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J'snaOa matmaba, ririst da tOant J^iJbitrie aOaqaa et bOiifadnL J*anpdl* iKtaatid, I* 
giniiiiimnail n<iilii<i«ngiieli«lnitioaTBBiiinnigiH>proTidtac»deDi»ii. — neodon 4« Btat. 

Bra«n*snr, ImamtheiUtear aibin in tUiftma and tmaiteyBft. By primeval, ImtKa^t 
» P'"t" »l gimtniu ent in whidi Oof » preTiiknM nile» »ai»gnB. — I%mi»n Jaa. 






QETS «84 


Whes a foreigner visits certain countries, as England, Scot- 
land, or America, he is sometimes presented with the rights of 
citizenship. Such has been the privilege of the " History of 
the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century.'' From 150,000 to 
200,000 copies are in circulation, in the English language, in 
the countries I have just mentioned: while in France the nmu- 
ber hardly exceeds 4000. This is a real adoption, — naturalizing 
my Work in the countries that have received it with so much 

I accept this honour. Accordingly, while the former Vol- 
umes of my History were originally published in France; now 
that, after a lapse of five years, I think of issuing a continua- 
tion of it, I do so in Great Britain. 

This is not the only change in the mode of publication. I 
did not think it right to leave to translators, as in the cases of 
the former Volumes, the task of expressing my ideas in Eng- 
lish. The best translations are always faulty; and the Author 
alone can have the certainty of conveying his idea, his whole 
idea, and nothing but his idea. Without overlooking the me- 
rit that the several existing translations may possess, even the 
best of them is not free from inaccm-acies, more or less im- 
portant, of which I have given a specimen in my Preface to 
the First Volume of the Edition revised by me, and published 
by Messrs. Oliver <t Boyd. These inaccuracies, no doubt most 
involuntary, gave rise to a very severe contest in America, on 
the subject of this Work, between the Episcopalians and the 
Baptists on the one hand, and the Presbyterians on the other. 
— a contest that I hope is now terminated, but in which (as a 
Kew "York corresoondent informed me) one of the most benefi- 


cial and powerful Christian Societies of the United States had 
been on the brink of dissolution. 

With such facts before me, I could no longer hesitate. It 
became necessary for me to publish, myself, in English ; and 
this I accordingly do. But although that language is familiar 
to me, I was desirous of securing, to a certain extent, the co- 
operation of an English literary gentleman. Dr. Henry White, 
of Croydon, has had the great kindness to visit Switzerland for 
this purpose, although such a step exposed him to much incon- 
venience, and to pass with me at Geneva the time necessary 
for this labour. I could not have had a more enlightened co- 
adjutor; and I here express my obligations to him for his very 
able assistance. 

I therefore publish in English this Continuation of the His- 
tory of the Reformation. I do not think that, as I publish, 
myself, in this language, any one will have the power, or will 
entertain the idea, of attempting another publication. It would 
be a very bad speculation on the part of any bookseller; for 
where is the reader that would not prefer the original text, as 
published by the Author himself, to a translation made by a 
stranger ? 

But there is a higher question — a question of morality. Of 
all property that a man can possess, there is none so essentially 
his own as the labours of his mind. He acquires the fruits of 
his fields by the sweat of his servants and of his beasts of bur- 
den; and the produce of his manufactures by the labour of his 
workmen and the movement of his machines; but it is by his 
own toils, by the exercise of his most exalted faculties, that 
he creates the pi-oductions of his mind. Accordingly, in put- 
ting this History under the protection of the laws, I place it 
at the same time under a no less secure safeguard, — that of 
justice. I know that it is written in the consciences on the 
other side of the Channel and of the Atlantic : Ye shall have 
one manner of law, as well for the stranger as for one of your own 
country: for I am the Lord your God.^ To English honour 1 
confide this work. 

The first two Books of this Volume contain the most import- 
ant epochs of the Reformation — the Protest of Spires, and the 
Confession of Augsburg. The last two describe the establish- 

» LeviU xxiv, 22. 


ment of the Reform in most of tlie Swiss cantons, and the in- 
structive and deplorahle events that are connected with the ca- 
tastrophe of Cappel. 

It Avas my desire to narrate also the heginnings of the Eng- 
lish Reformation; hut my Volume is filled, and I am compelled 
to defer this suhject to the next. It is true I might have 
omitted some matters here treated of, hut I had strong reasons 
for doing the contrary. The Reformation in Great Britain is 
not very important hefore the period described in this volume; 
the order of time compelled me, therefore, to remain on the 
Continent; for whatever may be the historian's desire, he can- 
not change dates and the seqiieuce that God has assigned to 
the events of the world. Besides, before turning more espe- 
cially towards England, Scotland, France, and other countries, 
I determined on bringing the Reformation of Germany and 
German Switzerland to the decisive epochs of 1530 and 1531. 
The History of the Reformation, properly so caEed, is then, in 
my opinion, almost complete in those countries. The work of 
Faith has there attained its apogee: that of conferences, of in^ 
terims, of diplomacy begins. I do not, however, entirely aban- 
don Germany and German Switzerland, but henceforward they 
will occupy me less : the movement of the sixteenth century 
has there made its effort. I said from the very first: It is the 
History of the Reformation and not of Protestantism that I 
am relating. 

I cannot, however, approach the History of the Reformation 
in England without some portion of fear ; it is perhaps more 
diiScult there than elsewhere. I have received communications 
from some of the most respectable men of the difi"crent ecclesi- 
astical parties, who, each feeling convinced that, their own 
point of \'iew is the true one, desire me to present the history 
in this light. I hope to execute my task with impartiality and 
truth; and thought it would be advantageous to study for some 
time longer the principles and the facts. In this task I am at 
present occupied, and shall consecrate to it, with God's assist- 
ance, the first part of my next volume. 

Should it be thought that I might have described the Refor- 
mation in Switzerland with greater brevity, I beg my readers 
will call to mind that, independently of the intrinsic import- 
ance of this history, Switzerland is the Author's birth-place. 


I had at first thought of making arrangements for the pre- 
sent publication "with the English and Scotch booksellers who 
had translated the former portions. Relations that I had 
maintained with some of these publishers, and which had gain- 
ed my esteem for them, induced me to adopt this course. They 
were consequently informed by letter of my purpose, and several 
months later I had an interview with some of them at Glas- 
gow. From circumstances which it is unnecessary to explain, 
vo arrangement was entered into with these gentlemen. But 
at the same time, one of the first houses in Great Britain, 
Messrs. Olivee <fc Boyd of Edinburgh, who were introduced 
to me by my highly respected friend Dr. Chalmers, made me 
a suitable and precise offer. I could wait no longer; and on 
the very eve of my departure from London for the Continent, 
after a sojourn of three months in Scotland and in England, I 
made arrangements with them, which have since been definitely 
settled, and the Work is now their property. 

The French laws are positive to protect literary property in 
France, even if it belongs to a foreigner. I am less familiar 
with tlie English laws; but I Avill not do England the injustice 
of believing that its legislation is surpassed by that of France 
in justice and in morality. 

Edx-Vivbs Geneva, January, 18i0. 






Twofold Movement of Reform— Reform the Work of God — First Diet of 
Spires Palladium of Reform — Firmness of the Reformers — Proceed- 
ings of the Diet — Report of the Commissioners — The Papacv painted 
and described by Luther — The Destruction of Jerusalem — Instructions 
of Seville — Change of Policy — Holy league — Religions Liberty pro- 
posed — Crisis of the Reformation 13 


Italian "War — The Emperor's Manifesto — March on Rome — Revolt of the 
Troops — The Sack of Rome — German Humours — Violence of the 
Spaniards — Clement VII. capitulates 22 


Profitable Calm — Constitution of the Church — Philip of Hesse — The 
Monk of Marburg — Lambert's Paradoxes — Friar Boniface — Triumph 
of the (Jospel in Hesse — Constitution of the Church — Bishops — Synods 
— Two Elements of the Church — Luther on the Ministry — Organiza- 
tion of the Church — Luther's contradictions on State Interference — 
Luther to the Elector — ^Melancthon's Instructions — Disaffection — The 
Reformation advances — Elizabeth of Brandenburg 29 


Edict of Ofen — Persecutions — Winchler, Carpenter, and Keyser — Pack's 
Forgery — League of the Reformed Princes — Advice of the Reformers 
— Luther's Pacific Counsel — Surprise of the Papist Princes — Pack's 
Scheme not improbable — Vigour of the Reformation 45 


Alliance between Charles and Clement VII. — Omen? — Hostility of the 
Papists — Arbitrary Proposition of Charles — Resolutions of the Diet — 
The Reformation in Danger — Decision of the Princes — Violence of 
Ferdinand — The Schism completed 53 


The Protest — Principles of the Protest — Supremacy of the Gospel— Chris- 
tian Union — Ferdinand rejects the Protest — Attempt at Conciliation 
— Exultation of the Papists — Evangelical Appeal — Christian Unity a 
Reality — Dangers of the Protestants — The Protestants leave Spires — 
The Princes the true Reformers — Germany and Reform. ... 59 



Union necessary to Reform — Luther's Doctrine on the Lord's Supper — • 
Proposed Conference at Marburg — Mclancthon and Zwinglc — Zwingle 
leaves Zurich — The Reformers at Marburg — Carlstadt's Petition — 
Preliminary Discussions — Holy Ghost — Original Sin — Baptism — Lu- 
ther, Melancthon, and Zwingle — Opening of the Conference — SvUogism 
of CEeolampadius — The Flesh profiteth nothing — Lambert convinced 
—Arrival of new deputies — Christ's Humanity finite — Testimony of 
the Fathers — Argument of the Velvet Cover — End of the Conference — • 
The Landgrave mediates — Necessity of Union — Luther rejects Zwin- 
gle's Hand — Bucer's Dilemma — Christian Charity prevails — Luther'» 
Report — Unity of Doctrine — Unity in Divci-sity — Three Views — Germ 
of Popery — Luther's Dejection — Luther's Battle-sermon and Agony 
—Luther's Firmness — Victory — Exasperation of the Papists — Threat- 
ening Prospects 63 



Two striking Lessons — Charles V. in Italy — The Gennan Envoys — Their 
Boldness — ^The Landgi-ave's Present — The Envoys under arrest — 
Their release and Departure — Meeting of Charles and Clement — War 
imminent — Luther's Objections — The Saviour is coming — Charles's 
conciliatory Language — The Emperor's Motives 95 

The Coronation — The Emperor made a Deacon — The Romish Chui'cb 
and the State — Alarm of the Protestants — Bruck's noble Advice — 
Articles of Faith prepared — 'Luther's Strong tower — Luther at Coburg 
^Charles at Innspruck — Two Parties at Court — Piety of the Elector 
— Wiles of the Romanists 1 05 


Augsburg — The Emperor's Message — The Sermons prohibited — Firmness 
of the Elector — The Elector's Reply — Preparation of the Confession 
— Luther's Sinai — Luther's Diet at Coburg — Saxony, a Paradise be- 
low — To the Bishops — Travail of the Church — Charles — The Pope'* 
Letter — Melancthon on Fasting — The Church, the Judge — The Land- 
gi'ave's catholic spirit Ill 


Agitation in Augsburg — Violence of the Imperialists — Chai-lcs's arrival — 
The Nuncio's Blessing — The Imperial Procession — Charles's Appear- 
ance — Enters Augsburg — Te Dcum — The Benediction — Brandenburg 
offers his Head — The Emperoc's Request for Corpus Christi — Refusal 
of the Princes — Agitation of Charles — The Princes oppose Tradition — 
Exasperation of Charles 124 

The Sermons prohibited — Compromise proposed and accepted — Tii« IIo- 


fald The Medle; of Popery — Luther encourages the Princes — Veni 

Spiritus — Mass of the Holy Ghost — The Sermon — Opening of the 
Diet — The Elector's Prayer — Valdez and llelancthon — No public 
Discussion. Evangelical Firmness prevails 134 


The Elector's Zeal — The Signing of the Confession — Courage of the 
Princes — Me'ancthon's 'Weakness — The Legate's Speech — Delays. 
The Confession in Danger. The Protestants are lirm. Luther's 
Prayer and Anxiety. His Letter to MeLincthon. Faith. . . 144 


The 25th June 1530 — The Palatine Chapel — The confession — Pi-ologue 
— Justification — The Church — Free Will and Works — Faith — The 
Confession — Abuses — Church and State — The two Governments — 
Argumentation — Prudence — Church and State — The Sword — Moder- 
ate Tone of the Confession — Its Defects — A New Baptism. . . 153 


Effect on the Romanists — Luther demands religious Liberty — His In- 
genuous Confessions — Hopes of the Protestants — The Emperor's Coun- 
cil — Violent discussions — A Refutation proposed — Its Authors — Rome 
and the civil Power — Perils of the Confessors — Mclancthon's Minimum 
— Melancthon's Fall — Luther opposes Concession — The Legate repela 
ilelancthon — The Pope's Decision — Question — ilelancthon's School- 
matters — Answer 1C4 


The Refutation — Charles's dissatisfaction — Interview with the Princes — 
The Swiss at Augsburg — Tetrapolitan Confession — Zwingle's Confes- 
sion — 'Afflicting Divisions — The Elector's Faith — His Peace — The Re- 
futation — One Concession — Scripture and the Hierarchy — Imperial 
Commands — Policy of Charles — Resolutions of the Consistory — The 
Prayers of the Church — Two Miracles — The Emperor's Menace — The 
Spectres at Spires — Tumult in Augsburg 177 


Philip of Hesse — Temptation — Union resisted — The Landgrave's Dissi- 
mulation — The Emperor's Order to the Protestants — Brandenburg's 
threatening Speeches — Resolution of Philip of Hesse — Flight from 
Augsburg — Discovery — Charles's Emotion — Rerolution in the Diet — 
Metamorphosis — Unusual Moderation — Peace I Peace!. . . 191 


The Mixed Commission — The Three Points — Romish Dissimulation — 
Abuses — Concessions — The Main Question — Bishops and Pope conceded 
— Danger of concession — Luther's opposing Letters — The Word above 
the Church — Melancthon's Blindness — A new Commission — Concessions 
— The Three Points — The great Antithcsi?; — FaUure of Conciliation 
— The Gordian Knot — A Council granted — Charles's Summons^ 
Menaces — Peace or AVar — Romanism conceded — Protestantism resists 
— Luther recalls his Friends. 199 



The Electoi''s Preparatives and Indignation — Recess of Augsburg— Ir- 
ritating Language — Apology of tlie Confession — Messages of peace — 
Exasperation of tlie Papists — Restoration of Popery — Tumult in the 
Church — Union of the Churches — The Pope and the Emperor — Close 
of the Diet — Armaments — Attack on Geneva — Establishment of Pro- 
testantism 215 




Originality of the Swiss Reform — Change — Three Periods of Reform — 
Switzerland Romande — The two Movements in the Church — Aggres- 
sive Spirit — Farel's new Baptism — Mysticism and Scholasticism — A 
Door is opened — Opposition — Lausanne — Manners of the Cle;-gy — 
Farel to Galeotto — Farel and the ]\Ionk — .The Tribunal — Opposition 
of the Ornionds — A folse Convert — Christian Unity 225 


State-Religion in Berne — Irresolution of Berne — Evangelical Major* 
ity — Haller — Zwinglc's Signal — Victory of the Gospel — Papist Provo- 
cations — Proposed Disputatious — Objections of the Forest Cantons — ■ 
The Church, the Judge of Controversies — ^Unequal Contest — Zwingle 
— A Chi-istian Band— Opening of the Conference — The sole Head — ■ 
Unity of Error — St. Vincent's Day — Papist Bitterness — Necessity of 
Reform — Zwingle's Sermon — Visit of the King of kings — Edict of 
Reform — Was the Reformation political? 237 

