the exercise of the Elective Franchises, Dr. 
Sloane on Psalmody, James Kennedy on Instrumental Music, Professor 
Willson on Dancing, J. Lynd on Temperance, D. M'Allister on the Jury 
Question, and Dr. Sproull on the Testimony of the Church, in regard 
to Christian people who are in political fellowship with nations, which 
disown the Kingship of the Lord Jesus ; and that these papers be 
published at once in the magazines of the Church. 

On the question of voting for temperance amend- 
ments, the Committee say : 

On this paper we report that as the Synod by its action of 1866 and 
1867 refused to authorize such voting on the part of the members of 
the Church, and as it not only appears to many inconsistent with our 
position on the jury question, and in some measure an incorporating 
with government, but also inconsistent with the position, solemnly taken 
in our act of Covenanting of 1871, that therefore Synod should distinctly 
declare that it disapproves of and discourages such voting on the part 
of our members as if not positively a breach of their testimony, at 
least in many respects dangerous and ensnaring. 

Synod thought that members acceding to our Com- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. I5I 

munion in Syria from the Greek Roman Catholic Church 
should be baptized. Not only in this but in all similar 
cases baptism is to be administered. Rev. W. J. 
Coleman was chosen to labor in the interests of the 
National Reform Association as the representative of 
this Church. 

The Synod of 1882, met in New Concord, Ohio. 
From the following resolutions it will be seen that this 
is a temperance Church : 

1. Resolved, That we unite in sincere thanksgiving to God for the 
firm hold the cause of Temperance has taken in the public conscience, 
for the able instrumentalities that are raised up in its advocacy, and for 
its marked progress in the Church and throughout the Nation. 

2. Resolved, That we hereby lift up an uncompromising testimony 
against the use, manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors, including 
beer, ale, wine and hard cider, as a beverage ; against the renting of 
property for the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors ; against the 
selling the fruits of the earth for the purpose of being manufactured 
into intoxicating drinks ; and against giving countenance in any way to 
the nefarious traffic or use. 

3. Resolved, That the ministers, officers and members of the Church 
be enjoined to take a public stand in the present Temperance move- 
ment, and openly wage, in all legitimate ways, an unceasing warfare 
against the atrocious liquor business and the pernicious evils of 
intemperance. 

4. Resolved, That sessions see to it that members of the Church act 
consistently with her public position on the Temperance question, and 
that the discipline of the Church be rigidly applied in all cases 
where the law of the Church in this regard is violated. 

5. Resolved, That the Sabbath Schools make Temperance a part of 
their instruction ; and that teachers and scholars be urged to pledge 
themselves to total abstinence from intoxicating liquors, and to earnest 
work in the Temperance cause. 

6. Resolved, That Synod reiterate its former recommendation against 
the use of intoxicating wine in the Lord's supper. 

7. Retolved, That we rejoice at the progress of legal Prohibition in 



152 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

our country ; and that we put forth every effort, consistent with our 
position as a Church, to secure an amendment to the United States 
Constitution, and also to the Constitutions of the different States, for- 
bidding the importation, manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors 
as a beverage. 

8. Resolved, That the time has come when our Church should take 
an advanced step in the temperance cause by incorporating in her 
written Testimony an article forever prohibiting the manufacture, sale 
and use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage. 

9. Resolved, That this Synod express its hearty approval of the action 
of the legislature of this State in closing the liquor saloons on the 
Lord's day. 

10. Resolved, That Synod renew, in more emphatic terms, its con- 
demnation of the production, manufacture, sale and use of tobacco, as 
it is injurious to the best interests of man socially, morally and 
spiritually ; and that Presbyteries be enjoined to refuse licensure to 
any candidate who is in the habit of indulging in the use thereof. 

Synod declared itself opposed to the action of the 
government in closing the western gate, while through 
the east gate a far more dangerous class of emigrants 
is received with no restrictions : 

Resolved, That this Synod express its condemnation of the recent 
Anti-Chinese bill which has passed both houses of Congress, and been 
signed by the President, as a breach of treaty obligations, opposed to 
the spirit of the age, a gross violation of the law of God, and as 
calculated to arrest the earnest missionary efforts now being put forth 
for the Christianization of that numerous people. 

Rev. Henry Easson, missionary from Syria, was 
present and addressed the court, A suitable notice 
was taken of the providential death of President Gar- 
field, A Committee was appointed to prepare an edition 
of the Book of Psalms with verbal corrections and 
suitable music, 

A long and able discussion of the true and historic 
position of the Church was entered into in reference 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 153 

to the question of voting for temperance amendments 
in some of the States. The question was "Could 
Covenanters, consistent with their position, vote for 
amendments to State Constitutions.? The following was 
the deliverance of Synod on this subject: 

Resolved, i. That this Synod declares anew our position of dissent, 
on moral grounds, from the Constitution of the United States, and 
rejoices in the evidence which this discussion has afforded of una- 
bated and unanimous convictions in support of this position. 

2. That it has always been regarded as the privilege and the 
duty of our members to unite in all civil action which is not incon- 
sistent with this dissent. 

3. That in view of the varying conditions under which constitu- 
tional amendments are submitted in different States, we leave it with 
Presbyteries and sessions to administer the discipline of the Church 
in harmony with these principles. 

The Synod of 1883, met in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. It was largely attended and much 
important business was transacted. The Commission 
visiting the Churches in the Maritime Provinces made 
an interesting report. A charter for Geneva College 
was submitted. 

A memorial from Nova Scotia with reference to the 
validity of sacraments, received the following answer: 

Whilst we are in full harmony with the Memorialists as to the nature 
and Scriptural mode of administering the ordinance of baptism, yet 
we cannot acquiesce in their prayer, asking this court to pronounce 
baptism by immersion to be in all cases invalid, and that applicants 
from the Baptist connection, seeking fellowship with us, should be 
required to receive baptism before admission, according to the mode 
of administration followed by us, for the following reasons : 

I. Because it has never been, either in principle or practice^ 
recognized as necessary in the Reformed Presbyterian Church, in this 
or any other country, that such a condition of admission to our mem- 
bership should be required on the part of such applicants. 



154 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

2. Because, while we strenuously contend for the Scriptural admin- 
istration of religious ordinances, we cannot admit the principle that 
mere imperfections in the mode of administration do invalidate them or 
destroy their efficacy. The "Westminster divines declare that "The sac- 
raments become effectual means of salvation, not from any virtue in them, 
or in him that doth administer them ; " therefore when the appointed 
sign is employed in baptism, and when it is applied as directed, in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and that in 
an avowed symbolical and sacramental sense, and for a symbolical and 
sacramental purpose, then there are present substantially all the elements 
constituting a real administration of that ordinance. 

3. Because, as the validity and efficacy of a sacrament do not depend 
on the amount of the material sign employed on the occasion, but upon 
the right apprehension, in its use, of its spiritual import and significance 
as an appointment of Christ, it is not impossible to realize the spiritual 
benefits of baptism even when administered by immersion. The 
leading idea in employing water in baptism is that of purifying from 
defilement, and as in ordinary life, from which the term is taken, this 
is sometimes effected by applying water to the object to be made clean, 
and sometimes by putting it into the water, we do not think that the 
ends contemplated in baptism cannot be reached, or that the ordinance 
is invalidated when the mode of administering is by immersion, any 
more than that the Lord's Supper is invalidated when in some Evan- 
gelical Churches it is administered in a manner which we cannot 
regard as altogether Scriptural. 

4. Because we cannot refuse to accept the validity of this ordi- 
nance, as administered by Baptists without unchurching the connection, 
or in other words refusing to acknowledge them as a part of the 
true church of Christ. This we do in relation to Rome by refusing 
to accept her baptism and ordination, but we think it would be 
utterly unjustifiable to place Baptist Churches in the same category. 

The following sentiment with reference to an old 
form and custom of the Church is interesting : 

1. That the distribution of tokens on a week day evening previous 
to 'the administration of the ordinance of the Lord's supper has never 
been considered an integral element of the ordinance. 

2. That it is in no sense an act of worship, nor is the token a 
religious symbol. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 55 

3. That it is simply a custom relating to the well ordering of the 
■Church that has come down to us from persecuting times, and as such 
has a strong hold upon the minds of many in the Church. 

4. That it cannot in any way be productive of mischief unless 
elevated into a prominence and significance that does not in any sense 
attach to it. 

5. In view of these considerations we advise all our people to 
observe the custom as heretofore until such time as the Church in its 
wisdom may deem it proper to dispense with it. 

An article on Temperance was inserted in the Testi- 
mony. 

The Synod of 1884, met in Northwood, Ohio. While 
there was a large attendance of delegates, the business 
was interesting but of a routine character. The prin- 
•cipal question that demanded the especial attention of 
this Synod was that of voting for amendments. The 
following is the report of this item : 

1. Does voting for amendments to State Constitutions involve any- 
thing sinful or inconsistent with the principles and practice of the 
Church ? 

2. Has the deliverance of this Synod in 1868 on the question of 
voting for amendments been repealed ? 

To the first of these inquiries the following answer is submitted : 
That it is a fundamental principle of the Church, in regard to which 
we are persuaded there is no diversity either of sentiment or practice 
amongst us, that all acts performed under the government, that either 
require or imply an oath to the National Constitution or to the Con- 
stitution of any of the States, are manifestly acts of incorporation with 
the government ; and although the service should be right in itself, 
yet it becomes wrong and sinful by reason of the sinful condition 
involved. 

It should, however, be borne in mind that in guarding with watch- 
ful jealousy against the sin of identification with an unscriptural 
government, the Church, both in the practice of her members, and in 
the deliverances of Synod, has wisely avoided the evil of being led 



156 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

aside into any unwarranted extremes, as regards our relation to the 
Nation, and its government. 

In order that we may take no step of departure from our peculiar 
position, either to the right hand or to the left, it requires to be 
studied and observed with special care. There are forms of civil action 
in which our members have always held it their privilege to engage, 
without fear of complicity in the sin of an unholy confederacy. 
Among the latest utterances of Synod on this subject are these words : , 
"The general rule for guidance is that participation in acts of civil 
administration is not in itself wrong and sinful, but becomes so when 
any sinful condition in the way of an immoral oath is involved." 
And, "that it has always been regarded as the privilege and the duty 
of our members to unite in all civil actioQ which is not inconsistent 
with our dissent " from the Constitution of the United States. 

Upon an examination of the entire ground occupied by these questions 
the following conclusions appear safe and just : 

All civil action that involves an immoral oath is sinful and wrong. 
There are certain acts that do not involve an immoral oath, that are 
not acts of incorporation with the government, and that our members 
have alw3ys claimed the right to perform. 

The simple act of voting for such an amendment to the State Con- 
stitution as will secure some important principle of moral right and 
reform such as the prohibitory amendments recently submitted to the 
people of Kansas, Iowa and Ohio, belongs to the class of acts con- 
sistent with the principles and position of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. 

Act of 1868. — To the second inquiry the following answer is respect- 
fully returned : 

That we should recall the peculiar circumstances under which the 
deliverance of 1868 was given. 

It is a matter of history that the report was taken up at the last 
hour, immediately before the final adjournment of the court. There 
was almost no opportunity for the examination and discussion of its 
merits. It was adopted amid much confusion and at a time when the 
attention of only a fraction of the court could be secured. Such ill 
considered action thus hastily taken must be wanting in force of 
authority, and cannot be expected to command the hearty respect and 
united submission of the Church. 

Again, in so far as this deliverance prohibits all civil action, not 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 157^ 

only when the service is right in itself, but even when no immoral 
oath is involved, it contravenes the historical position of the Church,, 
and the repeated deliberate utterances of this court. 

Finally, although this measure has never, in so many words, been 
formally rescinded, yet by the well-known rule of law, that subsequent 
action necessarily sets aside prior action of a contrary nature, the 
deliverance of 1868, in the respect and to the extent already defined, 
has, by the action of 1875, re-affirmed in 1882, been virtually and really 
repealed. 

Other members of the same Committee submitted 
the following report : 

Voting for amendments to State Constitutions involves an act of 
voluntary incorporation with the governing political body, of which we 
say in our Covenant, " We will not incorporate with it until Reforma- 
tion is secured." 

We therefore recommend that our people be enjoined to abstain- 
from voting for amendments to State Constitutions. 

An interesting letter was received from the Associate 
Reformed Synod of the South recommending a Con- 
vention' of all the Churches holding the same doctrinal 
symbols and who use exclusively the Psalms of the 
Bible in worship. 

The Synod of 1885, met in Morning Sun, Iowa. The 
delegates to the Conference of Psalm-singing Churches 
reported that on account of our relations on civil affairs 
no union could be effected. The Synod took the 
following action with reference to weekly offerings of 
worship : 

1. That Synod reaffirm the principle that the tithe is the law of 
God under the New Testament dispensation and that it is the least 
measure of liberality. 

2. That the envelope system of weekly offerings be approved as 
in harmony with Scripture and wisely adapted for the end, and that 
our congregations be advised to consider it for adoption. 

3. That in discussing this subject the preferences and convictions 



-158 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of all parties be duly and kindly considered, and that forbearance 
be shown in reconciling differences ; and whatever plan is adopted 
by a congregation we most earnestly urge and exhort the minority, 
since it is not a matter of conscience but of expediency, that they 
cease opposition and cordially acquiesce in it until by Christian per- 
suasion a change is effected. 

The following resolutions on Temperance were adopted: 

1. We urge all our people to recognize the importance of the tem- 
perance cause, and its claim on their active and earnest support. That 
our Presbyteries be enjoined to hold temperance institutes or conven- 
tions, for the discussion and advocacy of this cause. That sessions be 
urged to give practical force to the recently adopted article on temper- 
ance, in admitting members, and faithfully to enforce the discipline of 
the church, in all cases where the law is violated. 

2. We denounce the whole license system, as wrong in principle 
and most pernicious in practice — involving the nation in the guilt and 
shame of the liquor traffic to which it gives its consent, as ineffectual 
for the restraint or suppression of the evil, and an utter violation of 
the high trust God has committed to civil government as His ordinance. 

3. Support of political parties that favor or ignore this nefarious 
business, or even incorporation with the government, is inconsistent 
with fidelity to Christ, and involves those who continue in such alliance 
in the guilt and ignominy of the liquor trafi&c. 

4. That it is our duty as a Church to give to all scriptural measures, 
moral, political or legislative, for the suppression of this traffic, all that 
support and advocacy which is consistent with our position of political 
dissent ; and especially that our women be encouraged to co-operate 
with the W. C. T. U. in its noble work of faith and labor of love. 

5. We re-affirm the former actions of this court, enjoining sessions 
as far as possible, to use only unintoxicating wine in the administration 
of the Lord's Supper. 

Having a concrete case before it, the Synod directs 
members of the Church to " take no part in the 
use of uninspired hymns in any service that may 
be regarded as the worship of God." Synod also says : 
" It is most expedient that the Mod'erator of a Church 
court be a minister of the Gospel." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. I 59 

The Synod of 1886, met in the city of Rochester, 
New York. On Secret Societies the Committee reported: 

Speculative Freemasonry, the type of all modern secret societies, 
•originated at Appletree Tavern, London, in 1717. The idea is bor- 
rowed from the heathen. Secret societies have been known in all 
lands in connection with the worship of false deities. Some of these 
claim the highest degree of piety ; others still claiming to worship 
their God, are expressly designed for criminal purposes. 

The immediate parentage of Freemasonry were the guilds of opera- 
tive masons, in the middle ages, their object being to control architec- 
ture, like the present trades unions. They are, therefore, necessarily 
of a selfish character, and charity is the veil to hide the real end. 

The principal feature of secret societies is the oath or promise of 
perpetual concealment, and this often with horrible penalties annexed. 
The effect of such engagement is to take away the right of private 
judgment and to put another's conscience in place of one's own. 

The penalties have been understood by the lodges themselves to be 
literal, and to forfeit life, property and character. Foul murders and 
implacable persecutions have followed the attempt of good men to 
free conscience from lodge tyranny. 

Yet they claim to be religious — more religious and charitable than 
the Church. The Masons boast of the universal religion in which all 
men agree. This places Jew, heathen and Christian on a common 
platform, on which God, under the name of Grand Architect, is wor- 
shipped without Christ. Other societies model after the same pattern. 
These orders also are in spirit and forms despotic, as their own 
authorities affirm. They are readily used by bad men to screen them 
from the just punishment of their crimes. The so-called benevolent 
•societies provide and hold in readiness the machinery which bad men 
use for the destruction of life and property. 

Socialists employ them for revolutionary purposes, and conspiring and 
plotting in secret have filled the world with horror and alarm. They 
liinder the freedom of manufacture and business, and force trade into 
ways injurious to the public. 

How should the Church stand toward such organizations? If Baal 
■worship was the abomination that God hated of old, surely he hates 
the abomination done in secret lodges ; all good men should hold their 
works in detestation. 



l60 ^ HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Among other things the report on the tobacco- 
question says : 

The cultivation, manufacture, sale and use of tobacco are in measure 
under ban in the Reformed Presbyterian Church. Tobacco is pro- 
hibited to theological students. Presbyteries are enjoined to refuse 
license to any who are addicted to its use. Presbyteries are justified 
in refusing appointments to any laborer who may be assigned to them, 
and is a user of tobacco. Ministers, elders, deacons and Sabbath 
School teachers are admonished to abstain from the use of this filthy 
weed. Members of the Church are warned against its use as a blemish 
on Christian character. 

The following strong resolutions on the same subject 
were passed : 

1. We hold that the habitual use of tobacco in the usual forms, as 
well as the cultivation and sale of tobacco for such use, are incon- 
sistent with the Christian profession, and our members are solemnly 
enjoined not to engage in or continue in this business. 

2. We earnestly and affectionately urge every member of the Church 
who is addicted to its use in any form, to break oflf the habit at once. 

3. That we renew the injunction to Presbyteries, not to license any 
one to preach, nor to ordain any one to the ministry, who persists in 
the use of this filthy weed. 

4. That Sessions be enjoined not to ordain any one to the office of 
elder or deacon, who is addicted to this habit. 

5. That Sessions be instructed to strongly urge youthful applicants 
for membership in the Church, to refrain from using tobacco. 

Rev. James Kennedy was chosen professor of 
Theology to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of the Rev. J. R. W. Sloane, D. D. Mr. Kennedy, 
however, declined the position, and the Rev. R. J. 
George temporarily filled the chair for the following 
winter. Synod condemned the organization and methods 
of the Knights of Labor, for the following reasons : 

I. Because they are confessedly organized on the principles of 
secrecy, contrary to our standing Testimony. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. l6l 

2. The form of their society is that of absolute despotism, the 
members being under obligation to render unqestioning obedience in 
carrying out the dictates ot their leaders, right or wrong, often in 
violation of the rights of their fellow-citizens. 

3. Because they assume to dictate to the employer, not only the 
wages to be paid for service, but the persons to be employed, and all 
the conditions of the service, leaving him a helpless slave in the hands 
of a society with which he holds no relation. 

4. They forbid non-union men to labor, and contractors to employ 
them, thus by the grossest tyranny monopolizing all rights and privi- 
leges to themselves. 

5. They compel manufacturers and dealers to discharge freemen, or 
refuse them the right to buy or sell or carry on their business. 

6. They interfere with the rights of the government by dictating to 
legislators and executors of law, and by making void all authority 
save their own. 

7. All this they do, following the example of Freemasons, by 
•secretly pursuing the objects of their vengeance, and hunting down 
their reputation and their business in a way that prevents obtaining 
redress by the law. 

We, therefore, declare that Reformed Presbyterians cannot belong to 
these Associations without renouncing all the traditions of their history 
in favor of civil and ecclesiastical liberty and the rights of God and 
man. Further, we declare that our members ought to suffer rather 
than sin, by partnership in such practices. And further, we enjoin 
the members of our Church, rich and poor, to stand shoulder to shoulder 
in opposition to this tyranny, and we pledge ourselves and our members 
that we will not permit the poor to suffer unaided, but will consider 
what is done to persecute the least as done to all, and we will not stand 
by and see our dear brethren driven under the cruel lash of this new 
task-master, but will come to their aid with our goods, and if need 
be, with our lives. 

Synod gave the following deliverances : That in 
■cases where our ministers conduct services in other 
Churches, they must not give out hymns of human 
composition, but use any good version of the Psalms ; 
and, if instrumental music is used, they must have it 



1 62 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

understood that they do not sanction that part of the 
service. Members were urged not to sit on juries 
where an immoral oath was required. The Synod 
adopted the following resolutions : 

Whereas, This Church has occupied a position of dissent from the 
government of the country on account of the infidel character of the 
National Constitution ; and, 

Whereas, This reason of dissent is not removed ; therefore, 

Resolved, i. That voting on amendments to State Constitutions, or tO' 
the Constitution of the United States, or to revised forms of Con- 
stitutions, when conditioned on an expressed or implied approval of 
the National Constitution as a compact of government, is inconsistent 
with our position of political dissent. 

Resolved, 2. That Presbyteries be directed to take no notice of 
inconsistencies which may have occurred during the discussion of this- 
question by Synod. 

Resolved, 3. That Synod will hold Presbyteries hereafter strictly 
responsible for the maintenance of discipline on this point. 

The Synod of 1887, met in the city of Newburgh^ 
New York. The meeting was a large and harmonious 
one, and the papers and discussions were of a most 
interesting character. The Synod re-afifirmed her 
distinctive position, leaving no misunderstanding about 
what she believed and practiced. Rev. R. J. George 
was twice elected to fill the vacancy in the Theolog- 
ical Seminary, but declined. The Rev. J. K. McClurkin 
was then chosen, and accepted. Revs. J. P. Dardier of 
Switzerland, and Dr. A. P. Happer ot China, addressed 
the court on the cause of evangelization in those 
countries. Rev. W. J. Sproull, returned missionary from 
Syria, addressed the Synod. A Committee was ap- 
pointed to make a suitable revision of the Psalms. 
With reference to the character of mission work that 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 63. 

may be properly done by students of theology, the 
Synod says : 

That while students of ;theology are not authorized to preach the 
gospel until they are licensed by Presbytery ; yet there is a large amount 
of work in which they may be profitably employed. They may act 
as colporteurs ; organize and teach in Sabbath Schools, and under 
the direction and supervision of the Presbytery to which they belong, 
they may be employed in such evangelical work as Presbytery may 
designate. 

With a concrete case before it, Synod decided that 
mutes, who are members of the Church, are entitled 
to all privileges as such, and have a right to vote 
in elections of the congregations, and to pay all their 
quotas to the schemes of the Church. A pastoral 
letter was directed to be written touching upon the 
matters that were before Synod, and press them on 
the attention of the people. Plans for the establish- 
ment of an Indian Mission, for the better support of 
the Theological Seminary, and for a fund for Ministers' 
Widows' and Orphans' were laid before the court. In 
the report on the jury question it is plainly and satis- 
factorily shown that Reformed Presbyterians cannot take 
the immoral oath required, and serve the designs of 
that ofifice in consistency with their avowed position of 
dissent from the Constitution of the United States. 
A revision of the Book of Psalms for the use of the 
Church was completed in the fall of 1887. The Com- 
mittee performing this work consisted of Revs. David 
McAllister, T. P. Stevenson, R. M, Sommerville, J. C. 
K. Milligan, and elders Henry O'Neil, William Neely 
and W. T. Miller. The work will be presented at the 
meeting of Synod in May, 1888. A Committee of 



1 64 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Synod met a similar Committee of the United Pres- 
byterian Church to formulate a basis of union. While 
there seemed to be a general agreement as to the 
-doctrine of the headship of Christ, the latter body 
was not prepared to make a practical application of 
that principle, and it is not likely that a union can 
be effected. 

The principal deliverances of Synod, touching upon 
the distinctive principles of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, have been noticed, leaving the members of this 
Church inexcusable, and others instructed, with reference 
to her peculiar principles. It is believed that her 
principles are Scriptural and her conduct consistent 
with her high profession, and that the cause for which 
■Covenanters contend will ultimately prevail. 

From the reports of 1887, the following condition 
of the Church is gathered : 

Ministers, 114; Licentiates, 11 ; Students of Theo- 
logy, 20; Congregations, 121; Communicants, 10,832; 
Total Contributions, $24.04 per member for the year. 

The Synod of 1888, meets in the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania, during the sessions of which the Bi- 
centenary of the Revolution Settlement will be suitably 
•observed. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 165 



Congregations and Societies. 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Saint John. This city was settled by loyalists who 
fled from New England during the American Revolution, 
and it now contains, with its suburbs, a population of 
nearly fifty thousand inhabitants. It possesses an excel- 
lent harbor and is a city of considerable commercial 
importance. Very early in the present century, a few 
Covenanters from Scotland and Ireland found abode in 
this city, and for many years worshipped together 
without the form of an organization. In the year 
1820, these people made application to the Northern 
Presbytery of the American Church for preaching 
ordinances. The matter was brought before that court 
at the following meeting, and, in the spring of 1821, 
the Presbytery sent the Revs. James R. and Samuel 
M. Willson on an exploring expedition to these Prov- 
inces. As a result of their visit they found in the 
city of Saint John, seven families regularly certified 
from the Covenanter congregations beyond the sea, and 
organized them into a praying society. The mission- 
aries then opened up a correspondence with the sister 
Churches of Scotland and Ireland, related to them of 
their success and the needs of their countrymen, and 
urgently requested them to send missionaries to these 
10 



1 66 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

destitute yet steadfast people. The Irish Church 
regarded it as a Macedonian cry. The Synod of 
Ireland organized the Home and Foreign Missionary 
Society in 1826, and sought for a suitable person to 
send as a missionary to the British North American 
Provinces. During the following winter, while the great 
Sheridan Knowles was giving readings in Belfast, which 
were held in the largest theatre in the city, one of 
the Presbyteries sent a Committee to the theatre to 
wait upon Mr. Alexander Clarke, then a • theological 
student, to have him go as a missionary to Nova 
Scotia. He felt that it was the call of his Master 
and accepted the appointment. The following spring 
he was duly licensed and ordained for this field, and, 
in August, 1827, arrived safely in the city of Saint 
John. In 1828, he organized the congregation of Saint 
John with forty-five members. In 1833, a comfortable 
house of worship was erected in that portion of the 
city known as the Lower Cove. Mr. Clarke continued 
to preach to them, and societies adjacent, for several 
years, and then removed to the more inviting field of 
Eastern Nova Scotia. Saint John being now destitute 
of regular preaching, the needs of the congregation 
were repeatedly presented to the notice of the Church 
in Ireland and to the Society which was sustaining 
the Mission. These applications, however, were not 
answered until the spring of 1841, when Mr. Alexander 
McLeod Stavely offered his services as a missionary 
to this city. His offer was joyfully accepted, and, for 
this purpose, he was ordained by the Northern Presby- 
tery at Kilraughts, Ireland, May 12, 1841. He sailed 



Presbyterian church in America. 167 

from Greenock in June, and arrived safely in Saint 
John in August, 1841. He found a congregation of 
about seventy-five members, to whose spiritual \yants 
he at once devoted his labors with energy and suc- 
cess. The old house of worship in Lower Cove was 
sold in 1850, because it was neither in a desirable 
nor central location. The congregation erected a well- 
appointed church and manse on the corner of Sydney 
and Princess streets. Here the people worshipped for 
twenty-seven years, and gradually grew in numbers 
and Christian influence. The church and manse, with 
all their contents, were swept away by the great con- 
flagration of June, 1877, when two hundred acres of 
the best of the city were laid in ashes. This great 
loss to the Covenanter congregation at a time when 
a serious financial depression immediately followed, 
disheartened many of the people, who left the city to 
seek their fortunes in a western clime. With that 
courage which knows no defeat, and which is 
characteristic of the Scotch-Irish, these people, encour- 
aged by their pastor, began the erection of the 
present commodious and convenient church building 
in 1878, situated on the corner of Carleton and Peele 
streets. Notwithstanding the encouragements that pre- 
sented themselves, Mr. Stavely resigned the congrega- 
tion in July, 1879, and returned to his native Ireland. 
Licentiates were now sent from the States and Saint 
John was one of the vacancies. The Rev. A. J. 
McFarland spent a part of the winter of 1881 in the 
congregation. Having received a unanimous call to 
become their pastor, he accepted, and was duly installed 



l68 • HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

August 4, 1882. The church and manse, which are 
models of neatness and convenience, were completed 
in the fall of 1883, and the congregation began a new 
lease of life. In the spring of 1887, the congregation 
suffered a severe financial stroke by the failure of one 
of the chief supporters and most efficient members. 
The Church in the States nobly contributed to the 
cause, and soon these worthy people will be lifted out 
of their straits. Among the fathers and heads of 
families who have been prominent in the life of the 
Saint John congregation are : Thomas Maclellan, John 
Boyd, George Suffren, Robert Ewing, John Millen, 
William Dougall, George Bell, John McMaster, Samuel 
Reid, John Toland, James Miller, Mrs. Russell, Mrs. 
Cunningham, James Dunbar, Neil Morrison, R. A. H. 
Morrow, John Baxter, J. O. Miller, W. G. Brown, 
Dr. Morrison and Thomas A. Dunlap. 

Barnesville. This is a beautiful little villa cosily 
nestled among the evergreen hills between the Ham- 
mond River and the lakes of Loch Lomond, twenty 
miles south-east of the city of Saint John. The con- 
gregation now derives its name from the village but 
was formerly known as South Stream. The Rev. 
James Reid Lawson, who came as a missionary from 
Ireland in 1845, after visiting several localities, settled 
in this place the following year when there were only 
two Covenanters in this section of the country. In 
1856, he resigned the charge and accepted a call to 
the congregation of Boston, Massachusetts, but after a 
year's labor in that city, he returned to his first charge 
at Barnesville. Here he continued his labor of love. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 69 

not only preaching to his own congregation, but making 
missionary tours through all parts of the Province. 
Suffering from a stroke of paralysis, which rendered 
almost useless his left side, he was compelled to resign 
the charge in the spring of 1882, since which time 
he has lived in comparative retirement at his country 
home in the suburbs of Barnesville. For five years 
the congregation was supplied by the Central Board of 
Missions, and the services were kept up pretty regularly. 
The Rev. Thomas Patton became the pastor in May, 
1887, and the Covenanters of Barnesville have the 
prospect of becoming a flourishing congregation. Among 
those who have long been connected with the Barnes- 
ville congregation are the families of Rev. Mr. Lawson, 
Dr. Brady, Parks, Curry, Millican, Toland, Kelso, Hender- 
son, McCracken, Armstrong, Barnes, Bell, and others. 

Mill Stream. This was a Mission Station about 
fifty miles east of the city of Saint John, and was 
established by the Rev. A. M. Stavely about 1858. A 
small house of worship was erected near Queenstown, 
and the society, which at one time was composed of 
thirty members, frequently received preaching by the 
ministers in the Provinces. It was an out-of-the-way 
place, and by emigration and death it is nearly extinct. 
The Elders, Galleys and Grindons, were among the 
principal families. 

MONCTON. This is a live young city of some eight 
thousand inhabitants, situated ninety miles east of Saint: 
John and within fifteen miles of the Strait of North- 
umberland. Having received many urgent invitations; 
from members of the congregations of Barnesville andl 



I/O HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Saint ^John, who were living in this city, the Rev. A. 
J. McFarland visited them in the spring of 1884. His 
services were followed by those of several licentiates 
from the States, who preached in Ruddick's Hall and 
the old Union Church in Steadman street. Quite a 
congregation gathered from those who were dissatisfied 
with the human inventions of other Churches, and a 
few disaffected members of the Presbyterian Church 
joined them. In the fall of 1885, Mr. McFarland 
organized them into a mission station and they con- 
tinued to receive occasional supplies. Among the prin- 
cipal members and supporters are the families of A. 
J. Millican, Charles Elliot, Dr. Ross and the Misses 
Grindon. There were other places in the Province of 
New Brunswick where the ministers frequently preached, 
but no organizations were effected. Among these are 
Ouaco, Black River, Chepody, Hopewell, Neripis, Lon- 
donderry, Jerusalem, Salt Springs and Passakeag. Rev. 
Alexander Clarke established mission stations in Sack- 
ville, Nappan and Murray's Corner, but these passed 
under the control of the New School brethren in 1847, 
and are since about extinct. 



NOVA SCOTIA. 

Amherst. The Rev. Alexander Clarke, missionary 
from Ireland, first visited this region in 1828, and this 
was the scene of most of his labors for forty years. 

When he came to this part of the Province he 
found a few adhering to Reformation principles scattered 
over a vast area of country, but the outside world was 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 171 

a vast moral wilderness. If he had followed the method 
of many missionaries in a new country, and admitted 
indiscriminately persons to the privileges of, the Church, 
he could have had large accessions. But this he would 
not do. He preferred the purity of the Church to the 
number of her members, and gave applicants a careful 
examination before he admitted them to the privileges 
of the Church. He dispensed the first Covenanter Com- 
munion in the fall of 1830, and a large audience 
waited upon the services. Fifty communicants from 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island 
sat down at the table of the Lord for the first time 
in their adopted country.* In 1 831, the Rev. William 
Sommerville and Mr. Andrew Stevenson, Catechist, were 
sent to Nova Scotia as missionaries by the Church in 
Ireland. Revs. Alexander Clarke and William Som- 
merville, with Elders, constituted the Reformed Presby- 
tery of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, under the 
care of the Synod of Ireland, April 25, 1832. The 
congregation of Amherst was placed under the charge of 
Rev. Alexander Clarke, and was composed of numerous 
branches. Among the preaching stations, which subse- 
quently became congregations, were Shemogue, River 
Hebert, Goose River, Port Elgin, Rockland, Truro and 
Pictou. In the year 1847, Mr. Clarke identified himself 
with the government which the Covenanters under the 
British Crown had been endeavoring to reform for many 
years, and the same government which had inflicted the 
persecution upon his forefathers in Scotland. He con- 
nected himself, and all the societies he represented, 

* Report to Irish Synod, 1831. 



1 72 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

with the New School body of the United States, and 
by defection, death and emigration. New School Cove- 
nanterism is almost extinct in this region. 

HORTOX. The congregation which was gathered in 
the historic village of Grand Pre, was commonly called 
Lower Horton, from its location in the township of 
Horton. It is near the Basin of Minas, sixty-two 
miles north-west of the city of Halifax. This was the 
land of the Acadians, and where, in 1755, over two 
thousand souls were exiled from peaceful homes and 
fruitful fields which they had built by their own 
industry and reclaimed from the sea by hard labor. 
There may be viewed to-day the ruins of their church 
and those of hundreds of dwellings, as well as the 
place of the graveyard and home of Evangeline, and 
the beach at the mouth of the Gaspereaux from 
which they embarked in the ships which had been 
prepared for them.* Horton was first supplied with 
regular preaching in 1765, by the Rev. John Murdock, 
a Presbyterian minister from Ireland. His connection 
with this congregation ceased in 1790, on account of 
his intemperate habits. In 1829, the Rev. Alexander 
Clarke visited them and preached in this community 
several Sabbaths. In 1832, the Rev. William Sommer- 
ville was invited by these people to settle in Horton. 
They promised him the use of a free house and garden 
owned by the congregation, and as much money as 
they could possibly raise for preaching every alternate 

* The situation and incidents of the expulsion of the peaceful Acadians 
have been minutely described by the lamented Longfellow in his "Exile 
of the Acadians," and the pathetic story of " Evangeline." 



■PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 73. 

Sabbath. They agreed also to sing the Psahns of 
David and comply to other practices of the church,.. 
and gradually the congregation became in theory and 
practice a Covenanter congregation. He accepted their 
invitation and terms, and became the regular pastor 
in 1835. This same year he was also presented with, 
a call from the people of West Cornwallis for a part 
of his time, which was by him accepted, and from 
this date to that of his death, in 1878, he was pastor 
of the . united congregations of Horton and Cornwallis. 
His increased labor, and that under physical decline,, 
demanded the assistance of another minister. To meet 
this requirement, his son, the Rev. Robert M. Sommer- 
ville, was ordained and installed co-pastor, October 16, 
1 86 1. He soon afterwards built a church in Wolfville 
for the better accommodation of some of the people of 
that community, where he preached until 1873. The 
building was afterwards sold and the services all con- 
ducted at Horton congregation in the village of Grand 
Pre. The church building here is in the southern 
part of the historic village, with the accustomed large 
grounds and spacious graveyard. It was built about 
1 8 10, and is decidedly antique in architecture, having 
the regulation high pulpit, sounding board, box pews 
and commodious gallery. In the summer of 1881, the 
Rev. Thomas McFall became the pastor at Cornwallis^ 
and preached here a part of his time, until it became 
disorganized by the death of an elder in 1886. Among 
the families in this branch are those of Harvey,. 
McDonald, Chase, Trenholm and Newcomb. 

Cornwallis. This congregation derives its name 
from the township in Kings County, in the central 



174 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

part of the Province, and is situated some eighty-five 
miles north-west of Halifax. The valley is a very fertile 
one and the orchards are luxuriant. It is a fruitful 
garden and has long been occupied by a thrifty and 
industrious people. About the beginning of the present 
century, the Rev. William Forsythe, a Scotchman, 
whose remains lie in the silent graveyard of Grand 
Pre, labored here as a Presbyterian missionary for nearly 
thirty years. In 1831, the Rev. William Sommerville 
entered the field and occasionally preached to Presby- 
terians generally, and over a vast extent of territory, 
until the spring of 1835, when he became the pastor, 
and remained until his death in 1878. The Presbytery 
had made arrangements previous to his death for the 
supply of the pulpit, and, during the summer of 1878, 
Mr. W. J. Sproull, licentiate, and late missionary to 
Syria, filled the pulpit with so much acceptance that 
they tendered him a unanimous call, which, however, 
he saw fit to decline. In the summer of 1881, the 
Rev. Thomas McFall was ordained and installed pastor, 
and after the adjustment of certain difificulties about 
baptism, the congregation has been in a harmonious 
and flourishing condition. The church building is not 
far from the village of Somerset, and the parsonage, 
which was burned in November, 1887, was located in 
the village. There are preaching stations at North 
Mountain, Ross' Corners and the public hall in Somerset. 
Among the faithful followers of Covenanterism in this 
section are the families of Mortons, Newcombs, 
Cochrans, Colemans, Woodworths, Magees, Sommervilles, 
.and others. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 75 

WiLMOT. This small mission station is fifteen miles 
west of the Cornwallis congregation. It was begun in 
1834, when Mr. John Allan, a Covenanter who had 
emigrated from the north of Ireland to this place, 
travelled forty miles to Grand Pre to visit Mr. Som- 
merville and have him come and preach to his country- 
men on Handly Mountain. This visit lead to the 
organization of a society, which was occasionally visited 
until 1849, when the Rev. Robert Stewart took charge 
of it, and where he remained until 1881. He also 
preached in Margaretville, Lawrencetown, and other 
places, and gathered quite a congregation. The church 
building is a neat and comfortable frame structure 
near Melverne Square. Since 1881, the congregation 
has enjoyed supplies sent out by the Central Board of 
Missions, and a good deal of interest was manifested 
in reviving the work. The families of Mr. Stewart, 
Mr. Kerr and Mr. Outhit have done much to keep 
the cause alive. 



MAINE. 

HOULTON. The few families of Covenanters which 
settled five miles north of Houlton, were from Don- 
egal, Ireland, and were organized into the Littleton 
Society in 1859. These thrifty people reside on both 
sides of the line between Maine and New Brunswick, 
and are tenaciously attached to Reformation principles. 
For many long years they kept up the society meet- 
ings and read one of Dr. Houston's sermons as a 
substitute for a discourse delivered with the living 



176 \ HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

voice. They built a meeting house which was replaced' 
by a comfortable frame church in 1883. Mr. J. A. F. 
Bovard labored here during the summer of 1880, under 
appointment of the Central Board of Missions. He 
was ordained to the office of the holy ministry in 
the summer of 1881, and settled as a missionary among 
them, and remained until the spring of 18^84. He 
was instrumental in gathering the people together and 
rebuilding their house of worship. The Central Board 
of Missions has almost constantly supplied them during 
the summer months. The several families of Hender- 
sons, and their connections, form the great majority 
of the membership. They are worthy to be mentioned 
as the only Presbyterian Church in the State of Maine 
for many years. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

No congregations of Covenanters were ever organized 
in the State of New Hampshire. Doubtless individuals 
and families found abode within its limits, but not in 
an organized capacity. In his diary, the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson says he visited New Hampshire in the 
fall of 1766, but he gives neither the names of the 
places nor the families he visited. In a missionary 
tour through this State in 1845, ^^e Rev. James R. 
Willson, D. D., found but two members — one living in 
the village of Lyman Plains, and the other near the 
city of Concord. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 77 

VERMONT. 

Ryegate. The Ryegate society of Covenanters may 
:be regarded as the parent of all the congregations in 
Vermont. It is situated on the Connecticut river and 
in the south-eastern corner of Caledonia County. Dr. 
Witherspoon was the original owner of the land in 
this section, and encouraged the Scotch emigrants to 
settle upon it about a century ago. In 1789, these 
people petitioned the Associate Presbytery for preach- 
ing, and, as the outcome of their earnest, desires for 
services, the Rev. David Goodwillie was installed the 
pastor of Ryegate and Barnet, February 8, 1791, and 
continued in this relation until his death in 1830. 
Some of these Scotch settlers, however, did not connect 
with the Associate Church. Among these were the 
Whitehills, Holmeses, and others. They continued to 
hold society meetings among themselves and would not 
wait upon the ministrations of others, in this respect 
following the example of their forefathers in Scotland. 
At the formation of the Reformed Presbytery in the 
spring of 1798, they petitioned for the services of a 
Covenanter minister ; and, according to their wishes, 
the Rev. William Gibson was sent to them the same 
fall. In the winter of 1798, the Rev. James McKinney 
also visited them, and encouraged them to call Mr. 
Gibson to be their pastor. This they did, and, ac- 
cepting, he was duly installed pastor of the Ryegate 
congregation, and societies adjacent, July 10, 1799. In 
March, 1800, he also became town minister. Here he 
labored assiduously in defence of the principles of the 



178 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Church for fifteen years, and until his release in 1815. 
The congregation languished for a little, and in many 
respects became very disorderly. A call having been 
importunately presented, the Rev. James Milligan was 
installed pastor in 18 17. The elders at this time in 
the different societies were Messrs. Whitehill and Cald- 
well of Ryegate ; Hindman of Barnet ; McKeith and 
McNeice of Topsham. Mr. Milligan's administration 
was not free from serious trouble, yet he labored faith- 
fully for over twenty years, and, when he left the 
congregation in 1839, the parent Church was twice as 
large as he found it, and two others were organized 
from it. In 1844, the Rev. James M. Beattie was 
settled over the congregation, and the elders at the 
time were Messrs. Johnston, Coburn and McCIure of 
Ryegate ; and Whitehill and McLaren of Barnet. Mr. 
Beattie labored faithfully among them for thirty-eight 
years, and resigned on account of the state of his 
health in 1882. In 1883, the Rev. Hugh W. Reed 
became the pastor, and, after three years of labor, he 
resigned the charge, and efforts have been made to 
obtain a pastor. Of the old members in Ryegate are 
James Whitehill, Josiah Quint, Robert Dickson, John 
Nelson, William Nelson, Jonathan Coburn, John Maclain, 
James McLam, William Bone, Charles B. Harriman, 
David Lang, Duncan Ritchie, James Beattie, Walter 
Buchanan, William Johnston, John Dunn, Thomas 
Hastie, Allan Stewart, John Brock, John Davidson,. 
Henry E. Whitehill, Archibald Ritchie. 

Barnet. The present Barnet congregation was a 
part of the Ryegate charge until its separate organiza- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 79 

tion in 1872. Rev. Daniel C. Paris was installed 
pastor in 1873, and is still in charge. Of the old 
members at Barnet are mentioned, William McLaren, 
William Keenan, William Whitehill, A. W. McLam, 
Robert McLam, Alexander Shields. 

CraftsbuRV. The Craftsbury congregation of Cove- 
nanters is pleasantly situated in Orleans County, some 
twenty-five miles directly south of the Canada line. 
It occupies an extensive and beautiful table land 
between two ranges of the Green mountains.* The 
first Covenanter, in this vicinity was Mr. Robert Trum- 
bull, originally from Cambuslang, Scotland, and who 
removed from Wilbraham, Massachusetts, to this place 
in 1788, as one of the first settlers of Craftsbury. 
Mr. Trumbull was a member of the Established 
Church of Scotland, and, in coming to America, 
connected with the Congregational Church, so prevalent 
in New England. He never was satisfied with this 
body of Christians on account of their heterodox views 
respecting the atonement of Christ, and their loose 
practices in many ways. He earnestly desired and 
ceaselessly labored to secure a return to puritanic 
orthodoxy. After unsuccessful attempts in this direction, 
he waited upon tfie Congregational services at Peacham 
and Barnet, but things were no better in these 
churches. It was suggested to him that no denom- 
ination would fit his ideas and principles unless it was 
the "McMillanites " down at Ryegate, who had the 
Rev. William Gibson for their pastor. He determined 
to hear Mr. Gibson. It was a communion Sabbath,. 

* Sketch in Covenanter, Vol. 2, p. 343. 



l8o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and the preacher was unusually comforting and eloquent 
on this occasion. Mr. Trumbull remained until the 
close of the services on Monday, and then returned 
to Craftsbury contented and cheered because he had 
found a denomination of Christians with which he 
•could fellowship in all his views. In June, 1807, the 
Rev. Mr. Gibson preached in Craftsbury in compliance 
with a cordial invitation extended by Colonel Crafts, 
Mr. Trumbull, and others. This was the first Cove- 
nanter preaching known to have been given in Crafts- 
bury. In the spring of 1808, Mr. Trumbull and 
his family connected with the Covenanter congregation 
of Ryegate. Mr. Gibson preached his last discourses 
in Craftsbury, September 4, 18 14. The subject of his 
morning lecture was a part of the fifty-third chapter 
of Isaiah, and in the afternoon he preached upon the 
sixth verse of the same chapter. On the following 
Sabbath, the Rev. Mr. Farren, the Congregational 
minister, argued against the doctrine of the substi- 
tutionary sacrifice of Christ, which Mr. Gibson had 
taught, and maintained the doctrine of universal atone- 
ment, which was the system known as the " Hopkinsian 
heresy." This discourse of Mr. Farren gave offence to 
many of his hearers, and a considerable number left 
the communion of the Congregational Church and kept 
society meetings with Mr. Trumbull. In the winter of 
181 5, the Rev. John Cannon, then a licentiate, preached 
with great acceptance, and convinced many of the 
impropriety of the New England custom of beginning 
the Sabbath on Saturday evening and ending it at 
sundown on the Lord's day. In September, 18 16, the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. l8l 

first session meeting was held at the house of Mr. 
Robert Trumbull, and the Craftsbury society became 
a regularly organized congregation. Among the first 
members enrolled were : Robert Trumbull, Lucy Bab- 
cock Trumbull his wife, his children James, Mary, 
Nancy, Clarissa, and his nephew James Trumbull ; 
John Babcock, Elizabeth Babcock, Leonard Morse, 
Elizabeth Morse, Mrs, Johnston, Phebe Johnston, Benja- 
min Morse, Ephraim Morse, Mrs. Rodgers and Mrs. 
Wylie. The society continued to enjoy the ministra- 
tions of the Rev. James Milligan of Ryegate until 
1833, when they felt they were able to support a 
pastor themselves. In the spring of 1833, the Rev. 
Samuel M. Willson became the pastor when their 
membership numbered sixty communicants. Mr. Willson 
labored diligently for twelve years and gathered many 
into the church. He resigned in 1845, and returned to 
the State of New York. In 1846, the Rev. Renwick 
Z. Willson, nephew of the former pastor, took charge 
of the congregation. At this time the elders were 
James Trumbull, Alexander Shields, John A. Morse, 
Stephen Babcock, Leonard Harriman and John Anderson. 
After nine years of service, Mr. Willson resigned in 
1855. Henceforth the pastorates were of short duration 
owing to the severity of the climate and the paucity 
of members. In 1857, the Rev. John M. Armour was 
installed pastor and remained until 1865. Three years 
it was a vacancy. The Rev. Archibald W. Johnston 
took the charge in 1868, and resigned in 1871, on 
account oi the impaired health of his wife. Since 
1873, the Rev. John C. Taylor has been the pastor, 



l82 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and has done a good work. The congregation is small, 
but they are a worthy people, and have a noble 
history for faithfulness to Reformation principles. Other 
worthy members are Aurelius Morse, John Wylie,. 
James Mitchell, John Gillies and James Anderson. 

TOPSHAM. The Topsham society was a part of the 
Ryegate and Barnet congregation until its separate 
existence in the fall of 1818. The elders in this branch 
were Robert McNeice, William McNutt and Thomas 
McKeith. In the fall of 1820, they succeeded in getting 
a pastor in the person of the eminent Rev. William 
Sloane. Including the societies of Tunbridge and New- 
bury, they numbered forty members. In a short time 
the congregation nearly doubled its numbers and many 
worthy Christians were added to the Church. Mr. 
Sloane resigned in 1829, and removed to Ohio. For 
twenty-three long years it was a vacancy, but held 
its organization, and enjo)'ed occasional supplies by 
Presbytery. In 1852, the Rev. Nathan R. Johnston 
was installed pastor, and labored under many difficulties 
and sacrifices for thirteen years. He resigned in 1865. 
For four years they were without pastoral oversight. 
In 1869, the Rev. James M. Faris undertook the 
office of pastor among them, but resigned in 1872. 
Since 1874, the Rev. J. C. K. Faris has been the 
efficient pastor, and the Covenanter cause is still 
maintained with many tokens of the Divine blessing. 
Of old members are Daniel Keenan, John Peabody, 
Josiah Divoll, John McNeice, Parker McNeice, Ebenezer 
Currier. 

Saint Johnsburv. This is a new field. The Rev. 
W. R. Laird, then a licentiate, began labor in this 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 83 

growing city in the spring of 1879, and was the first 
Covenanter minister to preach in this community. By 
his pubHc ministrations in the pulpit and his indefatiga- 
ble labors among the people, he saw the fruits of his 
work in the organization of a congregation of thirty 
eight members in the summer of 1879, only a few 
months after he entered the field. Having received a 
call from these people, Mr. Laird was duly ordained 
and installed pastor of the Saint Johnsbury congrega- 
tion in May, 1880, and is yet in charge. They soon 
erected a beautiful and comfortable church building, 
and the congregation has steadily grown in numbers 
and influence. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

According to the diary of the Rev. John Cuthbert- 
son there must have been a society of Covenanters 
at Pelham, Hampshire County, a little east of the 
Connecticut river. Mr. Cuthbertson visited this region 
in the fall of 1759, and preached on his way at 
different places in Connecticut. His places of preach- 
ing in Massachusetts were Sheffield, Berkshire County ; 
Westfield, Hampden County ; Northampton and Pelham, 
Hampshire County. He preached in the latter place 
several Sabbaths, and on October 28, 1759, he preached 
in the meeting house, which seems to imply that the 
Covenanters had such a place of worship in that town. 
The Rev. Alexander McDowell was a disaffected min- 
ister once placed over the Presbyterian congregation 
at Colerain, in the same neighborhood, and who, in 



184 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1759, seems to have left that body and associated 
himself wath the Covenanter societies of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. Mr. Cuthbertson remained in this 
region for two months and returned to Pennsylvania 
in the middle of December, 1759, and probably did 
not visit this part of the country again. In the fall 
of 1845, the Rev. James R. Willson, D. D., made a 
missionary tour through this State and found a few 
families of Covenanters. In the city of Lowell he 
found five families, all from the congregations of Ver- 
mont, who procured a church and he preached to them 
and others who composed a respectable audience.* 
These families were organized into a society, applied 
for preaching, which they occasionally received for 
some time. 

Boston. Mr. Willson also visited the city of 
Boston, and called upon William Lloyd Garrison 
and Wendell Phillips, t who were heartily in sympathy 
with the principles of the Covenanter Church, especially 
in its relation and attitude towards the sin of slavery, 
Mr. Willson only found one family of Covenanters in 
Boston, but the Rev. A. M. Stavely found several- 
families and preached to them shortly afterwards. In 
1850, another worthy family arrived from Ireland, and 
still later another branch of the same family, and, in 
1853, these people made application to the New York 
Presbytery for preaching, which was granted. They 
rented a comfortable hall, centrally located, and Cove- 
nanterism began to grow in the cultured metropolis of 
New England and the Hub of the Universe. The 

* Covenanter, Vol. i, p. 150. \ Covenanter, Vol. i, p. 241. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 85 

congregation of Boston was regularly organized by a: 
Commission of the New York Presbytery, consisting of- 
the Rev. Samuel M. Willson and elders James Wiggins 
and Andrew Knox, July 12, 1854. The congregation 
numbered twenty members, two elders and one deacon. 
The Rev. James R. Lawson was the first pastor, 
installed November 20, 1856. The congregation then 
worshipped in a hall on the second f^oor of the building 
at the corner of Province and Bromfield streets. * Mr. 
Lawson remained less than a year, and returned to 
his former charge in New Brunswick. The rent of halls 
became so burdensome that the congregation frequently 
moved. For nearly three years the congregation was 
a vacancy. In March, i860, the Rev. William Graham, 
then a licentiate, supplied them, and until his settle- 
ment as the pastor, July 12, i860. At the time of 
his ordination there were thirty-nine members and some 
adherents. Mr, Graham is still in charge. On account 
of some discord, the seeds of which had been sown 
many years before, a grant was given for another 
organization. This was effected by a Commission of 
the New York Presbytery, November 21, 1871. Thirty- 
one members were certified from the First congrega- 
tion, and two elders and two deacons were chosen. 
For many years they met in halls on Hanover and 
Tremont streets for worship. In 1873, the First con- 
gregation erected a magnificent church edifice at the 
corner of Ferdinand and Isabella streets, at a total' 
cost of sixty-three thousand dollars. In 1878, the 
Second congregation bought a large and commodious 

* Sketch by Rev. W. Graham, R. P. & C, 1885, page 332. 



1 86 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

church at a very reasonable price on Chambers street. 
The Rev. David McFall was installed pastor of the 
Second congregation, July ii, 1873, and is now in 
charge. Both the congregations are well housed and 
increasing in numbers and usefulness. The importance 
of Boston as a commercial and cultured city gives our 
people a prominence that is seldom eqiialled. The 
Warnock family have been connected with the cause 
from the beginning. The names of Mitchell, Riley, 
Gillespie, Grier, Stevenson, Warnock, Larkins, Graham, 
Ross, Adams, McClosky, Spragg, Calderwood, Oliver, 
Semple, Glasgow, Caldwell, McClelland, Burnett, and 
many other faithful standard bearers, should find mention 
in this connection. 



CONNFXTICUT. 

There never were any regularly organized congrega- 
tions in the State of Connecticut, but, no doubt, there 
were a few families who found abode within the 
borders. When the first Covenanters were banished to 
America, historians say that some of them "went to 
Connecticut and found employment after their several 
trades." It is not recorded who they were, or where 
they settled. In the fall of 1759, the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson visited this region and remained several 
weeks. He preached at Ridgefield, Danbury and New- 
town in Fairfield County ; Woodbury in Litchfield 
County ; and at Waterbury in New Haven County. 
Doubtless the Rev. Alexander McDowell visited these 
same people and^] they were in sympathy with the 
principles of the Reformed Covenanting Church. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 87 

CANADA WEST. 

Ramsey. The region of Ontario south and west of 
the city of Ottawa, and bordering on the St. Lawrence 
and the lakes, was early settled by a religious and 
thrifty people from Scotland and Ireland.* In the 
year 181 5, large numbers of Scotch people settled in 
the County of Lanark, and in 1820, at Dalhousie and 
Ramsey. Many of them were consistent members of 
the different branches of the Presbyterian family, and 
a few trained in the faith of the Covenanter Church. 
In 1 8 16, they petitioned the Associate Church of 
Scotland to send them a minister. Their request was 
granted, and in the spring of 1817, the Rev. William 
Bell settled among them. In 1821, the Rev. Dr. John 
Gemmill was sent to this Scotch settlement by the 
London Missionary Society, and in 1822, the Rev, 
George Buchanan of the Relief Church arrived in this 
country. In a few years all' these ministers, and many 
of the people, joined the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada in connection with the Established Church of 
Scotland. There were a few Covenanters, however, 
who did not follow their brethren, and they were 
joined by others, and a praying society was formed 
of those living in the township of Ramsey. About 
this time the families of Walter Gardner, John McEuan 
and James Smith emigrated from Scotland and joined 
the Covenanter society. In 1828, the Rev. James 
Milligan of Vermont visited this region and preached 
to these people. On his second visit in 1830, he 

*From sketch by Rev. R. Shields, in Banner, 1877, pp. 33, 68, 107. 



l88 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

organized them into a congregation, dispensed the 
sacraments and constituted a session. James Rea, WilHam 
Moir and William McQueen were chosen and ordained 
ruling elders. Among the members enrolled at the organi- 
zation of the first Covenanter congregation in Canada, 
were : James Rea and his wife, William Moir and wife, 
William McQueen and wife, James Smith, Thomas Craig 
and wife, Alexander Duncan and wife, Robert Duncan,. 
Duncan Ferguson, John Fulford, Walter Gardner and 
wife, John Graham, John Hutcheson and wife, David 
Kemp, Thomas Kennedy, Mrs. John Kilpatrick, William 
Lindsay and wife, John McEuan and wife, Thomas 
McKean and wife. In the fall of 1830, they were 
visited by the Rev. Robert McKee, and in 1831, by 
Rev. John H. Symmes, and others. In 1831, the con- 
gregation received strength by the accession of the 
family of James Waddell from Scotland. Mr. Waddell 
was directed by the congregation to write to the Com- 
mittee of the Covenanter Synod of Scotland urging 
them to send a minister to them. In answer to this 
petition, the late Rev. James McLachlane arrived in 
the summer of 1833. At this time a serious division 
was taking place in the Covenanter Church in America, 
and it effected this congregation to the extent of 
losing most of its members and its organization. Mr. 
McLachlane reorganized the congregation with nine 
members under the care of the Synod of Scotland. 
James Rea, William Moir and James Waddell were 
chosen ruling elders. Preaching services were also 
dispensed at Packenham, Lanark and Carleton Place. 
David Moffet of Carleton Place was ordained a ruling 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 189 

elder February 16, 1834. During the summer of 1834, 
a comfortable log church was erected on the " Eighth 
line of Ramsey," about one mile from Bennies Corners. 
Carleton Place had grown to a considerable society 
and now received one-half the time of Mr. McLachlane. 
During the summer of 1835, another log church was 
erected by the people on the "Second line of Ramsey," 
and near the spot where the village of Clayton now 
stands. In the fall of 1835, a petition was received 
from Perth for a part of Mr. McLachlane's time, and 
he preached every fifth Sabbath in this settlement. 
The Perth congregation was organized in April, 1836, 
and John Brown and John Holliday were ordained 
ruling elders, and Francis Holliday and John Walker, 
deacons. Among the original families at Perth were 
those of John, James, Francis, George and David 
Holliday, Lachlan Arthur, James Brice, John Brown, 
Thomas Dobbie, Adam Elliot, John Graham, John 
Grierson, Thomas Oliver and John Walker — in all about 
thirty members. In the summer of 1837, for the 
better convenience and comfort of all concerned, 
Carleton Place, Perth and Ramsey were organized into 
three distinct and separate congregations and each 
had a session. The session of Carleton Place was 
composed of David Moffet and James Waddell ; that 
of Perth of John Holliday and John Brown ; and that 
of Ramsey of James Rea, William Moir and Andrew 
Given. John McWhinnie was added to the latter 
session, February i, 1838. Mr. McLachlane preached 
frequently at Clarendon, Bristol, Toronto, Hamilton, 
Guelph and Gait. At a general meeting of the three 



190 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

sessions, held February 7, 1839, the matter of the 
pastor missionating came up for adjudication. The 
strife was so great and the feehng so bitter that 
elders James Rea and William Moir of Ramsey were 
deposed, and many members were suspended on various 
charges. The present church occupied by the people 
of Carleton Place was erected in 1841. In the summer 
of 1847, Ramsey being without a session of its own, 
James Waddell and Andrew McKenzie were chosen 
elders. In the fall of 1850, the question of accession 
to the Covenanter Synod of the United States came 
up before the session, and the Canadian congregations 
were taken under the care of the Rochester Presbytery, 
October 7, 1851. A Commission repaired to Perth to 
settle certain difficulties existing between Mr. McLach- 
lane and his people. After hearing the whole case, 
the Commission decided that, for the peace and comfort 
of all concerned, the pastoral relation should be 
dissolved. This caused a division in the congregation, 
a part of which strenuously adhered to Mr. McLachlane. 
A second congregation was organized at Perth, June 
12, 1852, and those who followed Mr. McLachlane were 
Icnown as the First congregation. John and Francis 
Holliday were ordained ruling elders in the new 
organization. The Rev. John Middleton was installed 
pastor of the Second congregation of Perth in October, 
1854. A large and convenient house of worship was 
erected in the town of Perth, but the debt was so heavy 
upon it that the building was sold a few years after- 
wards. In the fall of 1855, Mr. McLachlane resigned 
the charge of First Perth, and removed to the con- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 191 

gregation of Lisbon, New York. In the fall of 1856, 
Mr. Middleton resigned the pastorate of Second Perth, 
and these congregations never again enjoyed a settled 
pastor. For nearly ten years there was not a settled 
Covenanter minister in Canada, and by defection and 
emigration the cause began to look like speedy extinc- 
tion. In the summer of 1861, the Rev. David Scott 
reorganized the Ramsey congregation by the election 
of James Waddell and John Lindsay ruling elders, and 
James Smith and John Waddell, deacons. At this time 
there were only twenty members. Supplies were sent 
as often as practicable and the cause began to revive. 
The Rev. Robert Shields was ordained and installed 
pastor, July 13, 1865. During his pastorate, Messrs. 
John Rorison, James Thom, John Waddell, David Holli- 
day, David Thom, and others, have been connected 
with the session. Mr. Shields died in 1883, greatly 
lamented by the Church, and especially by the com- 
munity and congregation where he had done yeoman 
service for his Master. The congregation has enjoyed 
almost constant preaching sent out by the Central 
Board of Missions, and has made efforts to obtain a 
pastor. 

LOCHIEL. The village of Lochiel is situated between 
the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, and about sixty 
miles east of the city of Ottawa, or half way towards 
Montreal. This society is of a more recent settlement 
than Ramsey and Perth. It was fully organized in the 
summer of 1861, as Glengary, and the name was 
changed to Lochiel in 1867. Elders Andrew Brodie 
and William Jamison have been instrumental in securing 



192 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

supplies and keeping the cause alive in this section. 
There are about twenty-five members and they have a 
house of worship and a manse. The Rev. R. C. Allen 
was settled as the pastor in the fall of 1887, ^'^d 
the principles of the Church are being faithfully pre- 
sented in that part of Canada. Oneida and Hamilton 
were mission stations, and made out a call for the Rev. 
James McLachlane in 1852, which he did not accept. 
The cause in the city of Hamilton was presented by 
the Rev. Joseph Henderson, who, in 1854, made defec- 
tion, and took some members with him into the Free 
Church. North-west of the city of Hamilton were the 
stations of Galt and GUELPH, which were cultivated 
awhile with some degree of encouragement, but dropped 
from the list. 

Toronto. The city of Toronto was long the 
abode of a few families of Covenanters. In 1850, 
these people raised quite a sum of money for 
preaching, and the Revs. Robert Johnson, David Scott, 
and others, were sent as supplies. In the spring of 
185 1, a congregation of twenty members was organized, 
soon a church was secured, and the cause began to- 
flourish. The Rev. Robert Johnson was installed pastor 
in the fall of 1852, and built up a flourishing con- 
gregation, which he resigned in 1859. He was an able 
preacher and a fearless advocate of the cause of 
Protestantism against the evils of Roman Catholicism. 
After his departure, the congregation made several un- 
successful efforts to obtain a pastor, and Rev. David 
Scott preached a great deal for them. The congrega- 
tion became disorganized in 1868. The church property 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 93 

was in jeopardy ; and after being in litigation before 
the courts for a considerable time, was fully secured 
to the Church. The congregation was reorganized in 
the winter of 1872, and consisted of nineteen members. 
The Rev. J. L. McCartney was called, but declined. 
Not succeeding in getting a pastor, and often not 
supplies, the people became discouraged and rented 
the church. They lost their organization in 1875, and 
a number of the members connected with other 
Churches. The church property is again in dispute and 
is in the hands of the Rev. John Graham of Rochester, 
^ho represents the Church in the settlement of affairs. 
Morpeth. There was another station at Morpeth, 
about sixty miles east of Detroit and near Lake Erie. 
It was visited several times, and, in the spring of 
1852, the Rev. James Neill was appointed stated supply, 
and remained over a year. Mr. William McClure, a 
late elder in the congregation of Belle Centre, Ohio, 
was the leading member, and the cause was liberally 
supported for some time. By emigration and death 
Covenanterism has become extinct in that part of 
'Canada. 



•NEW YORK. 

New York City. So far as is known the first 
'Covenanters settling in the city of New York were 
Mr. John Agnew and his wife, who emigrated from 
Ireland and settled in the city of Philadelphia in 1784, 
where they resided three years.* In 1787, they 

* Covenanter, Vol. 3, p. 371. Presbyterian Historical Almanac, Vol. 4, p. 
251. R. P. & C, 1877, p. 294. Stone of Help, a pamphlet by Dr. J. N. 
McLeod. Church Records. 



194 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

removed to the city of New York, where Mr. Agnew 
became a prosperous merchant and the founder of 
Covenanterism in the metropoHs of America. In the 
summer of 1790, when the Rev. James Reid, of Scot- 
land, was making a missionary tour in America, and 
when about to embark for his native land, he was 
providentially introduced to Mr. Agnew, who was then 
doing business in Peck's Slip, near the East river. 
Mutual friends of the Covenant were highly gratified 
at the discovery, and Mr. Reid preached in the house 
of Mr. Agnew the following Sabbath, and baptized 
two of his children. Among those who heard Mr. 
Reid preach at this time was Mr. James Donaldson,, 
a native of Scotland, and a worthy Covenanter. He 
joined Mr. Agnew in forming a praying society, and 
these meetings were regularly held until the arrival of 
the Rev. James McKinney in 1793. Among those 
who heard Mr. McKinney preach, was Mr. Andrew 
Gifford, a Scotchman brought up in the Covenanter 
Church, but now a member of the Scotch Presbyterian. 
.Church under the pastoral care of the Rev. John M. 
Mason. He, however, now joined the Church of his 
birth, and the society held regular preaching services 
in school houses and halls. In 1795, the society was 
strengthened by the arrival of John Currie, James 
Smith, James Nelson and David Clark. In October,. 
1797, the Rev. Willliam Gibson, and some private 
members, had emigrated from Ireland, some oi whom 
settled in the city of Philadelphia. The Rev. William 
Gibson gave one-half of his time to the congregation 
of New York, and the cause began to flourish. The 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 195 

first Covenanter congregation in the city of New York 
was organized by the Rev. William Gibson, December 
26, 1797. The first session was then constituted and 
consisted of James Nelson, John Currie, John Agnew, 
Andrew Gifford and David Clark. * The number of 
communicants was fifteen. They were very liberal, and 
paid seventy-five dollars rent annually for the occasional 
use of a school house for public services. They paid 
the ministers twelve dollars per Sabbath for their 
services and entertained them hospitably in their 
homes. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was first 
dispensed in August, 1798, in a school room on Cedar 
street. Revs. James McKinney and William Gibson 
conducted the services. The number of communicants^ 
was eighteen, six of whom were from a distance. 
Mr. McKinney alluded very touchingly to the paucity 
of their members, but said the number was greater 
than that present in the upper room when the 
Supper was first administered by our Lord. Among 
the communicants were John Black, S. B. Wylie 
and Alexander McLeod, students of theology. 
On the following Tuesday, the Reformed Presbytery met 
in "the Orchard," the country residence of Mr. John 
Agnew. Here these theological students gave specimens 
of improvement and had others assigned to them. In 
the fall of 1800, this congregation made out a call, in 
connection with Coldenham, for the services of Alex- 
ander McLeod. Several matters at Coldenham having 
been rectified, Mr. McLeod was ordained and installed 
the first pastor of the congregation of New York, July 
6, 1 801. In 1803, he resigned the Coldenham branch 



196 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and devoted his whole time to the rapidly growing 
congregation in New York, where he remained thirty- 
two years, and until his death in February, 1833. In 
1804, a frame church building was erected on Chambers 
street east of Broadway. The same year the elder- 
ship was increased by the election of Dr. Samuel 
Guthrie, Hugh Orr and William Acheson. In 18 12, 
there were one hundred and thirty-eight members, and 
this year Mr. William Pattison was added to the session. 
In 1 817, Thomas Cummings was made an elder. In 
1818, the first church building was found to be too 
small to accommodate the worshippers, and it was 
taken down, and a more commodious brick structure 
was erected upon the same site. Directly opposite the 
church on Chambers street stood the city Alms House. 
A poor widow, and a member of the Church, by the 
name of Mrs. Grant Bussing, formed a class among 
these poor and destitute children, and this was the first 
Sabbath School established in New York city. In 18 19, 
Joseph McKee and William Cowan were ordained ruling 
elders, and in 1827, Robert Pattison, Hugh Galbraith, 
John Brown and John W'ilson were added to the 
session. At the close of the year 1827, a few members 
living in the upper part of the city purchased a house 
of worship formerly occupied by the Dutch Reformed 
congregation of Greenwich, and, on January 11, 1828, 
offered it, with all the papers, to the consistory. It 
stood at the corner of Waverly Place and Grove street. 
The object of this movement was to furnish preaching 
to the members and others who lived far from Chambers 
street. The offer, however, was opposed by the down 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 1 97 

town people, who were in the majority. Notwith- 
standing the opposition to the enterprize the place 
was opened for public service, and Dr. McLeod and 
others preached there. Over this step in the right 
direction great bitterness and strife arose, and Dr. 
McLeod left the scene of contention and went to 
Europe for his health. The up town people applied 
and secured a second and separate organization, June 
II, 1830. The Presbytery made a geographical divi- 
sion of the congregation, and all the members residing 
above this given line were to be recognized as 
members of the Second New York congregation. This 
division included elders Andrew Gifford, John Brown 
.and Thomas Cummings in the new organization. In 
December, 1830, and soon after his arrival, Dr« McLeod 
was presented with calls from both the congregations. 
He decided to remain with the mother congregation, 
which was the First congregation of New York. The 
Second congregation then presented a call to the Rev. 
Robert Gibson, who, having accepted it, was duly 
installed pastor. May 31, 1831. The health of Dr. 
McLeod began to fail very rapidly and he desired 
the help of an associate pastor. His son, the -Rev. 
John N. McLeod, was installed pastor as his father's 
successor against the wishes of many of the congrega- 
tion, January 14, 1833. Dr. Alexander McLeod died 
February 17, 1833. At this time the New School 
controversy was agitating the Church, and Rev. J. N. 
McLeod, and the majority of the congregation, went 
into the New School body. Mr. Gibson, who took a 
prominent part in the discussions, remained true to 
12 



198 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the distinctive principles of the Covenanter Church. Of 
the eldership, Andrew Gifford, John Brown and Thomas 
Cummings, with their families and connections, of the 
Second congregation, also went into the New School 
body. This left the congregation in a distressing con- 
dition, as those departing were the main support of the 
cause. The faithful remnant, however, retained the 
church property and continued their services. As the 
members were generally poor and laboring people, Mr. 
Gibson was compelled to add to his ministerial work 
the additional labor of teaching a classical school in 
order to sustain himself and family. Notwithstanding 
the poverty of his devoted flock, they maintained the 
cause, and also furnished means to send Mr. Gibson 
to Europe, in the spring of 1837, for his health. He 
returned to New York the same fall not much im- 
proved, appeared but once in the pulpit, and died of 
consumption, December 22, 1837. As the majority of 
the First congregation had gone into the New School 
organization, it involved a long law suit for the 
property, which terminated after reaching the Court of 
Errors by a compromise. Soon after this the faithful 
remnant of the First congregation purchased a church 
in Sullivan street, and Rev. James Christie, D. D., was 
installed pastor, November 16, 1836, and remained in 
charge twenty years. The elders of the First con- 
gregation then were William Acheson, John Greacen, 
John Culbert, James McFarland, Andrew Bowden, John 
Brown, John Carothers and James C. Ramsey. The 
Rev. Andrew Stevenson was ordained and installed the 
pastor of the Second congregation, November 14, 1839, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 199 

who remained in charge until May, 1875, and emeritus 
pastor until his death, June, 1881. When he became 
the pastor in 1839, there were nearly two hundred 
members and an efficient session, but the congrega- 
tion was heavily in debt, possessed an uncomfortable 
church building, and the members were very poor. 
In August, 1 841, James Wylie, John Kennedy and 
James Wiggins were added to the eldership. In 1845, 
there were three hundred and nineteen members. In 
1846, the deacon controversy arose and seriously 
effected this congregation. A division of sentiment 
was prevalent as to the lawfulness of the management 
of the temporalities, and the Presbytery, failing to 
amicably settle the question or reconcile the parties, 
granted a new organization. The church property was 
sold at auction in January, 1848, and equally divided 
between the two parties. The Third congregation of 
New York was then organized, March 14, 1848, with 
nearly two hundred members. An arrangement was 
made by which the new congregation worshipped in 
the old church on Waverly Place, while the Second 
congregation rented the lecture room of the Presby- 
terian Church at the corner of Waverly Place and 
Hammond street, and soon afterwards erected a large 
church on Eleventh "street near Sixth Avenue. The 
Rev. John Little was installed pastor of the Third con- 
gregation in June, 1849. He was suspended in April, 
1852, for preaching doctrines subversive to the prin- 
ciples of the Covenanter Church. The Rev. J. R. W. 
Sloane was installed the pastor in 1856. The same 
year the Rev. Dr. Christie resigned the First congrega- 



200 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tion to accept the chair of Theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary. The Rev. J. C. K. Milligan was installed as 
his successor in the spring of 1858, and is still in 
charge. The Third church, on Twenty-Third street, was 
erected in i860. In 1868, Dr. Sloane resigned the 
charge of the Third church and accepted the chair of 
Theology in the Allegheny Seminary. In 1869, a 
division occurred in the Third congregation, and the 
Fourth congregation of New York was organized, 
February 21, 1870. The Rev. David Gregg was in- 
stalled pastor of the Third congregation, February 23, 
1870. The Rev. James Kennedy was ins^talled pastor 
of the Fourth congregation, November 13, 1870, and is 
now in charge. The First congregation had, some 
years previously, bought a church from the United Pres- 
byterian brethren, many of whom connected with the 
Covenanter Church, on Twenty-Eighth street near Ninth 
Avenue. The Fourth congregation secured a large and 
commodious church in Forty-Eighth street near Eighth 
Avenue in 1873, which is their present place of 
worship. In 1875, the Rev. Andrew Stevenson was 
retired as emeritus pastor of the Second congregation, 
and the Rev. Robert M. Sommerville was installed the 
pastor, and is now in charge. They sold their church 
in Eleventh street and purchased a Jewish Synagogue 
of magnificent architecture in Thirty-Ninth street near 
Sixth Avenue, which is the present imposing church 
building of the congregation. The Third church was 
burned, February 17, 1878, and immediately rebuilt. 
In January, 1887, the Rev. David Gregg left the 
communion of the Church, and as his successor the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 20I 

Rev. Finley M. Foster was installed pastor of the 
Third congregation, September 7, 1887. The First 
congregation sold their church in Twenty-Eighth street 
in 1883, and for nearly four years worshipped in 
Trenor Hall, corner of Broadway and Thirty-Second 
street. In 1887, they erected a large and well ap- 
pointed church in Harlem, in One Hundred and 
Nineteenth street near Fifth Avenue, where they are 
now worshipping in one of the handsomest churches in 
the body. The Covenanters of New York are an 
energetic and liberal people, and are nearly one 
thousand in numbe/. The First congregation was 
organized December 26, 1797 ; the present church 
building is on One Hundred and Nineteenth street, 
near Fifth Avenue, Harlem, and the pastor is the 
Rev. J. C. K. Milligan. Members recorded are Andrew 
Acheson, William Acheson, William Sterritt, John 
Culbert, William Cowan, John Greacen, James C. 
Ramsey, Joseph Thomson, Andrew Bowden, Matthew 
Bowden, John W. Bowden, Charles Gillespie, John 
Nightingale, Hamilton Biggam, John Whitehead, C. B. 
French, James Thomson, Robert Bowden, John Lynch, 
John Angus, John Carothers, William Fleming. 
William Hazlett, E. N. Shields, William Law, James 
Bell, Thomas Rusk, W. J. Cromie, David Henderson, 
James Cowan, Frederick E. Milligan, W. J. Clyde, 
Alexander Livingstone, David Bell, John McFarland, 
Robert Smith, Edward McLean, J. C. Milligan. The 
Second congregation was organized June 11, 1830;; 
the present church building is on Thirty-Ninth street 
near Sixth Avenue, and the pastor is the Rev. Robert 



202 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

M. Sommerville. Of old members are James Wylie, 
John S. Walker, Joseph Wiggins, James Wiggins, John 
Kennedy, Jacob A. Long, Joseph Torrens, David 
Torrens, Melancthon W. Bartley, Andrew Alexander, 
Samuel Miller, Henry O'Neil, Samuel K. McGuire, 
Matthew Miller, James Warnock, Thomas E. Greacen, 
William McCullough, William McLean, John Taylor, 
John J. McKay, Robert McCracken, Francis L. Walker, 
John Sharpe, W. H. Cochran, John Aikin, William 
Park, Hugh McCreery, J. J. Montgomery, James Dunlap, 
Thompson O'Neil, John Adams. The TJiird congrega- 
tion was organized March 14, 1848 ; the present 
church building is on Twenty-Third street near Eighth 
Avenue, and the pastor is the Rev. Finley M. Foster. 
Of the membership are named William Neely, Walter 
T. Miller, A. J. Echols, Andrew Knox, John Mc- 
William, Alexander McNeil, Thomas Bell, Hugh Glassford, 
James Carlisle, Andrew C. Bowden, Robert Cairns, 
Hugh Young, William Brown. The FourtJi congrega- 
tion was organized February 21, 1870 ; the present 
church building is on Forty-Eighth street near Eighth 
Avenue, and the pastor is the Rev. James Kennedy. 
Of the principal membership are named Hugh O'Neil, 
Edward H. Pollock, John Kennedy, Hugh Thomas, 
Hugh Carlisle, Dr. Samuel Murtland, William McAfee, 
Robert McAfee, Hugh Getty, Robert Leishman, Dr. J. 
M. Harvey, David Houston, James Fischer, James 
Dunlap, David Donneghy, George Kennedy, Robert 
Kennedy, William Kilpatrick, Dr. W. C. Kennedy, 
James Bryans, William Pollock, Samuel Stevenson. 
Evangelistic work has been done among all the con- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 203 

gregations by Mr. James M. McElhinney, and his efforts 
have been crowned with fruitful results. 

Brooklyn. An organization was granted to the 
■Covenanters residing in the city of Brooklyn, June 15, 
1857. A comfortable church •building was purchased 
in an eligible location, but the property was so heavily 
mortgaged that the small congregation found themselves 
unable to retain it.* The second property which they 
bought was located at the corner of Fayette Avenue 
and Ryerson street. It was primarily built for a chapel 
or Sabbath School room, and the church proper was 
never built. The Rev. James M. Dickson was the 
first pastor installed in November, 1857. He preached 
with great acceptance for five years and joined the 
Presbyterian Church. In the winter of 1864, the Rev. 
John H. Boggs was installed pastor. After a pastorate 
of sixteen years, he followed the example of his 
predecessor and went into the Presbyterian Church in 
1880. Quite a number of influential members followed 
him, and are now found in the various Churches of 
Brooklyn. Mr. T. A. H. Wylie supplied the pulpit 
for nearly a year. In the winter of 1881, the Rev. 
S. J. Crowe was installed the pastor, and remained 
three years. During his pastorate the congregation 
not only increased in numbers, but in unity and 
liberality. In 1883, the present commodious church 
and chapel, situated at the corner of Willoughby and 
Tompkins Avenues, were purchased. They were erected 
for Miss Anna Oliver, a Methodist preacher, whose 
efforts to build up a congregation under her own 

* Banner, 1883, p. 309. 



2D4 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ministry signally failed. Mr. Crowe resigned in the 
fall of 1884, on account of the state of his health.. 
Rev. John F. Carson, the present pastor, was ordained 
and installed, May 20, 1885. The congregation and 
Sabbath School have greatly increased in numbers,, 
and the Church has a very prosperous following. 
Among the members are named James A. Patterson,. 
William F. Bell, Francis Culbert, James Hughes, R. J. 
Culbert, Thomas Kinkead, M. M. Henry, Henry Fergu- 
son, John Shannon, James Warnock, John Boyd, Jame.s- 
Frazer, John \V. Pritchard, Thomas Moore, Robert 
Taylor, Leatham Teaz, James Williams. Alexander 
Frazer, James Hunter, Dr. Palmer. 