, The Reform accepted by the People— Faith, Purity, and Charity — First 
Evangelical Communion — Bernese Proposition to the Diet — Threaten- 
ing storm from the Mountains — Revolt — Confusion in Berne — Energy 
of Berne — Victory — Political advantages 252 


-Reformation of St. Gall— Nuns of St. Catherine— Reformation of Claris, 

Berne, AppenzcU, the Grisons, Schafl'hausen, and the Rliine District— 

A Popish Miracle — Obstacles in Basle — Zeal of the Citizens— ffico- 

lampidius marries— Petition of the Rcfoi-med 260 

■Crisis in Basic— Half-measures rejected — Reformed Propositions — A 
Ni<'ht of Terror — Idols broken in the Cathedral— The Hour of Mad- 
ness—Idols broken in all the Churches— Reform legalized— Erasmus in 
Basle— A great Transformation — Revolution and Reformation . 266 

■Farel's Commission- Farel at Lausanne and Morat—Neufchatel— Farel 
preaches at Serridrc— Ti>o Monks— Farel's Preaching— Popery in 


Neafchatel — Canons and Monks unite — Reformation of the Bishopric 
of Basle — Farel again in Neufchatel — Placards — Civil Power inToked 
By the Romanists 273 


Valangin — Guillemette de Vergy — Farel goes to the Val de Rnz — The 
Mass interrupted — Farel in Prison — Apostles and Reformers compared 
— Farel preaching at Neufchatel — Installed in the Cathedral — A 
■Whirlwind sweeps over the People — Interposition of the Governor — 
Triumph of the Reformed 2S2 


The Romanists demand a Ballot — The Bernese in Favour of the Reform 
— Both Parties come to the Poll — The Romanists grasp the sword — 
The Voting — Majority for Reform — Protestantism perpetual — Retreat 
of the Canons — Popery and the Gospel 289 

Hoaction preparing — Failure of the Plot — .Farel in Valangin and near 
the Lake — De Bely at Fontaine — Farel's Sufferings — Marcourt at 
Valangin — Disgraceful Expedient — Vengeance — The Reform establish- 
ed — French Switzerland characterized — Gathering Tempest . 297 



Two great Lessens — Christian Warfare — Zwingle, Pastor, Statesman.and 
General — His noble Character — Persecution — Swiss Catholics seek 
an Alliance with Austria — Great Dissatisfaction — Deputation to the 
Forest Cantons — Zwingle's Proposal — Moderation of Berne — Kevser's 
Martyrdom — Zwingle and War — Zwingle's Error ' 303 


Free Preaching of the Gosi)el in Switzerland — Zwingle supports the 
common Bailiwicks — War — Zwingle joins the Army — The Zurich 

Army threatens Zug — Bernese Interposition — Zwingle's Opposition • 

Swiss Cordiality — A Conference — Peace restored — Aostrian Treaty 
torn — Nuns of St. Catherine 310 


Conquests of Reform in Schaffhausen and Zurzack— Reform in Glaris 

To-day the Cowl, To-morrow the Reverse — Italian Bailiwicks The 

Monk of Como — Call of the Menk of Locarno — The Monks of Wettin- 
gen— Abbey of Saint Gall— Kilian Kouffi— Saint Gall recovers its 

liberty — The Reform in Soleure — Popery triumphs Address of the 

Ministers to the Romish Cantons— God's 'Word the Means of Unity 

(Ecolampadiusforspirituallnfluence—Autonomv of the Church . SIS 



Zwingle and the Christian State — Zwingle's double Part — Zwingle and 
Luther in Eolation to Politics — Projected Union between Zwingle and 
Luther — Zwingle's political Action — Zwingle advocates active Resist- 
ance — He destines the Imperial Crown for Philip — Embassy to Venice 
— Projected Alliance with France — Zwingle's Plan of Alliance — Ap- 
proaching Ruin — Violence — Mysterious Paper' — Berne and Basle vote 
for Peace — General Diet at Baden — Evangelical Diet at Zurich — 
Political Reformation of Switzerland — Activity of Zurich . . 331 


Diet of Arau — Helvetic Unity — Opposition of Zurich — Zwingle's War 
Sermon — Blockade of the Waldstettes — No Bread, no Wine, no Salt — 
Indignation of the Forest Cantons — The Roads blockaded — France 
tries to conciliate — Diet at Bremgarten — Hope — The Cantons inflexi- 
ble — The Strength of Zurich broken — Discontent — Zwingle's false 
Position — Zwingle demands his Dismission — The Council remonstrate 
— He remains — Zwingle at Bremgarten — Zwingle's Farewell to Bul- 
linger — Zwingle's Agony — The Forest Cantons reject all Conciliation 
—-Zwingle's Tranquillity 346 


The Five Cantons decide for War — Deceitful Calm — Fatal Inactivity — > 
Banner of Lucerne planted — Manifesto — The Bailiwicks pillaged — 
Infatuation of Zurich — New Warnings — The War begins — The Tocsin 
— A fearful Night — Banner and Army of Zurich — Zwingle's Depar- 
ture — Zwingle's Horse— Anna Zwingle SCO 


The Scene of War — The Enemy at Zug — Declaration of War — Army of 
the Forest Cantons appears — Zwingle's Gr.ivity and Sorrow — Zurich 
Army ascending the Albis — Halt and Council at the Beech Tree — 
Jauch's Reconnaissance — His Appeal — Ambuscade .... 370 


Unforeseen Change — The whole Army advances — Universal Disorder — 
The Banneret's Death — Terrible Slaughter — Slaughter of the Pastors 
— Zwingle's last Words — Barbarity of the Victors — Zwingle's dying 
Moments — Day after the Battle — Homage and Outrage . . . 3V8 


Consternation in Zurich — Violence of the Populace — Grief and Distress 

Zwingle is dead ! — Funeral Or.ation — Another Reverse on the Goubel 

Inactivity of the Bernese— Hopes and Plan of Charles V. — End of the 

Wai-- Treaty of Peace 387 

Restoration of Popery at Bremgarten and Rapperschwyl—I'riests and 
Monks everywhere — Sorrow of Qicolampadius — Peaceful Death of 
CEcolanipadius— Henry Bullinger at Zurich — Contrition and Exulta- 
tion — The gi'cat Lesson — Conclusion 304 






Twofold Movement of Refbmv— Reform tlie Work of God— First Diet of Spires— Pal- 
ladinm of Reform — Firmness of the Reformers — Proceedings of the Diet — Report 
of the Commissioners — The Papacy painted and described by Luther — The Des- 
truction of Jerusalem — Instructions of Se^•iIIe^Change of Policy— Holy League — 
Religious Liberty proposed — Crisis of the Reformation. 

We have Avitnessed the commencemeut, the struggles, the re- 
verses, and the progress of the Reformation; hut the conflicts 
hitherto described have been only partial; we are entering up- 
on a new period, — that of general battles. Spires (1529) and 
Augsburg (1530) are names that shine forth with more immortal 
glory than Marathon, Pavia, or Marengo. Forces that up to 
the present time were separate, are now uniting into one ener- 
getic band; and the power of God is at work in those brilliant 
actions, which open a new era in the history of nations, and 
communicate an irresistible impulse to mankind. The passage 
from the middle ages to modern times has arrived. 

A great protest is about to be accomplished; and although 
there have been protestants in the Church from the very be- 
ginning of Christianity, since liberty and truth covdd not be 
maintained here below, save by protesting continually against 
despotism and error. Protestantism is about to take a new step. 
It is about to become a body, and thus attack with . greater 
energy that "mystery of iniquity" which for ages has taken & 
bodily shape at Rome, in the very temple of God. ' 

1 i Thess, ii. 


But although we have to treat of protests, it must not liow- 
ever be imagined that the Reformation is a negative work. In 
every sphere in which anything great is evolved, v/hether in 
nature or society, there is a principle of life at work, — a seed 
that God fertilizes. The Reformation, when it appeared in the- 
sixteenth century, did not, indeed, perform a new work, for a re- 
formation is not a formation; hut it turned its face toward the 
heginnings of Christianity; it seized upon them with affection, 
and embraced them with adoration. Yet it was not satisfied 
with this return to primitive tiracs. Laden with its precious 
burden, it again crossed the interval of ages, and brought back 
to fallen and lifeless Christendom the sacred fire that was des- 
tined to restore it to light and life. In this twofold movement 
consisted its action and its strength. Afterwards, no doubt, 
it rejected superannuated forms, and combated error; but this 
was, so to speak, only the least of its Avorks, and its third 
movement. Even the protest of which we have to speak, had 
for its end and aim the re-establishmcnt of truth and of life, 
and was essentially a positive act. 

This powerful and rapid twofold action of reform, by which 
the apostolic times were re-established at the opening of modern 
history, proceeded not from man. A reformation is not arbi, 
trarily made, as charters and revolutions are in some countries. 
A real reformation, prepared during many ages, is the work of 
the Spirit of God. Before the appointed hour, the greatest 
geniuses, and even the most faithful of God's servants, cannot 
produce it; but when the reforming time is come, when it ia 
God's pleasure to renovate the affairs of the world, the divine 
life must clear a passage, and it is able to create of itself the 
humble instruments by which this life is communicated to tho 
human race. Then, if men are silent, the very stones will cry 

It is to the protest of Spires (1529) that we are now about 
to tarn our eyes; but the way to this protest was prepared by 
years of peace, and followed by attempts at concord that we- 
shall have also to describe. Nevertheless the formal esta- 
blishment of Protestantism remains the great fact that prevails 
in the history of the Reformation from 1526 to 1529. 

The Duke of Brunswick had brought into Germany the threat- 
ening message of diaries the Fifth. That emperor was about 
to repair from Spain to Rome to come to an understanding 
with the pope, and from thence to pass into Germany to con- 

» Luke, xix, 10. 


Btrain the heretics. The last summons -was to be addressed to 
them by the Diet of Spires, 15-26.* The decisive hour for the 
Reformation -was on the point of striking. 

On the 25th June, 1526, the diet opened. In the instructions,. 
dated at Seville, 23rd March, the emperor ordered that tha 
Chm-ch customs should he maintained entire, and called upoa 
the diet to punish those who refused to carry out the edict of 
^Yorms.* Ferdinand himself was at Spires, and his presence 
rendered these orders more formidable. Never had the hostility 
which the Romish partisans entertained against the evangeli- 
Cvil princes, appeared in so striking a manner. "The Phari- 
sees," said Spalatin, "are inveterate in their hatred against 
Jesus Christ."' 

Never also had the evangelical princes showed so much hope. 
Instead of coming forward frightened and trembling, like guilty 
men, they were seen advancing, surrounded by the ministers of 
the Word, with uplifted heads and cheerful looks. Their first 
step was to ask for a place of worship. The Bishop of Spires, 
count-palatine of the Rhine, having indignantly refused this 
strange request,* the princes complained of it as an act of in- 
justice, and ordered their ministers to preach daily in the halls 
of their palaces, which were immediately filled by an immense 
crowd from the city and the country, amounting to many 
thousands.' In vain on the feast days did Ferdinand, the idtra- 
montane princes, and the bishops assist in the pomps of the Ro- 
man worship in the beautiful cathedral of Spires ; the imadorned 
"Word of God, preached in the protestant vestibules, engrossed 
all hearers, and the mass was celebrated in an empty chm-ch. ^ 

It was not only the ministers, but the knights and the 
grooms, "mere idiots," who, xmable to control their zeal, 
everywhere eagerly extoUed the Word of the Lord.^ AU the 
followers of the evangehcal princes wore these letters embroi- 
dered on their right sleeves: V. D.M.I. ^., that is to say, 
"The Word of the Lord endureth for ever."^ The same in- 
scription might be read on the escutcheons of the princes, sus- 
pended over their hotels. The Word of God — such from this 
moment was the palladium' of the Reformation. 

' See Vol. Ill, book x, chap. xiv. The Diet of Spires, held in 1526, mustnot be con- 
founded with that of 1539, at which the protest took place. 2 Sleidan, Hist. Ref., 
book vi. 3 Christum Pharisoeis vehementer uiisse iavisum. Seckend., ii, 46. 

* Fortiter interdixit. (Cochlieus, p. 138.) He resolutely prohibited. * Ingens 

concursus plebis et rusticoruni. Cochloeus. Multis millibus hominum accurrentibus, 
(Seckend., ii, 48.) A hu^e concourse from town and country. Many thousand* 
fii>cking to them. <■ Populum a sacris avtrtebaut. Cochloeus, p. 138. ' Min- 
jstri eorum, equites et stabularii, idiota?, petula:iter jactabant verbum Domini. Ibid. - 
• Yerbum Domini manet in aeternum. Ibid. 



This was not all. The Protestants knew that the mere 
•worship would not suffice: the landgrave had therefore called 
upon the Elector to aholish certain "court customs" which dis- 
honoured the Gospel. These princes had consequently drawn 
up an order of living which forhade drunkenness, debauchery, 
and other vicious customs prevalent during a diet.^ 

Perhaps the protestant princes sometimes put forward their 
dissent beyond Avhat prudence would have required. Not only, 
they did not go to mass, and did not observe the prescribed 
fasts, but still further, on the fast days, their attendants were 
seen publicly bearing dishes of meat and game, destined for 
their masters' tables, and crossing, says Cochloeus, in the 
presence of the whole auditory, the halls in which the worship 
was celebrating. " It was," says this writer, "with the in- 
tent of attracting the catholics by the savour of the meats and 
-of the wines. "^ 

The Elector in effect had a numerous court: seven hundred 
persons formed his retinue. One day he gave a banquet at 
which twenty-six princes with their gentlemen and councillors 
were present. They continued playing until a very late hour 
— ten at night. Everything in Duke John announced the 
most powerful prince of the empire. The youthful landgrave 
of Hesse, full of zeal and knowledge, and in the strength of a 
iirst christian love, made a still deeper impression on those who 
approached him. He would frequently dispute with the bishops, 
and owing to his acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures, easily 
stopped their mouths.^ 

This firmness in the friends of the Reformation produced 
results that sui-passed their expectation. It was no longtc 
possible to be deceived: the spirit that was manifested in these 
men was the spirit of the Bible. Everywhere the sceptre was 
falling from the hands of Rome. "The leaven of Luther," 
said a zealous papist, " sets all the people of Germany in a 
ferment, and foreign nations themselves are agitated by formi- 
dable movements."* 

It was immediately seen how great is the strength of deep 
convictions. The states that were ■well-disposed towards the 
reform, but which had not ventured to give their adhesion pub- 

1 Adversus invcteratos illos et impios usus nitendiim, esse. (Seek., ii, 46.) That 
they were to strive against tliose inveterate and impious practices. ' Dt 

complures allicerintur ail oormn sectam, in fcrculis portabaiitur carnes cbctaj in 
diebus jfjunii, aperte in eonsppctu totius auditorii. (CochUeus, p. ISS.) To allure 
numbers to tluir sect, dishes of baked meats were brought on fast days, openly, in 
sight of the whole audience. ' Annalcs Spalatini. * Gorniauias populf 

Lutherico fermento inescati, ct in externis quoque nationibus, gravissiini erant ino- 
tiis. (CochloBus, p. 138.) The State* cf (Jcimany were cftught bj the Lutheran leavea, 
Hud in foreign nations also there were very great comniotioni. 


llcly, became emboldened. The neutral states, demanding the 
repose of the empire, formed the resolution of opposing the 
•edict of Worms, the execution of which would have spread 
trouble through all Germany; and the papist states lost their 
boldness. The bow of the mighty was broken.^ 

Ferdinand did not think proper, at so critical a moment, to 
communicate to the diet the severe instructions he had received 
from Seville.2 He substituted a proposition calculated to sa- 
tisfy both parties. 

The la}Tnen immediately recovered the influence of which 
the clergy had dispossessed them. The ecclesiastics resisted 
a. proposal in the college of princes that the diet should occupy 
itself with church abuses, but their exertions were unavailing. 
Undoubtedly a non-political assembly would have been prefera- 
ble to the diet, but it was already a point gained, that religious 
matters were no longer to be regulated solely by the priests. 

As soon as this resolution was communicated to the deputies 
from the cities, they called for the abolition of every usage 
■contrary to the faith in Jesus Christ. In vain did the bishopa 
exclaim that, instead of doing away with pretended abuses, 
they would do much better to bum all the books with which 
<jermany had been inundated during the last eight years. 
•' You desire," was the reply, "to bury all wisdom and know- 
ledge.^ The request of the cities was agreed to, * and the diet 
vas divided into committees for the abolition of abuses. 

Then was manifested the profound disgust inspired by the 
priests of Rome. " The clergy," said the deputy for Frank- 
fort, "make a jest of the public good, and look after their 
own interests only." "The laymen," said the deputy from 
Duke George, " have the salvation of ChiistendoQi much more 
at heart than the clergy." 

The commissioners made their report; people were astonished 
at it. Never had men spoken out so freely against the pope 
and the bishops. The commission of the pinnces, in which the 
•ecclesiastics and laymen were in equal numbers, proposed a 
fusion of popery and reform. " The priests would do better to 

1 1 Samuel, ii. 4. ' Some historians appear to think that these instrOctions 

were communicated in reality at the very opening of the diet. Ranke shows that 
this was not the case : but adds, that he sees no reason why the commissaries should 
bave thought themselves authorized to make any other proposition. The motives 
■that I have assigned appear to me the true ones. I shall state below why the com- 
missaries returned afterwards to the imperial instructions. ■^ Omnes libros esse 
comburendos. Sed rejectum est quia sic omnis doctrina et eruditio theologica in- 
teritura essct. (Seckend,, ii, 4/i.) That all books were to be burned. But it was re- 
jected, because in this way all learning and theological erudition would perish. 
* Civitatum suffi-agia multum valuenuit. (Ibid.) The suffrages of the cities had 
great effect. 


marry," said thej, " than to keep women of ill fame in tlieir 
houses; every man should he at liherty to communicate under 
one or hoth forms; German and Latin may he equally em-- 
ployed in the Lord's Supper and in haptism; as for the other 
sacraments, let them he preserved, hut let them he administered 
gratuitously. Finally, let the Word of God he preached accor- 
ding to the interpretation of the Church (this was the demand 
of Rome), hut always explaining Scripture hy Scripture" (this- 
was the gi'eat principle of the Reformation). Thus the first 
step was taken towards a national union. Still a few more 
efforts, and the whole German race would he walking in the 
direction of the Gospel. 

The evangelical Chi'istians, at the sight of this glorious- 
prospect, redouhled their exertions. " Stand fast in the doc- 
trine," said the Elector of Saxony to his councillors.^ At the 
same time hawkers in every part of the city were selling Chris- 
tian pamphlets, short and easy to read, Avritten in Latin and 
in German, and ornamented with engravings, in which the 
errors of Rome were vigorously attacked.* One of these hooks 
was entitled. The Papacy, tciih its Members painted and described,. 
by Doctor Luther. In it figured the pope, the cardinals, and all 
the religious orders, exceeding sixty, each with their costumes- 
and description in verse. Under the picture of one of these- 
orders were the following lines: 

Greedy priests, see, roll in gold, 
Forgetful of the humble Jesu: 

under another: 

■\Ve forbid you to behold 

The Bible, lest it should mislead you!» 

and under a. third: 

We ean fast and pray the harder 
"With an overflowing larder.* 

" Not one of these orders," said Luther to the reader, " thinks 
either of faith or charity. This one wears the tonsm-e, the 
other a hood; this a cloak, that a rohe. One is white, an- 
other hlack, a third gray, and a fourth hlue. Here is one 
holding a loooking-glass, there one with a pair of scissars. 
Each has his playthings . . . Ah! these are the palmer- 
worms, the locusts, the canker-worms, and the caterpiUars-, 
which, as Joel saith, have eaten up all the earth."* 

1 Elector Saxonix concilinrios bugs cxhortiitus est, in doctrlna evangeUca firtnl. 
Beckend, ii, 48. '■' Oircumferebantur item libri Lutherani venales per totam 

civitutsm. CochlcBus, p. 138. Lutheran books likewise were carried about for sale 
through the wliole city. » Da»a die Sclirift sie nicht verfiihro, Durft ihr 

keinen niclit Btudir. J>. 0pp., xix, p. S36. 'Doch war ilir kUch ulmmer leer. 

LkOpp- xi«,uji;. ' Ibiii.. 6M. Joel,!, 4. 



But if Luther employed tlie scourges of sarcasm, he also 
blew the trumpet of the prophets ; and this he did in a work 
entitled The Destruction of Jerusalem. Shedding tears like 
Jeremiah, he denounced to the German people a ruin similar 
to tliat of the holy city, if like it they rejected the Gospel. ^ 
"God has imparted to us all his treasures," exclaimed he-, 
" he hecame man, he has served us,* he died for us, he has 
risen again, and he has so opened the gates of heaven, that all 
may enter . . . The hour of grace is come . . . The glad 
tidings are proclaimed . . . But where is the city, where is th.e 
prince that has received them? They insult the Gospel : they 
draw the sword, and daring seize God hy the heard. ^ . . . But 
wait ♦. . . He v.ill turn roimd ; with one Llow will he break 
their jaws, and all Germany will be one vast ruin." 

These works had a very great sale.* They were read not 
only by the peasants and townspeople, but also by the nobles 
and princes. Leaving the priests alone at the foot of the 
altar, they threw themselves into the arms of the new Gospel.* 
The necessity of a refonn of abuses was proclaimed on the 
1st of August by a general committee. 

Then Rome, which had appeared to slumber, awoke. Fa- 
natical priests, monks, ecclesiastical princes, all gathered round 
Ferdinand. Cunning, bribery, nothing was spared. Did not 
Ferdinand possess the instructions of Seville ? To refuse their 
publication was to effect the ruin of the Church and of the 
empire. Let the voice of Charles, said they, oppose its power- 
ful veto to the dizziness that is hurrying Germany along, and 
the empire wiU be savedl Ferdinand made up his mind, and at 
length, on the Sd August, pubhslied the decree drawn up more 
than four months previously in favour of the edici of Worms. ^ 

The persecution was about to begin ; tlie reformers would 
be tlirown into dungeons, and the sword drawn on the banks 
of the Guadalqui-vir would at last pierce the bosom of the 

The effect of the imperial ordinance was immense. The 
breaking of an axletree does not more violently check the 

• Libelli, parruU quiiJem mole, sed virulentia perquam grandes, sermo Lntheri 
Teathonicus de destmctione Jerusalem. (Cochlceus, p. 138.) Broks in size indeed 
small but in virulence verj- large. Luther's sermon in German on the Destruction of 
Jerusalem. ^ Wird Mensoh. dienet uns, stirbt fur uns. Luth. Opp_ xiv, (L.) 226. 
s Greiffen Gott zu frech in den Bsirt Ibid. Deo nimis ferociter barbam vellicant. 
CochlcBus. * Perquam piurima vcnilcibantur eiemplaria. Ibid., p. 139. »Nou 
solum plebs et rustica tiirba, verum etiam plerique optimatum et nobiUtim trahe. 
bantur in favorem novi Evangelii, atque in odium antiqna; religionis. (C' chloens, p. 
160.) Not OTily the populace and peasantry, but also most of the princes ;it;d nnbles, 
were dra^rn into favour of the new gospel, and harrcU of the old reli^on. 
*Sleidan, Hist de la Ret, vi, 2-23. 


velocity of a railway train. The Elector and the landgrave 
announced that they were ahout to quit the diet, and ordered 
their attendants to prepare for their departure. At the same 
time the deputies from the cities drew towards these two 
princes, and the Reformation appeared as if it would enter im- 
mediately upon a contest with the pope and Charles the Fifth. 
But it was not yet prepared for a general struggle. The 
tree was destined to strike its root deeper, hefore the Almighty 
unchained the stormy winds against it. A spirit of blindness, 
similar to that which in former times was sent out upon Saul 
and Herod, ^ then seized upon the great enemy of the Gospel : 
and thus was it that Divine Providence saved the Reformation 
in its cradle. 

The first movement of trouble being over, the friends of the 
G ospel began to consider the date of the imperial instructions, 
and to weigh the new political combinations which seemed to 
announce to the world the most unlooked-for events. " When 
the emperor wrote these letters," said the cities of Upper Ger- 
many, " he was on good terms with the pope, but now every- 
thing is changed. It is even asserted that he told Margaret, 
his representative in the Low Countries, to proceed gently with 
respect to the Gospel. Let us send him a deputation." That 
was not necessary. Charles had not waited until now to form 
a different resolution. The course of public affairs, taking a 
sudden turn, had rushed into an entirely new path. Years of 
peace were about to be granted to the Reformation. 

Clement VII., whom Charles was about to visit, according 
to the instructions of Seville, in order to receive the imperial 
crown in Rome itself and from his sacred hands, and in return 
to give up tp the pontiii" the Gospel and the Reformation, — 
Clement VII., seized with a strange infatuation, had suddenly 
turned against this powerful monarch. The emperor, unwilling 
to favour his ambition in every point, had opposed his claims 
on the states of the Duke of Ferrara. Clement immediately 
became exasperated, and cried out that Charles wished to en- 
slave the peninsula, but tliat tlic time was come for re-establish- 
ing the independence of Italy. Tbis great idea of Italian 
independence, entertained at that period by a few literary men, 
had not, as in our days, penetrated the mass of the nation. 
Clement therefore hastened to have recourse to political combi- 
nations. The Pope, the Venetians, and the King of France, 
who had scarcely recovered his liberty, formed a holy league, 
of which the King of England was by a bull nominated the 

1 1 Sum., xvi, W-23 ; Matth., li. 


preserver and protector.^ In June 1526, tlie emperor caused 
the most favourable propositions to be presented to the pope ; 
but his advances were ineffectual, and the Duke of Sessa, 
Charles's ambassador at Rome, returning on horseback from 
his last audience, placed a court-fool behiad him, who, by a 
thousand monkey tricks, gave the Roman people to understand 
how Uttle they cared for the pope and his projects. Clement 
responded to these bravadoes by a brief, in which he threat- 
ened the emperor with excommunication, and without loss of 
time pushed his troops into Lombardy, whilst Milan, Florence, 
and Piedmont declared for the holy league. Thus was Europe 
preparing to be avenged for the triumph of Pavia. 

Charles d'd not hesitate. He wheeled to the right as quickly 
as the pope had done to the left, and turned abruptly towards 
the evangelical princes. " Let us suspend the edict of Worms," 
wrote he to his brother ; " let us bring back Luther's partisans 
by mildness, and by a good council cause the trimnph of evan- 
gelical truth." At the same time he demanded that the elec- 
tor, the landgrave, and their allies should march with him 
against the Tm-ks — or against Italy, for the common good of 

Ferdinand hesitated. To gain the friendship of the Lutherans 
was to forfeit that of the other princes, who were already be- 
ginning to utter violent threats.* The Protestants themselves 
were not very eager to take the emperor's hand. " It is God, 
God himself," they said, " who will save his churches."^ 

^Miat was to be done ? The edict of Worms could neither 
be repealed nor carried into execution. 

So strange a situation led of necessity to the desired solu- 
tion : religious liberty. The first idea of this occurreji to the 
deputies of the cities. " In one place," ^aid they, " the an- 
cient ceremonies have been preserved ; in another they have 
heen abolished ; and both think they are right. Let us allow 
every man to do as he thinks fit, imtil a council shall re-esta- 
blish the desired unity by the Word of God." This idea gained 
favour, and the recess of the diet, dated the 17th August, de- 
creed that a universal or at least a national free council should 
be convoked within a year, that they should request the empe- 
ror to return speedily to Germany, and that, \mtil then, each 

iSIeidan, Hist de la Ref. vi; Bullar.Mag.roman. x. ^Ferdir.andus, ut audio, 
graviter minatur. Corp. Ref., i, 801. » Imperator pollicetur . . . sed nemo Iiis 

prorr.issis movetur. Spero Deum defetisurum esse ?uas Ecciesias. (Ibid.) The 
emperor promises . . . but no one is moved by the^e promises. 1 hope tliat God wiU 
defend his own chmches. » 


state sho'uld behave in its own territory in such a manner as to 
be able to render an account to God and to the emperor.* 

Thus they escaped from their difficulty by a middle course ; 
and this time it was realh' the true path. Each one main- 
tained his rights, while recognising another's. The diet of 
1526 forms an important epoch in history : an ancient power, 
that of the middle ages, is shaken ; a new power, that of mo- 
dern times, is advancing ; religious liberty boldly takes its 
stand in front of Romish despotism ; a lay spirit prevails over 
the sacerdotal spirit. In this single step there is a complete 
victory : the cause of the reform is M-on. 

Yet it was little suspected. Luther, on the morrow of the 
day on which the recess was published, wrote to a friend : 
" The diet is sitting at Spires in the German fashion. They 
drink and gamble, and there is nothing done except that."' 
" Le congres danse ct ne marche pas,"^ has been said in our 
days. Great things are often transacted under an apj)earance 
of frivolity, and God accomplishes his designs unknown even 
to those whom he employs as his instruments. In this diet a 
gravity and love of liberty of conscience were manifested, which 
are the fruits of Christian! t}^ and v/hich in the sixteenth cen- 
tury had its earliest if not its most energetic development among 
the German nations. 

Yet Ferdinand still hesitated. Mahomet himself came to 
the aid of the Gospel. Louis, king of Hungary and Bohemia, 
drov/ued at Mohacz on the 20th August, 1526, as he Avas fleeing 
from before Soliman 11., had bequeathed the crown of these 
two kingdoms to Ferdinand. But the Duke of Bavaria, the 
Waywode of Transylvania, and, above all, the terrible Soli- 
man, contested it against him. This was sufficient to occupy 
Charles's brother: he left Luther, and hastened to dispute two 


It.ilian War— the Emperor's Mnnlfeito— ifarch on Rome— Revolt of tlio Troops — 
The Sack of Rome— Germiin Humours— Violence of the Spaniards — Clement VII. 

The emperor immediately reaped the fruits of his new policy. 
.'To longer having his hands tied by Germany, he turned them 
1 gainst Rome, Tlic Reformation was to be exalted and the 

1 Unuonuisqiie in »uft ditiono it.i Re geroret ut rationcm Deo ct imperntori rcddere 
wssct. Scili.tiii.. ii, 41. » I'otatur et luilitur, prtctcrea nihil. L, Epp., si, 126. 

• The coiii;ri-> .iimris but iloe».ni)t niovi; forward. 


Papacy abased. The blows aimed at its pitiless enemv were 
about to open a new career to the evangelical work. 