Newburgh. The city of Newburgh is pleasantly 
situated in one of the picturesque regions of the famous 
Hudson river, sixty miles above the city of New York. 
It was the headquarters of General Washington for 
some time during the Revolutionary War,^ and where 
the American army was disbanded after national inde- 
pendence had been achieved from Great Britain.'' The 
first family of Covenanters settling in this city was 
that of Mr. Josiah Gailey, in 1787. In 1793, Mr. 
Thomas Johnston joined him, and they held society 
meetings until Mr. Johnston removed into the neighbor- 
ing vicinity of St. Andrews. In 1802, James Clarke 
emigrated from Scotland, with some of his connections, 
and in the fall of that year, the first Covenanter 
society in Newburgh w^as organized. The leading 
members were Josiah Gailey, Robert Johnston, James 
Clarke and John Curry. The society was soon 

* Covettanter, Vol. i, p. 373. Banner, 1876, p. 121. Ji. P. &- C, 1885, p. 148. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 205. 

strengthened by the accessions of James King and 
James Robb. For many years, and until the organization 
in 18 1 7, the society met at the house of Mr. James- 
Clarke, and afterwards at the house of Mrs. Gillespie, 
an aged disciple. The society was a part of the 
Coldenham congregation, and, in 1817, received one- 
fifth of the time of the Rev. James R. Willson, D. D. 
In tBio, Samuel Jameson joined them, and, in 181 1,. 
they were much encouraged by the arrival of the 
families of William McCullough, James Orr, John 
Lawson, William Barclay, Sr., James Barclay, John 
Barclay and William Barclay, Jr. The Rev. James 
Milligan, pastor at Coldenham, occasionally supplied 
them and preached in the Academy. Infidelity had 
a strong hold in the village, but began to disappear 
before the tide of Reformation principles and practices. 
In 1 8 19, this growing society erected a church build- 
ing, and Dr. Willson was secured for one-half of his 
time. His eloquence and public spirit attracted many 
to wait upon his ministrations, and Presbyterianism took ' 
a deep hold upon the people. In 1824, having increased 
to eighty-six members, Newburgh obtained a separate 
organization from Coldenham. The elders at this time 
were James Clarke, John Lawson and Samuel Wright, 
all of whom had been elders in the Coldenham con- 
gregation. In 1825, William Thompson and William' 
M, Wylie were chosen deacons, and the former soon: 
afterwards was added to the session. On September 16,. 
1825, the ' Rev. James R. Johnston was ordained and 
installed the first pastor of the congregation of New- 
burgh. Mr. Johnston was a popular preacher. He 



206 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

remained four years and then connected with the 
Presbyterian Church. Rev. Moses Roney was installed 
pastor, June 8, 1830, and remained eighteen years, 
until his health demanded his release in 1848. During 
his pastorate the elders were Matthew Duke, William 
Thompson, David T. Cavin, William Brown and David 
Stewart. The deacons were Edward Weir, John Little 
and John Lawson. Other names worthy of perpetuation 
are those of Kirkpatrick, Fleming, Ramsey, Wiseman 
^nd Stewart. In the fall of 1849, the Rev. Samuel 
Carlisle was installed pastor, and continued in this 
relationship for thirty-eight years, and until his sad 
death, by paralysis, in the summer of 1887. In the 
winter of 1854, a Second Congregation was organized. 
They worshipped one year in the Court House, and 
then erected a neat church building. In the winter of 
1855, the Rev. James R. Thompson, son of elder 
William Thompson, was ordained and installed pastor, 
and is the present incumbent. The first church of the 
First congregation was rebuilt in 1877, and stands in 
a favorable location on Grand street. The Secynd 
church is in a beautiful spot on the same street and 
a few squares away. Among the early members of the 
Second church are the names. of Little, Lawson, Hilton, 
Cameron, Boyne, Fleming, Wilson and Young. Among 
the members of the First congregation have been 
William McCuUough, J. W. McCullough, William Hilton, 
John Hilton, John F. Beattie, Robert Campbell, 
Alexander Wright, William Willson, William Lynn, 
William Brown. Of the members of the Second con- 
:gregation have been William Thompson, James Frazer, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 20/ 

John Frazer, John Magee, Andrew Little, John T. . 
Brown, James Jamison, John Burnett, John K. Lawson, 
Francis Willson, Isaac Cochran, WiUiam Johnston, 
R. M. McAllister, W. B. Hall, Robert Hilton. 

CoLDENHAM. The settlement of Covenanters upon 
the Wallkill, in Orange County, was the first of this 
Church in the State of New York, and began about 
1748. The location is one distinguished for grazing 
and the products of the dairy, and is some nine miles 
west of the city of Newburgh on the Hudson river.* 
In the year 1748, the family of Mr. James Rainey 
removed from the city of Philadelphia and settled a 
little beyond the Wallkill river. Here he continued 
to stand aloof from communion with other denomina- 
tions, ■ and consequently was deprived of public ordi- 
nances for several years. In 1753, two other families 
joined him, and a praying society was formed. In 
September, 1759, the Rev. John Cuthbertson made his 
first missionary tour to the Wallkill people, and preached 
in this vicinity three or four weeks. On September 
20, 1759, he constituted a session, t and baptized 
Susannah and David, children of James Rainey ; Mary 
and Archy, children of Archy McBride ; Daniel and 
Jean, children of William Wilkins ; John, Helen and 
Agnes, children of John Gilchrist. In August, 1764, 
Mr. Cuthbertson, accompanied by elder Phineas White- 
side, of Pequea, Pennsylvania, visited the society again, 
and preached and baptized some children. During the 
year 1766, he again visited the Wallkillians when they 
had grown to a considerable society. In the fall 1769, 

* Covenanter, Vol. i, p. 283. f Cuthbertson's Diary. 



208 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

he made his fourth visit to these worthy and staunch 
Covenanters, and the most noted heads of the families- 
were James Rainey, John Gilchrist, Archy McBride,. 
James Thomson. William Wilkins, James McCord, John 
Archibald and Henry Trapp. Mr. Cuthbertson ordained 
James Rainey and William Wilkins ruling elders,. 
October 29, 1769. This pioneer missionary visited the 
Wallkill society also in September, 1774, in October,. 
1775, and in November, 1779. On this latter visit he 
called upon the Rev. Mr. Annan of the Associate 
Church, and had much friendly intercourse with him,, 
and he and Mr. Cuthbertson soon afterwards effected 
a union forming the Associate Reformed Church in 
1782. At this coalescence the whole Wallkill Cove- 
nanter society went into the new body, except Mr. 
David Rainey, son of the late elder James Rainey. 
Covenanterism was now about extinct in this fertile 
valley, and they continued in this distressing condition 
for a number of years. All honor is due James 
Rainey for establishing, and David Rainey, his son,, 
for maintaining, Covenanterism in Orange County. In. 
the year 1790, the Rev. James Reid, missionary from 
Scotland, preached a few Sabbaths to the people^ 
Soon after Mr. Robert Johnston joined Mr. Rainey, 
and they kept up a society meeting between the two 
families. In 1793, the Rev. James McKinney visited 
them, and found these two men loyal to Reformation 
principles. Mr. Robert Beattie acceded to the Cove- 
nanter Society in 1795, from the Associate Reformed 
Church. He was a remarkably generous and public 
spirited man, and entertained all the ministers and the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2O9 

families coming from a distance to worship. The cause 
again began to flourish, and they became a consider- 
able society occasionally visited by Revs. James 
McKinney and William Gibson. The congregation was 
regularly organized by direction of the Reformed Presby- 
tery, August, 1798, by the election and ordination of 
David Rainey and Robert Beattie, ruling elders. In 
June, 1799, the Reformed Presbytery met in the barn of 
Robert Beattie, and John Black, Thomas Donnelly, 
Alexander McLeod and Samuel B. Wylie were licensed 
to preach the gospel. This same year the first church 
building was erected on the plot of ground now occupied 
by the church of the Coldenham congregation, and was 
removed in 1838, to make room for the present edifice. 
At the meeting of the Reformed Presbytery held at 
Little Britain, November 7, 1800, a call was entertained 
from the united congregations of New York City and 
Wallkill.* It was found that an equal number of 
votes was cast for Samuel B. Wylie and Alexander 
McLeod. Mr. Wylie renounced all further connection 
with the call, and informed the court to take measures 
accordingly. The court then agreed to address those 
persons who had voted for Mr. Wylie, whether' they 
would be willing to append their names to the call for 
Mr. McLeod. To this they willingly assented, and the 
call was modified by appending the names of all the 
electors to the call on Mr. McLeod, and it was presented 
by the Moderator for his acceptance. Mr. McLeod 
hesitated, and requested another day to consider the 
matter. A^ter some reasoning with him, Mr. McLeod 

* Minutes of Reformed Presbytery. 



2IO HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

consented to accept the call only conditionally. One con- 
dition was that those holding slaves and who had signed 
the call, should be required to free them and have no 
more to do with the sinful institution of slavery. Agree- 
ing to this, Mr. McLeod then accepted the call, with the 
other condition that three years thereafter he was at liberty 
to accept of either one of the congregations or none, 
as he thought proper. This the court agreed to, and 
he gave his pieces as trials for ordination, and was duly 
installed pastor of the united congregations of Wallkill 
and New York City, July 6. 1801. The salary and divi- 
sion of time were as follows : Nezv York, thirty-one days- 
in the year at eleven dollars per day ; Wallkill, twenty- 
one days in the }'ear at seven dollars per day ; making 
the whole salary $488 per annum. In 1803, Mr. McLeod 
resigned the Wallkill branch to give his whole time tO' 
the rapidly growing congregation of New York. In. 
1807, a call was presented to Mr. James R. Willson,. 
licentiate, but he declined it. In 1808, Mr. Gilbert 
McMaster was called, and declined. For several years 
they enjoyed almost constant supplies, but failed to obtain- 
a pastor. In 1812, the Rev. James Milligan was installed 
pastor, and labored among them for five years, and left 
them in a good condition in 18 17, when he removed to 
Vermont. Rev. James R. Willson was again called, and 
having accepted, was installed pastor in August, 181 7. 
At this time there were about seventy members, with 
societies in Newburgh and beyond the Wallkill river. 
The congregation was now called Coldenham. At first 
Mr. Willson gave the Newburgh people on^-fifth of his 
time, subsequently one-half, and in 1824, the}- became 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2T I 

a separate organization and he remained at Coldenham 
until his resignation in 1830, when he removed to 
Albany. Dr. Willson returned to the pastorate of the 
Coldenham congregation in the fall of 1833, and remained 
in this relation seven years. In 1836, he was appointed 
professor of Theology in the Eastern Seminary located at 
Coldenham, and also conducted an Academy, where many 
of the ministers received their early education. Dr. 
Willson resigned the charge in 1840, and accepted a 
professorate in the Allegheny Theological Seminary. 
For four years Coldenham was a vacancy. In May, 
1844, the Rev. James W. Shaw became the pastor. At 
this time there were nearly one hundred members and 
six praying societies. The elders were John Beattie,. 
James Beattie, Samuel Arnott, William Elder and 
Daniel Wilkins. Mr. Shaw spent his whole pastoral 
life of thirty-eight years among these people, and 
resigned in 1882, on account of failing health. Several 
calls were made upon young men, but by them declined. 
In the spring of 1884, the Rev. Robert H. McCready 
became the pastor and is now in charge. He resus- 
citated the cause, inspired the members with new zeal, 
repaired and refurnished the church, and by no means 
does it look as if Covenanterism will soon become 
extinct in Coldenham or Orange County. Among the 
old members are David Rainey, Adam Rainey, James 
Clark, William Beattie, John Beattie, Israel O. Beattie, 
Dr. Charles Fowler, Edward T. Bradner, Matthew Park, 
William Park, James Thomson, David Elliot, Jephtha 
Williams, Samuel Arnott, Samuel Wright, William Shaw, 
William J. Shaw, Francis Wallace, J. Morrison, Natha- 



212 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

niel Fleming, M. Roney Fleming, William Fleming, 
Reuben Frazer, John Cochran, Robert Fleming. 

Argyle. This settlement of Covenanters is now 
known as the congregation of West Hebron, Wash- 
ington County, New York. It is east of the city of 
Albany and near the Vermont line. It is probable 
the first Covenanters settled in this vicinity, and that 
of Cambridge, as early as 1755, but as to their names 
.and numbers nothing is definitely known. The Rev. 
John Cuthbertson first visited them in August, 1764, 
and preached at the house of Mr. Ephraim Cowan. 
He baptized Edward, son of William Selfridge ; and 
Martha, daughter of Oliver Selfridge. From the amount 
■ of visiting he did in this neighborhood, it is probable 
there was quite a respectable society. In 1766, Mr. 
-Cuthbertson visited them again and passed over into 
Vermont and New Hampshire. On his third tour in 
1769, Mr. Cuthbertson constituted a session, and William 
:Selfridge and John McClung were ordained ruling 
•elders, October 22, 1769. He also spent some time in 
visiting among the people in September, 1774, in Octo- 
ber, 1775, and in November, 1779. The principal 
members at this time were Ephraim Cowan, Samuel 
Clark, William Selfridge, Oliver Selfridge, John McClung 
and Phineas Whiteside. The latter had some time 
previously removed from Pequea, Pennsylvania. The 
organization continued for over fifty years without a 
settled pastor. In August, 1825, a call was made upon 
the Rev. James W. Stewart, which, being accepted, he 
was duly ordained and installed the first pastor of the 
Argyle congregation, October 13, 1825. The small con- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 213 

gregation was poor in this world's goods, and it had 
great difficulty in raising the meagre salary.* Pews 
were auctioned off to the highest bidder, and often the 
pastor had to forgive a portion of the stipends in order 
to secure the remainder. Soon the little congregation 
was rent into factions as the New School controversy 
agitated the Church, and for sundry reasons Mr. Stewart 
was released from the charge in April, 1832. At a 
meeting of the session held November 15, 1832, and 
the last in »which Mr. Stewart moderated, a petition 
was prepared and ordered to be forwarded to Synod, 
requesting that court to take the congregation from 
under the care of the Northren Presbytery and place it 
under the Western. Against this action elders William 
Shaw and Samuel Jackson protested, and these were 
the only members of session who adhered to the prin- 
ciples of the Church at the division of 1833. The 
whole congregation went with Mr. Stewart into the 
New School body. They held the church building, and 
after running it in debt for supplies, sold it back to 
the few faithful Covenanters who held the Testimony 
intact. Less than a half dozen Covenanters resorted to 
the praying societies, and occasionally enjoyed a day's 
preaching. In May, 1862, one of these elders died, 
and Argyle lost its organization. They embraced an 
opportunity to sell the old church at Argyle and bought 
the present church property near the village of West 
Hebron. The New York Presbytery re-organized them 
as the West Hebron congregation in August, 1866. 
Fourteen members were found in regular standing and 
* From notes by Rev. J. A. Speer. 



214 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

thirteen others united by profession of faith. They 
liberally supported the gospel, repeated their call for a 
pastor nearly every year, and trusted that in due time 
the Lord would send them an under-shepherd. In this 
they were not disappointed. The Lord heard their 
prayers and gave them a pastor. The Rev. James A. 
Speer was duly ordained and installed, July 28, 1875. 
and was the only pastor since 1832. He is now in 
charge. The congregation now . owns a substantial and 
comfortable church property free from de4Dt. For over 
fifty years previous to 1825, and for forty-three years 
since 1832, these people maintained the unpopular 
principles of the Covenanter Church without a pastor 
with a heroism and faithfulness without a parallel in 
history. Some of the old members of Argyle are Dr. 
David Lister, Eli Gifford, James Shaw, William Shaw, 
Henry Mehaffay, Alexander Mehaffay, James Stewart, 
John McQueen, John Selfridge, William Dennison, 
George' Keys, John McNeil, James F. Mehaffay, John 
Dennison, Samuel Jackson. 

Troy. This city contained a society of Covenanters 
as early as 181 8, and was visited with supplies with 
LaNSINGBURGH in Rensselaer County. Dr. Christie of 
Albany frequently preached here, and Troy and Lansing- 
burgh were given an organization in 1828. Rev. Robert 
McKee was the first and only pastor, installed in 1830. 
In 1835, he connected with the Presbyterian Church. 
These places were supplied with preaching by Presby- 
tery until 1848, when the field was abandoned. Peter 
McKinnon and Robert Campbell were elders. 

Albany. Covenanters resided in the city of Albany 
as early as 1760. In August, 1764, the Rev. John 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 21$ 

Cuthbertson came to this city from Wallkill, Oran^^e 
County, and preached. He also visited the city in 
1766 and 1769. He usually preached at the house of 
Mr. John Boyd,* with whom he lodged while remain- 
ing in the city. In the latter part of the past cen- 
tury supplies were given by the Revs. James McKinney 
and William Gibson, and, after the formation of the 
Reformed Presbytery, by other ministers. The society 
was organized into a congregation in 181 5. The first 
pastor was the Rev. James Christie, D. D., who was 
settled in this city in the spring of 1822. He also 
conducted a Grammar School in connection with his 
ministerial duties, and was regarded as a preacher 
and educator of considerable influence in Albany. The 
church stood in Waterloo street. Dr. Christie demitted 
the charge in 1830. The people were not long in 
securing a pastor, for the Rev. James R. Willson, 
D. D., was installed the same fall. Here was a field for 
the display of his great powers as a preacher and 
writer, and he at once inaugurated a battle against 
the wickedness of the city and the ungodliness of the 
State legislature. In the fall of 1833, Dr. Willson 
resigned the charge and returned to Coldenham. For 
three years the small, but active, congregation was in 
a distressed" condition. In the spring of 1836, the 
Rev. David Scott was installed pastor and remained 
in this capacity six years. He demitted the charge in 
the spring of 1842, for the people were not able to 
sustain a pastor of his ability and keep up the other 
expenses of the congregation. The field was supplied 

*Cuthbertson's Diary. 



2 1 6, HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

with preaching for many years, but gradually by emi- 
gration and death, Covenanterism has become extinct 
in' Albany. The family of the great Rev. James 
McKinney lived and died in this city, and other 
members were Robert Trumbull, M. J. Johnston, Samuel 
Graham, Robert Campbell and James Frazer. 

Mohawk Valley. This is one of the richest and 
most beautiful valleys in the State of New York. Lying 
a few miles west of the city of Albany and along the 
picturesque Mohawk river, are the towns of SCHE- 
NECTADY, DuANESBURGH and Princetown. About 
1780, a few families from the Highlands of Scotland 
settled in this vicinity, and also in the neighborhood 
of Galway, Mn.TON and Broad Albin. Not far 
distant were the flourishing societies of Galloway, 
CURRIESBUSH and Johnstown. These Scotch people 
organized themselves into praying societies, and awaited 
God's time to send them a preacher. No religious 
society ever embraced a creed with more intelligence, 
and maintained it with more faithfulness, than these 
unsophisticated Scotchmen accepted the principles of 
the Covenanter Church.'^ In 1793, the Rev. James 
McKinney came among them and preached alternately 
in all the societies for about five years. In 1798, his 
labors were mostly confined to the Duanesburgh and 
Galway congregations, although he exercised a super- 
intending control over all the societies on either side 
of the Mohawk. The elders at Duanesburgh were 
Walter Maxwell, Robert Liddle, John Cullings and 
George Dugyid. Among other leading and influential 
* Memoir of Dr. A. McLeod. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2:/ 

members were the families of Andrew McMillan, Alex- 
ander Glen, John Burns, Robert Spier, Hugh Ross and 
James Dunse. It is said, moreover, that the families 
of Andrew McMillan and James Dunse were the only 
ones in Duanesburgh who held the principles of the 
Covenanter Church previous to the arrival of the Rev. 
James McKinney in 1793, but the others soon after- 
wards embraced them under his eloquent and persua- 
sive presentation of truth.* Mr. McKinney first preached 
in the old stone church near Princetown, erected by 
the community but under the control of the Presby- 
terian Church. He resigned this charge in the spring 
of 1802, and removed to South Carolina. The first 
church building erected in Duanesburgh was in 1804. 
The lot was given by Hon. Judge Duane, and a lot 
for the parsonage was donated by his daughter. The 
parsonage was not built until 1829. In the fall of 
1807-, the united congregations of Duanesburgh and 
Galway called the Rev. S. B, Wylie, who declined it. 
In the spring of 1808, the Rev. Gilbert McMaster was 
called. He accepted, and was duly ordained and in- 
stalled August 8, 1808. The salary promised Mr. 
McMaster amounted to twelve hundred and fifty dollars 
a year and a parsonage. The number of commu- 
nicants at Duanesburgh was fifty-four. They were an 
opulent and liberal people. Besides those mentioned 
previously were the families of William Turnbull, Daniel 
Stewart, John McCollum, Alexander Liddle, Alexander 
McFarlan, James McBean, John McClumpha, Charles; 
Tulloch, James Ingersoll, George Turnbull, James Young 
* Sermon by Rev. S. M. Ramsey, Duanesburgh, 1876. 



2l8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and Thomas Hays. In 1818, Dr. McMaster resigned 
the Galway branch and devoted his whole time to the 
flourishing congregation of Duanesburgh. The first 
deacons were elected in 18 18, and were John Tulloch, 
John Liddle, James Maxwell, Thomas Kelly and 
William Cummings. At the division of the Church in 
1833, the large majority of the congregation went with 
their pastor into the New School body. The minority 
soon emigrated to other parts of the Church and re- 
united with their brethren. 

Schenectady was practically a part of the Duanes- 
burgh congregation until its separate organization in 
1 83 1. Rev. John McMaster was installed pastor, January 
25, 1832, and the following year, he, and the great 
majority of the congregation, went into the New School 
body, and in a few years afterwards the cause declined 
and finally died out in this learned city. Among the 
leading members at Schenectady were John Anderson, 
William Cunningham, Robert J. Brown and James 
Logan. 

Galway was a good congregation connected with 
Duanesburgh until 1818. It was located in Saratoga 
County, and attached to it were the congregations of 
Milton and Broad Albin, in the neighboring County 
of Fulton. Among the families here were those of 
McKinley, Adams, Rodgers, Guthrie, Williams, Wilson, 
Dannon, McQueen, and others. In the fall of 1821, 
the Rev. Samuel M. Willson was installed the first 
pastor, and remained among these worthy people six 
years. In 1829, the Rev. John N. McLeod became 
the pastor, and held this charge three years, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 219 

removed to New York City. In April, 1833, the Rev. 
Algernon S. McMaster was installed, and in a few 
months afterwards he and many of the congregation 
identified themselves with the New School body. The 
faithful remnant were reorganized, and, in 1835, called 
Mr. Francis Gailey, licentiate, but he declined. It was 
regarded as a mission station until recent years. A 
small congregation of Covenanters was organized in 
the city of Utica, Oneida County, in the fall of 1837, 
and also at New Hartford, same County, at the 
same time. These congregations were supplied by 
Dr. W. L. Roberts, David Scott, and others, for 
several years, but were finally abandoned. There was 
also a small society organized at MiLFORD, Otsego 
County, but it never flourished and received little 
or no attention. 

KORTRIGHT. This congregation is situated in the 
north-eastern part of Delaware County. It was settled 
in the early part of the present century by emigrants 
from Scotland. It was long a preaching station and 
probably received its regular organization as a con- 
gregation in 1 8 14. In 1820, the Rev. Melancthon B. 
Williams became the pastor, and remained about ten 
years. He built up a good congregation of honest 
tillers of the soil, who afterwards engaged extensively 
in the dairy business. Mr. James Douglas preached 
frequently to them, and Mr. Francis Gailey was called 
to be their pastor. They were a great many years 
without a pastor, and owe much to the fidelity of 
elder Robert Spence for the maintenance of the cause 
during the New School controversy. The Rev. Samuel 



220 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

M. Willson was installed pastor in the fall of 1845,. 
and remained until his death in 1864. In 1866, the 
Rev. John O. Bayles, the present pastor, was installed. 
Among some of the old and leading members at 
Kortright have been George Spence, David Orr, 
William McCracken, Robert S. Orr, James Spence, 
Joseph Spence, Samuel Mehaffay, Andrew S. Gilchrist, 
Andrew McNeely, J. W. Kelso, Seth Kelso, Henry 
L. Orr, James H. McLowry, Robert Henderson. 

BOVINA. This was settled about the same time as 
Kortright, by Scotchmen, and is situated some fifteen 
miles west of Kortright and at the headwaters of the 
Delaware river. It was a preaching station supplied 
for many years, and organized into a congregation in 
1 8 14. In 1820, it was under the pastoral care of the 
Rev. Melancthon B. Williams, who was released from 
them in 1823. In 1825, they invited Mr. James Douglas 
of New York, who had been licensed in Scotland, to 
preach to them. This he did for six years, and, in 
183 1, received ordination from the True Dutch 
Reformed Church and continued to minister to the 
people of Bovina until 1847, ^vhen he was restored, 
his ordination deemed valid, and he was regularly 
installed pastor of the congregation. Mr. Douglas died 
in 1857, and for four years they were vacant. The 
old stone church built in 1825, was now abandoned, 
and a new one built in the village of Brushland. 
Rev. James T. Pollock became the pastor in 1861, 
and, after three years of service, connected with another 
denomination. In January, 1865, the Rev. Joshua 
Kennedy was installed, and remained with these worthy 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 22 F 

people twenty years, when his health failed, and he 
resigned in the spring of 1885. The Rev. O. Brown 
Milligan was installed pastor in June, 1887; the church 
building was refurnished, and under most favorable 
circumstances the congregation continues its work of 
saving souls. Some of the old members are Andrew 
Thomson, William Telford, Daniel Arbuckle, Patrick 
Sanderson, James Miller, James Russell, James H. 
Thomson, William Thomson, James Thomson, James R. 
Douglas, James Dean, John Campbell, David B. Russell, 
Andrew T. Russell, Andrew Thomson, Jr., A. S. Gilchrist. 
Walton. This is a live young city, and the largest 
town in Delaware County. In this vicinity Francis 
Gailey made some disciples in early times. A few 
families lived in this community and held their mem- 
bership in the Bovina congregation until the spring of 
1 86 1, when they received a separate organization. In 
1863, the Rev. David McAllister was ordained and 
installed the first pastor. He resigned in 1871, and 
accepted an appointment of Synod to labor in the 
interests of the National Reform Association, and the 
congregation was vacant four years. Mr. McAllister 
was re-installed pastor in 1875, and again released in the 
fall of 1883, to teach in Geneva College. Rev. Samuel 
G. Shaw, the present pastor, was ordained and installed 
in the summer of 1884. In 1874, the old church in 
the country was abandoned, and a large and com- 
modious building of more modern architecture was 
erected in the town of Walton. The congregation is- 
in a healthy condition. Among the representative men 
of Walton have been D. G. McDonald, R. F. McGibbin,. 



^22 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Henry Easson, James Alexander, Robert Jameson, 
Calvin McAllister, T. H. Thompson, J. E. Arbuckle, 
Smith St. John, A. J. Easson. 

Not far from the town of Walton was the society of 
Colchester, in a mining district. This was cultivated 
by Dr. Joshua Kennedy in connection with Bovina, 
and at one time contained about twenty-five members. 

White Lake. South of Delaware County and 
between the Delaware and Hudson rivers is the con- 
gregation of White Lake, in the centre of Sullivan 
County. These people are living amid silver streams 
and placid lakes, the resort of many a weary New 
Yorker in the heated season. It is not definitely 
known at what time the first Covenanter^ settled in 
this region, but it was early in the present century. 
In 1820, the Rev. Melancthon B. Williams preached 
here as a part of his charge. For about twenty-five 
years they were a vacancy, and some made defection in 
1833. They enjoyed supplies until 1850, when the Rev. 
John B. Williams, the present pastor, was ordained and 
installed in charge. Mr. Williams has been an untiring 
worker and has been a power for good in this com- 
munity. Among the old families of White Lake have 
been those of William Pattison, WiUiam Stewart, John 
Tacey, John McClure, Joseph Forsythe, Robert Alex- 
ander, David McAllister, Clark Brown, James Frazer, 
Jacob Dubois. 

Syracuse. About the year 1840, a few families of 
Covenanters found a home in this city, to whose 
spiritual wants the Revs. W. L. Roberts, John Fisher, 
David Scott, and others, ministered quite frequently. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 223 

The little society grew in numbers and faith until 
they received an organization in the fall of 1849. In 
the spring of 185 1, they succeeded in obtaining the 
Rev. John Newell for a pastor. He remained but two 
years, and in 1854, they lost their organization. They 
were re-organized in 1858, and in the spring of 1859, 
they again beheld their teacher in the person of the 
Rev. Josiah M. Johnston. He remained in charge seven 
years, a part of which time he was engaged in 
mission work in the South. In 1867, the Rev. John 
M. Armour became the pastor, and remained six years. 
In the winter of 1874, the Rev. Samuel R. Wallace, 
the present pastor, was installed. The church building 
was erected in 1852, and is a comfortable house of 
worship. The Covenanters in the city of Syracuse 
have never been numerous or wealthy, but they have 
maintained the principles of the Church in a manner 
which deserves commendation. Of the old families at 
Syracuse have been those of John McClure, James 
McClure, Solomon Spier, John Service, William J. Park, 
William Cannon, James Cannon, Hugh Scott. 

Rochester. This city was frequently visited, pre- 
vious to 1830, by Dr. W. L. Roberts who preached 
to a few families who had removed hither. The con- 
gregation was organized in the summer of 1831, and 
the Rev. John Fisher, of York, was in charge for 
four years. In the spring of 1837, the Rev. Charles 
B. McKee became the pastor, and also conducted 
a flourishing classical school. He was released from 
this charge in the summer of 1842. In the summer 
of 1844, the Rev. David Scott, who had often supplied 



224 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the congregation, became the pastor and remained 
until the summer of 1862. In the spring of 1863, the 
Rev. Robert D. Sproull was installed pastor, and was 
released in October, 1880, when he left the com- 
munion of the Church. In the spring of 1881. the 
Rev. John Graham was ordained and installed in charge, 
and is the present efficient pastor. Recently the old 
church on North Union street was sold, and a beauti- 
ful and convenient church on Alexander street was 
purchased and refitted for worship. Rochester has had 
some worthy members, of whom have been Angus 
McLeod, John Campbell, Hugh Mulholland, James 
Edmonds, Robert Knowls, David Dorn, Samuel Gormley, 
Robert Kyle, David Logan, James Montgomery, Robert 
Willson, William Marshall, James Campbell, Hugh 
Robinson, Hugh McGowan, Robert Alton, James Alton, 
Abraham Ernissee, Thomas S. Linn, Joseph B. Robin- 
son. James Keers, Thomas Logan, Simon Cameron, 
John Boyd, Thomas Percy, James S. Peoples. 

Buffalo. A few families of Covenanters residing in 
this city were supplied with preaching for some time, 
and organized into a congregation in 1838. They 
made out several calls but none were accepted. They 
continued steadfast in their endeavors to build up a 
Church, and while they did not enjoy the labors of a 
sett-led pastor, supplies were almost constant. A small 
church building was erected in 1849. Mr. George G. 
Barnum was the leading spirit in founding a Cove- 
nanter Church in Buffalo, and to whom the Church is 
much indebted for his public spirit and unceasing 
interest. Failing in their righteous attempt the church 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 22 5 

property was disposed of with much reluctance and 
difficulty. 

York. The congregation of York, in Livingston 
County, together with Galen and Caledonia, originated 
from the preaching of the indefatigable pioneer and 
missionary, the Rev. James Milligan. As early as 1815, 
he began preaching in the Genesee Valley, and the 
congregation was organized in the fail of 1823.* The 
first elders were ordained at that time, and were James 
Guthrie, Sr., James Guthrie, Jr., James Milroy and 
James Cullings. The communion was dispensed at the 
same time by the Rev. William Sloane. Dr. W. L. 
Roberts was the pastor for part of his time from 1826 
until 1830. Rev. John Fisher was installed as the first 
pastor of the York congregation, July 21, 1831. He 
preached in two school houses, three miles apart, and 
equally distant from the village of York. In 1834, a 
commodious church was erected, and this was occupied 
until 1872, when the present large and better build- 
ing was completed. Mr. Fisher died in the summer 
of 1845, after a successful pastorate of fourteen years. 
In the winter of 1846, the Rev. Samuel Bowden was 
installed the pastor. The congregation grew rapidly 
under his ministrations until his release in 1876. Some 
internal troubles arose soon afterwards when he was 
recalled, and he left the communion of the Church, 
with some others. The breach, however, was healed, 
and in the fall of 1882, the present pastor, the Rev. 
W. C. Allen, was ordained and installed. The names 
of Milroy, Guthrie, McMillan, Gay, Logan, Cowan, 
*R. P. & C, 1872, p. 85. 



226 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

McCracken, Donnan, Hart, Morrow, Jamison, Cullings, 
and others, have long been connected with the cause 
in that region. 

Sterling. Sterling, Cayuga County, and CLYDE,. 
Wayne County, were long supplied with preaching and 
organized into a congregation in 1823. Dr. W. L.. 
Roberts became the first paster in 1826, and remained 
until 1830, and preached in different localities which 
became societies and congregations. He was re-installed 
pastor of Clyde and Sterling in the fall of 1837, and 
released in 1855. The following year the Rev. 
Matthew Wilkin became the pastor, and was in charge 
until 1867. For three years they were vacant. In the- 
summer of 1870, the Rev. S. R. Galbraith was installed 
pastor, and resigned in the following year to accept an. 
appointment as a missionary to Syria. Four years they 
were without a pastor. In the fall of 1875, the Rev. 
T. J. Allen was installed, and remained twelve years. 
He built up a good congregation and many improvements 
were made in the church property. In 1883, the Sterling 
manse was burned with the furniture and library of Mr. 
Allen. Another parsonage has been erected. Mr. Allen 
resigned in June, 1887, and the Rev. J. C. B. French 
was ordained and installed pastor, January 12, 1888. 
Among the leading members have been James Hunter, 
John Hunter, Hugh Crocket. Samuel Cox, Alexander 
McCrea, John B. Crocket, M. W. Calvert, John McCrea, 
Robert Mclnroy. 

Lisbon. This congregation is situated north of the 
centre of St. Lawrence County, New York, and near 
the St. Lawrence river. The first Covenanter family 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 22/ 

settling in this region was that of Mr. William Cole- 
man, who came from the Kellswater congregation, 
Ireland, in 1820."' In 1823, a society was formed, 
which met at the house of Mr. John Smith, and was 
composed of the families of William Coleman, John 
Smith and William Glass. They had no public preach- 
"ing until 1830. In 1828, Mr. William Coleman learned 
from Ireland the address of the Rev. J. W. Stewart 
of Argyle, New York, and Mr. William Craig, a 
member of the Associate Reformed Church, wrote to 
Mr. Stewart, but got no reply. Soon afterwards, Mr. 
John Smith wrote and got an answer from Mr. Stewart 
in February, 1829, who promised to send them a 
preacher. This messenger came in the person of the 
Rev. James Milligan, in the spring of 1830, who or- 
ganized a society and dispensed the sacraments. In 
the fall of 1832, Rev. J. W. Stewart, who had been sus- 
pended by the Northren Presbytery for defection from the 
attainments of the Reformation, came and organized a 
society in March, 1833, without authority. He, with 
elder John Smith, withdrew and identified themselves 
with the New School body in August, 1833. When the 
deception of Mr. Stewart was exposed, and the pro- 
ceedings of the division of the Church were published, 
the misguided brethren tried in vain to destroy the 
publications in order to keep the people ignorant of 
their defection. Many of the people now returned to 
the Church and were visited by Rev. James Milligan 
in 1837. They began to be regularly supplied with 
preaching by John Holmes, Dr. W. L. Roberts, and 
* Extract from Sketch by Rev. W. McFarland. 



-228 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Others. In October, 1840, Rev. John Fisher of York, 
and elder John Campbell of Rochester, regularly or- 
ganized the congregation and admitted thirty-four 
members. They were now supplied by William Neill, 
W. L. Roberts, John Middleton, and others. A church 
building was erected, but the property, in passing 
through the civil courts, was illegally conceded to the 
New School body in 1843. In 1845, a new church 
building was erected, and in the winter of the previous 
year, the Rev. John Middleton was ordained and in- 
stalled pastor, and resigned in 1854, on account of 
the deacon controversy. In the summer of 1856, the 
Rev. James McLachlane, formerly a Scotch missionary 
to Canada, was installed pastor, and for eight years he 
taught and maintained the principles of the Church 
with fidelity. He died in 1864. For seven long years 
the congregation was a vacancy. Several calls were 
made and declined. The present pastor, the Rev. 
William McFarland, was ordained and installed in charge, 
May 18, 1 87 1. Among those who have borne office 
in the Lisbon congregation are John Smith, William 
■Glass, James Ballantine, John McCullough, John Cole- 
man, John Hargrave, Charles Gillespie, elders ; and 
John Campbell, John Aiton, William W. Glass, James 
Smith and John C. Glass, deacons. The congregation 
is in a good condition, and Reformation principles are 
faithfully presented in the region of the St. Lawrence. 



NEW JERSEY. 

Perth Amboy. In 1685, George Scot, Laird of 
Pitlochie, was given his liberty in Scotland provided 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 229 

he transported to East Jersey many of the Cove- 
nanters who had refused to take the oath of allegiance 
to a tyrannical and profligate ruler. Thus authorized, 
he proceeded to gather his company from those con- 
fined in the tolbooth of Leith. He had to give 
security to land them there prior to September, 1686, 
and the penalty was to be five hundred merks in 
case of failure in any instance. In May, 1685, Scot 
chartered the " Henry and Francis " of New Castle, a 
ship of three hundred and fifty tons and twenty great 
guns, with Richard Hutton as master. On the eve of 
their banishment, twenty-eight of them signed the 
following conjunct testimony, bearing "That now to 
leave their own native and Covenanted land by an 
unjust sentence of banishment for owning truth and 
standing by duty, studying to keep their Covenant 
engagements and baptismal vows, whereby they stand 
obliged to resist and testify against all that is con- 
trary to the Word of God and their Covenants ; and 
that their sentence of banishment ran chiefly because 
they refused the oath of allegiance which in con- 
science they could not take, because, in so doing 
they thought they utterly declined the Lord Jesus 
Christ from having any power in His own house, and 
practically would, by taking it, say. He was not King 
and Head of His Church and over their consciences. 
And, on the contrary, this was to take and put in 
His room a man whose breath is in his nostrils ; yea, 
a man who is a sworn enemy to religion, an avowed 
papist, whom, by our Covenants, we are bound to 
withstand and disown, ' and that agreeably to Scripture : 
u 



230 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

'When thou art come unto the land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt 
dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a King over 
me, like as all the nations that are about me, thou 
shalt in anywise set him King over thee, whom the 
Lord thy God shalt choose : one from among thy 
brethren shalt thou set King over thee : thou mayest 
not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy 
brother.' " — Dent. ly : 14, 75. They then bore their 
testimony against the defections of the day, and for 
preaching in the fields and houses, and then signed 
their names. As Wodrow has given these narrtes of 
the banished, we have thought it proper to insert 
them here. Their names are: ft Robert Adam, Lady 
Athernie,^ John Arbuckle," Rev. William Aisdale,\ 
John Black, George Brown, Robert Campbell, David 
Carnpbell, John Campbell, William Campbell, Christian 
Cavie, John Crichton, John Corbet, Andrew Corbet, 
John Casson, Agnes Corhead, Barbara Cowan, Marjory 
Cowan, William Cunningham, Patrick Cuningham, 
Charles Douglas, William Douglas, Isabel Durie, John 
Frazer, Thomas Fiiilater, Elspeth Ferguson, Janet 
Ferguson, Mary Ferret,* John Ford,* James Forsythe,* 
John Foreman, John Gray, Thomas Gray, Thomas 
Graham, Grisel Gamble, William Ged,\ Fergus Grier, 
James Grier, Robert Gilchrist, John Gilfillan,* Bessie 
Gordon, Annabel Gordon,* Katharine Govan, John 
Harris,* John Harvie,* John Henderson,* Adam Hood,* 
Charles Honyall,* JoJin HntcJiinson, John Hodge, 

f f Remark : f Voluntarily left Scotland. * Left a written protest. Those 
in italics died on the voyage. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 23 1 

Thomas Jackson* William Jackson, George Johnston* 
John Johnstone. t James Junk, John King, John Kippan, 
John Kincaid,* James Kirkwood, John Kirkland, John 
Kellie, Kathcrine Kellit\ John Kennie, Margaret 
Leslie,* Janet Linthron, Gawen Lockhart, Michael 
Marshall, John Marshall, John Martin, Margaret Miller' 
George Muir,* Gilbert Honor g, Jean Moffat,* John 
Muirhead, James Muirhead,* William McCalmont, 
John McEwen, Walter McEwen,* Robert McEwen,* 
John McQueen,* Robert McLellan, Margaret McLellan, 
Andrew McLellan, John McKenman, William McMillan, 
John McGhie,* William Nevin,t William Oliphant, 
Andrew Patterson,* John Pollock, JoJin Ramn, Rev. 
Archibald Riddell,-\ Mrs. Archibald Riddell,\ William 
Rigg,f Marian Rennie, John Renwick, James Reston, 
Thomas Russell, Peter Russell,* Christian Strang,* 
William Sprat, Agnes Stevens,* William Sproull,* 
Thomas Shelston, John Szvinton, John Smith, 
John Seton,* George Scot,\ Margaret Scot;\ Eiipham 
Scot,\ Janet Symington,* James Sittingtown,* John 
Targat, John Turpine, William Turnbull, Patrick Urie, 
John Vernor,t Mrs. Vernor,t John Watt, Patrick Walker, 
James Wardrope, Elizabeth Whitelaw, Girzel Wither- 
spoon, William Wilson, Robert Young.* The charge for 
transportation was five pounds sterling for each adult, 
and to each of those who were unable to pay for 
their passage was promised twenty-fi\^ acres of land 
and a suit of new clothes on the completion of four 
years of service ; for children under twelve years of 
age, fifty shillings ; sucking children, free ; one ton of 
goods, forty shillings. These have been known in 



2 32 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

American History as "Redemptioners." Many of these 
passengers had endured much suffering. After some 
delay, the ship sailed from the road of Leith, Septem- 
ber 5, 1685. We hear of no untoward event until 
after they had turned the "Land's End," when a fever 
began to prevail with virulence, particularly among the 
prisoners who had been confined in the great vault of 
Dunnotter. Many were sick when they came aboard, 
and the health of the others was endangered by the 
condition of the provisions laid in by the Captain. 
The meat began to putrefy and was not eatable. In 
a month the fever assumed a malignant type. FeW 
escaped its ravages, and three or four bodies were cast 
overboard every day. Most of the ship's crew, except 
the Captain and boatswain, died. Pitlochie, who had 
freighted the ship, with his lady, died likewise, and 
so enjoyed nothing of the gain of nearly one hundred 
prisoners gifted him by the Council, and upwards of 
seventy persons died at sea. Death and unwholesome 
food were not the only evils the unfortunate Cove- 
nanters had to encounter ; the master of the ship 
was most cruel to the prisoners. Those who were 
placed under deck were not allowed to go about 
worship, and when they attempted it the Captain 
would thrown down great planks of timber to disturb 
them and endanger their lives. The ship sprang a 
leak twice, and frequent storms added to their anxiety. 
After the death of Pitlochie, the prisoners fell into 
the hands of John Johnstone, his son-in-law. Captain 
Hutton began to tamper with Mr. Johnstone, and 
urged him to carry the prisoners to Virginia or 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 233 

Jamaica, either place presenting better opportunity for 
disposing of them than New Jersey, and offered as 
an inducement to charge himself with the disposal of 
the prisoners and to account to him for them in the 
productions of the country. But the wind changed 
and they were forced to sail straight for New Jersey. 
They landed at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in the 
middle of December, 1685, having been about fifteen 
weeks at sea. Before going ashore, Johnstone endeav- 
ored to stop them by urging them to sign an agree- 
ment to serve four years at that place in considera- 
ti-on of the expense incurred by the departed Scot. 
This they would not agree to, but joined in another 
protest against their banishment and recounted their 
harsh treatment during the voyage. When they came 
ashore, the people who lived on the coast and had 
not the gospel preached to them, were inhospitable 
and showed them no kindness. A little way up in 
the country, however, there was a town (supposed to 
be Woodbridge), and a minister settled, and the 
inhabitants were very kind to them. When they learned 
who the prisoners were and their circumstances, they 
invited all who were able to travel to come and live 
with them, and sent horses for the rest, and enter- 
tained them freely and liberally that winter. In the 
following spring, John Johnstone pursued them and 
had them all cited before a legal tribunal of the 
Province, After hearing both sides, the Governor called 
a jury to sit and cognosce upon the affair, who found 
that the pannels had not of their own accord come 
to that ship, nor bargained with Pitlochie for money 



2 34 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

or service, and therefore, according to the laws of the 
country, they were assoiled. Those who had so 
agreed had their suits come before the Court of 
Common Rights, and Captain Hutton was remunerated. 
The prisoners then scattered throughout Eastern Penn- 
sylvania, New York and Connecticut, where they were 
kindly entertained and found employment according 
to their different trades." At different times the per- 
secuted Covenanters were banished to New Jersey, 
Delaware and South Carolina, but in the latter part 
of the seventeenth century this cruelty ceased. At 
this time no organized society of Covenanters has an 
existence in New Jersey. 

PatersON. For some years previous to its organiza- 
tion into a congregation, a few families of Covenanters 
resided in the city of Paterson. They were usually 
supplied by the students of the Philadelphia Seminary 
and received the organization in the fall of 1818. 
The Rev. William L. Roberts was the first pastor 
•ordained and installed in charge in May, 1824. The 
'Congregation was small and rent with factions, and he 
resigned the charge in December, 1825. The Rev. 
William Gibson took charge of the congregation in 
1826, and was stated supply for several years. In 
1833, the great majority of the members went into 
the New School body and the cause gradually de- 
clined. The few faithful followers of the Church were 
supplied but they lost their organization in October, 
1836. Of the eldership were James W. King, John 
Mclntire and Thomas Lindon. 

*Wodrow, Vol. 4, p. 331. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 235 

Newark. A number of Covenanters residing in this 
•city and holding membership in the congregations of 
New York City, petitioned for an organization, which 
was granted, and the Newark congregation was or- 
ganized, June 17, 1874, with eighteen members. David 
Houston and William J. Douglass were chosen ruling 
elders. They were supplied regularly by Presbytery 
and worshipped in Irving Hall. The Rev. David H, 
Coulter was installed pastor in December, 1874. He 
resigned in October, 1875, and for three years they 
were supplied ; but failing to maintain the cause, were 
■disorganized in October, 1878. 



DELAWARE. 

Wilmington. Previous to its organization, the con- 
gregation of this city was supplied by students of the 
Philadelphia Seminary. An organization was effected 
in December, 1832, at which time Samuel M. Gayley 
was ordained and installed in charge. In the following 
year, he, and the congregation, went into the New 
School body, and, in 1837, over to the Presbyterian 
Church. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

Philadelphia. Early in the eighteenth century 
Covenanters from Scotland and Ireland settled in the 
inviting Cumberland Valley in Eastern Pennsylvania, 
and doubtless some of them resided temporarily in the 
city of Philadelphia. The first account of any Cove- 



236 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

nanters in Philadelphia was in 1740,* when a family 
by the name of Boyd emigrated from Ireland. Mr. 
Boyd died soon after his arrival in this country, and 
his family took rooms in the household of James 
Rainey, an emigrant from the same country, Mr. 
Rainey was furnished Covenanter literature, and, no- 
doubt, moral suasion by Mrs. Boyd, and he soon em- 
braced the principles of the Church. In 1748, Mr. 
Rainey removed to the Wallkill, in Orange County^ 
New York, and the Boyd family are henceforth un- 
known to history. After the arrival of the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson, the first Covenanter minister that came 
to America, we find him preaching in Philadelphia, t 
He preached at the house of Mr. George Graham, in 
this city, November 26, 1754, at which time he 
baptized Jane, daughter of George Graham. In October, 
1761, Mr. Cuthbertson accompanied the Rev. Alexander 
McDowell to Philadelphia, and the latter preached in 
the city. About this time a family by the name of 
Galbraith settled in the city, and Mr. Galbraith died 
soon afterwards. In 1774, Mr. Thomas Thomson and 
his family, from the congregation of the Rev. William. 
Stavely, in County Down, Ireland, arrived, and social 
religious • worship was conducted in his house for many 
years. In November, 1774, the Rev. John Cuthbert- 
son preached in the city and called upon the Rev. 
Mr. Marshall, of the Associate Church. The Reformed 
Presbytery met in Philadelphia, November 26, 1774. 
and a Committee consisting of Revs. John Cuthbert- 
son, Matthew Linn, Alexander Dobbin, and elder 

'^Covenanter, Vol. i, p. 314. f Cuthbertson's Diary. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 237 

William Brown, rectified some irregularities existing 
among the people. Mr. Cuthbertson again preached 
to the Philadelphians in November, 1779. In 1784, 
Mr. John Agnew emigrated from Ireland, and, after a 
residence of three years in this city, removed to that 
of New York. In 1788, Mr. John Wallace emigrated 
from Ireland, but, failing to find any Covenanters, was 
starting to New York to return to his native land,, 
when, at his lodging place, he providentially met with 
an acquaintance of Thomas Thomson, and directed him 
to his house in Camden, opposite the city. Mr. Wallace 
remained, and he and Mr. Thomson formed a society, 
which was held in the latter's house for many years. 
In 1790, the Rev. James Reid, missionary from Scot- 
land, preached in Mr. Thomson's house, and this was 
the beginning of the Philadelphia congregation. In 
1792, the society was augmented by the accessions of 
Andrew McLure, William and James McGowan, Samuel: 
Campbell and Joseph Sterrett. In 1793, the Rev. James 
McKinney, from Ireland, came among them and 
preached. In 1795, the following families were added 
to the society : John Stewart and Stephen Young 
from Scotland ; and Charles Huston, John Wallace, 
William Acheson, Andrew Acheson and Samuel Rad- 
cliff from Ireland. Mr. McKinney preached to them 
occasionally in a school house in Gaskill street below 
Fifth. He now procured a lot in St. Mary's street,, 
above Sixth, and began the erection of a church build- 
ing. The work progressed very slowly and was not 
finished until 1803. In October, 1797, the society 
received a large contribution of members from Ireland, 



238 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

among which company were the Rev. William Gibson 
and family, John Reilly, Thomas McAdam, and Messrs, 
John Black and S. B. Wylie, students of Theology. 
Mr. John McKinley, a teacher in New Jersey, visited 
the society occasionally. Then there came the families 
of Joseph McClurg, Hugh Miller and Robert Orr from 
Ireland. Rev. William Gibson now preached to them 
one half of his time, and the other half in New York. 
Rev. William Gibson formally organized the first con- 
gregation in Philadelphia in the Gaskill street school 
house, January 28, 1798. He brought on elders Andrew 
Gififord and David Clark from New York, to constitute 
the session. At this time, Thomas Thomson, John 
Stewart and Stephen Young were ordained elders of 
the new congregation. In May, 1798, the Reformed 
Presbytery, which had been dissolved since the coali- 
tion of 1782, was constituted in the same school house 
by Revs. William Gibson and James McKinney. 
William Henry, Thomas McAdam and John Reilly 
were ordained ruling elders, August 5, 1801. Mr. 
Stephen Young had previously returned to Scotland 
and was a bookseller of renown. The first sacrament 
of the Lord's supper was dispensed in Philadelphia by 
Revs. Alexander McLeod and S. B. Wylie on the first 
Sabbath of June, 1802, to about thirty-five persons, 
among whom were Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Thomson, 
Mr. and Mrs. John Reilly, Mr. and Mrs. William 
Henry, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas McAdam, John Wallace, 
Catharine and Mary Gilleland, Mr. and Mrs. Service, 
Catharine and Jane Service, Miss Hall, Mrs. Kidd, Miss 
Creighton, Hugh Miller, James Vertue, Mrs. Gray, Charles 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 239 

Huston, Mr. and Mrs. James Black, Mr. and Mrs. George 
Graham, Miss Purvis, John McLean and James Camp- 
bell. In the fall of 1802, the Rev. S. B. Wylie was 
presented with a call from the united congregations of 
Philadelphia and Baltimore.* He accepted the call on 
the conditions that he should be allowed to spend a 
year in Europe, that his pastoral relation should begin 
■on his return, and that at the end of two years he 
might be at liberty to select one or the other, or 
neither of the congregations, without further action of 
the Presbytery. He was duly installed pastor of the 
united congregations of Philadelphia and Baltimore, No- 
vember 20, 1803. He found the congregations in both 
the cities in a feeble condition, although public or- 
dinances had been dispensed as frequently as possible. 
The edifice in Philadelphia was poor and in an un- 
desirable location. It was thought proper to abandon 
the old unfinished church. This was not done, however, 
and the building was repaired and rendered more com- 
fortable. The term of his connection with the united 
•congregations having expired, Mr. Wylie demitted the 
charges, although he was earnestly invited to remain 
in Philadelphia. In the fall of 1807, he also received 
a unanimous call from Duanesburgh, New York, but 
finally decided to accept the call from Philadelphia, 
and he was duly installed the pastor. At the next 
communion twenty-five persons were admitted to 
Church privileges and the whole aspect of the field 
became more encouraging. In 1808, John McKinley, 
James Robinson and Robert Orr were ordained ruling 
* Pamphlet by Dr. S. B. Wylie, 1847. 



240 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

elders. In 1809, Mr, John Reilly was licensed to 
preach and his connection with the congregation 
ceased. In 18 16, the old church in St. Mary's street 
was sold and a more commodious building was erected 
on Eleventh street, below Market, and was opened for 
service, June 21, 18 18. In the mean time they wor- 
shipped in the Second Associate Reformed Church in 
Thirteenth street, above Market. In 18 19, Isaac Camp- 
bell, John Murphy and Samuel Bell were ordained 
elders, and, in 1820, Caleb Gray was recognized as a. 
member of session. In 1824, Hugh Hardy, of Ohio^ 
and in 1829, Henry Sterling, of Pittsburg, were added to- 
the eldership. In 1829, the church building was en- 
larged by utilizing the rooms in the rear of the 
building. At the division of the Church in 1833, this- 
congregation suffered a great loss because the pastor 
was the leading spirit among those who withdrew from 
the communion of the Church. Out of a membership- 
of about four hundred and fifty, three hundred went 
with the pastor into the New School body, including 
all the elders, and they retained the church property.. 
Without a session, the faithful Covenanters, who ad- 
hered to the principles of the Church, were immediately 
organized into a congregation by the' ordination of 
Walter Bradford, Joseph Frazer and William Caldwell, 
ruling elders. They had, previous to the division, be- 
come dissatisfied, and purchased a church in Cherry 
street, below Eleventh, in which the General Synod 
met in August, 1833. The sacrament was administered 
on the first Sabbath of December, 1833, to one hundred 
and forty-five communicants. The Rev. James M. Willson 



PREfSBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 24 1 

was ordained and installed pastor, November 27, 1834. 
In 1838, deacons were ordained to manage the temporal 
affairs of the congregation, and this soon lead to an 
unpleasant feeling among a part of the people. The 
Second congregation of Philadelphia was organized, 
August 10, 1842, and the Rev. Samuel O. Wylie was 
installed pastor, December 5, 1844, and, after a long 
and successful pastorate, was released by death, August 
22, 1883. In October, 1862, the Rev. J. M. Willson 
resigned the First congregation to fill the chair of 
Theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and the Rev. 
T. P. Stevenson, the present pastor, was ordained and 
installed as his successor, May 5, 1863. In 1867, the 
'Church in Cherry street was sold, and for two years 
they worshipped in halls. In 1869, they worshipped 
at Seventeenth and Filbert streets, and for ten years, 
and in 1879, the present large and well appointed 
•church at Seventeenth and Bainbridge streets >vas 
erected. In the winter of 1851, the Third congrega- 
tion was organized in Kensington, and held their 
services in Commissioner's Hall. The following year 
the present house of worship was erected on Deal 
street near Frankford Avenue. The officers were Robert 
Forsythe, Samuel Cameron, W. O. Lindsay, William 
White, William Young, William Brown and William 
Dunlap. The Rev. A. M. Milligan was the first pastor 
installed in December, 1853, and released in October, 

1855. Rev. John Middleton was installed in November, 

1856, and resigned in May, 1862. Rev. Robert J. 
Sharpe was ordained and installed pastor in April, 1866, 
and was released in April, 1879. Rev. John M. Crozier 



242 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

was installed in May, 1880, and released by sudden- 
death in September, 1881. The Rev. R. C. Mont- 
gomery, the present pastor, was ordained and installed,. 
March 27, 1883. A Fourth congregation was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1853. In July, 1854, the 
Rev. David McKee was ordained and installed pastor, 
and after laboring for five years, the congregation was 
disorganized and the members returned to the other 
congregations. After the death of Dr. S. O. Wylie,, 
the Second congregation called the Rev. Prof. J. K. 
McClurkin, of Westminster College, who was ordained 
and installed pastor, October 9, 1884. The old church 
building was taken down, and the handsome edifice 
in which they now worship was erected. Mr. McClurkin 
resigned the charge, August 25, 1887, to accept the 
chair of Theology in the Allegheny Seminary. Among 
other prominent members identified with the cause of 
the Reformation in Philadelphia have been of the First 
Congregation : Walter Bradford, Joseph Frazer. John 
Ford, John Service, Matthew Mackie, William Craw- 
ford, John Evans, Samuel McMahon, Henry Floyd,. 
Samuel McMullin, William White, John Alexander 
William Young, David Smith, William Dunlap, 
William Pxhols, James Dunlap, James Stevenson, Robert 
Keys, William W. Keys, Hugh Lamont, John Wright,. 
William Carson, William McKnight, Robert Patton,. 
William Anderson,. Matthew McConnell, Andrew Mc- 
Murray, John M. Graham, James Crawford, Hugh 
Graham, Samuel Irwin, Hugh Lilly, John Marshall, John 
Lyons, John Cunningham, William G. Carson, Charles 
Pullinger. Daniel Morrison, T. S. McDonald, James. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 243 

Patterson. Of the Second Congregation : William Brown, 
Ebenezer Craig, Charles Craig, John Caldwell, George 
Orr, James Anderson, David Eccles, John Brown, 
Ezekiel Sterritt, Robert Sterritt, Samuel Fulton, James 
McKnight, William Walker, Thomas Walker, James 
Carlisle, J. B. Stewart, Thomas Brown, William Stewart, 
James Keys, Samuel Patterson, D. J. Mcllhatton, William 
J. Ferguson, James McKee, William Lackey, William 
Walker, Jr., Robert Clelland, Dr. A. Caldwell, Robert 
J. Jamison. Of the TJiird Congregation ; William 
Cochran, Alexander Mackie, Samuel Cameron, Adam 
Lindsay, William O. Lindsay, Robert Forsythe, William 
Young, Hiigh Lamont, Thomas Laughlin, James Blair, 
William Steele, William McHatton, Hutcheson McCand- 
less, Joseph Service, A. J. H. Mackie, George Alex- 
ander, John Grier, Joseph Steele, John McQuigg, 
Thomas J. Crozier. 

Cumberland Valley. The Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania has no more productive region within its 
borders than the Cumberland Valley, extending from 
Harrisburgh south into Maryland and Virginia ; and 
no section of this valley is richer in agricultural, 
mineral and manufacturing resources, than the fertile 
fields, rugged hills and busy towns of Franklin County. 
Early in the eighteenth century the persecuted Cove- 
nanters found an asylum in this inviting region and 
settled down to the "honorable vocation of husband- 
men. The principal settlements were along the Con- 
ococheagiie Creek, which word, in the Indian language, 
means "indeed a long way." Settlements were also 
made along the Octorara, Pequea, Conestoga, Swatara, 



24A HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and other small streams that flow into the Susque- 
hanna from the east. These clusters of families scat- 
tered all over the eastern part of Pennsylvania had 
been trained in the faithful practices of the Covenanter 
Church beyond the sea, and did not fellowship with 
•other denominations in religious worship, but after the 
example of their ancestors met at each other's houses 
for social worship. In 1720, a society formed at 
Paxtang, Dauphin County, and among the families 
were those of McClure, Wilson, Wills, Foster, Gil- 
more, Gray, Rutherford and Espy. Still farther north 
-on the Susquehanna near Milton, Northumberland 
County, dwelt the families of Hugh Wilson, John 
Boyd and Samuel Brown, as early as 1728. In 1731, 
there were a few families on "The Barrens" in York 
County. In Adams County they settled upon an 
immense tract of land in 1736, called the "Manor of 
Maske," which was given by the Province. The 
principal settlements were at Octorara, Lancaster 
■County ; Paxtang, Dauphin County; and Conococheague, 
Franklin County. The forefathers of the Willson 
family, and the ancestors of the ministers of the 
Church by that name, settled in Franklin County 
about 1730, and about 1750, removed to the Cove 
valley, a little west of the Blue Ridge, and some 
twenty-five miles from Chambersburgh. The McCon- 
nells, also, who subsequently became related to the 
Willson family, resided in the Cove at the time of 
the Indian massacre in 1756. They all migrated to 
the region of the Yough, in Western Pennsylvania, 
in 1769. In the vicinity of Octorara, Lancaster County, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 245 

a considerable society of Covenanters had been col- 
lected previous to 1740. Rev. Alexander Craighead, 
a minister in connection with the Presbyterian Church 
at that place, withdrew from that body because that 
Church did not ratify the Westminster Standards. 
Mr. Craighead identified himself with the languishing 
cause of the Covenanters. He accepted their principles 
and became their preacher. Had he not done so, 
those faithful and conscientious Covenanters would not 
have followed him, neither would they have heard 
him preach nor received the sacraments from his 
hands. Mr. Craighead was deeply imbued with the 
spirit of the Scottish Covenants, and contended 
earnestly for the descending obligation of Covenants 
upon all whose ancestors were parties to the same, 
and insisted upon making the adoption of the Solemn 
League and Covenant and the National Covenant of 
Scotland a term of Communion for members of the 
Church in the Colonies as well as in the mother 
country. He claimed that the sea did not absolve 
the relation nor remove their obligation. He testified 
continually to the Headship of Christ over the Nation, 
and the responsibility of all rulers to Him ; a failure 
of whose allegiance to Him would forfeit the allegiance 
of the people to the ruler. He preached these good 
old Covenanter doctrines with a zeal and courage 
that commanded admiration, and brought down upon 
him the censure of the Synod and the odium of the 
Governor.''^ On November 11, 1743, Mr. Craighead 
gathered all the Covenanters together at a meeting 

*Rev. Dr. A. W. Miller, in Sermon, May 14, 1876, Charlotte, N. C. 
13 



246 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

at Octorara, Lancaster County, and. after various 
religious services, he and the congregation renewed 
the Covenants — National and Solemn League. After 
denouncing George IL as an unfit King, they then 
swore with uplifted swords to " keep their bodies, 
property and consciences against all attacks ; to defend 
Christ's gospel and the purity of the Church; to 
submit to no ruler who would not submit to Christ, 
and to defend their liberty from fears without and 
within." This declaration immediately disturbed the 
political as well as the religious waters, for Governor 
Morris, in his message to the Assembly, denounced 
these people for their " aspirations and machinations 
to obtain independency."* The following spring another 
General Meeting was held, the minutes of which have 
been handed down to posterity by Mr. Thomas 
Wilson, of Marsh Creek, who was doubtless the 
Secretary,- and are inserted as a fair specimen of their 
proceedings. 

"THE GENERAL MEETING. 

''Middle Octorara, March 4th, 1744. 

"The G. M. constituted by prayer. Mr. Creaghead 
chosen prses. The following commissioners being pres- 
ent commissionated from their respective corres- 
pondents, viz : 

"From over Susquehanna, Christopher Houston; from 
Paxton, James Mitchel and Andrew Smith ; from ye 
Barrens, Saml. Jackson and Saml. Hathorn ; from Mr. 
Creaghead's, Robert Laughead and Josiah Kerr ; from 

* Wheeler's Reminiscences, p. 276. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 247 

Muddy Run, John Brownlee and Joseph Bell ; from 
Pequea, Jos. Walker, Neal McNaught and Wm. Ramsey ; 
from Marsh Creek, Thomas Wilson and David Dunwoodie. 

I St. "It is agreed upon by ye G. M. that no per- 
sons are to be admitted into our G. M. except those 
that are commissionated by their respective C's, except 
those of our community that have any particular 
business with the G. M. 

2d/y. "The alteration of our Society Rules that were 
altered by a committee is approven by the G. M.; 
the G. M. allows that each correspondent get a copy 
of ye Rules as they are now altered. 

3<//^. "It is agreed upon by ye G. M. that none of 
our community hire or employ a papist in our families, 
or be employed by any papist in their houses. 

4.t/ilj'y "It is agreed upon concerning ye Levy that 
it be paid, until that there be some other end that 
contradicts our testimony. 

z,t/ilj'. "It is agreed upon concerning Phineas White- 
side that Saml. Jackson and Saml. Hathorn go to Mr. 
Allison's concerning his learning, and to agree for his 
boarding where most convenient. 

6t/i/j'. "It is agreed upon by ye G. M. that Joseph 
Irwin withdraw from ye Society until his case be 
cleared in respect of ye scandal laid against him. 

•/t/i/f. " It is agreed upon that Mr. Creaghead, John 
Brownlee and James Wilson are ordered to revise the 
minutes of our G. M.'s before ye next G. M. 

ZtJily. "The G. M. agrees that John Walker was 
found guilty in ye affair laid against him, in not 



248 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

giving timous warning to Matthew Patterson to attend 
at ye running out of a line betwixt them. 

()thly. " It is agreed upon that each private Society 
of our community give in their subscriptions for Mr. 
Creaghead's stipends against our next G. M., and that 
they make conscience to pay ye same yearly; if any 
society fails herein, they may expect that ye G. M. 
will take a particular account of them." 

The meeting severely condemned mixed marriages 
and infairs held at the same, and finished the pro- 
tracted meeting with lengthy causes of fasting. 

Mr. Craighead, however, did not possess stability, 
and, terminating his connection with the Covenanters 
in 1749, returned to the Presbyterian Church and 
removed to Virginia, thence to Mecklenberg, North 
Carolina, where he died in 1766. The societies were 
again left in a destitute condition. They returned to 
the society meetings and prayed for an under-shepherd. 
In answer to their urgent entreaties, the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson was sent to the lonely societies in America 
by the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland. The informa- 
tion of names and places of settlements is taken 
directly from his diary. He landed at New Castle, 
Delaware, August 5, 1751, having been forty-six days 
at sea from Derry Loch. He praised God for His 
superintending care during the voyage. He first lodged 
with Thomas Grififith, and the next day rode twenty 
miles on horse back to the home of Moses Andrews, 
and on the third day he rode fifteen miles further 
south to the house of Joseph Ross, near the line 
between Pennsylvania and Maryland, where he met a 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 249 

Presbytery (supposed to be the New Castle Presbytery 
of the Presbyterian Church), and conversed about some 
difficulties. On Friday, August 9, 175 1, he preached 
his first sermon in America at the house of Joseph 
Ross. His text was Jonah 2: 8, "They that observe 
lying vanities forsake their own mercy." The travels 
of Revs. Cuthbertson, Linn and Dobbin are so extensive 
that the societies will be taken in the order of their 
locations and the names of the early members given 
under each. 

Northumberland County. On October 21, 175 1, 
the Rev. John Cuthbertson stopped at the Indian 
wigwam not far from the present town of Milton and 
conversed with several persons concerning Church 
doctrines, and preached at the house of Mitchell Clyde. 
He remained in the neighborhood and preached the 
next Sabbath and baptized George, son of James Gray, 
and Jean, daughter of Mitchell Clyde. Not far distant 
were the families of George Gray, James Gilmore and 
James McPherson. At the coalition of 1782, a good 
many went into the Associate Reformed Church. In 
1798, they were again organized, and, in the early 
part of the present century they were sometimes visited 
by ministers while passing between Philadelphia and 
Pittsburgh. An incident is related to show the great 
value placed upon preaching and the belief in prayer. 
There had been a long interval during which they 
had enjoyed no preaching, and. their letters failing to 
bring a reply, they agreed to observe a fast day and 
pray for the desired blessing. This they did, and, at 
the close of the service, one of the devout worshippers 



250 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

was noticed to retire to an obscure place and there 
he poured out his soul in secret prayer. Another 
watched for his return to the company, and, as he 
drew near, his countenance indicated that his prayer 
was not in vain. To the inquiry, "What speed.'" the 
reply was, " It is neither new moon nor Sabbath, but 
it shall be well." The same evening the Rev. John 
Black, of Pittsburgh, arrived on horseback and preached 
on the following Sabbath.* The society was not 
regularly organized into a congregation at Milton until 
the fall of 1830. Previous and subsequent to the 
organization it was supplied by students from the 
Philadelphia Seminary. The Rev. William Wilson was 
installed pastor in the summer of 1832, and the following 
year he and the congregation became identified with 
the New School body, and the cause is now extinct. 

Middle Octorara, Lanxaster County. There was 
a society of Covenanters in this vicinity as early as 
1740, and here the Rev. Alexander Craighead joined 
them and lead them in the renewing of the Cove- 
nants in 1743. The Rev. John Cuthbertson permanently 
located here and lived about two miles from the stone 
church, which edifice was used until 1849, or a period 
of nearly one hundred years. The grant of one hundred 
acres of land was made to Rev. Alexander Craighead 
and his elders, when he ministered to the Covenanter 
society, by the proprietaries of William Penn, for 
church and school purposes, and six acres for a grave- 
yard. The Presbyterians have since held the church 
property by right of pos.session, although it was 

* Dr. Sproull's Sketches. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 25 1 

originally granted to the Covenanters. On August 11, 
175 1, Mr. Cuthbertson first preached here at the tent 
three miles from the house of Joseph Walker. He 
returned from a monthly trip in September, 1751, 
crossing into Lancaster County near Columbia, and 
married Robert Love and Rachael Sloane at the river. 
On Sabbath, September 8, 1751, he preached in the 
Octorara tent and baptized Joseph, son of Joseph 
Kincaid ; Mary, daughter of Alexander Lackey ; Jean, 
daughter of William Patterson ; Hannah, daughter of 
Robert Galbraith ; John, son of Andrew Little ; Jean, 
daughter of Jeremiah Murray ; Samuel and Andrew, 
sons of Joseph Walker ; and Mary, daughter of Moses 
Laughhead. At the house of Robert Laughhead, 
November 29, 1753, Mr. Cuthbertson presided in an 
■election of ten persons for ruling elders. These were 
chosen at the General Meeting and were for all the 
societies. Those for Octorara were Robert Galbraith 
and Thomas Ramsey, ordained October 20, 1754. At 
the same time and place, Phineas Whiteside and 
William Galbraith were ordained for Pequea ; John 
McMillan and John Duncan for Muddy Run, both of 
whom afterwards removed to York County ; and Walter 
Buchanan for Junkin Tent in Cumberland County. At 
the communion at Octorara, October 27, 1754, there 
were five tables and two hundred and sixty sat down 
and communed. At the next communion on October 
1 9) 1755' two hundred and twenty communed. After 
the marriage of Mr. Cuthbertson, February 25, 1756, 
he took up his permanent residence at Octorara and 
lived the remainder of his life on a farm bought from 



2 52 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Josiah Kerr, which was about two miles from the 
church. Revs. Alexander McDowell and Daniel 
McClelland frequently preached here and accompanied 
Mr. Cuthbertson on his tours. Mr. McClelland assisted 
at a communion here April 20, 1766, and also on 
May 31, 1767, but his services were not highly 
appreciated. After the arrival of Revs. Matthew Linn 
and Alexander Dobbin, in December, 1773. they 
frequently preached at Octorara for Mr. Cuthbertson. 
After the organization of the Reformed Presbytery in 
1774, it frequently met at Octorara. After the union 
of 1782, Mr. Cuthbertson removed to Lower Chance- 
ford, and the Octorara congregation was under the care 
of the Rev. John Smith. Mr. Cuthbertson was buried 
in the Lower Octorara graveyard. Nearly all the 
Covenanters of Octorara went into the Associate Re- 
formed Church in 1782, and continued in that relation 
until 1823, when, on its own application, the congrega- 
tion was received by the Associate Presbytery of 
Philadelphia. In 1858, Octorara went into the union 
and is now a United Presbyterian congregation.* 
Covenanterism is totally extinct in this region. The 
following were heads of families and members of the 
Covenanter Church at Octorara previous to 1774: 
Joseph and John Walker, William Robinson, James, 
Robert and Moses Laughhead, William Dunlap, Arthur 
Scott, Joseph Kincaid, Daniel and David McClelland, 
Alexander and Samuel Lackey, William and Thomas 
Patterson, Thomas Paxton, Robert Galbraith, Josiah and 
Joseph Kerr, Andrew Little, Thomas and Robert 
*Aikin's Sketch of Cuthbertson. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 253. 

Ramsey, James Wilson of Nottingham, Henry Coulter, 
John Neilie and Joseph Wishart. 

Muddy Run. This society was situated about four 
miles from the present town of Mc Call's Ferry, on the 
Susquehanna river. The first log church was built pre- 
vious to 1750. The first visit they enjoyed from a Cove- 
nanter preacher was on October 2, 175 1, when the 
Rev. John Cuthbertson preached in the log- meeting 
house. At this time he baptized Agnes, daughter of 
John Reed ; Joseph and Margaret, children of Joseph 
McMillan ; and Agnes, daughter of Peter Patterson. 
John McMillan and John Duncan were ordained ruling 
elders, October 20, 1754. Among the principal families 
were those of John Reed, Peter and John Patterson, 
John Brownlee, Joseph and John McMillan, John 
Duncan and William Mitchell. In 1782, the society 
went into the Associate Reformed Church and sub- 
sequently into the Associate Church. At the present 
time a few United Presbyterians hold an organization. 

Pequea. This society was located about sixteen 
miles north of Octorara in the Pequea valley. It is 
not probable that the Covenanters had a house of 
worship here, but held the services in the neighbor- 
ing house of Humphrey Fullerton. The Rev. John 
Cuthbertson visited the society August 14, 175 1, and 
the services were four hours long. He held a com- 
munion here August 24, 1755, at which one hundred 
and ninety persons communed, and the services were 
ten hours in length, conducted without any assistance. 
At a meeting held October 20, 1754, Phineas White- 
side and William Galbraith were ordained ruling. 



.2 54 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

elders; and on October 4, 1767, Humphrey Fullerton, 
Thomas Girvan, James Ramsey, Cornelius Colins and 
John Robb were added to the session. The union between 
the Seceders and Covenanters was culminated here in 
1782, and the majority of the Covenanters went into 
the Associate Roformed Church and under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. James Proudfit. Among the early 
Covenanters of this society were the families of 
Humphrey Fullerton, Matthew McClurg, Neil McKnight, 
Robert McCurdy, Thomas Montgomery, John Boyd, 
Phineas Whiteside, Cornelius Colins, William Galbraith, 
Alexander Lackey, James Ramsey and John Robb. 
There was a Covenanter living there as late as 1830, 
a Mr. McGill, and for several years the Rev. James 
Douglas of Bovina, New York, would come once a 
year and preach for the godly old man, who would 
harness up his one ox in his cart, place a chair in 
it, and drive the minister around among the hills of 
Brandywine, and give the people an opportunity to 
liear a good Covenanter sermon.* 

Donegal. Mr. Cuthbertson frequently stopped and 
preached here at the house of the widow Carson when 
on his way between Pequea and Derry. 

COLERAIN. This was the home of Mr. Daniel 
McClelland, and was situated about eighteen miles 
from Lancaster. Mr. Cuthbertson preached here occa- 
sionally, and, on September 24, 175 1, he had a pro- 
tracted pubHc debate with a Mr. Craighead. It is 
not known what the dispute was about, but Mr. Craig- 
head was won over to Mr. Cuthbertson's views. There 

* Aikin'ff Sketch. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 255 

were probably but five places of preaching in Lancaster 
County ; the principal ones being Octorara, Muddy Run 
and Pequea. 

Paxtang, Dauphin County. This society was 
situated about four miles east of the present city 
of Harrisburgh. Covenanters settled here as early as 
1740, and were holding society meetings. The Rev. 
John ("uthbertson first visited them August 15, 175 1, and 
lodged at the house of William Brown. He baptized 
Eliza, daughter of Andrew Stuart ; Helen, daughter of 
Matthew Taylor ; and Mary Ann, daughter of Joseph 
McKnight. A communion was held August 25, 1754, 
and about two hundred and fifty communed. Mr. 
Cuthbertson says that an awful thunder storm, accom- 
panied by fearful lightning, occured during the blessing 
of the elements, and that four horses and a dog were 
killed, and a tree shattered by lightning not more 
than forty yards from the tent. On the following 
Sabbath, Mr. Cuthbertson had some unusual appear- 
ances of death. William Brown, Henry McCormick, 
Thomas Mitchell and Benjamin Brown were ordained 
ruling elders, February 24, 1771. While visiting the 
society in November, 1772, Mr. Cuthbertson was pre- 
vented from preaching on account of a great storm. 
In the spring of 1773, elder William Brown was sent 
to Ireland as a commissioner to procure two additional 
ministers and was especially instructed to get, if 
possible, the Rev. Matthew Linn, of Aghadowey. He 
was successful, and Mr. Alexander Dobbin, specially 
licensed and ordained for this purpose, accompanied 
him to America. The first Reformed Presbytery in 



256 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

America was constituted in this place, March 10, 1774,. 
and the Rev. Matthew Linn was then placed in charge 
of Paxtang and adjacent societies. After the union of 
1782, the cause gradually declined and finally became 
extinct. Among the early families connected with the 
Paxtang society were those of William, James, Alex- 
ander and Benjamin Brown, John Graham, Andrew 
and Alexander Stuart, George Williams, Matthew and 
John Taylor, Bartholomew Hains, Joseph McKnight^ 
Joseph and John Mien, John Chambers, John and 
Henry McCormick, Thomas and James Finney, Alex- 
ander Swan, John Thorn and Thomas Mitchell. When 
the war of independence was over, the German population 
literally crowded out the Scotch-Irish, and, in a few 
years, Covenanterism was completely exterminated. 
The old log church was thus disposed of: "On Septem- 
ber II, 1795, James Byers and James Wilson executors 
of William Brown, Esq., deceased, of Paxtang, offered 
for sale a log house near the residence of Mr. Brown, 
and formerly occupied as a house of worship by the 
Rev. Matthew Linn." It was subsequently used as a 
sheep pen and but recently disappeared. 

Derry. This society was located about nine miles 
east of Paxtang and was first visited by the Rev. 
John Cuthbertson in September, 1751, when he preached 
and lodged at the house of David McNair. In October,. 
1 75 1, he returned and preached, and called at the 
house of Alexander Swan, on the Blue Mountain near 
by, when he baptized James, son of John Thomson, 
and Agnes, daughter of Alexander Swan. The principal 
families here were those of John Thomson, Alexander 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 257 

-Swan, Thomas Montgomery and David McNair. They 
mostly worshipped with the people at Paxtang. 

Lower Chanceford, York County. This place is 
situated about twenty-two miles southeast of the city 
of York, and in the section of country known as "The 
Barrens." The Rev. John Cuthbertson preached at 
Chamber's tavern, York, December 9, 175 1, and three 
days afterward preached at Chanceford, at the house 
of William Wilson. The first baptism here was that 
of George, son of John Buchanan, April 15, 1752. 
He frequently visited this society, for it was a large 
one, and ordained William Gabby and Daniel Sinclair 
ruling elders, March 27, 1771. After the organization 
of the Reformed Presbytery in 1774, this society fell 
under the charge of Mr. Cuthbertson with Octorara. 
During the last few years of his life, Mr. Cuthbertson 
preached principally in this society and generally at 
the house of William Maughlin. His last sermon was 
preached here September 20, 1790, and he died in the 
following March. The names of the principal members 
previous to 1774, were William Wilson, George, John 
and William Buchanan, Hugh Ross, William Smith, 
James Anderson, Robert Greer, Samuel Dickson, Elizabeth 
Ayers, Joseph and John Brownlee, William Fullerton, 
William Young, Samuel Nelson, John McMillan, 
William Maughlin, William Nichol, Samuel Hawthorn, 
Daniel Sinclair, John and Robert Duncan, William 
Gabby, John Marlin, Daniel Sloan, John Reed, John 
Patterson, William Mitchell, Alexander Ewing and 
■George Henry. At the union in 1782, the whole con- 



258 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

gregation went into the Associate Reformed Church, and^ 
in 1858, into the United Presbyterian Church.* 

Rock Creek, Adams County. The old church 
stood about one mile northeast of the present site of 
Gettysburgh. It was early erected and was used until 
1805. There were a few Covenanters here previous to 
1750, and they had a tent about two miles from David 
Dinwiddle's, who lived near Marsh Creek. In some of 
the early records the society was termed Marsh Creek,, 
but the organization was known as Rock Creek, and 
subsequently as Gettysburgh. When the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson came to this country from Scotland in the 
summer of 175 1, he was accompanied bv a colony of 
Covenanters, among which was his brother-in-law,. 
Archibald Bourns, who married Wattle Cuthbertson. 
They settled at the base of the Blue Mountains on " The 
Tract," near Gettysburgh. The descendants of the 
family are now in connection with the Conococheague 
congregation. The names of Archibal'd, John, Jeremy 
and Anthony Burns were long connected with the 
history of Covenanterism in that region. The Rev. John 
Cuthbertson visited this vicinity immediately after his 
arrival in this country. He first preached in the tent 
about two miles from the house of David Dinwiddle, 
September i, 1751. At this time he baptized Jean, 
daughter of Thomas Anderson ; Isabel, daughter of 
Robert McCullough ; Rose Ann, daughter of Joseph 
Hutchison ; James, son of Joseph Broomfield ; and 
Mary, daughter of David Dinwiddle. On November 3, 
1752, Mr. Cuthbertson bought one hundred acres of 
*Aikin's Sketch. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 259 

land situated between Marsh Creek and Antietam. 
David Dinwiddie and Jeremiah Morrow, father of the 
late Governor Morrow, of Ohio, were ordained ruling- 
elders, April 8, 1753. It is probable that the Rock 
Creek congregation w^as regularly organized at this 
time. The Rev. Alexander McDowell assisted Mr. 
Cuthbertson at communion seasons, and this congrega- 
tion made out a call for him, October 12, 1761, which 
he declined. John Murphy and Andrew Branwood were 
added to the session, May 16, 1764. At the organiza- 
tion of the Reformed Presbytery in 1774, the Rev. 
Alexander Dobbin assumed the charge of this flourishing 
congregation. Previous to 1774, the principal members 
of this congregation were Archibald Bourns, David and 
Hugh Dinwiddie, Jeremiah Morrow, John Watt, Thomas 
Wilson, Joseph Little, Thomas Anderson, Neil McKnight, 
Robert McCuUough, Thomas Neillie, Joseph Hutchison, 
Mary Silbuck, Joseph Broomfield,, John Murphy, Mary 
Mair, Robert Stevenson, John Crook, Alexander 
Patterson, Andrew Branwood, John Finney, James 
Blackburn, John and William Morton. At the 
union of 1782, with a few exceptions, the whole 
congregation went with Alexander Dobbin into the 
Associate Reformed Church, and, at the union in 1858, 
it became a United Presbyterian Church, now located 
in Gettysburgh. The ground then occupied by the 
Covenanter congregation of Rock Creek has now become 
historic as the Gettysburgh battle field and the National 
Cemetery. 

Cumberland and Franklin Counties. The societies 
in these Counties are so intimately connected both in 



26o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

location and history that they will be considered 
together as the branches of a single congregation 
known to-day as "Conococheague." The following were 
the places of preaching in Cumberland County as 
early as 1750: Junkin Tent, West Pennsboro, Big 
Spring, Carlisle, Stony Ridge, Newville and Ship- 
pensburgh. In Franklin County the societies were 
Lurgen, Roxbury, Strasburgh, Southampton and Greene, 
Scotland, Rocky Spring, Fayetteville, Guilford, Green- 
wood, Green Castle, Shady Grove, Waynesboro, 
Mercersburgh and Hamilton. At these different places 
there was usually a tent, consisting of a simple stand 
with a shelter over it, under which the minister 
stood, and a board set in between two trees for a 
rest for the Bible. The people most probably had 
some rude seats or logs on which to sit in front and 
around the preacher. In later times the services were 
held in orchards and barns, until meeting houses were 
erected for the purpose. Since the union of 1782, 
most of the Covenanters resided in Franklin County 
and built churches respectively in Greenwood in 181 7; 
in Scotland in 1825 ; and in Fayetteville in 1840. 
JUXKIX Tent, in Cumberland County, was a preach- 
ing place in 1751. It was first situated on the farm 
of Joseph Junkin, near the present town of Kingston, 
about nine miles from Carlisle, and eleven miles from 
Harrisburgh. The tent was afterwards removed one 
mile west to the farm of James Bell, who was a 
ruling elder. The Rev. John Cuthbertson first visited 
this place, August 20, 1751, and stopped at the house 
of Walter Buchanan. He preached the following day 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 26 1 

and baptized Joseph, son of Joseph Glendenning ; John, 
son of Joseph McClelland ; and Jean, daughter of 
Henry Swansie. Mr. Cuthbertson held his first com- 
munion in America at this tent, August 23, 1752. 
A preparatory fast day was observed, tokens of 
admission to the table were distributed, and the 
services on the Sabbath lasted nine hours. He par- 
aphrased the Fifteenth Psalm and preached from John 
3: 35. After the sermon he prayed fervently and the 
people sang a Psalm. He then expounded the words 
•of institution, fenced the tables, and the commu- 
nicants came forward singing the Twenty-fourth Psalm. 
After four tables were served he gave a parting 
exhortation to the communicants. After an interval of 
half an hour, he preached from John 16: 31. On 
Monday he preached from Ephesians 5: 15. About 
two hundred and fifty communed and they were 
gathered from all parts of the country. To many it 
was the first time they had gathered around a com- 
munion table in America. No doubt it awakened 
memories of other days and scenes across the sea, 
and their tears were mingled with joy and gladness. 
Such tangible evidences of the tender care of the 
Good Shepherd strengthened every heart and quickened 
every grace as they sang that triumphant song which 
so often sustained and cheered their ancestors on the 
moors of Scotland: — 

God is our refuge and our strength, 

In straits a present aid ; 

Therefore, although the earth remove, 

We will not be afraid. 

The communions were dispensed yearly in the 

16 



262 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

principal societies and the majority of the members 
attended each one. Walter Buchanan was ordained a 
ruling elder, October 20, 1754. Previous to I774r 
the following were the principal members at Junkin 
Tent : Walter Buchanan, Joseph Junkin, John Leiper, 
Samuel Gay, James McKnight, William and Isaac 
Walker, Joseph McClelland, Henry Swansie, Samuel 
and Adam Calyhoun, Joseph Gardner, Robert Bonner, 
Alexander Lafferty, David Mitchell and William Rose. 
After 1774, the Rev. Matthew Linn had charge of 
this station, and, in 1782, the great majority went 
into the Associate Reformed Church. The faithful 
remnant joined with the societies in Franklin Count)-. 
Carlisle. This was a preaching station visited by 
the Rev. John Cuthbertson, November 10, 175 1, when 
he preached at the house of Joseph Patterson, and 
baptized Robert, son of Horace Bratton. Other 
members were Andrew Griffin, Frank McNeickle, James 
McClelland, William Patterson and Alexander Young, 
There was preaching at Bk; Si'RINC;, situated about 
four miles from Newville, at the house of Andrew 
Ralston, August 22, 1751. On November 12, 1751, 
Mr. Cuthbertson preached in the Pennsboro meeting 
house near by, and baptized several children. After 
1774, Rev. Matthew Linn had charge of this society. 
Among the leading members at that time were Andrew 
Ralston, Robert Gibson, Samuel Calhoun, James 
McClurg. Andrew Giffin and Charles Kilgore. In 
1782, they all went into the Associate Reformed 
Church, and, in 1858, into the United Presbyterian 
Church, and at the present time there is a large and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 263 

flourishing congregation of the latter body in Newville." 
Previous to 1774, the principal preaching places in 
Franklin County were Rocky Spring and Green Castle. 
Rocky Spring was situated about four miles northeast 
of Chambersburgh, and the tent was near the home of 
George Mitchell. Mr. Cuthbertson preached here, August 
24, 1 75 1, and the people got up a subscription paper for 
preaching. He baptized Andrew and Moses, sons of 
James Mitchell ; James and Eliza, children of James 
Lowry ; Martha, daughter of James Thomson ; Sarah, 
daughter of Joseph Mitchell ; and Rebecca, daughter 
of Joseph McClurg, George Mitchell was ordained a 
ruling elder April 8, 1753- The leading members of 
the Rocky Spring society were Andrew, James, George 
and Joseph Mitchell, John McCleary, James and John 
Lowry, James Thomson, John Wylie, Joseph McClurg, 
David Carson, James and Joseph Reed, John Sharp, 
Joseph Espy and Thomas Cross. The majority of the 
members went into the union of 1782, and it is due 
to the memory of Alexander Thomson and John 
Renfrew to say that they kept the Covenanter cause 
alive and maintained the principles of the Church. 
Among other faithful ones at this time were William 
Galbraith, the only ruling elder, Thomas Paxton, James 
Finney, Thomas Cross and Sarah Morrow. They 
organized a society which is the original of the present 
Conococheague congregation. In 175 1, Mr. Cuthbertson 
visited a few families living in the vicinity of Green 
Castle, among whom were those of George Reynolds, 
George Clark and Samuel McColloch. They went into 
*Dr. J. B. Scouller. 



264 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the union of 1782, and Matthew Linn was the pastor 
of the Associate Reformed Church in that place. After 
the disastrous union of 1782, the faithful Covenanters 
of Franklin and Cumberland Counties gathered them- 
selves into a General Meeting, which (Was usually held 
at the house of Alexander Thomson, near the present 
village of Scotland. Alexander Thomson, to whom more 
is due than any other man for keeping the old blue 
banner from trailing in the dust, deserves a passing 
notice. He was a Scotchman, and sailed from Greenoch 
in July, 1 77 1, and arrived in Boston, September lO, 
1771- A Scotch colony was being organized for 
Caledonia County, Vermont, while numerous others 
were going to settle in South Carolina. He considered 
the valley of the Kittatinny the most inviting, and 
removed thither in 1773, purchasing five hundred acres 
of land, embracing the site of the present village of 
Scotland. These Covenanters here settled on the 
Conococheague Creek and built saw, grist and sickle 
mills. The house of Alexander Thomson was the 
meeting place for worship and business, and where all 
the distant members found hospitable entertainment. 
The following were the 

RULES OF ORDER FOR CONGREGATIONAL MEETINGS.* 
I. Let the meeting be constituted by prayer. 
H. Let the former Presis (or the Clerk in his 
absence) call for the Commissions. 

in. Let a Presis be chosen by a vote of the 

*For many of these hitherto unpublished documents the author was 
under obligation to the late Samuel Rea Burns, of Scotland, Pa., whose 
ancestors came with Rev. John Cuthbertson to this country in 1751. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 265 

meeting : the former Presis taking the votes beginning 
on his left hand, and in case of his absence let the 
Clerk of the meeting proceed in the same manner, 
and ye person having a majority of votes shall be 
Presis. 

IV. Let the Presis then take the chair ; call the 
meeting to order, and call upon the Clerk to read 
the Rules. 

V. Let the Presis then pose the members with the 
following queries: i. Do you carefully and con- 
scientiously attend upon social meetings with your 
brethren both on Sabbaths and week days when 
deprived of more public ordinances ? 2. Are you 
punctual and conscientious in maintaining the worship of 
God in your family morning and evening in all the 
parts thereof ; and also secret prayer at the same 
seasons regularly.' 3. Have you observed the last day 
of Fasting or Thanksgiving (as the case may be) ? 
4. Do you endeavor to adorn the doctrines of Chris- 
tianity by a life and conversation becoming the gos- 
pel, and are you in habits of peace and friendship 
with your brethren of mankind ? And are you satisfied 
upon inquiry that the members of your society duly 
attend the above duties .' 

VI. Let the Clerk read the minutes of the preceed- 
ing meeting and let unfinished business be taken up 
in order. 

VII. Let the Presis enquire if there is any more 
business to come before the meeting, and when it 
appears there is no furthur business, let him put the 
question, "shall the meeting be concluded.'" And if 



266 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

carried, let the meeting be concluded by prayer, i. 
During the time the meeting is constituted, let no 
person withdraw from the house without the consent 
of the Presis. 2. Let no conversation be among the 
members. 3. Let each member speak to the question 
under consideration in rotation, beginning on the left 
of the chair, and let each speaker stand and address 
the Presis. 4. Let no motion be taken under consid- 
eration until made and seconded. 5. The above Rules 
shall be altered or amended from time to time as 
the Meeting may judge proper. 

FURTHUR RULES. 

1. The most punctual attendance to the time of 
meeting ; all the members being careful to assemble 
precisely at the hour appointed, and if any shall be 
absent after the constitution, he shall be censured, 
unless his reasons be sustained by vote of the court. 

2. After the constitution the first thing to be done 
is the reading of the minutes of the last sederunt. 

3. Unfinished business is always to be taken up as 
first in order. 

4. All papers presented to the court shall be filed 
in the order in which they are read, being properly 
numbered and endorsed accordingly. 

5. Every proposition or question which appears to 
be warmly litigated shall be stated in writing by the 
mover thereof and given to the Presis. 

6. No motion can be admitted unless it be pre- 
viously seconded. 

7. No personal reflections are in any case to be 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 267 

suffered, whether they respect members of the court 
or others. 

8. A becoming gravity is to be observed by all 
the members; no whispering is to be admitted, but 
a close attention is to be paid to the matter in hand. 

9. All prolix and declamatory harangues are to be 
avoided ; the speaker confining himself exclusively to 
the question. 

10. No person shall be allowed a silent vote; but 
all the neutrals shall be viewed as voting with the 
majority. 

11. In taking votes, the Presis shall begin with the 
youngest members and proceed according to juniority. 
[Sometimes they blind-folded them.] 

12. No speaker is to be interrupted, except he be out 
of order, or to correct mistakes or misrepresentations. 

13. The votes by which a decision is made, shall 
not be recorded unless at the request of one-third of 
the members. 

14. No member may leave the house without the 
permission of the Presis. 

15. No member is to return home so as not to 
attend the termination of that session, without the 
consent of two-thirds of the court. 

16. The Clerk shall keep a faithful record of every 
decision made by the court; the minutes of it shall 
be read while the matter of it is fresh in the memory 
of the members. 

17. The Presis shall determine all questions of 
order that shall arise during the session, and his 
decision shall be submitted unto, unless it appears by 



268 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

an appeal to the court a majority is against him. 

The following is inserted as a form of commission 
to the General Meetings : 

" We, the society of Guilford, being met and 
constituted by prayer, do appoint and commissionate 
Anthony Burns, being one of our number and free 
from public scandal so far as known to us, to go to 
the Congregational Meeting, to be held at the house 
of Alexander Thomson, on Wednesday, April ij, 1790, 
and there in our name . to consent and agree to every 
thing in agreeableness to the Word of God and Re- 
formation Principles as attained to by the Church of 
Scotland particularly between the years 1638 and 1649, 
inclusive. Signed in our name and by our appointment, 
"John Renfrew, Presis. 
"Thomas Duncan, Clerk.'' 

For eight years after the defection of 1782, the 
faithful Covenanters and witnesses for Christ in this 
region were left as sheep without a shepherd. In 
1790, they were cheered by the visit of the Rev, 
James Reid of Scotland. On August 17, 1791, a 
number of persons wishing to adhere to Reformation 
attainments, met at the house of Alexander Thomson 
and constituted themselves into a social capacity and 
entered into the following resolutions : 

I. "It was resolved that two societies for prayer 
and Christian conference be erected to meet at such 
convenient times and places as each society shall 
from time to time agree upon, and that a General 
Meeting be held at this place on the third Wednesday 
of October next. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 269 

2. " It is resolved that any person of a character 
unknown to this society desiring to become a member, 
shall bring a certificate from the society he has been 
in communion with heretofore ; or in case he hath not 
been in communion with any, then he shall bring a 
character from his reputable neighbors." 

On October 19, 1791, a large delegation was present 
at the General Meeting, and, among others, the follow- 
ing resolution was passed : 

" It was resolved that the Rev. James Reid's former 
letter be further pressed by John Renfrew and Robert 
Kidd who were in correspondence with the Scottish 
Presbytery." 

These societies were endeavoring to secure the 
services of the Rev. James Reid for pastor, but in this 
they were unsuccessful. In the spring of 1793, the 
Rev. William King, who had the year previously 
emigrated to South Carolina, visited them and preached ; 
and, at a General Meeting held August 17, 1793, they 
resolved to " lay out money which belonged to the 
meeting, and which amounted to ^10. 14s. lod., for 
defraying the Rev. William King's expenses in coming 
to visit them and laboring among them ; considering 
it as agreeable to the intention for which the money 
was collected." In the spring of 1794, the Rev. James 
McKinney, recently from Ireland, visited them, and 
they were so well pleased with his labors that in 
October, f794, they sent the following petition to the 
Reformed Presbytery of Ireland to have him trans- 
ferred and settled in Conococheague : 



2yO HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

••" To the RciniicDit mcmbeys of the Reformed Presbytery, 
to meet xvhen and tvlierecver this may reach you : 
"The humble petition of the Old Covenanters in 
the Counties of Cumberland, Franklin, and parts 
adjacent, humbly sheweth that your petitioners are, 
and have been, for a long time in a very destitute 
<:ondition as to the Gospel being administered among 
us according to what we judge to be the pattern 
showed us in the Mount; and having had the oppor- 
tunity of having heard a member of your court, viz : 
the Rev, James McKinney, for some time past ; and 
we hope his labors have not been entirely without 
their use among us, and that if he was to be settled 
in these parts, he might still be farther useful in 
calling the attention of this sleepy generation to their 
duty. We do, therefore, through your medium, invite 
him to remain and abide with us as our pastor, if 
you shall see meet to lose him from his pastoral 
relation in Ireland ; and hope in such love that you 
will instruct the Committee here what measures they are 
to adopt in order to bring said settlement to a regular 
Presbyterial issue. We having at present no session, 
and being in a very scattered situation, cannot be 
supposed to write so formally as might otherwise be 
expected. But we are convinced that you, as a court 
of Christ, will stand when there is no formality in a 
matter of this kind. Our situation is, at the present, 
extremely pressing and loudly calls for aid from our 
brethren in Britain and Ireland. Mr. McKinney him- 
self, who has been among us, can, and we hope will, 
more fully represent these matters to you than we 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2/ 1 

•can at present pretend. In case you should see cause 
to dissolve his pastoral relation in Ireland and consent 
to his settlement among us, we' hope we shall yield 
all dutiful obedience to him in the Lord, and afford 
such worldly support to him as our circumstances 
will admit of, not doubting but he will sympathize 
with us and be willing to bear his share in the 
•difficulties which at present effect us, until the Lord 
shall be pleased to render us somewhat stronger, 
which we hope might be the case in a short time 
if the Lord was pleased to give us a fixed pastor ; 
and, in the meantime, earnestly desiring the advance- 
ment of the Redeemer's Kingdom with you, sym- 
pathizing with you under the yoke of civil oppression, 
we pray that in this our particular request, and in 
all your other deliberations, you may be guided by 
the blessed Head till you and us meet in that blessed 
-General Assembly where the Lord God and the Lamb 
Himself will be our common lamp. 

"Signed in the name of our General Meeting, and 

by their order, by 

"William Guthrie, Presis. 

"John Thomson, Clerk. 
" ConococJieagiie, October, I79~l- 

The sum subscribed amounted to about £2^, and the 
list was signed by the following persons : Alexander 
Thomson, John Renfrew, John Thomson, William 
Erwin, James Stevenson, Thomas Paxton, Thomas 
Duncan, John Steel, Jr., John Steel, Sr., John Guthrie, 
John Walker, William Guthrie, William Crow, George 
McClure, John P>wen, Samuel Patterson, David Cowan, 



2/2 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

David Dickey. John White, Fii^la McClure, William 
Speer, William Paton, Alexander McHaffy and Samuel 
Sterling, The following were the eight societies com- 
posing the General Meeting: Green and Southampton,. 
Guilford, Green Castle, Mercersburgh, Strasburgh, Big- 
Spring, Hamilton and Newton. At a meeting held at 
Alexander Thomson's, September 15, 1795, the following 
persons from the different societies were present and 
endeavored to effect the permanent organization of a 
congregation with the expectation of having the Rev. 
James McKinney as the pastor: William Galbraith, 
John White, John Renfrew, William Guthrie, John 
Walker, John Steel, John Stevenson, Alexander 
Thomson, William Love, Robert Davidson, Anthony 
Burns, Thomas Dun'can, John Guthrie, Thomas Paxton, 
William McCrea, William Speer, John Busel, David 
Busel and John Thomson. The following were chosen 
elders : John Renfrew, William Guthrie, John Thomson 
and William Speer. At a meeting held April 20, 
1796, a petition was received from the societies west 
of the Allegheny mountains desiring a part of Mr. 
McKinney 's time. For one-half his time the Conoco- 
cheague people agreed to pay Mr. McKinney at the 
rate of £12^. annually. They did not give up the 
hope of securing Mr. McKinney, and continued their 
petitions each year, until he settled permanently in 
Duanesburgh and Galway, New York, in 1797. When 
Thomas Donnelly, of South Carolina, began to preach 
in 1799, he delivered about his first sermon at the 
Red tent near Carlisle, and was greatly lacking in 
confidence. He kept his eye constantly upon his little 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 273 

Bible, scarcely looking his audience in the face at all. 
An old lady who heard him that day, on being asked 
after the sermon what she thought of the young 
preacher, she replied, "He did pretty weel ; but he 
read ower muckle." The congregation was formally 
■organized by a Commission of the Reformed Presby- 
tery in 1802, by the election of John Thomson, William 
Guthrie, John Renfrew and James Bell, ruling elders. 
The first sacrament of the Lord's Supper was dispensed 
April 17, 1803, by Revs. William Gibson, Thomas 
Donnelly, John Black and Alexander McLeod. It was 
not until August 12, 18 16, that they enjoyed the 
stated labors of a pastor, and, at that time,. the Rev. 
Robert Lusk was ordained and installed in charge. His 
time Avas thus divided : " One-fourth time at Newville 
and Walnut Bottom ; one-fourth at Shippensburgh ; 
one-fourth in Green township ; one-fourth at Lurgen 
and Waynesboro, days for other places to be taken 
out of the whole as occasion may serve." At this 
time the elders were John Thomson, John Renfrew, 
John Steel and John Scouller. About this time a log 
church was erected at Greenwood, and in 18 18, the 
Roxbury society was added to Shippensburgh. The 
Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church met here 
in 1 8 19. In 1821, several aggravated cases of occasional 
hearing came up before the session for adjudication, 
and two ladies were severely admonished for attending 
a Methodist camp-meeting at Shippensburgh on a 
week day. The ministry of Mr. Lusk was neither a 
happy nor a prosperous one, and, on account of certain 
monetary difficulties he was released from the charge, 



274 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

October 15, 1823. The people then invited the Rev_ 
Samuel W. Crawford to supply them. On January 
26, 1824, the Rev.. John Gibson, of Baltimore, moderated 
in a call which was unanimous for Mr. Crawford. 
The following were the signers of the call: John 
Renfrew, John Thomson, John Steel, Jeremiah Burns, 
John Brown, Samuel Renfrew, John Renfrew, Jr., 
Alexander Thomson, Hannah Thomson, Mary GilL 
Ann Morrison, Ann McCloy, Nancy Renfrew, Sarah 
Steel, Martha McCloy, Rebecca Steel, Elizabeth Ritchie. 
Ann Thomson, Nelly Ann Steel, Samuel Hays, William 
Stevenson and Samuel Thomson. The salary promised 
was $300 in regular half-yearly payments. Mr. Craw- 
ford accepted the call and was duly installed pastor 
August 26, 1824. His time was thus divided: one- 
third time in Waynesboro ; one-third at John Renfrew's ; 
one-third at John Thomson's, and one day at James^ 
Kennedy's near Green Castle. In 1825, the present 
stone church at Scotland was erected. Mr. Crawford 
resigned the charge in May, 1831. During the con- 
troversy and division of the Church in 1833, but a 
few members left the Church. For eleven years they 
remained without a pastor, notwithstanding repeated 
efforts were made to obtain one. In 1840, the present 
brick church in the town of Fayetteville was erected,, 
and the preaching services were principally held here 
and at Scotland. In the winter of 1842, the Rev. 
Thomas Hanna, recently from Scotland, was installed 
pastor. His labors were well received but interfered 
with by ill health, and he resigned the charge in the 
fall of 1844. In the fall of 1845, the Rev. Joshua 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 275 

Kennedy was ordained and installed pastor. He revived 
the cause in Cumberland County and the congregation 
flourished under his ministrations. The elders at that 
time were James Kennedy, John Renfrew and Samuel 
Thomson. In addition to his pastoral work, Mr. 
Kennedy opened a school for both sexes in Fayette- 
ville in the spring of 1852, called the " Fayetteville 
Academy and Seminary." At the close of the first 
year, the female department was suspended for a time 
until a large and commodious building was erected on 
the same ground by a company of stockholders. The 
school possessed a corps of efificient teachers and was 
conducted successfully until i860, when Mr. Kenned)- 
resigned the school and congregation and went as a 
missionary to Florida. The school was discontinued 
during the war, the building was sold and is now 
used for a private dwelling.* Since i860, the Conoco- 
cheague congregation has never enjoyed the labors of 
a settled pastor. For twenty-eight years they have 
been a vacancy, but have enjoyed almost constant 
supplies. At different times the congregation has- 
suffered in the reduction of its members by emigration. 
The old people have passed away by death, and, 
without a pastor, the young and baptized members 
have not remained in the Church. Centering at the 
Fayetteville church, with occasional preaching at Shady 
Grove and Scotland, there are about thirty members 
in full communion. The elders are John Kennedy and 
Robert McCoy. Some of the members live a great 
distance from the church, but at the communion 
* History of Franklin County, Pennsylvaaia. 



2/6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

season each summer they all gather around the Lord's 
table and renew their vows of loyalty to Jesus after 
the customs of their fathers. 

Fulton County. There was a society at Licking 
•Creek and Cove, in this County, near the Franklin 
County line and about ten miles west of Mercers- 
burgh, as early as 1748. It was sometimes called 
Timber Ridge. The Wilson family were the principal 
members, who afterwards migrated to Western Penn- 
sylvania. The Rev. John Cuthbertson first visited this 
society, November [9, 1751, preached at the house of 
James Wilson, and baptized Hannah, daughter of James 
McMihan ; Martha and James, children of Joseph 
Martin ; George, son of Jo.seph Cochran ; Eliza, daughter 
of John Wilson ; and Elizabeth, daughter of James 
Wilson. James and George Wilson were ordained 
ruling elders April 8, 1753, and John (lochrane was 
added November i r, 1770. Among the members in 
this vicinity previous to 1774, were James, John, 
Joseph and George W^ilson, Robert McCullough, Joseph 
Martin, James Irwin, James McMihan, Robert and 
Adam McConnell, John and Joseph Cochrane, Joseph 
McMeehan and James McClelland. On account of emi- 
gration this society was discontinued and the few 
remaining members worshipped with the societies of 
Franklin County. The Rev. Joshua Kennedy, D. D., 
of Green Castle, has, through his father-in-law, Mr. 
James Bell, some of the original tokens used by Rev. 
John Cuthbertson and the societies in 1752. They 
were made of lead, about a half an inch square, with 
raised letters on both sides. On the one side are the 



PRFSBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 277 

letters "R. P.," and 011 the other, " L. S., 1752." 
Mr. Kennedy also possesses the book-case used by 
the Rev. James McKinney. The fertile Valley of 
Cumberland once occupied by numerous and thrifty 
Covenanter societies, at the present time contains but 
the two branches of one small congregation worship- 
ping at Fayetteville and Shady Grove. While the 
Thomson and Renfrew famiHes were for over one hundred 
years connected with the Church in this region, it is 
sad to. relate that not one by the name of Thomson 
is now in connection with the Church there. The 
West has presented strong inducements to many and 
while the cause is diminishing in the Cumberland 
Valley, the Head of the Church is stretching forth 
the curtains of her habitations in the boundless 
country beyond the Mississippi even to the foot of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

BRADFORD COUNTY. 

Ballibay. In the early part of the present 
century a few Covenanters settled along the Sus- 
quehanna and Wyalusing rivers, in Bradford County, 
and not far from the New York line. They were 
occasionally visited by a passing minister, but 
were not organized into a congregation until the 
winter of 1832, when, according to the appointment 
of the Southern Presbytery of the Eastern Subordinate 
Synod, the Rev. David Scott organized them into 
the Wyalusing congregation by the ordination of 
William Gamble and William Morrow, ruling elders. 
In 1833, Mr. Gamble and some of the members went 

J7 



2/8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

into the New School body and the congregation was 
disorganized. Mr. Morrow and the remnant continued 
faithful to the principles of the Church. For some 
time they enjoyed the labors of Mr. Francis Gailey, 
licentiate. They appreciated his labors, and, in 1838, 
when he withdrew from the Church and proclaimed 
himself the only faithful representative of the Cove- 
nanter Church, he readily won their confidence and 
they all followed him. Under his ministry they adhered 
to Reformation principles, read their Bibles and the 
old authors, but were lead to believe that all Churches 
had ceased to be Churches of Chri.st by apostacy. 
In 1859. having previously failed to obtain 
ordination from any branch of the Christian Church, 
Mr. Gailey wickedly assumed ministerial functions and 
rebaptized all his followers. This opened their eyes, 
and, finding that the Covenanter Church had been 
basely misrepresented, they abandoned him and sought 
a return to the Church of their fathers. Being far 
distant from any congregation they were not cared 
for until some had died and others had connected 
with other denominations. A Commission of the New 
York Presbytery, met at Ballibay, September 30, 
1868, and received eight persons into Church priv- 
ileges, among whom was Robert Morrow, the only 
surviving member of the original organization. The 
society was organized into the Ballibay congregation, 
August 28. 1875. b}' the ordination of Dr. F. G. 
Morrow and Richard Graham, elders, and John Branyen 
and Newton J. Morrow, deacons. There were .seven 
members in good and regular standing, and twelve 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 2/9 

persons were received b)' profession of their faith. A 
liberal subscription was raised for preaching and a 
request granted for the moderation of a call. In 1877, 
they called Mr. Robert McKinney. licentiate, who 
died before any action was taken. B)- emigration, 
death and defection the congregation was reduced, and 
disorganized, June, 1886. 

INDIANA COUNTY. 
Clarksi!UR(;h. About the year 1820, Richard 
Wasson and Andrew Stormont. emigrants from Ire- 
land, settled near Kelly's station in this County.-' 
They waited on the ministrations of the Rev. 
John Cannon, of Greensburgh, and requested him 
to come over and preach in this vicinity, which he 
did on week days. Before any church was built, 
Mr. ' Cannon usually preached in the barn of John 
Coleman or in the orchard of James Gra)-. About 
1825, an organization was effected in connection with 
New Alexandria and Greensburgh, called Black Legs, 
but afterwards changed to Clarksburgh. The first 
elders were Moses Thomson and Robert Henry. The 
first church was erected in 1831. Among the early 
members of the Church at Clarksburgh are : Robert, 
John and Mrs. Margaret Henry, Moses Thomson, 
David, Robert and Alexander Henderson, John, Robert 
and William Coleman. James Gray, Thomas, James 
and Ann Gailey. Andrew, Samuel and Jane McCreery, 
Daniel Euwer, Samuel Gilmore. Nancy White, John 
McCurdy, John Morrison, Thomas Gemmil, James 
McKelvy, Mrs. Martha Smith, Nathan Douthett, Samuel 

* History of Indiana County, Pennsylvania. 



28o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and Mrs. Frances Barr, John and Mrs. Kirkpatrick 
and Mrs. Kimball. The Rev. John Cannon continued 
to preach here until his death in 1836. For seven 
years the congregation was a vacancy occasionally 
supplied, when, in 1843, in connection with Greens- 
burgh, they enjoyed the pastoral labors of the Rev. 
Samuel O. Wylie, until the fall of 1844. In 1847, 
the Rev. Robert B. Cannon was installed, and he was 
released in the spring of 1854. The following year 
New Alexandria was added to the charge, and, in 
the spring of 1856, the Rev. A. M. Milligan became the 
pastor for one-fourth of his time. He was released 
in the spring of 1866. Clarksburgh received a separate 
organization, October 8, 1867, and the following 
autumn they obtained the Rev. James A. Black as 
the pastor. He revived the work by the organization 
of a Sabbath School and a Missionary Society. In 
1 87 1, the old church was removed, and a handsome 
frame structure was erected near the old site. Mr. 
Black demitted the charge in the spring of 1882, 
since which time the Rev. John J. McClurkin has 
been stated supply. 

Bear Run and Mahoning. These societies are in 
the northren part of the County and were formerly 
connected with the Salem and Rehoboth congregations, 
and were organized into a separate congregation in 
the fall of 1870. It continued to be supplied by 
Presbytery until the fall of 1874, when the Rev. John 
F. Crozier became the pastor, and is in charge. 
Among the old members here were David White, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX AMERICA. 28 1 

Alexander White, John McElwain, James Graham, 
James Stewart, James Sharpe, Samuel Gilmore. 
JEFFERSON COUNTY. 
Rehoboth and Salem. For many years previous 
to an organization, Covenanters scattered into small 
groups all over this and the adjoining Counties 
of Armstrong and Clarion. In the fall of 1847, 
six of these societies were organized into a congre 
gation and it was called " Rehoboth," because they 
had plenty of room and they trusted that the 
Lord would make them fruitful in the land. In the 
spring of 1852, they succeeded in getting the Rev. 
Robert J. Dodds for the pastor. His labors were very 
extensive, as his people were distributed over an area 
of about forty-five miles in length by thirty in breadth, 
and many of them lived in distant parts of four 
Counties. Mr. Dodds continued to labor here until 
the spring of 1856, when he was chosen by Synod 
as a missionary to Syria, In the spring of 1859, the 
Rev. Thomas M. Elder became the pastor. The field 
was too great and his health would not permit of so- 
much travelling. The Presbytery then agreed to divide 
the congregation, which they did in the fall of i860. 
Three of the societies in the southern part of the 
County retained the name of Rehoboth, and three m 
the western part assumed the name of Salem. Mr.. 
Elder continued in charge of the Rehoboth branch,, 
and, in the winter of 1862, the Rev. Armour J. 
McFarland became the pastor of the Salem congrega- 
tion. Houses of worship were erected in nearly all 
the branches and the pastors distributed their time 



282 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

among them. Mr. Elder re.signed his congregation in 
the spring of 1866, and the cause languished. In 1874, 
it was associated with the congregation of Bear Run 
and Mahoning, in Indiana County, and has since enjoyed 
the faithful labors of the Rev. John F. Crozier. The 
Salem congregation grew rapidly under the care of Mr. 
McFarland, there being two principal places of preach- 
ing — the Bethel branch near Baxter station, and 
Belleview in the village of Stanton. Mr. McFarland 
was released from the Salem congregation in the spring 
of 1882. For five years they were vacant, but enjoyed 
almo.st constant preaching. In the summer of 1887, 
the Rev. Harry W. Temple was ordained and installed 
the pastor. The names of McFarland, Hill, Campbell, 
Millen, Reed, Becket, Hanna, Sterritt, Dill, McKee, 
Sharpe, McGif^n, Stewart, Martin, Temple, Wallace, 
White, Graham, Mclsaac, Fry, and others, have been 
connected with the eldership and the best interests of 
the cause in Jefferson County. 

WESTMORELAND COUNTY, 

New Ale.\AN1)RIA. The first Covenanter to settle in 
this vicinity was Samuel I'atterson, who emigrated to 
this region in the closing years of the past century.* 
In 1800, the Rev. John Black was settled in the vicinity 
of Pittsburgh and occasionally preached at Greensburgh. 
To wait upon his ministrations Samuel Patterson rode 
ten miles, and soon afterward" Mr. Black preached twice 
a year in Mr. Patterson's house near New Alexandria. 
In the course of time small societies of Covenanters 
sprang up in all parts of the County and became the 

*A'. P. d- C, 1871, p. 363; 1872, p. 60. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 283 

nucleus of the present New Alexandria congregation. 
A congregation was organized at Greensburgh, by the 
Rev. John Black, about 18 13, and Robert Brown, w^ho 
did more for the cause in that vicinity than any other 
man, was ordained a ruling elder. He was a liberal 
supporter of the cause and his home furnished hospitable 
entertainment for all the ministers and the members 
from a distance. Rev. John Cannon became the first 
pastor in the fall of 18 16, and he continued in this 
relation until his death in 1836. New Alexandria 
became a regular preaching station in 18 19, when the 
Associate Reformed congregation was a vacancy. A 
subscription paper was gotten up for ten days' preaching 
and Mr. Cannon gave them that much time from his 
labors in Greensburgh. In 1822, a few families from 
the Associate Reformed and Presbyterian Churches joined 
the Covenanters, and the congregation of New Alexandria 
was organized. The Greensburgh church was built in 
1823, and Rev. Alexander McLeod, of New York, preached 
the first sermon in it. After the death of Mr. Cannon 
in 1836, the Rev. James R. Willson was called to the 
pastorate, but declined. In the fall of 1839, the Rev, 
James Milligan, of Vermont, was installed pastor. In 
1 84 1, Greensburgh joined with Clarksburgh and secured 
the labors of the Revs. S. O. Wylie and R. B. Cannon 
until 1854. Mr. Milligan continued his labors in the 
flourishing congregation of New Alexandria until the 
year 1848, and, the same fall, his son, the Rev. A. M, 
Milligan, succeeded him. The latter was translated to 
Philadelphia in 1853, and for three years New Alexandria, 
and for two years Greensburgh, were vacancies. In 1855, 



284 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

they were re-united under one charge and recalled the 
Rev. A. M. Milligan. He accepted, and was installed 
pastor May 6, 1856. In the spring of 1866, Mr. MiUigan 
was released from the charge. The following year 
Clarksburgh received a separate organization, and New 
Alexandria and Greensburgh were regarded as one 
charge. Rev. Thomas A. Sproull was installed pastor 
in June, 1868, and was removed by death, April 8, 1878, 
The Rev. James L. Pinkerton was installed pastor in 
May, 1 88 1, and, after two years of labor, was compelled 
to resign the charge on account of bodily affliction. 
The Rev. John W. F. Carlisle was ordained and installed,. 
June 20, 1884, and released January 26, 1888. An 
occasional day is given to Greensburgh, but the great 
majority of the members are in the vicinity of New 
Alexandria. This congregation has always possessed 
good houses of worship. The first building occupied 
was a log church built about 18 10, and was used by all 
denominations as a union church. In 1835, the congre- 
gation erected a substantial brick church, which, in 1870, 
gave place to the present well-appointed building. The 
old gravej-ard contains the dust of many a worthy 
Covenanter who devoted his life to the cause of* Christ 
in this community. Long will be remembered the names 
of Johnston, Brown, Elder, Stewart, Du Shane, Henry, 
McClure, Dornon, Beattie, Nevin, Gemmil, Lowry, Steele, 
Hice, Temple, Purvis. Shaw, Allen, Simpson, Patterson, 
Thompson, Miller. Cannon and Gra}-. 

Brookland. Under this heading will be included all 
the societies which have been known b\- different names, 
and located in the north-western portion of Westmoreland 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 285. 

County and along the Allegheny River. This is an old 
settlement of Covenanters.* The pioneer of this region 
was Robert Sproull, the father of the Rev. Dr. Sproull of 
Allegheny. About 1796, he emigrated from Franklin 
County and settled in this vicinity within one mile of 
the Allegheny River. Here for twenty years he main- 
tained the principles of the Church alone. In 18 17, he 
was joined by David Houston, who married Mrs. Scott^ 
and these families organized a praying society. In 1820, 
Thomas Sproull, nephew of Robert Sproull and father of 
Revs. T. C. and W. J. Sproull, acceded to the society. 
About the same time, John Dodds, father of the Rev. 
Josiah Dodds, from the Secession Church of Ireland, and, 
in 1821, John Bole, also from Ireland, strengthened the 
society by their membership. Revs. John Black and 
John Cannon supplied them occasionally and they were 
organized into a congregation in 1822. Rev. Jonathan 
Gill was the first pastor, installed October 23, 1823. 
The society grew rapidly, and, in 1830, they were joined 
by the families of Robert Armstrong, Joseph McKee, 
James Bole, Archibald Dodds and Joseph McElroy from 
Ireland. During the unpleasant controversy and subse- 
quent division of the Church in 1833, the congregation 
was sorely tried and some of the members went with 
Mr. Gill into the New School body. The congregation 
as a whole stood by the old flag and maintained the 
principles of the Church. At this time the elders were 
Ebenezer Gill, Joseph Cowan, Samuel Milligan, Thomas 
Dunn and Joseph McElroy. Joseph McElroy was the 
delegate to the Synod of 1833, and walked the whole 
*/i. P. &= C, 1886, p. 50. 



286 HISTORY 0¥ THE REFORMED 

way to Philadelphia to attend that* notable session. Rev. 
Hugh Walkinshaw was installed in April, 1835. The 
-congregation then was made up of man)^ branches, and, 
at the division of the extensive charge in 1841, both 
branches were anxious to obtain the pastor, but he 
remained with those on the east side of the Allegheny 
until his death, April 19, 1843. During his ministry the 
ruling elders were James Dougherty, John Rowan, 
Thompson Graham and Robert Euwer. Rev. Oliver 
Wylie was installed June 24, 1846. He did not possess 
a robust constitution, and was released in the fall of 1851. 
During his pastorate the ruling elders chosen were 
Joseph Dodds and Samuel Henning. In June, 1854, the 
Rev. Robert Reed was installed pastor. The extensive- 
-ness of the field had been somewhat curtailed by the 
organization of new congregations, and, beside the 
Brookland charge he ministered to the branches of 
Manchester and North Washington. In the Manchester 
branch were the Rowans, Hunters, Andersons and 
Nelsons. Another society was composed of the Cope- 
lands, Boyds, Reeds and Millers. The old log church 
was soon abandoned and a handsome brick edifice was 
erected. The elders during Mr. Reed's pastorate were 
David Armstrong, William Copeland, R. C. McKee, 
John Reed, Alexander Miller, John McKee, David 
McElroy, Samuel McCrum and A. Dodds. In 1870, the 
<:ongregation was reduced nearly one hundred members 
by the organization of the Manchester and Parnassus 
congregation. The Manchester branch is five miles east 
of Parnassus. Mr. Reed continued in charge of the 
Brookland congregation, and Middletown in Butler County 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 287 

was attached to his charge. The Key. Josiah M. Johnston 
was installed pastor of the newly organized congregation 
at Parnassus in June, 1871. He was a popular preacher, 
but in less than two years he resigned the charge and 
left the communion of the Church. In June, 1874, the 
present pastor, the Rev. James C. McFeeters, was installed 
in charge. Rev. Robert Reed resigned the Brookland 
congregation in the spring of 1882, and, after receiving 
supplies for four years, the charge was united to 
Parnassus under Mr. McFeeters, November, 1886, and 
the Middletown branch was given a separate existence. 
The elders are A. B. and S. B. Copeland, R. A. Arm- 
strong, Robert Dodds, John Reed, John Hunter and 
Alexander Miller. Brookland has furnished the Church 
no less than eleven ministers, twenty ruling elders and 
several missionaries. 

BUTLER COUNTY. 

Middletown. This small society is situated about 
twelve miles northeast of the town of Butler. It was 
organized about 1825, and was under the pastoral care 
of the Rev. Thomas C. Guthrie. After 1833, it was 
under the care of the Slippery Rock congregation and 
ministered unto b}^ Revs. James Blackwood, Thomas 
Hanna and J. C. Smith. It was known as the Sunbury 
branch and subsequently as North Washington. In 
1869, it was annexed to the Brookland congregation 
and under the care of the Rev. Robert Reed. He 
demitted the charge in the spring of 1882. and for 
four years the)^ only received an occasional day of 
preaching and the dispensation of the sacrament once 
a year. In November, 1886, they were given a separate 



288 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

organization. The church is a comfortable frame one 
situated in the village of Middletown.* Among the old 
families of this society were the Dunns, Doughertys, 
Euwers, Barbers, Gills and Osbornes. In later years 
the leading spirit was John Osborne, whose house was 
always open for the entertainment of the friends of the 
cause. The elders are Robert McCracken and Peter 
C. Young. Henry Blair, Thomas Banks and Mrs. 
Osborne are also among the loyal members of this 
congregation. 

Pine Creek and Union. This congregation lies- 
principally in Butler County and about thirty miles 
northeast of Pittsburgh. All the societies lying along 
the Allegheny and its tributaries were a part of the 
charge of the Rev^ John Black as early as iSoo.f In 
1807, the Rev. Matthew Williams was installed pastor 
of these branches northeast of Pittsburgh. They were 
eight in number and scattered over several Counties. 
He was almost constantly in the saddle, reaching places- 
of preaching in the then thinly settled courtry, part of 
which was an almost unbroken forest. In 181 5, the 
congregation was divided, and Mr. Williams now con- 
fined his labors more particularly to Pine Creek, Union 
and Deer Creek. He removed his family to Pine 
Creek and continued in this field until shortly before 
his death. The ministry of Mr. Williams was remarkably 
successful in the gathering of a large congregation, and 
they were bound together by the closest ties. Often 
as many as three hundred gathered around the com- 
munion table and those were the seasons of festive 

*R. P. & C, 1883, p. 20. f Covenanter, Vol. 3, p. 278. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 289 

joy. Mr. Williams had an able session composed of 
James Magee, John Glasgow, William Wright, Samuel 
Sterrett, Joseph Douthett, James Miller, Robert Ander- 
son and David Dickey. The original house of worship 
was very primitive in its style of architecture and 
simple in construction. It was a log house with a 
clap-board roof fastened down by cross-beams and had 
very small windows. They usually had no fire, and 
one day when it was very cold and a heavy snow 
upon the ground, no one grumbled, but Andrew Barr 
remarked at the close of a long service, " We were 
not troubled with mosquitoes to-day."* In 1826, the 
Rev. Thomas C. Guthrie became the pastor. In 1833, 
he and about one-half of the congregation became 
identified with the New School body. The faithful 
remnant were now left without a pastor, but for two 
years were supplied by Presbytery. In 1835, the Rev, 
Hugh Walkinshaw was installed pastor, and, at the 
division of the congregation in 1841, he chose the 
Brookland branch, and Pine Creek was again a 
vacancy. In June, 1843, the Rev. John Galbraith, who 
now remains at North Union, was installed the pastor. 
There were two places of preaching and both became 
large societies. The elders were John and Robert Dodds, 
Thompson Graham and James Campbell. In 1870, the 
societies each received a separate organization and Mr. 
Galbraith remained pastor of the North Union branch. 
The Pine Creek and Union branch remained a vacancy 
for six years. In May, 1876, the Rev. Alexander 
Kilpatrick, the present pastor, was installed in charge. 

*Rev. J. B. Williams in Banner, 1877, p. 224. 



290 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Among the old families in this region were those of 
the Magees, Douthetts, Glasgow's, Millers, Andersons, 
Creswells, Arbuthnots, Campbells, Wrights, Crowes, 
Forsythes, McKinneys, SprouUs, Dodds, Deans, Cunning- 
hams, Gillelands, Sterretts, and others. It is said that 
Mrs. Penninah Glasgow and Margaret Cunningham were 
very useful in .social meetings and in giving the 
children instruction in the doctrines of salvation. The 
people lived in Arcadian simplicity and were noted for 
their piety and integrity. 

VEX.\N(;0 COUNTY. 

On. CriY. Not a few Covenanters were attracted 
to this city and region during the oil excitement, and 
sufificient members being gathered together they were 
organized into a congregation in the summer of 1865. 
They then erected a house of worship and asked for 
the moderation of a call. Rev. David McFall was 
installed pastor in May, 1871, and remained two years. 
For ten years it was a vacancy, during which time 
it was greatl)' reduced in numbers. The)' manifested 
an enterprizing spirit, however, and made out several' 
calls. Uniting with Oil Creek they succeeded in get- 
ting a pastor in June, 1884, when the Rev. J. A. 
F. Bovard settled among them for part of his time. 
The v^enerable elder William Magee has been the lead- 
ing spirit, and among other representative men might 
be mentioned John Quinn, Joseph G. Garrett, William 
Thompson, Robert J. Brown and John Love. 
CRAWFORD COUNTY. 

Oil Creek. This small congregation is situated 
seven miles north of Titusville and twenty-fiive miles 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 291 

from Oil City. The four societies of Perry, Oil Creek,, 
Conneautville and Sugar Lake applied and received an 
organization, February 14, i860, and it was called 
Oil Creek, as this society was the largest and most 
central. In later years Conneautville received a separate 
existence as a mission station, and is now defunct. 
Perry and Sugar Lake were ultimately abandoned, and 
the preaching was held at Oil Creek, where a small 
frame church was erected. The Rev. Daniel Reid w^as 
installed pastor in December, 1861, and was removed 
by death in March, 1875. I'or "i"^ years the con- 
gregation was occasionally supplied, and, in the sum- 
mer of 1884, uniting with Oil City, secured a part of 
the time of the Rev. J. A. F. Bovard. Among the 
elders and members Avere R. J. Brown, Hugh . McDill,. 
Jacob Boggs. Henry Wright, Marcus Stewart, William 
Steele, James Moody, Robert P. Randall, Thomas 
Pollock and George Dunlap. 

Adamsville. This was for many )'ears a mission 
station, under the care of the Slippery Rock congrega- 
tion, and subsequently under that of Springfield. It 
was organized into a distinct congregation in Novem- 
ber, 1873. By the death of elder Thomas McFeeters 
the congregation was disorganized in October, 1874, 
and the members were re-certified to the Springfield 
congregation. They have a house of \\'orship and are 
regarded as a mission station. William Blair, William 
Steel and Thomas Hays were old members. 
MERCER COUNTV. 

Springfield. This was long one of the numerous 
branches of the Slippery Rock congregation.* As 

*Rev. J. C. Smith in R. P. &^ C, 1885, pp. 147, 172. 



^92 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

■early as 1 82 5, those living in this vicinity were 
•organized into a society, and, in 1828, became the 
Mercer branch of the Shenango and Neshannock con- 
gregation. In 1832, the Rev. A. W. Black became 
the pastor, who, in 1833, with many of the people, 
went into the New School body. In 1834, the remnant 
were attached to the Slippery Rock congregation under 
the pastorate of the Rev. James Blackwood. The elders at 
this time were Samuel and William Rodgers, Robert 
Allen, Sr., and Robert Allen, Jr. In 1838, they were 
included in the Little Beaver congregation and enjoyed 
the labors of the successive pastors of that field. 
Springfield, Sandy and Greenville were organized into 
a separate congregation in the summer of 1852. The 
first pastor was the Rev. John J. McClurkin, installed 
.September, 1854, and remained until (3ctober, 1873. 
In June, 1877, the Rev. James R. Wylie became the 
pastor, and resigned April 10, 1888. Among the elders 
may be named William and Samuel Rodgers, Thomas 
Barr, William Cochran, William Hunter, Robert and 
■Cochran Allen. James, S. R. and A. C. McClelland, 
J. R. McElroy and J. C. Montgomery. 

Cfxtekvii.le. This congregation is situated in the 
north-west corner of Mercer County and in early times 
was the Ryefield branch of the Slippery Rock con- 
gregation. Previous to 1833, it was a branch of the 
Shenango and Mercer congregation under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. A. W. Black. In 1834, the Rev. 
James Blackwood became the pastor. The old church 
stood in a rye field about two miles from the present 
two of Centerville, and was often call the " Granary." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 293 

The elders at this time were Joseph Kennedy, Thomas 
Blair and J. Campbell. In 1852, the Rev. Thomas 
Hanna became the pastor and continued in this relation 
for nine years. In 1863, the Rev. J. C. Smith became 
the pastor, with other branches. In 1867, Centerville 
and Sunbury (now Middletown) were made mission 
stations. In 1869, Middletown was attached to Brook- 
land, and Centerville continued a mission station until 
1 87 1, when it was attached to the New Castle con- 
gregation. The Rev. S. J. Crowe became the pastor 
in May, 1872. Centerville was organized into a distinct 
congregation, September, 1879, and Mr. Crowe con- 
tinued pastor until his resignation in April, 1881, at 
which time the congregation was attached to that of 
Springfield. Rev. James R. Wylie was installed pastor 
in July, 1882, and resigned in November, 1887. The elders 
are Robert McKnight, William McKee, William Jack 
and Hiram Snyder. The Kennedys, Blairs, Fishers, 
and other old families, abounded in hospitality. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. 

Shenango. The first pioneer in Shenango was Samuel 
Rodgers who settled here in 1798.* He was soon 
followed by Hugh Cathcart, Thomas and Samuel Hays, 
Thomas Smith and William Campbell. They formed a 
praying society and the Rev. John Black occasionally 
visited them, Samuel Hays was the ruling elder. The 
societies subsequently organized at Mercer and Neshan- 
nock were associated with this, and enjoyed the labors 
of Revs. Robert Gibson and George Scott. These were 

■*Wm. Cochran in R. P. c- C, 1885, p. 176. 
J8 



294 HISTORV OF THE REFORMED 

organized into a separate congregation, and the Re\ . 
Andrew W. Black was installed the pastor, Januar)- 
i8, 1832. In 1833, the pastor and the majority of 
the congregation became identified with the New 
School bod}- and held the church property. Those who 
remained true to the distinctive principles of the 
Church were the families of Samuel Rodgers, Samuel 
Cochran, Reed and William Porter, Charles Love and 
George Logan— in all about twenty members. In 1834, 
they were associated with the Greenville branch of the 
Slippery Rock congregation and enjoyed the labors of 
the Rev. James Blackwood. In 1838, they were attached 
to the Little Beaver congregation and subsequently 
under the pastoral care of Revs. Joseph W. Morton 
and Samuel Sterrett. In 1852, they were attached to 
the Springfield congregation and under the pastoral 
care of Revs. J. J. McClurkin and J. R. Wylie. At 
Greenville there are about forty members. In 1865, 
the old church building was sold and they worshipped 
at Adamsville. Among the old members were William 
and Robert Rodgers, William Porter, William Cochran, 
Thomas McFeeters, Elizabeth Mathers, Nancy Love, 
Jane Porter and Jane McElhaney. 

Slippery Rock. This congregation is situated 
principall}- in Crawford County, and has been known 
at different times by different names.* The branches 
peculiar to this, and not to other congregations, were 
Camp Run, Harlansburgh and Portersville. The first 
preaching at Harlansburgh was held in the bar room 
of the hotel, and afterwards in the Baptist church, 

*Rev. J. C. Smith in A'. /'. d- C, 1885, pp. 147, 172. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 295 

until James Martin was sprinkled, and then the breth- 
ren told them to hunt other quarters. All these 
branches were under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
John Black until 18 14, when they were included under 
the Little Beaver congregation. Rev. Robert Gibson 
became the pastor in 18 19, and was released in 1830. 
In 1 83 1, Rev. George Scott became the pastor, and, 
in 1833, he and some of the members went into the 
New School body. In the spring of 1834, the Rev. 
James Blackwood became the pastor. The elders within 
the bounds of the present congregation were James 
Wright and Samuel Sterrett of Camp Run ; Thomas 
Willson and Thomas Speer of Harlansburgh. About 
1836, Harlansburgh dropped its name and was known 
as Slippery Rock and Hautenbaugh. In 1838, churches 
were built in these places, but the one in Hauten- 
baugh was never finished and was abandoned. Mr. 
Blackwood died in 1851. During his pastorate William 
Wright, Matthew Stewart, John Love and James 
Anderson were ordained elders. In 1852, the Rew 
Thomas Hanna became the pastor and remained in 
charge nine years. The Camp Run branch was 
abandoned, and here dwelt the Methenys, Sterretts, 
Wrights and McElwains. In the spring of 1863, the 
present pastor, the Rev. J. Calvin Smith was installed. 
At this time the branches were Slippery Rock, Porters- 
ville, Hautenbaugh and Lackawannock. The elders 
were Thomas and Robert Speer, David Pattison, 
A. F. Kennedy, Thomas Young, Robert Wylie, Robert 
McCasIin, J. B. McElwain, George Magee, George 
Kennedy and Dr. J. M. Balph. In 1871, Hautenbaugh 



296 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and Lackawannock were included in the New Castle 
congregation, and Slippery Rock and Portersville now 
compose the organization. In 1833, Thomas Willson 
was the delegate to Synod in Philadelphia , and he 
walked all the way to attend that notable session. 
Such men as Thomas Willson, George Magee, Dr. 
Cowden, Thomas Speer, William Boyd, and others, 
were conductors on the Underground Railway and 
fearless advocates of the cause of the oppressed slave. 
New Castle. A society of Covenanters was organ- 
ized in the vicinity of this city as early as 1825, 
and was under the pastoral care of Revs. Robert 
Gibson and George Scott. In 1833, some of the 
members went into the New School body. In 1834, 
the Rev. James Blackwood became the pastor of the 
congregation of which this was a branch, and David 
Pattison was the elder. In 1852, the Rev. Thomas 
Hanna became the pastor, and during his ministry 
George Boggs and Robert Speer were added to the 
eldership. In 1863, the Rev. J. C. Smith began to preach 
a part of his time in this field and continued in this 
relation for seven years. The congregation was 
regularly organized, January 9, 1871. The elders 
installed at this time were Robert Speer, David and 
D. C. Pattison. Rev. S. J. Crowe was the first pastor 
installed in May, 1872, and built up a flourishing 
congregation. He demitted the charge in April, 1881. 
The Rev. J. Milligan Wylie was installed in June, 
1883, and released in December, 1887. Rev. W. 
R. Laird was installed pastor in May, 1888. The first 
church building was erected during Mr.* Hanna's 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 297 

pastorate and was then situated in the suburban town 
of Reynoldsville. It is a comfortable frame building and 
now within the limits of the stirring city of New 
Castle. Other elders are William Boyd, Robert 
McKnight, P. A. Mayne and Dr. T. J. Blackwood. 
BEAVER COUNTY. 

Little Beaver. This once widely scattered congre- 
gation is now concentrated, and worships in a comfort- 
able church building in the town of New Galilee. As early 
as 1804, a few families were residing within the limits 
of this County, and in 1805, they were joined by 
James Cook from Canonsburgh. The society continued 
to grow and was occasionally visited by Rev. John 
Black. It was organized into a regular congregation 
in 1 8 14, and for five years enjoyed supplies. The 
first pastor was the eloquent Robert Gibson, installed 
in September, 1819, and for eleven years he continued 
to draw large audiences wherever he preached, and 
built up a flourishing congregation. He resigned the 
extensive field in October, 1830, on account of 
impaired health. The next pastor was the Rev. George 
Scott, installed in April, 1831. At the division of 
the Church in 1833, lie, and many of the congrega- 
• tion, went into the New School body, but the 
remnant retained the church property. This, however,, 
so reduced their members that they were attached to. 
the Slippery Rock congregation.* The elders who. 
stood fast to the principles of the Church were James; 
Cook, John and James Young, and James McAnlis.. 
The Rev. James Blackwood was installed the pastor; 

*Rev. J. C. Smith in R. P. 6^ C, 1885, p. 147. 



298 HISTOKV OK THE REFORMED 

with other branches, in May, 1834, and during his 
pastorate Robert Gray and Robert Gilmore were added 
to the session. In October, 1838, Little Beaver and 
the adjacent societies in Ohio, were organized into a 
separate congregation. The Rev. Joseph W. Morton 
was installed the first pastor in November, 1845, a"<^ 
was released in June, 1847, ^vhen he was chosen as 
a missionary to Haj^ti. Rev. Samuel Sterrett was 
installed pastor in June, 1848, and remained in charge 
until May, i860, when Little Beaver became a distinct 
congregation and he retained the branches in Ohio. 
For four years they received supplies. Rev. Nathan 
M. Johnston was installed in April, 1864. He remained 
in charge twenty-two years, during which time the 
congregation grew extensively and a new church 
building was erected in the town of New Galilee, 
Mr. Johnston resigned the charge in June, 1886, 
and Rev. James R. Wylie was installed pastor in May, 1888. 
Among the families long connected with the Church 
in this vicinity are those of Cook, McAnlis, Porter, 
^.Calderwood, Young, Gray, Gibson, Gilmore, Duff, 
^Carson, Qua, Campbell, McGeorge, Dodds, Boggs, Patter- 
•son, Acheson and Sharp. 

Beaver Falls. The first Covenanter preaching in 
the city of Beaver Falls was given by the Rev. N, 
M. Johnston in the winter of 1869, when only one 
member of the Church lived there. This, and the 
station of Rochester, received an occasional day, and, for 
some time previous to the organization, Beaver- Falls 
enjoyed services regularly once a month. The con- 
gregation was organized November 10, 1874, with 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 299 

twent)'-four members, at which time Robert Paisley, 
John Cook and J. D. McAnlis were chosen ruling 
elders. Rev. Robert J. George, the present pastor, 
was installed in June, 1875. The same year they 
purchased a frame building, which has since been 
replaced by the present comfortable and beautiful 
edifice. Mission and pastoral work have rendered this a 
most flourishing congregation and a center of influence 
in the Church. Since the organization, W. R. Sterrett, 
R. A. and R. J. Bole, and William Pearce have been 
added to the eldership. 

ALLEGHENY COUNTY, 

Pittsburgh and Allegheny. The vicinity of these 
two cities was very early settled by an element strongly im- 
bued with Presbyterianism, and a few Covenanters removed 
into this region from beyond the sea and the Allegheny 
mountains. The Rev. John Cuthbertson speaks of being 
in Pittsburgh in the fall of 1779, but mentions no 
names. Previous to 1797, the most of the Covenanters 
resided at the "forks of the Yough." In the fall of 
1799, and shortly after his licensure, the Rev. John 
Black was assigned to labor among the societies west 
of the Allegheny mountains and in the vicinity of 
these cities. When Mr. Black first came to this part 
of the country as a preacher, he settled on a farm 
about twelve miles east of Pittsburgh, in what was 
known as the Thompson Run society. On the corner 
of this farm a log church was built and a graveyard 
surrounded it. He afterwards removed to the city of 
Pittsburgh, and the property was held by Synod. A 
congregation centering around Pittsburgh was organized 



300 HISTORV OF THE REFORMED 

under the general name of "Ohio," and Rev. John Black 
was installed the pastor, December i8, 1800." The 
services at the ordination were held in the old Court 
House on Market street west of the Diamond, Pitts- 
burgh, and were conducted by Revs. James McKinney 
and Samuel B. Wylie, For two or three years the 
congregation worshipped in the old Court House and 
also in the Evangelical Lutheran Church at the corner 
of Sixth and Smithfield streets. In 1803, the famous 
Oak Alley church was built, which stands near Liberty 
street and not far from the present Union Depot, 
Here the congregation harmoniously worshipped for 
thirty years. Among the first corps of elders were 
John Hodge, William Gormley, John Armstrong, John 
Aikin, John Cowan, James McVickars and Thomas. 
Smith. In after years there were added to the session 
Alexander Harvey and Samuel Henry. At the division 
of the Church in August, 1833, Dr. Black, and the 
great majority of the members, departed from the 
distinctive principles of the Church and went into the 
New School body. They also retained the church 
property. In fact there were only about thirteen 
members who adhered to the principles, and they were 
of the poor and less influential of the former con- 
gregation. From these few and poor, but true, witnesses 
of the Reformation, four large and wealthy congrega- 
tions have sprung, while the New School brethren are 
about extinct in Pittsburgh. The congregation was 



*Rev. J. W. Sproull in R. P. &- C, 1884, p. 173. Memoir of Dr. A. 
McLeod, p. 51. Presbyterian Historical Aliiianac, Vol. 2, p. 182 ; Vol. 5, p. 
404. Dr. Sproull's Sketches. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 30I 

re-organized September 9, 1833, with thirteen members. 
On the first Sabbath of December, 1833, the first 
communion was conducted by Revs. John Cannon, 
James Blackwood and Thomas Sproull, and the services 
were held in the Associate Reformed Church in 
Allegheny. One hundred and twenty communicants 
sat down at the table of the Lord, and they were 
collected from the societies in the vicinity. Samuel 
Henry and Alexander Harvey were the only elders 
who adhered to the principles, and they were continued 
in office in the new organization. Rev. Thomas Sproull 
was installed the pastor, May 12, 1834. Being without 
a church building, for two years they worshipped in 
other churches and halls, and, after a good deal of 
discussion about a location, they finally agreed to erect 
a church at the corner of Lacock and Sandusky 
streets in Allegheny, which they did in 1836. Andrew 
Gormley insisted that they should erect the church in 
Pittsburgh, because if they did not they would lose 
the Oak Alley property which rightfully belonged tO' 
them. When the case came into the civil courts and 
was tried in 1855, Andrew Gormley was found to be 
correct, and the rightful owners lost the property by 
a change of name and location. There is something 
in_ a name. William Haslett, John Campbell, Hugh 
Harvey and William Adams were added to the session,. 
October i, 1836. For thirty years the congregation 
continued to worship in the old church in Allegheny, 
during which time James Carson, Robert Adams, 
Robert McKrtight, H. A. Johnston, David Gregg, George 
Boggs, Thomas Newell, Daniel Euwer, Henry Stewart, 



302 HIsrORV OF THE REFORMED 

Isaac McKenry, W. C. Bovard, John Boggs and William 
Wills were added to the eldership. In October, 1865, 
fifty-eight members were certified to form the Pitts- 
burgh congregation, and Robert Glasgow, Alexander 
and Robert Adams were chosen ruling elders. Rev. 
A. M. Milligan became the first pastor of the newly 
organized Pittsburgh congregation in May, 1866. They 
worshipped for a short time in the City Hall, and for 
four years in the Fourth Ward School House on Penn 
street. In 1870, the present commodious church build- 
ing on Eighth street, below Penn, was erected. In 
1866, Dr. S. A. Sterrett and John A. McKee, and in 
1 87 1, Daniel Euwer and Robert McKnight were added 
to the session. Subsequently Samuel McNaugher and 
Samuel M. Orr were chosen elders. P^or nineteen 
years Dr. Milligan preached with great power and 
success in Pittsburgh. His health failed in 1884, and 
he died of an incurable disease in May, 1885. In 
October, 1887, Rev. David McAllister was installed 
pastor. The congregation sustains a mission in 
Allegheny, a school for Chinese and mutes, and has 
a flourishing Sabbath School. This is one of the 
largest, wealthiest and most influential congregations in 
the Church. Among other influential members aside 
from the eldership are James R. McKee, John , R. 
Gregg, James S. Arthurs, John Tibby, Matthew Tibby, 
John D. Carson, Dr. William Hamilton, Daniel Chestnut, 
James McAteer, John Hice, Samuel Sloane, William M. 
Dauerty, James Martin, John Hanna, John Ross, Robert 
•Carson, Robert Gray. After the organization of the 
Pittsburgh congregation in 1865, the Allegheny con- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 303 

gregation continued to worship in the old church at 
the corner of Lacock and Sandusky streets, and had 
about three hundred and fifty members. In December, 
1868, they removed to the present large church 
building at the corner of Sandusky and Diamond 
streets. Dr. Sproull resigned the charge in October, 
1868. For two years the congregation was vacant, 
and in the meantime a division occurred, resulting in 
the organization of the Central Allegheny congregation, 
October 24, 1870. The Rev. David B. Willson was 
installed pastor of the Allegheny congregation in 
November, 1870, and they continued to worship in the 
new church. Rev. John W. Sproull was installed 
pastor of the Central Allegheny congregation in April, 
1 87 1, and they worshipped in the chapel of the United 
Presbyterian Seminary until the occupation of the 
present church on Sandusky street below Ohio. Among 
the elders in this congregation are David Gregg, Robert 
Gibson, John and Robert Aikin, William Anderson, 
Hugh McKee, Matthew Steele, John Logan, Henry 
Stewart, William Haslett and Theophilus Sproull. Rev. 
D. B. Willson resigned the Allegheny congregation in 
October, 1875. Rev. J. R. W. Sloane was installed 
pastor in June, 1877, and continued in this relation, in 
addition to his Seminary work, until his health failed, 
and he was released in May, 1884. The Rev. J. R. 
J. Milligan, the present pastor, was ordained and 
installed in October, 1885. Among the elders and 
members in this congregation were John and James 
l^og^gs, James B. McKee, Daniel Euwer, John T. 
Morton, James Best, William Martin, John C. McKee, 



304 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Martin Prenter, Robert Morton, Clark Morton, "Isaac 
Taylor, David A. Grier, James McFall, Donald M.. 
Sloane, John Allen, James Patterson, Prof. McAnlis, 
James Knox, William Boggs. The Central congrega- 
tion is conducting a mission school at Spring Garden, 
in the north-eastern part of Allegheny. In November,. 
1887, a congregation was organized in the East End, 
Pittsburgh, and a flourishing Sabbath School is being 
conducted. Among the ofificers in this new congrega- 
tion are John C. Calderwood, Alexander M. Denholm, 
William Blair, J. Calvin Ewing, Samuel Denholm and 
Thomas C. Johnston. In the congregations of Allegheny 
and Pittsburgh there are about eight hundred members, 
closely attached to the principles of the Church,, 
abundant in labors and liberal supporters of the gospel. 
There is a strong and healthy element of Covenan- 
terism around Pittsburgh, which gives tone to the 
cause and influence to the Church in that vicinity.. 
WiLKINSBURGH. Mainly through the instrumentality 
of Hugh Boyd and James Kelly, a house of worship was 
erected in this village in 1845, ^'"id a congregation 
organized in the summer of 1848. They had formerly 
belonged to the Pittsburgh and Allegheny congregation,, 
and now included the preaching station of Deer Creek. 
The R^v. Thomas Hanna was stated supply for some 
time, and they also enjoyed the labors of the young 
men of the Church. The Rev. Joseph Hunter was 
installed pastor in April, 1852, and continued in this 
relation thirty years. The Rev. W. W. Carithers was 
installed pastor in June, 1883, and is in charge. The 
congregation has erected a neat parsonage and soon 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 305 

will build a new church edificq. Among the elders and 
prominent members in Wilkinsburgh have been James 
Kelly, Hugh and John Boyd, Robert Bovard, Samuel 
Henning, Samuel Henry, W. J. Dougherty, Dr. Wads- 
worth, David Osborn, Hugh Dean, William Wills, 
William Blair, Thomas Newell, Robert Barr, Thomas 
Black, A. C. Coulter, William Wylie, W. M. Pierce, 
James Barron, J. D. McCune, Isaac Kitchen, and others. 

McKeesport. For many years this was a branch of 
the Monongahela congregation, and enjoyed the labors 
respectively of Revs. John Crozier, J. W. Sproull, T. C. 
Sproull and W. J. Coleman. It was organized into a 
separate congregation in April, 1882, and for three years 
was supplied by Presbytery. Rev. Joseph H. Wylie was 
the first pastor, installed in June, 1885, and released in 
June, 1887. The congregation for many years worshipped 
in a school-house, and a few years ago secured a good 
church building in an eligible location. Among the 
members are S. O. Lowry, John McConnell, James 
Gemmil, Thomas Adams, J. G. McElroy, Knox C. Hill, 
Joseph Steele, William McCarthy, Joseph L. Stewart, 
David H. Sarver, James Bell, John Jenkins, William 
Littlejohn, William McCaw, G. W. Warren. 

Monongahela. This congregation occupies a promi- 
nent place in the history of the Church, and in early 
times was distributed over a large area of country lying 
along the Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers, some 
twenty miles south-east of the city of Pittsburgh. The 
central point was the "' forks of the Yough," as the space 
between these two rivers, and for a considerable distance 
.above their confluence, was denominated. Other branches 



3o6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

were Jefferson, ten miles north-east; Redstone, thirt)' 
miles south-east; and Miller's Run in Washington County. 
Under " Monongahela " will be considered the history of 
Covenanterism principally in Elizabeth Township, Alle- 
gheny County." Perhaps the earliest settlement was in 
1769, when James Willson, and his son Zaccheus, left the 
Cove Mountain east of the Alleghenies, and settled in 
this vicinity. The following year, accompanied by Robert 
McConneil, Mr. Willson removed to the "forks of the 
Yough." Soon after this they were joined by the 
families of Robert and Matthew Jamison, Andrew 
McMeans and Matthew Mitchell, and a praying society 
was formed. The Rev. John Cuthbertson made his first 
and only tour to this region in the autumn of 1779. 
On the evening of September 17, 1779, he arrived at 
the house of Mr. Simpson, at the "forks of the Yough," 
and on the next day rode to the homes of Colonel Cook 
and Zaccheus Willson. On the Sabbath he preached in 
a tent on the farm of Zaccheus Willson, and baptized 
Mary, daughter of Robert Jamison. On Monday he rode 
five miles down the Yough to Joseph Caldwell's and 
Joseph Morton's, and on September 21, he preached and 
baptized Thomas and Elizabeth, children of Charles 
Boal. He also visited James Finney and David Robinson. 
On the next Sabbath, September 26, 1779, he preached 
at the house of John Drennen, and baptized Susan, 
daughter of Josiah Willson; James, son of Aaron Willson; 
Hannah, daughter of Joseph Laughead; David and Martha, 
children of John Drennen; and Susannah, daughter of 
James Patterson. On Monday he visited the homes of 
'* Covenanter, Vol. 2, p. 152. Cuthbertson's Diary. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 307 

Matthew Mitchell and John Reed, on the Monongahela, 
and then passed over into Washington County. He 
returned to the house of John Reed on October 3, and 
preached near by and baptized John, son of John Reed. 
He then went back to Washington County with John 
Reed. Mr. Cuthbertson appears to have returned the 
second time to the "forks of the Yough," preaching to and 
catechizing fifty persons. He also baptized William, son 
of Matthew Mitchell; Janet, daughter of Ebenezer 
Mitchell; Isabel, daughter of John Mitchell. He then 
went again to Miller's Run. On Sabbath, October 17, 
he passed this way on his road home and preached, and 
baptized Martha, daughter of James Finney; Hannah, 
Sarah and William, children of John Robinson. He then 
returned to Eastern Pennsylvania and never visited this 
region again. It would appear from Mr. Cuthbertson's 
diary that the principal Covenanter families in this 
vicinity in 1779, were those of James Simpson, Zaccheus, 
James, Josiah and Aaron Willson, Joseph Laughead, 
Joseph Caldwell, John Drennen, Thomas Morton, James 
Patterson, Robert and Matthew Jamison, Andrew Mc- 
Means, Matthew, John and Ebenezer Mitchell, James 
Finney. John Reed, Charles Boal, David and John 
Robinson. At the union of 1782, the whole society, 
with the exception of the single family of James Finney, 
went • into the Associate Reformed Church. Soon Mr. 
Finney was joined by the families of John Laughead 
and Mrs. Parkhill from over the mountains. For ten 
years they lived without public preaching and maintained 
the principles of the Church. In 1792, they were cheered 
by a visit from the Rev. William King, who had recently 



308 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

emigrated to South Carolina. In 1794, the Rev. James 
McKinney vi.sited them, and aroused such an interest by 
his eloquence, that as many as three thousand persons 
gathered to hear him from all parts of the country. In 
the autumn of 1799, the Rev. John Black, then a licen- 
tiate, was sent to the region beyond the Alleghenies. 
He was ordained in December, 1800, as pastor of all 
the societies in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, and gave part 
of his time to Monongahela. John Drennen and Zaccheus 
Willson returned to the Covenanter Church, and the 
society was now joined by Samuel Wylie, Benjamin 
Brown, William Madill, and others. The services were 
usually held at the house of James Finney, on the bank 
of the Monongahela. In 1801, the society was regularly 
organized, and James Finney and Zaccheus Willson were 
chosen ruling elders. The first communion was held in 
1802, and was conducted by John Black and Samuel B. 
Wylie. The services were held in a grove near the 
"forks of the Yough." and a large number of commu- 
nicants from all the western Counties a.ssembled at the 
feast. Another communion was held by the same 
ministers on the farm of Samuel Scott, about eight miles 
south of Pittsburgh, and here the Rev. Samuel B. Wylie 
preached his celebrated sermons, "The Two Sons of Oil" 
and " Covenanting."* Soon the congregation so rapidly 
increased, that, in 1806, Dr. Black divided his extensive 
charge and continued to supply the.se people. The 
session was then increased by the election of Samuel 
Wylie, John Anderson and William Gormley, ruling elders. 
In the Redstone settlement were the Parkhills; and at 

*Dr. Sproull's Sketches. 



. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 309 

the " Sanhedrim," or Mifflin society, were the families 
of WilHam McElree, James Tennent and David Love. 
The first pastor of Monongahela and Canonsburgh was 
the Rev. William Gibson, who was installed in the fall 
•of 181 7. He remained in this relation for nine years. 
In the fall of 1827, the Rev. Gordon T. Ewing was 
installed pastor. His health was very poor and he 
resigned in May, 1830, and returned to Ireland. During 
the controversy and division of the Church in 1833, 
they were left without a pastor, but they were so well 
grounded in the principles of the Church, that very few, 
if any, left the communion. The Rev. John Crozier 
was installed pastor in May, 1834, and remained in 
this relation for thirty-one years, and until his release 
in April, 1865. Rev. John W. Sproull was installed in 
April, 1866, and released in April, 1871. Rev. T. C. 
Sproull was the pastor from October, 1871, until May, 
1876. Rev. W. J. Coleman was installed in June, 1879, 
and released in July, 1881. Rev. John M. Wylie was 
installed in April, 1883, and released in April, 1884. 
Rev. Robert Reed was stated supply for some time. 
By emigration and death, the cause which one hundred 
years ago was so flourishing, is now languishing at the 
" forks of the Yough." Among the old families and 
■elders of this historic congregation might be named 
Zaccheus and John Z. Willson, Samuel Wylie, James, 
William and Robert Finney, Thomas Reynolds, Walter 
McCrea, Samuel Rodgers, William, James and David 
Parkhill, James Patterson, John Huston, John Elliot, Sr., 
John Elliott, Jr., John and William McConnell, R. C. 
McKee and John S. Patterson. 



310 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 
Miller's Run. Previous to the year 1842, this 
congregation was a part of Monongahela, and was 
settled about the same time. The Rev. John Cuthbert- 
son visited "Shirtee" (Chartiers) in September, 1779, 
and found the families of Alexander McConnell, James 
Scott, George Marcus and Samuel Willson in this 
vicinity. He preached at the house of John McGlaughlin 
and baptized James, son of James McGlaughlin ; Francis 
and John, sons of Matthew McConnell ; Sarah and 
Mary, daughters of Robert Walker. On September 4. 
1779, accompanied by John Reed, Mr. Cuthbertson 
rode to his "Plantation" which he had previously 
bought. This farm was situated near West Middleton, and 
was occupied by his son John, who was a physician, 
and his only daughter lived with him. It was known 
as the Cuthbertson farm, and the daughter lived there 
until her death in 1835. After a visit again to the 
"forks of the Yough," Mr. Cuthbertson preached at 
the house of Samuel Willson and baptized Elizabeth,, 
daughter of Samuel Willson ; John and Margaret,, 
children of Samuel Scott. From this diary it is prob- 
able to reckon that the principal families in Washing- 
ton County, in 1779, were those of Alexander and 
Matthew McConnell, James and Samuel Scott, George 
Marcus, Samuel Willson, John and James McGlaughlin, 
William Patterson and Robert Walker. In 1782, all 
these went into the Associate Reformed Church and 
were the nucleus of the present United Presbyterian 
congregations in that vicinity. In 1794. the Rev. 
James McKinney visited this region and found a few 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 3 II 

families of Covenanters who had recently moved in, 
and organized them into a society. In 1799, and for 
many years thereafter, the Rev. John Black preached 
in this settlement. The congregation took the name 
of Canonsburgh in 1806, and was a part of Dr. Black's 
charge, but he soon confined his labors to Pittsburgh. 
In 1808, a log • church was erected in the village of 
Canonsburgh, which had now become famous as the 
seat of Jefferson College, and a lot for a burial ground 
surrounded the old church.* In 1809, the Rev. David 
Graham began to supply them. He was a most 
eloquent preacher, and, in 18 10, they gave him a 
unanimous call to become their pastor, which he 
accepted. Before his installation, however, some charges 
were brought against him, and, in 181 1, he was deposed. 
He joined the Associate Reformed Church for a while, 
and many of the Covenanters followed him into that 
body, plainly declaring that they were more attached 
to the man than they were to their principles. They 
mostly returned to the faith of their fathers. Among 
the early families were those of John Slater and 
Robert George, who have numerous descendants in the 
Church of that County. Uniting with Monongahela, 
Canonsburgh succeeded in obtaining the Rev. William 
Gibson as pastor in October, 18 17, who was released 
in May, 1826. In October, 1827, the Rev. Gordon T. 
Ewing became the pastor. He was a popular preacher 
and had a prosperous following. At his suggestion 
the old log church in Canonsburgh was torn down 
with the design of building a new church. His health 

* History of Washington County, Pennsylvania. 



312 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

failing, he resigned the charge in May, 1830, and 
upon the foundation laid for the church a dwelling 
was afterwards erected. It stood on the west side of 
Main street and a few graves may yet be seen at 
the west end of the lot.* In May, 1834, the Rev. 
John Crozier became the pastor. In 1835, the church 
site was changed from Canonsburgh to the present 
location five miles north, and a neat brick church was 
erected. The congregation now became known as 
Miller's Run, because the first preaching in this 
locality was conducted at the house of Mr. George near 
this stream. In October, 1842, Mr. Crozier was released 
from this branch of his extensive charge. In May, 
1843, the Rev. William Slater was ordained and 
installed the pastor, and continued uninterrupted in 
this relation for forty-four years, and until his resigna- 
tion in April, 1887. In 1870, the old brick church 
was removed, and the present commodious frame 
structure was built on the site. Miller's Run is a 
strong congregation. They have been thoroughly 
indoctrinated in the truths of the Bible and the 
principles of the Covenanter Church. Among the old 
families, and who have descenda'nts now in connection 
with the Church, are those by the names of George, 
Slater, Scott, Roney, Orr, Wallace, Hunter, Ramsey, 
Maxwell, Toner, Houston, Thompson, Robb, McBurney, 
Walker, Conner, Burnside, McFarland, and others. 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

Middle Wheeling. This small congregation is 
located in the "Pan-handle," east of the city of 
* History of Washington County, Pennsylvania. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 313 

Wheeling, and not far from the Pennsylvania line. 
The settlement was made about 1825, and, as a part 
of the Canonsburgh and Miller's Run congregation, 
this neighborhood was occasionally visited by the Revs. 
Gordon T. Ewing from 1827 until 1830; by John 
Crozier from 1834 until 1842; and by William Slater 
from 1843 until April, i860, when it was organized as 
a distinct congregation. The Rev. Armour McFarland 
was installed for a part of his time in April, 1866, 
and demitted this branch in April, 1873. The Rev. 
Samuel R. McClurkin, the present pastor, was installed 
in September, 1876. They possess a neat and comfort- 
able house of worship recently erected. Among the 
eldership and members of this congregation have been 
John Roney, Alexander, James,' Creighton C. and T. 
J. Orr, Samuel McCoy, John Cochran and James Roney. 



OHIO. 
YOUNGSTOWN. This congregation has been known 
at different times by different names ; first as Austin- 
town, then Poland and North Jackson, and finally as 
Youngstown. The congregation is situated principally 
in Columbiana and Mahoning Counties, Ohio, and along 
the Pennsylvania line. Austintown was a branch of 
the Little Beaver congregation as early as 18 14,, 
and enjoyed the labors of the Rev. Robert Gibsom 
from 1 8 19 to 1830, and those of the Rev. George 
Scott from 1831 until 1833, when he, and a part of 
the congregation, went into the New School body. 
In 1834, the congregation was attached to Slippery 



314 - HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Rock under the pastoral care of the Rev. James 
Blackwood. The elders at this time were William 
Guthrie and John Ewing. In 1838, Austintown and 
Little Beaver formed a separate congregation, and the 
first pastor was the Rev. Joseph W. Morton from 
1845 until 1847. In 1848, the Rev. Samuel Sterrett 
became the pastor of the united charge. Austintown 
became a separate congregation in May, i860, and 
Mr. Sterrett continued in charge until his release in 
October, 1867. Rev. Robert J. George was the next 
pastor installed in May, 1870, and released in April, 
1875. Rev. T. C. Sproull was installed in July, 1876, 
and released in July, 1879. For six years they enjoyed 
occasional supplies in Poland and North Jackson, but 
were so reduced in nnmbers by emigration that they 
£ould not support a pastor. In October, 1885, they 
were re-organized as the Youngstown congregation and 
the principal place of preaching is in this city. They 
Tiave secured a hall, and Rev. H. W. Reed was 
installed pastor in May, 1888. Among the elders 
and leading members in this congregation have been 
William and John Guthrie, John and Gibson Ewing, 
George Hamilton, J. B. Jordan, J. E. Gault, W. S. 
Kernohan, W. R. Sterrett, William McConnell, and 
others. 

Greenfield. This congregation was situated in 
Harrison County, and included the adjacent societies of 
Londonderry, McMahon's Creek, Salt Fork and Steu- 
benville. Covenanters settled in this region as early 
as 1806, mostly emigrants from Western Pennsylvania. 
The congregation was not regularly organized until 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 315 

about 1822. The first pastor was the Rev. William 
Sloane, installed in November, 1829, and released in 
October, 1838. Rev. James Love was installed in June, 
1839, and released in May, 1847. The congregation 
soon diminished, and, in 1849, was dropped from the 
roll and soon became extinct. Nathan Johnston, James 
McKinney, Thomas McFetridge, Joseph Boyd, James 
Kirk, William Pollock, James W. Thomson, Matthew 
Wilkin, George Orr, James Herron, James Darrah, 
John Adams and Thomas Patton were among the 
leading members. 

Londonderry and North Salem. Early in the 
present century a few families of Covenanters settled 
in Guernsey County and were occasionally visited by 
a passing minister. The congregation was organized 
about 1822, and included many branches with those 
farther east in Harrison County. Rev. William Sloane 
became the first pastor in November, 1829, and remained 
in this relation nine years. In June, 1839, the Rev. 
James Love succeeded him in the pastorate, and 
remained in this branch until October, 1864. Rev, 
James A. Thompson was installed in October, 1866, 
and released in September, 1875. In April, 1879, the 
North Salem branch received a separate organization, 
and, in 1880, the Rev. James R. Latimer became the 
pastor of the united charges. He resigned in May, 
1882, since which time they have not had a settled 
pastor. Among the old and prominent families here 
are those by the names of Hutcheson, Galbraith, 
Kernohan, Walkinshaw, Law, Martin, Cairns, Thompson, 



3l6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Forsythe, Glasgow, Love, Reed, McKee, Logan, Walker^ 
Blackwood, Moffett, and others. 

Brownsville, This small congregation was located 
in Monroe County, and was supplied many years pre- 
vious to its organization in 1854. Previous to that 
date, and until his death in October, 1856, the Rev. 
Oliver Wylie was stated supply. In August, 1859,. 
the Rev, James A. Thompson became the pastor and 
was released in June, 1865, For ten years they were 
occasionally supplied by Rev, Armour McFarland,. 
and others. In September, 1876, the Rev, Samuel 
R, McClurkin was installed for part of his time, but 
was released in the following year, and occasionally 
supplied it. The cause is now about extinct. John 
Barber, Henry Boyd, John McKaige, Robert AUen^ 
John Adams, James Waltenbaugh, Joseph Eakman and 
William J. Anderson were among the leading members. 