Ferdinand, who was detained by his Hungarian affairs, gave 
the charge of the Italian expedition to Freimdsberg, that old 
general who had in so friendly a manner patted Luther on the 
shoulder, as the Reformer was about to appear before the Diet 
of Worms.^ This veteran who, as a contemporary observes,* 
"bore in his chivali'ous heart God's holy Gospel, well fortified 
and flanked by a strong wall," pledged his wife's jewels, sent 
recruiting parties into all the towns of Upper Germany, and, 
owing to the magic idea of a war against the pope, soon wit- 
nessed crowds of soldiers flocking to his _ standard. "An- 
nounce," Charles had said to his brother, — " announce that 
the army is to march against the Turks ; every one will know 
what Turks are meant." 

Thus the puissant Charles, instead of marching with the 
pope against the Reformation, as he had threatened at Seville, 
marches with the Reformation against the pope. A few days 
had sufficed to produce this change of direction : there are few 
periods of history in which the hand of God is more plainly 
manifested. Charles immediately assumed all the airs of a 
reformer. On the 17th September, he addressed a manifesto 
to the pope,' in which he reproaches him for behaving not like 
the father of the faitloful, but like an insolent and haughty 
man;* and declares his astonishment that he, Christ's vicar, 
should dare shed blood to acquire earthly possessions, "which," 
added he, "is quite contrary to the evangelical doctrine."' 
Luther could not have spoken better. " Let your holiness," 
continued Charles the Fifth, " return the sword of St. Peter into 
the scabbard, and convoke a holy and universal council." But 
the sword was much more to the pontiff's taste than the coun- 
cil. Is not the papacy, according to the Romish doctors, the 
source of the two powers ? Can it not depose kings, and con- 
sequently fight against them?^ Charles prepared to requite 
■" eye for eye and tooth for tooth." ' 

Now began that terrible campaign during which the storm 
burst on Rome and on the Papacy that had been destined to 
fall on Germany and the Gospel. By the violence of the blows 

iSee VoL Il.b. vii, ch. viit ' Hau? marschalk, snmamed Zeller. ' Cai-oli 

Imperat. Rescriptxim ad dementis Septimi criminationes. Goldasti, Coiistitut. 
Imperiales, i, 479. * Xou jam pastori? seu communis patris laudem, sed superbi 

€t insolentis noraen. (Ibid., 487.) Xo longer the praise of a pastor or common 
father but the name of a haughty and insolent man. 5 Cum id ab evangelica 

doctrina, prorsus alienum videtur. Ibid., 489. • Utriusque potestatis apicem 

Papa tentt. (Turrecremata de Potestate Papall.) The pope is at the pinnacle of 
ijoth powers. 7 Exod-, xxi, 24. 

24 THE emperor's manifesto. 

inflicted ou the pontifical city, we may judge of the severity 
of those that would have dashed in pieces the reformed churches. 
While retracing such scenes of horror, we have constant need 
of calling to mind that the chastisement of the seven-hilled city 
had heen predicted hy the Holy Scriptures. ^ 

In the month of November, Freundsberg at the head of fif- 
teen thousand men was at the foot of the Alps. The old ge- 
neral, avoiding the military roads, that were well guarded by 
the enemy, flung himself into a narrow path, over frightful 
precipices, that a few blows of the mattock would have render- 
ed impassable. The soldiers were forbidden to look behind 
them ; nevertheless their heads turned, their feet slipped, and 
horse and foot rolled from time to time into the abyss. In the 
most difficult passes, the surest-footed of the infantry lowered 
their long pikes to the right and left of their aged chief, by 
way of barrier, and Freundsberg advanced clinging to the 
lansquenet in front, and pushed on by the one behind. In 
three days the Alps were crossed, and ou the 19th November 
the army reached the territory of Brescia. 

The Constable of Bourbon, who succeeded to the chief com- 
mand of the imperial army after the death of Pescara, had just 
taken possession of the duchy of Milan. The emperor having 
promised him this conquest for a recompense, Bourbon was 
compelled to remain there some time to consolidate his power. 
At length, on the 12th February, he and his Spanish troops 
joined the army of Freundsberg, which was becoming impa- 
tient at his delays. The constable had many men, but no mo- 
ney; he resolved therefore to follow the advice of the Duke of 
Ferrara, that inveterate enemy of the princes of the Church, 
and proceed straight to Rome.* The whole army received this 
news with a shout of joy. The Spaniards were filled with the 
desire of avenging Charles V, and the Germans Avere ovci-flow- 
ing with hatred against the pope; all exulted in the hope of 
receiving their pay and of having their labours richly repaid at 
last by those treasures of Christendom that Rome had been 
accumulating for ages. Their shouts re-echoed beyond the 
Alps. Every man in Germany thought that the last hour of 
the papacy had arrived, and prepared to contemplate its fall. 
" The emperor's forces are triumphing in Italy," wrote Lu- 
ther; ** the pope is visited from every quarter. His destruc- 
tion draweth nigh: his hour and his end are come."* 

1 Revel.. xviiL We should not Kowevcr restrict this prediction to the incompletO' 
Hack of 1.5i7, from which the city recovered. * Guieciuniini, History of the 

Wars in Italy, xviii, 698. ' Papa ubiquo visitatur, lit destruatur : venit eiiiift 

fioia et horu ejus. Luther to Ilaussiuanii, lOlh January, 1527. Kpp., iii, 15(j. 


A few slifht advantages gained by tlie papal soldiers in the- 
kino-dom of Naples led to the conclusion of a truce that was to- 
be ratified by the pope and by the emperor. As soon as thi* 
was known, a frightful tumult broke out in the constable's 
armv. The Spanish troops revolted, compelled him to flee, 
and pillaged his tent. Then approaching the lansquenets, 
they began to shout as loudly as they could, the only German 
words they knew : Lance! lance! money! money '^ Such cries 
found an echo in the bosoms of the Imperialists; they were 
moved in their turn, and also began to shout with all their 
mi"-ht: Lance! lance! money! money! Freimdsberg beat to 
muster, and having drawn up the soldiers around him and his 
principal officers, calmly demanded if he had ever deserted 
them. All was useless. The old affection which the lansque- 
nets bore to their leader seemed extinct. One chord alone 
vibrated in their hearts : they must have pay and war. Ac- 
cordingly, lowering their lances, they presented them as if 
they would slay their officers, and again began to shout, 
'* Lance ! lance ! money ! money! " ^\Tieu Freundsberg, whom 
no army however large had ever frightened, — Freundsberg, who 
was accustomed to say, " the more enemies, the greater the 
honour," saw these lansquenets, at whose head he had grown 
grey, aiming their murderous steel against him, he lost aU 
power of utterance, and fell senseless upon a di-um, as if struck 
with a thunderbolt. 2 The strength of the veteran general was 
broken for ever. But the sight of their dying captain pro- 
duced on the lansquenets an effect that no speech could have 
made. All the lances were upraised, and the agitated soldiers 
retired with downcast eyes. Four days later, Freundsberg^ 
recovered his speech. "Forward," said he to the Constable; 
" God himself will bring us to the mark." ForwardI forward! 
repeated the lansquenets. Bourbon had no alternative: be- 
sides, neither Charles nor Clement would listen to any pro- 
posals of peace. Freundsberg was carried to Ferrara, and 
afterwards to his castle of Mindelheini, where he died after an 
illness of eighteen months; and on the ISth April Bourbon took 
that high road to Rome which so many formidable armies com- 
ing from the north had already trodden. 

Whilst the storm descending from the Alps was approaching^ 
the eternal city, the pope lost his presence of mind, sent away 
his troops, and kept only his body-guard. More than 30,000- 

1 Lanz, lanz, gelt, gelt. - Cam vero bastas ducibus obrerterent indignation* 

et sepitudine animi oppressus, Fronsbergius subito in deliqaiam incidit, ita ut i3» 
. tjinpano quod adstabat desidere cogeretur, nuilumque verbum proloqui ampUas po*. 
I tet. Seckend., ii, 79. 



Romans, capable of bearing arms, paraded tlieir bravery in tho 
Btreets, di-aggiug tbeir long swords after them, quarrelling and 
£ghting; but these citizens, eager in the pursuit of gain, had 
little thought of defending the pope, and hoping to derive great 
profit from his stay, they desired on the contrary that the mag- 
nificent Charles would come and settle in Rome. 

On the evening of the 5th May Bourbon arrived under the walls 
of the capital; and he would have begun the assault at that very 
moment had he been provided with ladders. On the morning 
of the 6th, the army, concealed by a thick fog which hid their 
movements,^ was put in motion, the Spaniards marching to 
their station above the gate of the Holy Ghost, and the Ger- 
mans below.* The constable, wishing to encourage his soldiers, 
seized a scaling-ladder, mounted the wall, and called on them 
to follow him. At this moment a ball struck him: he fell, and 
expired an hour after. Such was the end of this unhappy man, 
.a traitor to his king and to his country, and suspected even by 
his new friends. 

His death, far from checking, served only to excite the army, 
Claudius Seidenstucker, grasping his long sword, first cleared 
the wall; he v/as followed by Michael Hartmann, and these twa 
reformed Germans exclaimed that God himself was marching 
before them in the clouds. The gates were opened, the army 
poured in, the suburbs were taken, and the pope, surrounded 
by thirteen cardinals, fled to the castle of St. Angelo. The 
Imperialists, at whose head was now the prince of Orange, of- 
fered him peace on condition of his paj'ing 300,000 crowns. 
,lBut Clement, who thought that the holy league Avas on the 
' jpoint of delivering him, and fancied he already saw their lead- 
ing horsemen, rejected every proposition. After four hours' 
repose, the attack Avas renewed, and by sunset the arm}' was 
master of all the (nty. It remained under arms and in good 
order until midnight, the Spaniards in tho Piazza Navona, 
and the Germans in the Carapofiore. At last, seeing no de- 
monstrations either of war or peace, the soldiers disbanded and 
ran to pillage. 

Then began the famous " Sack of Rome." The papacy had 
for centuries put Christendom in the press. Prebends, annates, 
jubilees, pilgrimages, ecclesiastical graces, — she had made 
money of them all. These greedy troops, that for months had 
lived in wretchedness, determined to make her disgorge. No 

» OuicciardinI, ii, 721. - Since the new wall bnllt V Urban VIII, on the 

topof tho Jaiiiculuro, the gates of the Holy Ghost ond of Seltimiana have become 


•one "vras spared, the imperial not more than tlie ultramontane 
party, the Ghibellines not more than the Guelfs. Churches, 
palaces, "convents, private houses, basUics, banks, tombs — every- 
thing vras piUaged, even to the golden ring that the corpse of 
Julius II. still -wore on its finger. The Spaniards displayed the 
greatest skUl, scenting out and discovering treasures in the most 
mysterious hiding-places; but the Neapolitans were the most 
outrageous.^ "On every side were heard," says Guicciardini, 
"the piteous shi-ieks of the Roman women and of the nxms. 
whom the soldiers dragged away by companies to satiate their 

At first the Germans found a certain pleasure in making the 
papists feel the weight of their swords. But erelong, happy at 
procuring victuals and di-ink, they were more pacific than their 
allies. It was upon those things which the Romans called 
"holy" that the anger of the Lutherans was especially dis- 
charged. They took away the chalices, the pyxes, the silver 
remoutranceS, and clothed their servants and camp-boys with 
the sacerdotal garments.' The Campofiore was changed into 
an immense gambling-house. The soldiers brought thither 
golden vessels and bags full of crowns, staked them upon one 
throw of the dice, and after losing them went in search of others. 
A certain Simon Baptista, who had foretold the sack of the 
city, had been thrown into prison by the pope; the Gennans 
liberated liim, and made him drink with them. But, like Jere- 
miah, he prophesied against all. "Rob, plunder," cried he to 
his liberators; "you shall however give back all; the money of 
the soldiers and the gold of the priests will follow the same 

Nothing pleased the Germans more than to mock the papal 
court. "Many prelates," says Guicciardini. "were paraded 
on asses through all the city of Rome."* After this proces- 
sion, the bishops paid their ransom; but they fell into the 
hands of the Spaniards, who made them pay it a second time.* 

One day a lansquenet, named Guillaimie de Sainte Celle, put 
on the pope's robes, and placed the triple crown upon his head; 
others gathered round him, adorning themselves with the red 
hats and long robes of the cardinals ; and going in procession 
upon asses through the streets of the city, they all arrived at 

1 Jovius Vita Vompeii Colonna, p. 191 ; Ranke, Deutsche Cesch, ii, 393. ^ Guic- 
ciar.lini, ii, "it, * Sacras Testes profanis induebant lixis. (Cochloeus, p. 156.) 

They put the sacred parraents on profane scullions. * Wars of Italy, ii, 723. 

* Eundem civem seu curialem baud raro, nunc ab Hispanis, nunc a Germanis sere 
miKuato redimi. (Cochlosus p. 156.) The same citizen, or courtier, was not unfr*. 
jiUcntly rans.:)med witli borrowed money, at one time, from the Spaniards, and at 
another, from tiie Germans. 


last before the castle of St. Angelo, to whicli Clement VII, 
had retired. Here the soldier-cardinals alighted, and lifting 
up the front of their robes, kissed the feet of the pretended 
pontiff. The latter drank to the health of Clement VII., the 
cardinals kneeling did the same, and exclaimed that hencefor- 
ward they "would be pious popes and good cardinals, careful 
not to excite wars as their predecessors had done. They then 
formed a conclave, and the pope having announced to his con- 
sistory that it was his intention to resign the papacy, all hands 
were immediately raised for the election, and they cried out, 
" Luther is pope ! Luther is pope ! " ^ Never had pontiff been 
proclaimed with such perfect unanimity. Such were the 
humours of the Germans. 

The Spaniards did not let the Romans off so easily. Cle- 
ment VII. had called them "Moors," and had published a 
plenary indulgence for whoever should kill any of them. 
Nothing, therefore, could restrain their fury. These faithful 
Catholics put the prelates to death in the midst of horrible 
cruelties, destined to extort their ti-casures from them: they 
spared neither rank, sex, nor age. It was not until the sack 
had lasted ten days, and a booty of ten millions of golden 
crowns had been collected, and from five to eight thousand 
victims had perished, that quiet began to be in some degree 

Thus did the pontifical city decline in the midst of a long 
and cruel pillage, and that splendour with which Rome from 
the beginning of the sixteenth century had filled the world, 
faded in a few hours. Nothing could preserve this haughty 
capital from chastisement, not even the prayers of its enemies. 
" I would not have Rome burnt," Luther had exclaimed ; " it 
would be a monstrous deed." ^ The fears of Melancthon were 
still keener: "I tremble for the libraries," said he: "we 
know how hateful books arc to Mars."^ But in despite of 
these wishes of the reformers, the city of Leo X. fell under the 
judgment of God. 