New Concord. This flourishing congregation is 
situated in the eastern part of Muskingum County^ 
and, until 1871, was known as Salt Creek, The first 
Covenanter known to settle in this vicinity was 
Matthew Mitchell, who came with his family from the 
"forks of the Yough," in Pennsylvania, in 1804.* In 
1 8 10, John Jamison came from the same region, and 
in 18 1 2, William Robinson and Neal McNaughton 
emigrated from Conococheague and settled on Salt 
Creek, twelve miles south of New Concord. In 18 14, 
Samuel McCutcheon emigrated from Ireland and settled 
about six miles below New Concord. These families 
constituted a praying society and unfurled the banner 

*Dr. H. P. McClurkin in Banner, 1876, p. 169. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 317 

of the Covenant. They were occasionally visited by 
Revs. John Black and Matthew Williams. In the sum- 
mer of 1 8 14, Rev. Robert Wallace, who is the father 
of Covenanterism in Ohio, began missionary work 
principally at Utica and Chillicothe. In 181 5, he 
providentially met Neal McNaughton, at a hotel in^ 
Zanesville, who took him to his home where Mr.. 
Wallace preached the following Sabbath. The society 
continued to grow under his occasional ministrations 
until the organization of the congregation in June,. 
1 82 1, by the election of John Auld and John Jami- 
son ruling elders. The communion was soon after- 
wards dispensed and Mr. Wallace was assisted by the 
Rev. Charles B. McKee. The services were held in 
the woods near the farm of Mr. McCutcheon, and the- 
following forty members communed at the first sacra- 
ment: John and Mary Auld ; John and Margaret Jamison ; 
Mrs. Black ; Robert and Elizabeth Brown ; Matthew, 
Mary, Rachel and Rebecca Calhoun; Betsy Cunningham;. 
Eleanor Forsythe ; Alexander and Mrs. George ;. 
Matthew, Sr., Matthew, Jr., and Mrs. Mitchell; Samuel,. 
Isabel, Sr., Isabel, Jr., James and Anna McCutcheon ; 
Neal and Mary NcNaughton ; William Robinson ; 
Joseph, Ann, James and Jane Sterrett ; Thomas, Mary, 
Sr., Mary, Jr., William, James and Archibald Steven- 
son ; David and Mary Sim ; Jacob and Anna Wortman.- 
All these are now dead. In October, 1823, Mr. 
Wallace was installed pastor, and also preached at 
Jonathan's Creek, Muskingum, Tomica and Will's Creek. 
Mr. Wallace died in July, 1849. In October, 1850, the 
Rev. Hugh P. McClurkin was installed, and remained 



3l8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

almost nuinterruptedly for thirty-two years, and until his 
release in October, 1882. The Rev. James M. Paris, 
the present pastor, was installed in July, 1884. Among 
the many officers who have served in this congrega- 
tion are John Auld, John Jamison, David and Benja- 
min Wallace, David Hawthorne, Richard and Thomas 
McGee, Archibald and William Stevenson, Walter 
McCrea, David Stormont, William and Thomas Wylie, 
John Gibson, William Forsythe, William Speer, William 
Elliot, Thomas Stewart. John Taylor, James McCartney, 
Samuel Mitchell, James R. Willson, Hugh Patterson and 
John C. Robb. 

MusKlN(;uM AND ToMlCA. This was long a part of 
the Salt Creek congregation and under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. Robert Wallace. It received a 
separate organization in October, 1831. The first 
pastor was the Rev. John Wallace, installed in April, 
1833, and continued in this relation for twenty-two 
years. On account of some Church troubles he resigned 
in 1855. For ten years they were a vacancy, and the 
Rev. Armour McFarland frequently supplied them. In 
December. 1865, the Rev. J. C. K. Faris was installed 
pastor, and was released in April, 1871. For six years 
they were again vacant but enjoyed the labors of Rev. 
Armour McFarland and others. Rev. William S. 
Fulton was installed in December, 1877, aud released 
in April, 1883. Rev. John M. Wylie, the present 
pastor, was installed in January, 1885. There are two 
branches with good houses of worship, and the cause is 
in a healthy condition. Among the officers have been 
James Sloat, Robert and John Irwin, William Dunlap, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 319 

James McQuigg, William and James McGlade, William 
and John Robeson, John and William Wylie, James 
Beattie, James and John Stitt, and R. H. Kilpatrick. 

Jonathan's Creek. This congregation is situated 
along the Haysville pike and about eight miles south- 
west of the city of Zanesville. The first family settled 
in this vicinity in 181 5. A society was formed in 
1823, and was attached to the Salt Creek congrega- 
tion under the care of the Rev. Robert Wallace. For 
thirty years they continued to be visited by the pastors 
in the vicinity. The branches of Rocky Fork, West 
Bedford and Irville were organized into a congregation 
in August, 1853, witlr twenty-three members, and James 
Stitt, James Beall and Walter B. Finney were chosen 
ruling elders. The name then was the Eden and 
Irville congregation, and, in 1855, the name was 
changed, by the transfer of preaching, to Jonathan's 
Creek. Rev. Armour McFarland became the pastor in 
the summer of 1853, and continued in this relation 
until his health caused his release in April, 1876. In 
1880, the Rev. T. C. SprouU became stated supply 
for one year. The Rev. Robert B. Cannon, D. D., 
became the pastor in September, 1886, and is now in 
cKarge. They possess a very neat house of worship, 
near the town of Newtonville, and the cause has revived 
under the present pastorate. Families by the names 
of McFarland, George, Thomson, Kirkpatrick, Ardrey, 
Wylie, Johnston, Gladstone, Harvey, and others, have 
long held up the "Banner of the Covenant" in that 
locality. 

Utica. This is a pleasantly situated town in the 



320 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

northren part of Licking County. As early as 1805,. 
the family of James Dunlap settled along the Licking 
Creek near this place.* In 1809, Robert Kirkpatrick 
settled in the same communit}' ; and in 18 10, the 
families of Nathaniel and Peter Kirkpatrick, Joseph 
Fulton, John McNaughton, Samuel Kirkland, Joseph and 
John Campbell, Samuel Dufifield and Joseph Jameson 
settled in the same neighborhood, and a praying 
society was formed. ' They were regularly organized 
into a congregation in October, 181 3, by the ordina- 
tion of James Dunlap and Nathaniel Kirkpatrick ruHng 
elders, with thirty-five members. Rev, Robert Wallace 
was the first pastor installed in charge in November,. 
1 8 14, and preached in many other localities. He demit- 
ted the charge in the summer of 1822. William Mitchell 
was added to the session in 1822. The congregation, 
was vacant for fifteen years, during which time they 
were almost constantly supplied, and many were added 
to the membership. They had no house of worship,, 
and held the services in a tent on the hill east of 
town, near the residence of J. M. Kirkpatrick, who- 
was long a ruling elder. In 1830, a comfortable house 
of worship was erected. During this period, John 
McDaniel and Peter Kirkpatrick were added to the 
session. The Rev. Armour McFarland was installed 
pastor in October, 1837, and released in May, 1853.. 
During his pastorate one hundred persons were addedi 
to the Church, and John Day, Hugh and James Hervey.. 
and William Adams were chosen ruling elders. In 
November, 1856, the Rev. John C. Boyd became pastor 
* Extracted from sessional records by Mr. James Watson. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 321 

for a part of his time; and, from 1867, until his 
release in October, 1882, he devoted all his time to 
Utica. In 1857, James M. Kirkpatrick was chosen an 
■elder, and William Stevenson, Robert McFarland and 
Wait Wright elected deacons. In i860, William 
Dunlap, Walter B. Finney and James Beall ; and in 
1865, James Watson, were added to the session. In 
1864, the congregation erected a new church building. 
William Hervey and Robinson Johnston were subse- 
quently elected elders. After the resignation of Mr. 
Boyd they were vacant nearly four years. The Rev. 
W. J. Coleman was installed in charge, April, 1886, 
and resigned in November, 1887. Among the prominent 
families here have been those of Dunlap, Kirkpatrick, 
Kirkland, Campbell, Jameson, Mitchell, McDaniel, Day, 
"Wright, Hervey, Adams, Watson, Beall, Stevenson, 
McFarland, Finney, Deary, Darrah, Bovard, Reynolds, 
McDermott, Boyd, Wallace, Hass, Dillon, Johnston, 
and others. 

Mansfield. This is a growing city and a railroad 
center, situated in the northren and central part of 
the State. In the spring of 1877, the Rev. Samuel 
A. George, then a licentiate, was appointed by the 
■Central Board of Missions to labor in this city, and 
began work when there were only three Covenanters 
in the city. The congregation was organized, October 
II, 1878, with forty members. The elders have been 
W. P. Clarke, James Railt, William Gregg, Johnston 
McKee, Michael George, S. H. Garrett and J. B. 
Jordan. Rev. Samuel A. George was ordained and 
installed pastor, November 20, 1878, and has built up 



322 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

a good congregation of faithful and energetic people. 
In 1884, they erected a handsome brick church edifice 
in the heart of the city and upon a public thorough- 
fare. 

Sandusky. This congregation was situated upon the 
Little Sandusky river in Crawford County, and not far 
from the present city of Crestline. The first Cove- 
nanter who settled here was William Jameson, in 1832, 
having emigrated from Western Pennsylvania. The 
Rev. J. B. Johnston, and others, occasionally visited 
the few families located here before the organization. - 
It was organized in October, 1843, and was supplied- 
for four years. The Rev. John C. Boyd became the- 
pastor in May, 1847, ^^d was released in November, 
1867, after twenty years of faithful labor. Not securing 
another pastor, the congregation gradually weakened 
until its disorganization in April, 1876. Among the 
leading families were those of Jameson, IVIarshall, 
Robeson, Moore and Reynolds. 

Miami. Under this heading will be included all the 
Covenanters in Logan County, and around the historic 
village of Northwood. In early times Cherokee was the 
post town. As early as 1828, a few families of Cove- 
nanters settled upon the head waters of the Miami river, 
among whom were Robert Scott, Samuel. Matthew, Jr., 
and Matthew Mitchell, Sr., Abram and Isaac Patterson, 
John Young, Joseph and Thomas Fulton, Mrs. Hays and 
Mrs. Margaret King.* They formed a praying society, 
and were occasionally visited by Revs. Hugh and Gavin 
McMillan, until the latter minister organized them into 

* Items from Mrs. James Wylie, Northwood, Ohio. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 323 

a congregation in October, 1831, by the election of 
Abram Patterson, John Young and Matthew Mitchell, Jr., 
ruling elders. In June, 1834, the Rev. John B. Johnston 
was ordained and installed pastor. The congregation 
was rapidly built up, and they erected a log church on 
the Creek near the present West Geneva Cemetery. In 
time this was replaced by a large brick church in which 
they worshipped for many years. The deacon question 
caused a division in the once harmonious flock, and the 
Second Miami congregation was organized by a Commis- 
sion of Synod, in August, 1851, and they erected a frame 
church building in the village of Northwood. In July, 
1853, the Rev. J. C. K. Milligan was installed co-pastor 
with Mr. Johnston over the First congregation, and they 
continued to teach in the College. Those members' 
residing in the vicinity of Rushsylvania were organized 
into a separate congregation in November, 1853, and 
soon afterwards erected a frame building for church 
purposes. The Rev. William Milroy was installed the 
first and only pastor of the Second Miami congregation 
in October, 1854. The Rev. J. R. W. Sloane, then 
President of Geneva Hall, was installed pastor of the 
Rushsylvania congregation, in January, 1855, and thus 
the three congregations enjoyed the labors of four 
eminent ministers. Dr. Sloane resigned the Rushsylvania 
congregation in May, 1856, and removed to New York. 
In 1858, the First Miami congregation lost both of its 
pastors. Mr. Johnston connected with the United Pres- 
byterian body, and Mr. Milligan resigned and removed to- 
New York. In November, i860, Rushsylvania succeeded 
in getting the Rev. Preston H. Wylie as their pastor,. 



324 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and in November, 1861, the Rev. John L. McCartney 
was settled over the First Miami congregation. In 1866, 
the First Miami congregation removed from the old 
brick church on the Creek, and erected the present large 
frame church in the village of Northwood. In September, 
1875, the Rev. J. L. McCartney was released from this 
pastoral charge, and in May, 1876, Rev. P. H. Wylie 
was released from Rushsylvania. In October, 1876, those 
members residing in and around Bellefontaine received 
a separate organization, and were supplied for four years. 
The Rev. William Milroy, pastor of the Second Miami 
congregation and Professor of Latin in Geneva College, 
■died in November, 1876, and thus the four congregations 
were left without pastors. In April, 1877, the First and 
Second were consolidated, forming the United Miami 
■congregation, and have since worshipped in the commo- 
dious First Church building, . and those members residing 
in Belle Centre were granted a separate organization. 
The congregations have since been four in number, with 
Northwood (United Miami) as the center; Rushsylvania, 
four miles east; Bellefontaine, eight miles south; and 
Belle Centre, three miles north. A new brick church 
was erected in Belle Centre, and the Bellefontaine people 
purchased a church building. In May, 1878, the Rev. 
H. H. George became the pastor of the Rushsylvania 
vcongregation, and the Rev. George Kennedy that of 
United Miami. In January, 1879, the Rev. John Lynd 
was installed at Belle Centre, and in May, 1880, Rev. 
Finley M. Foster was installed at Bellefontaine. In 
May, 1880, Dr. George was released from Rushsylvania, 
.and in August, 1880, the Rev. John Lynd was installed 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 325 

as his successor, with Belle Centre. In June, 1882, the 
Rev. George Kennedy was released from the United 
Miami congregation, and for four years the people made 
several unsuccessful efforts to obtain a pastor. In April, 
1885, the Rev. John Lynd was released from Belle 
Centre and Rushsylvania; and in April, 1886, the Rev. 
Josiah J. Huston was installed pastor of Belle Centre, 
and, in July, 1886, over Rushsylvania, which are his 
present charges. In May, 1886, the Rev. Ruther Har- 
grave, the present pastor, was installed over the United 
Miami congregation at Northwood. In August, 1887, 
the Rev. F. M. Foster was released from Bellefontaine. 
By emigration and death, Rushsylvania and Bellefontaine 
are greatly reduced in numbers, and, alone, are not able 
to support pastors. Among the old families and members 
at Northwood were Robert and Joseph Scott, Abram 
and Isaac Patterson, Samuel Hyndman, Samuel and 
Matthew Mitchell, James Gray, James Wright, George 
Hartin, John and James Trumbull, Cornelius, Samuel and 
Russell Jameson, Moses T. Glasgow, Stephen Bayles, 
John Crawford, John Young, Robert Patton, Jonathan 
Ritchie, William, Samuel P. and James S. Johnston, 
Robert and David Boyd, David Milroy, Robert McClure, 
Matthew Wilkin, William Rambo, Thomas Hosack, 
William and Matthew Pollock, James Keers, Robert 
Wylie, Allan Reid, Hugh Parks, Drs. Carter and Jenkin, 
Joseph Murphy, David Clark, George Johnston, James 
Steele, Joseph Clyde, Hugh Harvey, Archibald Lamont, 
John Day, John and James Reid, William Reed, James 
and William Dunlap, T. C. Speer, David Alexander, 
William C. Johnston, Thomas Logan, John K. Mitchell, 



326 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Joseph Forsythe, Ebenezer Milro}', John Campbell, James 
Fulton, John Keys, and others. Rjishsylvania : John and 
Matthew Mitchell, James Qua, Thomas M. Hutcheson, 
Henry and Michael George, James Wylie, Francis Halli- 
day, George and Renwick Day, John McCullough, Martin 
Johnston, and others. Bellefontaine : David Boyd, James 
Forsythe, James Guthrie, William Funk, Samuel and 
Archibald Foster, M. T. Glasgow, David Fulton, John 
McClure, W. B. Keys, Renwick Elliot, and others. Belle 
Centre: Cornelius Jameson, Dr. M. D. Willson, William 
McClure, J. B. Temple, A. G. Patterson, J. B., J. W., and 
S. M. Torrence, William Johnston, John and William 
Fulton, Joseph and Alexander McConnell, William and 
George Crawford, David S. McKinley, Alexander and 
Oliver Liggett, Abram P. Wylie, Cornelius J. Ferguson, 
and others. Miami congregation is closely connected 
with the educational history of the Church, for in her 
midst Geneva College was founded and fostered for 
thirty-two years; Geneva Female Seminary was in exis- 
tence thirty years; and the Theological Seminary remained 
here for several years. Many ministers and private 
members can look back upon " Miami " as the place 
•where they received much of their mental and spiritual 
instruction, and the name of " Northwood " will be a 
household word for many generations. 

Macedon. This small congregation is situated on 
the low rich plains at the head waters of the Wabash 
river, in Mercer County, in the central western part 
of Ohio. It was a preaching station as early as 1846, 
when Alexander George settled in this region, and 
continued as a preaching station until its organization 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 327 

in July, 1852.* The Rev. William F. George was the 
first pastor installed in September, 1853. About 1855, 
the typhoid fever raged with such fatality that many 
fell under its power and others moved away. Mr. 
George was released from the charge in April, 1858. 
In January, 1861, they secured part of the time of 
the Rev. P. H. Wylie, who, in May, 1876, continued 
to give them all of his time. Here he labored faith- 
fully under many discouragements until his release in 
March, 1887. The congregation is much reduced and 
has lost its organization. Among the old families were 
those of George, McGee, Woodburn, Fishbaugh, Mc- 
Donald, Gray, McMillan, Porterfield, and others. 

Cedarville. This congregation is situated in the 
northren part of Green County, and was formerly 
known by the two branches of Xenia and Massie's 
Creek. This country was first settled by Covenanters 
in i8o4.t That year the family of David Mitchell 
from Kentucky, and that of James Miller from Scotland, 
settled along Clarke's Run and held society meetings 
for some time. In 1808, Mr. James Reid, from Ken- 
tucky, and Mr. William Moreland were added to the 
society, and the following year they were visited by 
Revs. Thomas Donnelly and John Kell. They were 
afterwards visited by Rev. John Black, who constituted 
the society and dispensed the sacrament to about ten 
members. The next few years brought several more 
families, and the supplies preached in the barns and 
log houses. In 18 12, they erected the first church 

* Banner, 1878, p. 60. 

f Sketch by Rev. J. F. Morton, D. D., and from other sources. 



328 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

building, which was a rude log structure with a clap- 
board roof, and stood on the farm of James Miller 
some seven miles from Xenia. The Rev. John Kell 
preached for them about one-fourth of the time until 
1816. In May, 18 16, the Rev. Jonathan Gill became 
the pastor, and remained in this relation for seven 
years. In 1823, the Rev. Gavin McMillan, of Beech 
Woods, gave one-fourth of his time for six years. In 
the fall of 1828, the Rev. Hugh McMillan, of South 
Carolina, visited them, and, receiving a call, and 
bringing a part of his congregation with him from 
the South, settled as the pastor in September, 1829. 
In 1824, a new house of worship was erected upon 
the banks of Massie's Creek, two miles from Cedarville. 
At the division of the Church in 1833, there were one 
hundred and sixty-four members, one hundred and 
twenty-seven of whom went with the pastor into the 
New School body. The trouble about the church 
property was settled by allowing the faithful remnant 
to occupy it every fourth Sabbath and during the 
communion seasons. They continued to receive occa- 
sional supplies until the disorganization in August, 
1 841. They resorted to the prayer meetings and held 
fast to their principles. They were re-organized as the 
Cedarville congregation in June, 1850, and were supplied 
for eight years by the students of the Northwood 
Seminary, and others. Uniting with Cincinnati, the 
Rev. Henry George was ordained and installed pastor 
in June, 1858, and was released from this charge in 
August, 1866. Rev. Samuel Sterrett became the pastor 
in May, 1868, and was removed by death in October, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 329 

1 87 1. The Rev. Patterson P. Boyd was installed in 
charge in May, 1872, and released in July, 1874. For 
seven years they were a vacancy almost constantly 
supplied. The Rev. Thomas C. Sproull, the present 
pastor, was installed in June, 1881. Among the old 
families have been those of Reid, Miller, Mitchell, 
Moreland, McMillan, Hemphill, Willson, Grier, George, 
McConnell, Reynolds, Watt, Mclntire, Williamson, 
Foster, Erwin, Sterrett, and others. 

Brush Creek. This small congregation is situated 
in Adams County and in the southern part of Ohio. 
The society was first called Chillicothe, and was first 
visited by Rev. John Kell. In 18 14, the Rev. Robert 
Wallace began to give it a part of his time which 
he continued to do for six years. The Rev. Charles 
B. McKee was the first pastor, installed in August, 
1 82 1, and released in the fall of 1822. For five years 
they struggled for an existence. In April, 1827, the 
Rev. James Blackwood became the pastor and remained 
but two years. In June, 1831, the Rev. David Steele 
was installed the pastor. He had two principal places 
of preaching ; one being at Mill Creek, in Kentucky, 
and often in other localities on both sides of the 
Ohio. In September, 1840, Mr. Steele and some 
followers went into the " Reformed Presbytery," and 
Francis Gailey, who also claimed to be the only true 
Covenanter, made some disciples, and thus the con- 
gregation was weakened. The Rev. Robert Hutchesoni 
was installed pastor in September, 1842, but by 
defection, emigration and death the congregation was 
so reduced that he demitted the charge in May, 



330 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1856. The congregation now became disorganized, and, 
for twenty-five years, continued in this condition, 
although a few Covenanters resided there. It was re- 
organized in November, 1881, with thirty-three members, 
and enjoyed the stated labors of Revs. R. J. Sharpe, 
William McKinney, R. C. Allen, T. C. Sproull, and 
others.. Among the old families here were those by 
the names of George, Mclntire, Glasgow, Wright, 
Stevenson, Bayles, Milligan, Burns, Copeland, Hemp- 
hill, McKinley, Torrence, Foster, Ralston, Montgomery, 
and others. 

Beech Woods. The original of this congregation was 
situated in the western part of Preble County and along 
the Indiana line, and was a part of the Garrison charge. 
It was settled early in the present century by emigrants 
from South Carolina. It was supplied by ministers 
;passing to and from the South and increased rapidly in 
numbers. The Rev. John Kell took charge of the con- 
gregation in April, 18 16, and remained among them for 
three years. Samuel Robinson, whose relatives lived 
here, supplied them, with others. In May, 1823, the 
Rev. Gavin McMillan became the pastor, and the congre- 
gation grew rapidly under his faithful ministrations. 
During the division of August, 1833, he hesitated, but 
finally cast in his lot with the New School brethren and 
remained pastor of a portion of his former flock. The 
remnant were then attached to the Garrison congregation 
in Indiana and enjoyed the labors of its pastor. The 
Robinson and Ramsey families, with their connections, 
were among the leading members at Beech Woods. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 33 1 

Cincinnati. The commercial importance of this 
rapidly growing city attracted Covenanters from the 
mother country and from the South, very early in the 
present century. The congregation was organized in 
October, 18 16, by the ordination of elders John McCor- 
mick and James McLean, father of Hon. Washington 
and John R. McLean, of the Cincinnati E7tguirej\* In 
March, 181 8, Archibald Johnston became stated supply, 
and by his rare powers as a preacher gathered quite 
a congregation. He died the same fall. Rev. Samuel 
Robinson then took -charge of the congregation, and 
was deposed for intemperance in the summer of 1821. 
The Rev. Charles B. McKee was installed pastor in 
November, 1822. He was an acceptable preacher and 
taught the classics in Cincinnati College. The young 
congregation, which had worshipped in private houses 
and public halls for many years, now erected a brick 
church on George street, near Race, in 1827, on a 
plat of ground donated by James McLean. In 1831, 
Mr. McKee was released from the - charge and they 
were supplied. At the division of the Church in 1833, 
while the Rev. James W. Stewart was preaching for 
them, the whole congregation, with a few exceptions, 
went into the New School body and retained the 
church property. Among the most influential members 
who went into the new body at that time were : 
John McCormick, James McLean, John Hunt, John 
FuUerton, Joseph Beggs, William Monford, John Hazlett, 
James Sample, James Morton, John Edsworth, John 

* Reminiscences by Hon. Washington McLean, Moses T. Glasgow, and 
others. Also Banner, 1878, p. 59. 



332 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Walker, James Gray, James Mann and Dr. Killough. 
Those who held the testimony intact were : Hugh Glas- 
gow, John and Mrs. Gray, William Carson and Mrs. 
Mary A. Murphy. 'They continued to hold society 
meetings, and occasionally enjoyed a day's preaching, for 
ten years. The congregation was re-organized with 
thirteen members, August 22, 1844, by the election of 
Moses T. Glasgow and John Gray, ruling elders. In 
1845, the Theological Seminary was removed to this 
city from Allegheny, and for four years they enjoyed 
the stated labors of Dr. James R. Willson and the 
students. The first year the Seminary was conducted in 
a frame church on Elm street belonging to the Metho- 
dists, and the following winter, in a hall at the corner 
of Vine and Eleventh streets, where the congregation 
worshipped. In 1847, the spirited congregation leased 
a lot on Vine street above Twelfth, and erected a frame 
church upon it, with stores below. Here the Seminary 
also remained until 1849. They made out many calls,^ 
but they did not succeed in getting a pastor for several 
years. In 1853, James Brown and Alexander Bovard 
were added to the session. Uniting with Cedarville 
they succeeded in getting the Rev. H. H. George as the 
pastor in June, 1858. In i860, the congregation bought 
a church on Clinton street, near Central Avenue, and, 
after remodeling it, they continued to worship in this 
place. In August, 1866, Mr. George began to give all 
his time to Cincinnati. Being called to the Presidency 
of Geneva College, Mr. George demitted the charge in 
August, 1872. The Rev. R. M. Sommerville was the 
stated supply for a year. In December, 1877, the Rev. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 333 

James M. Foster was ordained and installed pastor, and 
continued in this relation until April, 1886. The elders 
are Andrew Mclntire, R. F. Glasgow and William Dear- 
ness. Among the names of old families may be 
mentioned those of Murphy, Gray, Glasgow, Finley, 
Brown, Bovard, Lusk, Mclntire, Johnston, Thompson, 
Martin, Mitchell, McCullough, Crawford, Dearness, Adams, 
Edgar, and others. 



MICHIGAN. 

Cedar Lake. This congregation is located princi- 
pally in Branch County, Michigan, and partly in Steuben 
country, Indiana. A few Covenanters emigrated to this 
country from Ohio, and succeeded in getting the organi- 
zation of a congregation in April, 1841. For nine years 
they were supplied by Presbytery and students of 
Theology. The Rev. John French was installed the 
pastor in September, 1850, and continued in this relatior* 
for thirty years, and until his very sudden death in 
October, 1880. For four years they were vacant, and,, 
after some troubles were settled, by which the California 
Mission Station was again joined to the congregation. 
The Rev. R. C. Wylie, the present pastor, was installed 
in charge in October, 1884. The Covenanters of Cedar 
Lake are intelligent and strongly attached to the old 
customs of the Church. Among the families long^ 
connected with the Church are those by the names of 
Jameson, Chestnut, Speer, French, Duguid, Mitchell,. 
McNaughton, Morrow, Judson, Stewart, Logan, Elsey. 

Detroit and Novi. The city of Detroit contained 
a few Covenanters, who, in connection with the society 



334 HISTORY OF the reformed 

of Novi, in Oakland County, were organized into a 
congregation in April, 1854. The Rev. Boyd Mc- 
Cullough was installed pastor in September, 1855, and 
remained in this relation for sixteen years, and until 
his release in May, 1871. At this time the congrega- 
tion had become so reduced by emigration that it 
was disorganized, but continued as a mission station 
under the care of Presbytery. In 1876, and for several 
years, W. M. Shanks was stated supply. The field is 
now practically abandoned. Hugh Woodburn, Walter 
Calhoun, Andrew L. McCurdy, Robert Torrens, William 
Wray, Robert Laird and George McCarroll were 
among the chief supporters and elders. 

SOUTHFIELD. This is the oldest and strongest con- 
gregation in Michigan. It is situated near the town 
of Birmingham, in Oakland County, and some seventeen 
miles north-west of the city of Detroit. David Stewart 
was the first Covenanter settling here in 1832, who 
was honored of God as the chief instrument in the 
organization of the congregation in May, 1834, and 
was a liberal supporter and efficient elder until his 
death.* For nine years the congregation was supplied 
and gradually increased in members. The Rev. James 
Neill was the first pastor, installed in May, 1843, and 
released in October, 1851. The Rev. James S. T. 
Milligan was installed pastor in November, 1853, and 
remained among these worthy people for eighteen 
years. The Rev. James R. Hill was installed in May, 
1872, and released in May, 1876. In June, 1878, the 
Rev. Joseph McCracken, the present pastor, was 

* Reformed Presbyterian, Vol. i6, p. 6i. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 335 

installed in charge, and he has built up a large and 
flourishing congregation of intelligent and well-to-do 
Covenanters. Among the families long connected with 
:the Southfield congregation are those of Stewart, Black- 
wood, McClung, Sloat, Parks, Bell, Cannon, Grier, 
Hemphill, Woodburn, McMullen, Marshall, McKinney, 
McLaughlin, McCarroll, Kirkpatrick, McCurdy, McDonald, 
Morrill, and others. 

Fairgrove. This is a comparatively new field and 
was cultivated by the Central Board of Missions for 
several years. It is situated in Tuscola County, nearly 
.one hundred miles north of Detroit and about twenty 
miles from Saginaw Bay. It was organized in Decem- 
ber, 1878, with twenty-six members. The Rev. J, 
Ralston Wylie was installed pastor in November, 1879. 
The congregation rapidly increased and a substantial 
.church building was erected in the village of Fairgrove. 
Mr. Wylie was released from the charge in October, 
1887. Among the elders are Thomas Wylie, John 
Kirk, W. L. Robey and John Morrow. 



INDIANA. 

Garrison, This small congregation of people was 
situated in Fayette County, and was a part of the 
Beech Woods congregation in Ohio. Emigrants from 
the South settled here as early as 1805, and occa- 
sionally enjoyed the services of a passing minister. 
It was organized in 1812, and the Rev. John Kell 
became the pastor in April, 18 16, and remained in 
.charge over three years. , Samuel Robinson, and others, 



336 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

were supplies. In May, 1823, the Rev. Gavin Mc- 
Millan became the pastor, and, during the division of 
1833, he and many of the people became identified 
with the New School body. The largest part of the 
congregation was now in Indiana, and the remnant 
at Beech Woods was added to Garrison. For many 
years they were supplied by John Holmes, Nathaniel 
Allen, and others. The Rev. Josiah Dodds was. 
installed the pastor in October, 1847, and continued 
in charge for eighteen years. The congregation was 
greatly reduced by emigration, and the Beech Woods 
branch was given up. In May, 1871, the Rev. Thomas 
P. Robb was ordained and installed pastor, and remained 
in charge three years. Six years again they struggled 
for an existence, and in August, 1880, the Rev. John 
J. McClurkin was installed in charge. He remained 
four years, and the congregation lost its organization 
in September, 1884, by the death of elders and the 
removal of members. Among the old Covenanter families 
at Garrison were those of Milligan, Stevenson, Gamble, 
Dill, Huston, Russell, McMillan, Culbertson, Alexander, 
Craig, Cook. 

Indianapolis. Immediately after the war of the 
rebellion a few Covenanters gathered " into this city, 
and the Central Board of Missions began to cultivate 
it as a mission field. In the spring of 1866, the Rev. 
John Crozier took charge of the mission, built a com- 
fortable house of worship in a desirable part of the 
city, and preached to appreciative audiences, among 
which were members of the Legislature. The con- 
gregation was organized May 10, 1867, with twenty- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 337 

four members, and Mr, Crozier continued in charge. 
The good cause so auspiciously begun gradually- 
declined, the congregation was disorganized in May, 
1870, and the church property was sold by the Illinois 
Presbytery at a small sacrifice.* Dr. J. T. Boyd, 
B. F. Breedon and David Fulton were among the 
leading members. 

Walnut Ridge. This small congregation was 
situated seven miles from Salem, the capital of 
Washington County, and in the southern part of the 
State. It was settled by emigrants from Tennessee 
and South Carolina about 1820. It was organized in 
May, 1822, and was supplied occasionally by Revs. 
John Kell, Samuel Wylie, and others. The Rev. Robert 
Lusk became the pastor in October, 1824, and ^the 
following year he was suspended on charges regarding 
monetary matters with his neighbors. Here he lived 
in comparative obscurity for ten years, when he 
desired to have his case investigated, and the local 
fama clamosa against his character averted. t This 
was done by a Commission of Synod, and he acknowl- 
edged he was sorry for being the occasion of so much 
trouble in the Church, and, after receiving an admoni- 
tion, was restored by Synod in May, 1835, and con- 
tinued to preach in his old charge for five years. 
In September, 1840, Mr. Lusk went with David Steele, 
and formed the "Reformed Presbytery," taking some 
members with him. In June, 1843, the Rev. John 
J. McClurkin was installed for part of his time, and 

*A'. P. 6^ C, 1872, p. 82. f Reminiscences by Dr. David Steele, Sr., 
and Minutes of Synod, 1834, 1836. 



338 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

remained in this relation until April, 185 1. For ten 
years it was occasionally supplied and lost its organiza- 
tion in May, 1862, and was regarded as a mission 
station for several years. The cause was soon extinct, 
as the members had either emigrated or died. Among 
the old families here were those of Carithers, Reid, 
Marks and McElravey. 

Princeton. This is the county seat of Gibson 
County and situated in the south-western corner of 
Indiana, not far from the confluence of the White- 
and Wabash rivers. The first Covenanters settling 
here were Samuel Hogue from Blount County, Tenn- 
essee, and Robert Archer, from Chester District, South 
Carolina, in 1805.-^ In 1809, Mr. Hogue, having 
returned to Tennessee on business, met the Rev. John 
Kell, who, according to promise, visited the families 
of Princeton in 18 10, and constituted a praying society. 
He continued to visit the scattered families from house 
to house in the then wilderness, and held the first 
communion at the house of Robert Archer, in October,. 
18 1 3, at which time the congregation was organized 
by the ordination of Samuel Hogue . and Thomas 
Archer, ruling elders. There were about twenty-five 
communicants. The congregation continued to grow 
by local accessions and emigration, and, in 18 14,, 
Robert Stormont and James W. Hogue were added 
to the session. The services were usually held in a 
log church owned by the Baptists and situated about 
one mile north-west of the town of Princeton. In 
18 17, James Lessly and Robert Milburn were added 

* Presbyterian Historical Almanac, Vol. 5, p. 382. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 339" 

to the eldership. The Rev. John Kell was installed 
the first pastor in June, 1820. William Crowe, having 
removed from Kentucky, was now recognized as a 
member of session. They erected the first church 
building in Princeton in the fall of 1820. It was a 
small frame structure and was occupied for sixteen 
years. At the division of the Church in 1833, Mr. 
Kell and the great majority of the congregation went 
into the New School body, and they retained the 
church property. Robert Stormont was the only elder 
that stood fast to the principles of the Church, 
The small but faithful remnant clung together, re- 
organized in July, 1836, and received supplies. In 
1840, they called the Rev. Samuel McKinney to 
become the pastor ; he accepted the call, but, before 
'his installation, he removed to the South. Uniting with 
Walnut Ridge they received a part of the time of Rev. 
John J. McClurkin in June, 1843, who continued in 
this relation for seven years. The Rev. John Stott 
was installed pastor of Princeton in October, 1851,. 
and was suspended from the ministry in June, 1868, 
when some of the members left, and the congregatioa 
became disorganized. It was re-organized in April, 
1869, with twenty members, and James Little was 
ordained a ruling elder. The members adhering to 
Mr, Stott were suspended from the privileges of the 
Church.* The Rev. Daniel C. Martin was installed in 
November, 1872, and released in April, 1888. Among 
the old families here are those by the names of 
Stormont, Little, Lockhart, Archer, Watt, Hogue, 
*F. P. d- C, 1869, p. 186. 



340 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Peoples, Crowe, Davis, Orr, Foster, Dickson, Faris, 
Mooney, Carithers, and others. 

Bloomington. This city is the capital of Monroe 
County and the seat of the University of Indiana. 
The Covenanters left the sunny South in the early 
part of the present century on account of the prevalence 
of slavery, and found abode principally in Indiana and 
Illinois. This settlement was made in March, 1820, by 
John and Thomas Moore, from South Carolina. The 
society increased by emigration from the South, and 
was organized in October, 1821. At this time there 
were only eight members, and John Moore and Isaac 
Faris were chosen elders.* In 1823, they lost the 
organization by the death of John Moore and the removal 
of Isaac Faris. They were re-organized in 1825, by the 
ordination of Thomas Moore and James Blair, ruling 
elders. The Rev. James Faris became the first pastor 
in November, 1827. At this time there were twenty 
members.. In 1830, David Smith and D. B. Woodburn, 
of South Carolina, were added to the session. The 
congregation now grew rapidly by accessions from the 
South, and others who were attracted to Bloomington 
by her educational advantages. At the division of the 
Church in 1833, there were about one hundred and 
twenty members, and they were divided into two nearly 
equal parts, the one becoming identified with the New 
School body, and the other standing fast to Covenanter 
principles. The pastor, and elders David Smith and 
Thomas Moore, remained true to the old flag. The 
congregation continued its work with about sixty 

*Rev. D. J. Shaw in Banner, 1879, p. 238. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 34 1 

members, and, in 1835, Thomas Smith, Robert Ewing and 
John Gamble were added to the session. The congre- 
gation had never possessed a house of worship, and, 
in 1836, erected a brick building two miles east of 
Bloomington. In 1838, James Paris was added to the 
session. In 1847, they suffered the loss of their church 
building by fire, and a better structure was speedily 
erected. The pastor, the Rev. James Paris, departed 
this life in May, 1855. The Rev. David J. Sha\v, the 
present pastor, was installed in May, 1856, and has 
labored faithfully and successfully in this field for thirty- 
two years. The elders added to the session have been 
Charles McCaughan, John Smith and David Paris in 
1862; John R. Hemphill in 1867; James B. Paris, David 
M. Smith and Robert Ervin in 1873; James S. and 
John M. Paris in 1879. In 1877, they removed from 
the country and built a handsome brick church in the 
city. The different families by the names of Paris and 
Smith, with their connections, have formed a large part 
of the membership. 

Lake Eliza. This was a small congregation situated 
in Lake County, and not far from the city of Chicago. 
It was settled by Covenanter emigrants from the 
Eastern States in 1850. The society was organized 
into a congregation in September, 1852. The Rev. 
Preston H. Wylie became the pastor in May, 1855, 
and remained in this relation nearly six years. In 
September, 1865, the Rev. R, M. C. Thompson became 
the pastor, and labored under mkny difficulties and 
discouragements for sixteen years. They enjoyed the 
visits of itinerants for several years, and the stated 
21 



342 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

labors of Robert Clyde in 1884. Gradually diminishing 
by emigration, the congregation was disorganized in 
1886. Here lived the families of Young,- McKnight, 
Kirkpatrick, Bovard, Russell, McFarland, Davidson, 
McLaren, and others. 



ILLINOIS. 

Early in the present century, Southren Illinois became 
a popular settlement for Covenanters who left the 
South on account of the prevalence of human slavery. 
They settled principally in Randolph and Washington 
Counties, and became the nucleii of the present con- 
gregations of Old Bethel, Bethel, Church Hill and 
Elkhorn.* 

Old Bethel. The first Covenanter minister to visit 
this region was the Rev. Samuel Wylie in the summer 
of 1 8 16. In the summer of 181 8, he was ordained 
by Synod as a missionary and sent to this locality. 
He made his principal preaching station at the " Irish 
Settlement " a few miles south-west of the present 
town of Sparta, and among a few members of the 
Associate Reformed Church. The first Covenanter con- 
gregation organized was in June, 1 821, with thirty- 
five members and the promise of a salary of about 
two hundred dollars per year. The elders were Samuel 
Little and William Edgar, who had the year previously 
emigrated from Tennessee. The Rev. Samuel Wylie 
was at that time installed in charge and the congre- 
gation was called "Eden," sometimes "Bethel," and 

"^ Presbyter ian Historical Almanac, Vol. i, p. 197. Bamrer, 1875, p. 156. 
R. P. &- C, 1884, p. 379. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 343 

the post town was Kaskaskia on the Mississippi river. 
Soon afterwards, James McClurkin, from the Associate 
Reformed Church, and James Monford, recently from 
South CaroHna, were added to the session. Emigration 
soon augmented their numbers and Covenanters flocked 
from the South and settled around the orginal society. 
In 1823, a comfortable frame church building was 
erected, surrounded by a spacious graveyard. Soon the 
house of worship became too small, for there were 
nearly three hundred and fifty communicants, and 
arrangements were made for a new church. Strife 
arose in settling the location, and during the erection 
of the building, in 1832, the original congregation 
was divided, and those at Hill Prairie received a 
separate organization. At the division of the whole 
Church in 1833, these congregations were again divided, 
and Mr. Wylie took many with him into the New 
School body. The remnant of the old Bethel con- 
gregation continued to hold their organization. The 
Rev. James Wallace became the pastor in August, 
1840, and continued steadfast to his post for twenty- 
seven years, when he was released in May, 1867, to 
labor in the interests of the National Reform Associa- 
tion. In October, 1869, the Rev. William J. Gillespie 
was ordained and installed pastor, and the following- 
year left the communion of the Church. For four 
years they were vacant and made efforts to obtain a 
pastor. In July, 1874, the Rev. Patterson P. Boyd 
was installed in charge, and was released in December, 
1887. 

Bethel. In 1832, the Hill Prairie branch of the 



344 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

old and original charge assumed this name, and lost 
members at the division in 1833. For many years 
they received supplies, and, in August, 1840, the Rev. 
Hugh Stevenson was installed pastor. He was a faithful 
minister, and, after six years of labor, departed this 
life in May, 1846. In October, 1848, Rev. James 
Milligan was installed in charge and remained seven 
years. In October, 1857, the Rev. David S. Faris, the 
present pastor, was ordained and installed in charge. 
In the .spring of 1875, the congregation left the old 
church at Eden where their fathers worshipped for 
over a half a century, and occupied the new and 
present church building in the town of Sparta. 

Church Hill. This congregation surrounds the 
village of Coultersville, and was organized from the 
Bethel congregations in October, 1854. The first pastor 
was the Rev, William F. George installed in March, 
i860, and released in May, 1871. In 1873, they erected 
a new house of worship, which is a comfortable one 
and well adapted for the purpose. The Rev. James 
M. Faris was installed pastor in June, 1873, and 
remained in charge eleven^ years. The Rev. John Teaz, 
the present pastor, was ordained and installed in charge 
in July, 1885. The congregation has done good work 
among the colored people of the neighborhood. 

Elkhorn. This congregation is situated a little 
north-east of the others, near Oakdale, in Washington 
County. It was first settled in 1831, by the families 
of John and Archibald Hood and James McClurkin from 
South Carolina. They located near the present site of 
the church, and the Rev. Samuel Wylie supplied them 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 345 

for a short time. Soon they were joined by others, 
and the congregation was organized in July, 1834, at 
the house of Archibald Hood, with nineteen members. 
John and Thomas McClurkin and John Donnelly were 
chosen ruling elders. The Rev. Samuel McKinney was 
installed pastor in April, 1835, and released in May, 
1840. The Rev. William Sloane was installed his 
successor in September, 1840, and remained in charge 
nearly eighteen years. In July, 1859, the Rev. Andrew 
C. Todd was installed and he remained twelve years, 
when he, and a colony of his people, emigrated to 
Colorado. The Rev. David G. Thompson, the present 
pastor, was installed in charge in October, 1872. The 
congregation is large and has been active in all Church 
work. All the congregations enjoy tokens of the Divine 
blessing, because of their faithfulness to Covenant 
obligations and Reformation principles. The Old Bethel, 
Bethel, Church Hill and Elkhorn congregations are so 
closely related in their history and members, that the 
names are grouped together as representative families 
of the Covenanter Church in Southern Illinois. Among 
these are Samuel Little, William Edgar, John, Thomas 
and James McClurkin, James Monford, Archibald Hood, 
John and Thomas Donnelly, Thomas G. Armour, John 
Hunter, William Kennedy, Alexander Moore, John G. 
and Charles R. Miller, William and John Weir, John 
M. Sloane, James Coulter, Joseph Patton, James and' 
Hugh Matthews, Andrew Todd, John Robinson, A. J. 
and R. S. Edgar, John Steele, W. A. Stevenson, M. K. 
Mawhinney, David H. Coulter, James Beall, James and 
Thomas Finley, W. B. Whittaker, John Houston, John 



346 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and J. M. Wylie, W. J. S. Cathcart, Robert H. Sinclair, 
Daniel Dickey, Samuel McCloy, William and Samuel 
Woodside, Robert McAfee, Robert Ramsey, Francis 
Torrens, D. F. McClurkin, A. W. Hunter, J. D. Elder, 
John E. Willson, L. M. Patterson, R. G. McLean, R. K. 
Wisely, J. R. Keady, and others. 

Staunton. This congregation is situated around the 
thriving mining town of Staunton, in the south-eastern 
corner of Macoupin County, and some forty miles north- 
east of the city of St. Louis. A few Covenanters 
settled here a few years previous to the organization 
of the congregation in July, 1863. The Rev. John 
Middleton was installed the* pastor in May, 1865, and 
was released in August, 1870. The Rev. William F. 
George was installed in charge in May, 1872, and after 
many trials, died in April, 1880. For seven years they 
were without a pastor, although they ^made efforts to 
-obtain one, and received almost constant supplies. 
Uniting with St. Louis they secured a part of the time 
-of the Rev. Ellsworth M. Smith, in May, 1887, who is 
now in charge. The congregation is small, but they 
possess a comfortable house of worship, and are earnest 
in their, endeavors to maintain the Reformation cause. 
Among the principal elders have been Daniel and W. 
H. Williamson, Silas Smith, W. J. Dripps, William and 
Hugh Patterson. A few members have lived in the 
city of Chicago, and other localities, but no societies 
were ever organized. 



WISCONSIN. 

Vernon. The first Covenanters settling in this region, 
some twenty-five miles south-west of the city of 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 347 

Milwaukee, were William and Mrs. Ann McLcod, from 
Rochester, New York, in the spring of 1844.* About 
the same time John McNeil emigrated from York, and 
they enjoyed the preaching of Mr. Nathaniel Allen, 
licentiate, who conducted services in a log school-house. 
In the spring of 1845, the family of James Wright, 
from York, and, in the summer of 1846, that of James 
S. Gumming, from Toronto, Canada, arrived. In June, 
1847, a society was constituted by elder Daniel Mc- 
Millan of York, which met regularly at the house of 
Mr. Wright. In the early part of 1848, William 
Turner arrived with his family from Coldenham, New 
York. They now received a few days preaching from 
Revs. James Love, James Wallace and W. A. Acheson, 
and the services were usually conducted in " Weir's 
barn." The congregation was organized as "Waukesha," 
October 18, 1848, with fourteen members, among whom 
were the families of Wright, Turner, McNeil, McLeod, 
McConncll, McKinney and Gumming. James Wright, 
James McGonnell and William Turner were chosen 
elders. In 1849, the congregation was taken under the 
care of the Rochester Presbytery, for in those days 
there were no railroads, and New York was nearest by 
way of the lakes. In June, 1850, the Rev. Samuel 
Bowden preached and dispensed the communion, at 
which time fourteen members were added to the Church, 
and the Rev. Robert Johnson preached two or three 
months. By the death of elder James Wright, and the 
removal of elder James McConnell, the congregation was 
disorganized November 18, 18 50. The present church 
♦Sketch by Rev. Isaiah Paris, in H. P. d- C, 1883, p. 332. 



348 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

building was erected in the town of Vernon in 1853, 
and the congregation was re-organized by a Commission 
of the Illinois Presbytery as "Vernon," September 16^ 
1856. William L. Wright with William Turner were 
the elders. The Rev, John Middleton was called ta 
the pastorate, but declined. The Rev. Robert Johnson 
was installed the first pastor in November, 1859, and 
remained in charge until December, 1867. In October,, 
1 87 1, Ebenezer Milroy and John Gault were added ta 
the session. After several unsuccessful attempts to obtain 
a pastor, the Rev. Robert B. Cannon, who was called 
the second time, was installed September 13, 1872, and 
remained nearly six years. In September, 1873, James 
Mann was added to the session. The Rev. Isaiah Faris^ 
the present pastor, was installed in November, 1878. 
The principal families have already been mentioned. 
Waupaca. This city and vicinity were cultivated as a 
mission station by the Rev. James L. Pinkerton, in 
1876, but no congregation was organized, as there were 
but a few families of Covenanters in that locality. 



MINNESOTA. 
Elliota. This congregation is situated in Fillmore 
County, on the Iowa state line, and about forty miles 
west of the Mississippi river. It was settled by a few 
Covenanters as early as 1865, and was under the North 
West Mission. In May, 1867, the Rev. James S. Buck 
was sent as a missionary to this place, and labored 
amid much physical weakness for several years. The 
congregation was organized in November, 1868, with 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 349' 

sixteen members, and they erected a comfortable house 
of worship. Mr. Buck continued in charge until shortly 
before his death in October, 1870. For eight years- 
they were supplied by the Central Board of Missions, 
and Revs. N. R. Johnston, Robert Hutcheson, and others, 
were stated supplies. The Rev. John W. Dill was 
installed pastor in April, 1878, and remained among 
them three years. In February, 1886, the Rev. Robert 
Clyde, the present pastor, was ordained and installed in 
charge. The families of Rice, McKinney, Lemmon, and 
others, have long resided there. 

Saint Paul. In 1855, Mr. James Aiton, of Rochester,. 
New York, removed to this city, and for six years 
endeavored to establish a congregation, but in this he 
was not successful. At different times it was visited 
by a Covenanter minister, and some families resided 
there. At the present time efforts are being made ta 
organize a society. 

Lake Reno. Along the shores of this beautiful lake,, 
five miles from Glenwood, Pope County, and about one 
hundred and fifty miles north-west of Saint Paul, is 
located the growing congregation of Lake Reno. 
Several years previous to its organization. Covenanters 
from Illinois and Indiana had settled here, and were 
organized into a congregation in October, 1869, with 
thirty-three members. Revs. Daniel C. Faris and 
Robert Hutcheson were stated supplies for some time,, 
and the field continued under the care of the Central 
Board of Missions for many years. The Rev. Edward 
G. Elsey was installed pastor in July, 1882, and is 
now in charge. Among the families here are those of 



350 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

William Hogan, William Matthews, David Campbell, 
J. L. Evving, James and Thomas Semple, Joseph M. 
Wylie, Dr. W. C. Allen, Prof. Z. G. Willson, and 
■others. 

Alexandria. This is a thriving town some ten 
miles north of Lake Reno, where some families reside 
belonging to the Lake Reno congregation, and is now 
regarded as a mission station. 

Round Prairie. This society settled upon this 
prairie, in Todd County, about thirty miles north-east 
of Lake Reno, in 1865. It was settled by emigrants 
from Indiana and Illinois, and was organized into a 
congregation in May, 1873, with eighteen members. 
They have since been under the care of the Central 
Board of Missions and never enjoyed the labors of a 
settled pastor. The families of Russell and Ewing 
have long been connected with the cause in that place. 



IOWA. 
Sharon. The first Covenanters settling within the 
limits of Iowa were the family of Robert McP^lhinney 
and his son-in-law, John Baird, from Philadelphia, in 
May, 1840.* They journeyed the whole distance in 
wagons, crossed the Mississippi at the village of Bur- 
lington, and pitched their tents on the banks of Honey 
Creek in the northren part of Des Moines County. 
In November, 1840, they were re-inforced by the arrival 
of the families of Samuel McP^lhinney and Thomas 
Cummings, and soon afterwards the Rev. Samuel Mc- 

* Sketch by Rev. T. P. Robb, in 7?. P. &= C, 1884, p. iii. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 35 1 

Kinney, of Illinois, preached to them at the house of 
John Hamilton. In 1844, Robert Brown, Robert and 
Aaron Willson joined the society, which was then 
constituted. They were now supplied with preaching 
by the Revs. William Sloane, James Milligan, James 
Wallace, John Holmes and Nathaniel Allen, from time 
to time. The society soon became so large that it 
was divided, and the first Covenanter congregation in 
Iowa was organized by Revs. William Sloane and James 
Wallace, at the house of Samuel McElhinney, September 
26, 1846, with seventeen members, and it was then 
called Linn Grove and Cedar. The elders chosen were 
Thomas Cox and Samuel McElhinney. The first pastor 
was the Rev. James M. McDonald, ordained and 
installed in charge. May 17, 1851. In 1852, a church 
building was erected on the present site, not far from 
the village of Linton, and the name of the congrega- 
tion was changed to Sharon. The increase was large, 
but from time to time members were certified to 
.constitute other congregations or removed farther West. 
By declining health. Dr. McDonald was compelled to 
resign the pastorate in June, 1872, and died a few 
months thereafter. The Rev. Thomas P. Robb, the 
present pastor, was installed in July, 1874. They 
occupy a commodious church building, and, in many 
ways, Sharon is one of the best country congregations 
in the body. Among the eldership and principal 
families here have been those of McElhinney, Baird, 
Willson, Glasgow, Paris, Sloss, Reid, Montgomery, Hays, 
McConaghy, Mclntire, Huston, Henderson, Walkinshaw, 



352 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Elliott, Hensleigh, Robb, Carithers, Cubit, Cunningham,. 
Stevenson, Marshall and Robinson. 

Kossuth. This congregation was also situated in 
Des Moines County, and was formed by members 
from Sharon, September, 1865. Rev. Robert Johnson 
was installed pastor in January, 1868, and was released 
in July, 1875. By the death of elder William O. 
Lindsay, the congregation was disorganized in the 
winter of 1876. It was re-organized in October, 1877,. 
and they sold their ' church, and erected another in 
the village of Mediapolis, two miles distant. Not 
receiving another pastor, and being greatly reduced by 
emigration, the congregation was disorganized in April, 
1879, and the remaining members were certified to- 
Linn Grove. 

Linn Grove. This was formed from the original 
Cedar society of the Sharon congregation, and organized 
in September, 1846, and now situated around the village 
of Mediapolis in Des Moines County.* Those opposed 
to the ofifice of deacon petitioned and were granted 
the organization of a separate congregation, but the 
Commission of Presbytery appointed for this work 
refused to do so because a deacon could not be 
obtained to accept the office. The matter was then 
carried up to Synod, and its Commission consisting of 
Revs. William Slater and William Milroy, with elder 
David Boyd, organized the Linn Grove congregation, 
without deacons, in September, 1856. There were 
twenty-five members, and Samuel Hawthorne and 
Daniel Cook were chosen ruling elders. The first pastor 



* Sketch by Rev. J. W. Dill, in R. P. & C, 1884, p. 437. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 353 

was the Rev. Charles D. Trumbull, ordained and 
installed in charge in January, 1864. At this time 
they erected the present church building. Mr. Trum- 
bull remained in charge ten years, and until his release 
in April, 1874. The Rev. Matthew A. Gault was 
ordained and installed pastor in May, 1875, and 
released in October, 1877. The Rev. John W. Dill 
was installed pastor in July, 1881, and was released 
in September, 1887. The elders have been Samuel 
Hawthorne, Daniel Cook, John Logan, Thomas Mc- 
Connell, Stephen Bayles, William J. McClemment and 

A. A. McKee. 

Morning Sun. Around this thriving town a con- 
gregation was gathered, and formed from that of 
:Sharon in July, 1873, with forty-six members. A 
•comfortable frame church was erected in Morning Sun, 
and they have enjoyed a good degree of prosperity. 
The Rev. Charles D. Trumbull, the first and present 
pastor, was installed in April, 1874, Among the elders 
here have been Stephen Bayles, A. W. Cavin, George 
Cunningham, John Mclntire and S. E. McElhinney. 

Rehoboth. In the spring of 1854, a colony of 
•Covenanters emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled 
near the present town of Wyman, in Louisa County, 
and were organized as the Rehoboth congregation in 
•October, 1854. In December, 1854, the Rev. Robert 

B. Cannon, from whose congregation in Pennsylvania 
most of the members had emigrated, was installed 
the pastor. He remained in charge thirteen years, and 
gathered quite a flourishing congregation. In August, 
1874, the Rev. Edward G. Elsey was ordained and 



354 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

installed in charge, and remained nearly seven years, 
and until his release in April, 1881. In February, 
1886, the Rev. James A. Black, the present pastor^ 
was installed. They possess a good house of worship.. 
Of the eldership have been A. Charleton, Jacob W. 
Willson, Joseph Purvis, William McCrea, John Dougherty,. 
H. F. and L. M. Samson, William Martin, Thompson- 
Graham, J. B. Dodds and Thomas G. Dunn. 

Washington. The congregation now collected in 
Washington was organized as Washington and Amboy, 
in November, 1863. The Rev. Samuel M. Stevenson, 
who had missionated in this field for several years, was 
installed pastor in February, 1865, and remained until 
October, 1871. In October, 1873, the Rev. W. Pollock- 
Johnston was installed in charge. He built up a good 
congregation and conducted a flourishing Academy. He 
was released in August, 1881. In December, 1882, the 
Rev. Thomas A. H. Wylie, the present pastor, was 
ordained and installed in charge. The Amboy branch 
was dropped, and the members of the old Ainsworth con- 
gregation were received in October, 1873. Of the elders- 
here are mentioned Hugh Thompson, David Porter, John 
Rowan, J. R. Kirkpatrick, W. J. Clyde, J. H. Willson, 
R. M. Stevenson, David Love, W. S. Wylie, W. B. Hay 
and H. F. Samson. 

Burlington. At different times the city of Bur- 
lington offered possibilities for becoming a center of 
Covenanterism, and, in 1879, was regarded as a mission 
station. In 188 1, the Rev. T. A. H. Wylie labored here 
with a good degree of success under the Central Board of 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 35 S 

Missions. The members there are in connection with 
the Sharon congregation. 

Davenport. In some respects the city of Daven- 
port was the most promising point in the State of 
Iowa. For many years it was the only place above 
St. Louis where the Mississippi was spanned by a 
bridge, and, being situated most beautifully at the foot 
of the Rock Island rapids, in a healthy location and 
commanding commercial importance, was a field well 
worth cultivating. A congregation was organized in 
this city in September, 1864, principally through the 
efforts of John B. McElroy. It received supplies from 
Presbytery, but, by the removal of members, it became 
disorganized in May, 1869, and continued to occasionally 
receive supplies as a mission station until May, 1883. 

HOPKINTON. Covenanters settled in Delaware County, 
and in the vicinity of this village, as early as 1850. 
In the fall of 1855, the Rev. William L. Roberts, D. D., 
removed from Sterling, New York, and took charge of 
this promising field.* The congregation was organized 
in April, 1856, and was called "Maquoketa," after the 
river that flows past the village of Hopkinton, and was 
changed to the present name in 1879. Robert Gilmore 
and J. B. Whittaker were chosen elders, and James 
Kilpatrick, deacon. Mr. Roberts continued as stated 
supply until May, i860, when he was regularly installed 
pastor. In December, 1864, the pastor was removed by 
death. In April, 1867, the Rev. David H. Coulter was 
ordained and installed pastor, and remained in charge 
until October, 1874. In June, 1875, the Rev. Robert 

* Items from Mr. James Grier, Sand Spring, Iowa. 



356 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

C. Wylie was installed, and demitted the charge in 
October, 1882, to labor in the interests of National 
Reform. In September, 1886, the Rev. Thomas H. 
Acheson was ordained and installed in charge, and is 
the present efificient pastor. Of the principal members 
have been James Grier, Robert Gilmore, Peter Guthrie, 
James Kilpatrick, Andrew Orr, J. B. Whittaker, William 
McGlade, James Douglas, William Morrison, H. M. 
Johnston, Patterson O. Joseph, R. L. Wallace, William 
McCullough. 

Grove Hh.l. Emigrants, chiefly from southern Ohio, 
settled in the vicinity of Grove Hill, in Bremer County, 
in 1856, and continued to gather until the congregation 
was organized in October, 1861. The Rev. Robert 
Hutcheson continued to supply them until his installa- 
tion as pastor in April, 1863. He resigned the charge 
in May, 1867, and supplied them until the congregation 
was disorganized by emigration in May, 1869. 

Hickory Grove. A few families of Covenanters 
from Ohio settled in Monroe County, and not far from 
Albia, in 1863. They were followed by the Rev. James 
Love in 1864, and he ministered to them until the 
organization as Albia in October, 1865. The name 
was changed to Hickory Grove in May, 1872. In 
April, 1866, Mr. Love was installed pastor, and con- 
tinued in this relation until old age caused his release 
in September, 1881. In September, 1882, the Rev. 
James A. Thompson, the present pastor, was installed 
in charge. Of the elders have been Joseph Purvis 
and James Boyd. 

Walnut City. A society of Covenanters settled in 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 35/ 

Appanoose County, and near this city, in 1865, and 
were organized into a congregation in March, 1868. 
In September, 1870, the Rev. Isaiah Faris became the 
first and only pastor, and was released in May, 1877. 
Not obtaining another pastor, many emigrated, and the 
congregation was disorganized in April, 1884, and was 
regarded as a mission station. James W. Dougherty, 
Matthew Chestnut, Samuel Milligan and Joseph 
Stevenson were among the elders. 

Clarinda. Emigrants chiefly from Sharon congrega- 
tion settled in the far west Page County, as the nucleus 
of the present Clarinda congregation, in 1852. In 
those days there were no railroads in this country, 
and, by journeying in wagons through an almost 
unsettled country they found a resting place on the 
rolhng prairie along the Nodaway river.* In December, 
1855, they received an organization when there were 
thirteen families and thirty-three members. In the fall 
of 1856, the Rev. Joseph McCracken found his way 
among them as the pastor-elect, but, by the badness 
of the roads and the isolated location, the Commis- 
sion did not install him until July, 1857. He remained 
in charge less than two years. In September, 1862, 
the Rev. David McKee, the present pastor, was installed 
in charge. Since his settlement the country has been 
wholly transformed by the building of numerous rail- 
roads and the fine cultivation of the rich prairies. Of 
the families are those of Willson, Hutcheson, Glasgow, 
Brown, Gilmore, Linn, Caskey, McDowell, Tippin, 

* Reformed Presbyterian, Vol. 20, p. 128. 
22 



35^ HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Connerry, Neill, Aikin. Whitehill, McKee, Pinkerton, 
McCalla, McFarland. 

Long Branxh. A little south of Clarinda, and along 
the Missouri State line, is situated the flourishing con- 
gregation of Long Branch. They were organized in 
April, 1877, and for two years enjoyed the stated 
labors of the Rev. Matthew A. Gault. Mr. Gault was 
installed the pastor in October, 1880, and remained 
in charge two years, when he was released to enter 
upon the work of National Reform in the West. In 
October, 1887. the Rev. B. Melancthon Sharp was 
ordained and installed pastor, . and is now in charge. 
Among the elders here are J. H. Walkinshaw, William 
McCrory and John McElroy. The congregation suffered 
the loss of their church building by a cyclone a few 
years ago, but a more commodious one Avas soon 
erected in the town of Blanchard. 



MISSOURI. 
Saint Louis. The natural location of the city of 
Saint Louis on "the father of waters," with the bound- 
less resources of the agricultural West, with its 
mineral, manufacturing and commercial advantages, with 
transportation by water and rail, at once commanded 
the name of the chief city in the Mississippi Valley. 
A few Covenanters had gathered in this emporium of 
the West as early as 1840, but with no opportunity 
to wait upon their own services. The congregation 
was organized in the old Associate Reformed Church, 
April 2, 1846, by Rev. James Wallace, with elders 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 359 

James Finley and John Donnelly, of Illinois."' Henr}- 
Dean and John Moffit were chosen ruling elders. 
They worshipped principally in the Associate Reformed 
Church. In July, 1852, the Rev. Andrew C. Todd 
was ordained and installed pastor, and at that time 
there were forty members. In the following year, 
through the liberality of A. G. Gamble, Esq., then 
Postmaster of Saint Louis, they were put in possession 
of a lot of ground, now at the corner of Gamble 
Avenue and Mercer street, where they erected a church 
building. Mr. Todd resigned the charge in April, 
1857. The Rev. Joseph McCracken was installed 
pastor in October, 1859, and was pastor for fifteen 
years, when he was translated to Geneva College in 
September, 1874. In September, 1877, the Rev. James 
R. Hill was installed pastor, and released in April, 
1885. Uniting with Staunton, Illinois, they obtained 
a part of the time of the Rev. Ellsworth M. Smith, who 
was ordained and installed in charge in May, 1887. 
Among the principal families here may be named those 
of Henry Dean, Dr. John McKinley, John Moffit, George 
Thomas, Thomas Cox, Silas and Robert J. Smith, 
Daniel Williamson, James Kirk, Samuel W. McClurkin, 
Thomas Matthews, John Gass, William Patterson, James 
Orr, Henry and James Martin, Rev. James Wallace, 
John Ingram, William C. Bovard, Zaccheus G. Willson, 
J. P. Montgomery. 

Sylvania. a few Covenanters settled in Dade 
County, south-western Missouri, and were gathered into 
a society chiefly through the efforts of the Rev. James 

* Covenanter, Vol. 2, p. 21. 



36o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Wallace. They were organized into a congregation, 
August 10, 1 871, with forty-nine members. Fourteen 
of these were received from the Free Presbyterian, 
United Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, Methodist 
and Roman Catholic Churches.* For nearly five years 
they were supplied by Presbytery, and, in 1876, the 
Rev. Josiah Dodds labored among them for two years. 
He was installed pastor in May, 1878, and is now in 
charge. W. M. Edgar, William Taylor, R. C. McGee, 
Thomas Crozier, James Coulter, Philip Eckard, Hugh 
McCluey and Dr. Robert Dunlap have been active and 
representative members. 

Cameron. This was a mission station, and for several 
years supplied by the Rev. Robert B. Cannon. No 
congregation was organized. 

Kansas City. A few Covenanters are now living 
in this rapidly growing city, and, chiefly through the 
efforts of Mr. David Boyd, arrangements are being 
made for the organization of a mission of which Rev. 
J. Milligan Wylie is in charge. 



KANSAS. 

The congregations in the great West have been so 
recently organized, and the membership so changeable, 
that the history of Covenanterism in this vast region 
is not ready to be written. With few exceptions, 
they have at one time been cultivated by the Central 
Board of Missions, and some of them are now receiving 
help from that source. Numerous also have been the 

*A'. P. d- C, 1871, p. 317. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 36 1 

laborers who have spent a few months in different 
localities. Societies are springing up all over the West 
and loudly calling for help. Home Mission work is 
employing laborers whose duty it is to gather scattered 
families into societies and congregations. 

Olathe. This is a growing town and destined 
soon to became a suburb of Kansas City. It is the 
capital of Johnston County, and in the eastern part 
of the State. The congregation was organized in April, 

1865, through the labors of the Rev. William W. Mc- 
Millan. Mr. McMillan was installed pastor in March, 

1866, and labored for nearly twenty years and until 
his release in October, 1885. The Rev. Joseph H. 
Wylie was installed pastor in October, 1887. Among 
the families here are those of Dr. Bell, Samuel Dickey, 
J. M. Hutcheson, Joseph Thompson, W. S. Mitchell, 
Thompson and Alexander Moore, John Robinson, 
Walter McCrea, Samuel and Robert Galbraith, James 
M. Renfrew, John Acheson, James Ritchie and James 
Hunter. 

Pleasant Ridge. A few miles from Olathe, in 
Johnston County, Pleasant Ridge is located, and was 
originally a part of the former congregation. It received 
a separate organization in August, 1871. The Rev. 
Matthew Wilkin was the first pastor, installed for a. 
part of his time, in May, 1874, and was removed by 
death in July, 1880. In October, 1881, the Rev. R.. 
M. C. Thompson, the present pastor, was installed.. 
Among the elders have been J. M. Marvin, John 
Sterritt, T. M. and James Hutcheson. 

Winchester. This is the largest congregation of 



362 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Covenanters in Kansas, and surrounds the growing 
town of Winchester, the capital of Jefferson County, 
It was built up chiefly through the labors of the Rev. 
Josiah Dodds, and was organized in September, 1868. 
In November, 1868, Mr. Dodds became the pastor, 
and remained in this relation eight years. In August, 
1877, the present pastor, the Rev. David H. Coulter, 
was installed in charge. Among the members here are 
James Thompson, John Moore, David Paris, George 
Thomas, W. R. Curry, Hugh Selders, John R. Reynolds, 
Samuel and David Dill, William McCrea, David Logan, 
James R. Mclntire, James White and John Carson. 

North Cedar. North-west of Winchester, and in 
ihe adjoining County of Jackson, is the flourishing con- 
gregation of North Cedar. It was cultivated by the 
Rev. J. S. T. Milligan and organized in October, 
1 87 1. Since October, 1872, Mr. Milligan has been the 
pastor. Of the elders have been James Keers, J. M. 
.Law, J. L. Wright and William Wylie. 

ESKRIDGE. This promising congregation is located 
in Wabaunsee County, south-west of the city of 
Topeka, and was organized in April, 1884. In August, 
1886, the Rev. Nathan M. Johnston became the 
pastor, and is in charge. 

Hebron. There are two congregations in Clay 
County, and near Clay Centre. They were organized 
in November, 1871, as Republican City and Eagle 
Bend, and changed to Hebron in May, 1876. The 
Rev. J. S. T. Milligan supplied it for several years. 
The Rev. Samuel M. Stevenson was installed pastor 
in October, 1874, and released in April, 1876. In 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 363 

November, 1876, the Rev. Matthew Wilkin was installed 
for part of his time, and was removed by death in 
July, 1880. In August, 1882, the Rev. James R. 
Latimer, the present pastor, was installed in charge. 
J. B. Porter, John T. Sanderson and A. Copeland 
have been elders. 

Tabor. The other congregation in Clay County, and 
near Clay Centre, is Tabor. It was originally a part 
of the Republican City and Eagle Bend congregation, 
and received a separate existence in October, 1873. 
Since October, 1874, the Rev. Samuel M. Stevenson has 
been the pastor. Of the elders are W. B. Whittaker, 
William Rodgers and W. B. McElroy. 

Jewell. On the northern central border of Kansas 
is located the congregation of Jewell, situated in the 
south-eastern part of Jewell County. It was organized 
from the Rubens and Holmwood congregation, in July, 
1885. James M. Adams and S. Y. Hutcheson are corre- 
spondents. 

Holmwood. This is situated in the northern part of 
Jewell County, and not far from Mankato. It included 
Rubens, and was organized in September, 1881. J. B, 
Alexander, John A. Mclntire and George M. Tippin, 
are elders. 

Sterling. Near the center of the State, in Rice 
County, and upon the Arkansas river, is located the 
congregation of Sterling. It was organized in November, 
1877, and the Rev. John M. Armour was in charge 
until May, 1885. The Rev. Preston H. Wylie became 
the pastor in April, 1887, and is now in charge. 
Among the principal families are those of W. J. 



364 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Connery, James Humphreys, R. H. Matthews, J. M. 
Davis, William Lemon, J. Selfridge, James Frem, William 
Davis and Nathaniel Patton. 

Rochester. Some forty miles south of Sterling is 
the young congregation of Rochester, in Kingman 
County. It was organized in December, 1886. 

QuiNTER. This newly organized congregation is 
situated in Gove County, and in the western part of 
the State. It was organized in July, 1887. 

BURDETT. Some fifty miles west of Sterling, and 
not far from Larned, Pawnee County, lies the congre- 
gation of Burdett, organized in July, 1887, It is 
supplied by the Central Board of Missions. 



NEBRASKA. 

Wahoo. The town of Wahoo is the capital of 
Saunders County, and situated some forty miles directly 
west of the city of Omaha. The other society of the 
congregation is at Fremont, north-east of Wahoo, in 
Dodge County, and on the Platte river. They were long 
cultivated by the Central Board of Missions, and 
organized as the Wahoo and Fremont congregation, in 
December, 1871, with thirteen members. In October, 
1877, the Rev. James A. Thompson became the pastor, 
and was released in May, 1880. The Rev. Dr. Hugh 
P. McClurkin, the present pastor, was installed in 
February, 1884. J. M. Lee, Joseph Manners and Frank 
L. McClelland are among the leading elders. 

Superior. Situated around the growing town of 
Superior, in Nuckolls County, on the Republican river 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 365 

and near the Kansas line, is located this thriving 
congregation. It was organized in September, 1881, 
and the Rev. Robert C. Allen became the pastor in 
December, 1882, and was released in October, 1884, 
The congregation lost its organization in May, 1885, 
but was re-organized in August, 1885. The Rev. 
Patterson P. Boyd was installed pastor in March, 1888. 

Beulah. This congregation is situated in Webster 
County, on the Republican river, some fifteen miles 
west of Superior. It was organized in September, 1881. 
The Rev. William S. Fulton has been pastor for a part 
of his time since March, 1885. 

ECKLEY. Some miles north of Beiilah, in Webster 
County, lies the congregation of Eckley, organized in 
November, 1878, with seventeen members. The Rev. 
William S. Fulton has been the pastor for part of his 
time since March, 1885. David and D. D. Mearns,, 
Adam Orr and William H. Middleton are among the 
leading members and officers. 



COLORADO. 

Evans. A colony of Covenanters, chiefly from- 
Southern Illinois and lead by the Rev. Andrew C. 
Todd, settled around the town of Evans, in Weld 
County, in the northern part of this State, in the 
spring of 1871. The situation is some forty-five miles 
north of the city of Denver, and about twenty-five 
miles east of the base of the Rocky Mountains, and 
in full view of Long's Peak which is covered with 
perpetual snow. The congregation received an organiza- . 



366 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tion in August, 1871, and Mr. Todd continued to 
minister to them. They erected a neat brick church 
in the town of Evans. Mr. Todd was formally installed 
pastor in August, 1874. 

La Junta. This society is situated in Bent County, 
in south-eastern Colorado. This is a new field. There 
live the families of J. C. Uodds and J. M. Hill. 

Denver. A few families of Covenanters are living 
in this city, but no organization has yet been effected. 



WASHINGTON TERRITORY. 
Sunnvdale. This society of Covenanters is situated 
near the villages of Sunnydale and Kent, some fifteen 
miles from the city of Seattle, on Puget Sound. In 
1885, two families from Lake Reno, Minnesota, settled 
in this locality and they were joined by elder Dr. 
Ewing from Round Prairie, Minnesota, two years later. 
In October, 1887, they were visited by the Rev. N. 
R. Johnston, of California, who preached to them 
several Sabbaths. These families of Covenanters hold 
society meetings, conduct a prosperous Sabbath School, 
and form the nucleus of a congregation. The principal 
families are those of Dr. W. H. PLwing, D. S. Elsey 
and S. G. Clark. 



CALIFORNIA. 

Oakland. Covenanters have reached the Golden 

•Gate. In 1875, the Rev. N. R. Johnston and family 

removed to this city and opened amission among the 

■Chinese. A few scattered families of Covenanters reside 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 367 

in different parts of the State. In August, 1879, a 
mission congregation was organized in Oakland, by a 
Commission of Synod consisting of Rev. N. R. Johnston, 
and elders S. M. McCloy and David Mitchell, of Santa 
Anna. Twenty-two members were received, ten of 
whom were Chinese converts, and John Rice and Ju 
Sing were ordained ruling elders. Mr, Johnston was 
placed in charge. By the removal of elder Rice the 
congregation was disorganized in May, 1885, and Mr. 
Johnston continues to preach in connection with the 
mission. 

No doubt in many of the States and Territories of 
the great West there are numerous scattered families 
of Covenanters, but so far as is known to collaters 
of statistics, all the organized societies have been 
noticed. 



COVENANTERISM IN THE SOUTH. 
During the persecution and banishment of the Cove- 
nanters from Scotland over two hundred years ago, 
many of them settled on the Eastern Shore of Mary- 
land, in parts of Virginia and South Carolina, but 
they formed no separate societies, and in time went 
into the different Presbyterian Churches as they were 
formed in America. During the rapid flow of emigra- 
tion to this country previous to 1770, the Covenanters 
were not distinguished by historians from the Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians, and the early history of these 
people, as a distinct class, is lost. 



368 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

MARYLAND. 

Baltimore. As early as the year 1797, ^ f^^^' families, 
of Covenanters resided in the city of Baltimore. At 
the formation of the Reformed Presbytery, in the spring 
of 1798, the Revs. William Gibson and James McKinney 
were directed to visit the people in this city. In June,. 
1799, the Revs. Samuel B. Wylie and Alexander Mc- 
Leod, at that time licensed, were appointed to preach 
here, which they did as often as convenient. In 1802,. 
the Rev. Samuel B. Wylie accepted a call to the united 
congregations of Philadelphia and Baltimore, and was. 
installed in charge in November, 1803.* Baltimore had 
no organization and was in a feeble condition. Mr. 
Wylie continued to preach here until 1806, when he 
demitted this branch and confined his labors to Phila- 
delphia. The society continued to increase by emigration, 
chiefly from Scotland, and they continued faithful in 
the society meetings. In 181 2, they bought the old 
Associate Reformed Church, at the corner of Aisquith 
and Fayette streets, and enjoyed regular supplies. The 
students of the Philadelphia Seminary were frequent in 
their visits, and gave the Baltimoreans an opportunity 
to choose a pastor. In the spring of 1818, they invited 
the Rev. John Gibson, then a licentiate, and who had 
preached for them a few days, to return to Baltimore, 
urging that the prospects for a large congregation 
were very flattering. This he declined to do; partly 
from motives of delicacy, and partly because ordered 
elsewhere by the direction of Presbytery. A unanimous 

* From the Congregational records and other sources. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 369 

^call was made out in his favor in April, 1818, and 
accepted. In July, 18 18, Mr. Gibson came to Baltimore 
and began his labors, but unforeseen circumstances 
delayed his ordination five months. The Baltimore 
congregation was regularly organized by Revs. Alexander 
McLeod, Robert Lusk and William Gibson, December 
15, 18 1 8, with forty members, and Rev. John Gibson 
was ordained and installed pastor. James McCauseland, 
John McLean and John Anderson were ordained ruling 
elders, and John Mortimer was appointed to read out 
the lines, and sing the few tunes selected by the Board 
of Trustees. Probably the first Covenanters in Baltimore 
were James Fletcher, James McCauseland, Robert 
Carothers and John McLean from Scotland; Mrs. James 
Black, John Anderson and Samuel Moody, from Ireland. 
In 1 8 19, emigration from Europe began to flow in 
rapidly, and among those who were added to the 
Church this year were Samuel Boyd, Archibald McGill, 
Alexander McCracken, John Neilson and James Wooden. 
The sacrament of the Lord's supper was, for the first 
time, administered on December 19, 18 19, and the pastor 
was assisted by Revs. Alexander McLeod and Robert 
Lusk. In 1820, John Milroy, William and Samuel 
Gumming, and Samuel Russell, from Scotland; and 
Patrick May and Patrick Boyd, from Ireland, were 
among those added to the congregation. In 1821, forty 
persons were added to the Church, among whom were 
the families of David Graham, Dr. J. Harper, John 
McElroy, John Wood, Walter Russell, James Kirkpatrick, 
John McElwee, Hugh Connell, Samuel Henry, James 
Logan, Willoughby Lewis, Robert Bates, John Little, 



370 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Joshua David, John Murphy and Arthur Baxter. In 
1822, eighteen were added, among whom were James 
Crawford, John Campbell, Hugh McConnell, John Davis, 
James Brown, Samuel Morrison and Alexander Scott, 
Willoughby Lewis and David Graham were added to 
the session. May 18, 1822. In 1823, thirty-five more 
members were added to the roll, chiefly from Scotland. 
Of these emigrants were John Waugh, James Mc- 
Collum, Samuel Boyd, Edward Spence, Patrick Dickey, 
George Smith, John Boyd, John Fisher, Jarnes Char- 
tiers, Alexander Hamilton, John Hamel, Daniel Lough- 
ridge, William Stavely, William Waddell, Moses Roney, 
William Johnston, James Dykes, Edward Hamilton, 
William Pettigrew, John McQuown and John Arnold. 
For five or six years the congregation added many 
members to its communion, and, in 1830, was one 
of the largest and wealthiest congregations in the 
body. There were over three hundred members. 
John Mortimer, Patrick Dickey and James Smith were 
ordained ruling elders in April, 1828. The church 
now became too small to accommodate the worshippers 
who flocked to hear the eloquence of Mr. Gibson. 
In 1829, the church at Aisquith and Fayette streets 
was sold, and the congregation bought a lar^e and 
commodious church at the corner of Holliday and 
Saratoga streets. Here large audiences waited upon 
the services, and many were added to the Church. A 
laxness in discipline followed this great success, and 
members were not always excluded from secret societies 
and the privileges of citizens. As a natural conse- 
quence, during the division of the Church in 1833,. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 37 I 

Mr. Gibson and nearly the whole congregation, left 
the principles of the Church, and went into the Pres- 
byterian and other bodies. The faithful remnant were 
left in charge of the church property, but it was 
too large for them to use, and a debt was upon it. 
They then organized themselves into a society, sold 
the church and paid off the debt, and the same year 
bought a little mission church on Gallow's Hill, with- 
out seats and a brick floor, which is the original of 
the present church building on Harford Avenue and 
Chase street. They spent a considerable sum on 
repairs, and asked for supplies. At the re-organization, 
November lo, 1833, there were about forty members, 
and James Hunter, Samuel Reid and Hugh Crocket 
were added to the session. During this year Patrick 
Morrow, John Dickson, David Warwick, Robert Mc- 
Rosey, William Laughlin and John McCrory were 
among those added to the Church. Soon they were 
followed by James Duncan, Patrick Hall, Andrew 
Mabin and William Robinson. The Rev. William L. 
Roberts was installed pastor in January, 1835. During 
this year Matthew Cowan, James Dickson, John Henry, 
James Jackson, Samuel Russell, William J. Dickey, 
James Ganston, Gregory Barrett, James Stewart and 
John Russell were added to the membership. John 
Ford and William Wylie were elected elders, January 
23, 1837. During this 3'ear, Mr. Roberts made a 
protracted Avar upon the milk dealers who delivered 
milk upon the Sabbath day. As many influential 
members were engaged in this business, the Church 
suffered greatly by their suspension, and the abandon- 



372 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ment by others. Mr. Roberts resigned the charge in 
October, 1837, ^^^ James Hunter, Hugh Crocket, and 
others, went with him to SterHng, New York. Among 
those who supplied during the next few years, was 
Francis Gailey, whom they called. Mr. W. J. Dickey 
was the commissioner to the Presbytery meeting in 
New York to urge the call, but upon the way with 
Mr. Gailey he discovered his duplicity, and that he 
■did not intend to accept their invitation. The call 
was declined. Mr. Gailey frequently returned to Balti- 
more and preached, and, when he made defection and 
was suspended in October, 1838, he took the great 
majority of the members with him, and they retained 
the church property. The congregation was again dis- 
organized, and the few faithful Covenanters were left 
without a house of worship. They resorted to the 
prayer meetings, which were held from house to house, 
and generally at the home of Mr. William Gumming 
in the eastern suburb of the city. Preaching was 
occasionally enjoyed, and they were visited by Revs. 
David Scott, Thomas Hanna and Charles B. McKee, 
The case of the right of the property entered the 
civil courts, and the trial was postponed from time to 
time. In 1842, the congregation was re-organized and 
the Rev. Charles B. McKee, to whom all honor is due 
for the existence of the congregation, was made stated 
supply in 1844. He preached and taught a classical 
school, and in this way the cause was maintained. 
The small congregation now worshipped in Union Hall, 
on the corner of Baltimore and Holliday streets, and 
subsequently in the church of the New Jerusalem 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 373 

Society at the corner of Baltimore and Exeter streets. 
At the re-organization of the congregation, July 17, 
1842, James Wright and James Dickson were chosen 
ruling elders. The Rev. Charles B. McKee was installed 
pastor in December, 1846, and the congregation began 
to grow. After the church property had been in the 
courts for ten years, and every effort had been made 
to obtain possession of the church, a present member 
of the congregation entered the church and remained 
there until it was opened by the authorities, and when 
he was found in the building, the court decided that 
the Covenanters held the property by right of posses- 
sion. After paying a part of the costs, the congregation 
has worshipped in their own house unmolested for 
forty years. The Rev. Charles B. McKee left the 
communion of the Church in December, 1852, and the 
congregation suffered another loss. They numbered 
about sixty members, and were determined to make an 
effort to obtain another pastor. The Rev. John Craw- 
ford was ordained and installed pastor in November, 
1853. Henry Smyth and Patrick Morrow were added 
to the session in May, 1854. Mr. Crawford died in 
September, 1856, much lamented by the congregation 
and Church. The Rev. William W. McMillan was 
ordained and installed in charge in December, 1859. 
D. James Cumming and William McLean were 
ordained elders in November, i860. Mr. McMillan had 
a great deal to contend with, as times were financially 
hard and the war of the rebellion was in progress. 
The city was in arms and many of the members had 
enlisted. Mr: McMillan resigned the charge in May, 



374 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1863, and for various reasons the congregation was 
greatly reduced. In August, 1864, the Rev. W. Pollock 
Johnston was installed in charge. In 1868, the church 
was wholly remodeled and a small Sabbath School 
room was put under the church. Matthew H. Wright 
and D. Oliver Brown were ordained elders in October, 
1 87 1. Mr. Johnston resigned the charge in July, 1873. 
The Rev. John Lynd was ordained and. installed in 
charge in December, 1873, and resigned in November, 
1877. In October, 1878, the Rev. Alfred D. Crowe 
was ordained and installed in charge. Captain James 
M. Shackelford and Joseph M. Smith were chosen 
ruling elders in November, 1880, and in October, 1881, 
James S. Mullen and George A. Maben were added 
to the session. Mr. Crowe resigned in August, 1884, 
on account of impaired health, and died a few months 
thereafter in Rochester, New York. In November, 
1885, W. Melancthon Glasgow, the present pastor, 
was ordained and installed in charge. Among the 
members not already mentioned are recorded the 
names of George Crocket, John Cummings, John 
Coulter, Alexander Kinnear, John McGowan, Robert 
Lamb, John Rodgers, William Ross, John McLean, 
Professors James R., Hugh, and Alexander M. Newell, 
Dr. John Dickson, Alexander Harbison, John McKinney, 
Fergus and James Johnston, William Knox, John B. 
Crocket, WilHam W. Russell, H. W. Calderwood, 
Thomas Moore, William Irwin, John Wright, James 
Maben, W. C. Purvis, Thomas McGowan, James 
Mitchell, Adam Wallace, W. J. Hughes, Robert Hunter, 
Robert Hughes, Captain William Hunt, George W. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 375 

Marshall, George B. and George M. Cummings, John 
H. McGowan, Joseph Bowes, J. Renwick Cummings, 
J. T. Plummer, Walter Nicholson, John F. Bachen. 



VIRGINIA. 

SUFP^OLK. A few families from Western Pennsylvania 
removed to the country below the Chesapeake Bay, and 
near the town of Suffolk, in the south-eastern corner 
of Virginia, and were organized as a mission station in 
November, 1876. They were sustained chiefly by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery ; and the ministers of that court, 
and the Rev. James L. Pinkerton supplied them for 
some time. The mission was disorganized in May, 1881, 
by the removal of some of the colony, and others going 
into the United Presbyterian Church. Among the 
families of this colony were those of John Haslett, 
John Galbraith, Thompson Gilleland and John Steele. 



TENNESSEE. 

HePHZIBAH. This once flourishing congregation was 
situated along the Elk river, near Fayetteville, in 
Lincoln County. As early as the year 1807, the families 
of Alexander Morton, John Paul, John Murdoch, and 
others, from South Carolina, located in this vicinity, and 
were visited by the Rev. Thomas Donnelly.* In 1809, 
and in 18 10, other families from South Carolina joined 
them, and the Rev. John Kell preached to them. The 
congregation was organized June 12, 1812, as the Elk 

* Reformed Preshytetian Advocate, I'&'ji, p. 160. 



376 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

congregation, by Rev. John Reilly, of South Carolina, 
and elder William Edgar, of Duck river, with eighteen 
members. At this time Samuel Little and Alexander 
Morton were chosen ruling elders. The sacrament of 
the Lord's supper was administered in the open woods, 
God's first temple, beneath the shade of a wide spreading 
beech. In 1815, they were visited by Robert Lusk, 
licentiate, and, in 1818, they called the Rev. Samuel 
Wylie, but he declined on account of the prevalence of 
slavery. In the spring of 1822, Hugh McMillan, and 
in the fall of the same year, Gavin McMillan, came 
and preached with much acceptance to the people. 
Rev. Gavin McMillan declined a call tendered him. The 
Rev. Robert Lusk dispensed the next communion in a 
grove, in October, 1822, at which time James Blair, 
John Carithers and James Morton were added to the 
session, the former elders having removed to Illinois. 
In 1823, they erected a log church. In 1825, the Rev. 
Robert McKee, licentiate, preached six months and 
received a unanimous call. He declined on account of 
the prevalence of slavery. In 1826, the Rev. James 
Faris visited them, and the congregation had grown to 
one hundred members. In 1828, Revs. James Faris and 
Ebenezer Cooper dispensed the sacraments, and Thomas 
Morton, Thomas Blair, Andrew Carithers and William 
Wyatt were added to the session. Mr. Cooper was 
now called to the pastorate, accepted, returned to 
the Northern Presbytery, and was ordained in June, 
1828. When he came back to the congregation for 
settlement, which now changed its name from Elk to 
Hephzibah, he declined being installed pastor, giving as 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 37/ 

reasons the prevalence of slavery and the great distance 
from his ministerial brethren? In 1832, Mr. Cooper, and 
the great majority of the congregation, emigrated to 
Fayette County, Indiana, on account of the evils of 
slavery. In 1833, the society became identified with 
the New School body, and is now about extinct. 

Duck River. A few families from South Carolina 
settled along Duck river, in Hickman County, south- 
west of the city of Nashville, in 18 10, but afterwards 
removed to Illinois and Indiana. 

RODGERSVILLE. A small colony from South Carolina, 
and emigrants from Ireland, settled along the Holston 
river, Hawkins County, in East Tennessee, in the early 
part of the present century. Some of them afterwards 
emigrated to Cincinnati, Ohio, and other free States. 
Among these families were Patrick Murphy, Dr. Archi- 
bald and Samuel McKinney. 



ALABAMA. 

Selma. The city of Selma was selected by the 
Central Board of Missions as the seat of the Southern 
Mission in 1874, and the Rev. Lewis Johnston was 
placed in charge. The Selma congregation was organ- 
ized May 21, 1875, with twenty-five members, four of 
whom were certified from the Baptist Church, three 
from the Presbyterian, one from the Methodist, and 
twelve were received from the world. Lewis Johnston, 
Sr., and George M. Elliot, previously ordained for the 
field, and Daniel W. Boxley were chosen elders. 
This was the first Covenanter congregation of the 



2,7^ HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

sable race ever organized in America, and the Rev. 
Lewis Johnston was installed pastor. Mr. Johnston 
was suspended in November, 1876. The Rev. George 
M. Elliot, the present pastor, was installed in Decem- 
ber, 1877. John Willdee and James H. Pickens were 
elected elders. The Revs. Hugh W. Reed and J. W. 
Dill preached at Pleasant Grove, six miles from Selma, 
where there is conducted a flourishing Sabbath School. 



gp:orgia. 

There was a society of Covenanters near the present 
town of Louisville, in eastern Georgia, as early as 
1780, to which the Rev. William Martin frequently 
preached. At the meeting of the Committee of the 
Reformed Presbytery at Rocky Creek, South Carolina, 
in February, 1801, a petition was received from this 
society for ministerial assistance. The Committee 
•directed the Rev. Thomas Donnelly to visit the society, 
and if he found it practicable to attach it to the 
Rocky Creek congregation ; and if not, to endeavor 
to send them supplies. There is no record, however, 
of any organization in Georgia, although groups of 
families lived within the limits of this State. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

Charlotte. A large number of Covenanters lived 
within the bounds of Mecklenberg County, and were 
visited by Rev. William Martin previous to 1785. 
They gradually migrated back to South Carolina, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 379 

other States, after the war of the Revolution, and no 
organization beyond the society meeting was ever 
effected. 

Statesville. Still farther north in Iredell County, 
and near the present village of Statesville, was a 
society of Covenanters in 1780, also visited by the 
Rev. William Martin. Indeed all through the southern 
and eastern parts of North Carolina there were a few 
societies occasionally visited by the ministers in the 
South, but were never formally organized into congrega- 
tions or had a settled ministr)\ 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Chester District. In the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century a few banished Covenanters settled at 
Port Royal and in the vicinity of Charleston, but on 
account of the unhealthy condition of the country 
they either migrated to Chester District or returned 
to Scotland. Soon Chester District became the strong- 
hold of Covenanterism in the South. In 1750, soon 
after the removal of the Rev. Alexander Craighead 
to the South, a few members of the " Craighead 
Society" at Octorara, Pennsylvania, and other Cove- 
nanters from Virginia and North Carolina, settled in 
this region. Among these were Hugh and John Mc- 
Donald. They settled along the Rocky Creek . and 
were the pioneers of Chester.* John McDonald and 
his wife were both killed by the Cherokee Indians in 
1 76 1, and their children were made prisoners. In 

* Sketch by D. G. Stinson per R. B. Elder, Guthriesville, S. C. 



380 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1755, emigrants from Ireland began to settle up the 
country, and among these were many Covenanter 
families. They built a union church and the Rev. 
William Richardson, of Waxhaws, became the preacher. 
The church was called "Catholic," because Presby- 
terians generally worshipped there, and this general 
meeting house was situated on the Rocky Mount 
road, some fifteen miles south-east of the town of 
Chester. In 1770, the Covenanters separated from the 
others and held society meetings. They then wrote to 
Ireland for a preacher and made every effort to obtain 
a minister. In accordance with their wishes, the Rev. 
William Martin, of Ballymoney, Ireland, came with a 
colony of his people in 1772, and settled along the 
Rocky Creek. No imaginary picture has been drawn 
when a description of the manners and customs of these 
patriotic Covenanters is given by Mrs. E. F. Ellet in 
her "Domestic History of the American Revolution,"" 
and written by Mr. Daniel G. Stinson, whose father 
was a member of this colony. This chapter of inter- 
esting Covenanter history will here be inserted : 

An interesting glimpse into the life and character of the Scotch- 
Irish patriots of South Carolina at the period of the Revolution is 
afforded in the history of Mrs. Green, daughter of Robert Stephenson 
(or Stinson,) a native of Scotland, who was born in the County 
Antrim, Ireland, in 1750. The family was reared in the strictest 
tenents of the Covenanter faith, in the vicinity of Ballymoney, under 
the pastoral care of the Rev. William Martin, who, in 1772, emigrated 
to America, and settled on the Rocky Creek, South Carolina. Many 
of the congregation quitted their country with him, and followed their 
pastor under impulse of the same desire of the " freedom to worship 
God." Among these emigrants were James, William and Elizabeth 
Stinson, and their brother-in-law, William Anderson, who married Nancy 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 38 I 

Stinson before the sailing of the ship. Her wedded life thus com- 
menced with a voluntary renunciation of home and the society of 
early friends, to seek a new country and to encounter unforeseen 
privations and difficulties. Bounty lands had been bestowed by the 
government as inducements to emigration, and those who received such 
warrants, upon their arrival took great care to fix their location as 
near as possible to a central point, where a meeting house might be 
built. Their spirit was that of the ancient patriarch, who first built 
an altar. The spot selected for this purpose was the dividing ridge 
between Great and Little Rocky Creeks. Here, in the summer of 1773, 
these pious Covenanters might be seen from day to day, felling trees 
and clearing a space of ground upon which they reared a large log 
meeting house, many of them living in tents at home, till a place 
was provided in which they could assemble for religious service. A 
number of log cabins soon rose in the neighborhood, each with a 
patch of ground in which Indian corn was planted. The Irish 
emigrants were ignorant of the manner of cultivating this grain ; but 
the first settlers, or " country-borns " were ready to offer assistance 
and took pains to instruct them in its culture. The wants of small 
families were supplied with small crops, for corn was only then used 
for making bread, the woods affording abundant supplies of grass 
cane and wild pea vines to serve their horses and cattle for provender 
the whole year round. The streams abounded in shad and various 
other fish in their season, and the trusty rifle that hung upon the 
rack over the door, was never brought back without having performed 
its duty in slaying the deer, or whatever small game might be sought 
in the forest. Often have the old men who lived in that day spoken 
of the abundance that prevailed ; a good hunter, when he chose, 
could make five dollars a day in deer skins and hams, while, if 
generous, he might give away the remainder of the venison to the 
poor. The hams and skins were sent to Charleston and exchanged 
for powder, lead, and other necessary articles. The wealth of these 
primitive Covenanters consisted in stock, their labors in tilling the 
earth, felling the woods and fencing their fields, while they were 
disturbed by none of the wants or cares created by a more advanced 
state of civilization. Such was the condition of the Covenanters, who 
had left their native Ireland, for the religious liberty found in the 
wilds of America. During seven years after their settlement in the 
woods, they enjoyed a life in which nothing of earthly comfort was 



382 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

wanting. Year after year the patch enlarged, the field becoming to 
-the respectable dimensions of ten acres, and then a good clearing for 
a farm. Every Sabbath morning the parents, in their " Sunday 
clothes," with their neatly dressed and well-behaved little ones, might 
be seen at the log meeting-house ; their pocket Bibles containing the 
old Psalms in their hands, and, turning over the leaves, they would 
follow the preacher in all the passages of Scripture cited by him, as 
he commented upon the verses. Their simple, trustful piety caused 
ihe wilderness to rejoice.. But this happiness could not be lasting. 
The rumour of war which had gone over the land, was heard even in 
this remote section, and these refugees who had found peace could 
not but sympathize with their oppressed brethren. Some, it is true, 
from the vicinity, had been out in what was called " the Snow Cam- 
paign," an expedition undertaken towards the close of 1775 against 
the fierce Cherokee Indians and certain loyalists in the upper regions ; 
and some had been present at the attack on Sullivan's Island in 1776, 
and brought a report to those remaining at home. The desolation 
that raged in the North ere long took its way Southward, and the 
families which were unmolested, and had enjoyed the pure ordinances 
of the gospel, were now disturbed. This immunity was of short 
duration. John McClure, of Fishing Creek, came home and brought 
the intelligence of the surrender of Charleston, and his own defeat at 
Monk's Corner. Still worse news came from across the river — of the 
inhuman massacre of Buford's command by Tarleton's corps at Wax- 
haws. This event gave a more sanguinary character to the war. 
Directly after this appalling announcement, spread the rumour that a 
strong party of British was posted at Rocky Mount, that the people 
of Wateree were flocking to take protection as loyal subjects, and that 
the conquerers were sending forces in every direction to reduce the 
Province to subjection. Such was the aspect of affairs up to a certain 
Sabbath in June, 1780. On the morning of this memorable Sabbath, 
ihe different paths leading up to the log meeting house were unusu- 
ally crowded. The old country folk were dressed with their usual 
neatness, especially the women, whose braw garments, brought from 
Ireland, were carefully preserved, not merely from thrift, but as a 
memorial of the green isle of their birth. Their dresses of silk, chintz, 
or Irish calico — fitted each wearer with marvelous neatness, and the 
collars or ruffles of linen, white as snow, and the high-heeled shoes. 
They wore fur hats with narrow rims and large feathers ; their hair 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 383 

neatly braided, hanging over the shoulders or fastened by the black 
ribbon band around their heads, comprised their holiday attire. It 
was always a mystery to the dames, who had spent their lives or 
many years in the country, how the gowns of the late comers could 
be made to fit so admirably ; their own, in spite of every effort, 
showing a sad deficiency in this respect. The men, on their part, 
appeared not less adorned in their coats of fine broadcloth, with their 
breeches, large knee buckles of pure silver, and hose of various colors. 
They wore shoes fastened with a large strap secured with a buckle, 
or white topped boots, leaving exposed three or four inches of the 
hose from the knee downward. It must be acknowledged that these 
people, so strict in their religious principles, were somewhat remarkable 
in their fondness for dress. They considered it highly irreverent to ap- 
pear at church not clad in their best clothes, and though when engaged 
in labor during the week, they conformed to the customs of their neigh- 
bors, wearing the coarse homespun of their own manufacture, and on the 
Sabbath it was astonishing to see how much of decent pride there was in 
the exhibition of the fine clothes brought from beyond the seas. As the 
years rolled on many of the dresses and coats began to show marks of 
decay; but careful repairing preserved the hoarded garments, linked 
with such endeared associations, and only a few, who had married with 
the "country-born," had made any alteration in them. The peculiarity 
of dress gave the congregation, assembled for worship in that rude 
sanctuary, a strange and motely appearance — European finery being 
contrasted with the homespun gowns, hunting shirts and moccasins of 
the country people. It was always insisted upon as a point of duty by 
Covenanters, that children should be brought to church with parents.' 
The little ones sat between the elders, that they might be kept quiet 
during Divine service, and also to be ready at the appointed hour to 
say the Catechism. The strict deportment and piety of this people had 
already done much to change the customs formerly prevalent. Men 
and women who used to hunt or fish upon the Sabbath day, now 
went regularly to meeting, and some notorious ones whose misconduct 
had been a nuisance to the community, now left the neighborhood. 
The Stroudes, Kitchens and Morrisses, formerly regarded as the Phil- 
istines of the land, were regular in their attendance upon Divine service. 
Upon this particular Sabbath, the whole neighborhood seemed to have 
turned out, and every face wore an expression of anxiety. Groups of 
men might be seen gathered together under shade trees in every 



384 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

direction, talking in loud and earnest tones, some laying down plans for 
the assent of their friends; some pale with alarm and listened to others 
telling the news; and some, transported with indignation, stamped the 
ground and gesticulated vehemently as they spoke. Everywhere the 
women mingled with the different groups, and appeared to bear an 
active part in what was going on. At eleven o'clock, precisely, the 
venerable form of William Martin, the preacher, came in sight. He 
was about sixty years of age, and had a high reputation for learning 
and eloquence. He was a large and powerful man, with a voice that 
might have been heard at the distance of half a mile. As he walked 
from the place where he hitched his horse, towards the stand (it being 
customary when the congregation was too large to be accommodated 
in the meeting-house, to have the service in the open air), the loud 
and angry words of the speakers must have reached his ears. The 
voices ceased as he approached, and the congregation was soon seated 
in silence upon the logs surrounding the stand. When he arose to 
speak every eye was fixed upon him. Those who had been most noisy 
expected a reproof for their desecration of the Sabbath, for their 
faithful pastor was never known to fail of rebuking those whose deport- 
ment was unsuited to thfe solemnity of the day. But at this time he 
also seemed absorbed with the great subject that agitated every bosom. 
"My hearers," he said, in his broad, distinct Irish dialect, "talk and 
angry words will do no good. We must fight! As your pastor, in 
preparing a discourse suited to this time of trial, I have sought for all 
light; I have examined the Scriptures and other helps in ancient and 
modern history, and have especially considered the controversy between 
the United Colonies and the mother country. Sorely have our 
countrymen been dealt with, till forced to their declaration of indepen- 
dence. Our forefathers in Scotland made a similar one, and maintained 
that declaration with their lives. It is now our turn, brethren, to 
maintain this at all hazards." After the prayer, and singing of the 
Psalms, he calmly opened his discourse. He cited many passages of 
Scripture to show that a people may lawfully resist wicked rulers;, 
pointed to historical examples of princes trampling upon the rights of 
the people; painted in vivid colors the rise and progress of the Refor- 
mation in Scotland; and finally applied the subject by fairly stating 
the merits of the revolutionary controversy. Giving a brief sketch of 
the events of the war, from the first shedding of blood at Lexington,, 
and, warming with the subject as he proceeded, his address became': 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 385 

eloquent with the fiery energy of a Demosthenes. In a voice like 
thunder, frequently striking with his clenched first the clapboard pulpit, 
he appealed to the excited concourse, exhorting them to fight valiantly 
in defence of their liberties. As he dwelt upon the recent horrid 
tragedy — the butchery of Buford's men, cut down by the British 
dragoons while crying for mercy — his indignation reached its height. 
Stretching out his hand toward Waxhaws — " Go see," he cried, " the 
tender mercies of Great Britain 1 In that church you may find men, 
though still alive, hacked out of the very semblance of humanity; some 
■deprived of their arms, some with one arm or leg, some with 
both legs cut oflf, and others with mutilated trunks. Is not this cruelty 
.a parallel to the history of our Scottish forefathers, driven from their 
•conventicles, and hunted as beasts of the forest ? Behold the godly 
youth, James Nesbit, chased for days by the British for the crime of 
being seen on his knees upon the Sabbath morning, etc!" To this 
stirring sermon the whole assembly responded. Hands were clenched 
and teeth set in the intensity of feeling; every uplifted face expressed 
the same determination, and even the women were filled with the 
•spirit that threatened vengeance upon the invaders. During the interval 
of Divine worship, they went about professing their resolution to do 
their part in the approaching contest; to plough the fields, and gather 
the crops in the absence of the men, aye, to fight themselves rather 
than submit. In the afternoon the subject was resumed and discussed 
■with renewed energy, while the appeals of the preacher were answered 
by even more energetic demonstrations of feeling. When the worship 
was concluded, and the congregation separated to return homeward, 
the manly form of Captain Ben Land was seen walking among the 
people, shaking hands with every neighbor, and whispering in his ear 
the summons to the next day's work. As the minister quitted the 
■stand, William Stroud stepped up to him. This man, with his sons, 
was noted for strength and bravery. They were so tall in stature, 
that like Saul, they overlooked the rest of the congregation. "He 
doubted not," he said, "that Mr. Martin had heard of his 'whipping 
the pets.'" "I rather think," he continued, "some people will be a 
little on their guard how they go to Rocky Mount for 'tection papers! 
Yesterday I was down at old deaf Lot's still house, and who do 
you think was there ? John and Dick Featherston. John said he had 
been to Rocky Mount to see the fine fellows, and they were so good 
to him as to give him 'tection. " Do, John, tell me what that is," I 



386 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

asked. He said "it was a paper, and whoever had one was safe; not a 
horse, cow or hog would the British take without paying two prices for 
it. So John, says I, I know now who told the British about James 
Stinson's large stock of cows which they drove off yesterday — knocking 
down Mrs. Stinson for putting up old brindle in the horse stable, so as 
to keep one cow to give milk for th« children ! Now, John, as you 
have British 'tection, I will give you Whig "tection." "With that I 
knocked him down. Dick came running up, and I just give him a kick 
and doubled him up. John got up and ran, and Dick begged like a 
whipped boy. I told him he might carry the news that 'tection paper- 
men should be whipped, and have their cows taken from them to pay 
James Stinson for his. I think this is what you call the law of Moses. 
And as for these Britishers, if I don't make old Nelly take in their ears, 
and be dad to them !" " Excuse me for swearing this time, if you please. 
Now, Mr. Martin, here is old Bill — that is two; then here is young 
Will, Tom, Jack, Hamp, Erby, Ransom and Hardy." The manner in 
which this characteristic speech was delivered may be imagined. Mr. 
Martin showed his acceptance of the proffered help by taking William's 
hand and introducing him to Captain Land. As they passed away from 
the stand, and on their way home from the meeting, one of the sturdy 
Covenanters, William Anderson, was unusually silent, as if some weighty 
matter engaged his thoughts. His wife spoke first, after reflecting. 
"I think, William, little Lizzie and I can finish the crop, and gather 
it in if need be, as well as take care of the stock." "I am glad of 
that, Nancy," was the reply. "I was silent, for I did na ken how to 
let you know it, but to-morrow morning I leave home. The way is 
now clear; the Word of God approves, and it shall ne'er be said that 
the Covenanters, the followers of the Reformers of Scotland, would na 
lend a helpin' hand to the renewal of the Covenant in the land of 
America ! Now, Nancy, Captain Land will be out before day, giving 
notice that up at the cross roads hard by, he will drill the men who 
are willing to fight; this was agreed upon as I left meeting." They 
journeyed home and ate their dinner. As they arose from the table, 
Mrs. Anderson said, "William, were you out at the Kirk in Bally- 
money, upon that Sabbath when Mary Martin, our minister's first wife, 
lay a corpse in his house ? No one thought he could attend to 
preaching in his sore distress; but precisely at the striking of the 
hour, he was seen walking down the long aisle to the pulpit. I never 
shall forget the sermon ! There was not a dry eye in the whole 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 387 

congregation; old men and women fairly cried out. I thought of 
that to-day when, after the sermon, old Stroud went up to him 
as if he had been one of the elders. Did you see the man of 
God clap Stroud on the shoulder ? Our minister is a wonderful 
man; he can persuade people to almost anything." Mr. Anderson- 
looked up quietly and asked, " Did he persuade you to marry him,. 
Nancy, when he went to your father's a courting ?" "Na, indeed,. 
William, I could na think of an old man when I had you 
fairly in my net. But I did a good turn in letting him know that 
Jenny Cheny was setting her cap for him, and sure enough he took 
my advice and they married." The Sabbath evening wore away amid 
the accustomed religious services, but the conversation frequently 
turned upon the war. Early upon Monday morning, the plough was 
left standing in the furrow, and the best horse was bridled and saddled 
and left standing at the door. Mrs. Anderson had been up since a 
little after midnight, making hoe cakes upon the hoe, and corn dodger 
in the oven, and while the cooking of meats was going on, she was 
busily plying the needle sewing up sacks and bags to hold provisions 
for man and horse upon a long journey. As soon as he had taken 
his breakfast, William bade his wife farewell, mounted and rode off. 
The effect of Mr. Martin's eloquence was speedily apparent. At an 
early hour upon Monday morning, many of the conscientious Cove- 
nanters were seen drilling on the muster-ground seven miles from 
Rocky Mount, under the brave Captain Ben Land, while two miles 
above this, at the shop of a negro blacksmith, half a dozen more were 
getting their horses shod. Those at the muster-ground were charged 
upon by a party of British dragoons, having no previous notice of 
their approach, and were dispersed. The man who carried to the 
enemy the tidings of Mr. Martin's sermon and the meeting of the Cove- 
nanters to drill, did not die in his bed. Their Captain being overtaken 
and surrounded by the dragoons, who attacked him with their broad 
swords, defended himself with his sword to the last, and wounded 
severely several of his enemies before he fell. The party at the black- 
smith shop was also surprised, and one man killed. The dragoons then 
crossed Rocky Creek, and soon found their way to the rude stone hut 
which was the dwelling of Mr. Martin. They found the old divine in 
his study preparing a sermon, which was to be a second blast, and 
made him their prisoner, and carried him like a felon to Rocky Mount. 
There he and Thomas Walker were bound to the floor in one of the 
log huts. The enemy knew well what reason they had to dread the 
effect of Martin's stirring eloquence. 



.388 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

This colony expected to settle down close together, 
but the situation necessitated them to select lands at 
a distance from one another. Among those who 
came with Mr. Martin in this first colony were 
Andrew and James Stevenson (Stinson) ; William And- 
erson and his wife Nancy ; Alexander Brady and his 
wife Elizabeth ; the several families of the Linns and 
Kells, and others.* They took up bounty land which 
entitled them to one hundred acres for each head of 
the family, and fifty for each member thereof. Mr. 
Martin bought a plantation one mile square of six 
hundred and forty acres, upon which he built a stone 
house. The first log church erected by Covenanters 
was in the spring of 1774, and was situated on the 
same road as the "Catholic" church, and two miles 
east of it. It was burned by the Tories in 1780. 
The hands and hearts of the Covenanters were in 
the trying scenes of the Revolution. The men 
shouldered the musket and went to the defence of the 
country, while the women remained at home and 
attended to the farms. Mr. Martin was their leader, 
and did much for the cause of the country in arous- 
ing all the inhabitants of Chester to their duty as 
citizens. As a zealous Whig, and an eloquent preacher, 
Mr. Martin threw all his influence on the side of the 
Colonists, for which he was apprehended in June, 1780, 
and imprisoned at Rocky Mount and Camden by the 
British. Here he was confined for over six months. 
In December, 1780, and on the day of his trial 
before Lord Cornwallis at Winnsboro, he stood before 

* Sketch by D. G. Stinson per R. B. Elder. Guthriesville. S. C. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. • 389 

Tiim erect, with his grey locks uncovered, his eyes 
fixed upon his lordship, his countenance marked with 
frankness and benevolence. "You are charged," said 
Lord Cornwallis, "with preaching rebellion from the 
pulpit. You, an old man, and a minister of the 
gospel of peace, are charged with advocating rebellion 
against your lawful sovereign King George the III. 
What have you to say in your defence ? " Nothing 
daunting, Mr. Martin replied, " I am happy to appear 
before you. For many months I have been held in 
chains for preaching what I believe to be the truth. 
As to King George I owe him nothing but good will. 
I am not unacquainted with his private character. I 
was raised in Scotland ; educated in her literary and 
theological schools ; settled in Ireland, where I spent 
the prime of my days, and came to this country 
some eight years ago. As a King, he was bound to 
protect his subjects in the enjoyment of their rights. 
Protection and allegiance go together, and when the 
one fails, the other cannot be exacted. The Declara- 
tion of Independence is but a reiteration of a princi- 
ple which our Covenanted fathers have always main- 
tained, and have lead this nation to adopt. I am 
thankful you have given me liberty to speak, and 
will abide your pleasure whatever it may be."* After 
his release by Lord Cornwallis, Mr. Martin went over 
to Mecklenberg, North Carolina, where he preached 
for some time. It was here he baptized Isaac Grier, 
the first Presbyterian minister born in Georgia and 
the grandfather of William Moffat Grier, President of 

* Howe's History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina. 
24 



390 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Erskine College, Due West, South Carolina. When 
the news came to him that the British had evacuated 
Charleston, Mr. Martin carried the word to the 
neighborhood, adding the comment, "the British 
have taken shipping, and may the d — 1 go with 
them." In the Fairfield District there lived one 
John Phillips, who was a man of wealth and talent. 
During the war, however, he became a rank Tory and 
was called "Tory Colonel Phillips." He betrayed the 
cause of the Covenanters, and those who had often 
saved his life when he cast himself upon the mercy of 
the Whigs. He accompanied Tarleton to Little Rocky- 
Creek, where he took Archibald McClurkin from his 
bed, when he was lying at the point of death with 
small-pox, and hanged him to a tree by the roadside. 
This barbarous act so aroused the righteous indignation 
of the Covenanters, that their military aid in behalf of 
the Colonists was thereby greatly increased. Many 
cold blooded deeds were attributed to this traitor 
Phillips. After the war he returned to' Ireland, but was 
not there safe from the vengeance he had provoked in 
South Carolina. He was shot on the street in Bally- 
money by one of McClurkin 's brothers, but not fatally 
injured. He lived in constant fear of the avenger of 
blood and died a drunkard, himself in despair, and his 
family wholly destitute.* In 1781, Mr. Martin returned 
to Rocky Creek and resumed his labors among the 
Covenanters, preaching in the " Catholic " meeting-house. 
He was dismissed for intemperate habits, in 1785, but did 
not cease preaching. He frequently preached at the 

*Mrs. Ellet's "Women of the Revolution." 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 39 1 

house of Edward McDaniel, at Jackson's Creek, in Fair- 
field District, at the house of Richard Gladney, and 
across the Catawba river, at the house of William 
Hicklin. A small society built him a church, two miles 
east of the site of the one burnt by the Tories, and 
he continued to preach there for many years. In 1804, 
his stone house was burnt, and the rest of his days he 
lived in a log cabin. He continued his intemperate 
habits and died in 1806. In the summer of 1789, the 
Rev. James Reid, of Scotland, came on a missionary 
tour to America, and visited the societies in South 
Carolina. He set in order the affairs of the Church as 
the representative of the Scottish Presbytery, and 
dispensed the sacraments. At that time he also organ- 
ized the Rocky Creek congregation, and the elders were 
Samuel Loughridge, Adam Edgar, John Wyatt, Thomas 
Morton and James McQuiston. Soon afterwards, John 
Kell, David Stormont, John Rock, Robert Hemphill, 
Hugh McMillan and Archibald Coulter were added to 
the session. They represented the different societies in 
Chester, York and Fairfield Districts.* In 1791, the 
Rev. James McGarragh was sent out by the Reformed 
Presbytery of Ireland, and some members came with 
him. He settled in the Beaver Dam society, a branch 
of the Rocky Creek congregation. In 1792, the Rev. 
William King arrived, having been sent out by the 
Scottish Presbytery. After an extended tour through 
the North and East, he settled on the south side of the 
Beaver Dam, near the Mount Prospect church. In 1793, 
Revs. McGarragh and King constituted a Committee to 

* Sketch by Rev. D. S. Paris, in A'. P. &- C, 1876, p. 51. 



392 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

judicially manage the affairs of the Church in America. 
They restored Mr. Martin and the affairs of the Church 
began to wear a regular appearance.* The membership 
was large and scattered, and required all the time of 
the three ministers. The majority of the Covenanters 
in America were settling in the South, as the lands 
were cheap and adapted to farming and grazing. Mr. 
McGarragh had fallen into intemperate habits, and was 
suspended by the Committee in 1795. Mr. King died 
in August, 1798, and Mr. Martin was again left alone 
in the exercise of the ministry. In the spring of 1798, 
the Reformed Presbytery was re-organized in America, 
at Philadelphia, and the Revs. James McKinney and 
S. B. Wylie were sent upon a commission to South 
Carolina to rectify disorders, and to banish slaveholders 
from the pale of the Covenanter Church. This com- 
mission was constituted at the Rocky Creek meeting 
house, (widow Edgar's) January 28, 1801, by Revs. 
James McKinney and S. B. Wylie, with Mr. Thomas 
Donnelly, licentiate, who had been preaching here for 
over a year, and elders John Kell and David Stormont. 
During the sittings of this court, Thomas Donnelly 
was ordained and installed pastor of the societies ; S. 
B. Wylie was called as his colleague ; William Martin 
was deposed for holding slaves and becoming habitually 
intemperate ; James McGarragh's suspension was con- 
tinued, and James Harbison, Alexander Martin, Hugh 
McQuiston, John Cunningham, David Smith, John Mc- 
Ninch, John Cooper, William Edgar, James Montgomery 
and Robert Black were chosen ruling elders.f At this 
* Historical part of Testimony, f Minutes of Reformed Presbytery. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 393 

time the communion was dispensed, of which all the 
Covenanters partook. Mr. Wylie declined the call, and 
Mr. Donnelly entered upon the work of supplying all 
the societies as best he could. In 1802, the Rev, 
James McKinney was translated from Galway, New 
York, and took charge of the " Brick Church " society. 
He died in a few months after his settlement. Mr. 
Donnelly was again left alone to minister to the 
scattered societies. He bought a farm, on the north 
side of the Big Rocky Creek, from Stephen Harman, 
and for eleven years was the sole Covenanter minister 
exercising his functions in South Carolina. In 181 3, 
Mr. Donnelly received assistance in the settlement of 
the Rev. John Reilly over the Little Rocky Creek 
and Beaver Dam congregations. Mr. Reilly died in 
1820. For two years Mr. Donnelly was again left 
alone, and his congregation was divided. In June, 
1822, the Rev. Campbell Madden was ordained and 
installed pastor of the Richmond society, and also 
preached at the tent of John Orr, and taught a school 
at Glendon's Grove. At the same time, the Rev. Hugh 
McMillan took charge of the Brick Church, in which 
he also conducted a classical school. Dr. Madden died 
in August, 1828, and Hugh McMillan emigrated to Ohio 
with many of his congregation. About this time 
emigration to the northern free States set in, and 
during the next ten years the cause in the South 
became very weak on account of the prevalence of 
human slavery. Mr. Donnelly remained and preached 
to the scattered societies until his death in November, 
1847. He was the last Covenanter minister in the 



394 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

South, and soon the cause became extinct. At one 
time there were over five hundred Covenanters in South 
Carolina, and they composed the congregations of Rocky 
Creek, Big Rocky Creek, Little Rocky Creek, Beaver 
Dam and Bethesda. Among the names, not heretofore 
mentioned as members of the Church in South Carolina, 
are the different families by the names of McMillan, 
Cooper, McKelvy, Hemphill, Woodbourne, Montford, 
Nesbit, and others, of the Brick Church ; those of 
Ewin, McHenry, Erwin, Todd, Kell, Rock, Linn, Little, 
McFadden, McClurkin and Simpson, of the Beaver Dam 
congregation ; those of Martin, Dunn, Wright, Hood, 
Sproull, Henry, Stormont, Cathcart, Robinson, McMillin 
and Richmond, of the Richmond or Big Rocky Creek 
Church ; those of McNinch and Crawford dwelt at the 
McNinch meeting house ; those of Smith, Paris, Mc- 
Donald, Coulter, Wright, Willson, Orr, Wylie, Black, 
jHenkle, Hunter, Boyd, Neil and McDill at the Little 
Rocky Creek congregation. Li the old Brick Church 
•:graveyard lie the remains of the Revs. William King, 
James McKinney, John Reilly and Thomas Donnelly. 
Rev. Dr. Campbell Madden was buried at Winnsboro, 
James McGarragh in Paul's graveyard, and William Martin 
in a private burying ground near his humble abode. The 
inscriptions upon some of the tombstones which mark 
these sacred graves are here inserted, that the names 
of these worthy fathers may be kept iji remembrance. 
It is understood that the inscriptions on the stones 
of Revs. King, McKinney, Reilly and Madden were 
prepared by Mr. Donnelly. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 395 

Sacred to the 
Memory of the Rev'd. 
William King ; who departed 
this life Aug'st 24th, A. D. 1798, aged 
about 50 years. 
Within this humble tomb pale Death has laid 
A King who mortal sceptre never swayed, 
But he himself did rule by Jesus' laws ; 
In grace and Holy life a pattern was. 
In love to God and man he shone conspicuously, 
And walked with God in deep humility. 
In faithfulness and zeal for Jesus' cause 
Few of his fellows to him equal was, 
But zeal in him so mixed with moderation, 
Made even foes him view with admiration. 
Tho' deeply skilled in human learning, he 
Taught truths divine with great simplicity, 
That perfect God might make his saints thereby. 
And through his means Christ's body edify. 
The Pastor's, Husband's, Parent's care he shew'd. 
While he in earthly house did make abode. 
His loss by all bewail'd, tho' felt by none 
So much as by this people left alone. 
His clay here lies, his soul to heaven is fled ; 
His people he left on God for to be fed. 



Sacred to the 
Memory of 
The Rev. Jas. McKinney, 
Who departed this life Sept. i6th, 
A. D. 1802, aged about 45 years. 
Death's hand, tho' cold, strikes a most certain blow 
In wafting Zion's sons from toil below, 
To place them in the Father's house above, 
To see him in the fullness of his love. 
Ecclesia wails her noble champion laid, 
In this low tomb to Death his tribute's paid. 
A husband kind, a tender parent he, 
To friend and foes a friend he wish'd to be. 



396 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Tho' few in letters, human or divine, 

Or grace or nature's gifts did so much shine, 

Yet, hated by unworthy world, he 

By God was thought above its company ; 

Amidst its threats his clay in quiet lies. 

While his immortal part has reach'd the skies. 

Truth's foes rejoiced to see her Hero fall. 

That to their idols they may join withal. 

Spare boasts, truth's foes, tho' whirling winds to heaven 

Elijah bore, Elisha soon was given, 

By him who in the greatest love can raise 

Another champion in McKinney's place. 



Sacred to the Memory of 
The Revd. John Riley, 
Who departed this^ife 
25th August, 1820, 
Aged 50 years. 
This tomb contains his dust ; no more 
His voice is heard where it was heard before. 
His wife, his people, mourn his labors' end, 
And friendly neighbors a departed friend. 
His gain their loss, his life by death secure 
In endless mansions, where joys are pure. 
Ye mourners look to Zion's sovereign Lord, 
Who can to you another guide afford. 



Sacred to the Memory of 
Rev. C. Madden, 
Who departed this life August 12, 1828, 
Aged 33 years. 
Insatiate death ! thou sparest none ; 
To thy vast kingdom all must come. 
Didst thou regard the widow's tears, 
The orphans' helpless state and years ; 
Didst thou respect a lettered mind, 
Formed to benefit mankind ; 
Didst thou regard a temper meek. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 397 

By grace refined his God to seek ; 

Didst thou regard Mount Sion's peace, 

Her cries to God for gospel grace ; — 

Our Madden had with us remained, 

And peace and joy to us proclaimed. 

What hast thou done ? thou wast his friend ; 

Him to his Father's house didst send, 

Where he will sing to endless days 

The triumph and the Saviour's praise. 

His family, his flock, his friend. 

To heavenly grace he did commend. 

In the Chief Shepherd's hand they're safe 

As long as they do live by faith. 



In Memory of 

Rev. Thomas Donnelly, 

Who departed this life 

The 28th November, 1847, 

In the 76th year of his age. 

And the 46th of his ministry. 

He was a native of Ireland, 

And for many years 

Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian Church 

In this vicinity. 

"For him to live was Christ — 

To die, gain." 



The descendants of the South Carolina Covenanters- 
are now generally found in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois,, 
whither they migrated, and are in connection with 
both branches of the Church. The few who lived in 
the South after the death of the Rev. Thomas 
Donnelly, went into the Associate Reformed and Pres- 
byterian Churches. To Covenanters, South Carolina is 
sacred ground ; and within her borders are the 



398 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

sepulchres of many worthy fathers. Chester District 
and Rocky Creek, where many a patriotic Covenanter 
fought for the preservation of his home and country, 
and maintained a faithful testimony for the rights of 
King Jesus, are places fraught with both tender and 
sad associations. Those Covenanter fathers either 
voluntarily forsook comforts beyond the ocean or were 
compelled to " flee to the land of the free, and the 
home of the brave " for their civil and religious 
liberty, and attained it at any cost. They maintained 
the purity of the Church, and left the comforts of the 
South on account of the evil influence of slavery. 
Rather than give up their principles they gave up 
their homes ; and while not a single Covenanter is 
found in that country to-day, "they being dead" yet 
speak from the scores of flourishing congregations of 
the North-West where their works have followed them, 
and where their children rise up and call them 
blessed. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 399 



SUMMARY OF CONGREGATIONS. 



Adamsville : Jainestoivn, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, November 14, 
1873. Disorganized, October 13, 1874, 

AiNSWORTH : Ainsworth, Washington County, loiva. 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, December 17, 1867. 
Disorganized, October 7, 1873. 

Albany : Albany, Neiv York. Organized by Northern 
Presbytery, June 6, 181 5. James Christie, June 12, 
1822, to May 17, 1830. J. R. Willson, September 17, 
1830, to May 19, 1833. David Scott, June 7, 1836, 
to May 8, 1842. Disorganized, May 24, 1849. 

Allegheny : Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. Organized 
as Pittsburgh and Allegheny by Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
September 9, 1833, afterwards Allegheny and Pittsburgh, 
and since October 17, 1865, is Allegheny. Thomas 
Sproull, May 12, 1834, to October 13, 1868. D. B. 
Willson, . November 29, 1870, to October 13, 1875. 
J. R. W. Sloane, June 6, 1877, to May 31, 1884. 
J. R. J. Milligan since October 15, 1885. 

Ballibay : Caniptozvn, Bradford Co2mty, Pennsylvania. 
■Organized by Southern Presbytery as Wyalusing, 
December 16, 1832. Disorganized, May 24, 1837. 
Re-organized by New York Presbytery as Ballibay, 
August 28, 1875. Disorganized, June 5, 1886. 



400 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Baltimore: Baltimore, Maryland. Society formed in 
1797. S. B. Wylie, 1803, to 1806. Organized by 
Middle Presbytery, December 15, 18 18. John Gibson, 
December 15, 1818, to August 7, 1833. W. L. 
Roberts, January 15, 1835, to October 9, 1837. C. B. 
McKee, December 2, 1846, to December 4, 1852. 
John Crawford, November 15, 1853, to September 3, 
1856. W. W. McMillan, December 26, 1859, to May 

5, 1863. W. P. Johnston, AugUst 4, 1864, to July 
13, 1873. John Lynd, December 4, 1873, to November 

6, 1877. A. D. Crowe, October 10, 1878, to August 
12, 1884. W. M. Glasgow since November 26, 1885.- 

BarnesvillE: Barnesville, Kings Comity, Nezv Bruns- 
wick. Organized by the New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia Presbytery in 1846. J. R. Lawson, 1846, to- 
October 17, 1856. J. R. Lawson, October 24, 1857, 
to April 12, 1882. Thomas Patton since May 26, 1887. 

Barnet : West Barnet, Caledonia County. Vermont. 
Organized by New York Presbytery, July 9, 1872^ 
D. C. Paris since June 25, 1873. 

Bear RIjn and Mahoning : Marchand, Indiana County,. 
Pennsylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery,, 
October 15, 1870. J. F. Crozier since November 18, 
1874. 

Beaver Dam : Chester, Chester County, South Carolina. 
Organized by Scottish Committee in 1792. William 
King, 1793, to August 24. 1798. Thomas Donnelly,, 
supply. John Reilly, October 8, 18 13, to August 27, 
1820. Campbell Madden, June 18, 1822, to August 
12, 1828. Disorganized in 1833. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4OI 

Beaver Falls : Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. Organized 
by Pittsburgh Presbytery, November 10, 1874. R. J. 
George since June 15, 1875, 

Beech Woods : Morning Sun, Preble County, Ohio. 
Organized by Middle Committee in 1805, and supplied. 
John Kell, April 3, 18 16, to October 6, 18 19. Gavin 
McMillan, May 7, 1823, to October 7, 1836. Josiah 
Dodds, October 6, 1847, to October 10, 1865, when 
attached to Garrison. 

Belle Centre : Belle Centre, Logan County, Ohio. 
'Organized by Lakes Presbytery, April 10, 1877. John 
Lynd, January 5, 1879, to April 14, 1885. J. J. Huston 
since April 30, 1886. 

Bellefontaine : Bellefontaine, Logan Comity, Ohio. 
■Organized by Lakes Presbytery, October 11, 1876. 
F. M. Foster, May 13, 1880, to August 23, 1887. 
J. J. Huston, supply. 

Bethel: Sparta, Randolph County, Lllinois. Organized 
by Western Presbytery, June 19, 1821. Samuel Wylie, 
June 19, 1821, to August 7, 1833. Hugh Stevenson, 
August 16, 1840, to May 15, 1846. James MilHgan, 
October 14, 1848, to May 24, 1855. D. S. Faris 
since October 7, 1857. 

Bethesda: Chester, Chester County, South Carolina. 
Organized by Southern Presbytery, October 10, 18 17. 
Thomas Donnelly, October 10, 18 17, to November i, 
1847. Disorganized, 1848. 

Beulah: Beulah, Webster County, Nebraska. Organized 
by Kansas Presbytery, September 8, 1881. W. S. 
Fulton since March 27, 1885. 



402 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Big RoCKV Creek : Cluster, CJiester County, South 
Carolina. Organized by Scottish Committee in 1792. 
William King, 1792, to August 24, 1798. Thomas 
Donnelly, March 3, 1801, to April 10, 18 16. Dis- 
organized in 1 81 7. 

Big Spring : Neiwille, Cumberland County, Penn- 
sylvania. Society formed in 1753. John Cuthbertson, 
1753, to 1774. Matthew Linn, March 10, 1774, to 
November i, 1782, when disorganized. 

Bloomington : Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana. 
Organized by Western Presbytery, October 10, 1821. 
James Paris, November 22, 1827, to May 20, 1855. 
D. J. Shaw since May 22, 1856. 

Boston, First : Boston, JSIassacJiusetts. Organized by 
New York Presbytery, July 12, 1854. J. R. Lawson, 
November 20, 1856, to October 22, 1857. William. 
Graham since July 12, i860. 

Boston, Second : Boston, Massachusetts. Organized 
by New York Presbytery, November 21, 1871. David 
McFall since July 11, 1873. 

BOVINA : Bovina Centre, Delaware County, Neiv York. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery in 18 14. M. B. 
Williams, April 15, 1820, to October 17, 1823. James 
Douglas, April 15, 1825, to March 15, 1857. J. T. 
Pollock, July II, 1 86 1, to March 10, 1864. Joshua 
Kennedy, January 11, 1865, to May 20, 1885. O. B. 
Milligan since June 22, 1887. 

Broad Albin : Broad Albin, Fulton County, New York. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery, May 10, 181 8. S. 
M. Willson, October 14, 1821, to May 16, 1827. J. 
N. McLeod, December 29, 1829, to June 19, 1832. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA.. 403' 

A. S. McMaster, April 4, 1833, to August 7, 1833. 
Disorganized, October 10, 1838. 

Brookland: Ingleside, Westmoreland Coi'mty, Penn- 
sylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, May 9, 
1822. Jonathan Gill, October 23, 1823, to August 7, 
1833. Hugh Walkinshaw, April 15, 1835, to April 19, 
1843. Oliver Wylie, June 24. 1846, to October 14, 
1851. Robert Reed, June 21, 1854, to April ii, 
1882. Attached to Parnassus under J. C. McFeeters 
since November 16, 1886. 

Brooklyn: Brooklyn, New York. Organized by New 
York Presbytery, June 15, 1857. J. M. Dickson, 
November 18, 1857, to May 20, 1862. J. H. Boggs, 
December 14, 1864, to November 29, 1880. S. J. 
Crowe, December 7, 1881, to October 28, 1884. J. 
F. Carson since May 20, 1885. 

Brownsville: Jolly, Monroe County, Ohio. Organized 
by Pittsburgh Presbytery, July 12, 1854. Oliver Wylie 
supply, July 12, 1854, to October 24, 1856. J. A. Thomp- 
son, August 31, 1859, to June 10, 1865. Armour 
McFarland, supply. S. R. McClurkin, September 13, 
1876, to October 17, 1877. 

Brush Creek : Locust Grove, Adams County, Ohio. 
Organized by Middle Presbytery as Chillicothe, May 
8, 18 1 2. Robert Wallace, October 12, 1 814, to October 
6, 1820. C. B. McKee, August 7, 1821, to September 
10, 1822. James Blackwood, April 12, 1827, to April 9, 
1829. David Steele, June 6, 1831, to September 18, 1840. 
Robert Hutcheson, September 29, 1842, to May 21, 
1856. Disorganized, May 21, 1856. Re-organized by 



404 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Lakes Presbytery, November i6, 1881. William Mc- 
Kinney, R. J. Sharpe, T. C. Sproull, and others, supplies. 
Buffalo : Buffalo, New York. Organized by Western 
Presbytery, November 17, 1838. Disorganized, May 
26, 1854. 

BURDETT : Burdett, Pawnee County, Kansas. Organ- 
ized by Kansas Presbytery, July 13, 1887. 

Carleton Place : Carleton Place, Ontario, Canada. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery, September 9, 1830, 
as a part of Ramsey. Distinct congregation, August 
29, 1837. Mission Station. 

Carlisle : Carlisle, Cwjiberland County, Pennsylvania. 
Organized in 1751, John Cuthbertson 1751, to 1774. 
Matthew Linn, March 10, 1774, to November i, 1782, 
when disorganized. 

Cedar Lake : Ray, Steuben County, Indiana. Organ- 
ized by Lakes Presbytery, April 19, 1841. John 
French, September 23, 1850, to October 3, 1880. 
R. C. Wylie since October 31, 1884. 

Cedarville : Cedarville, Green County, Ohio. Organ- 
ized by Middle Presbytery as Massie's Creek, June 19, 
1 8 10. John Kell, supply. Jonathan Gill, May 14, 
1816, to April 6, 1823. Gavin McMillan, supply. 
Hugh McMillan, September 7, 1829, to August 7, 
1833. Disorganized, August 18, 1841. Re-organized 
as Cedarville by Lakes Presbytery, June i, 1850. H. H. 
George, June 23, 1858, to August 4, 1866. Samuel 
Sterrett, May 16, 1868, to October 20, 1878. P. P. 
Boyd, May 22, 1872, to July 20, 1871. T. C. Sproull 
since June 10, 1881. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 405 

Central Allegheny : Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 24, 1870. 
J. W. Sproull since April 24, 1871. 

Centreville : Centfeville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, September 18, 
1879. S. J. Crowe, September 18, 1879, to April 12, 
1 88 1. J. R. Wylie, July 3, 1882, to November 8, 
1887. 

Church Hill : Coultersville, Randolph County, Illinois. 
Organized by Illinois Presbytery, October 10, 1854. 
W. F. George, March 5, i860, to May 17, 1871. 
J. M. Paris, June 19, 1873, to May 30, 1884. John 
Teaz since July 8, 1885. 

Cincinnati : Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized by Western 
Presbytery, October 16, 1816. Archibald Johnston, 
supply. Samuel Robinson, October 10, 1818, to August 
20, 1821. C. B. McKee, November 18, 1822, to October 
17, 1 83 1. Disorganized, August 7, 1833. Re-organized 
\>Y Lakes Presbytery, August 22, 1844. J. R. Willson, 
supply. Disorganized, October 6, 1852, Re-organized, 
February 24, 1853. H. H. George, June 23, 1858, to 
August 18, 1872. R. M. Sommerville, supply, one 
year. J. M. Foster, December 29, 1877, to April 14, 
1886. 

Clarinda : Clarinda, Page County, Iowa. Organized 
by Illinois Presbytery, December 17, 1855. Joseph 
McCracken, July 6, 1857, to October 16, 1858. David 
McKee since September 20, 1862. 

Clarksburgh : Clarksburgh, Indiana County, Penn- 
sylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 
8, 1867. J. A. Black, November 18, 1868, to April 



*406 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

II, 1882. J. J. McClurkin, stated supply, since May 

16, 1884. 

COLDENHAM : Coldettkam, Orange County, Neiv York. 
Society formed by John Cuthbertson in 1753. Organized 
by the Reformed Presbytery, as Wallkill, August 10, 
1798. Alexander McLeod, July 6, 1801, to September 
8, 1803. James Milligan, June 10, 1812, to April 17, 
18 1 7. J. R. Willson, August 10, 18 17, to September 

17, 1830. J. R. Willson, November 21, 1833, to June 
26, 1840. J. W. Shaw, May 29, 1844, to October 26, 
1881. R. H..McCready, March 6, 1884, to May 22, 1888. 

CONOCOCHEAGUE : Fayetteville, Franklin County, Penn- 
sylvania. Society formed in 175 1, by John Cuthbertson. 
Matthew Linn, March 10, 1774, to November i, 1782. 
Organized by Middle Committee, June 16, 1802. 
Robert Lusk, August 12, 1816, to October 15, 1823. 
S. W. Crawford, August 26, 18^4, to May lO, 183 1. 
Thomas Hanna, December 8, 1842, to October 29, 1844. 
Joshua Kennedy, November 5, 1845, to May i, i860. 

CORNWALLIS : Somerset, Kings County, Nova Scotia. 
Organized by New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Presby- 
tery, September 13, 1843. William Sommerville, 1835, 
to September 28, 1878. Thomas McFall since August 
25, 1881. 

Craftsbury : East Craftslmry, Orleans County, Ver- 
mont. Organized by Northern Presbytery, September 
14, 1816. James Milligan, September 26, 1817, to 
August 6, 1829. S. M. Willson, May 19, 1833, to May 
10, 1845. R. Z. Willson, November 17, 1846, to 
December 18, 1855. J- M. Armour, September 23, 1857, 
to October 31, 1865. A. W. Johnston, August 5, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 407 

1868, to October 31, 187 1. J. C. Taylor since December 

17, 1873. 

Davenport : Davenport, Iowa. Organized by Iowa 
Presbytery, September 14, 1864. Disorganized, May 26, 
1869. 

Detroit and Novi : Detroit, Michigan. Organized 
by Lakes Presbytery, April 16, 1854. Boyd Mc- 
Cullough, September 19, 1855, to May 14, 1871. Dis- 
organized, May 14, 1 87 1. Mission Station until May 
27, 1880. 

DuanESBURGH : Duanesbtirgh, Schenectady, County, New 
York. Organized under Reformed Presbytery of Ireland 
in 1794. James McKinney, May, 1798, to April 4, 
1802. Gilbert McMaster, August 8, 1808, to August 7, 
1833. Disorganized, October, 1836. 

East End, Pittsburgh : Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, November 24, 1887. 

ECKLEY : BeulaJi, Webster Cotinty, Nebraska. Organ- 
ized by Kansas Presbytery, November 13, 1878. W. 
S. Fulton since March 10, 1885. 

Elkhorn : Oakdale, Washington County, Illinois. 
Organized by Western Presbytery, July 30, 1834. 
Samuel McKinney, April 15, 1835, to May 24, 1840. 
William Sloane, September 13, 1840, to May 9, 1858. 
A. C. Todd, July i, 1859, to May 17, 1871. D. G. 
Thompson since October 9, 1872. 

Elliota : Canton, Fillmore County, Minitesota. Organ- 
ized by Iowa Presbytery, November 5, 1868. J. S. 
Buck, 1867, to October 13, 1870. J. W. Dill, April 
26, 1878, to May 25, 1 88 1. Robert Clyde since 
February 12, 1886. 



408 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

EsKRiDGE : Eskridge, Wabaunsee County, Kansas. 
Organized by Kansas Presbytery, April 15, 1884. N. 
M. Johnston since August 4, 1886. 

Evans : Evans, Weld County, Colorado. Organized 
by Illinois Presbytery, August 10, 187 1. A. C. Todd 
since August 21, 1874. 

Fairgrove : Fairgrove, Tuscola County, Michigan. 
Organized by Lakes Presbytery, December 7, 1878. 
J. Ralston Wylie, November i, 1879, to October 12, 
1887. 

Gal WAY : West Galway, Fulton County, New York. 
Organized as a part of Duanesburgh, in 1794. James 
McKinney, May, 1798, to April 4, 1802. Gilbert Mc- 
Master, August 8, 1808, to May 10, 18 18. Organized 
as Galway distinct. May 10, 18 18. S. M. Willson, 
October 14, 182 1, to May 16, 1827. J. N. McLeod, 
December 29, 1829, to June 19, 1832. A. S. McMaster, 
April 4, 1833, to August 7, 1833, when disorganized. 
Re-organized by Western Presbytery, November 9, 1835. 
Disorganized, April, 1842. 

Garrison : Glenwood, Fayette County, Indiana. Organ- 
ized by Middle Committee in 1805. John Kell, April 
3, 1816, to October 6, 18 19. Gavin McMillan, May 7. 
1823, to October 7, 1836. Josiah Dodds, October 6 
1847, to October 10, 1865. T. P. Robb, May 16, 1871 
to April 12, 1874. J. J. McClurkin, August 14, 1880 
to March 13, 1884. Disorganized, September 9, 1884 

Greenfield : Greenfield, Harrison Coimty, Ohio. Organ- 
ized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 16, 1822. 
William Sloane, November 16, 1829, to October 23, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 409 

1838. James Love, June '29, 1839, to May 11, 1847. 
Disorganized, May 24, 1849. 

Greensburgh : Greensbm-gh, Westmoreland Coimty, 
Pennsylvania. Organized by Middle Presbytery in 181 3, 
John Cannon, September 16, 1816, to February 2, 1836. 
James Milligan, November 23, 1839, to October 16, 1841. 
S. O. Wylie, May 17, 1843, to November 18, 1844. 
R. B. Cannon, May 5, 1847, to April 4, 1854. A. M. 
Milligan, May 6, 1856, to April 10, 1866. Attached to 
New Alexandria, October 8, 1867. 

Grove Hill : Grove Hill, Bremer County, Iowa. 
Organized by Illinois Presbytery, October 2, 1861. 
Robert Hutcheson, April 17, 1863, to May 8, 1867. 
Disorganized, May 26, 1869. 

Hebron : Idana, Clay County, Kansas. Organized by 
Kansas Presbytery, November 9, 1871. J. S. T. Milligan, 
supply. S. M. Stevenson, October 30, 1874, to April 
17, 1876. Matthew Wilkin, November 11, 1876, to July 
12, 1880. J. R. Latimer since August 18, 1882. 

Hephzibah : Fayetteville, Lincoln County, Tennessee. 
Organized as Elk by Southern Presbytery, June 12, 
18 12. Supplied by John Kell, Thomas Donnelly, Robert 
McKee, and others. Ebenezer Cooper, 1828, to 1832. 
Disorganized,' August 7, 1833. 

Hickory Grove : Avery, Monroe County, Iowa. Organ- 
ized by Iowa Presbytery, October 13, 1865, as Albia. 
James Love, April 16, 1866, to September 14, 1881.. 
J. A. Thompson since September 17, 1882. 

HOLMWOOD : Mankato, Jeivell County, Kansas. Organ- 
ized by Kansas Presbytery, September i, 1881. 

HOPKINTON : Hopkinton, Delaware County, Iowa. Organ-^ 



41 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ized by Illinois Presbytery, April lO, 1856, as Maquo- 
keta. W. L. Roberts, May 9, i860, to December 7, 
1864. D. H. Coulter, April 18, 1867, to October 14, 
1874. R. C. Wylie, June 15, 1875, to Ootober 3, 1882. 
T. H. Acheson since September 23, 1886. 

HORTON : Grand Pre, Hants County, Nova Scotia. 
Organized by New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Pres- 
bytery, May, 1835. William Sommerville, May 16, 1835, 
to September 28, 1878. Thomas McFall, August 25, 
188 1, to June 5, 1886, when disorganized. 

HOULTON : Hoiilton, Aroostook County, Maine. Organ- 
ized by New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Presbytery, 
May 16, 1859. Supplied occasionally. J. A. F. Bovard, 
April 12, 1880, to March 10, 1884. 

Indianapolis : Indianapolis, Indiana. Organized by 
Lakes Presbytery, May lo, 1867. John Crozier stated 
supply. Disorganized, May 25, 1870. 

Jewell : Rubens, Jewell County, Kansas. Organized 
hy Kansas Presbytery, July 15, 1885. 

Jonathan's Creek : White Cottage, Muskingum County, 
■ Ohio. Organized by Lakes Presbytery, August 23, 1853, 
as Eden and Irville. Armour McFarland, August 23, 
1853, to April 12, 1876. T. C. Sproull, supply. R. B. 
Cannon since September 9, 1886. 

Junkin Tent : Kingston, Cumberland County, Penn- 
sylvania. Society formed in 1750. John Cuthbertson, 
175 1, to 1774. Matthew Linn, March 10, 1774, to 
^November i, 1782. A part of Conococheague, 1802, 
$0 i860. 

Kortright : West Kortright, Delaivare County, New 
York. Organized by Northern Presbytery in 18 14. M. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 411 

B. Williams, April' 15, 1820, to August 31, 1831. 
James Douglas, supply. S. M. Willson, October 22, 
1845, to January 21, 1864. J. O. Bayles since January 

10, 1866. 

Kossuth : Kossuth^ Des Moines County, Io7va. Organ- 
ized by Iowa Presbytery, September 9, 1865. Robert 
Johnson, January 7, 1868, to July 27, 1875. Dis- 
organized, April 30, 1879. 

Lake Eliza : Le Roy, Lake County, Indiana. 
Organized by Lakes Presbytery, September 6, 1852. 
P.'H. Wylie, May 14, 1855, to October 9, i860. R. 
M. Thompson, September 9, ' 1865, to September 13, 
1 88 1. Robert Clyde, supply in 1884. Disorganized, 
June I, 1887. 

Lake Reno : Glenwood, Pope County, Minnesota, 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, October 29, 1869. E. 
G. Elsey since July 17, 1882. 

Lansingburgh : Lansingburgh, Rensselaer County, 
Nezo York. Organized by Northern Presbytery, June 
17, .1828. Robert McKee, December 29, 1830, to May 
26, 1835. Disorganized, October 16, 1848. 

LiND Grove : Mediapolis, Des Moines County, lozva. 
Organized by Illinois Presbytery, September 10, 1856. 

C. D. Trumbull, January 29, 1864, to April i, 1874. 
'M. A. Gault, May 20, 1875, to October 4, 1877. J- 
W. Dill, July 6, 1881, to September 19, 1887. 

Lisbon : Flackville, St. Lawrence County, New York. 
Organized as a society in 1823. Disorganized, August 
7, 1833. Re-organized by Rochester Presbytery, October 
5, 1840. John Middleton, February 8, 1844, to April 

11, 1854. James McLachlane, July 16, 1856, to 



412 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

November 19, 1864. William McFarland since May 
II, 1871. 

Little Beaver : New Galilee, Beaver County, Penn- 
sylvania. Organized by Middle Presbytery, May, 18 14. 
Robert Gibson, September 6, 18 19, to October 16, 
1830. George Scott, April 19, 183 1, to August 7, 
1833. James Blackwood, May 24, 1834, to October 
10, 1838. J. W. Morton, November 27, 1845, to June 
3, 1847. Samuel Sterrett, June 21, 1848, to May 16, 
i860. N. M. Johnston, April 14, 1864, to June 3, 
1886. J. R. Wylie since May 18, 1888. * 

Little Rocky CreeIc : Chester, Chester County, 
Sotith Carolina. Settled in 1772, by William Martin 
and a colony from Ireland. William Martin, 1772, to 
1789. James McGarragh, 1791, to 1795. William King, 
1795, to Aijgust 24, 1798. James McKinney, May 10, 
1802, to September 4, 1802. Thomas Donnelly, supply. 
John Reilly, February 23, 1813, to August 27, 1820. 
Campbell Madden, June 18, 1822, to August 12, 1828. 
Disorganized, 1832. 

LOCHIEL : Brodie, Ontario, Canada. Society formed 
with Ramsey in 18 16. Organized by Rochester Presby- 
tery, July 14, 1 861, as Glengary. Robert Shields,, 
supply, 1865, to 1883. R. C. Allen since October 18,. 
1887. 

Londonderry : Londotidei-ry, Gtiemsey County, Ohio. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 16, 1822, 
Robert Wallace, supply. William Sloane, November 
16, 1829, to October 23, 1838. James Love, June 27,. 
1839, to October 5, 1864. J. A. Thompson, October 
3, 1866, to September i, 1875. J. R. Latimer, May 
19, 1880, to May 27, 1882. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4 1 3, 

Long Branch : BlancJiard, Page County, lozva. 
Organized by Kansas Presbytery, April 16, 1877. M. 
A. Gault, supply. M. A. Gault, October i, 1880, to 
October 25, 1882. B. M. Sharp since October 13,. 
1887. 

Lower Chanceford : Chanceford, York County,. 
Pennsylvania. Society formed in 175 1. John Cuthbert- 
son, 1751, to 1782, when disorganized. 

Macedon : Macedon, Mercer County, Ohio. Organized 
by Lakes Presbytery, July 5, 1852. W. F. George, 
Septembor 26, 1853, to April 20, 1858. P. H. Wylie, 
November 14, i860, to March I, 1887. Disorganized,- 
June 2, 1888. 

Mansfield : Mansfield, Ohio. Organized by Ohio 
Presbytery, October 11, 1878. S, A. George since 
November 20, 1878. 

McKeesport : McKeesport, Pennsylvania. Organized 
by Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 27, 1882. J. H. Wylie, 
June 30, 1885, to June 27, 1887. 

Miami, First : Northwood, Logan Comity, Ohio^ 
Organized by Western Presbytery, October 16, 1831. 
J. B. Johnston, June 10, 1834, to November 10 1858. 
J. C. K. MilHgan, July i, 1853, to April 20, 1858. 
J. L. McCartney, November 12, 1861, to September i,. 
1875, Consolidated into United Miami, April 14, 1877. 
Miami, Second : Northtvood, Logan County, Ohio. 
Organized by Synod under Lakes Presbytery, August 9; 
1851. William Milroy, October 12, 1854, to November 
15, 1876. Consolidated into United Miami, April 14,. 

1877- 

MiDDLETOWN : Hooker, Butler County, Pennsylvania. 



414 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, Noveniber i6, 1886, 
and was known as the North Washington Branch of 
Brookland congregation, since 1825. 

Middle Wheeling : Roneys Point, Ohio County, 
West Virginia. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 26, i860, and formerly supplied by pastors of 
Miller's Run. Armour McFarland, April 4, 1866, to 
April 12, 1873. S. R. McClurkin since September 13, 
1876. 

Miller's Run : Venice, Washington County, Pemisyl- 
vania. Organized by Middle Committee, October 19, 
1806, as Canonsburgh. John Black, supply. William 
Gibson, October 23, 18 17, to May 26, 1826. G. T. 
Ewing, October 23, ■ 1827, to May 16, 1830. John 
Crozier, May 12, 1834, to October 9, 1842. William 
Slater, May 24, 1843, to April 14, 1887. 

Milton : Milton, Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Philadelphia Presbytery, October 13, 1830. 
William Wilson, August 6, 1832, to August 7, 1833, 
when passed into New School body. 

Moncton : Moncton, New Brunsu'ick. Organized by 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Presbytery, September 
15, 1885. 

Monongahela : Elizabeth, Allegheny County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Society formed in 1794. John Black, supply. 
Organized by Middle Committee, October, 1806. William 
Gibson, October 23, 18 17, to May 26, 1826. G. T. 
Ewing, October 23, 1827, to May 16, 1830. John 
Crozier, May 12, 1834, to April 12, 1865. J. W. 
Sproull, April 10, 1866, to April ir, 1871. T. C. 
Sproull, October 3, 1871, to May 26, 1876. W. J. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 415 

Coleman, June 13, 1879, to July 5, 1881. John M. 
Wylie, April 27, 1883, to April 9, 1884. Robert Reed, 
supply, 1885, to 1887. 

Morning Sun : Morning Sun, Louisa County, Iowa. 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, July 9, 1873. C. D. 
Trumbull since April 14, 1874. 

Muddy Run: McCaWs Ferry, York County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Formed into a society in 1743. John Cuthbertson, 
1751, to 1782. 

Muskingum and Tomica : Dresden, Muskingnm County. 
Ohio. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 9 
1831. John Wallace, April 14, 1833, to April 4, 1855 
J. C. K. Paris, December 6, 1865, to April 13, 1871 
W. S. Fulton, December 5, 1877, to April 11, 1883 
John M. Wylie since January 21, 1885. 

New Alexandria : New Alexandria, Westmoreland 
Connty, Peilnsylvania. Organized by the Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, July, 1822. John Cannon, 18 19, to February 
2, 1836. James Milligan, November 23, 1839, to October 
14, 1848. A. M. Milligan, November 24, 1848, to October 
4, 1853. A. M. Milligan, May 6, 1856, to April 10, 
1866. T. A. SprouU, June 17, 1868, to April 8, 1878. 
J. L. Pinkerton, May 17, 1881, to October 9, 1883. 
J. F. Carlisle, June 20, 1884, to January 26, 1888. 

Newark : Neivark, New Jersey. Organized by New 
York Presbytery, June 17, 1874. D. H. Coulter, 
December 10, 1874, to October 27, 1875. Disorganized, 
October 30, 1878. 

Newburgh, First : Neivburgh, Neiv York. Society 
formed, November 8, 1802. Organized by Northern 
Presbytery, February 16, 1824. J. R. Johnston, Sep- 



4l6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tember 6, 1825, to October 17, 1829. Moses Roney,. 
June 8, 1830, to October 10, 1848. Samuel Carlisle, 
November 15, 1849, to July 3, 1887. 

Newburgh, Second : Newburgh, New York. Organ- 
ized by New York Presbytery, December 13, 1854. J. R. 
Thompson since December 19, 1855. 

New Castle : New Castle, Pennsylvania. Organized 
by Pittsburgh Presbytery, January 9, 1871. S. J. 
Crowe, May 21, 1872, to April 12, 1881. J. Milligan 
Wylie, June 22, 1883, to December 26, 1887. W. R. Laird 
since May 10, 1888. 

New Concord : New Concord, Muskingum County,. 
Ohio. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, June 13, 
182 1, as Salt Creek. Robert Wallace, October 9, 1823, 
to July 19, 1849. H. P. McClurkin, October 15, 1850, 
to October 8, 1856. H. P. McClurkin, December 2, 
1858, to October 4, 1882. J. M. Paris since July 3,. 
1884. 

New Hartford : New Hartford, Oneida County, New- 
York. Organized by Southern Presbytery, October lO,. 
1837. Disorganized, May 15, 1843. 

New York, First : New York City, New York. 
Organized by Rev. William Gibson, December 26,. 
1797. Alexander McLeod, July 6, 1801, to February 
17. 1833. James Christie, November 16, 1836, to 
October* 15, 1856. J. C. K. Milligan since June 1 6, 
1858. 

New York, Second : New York City, New York. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery, June 11, 1830. 
Robert Gibson, May 31, 183 1, to December 22, 1837. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4^7 

Andrew Stevenson, November 14, 1 839, to May 17, 
1875. R- M. Sommerville since December 14, 1875 

New York, Third : New York City, New York. 
Organized by New York Presbytery, March I4, 1 848. 
John Little, June 5, 1849, to April 20, 1852. J. R. 
W. Sloane, May 26, 1856, to October 27, 1 868. David 
'Gregg, February 23, 1870, to October 28, 1885 
David Gregg, December 6, 1885, to January 25, 1887 
P. M. Foster since September 7, 1887. 

New York, Fourth : Neiv York City, New York. 
'Organized by New York Presbytery, February 21, 1870 
James Kennedy since November 13, 1870. 

North Cedar : North Cedar, Jackson Cotmty, Kansas 
'Organized by Kansas Presbytery, October 23, 187 1 
J. S. T. Milligan since October 8, 1872. 

North Salem : Sugar Tree, Guernsey County, Ohio. 
Organized by Ohio Presbytery, April 2, 1879. J. R 
Latimer, October 10, 1880, to May 27, 1882. 

North Union : Valencia, Butler County, Pennsylvania. 
'Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 11, 1870, 
from Union and Pine Creek, and John Galbraith has 
since continued pastor. 

Oakland : Oakland, Califoiniia. Organized by Synod 
under Kansas Presbytery, August 28, 1879, as a 
mission congregation with N. R. Johnston in charge. 
Disorganized, May 21, 1885. 

OCTORARA : Octorara, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
Society formed in 1740. Alexander Craighead, 1743, 
to 1749. John Cuthbertson, August 11, 1751, to Nov- 
ember I, 1782, when disorganized. 

Oil City : South Oil City, Pejinsylvania. Organized 



4l8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

by Pittsburgh Presbytery, August 19, 1865. David 
McFall, May 8, 1871, to April 8, 1873. J. A. F. 
Bovard since June 11, 1884, 

Oil Creek : Titusville, Crazvfoj-d County ^ Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, February 14, i860, 
Daniel Reid, December 19, 1861, to March 31, 1875. 
J. A. F. Bovard since June 12, 1884. 

Olathe : Olathe, jfohnston County, Kansas. Organized 
by Illinois Presbytery, April 16, 1865. W. W. McMillan,. 
March 10, 1866, to October 14, 1885. J. H. Wylie 
since October 21, 1887. 

Old Bethel : Houston, Randolph Coiinty, Illinois. 
Organized by Western Presbytery, October 15, 1836. 
James Wallace, August 16, 1840, to May 15, 1867. 
W. J. Gillespie, October 13, 1869, to August 6, 1870. 
P. P. Boyd, July 20, 1874, to December 12, 1887. 
Parnassus and Manchester : Parnassus, Penn- 
sylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, June 20,. 
1870. J. M. Johnston, June 15, 1871, to January 3,, 
1873. J. C. McFeeters since June 19. 1874. 

Paterson : Paterson, New Jersey. Organized by 
Northern Presbytery, October 10, 18 18. W. L. Roberts,, 
May 19, 1824, to December 18, 1825. William Gibson,, 
1826, to 1832. Disorganized, October 7, 1836. 

Paxtang : Paxton, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania.- 
Society formed in 1 740. John Cuthbertson, August 
15, 175 1, to March 10, 1774. Matthew Linn, March 
10, 1774, to November i, 1782, when disorganized. 
Pequea : Pequea, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
Society formed in 1750. John Cuthbertson, August 14, 
175 1, to November i, 1782, when disorganized. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4x9- 

Perth, First : Perth, Ontario, Canada. Organized 
under Scottish Synod, April 29, 1836. James McLach- 
lane, August 29, 1837, to October 8, 1855, when dis- 
organized. Re-organized by Rochester Presbytery, July 
14, 1 86 1. Robert Shields, supply, July 13, 1865, to 
August 28, 1883. 

Perth, Second : Perth, Ontario, Canada. Organized 
by Rochester Presbytery, June 12, 1852. John Middle- 
ton, October 19, 1854, to October 8, 1856, when dis- 
organized. 

Philadelphia, First : PJiiladelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Rev. William Gibson, January 28, 1798- 
Samuel B. Wylie, November 20, 1803, to August 7, 
1833. J- M. Willson, November 27, 1834, to October, 
28, 1862. T. P. Stevenson since May 5, 1863. 

Philadelphia, Second : Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.. 
Organized by Southern Presbytery, August 10, 1842. 
S. O. Wylie, December 5, 1844, to August 22, 1883. 
J. K. McClurkin, October 9, 1884, to August 25, 1887. 

Philadelphia, Third : Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by New York Presbytery, January 16, 1851. 
A. M. Milligan, December 8, 1853, to October 14, 
1855. John Middleton, November 18, 1856, to May 
17, 1862. R. J. Sharpe, April 6, 1866, to April 10, 
1879. J. M. Crozier, May 6, 1880, to September 7, 
1 88 1. R. C. Montgomery since March 27, 1883. 

Philadelphia, Fourth : Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by New York Presbytery, July 13, 1853. 
David McKee, July 5, 1854, to August 4, 1859, when 
disorganized. 



420 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Pine Creek and Union : Valencia, Butler County, 
Pennsylvania. Society organized in 1806, as a part of 
Ohio congregation. Matthew Williams, 1807, to 1 81 5. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 8, 181 5. 
Matthew Williams, October 8, 18 15, to October 16, 
1825. T. C. Guthrie, April 26, 1826, to August 7, 
1833. Hugh Walkinshaw, April 15, 1835, to October 
16, 1841. John Galbraith, June 29, 1843, to April II, 
1870. Alexander Kilpatrick since May 17, 1876. 

Pittsburgh : Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Organized 
by Middle Committee, December 18, 1800, as Ohio. 
John Black, December 18, 1800, to August 7, 1833, when 
disorganized. Re-organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
October 17, 1865. A. M. Milligan, May 14, 1866, to 
May 7, 1885. David McAllister since October 20, 1887. 

Pleasant Ridge: Olathe, Johnston Coimty, Kansas. 
Organized by Illinois Presbytery, April 16, 1865. W. 
W. McMillan, March 10, 1866, to August n, 1871. 
Matthew Wilkin, May 8, 1874, to July 12, 1880. R. 
M. Thompson since October 12, 1881. 

Poland and North Jackson : Canfield, Mahoning 
County, Ohio. Organized by Middle Presbytery, May 17, 
1 8 14, as Austintown, and attached to Little Beaver 
until its separate existence. May 16, i860. Samuel 
Sterrett, May 16, i860, to October 7, 1867. R. J. 
George, May 19, 1870, to April 14, 1875. T. C. 
Sproull, July 8, 1876, to April 8, 1879. Changed to 
Youngstown, October 12, 1885. 

Princeton : Princeton, Gibson County, Indiana. 
Organized by Middle Presbytery, October 14, 18 13. 
John" Kell, June 21, 1820, to August 7, 1833. Robert 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 42 1 

Lusk, supply. J. J. McClurkin, June 2, 1843, to May 
22, 1849. John Stott, October 13, 1851, to June 2, 
1868, when disorganized. Re-organized by Illinois 
Presbytery, April 21, 1869. D. C. Martin, November 
7, 1872, to April 12, 1888. 

PrincetOWN : Princetoivn, Schenectady County, New 
York. Organized by James McKinney, in 1794, as a 
part of Duanesburgh. James McKinney, May, 1798, 
to April 4, 1802. Gilbert McMaster, August 8, 1808, 
to August 7, 1833, when disorganized. 

QuiNTER : Quinter, Gove County, Kansas. Organized 
by Kansas Presbytery, July 7, 1887. 

Ramsey : Almonte, Ontario, Canada. Organized by 
James Milligan, September 9, 1830. Disorganized, 
August 7, 1833. Re-organized by James McLachlane, 
October 9, 1833. James McLachlane, October 9, 1833, 
to October 8, 1856, when disorganized. Re-organized 
hy Rochester Presbytery, July 14, 1861. Robert Shields, 
July 13, 1865, to August 28, 1883. E. M. Coleman 
since May 9, 1888. 

Rehoboth : Marchand, Indiana Cotmty, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, November 16, 
1847, as Warsaw and Montgomery. R. J. Dodds, June 
18, 1852, to May 24, 1856. T. M. Elder, May 11, 
1859, to April 10, 1866. J, F. Crozier since November 
18, 1874. 

Rehoboth : Wyman, Louisa County, Iowa. Organized 
by Illinois Presbytery, October 19, 1854. R. B. Cannon, 
December 14, 1854, to December 17, 1867. E. G. 
Elsey, August 14, 1874, to April 12, 188 1. J. A. Black 
since February 9, 1886. 



422 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Rochester : Rochester, New York. Organized by 
Southern Presbytery, July 2i, 1831. John Fisher, July 
21, 1831, to April 17, 1835. C. B. McKee, May 14, 
1837, to August 29, 1842. David Scott, July 11, 1844^ 
to July 19, 1862. R. D. Sproull, May 14, 1863, to 
October 6, 1880. John Graham since June 22, 1881. 

Rochester : Rochester, Kingman County, Kansas. 
Organized by Kansas Presbytery, December 4, 18,86. 

Rock Creek : Gettysburgh, Adams Count}', Pemisyl- 
vania. Society formed in 1742, as Marsh Creek. John 
Cuthbertson, 1751, to 1774. Alexander Dobbin, March 
10, 1774, to November i, 1782, when disorganized. 