Clement VII., besieged in the castle of Saint Angelo, and 
fcaifid that the enemy would blow his asylum into the air with 
their mines, at last capitulated. lie renounced every alliance 
against Cliarles the Fiftli, and bound himself to remain a pri- 
soner until he had paid the army four hundred thousand ducats. 
The evangelical Christians gazed with astonishment on this judg- 

^ Militesitaque levasse iiianum ac cxclnmngse: Luthenis Pupa! Lutlicms Papa!' 
(CochlteuR, p. 15G.) Tho soldiers raistii their hands ami exchiiinHii : LutheP 
is jiojie ! Luther is pope ! ^ Uoiiiam nnUein exustam, ni«Kinnn enira porten- 

turn csscU Epp. iii, -"-1. ' Mttuo l)iblioUKcis. Corp. Jlel'.. i, ht.i>. 


ment of the Lord. "Such," said they, "is the empire of 
Jesus Christ, that the emperor, pursuing Luther ou hehalf of 
the pope, is constrained to ruin the pope instead of Luther. 
All things minister unto the Lord, and turn against his adver- 


Profitable Calm— Constitution of the Church— Philip of Hess«— The Hook of 
Marburg — Lambert's Paradoxes — Friar Boniface — Disputation at Hamburg — 
Triumph of tlie Gospel in Hesse — Constitution of the Church— Bishops — Synods 
— Tuo Elements of the Church — Luther on the Ministry — Organization of the 
Church — Luther's Contradictions on State Interference — Luther to the Elector — 
German Ma«= — Melaiicthon's Instructions— DisaflFection — Visitation of the R*-- 
formed Churches — Results — The Reformation advauces — Elizabeth of Brandeu- 

The Reformation needed some years of repose that it might 
increase and gain strength; and itcoidd not enjoy peace, unless 
its great enemies were at war with each other. The madness 
of Clement VIL was as it were the lightning-conductor of the 
Reformation, and the ruins of Rome huilt up the Gospel. It 
was not only a few months' gain; from 1526 to 1529 there was a 
calm in Germany, by which the Reformation profited to or- 
ganize and extend itself. A constitution was now to be given 
to the renovated Church. 

As the papal yoke had been broken, the ecclesiastical order 
required to be re-established. It was impossible to restore 
their ancient jurisdiction to the bishops; for these continental 
prelates maintained that they were, in an especial manner, the 
pope's servants. A new state of things was therefore called 
for, under pain of seeing the Church fall into anarchy. This 
was immediately provided against. It was then that the evan- 
gelical nations separated definitely from that despotic dominion 
which had for ages kept all the West in bondage. 

The diet had already on two occasions wished to make the 
reform of the Church a national work; the emperor, the pope, 
and a few princes were opposed to it; the diet of Spires had 
therefore resigned to each state the task that it could not ac- 
complish itself. 

But what constitution were they about to substitute for the 
papal hierarchy? 

They could, while suppressing the pope, preserve the Epis- 
copal order: it was the form nearest approximating that which 
was on the point of being destroyed. This was done in Eng- 

> Ut Crcsar pro Papa Lutheruni persequens, pro I.uthero papam cogatur vastare. 
L Epp., iii, ISS. 


land, where v-e have an Episcopalian Church; hut, as we have 
just observed, it could not be realized on the continent. There 
vrere no Latimers, no Cranmers among the continental bishops. 

They might, on the contrary, reconstruct the ecclesiastical 
order, by having recourse to the sovereignty of God's V/ord, 
and by re-establishing the rights of the christian people. This 
form was the most remote from the Roman hierarchy. Between 
these two extremes there were several middle courses. 

The latter plan ^as Zwingle's: but the reformer of Zm-ich 
had not fully carried it out. He had not called upon the 
cliristian people to exercise the sovereignty, and had stopped 
at the Council of Two Hundred as representing the Church. ^ 

The step before which Zwingle had hesitated might be taken, 
and it was so. A prince did not shrink from Avhat had alarmed 
even republicans. Evangelical Germany, at the moment when 
she began to try her hand on ecclesiastical constitutions, begau 
with that which trenched deepest on the papal monarcliy. 

It was not, liowever, from Germany that such a system could 
proceed. If aristocratic England was destined to chng to the 
episcopal form, docile Germany was destined the rather to stop 
in a governmental medium. The democratic extreme issued 
from Switzerland and France. One of Calvin's predecessor^ 
now hoisted that flag which the powerful arm of the Geneves© 
Keformer was to lift again in after-years and plant in France, 
Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, and even in England, whence 
it was a century later to cross the Atlantic and summon North 
America to take its rank among the nations. 

Philip of Hesse, who has been compared to Philip of Mace- 
don in subtlety, and to his son Alexander in courage, was the 
most enterprising of all the evangelical princes. Philip com- 
prehended that religion was at length acquiring its due impor- 
tance ; and far from opposing the great development that was 
agitating the people, he put himself in harmony with the new 

The morning-star had risen for Hesse almost at the same 
time as for Saxony. In 1517, when Luther in Wittemberg 
was preaching the gratuitous remission of sins, men and 
women in Marburg were seen repairing secretly to one of the 
ditches of the city, and there, collected round a solitary loop- 
hole, listening eagerly to the words of consolation that issued 
from within. It was the voice of the Franciscan, James^ 
Limburg, who, having declared that for fifteen centuries th& 

I Supra, Vol. Ill b, xi, ch, x. 


priests had falsified the Gospel of Christ, had been throxm into 
this gloomy dungeon. These mysterious assemblies lasted & 
fortnight. On a sudden the voice -was silent; these lonely 
meetinors had been discovei-ed, and the Franciscan, torn from 
his cell, had been hurried away across the Lahnberg towards 
some unknown spot. Not far. from the Ziegenberg, some 
weeping citizens of ilarburg came up with him, and hastily 
pulling aside the awning that covered his car, they asked him, 
" \Miither are you going? " " Where God wills," calmly re- 
plied the friar.i He was never heard of again, and it is not 
known what became of him. These disappearances are usual 
in the papacy. 

Xo sooner had Philip prevailed in the Diet of Spires, than 
he resolved on devoting himself to the reformation of his here- 
ditary states. 

His resolute character made him incline towards the Swiss 
reform: it was not therefore one of the moderates that he 
wanted. He had formed a connexion at Spires with James 
Sturm, the deputy from Strasburg, who spoke to him of 
Francis Lambert of Avignon, who was then at Strasburg. Of 
a pleasing exterior and decided character, Lambert combined 
with the fire of the south all the perseverance of the north. 
He was the first in France to throw off the cowl, and from 
that time he had never ceased to caU for a thorough reform in 
the Church. •' Foi-merly," said he, " when I was a hypocrite, 
I lived in abmidance ; now I consume frugally my daily bread 
with my small family;- but I had rather be poor in Christ's 
kingdom, than possess abundance of gold in the dissolute dwel- 
lings of the pope." The landgrave saw that Lambert was just 
the man he required, and invited him to his court. 

Lambert, desiring to clear the way for the reformation of 
Hesse, drew up one himdred and fifty-eight theses, which he 
entitled "paradoxes," and posted theip, according to the cus- 
tom of the times, on the church doors. 

Friends and enemies immediately crowded round them. 
Some Roman-catholics would have torn them down, but the 
reformed townspeople kept watch, and holding a synod in the 
public square, discussed, developed, and proved these proposi- 
tions, ridiculing at the same time the anger of the papists. 

Boniface Dornemann, a young priest, full of self-conceit, 
whom the bishop, on the day of his consecration, had extolled 

I Rommel, Phil, von Hesse, i, 12S. ' Xunc com familiula mea panem man. 

duco et potom capio in mensora. (Lamberti Commeutarii de Sacro Conjugio.} Xow 
whh vaj small familj I eat bread and take drink in moderation. 


al)Ove Paul foi- liis learning, and above the Virgin for liis chas- 
tity, finding himself too short to reach Lambert's placard, bor- 
rowed a stool, and, surrounded by a numerous audience, began 
to read the propositions aloud,' 

" All that is deformed ought to be reformed. The Word of 
God alone teaches us what ought to be so, and all reform that 
is effected otherwise is vain."^ 

This was the first thesis. " Hem!" said the young priest, 
*' I shall not attack that." He continued. 

" It belongs to the Church to judge on matters of faith. 
Now the Church is the congregation of those who are united 
by the same spirit, the same faith, the same God, the same 
Mediator, the same Word, by which alone they are governed, 
and in which alone they have life."' 

I cannot attack that proposition," said the priest.* He 
continued reading from his stool. 

" The Word is the true key. The kingdom of heaven is 
open to him who believes the Word, and shut against him whc? 
believes it not. Whoever, therefore, truly possesses the Word 
of God, has the power of the keys. All other keys, all the 
decrees of the councils and popes, and all the rules of the monks, 
are valueless." 

Friar Boniface shook his head and continued. 

" Since the priesthood of the law has been abolished, Christ 
is the only immortal and eternal priest, and he does not, like 
men, need a successor. Neither the Bishop of Rome nor any 
other person in the world is his representative hero, below. But 
all Christians, since the commencement of the Church, have 
been and are participators in his priesthood." 

This proposition smelt of heresy. Dornemann, however, was 
not discouraged ; and whether it was from weakness of mind, 
or from the dawning of light, at each proposition that did not 
too much shock his prejudices, he repeated: " Certainly, 1 shall 
not attack that one!" The people listened in astonishment, 
when one of them — whether he was a fanatical Romanist, a 
fanatical reformer, or a mischievous wag, I cannot tell — tired 
with these continual repetitions, exclaimed; " Get down, you 

'Cum stiitura homines hiijusmodi esset ut inter ryumicos intcrnosci diflSculter 
posset, scabfllum sibi liari poatuhibut, eoque consci-iiso, cocpit, &.C. (Otlion. Melandri 
Jocoriim Cent.) As liis stiiture was ot'a kind wliii'h would have made it difficult 
to distinguish him among pigmie!., he called for a stool and having mounted it began, 
etc. ^Vanaest omnis Refomiatio quiu alioqui fit. raradoxa I.aniberti: 

Sculteti Annal. ^ Eiclesia est ooiigri(;atio eorum quos unit idem spiritus 

(Ibid.} The church is the congregation ot llinse whom tlio same spirit unites- 
* Ilanc I'quidem hand inipuguavLrlni. lUum no qnidciii attigeiim. Otlion. Mil. Joe. 


knave, who cannot find a -word to impugn." Then rudelj 
pulling away the stool, he threw the unfortunate clerk flat in 
the mud.i 

On the 21st Octoher, at seven in the morning, the gates of 
the principal church at Homburg were thrown open, and pre- 
lates, abbots, priests, counts, knights, and deputies of the towns, 
entered in succession, and among them was Philip, in his qua- 
lity of first member of the church. 

After Lambert had explained and proved his theses, he added: 
** Let him stand forth who has anything to say against them." 
At first there was a profound silence; but at length Nicholas 
Ferber, superior of the Franciscans of Marburg, who in 1524, 
apph-ing to Rome's favourite argument, had entreated the 
Landgrave to employ the sword against the heretics, began to 
«peak with drooping head and downcast eyes. As he invoked 
Augustin, Peter Lombard, and other doctors to his assistance, 
the landgrave observed to him: " Do not put forward the 
wavering opinions of men, but the "Word of God, which alone 
fortifies and strengthens our hearts.'' The Franciscan sat 
down in confusion, saying, " This is not the place for reply- 
ing," The disputation, however, recommenced, and Lambert, 
showing all the power of truth, so astonished his adver- 
sary, that the superior, alarmed at what he called " thun- 
ders of blasphemy and lightnings of impiety,"* sat down 
again, observing a second time, " This is not the place fcr 

In vain did the Chancellor Feige declare to him that each 
man had the right of maintaining his opinion with full liberty; 
in vain did the landgrave himself exclaim that the Church was 
sighing after truth; silence had become Rome's refuge. " I 
will defend the doctrine of purgatory," a priest had said prior 
to the discussion; •' I will attack the paradoxes under the sixth 
head (on the true priesthood)," had said another; ' and a third 
had exclaimed, " I will overthrow those under the tenth head 
(on images): but now they were all dumb. 

Upon this Lambert, clasping his hands, exclaimed with 
Zacharias: Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for ke hath visited 
and redeemed his people. 

1 Apagesis, nebulo ! qui quod impngnes infinnesqaa invenire haud possis ! Usque 
dictis scabellum ei mox subtrahit, ut miser ille praceps in luturn ageretur. (Ibid.) 
Begone, miscreant! You cannot find any thing to impugn and invalidate. With these 
words he pulls the stool from under him, and the poor clerk tumbles headlong into the 
Toxn. _ ^ 3 Fnlgu^a impietatum, tonitrua blasphemiarum. ' Erant 

enim prius qui dicerent as*eram pnrgatorium ; alius, Ego impug^abo paradosa 

tituU sexti, etc. Lamt srola ad Colon. 

9 C 


After three days of discussion, which had been a continual 
triumph for the evangelical doctrine, men were selected and 
commissioned to constitute the churches of Hesse in accordance 
"with the Word of God. They Avere more than three days occu- 
pied in the task, and their new constitution Avas then published 
in the name of the synod. 

The first ecclesiastical constitution produced by the Refor- 
mation should have a place in history, and the more so as 
it was then put forward as a model for the new churches of 
Christendom. ^ 

The autonomy of self-government of the Church is its fun- 
damental principle : it is from the Church, from its represen- 
tatives assembled in the name of the Lord, that this legislation 
emanates ; there is no mention in the prologue either of state 
or of landgrave.* Philip, content with having broken for him- 
self and for his people the yoke of a foreign priest, had no de- 
sire to put himself in his place, and was satisfied with that 
external superintendence which is necessary for the mainten- 
ance of order. 

A second distinctive feature in this constitution is its sim- 
plicity both of government and worship. The assembly con- 
jures all future synods not to load the churches with a multi- 
tude of ordinances, •' seeing that where orders abound disorder 
superabounds." They would not even continue the organs in 
the churches, "because," said they, " men should understand 
what they hear."^ The more the human mind has been bent 
in one direction, the more violent is the reaction when it is un- 
bent. The Church passed at that time from the extreme of 
symbols to the extreme of simplicity. These are the principal 
features of this constitution : — 

" The Church can only be taught and governed by the Word 
of its Sovereign Pastor. Whoever has recourse to any other 
word shall be deposed and excf .ununicated.* 

" Every pious man, learned in the Word of God, whatever 
be his condition, may be elec1-.,d bishop if he desire it, for he is 
called inwardly of God.' 

» This constitution will be found in SchniinUe, Monumenta Ilassiac.i, vol. ii, p. 588 : 
" Pro IlassisE Ecclesiis, et si deinde nonnuUas alicB ad idem nostra exemplo provocar. 
entur." For the churches of Ilesso, and any otliers who may tliereupon bo stimulated 
by our example to do the same. 2 Synodus in nomine Pomint congi-egata. 

(Ibid.) Tlie synod assembled in name of the Lord. ' Ne homines non in- 

tellignnt. (Ibid. cap. 3.) Lest men nhould not understand. ♦ Non admittimus 

verbum aliud quam ipsius pastoris iiostri. (Ibid. , cap. •.>.) We admit not any other 
word than that of our pastor himself. ' Si quis pius, in vcrbo sancto ot excr- 

citatus, doccre petit verbum sanctum, non rcpcllatur, a Deo cnim interne mitutur. 
(Ibid. cap. 23.) If any man who is \)iou» and skilled in the holy Word seeks to tomb 
the holy Word, let him uot be repulsed, for he is sent internally by God. 


*• Let no one believe that by a bishop we understand any 
thing else than a simple minister of the Word of God.^ 

" The ministers are servants, and consequently they ought 
not to be lords, princes, or governors. 

" Let the faithful assemble and choose their bishops and 
deacons. Each church should elect its own pastor.* 

" Let those who are elected bishops be consecrated to their 
office by the imposition of the hands of three bishops ; and as 
for the deacons, if there are no ministers present, let them re- 
ceive the laying on of hands from the elders of the Church.' 