Rocky Creek : Chester, Chester County, South Carolina. 
The parent society in the South, formed about 1750. 
In 1770, called "Edgar's Meeting House." William 
Martin, 1772, to 1789. William King, 1792, to 1798. 
Thomas Donnelly, March 3, 1801, to April 10, 1816. 
Hugh McMillan, June 18, 1822, to April 6, 1829, when 
disorganized. 

Rocky Spring : Chamber sburgh, Franklin Coimty, 
Pennsylvania. Original of Conococheague, formed in 175 1. 
John Cuthbertson, August 31, 1751, to March 10, 1774. 
Matthew Linn, March 10, 1774, to November i, 1782. 
Organized as Conococheague, June 16, 1802, 

Round Prairie : Round Prairie, Todd County, Minne- 
sota. Organized by Iowa Presbytery, May 12, 1873. 

RUSHSYLVANIA : Rzishsylvania, Logan County, Ohio. 
Organized by Lakes Presbytery, November 17, 1853. 
J. R. W. Sloane, January 13, 1855, to May 21, 1856. 
P. H. Wylie, November 13, i860, to May 25, 1876. 
H. H. George, May 3, 1878, to May 18, 1880. John 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 423 

Lynd, August 12, 1880, to April 14, 1885. J, J. Huston, 
July 30, 1886, to April 9, 1888. 

Ryegate : Ryegate^ Caledonia County, Vermont. Organ- 
ized by Reformed Presbytery, October, 1798. William 
Gibson, July 10, 1799, to April 13, 181 5. James 
Milligan, September 26, 1817, to May 17, 1839. J- M. 
Beattie, June 20, 1844, to May 17, 1882. H. W. Reed, 
January 19, 1883, to September 2i, 1886, 

Saint John : Saint John, Neiv Brunswick. Society 
formed. May, 1821. Organized by Alexander Clarke, 
March, 1828. Alexander Clarke, August, 1827, to April 
25, 1832. A. M. Stavely, August 16, 1841, to July 26, 
1879. A. J. McFarland since August 4, 1882. 

Saint Johnsbury : Saint Johnsbury, Caledonia County, 
Vermont. Organized by New York Presbytery, July 29, 
1879. W. R. Laird, June 15, 1880, to May i, 1888. 

Saint Louis : Saint Louis, Missouri. Organized by 
Illinois Presbytery, April 2, 1846. A. C. Todd, July 29, 
1852, to April 12, 1857. Joseph McCracken, October 14, 
1859, to September 2, 1874. J. R. Hill, September 28, 
1877, to April 15, 1885. E. M. Smith since May 16, 
1887. 

Salem : Stanton, Jefferson County, Pennsylvania. Organ- 
ized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 31, i860. A. J. 
McFarland, February 5, 1862, to April 11, 1882. H. W. 
Temple since July 14, 1887. 

Sandusky : Crestline, Crawford County, Ohio. Organ- 
ized by Lakes Presbytery, October 10, 1843. J. C. 
Boyd, May 13, 1847, to November 6, 1867. Disorganized, 
April 12, 1876. 



424 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Schenectady : Schenectady, Neio York. Organized in 
1794, with Duanesburgh. James McKinney, May, 1798, 
to April 4, 1802. Gilbert McMaster, August 8, 1808, to 
May 16, 183 1, when received separate organization. John 
McMaster, January 25, 1832, to August 7, 1833, when 
disorganized. 

Selma : Selina, Dallas County, Alabama. Organized by 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, May 21, 1875, as a mission con- 
gregation. Lewis Johnston, May 21, 1875, to November 
14, 1876. G. M. Elliot since December 14, 1877. 

Sharon : Linton, Des Moines County, Iowa. Organized 
by Illinois Presbytery, September 26, 1846. J. M. Mc- 
Donald, May 17, 185 1, to June 19, 1872. T. P. 
Robb since July 6, 1874. 

Shenango and Neshannock : Neshannock FallSy 
Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, October 25, 1829. A. W. Black, January 
18, 1832, to August 7, 1833, when disorganized. 

Slippery Rock and Portersville : Rose Point, 
Lawrence Coimty, Pe^insylvattia. Society formed in 1806, 
and a part of Little Beaver. Organized by Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, April 12, 1834. James Blackwood, May 
24, 1834, to October 8, 1851. Thomas Hanna, Novem- 
ber 17, 1852, to October 29, 1861. J. C. Smith since 
April 16, 1863. 

SOUTHFIELD : Birmingham, Oakland Coimty, Michigan. 
Organized by Ohio Presbytery, May 10, 1834. James 
Neill, May 18, 1843, to October 6, 185 1. J. S. T. 
Milligan, November 11, 1853, to April 11, 187 1. J. R. 
Hill, May 10, 1872, to May 25, 1876. Joseph Mc- 
Cracken since June 15, 1878. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 425 

Springfield : Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. 
Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, August 4, 1852. 
J. J. McClurkin, September 8, 1854, to October 14, 
1873. J. Renwick Wylie, June 29, 1877, to April 10, 
1888. 

Staunton : Staunton, Macoupin County, Illinois. Organ- 
ized by Illinois Presbytery, July 14, 1863. John Middle- 
ton, May 23, 1865, to August 9, 1870. W. F. George, 
May 13, 1872, to April 14, 1880. E. M. Smith since 
May 12, 1887. 

Sterling : Sterling Valley, Cayuga County, Neiv York. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery, November 17, 1823. 
W. L. Roberts, November 16, 1826, to October 6, 
1830. W. L. Roberts, October 19, 1837, to May 26, 
1855. Matthew Wilkin, October 23, 1856, to October 
2, 1867. S. R. Galbraith, July 7, 1870, to October i, 
1871. T. J. Allen, November 11, 1875, to June i, 
1887. J. C. B. French since January 12, 1888. 

Sterling : Sterling, Rice Cojinty, Kansas. Organized 
by Kansas Presbytery, November 5, 1877. J. M. 
Armour, April i, 1877, to May 26, 1885. P. H, 
Wylie since April 15, 1887. 

Superior : Superior, Nuckolls County, Nebraska. 
Organized by Kansas Presbytery, September i, 1881,. 
R. C. Allen, December 8, 1882, to October 15, 1884. 
Disorganized, May 22, 1885. Re-organized, August 27, 
1885. P. P. Boyd since March 16, 1888. 

Sylvania : Sylvania, Dade County, Missouri. Organ- 
ized by Illinois Presbytery, August 10, 1871. Josiah 
Dodds since May 9, 1878. 



426 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Syracuse : Syracuse, Neiv York. Organized by- 
Rochester Presbytery, October lo, 1849. John Newell, 
May 7, 1851, to May 26, 1853. J. M. Johnston, May 
13, 1859. to August II, 1866. J. M. Armour, June 
8, 1867, to September 9, 1873. S. R. Wallace since 
December 8, 1874. 

Tabor : Clay Centre, Clay County, Kansas. Organized 
by Kansas Presbytery, October 12, 1873. S. M. 
Stevenson since October 30, 1874. 

ToPSHAM : Topsham, Orange County, Vermont. Organ- 
ized by Northern Presbytery, September 6, 18 18. 
William Sloahe, October 14, 1820, to April 17, 1829. 
N. R. Johnston, November 10, 1852, to May 16, 1865. 
J. M. Paris, September i, 1869, to May 22, 1872. J. 
C, K. Paris since December 2, 1874. 

Toronto : Toronto, Canada. Organized by Rochester 
Presbytery, May 27, 1851. Robert Johnson, November 
4, 1852, to November 7, 1859. Disorganized, May 27, 
j868. Re-organized, January 23, 1872. Disorganized, 
May 26, 1875. 

Troy : Troy, New York. Organized by Northern 
Presbytery, June 17, 1828. Robert McKee, December 
29, 1830, to May 26, 1835. Disorganized, April 13, 
1849. 

United Miami : NortJiwood, Logan County, Ohio. 
Organized by Lakes Presbytery, April 14, 1877, by 
consolidation of Pirst and Second Miami. George 
Kennedy, May 23, 1878, to June 15, 1882. Ruther 
Hargrave since May 27, 1886. 

Utica : Utica, Licking County, Ohio. Organized by- 
Middle Presbytery, October 12, 18 14, as Licking. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 427 

Robert Wallace, October 12, 1814, to May 10, 1820. 
Armour McFarland, October 5, 1837, to May 23, 1855. 
J. C. Boyd, November 26, 1856, to October 4, 1882. 
W. J. Coleman, April 15, 1886, to November 17, 
1887. 

Utica : Utica, New York. Organized by Southern 
Presbytery, October 10, 1837. Disorganized, October 
13. 1840. 

Vernon : Waukesha, Waukesha County, Wisconsin. 
Organized by Rochester Presbytery, October 18, 1848, 
as Waukesha. Disorganized, November 8, 1850. Re- 
organized by Illinois Presbytery, September 16, 1856, 
as Vernon. Robert Johnson, November 7, 1859, 
to December 17, 1867. R. B. Cannon, September 13, 
1872, to May 28, 1878. Isaiah Faris since November 
22, 1878. 

Wahoo and Fremont : Wahoo, Saunders County^ 
Nebraska. Organized by Kansas Presbytery, December 
19, 1 87 1. J. A. Thompson, October 18, 1877, to May 
18, 1880. H. P. McClurkin since February 29, 1884. 

Walnut City : Walnut City, Appanoose County, loiva. 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, March 18, 1868. 
Isaiah Faris, September 21, 1870, to May 23, 1877. 
Disorganized, April 9, 1884. 

Walnut Ridge : Salem, Washington County, Indiana. 
Organized by Western Presbytery, May 13, 1822. 
Robert Lusk, October 7, 1824, to August 10, 1825. 
Robert Lusk, May 9, 1835, to September 18, 1840. 
J. J. McClurkin, June 2, 1843, to April 10, 1851. 
Disorganized, May 28, 1862. 



428 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Walton: Walton, Delaxvare County, New York. Organ- 
ized by New York Presbytery, June ii, i86i. David 
McAllister, December i6, 1863, to September 6, 1871. 
David McAllister, June 23, 1875, to October 24, 1883.- 
S. G. Shaw since July 8, 1884. 

Washington: Washington, Washington County, loiua. 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, November 27, 1863. 
S. M. Stevenson, February 15, 1865, to October 4, 
1871. W. P. Johnston, October 10, 1873, to August 
4, 1 88 1. T. A. H. Wylie since December 7, 1882. 

West Hebron: West Hebron, Washington County, 
Neiv York. Society formed in 1764. Organized by 
Northern Presbytery, October, 18 14, as Argyle. J. W.. 
Stewart, October 13, 1825, to April 5, 1832. Dis- 
organized, May 24, 1862, Re-organized by New York 
Presbytery, August 29, 1866, as West Hebron. J. A. 
Speer since July 28, 1875. 

White Lake : White Lake, Sullivan County, New York. 
Organized by Northern Presbytery, April 15, 1820. 
M. B. Williams, April 15, 1820, to May 16, 1821. J. 
B. Williams since November 14, 1850. 

WiLKlNSBURGH : Wilkinsburgh, Allegheny Cotinty, Penn- 
sylvania. Organized by Pittsburgh Presbytery, July 14, 
1848. Thomas Hanna, supply, Joseph Hunter, April 
13, 1852, to September 9, 1882. W. W. Carithers since 
June 20, 1883. 

Wilmington : Wilmington, Delaware. Organized by 
Philadelphia Presbytery, December 25, 1832, S. M. 
Gayley, December 25, 1832, to August 7, 1833. ^^^' 
organized, October, 1834. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 429 

WiLMOT : Wilmot, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia. 
Organized by New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Pres- 
bytery, November 13, 1849. Robert Stewart, November 

13, 1849, to May 28, 1881. 

Winchester : Winchester, Jefferson Coimty, Kansas. 
Organized by Iowa Presbytery, September 7, 1868. 
Josiah Dodds, November 7, 1868, to October 17, 1876. 
D. H. Coulter since August 17, 1877. 

Xenia : Xenia, Ohio. Organized by Middle Presbytery,- 
June 19, 1 8 10. John Kell, supply. Jonathan Gill, May 

14, 1816, to April 6, 1823. Gavin McMillan, supply. 
Hugh McMillan, September 7, 1829, to August 7, 1833. 
Disorganized, August 18, 1841. 

York : York, Livingstone County, New York. Organ- 
ized by Northern Presbytery, November ly, 1823. W. 
L. Roberts, November 16, 1826, to October 6, 1830. 
John Fisher, July 21, 1831, to July 22, 1845. Samuel 
Bowden, December 31, 1846, to November 21, 1876. 
W. C. Allen since September 26, 1882. 

YOUNGSTOWN : Yoiingstown, Ohio. Organized by Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, October 12, 1885, as remnant of 
Poland and North Jackson. H. W. Reed since May 4,. 
1888. 



430 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 



The Ministry. 



THOMAS HOUSTON ACHESON: 

Son of John and Nancy (Caskey) Acheson, was 
born in New Galilee, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 
August lo, 1861. He received his early education in 
the schools of his native town, and, in due time, entered 
Westminster College, where he remained until his 
junior year, and graduated from Geneva College in 
1882. He studied theology in the Allegheny Semi- 
nary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 15, 1885, and labored for six months in Kansas 
and Nebraska. He was ordained by the Iowa Pres- 
bytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Hopkinton, Delaware County, Iowa, September 23, 
1886, where he is in charge. He married Miss Minnie Hill, 
of Crystal Park, Colorado, August 24, 1886. In 1880, 
he became an editor of the College Cabinet for two 
years. 

WILLIAM ANDREW ACHESON: 

Son of William and Margaret (Graham) Acheson, 
was born in the city of New York, July 28, 18 15. 
He was early furnished with the opportunity of acquir- 
ing a liberal education in the best schools, and grad- 
uated from the University of^ the City of New York 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 43 1 

in 1836. He engaged in teaching, and other employ- 
ments, for several years. He studied theology under 
the direction of the Rev. James Christie, D. D., and 
also in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the New York Presbytery, December 3, 1847. He 
travelled generally throughout the Church, but especially 
supplied the vacancies in the South and West, where 
his labors were very acceptable. While on his way to 
Princeton, Indiana, he was attacked with cholera, and 
.died in three days thereafter, in Evansville, Indiana, 
November 26, 1850. He never married. Few young 
men possessed a more robust constitution, and the 
abilities which are peculiarly adapted to missionary 
work. He was endowed with a fine mind, and the 
. elements of a popular preacher. He was warm in his 
attachments, easy in his manners, kind in his deport- 
ment, and unaffected in his devotion to the cause of 
. Christ. 

JOHN STEVENSON ALLEN: 

Son of Cochran and Elizabeth (Willson) Allen, 
was born in Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
• October 20, 1857. He received his preparatory course 
. of literary training in Grove City College, and grad- 
uated from Westminster College in 1882. He studied 
theology in the Union Seminary of New York City, 
and was licensed by the New York Presbytery, May 
20, 1885. He, preached in but a few of the vacancies, 
and connected with the Presbyterian Church, being 
received by the Presbytery of the City of New York, 
February 8, 1886. He was ordained by the West 
.Chester Presbytery of that body, and installed pastor 



432 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of Throgg's Neck congregation, West Chester, West 
Chester County, New York, May 13, 1886, where he 
is in charge. 

NATHANIEL ALLEN, M. D. : 

Son of Robert and Ann (Gillespie) Allen, was 
born near Andes, Delaware County, New York, June 
14, 1 8 10. In early life he was cast upon his own 
resources, and, with great difficulty, obtained a liberal 
education, and taught school in Orange County, New 
York, with marked success for many years. He pursued 
his classical studied in the Academy of Coldenham, New 
York, under the Rev, J. R. Willson, D. D., and grad- 
uated from the Oneida Institute, Whitesboro, New 
York, in- 1838. He studied theology in the Coldenham 
and Allegheny Seminaries, and was licensed by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, June 29, 1843. He preached 
within the bounds of this Presbytery for two years, 
and, when transferred to the Lakes Presbytery in 
1845, ^^ ■^^s refused appointments and complained to 
Synod. For the want of that aptness to teach which 
is essential in the ministry, his license was withdrawn 
by the authority of Synod, May 31, 1847. In 1848, 
he entered the Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, com- 
pleted the three years' course, and settled in Princeton,. 
Indiana, where he practiced medicine as a successful 
physician for several years. In 1855, he memorialized 
the Synod to consider his case, but failed to receive 
his license to preach, and returned to Princeton,. 
Indiana, where he died of hemorrhages of the lungs,. 
March 29, 1857. He married Miss Eliza J. Reid, of 
Rushville, Indiana, March 18, 1846. He was a skilled 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 433 

physician and sympathetic to every trouble. He was 
a good man, a true Covenanter, scrupulously conscien- 
tious in the discharge of all religious duties and 
persevering in his purpose, but failed to attain the 
grand object of his desires — the Christian ministry. 
He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from 
the Ohio Medical College in 1851. He published a 
sermon, ''The Help of the Church," 185 1, pp. 16. 

ROBERT CAMERON ALLEN: 

Son of Samuel and Mary (Gilmore) Allen, was 
born in Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, May 4, 
1848, He received his elementary literary training in 
what is now Grove City College, graduated from 
Westminster College in 1875, and engaged in teaching. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
-was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 8, 
1879, and labored in the far West, under the direction 
of the Central Board of Missions. He was ordained by 
the Kansas Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
■congregation of Superior, Nuckolls County, Nebraska, 
December 8, 1882, and was released October 15, 1884. 
He was installed pastor of the Lochiel congregation, 
Brodie, Ontario, Canada, October 18, 1887, where he is 
in charge. He married Miss Lizzie S. Little, of West 
Fairfield, Pennsylvania, June 28, 1878. 

THOMAS JOHN ALLEN : 

Son of Robert and Jane (Willson) Allen, was born 
-in Findley, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, July 18, 1848. 
He received his early education in what is now Grove 
City College, and graduated from Westminster College 
in 1 87 1. He studied theology in the Allegheny 



434 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 15, 1874. He was ordained by the Rochester 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Sterling, Cayuga County, New York, November ii, 1875, 
and resigned this charge, June i, 1887, and removed to 
Balm, Pennsylvania. Recently he has engaged in 
evangelistic work with fruitful results. He married Miss 
Nannie Ramsey, of Oakdale, Illinois, August 28, 1877. 

WILLIAM COCHRAN ALLEN: 

Son of Cochran and Elizabeth (Willson) Allen, 
was born in Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
November 7, 1854. He received his rudimentary 
literary education in what is now Grove City College, 
and graduated from Westminster College in 1877. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 13, 1881,, 
and labored for some time in Lake Reno and Round 
Prairie, Minnesota. He was ordained by the Rochester 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
York, Livingston County, New York, September 28, 
1882, where he is in charge. He married Miss Jeanie 
A. Black, of London, Pennsylvania, June i, 1882. 

JOHN Mclaughlin armour: 

Son of Thomas G. and Mary A. (Cathcart) Armour, 
was born in Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois, October 
9, 1825. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native village, and in the city of St. Louis, 
Missouri, and graduated from Geneva College in 1852. 
He studied theology in the Cincinnati Seminary, and at 
the same time with his literary course in the Northwood 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery,, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 435 

April 1 6, 1852. He was ordained by the New York 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Craftsbury, Orleans County, Vermont, September 23, 
1857, and resigned October 31, 1865, and took charge 
of the Freedmen's Mission in Washington, D. C. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Syracuse, 
New York, June 8, 1867, and resigned September 9, 
1873. He removed to Northwood, Logan County, Ohio, 
and was a supply for three years. He took charge of 
the congregation of Sterling, Rice County, Kansas, 
April I, 1877, and resigned May 26, 1885. He removed 
to the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he is 
devoting himself to the work of an author and supplying 
vacant pulpits. He married Miss Mary E. Sudborough, 
of Hamilton, Canada, March 21, 1856. Among his 
publications are: "Atonement and Law," 1885, pp. 240, 
three editions. "The Divine Method of Life," 1887, 
pp, 250. 

JOHN OWEN PAYEES: 

Son of Stephen and Martha (McVey) Bayles, was 
born in Cherry Fork, Adams County, Ohio, February 4, 
1835. He received his early education in that vicinity, 
and with the family removed to Northwood, Logan . 
County, Ohio, where he graduated from Geneva College 
in 1857. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary 
and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 
25, i860.* He supplied vacant congregations and mission 
stations, and, in the spring of 1864, took charge of the 
Freedmen's Mission in Washington. D. C. He was 
ordained by the New York Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Kortright congregation. West Kortright,. 



436 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Delaware County, New York, January lO, 1866, where 
he is in charge. He married Miss Martha B. Floyd, of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 30, 1865. 

JOSEPH BEATTIE, D. D.: 

Son of John and Eliza (McKinney) Beattie, was 
born in Saint Andrews, Orange County, New York, 
October 17, 1830. His mother was a daughter of the 
Rev. James McKinney, and his father a pious Cove- 
nanter and an elder in the Coldenham congregation. 
He pursued his preparatory literary studies in the 
schools of his native county and graduated from Union 
College in 1852. He studied theology in Philadelphia, 
under the direction of the Rev. James M. Willson, D. 
D., and was licensed by the Philadelphia Presbytery, 
May 26, 1856. The next week he was chosen by 
.Synod as a Missionary to Syria. Accepting this appoint- 
ment, he was ordained si7te titiilo by the New York 
Presbytery, September 23, 1856, and, with Dr. R. J. 
Dodds and others, sailed for that foreign land, October 
16, 1856. He first settled in Damascus, where he 
pursued his studies in the Arabic language, and became 
a proficient scholar in that tongue. After exploring 
many parts of the Holy Land, he finally settled in 
Latakia in 1859, where suitable buildings were subse- 
quently erected, and where he spent the rest of his 
life in the proper work of a Missionary. He visited 
the United States three times — in 1863, 1876 and 1878, 
and in those visits he lectured through all parts of 
the Church and awakened an interest in the Foreign 
Mission. Upon his last visit he left his wife to educate 
his children in this country, but scarcely had he' reached 




JOSEPH BEATTIE, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 437 

the sacred soil of Syria, when he received the distress- 
ing intelligence of her death, and he immediately 
returned to his motherless children. He soon after- 
wards returned to Syria, and, in 1880, opened a Theo- 
logical School for the training of a native ministry. 
He died at his home in Latakia, Syria, of gastric fever, 
October 8, 1883. He was a man of fine personal 
appearance, of ripe experience and of sound judgment, 
to whom the missionaries, as well as the native scholars, 
looked for counsel and direction. He was a faithful 
minister, a most judicious teacher, and one universally 
beloved for his kindness to his fellow-teachers and 
sympathy for the distressed heathen. He was a man 
firm in his convictions and unyielding in his fidelity 
to truth and duty. He did yeoman service in establish- 
ing the Syrian Mission, and was instrumental in 
bringing many souls to a saving knowledge of Christ. 
He married Miss Martha E. Lord, of Camden, Delaware, 
September 16, 1856. He was honored with the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity by Union College in 1878. He 
was Moderator of the Synod of 1876. 

JAMES MILLIGAN BEATTIE : 

Son of John and Sarah (Haines) Beattie, was born 
in Saint Andrews, Orange County, New York, Septem- 
ber 24, 181 1. He was a half-brother to Rev. Joseph 
Beattie, D. D., and received an equally strict religious 
training in the home of his pious parents. He received 
his preparatory literary studies in the Coldenham 
Academy of his native County, and graduated from 
Union College in 1834. He studied theology in the 
Coldenham Seminary under the Rev. James R. Willson, 



438 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

D. D., one year. In 1840, he went to Scotland and 
studied theology in the Paisley Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Paisley Presbytery, of the Covenanter 
Church, April 13, 1843. He returned to this country 
the same year, was ordained by the New York Presby- 
tery, May 29, 1844, and installed pastor of the united 
congregations of Ryegate and Barnet, Caledonia 
County, Vermont, June 20, 1844. At the organization 
of the Barnet congregation, he resigned that branch,. 
May 24, 1872, and on account of declining strength 
he was released from Ryegate, May 17, 1882. For 
two years he endured much severe suffering of the 
body, and died at his home in Ryegate, Caledonia 
County, Vermont, March 9, 1884. He married Miss 
Margaret S. Nelson, of Ryegate, Vermont, December 
25, 1855. He was a sound theologian, an instructive 
preacher, and a faithful shepherd of the flock which 
Christ gave him. He was studious in his habits, 
reserved in his manners, and exemplary in his deport- 
ment. He was peculiarly gifted in prayer, conscienti- 
ously regular in the performance of Christian duties,^ 
and thoroughly devoted to the work of the Master. 

ANDREW WATSON BLACK, D. D. : 

Son of Rev. Dr. John and Elizabeth (Watson) 
Black, was born in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
April 24, 1808. He received a strict religious training 
in the home of his distinguished father, pursued his 
preparatory literary course in the Pittsburgh Academy 
under Dr. Robert Bruce, and graduated from the 
Western University of Pennsylvania in 1826. He studied 
theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 439 

by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, February 10, 1828. He 
itinerated throughout the vacancies and travelled 
extensively through Tennessee and South Carolina. 
He was ordained by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the united congregations of Shenango, 
Mercer and Neshannock, Neshannock Falls, Lawrence 
County, Pennsylvania, January 18, 1832. In August, 
1833, he, and the majority of the congregation, became 
identified with the New School branch of the Cove- 
nanter Church. He resigned his congregation August 
10, 1838, and removed to the city of Pittsburgh. He 
was installed pastor of a colony of his father's con- 
gregation in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, May 
16, 1839, and also performed the duties of Chaplain 
in the Western Penitentiary. In 1855, he resigned 
these charges, and became agent for the American 
Bible Society. In May, 1858, he was chosen by his 
Church to the chair of theology in the Philadelphia 
Seminary, and, while preparing to enter upon the duties 
of this important office, he was taken with dysentery, 
and died very suddenly at his home in Sewickleyville, 
in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, September 10, 
1858. He was a fine scholar, a forcible writer, and 
a popular preacher. He took a prominent part in all 
Church work, and was interested in many literary 
institutions and benevolent societies of his native city. 
He married Miss Margaret Roseburgh, of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, January i, 1835. He was honored with 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Rutgers College 
in 1852. He was Moderator of the General Synods 
of 1842 and 1853. 



440 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

JOHN B-LACK, D. D. : 

Son of John and Margaret (McKibbin) Black, was 
born in Ahoghill, County Antrim, Ireland, October 2, 
1768. He received the rudiments of a classical educa- 
tion in the schools of his native country, and grad- 
uated from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 
1790. He returned to Ireland where he engaged in 
teaching, and also began the study of theology. He 
came to America in the fall of 1797, as an exile for 
liberty at the time of the Irish insurrection. He was 
employed for some time as a teacher of the classics 
near the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and sub- 
sequently in connection with the University of Penn- 
sylvania. He resumed his theological studies, and was 
licensed by the Reformed Presbytery, at Coldenham, 
Orange County, New York, June 24, 1799. Being 
assigned by this court to labor in Western Penn- 
sylvania, he soon afterwards gathered the Ohio con- 
gregation, centering in Pittsburgh, and including all 
the societies of Covenanters west of the Allegheny 
mountains. He was ordained by the Reformed Pres- 
bytery, and installed pastor of this extensive con- 
gregation, December 18, 1800. In 1806, the congrega- 
tion was divided into three parts, and he remained 
pastor of the portion in and around the city of 
Pittsburgh, which soon became a large and influential 
charge. He also was engaged as a classical teacher, 
and, in 1820, was elected Professor of Latin and 
Greek in the Western University of Pennsylvania, and 
resigned in 1832, when he visited Europe. He was 
President of Duquesne College one year. At the 




JOHN BLACK, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 44I 

division of the Church in August, 1833, he became 
identified with the New School branch of the Cove- 
nanter Church. He remained pastor of a majority of 
his former congregation until his death, at his residence 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 25, 1849. He- 
was a remarkably proficient scholar, especially in the' 
languages, and spent most of his life in teaching. 
He was identified with almost all the literary and 
charitable institutions of his adopted city, and was a 
zealous advocate of every reform. He was the first 
Covenanter minister settled west of the Allegheny 
mountains, and the pioneer missionary in the new West, 
During the suspension of the Theological Seminary 
after 1828, he taught a class in theology in con- 
nection with his other duties. He was a great man. 
His preaching talents were of a high order. He 
possessed a lively imagination and dwelt largely in 
allegory, sometimes enrapturing his audience with de- 
scriptions of Scripture figures and scenery. He was a 
ready and forcible extemporaneous speaker on all 
subjects, and never refused an invitation to preach. 
His life was too busy with collegiate and ministerial 
duties to effect much as an author, yet he published 
some valuable articles in the newspapers and maga- 
zines of the Church in his day. Among his publica- 
tions are: "Church Fellowship," 1819, pp. 109' "The 
Bible against Slavery," 1839, pp. 36. "The Baptist 
Controversy," 1846, pp. 52. "The Duration of the 
Mediatorial Dominion," 1848, pp. 32. The "Directory 
of Worship" is from his pen, and he wrote the Latin 
Introduction to Rabbi Leeser's issue of the Hebrew 



442 HISTORY OK THE REFORMED 

Jiiblc. lie married Miss IClizabcth Watson, of Titts- 
burj,^h, I'cnnsylvania, in 1802. He was honored with 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Washington 
College in 1824. He was Moderator of the Reformed 
Presbytery in 1801, and previous to 1833, the stated 
Clerk of Synod for many years. He was Moderator 
of the General Synod in 1837. 

JOHN IH.ACK, Jr.: 

Son of Rev. Dr. John and l^lizabeth (Watson) Black, 
was born in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 
9, 1806. He received his preparatory course of literary 
training in the Pittsburgh Academy under Dr. Robert 
Bruce, and graduated from the Western University of 
I'ennsylvania in 1825. He studied theology in the 
Philadelphia Seminary, and also under the direction of 
Jlis distinguished father, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 22, 1 828. His trial discourses 
■were the last he delivered, for at that time he was 
greatly reduced by consumption, from which disease he 
-died at the house of his uncle, the Rev. Dr. S. B. 
Wylie, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 15, 1828. 
He was unmarried. He was a large and exceedingly 
muscular man, and possessed a commanding appearance. 
His scholarly attainments and natural endowments gave 
ample promise that, had he been spared, he would 
have become a powerful preacher and an able divine. 

JAMKS ALICXANDKR BLACK: 

Son of Samuel and Elizabeth (lk-11) Black, was 
born near Dromore, County Down, Ireland, * * * 
He came with his parents to America in 1841, and settled 
in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he received 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 443 

his early education in the public schools, and graduated 
from Allegheny City College in 1862. lie studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, May 23, 1867. He was ordained by the 
same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation 
of Clarksburgh, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, November 
18, 1868, and resigned this charge, April 11, 1882. In 
the fall of 1882, he accepted the Presidency of the 
Polytechnic Institute, Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, 
which position he occupied three years. He was 
installed pastor of the Rehoboth congregation, Wyman, 
Louisa County, Iowa, February 9, 1886, where he is in 
charge. He married Miss Tirzah M, Cannon, of New 
Alexandria, Pennsylvania, June 8, 1876. 

JAMKS BLACKWOOD : 

Son of Thomas and Martha (Akin) Blackwood, was 
born in Ardstraw, County Tyrone, Ireland, August 14, 
1793- He was early dedicated to the work of the 
gospel ministry, and received his preparatory course of 
study in the schools of his native County. In 1811, 
he entered the University of Glasgow, Scotland, where 
he remained three years, and then engaged in teaching. 
In 18 1 8, he repaired to Belfast, Ireland, where he 
resumed his literary and theological studies, and was 
licensed by the Southern Presbytery, Ireland, May 10, 
1822. He came to America in 1824, with other 
members of the family, and settled in Belmont County, 
Ohio, and missionated throughout Western Pennsylvania 
and Ohio for several years. To fully meet the 
exigencies of his work, he was ordained sine titulo by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, May 8, 1826. He was 



444 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

installed pastor of the Brush Creek congregation, Locust 
Grove, Adams County, Ohio, April 12, 1827, and was 
released April 9, 1829. He remained unsej:tled for 
nearly five years, during most of which time he was 
actively engaged in missionary work. He was installed 
pastor of the united congregations of Little Beaver, 
Austintown, Camp Run, Slippery Rock. Greenville and 
Sandy Lake, principally in Beaver and Lawrence 
Counties, Pennsylvania, May 24, 1834. In 1838, Little 
Beaver, Austintown and Greenville, and in 1850, Sandy 
Lake, became separate congregations, and he confined 
his labors to Slippery Rock and Camp Run until his 
death. In 1850, his health began to decline, and, at 
times, he was unable to fully attend to his ministerial 
duties. His sufferings were often intense, and his disease 
took the form of dropsy, from which he died at his 
home near Portersville, Pennsylvania, October 8, 185 1. 
He was a clear and instructive preacher, a faithful 
pastor, and a rigid disciplinarian. He possessed an 
ardent temperament, and was strong in his attachments 
as well as decided in his antipathies.* With strangers 
he was somewhat formal and distant, but, when he 
discovered in them true manhood, honesty and piety^ 
they were received into his friendship. He was exceed- 
ingly tender in his feelings, and peculiarly sympathetic 
to those in suffering or in sorrow from bereavements 
He was social and lively in his disposition, and made 
the hour of relaxation teem with pleasantry. He was 
a good Presbyter, and was not absent from a meeting 
of Synod during his ministry, where his opinion upon 
*Sprague's Annals, p. 78, by Rev. Dr. T. Sproull. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 445 

ecclesiastical questions was highly regarded. He married 
Miss Jemima Calderwood, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
August 18, 1833. He was Moderator of the Synod of 1838. 

JOHN HASLETT BOGGS : 

Son of John and Annabella (Haslett) Boggs, was 
born in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, December 
7, 1837. He received his preparatory course of study 
in the public schools of his native city, and graduated 
from Allegheny City College in i860. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1864. He was 
ordained by the New York Presbytery, and installed • 
pastor of the congregation of Brooklyn, New York,. 
December 14, 1864, and resigned this charge, 
November 19, 1880. He connected with the Presby- 
terian Church, and was received by the Philadelphia 
Presbytery of that body, April 6, 1881. He was installed 
pastor of the Hermon congregation, Frankford, near 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 26, 1881, and resigned 
June 4, 1887. He spent some time in California for 
his health, with the expectation of returning to the 
East. He married Miss M. A. Taylor, of Allegheny 
City, Pennsylvania, January 6, 1865. He was an editor 
of Our Banner from 1874, to 1880. He published "Why 
Covenanters do not Vote," 1872, pp. 15. 

JOHN ALEXANDER FINLEY BOVARD : 

Son of George and Jane (Finley) Bovard, was born 
in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 7, 
185 1. In early life his parents removed to Lake 
County, Indiana, where he received his early education 
in the schools of Hebron and Crown Point. He resumed 



446 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

his classical studies in Geneva College, and graduated 
from the State Normal School, Valparaiso, Indiana, in 
1877. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 13, 
1880. He was ordained sine titulo by the New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia Presbytery, as a missionary to 
Houlton, Maine, July 28, 1881, where he labored 
three years. He was installed pastor of the united 
congregations of Oil Creek and Oil City, Pennsylvania, 
June 12, 1884, where he is in charge. He married 
Miss Mary J. Jamison, of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, 
January 15, 1880. 

SAMUEL BOWDEN: 

Son of Andrew and Rose (Witherspoon) Bowden, 
was born in the city of New York, New York, 
August 26, 1822. He received his preparatory literary 
training in the private schools of his native city, and 
graduated from Columbia College in 1840. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the New York Presbytery, October 29, 1844. He 
was ordained by the Rochester Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the congregation of York, Livingston County, 
New York, December 31, 1846, and resigned this 
•charge, November 21, 1876. He withdrew from the 
communion of the Covenanter Church, October 6, 1880, 
and connected with the Presbyterian Church, being 
received by the Rochester Presbytery of that body, 
April 19, 1 88 1, He took charge of the congregation 
of Tonawanda, Wyoming County, New York, May 6, 
1883, and resides in Le Roy, Genesee County, New 
York. He was twice married. First to Miss Maria 




SAMUEL BOWDEN. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 447 

O. Beattie, of St. Andrews, New York, October 24, 
1848 ; and second to Miss Mary E. Donnan, of York, 
New York, April 20, 1864. He was Moderator of the 
Synod of 1864. 

JOHN CALVIN BOYD : 

Son of Robert and Mary (McMaster) Boyd, was 
born in the city of Steubenville, Ohio, June 27, 18 14. 
His father was an accomplished scholar and teacher, 
and his mother was distinguished for her piety and traits 
of Christian character. His religious and literary train- 
ing early fitted him for becoming a teacher of others, 
and in this occupation he began in Utica, Licking 
County, Ohio, where he became a successful teacher 
and prosecuted his classical studies. In 1840, he entered 
Miami University, where he remained two years. He 
studied theology under the Rev. Armour McFarland, 
and also in the Cincinnati Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Lakes Presbytery, May 7, 1846. He was 
ordained by the same Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of the Sandusky congregation, Cresline, Crawford 
County, Ohio, May 13, 1847, and also of the congrega- 
tion of Utica, Licking County, Ohio, November 26, 
1856. He resigned the Sandusky branch, November 6, 
1867, and devoted his whole time to Utica. He 
resigned this charge on account of impaired health, 
October 4, 1882, and supplied throughout the Ohio 
Presbytery as his health would permit. He died at 
his home in Utica, Ohio, of nervous chills and typhoid 
fever, June 3, 1886. He married Miss Jane McCune, 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 30, 1850. He was 
a well-read theologian of the old school, a most 



448 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

logical reasoner, and an instructive preacher. He was- 
a fearless advocate of the cause of the slave, hazarded 
his interests and even his life for the overthrow of 
human slavery, and bore constant testimony against the 
evils of both Church and State. He was well grounded 
in the truth of the Word of God, most decided in his 
convictions, and punctual in the performance of all 
religious duties. He was recognized in Church courts 
for his clear discussion and sound judgment on 
questions pertaining to the good of Zion. He was 
highly esteemed in the community where he labored, 
and the quiet, yet exemplary, life which he lived, was 
a strong testimony to the power of the gospel which 
he so successfully preached. He published some 
sermons and articles of importance in the papers and 
magazines of the Church. 

PATTERSON PROUDFIT BOYD: 

Son of James and Jane (Speer) Boyd, was born near 
Londonderry, Guernsey County, Ohio, August 2, 1842. 
In 1852, his parents removed to Oskaloosa, Iowa, and 
were devoted members of the Associate Church, in 
which he was reared. Here he received his early 
education in Oskaloosa College, and in 1865, entered 
Muskingum College, where he graduated in 1868. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Ohio Presbytery, April 12, 1871. He was 
ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of the congregation of Cedarville, Greene County, Ohio, 
May 22, 1872, and resigned this charge, April 8, 1874.. 
He was installed pastor of the Old Bethel congregation, 
Houston, Randolph (bounty, Illinois, July 20, 1874, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 449 

resigned this charge, December 12, 1887. He was 
installed pastor of the congregation of Superior, Nuckolls 
County, Nebraska, March 16, 1888, where he is in 
charge. He married Miss Laura C. Foster, of Cedar- 
ville, Ohio, October 17, 1872, 

JAMES BROWN : 

Was born in Penpont, Dumfries Shire, Scotland, 
July 18, 1 812. He received his early education in the 
best schools of his native village, and graduated from 
the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1835. He 
studied theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, 
under the direction of the Rev. Andrew Symington, 
and was licensed by the Paisley Presbytery, April 28, 
1840. He preached with a good degree of success in. 
that country for many years. He came to America in 
the fall of 1855, ^^^^ preached for several years in the 
vacancies. He returned to Scotland, and was for some 
years a Chaplain to an institution in Edinburgh, and 
finally was lost sight of by the Church, and ceased 
preaching. In the latter part of his life he returned 
to his native Shire of Dumfries, where he died, Sep- 
tember 8, 1883. He was a good man, a fair scholar, 
but, upon the whole, unappreciated as a preacher. 

JAMES STEWART BUCK: 

Son of John and Jane (Stewart) Buck, Avas born 
near De Kalb, Richland County, Ohio, June 24, 1835. 
His parents were members of the Associate Reformed 
Church, with which he also connected in his nineteenth 
year. He began his classical studies in Oberlin College, 
resumed them in Hayesville Academy, of his native 
■County, and, in 1857, entered Jefferson College, but was 



450 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

not permitted to complete the full course on account 
of failing health. In 1858, he removed to New GaUlee, 
Beaver County, Pennsylvania, where he opened an 
Academy. Not being satisfied with the Associate- 
Reformed Church as to her position on civil government,, 
he acceded to the Covenanter Church in the fall of 
i860. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary,, 
and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 
23, 1864, He missionated in Oil City, Pennsylvania, 
and other parts of the Church, until frequent and severe 
hemorrhages of the lungs compelled him to cease 
preaching. After a much needed rest, he was ordained 
sine titulo by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, May 21, 1867, 
and sent by the Central Board of Missions as a 
missionary to the North-West region. He soon after- 
wards settled in Elliota, Fillmore County, Minnesota, 
where he labored amid many discouragements and much 
weakness of body for nearly three years. While on his 
way to Synod in May, 1870, his strength failed, and 
he was but able to reach the home of his father-in-law, 
near Rose Point, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, where 
he lingered a few months, and died from consumption, 
October 13, 1870. He married Miss M. J. Davis, of 
Rose Point, Pennsylvania, in 1859. He was an able, 
studious and conscientious preacher of the gospel ; a 
humble, unassuming Christian, and from a rich experience 
declared the truth to dying men. He was most diligent 
and prayerful in his work, kind and attentive to all 
the members of his congregation, cheerful and hopeful 
in every trial. In appearance he was tall, slender, bent, 
and emaciated with disease. He often spoke with great 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 45 1 

difficulty, leaning upon the pulpit or sitting upon a 
chair, and his discourses were highly evangelical and 
deeply impressive. Among his publications are numerous 
letters to the Mission Board, and a posthumous tract, 
"Position of the Reformed Presbyterian Church," 1871,. 
pp. 16. 

JOHN CANNON: 

Son of Hugh and Mary (Thompson) Cannon, was 
born in Dungiven, County Londonderry, Ireland, Nov- 
ember 19, 1784. His parents were exemplary mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church, who emigrated to 
America in 1787, and settled in Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania. Becoming dissatisfied with the use of 
human psalmody in the worship of God, the family 
connected with Associate Reformed Church in 1788. 
He received his early literary instructions under private 
teachers, and graduated from Jefferson College in 1810. 
During his college course he espoused the principles 
of the Covenanter Church, and decided to study for 
the ministry. He studied theology in the Philadelphia 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Middle Presbytery^ 
May 23, 181 5. He was ordained by the same Pres- 
bytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Greensburgh, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, Sep- 
tember 16, 18 16, where he continued to labor until 
his death. During the unpleasant controversy and 
division of the Church in 1833, he stood firm to the 
Covenanted cause, and was chosen Moderator of that 
notable Synod, showing the high esteem and confi- 
dence which his brethern placed in him. For a num- 
ber of years before his death, he labored under a 



452 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

disease of the liver, which was aggravated by the 
fatigue and exposure which he was called upon to 
endure in reaching his places of preaching. His last 
public ministrations were during the communion season 
in August, 1835, when his disease exhibited the symp- 
toms of dropsy, and he gradually declined until his 
death, at his home near Greensburgh, Pennsylvania, 
February 2, 1836. He married Miss Martha Brown of 
Greensburgh, Pennsylvania, May, 18 18. In appearance 
he was of medium size, well proportioned, dark com- 
plexion, and possessed a grave and pleasing counte- 
nance. He was a very acceptable preacher, and his 
pastoral labors were signally blessed in the gathering 
of several societies which are now flourishing con- 
gregations. He was apt to teach, practical in apply- 
ing truth, and prudent in managing difficult cases of 
discipline. He possessed a noble generosity of spirit, 
firmness of purpose, and amiability of manners. He 
was Moderator of the Synods of 18 19 and 1833. 

ROBERT BROWN CANNON, D. D. : 

Son of Rev. John and Martha (Brown) Cannon, 
was born near Greensburgh, Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania, October 4, 1821. He received his early 
education under the direction of his father, studied the 
classics under the Rev. Hugh Walkinshaw, finished the 
classical course in the Greensburgh Academy, and 
graduated from the Western University of Pennsylvania 
in 1842. He was Principal of the Darlington Academy 
one year. He studied theology in the Allegheny and 
Cincinnati Seminaries, and was licensed by the Lakes 
Presbytery, May 7, 1846. He was ordained by the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 453 

Pittsburgh Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
united congregations of Greensburgh, Westmoreland 
County, and Clarksburgh, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 
May 5, 1847, ^rid resigned this charge, April 4, 1854. 
He was installed pastor of the Rehoboth congregation, 
Wyman, Louisa County, Iowa, December 14, 1854, 
and resigned December 17, 1867. He was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Vernon, Waukesha County, 
Wisconsin, September 13, 1872, and resigned May 28, 
1878. He removed to Cameron, Clinton County, Missouri, 
and labored under appointment of the Central Board 
of Missions, and also preached for two years gratui- 
tously to the colored people of that place. He was 
installed pastor of the Jonathan's Creek congregation. 
White Cottage, Muskingum County, Ohio, September 
9, 1886, where he is in charge. He was twice mar- 
ried. First to Miss Juliett H. Willson, of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, November 9, 1846; and second to Miss Elizabeth 
Biggam, of New York City, New York, June 10, 1856. 
He was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by Iowa University in 1868. 

WILLIAM WORK CARITHERS : 

Son of Andrew T. and Mary (Reid) Carithers, 
was born near Linton, Des Moines County, Iowa, 
December 19, 1854. He received his early education 
in the Academy of Morning Sun, Iowa, and entered 
Geneva College, where he tutored, and graduated in 
1878. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
and was licensed by the Iowa Presbytery, April 13, 
1882. He was ordained by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Wilkins- 

28 



454 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

burgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, June 20, 1883, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Ella M. 
George, of Venice, Pennsylvania, May i, 1883. 

JOHN FENTON CARLISLE: 

Son of Rev. Samuel and Margaret M. (Fenton) 
Carlisle, was born in the city of Newburgh, New York, 
September 21, 1858. He received his early education 
in the public schools, and also in the Banks Classical 
School of his native city, and graduated from Columbia 
College in 1880. He studied theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the New York Presby- 
tery, May 16, 1883. He was ordained by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congrega- 
tion of New Alexandria, Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania, June 16, 1884, and resigned this charge, 
January 26, 1888. 

SAMUEL CARLISLE: 

Son of Rev. Samuel and Letitia (Craig) Carlisle, 
was born in Ballibay, County Monaghan, Ireland, May 
4, 1828. His father was an eminent minister of the 
Covenanter Church, and he was reared in the most 
careful manner by a pious parentage. He received his 
early education in the Coleraine Academy, and gradu- 
ated from Belfast College in 1847. He studied theology 
in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was licensed 
by the Northern Presbytery, Ireland, May 4, 1848. In 
the following' spring he came to America, was ordained 
by the New York Presbytery, and installed pastor of 
the First congregation of Newburgh, New York, 
November 15, 1849, where he spent the remainder of 
his life. On January 4, 1887, he was stricken with 




SAMUEL CARLISLE. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 455 

paralysis, which completely disabled his left side, and 
laid him prostrate upon his bed. For a time his life 
was in jeopardy, but in the spring he rallied, and was 
able to walk out, attended church and preached once. 
In order that he might be relieved from the excite- 
ment of the meeting of Synod in iSTewburgh, he was 
advised to leave the city. Accordingly, accompanied 
by his wife, he repaired to Ocean Grove, New Jersey, 
where he seemed to improve and where everything 
was done for his comfort. But, as he expressed it, 
"his work was done." A second stroke rendered him 
unconscious for four days, and he lay motionless until 
his death, at Ocean Grove, New Jersey, July 3, 1887. 
His body was taken back to Newburgh and buried in 
Cedar Hill Cemetery. He married Miss Margaret M. 
Fenton, of Newburgh, New York, May 10, 1853. He 
was an able preacher of the gospel. He was a careful 
Bible student, thoroughly conscientious in preparing for 
the pulpit, and consecrated his whole life to the 
service of his Master. His labors met with general 
appreciation, and he exerted an influence for good in 
the community where he spent the whole of his 
ministerial life. He possessed a good physical constitu- 
tion, a clear and sonorous voice, and preached with a 
seriousness and directness that never failed to impress 
his hearers. He was pre-eminently a man of prayer. 
He was fearless in attacking evil and prudent in 
presenting Reformation principles. He identified himself 
with every good work of the city and was held in 
the highest esteem by his fellow citizens. The work 
of preaching Christ he did conscientiously, faithfully 



456 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and successfully. He was a public spirited man. He 
was a Director of the Newburgh Bible Society, a 
Manager of the Home of the Friendless, and prominent 
in the local National Reform and Temperance move- 
ments. Among his publications are a " Centennial 
Sermon," preached at Washington's Headquarters, New- 
burgh, 1876, pp. 20. "A History of the Reformed 
Presbyterian Church of Newburgh, and a Characteristic 
sketch of Dr. James R. Willson," 1885, pp. 10. He 
was Moderator of the Synod of 1S86. 
JOHN FLEMING CARSON : 

Son of William and Margaret (Fleming) Carson, 
was born in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
January 28, i860. He received his early education in 
the public schools and in the West Philadelphia 
Academy, and completed a special classical course in 
the University of Pennsylvania. He studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery, April 28, 1884. He was ordained 
by the New York Presbytery, and installed pastor of 
the congregation of Brooklyn, New York, May 20, 1885, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Rebecca Mc- 
Knight, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 9, 1886. 
JAMES CHRISTIE, D. D. : 

Son of Major James and Mary (Weygand) Christie, 
was born in the city of New York, New York, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1786.* His father was a distinguished 
Revolutionary officer, and his mother a saintly woman 
abounding in deeds of chairty. They were exemplary 
members of the Associate Reformed Church, with which 
* Sketch by Rev. John Forsythe, D. D., Newburgh, N. Y. 




JAMESXHRISTIE, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 457 

he also connected in early life under the pastoral care 
of the Rev. John M. Mason, D. D. He received a 
careful religious training in the home, a thorough 
literary education in the best schools of the city, and 
graduated from Columbia College in 1806. He became 
a prosperous merchant in New York City, and soon 
afterwards connected with the Dutch Reformed Church. 
In 1812, he abandoned commercial life and resolved to 
devote himself to the work of the gospel ministry. In 
the autumn of 18 12, he began the study of theology 
in the Seminary of the Associate Reformed Church in 
New York, under Dr. John M. Mason, as a student of 
the Dutch Reformed Church, and was licensed by the 
Classis of New York, April 13, 181 5. He was ordained 
by the Classis of Washington, and installed pastor of 
the congregation of Union Village (now Greenwich)^ 
Washington County, New York, November 18, 18 16. 
In the spring of 181 8, he connected with the Associate- 
Reformed Church, and was installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Newburgh, New York, September 6, 18 18.. 
While laboring in this charge he became intimately^ 
associated with the Rev. James R. Willson, D. D.,. 
whose influence and arguments produced a change iry 
his former views, and he acceded to the communion of" 
the Covenanter Church, being received by the Northern 
Presbytery, October 12, 1821. He was installed pastor 
of the congregation of Albany, New York, June 12, 
1822. Here he founded the Albany Grammar School, 
which soon became a flourishing classical institution. 
He resigned the Albany congregation, May 17, 1830, 
and devoted himself to teaching, and preached frequently- 



458 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

in Troy and Lansingburgh, New York. In the con- 
troversy of 1833, he was in the hottest of the battle, 
and stood firm and unyielding to the Covenanted cause 
which he had espoused. He was installed pastor of the 
First congregation of New York City, New York, 
November 16, 1836, and resigned this important charge 
October 15, 1856, and accepted the chair of Systematic 
Theology in the Allegheny Seminary, where he con- 
tinued with great acceptance for two years. He was 
deposed from the ministerial office and privileges in the 
Covenanter Church, on a charge of immorality, by the 
New York Presbytery, November 3, 1858. He removed 
to Brooklyn, New York, and was afterwards restored to 
private membership in the Dutch Reformed Church, and 
where he died, November 17, 1863. He married Miss 
Margaret Nichol.son, of New York City, in 1807. He 
^vas a profoii (i theologian, a proficient linguist, a 
thorough scientist, and an impressive evangelical preacher 
of the gospel. He was acknowledged as a scholar and 
theologian on both sides of the Atlantic. He was a 
prominent minister of the Church, deeply interested in 
all her schemes and missionary operations, and held 
many responsible positions, which he discharged with 
ability and satisfaction. He published " Strictures upon 
Dr. ^laso ' '" i f-^r Sacramental Communion on Catholic 
Principles, 1021, pp. 212, which was afterwards repub- 
lished in Europe with a commendatory preface by Dr. 
McCrie, the biographer of John Knox. He was also 
the author of many scientific and theological articles 
published in the reviews and magazines of his day. 
He was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 459 

by Jefferson College in 1855. He was Moderator of 
the Synods of 1828 and 1849. 

ALEXANDER CLARKE, D. D. : 

Son of William and Elizabeth (Craig) Clarke, was 
born near Kilrea, County Londonderry, Ireland, July 
16, 1793." His parents were pious Covenanters and 
he early embraced the principles of that Church, and 
defended them successfully in several debates. After 
passing through the accustomed rudimentary studies 
in the classical school of Mr. Ferris, he entered Bel- 
fast College, and graduated from Glasgow University, 
Scotland, in 18 19. He was chosen by the Synod of 
Ireland to go as a missionary to the North American 
British Provinces, and for this purpose, after having 
studied theology privately and at Paisley, Scotland, 
was licensed and ordained, May 24, 1827. He arrived 
in St. John, New Brunswick, August 23, 1827, and, 
after some explorations, in the following November, 
selected Amherst, Nova Scotia, as the centre of mission- 
ary operations. He travelled extensively through all 
parts of the Maritime Provinces, and established some 
fifteen mission stations. In 1831, he was joined by the 
Rev. William Sommerville, and they were instrumental 
in bringing many souls to a saving knowledge of 
Christ and to accept the principles of the Covenanter 
Church. Desiring the liberty and privileges of citi- 
zenship in Nova Scotia, Mr. Clarke, and all the con- 
gregations he represented, became identified with the 
New School branch of the Covenanter Church, October 
14, 1847, and were united to the General Synod of the 

* Items furnished by the Rev. Nevin Woodside, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



460 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

United States. He continued to labor in Amherst, 
Nova Scotia, and the vicinity, until shortly before his 
death, caused by general debility and old age, March 
15, 1874. He married Miss Catharine McMillan, of 
Belfast, Ireland, May 22, 1821. He was a sound theo- 
logian, a true philanthropist, and an able soldier of 
the Cross. He was highly esteemed by men who did 
not agree with him in his religious beliefs, because of 
his fearless proclamation of the truth as he accepted it. 
He was a powerful controversialist. His masterly irony,, 
clear and logical deductions and unanswerable Scriptural 
arguments, together with his wonderful memory, com- 
mand of language and versatility of thought, gave him 
a power over his opponents seldom surpassed. He 
was a large well-built man, capable of undergoing 
many hardships, and the type of a man adapted in 
every way as a pioneer missionary. He was honored 
with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1856. He was Moderator of 
the General Synod of 1856. 

ROBERT CLYDE: 

Son of Robert and Nancy (Harrison) Clyde, was 
born in Dervock, County Antrim, Ireland, May 6, 1851. 
His parents were members of the Presbyterian Church 
and connected with the Covenanter Church in 1853, 
He received his early education in the schools of his 
native County. He came to America in 1865, and 
settled in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where, 
in 1870, he connected with the Reformed Presbytery, 
and in 1874, he returned to the Covenanter Church. 
He received his classical education under the direction 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 46 1 

of Dr. Steele, under whom also he studied theology 
one year, prosecuted his studies another year in the 
New School Seminary, and two years in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Philadelphia Pres- 
bytery, May 27, 1879. He supplied generally through- 
out the Church for several years. He was ordained 
by the Iowa Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
Elliota congregation, Caijton, Fillmore County, Min- 
nesota, February 12, 1886, where he is in charge. 
He married Miss Bella Dougherty, of Philadelphia,. 
Pennsylvania, August 21, 1878. 

EUSEBIUS McLEAN COLEMAN: 

Son of John M. and Margaret (Brown) Coleman, 
was born near Dayton, Armstrong County, Pennsyl- 
vania, July 5, 1859. In early life his parents removed 
to the neighboring vicinity of Elder's Ridge, Indiana 
County, Pennsylvania, where he received his early 
education in the Elder's Ridge Academy. He engaged 
in teaching in South Buffalo, and, in the fall of 1880, 
entered Geneva College, where he graduated in 1883. 
He became Principal of the Normal Academy at Mc- 
Keesport, Pennsylvania, and at the same time studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1887, and preached 
for some months in Canada. He was ordained by the 
Rochester Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
Ramsey congregation, Almonte, Ontario, Canada, May 
9, 1888, where he is in charge. 

WILLIAM JOHN COLEMAN: 

Son of John and Mary (Glass) Coleman, was born 
in Lisbon, St. Lawrence County, New York, May 12^ 



462 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

185 1. He received his preparatory course of literary- 
training- in the Academy of Ogdensburgh, New York, 
and graduated from Geneva College in 1875. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Rochester Presbytery, April 15, 1878. 
He was ordained by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the Monongahela congregation, Mc- 
Keesport, Pennsylvania, June 13, 1879, and resigned 
this charge April 12, 1881. He accepted an appoint- 
ment as Secretary of the National Reform Association, 
July I, 1 88 1, and removed his residence to Beaver 
Falls, Pennsylvania. He resigned this position, April 
I, 1886. He was installed pastor of the congregation 
of Utica, Licking County, Ohio, April 15, 1886, and 
resigned this charge, November 17, 1887. He accepted 
the chair of Political Science in Geneva College, Nov- 
ember 29, 1887, where he is engaged in teaching. 
He married Miss Lizzie S. George, of Venice, Penn- 
sylva^nia, May 29, 1879. The pages of the Christian 
Statesman and the CJiristian Nation bear testimony to 
his work as a lecturer, and he contributed an exposi- 
tion of the Sabbath School lessons to the latter paper. 

SAMUEL GP:0RGE CONNER: 

Son of William and Nancy (George) Conner, was 
born near Midway, Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
December 11, 1855. He received his early education 
in the schools of Hickory, and graduated from Geneva 
College in 1885. He studied theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary, was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April II, 1888, and preached within the bounds of 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 463 

EBENEZER COOPER: 

Son of John and Mary (Martin) Cooper, was born 
in the Chester District, South Carolina, August 8, 
1795. Giving evidence of early piety, and having the 
work of the ministry in view, he passed through the 
academical course of study in the classical school of 
Mr. John Orr, and graduated from South Carolina 
College, Columbia, in 181 7. He studied theology in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, under the direction of Rev. 
S. B. Wylie, D. D., and was licensed by the Philadel- 
phia Presbytery, May 4, 1822. He preached for several 
years in the vacancies with general acceptance, and 
devoted much time to the societies in Tennessee and 
South Carolina. He was ordained by the Northern 
Presbytery, June 18, 1828, and took charge of 
Hephzibah congregation, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, 
Tennessee. The congregation had called him, but he 
refused to be installed pastor on account of the 
prevalence of slavery and the isolation from his minis- 
terial brethren, and, in 1832, he and the majority of 
the congregation, removed to Fayette County, Indiana. 
During the division of the Church in 1833, he became 
identified with the New School branch of the Cove- 
nanter Church. He continued to preach in that body 
to vacant congregations as his health would permit 
for twenty years. In the spring of 1857, he removed 
to Cedarville, Green County, Ohio, where he died of 
dropsy on the chest, November 13, 1858. He married 
Miss Jane McMillan, of Chester, South Carolina, in 
1820. He Avas a very mild and pleasing preacher. 
He possessed a most kind and peaceful disposition, 
and was held in high esteem for his integrity. 



464 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

DAVID HACKSTON COULTER: 

Son of James and Mahala (Skeggs) Coulter, was 
born in Coultersville, Randolph County, Illinois, March 
15, 1833. He received his early education in the 
school of his native village, and also in Sparta 
Academy, and graduated from Geneva College in 1857.. 
He taught in Geneva College before and after his 
graduation for some time. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Illinois 
Presbytery, June 28, 1864. He was ordained by the 
Iowa Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congrega- 
tion of Hopkinton, Delaware County, Iowa, April 18, 
1867, and resigned this charge, October 14, 1874. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Newark, 
New Jersey, December 10, 1874, and resigned October 
30, 1875, and accepted the chair of Natural Science 
in Lenox College, Iowa. He was .installed pastor of 
the congregation of Winchester, Jefferson County, 
Kansas, August 17, 1877, where he is in charge. He 
married Miss Martha A. Forsythe, of Northwood, 
Ohio, July 10, 1856. 

ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD: 

Son of Rev. Thomas and Margaret Craighead, was 
born near Donegal, Ireland, March 18, 1707.* His father 
was a Presbyterian minister, came to America in 171 5, 
and settled in Freetown, Massachusetts. In 1721, he, 
with his parents, removed to New Jersey, thence, in 
1724, to White Clay Creek, Delaware, and finally, in 
1733. to Octorara, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He 
received his classical education under the direction of 
* Craighead Genealogy. Dr. Foote's Sketches of North Carolina. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 4^5 

his father, under whom, also, he studied theology, and 
was licensed by the Donegal Presbytery of the Pres- 
byterian Church, October i6, 1734. He supplied "the 
first congregation over the river," at Meeting House 
Springs, two miles north of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and 
was the first minister to preach west of the Susque- 
hanna river. He was ordained by the Donegal Pres- 
bytery, and installed pastor of the Middle Octorara 
congregation, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, November 
20, 1735. He was an earnest fervid preacher, and a 
zealous promoter of revivals. He was a great admirer 
of Whitefield, and accompanied him upon some of his 
tours. His zeal, however, was not always tempered with 
prudence, and he contended that his ministerial brethren 
were too liberal in their views and lax in the appli- 
cation of discipline. He insisted upon new terms of 
communion, which required parents, when they presented 
their children for baptism, to adopt the Solemn League 
and Covenant, as the Church across the Atlantic had 
always done. He frequently absented himself from 
Church courts because of the failure of his brethren to 
adhere to the practices of the Church of his fathers, 
and for this cause a complaint was lodged against him 
in 1740, and the Presbytery met by appointment in 
his church to investigate the charges. When the 
members of the court came to the church, they found 
him preaching from the text, " Let them alone, they 
be blind leaders of the blind." In the report to Synod, 
the Presbytery spoke of the sermon as a " continued 
invective against Pharisee preachers, and the Presbytery 
as given over to judicial blindness and hardness." At 



466 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

its close, the people and Presbytery were invited to 
repair to " the tent " to hear his defence read. The 
Presbytery declined to attend, and were proceeding to 
business in the church when such a tumult was raised 
that they were compelled to withdraw. At the meeting 
the next day he appeared and read his protest, in 
which he declined the jurisdiction of the Presbytery, 
whereupon he was suspended for contumacy, " directing, 
however, that if he should signify his sorrow for his 
conduct to any member, that member should notify the 
Moderator, who was to call the court together and take 
off the suspension." With an ardent love of personal 
liberty and freedom of opinion, he was far in advance 
of his brethren; also, in his views on civil government. 
These " advanced views " he gave to the public in 
pamphlet form, and attracted so much attention that 
Thomas Cookston, one of his majesty's justices in 
Lancaster County, had him arraigned for treason, and 
laid the pamphlet, in the name of the Governor, before 
the Synod of Philadelphia. Though the publication was 
anonymous, its authorship was very generally attributed 
to Mr. Craighead. The Synod unanimously agreed that 
the pamphlet was " full of treason and sedition," and 
made haste to declare their abhorrence of the paper, 
and with it all principles and practices that tend to 
destroy the civil and religious rights of mankind, or to 
foment and encourage sedition or dissatisfaction with 
the British government, or encourage anything that is 
disloyal." At the meeting of Synod in May, 1741, the 
Church was divided, and he went with the New 
Brunswick party, but did not remain long with them, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 467 

because they refused to acknowledge the validity of the 
Solemn League and Covenant sworn by the Church in 
Scotland. In 1742, he published his reasons for with- 
drawing from the American Presbyterian Church ; the 
chief of which was, that "neither the Synod nor the 
Presbyteries had adopted the Westminster Standards as 
a public act," and, in the fall of 1742, he joined the 
languishing cause of the Covenanters. They formed a 
General Meeting, over whicn he presided, and he was 
instrumental in building them a church in Octorara. 
In the fall of 1743, he gathered all the Covenanters of 
Eastern Pennsylvania together and they renewed the 
Covenants. He also opened up a correspondence with 
the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, and solicited 
" helpers who might come and assist him to maintain 
the principles of the Scottish Reformation." He, how- 
ever, lacked stability. Before any Covenanter minister 
could be induced to join him from Scotland, and 
having labored with great acceptance among the scattered 
societies for seven years, he returned to the Presbyterian 
Church, and, in 1749, removed to the Cowpasture river, 
in Augusta County, Virginia, where he enjoyed more 
freedom in proclaiming his views of independence from 
the British government. Here he remained among some 
families who had removed from Octorara, and he 
ministered to their spiritual wants for six years. In 
1755, on account of the disturbed state of the country 
by Indians, he crossed the Blue Ridge mountains with 
a colony of his people, and settled on' the Catawba 
river, in what is now Mecklenberg County, North 
Carolina. He was installed pastor of the congregation 



468 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

•of Rocky River and Sugar Creek, Mecklenberg County, 
North Carolina, September 19, 1758. In this beautiful 
and peaceful valley, the solitary minister between the 
Yadkin and the Catawba, he passed the remainder of 
his days. Here he freely imbued the minds of his 
people with the idea of independence, whose hands and 
hearts were in the trying scenes of the Revolution. 
The members who formed the Convention at Charlotte, 
North Carolina, and framed the First Declaration of 
Independence (Mecklenberg, May, 1775), were all 
members of the Churches which he had founded and 
instructed, and incorporated the principles which he so 
uncompromisingly advocated. He died at his home 
within three miles of Charlotte, Mecklenberg County, 
North Carolina, March 12, 1766, and was buried in the 
•old graveyard adjoining the church where he preached. 
Tradition says the two sassafras trees at the head and 
foot of the grave, sprung from the two sticks upon 
which the coffin was borne. 

JOHN CRAWFORD: 

Son of James and Jane (McAuley) Crawford, was 
born in Carncullough, County Antrim, Ireland, May 27, 
1828. In early life he evinced decided evidence of a 
literary taste, and he was sent to the school in Dervock, 
where he received his preparatory training. In 1839, 
he began the study of the languages in Derry Keva, 
and continued them in Ballymoney. In 1845, he entered 
Belfast College, where he took several prizes for pro- 
ficiency, and engaged in teaching. In 1849, he entered 
the College of Edinburgh, Scotland, where he attended 
some classes and waited on the lectures of Dr. Cun- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 469 

ningham, of the Free Church Seminary, on Systematic 
Theology, and was for some time employed as a 
missionary among the Papists in Edinburgh. He studied 
theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, one 
year, when his health failed. Following the advice of 
physicians and friends, he emigrated to America, January 
15, 1852, and settled in the city of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, whither his parents had preceeded him. He 
resumed his theological studies under the direction of 
Drs. J. M. Willson and S. O. Wylie, and was licensed 
by the New York Presbytery, May 24, 1853. He was 
ordained by the Philadelphia Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the congregation of Baltimore, Maryland, 
November 15, 1853. A few weeks preceeding his death, 
he contracted a cold resulting in a violent toothache, 
at the time occasioning no alarm ; but the disease 
extended rapidly to the lungs, causing congestion, from 
which he died, at the residence of Mr. James Smith, 
in Baltimore, Maryland, September 3, 1856, and was 
buried in Philadelphia. He was unmarried. He possessed 
a weak body but a strong mind. His voice was soft 
and musical, his style digniiied and chaste, and his 
illustrations beautiful and appropriate. The chief and 
most striking characteristic of his preaching was his 
intense earnestness and evident sincerity. He lived in 
view of death, and his preaching and prayers were 
singularly characterized by consolatory views of heaven. 
He was a most kind and faithful pastor, and especially 
interested in the young. He was a spiritually minded 
man, and piety was a living principle in him. He 
prayed as freely and involuntarily as he breathed. The 



470 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

hearts of the pastor and people were closely knit together 
in Christian love, and in his untimely death the con- 
gregation lost an endeared pastor, and the Church a 
most devoted and able minister of the gospel. At the 
time of his death he was a member of the Board of 
Foreign Missions. 

SAMUEL WYLIE CRAWFORD, D. D. : 

Son of Nathan and Margaret (Wylie) Crawford, 
was born in the Chester District, South Carolina, 
October 14, 1792. His parents were from Scotland 
and died when he was quite young. In 1800, he was 
brought by his uncle, the Rev. S. B. Wylie, D. D., 
to the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he 
received his education in the public schools and the 
University of Pennsylvania. In 18 14, he began the 
study of medicine, but in a short time abandoned it 
for that of theology. He studied theology in the 
Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed by the Middle 
Presbytery, April 10, 18 18. He preached with general 
acceptance in the vacancies in the eastern part of the 
Church, and also to the inmates of the Walnut street 
Prison, Eastern Penitentiary and House of Refuge in 
the city of Philadelphia. He was ordained sine titulo 
by the Northern Presbytery, at Duanesburgh, New 
York, May 15, 1823, and was installed pastor of the 
Conococheague congregation, Chambersburgh, Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, August 26, 1824. He soon 
afterwards became Principal of the Chambersburgh 
Academy, where he remained until April 10, 1831, 
when he resigned both congregation and school, and 
accepted the position of Principal of the Academical 




SAMUEL W. CRAWFORD, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 47 1 

Department of the University of Pennsylvania. At the 
division of the Church in August, 1833, he became 
identified with the Ncav School branch of the Cove- 
nanter Church. In 1835, he was installed pastor of 
the Fairmount congregation of that body, in the 
suburbs of Philadelphia, and resigned this pastorate in 
1846. He was installed pastor of the Fourth congrega- 
tion of Philadelphia, August 17, 1848, and resigned 
October 11, 1856, on account of impaired health. For 
some time he was a teacher of theology in the 
Philadelphia Seminary, supplied vacant pulpits, and 
during the war of the rebellion was a chaplain in the 
army. In 1868, he retired to his country home near 
Chambersburgh, Pennsylvania, and where he died, June 
12, 1876. He possessed a splendid physique, of a 
military bearing, and made an imposing appearance in 
the pulpit. He was a man of scholarly attainments 
and an earnest evangelical preacher of the gospel. He 
was distinguished as a philanthropist and abounded in 
deeds of charity. He was highly appreciated in all the 
educational and pastoral charges which he held, and was 
an influential member of Church courts. He married 
Miss Jane Agnew, of New York City, New York, 
August 28, 1 82 1. Among his publications is a sermon 
on "Creeds and Confessions," 1826, pp. 44. He was 
honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the 
University of Indiana in 1844. He was Moderator of 
the Synod of 1831, and the General Synod of 1863. 
ALFRED DEAN CROWE: 

Son of Samuel and Mary (Dean) Crowe, was born 
near Glade Mills, Butler County, Pennsylvania, Decern- 



472 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ber I, 1848. He received a strict religious training in 
the home, and pursued his literary studies in the 
schools of his native County, and, in 1868, entered' 
Geneva Cojlege, where he graduated in 1874. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 11, 1877. 
He was ordained by the Philadelphia Presbytery, and 
installed pastor , of the congregation of Baltimore, 
Maryland, October 10, 1878. He never possessed - a 
very robust constitution, and in the winter of 1881, 
he contracted a severe cold which settled in his throat 
and frequently prevented him from preaching. From 
this time he began to decline and suffered from a 
hemorrhage of the lungs in January, 1884. On account 
of his failing health, he resigned the congregation, 
August 12, 1884, and resorted to the cooler climate 
of Western New York, where he improved to some 
extent. In the autumn, however, it was very evident 
that that fell disease, consumptioji, had fastened upon 
him, and he died at the home of his father-in-law, 
Mr. Abram Ernisse, in the city of Rochester, New 
York, December 20, 1884. He married Miss Susie A. 
Ernisse, of Rochester, New York, November 3, 1880. 
He was a good preacher. His pulpit exhibitions were 
carefully prepared, neatly arranged, and eloquently 
delivered. He was a student of Philosophy in Johns 
Hopkins University, and a constant reader of choice 
literature. He was a vigilant pastor, guarded carefully 
the walls of Zion, and the few years of his ministerial 
labor in Baltimore have left their impress upon the 
hearts of a devoted people. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 473 

SAMUEL JOHN CROWE: 

Son of Samuel and Mary (Dean) Crowe, was born 
near Glade Mills, Butler County, Pennsylvania, Septem- 
ber I, 1843. He received his early education in the 
district schools, studied the languages under the 
direction of the Rev. John Galbraith, and graduated 
from Westminster College in 1866. He studied theo- 
logy in the Allegheny Seminary one year, when he 
was appointed Principal of Geneva College, September 
I, 1867, which position he held for four years, most 
of which time he continued his studies privately for 
the ministry. He was licensed by the Pittsburgh Pres- 
bytery, April 12, 1 87 1, and attended the Alleghenjr 
Seminary one more year. He was ordained by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, and installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of New Castle, Pennsylvania, May 21, 1872.- 
He was also installed pastor of the congregation of 
Centreville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, September 
18, 1879, and he resigned these charges, April 12,. 
1 88 1. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Brooklyn, New York, December 7, 1881, and resigned 
October 28, 1884. In the spring of 1885, he removed 
to Warren, Ohio, where he was employed with the 
Equitable Life Assurance Company, and preached as 
his health would permit. He removed to New Brighton, 
Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1887, and accepted the 
position of Financial Agent for Geneva College, and 
supplied vacant pulpits. He married Miss Amanda R. 
Geddes, of New Bedford, Pennsylvania, October 31, 1866. 
JOHN CROZIER: 

Son of John and Jane (Cowser) Crozier, was born 
near Smithfield, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in 1802. 



474 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

His parents were originally Presbyterians, and, in the 
latter part of the past century, joined the Associate 
Reformed Church, in which he was reared. With 
great difficulty, and much self-denial, he obtained his 
early education amid the toil of farm life, and in due 
time entered the Western University of Pennsylvania, 
where he graduated in 1828. Largely through the 
influence of family friends and his associations at col- 
lege with professors and students, he espoused the 
principles of the Covenanter Church, and resolved to 
prepare for the ministry. He studied theology under 
the direction of the Rev. John Black, D. D,, of Pitts- 
burgh, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 7, 1 83 1, and preached with acceptance in the 
vacancies for two years. He was ordained sine cura 
by the same Presbytery, as a Home Missionary, April 
4, 1833. He was installed pastor of the united con- 
gregations of Monongahela, Allegheny County, and 
Canonsburgh, Washington County, Pennsylvania, May 
12, 1834. He was released from the Canonsburgh 
branch, October 9, 1842, and from Monongahela, 
April 12, 1865. He removed to the city of Indiana- 
polis, Indiana, where he built up a congregation and 
remained in charge until May 25, 1870. He returned 
to Elizabeth, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, where 
he has since made his home and preached as his 
health would permit. He was twice married. First to 
Miss Anne Fletcher, of Baltimore, Maryland, January 
19, 1836; and second to Miss Margaret H. Parkhill, of 
Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, April 5, 1847. He has been 
iargely connected with the work of the Covenanter 




JOHN CROZIER. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 475 

Church for over half a century, and published some 
articles in the magazines of the Church. He was 
Moderator of the Synod of 1861. 

JOHN FLETCHER CROZIER: 

Son of Rev. John and Anne (Fletcher) Crozier, 
was born in Elizabeth, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 
* * * He received his early education in the schools 
of his native County, and graduated from Westminster 
College in 1870. He studied theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Pres- 
bytery, April 9, 1872. He was ordained by the same 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the united con- 
gregations of Rehoboth, Bear Run and Mahoning, 
Marchand, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, November 18, 
1874, where he is in charge. 

JOHN MCMILLAN CROZIER: 

Son of Robert and Jane (Stott) Crozier, was born 
in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, February 29, 
1852. He passed through the accustomed studies in 
the public schools, and graduated from the Western 
University of Pennsylvania in 1871. He studied theo- 
logy in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 15, 1874. He itinerated 
with much acceptance among the vacancies in this 
country for several years, and visited the Churches in 
Ireland and Scotland. He was ordained by the Phila- 
delphia Presbytery, and installed pastor of the Third 
congregation of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
May 6, 1880, where he died very suddenly of inflam- 
mation of the bowels, September 7, 1881. He was 
unmarried. He was a young man possessing a robust 



4/6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and strong constitution ; a vigorous and well-cultivated 
mind ; and was a fearless, practical and forcible preacher 
of the gospel. He was bold to denounce sin in every 
form, yet anxious to restore the repenting wanderer 
to his privileges in the Church. He manifested a 
true missionary spirit ; encouraging the young to confess 
Christ, and the old to prepare for the change that 
awaits mankind. He was a kind pastor, peaceful and 
cheerful in his disposition, prayerful in his labor of 
love, and thoroughly devoted to the distinctive prin- 
ciples of the Church. 

JOHN CUTHBERTSON: 

Was born near Ayr, Ayrshire, Scotland, April 3, 
1 71 8.* He was reared in the strictest manner by a 
pious parentage, who were exemplary members of the 
persecuted Church of Scotland. He received his early 
training, preparatory to entering upon the work of the 
ministry, from private instructors. He studied theo- 
logy under the Rev. John McMillan, who, with Rev. 
Thomas Nairn and ruling elders, constituted the 
Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, August i, 1743, by 
which court he was licensed. May 16, 1745. He was 
ordained sine titido by the same court, at Braehead, 
May 18, 1747, and labored among the scattered societies 
of Scotland. He was Moderator of the Reformed Pres- 
bytery in 1750, at which time, with Rev. Thomas 
Cameron, he was sent as a missionary to the scattered 
societies of Covenanters in Ireland. In the spring of 
1 75 1, he was sent as a missionary to the Covenanters 
in America, and landed at New. Castle, Delaware, 

* Principal items from his own diary. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 47/' 

August 5, 1 75 1, having been forty-six days at sea 
from Derry Loch. He was the first Covenanter minister 
who came to America, and settled in Middle Octorara, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the scene of most of 
his labors, although he made extended missionary 
tours upon horseback through New York, Vermont, 
New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland^ 
Virginia, and all parts of Pennsylvania as far west as 
the Ohio river, tn the winter of 1773, he was joined 
by Revs. Matthew Linn and Alexander Dobbin, and 
they organized the Reformed Presbytery of America, 
at Paxtang, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, March 10,. 
1774. He was then assigned to the Middle Octorara 
charge, although he exercised a superintending control 
over all the societies. With some others, July 2, 1777, 
he swore allegiance to the cause of the Colonies, and 
cast in his lot with those who were struggling to cast 
off the British yoke in America. In the following 
September, without consulting or informing the Reformed 
Presbytery in Scotland, he began the conferences with 
the Associate Church, which, after five years of agita- 
tion, culminated in the union of these two branches,^ 
forming the Associate Reformed Church. The articles 
were signed at Pequea, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania,. 
June 13, 1782, and the Synod was constituted in Philadel- 
phia, November i, 1782. Many of the private members 
of the Covenanter Church went with the ministers, 
the faithful remnant resorting to the society meetings, 
and for eight years or more were left without a min- 
ister. Mr. Cuthbertson continued in charge of the 
Octorara congregation until his release, March 20, 1783,. 



478 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

when he took charge of the Associate Reformed con- 
gregation of Lower Chanceford, York County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he labored until his death, March lo, 
1 79 1. The cause and circumstances of his death are 
unknown. He was buried in the Lower Octorara grave- 
yard connected with the church where Alexander 
Craighead preached. His gravestone bears the follow- 
ing inscription : " Here lies the body of the Rev. John 
Cuthbertson, who, after a labor of about forty years 
in the ministry of the Gospel among the Dissenting 
■Covenanters of America, departed this life, loth of 
March, 1791, in the 75th year of his age. Psalm 
112:6, The righteous shall be in everlasting remem- 
brance." There are two mistakes in this inscription. 
He was a Covenanter minister but thirty years ; and 
he says more than once in his diary that he was born 
April 3, 1 71 8, making him nearly seventy-three years 
of age. He married Miss Sally Moore, near Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania, February 25, 1756. He endured 
many hardships as a pioneer missionary. According to 
his diary, during the thirty-nine years he was engaged 
in active service, he preached on two thousand four 
hundred and fifty-two days ; baptized one thousand eight 
hundred and six children ; married two hundred and 
forty couples ; rode on horseback seventy thousand miles, 
or nearly equal to three times around the world. And 
this travelling was done in those days when there 
were no roads or bridges. Blazed trees marked the 
pathway, and horse and rider swam the swollen streams. 
He rode through the unbroken forests, past the lair of 
the wild beast and the wigwam of the savage ; under 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 479 

the hot sun, through the pelting rain or drifting snow, 
and often without the necessities of life. For all this 
work, however, he was peculiarly adapted and provi- 
dentially sustained. From the texts recorded in his 
diary, it is evident that he was a forcible evangeli- 
cal preacher, and a man of deep convictions and 
fervent piety. As was too frequently the custom in 
those days, however, he indulged occasionally too freely 
in the glass, and at one time he was suspended for 
four weeks for intemperance, and received a rebuke 
from the Presbytery. 

WILLIAM McCONNELL DAUERTY : 

Son of William J. and Margaret (Cowan) Dauerty, 
was born near New Texas, Allegheny County, Penn- 
sylvania, May II, 1847. He received his preparatory 
education in the Wilkinsburgh Academy, Newell Insti- 
tute, Western University of Pennsylvania, and graduated 
from the College of New Jersey, Princeton, in 1874. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 9, 
1878, He preached for three years in the vacancies, 
and engaged in clerical work in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. He was chosen to fill the chair of Latin 
and Greek in Curry Institute and Union Business 
College, Pittsburgh, November 10, 1883, which position 
he now occupies. He married Miss Rida A. Mullen, 
of Baltimore, Maryland, December 31, 1885. He is 
Superintendent of the Chinese School, and an officer 
in the Pittsburgh Covenanter congregation. 