" If a bishop causes any scandal to the chxirch by his effe- 
minacy, by the splendour of his garments, or by levity of con- 
duct, and if, ou being warned, he persists, let him be deposed 
by the Church.* 

" Let each chiu-ch place its bishop in a condition to live with 
Ms family, and to be hospitable, as St. Paul enjoins; but let 
the bishops exact nothing for their casual duties.* 

" On every Sunday let there be, in some suitable place, aa 
assembly of aU the men who are in the number of the saints, 
to regulate with the bishop, according to God's Word, all tho 
affairs of the Church, and to excommunicate whoever gives oc- 
casion of scandal to the Church; for the Church of Chiist has 
never existed without exercising the power of excommunica- 

" As a weekly assembly is necessary for the dii-ection of the 
particiilar chm-ches, so a general synod should be held annu- 
ally for the direction of all the churches in the country." 

" AU the pastoi-s are its natural members ; but each church 
shall further elect from its body a man full of the Spirit and of 
faith, to whom it shall entrust its powers for all that is in the 
jurisdiction of the synod.® 

" Three visitors shall be elected yearly, with commission to 

1 Xe quis putet, nos hie per episcopos, alios inteUigere, qnam ministros Dei verbi. 
(Schminke, Honumenta Hassiaca, cap. 2.) Let no one suppose that by bishops w« 
here understand any other than ministers of the Word of Goo. ^Eligat qua!%'i3 

eccJesia episcopum suum. (Ibid., cap. 23.) Let every chnrch choose its own bi^hcp. 

* Manus imponant duo ex senioribus, nisi alii episcopi intersint. (lb. c. 21.) Let 
two of the elders lav on hands if other bishops be not present * Depnnat 
ecclesia episcopum suum quod ad earn spectet judicarede voce pastornm. (Ib.,c.23.) 
Let the church depose its bishop because it pertains to it to judge the voice of pastors. 

* Alat quae^•is ecclesia t-piscopum suum sicque illi administret nt cum sua familia 
Tivere possit. (Ibid., cap. 23.) Let every church maintain its bishop, and so maintain 
that he may be able to Uve iivith his famUy. 6 pjat conventus fideUum in congnio 
loco, ad quem quotquot ex viris in sanctorum numero habentur . . . ChrifU ecde. 
siam nunquam ^uisfe sine Ibid, cap. 15. ' Ct seniel 
pro toto Hessia celebretur synodus apud ilarpurgum tertia dominica post pascha, 
ilid, cap. 18. » Universi episcopi . . . Quailibet ecclesia congregetur et eUgat 
ex se ipsa tinnm plenum fide et Spiritu Dei. (Ibid.) All Uie bishops. .. .Let each 
church meet and elect from itseUone fuU of faith and of the Spiritof God. 


go througt all the churches, to examine those ■who have been 
elected bishops, to confirm those who have been approved of, 
and to provide for the execution of the decrees of the synod." 
It will no doubt be found that this first evangelical constitu- 
tion went in some points to the extreme of ecclesiastical demo- 
cracy; but certain institutions had crept in that were capable 
of increase and of changing its nature. Six superintendents 
for life were afterwards substituted for the three annual visi- 
ters (who, according to the primitive institution, might be sim- 
ple members of the church); and, as has been remarked,^ the 
encroachments, whether of these superintendents or of the state, 
gradually paralyzed the activity and independence of the 
churches of Hesse. This constitution fared like that of the 
Abbe Siej^es, in the year 8, (a.d. 1799,) which, intended to be 
republican, served, through the influence of Napoleon Bonaparte 
to establish the despotism of the Empire. 

It Avas not the less a remarkable work. Romish doctors have 
reproached the Reformation for making the Church a too inte- 
rior institution.2 In effect, the Reformation and Popery recog- 
nise two elements in the Church, — the one exterior, the other 
interior; but while Popery gives precedence to the former, the 
Refoi-mation assigns it to the latter. If however it be a re- 
proach against the Reformation for having an inward Church 
only, and for not creating an external one, the remarkable con- 
stitution of which we have just exhibited a few featm-es, will 
save us the trouble of reply. The exterior ecclesiastical order, 
which then sprung from the very heart of the Reformation, is 
far more perfect than that of Popery. 

One great question presented itself : Will these principles be 
adopted by all the Churches of the Reformation ? 

Every thing seemed to indicate that they would. ^ At that time 
the most pious men were of opinion that the ecclesiastical power 
proceeded from the members of the Church. On withdrawing from 
the hierarchical extreme, they flung themselves into a demo- 
cratical one. Luther himself had professed this doctrine as eariy 
as 1523. When the Cahxtins of Bohemia found that the bishops 
of their country refused them ministers, they had gone so far 
as to take the first vagabond priest. " If you have no other 
means of procuring pastors," wrote Luther to them, "rather 
do without them, and let each head of a family read the Gos- 
pel in his own house, and baptize his children, sighing after 

» RettiK Die Frcie Kirclie. ^ This is the opinion sot fortli in tlio Symholih 

of Dr Mbhler. the most celebrated defender of the Komish d.Hitrine among our cou- 


the sacrament of the altar as the Jews at Babylon did for Je- 
rusalem.' The consecration of the Pope creates priests — not 
of God, but of the Devil, ordained solely to trample Jesus Christ 
under foot, to bring his sacrifice to naught, and to sell imagin- 
ary holocausts to the world in his name.^ Men become mini- 
sters only by election and calling, and that ought to be effect- 
ed in the following manner : 

"First, seek God by prayer ;3 then being assembled toge- 
ther with all those whose hearts God has touched, choose in 
the Lord's name him or them whom you shall have acknow- 
ledged to be fitted for this ministry. After that, let the chief 
men among you lay their hands on them, and recommend them 
to the people and to the Church."* 

Luther, in thus calling upon the people alone to nominate 
their pastors, submitted to the necessities of the times in Bo- 
hemia. It was requisite to constitute the ministry; and as the 
ministry had no existence, it could not then have the legitimate 
part that belongs to it in the choice of God's ministers. 

But another necessity, proceeding in like manner from the 
Btate of affairs, was to incline Luther to deviate ia Saxony 
from the principles he had formerly laid down. 

It can hardly be said that the German Reformation began 
with the lower classes, as in S^vitzorland and France; au(] 
Luther could scarcely find anywhere that cluistian people, 
which should have played so graat a part in his new constitu- 
tion. Ignorant men, conceited townspeople, who woidd not 
even maintain their ministers — these were the members of the 
Church. Now what could be done with such elements? 

But if the people were indifferent, the princes were not so. 
They stood in the foremost rank of tlie great battle of the Re- 
formation, and sat on ^e first bench in the council. The de- 
mocratic organization was therefore compelled to give way to 
an organization conformable to the civil government. The 
Church is composed of Christians, and they are taken wher- 
ever they are foimd — ^high or low. It was particularly in high 
stations that Luther found them. He admitted the princes (as 

1 Tntius enim ct salubrios esset, quemlibet patrem-famaias su^e dcmui legere 
Evagelium. (L. 0pp. Lat. ii. p. 363 ) For it were safer and more salutary for each 
head of a family to read the gospel to his house. ' Per ordines papisticos non 

sacerdotes Dei sed sacerdotes Satans, tantum ut Christum conculcent (Ibid., p. 
8S4.) By papistical orders they are not priests of God but priests of Satan only that 
they may trample upon Christ * Orationibus turn privatis turn publicis. 

(Ibid., p. 370.) By prayers both public and private. * Eligite quem et quo* 

volueritis. Turn impositis super eos manibus, sint hoc ipso vestri episcopi, vestri 
ministri, seu pastores. (L. 0pp. Lat, ii, p. 370.) Choose what person or persons so- 
ever you may have desired. Then, after hands have been laid upon them, let them 
by this rery act be your bisliops, your ministers, or pastors. 

38 Luther's contradictions on state-interference. 

Zwingle did the Council of Two Hundred) as representatives of 
the people, and henceforward the influence of the State became 
one of the principal elements in the constitution of the evange- 
lical Church in Germany. 

Thus Luther, setting out in principle from the democratic, 
arrived in fact at the Erastian extreme. Never perhaps was 
there so immense a space between the premises laid down by 
any man and the conduct he adopted. If Luther crossed that 
wide interval without hesitation, it was not from mere incon- 
sistency on his part; he yielded to the necessities of the times. 
The rules of Church government are not, like the doctrines of 
the Gospel, of an absolute nature; their application depends in 
a measure on the state of the Church. Nevertheless there was 
some inconsistency in Luthe)-: he often expressed himself in a 
contradictory manner on what princes ought and ought not to 
do in the Church. This is a point upon which the reformer 
and his age had no very settled opinions : there were other 
questions to be cleared up. 

In the mind of the reformer the tutelage of the princes was 
only to be provisional. The faithful being still in their mino- 
rity, they had need of a guardian: but the era of the Church's 
majority might arrive, and then would come its emancipation. 

As we said in another place,^ we will not decide on this great 
controversy of Church and State. But there are certain ideas 
n-hich can never be forgotten. God is the principle from which 
every being emanates, and who ought to govern the ■whole world 
— societies as Avell as individuals — the State not less than the 
Church. God has to do with governments, and governments 
with God. The great truths of which the Church is the depo- 
sitory are given from above to exert their influence on the whole 
nation, — on him who is seated on the throne, as well as on the 
peasant in his cottage: and it is not only as an individual that 
the prince must be partaker of this heavenly light; it is also 
that he may receive a Divine wisdom as governor of his people. 
God must be in the State. To place nations, governments, 
social and political life on one side, — and God, his Word, and 
his Church on the other, as if there were a great gulf be- 
tween them, and that these two orders of things should never 
meet, — would be at once high treason against man and against 

But if there ought to be a close union between these two 
spheres (the Church and State), we ought to seek the means 

^Vol. II. 

Luther's letter to the elector. 39 

best calculated to obtain it. Now, if tbe direction of tbe 
Cburcb is intrusted to the civil government, as was tbe case in 
Saxony, tbere is great reason to fear lest tbe reality of tbis 
union sbould be compromised, and tbe infiltration of beavenly 
etrenftb into tbe body of tbe nation be obstructed. Tbe Cburcb 
administered by a civil department will often be sacrificed to 
pobtical ends, and, gradually becoming secularized, will lose 
its pristine vigour, Tbis at least bas taken place in Germany, 
wbere in some places rebgion bas sunk to tbe rank of a temporal 
administration. In order tbat any created being may exercise 
all tbe influence of wbicb it is capable, it ougbt to bare a free 
development. Let a tree grow unconfined in tbe open fields, 
vou will better enjoy its cool sbade, and gatber more abimdant 
fruits, tban if you planted it in a vase and sbut it up in your 
cbamber. Sucb a tree is tbe Cburcb of Cbrist. 

Tbe recourse to tbe civil power, wbicb was perbaps at tbat 
time necessary in Germany, bad stiU anotber consequence; wben 
Protestantism became an affair of governments it ceased to be 
universal. Tbe new spii'it was capable of creating a new eartb. 
But instead of opening new roads and of purposing tbe regene- 
ration of aU Cbristendom and tbe conversion of tbe wbole world. 
Protestantism sbrank back, and Protestants sougbt to settle 
tbemselves as comfortably as possible in a few German ducbies. 
Tbis timidity, wbicb bas been called prudence, did immense 
injury to tbe Reformation. 

Tbe organizing power being once discovered in tbe councils 
of tbe princes, tbe reformers tbougbt of Organization, and 
Lutber appbed to tbe task; for altbougb be was in an especial 
manner an assailant and Calvin an organizer, tbese two quali- 
ties, as necessary to tbe reformers of tbe Church as to tbe 
founders of empires, were not wanting in either of tbese great 
servants of God. 

It was necessary to compose a new ministry, for most of tbe 
priests who bad quitted tbe papacy were content to receive the 
watchword of Reform without having personally experienced 
the sanctifying virtue of tbe truth. There was even one parish 
in wbicb tbe priest preached tbe Gospel in his principal church, 
and sang mass in its succursal.^ 

But something more was wanting: a Christian people had to 
be created. "Alas," said Lutber of some of tbe adherents of 
tbe Reform, "they have abandoned their Romish doctrines and 
rit€s, and they scoff at ours."* 

* In aede parocbiali evangelico more decebat, in filiali missificabat S«ck.,p.IOZ. 

' Sic enirn sua papistica neglcxerut.t, et nostra contemnuiit. L. Epp., ili, 234. 


Luther did not shrink from before this double necessity; and 
he made provision for it. Convinced that a general visitation 
of the churches was necessary, he addressed the elector on 
this subject, on the 22nd October, 1526. "Your highness, 
in your quality of guardian of youth, and of all those who 
know not how to take care of themselves," said he, "should 
compel the inhabitants, who desire neither pastors nor schools,, 
to receive these means of grace, as they are compelled to work 
on the roads, on bridges, and such like services.^ The papal 
order being abolished, it is your duty to regulate these things: 
no other person cares about them, no other can, and no other 
ought to do so. Commission, therefore, four persons to visit all 
the country; let two of them inquire into the tithes and church 
l)ropcrty; and let two take charge of the doctrine, schools, 
churches, and pastors." It may be asked, on reading these 
words, Avhether the church which was formed in the first cen- 
century without the support of princes, could not in the six- 
teenth be reformed without them? 

Luther was not content with soliciting in writing the in- 
tervention of the prince. He was indignant at seeing the 
com-tiers, who in the time of the elector Frederick had showa 
themselves the inveterate enemies of the Eeformation, now 
rushing, "sporting, laughing, skipping," as he said, on the 
spoils of the Church. Accordingly, at the end of this year, 
the elector having come to Wittemberg, the reformer repaired 
immediately to the palace, made his complaint to the prince- 
electoral, whom he met at the gate, and then, without caring 
about those who would have stopped him, forced his way into 
the elector's bed-chamber, and addressing this prince, who wa& 
surprised at so unexpected a visit, begged him to remedy the 
evils of the Church. The visitation of the churches was re- 
solved upon, and Melancthon was commissioned to draw up the 
necessary instructions. 

In 1526, Luther published his "German Mass," by which 
he signified the order of church service in general. "The real 
evangelical assembUes," he said, "do not take place pubhcly, 
pell-mell, admitting people of every sort;'' but they are formed 
of serious Christians, who confess the Gospel by their word* 
and by their livcs,^ and in the midst of whom we may reprove 
and excommunicato those wlio do not live according to the rule 

» Als oberstcr vormund der Jugend und aller die cs bedurfen, soil ale mlt Gewalt 
dazu lialten. L. Epp., iii, 186. 3 Non publico, sive promiscuo et admissa ora- 

nig generis plebe. (I)u Missa Germ.) Not publicly or promiscuously and admitting- 
people of all deecriptioDS. » Qui nomina sua in catalogum referrent, add* 

be. (Ibid.) 


of Christ Jesus. 1 I cannot institute such assemblies, for I have- 
no one to place in them;* but if the thing becomes possible, I 
shall not be wanting in this duty." 

It was with a conriction that he must give the Church, not 
the best form of worship imaginable, but the best possible, that 
Melancthon, hke Luther, laboured at his instructions. . 

The German Reformation at that time tacked about, as it 
were. If Lambert in Hesse had gone to the extreme of a de- 
mocratical system, Melancthon in Saxony was approximating 
the contrai-y extreme of traditional principles. A conservative 
principle was substituted for a reforming one. Melancthon 
wrote to one of the inspectors:^ " AH the old ceremonies that 
you can preserve, pray do so.^ Do not innovate much, for 
every innovation is injurious to the people."' 

They retained, therefore, the Latin liturgy, a few Germaa 
hymns being mingled with it:'' the communion in one kind for 
those only who scrupled from habit to take it in both; a con- 
fession made to the priest Avithout being in any way obhgatory; 
many saints' days, the sacred vestments," and other rites, "in 
which," said Melancthon, " there is no harm, whatever Zwingle 
toay say. "8 And at the same time they set forth with reserve 
the doctrines of the Reformation. 