JAMES MILLIGAN DICKSON, D. D. : 

Son of Robert and Janet (Lenny) Dickson, was 

born in Ryegate, Caledonia County, Vermont, February 



480 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

6, 183 1. After the usual rudimentary course in the 
common schools, he studied the classics under the 
direction of his pastor, the Rev. J. M. Beattie, and 
entered Peacham Academy. In the fall of 1849, he 
entered Geneva College, where he remained until his 
senior year, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1853. . He studied theology in the Northwood Seminary 
one year, three years in the Union Seminary of New 
York City, and a short term in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the New York Presby- 
tery, May 20, 1857. He was ordained by the same 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Brooklyn, New York, November 18, 1857. He was 
released from this charge, May 20, 1862, when he 
connected with the Presbyterian Church, being received 
by the Third Presbytery of New York. He was 
installed pastor of the Sixth Presbyterian Church, of 
Newark, New Jersey, October 10, 1862, and resigned 
April 16, 1869. He was installed pastor of the Good- 
will Presbyterian Church, Montgomery, Orange County, 
New York, September 12, 1869, and resigned this 
charge, April 16, 1883. He connected with the Dutch 
Reformed Church, and was installed pastor of the 
Thirty-Fourth Street Dutch Reforrned Church, New 
York City, New York, May i, 1883, where he is in 
charge. He married Miss Annott M. Nelson, of Rye- 
gate, Vermont, April 7, 1858 ; and as his second wife. 
Miss Helen A. West, of Brooklyn, New York, Septem- 
ber 30, 1863. He was honored with the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity by Drury College in 1884. He 
published '-The Goodwill Memorial," 1880, pp. 160. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 48 1 

JOHN WALKINSHAW DILL: 

Son of Richard and Esther (White) Dill, was born 
near Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 
.September 19, 1846. He received his early education 
in the common schools, completed the course in the 
Dayton Union Academy in 1868, and graduated from 
Westminster College in 1871. He taught in the 
Academy of Lumber City, Pennsylvania, one year. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 14, 
1875, and labored in Minnesota two years under 
appointment of the Central Board of Missions, He 
was ordained by the Iowa Presbytery, March 20, 1878, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Elliota, 
Fillmore County, Minnesota, April 26, 1878, and resigned 
this charge. May 25, 1881. He was installed pastor 
of Lind Grove congregation, Mediapolis, Des Moines 
County, Iowa, July 6, 1881, and was released Septem- 
ber 19, 1887. He accepted the Assistant Principalship 
of Knox Academy, Selma, Alabama, October 10, 1887, 
and became Principal, January i, 1888, where he is 
engaged in teaching. He married Miss Maggie J. 
Getty, of Kossuth, Iowa, January i, 1880. 

ALEXANDER DOBBIN: 

Son of John Dobbin, a pious sailor, was born in 
the city of Londonderry, Ireland, February 4, 1742.* 
His parentage was Scotch, and, imbued with the religious 
spirit of the ancestors, early directed his mind towards 
the Christian ministry. He studied the classics in his 
native city, and in due time entered the University of 
* Sprague's Annals. Dr. J. A. Chancellor, Belfast, Ireland. 



482 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Glasgow, Scotland, where he graduated in 1771. He 
attended the theological lectures also in Glasgow, and 
resumed his studies privately under the direction of the 
ministers in Ireland, and was licensed by the Reformed 
Presbytery of Ireland, July 6, 1772. He was ordained 
si7ie titulo by the same court, at Conlig, near New- 
townards. County Down, Ireland, August 20, 1772, as a 
missionary to the Covenanters in America. In company 
with the Rev. Matthew Linn, he sailed from Londonderry 
and landed in New Castle, Delaware, December 13, 

1773. He, with Revs. John Cuthbertson and Matthew 
Linn, constituted the Reformed Presbytery of America, 
at Paxtang, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, March 10, 

1774, at which time he was assigned to labor in the 
Rock Creek (Gettysburg) congregation, Adams County, 
Pennsylvania. He was among the first and most desirous 
of the ministers to countenance the union of the 
Associate and Covenanter bodies, and took a prominent 
part in the conferences which resulted in the formation 
of the Associate Reformed Church, November i, 1782. 
He continued in charge of the Rock Creek congregation, 
or as many as went with him, and was also installed 
for half-time in the Marsh Creek congregation, Sep- 
tember 9, 1785, and thus divided his time and continued 
his labor until his death. In October, 1808, while on 
his way to Gettysburg to preach, he ruptured a blood 
vessel by coughing, and was unable to fill his 
appointment. His disease settled into a quick con- 
sumption, from Avhich he died, at his home in Gettysburg, 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, June i, 1809, and was 
buried in the Marsh Creek graveyard. He was twice 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 483 

married. First to Miss Isabella Gamble, of County 
Down, Ireland, July, 1772; and second, to Mrs. Mary 
(Irvin) Agnew, of Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 1801. 
He was an interesting and instructive preacher of the 
extemporaneous style. He was a distinguished linguist, 
especially in Hebrew, and established in his own house 
the first classical school west of the Susquehanna river. 
More than sixty of his pupils became professional men, 
and not less than twenty-hve entered the ministry. 
Before the establishment of the Theological Seminary 
of the Associate Reformed Church, he was the preceptor 
for many years, and his services were of great value. 
He was remarkably punctual at Church courts, where 
his opinion was regarded, and he was. honored with 
the Moderatorship several times. He was a small man, 
with a bright black eye, a large pointed nose, and was 
by no means imposing in his appearance. He possessed 
a strong and sonorous voice, and his gestures in the 
pulpit were not always the most graceful. He dressed 
in knee pants and wore the wig. He was a yery social 
man, cheerful in his disposition, and his countenance 
continually wore a smile. He adapted himself to all 
company, and his intercourse was much enjoyed for his 
wit and good humor. 

JOSIAH DODDS : 

Son of John and Elizabeth (McKee) Dodds, was 
born in Ballibay, County Monaghan, Ireland, March 3, 
18 19. His parents came to America the following year 
and settled near Lucesco, Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania, and, in 1829, removed to Butler County, in 
the vicinity of Bakerstown. Here he received his 



484 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

early education, studied the classics under the Rev. 
Hugh Walkinshaw, and graduated from the Western 
University of Pennsylvania in 1842. He studied theol- 
ogy in the Allegheny and Cincinnati Seminaries, and 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 13, 
1846. He was ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the united congregations of 
Beech Woods, Preble County, Ohio, and Garrison, 
Fayette County, Indiana, October 6, 1847, and resigned 
this charge, October 10, 1865. He missionated in the 
West for two years, principally in the station which 
became the congregation of Winchester, Jefferson County, 
Kansas, over which he was installed pastor, November 
7, 1868, and was released, October 18, 1876. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Sylvania, 
Dade County, Missouri, May 9, 1878, where he is in 
charge. He was thrice married. First to Miss Matilda 
Cannon, of Greensburgh, Pennsylvania, June 28, 1847; 
second, to Miss Mary Milligan, of Fayetteville, Indiana, 
March 29, 1853; and third, to Miss Belle Torrence, of 
Northwood, Ohio, August 12, 1857. 

ROBERT JAMES DODDS, D. D. : 

Son of Archibald and Margaret (Davison) Dodds, 
was born near FreepOrt, Armstrong County, Penn- 
sylvania, August 29, 1824. Possessed from his youth 
with integrity of character and amiability of disposi- 
tion he was dedicated to God for the work of the 
ministry. At an early age he began his classical 
studies under the direction of his pastor, the Rev. 
Hugh Walkinshaw, and made such rapid progress and 
proficiency in all the departments of literature taught 




ROBERT J. DODDS, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 485 

in a College', that he was recommended as sufficiently- 
advanced to begin the study of theology in the spring 
of 1844. He studied theology in the Allegheny and 
Cincinnati Seminaries, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, June 21, 1848. At the meeting of 
Synod in 1847, the Mission of Hayti was organized, 
and he was chosen as a missionary for that foreign 
field, for which purpose, he Avas ordained sine titulo 
by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, November 24, 1848. The 
Mission, however, was soon afterwards abandoned, 
he was not sent out, and he preached in the vacancies 
for a few years. He was installed pastor of the 
Rehoboth congregation, Stanton, Jefferson County, 
Pennsylvania, June 18, 1852. He travelled extensively 
in this field, and was exposed to many inconveniences; 
yet by his missionary spirit and zeal for the cause, 
he built up a flourishing congregation of many branches. 
At the meeting of Synod in 1856, the Syrian Mission 
was established and he was unanimously chosen as 
one of the Missionaries. Accepting the appointment, 
he was released from the congregation. May 24, 1856. 
With the Rev. Joseph Beattie, their families and others, 
he sailed for Syria, October 16, 1856. He first settled 
in Damascus, where he learned the Arabic language, 
and in October, 1857, removed to Zahleh, a town at 
the foot of Mount Lebanon. In May, 1858, he was. 
compelled to abandon the work in this place on 
account of the threats and persecution of the bigoted 
priesthood. Making a tour of exploration through 
Northern Syria, as far as Antioch, he passed through 
Latakia, and, being favorably impressed with its loca- 



486 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

tion, began to perfect arrangements for its occupation. 
In the autumn of 1859, he removed thither, followed 
by Dr. Beattie and others, where suitable buildings 
were secured, and where he labored for eight years 
with good success. An unexpected opening occurred 
in Aleppo, and, the Mission deeming it advisable to 
enter in and possess it. Dr. Dodds was appointed to 
this field in May, 1867. Here he remained constantly 
busied with the proper work of the Mission until his 
death. During the summer of 1870, he visited the 
Mission in Latakia, and while there suffered an attack 
of fever. During a subsequent journey to Idlib, he 
contracted a severe cold which adhered to him. In 
the beginning of December following, he suffered from 
a slight hemorrhage of the lungs, intensified by typhoid 
fever, from which he died, at his home in Aleppo, 
Syria, December 11, 1870. He was twice married. 
First to Miss Amanda Cannon, of Greensburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, January 2, 1849 ; and second to Miss Letitia 
M. Dodds, of Valencia, Pennsylvania, August 12, 1856. 
As a preacher, his sermons were rich in Scriptural 
truth and illustration. He was not a popular orator 
owing to a hesitancy in his speech, and he was more 
spiritual than ornate; more thoughtful than rhetorical; 
more anxious about conviction than elegance of style. 
He was admirably adapted with every qualification for 
a successful Missionary. He was a good classical 
scholar, and made such proficiency in the study of the 
Arabic tongue that he was able to preach a sermon in 
that language in eighteen months after beginning the 
study of it. He was a remarkably cheerful mail, uniform 



4% 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 487 



in his feelings and sympathetic in his disposition. His 
intellectual character was marked with keen and 
vigorous reasoning powers, a retentive memory, and 
the ability to concentrate his ideas. Among his earlier 
publications is, "A Reply to Morton on Psalmody," 
185 1, pp. 140. His writings are principally letters to 
the Foreign Mission Board and are published in the 
.Church magazines. He translated the Shorter Catechism 
into the Arabic language, and was engaged in writing 
and translating other works for the use of the Mission. 
He was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by Monmouth College in 1870. He was Moderator of 
the Synod of 1866. 

THOMAS DONNELLY : 

Son of Thomas and Nancy (Moore) Donnelly, was 
born near Donegal, County Donegal, Ireland, January 13, 
1772.* In early life he evinced a strong desire for an 
education, and after passing through the accustomed 
studies in the schools of his native County, he entered 
the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in the fall of 1788, 
where he remained two years. He came to America 
in the spring of 1791, and settled in the Chester 
District, South Carolina. The following year he entered 
Dickinson College, where he graduated in 1794, and 
returned to South Carolina, where he was engaged in 
teaching. He studied theology under the direction of 
the Rev. William King, and, in 1798, under the care of 
the Reformed Presbytery, and was licensed by that 
court, at Coldenham, Orange County, New York, June 
24, 1799. He was assigned to labor in South Carolina, 
* Sketch by Mr. Thomas Smith, Bloomington, Ind., in Sprague's Annals. 



488 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

whither he returned, was ordained by a commission 
of the Reformed Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
Rocky Creek congregation, Chester District, South 
Carolina, March 3, 1801. Over this extensive field he 
exercised pastoral functions, and frequently made tours 
to the scattered societies of Covenanters in Tennessee, 
North Carolina and Georgia. In 18 16, he was released 
from a part of his first charge, and remained pastor of 
what was known as the Brick Church. He often found 
great difficulty in applying the principles of the Church 
in .a slave country. His was often denominated " Mr, 
Donnelly's congregation," afterwards the Bethesda con- 
gregation, to which faithful one and adjacent societies, 
he continued to preach and exercise pastoral oversight, 
in accordance with the direction of Synod, the residue 
of his life. The strong opposition of the Covenanter 
Church to the institution of slavery caused many of 
the members to migrate to the free States of Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois. He, however, felt the infirmities 
of age rapidly creeping upon him, and, realizing his 
inability to fully discharge the pastoral duties required 
in a new congregation, remained in the South, and 
continued to minister to the few scattered societies 
which were the last of the Covenanters in the Carolinas. 
In 1847, he suffered from a stroke of paralysis, which 
affected both his mind and his body, from which he 
never fully recovered. In the fall of the same year he 
was prostrated with a bilious affection, from which he 
died, at his home on Rocky Creek, Chester District, 
South Carolina, November 27, 1847. He married Miss 
Agnes Smith, of Chester, South Carolina, March 6, 1801. 




THOMAS DONNELLY. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 489 

He enjoyed the reputation of being a sound theologian 
and a fine classical scholar. In his preaching he had 
some of the old Scotch-Irish sing song, but he never 
gave sound for sense. He was a radical and decided 
enemy to the whole system of human slavery, and 
maintained the principles of the Church in their purity. 
He possessed a large amount of generosity and nobleness; 
of heart, and was largely connected with the benevolent 
societies of his country. He was a strict disciplinarian, 
and he had few equals for strength of judgment in 
managing judicial affairs in troublous times. He was 
Moderator of the Synod of 18 18. 

JAMES DOUGLAS: 

Son of John and Dorathy (Barwise) Douglas, was 
born in Castle Douglas, Lanarkshire, Scotland, April 
10, 1779.* He was blessed with a pious parentage 
who instructed him in the principles of the Covenanter 
Church, with which he connected in 1793, under the 
pastoral care of the Rev. James Reid. With a view 
to the work of the ministry he passed through the 
accustomed rudimentary studies, and graduated from the 
University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1807. He was 
appointed as teacher of Greek in the University after 
the death of the Professor of that language. He 
studied theology in the Stirling Seminary, under the 
direction of the Rev. John McMillan, and was licensed 
by the Glasgow Presbytery, May 18, 181 3. He preached 
with much acceptance for several years, received calls, 
but declined, having determined to come to America. 
He came to America in September, 1818, and settled 

* Principal items from his son, Mr. A. B. Douglas, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



490 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

in the city of New York, New York, where he was 
engaged as a teacher in a classical school, and preached 
as occasion was afforded. Some difificulties arising 
between him and his ministerial brethren in that city, 
which afterwards resulted in an exoneration from fault 
of the subject of this sketch, he was suspended by 
their influence by the Northern Presbytery, April 17, 
1822, and pursued his vocation as a teacher. In the 
fall of 1824, he received an invitation from the Scotch 
people of Bovina, Delaware County, New York, to 
come and preach to them, which he accepted, and 
began his labors among them, April 15, 1825. The 
difficulty now arose in dispensing the sacraments with- 
out the formal act of ordination. The majority of the 
people considered that as he had given trials for 
ordination in Scotland, and they had been sustained, 
and as he possessed every other requisite, the imposi- 
tion of hands, in the present circumstance, might be 
dispensed with. To remove all difficulties, however, the 
people agreed to petition the True Reformed Dutch 
Church for ordination, which request was granted, and 
he was formally set apart to the ministerial office by 
that body, June 9, 1 831.* He continued to minister 
to the people of Bovina until he was restored, and 
his ordination recognized as valid, by the New York 
Presbytery, October 14, 1846. He was formally installed 
pastor of the congregation of Bovina, Delaware County, 
New York, November 3, 1847, where he continued to 
labor until his death, March 15, 1857. He was thrice 
married. First to Miss Alice Thompson, July 6, 1819; 

* Bovina sessional records. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 49I 

second to Miss Mary Qua, October 18, 1827; third to • 
Miss Ann C. Duncan, November 16, 1842. He was 
a fine classical scholar and possessed the qualifications of 
a proficient and successful teacher. He was well versed 
in the old theology, an earnest and profound preacher, 
and his discourses were the fruit of mature study and 
fervent prayer. He was a strict disciplinarian, guarded 
carefully the walls of Zion, and rebuked wickedness 
of every form. He was sympathetic to every trouble 
and consolatary in the hour of bereavement. The 
American Bible Society, the Bovina Temperance Society, 
and other benevolent institutions and reform associa- 
tions, found in him a firm and generous friend, and a 
fearless and able advocate. Among his publications 
are: "A Reply to an Anonymous Letter in the 
Evangelical Witness''' 1824, pp. 68. "An Address on 
Temperance," delivered before the Bovina Temperance 
Society, 1834; and a few magazine articles and con- 
tributions to the local press. 

HENRY EASSON: 

Son of Henry and Jane (Bryce) Easson, was born 
in Dunblane, Perthshire, Scotland, April 20, 1841. 
The following year his parents came to America and 
settled in the vicinity of Walton, Delaware Count)?, 
New York, where he received his early education. 
He pursued his preparatory studies in the Delaware 
Literary Institute, Franklin, New York, and nearly 
completed the course in Union College. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and, in the spring 
of 1872, being chosen as a Missionary to Syria, he 
was licensed and ordained sine titnlo by the Pittsburgh 



492 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Presbytery, October I2, 1872. He sailed, with his 
family and others, for that foreign field, November 22, 
1872, since which time he has been engaged in the 
work of a Missionary in Latakia, Syria. He married 
Miss Mary J. Beebe, of Schenectady, New York, 
January 20, 1870. He visited the United States in 
1882, and lectured throughout the Church and returned 
to Syria. He translated the doctrinal part of the 
Reformed Presbyterian Testimony into the Arabic 
language for the use of the Mission Church in Syria. 

THOMAS McCONNELL ELDER: 

Son of Thomas and Mary (McConnell) Elder, was 
born near New Alexandria, Westmoreland County, Penn- 
sylvania, March 24, 1826. He received a good common 
school education and began the study of the classics 
under the direction of his pastor, the Rev. James 
Milligan, D. D.; and, in 1847, became Principal of 
Loyal Hanna Institute of his native County. In 1851,^ 
he became a teacher in Geneva Female Institute,. 
Northwood, Ohio, and graduated from Geneva College 
in 1854. He studied theology in the Northwood and 
Allegheny Seminaries, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 21, 1858. He was ordained 
by the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
Rehoboth congregation, Dayton, Armstrong County, 
Pennsylvania, May 11, 1859. In 1862, he became 
Principal of Dayton Union Academy, which became a 
flourishing preparatory school. In 1863, he was 
appoined by Synod to take charge of the Mission 
among the Freedmen, at Fernandina, Florida, where 
he also served as Chaplain to the Eleventh Regiment 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 493 

of Maine Volunteers. In 1864, he was transferred to 
the Mission at Washington, D. C, where he remained 
in charge orte year. He returned to his congregation 
and school in Dayton, which he resigned, April 10, 
1866, and became Principal of the Dayton Soldiers 
Orphan School. In the fall of 1868, while witnessing 
a game of base ball among the students, he was acci- 
dently struck upon the head with one of the ball bats,, 
and so seriously injured that he was compelled to cease 
preaching, and also resigned the school in 1871. He 
subsequently retired from all active service and became 
interested in secular pursuits. He withdrew from the- 
communion of the Covenanter Church, May 16, 1883.- 
He is editor of the Dayton News, a local journal. He 
married as his first wife, Miss Tirzah Mason, of New 
Alexandria, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1848; and as 
his second. Miss Mary P. Lindsay, of Philadelphia,, 
Pennsylvania, October 10, 1854. 

GEORGE MILTON ELLIOT: (Colored.) 

Son of Winslow and Mary A. (Bowser) Elliott,- 
was born near Isle of Wight,'* Isle of Wight County ,- 
Virginia, June 4, 1849. In 1861, his parents removed 
to Pickereltown, Logan County, Ohio, where he received 
his early education, and graduated from Geneva College- 
in 1873. He studied theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presby- 
tery, April 12, 1876. He was ordained by the same- 
Presbytery, August 21, 1877, and installed pastor of 
the congregation of Selma, Alabama, December 14^ 
1877, where he is in charge. In 1876, he became 
Principal of Knox Academy, Selma, Alabama, and 



494 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

resigned this office, October 4, 1886, and devoted 
himself to missionary work. He was twice married. 
First to Miss Sarah R. Miller, of Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, June 19, 1878 ; second to Miss . Hattie L. 
Davis, of Selma, Alabama, April 21, 1885. In March, 
1886, he became editor of the Guiding Star, a weekly 
and monthly paper, devoted to the moral and religious 
welfare of the colored race. 

EDWARD GRAHAM ELSEY : 

Son of John H. and Susan (French) Elsey, was 
born in Reynoldsburgh, Franklin County, Ohio, March 
22, 1830. He received his early education in the schools 
of that vicinity, and in Northwood, Ohio. He subse- 
quently removed to California, Branch County, Michigan, 
where he was engaged in farming and teaching for 
many years. Having an earnest desire to preach the 
gospel, he removed to Northwood, Ohio, and resumed 
his studies in Geneva College, graduating in 1870. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, April 14, 1873. 
He was ordained by the Iowa Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Rehoboth congregation, Wyman, Louisa 
County, Iowa, August 14, 1874, and resigned this 
charge, April 13, 1881. He was installed pastor of 
Lake Reno congregation, Glenwood, Pope County, 
Minnesota, July 17, 1882, where he is in charge. He 
married Miss Phebe T. Dobbin, of West Hebron, New 
York, October 19, 1861. 

WILLIAM MORRISON ENGLES, D. D. : 

Son of Silas and Anna (Patterson) Engles, was 
born in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 495 

12, 1797* He received a liberal education in the 
schools of his native city, and graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 181 5. He studied theo- 
logy in the Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Middle Presbytery, October 21, 18 18. He 
preached with much acceptance as a supply to the 
mission stations of Wyoming and Mauch Chunk, Penn- 
sylvania, for several months. He connected with the 
Presbyterian Church, being received by the Presbytery 
of Philadelphia, November 10, 18 19, and preached to 
the Old Scotch congregation, which became the Seventh 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, over 
which he was ordained and installed pastor, July 6, 
1820. A serious throat disease caused him to resign 
this charge, September 4, 1834, and he became editor 
of the Presbyterian, in which capacity he continued 
until his death. In 1838, he was appointed editor of 
the Presbyterian Board of Publication, a position which 
he discharged with great ability until his resignation 
in 1863. He finally became a subject of heart disease, 
from which he died, at his residence in the city of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 27, 1867. He 
was a mild, instructive and thoroughly evangelical 
preacher. His usefulness as an editor was very great. 
His extensive reading of books of theology, and thor- 
ough discrimination of works of science were largely 
the means of the popularity and success of the Pres- 
byterian Publishing House. He revised and abridged 
many old works which found a ready sale. He was 
the author of many tracts and books published anony- 

* Presbyterian Historical Almanac, Vol. 10, p. 87. 



496 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

mously. His "Sick Room Devotions" and "The Soldier's 
Pocket Book," were especially valuable, and found a 
large circulation at the time of the war of the rebellion. 
He married Miss Margaret Schott, of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, in 1822. He was honored with the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity by Lafayette College in 1838. 
He was Moderator of the General Assembly in 1840, 
and Stated Clerk for many years. 

GORDON THOMPSON EWING : 

Son of John and Mary (Thompson) Ewing, was 
born near Maghera, County Londonderry, Ireland, July 
17, 1798.* His parents were members of the Anti- 
Bounty Associate Church, and, being the only son, 
was the object of peculiar parental solicitude. Having 
completed his rudimentary education, he was placed 
under the tuition of his pastor, the Rev. John Bryce, 
and, in 18 16, he made a profession of his faith in the 
Associate Church. In 18 18, he entered the College of 
Belfast, Ireland, where he graduated with honor in 
1 82 1. He came to America in the spring of 1822, 
and landed in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
where he made the acquaintance of the Rev. Samuel 
Wylie, and accompanied him to his home near Kas- 
kaskia, Illinois, and opened a classical school. While 
teaching in this place he espoused the principles of 
the Covenanter Church, and began the study of theol- 
ogy under the care of the Rev. Samuel Wylie. In 
the fall of 1824, he resumed his studies in the Phila- 
delphia Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, May 9, 1825. He was ordained by the 

* Principal items from a Sketch in Banner of the Covenant, 1848. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 49/ 

Pittsburgh Presbytery, and installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Canonsburgh, Washington County, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 23, 1827, and resigned this charge, May 16, 
1830, on account of impaired health. In the fall of 

1830, he returned to Ireland, and, in the spring of 

1 83 1, was called to the congregation of Londonderry; 
but, as he thought of returning soon to America, he 
did not accept it, but engaged as stated supply for 
•one year, which arrangement was repeated for eight 
years. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Grange, Ireland, July 20, 1840, and resigned, Novem- 
ber 9, 1 84 1, when he returned to America. The Church 
in America had passed through the division of August, 
1833, and, after due consideration, he became identified 
Avith the New School branch of the Covenanter 
Church. He was installed pastor of the Second con- 
gregation of Pittsburgh (situated in the suburb of 
Bayardstown), Pennsylvania, September 9, 1842, where 
he continued until his death. Having fallen into the 
weakness of Irish character, and being a constant suf- 
ferer from malaria for many years, atrophy ensued 
with direful effects. In March, 1848, he embarked for 
New Orleans, Louisiana, thence intending a coasting 
voyage to New York, but his strength yielded to the 
pressure of his disease, and he died on board the 
steamer "General Pike," one hundred miles above New 
Orleans, Louisiana, March 21, 1848. He married Miss 
Margaret Black, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 13, 
1828. He possessed a solemn and imposing appear- 
ance, and was a genial and pleasant companion. As 
a preacher, he was interesting and instructive, and at 



498 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

times most eloquent. He was a fluent speaker, a 
proficient scholar, and his acquisitions were considerable 
in theology and science. He was Moderator of the 
General Synod in 1847. 

DANIEL CARGILL PARIS: 

Son of Rev. James and Nancy (Smith) Paris, was 
born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, June 21, 
1843. He received his early education in the common 
schools, and under the direction of his father, and 
graduated from the University of Indiana in 1863, He 
was a teacher, for some time, in the Mission School at 
Natchez, Mississippi. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by the Illinois 
Presbytery, April 21, 1869, and labored for two years 
in Lake Reno and Round Prairie, Minnesota. He was 
ordained by the New York Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Barnet congregation, West Barnet, Cale- 
donia County, Vermont, June 25, 1873, where he is in 
charge. He married Miss Mary A. Russell, of Round 
Prairie, Minnesota, November 15, 1870. 

DAVID SMITH PARIS : 

Son of Rev. James and Nancy (Smith) Paris, was 
born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, November 
II, 1830. He received his early education in the 
common schools, and under the direction of his dis- 
tinguished father, and graduated from the University of 
Indiana in 18 51. He studied theology privately during 
the suspension of the Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Illinois Presbytery, October 10, 1855. At the re- 
organization of the Allegheny Seminary, in 1856, he 
attended one session. He was ordained by the Illinois 




DAVID S. PARIS. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 499 

Presbytery, and installed pastor of the Bethel congre- 
gation, Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois, October 7, 
1857, where he is in Charge. He was twice married. 
First to Miss Jane McAfee, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
May 8, 1861; and second, to Mrs. Hester (Edgar) Finley, 
of Sparta, Illinois, March 30, 1871. He is the author 
of a pamphlet, " A Defense of the Old School Cove- 
nanters- as Dissenters from the United States Consti- 
tution," 1864, pp. 33, and many historical articles in the 
magazines of the Church, bearing upon the history of 
the Covenanters in South Carolina. He was Moderator 
of the Synod of 1883. 

ISAIAH PARIS: . 

Son of Rev. James and Nancy (Smith) Faris, was 
born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, April 25, 
1846. He received his early literary training in the 
schools of his native city, and graduated from the 
University of Indiana in 1863, and was engaged in 
teaching in Natchez, Mississippi. He studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Illinois Presbytery, April 21, 1869. He was ordained 
by the Iowa Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
congregation of Walnut City, Appanoose County, Iowa, 
September 21, 1870, and resigned this charge, May 23, 
•1877. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Vernon, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, November 22, 
1878, where he is in charge. He was twice married. 
First to Miss Anna M. Pauly, of Sparta, Illinois, March 
29, 1 871; and second, to Miss Julia McLaughlin, of 
Vernon, Wisconsin, October 26, 1880. 



500 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

JAMES PARIS: 

Son of James and Mary A. (Becket) Paris, was 
born near Chester, Chester District, South Carolina, 
May 15, 1791.* His father died when he was very 
young, and he was brought up by his aunt, Mrs. Agnes 
Smith. He received a liberal common school education, 
which prepared him for teaching, and by this means 
he prepared himself for college, and graduated from 
South Carolina College, Columbia, in 1816. He immedi- 
ately afterwards assumed the position of Principal of 
the Academy of Pendleton, South Carolina, a flourishing 
classical school patronized by John C. Calhoun, and in 
which several congressmen and eminent legislators were 
educated. He resigned the school in June, 1822, and 
-devoted himself to the study of theology, under the 
direction of the Rev. Thomas Donnelly, and was licensed 
by the Southern Presbytery, January 21, 1824. He 
attended one session in the Philadelphia Seminary, and 
made an extended preaching tour through the South 
and West. He was ordained by the Western Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Bloomington, 
Monroe County, Indiana, November 22, 1827, where he 
continued to labor until his death, from a stroke of 
paralysis, May 20, 1855. He married Miss Nancy 
Smith, of Chester, South Carolina, April 29, 1823. He 
was a plain, didactic preacher, a logical reasoner, and a 
sound theologian. He made no pretense at oratory, 
and was unaffected in his pulpit manners. He was an 
excellent scholar and especially proficient in mathe- 
matics. He was born a reformer, and knew the evils 
* Principal items from his son, the Rev. D. S. Paris, Sparta, Illinois. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 5OI 

of slavery from observation. He endeavored to have 
the Legislature of South Carolina pass a law by which 
benevolent slaveholders might free their slaves; but in 
this he failed, and removed from the South that his 
family might be free from the contaminating influence 
of the accursed institution of human slavery. His house 
was the home of the anti-slavery lecturer, and for 
many years an important station upon the " Underground 
Railroad." He was advanced in his views upon all 
reforms, and took an early stand upon temperance. He 
was a devout and pious man, peculiarly fond of religious 
conversation, thoroughly devoted to the principles 
of the Church and the work of the ministry. In order 
that he might glean in his Father's vineyard, he sacri- 
ficed the fame and remuneration of the scholar and 
teacher, and also gave four sons to the same work of 
preaching the gospel of Christ. 

JOHN CALVIN KNOX FARIS : 

Son of James and Nancy (Smith) Paris, was born 
in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, April 11, 
1833. He received his early education in the common 
schools, and under the direction of his father, 
graduating from the University of Indiana in 1853, and 
engaged in teaching. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 18, 1859. He attended the 
Ohio Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, one session, 
and preached generally throughout the Church. He 
was appointed a Missionary to Natchez, Mississippi, 
February 16, 1864, where he remained in charge of 
the Freedmen's Mission for over a year. He was 

31 



502 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of the Muskingum and Tomica congregation, Dresden, 
Muskingum County, Ohio, December 6, 1865, and 
resigned on account of impaired health, April 13, 187 1. 
He spent two years, principally in Colorado, in regain- 
ing his health, and occasionally preached. He was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Topsham, Orange County, 
Vermont, December 2, 1874, where he is in charge. 
He married Miss Elizabeth J. McKnight, of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, April 25, 1865. 

JAMES MELVILLE PARIS: 

Son of David and Elizabeth (Smith) Paris, was 
born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, April 

14, 1840, He received his early education in the 
public schools, graduated from the University of 
Indiana in 1862, and engaged in teaching. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Illinois Presbytery, May 26, 1868, He was 
ordained by the New York Presbytery, and installed 
pastor j^of the congregation of Topsham, Orange County, 
Vermont, September i, 1869, and resigned this charge, 
May 22, 1872. He was installed pastor of the Church 
Hill congregation, Coultersville, Randolph County, 
Illinois, June 19, 1873, and resigned May 30, 1884. 
He was installed pastor of the congregation of New 
Concord, Muskingum County, Ohio, July 3, 1884, 
where he is in charge. He was twice married. Pirst 
to Miss Jennie Smith, of Bloomington, Indiana, October 

15, 1868: and second to Miss Jennie Watson, of 
Utica, Ohio, January 28, 1886. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 503 

JAMES MELVILLE FINLEY: 

Son of William and Elvira (Gault) Finley, was 
born in Hill Prairie, Randolph County, Illinois, Septem- 
ber 12, 1854. He received his early education in the 
Plumb Creek school and Coultersville Academy of his 
native County, and graduated from Geneva College in 
1879. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
was licensed by the Illinois Presbytery, April I2, 
1882, and preached generally throughout the Church. 
He married Miss Mary E. Caskey, of Allegheny, Penn- 
sylvania, March 28, 1882. He has resided in Coulters- 
ville, Illinois, and Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and is preach- 
ing for the Presbyterian Church of New Sharon, Iowa.. 

JOHN FISHER: 

Son of Robert and Jane (Porter) Fisher, was born 
in Cremore, County Armagh, Ireland, October 10, 1797. 
His parents were pious members of the Covenanter 
Church, with which he also connected in early life, 
and he was given the opportunity of attending the 
best schools in that vicinity. He came to America 
in June, 1820, and settled in Coldenham, Orange 
County, New York, where he was soon engaged as a 
teacher, and pursued his classical course in the 
Montgomery Academy. He studied theology in the 
Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed by the Phila- 
delphia Presbytery, April 16, 1828. He preached in 
many of the vacancies and made an extended visit 
among the Covenanters of South Carolina, who were 
anxious for his settlement among them. He was 
ordained by the Northern Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the united congregations of York, Livingston 



504 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

County, and Rochester, New York, July 21, 183 1. He 
resigned the Rochester branch, April 17, 1835, ^"^ 
devoted his whole time to York, where he labored 
with great diligence and success until his death. In 
1843, that dangerous disease, bronchitis, began to 
develop itself, and by its progress he was, for a time, 
unable to perform his ministerial duties. In May, 1845, 
he suffered from a severe hemorrhage of the lungs, 
from which he died, at his home near York, New 
York, July 22, 1845. He married Miss Catherine 
Balfour, of York, New York, May 16, 1831. He was 
not what is now termed a finished scholar nor a 
polished speaker, but he was a powerful preacher of 
the gospel, and a zealous advocate of the principles 
of the Covenanter Church. He was frequently absent 
from the meetings of Synod, and for this cause was 
not so well known throughout the Church as he 
deserved to be. He was devoted to the spiritual 
welfare of his own flock, and was a most tender and 
faithful pastor. He was distinguished for his integrity 
and uprightness of character, and was highly regarded 
as a model man in the community. The anti-slavery 
reform and the temperance cause found in him an 
active worker and an efficient advocate. His position 
was fully tested during the controversy and division 
of the Church in August, 1833, when most of his 
friends abandoned the Testimony, but his love for the 
truth, and the attainments of the Reformation cause, 
prevailed over all personal attachments, and he held 
fast the profession of his faith without wavering. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 505 

FINLEY MILLIGAN FOSTER: 

Son of Samuel M. and Joan (Kyle) Foster, was 
born in Cedarville, Green County, Ohio, December i, 
1853. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native village and in Geneva College, and 
graduated from the University of Indiana in 1876. He- 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was^ 
licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, April 11, 1879. He 
was ordained by the same Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the congregation of Bellefontaine, Ohio, May 
13, 1880, and was released from this charge, August 
23, 1887. He was installed pastor of the Third congre- 
gation of the city of New York, New York, September 
7, 1887, where he is in charge. He married Miss 
Sallie C. Neer, of Bellefontaine, Ohio, May 30, 1883. 
He is the author of many articles published in the 
Church magazines. 

JAMES MITCHELL FOSTER: 

Son of Samuel M. and Joan (Kyle) Foster, was 
born in Cedarville, Green County, Ohio, September 22, 
1850. He received the accustomed rudimentary training 
in the schools of his native town, and graduated from 
the University of Indiana in 1871. He studied theol- 
ogy in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Lakes Presbytery, April 12, 1876. He was ordained 
by the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
congregation of Cincinnati, Ohio, December 27, 1877, 
and resigned this charge, April 13, 1886. He accepted 
the position of Secretary of the National Reform Asso- 
ciation, July I, 1886, which position he now occupies. 
He married Miss Laura L. Turner, of Bloomington, 



5d6 history of the reformed 

Indiana, September 24, 1878. He is a voluminous writer 
upon various subjects, and contributes to the magazines 
and papers of the Church. 

JOHN FRENCH: 

Son of John and Jane (Graham) French, was born 
near Malone, Franklin County, New York, June 12, 
181 5. In 1 8 16, his parents removed to Reynoldsburgh, 
Franklin County, Ohio, where he received his early 
education in the common schools. He was engaged in 
teaching for many years in different parts of Ohio, and 
attended Miami University a few sessions. He studied 
theology privately, and in the Cincinnati Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, September 5, 
1849. He was ordained by the same Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the Cedar Lake congregation, Cali- 
fornia, Branch County, Michigan, September 23, 1850, 
where he labored diligently until his death. About two 
years before his decease his health began to decline, 
and he asked to be relieved from his pastoral charge 
on account of his inability to attend fully to all minis- 
terial duties, but before this was done, he was released 
by sudden death, from ulceration of the bowels, October 
3, 1880. He married Miss Lydia Carithers, of California, 
Michigan, December 5, 1850. He was a very large man, 
of a commanding appearance, and an energetic speaker. 
He was an earnest and instructive preacher, a genial 
conversationalist, and a faithful pastor. He was univer- 
sally beloved as an exemplary Christian, and in his 
death the Church lost one of her worthy and esteemed 
ministers. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 5O7 

JOHN CALVIN BOYD FRENCH : 

Son of Rev. John and Lydia (Carithers) French, 
was born in California, Branch County, Michigan, May 
29, 1858. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native County, and entered Geneva College in 
1873, where he remained two years. He engaged in 
teaching in his native County for some time, and finally 
resumed his studies in, and graduated from, Geneva 
College in 1883. He taught in the Normal Academy 
of McKeesport, Pennsylvania, two years, and at the 
same time studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 14, 
1886, and preached for a few months in Blanchard, 
Iowa, and other parts of the Church. He was ordained 
by the Rochester Presbytery, and installed pastor of 
the congregation of Sterling, Cayuga County, New York, 
January 12, 1888, where he is in charge. He married 
Miss Agnes M. Steele, of McKeesport, Pennsylvania, 
August 13, 1885. 

WILLIAM STEELE FULTON : 

Son of James and ^Mary (Stewart) Fulton, was born 
near Northwood, Logan County, Ohio, March 17, 1849. 
He received his early education in the common schools, 
and graduated from Geneva C&Uege in 1873. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Lakes Presbytery, April 12, 1876. He was 
ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of the Muskingum and Tomica congregation, Dresden, 
Muskingum County, Ohio, December 5, 1877, and re- 
signed this charge, April 11, 1883, and removed to 
Belle Centre, Ohio. He was installed pastor of the 



508 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

united congregations of Beulah and Eckley, Bostwick, 
Webster County, Nebraska, March 14, 1885, where he 
is in charge. He married Miss Jennie L. French, of 
California, Michigan, August 27, 1877. 

FRANCIS GAILEY: 

Was born in Killilastian, County Donegal, Ireland,. 
March 14, 1802. His parents were poor but respect- 
able members of the Covenanter Church, He came to 
America in 18 16, and settled in Orange County, 
New York, where he was employed upon a farm. 
Naturally a bright and promising youth, he was induced 
to study for the ministry by the Rev. J. R. Willson, 
D. D., and pursued a literary course in the Academy 
of Coldenham, New York. He studied theology privately 
under the direction of Dr. J. R. Willson, and was licensed 
by the Northern Presbytery, May 14, 1830. He 
preached with great acceptance for a few years in the 
vacancies throughout the eastern part of the Church,, 
and received several calls, none of which he would 
accept, and hence never was ordained, although he 
assumed ministerial functions. Feeling that he was 
unfairly treated by his brethren in several ecclesiastical 
transactions, he became embittered against the Church,, 
and, for disorderly conduct and using abusive language, 
his license was cancelled, and he suspended by the 
authority of Synod, October 6, 1838. He continued to 
preach, however, and formed what was termed the 
"Safety League." He began the publication of the 
American Reformed Covenanter in 1839, a pamphlet 
issued every two months, through which he expressed 
his contempt for the Church and stigmatized her 




JOHN GALBRAITH. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 509- 

ministry as "malignants." He claimed that he was the 
true representative and only apostle of the Covenanters, 
and that the whole body had made defection from 
the attainments of the Reformation. He made some 
disciples in Baltimore, New York, and Southern Ohio, 
and re-baptized all his converts. He was soon shorn 
of his influence, however, and his followers repented 
and returned to the Church of their fathers. He was 
a resident of the city of New York, New York, for 
thirty-five years, where he died in Bellevue Hospital, 
friendless and alone, May 21, 1872. He married Miss 
Jane Wylie, of Baltimore, Maryland, July 9, 1847. 
He was a bright and intellectual man, a very accept- 
able preacher, a forcible speaker and a racy author. 
He was winning in his manners, but by no means 
imposing in his personal appearance. He gave evidence 
of holding a prominent position in the Church, had 
he been possessed of the true Christian spirit, with 
malice toward none and charity for all. 

JOHN GALBRAITH: 

Son of James and Margaret (McClure) Galbraith, 
was born in Edenmore, County Antrim, Ireland, April 
6, 1818. His parents were worthy members of the 
Covenanter Church, and he received his early education 
in the schools of his native land. He came to America, 
April 6, 1832, and settled near Burgettstown, Washing- 
ton County, Pennsylvania, where he continued his 
studies, and graduated from the Western University 
of Pennsylvania in 1838. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, June i, 1842. He Avas ordained by 



310 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the united 
congregation of Union, Pine Creek and Lovejoy, Val- 
encia, Butler County, Pennsylvania, June 29, 1843, 
The congregation was divided, April 11, 1870, since 
which time he continues pastor of North Union, a 
part of his original charge. He married Miss Sarah 
Wylie, of Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, July il, 1843. He 
was Moderator of the Synod of 1874. 

SAMUEL RENWICK GALBRAITH : 

Son of Rev. John and Sarah (Wylie) Galbraith, 
was born near Valencia, Butler County, Pennsylvania, 
August 25, 1844. He received his early Hterary train- 
ing in the common schools, and under the direction 
of his father, graduating from Westminster College 
in 1866. He studied theology in the Allegheny Semi- 
nary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 13, 1869. He was ordained by the Rochester 
Presbytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Sterling, Cayuga County, New York, July 7, 1870. 
At the meeting of Synod in May, 1871, he was chosen 
to fill the vacancy in the Syrian Mission occasioned 
by the death of Rev. R. J. Dodds, D. D. He accepted 
the appointment, and resigned the pastoral charge of 
Sterling, October 4, 1871. He, with other Missionaries, 
embarked for Syria, November 4, 1871, and arrived in 
Latakia early in January, 1872. With enthusiastic 
■devotion he began the study of the Arabic language, 
in which he made rapid progress. He soon began to 
suffer from severe headaches, which were followed by 
an attack of fever peculiar to that country. From 
this sickness he rallied, and repaired to Beyrout, to 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 5II 

seek the bracing air of Mt. Lebanon. While in Beyrout 
.a relapse of the fever set in, with symptoms of 
softening of the brain, from which he died, June 21, 
1872, and was buriefl in the Prussian Cemetery, under 
the shadow of Mt. Lebanon, Syria. He married Miss 
Anna Martin, of Lisbon Centre, New York, Septem- 
ber 19, 1 87 1. He was a pleasing and impressive 
preacher. By his accurate scholarship, studious habits, 
manly independence and earnest Christian character, 
he was eminently fitted for the work which he had 
undertaken. His discourses were carefully prepared, 
methodically arranged, and chaste in style. He was 
faithfully and . conscientiously engaged in duty when 
his Master called him. 

MATTHEW AUGUSTINE GAULT : 

Son of John and Martha (Adams) Gault, was born 
in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland, May 2, 
1845. In 1847, his parents came to America, 
settled near Brockport, Monroe County, New York, 
and in 1852, they removed to Waukesha, Waukesha 
County, Wisconsin. Here he connected with the Cove- 
nanter Church, and received his early education, 
graduating from Monmouth College in 1870. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 15, 1874. 
He was ordained by the Iowa Presbytery, installed 
pastor of Lind Grove congregation, Mediapolis, Des 
Moines County, Iowa, May 20, 1875, and resigned this 
charge, October 4, 1877, He became stated supply 
to the Long Branch congregation, Blanchard, Page 
County, Iowa, and was installed the pastor October i, 



512 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1880. He resigned this charge, October 25, 1882, since 
which time he has been engaged as a Secretary of the 
National Reform Association, with his residence in 
Blanchard, Iowa. He married Miss Maggie P. Turner, 
of Waukesha, Wisconsin, September 17, 1871. His 
letters are printed in the Church magazines, and papers 
of the National Reform Association. 

SAMUEL MAXWELL GAYLEY : 

Son of Andrew and Margaret (Crawford) Gayley, 
was born in Creevy, County Tyrone, Ireland, June 4, 
1802.* His parents were Scotch Presbyterians, from 
whom he received a strict religious education, and at ten 
years of age began a classical course of study with the 
ministry in view. In 18 14, he lost his father by death, 
which event so frustrated his plans for the ministry that 
he abandoned that idea and commenced the study of 
medicine with Dr. Samuel Snodgrass of Castlederg. He 
remained in this study over a year ; in the meantime 
losing his devoted mother by death, his mind was 
again turned to the ministry, and he resumed his classical 
studies under the direction of the Rev. Andrew Maxwell, 
where he remained over two years. He came to 
America in May, 1823, and landed in the city of Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, an absolute stranger. He con- 
nected with the Covenanter Church, soon afterwards 
began the study of theology in the Philadelphia 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Philadelphia Presby- 
tery, April 4, 1828. He labored for some time as stated 
supply at Conococheague, Pottsville and Mauch Chunk, 
in Eastern Pennsylvania. In 183 1, he repaired to 

* Presbyterian Historical Abnanac, Vol. 6. 




HENRY H. GEORGE, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 513 

Wilmington, Delaware, where he gathered a congrega- 
tion, over which he was ordained by the Philadelphia 
Presbytery and installed pastor, December 25, 1832. 
At the division of the Church in the following year, he 
iDecame identified with the New School branch of the 
Covenanter Church, and took most of the congregation 
with him into that body. He connected with the 
Presbyterian Church, June 13, 1837, and was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Rockland, Delaware, 
where he remained sixteen years, most of which time 
he was Principal of a Classical School. In 1854, he 
removed to Media, Pennsylvania, and founded Media 
Classical Institute, which is still a flourishing school, 
and remained its Principal until his death, December 

19, 1862. He was a clear, logical, and interesting 
preacher, with a great amount of missionary spirit. He 
was a thorough classical scholar, and in his Schools he 
educated a number of men who became eminent in 
Church and State. He wrote largely for the press and 
educational monthlies, and by correspondence with 
legislators was efficient in procuring the improved 
system of common school education. 

HENRY GEORGE, D. D. : 

Son of Henry and Maria (Dolman) George, was 
born in Cumberland, Muskingum County, Ohio, February 

20, 1833. In 1839, his parents removed to Locust 
Grove, Adams County, Ohio, where he received his 
early education in the common schools, graduating 
from Geneva College in 1853. He became a Tutor of 
Greek in this institution, and, in 1856, Professor of 
Greek. He studied theology in the Northwood and 



514 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Allegheny Seminaries, and was licensed by the Lakes 
Presbytery, June 4, 1857. He was ordained by the 
same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the united 
congregations of Cedarville, Green County, and Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, June 23, 1858. He resigned the Cedarville 
branch, August 4, 1866, the Cincinnati charge, August 
18, 1872, and accepted the Presidency of Geneva 
College, which position he now occupies. In addition 
to his collegiate duties, he was installed pastor of the 
congregation of Rushsylvania, Logan County, Ohio, 
May 3, 1878, and resigned May 18, 1880. In the fall 
of 1880, Geneva College was removed from Northwood,. 
Ohio, to Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, whither he 
removed, and it is largely through his personal efforts 
that the institution enjoys its present prosperity. He 
married Miss Sarah Brown, of Cincinnati, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 27, 1864. Among his numerous publications in 
the interests of Reformation, is an " Address on Secret 
Societies," 1872, pp. 40. He was honored with the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity by the Ohio Central 
College in 1874. He was Moderator of the Synod of 1871. 

ROBERT JAMES GEORGE: 

Son of John and Jane (Slater) George, was born 
near Venice, Washington County, Pennsylvania, July 15, 
1844. He received his early education in the High 
School of Hickory, attended the Academy of Dayton, 
Pennsylvania, one year, and graduated from West- 
minster College in 1866, He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, April 13, 1869. He was ordained by the 
same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the Poland and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 515 

North Jackson congregation, Canfield, Mahoning County, 
Ohio, May 19, 1870, and resigned this charge, April 14, 
1875. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, June 15, 1875, where he is 
in charge. He married Miss Maggie R.' Hamilton, of 
Putneyville, Pennsylvania, October 28, 1868. He was 
instrumental in locating and building up Geneva College 
in its present site, and is the Secretary of its Board 
and that of the Superintendents of the Theological 
Seminary. In the fall of 1886, he was appointed 
temporary Professor of Theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary as successor to the late Rev. J. R. W. Sloane^ 
D. D., and, in the spring of 1887, was elected by 
Synod as Professor of Systematic Theology, but 
declined that honor to remain with his congregation. 

SAMUEL ALEXANDER GEORGE: 

Son of Michael and Hannah (Hutcheson) George, 
was born in Locust Grove, Adams County, Ohio, 
September 28, 185 1. In early life his parents removed 
to Rushsylvania, Logan County, Ohio, where he received 
his early education in the public schools, graduating 
from Geneva College in 1873. He studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by the 
Lakes Presbytery, April 12, 1876, and labored as a 
Missionary in Mansfield, Ohio, and built up that con- 
gregation. He was ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Mansfield^ 
Ohio, November 20, 1878, where he is in charge. He 
married Miss Jemima Blackwood, of Rose Point,. 
Pennsylvania, September 2, 1875. 



5l6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

WILLIAM FINNEY GEORGE : 

Son of Alexander and Martha (Finney) George, was 
born near Venice, Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
November 19, 1821. He acquired the basis of a classical 
education in the schools of his native County, and 
graduated from Franklin College in 1845. In 1846, he 
became Professor of Languages in Muskingum College, 
where he remained two years. He studied theology in 
the Cincinnati and Northwood Seminaries one year each, 
and, in 1850, accepted the Presidency of Geneva College. 
He continued his theological studies in the Northwood 
Seminary, was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, 
April 24, 1 85 1, and, in the following winter, resigned 
his position in the College that he might devote him- 
self to the work of the ministry. He was ordained by 
the Lakes Presbytery, at Utica, Ohio, May 12, 1853, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Macedon, 
Mercer County, Ohio, September 26, 1853, resigning 
this charge on account of impaired health, April 20, 
1858. He was installed pastor of the Church Hill con- 
gregation, Coultersville, Randolph County, Illinois, March 
5, i860, and resigned May 17, 187 1. He was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Staunton, Macoupin County, 
Illinois, May 13, 1872, where he labored under many 
trials of body and mind, until he was taken away in 
death, by that wasting disease — consumption, April 14, 
1880. He married Miss Martha Speer, of New Concord, 
Ohio, September 2, 1847. He was an earnest and 
interesting preacher, and a kind and attentive pastor. 
He was a scholar of considerable ability and possessed 
an aptness to teach. With a large family in a new 




JOHN GIBSON. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 517 

country, he had a good many difficulties to contend 
with, and in addition to his ministerial work, taught 
school with marked success, and practiced medicine with 
much usefulness. He was a public-spirited man, took 
an active part in Church courts, ably advocated the 
reforms of his day, and was closely attached to the 
principles of the Covenanter Church. 

JOHN GIBSON: 

Son of Rev. William and Rebecca (Mitchell) Gib- 
son, was born in Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, 
August 14, 1 791. Hq came with his parents to America 
in 1797, and settled in the city of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania; and, in 1799, removed to Ryegate, Caledonia 
County, Vermont. He received a very careful religious 
training from his distinguished parents, pursued his 
classical studies under the direction of his father, and 
attended the University of Vermont. He studied 
theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, was licensed 
by the Middle Presbytery, May 19, 18 17, and preached 
in Western Pennsylvania and Ohio for one year. He 
was ordained by the Middle Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the congregation of Baltimore, Maryland, 
December 15, 18 18. He built up a flourishing con- 
gregation in this city, and also conducted a classical 
school, in which the sons of the best families in the 
city were educated. At the division of the Church 
in August, 1833, he went out, but did did not formally 
connect, with the New School branch of the Cove- 
nanter Church. He joined the Presbyterian Church, being 
received by the Presbytery of Baltimore, October 10, 
1833, and took the great majority of the "'congregation 



5l8 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

with him. He preached in Baltimore a short time 
without any charge. In 1834, he committed forgery 
to meet the monetary obligations contracted by an 
extravagant family, for which cause he was apprehended, 
but being a minister he was allowed his freedom pro- 
vided he immediately left the State never to return.* 
He went to the West, and supplied vacant pulpits and 
taught school for many years. In 1858, he was stated 
supply at Belleville, Illinois; in 1862, at Mt. Vernon; 
and in 1866, he removed to Sparta, Illinois. In 1868, 
he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and soon afterwards 
retired to the home of his brother, the Rev. W. J. 
Gibson, D. D., at Duncansville, Blair County, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he died, June 3, 1869. He married Miss 
Elizabeth Jamieson, of Baltimore, Maryland, in 1821. 
He was a forcible and interesting preacher, and in 
his earlier years very popular. He was a proficient 
classical scholar, and an apt and successful teacher. He 
possessed considerable ability, was a kind and social 
man, but rather liberal in his views. He was Moderator 
of the Synod of 1821. 

ROBERT GIBSON: 

Son of Rev. William and Rebecca (Mitchell) 
Gibson, was born in Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, 
October i, 1793. His parents came to America in 
1797, settled in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
and, in 1799, removed to Ryegate, Caledonia County, 
Vermont. Here he received his rudimentary training 
in the common schools, and, with the ministry in view, 
pursued the classics under the direction of his distin- 

* Facts from some Baltimore parishioners. 




ROBERT GIBSON. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 519 

guished father, and became an excellent scholar. He 
studied theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, was 
licensed by the Middle Presbytery, June 5, 18 18, and 
his first pulpit efforts awakened more than ordinary 
attention. He was ordained by the Pittsburgh Presby- 
tery, and installed pastor of the Little Beaver congre- 
gation, New Galilee, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 
September 6, 18 19. Large audiences gathered from all 
parts of the country to hear him whenever he was 
announced to conduct a preaching service, and, by his 
faithful and eloquent presentation of the gospel, the 
congregation flourished. In this new and extensive 
field he travelled much, and was subjected to great 
exposure in reaching the various places of preaching ;, 
and he contracted an insipient disease of the lungs, 
necessitating a change, and he resigned this charge, 
October 16, 1830. He was installed pastor of the 
Second congregation of the city of New York, New 
York, May 18, 1831. Here his ministrations were 
hailed with large and appreciative audiences three 
times a Sabbath, and the congregation grew in 
numbers and practical godliness. At the division of 
the Church in August, 1833, he was in the midst of 
the controversy, and although sorely tried, stood faith- 
ful to the Covenanted Testimony. In 1834, his health 
again began to decline, and, in 1836, he visited his 
old home among the evergreen hills of Vermont, but, 
on account of the frequency of his preaching among 
his admirers and old acquaintances, his health was not 
improved. In the spring of 1837, he made a visit to 
his native land and other parts of Europe, where the 



520 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

people received him gladly. He returned the same 
autumn not much benefitted, and gradually declined 
with that fatal disease, consumption, until his death, 
at his residence in the city of New York, New York, 
December 22, 1837. He was twice married. His first 
wife was Miss Mary A. Harvey, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, 1817; the second. Miss Mary A. Lindsay, of 
the same city, 1827. He is justly ranked among the 
most eloquent and popular pFeachers of the Covenanter 
Church. His appearance was prepossessing ; above the 
medium in height, of dark complexion, and of an open 
and agreeable countenance. He had a splendid voice, 
soft in melody, flexible in tone, distinct in articula- 
tion, and a manner that attracted the masses of the 
people. While he may not be ranked among the 
profound theologians, yet his mode of thinking, his 
manner of address, and his forms of expression were 
all in sympathy with the popular mind. He was bold, 
faithful and magnanimous in declaring the truth of 
God, and in rebuking all error and vice. He was 
peculiarly zealous and successful in the maintenance of 
the Calvinistic system against the Arminian errors and 
Hopkinsian subtleties. Opposition but increased his 
ardor and added fresh vigor to his enlightened zeal, 
and his powers of persuasion were peculiarly effective. 
He took a prominent part in all Church work, and 
was among the number of sterling integrity who main- 
tained the principles of the Church in their purity. 
In 1832, he became an associate editor of the American 
Protestant Vindicator, a weekly paper published in New 
York, and devoted to the cause of Protestantism against 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. $21 

Roman Catholicism. He also published three ably- 
written pamphlets in vindication of the position of the 
Old School Covenanter Church during the controversy 
of 1833, which are unanswerable. He was Moderator 
of the Synod of 1834. 

WILLIAM GIBSON: 

Son of Robert and Susannah (McWhirr) Gibson, was 
born near Knockbracken, County Down, Ireland, July i, 
1753. His parents were members of the Presbyterian 
Church, but on account of the departure of that body 
from the attainments of the Reformation, he connected 
with the Covenanter Church in early life. He passed 
through the accustomed routine of studies in the national 
schools, and under private instructors, and graduated 
from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1775. He 
studied theology in Edinburgh, and privately, and was 
licensed by the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, May 
19, 1 78 1. He preached with great acceptance in the 
vacancies for a few years, and was ordained by the 
Reformed Presbytery, and installed pastor of the united 
congregations of Kellswater and Cullybackey, County 
Antrim, Ireland, April 17, 1787. His labors were 
signally blessed by the gathering of a large congre- 
gation, and in his fidelity to truth, and the doctrine of 
Christ's Headship over the Church, he rendered himself 
obnoxious to a tyrannical government. His ardent love 
for personal Hberty led him to encourage those asso- 
ciations formed in Ireland to throw off the British 
yoke. The Insurrection of 1797 marked a trying period 
in the history of Ireland, and the Covenanters were 
often suspected by governmental agents as countenancing 



522 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the association of " United Irishmen." During this 
rebellion, the oath of allegiance was required, but the 
Covenanters refused to take it. A magistrate living in 
the vicinity of Mr. Gibson's congregation, administered 
the oath to two men who waited upon his ministrations, 
and one of them remarked that Mr. Gibson would 
censure them for what they had done. This observation 
reached the ear of the magistrate, who declared with 
a profane oath, that Mr. Gibson should either take the 
oath of allegiance or his life should go for it. This 
was the reason he found an asylum, with hundreds of 
others, in America, and not because he was a member 
of the " United Irishmen." According to his own testi- 
mony he never was a member of that association.* 
He fled for safety to America, and landed in the city 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October i8, 1797, and 
resided, with his family, in this city nearly two years. 
He supplied the small societies of Covenanters in 
Philadelphia, Coldenham, New York, and in Vermont. 
He, with the Rev. James McKinney and ruling elders, 
constituted the Reformed Presbytery of America, at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May, 1798. He was installed 
pastor of the congregation centering in Ryegate, Cale- 
donia County, Vermont, July 10, 1799. This field was 
very extensive and in a severely cold and uncultivated 
section of country, but his labors were accompanied 
with manifest tokens of the Divine blessing. The con- 
gregation became divided into several branches, and he 
resigned the charge, April 13, 18 15. He was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Canonsburgh, Washington 

* American Reformed Covenanter. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 523 

County, Pennsylvania, October 23, 181 7, and resigned on 
account of the infirmities of age, May 27, 1826. He 
took charge of the congregation of Paterson, New 
Jersey, for several years. In May, 1834, he removed 
to the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he 
resided two years. During the controversy and division 
of the Church in August, 1833, he remained among the 
faithful brethren who held the principles of the Cove- 
nanter Church as they have always been applied. In 
1836, he removed to the city of New York, New York, 
and supplied the pulpit of his son, the Rev. Robert 
Gibson, who was in feeble health. In the summer of 
1838, disease and the extreme infirmities of age rendered 
him unable to sustain himself under the fatigue of the 
usual pulpit labors, and he gradually declined until his 
death, at his home in the city of New York, New York, 
October 15, 1838. Although in his eighty-fifth year, 
he preached twice upon the Sabbath, and his reason and 
memory were unimpaired. He married Miss Rebecca 
Mitchell, of Londonderry County, Ireland, in 1788. He 
was a well-read theologian and a fine classical scholar. 
His discourses were distinguished for soundness of 
doctrine, Scriptural illustration, and practical application. 
He was not a brilliant speaker and yet a most instruc- 
tive preacher. He was especially interesting upon sacra- 
mental occasions, when it was evident that he had 
drunk deeply at the fountain of Divine truth, and he 
dispensed the waters of life with a copiousness and 
richness of sanctified thought seldom surpassed. He 
was a large, fine-looking man, venerable and imposing 
in his appearance. He was the honest and upright 



524 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

man in • all his transactions; naturally benevolent in 
disposition, warm and unchanging in his friendships, 
and void of anything like dissimulation. He effected 
little as an author. He published a pamphlet in the 
form of a dialogue concerning the Calvinistic doctrine 
of the Atonement against Hopkinsianism, 1802, pp. 80; 
also a sermon, " When the Enemy shall come in like a 
Flood," 1803, pp. 47. He was Moderator of the first 
Synod of 1809, and also in 1816 and 1832. 

JONATHAN GILL: 

Son of John and Jane (Shaw) Gill, was born near 
Huntingdon, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, August 
9, 1777. His childhood and youth were characterized 
by many of the deprivations of a new country, and 
with difificulty he obtained the rudiments of an educa- 
tion, and engaged in teaching. After some time he 
resumed his studies in the. Canonsburgh Academy, and 
graduated from Jefferson College in 18 10. He studied 
theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Middle Presbytery, May 9, 18 14. He was 
ordained by the Western Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the united congregations of Xenia and 
Massie's Creek, Green County, Ohio, May 14, 18 16, 
and resigned this charge, April 6, 1823. He was 
installed pastor of the Brookland congregation, 
including Puckety and Thompson's Run societies, 
Lucesco, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, October 
20, 1823. At the division of the Church in August, 
1833, he became identified with the New School branch 
of the Covenanter Church, and the pastoral relation 
was dissolved. He was restored, October 16, 1834, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 525 

but soon returned to that body, and his name was 
stricken from the roll by the authority of Synod, 
October 7, 1836. In 1835, he became Professor of 
Languages in the Western University of Pennsylvania,, 
and subsequently Principal of an Academy. He con- 
nected with the Associate Reformed Church, being 
received by the Monongahela Presbytery of that body^ 
May 24, 1840. He died of pneumonia, at his home 
in the vicinity of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
April 20, 1846. He married Miss Rachael M, Steen, 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 18 15. He was an 
acceptable preacher, a proficient scholar, and a success- 
ful teacher, to which latter profession he mostly devoted 
his' energies. He distinguished himself as a linguist in 
the translation of the Hebrew Bible, which is considered 
an excellent work. 

WILLIAM JOHN GILLESPIE: 

Son of John and Sarah (Gillespie) Gillespie, was 
born in Ballynahinch, County Down, Ireland, October 
3, 1 84 1. His parents were members of the Seceder 
Church, and sent him to the classical school of 
Wishaw, Scotland, where he received his early educa- 
tion. He came to America, May 14, 1857, ^^^ set- 
tled in Newburgh, New York, where he resumed his 
studies, and connected with the Covenanter Church. 
In 1862, with a view to the ministry, he entered 
Westminster College, where he graduated in 1866. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 15, 
1868, and labored in Minnesota for some time. He 
was ordained by the Illinois Presbytery, and installed 



526 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

pastor of the Old Bethel congregation, Sparta, Randolph 
■County, Illinois, October 13, 1869. He connected with 
the United Presbyterian Church, being received by the 
Southern Illinois Presbytery, August 6, 1870. He was 
installed pastor of the congregation of Sparta, Illinois, 
September 11, 1870, and resigned August 14, 1877. 
He was installed pastor of the Charles Street con- 
gregation, New York City, New York, August 30, 
1877, and resigned June 16, 1879, He was installed 
pastor of the congregation of Jordan's Grove, Randolph 
County, Illinois, December 16, 1879, and resigned 
October 24, 1882. He was installed pastor of the 
Union congregation, Sparta, Illinois, January 18, 1883, 
and resigned May 31, 1886. He took charge of a 
Mission enterprise in Leavenworth, Kansas, June 5, 
1886, and is Chaplain of the National Home for 
Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. He married Miss Jennie 
Wier, of Sparta, Illinois, October i, 1872. 

WILLIAM MELANCTHON GLASGOW: 

Son of Moses T. and Martha W. (Thompson) Glas- 
gow, was born in Northwood, Logan County, Ohio, 
July I, 1856. The following year his parents removed 
to Belle Centre, Ohio, where he received his early 
education in the public schools. In March, 1872, he 
was employed in connection with the Cincinnati Daily 
Star, and, in 1874, was agent and reporter for the 
same paper in Dayton, Ohio. He resumed his studies 
in Geneva College, where he graduated in 1880, and 
was employed in Boston, Massachusetts, for two years. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 9, 1884, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 527 

and made a tour of the British Maritime Provinces. 
He was ordained by the Philadelphia Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the congregation of Baltimore, 
Maryland, November 26, 1885, where he is in charge. 
He was an editor of the College Cabinet two years, 
beginning with its establishment in 1878. He published 
the "History of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
America," 1888. 

DAVID GRAHAM: 

Son of Thomas and Mary (De Witt) Graham, was 
born in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland, Sep- 
tember 8, 1779.* He received his preparatory literary 
course in the schools of his native County, and graduated 
from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1799. He 
studied theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, 
and was licensed by the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, 
March 9, 1804. He was ordained by the same court, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Magherafelt, 
County Londonderry, Ireland, October 16, 1805. Be- 
coming embarrassed in some worldly affairs he went to 
London, England, in 1807, and during his absence in 
that city he was deposed from the ministerial office, 
by the Reformed Presbytery of Ireland, for abandoning 
his charge and for mistreating his people. t He came 
to America, February 8, 1808, and settled in the city 
of New York, New York, where he was engaged as a 
teacher of the languages. He made application for 
admittance into the Covenanter Church and for the 
exercise of his ministerial functions. After a full con- 

* Principal items from his son, Hon. John Graham, New York City, 
f Minutes of Synod, 1809, p. 33. 



528 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

fession of his conduct in Ireland, and renewing his 
pledges of fidelity to the Church, he was restored by 
the Northern Presbytery, at Milton, Northumberland 
County, Pennsylvania, August 12, 1809. He preached 
with great acceptance in the vacancies, and, in 18 10, 
was called to the congregation of Canonsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, and accepted the call. Before his installation^ 
however, he was arraigned by the Middle Presbytery for 
"withdrawing his profession of repentance, and employing 
his ministry to the injury of the Church." His trial 
was held in the Court House in the city of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, in August, 181 1, and lasted eight days^ 
attracting a large crowd of eager spectators from the 
country congregations, and many of the legal profession 
in the city. His fine address and persuasive eloquence 
drew to himself the sympathy of a numerous con- 
stituency, and the impression deepened that he was 
persecuted by the jealous spirit of his brethren whose 
known abilities as divines were far below his acqui- 
sitions. The charges, however, were all proven, where- 
upon he declined the authority of the court, and 
was deposed by the Middle Presbytery, August 20, 181 1. 
With a number of followers he became identified with 
the Seceder Church, and preached for some time in 
Washington and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania. His 
preaching became too orthodox for them, when he advo- 
cated with unanswerable arguments and overwhelming 
eloquence that " Christ reigned as Mediator from the 
roofless heavens to the bottomless hell." Many of his 
followers returned to the Church of their fathers and 
the rest abandoned him. In 18 18, he returned to New 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 529 

York City, and began the study of law with Thomas 
Addis Emmett, one of the most distinguished members 
of the metropolitan bar, and he was admitted to the 
practice of law, November 9, 1820. He soon rose into 
prominence and became one of the leading lawyers in 
the city, as well as an influential member of the 
Lafayette Avenue Dutch Reformed Church. He was 
engaged as counsel, in 1833, in pleading for the property 
of the Covenanter Church. In the later years of his 
life he returned somewhat to intemperate habits, and 
died very suddenly of dysentery, at his home in the 
city of New York, New York, September 13, 1839. He 
married Miss Mary Hazleton, of Londonderry, Ireland, 
March 16, 1807. He was a fine classical scholar, a 
clear logician, and a most interesting and eloquent 
preacher. For many years he conducted a class in 
Hebrew, composed principally of clergymen, in New 
York. As a lawyer, he stood in the front rank, par- 
ticularly as an advocate, aad was remarkable for his 
powers of cross-examination. He was rather below the 
medium in height, corpulent, of a pleasing address and 
courteous manner. He published " A Treatise on the 
Law of New Trials," 1834, a standard work and still 
an authority. 

JOHN GRAHAM: 

Son of Hugh and Maria (Williams) Graham, was 
born in the city of New York, New York, May 14, 
1857. In early life his parents removed to the city 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he received his 
early education in the public schools, and attended the 
University of Pennsylvania two years. He studied 



530 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Philadelphia Presbytery, May 6, 1880. He also 
graduated from the National School of Elocution and 
Oratory, Philadelphia, June 8, 1881. He was ordained 
by the Rochester Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
congregation of Rochester, New York, June 22, 1881, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Emma Mehaffay, 
of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, September 9, 1880. 

WILLIAM GRAHAM: 

Son of John and Dorathy (Martin) Graham, was 
born near Ballibay, County Monaghan, Ireland, July 7, 
1826. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native County, came to America, December i, 
1847, and settled in the city of New York, New York, 
where he was engaged in business for many years. 
With the ministry in view, he resumed his classical 
studies, graduating from the University of the City 
of New York in 1859. He studied theology at the 
same time under the direction of the Rev. Andrew 
Stevenson, D. D., and was licensed by the New York 
Presbytery, November i, 1859. He was ordained by 
the same Presbytery, installed pastor of the First con- 
gregation of Boston, Massachusetts, July 11, i860, 
where he is in charge. He was married twice. First 
to Miss Elizabeth Bell, of New York City, March 26, 
1856; and second to Miss Mary A. Dickson, of Rye- 
gate, Vermont, December 3, 1862. 

DAVID GREGG: 

Son of David and Mary (Rafferty) Gregg, was 
born in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, March 
25, 1845. He received his early education in the 






DAVID GREGG. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 53! 

public schools and in Westminster College of his 
native city, graduating from Jefferson College in 1865. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 15,. 
1868. He was ordained by the New York Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the Third congregation of the 
city of New York, New York, February 23, 1870, and 
resigned this charge, October 28, 1885. He was re- 
installed pastor, December 6, 1885, and released 
January 25, 1887, He connected with the Congrega- 
tional Church, and was installed pastor of the Park 
street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, February 16, 
1887, where he is in charge. He married Miss Katie 
Ethridge, of Rome, New York, October 12, 1870. He 
was an editor of Our Banner from 1874 until 1887 ; 
and contributed an exposition of the Sabbath School 
lessons to the Christian Statesman for several years. 
He was Moderator of the Synod of 1882. 

THOMAS CATHCART GUTHRIE, D. D. : 

Son of Hugh and Margaret (Cathcart) Guthrie, 
was born near Broughshane, County Antrim, Ireland, 
August 7, 1796. He was trained in the strictest 
manner by a Covenanter parentage, and united with 
the Church in 1813, then under the pastoral charge of 
the Rev. W. J. Stavely, D. D., of Kellswater con- 
gregation. He came to America in 18 17, for his 
health, and settled near the city of Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, where he spent some time in recuperation. 
He resumed his studies in the Pittsburgh Academy, 
graduating from the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1823. He studied theology in the Phila- 



532 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

delphia Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, April 14, 1825. He was ordained by the 
same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the united 
congregation of Pine Creek, Union and Camp Run, 
centering about Bakerstown, Allegheny County, Penn- 
sylvania, April 26, 1826. At the division of the Church 
in August, 1833, he became identified with the New 
School branch of the Covenanter Church, and remained 
pastor of a portion of his former flock, until his 
resignation, May 23, 1855. During this year he went 
to Chicago, Illinois, and was about to remove his 
family to that city, when he was attacked with 
malarial fever, and returned to his former home. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Mount 
Pleasant, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, a part of 
his original charge, June 9, 1856. He, and the con- 
gregation, connected with the United Presbyterian 
■Church, October 10, 1859. He resigned this charge. 
May 24, 1864, and spent the residue of his life in 
supplying pulpits as his health would permit. In 1874, 
he removed to Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois, where 
he died, March 22, 1876. He married Miss Elizabeth 
•Caskey, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, December 30, 
1828, as his first wife; second, Mrs. Nancy (Gilleland) 
McLean, of Bakerstown, Pennsylvania, January 26, 1837 ; 
and third, Miss Mary Faun, of Allegheny City, Penn- 
sylvania, June I, 1849. He was an earnest and 
instructive preacher, and an attentive pastor. He was a 
proficient classical scholar and well-read in science and 
philosophy. His intellectual powers were considerable, 
and he possessed a most vivid imagination. He was 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 533 

honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by 
Franklin College in 1843. He was Moderator of the 
General Synod of 1844. 

JOSEPH HAMILTON: 

Son of Joseph and Susannah (Logan) Hamilton, 
was born in Belraugh, County Londonderry, Ireland, 
June 13, 1842. He received the rudiments of an educa- 
tion in the national schools, began the classics under 
the Rev. James Bryce, attended the Belfast Academy, 
and graduated from Queen's College in 1861. He 
studied theology in the Belfast Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Northern Presbytery, Ireland, January 
30, 1866. He was ordained by the same Court, and 
installed pastor of the congregation of Garvagh, County 
Londonderry, Ireland, November 7, 1867, and he 
resigned this charge, October 14, 1872. He came to 
America the following spring, and was received by the 
Rochester Presbytery, May 30, 1873. He supplied 
vacancies throughout the Church generally, but especially 
the Canadian societies of the Rochester Presbytery. 
While preaching in West Hebron, Washington County, 
New York, he was reckoned heretical in his teaching 
in the case of the man said to be possessed of an 
unclean spirit ; in which discourse he denied the per- 
sonality of the Devil. After a statement of his beliefs 
relative to the subject, which were deemed subversive 
to the teachings of the Scriptures arid the Church, he 
was suspended by the Rochester Presbytery, October 
5, 1875. He preached as opportunity afforded, with- 
out any ecclesiastical connection, and taught public and 
select schools in different parts of the country for 
33 



534 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

several years. He removed to the city of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania, where for many years he was employed 
as an agent for several publishing houses, and engaged 
in selling religious and wholesome literature. In June, 
1886, he became a teacher in the Naval Academy at 
Oxford, Maryland, where he remained some time. 

THOMAS HANNA, D. D. : 

Was born near Kilmarnock, Ayershire, Scotland, 
August 14, 1806. His parents were exemplary mem- 
bers of the Covenanter Church, from whom he received 
the best training. He received the elements of an 
excellent education, and graduated from the University 
of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1832. He studied theology 
in the Paisley Seminary, was licensed by the Glas- 
gow Presbytery, March 4, 1835, ^"d preached with 
much acceptance in the vacancies of Scotland for six 
years. He came to America in the summer of 1841, 
and was received as a licentiate, by Synod, October 6, 
1 841. He was ordained by the Southern Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the Conococheague congrega- 
tion, Fayetteville, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Decem- 
ber 8, 1842, and resigned this charge, October 29, 
1844, and was stated supply at Wilkinsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1850. He was installed pastor of the 
Slippery Rock and Camp Run congregation, Rose 
Point, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, November 17, 
1852, and resigned this charge, October 29, 1861. 
For many years he resided in Allegheny City, Penn- 
sylvania, and occasionally preached. He connected 
with the United Presbyterian Church, being received 
by the Stamford Presbytery of that body, October 10, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 535 

1872, and he removed to Williamsford, Ontario, Canada, 
where he preached as opportunity afforded. Here he 
died of an acute form of inflammation of the lungs, 
June 7, 1 88 1, and was buried in the Presbyterian 
graveyard at Chatsworth, Canada. He was thrice mar- 
ried. First to Mrs. Elizabeth (Mowry) MgCracken, 
of Allegheny, Pennsylvania; second to Miss Margaret 
Sproull, of the same city ; and third to Miss Kate 
McGilvray, of Wellsville, Ohio. He was a theologiaix 
and scholar of no ordinary attainments, an acceptable- 
preacher and a devoted student of the Bible. In the 
later years of his life he became eccentric, and his 
mind weakened. During his residence in Canada he 
conducted religious services in his own house, and in 
such places as the people would gather to hear him, 

RUTHER HARGRAVE : 

Son of John and Mary (Cranston) Hargrave, was 
born in Madrid, St. Lawrence County, New York, Sep- 
tember 3, 1855. He received his early education in the 
Academy of Potsdam, New York, and graduated from 
Union College in 1882. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by the Rochester 
Presbytery, March 26, 1885, and labored in Barnesville 
and Moncton, New Brunswick, for several months. He 
was ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the United Miami congregation, Northwood, 
Logan County, Ohio, May 27, 1886, where he is in 
charge. He married Miss Eliza A. Ballantine, of Lisbon 
Centre, New York, September 15, 1886. 

HUGH HAWTHORNE: 

Son of John and Mary (Graham) Hawthorne, was 
born in Kilkinamurry, County Down, Ireland, June 17, 



536 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1805.* His parents were consistent members of the 
Covenanter Church, and early directed his mind towards 
the Christian ministry. After passing through the accus- 
tomed studies in the national schools, he pursued the 
classics under the direction of his pastor, the Rev. 
John Stewart, and graduated from Belfast Academical 
Institution in 1828. He studied theology in Belfast, and 
in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland; came to America 
in May, 1830, finished the course under the Rev. S. B. 
Wylie, D. D., of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was 
licensed by the Philadelphia Presbytery, May 17, 183 1. 
He preached in the vacancies with general acceptance 
for three years. He connected with the Dutch Re- 
formed Church, November 8, 1834, and preached that 
winter in the vacant pulpits of Albany, New York, and 
in the summer of 1835, supplied vacancies in the city 
of New York and vicinity. He was drowned while 
bathing in a river in New York, July 16, 1836, and a 
monument is erected to his memory. He was an 
acceptable preacher, a kind and social man, and was 
held in high esteem by those to whom he ministered. 

JOHN HAWTHORNE: 

Son of John and Mary (Graham) Hawthorne, was 
born in Kilkinamurry, County Down, Ireland, December 
7, 1795. He was reared in the strictest manner by a 
Covenanter parentage distinguished for faithfulness to 
the cause of the Reformation. He received his early 
education in the national schools and under private 
instructors, and graduated from the Royal Academical 
Institution of Belfast, Ireland, in 18 18. He studied 

* Communications from Ireland. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 537 

theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was 
licensed by the Northern Presbytery, Ireland, March 10, 
1 82 1. He was ordained by the Western Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the congregation of Bellenon, 
County Armagh, Ireland, June 6, 1822, and resigned 
July 17, 1846. In April, 1847, he sailed, with his family, 
for America, and died of a fever, in quarantine at 
Quebec, Canada, May 14, 1847. His intention was to 
first settle among relatives and friends in Muskingum 
County, Ohio, and to spend the residue of his life in 
preaching in America. The Pittsburgh Presbytery for- 
warded a letter of condolence to the widow and fatherless 
children. He married Miss Ann E. Boggs, of Ballylane, 
Ireland, in 1823. He was a laborious and successful 
minister of the gospel, and regarded as a sound theo- 
logian, an instructive preacher and a pious Christian. 
The Church in this country anticipated the accession 
of an able minister. 

JOSEPH HENDERSON : 

Was born in Penpont, Dumfries Shire,. Scotland, 
November 16, 1802. His mind was early directed 
towards the ministry, and after passing through the 
preparatory course of study, was graduated from the 
University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1824. He studied 
theology in the Paisley Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Paisley Presbytery, March 17, 1827. He was 
ordained by the Western Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of the congregation of Ayr, Scotland, September 8, 1830, 
and was released from this charge, April 16, 1844, on 
account of intemperate habits. He came to America 
in the spring of 1849, and, after a full statement of 



538 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

his case, confession of his wrong, and promise of 
reformation, he was restored by the New York Pres- 
bytery, October 3, 1849. ^^ preached with acceptance 
for a few years in the vacancies, especially in the 
Canadian societies, and taught in Walden, New York. 
While preaching in Hamilton, Canada, he forsook the 
cause he had espoused, and connected with the Free 
Church of Canada, April 11, 1854. He preached in that 
city and other parts of the Dominion, and died in 
Hamilton, Canada, August 10, 1872, He married Miss 
Elizabeth Gould, of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1828, He 
was a preacher of considerable ability, but vacillating. 
He was instrumental in gathering many scattered 
members into societies. He was Moderator of the 
Scottish Synod of 1841. 

JAMES RENWICK HILL, M. D. : 

Son of James and Mary (Kinnier) Hill, was born 
near Stanton, Jefferson County, Pennsylvania, March 26, 
1842. He received his preparatory course of study in 
the Brookville Academy, finished the course in the 
Elder's Ridge Academy, and graduated from West- 
minster College in 1869. He studied theology if\ the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 12, 1871. He was ordained 
hy the Lakes Presbytery, installed pastor of the 
congregation of Southfield, Qakland County, Michigan, 
May 10, 1872, and resigned this charge. May 22, 1876, 
and missionated in other parts of Michigan. He was 
installed pastor of the congregation of St. Louis, 
Missouri, September 28, 1877, resigned, April 15, 1885, 
and removed to Utica, Ohio, and for some time he 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 539 

was engaged in supplying vacancies. He connected with 
the Presbyterian Church, being received by the Zanes- 
ville Presbytery, and was installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Pataskala, Licking County, Ohio, July 21, 
1887, where he is in charge. He married Miss Maggie 
A. Kirkpatrick, of Utica, Ohio, May 23, 1870. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the 
Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri in 1885. 
Among his publications are, "The Man of the Future," 
1880, pp. 40. "True Temperance, and the Conditions 
of its Success," 1882, pp. 43. • 

JOHN HOLMES: 

Son of John and Margaret (Galbraith) Holmes, was 
born in Ryegate, Caledonia County, Vermont, May 14, 
1 801. His parents came from Scotland and were 
among the first Covenanters in New England. He 
was carefully trained by a pious parentage, and, being 
lame and unable to work upon the farm, was the 
object of peculiar parental solicitude, and devoted him- 
self to study with the gospel ministry in view. He 
received a liberal education in the common schools, 
studied the classics under the direction of his pastor, 
the Rev. James Milligan, D. D., and attended the 
University of Vermont. He studied theology in the 
Seminary of Andover, Massachusetts, where he graduated, 
September 11, 1833. He was licensed by the Northern 
Presbytery, May 19, 1834, and he preached generally 
throughout the Church for eight years. In 1842, he 
bought a farm near Jordan's Grove, Randolph County, 
Illinois, which his family cultivated, and he engaged 
most of his time in teaching school. Here he died, 



540 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of pneumonia and Erysipelas, January 19, 1854. He 
married Miss Jennie C. Elder, of Coultersville, Illinois, 
June 8, 1842, He was a scholar of considerable ability 
and a very successful teacher. He was unappreciated 
as a preacher on account of his eccentric mannerisms,^ 
peculiar voice, and inelegant style of delivery. When 
he became warmed up in his discourse, he was very 
energetic in gesticulation, and exceedingly high in the 
tone of the voice. His manners and peculiar style of 
preaching were not in harmony with the popular mind, 
and he frequently offended his hearers. He was a 
fearless advocate for the cause of the slave, and an 
efficient agent upon the "Underground Railroad," when 
it was exceedingly unpopular and often dangerous 
to hold such a position. He was honest and upright 
in all his dealings, and was held in high esteem as 
a citizen. In the later years of his life he manifested 
little or no attachment for the Church, although a 
believer in the Christian religion, and died in faith. 

JOHN HOOD: 

Son of Archibald and Mary (Kirkpatrick) Hood, 
was born near Oakdale, Washington County, Illinois, 
November 11, 1837. He received his early education in 
the schools of his native County, graduating from the 
University of Indiana in 1862. He entered the union 
army, where he endured many hardships upon the 
battle field and in cruel prison life. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Illinois Presbytery, April 21, 1869. He con- 
nected with the Presbyterian Church, being received 
by the Alton Presbytery of that body, and by this 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 54I 

court ordained and installed pastor of the congrega- 
tion of Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois, June 17, 
1869, and resigned this charge, April 11, 1878. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, October 16, 1878, and resigned in 1885, 
and is State Agent for the American Bible Society,,, 
with his residence in that city. He married Miss 
Mary A. E. Gault, of Sparta, Illinois, April 25, 1871. 

JOSEPH HUNTER: 

Son of Alexander and Betsy (Anderson) Hunter, 
was born in Freeport, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, 
August 25, 1 8 16. His parents were among the early 
Covenanters of that section, and in his infancy removed 
into Westmoreland County, were he was reared under 
the pastoral care of the Rev. John Cannon. His pre- 
paratory course of study was pursued under the 
direction of the Rev. Jonathan Gill, subsequently 
under the Rev. Hugh Walkinshaw, and he graduated 
from Duquesne College in 1847. He studied theology 
in the Cincinnati Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 16, 1850. He was ordained 
by the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
congregation of Wilkinsburgh and Deer Creek, Allegheny 
County, Pennsylvania, April 13, 1852. The Deer Creek 
branch was subsequently dropped, and he continued at 
Wilkinsburgh until impaired health caused him to 
resign this charge, September 23, 1882. His health 
declined under an affection of the heart, which caused 
a dilatation of that organ, aggravated by pneumonia, 
causing his death, at his residence in Wilkinsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, January 6, 1884. He married Miss Mary 



542 HISTORY OF THE REFORxMED 

A. Dennison, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 21, 
1852, He was in many respects a popular preacher, 
and well known throughout the Church. His style 
was earnest and impressive; his disposition genial, his 
manner social, and he was in these respects peculiarly 
fitted for the pastoral office which he discharged with 
faithfulness. He was a devout and pious man, but 
not demonstrative in regard to religious experience. 

JOSIAH JAMES HUSTON : 

Son of John and Susannah (Craig) Huston, was born 
near Glenwood, Fayette County, Indiana, May 15, 1858. 
In 1865, his parents removed to Roscoe, Des Moines 
County, Iowa, where he received his early education. 
He attended the High School of Morning Sun, finished 
the course in the Academy of Washington, Iowa, in 
1879, and graduated from Monmouth College in 1881. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, was 
licensed by the Iowa Presbytery, April 9, 1884, and 
preached in the West and other parts of the Church. 
He was ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the congregation of Belle Centre, Logan 
County, Ohio, April 30, 1886, and also of Rushsylvania, 
same County, July 30, 1886. He resigned the Rushsyl- 
vania branch, April 9, 1888, and, with Belle Centre, 
supplies Bellefontaine. He married Miss Bella W. 
Maginness.of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, March 15, 1887. 

•ROBERT HUTCHESON: 

Son of James and Sarah (Martin) Hutcheson, was 
born near Loughgilly, County Armagh, Ireland, April 
24, 1810. His parents were members of the Secession 
Church, and he received his early education in the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 543 

schools of his native country. He came to America in 
the spring of 1829, and settled near Cambridge, 
Guernsey County, Ohio, where he connected with the 
Covenanter Church, under the pastoral care of the Rev. 
William Sloane. He pursued his classical studies under 
the care of his pastor, and, in 1836, repaired to West- 
moreland County, Pennsylvania, where he resumed them 
under the direction of the Rev. Hugh Walkinshaw. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, May 8, 1839. 
He was ordained sine titulo by the same Presbytery, as 
a Home Missionary, September 10, 1841. He was 
installed pastor of the congregation of Brush Creek, 
Adams County, Ohio, September 29, 1842, where he 
labored faithfully, until the congregation was so reduced 
by emigration, that he resigned the charge. May 21, 
1856. He soon afterwards removed to Bremer County, 
Iowa, and served the Church as a Home Missionary for 
several years. He was instrumental in building up the 
congregation of Grove Hill, Bremer County, Iowa, over 
which he was installed pastor, April 17, 1863, and was 
released, May 8, 1867, remaining stated supply for 
two years. In 1869, he repaired to the new stations of 
the North-West Mission, and was stated supply respec- 
tively at Elliota, Lake Reno, and Round Prairie, 
Minnesota, for several years. In 1878, his health began 
to fail, and he removed to Washington, Iowa, where he 
died of general debility, April i, 1880. He was twice 
married. First to Miss Jane Walkinshaw, of Lucesco, 
Pennsylvania, in 1840; and second, to Mrs. Jane C. 
(Coulter) Andrews, of Princeton, Illinois, November 15, 



544 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1865. He was an interesting and instructive preacher, 
but not a pleasing speaker. He was an excellent 
classical scholar, a close thinker, a natural logician, 
active in Church courts, faithful in the discharge of 
pastoral duties, and a most earnest and sincere Christian. 
He was a strict disciplinarian, and bore constant testi- 
mony against the evils of the State and the innovations 
of the Church. He contributed able articles to Mc- 
Clintock and Strong's Encyclopedia, and essays, in the 
form of critical exegesis, to the magazines of the Church. 

JACOUB JERRIDINIA: 

Son of Salloom Feyad and Helana (Korani) Jer- 
ridinia, was born in Showifat, Lebanon, Syria, March 
17. 1837. By trade he was a soapmaker, and labored 
in his native town. In October, 1870, he became 
converted to the Christian religion, and attended the 
American Mission Schools at Showifat and Obey. He 
became a teacher in connection with the School at 
Antioch and Suadea, and subsequently repaired to 
Latakia. Here he studied theology under the direction 
of the Rev. Joseph Beattie, D. D., and was licensed to 
preach the gospel by the Commission of the Syrian 
Mission, March i, 1882. He married Miss Helana 
Corani, of Showifat, Syria, September 15, 1885. Since 
1882, he has been engaged in teaching and preaching 
principally in connection with the Mission at Suadea. 

ARCHIBALD JOHNSTON: 

Son of Gavin and Elizabeth (Hunter) Johnston, 
was born in Truro, Nova Scotia, August 16, 1793* 
His parents were sturdy Covenanters from Hamilton, 

* Principal items from Rev. Dr. David Steele, Sr., Philadelphia, Pa. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 545 

Scotland. They removed from Nova Scotia in 1805, 
and settled in Lancaster, Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he received his early education and 
engaged in the printing business. In 1808, he 
abandoned secular pursuits and began studies prepara- 
tory to the Christian ministry, in the Canonsburgh 
Academy, graduating from Jefferson College in 181 3. 
He studied theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Middle Presbytery, April 9, 18 17. 
He visited Nova Scotia during the summer of 1817, 
and, after returning in the fall, supplied vacancies in 
the East for a few months. His health becoming 
impaired,, he retired to the home of his parents, who 
-were then living near Chillicothe, Ohio. In March, 
18 18, he became stated supply to the congregation of 
•Cincinnati, Ohio, where he died of consumption, Octo- 
ber 26, 18 1 8, while yet a licentiate. Upon his death 
bed he married Miss Fannie Ferguson, of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, October, 1818, as she wanted to be his widow. 
He was a young man of great" mental power. His 
•discourses were characterized by a classical accuracy 
of expression, high poetical imagination, and replete 
w^ith evangelical truth that at once bespoke a soul 
possessed of a deep and strong current of religious 
feeling. His graphic power was remarkable. His de- 
scriptions were those of a master, and appealed to the 
heart and conscience with such magnetic power that 
the attention of the auditor was completely enchained. 
Dr. Alexander McLeod said, "The time for the 
millennium has not come, and the world cannot stand 
before Archibald Johnston." Dr. John Black said, 



546 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

" Archibald Johnston was the most accomplished orator 
ever licensed in the Covenanter Church." He published 
a poem entitled "The Mariner," in 1817, which was 
composed while on his tour to Nova Scotia. He was 
directed by the Synod of 1817, to write an article 
for the Testimony upon Messiah's Headship, which he 
entitled "Regnum Lapidis, or The Kingdom of the 
Stone." For some unaccountable reason it was not 
published. His father found a copy of the original 
article long after the death of the author, and printed 
it in the Contending Wihiess, Xenia, Ohio, in 1841. 

ARCHIBALD WARRISTON JOHNSTON, M. D. : 

Son of Samuel P. and Eleanor (Thomson) Johnston, 
was born near Hopedale, Harrison County, Ohio, 
November 26, 1844. His parents removed to Belle 
Centre, Logan County, Ohio, in 185 1, where he 
received his preparatory education in Geneva College, 
graduating from the University of Indiana in 1864. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, April 19, 1867, 
He was ordained by the New York Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the congregation of Craftsbury, 
Orleans County, Vermont, August 5, 1868, and resigned 
this charge, October 31, 1871. He removed to the city 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and entered upon the 
study of medicine in Jefferson Medical College, and took 
the first honor of his class. He is a practicing physi- 
cian in that city and preaches occasionally. He married 
Miss Mary A. Willson, of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, 
April 20, 1869. He received the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from Jefferson Medical College in 1875. 




JOHN B. JOHNSTON, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 547 

JOHN BLACK JOHNSTON, D. D. : 

Son of Nathan and Mary (Black) Johnston, was 
born near Clarksburgh, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 
March 13, 1802. His parents were consistent members 
of the Seceder Church. They removed to Hopedale, 
Harrison County, Ohio, in 1805, where they connected 
with the Covenanter Church under the ministry of the 
Rev. Robert Wallace, and were prominent members in 
the Greenfield congregation, now extinct. He received 
his early training in the schools of this vicinity, and, 
in 1823, began his classical studies in Jefferson College, 
and graduated from Franklin College in 1829. He studied 
theology under the direction of the Rev. John Black, 
D. D., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and was licensed 
by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 3, 1832. He 
was ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Miami congregation, Northwood, Logan 
County, Ohio, June 10, 1834. In 1841, he opened a 
classical school in his own house, which grew into 
Geneva College in 1848. In 1851, he also founded 
the Geneva Female Seminary, and erected the buildings 
for both these institutions. He was Principal of the 
College from 1848 to 1850, and Professor of Theology 
from 1852 until 1856. He resigned all his charges, 
and connected with the United Presbyterian Church, 
being received by the Sidney Presbytery, November 
10, 1858. He was installed pastor of the congrega- 
tion of St. Clairsville, Ohio, May 17, 1859, where he 
continued to labor until impaired health caused him to 
resign the charge, June 9, 1874. In 1870, he was 
appointed Postmaster at St. Clairsville, and resigned 



548 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

this office in 1881. His health gradually declined until 
his death, at his home in St. Clairsville, Ohio, October 
24, 1882. He was twice married. His first wife was 
Miss Sarah Bruce, of New Athens, Ohio, April 29, 
1828; and his second. Miss Elizabeth Boyd, of Chero- 
kee, Ohio, November 2, 1841. He was a man of 
marked ability, of indomitable courage, and unceasing 
in his efforts to establish Christian education within 
the reach of all. He was a profound theologian, an 
apt teacher, and a proficient scholar. As a preacher 
of the gospel, a writer in the magazines, a lecturer 
on reforms, a public debater, and member of Church 
courts, he was deservedly in high repute, and dis- 
charged many important offices with acceptance. He 
was a fearless advocate of the cause of the slave, and 
was a distinguished conductor on the "Underground 
Railroad." He was not only a pioneer in the estab- 
lishment of the literary institution of the Church, but 
in the work of the Foreign Mission as well. In 1846, 
he was sent to Hayti by Synod, to explore that Island 
as a probable field for missionary operations, and was 
prominently connected with work in this direction. .He 
was piously attached to the principles of the Cove- 
nanter Church, and only left her communion on account 
of internal dissentions which frequently mar the fel- 
lowship of brethern. He never fully abandoned the 
Covenanted cause, and was held in high esteem by the 
Church in which he closed his earthly career. He 
was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by Franklin College in 1869. Among his many able 
and valuable publications are "The Signs of the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 549 

Times," 1858, pp. 27. "Psalmody," 1868, pp. 172. 
"The Prayer Meeting," 1870, pp. 260. He was Modera- 
tor of the Synod of 1845. 

JOSIAH MELANCTHON JOHNSTON : 

Son of James H. and Mary (Hemphill) Johnston, 
was born near New Alexandria, Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania, September 12, 1830. His parents were 
exemplary members of the Covenanter Church, from 
whom he received the best of religious instruction. 
After receiving the rudiments of a liberal education, he 
entered Geneva College, where he graduated in 1854. 
He studied theology in the Associate Reformed Seminary, 
and also in the Covenanter Seminary of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Pres- 
bytery, April 21, 1858. He was ordained by the 
Rochester Presbytery, and installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Syracuse, New York, May. 13, 1859. He 
was appointed by Synod, September 9, 1865, to take 
charge of the Freedmen's Mission in Natchez, Mississ- 
ippi. He resigned the Syracuse congregation and the 
Natchez Mission, August 17, 1866, and- became Principal 
of the Mission School in Washington, District of 
Columbia. Here he taught and preached among the 
colored people until his resignation, May 27, 1870. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Parnassus, 
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, June 15, 1871, and 
resigned January 3, 1873. He connected with the 
United Presbyterian Church, and was installed pastor of 
the Central congregation of Allegheny City, Pennsyl- 
vania, January 10, 1873, and resigned, June 16, 1874. 
He was installed pastor of the Fifth congregation of 
34 



550 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1874, and re- 
signed, October 16, 1878. He was installed pastor of 
the congregation of Morning Sun, Preble County, Ohio, 
April I, 1879, where he died of a fever, July 3, 1881, 
He married Miss Emily C. Jameson, of Belle Centre, 
Ohio, June i, 1854. He was a very popular preacher, 
easy in his manner, and fluent in his speech. He 
possessed the power to enchain the attention of an 
audience, not so much by the matter of his discourse, 
as by his happy style and eloquent delivery. 

JAMES RENWICK JOHNSTON : 

Son of Nathan and Mary (Hunter) Johnston, was 
born in Truro, Nova Scotia, March 24, 1800, while his 
parents were on their way from Scotland to the United 
States.* In 1805, his parents removed to Pennsylvania, 
where he received his early education, and graduated 
from Jefferson College in 1822. He studied theology 
in the Philadelphia Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery, May 24, 1824. He was ordained 
by the Northern Presbytery, installed pastor of the 
congregation of Newburgh, New York, September 16, 
1825, resigned this charge, October 17, 1829, and 
connected with the Presbyterian Church. In 1830, he 
went to Mobile, Alabama, where he was a pastor for 
four years. He was installed pastor of the congregation 
of Goshen, Orange County, New York, May 21, 1835, 
and resigned this charge in 1840, being without 
charge for four years. He was installed pastor of the 
congregation of Hamptonburgh, Washington County, 
New York, October 8, 1844, and resigned in 1849, In 

* Principally from Presbyterian Historical Almanac, Vol. 8, p. 119. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 55 I 

1854, he removed to the city of Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and preached as frequently as his health would 
permit. In 1862, he removed to Burlington, New 
Jersey, where he died of general debility, June 16, 1865. 
He married Miss Margaret A. McLeod, of New York, 
New York, June 8, 1827. He was a man of superior 
mind and cultivation, and few possessed more of the 
elements of the true ministerial character. He was 
devout and courteous, and adapted himself and his 
discourses to the circumstances of his people. He lived 
a life of usefulness, was patient under long and severe 
personal affliction, and died in peace with God and mei\ 
when his work was done. 

LEWIS JOHNSTON: (Colored.) 

Son of Lewis and Jane (Brunson) Johnston, was 
born in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania, December 
11, 1847. His parents were members of the Covenanter 
Church then under the pastoral care of Rev. Thomas 
Sproull, and, in 1853, removed to Temperanceville, a 
suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and, in 1858, to 
Blairsville, Pennsylvania, where he was employed in the 
coal mines, and attended the common schools as oppor- 
tunity was afforded. In 1864, he entered the Union 
army, where he remained until the close of the war. 
In the summer of 1865, he returned to Blairsville and 
resumed his work as a miner. Soon afterwards he 
began his classical studies under Dr. A. M. Milligan, of 
New Alexandria, with the ministry in view. In 1867, 
he entered Geneva College, where he graduated in 1870. 
He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 8, 



552 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1873. He was ordained sine titiilo by the same Pres- 
bytery, October 14, 1874, as a Missionary among the 
Freedmen at Selma, Alabama. He built up the 
flourishing school which is now Knox Academy, and was 
installed pastor of the congregation of Selma, Alabama, 
May 21, 1875. He was suspended from the exercise of 
the ministerial office and privileges in the Church, 
November 14, 1876. He soon afterwards went to Little 
Rock, Arkansas, where he taught school for many years. 
In 1882, he turned his attention to the land agency, 
was clerk in the court, and employed in a newspaper 
office. He was restored to the exercise of his minis- 
terial functions by the Pine Bluff Presbytery of the 
Presbyterian Church, May 24, 1883, engaged in 
mission work, and began the publication of the Pine 
Bluff Reformer. Since March i, r886, he is engaged in 
organizing Schools and Churches throughout the destitute 
portions of Arkansas. He married Miss Mercy A. 
Taborn, of Marysville, Ohio, March 2, 1870. He was 
the first colored Covenanter minister ever ordained. 

NATHAN McMillan JOHNSTON: 

Son of Samuel P. and Eleanor (Thomson) Johns- 
ton, was born near Hopedale, Harrison County, Ohic 
March 23, 1832. He received his early education in 
the schools of his native County, and, in 185 1, removed 
to Belle Centre, Logan County, Ohio. He resumed his 
studies in Geneva College, and, in the fall of 1858, 
entered the University of Michigan. He studied theo- 
logy in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 14, 1863. He was 
ordained by the same Presbytery, installed pastor 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 553 

of the Little Beaver congregation, New Galilee, Beaver 
County, Pennsylvania, April 14, 1864, and resigned this 
charge, June 3, 1886. He was installed pastor of the 
congregation of Eskridge, Wabaunsee County, Kansas, 
August 4, 1886, where he is in charge, and lectures 
in the interests of the National Reform Association. 
He married Miss Annie J. Hammond, of St. Clairsville,, 
Ohio, August 4, 1857. 

NATHAN ROBINSON JOHNSTON: 

Son of Nathan and Mary (Black) Johnston, was 
born near Hopedale, Harrison County, Ohio, October 
8, 1820. He received his early education in Richmond 
Academy, pursued the classical course in Miami Uni- 
versity, and graduated from Franklin College in 1843. 
For two years he was Principal of the Academy of 
St. Clairsville, Ohio. In the fall of 1845, he began 
the study of theology in the Cincinnati Seminary, where 
he continued three sessions. In 1848, he was editor 
of the Free Press, an anti-slavery paper, published in 
New Concord, Ohio. In the fall of 1849, he resumed 
his theological studies in the Northwood Seminary, and 
was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, April 29, 1850. 
He was ordained by the New York Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the congregation of Topsham, Orange 
County, Vermont, November 10, 1852. In 1863, he 
was appointed by Synod as a Missionary to the con- 
trabands of Port Royal, South Carolina. He resigned 
the Topsham congregation, May 16, 1865, and removed 
to Northwood, Ohio, where he resuscitated Geneva 
College, and was the Principal of that institution for 
two years. In the spring of 1867, he opened an 



554 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Academy in New Castle, Pennsylvania, and subse 
quently in Blairsville and New Brighton. In 1871, he 
was chosen a Professor in Geneva College, but resigned 
May 28, 1872, and became a Home Missionary in 
Elliota, and other parts of Minnesota. In 1875, he went 
to California, and opened a Mission School among the 
Chinese at Oakland, where he has built up a con- 
gregation, is a contributor to several papers, and is 
actively engaged in the work of evangelizing the 
Chinese of the Pacific coast. He married Miss Rosa- 
mond Rodgers, of Albany, Vermont, March i, 1861. 

ROBERT JOHNSON: 

Son of Robert and Margaret (Anderson) Johnson, 
was born in Killygore, County Antrim, Ireland, Novem- 
ber 17, 18 10. He received the rudiments of a classical 
education under the direction of his pastor, the Rev, 
Clarke Houston, D. D., graduating from the Belfast 
Academical Institution in 1836, with the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts. He studied theology in the 
Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was licensed by the 
Northern Presbytery, Ireland, May 17, 1839. He was 
ordained by a Commission of the Irish Synod, and 
installed pastor of the mission congregation of Man- 
chester, England, August 4, 1842, and resigned this 
charge, April 9, 1849. The same spring he came to 
America, and was received by Synod, May 23, 1849. 
He was installed pastor of the congregation of Toronto, 
Canada, November 4, 1852, and resigned, April 10, 
1859. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Vernon, Waukesha County, Wisconsin, November 7, 
11859, and resigned this charge, December 17, 1867. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 555 

He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
Kossuth, Des Moines County, Iowa, January 7, 1868, 
and resigned on account of seriously impaired health, 
July 27, 1875. For several years he suffered from 
nephritic, and with intervals of partial cessation of 
extreme pain, his disease continued until it took an 
acute form, from which he died, at his home near 
Kossuth, Iowa, July 27, 1879. He never married. He 
was a man of excellent attainments both in literature 
and theology. He was able and eloquent as a preacher, 
warm-hearted and genial as a friend, pious and devout 
as a Christian. He was thoroughly indoctrinated in 
the gospel, took great delight in the sacred tradi- 
tions of a martyred ancestry, and earnestly defended 
the principles and testimony of the Covenanter Church. 
He was a bold witness against the abounding evils of 
the day. While preaching in Toronto, Canada, he 
delivered a course of lectures to crowded houses 
against the Roman Catholic Church. Bishop Char- 
bonnel denounced him in the Cathedral as a black 
heretic, worse than Satan, and warned the people 
against going to hear the "Villifier of the Holy 
Mother Church." The enraged priests at Rome sent 
him threatening letters, among others one with the 
picture of a coffin with a black seal, and under it the 
words, " hie jacetT The Protestants of the city held 
him in high esteem as the champion for truth. His 
principal publications are, " The Absurdities of the 
Popish Dogma of the Immaculate Conception," 1855, 
pp. 73, and " Instrumental Music in Public Worship," 
1 87 1, pp. 80. 



556 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

SAMUEL DELLMORE JOHNSTON: 

Son of Rev. Nathan M. and Annie J. (Hammond) 
Johnston, was born near Belle Centre, Logan County, 
Ohio, April 17, 1862. His parents removed to New 
Galilee, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, in 1864, where 
he received his early education in the public schools. 
In the fall of 1877, he entered Geneva College, where 
he remained two years. He resumed his studies in, 
and graduated from, Geneva College in 1884. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1887, 
and preached for six months in Houlton, Maine. He 
was an editor of the College Cabinet two years beginning 
in 1882. 

WILLIAM POLLOCK JOHNSTON: 

Son of Samuel P. and Eleanor (Thomson) Johnston, 
was born near Hopedale, Harrison County, Ohio, 
January 26, 1839. He received his early education in 
this vicinity, and, in 185 1, removed to Belle Centre, 
Logan County, Ohio. He entered Geneva College, 
where he remained until his senior year, graduating 
from Jefferson College in 1858. He studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Lakes Presbytery, May 22, 1862. He was ordained by 
the Philadelphia Presbytery, installed pastor of the 
congregation of Baltimore, Maryland, August 4, 1864, 
and resigned this charge, July 13, 1873. He was 
installed pastor of the congregation of Washington, 
Iowa, October 10, 1873, and, in the fall of 1879, 
was chosen Principal of the Washington Academy. 
He resigned these charges, August 4, 1881, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 557 

accepted the chair of Latin and English Literature 
in Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, and sub- 
sequently was appointed college pastor, which positions 
he now occupies. He married Miss Clara D. Anderson, 
of Washington, Iowa, June 17, 1874. He is a con- 
tributor to the Geneva Cabinet. 

JOHN KELL: 

Son of John and Jane (Morton) Kell, was born near 
Rocky Creek, Chester District, South Carolina, October 
19, 1772.* Among the notable events of his childhood 
was the fact that his mother hid him and his little 
brother in the bushes, lest they would be burned with 
the house by the British soldiers. His youthful days 
were spent in labor upon his father's farm, and, in 1790, 
he began preparatory studies, with the ministry in view, 
in the classical school of Mr. John Orr. In 1801, he 
crossed the ocean and entered the University of Glas- 
gow, Scotland, where he graduated in 1805. He studied 
theology in the Seminary of Stirling, Scotland, under the 
Rev. John McMillan, and, after visiting Ireland, returned 
to America in the fall of 1808. He was licensed by 
the Middle Presbytery, June 18, 1809, and was assigned 
to preach among the scattered societies in the West 
and South. He was ordained sine<.titiilo by the Southern 
Presbytery, December 4, 181 1, and missionated for four 
years in South Carolina, Tennessee, and in parts of 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. He was installed pastor of 
the Beech Woods congregation. Morning Sun, Preble 
County, Ohio, April 3, 18 16, and resigned this charge, 
October 6, 1819. He was installed pastor of the con- 

* Sprague's Annals. 



'558 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

gregation of Princeton, Gibson County, Indiana, June 21, 
1820. At the division of the Church in August, 1833, 
he became identified with the New School branch of 
the Covenanter Church, and remained pastor of a portion 
of his former flock, until his resignation, September 24, 
1838. He spent the residue of his life in preaching in 
vacancies as his health would permit, and died of an 
affection of the heart, at his home in Princeton, 
Indiana, November 6, 1842. He married Miss Jane 
Hartin, of Beech Woods, Ohio, November 10, 181 1. In 
person he was large and portly, and in his youth was 
quite an athlete. He was a good scholar, and an 
instructive preacher. He was not an eloquent speaker, 
but there was an unction about his preaching that 
never failed to make an impression. His life was 
largely that of a Missionary, and to his untiring minis- 
trations many congregations owe their existence. He 
constantly realized the responsibilities of the ministerial 
office, and discarded all books but the Bible, from the 
rich treasures of which he fed the people. He was a 
dauntless pioneer of the West, engaged in visiting 
lonely societies and families in the depths of the then 
wilderness, and brought to them the glad tidings of 
salvation. He was Moderator of the Synod of 1812. 

GEORGE KENNEDY: 

Son of Rev. James and Eliza (Conn) Kennedy, 
* * * He came to New York in 1870, and gradu- 
ated from Columbia College in 1874. He studied theo- 
logy in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by 
the New York Presbytery, May 16, 1877. ^^ was 
ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, installed pastor of the 




JAMES.KENNEDY. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 559 

United Miami congregation, Northwood, Logan County, 
'Ohio, May 23, 1878, and resigned this charge, June 
15, 1882, He accepted the chair of Greek in Geneva 
-College, September 9, 1882, which position he now 
occupies. He is an occasional contributor to the Genevan 
and Church magazines, and is College librarian. 

JAMES KENNEDY: 

Son of George and Mary (Paul) Kennedy, was 
born near Bonn, County Londonderry, Ireland, August 
•15, 1818. He received his early training in the classi- 
'Cal school of the Rev. James Bryce, and graduated from 
the Belfast Academical Institution in 1840. He studied 
theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was 
licensed by the Northern Presbytery, Ireland, May 10, 
1842. He was ordained by the Western Presbytery, 
and installed pastor of the united congregations of 
Broadlane and Drimbolg, Newtonlimavady, County 
Londonderry, Ireland, May 18, 1843, and resigned this 
charge, August 2, 1870. He came to America the 
same summer, and was installed pastor of the Fourth con- 
gregation of New York City, New York, November 
13, 1870, where he is in charge. He married Miss Eliza 
•Conn, of Coleraine, Ireland, May 9, 1848. He published 
"Tekel," 1858, pp. 40. "Assurance of Grace and Sal- 
vation," 1877, PP' 4^- ^^ contributed a series .of articles 
on "The Spiritual Senses" to Our Bajiner, 1878, and 
-an exposition of the Sabbath School Lessons to the 
Christian Nation, 1885, and many other articles in the 
Ghurch papers and magazines. He was Moderator of 
the Irish Synod in 1846, and of the American Synod 
in 1875.. 



560 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

JOSHUA KENNEDY, D. D. : 

Son of James and Catharine (Cannon) Kennedy, was 
born in Newtonlimavady, County Londonderry, Ireland,. 
August 22, 181 5. He came with his parents ta 
America in 1823, and settled near Shady Grove, 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, where he received his 
early education in the Green Castle Academy, and 
graduated from Union College in 1841. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Illinois Presbytery, May 12, 1844. He was 
ordained by the New York Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Conococheague congregation, Fayetteville,. 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, November 5, 1845. ^^i 
1852, he established the Fayetteville Academy, which 
was a flourishing school for many years. He resigned 
these charges, May i, i860, and during the war of 
the rebellion was a Missionary and Chaplain in 
Fernandina, Florida, and other parts of the South. 
He was installed pastor of the congregation of Bovina^ 
Delaware County, New York, January 11, 1865, and 
resigned this charge on account of seriously impaired 
health. May 20, 1885. In the fall of 1885, he removed 
to Green Castle, Pennsylvania, where he is living in 
infirm health. He married Miss Mary J. Bell, of 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, October 8, 1847. 

ALEXANDER KILPATRICK: 

Son of Daniel and Mary (McCaughan) Kilpatrick, 
was born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, 
January 20, 1847. His father was a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, and the family removed to Linton, 
Des Moines County, Iowa, in the fall of 1852, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 561 

•connected with the Covenanter Church. He received 
his early education in the Morning Sun Academy, 
Iowa, also in Monmouth College, graduating from 
the University of Indiana in 1871, and taught school 
in Kansas one year. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 14, 1875. He was ordained 
by the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
(United congregations of Pine Creek and Union, Valencia, 
Sutler County, Pennsylvania, May 17, 1876, where he 
IS in charge. He married Miss Ella Davidson, of 
Valencia, Pennsylvania, September 4, 1877. 

WILLIAM KING: 

Was born in Donegal, Donegal County, Ireland, Janu- 
ary 6, 1747.* He received a liberal education in the schools 
of his native town, and graduated from the University 
of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1782. He studied theology in 
the Seminary of Stirling, Scotland, and privately, being 
licensed by the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, 
March 16, 1784, and preached in Coleraine, County 
Londonderry, Ireland, for seven years. He was ordained 
sine tiUilo by the Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, at 
Wishaw, June 4, 1792, as a Missionary to America, 
sailing from Greenock for Charleston, South Car- 
olina, in the brig "Samuel," July 10, 1792, and, in the 
fall of this year, settled in the Chester District, South 
Carolina. In 1793, he made a tour among the societies 
of Covenanters in the North and East, returned to 
South Carolina, and took charge of the Beaver Dam 
congregation in the spring of 1794. He labored, how- 

* Communications from Ireland. 



5^2 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

ever, among all the societies in the Carolinas, and,, 
for the greater part of his time,* was alone in the 
work. He faithfully discharged all the duties encumbent 
upon him by the Scottish Presbytery, and insisted 
upon the people freeing themselves from the sin of 
slavery. He was invited to meet a Committee from, 
the North to organize the Reformed Presbytery in 
Alexandria, Virginia, in May, 1798, but on account of 
serious illness he was not permitted to meet his 
brethren, and died at his home in the Chester Dis- 
trict, South Carolina, August 24, 1798. He married 
Miss Nancy Neil, of Chester, South Carolina, September,, 
1794. He was a most amiable and peaceful man ; a 
faithful and instructive preacher ; a scholar of con- 
siderable ability and well acquainted with the science 
of theology. He was a true Christian and a Cove- 
nanter of undaunting courage and sterling integrity.. 
WASHINGTON ROBERT LAIRD : 

Son of Robert W. and Harriet M. (Angler) Laird,, 
was born in Danville, Caledonia County, Vermont, April 
22, 1855. He received his early education in the 
common schools, and in the Academy of Mclndoes- 
Falls, Vermont, graduating from Geneva College im 
1876. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary,, 
and was licensed by the New York Presbytery, May 27,- 
1879. He Avas ordained by the New York Presbytery, 
installed pastor of the congregation of St. Johns- 
bury, Vermont, June 15, 1880, and resigned May i, 
1888. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
New Castle, Pennsylvania, May 8, 1888, where he is 
in charge. He married Miss Fannie E, Hadfield, of 
Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, August 23, 1877. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 563. 

JAMES ROSS LATIMER : 

Son of Samuel and Margaret (Smith) Latimer, was 
born in Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana, July 14,. 
185 1. He received his early education in the common 
schools of his native city, and graduated from the 
University of Indiana in 1873. He studied theology in 
the Allegheny Seminary two years, and taught Greek 
in Geneva College; resumed his studies in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, 
April 10, 1878. He was ordained by the Ohio Pres- 
bytery, and installed pastor of the congregation of 
Londonderry, Guernsey County, Ohio, May 19, 1880, and 
of the congregation of North Salem, same County^ 
October 10, 1880. He resigned these charges, May 27,. 
1882. He was installed pastor of the Hebron congre- 
gation, Idana, Clay County, Kansas, August 18, 1882, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Mary E. 
Copeland, of Clay Centre, Kansas, April 16, 1883. 

JAMES REID LAWSON : 

Son of James and Elizabeth (Reid) Lawson, was 
born in Rathfriland, County Down, Ireland, May 23,. 
1820. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native vicinity, and graduated from the Belfast 
Academical Institution in 1841. He studied theology in. 
the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was licensed by 
the Southern Presbytery, Ireland, March 4, 1845. He 
was ordained si?2e cura by the same Presbytery, Sep- 
tember 18, 1845, as a Missionary to the British North 
American Provinces. He arrived in St. John, New 
Brunswick, the same fall, and, after visiting different 
parts of the Maritime Provinces, settled in South Stream,. 



564 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

now Barnesville, Kings County, New Brunswick, in the 
spring of 1846, when there were only two Covenanters 
in that vicinity. Here he labored faithfully for ten 
years, and gathered a congregation, which he resigned 
October 17, 1856. He was installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Boston, Massachusetts, November 20, 1856, 
and resigned, October 22, 1857. He returned to Barnes- 
ville, New Brunswick, where he continued to labor until 
partial paralysis caused his resignation, April 12, 1882, 
and he is infirm health. He married Miss Margaret 
Hastings, of St. John, New Brunswick, July i, 1851. In 
May, 1880, he began the publication of the Advocate, 
a monthly religious magazine. Among his published 
writings are : " The Character of Joseph, or The Young 
Man's Model," 1855, pp. 21. "The Millennium," 1864, 
pp. 24. " Correspondence on Psalmody with the Editor 
of the St. jfohn Telegraph," 1880, pp. 42. "The British 
Elective Franchise," 1884, pp. 22, two editions. 

MATTHEW LINN : 

Son of Matthew Linn, was born at Corkermaine, 
near Cairn Castle, County Antrim, Ireland, August 10, 
1 73 1.* He was of Scotch parentage and a tiller of the 
soil. Brought up in the strictest manner by a Cove- 
nanter parentage, he received a careful religious training, 
and the elements of an education in the schools of that 
vicinity and under private instructors. In the spring of 
1757, he was ordained a ruling elder, and the same fall 
entered the University of Glasgow, Scotland, where he 
graduated in 1760. He studied theology with the min- 
isters of the Presbytery, and was licensed by the 

* Sprague's Annals. Communications from Ireland. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 565 

Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, July 16, 1761. He 
was ordained at the organization of the Reformed Pres- 
bytery of Ireland, at Vow, and installed pastor of the 
societies of Bannside, Limavady and Aghadowey, County 
Londonderry, Ireland, August 21, 1763. After ten years 
of faithful labor in his native country, he was appointed 
to accompany Rev. Alexander Dobbin as a Missionary to 
America, and arrived in New Castle, Delaware, December 
13. 1773- He, with Revs. John Cuthbertson and Alex- 
ander Dobbin, organized the Reformed Presbytery of 
America, at Paxtang, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, 
March 10, 1774, at which time he was assigned to 
preach to the Churches of Paxtang, Dauphin County, 
and Stoney Ridge, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. 
He abandoned the Covenanted cause and went into the 
Associate Reformed Church at its formation, November i, 
1782. In 1783, he removed to Franklin County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he became pastor of the united congre- 
gations of Green Castle, Chambersburg, West Conoco- 
cheague and the Great Cove. In 1797, he was thrown 
from his horse, and so seriously injured that he became 
unfit for ministerial duty, and resigned his charges, 
March 13, 1798. He died from a disease brought on 
by his injuries, at his home near Green Castle, Franklin 
County, Pennsylvania, April 21, 1800, and was buried in 
the old graveyard at Brown's Mills. He married a 
cousin of Robert Fulton, of steamboat fame, Miss 
Jennett Fulton, of County Antrim, Ireland, in 1769. 
He was large and corpulent in person, comely in his 
appearance, and winning in his manners. He was a 
laborious student all his life. He was an eloquent 



566 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

speaker, and large audiences had their attention aston- 
ishingly rivited for hours, while with marked ability he 
unfolded the truths of the gospel. In private life he 
was an ornament to the Christian religion, and recom- 
mended the doctrines he so powerfully proclaimed by 
the silent energy of an eminently holy and exemplary life. 

JOHN LITTLE: 

Son of James and Esther (Allen) Little, was born 
in Ouley, County Down, Ireland, June 17, 1823. His 
parents were active and exemplary members of the 
Covenanter Church, by whom he was religiously 
instructed and dedicated to God for the gospel 
ministry. He received his preparatory literary studies 
in the schools of Rathfriland, graduating from the 
Belfast Academical Institution in 1843. He studied 
theology in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was 
licensed by the Southern Presbytery, Ireland, March 8, 
1848. The same fall he came to America, was ordained 
by the New York Presbytery, and installed pastor of 
the Third congregation of New York City, New York, 
June 5, 1849. For causing defection and abandoning 
his charge, he was suspended by the New York Presby- 
tery, April 20, 1852. He connected with the Presbyterian 
Church, and was received by the Presbytery of the City 
of New York, February 9, 1853. He preached but a 
short time, when, becoming despondent, he sickened 
and died in great distress, January 2, 1855. He never 
married. He was a diligent student, a clear and logical 
reasoner, an interesting and eloquent preacher. Being 
of a genial and open-hearted disposition, of an ambi- 
tious turn of mind, he was lead away from the faith 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 56/ 

of the Covenanter Church by a false knowledge of 
himself and the persuasion of a few admiring followers. 

JAMES LOVE: 

Son of David and Eleanor (Stevenson) Love, was 
born in Strasburgh, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 
January 29, 1799. In the fall of 1800, his parents 
removed to Washington County, Pennsylvania, where 
he pursued his studies in the common schools and 
prepared himself for teaching, which vocation he 
followed for many years. He soon afterwards began 
the study of the classics with a view to the ministry 
under the direction of Rev. Samuel Ralston, D. D., a 
Presbyterian minister. In the fall of 1835, ^^ began 
the study of theology under the direction of Rev. 
Thomas Sproull in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 10, 1838. 
He was ordained by the same Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the united congregations of Greenfield and 
Londonderry, Guernsey County, Ohio, June 27, 1839. 
His field of labor here was very extensive, including 
the mission stations of McMahon's Creek, thirty-six 
miles distant, and Steubenville, forty-five miles from 
his home, and these wearisome journeys were made 
upon horseback through all kinds of weather. He 
resigned the Greenfield branch. May 11, 1847, ^rid the 
Londonderry charge, October 6, 1864. In the spring 
of 1865, he removed to Monroe County, Iowa, and 
began a mission station with eight members, which 
soon grew into a congregation. He was installed 
pastor of this, the Albia congregation, now Hickory 
Grove, Avery, Monroe County, Iowa, May 16, 1866, 



568 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

and resigned on account of impaired health and old 
age, September 13, 1881. He removed to Morning 
Sun, Louisa County, Iowa, where he lived in retire- 
ment until his death of old age, November 12, 1886. 
He was twice married. First to Miss Jeanette Glenn, 
of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in 1823 ; and second, 
to Miss Susan French, of California, Michigan, in 1868. 
He was a strong and valiant soldier of the Cross, 
endured many hardships and suffered many depriva- 
tions in proclaiming the gospel in new settlements. 
He possessed a large physique, a robust constitution, 
and retained his mental powers unimpaired until his 
death. He was a good classical scholar, a sound 
theologian and a forcible preacher. 

ROBERT LUSK: 

Son of William and Elizabeth (Holliday) Lusk, was 
born near the city of Londonderry, Ireland, March 8, 
1 78 1.* He came with his parents to America in 1792, 
and settled in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, In 
early life he manifested a thirst for knowledge, which 
could not be gained very extensively in the primitive 
schools of his adopted neighborhood, and, in 1804, he 
repaired to the Academy of Greensburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he received his preparatory course of 
study, and graduated from Jefferson College in 18 10. 
He studied theology in the Philadelphia Seminary, 
and was licensed by the Middle Presbytery, May 9, 
1 8 14. He was ordained by the same Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the Conococheague congregation, 
Chambersburgh, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, June 16, 

* Items principally from the Rev. Dr, David Steele, Sr., Philadelphia, Pa, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 569 

1 8 16, and resigned this charge, October 15, 1823. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Walnut 
Ridge, Washington County, Indiana, October 7, 1824, 
Upon the charge of having defrauded a neighbor, he 
was suspended by the authority of Synod, August 10, 
1825. These weighty charges were thoroughly investi- 
gated by a Commission of Synod, and he was restored 
to his ministerial functions, October 15, 1834, and 
re-installed pastor of Walnut Ridge, May 9, 1835. He 
left the communion of the Church, June 24, 1840, and 
joined the Reformed Presbytery, and his name was 
stricken from the roll by the authority of Synod, 
September 18, 1840. He preached in the vicinity of 
his home as often as his health would permit, and 
died of erysipelas, December 14, 1845. He was twice 
married. First to Miss Margaret Thomson, of Cono- 
cocheague, Pennsylvania, in 181 6; and second, to Miss 
Mary Reid, of Walnut Ridge, Indiana, in 1824. He 
was not considered a pleasing speaker, yet he was a 
very instructive preacher and gifted in prayer. His 
literary acquisitions were both general and accurate, 
and he was a reputable scholar in science and medicine. 
In his pulpit exhibitions he had a style peculiarly his 
own, and aimed to "speak by punctuation and para- 
graphs." He was a diligent student of prophecy, and 
in this connection noted carefully the events of Provi- 
dence. He published "Characteristics of the Witness- 
ing Church," and "Characteristics of Surrounding Com- 
munities," in the Contending Witness, 1843. He was. 
Moderator of the Synod of 181 7. 



570 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

JOHN LYND: 

Son of Andrew and Rosa (Gilmore) Lynd, was 
born in Knockaduff, County Londonderry, Ireland, 
March 24, 1850. He received his preparatory course 
of literary training in the Aghadoey Classical School, 
and in the Coleraine Academy, graduating with honor 
from Magee College in 1871. He studied theology 
two sessions in Magee College, and one session in the 
Belfast Seminary. He came to America in April, 1873, 
and was licensed by the New York Presbytery, May 20, 
1873. He was ordained by the Philadelphia Presbytery, 
installed pastor of the congregation of Baltimore, 
Maryland, December 4, 1873, resigned this charge, 
November 6, 1877, and accepted the chair of Greek 
and English Literature in Geneva College, Northwood, 
Ohio. He was also installed pastor of the congrega- 
tion of Belle Centre, Logan County, Ohio, January 5, 
1879. He resigned the professorate at the removal of 
the College, May 26, 1880, was installed pastor of 
the congregation of Rushsylvania, Logan County, Ohio, 
August 12, 1880, and resigned these united charges, 
April 14, 1885. He returned to Ireland in May, 1885, 
and was installed pastor of the Ballylaggan congrega- 
tion, Ballymoney, County Antrim, Ireland, June 5, 1885, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Belle Purvis, 
of Baltimore, Maryland, April 8, 1875. He was 
Moderator of the Irish Synod of 1886. 

CAMPBELL MADDEN, M. D. : 

Was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry, 
Ireland, September 8, 1795.* He received his early 

* Communications from Ireland. Sprague's Annals. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 57 1 

education in the Coleraine Academy, graduating from 
the University of Glasgow, Scotland, in 18 16. He 
studied theology privately, and was licensed by the 
Northern Presbytery, Ireland, June i, 18 19. He came to 
America in the fall of 1820, and settled in the Chester 
District, South Carolina. Having studied medicine in 
Glasgow, Scotland, for several sessions, he resumed his 
course in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in 
Lexington, Kentucky, and finished the prescribed course 
with first honors. He returned to South Carolina, was 
ordained by the Southern Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Beaver Dam congregation, Chester 
District, June 18, 1822, where he preached and practiced 
medicine until his early decease. He possessed a fine 
physical constitution, but he was not cautious of the 
Southern climate, and, being constantly exposed to all 
kinds of weather in the performance of his professional 
duties, he was attacked with fever and ague, followed 
by repeated and severe hemorrhages of the lungs, from 
which he died, at his home in the Chester District, 
South Carolina, August 12, 1828. He married Miss 
Margaret Cathcart, of Chester, South Carolina, in 1821. 
He was a very useful man and an acceptable preacher 
of the gospel. He possessed a mind of considerable 
culture, and his reasoning was clear and logical. His 
voice was feeble, but he spoke with such distinctness 
and pathos that he never failed to interest and instruct 
his hearers. Modesty was a notable trait of his 
character, and he only failed to boldly denounce the 
evils of slavery more frequently than he did because 
he felt he was a stranger in this land. He received 



572 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

the degree of Doctor of Medicine from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, Lexington, Kentucky, in 1821. 

DANIEL CARGILL MARTIN: 

Son of John and Margaret (Dodds) Martin, was 
born near Eastbrook, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, 
November 15, 1841. He received his preparatory course 
of study in what is now Grove City College, graduating 
from Westminster College in 1868. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1870, and, under 
appointment of the Central Board of Missions, he spent 
some time in exploring the Pacific coast from San 
Jose, California, to Vancouver's Island, gathering 
scattered Covenanters into societies. He was ordained 
by the Illinois Presbytery, installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Princeton, Gibson County, Indiana, 
November 7, 1872, and resigned this charge, April 12, 
1888. He is residing at Pine Creek Station, near the 
city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. He married Miss 
Lucretia Mott Mcintosh, of Allegheny City, Pennsyl- 
vania, September 22, 1869. 

WILLIAM MARTIN: 

Son of David Martin, was born at Ballyspollen, 
near Ballykelley, County Londonderry, Ireland, May 16, 
1729.* In 1750, he entered the University of Glasgow, 
Scotland, where he graduated in 1753. He studied 
theology under the direction of the Rev. John McMillan, 
and was licensed by the Reformed Presbytery of 
Scotland, October 10, 1756. He was the first Covenanter 
minister ordained in Ireland, this act taking place at Vow, 

* Communications from Ireland. Irish Testimony. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 575 

on the lower Bann, and he was installed pastor of . the 
societies centering in Ballymoney, County Antrim, Ireland, 
July 13, 1757. In 1760, the societies were divided into 
two congregations, separated by the river, he chosing 
Kellswater congregation, and lived for many years in 
Bangor. He came to America with a colony of his 
people in 1772, and settled on Rocky Creek, Chester 
District, South Carolina, where he bought a tract of 
land one mile square, and his people took up bounty 
land. He was the first Covenanter minister settled in 
the South. In 1774, his people built a church two 
miles east of Catholic, where he preached, and was 
dismissed in 1777, on account of intemperate habits. 
His adherents built another church near by, which was 
burnt by the British in 1780. He suffered many 
annoyances from the British and Tories, and taught his 
people to fight for their liberty as Americans. In the 
spring of 1781, he went to Mecklenberg, North 
Carolina, on account of the disturbed state of the 
country in the Chester District, and, after the surrender 
of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, October 9, 1781, he 
returned to South Carolina, and resumed his charge around 
Catholic. In 1785, he Avas again dismissed for his 
conduct, and his services became unacceptable to the 
people. In 1793, he was restored to his privileges, and 
was made a member of the Committee of the Reformed 
Presbytery of Scotland, with Revs. King and McGarragh,, 
to judicially manage the affairs of the Church in 
America. He continued to preach at the Jackson's 
Creek Church, Wolf Pen or Wolf Pit Meeting-House, 
Winnsboro, and at private houses in all the settlements 



574 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

between Statesville, North Carolina, and Louisville, 
Georgia. Co-incident with his good preaching he . con- 
tinued his bad habit until the meeting of the Reformed 
Presbytery of America, when seven charges were brought 
against him, among which were habitual drinking and 
the holding of slaves, and he was deposed from the 
ministerial office by that court, March 12, 1801* He 
did not cease preaching, however, until shortly before 
his death. He sold all his land, and made over his 
effects to his relatives. He died of a fever, brought on 
by an injury received by falling from his horse, October 
25, 1806, and he was buried in a small graveyard near 
his cabin. He was married three times, but the names 
of his wives are unknown. He was a large, fine-looking 
man, a proficient scholar, an eloquent preacher, and an 
able divine. 

DAVID McAllister, d. d., ll. d.: 

Son of David and Mary A. (Scott) McAllister, was 
born in the city of New York, New York, August 25, 
1835. He received his early education in the public 
schools and learned the printing business. Resuming 
his studies under the direction of the Rev. J. B. 
Williams, of White Lake, New York, he graduated from 
Union College in i860. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and one session in the Union 
Seminary, New York, being licensed by the New 
York Presbytery, May 20, 1863. He was ordained by 
the same Presbytery, and installed pastor of the con- 
gregation of Walton, Delaware County, New York, 
December 16, 1863, and resigned, September 6, 1871, 

* Minutes of Reformed Presbytery. 




DAVID McAllister, d. d., l. l. d. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 575 

and accepted the appointment of Secretary of the 
National Reform Association, in which capacity he was 
employed four years. He was re-installed pastor of 
Walton, June 23,, 1875, and resigned, October 24, 1883, 
and accepted the chair of Political Science and History 
in Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. He 
resigned this professorate, and was installed pastor of the 
congregation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 21, 
1887, where he is in charge. He married Miss Mary 
A. King, of New York City, New York, November 25, 
1863. , He was one of the founders and an editor of 
the Christian Statesman since 1867; Vice President of 
Geneva College four years; Treasurer of the National 
Reform Association; Member of the Board of Superin- 
tendents of the Theological Seminary, and also of the 
Foreign Mission. Among his numerous publications the 
most note-worthy are : " The National Reform Manual," 
1 87 1. "Christianity and Civil Government," 1888, pp. 
400. He was honored with the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity by Muskingum College in 1884, and .that of 
Doctor of Laws by Franklin College in 1884. He was 
Moderator of the Synod of 1880. 

JOHN McAULEY: 

Son of Daniel and Martha (Davis) McAuley, was 
born near Wytheville, Wythe County, Virginia, January 
'6, 1807.* His grandparents came from Scotland, in 
1774, as members of the Mecklenberg Colony, and 
settled near Charlotte, North Carolina. His father was 
an elder in the Presbyterian Church, the family 
being brought up in that faith, and returned to North 

*Rev. Robert Bruce in Associate Presbyterian. 



5/6 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

Carolina in 1819. He received his early education in 
Charlotte, North Carolina, attended the High School of 
Christiansburgh, Virginia, and graduated from Green- 
ville College, Tennessee, in 1833. While at College 
his outspoken condemnations of the institution of 
slavery would have prevented him from receiving a 
diploma, had not the President insisted that it would 
seriously injure the College to deny the degree to one 
whose scholarship was so high and satisfactorily attained. 
In the fall of 1833, he began the study of theology 
in the Presbyterian Seminary of South Hanover, Indi- 
ana, and finished the course in the spring of 1836. 
He did not see his way clear to remain in the Pres- 
byterian Church, and was received into the Associate 
Reformed Church, and licensed by the Miami Presby- 
tery of that body, November 16, 1836. He was 
ordained by the Allegheny Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the united congregations of Jefferson, Upper 
Piney and Cherry Run, Sligo, Clarion County, Penn- 
sylvania, July 14, 1838. He resigned Jefferson and 
Upper Piney in 1841, and devoted his whole time to 
Cherry Run, where he labored nearly thirty years. 
He, and his congregation, refused to go into the United 
Presbyterian Church in 1858, and he remained in the 
residuary Associate Reformed Church. Not being fully 
satisfied with this Church on the subject of civil 
government, he was suspended for insubordination, by 
the Clarion Presbytery, September 11, 1867. After a 
full statement of his beliefs, he connected with the 
Covenanter Church, being received by the Pittsburgh 
Presbytery, December 31, 1867. At the time of the 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 577 

taking of the Covenant in 1871, he became dissatis- 
fied with the bond and some of the modes of procedure, 
and left the communion of the Covenanter Church, 
May I, 1873. He next connected with the Reformed 
Presbytery, May 17, 1873, and was associated with the 
Rev. Dr. David Steele, Sr., until his death. His 
disease was a complicated paralysis, affecting both 
mind and body, causing a sore trial to his family and 
friends, from which he died, at his home in Sligo, 
Clarion County, Pennsylvania, August 16, 1883, and 
was buried in the old graveyard of Rimersburgh, near 
the scene of his labors. He married Miss Elizabeth 
Reed, of South Hanover, Indiana, February 8, 1838. 
He was a good man, a faithful pastor, and an instruc- 
tive preacher. 

GEORGE ROBB McBURNEY : 

Son of J. R. and Elizabeth K. (Robb) McBurney, 
was born near Venice, Washington County, Pennsyl- 
vania, February i, 1862. He received his early educa- 
tion in Ingleside Academy, and graduated from Geneva 
College in 1885. He studied theology in the Allegheny 
Seminary, was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April II, 1888, and preached within the bounds of the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery. 

JOHN MCCARTNEY: 

Son of William and Isabella (McCreary) McCartney, 
was born near Cambridge, Guernsey County, Ohio, 
July 13, 1828. He received his early education in 
Muskingum College, graduating from Jefferson College 
in 185 1. In the fall of 185 1, he became Principal of 
the Academy of West Carlisle, Ohio. In 1852, he 



578 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

was editor of the Literary Cabinet, published in Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, and in 1854, became Principal of the High 
School of that city. In 1855, he was called to the 
professorship of Mathematics in Muskingum College. 
He studied theology one year in the Allegheny 
Seminary, two years in Glasgow, Scotland, another 
year in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by 
the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 21, i860. He was 
ordained by the Lakes Presbytery, installed pastor of 
the First IVIiami congregation, Northwood, Logan 
County, Ohio, November 12, 1861, and resigned this 
charge, September I, 1875. In 1864, he was among 
the philanthropists who revived Geneva College, and 
threw her doors open for the education of the colored 
race, and visited this and other lands in procuring 
means to sustain the institution. In 1870, he was 
chosen a professor in Geneva College, and, in 1872, 
appointed to the chair of Natural Science. He spent 
two years abroad, and resumed his position, which he 
occupied in the same institution at Beaver Falls, Penn- 
sylvania, until the fall of 1887, when he was assigned 
to Natural History. He married Miss Catharine Robert- 
son, of Glasgow, Scotland, August 11, 1868. Largely 
through his personal exertions, Geneva College enjoys 
its endowment fund and physical laboratory. In 
December, 1887, he went to California, under appoint- 
ment of the Central Board of Missions, and spent 
some time in collecting together scattered Covenanters, 

DANIEL MCCLELLAND: 

Was born in Boveragh, County Londonderry, 
Ireland, in 1736.* He received his early education in 
* Communications from Ireland. Cuthbertson's Diary. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 579 

this vicinity, and came to America. He returned to 
Ireland, where he began the study of theology, and was 
licensed by the Refoi;med Presbytery of Scotland, 
December 21, 1763. He was allowed to visit relations 
in Ireland, among whom he preached for some little 
time. He was ordained sine titulo by the Reformed 
Presbytery of Ireland, at Laymore, near Ballymena, 
July 13, 1765. He came to America as a Missionary 
in the spring of 1766, and settled among the scattered 
Covenanters in Connecticut. The Rev. John Cuthbertson 
says in his diary that Mr. McClelland assisted him at 
the dispensation of the Lord's Supper at Octorara^ 
Pennsylvania, April 10, 1766. He also assisted at 
many other communions, and preached on different 
occasions. He assisted Mr. Cuthbertson again at 
Octorara, May 31, 1767, but his services were neither 
satisfactory to him nor acceptable to the people. He 
continued to preach to the scattered societies . in 
Eastern Pennsylvania, until the spring of 1768, when 
he returned to New England. The remaining events 
of his life are unknown, but it is probable that he 
drifted away from the Church. 

ALBERT WITSIUS McCLURKIN : 

Son of Rev. Dr. Hugh P. and Jane (Orr) McClurkin, 
was born in New Concord, Muskingum County, Ohio, 
January i, ,1864. He received his early education in 
Muskingum College, and graduated from Geneva College 
in 1884. He' taught school in Wahoo, Nebraska, one 
year. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
was licensed by the Kansas Presbytery, April 3, 1888,. 
and preached in Quinter, Kansas, for some months. 



58o HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

HUGH PARK McCLURKIN, D. D. : 

Son of John and Elizabeth (Park) McClurkin, was 
born near Rocky Creek, Chester District, South Carolina, 
November 6, 1821, His parents were among the early- 
Covenanters of the South, and removed from that 
country on account of slavery, in the fall of 1833, and 
settled near Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois. He 
received his early education in the schools of his native 
and adopted countries, and graduated from Duquesne 
College in 1845. He studied theology in the Cincin- 
nati Seminary, and was licensed by the Lakes Pres- 
bytery, April 20, 1848. He was ordained by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, and installed pastor of the Salt 
Creek congregation (now New Concord), New Concord, 
Muskingum County, Ohio, October 15, 1850, and resigned 
this charge, October 8, 1856. He was re-installed pastor, 
December 2, 1858, and resigned, October 4, 1882. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of Wahoo, 
Saunders County, Nebraska, February 29, 1884, where he 
is in charge. He married Miss Jane Orr, of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, January 17, 1843. He was for many years 
a Trustee of Muskingum College, and President pro 
tern of that institution for two years, beginning in 1859. 
He was honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
by Muskingum College in 1879. He was Moderator of 
the Synod of 1868. 

JOHN JOHNSTON McCLURKIN: 

Son of John and Elizabeth (Park) McClurkin, was 
born near Rocky Creek, Chester District, South Caro- 
lina, June 6, 18 1 3. He received his early education 
in the schools of his native district," and entered South 




HUGH P. McCLURKIN, D. D. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 58 1 

Carolina College, Columbia, where he remained until 
his junior year. In the fall of 1833, he removed to 
Sparta, Randolph County, Illinois, and the following 
year resumed his studies, and graduated from the 
University of Indiana in 1836. He studied theology 
privately under the direction of Revs. Samuel Mc- 
Kinney and William Sloane, was licensed by the 
Illinois Presbytery, April 6, 1841, and attended the 
Allegheny Seminary one session. He was ordained by 
the Illinois Presbytery, and installed pastor of the 
united congregations of Princeton, Gibson County, and 
Walnut Ridge, Washington County, Indiana, June 2, 
1843. He was released from Princeton, May 22, 1849, 
and from Walnut Ridge, April 10, 185 1. He preached 
for two years in Southern Illinois as a Missionary, 
and also among the New School Covenant.ers and 
Associate Reformed brethern. He was installed pastor 
of the united congregations of Springfield, Greenville 
and Sandy Lake, Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
September 8, 1854, and resigned this charge, October 
14, 1873, and filled appointments for seven years. He 
was installed pastor of the Garrison congregation, 
Glenwood, Fayette County, Indiana, August 14, 1880, 
and resigned March 13, 1884. In 1885, he became 
stated supply to the congregation of Clarksburgh, 
Indiana County, Pennsylvania, where he is in charge. 
He was married four times. First to Miss S. A. Wad- 
dle, of Princeton, Indiana, July 29, 1839; second to 
Miss Maria Ferguson, of Walnut Ridge, Indiana, Octo- 
ber 16, 1843 ; third to Mrs. Maria (Patton) Stevenson, 



582 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

of Sparta, Illinois. June lo, 1852 ; and fourth to Miss 
L. J. Ewing^, of Bloomington, Indiana, April 5, 1881. 

JOHN KNOX McCLURKIN, D. D. : 

Son of Rev. J. J. and Maria S. (Patton) Stevenson 
McClurkin, was born in Sparta, Randolph County, 
Illinois, November 23, 1853. The next year his parents 
removed to Balm, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, where 
he received his early education, and graduated from 
Westminster College in 1873. He taught in that insti- 
tution one year, and in the fall of 1874, accepted the 
chair of Greek in Geneva College, Northwood, Ohio. In 
the fall of 1875, he accepted the chair of Greek in 
Westminster College, and, in 1883, was elected President 
of Westminster College; and, although declining the 
honor, he was the acting President for one year. He 
studied theology in the Princeton and Allegheny Semi- 
naries, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, 
April 12, 1 88 1. He was ordained by the Philadelphia 
Presbytery, installed pastor of the Second congregation 
of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 9, 
1884, and resigned this charge, August 25, 1887, 
accepting the chair of Systematic Theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, where he is in charge. He was 
honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by 
Westminster College in 1887. 
SAMUEL RUTHERFORD McCLURKIN: 

Son of Thomas and Martha (Kirkpatrick) McClurkin, 
was born near Oakdale, Washington County, Illinois, 
September 12, 1848. He received his early education 
in the common schools, and attended respectively, 
Sparta Academy, Monmouth College, Iowa University, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 583 

and graduated from Westminster College in 1872. He 
studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Illinois Presbytery, May 26, 1875. He 
was ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Middle Wheeling congregation, Roney's 
Point, Ohio County, West Virginia, September 14, 1876, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Jennie M. 
Ferguson, of Brownsville, Ohio, Ogtober 24, 1878. 

THADDEUS ZWINGLE McCLURKIN : 

Son of Rev. Dr. H. P. and Jane (Orr) McClurkin, 
was born in Norwich, Muskingum County, Ohio, January 
31, 1853. He received his early education in the public 
schools, and in Muskingum College, graduating from 
Westminster College in 1875. He studied theology in 
the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Ohio 
Presbytery, April 2, 1879. He preached generally 
throughout the States and the British Provinces. He 
connected with the Presbyterian Church, November 10, 
1884, and preached respectively in Duncannon, Pennsyl- 
vania, Beaver Dam and Minneapolis, Minnesota, and 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He married Mrs. Laura L. 
Coverleigh, of Duncannon, Pennsylvania, March 25, 1885. 

THOMAS McCONNELL: 

Son of Thomas and Jane (McConnell) McConnell, 
was born in Portglenone, County Antrim, Ireland, April 
27, 1 8 19. He enjoyed the advantages of an early 
religious training in the home, and under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. James Smyth. He came to America in 
1837, and settled in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. 
He resumed his classical studies under the care of the 
Rev. Hugh Walkinshaw, and graduated from Duquesne 



584 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

College in 1847. Having studied theology privately, and 
in the Cincinnati Seminary, he was licensed by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, October 27, 1847. He preached 
with general acceptance in the vacancies for about one 
year, when seriously impaired health caused him to 
cease. In 1849, he removed to West Elizabeth, Alle- 
gheny County, Pennsylvania, but on account of an 
affection of the throat he was seldom able to preach. 
His disease gradually assumed a pulmonary type, causing 
hemorrhages of the lungs, from which he died at his 
home in West Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, May 3, 1850. 
He married Miss Mary J. Anderson, of Canonsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, February 10, 1848. He was possessed of 
an amiable disposition, a consistent and uniform char- 
acter, and was strongly attached to the principles of 
the Covenanter Church, From the ability, piety and 
consecration which he manifested, high expectations of 
great usefulness in the ministry were entertained, and 
he was peculiarly fitted for occupying a prominent 
position in the Church. 

JOSEPH Mccracken : 

Son of William and Elizabeth (Hood) McCracken, 
was born in Rathfriland, County Down, Ireland, October 
21, 1825. He came with his parents to America in 
1832, and settled near York, Livingston County, New 
York, where he received his early education. He pur- 
sued his preparatory classical course in Temple Hill 
Academy, and graduated from Union College in 1848. 
He went abroad the following year, and studied theology 
in the Seminaries of Paisley and Edinburgh, Scotland, 
and was licensed by the Rochester Presbytery, May 13, 




JOSEPH McCRACKEN. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 585 

1853. He was ordained by the Illinois Presbytery at 
Linton, Iowa, October 29, 1856, and installed pastor of 
the congregation of Clarinda, Page County, Iowa, July 6, 
1857, ai"id resigned this charge, October 16, 1858. He 
was installed pastor of the congregation of St. Louis, 
Missouri, October 14, 1859, and resigned, September 2, 
1874. He accepted the chair of Mathematics in Geneva 
College, Northwood, Ohio, and resigned. May 26, 1877. 
He was installed pastor of the Southfield congregation, 
Birmingham, Oakland County, Michigan, June 15, 1878^ 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Harriet H, 
Rowan, of Argyle, New York, September 15, 1857. He 
was Moderator of the Synod of 1873. 
ROBERT HOUSTON McCREADY : 

Son of Robert and Margaret (Houston) McCready, 
was born in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 
12, 1853. He received his early education in the 
public schools, studied privately under Rev. Dr. J. R. 
W. Sloane, attended Geneva College until his senior 
year, graduating from the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1879. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, with short terms at Yale Theo- 
logical School and Union Seminary, New York, was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 11, 1882, 
and spent some time in the British Maritime Provinces 
and vacancies of the Church. He was ordained by 
the New York Presbytery, installed pastor of the 
congregation of Coldenham, Orange County, New York, 
March 6, 1884, and resigned May 22, 1888. He 
connected with the Presbyterian Church, being received 
by the Presbytery of the City of New York. He 



586 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

was installed pastor of the Prospect Hill Presby- 
terian Church, New York City, May 28, 1888, where 
he is in charge. 

BOYD McCULLOUGH: 

Son of William B. and Mary (Moffett) McCullough, 
was born in Rathfriland, County Down, Ireland, March 
25, 1825. He came with his parents to America in 
1832, and settled in Beech Woods, Jefferson County, 
Pennsylvania, where he received his early education in 
the common schools. He studied the classics under 
the direction of the Rev. James Milligan, D. D., 
graduating from Duquesne College in 1848. He studied 
theology in the Cincinnati and Northwood Seminaries, 
and was licensed by the Lakes Presbytery, April 16, 
1852. He was ordained • by the same Presbytery, 
installed pastor of the united congregations of Novi, 
Oakland County, and Detroit, Michigan, September 19, 
1855, and resigned this charge, May 14, 1871. He 
made a lecturing and preaching tour throughout Great 
Britain and Ireland, and returned in the fall of 1872, 
preaching as a supply for three years. He con- 
nected with the United Presbyterian Church, August 
I3> 1875, and was stated supply at Caledonia, 
Minnesota, and Pepin, Wisconsin, for eight years. In 
the summer of 1886, he removed to Beech Tree, 
Pennsylvania, where he engaged in supplying vacant 
pulpits. He was twice married. First to Miss Julia 
A. Johnston, of Northwood, Ohio, November 19, 1850; 
and second to Mrs. Emily C. (Jameson) Johnston, of 
Belle Centre, Ohio, December 8, 1885. He contributed 
.a series of articles to the National Era, in 1858, and 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 587 

on " Bible Characters " to the Michigan Farmer, in 
1 86 1. He is the author of a book of poems entitled 
"The Shamrock," 1882, pp. 192. 
JAMES McGOWAN McDONALD, D. D. : 

Son of John and Martha (Marshall) McDonald, 
was born near Winnsboro, Fairfield District, South 
Carolina, November 3, 1823. His parents removed 
from that country in 1837, on account of the prevalence 
of slavery, and settled near Sparta, Randolph County, 
Illinois. He was an only child and his father died 
shortly after arriving in Illinois. He took charge of 
the farm, and pursued his studies under the direction 
of his pastor, the Rev. James Wallace, and also under 
his uncles, Dr. Robert and Adam Marshall, and became 
a most proficient scholar, although he never attended 
an Academy or College. He studied theology in the 
Cincinnati and Northwood Seminaries, and was licensed 
by the Lakes Presbytery, April 29, 1850. He was 
ordained by the. Illinois Presbytery, and installed pastor 
of Sharon congregation, Linton, Des Moines County, 
Iowa, May ij , 185 1, and resigned this charge on 
account of failing health, June 19, 1872. For many 
years he was troubled with a spasmodic cough, which 
turned into a pulmonary affection, producing a dis- 
organization of the lungs, from which disease he died 
at his home near Linton, Iowa, September 9, 1872. 
He married Miss Elizabeth Orr, April 16, 1849. He 
was an eloquent, fearless and earnest preacher, and 
his discourses were always well prepared. He was 
endowed with a most excellent memory, a quick and 
discriminating perception, and in an argument he was 



588 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

almost invincible. He was a fine classical scholar, a 
sound theologian, and a logical reasoner. He took 
great delight in debate, and frequently lectured upon 
the distinctive principles of the Covenanter Church. 
Among his writings are: "The Dominion of Christ," 
1848. "Capital Punishment," 185 1. "Infant Baptism," 
1852. "Review of Parker's Infant Baptism," 1853. 
"The Perfect Law of Liberty," i860, and other articles 
published in the Church magazines. He was honored 
with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Monmouth 
College in 1868. 

ALEXANDER McDOWELL : 

Was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ire- 
land, in 1727.* He came to America in early life, 
with his parents, who were strict Scotch Presbyterians, 
and settled in Eastern Connecticut. He received his 
early education in the schools of the new settlement 
and under private teachers, and graduated from 
Harvard College in 1748. He studied theology privately, 
and was licensed to preach in the spring of 1752. 
He was ordained and installed pastor of the Presby- 
terian congregation of Colerain, Franklin County, Massa- 
chusetts, September 28, 1753, and was dismissed in 
1759, because he insisted on a strict adherence to the 
Solemn League and Covenant and other usages of the 
Church of Scotland. He then associated himself with 
the Covenanter societies in Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, and through his instrumentality they were 
gathered together and erected a log meeting house 
near Pelham. Little else is known of Mr. McDowell. 

* Partially from Webster's History of Presbyterian Church. Cuthbert- 
son's Diary. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 589 

The Rev. John Cuthbertson says in his diary that "on; 
October 28, 1759, he preached in the meeting house 
at Pelham, Massachussetts, and that Alexander Mc- 
Dowell came thirty miles from his home east of the 
Connecticut river to meet him, took him to his home, 
treated him with true Christian hospitality, and that 
in all points they agreed in doctrine and had much 
Christian fellowship." Two years later Mr. McDowell 
made a preaching tour to the scattered Covenanters 
in New York and Eastern Pennsylvania, and frequently 
accompanied Mr. Cuthbertson on his preaching tours. 
He assisted at a communion at Rock Creek, (Gettys- 
burgh) Adams County, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1761, 
and on October 12, 1761, this congregation made out 
a unanimous call for Mr. McDowell. He declined their 
invitation, however, and, in December, 1761, returned 
to Connecticut, and nothing more is known of him. 

JAMES McDonald mcelhinney: 

Son of Joseph and Nancy (McClure) McElhinney, 
was born near Linton, Des Moines County, Iowa, 
October 22, 1858. He received his early education in 
the schools of St. Louis, Missouri ; and, in the fall 
of 1876, entered Geneva College, where he remained 
three years, graduating from Monmouth College in 1881. 
He was a teacher and Principal of the Academy of 
Morning Sun, Iowa, for two years. He studied theo- 
logy in the Allegheny Seminary, was licensed by the 
Iowa Presbytery, April 7, 1886, and labored for six 
months in Superior, Nebraska, and Holmwood, Kansas. 
He accepted the appointment of a Missionary in the 
city of New York, May i, 1887, where he is employed. 



590. HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

DAVID McFALL: 

Son of James and Ann (Dunlap) McFall, was born 
near Dervock, County Antrim, Ireland, March 12, 1846. 
He received his early education in the schools of 
Coleraine, Ireland, came to America in 1867, and 
settled in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. He 
soon afterwards resumed his studies, and graduated from 
Westminster College in 1869. He studied theology at 
the same time in the Allegheny Seminary, and was 
licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1870. 
He was ordained by the same Presbytery, installed 
pastor of the congregation of Oil City, Pennsylvania, 
May 18, 1 87 1, and resigned this charge, April 8, 
1873. He was installed pastor of the Second con- 
gregation of Boston, Massachusetts, July 11, 1873, 
where he is in charge. He married Miss Clara B, 
Milligan, of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, October 16, 
1873. He has published numerous articles in the 
Church magazines, contributed an exposition of the 
Sabbath School Lessons to the Christian Statesman, 
lectured in the interests of the National Christian 
Association, and is Chaplain in the Cambridge Prison. 

THOMAS McFALL: 

Son of James and Ann (Dunlap) McFall, was born 
near Dervock, County Antrim, Ireland, August 23, 
1848. He received his early education in the schools 
of his native country, came to America in 1867, and 
settled in the city of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. He 
received his preparatory studies in Westminster College, 
graduating from Geneva College in 1875. He was 
employed upon the Christian Statesman in Philadelphia, 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 59 1 

Pennsylvania, one year. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the Pitts- 
burgh Presbytery, April 8, 1879. He was ordained by 
the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the united congregations of Corn- 
wallis and Horton, Somerset, Kings County, Nova 
Scotia, August 25, 1881. The Horton branch was 
dropped, June 3, 1886, and he continues in charge of 
Cornwallis. He married Miss Anna M. Lyons, of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 16, 1879. 

ARMOUR McFARLAND: 

Son of Patrick and Eliza (Knox) McFarland, was 
born near Cookstown, County Tyrone, Ireland, March 
8, 1808. He received his early education in the 
schools of his native country, and graduated with the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts from the University 
of Glasgow, Scotland, in 1828. He studied theology 
in the Seminary of Paisley, Scotland, and was licensed 
by the Western Presbytery, Ireland, October 21, 1830. 
He came to America in May, 1831, settled in West 
Bedford, Coshocton County, Ohio, and engaged in 
preaching. He was ordained by the Ohio Presbytery, 
installed pastor of the congregation of Utica, Licking 
County, Ohio, October 5, 1837, and also of Jonathan's 
Creek, Muskingum County, Ohio, October 6, 1847. 
He resigned the Utica branch, May 23, 1855, and 
devoted his whole time to Jonathan's Creek, to which 
was added the charge of Middle Wheeling, West 
Virginia, April 4, 1866. He resigned Middle Wheeling, 
April 12, 1873, and Jonathan's Creek, April 12, 1876, 
on account of impaired health, and retired to his 



592 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

country residence -near Zanesville, Ohio, where he is- 
living in the infirmities of age. He married Miss 
Sarah McCune, of Utica, Ohio, March 22, 1842. 

ARMOUR JAMES McFARLAND : 

Son of James and Martha (McNichol) McFarland, 
was born in West Bedford, Coshocton County, Ohio^ 
September 18, 1836. He received his early education 
in the West Bedford Academy, entered Geneva College, 
where he remained until his senior year, and graduated 
from Miami University in 1858. He studied theology 
in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed by the 
Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 2, 1861. He was ordained 
by the same Presbytery, installed pastor of the Salem 
congregation, Stanton, Jefferson County, Pennsylvania, 
February 5, 1862, and resigned this charge, April 11, 
1882. He was installed pastor of the congregation of 
St. John, New Brunswick, August 4, 1882, where he is 
in charge. He was twice married. First to Miss 
Matilda Gregg, of Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, April 
29, 1862; and second, to Miss Mary C. Crozier, of 
Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, October 18, 1866. 

JOSEPH McFARLAND: 

Son of James and Martha (McNichol) McFarland, 
was born in West Bedford, Coshocton County, Ohio, 
June 18, 1839. He received his early education in the 
West Bedford Academy, entered Geneva College, where 
he remained until his junior year, and graduated from 
Miami University in 1859. He studied theology in the 
Allegheny Seminary two years, and engaged in farming 
three years. He resumed his studies in the Allegheny 
Seminary, and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presby- 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 593 

tery, May 23, 1867. After preaching a few months, he 
abandoned the work. In the fall of 1868, he removed 
to Dallas County, Iowa, where he engaged in farming. 
In the spring of 1876, he returned East, and settled 
upon a farm near Stanton, Jefferson County, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he is residing. He married Miss Mary J. 
Crawford, of Dresden, Ohio, September 3, 1868. He was 
elected an elder in the Salem congregation, April 9, 
1878, and is actively engaged in Sabbath School work. 

WILLIAM McFARLAND: 

Son of James and Martha (McNichol) McFarland, 
■was born in West Bedford, Coshocton County, Ohio, 
November 5, 1844. He received his early education in 
the West Bedford Academy, and graduated from 
Washington and Jefferson College in 1868. He studied 
theology in the Allegheny Seminary, and was licensed 
by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 12, 1870. He was 
■ordained by the Rochester Presbytery, and installed 
pastor of the Lisbon congregation, Flackville, St. 
Lawrence County, New York, May 11, 1871, where he 
is in charge. He married Miss Martha E. McClure, of 
Oil City, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1871. 

JAMES McFEETERS: 

Son of Thomas and Mary (Fletcher) McFeeters, 
was born in Raphoe, County Donegal, Ireland, January i, 
1848. In 1850, his parents came to America and 
settled in Jamestown, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, 
where he received his early education in the Adams- 
ville Academy, graduating from Westminster College in 
1870. He studied theology in the Allegheny Seminary, 
and was licensed by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, April 8, 



594 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

1873. He was ordained by the same Presbytery, and 
installed pastor of the united congregations of Manchester 
and Parnassus, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, June 
19, 1874; the Brookland congregation being added, 
November 16, 1886, where he is in charge. He married 
Miss Nannie C. Dill, of Wyman, Iowa, February 25, 
1875. He is editor of the Young Folk's department of 
the Christian Statesman since 1883; contributes an 
exposition of the Sabbath School Lessons to the same 
paper since 1885; is editor of "Old Arm Chair" in 
the Christian Nation since 1884; the Temperance depart- 
ment of the St. Louis Midland since 1884; and many 
articles in the magazines of the Church. He is President 
of the Board of Trustees of Geneva College. 
JAMES McGARRAGH: 

Was born in Donaghadee, County Down, Ireland, 
July, 1752.* He received the rudiments of an excellent 
education in the schools of his native County, and 
graduated from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, 
in 1 78 1. He studied theology one year under the 
direction of the Rev. William Stavely, also in Scot- 
land, and was licensed by the Reformed Presbytery of 
Scotland, at Bready, County Londonderry, Ireland, 
August 20, 1783. He preached with much acceptance 
to the scattered societies throughout Ulster for several 
years. In 1789, there arose a theological discussion 
between the Seceders and Covenanters in reference to 
the civil relations. The subject had long afforded a 
fruitful topic for debate, and the aid of the press hadi 
frequently been used in the discussion. The adherents 
* Communications from Ireland. 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA. 595. 

of the two parties assembled in the vicinity of Balli- 
bay to hear a viva voce discussion of its merits. On 
the side of the Seceders appeared the Rev. John 
Rodgers, who had challenged the first Covenanter 
minister that came into the district ; and the first 
minister coming into the neighborhood was Mr. James 
McGarragh, then a licentiate. On a platform erected 
in the open air, not far from the meeting-house of 
Cahans, and in the presence of an immense crowd of 
auditors, these two disputants discussed this point of 
polemic theology at great length. Immediately in front 
of Mr. Rodgers stood a goodly pile of books, to 
which he occasionally appealed in confirmation of his 
statements ; but Mr. McGarragh scorned the aid of 
such auxiliaries and exhibited no volume but one — the 
English Bible. The advocate of the Covenanters was 
by no means deficient either in self-possession or 
volubility of speech ; and as the Seceders had recently 
accepted Regmin Doninn, he did not neglect a topic 
which afforded such scope for his powers of declama- 
tion and argument. The discussion, however, produced 
no practical change of opinion, as the two parties now 
adhered more firmly than ever to the principles which 
each had previously professed.* Receiving urgent 
requests from the Covenanters in South Carolina to 
come to that country, he decided to accept their call^ 
and was ordained at Bready, August 28, 1789. Late 
in the fall of 1790, he sailed from Belfast for Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, and after a very tedious and 
stormy passage arrived on the Southern shore of tl^e 

* Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. 



596 HISTORY OF THE REFORMED 

United States of America, In the spring of 1791, he 
settled on the north side of the Beaver Dam, a branch 
of the Rocky Creek congregation, Chester District, 
South Carolina. His most excellent wife, Miss Eliza- 
beth Clark, of County Dpwn, Ireland, to whom he had 
been married some time before leaving his native land, 
died soon after his arrival in this country, and the 
second time he married an intemperate and worthless 
woman, who was his housekeeper, and who lead him 
to fall into intemperate habits, for which conduct he 
was suspended by the Committee, June 24, 1795.* He 
was deposed from the ministerial office by the Reformed 
Presbytery, February 5, 1801, but was afterwards 
restored to private membership. He taught school and 
cultivated a small farm for a livelihood, died in great 
despondency, September 6, 1816, and was buried in 
Paul's graveyard, near Mount Prospect, Chester District, 
South Carolina. He was a proficient scholar, an apt 
teacher, and a very acceptable preacher. 

CHARLES BROWN McKEE : 

Son of James and Agnes (Morrow) McKee, was 
born near Elder's Ridge, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 
March 28, 1792. He received his early education in 
the neighboring Academy of Greensburgh, also in a 
classical school in Philadelphia, and attended the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He studied theology in the 
Philadelphia Seminary, and under the direction of the 
Rev. S. B. Wylie, D. D., and was licensed by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery, December 28, 18 19. He was 
ordained by the Pittsburgh Presbytery, installed pastor 

*Rev. D. S. Paris in R. P. d^. C, 1876, p. 51. 




CHARLES B. McKEE. 



PRESBYTERIAN C