It is but right to confess the dominion of facts and circum- 
stances upon these ecclesiastical organizations; but there is a- 
dominion which rises higher still — that of the Word of God. 

Perhaps Melancthon did all that could be effected at that 
time; but it Avas necessary for the work to be one day resimied 
and re-estabhshed on its primitive plan, and this vras Calvin's 

A cry of astonishment was heard both from the camp of 
Rome and from that of the Reformation. " Our cause is be- 
trayed," exclaimed some of the evangelical Christians: "the 
liberty is taken away that Jesus Chiist had given us."^ 

On their pai-t the Ultramontanists triumphed in Melancthon's 
moderation : they called it a retractation, and took advantage 
of it to insult the Reform. Cochlceus published a "horrible" 

1 Eicommunicari qui Christiano more se non gererent (De Missa Oenn.) That 
those who might not conduct themselves in a christian manner are excommimicated. 

- Xeque enim habeo qui sint idonei. (IbiiiJ For I hare none who are fit. * Dr. 
Dewette thinks this letter is Luther's, L. JEpp., iii, 352. It appears clear to me, as also 
to Dr. Bretschneider, that it is Melancthon's. Lutl'v^r never went so far in the way of 
concession. * Observe quantum ex veteribus carem.oniis retineri potest, 

retineas. Corp. Ref , ii, 990. * Oraiiis novitas nocet in vulgo. (Ibid.) 

•Xon aboleas eam totam (the Latin mass) : satis est alicubi miscere (Jermanicaa 
cantationes. Ibid. • Vt retineantur vestes usitntae in sacris. Corp. Ref. ad» 

Jonam, 20th December, lo27. 8 Vel si Zwinglius ipse pnedicaturus sit, Corp.. 

Ref., ii, 910. * Alii cieerent prodi causam, Camer, Vita Melancthon, p, 107. 


engraving, as he styles it himself, in which, from beneath the 
same hood was seen issuing a seven-headed monster represent* 
ing Luther. Each of these heads had different features, and 
all, uttering together the most frightful and oontradictory words, 
kept disputing, tearing, and devouring each other. ^ 

The astonished Elector resolved to communicate Melancthon's 
paper to Luther. But never did the reformer's respect for his 
friend show itself in a more striking manner. He made only 
one or two unimportant additions to this plan, and sent it hack 
accompanied with the highest eulogiums. The Romanists said 
that the tiger caught in a net was licking the hands that clipped 
his talons. But it was not so. Luther knew that the aim of 
Melancthon's labours was to strengthen the very soul of the 
Reformation in all the churches of Saxony. That Avas suffi- 
cient for him. lie thought besides, that in every thing there 
must be a transition; and being justly convinced that his friend 
was more than himself a man of transition, he frankly accepted 
his views. 

The general visitation began. Luther in Saxony, Spalatin 
in the districts of Altenburg and Zwickau, Melancthon in 
Thuringia, and Thuring in Franconia, with ecclesiastical 
deputies and several lay colleagues, commenced the work in 
October and November, 1528. 

They purified the clergy by dismissing every priest of scan- 
dalous life ; 2 assigned a portion of the church property to the 
maintenance of public Avorship, and placed the remainder be- 
yond the reach of plunder. They continued the suppression of 
I the convents, and every where established unity of instruction. 
" Luther's greater and smaller catechisms," which appeared in 
1529, contributed more perhaps than any other writings to pro- 
pagate throughout the new churches the ancient faith of the 
apostles. The visiters commissioned the pastors of the great 
towns, under the title of superintendents, to watch over the 
churches and the schools ; they maintained the abolition of ce- 
libacy; and the ministers of the Word, become husbands and 
fathers, formed the germ of a third estate, whence in after years 
were diffused in all ranks of society learning, activity, and 
light. This is one of the truest causes of that intellectual and 
moral superiority which indisputably distinguishes the evange- 
lical nations. 

1 Mon8tro»\» illc Gennania) partus, I.utlimis septiceps. (Cochl(«u8, p. 1G9.) That 
monstrous birth of Geriiiiiny, seveii-liciulod Luther. =" Viginti fere rudeii et 

inepti, multique concubinnrii ot potatores Jeprehensi sunt. (Seckend., p. 102.) About 
twenty were found to be ignorant and unfit ; and many to bo keepers of concubinM 
«nd (kunkiirds. 


The oriranization of the churches in Saxonv, notwithstand- 
ing its imperfections, produced for a time at least the most im- 
portant results. It was because the word of God prevailed ; 
and because, wherever this Word exercises its power, second- 
ary errors and abuses are paralyzed. The very discretion that 
was employed really originated in a good principle. The re- 
formers, unlike the enthusiasts, did not utterly reject an insti- 
tution because it was corrupted. They did not say, for ex- 
ample, " The sacraments are disfigiu-ed, let us do without 
Ihem ! the ministry is corrupt, let us reject it !" — but they re- 
jected the abuse, and restored the use. This prudence is the 
mark of a work of God; and if Luther sometimes permitted the 
chaff to remain along with the wheat, CrJvin appeared later, 
and more thoroughly purged the christian threshing-floor. 

The organization which was at that time going on in Sax- 
ony exerted a strong reaction on all the German empire, and 
the doctrine of the Gospel advanced with gigantic strides. 
God's design in turning aside from the reformed states of Ger- 
many the thunder-bolt that he caused to faU upon the seven- 
hilled city, was clearly manifest. Never were years more use- 
fully employed ; and it was not only to framing a constitution 
that the Reformation devoted itself, it was also to extend it? 

The duchies of Luneburg and Brunswick, many of the most 
important imperial cities, as Nuremberg, Augsburg, Ulm, 
Strasburg, Gottingen, Gosslar, Xordhausen, Lubeck, Bremen, 
and Hamburg, removed the tapers from the chapels, and sub- 
stituted in their place the brighter torch of the Word of God. 

In vain did the frightened canons aEege the authority of the 
Church. " The authority of the Church," replied Kempe and 
Zechenhagen, the reformer of Hambm-g, " cannot be acknow- 
ledged unless the Church herself obeys her pastor Jesus Christ. " i 
Pomeranus visited many places to put a finishing hand to the 

In Franconia, the Margrave George of Brandenburg, bavin"" 
reformed Anspach and Bayreuth, wrote to his ancient protec- 
tor, Ferdinand of Austria, who had knit his brows on beino- 
informed of these proceedings: " I have acted thus by God's 
order ; for he commands princes to take care not only of the 
bodies of their subjects, but also of their souls."* 

1 ErangeJici anctoritatetn Ecclesise noa aliter agnosceodam esse contendebant qnam 
« Tocem pastoris Christi sequeretcr. (Seckend., i, 215.) The evargeUcal partv main- 
tained that the authority of the Church was to be maintained oiilvif she followed the 
▼oice of Christ her Fastop. * If on modo quoad corpus, sed etiam quoad auimam. 



In East Friesland, on new-year's day 1527, a Dominican 
named Resius, having put on his hood,^ ascended the pulpit at 
Noorden, and declared himself ready to maintain certain theses 
according to the tenor of the Gospel. After silencing the Ah- 
hot of Noorden hy the soundness of his arguments, Resius took 
off his cowl, left it on the pulpit, and was received in the nave 
hy the acclamations of the faithful. Ere long the whole of 
Fj'iesland laid aside the uniform of popery, as Resius had done. 

At Berlin, Elizabeth, electress of Bradenburg, having read 
Luther's works, felt a desire to receive the Lord's Supper in 
conformity with Christ's institution. A minister secretly ad- 
ministered it at the festival of Easter, 1528; hut one of her 
children informed the elector. Joachim was greatly exaspe- 
rated, and ordered his Avife to keep her room for several days;^ 
it Avas even rumoured that he intended shutting her up. ^ This 
princess, being deprived of all religious support, and mistrust- 
ing the perfidious manoeuvres of the Romish priests, resolved 
to escape hy flight; and claimed the assistance of her brother ,^ 
Christian II. of Denmark, then residing at Torgau. Taking 
advantage of a dark night, she quitted the castle in a peasant's 
dress, and got into a rude country-waggon that was Avaiting 
for her at the gate of the city. Elizabeth urged on the driver, 
when, in a bad road, the Avain broke down. The electress, 
hastily unfastening a handkerchief she Avore round her head, 
flung it to the man, Avho employed it in repairing the damage, 
and erelong Elizabeth arrived at Torgau. " If I should expose 
you to any risk," said she to her uncle, the Elector of Saxony, 
" I am ready to go Avherever Providence may lead me." But 
John assigned her a residence in the castle of Lichtenberg, on 
the Elbe, near Wittcmberg. Without taking upon us to ap- 
proA'e of Elizabeth's flight, let us acknoAvledge the good that 
God's Providence deriA'cd from it. This amiable lady, who 
lived at Lichtenberg in the study of His Word, seldom appear- 
ing at court, frequently going to licar Luther's sermons, and 
exercising a salutary influence over her children, who sometimes 
had permission to see her, Avas the first of those pious princesses 
whom the house of Brandenburg has counted, and even stiU 
counts, among its members. 

At the same time, Holstein, Sleswick, and Silesia decided 
in favour of the Reformation: and Hungary, as avcU as Bohe- 
mia, saw the number of its adherents increase. 

» Rcsiua, cucullum induttiS, suggeirtuin ascendit. Scultet. Ann., p. 93. 3 Aliquot 
diebus a ninritd in cubiculo ilcteiita fiiisse. Seckcnd., ii, 132. 'March!* 

Btatui'i-ut cam imniuraie. L. K]>i). ad Lciikium, iii, 296. 



In every place, instead of a hierarchy seeking its righteous- 
ness in the works of man, its glory in external pomp, its strength 
in a material power, the Church of the Apostles reappeared, 
hiunhle as in primitive times, and like the ancient Christians, 
looking for its righteousness, its glory, and its power solely in 
the blood of the Lamb and in the Word of God. * 


Edict of Ofen Persecutions — 'Winchler, Carpenter, and Kevser— Alarm in Germany 

—Pack's Forgerr — League of the Reformed Princes — Adrice of the Reformers — 
Lather's Pacific Counsel — Surprise of the Papist Princes — Pack's Scheme not 
improbabla — Vigour of the Reformation. 

These triumphs of the Gospel could not pass unperceived; 
there was a powerful reaction, and until political circumstan- 
ces should permit a grand attack upon the Reformation on the 
Very soil where it was established, and of fighting against it 
by means of diets, and if necessary by armies, the adversaries 
6egan to persecute it in detail in the Romish countries with 
tortures and the scaffold. 

On the 20th Augiist, 1527, King Ferdinand, by the Edict of 
Ofen in Hungary, published a tariff of crimes and penalties, in 
which he threatened death by the sword, by fire, or by water, * 
against whoever should say that ifary was like other women; 
or partake of the sacrament in an heretical manner; or conse- 
crate the bread and wine, not being a Romish priest; and fur- 
ther, in the second case, the house in which the sacrament 
should have been administered was to be confiscated or rased 
to the ground. 

Such was not the legislation of Luther. Link having asked 
him if it were lawful for the" magistrate to put the false pro- 
phets to death, meaning the Sacramentarians, whose doctrines 
Luther had so violently attacked,' the reformer replied: "I 
am slow whenever life is concerned, even if the offender is ex- 
ceedingly guilty. * I can by no means admit that the false 
teachers should be put to death: ^ it is sufiacient to remove 
them." For ages the Romish Church has bathed in blood. 

1 Rerelation, xii, IL 'DiesoUen mit den Fener, Schwerdt oder Wasser 

gestraft werden. Ferd. Kandat L. 0pp., xix. 596. ^Contra hostessacra- 

men-arios strenne nobiscum cert.ire. Epp. to Lenk, Joly U, 1528. « Ego ad 

judicium sanguinis tardus sum, etiara ubi nieri turn abundat. Ibid. •HnBo 
modo potsnm admittere falsos doctons occidi. Ibid. 


Luther Tvas the first to profess the great principles of humanity 
and religious liberty. 

Recourse Avas sometimes had to more expeditious means tiian 
the scaffold itself. George Winkler, pastor of HaUe, having 
heen summoned before Archbishop Albert in the spring of 1527, 
for having administered the sacrament in both kinds, had been 
acquitted. As this minister -was returning home along an un- 
frequented road in the midst of the woods, he was suddenly 
attacked by a number of- horsemen, who murdered him, and 
immediately fled through the thickets without taking anything 
from his person.^ "The world," exclaimed Luther, "is a ca- 
vern of assassins under the command of the devil; an inn, Avhos© 
landlord is a brigand, and which bears this sign, Lies and Mur- 
der: and none are more readily put to death therein than thos& 
who proclaim Jesus Christ." 

At Munich, George Carpenter was led to the scaffold for 
having denied that the baptism of water is able by its own vir- 
tue to save a man. "When you are thrown into the fire," 
said some of his brethren, "give us a sign by which we may know 
that you persevei-e in the faith." — "As long as I can open my 
mouth, I will confess the name of the Lord Jesus."* The ex- 
ecutioner stretched him on a ladder, tied a small bag of gun- 
powder round his neck, and then flung him into the flames. 
Carpenter immediately cried out, "Jesus! Jesus!" and while- 
the executioner was turning him again and again with his 
hooks, the martyr several times repeated the word Jesus, and 

At Landsbcrg nine persons were consigned to the flames, 
and at Munich twenty-nine were thrown into the water. At 
Schcrding, Leonard Keyser, a friend and disciple of Luther, 
having been condemned by the bishop, had his head shaved, 
and being dressed in a smock-frock, was placed on horseback. 
As the executioners were cursing and swearing, because they 
could not disentangle the ropes with which his limbs were to 
te tied, he said to them mildly: " Dear friends, your bonds are 
not necessary; my Lord Christ has already bound me." When 
be drew near the stake, Kcyscr looked at the crowd and ex- 
claimed, *' Behold the harvest! Master, send forth thy la- 
bourers!" He then ascended the scaftbld and said: " Jesu, 
Bave me! I am thine." These were his last words.^ " Who 

1 Mox enim ut interfpcerunt, aufugcnuit per nvia l<H!n nihil prajdoe nut pecuni» 
capientes. Cochi., p. 102. " Dum os nperirc licebit, servntoris noBtri nomen 

profiteri nuiiqiiani intcrinittnm. Sriiltet., ii, 110. ' Inoenso jam i(?ne, clara 

voce proclamarit : Tuiw »ufii Jetu; Salva mc! (Seckend., ii, 85.) After the fire wa» 
kindled he exclaimed in • clear voice / am {hint, O Jetu$l Save me. 

pack's forgery. 47 

am I, a -wordy preacher," cried Lutlier, when he received the 
news of his death, "in comparison with this great doer!"^ 

Thus the Reformation manifested hy such striking works 
the truth that it had come to re-establish; namely, that faith 
is not, as Rome maintains, an historical, vain, dead knowledge,* 
but a lively faith, the work of the Holy Ghost, the channel by 
which Christ fills the heart with new desires and with new af- 
fections, the true worship of the living God. 

These martyrdoms filled Germany with horror, and gloomy 
forebodings descended from the thrones among the ranks of 
the people. Around the domestic hearth, in the long winter 
evenings, the conversations wholly turned on prisons, tortures, 
scaffolds, and martyrs; the slightest noise alarmed the old men. 
women, and children. Such narratives gathered strength as 
they passed from mouth to mouth ; the rumour of a universal 
conspiracy against the Gospel spread through all the empire. 
Its adversaries, taking advantage of this terror, announced 
with a mysterious air that they must look during this year 
(1528) for some decisive measure against the reform.' One 
scoimdrel (Pack) resolved to profit by this state of mind to sa- 
tisfy his avarice. 

Jso blows are more terrible to a cause than those which it 
inflicts upon itself. The Reformation, seized with a dizziness, 
was on the verge of self-destruction. There is a spirit of error 
that conspires against the cause of truth, beguiling by subtlety;* 
the Reformation was about to experience its attacks, and to 
stagger under the most formidable assaults — perturbation of 
thought, and estrangement from the ways of wisdom and truth. 

Otho Pack, vice-chancellor to Duke George of Saxony, was 
a crafty and dissipated man,^ who took advantage of his office, 
and had recourse to all sorts of practices to procure money. 
The Duke ha\'ing on one occasion sent him to the Diet of Nu- 
rumberg as his representative, the Bishop of Merseburg confided 
to him his contribution towards the imperial government. The 
bishop having been afterwards called upon for this money, Pack 
declared that he had pai.d it to a citizen of Nuremberg, whose 
seal and signature he produced. This paper was a forgery ; 

1 Tarn impar verbosus priedicator, illi tarn potenf! verbi operator. (L. Epp, iii, 
1514.) A wordy preacher, so unequal to him who was so powerful a doer of the 
Word. a Si quis dixerit fidem non esse veram fidcra, licet non &.' viva, aut 

eutn qui fidem sine charitate habet, non esse christianum, anathema sit. (Cone. 
Frid. Sess. 6, p. 28.) If any one says that faith, though it becomes not living, is not 
true faitli, or tiiat he who has faith without chsrity is not a Christian, let liim be ana- 
thema. » Nescio quid mirari quod hoc niino contra reformationem expectan- 

dum sit. Seckend., ii, 101. * 2 Cor., xi. ">. * Homo crat versutus, 

et praeterea prodigus, quo vitio ad aba inductus est (Seckend., ii, 94.) He was a 
crafty man, and moreovar a pvodigal, a «ce by wbich he was led into other vice*. 

48 pack's forgery. 

Pack himself was the author of it.^ The wretch, Iwwever, put 
an impudent face on the matter, and having escaped convic- 
tion, preserved the confidence of his master. Ere long an op- 
portunity presented itself of exercising his criminal talents on 
a larger scale. 

No one entertained greater suspicions with regard to the 
papists than the Landgrave of Hesse. Young, susceptible, 
and restless, he was always on the alert. In' the month of 
February, 1528, Pack happening to be at Cassel to assist Phi- 
lip in some difficult business, the landgrave imparted to him his 
fears. If any one could have had any knowledge of the de- 
signs of the papists, it must have been the vice-chancellor of 
one of the greatest enemies to the Reformation. The crafty 
Pack heaved a sigh, bent down his eyes, and was silent. Phi- 
lip immediately became uneasy, entreated him, and promised 
to do nothing that would injure the duke. Then Pack, as if 
lie had allowed an important secret to be torn from him with 
reo-ret, confessed that a league against the Lutherans had been 
concluded at Breslau on the Wednesday following Jubilate Sun- 
day, 12th May, 1527 ; and engaged to procure the original of 
this act for the landgrave, who offered him for this service a 
remuneration of ten thousand florins. This was the greatest 
transaction that the wretched man had ever undertaken ; but it 
tended to nothing less than the utter overthrow of the empire. 

The landgrave was amazed : he restrained himself, however, 
wishing to see the act with his own eyes before informing his 
allies. He therefore repaired to Dresden. "I cannot," said 
Pack, "fm-nish you with the original: the duke always carries 
it about his person to read it to other princes whom he hopes 
to gain over. Recently at Leipsic, he showed it to Duke Henry 
of Brimswick. But here is a copy made by his highness's 
order." The landgrave took the document, which bore all the 
marks of the most perfect authenticity. It was crossed by a 
cord of black silk, and fastened at both ends by the seal of the 
ducal chancery.'^ Above was an impression from the ring Duke 
George always wore on his finger, with the three quarterings 
that Pliilip had so often seen ; at the top, the coronet, and at 
the bottom, the two lions. He had no more doubts as to its 
authenticity. But how can we describe his indignation as he 
read this guilty document ? King Ferdinand, the Elector of 
Mentz and of Brandenburg, Duke George of Saxony, the Dukes 
of Bavaria, the Bishops of Salzburg, Wurtzburg, and Bam- 

1 It is gtill to be seen in the records at Presdcn. ^ Cui filum sericuin oircuBU 

Ugatuni, ct sigilluui CRucvllarke inipressum erat. Seek., ii, 94. 



ber-^, had entered into a coalition to call upon the Elector of 
Saxony to deliver up the arch-heretic Luther, with all the apos- 
tate priests, monks, and nuns, and to re-establish the ancient 
-worship. If he made default, his estates were to he invaded, 
and this prince and his descendants for ever dispossessed. The 
same measure was next to he applied to the landgrave, only 
("it vras your father-in-law, Duke George," said Pack to 
Philip, "who got this clause inserted") his states were to be 
restored to him in consideration of his youth, if he became 
fully reconciled to the holy Church. The document stated 
moreover the contingents of men and money to be provided by 
the confederates, and the share they were to have in the spoils 
of the two heretical princes. ^ 

Many circumstances tended to confirm the authenticity of 
this paper. Ferdinand, Joachim of Brandenburg, and George 
of Saxony, had in fact met at Breslau on the day indicated, 
and an evangelical prince, the Margrave George, had seen 
Joachim leave Ferdinand's apartments, holding in his hand a 
large parchment to which several seals were attached. The 
agitated landgrave caused a copy to be taken of this document, 
promised secrecy for a time, paid Pack four thousand florins, 
and engaged to make up the sum agreed upon, if he would 
procure him the original. And then, wishing to prevent the 
storm, he hastened to Weimar to inform the elector of this un- 
precedented conspiracy. 

" I have seen," said he to John and his son, " nay more — 
I have had in my hands, a duplicate of this horrible treaty. 
Signatures, seals — nothing was wanting?* Here is a copy, and 
I bind myself to place the original before your eyes. The most 
frightful danger threatens us — ourselves, our faithful subjects, 
and the Word of God." 

The elector had no reason to doubt the account the land- 
grave had just given him: he was stunned, confounded, and 
overpowered. The promptest measures alone could avert such 
unprecedented disasters: everything must be risked to extri- 
cate them from certain destruction. The impetuous Philip 
breathed fire and flames;' his plan of defence was already pre- 
pared. He presented it, and in the first moment of constema- 
-tion carried the consent of his ally, as it were, by assault. On 
the 9th March, 1528, the two princes agreed to employ all 
their forces to defend themselves, and even to take the offensive, 

> Hortleber. De BeUo Germarico, ii, 579. = Nam is .•iffinnabat se archetypon 

-vidisse. coTpmemorabat a-^fayjSa,-. Corp. R«f., j, 95.?. 3 MirabUiter incensua 

erat. Ibid. 



and sacrifice life, lioaour, rank, subjects, and states, tliat they 
might preserve vne Word of God. The Dukes of Prussia^ 
Mecklenburg, Luneburg, and Pomcrania, the Kings of Den- 
mark and Poland, and the Maigrave of Brandenburg, were to- 
be invited to enter into this alliance. Six hundred thousand 
florins were destined for the expenses of the war; and to pro- 
cure them, they would raise loans, pledge their cities, and sell 
the offerings in the churches. ^ They had already begun to- 
raise a powerful army.^ The landgrave set out in person for 
Nuremberg and Anspach. The alarm was general in those 
countries; the commotion was felt throughout all Germany,^ 
and even beyond it. John Zapolya, king of Hungary, at that 
time a refugee at Cracow, promised a hundred thousand florins 
to raise an army, and twenty thousand florins a-month for its 
maintenance. Thus a spirit of error was misleading tlio 
princes ; if it should carry away the Reformers also, the de- 
struction of the Reformation would not be far distant. 

But God was watching over them. Supported on the rock 
of the Word, Melancthon and Luther replied: "It is written. 
Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God." As soon as these 
two men whom the danger threatened (for it was they who 
were to be delivered up to the papal power) saw the youthful 
landgrave drawing the sword, and the aged elector himself put- 
ting his hand on the hilt, they uttered a cry, and this cry, 
which -was heard in heaven, saved tlie Reformation. 

Luther, Pomeranus, and Melancthon immediately forwarded 
the following advice to the elector: " Above all things, let not 
the attack proceed from our side, and let no blood be shed 
through our fault. Let us wait for the enemy, and seek after- 
peace. Send an ambassador to the empei'or to make him acr 
quainted with this liateful plot." 

Thus it was that the faitli of the children of God, which is 
80 despised by politicians, conducted them aright, at the very 
moment when the diplomatists were going astray. The elector 
and his son declared to the landgrave that they would not 
assume the ofiensive. Philip was in amazement. " Are not 
the preparations of the papists worth}' an attack?" asked he.* 
" What! we will threaten war, and yet not make it ! We will in- 
flame the hatred of our antagonists, and leave them time to pre- 
pare their forces! No, no; forward! It is thus we shall secure 

^Venditisque templorum donariig. Seckcnd., ii, 05. a jVlnRiio studio vali- 

dum coinpiiraverunt ambo cxcrcituin. Cocliloous, p. 171. ' Non leviter com- 

motos esse iiostrorum aiiimos. Corp. Ref., ii, 086. ♦ Lnndgi'avius prtepaia- 

menta ndvers^riurum pro aggrcssionc habebac. Seek., ii, 95. 


the means of au honourable peace." "If the landgrave de- 
sires to begin the war," rephed ihe reformer, "the elector is 
not obliged to observe the treaty; for we must obey God rather 
than men. God and the right are above every alliance. Let 
us beware of painting the devil on our doors, and inviting him 
as godfather. ^ But if the landgrave is attacked, the elector 
ought to go to his assistance; for it is God's will that we pre- 
serve our faith." This advice, which the reformers gave, cost 
them dear. Never did man, condemned to the torture, endure 
a punishment like theirs. The fears excited by the lar.dgrave 
were succeeded by the terrors inspired by the papist princes. 
This cruel trial left them in great distress. " I am worn away 
with sorrow," cried Melancthon; " and this anguish puts me 
to the most horrible torture. -' The issue," added he, "will be 
found on our knees befoi'e God."' 

The elector, drawn in different directions by the theologians 
and the pohticians, at last took a middle course: he resolved 
to assemble an ai-my, " but only," said he, " to obtain peace." 
Phihp of Hesse at length gave way, and forthwith sent copies 
of the famous treaty to Duke George, to the dukes of Bavaria, 
and to the emperor's representatives, calling upon them to re- 
nounce such cruel designs. " I would rather have a limb cut 
off," said he to his father-in-law, *' than know you to be a 
member of such an ahiance." 

The surprise of the German courts, when they read this 
docimient, is beyond description. Duke George immediately 
replied to t]|^ landgrave, that he had allowed himself to be de- 
ceived by \mmeaning absurdities; that he who pretended to 
have seen the original of this act was an infamous har, and an 
incorrigible scoundrel; and called upon the landgrave to give 
up his authority, or else it might well be thought that he was 
himself the inventor of this impudent fabrication. Bang Fer- 
dinand, the Elector of Brandenburg, and all the pretended 
conspirators, made similar rephes. 

Philip of Hesse saw that he had been deceived;* his confu- 
sion was only exceeded by his anger. He had in this affair 
justified the accusations of his adversaries, who called him a 
hot-headed young man, and had compromised to the hio-hest 
degree the cause of the Reformation and that of his people. 
He said afterwards, " If that business had not happened, it 

I Man darf den Teufel uicht iiber die Thur malen, noch ihn zu geviitteisi bitten. 
L. Epp. iii,321. 3 Cir-o vchementer cruciiimut. Corp. ReC, i, V-H. 

" "» yc'jizc-i "-;-i/. foiA » 'iVir :ui-.lten d;iiS vrir be'.'.i>-»ii vrarea 


■would no more happen now. Notliing that I have clone in all 
my life has caused me greater vexation." 

Pack fled in alarm to the landgrave, who caused him to be 
arrested; and envoys from the several princes whom this scoun- 
drel had coni2)romised met at Cassel, and proceeded to examine 
him. He maintained that the original act of the alliance had 
really existed in the Dresden archives. In the following year 
the landgrave banished him from Hesse, proving by this action 
that he did not fear him. Pack was afterwards discovered m 
Belgiimi; and to the demand of Duke George, who had never 
shown any pity towards him, he v/as seized, tortured, and 
finally beheaded. 

The landgrave was unwilling to have taken up arms to no 
purpose. The Archbishop-elector of Mentz was compelled, on 
tlie lltli June, 1528, to renounce in the camp of Herzkirchen 
all spiritual jurisdiction in Saxony and Hesse.' This was no 
small advantage. 

Scai'cely had the arms been laid aside before Luther took up 
his pen and began a war of another kind. *' Impious princes 
may deny this alliance as long as they please," wrote he to 
Link; "I am very certain that it is not a chimera. These 
insatiable leeches will take no repose until they see the "whole 
of Germany flowing with blood. "^ This idea of Luther's was 
the one generally entertained. " The document jjreseuted to 
the landgrave may be," it was said, " Pack's invention ; but 
all this fabric of lies is founded on some truth. If the alli- 
ance has not been concluded it has been conceived^" ' 

Melancholy were the results of this affair. It inspired divi- 
sion in the bosom of the Reformation, and fanned the hatred 
between the two parties.* The sparks from the piles of Key- 
ser, Winkler, Car{>enter, and so many other martyrs, added 
sti'ength to the fire that was already threatening to set the em- 
pire in flames. It was under such critical circumstances, and 
with such menacing dispositions, that the famous Diet of Spii'es 
■was opened in Marcli 1529. The empire and the Papacy were 
in reality preparing to annihilate the Reformation, although in 
a manner different from what Pack had pretended. It was 
still to be learnt whether more vital strength would be found in 
the revived Church than in so many sects that Rome had easily 
crushed. Happily the faith had increased, and the constitu- 
tion given to the Church had imparted greater power to its 

' Kopp. Hess, (icrichts.— Vcrf. i, 107. ^ S.ingnisu(nD insntiabiles quiesccre 

noluiit, nisi Gcrmnniaiii saiijriiiin' inadcre sciifiaiit. lltli J\iiie, lOL'S. s Non 

eijini prorsu" contictn res. d'rp. Ui-f., i, 988. * IIicc iniiiiB apud inimicos odis 

■uxerint. (Iliii'.. 'iS'i } l'~r the tiling i< :'■ not a mero <i<itioii. 


aouerencs. All were resolved on defending a doctrine so pure, 
and a church government so superior to that of poperv. Dur- 
ing three years of tranquillity the Gospel tree had struck its 
roots deep; and if the storm should bui-st it would now be able 
to brave it. 


Alliance betiveem Charles a:ij Clement Vil. — Omens— Hostility of the Papists — 
Arbhrary Proposition of Charles — Resolutions of the Diet'^The Beformation in 
Danger — Decision of the Princes — Violence ofFertlinand— .The Schism completed. 

The sack of Rome by exasperating the adliorents of the Pa- 
pacy, had given arms to all the enemies of Charles T. The 
French army under Lautrec had forced the imperial army, en- 
ervated by the delights of a new Capua, to hide itself within 
the walls of Naples. Doria, at the head of his Genoese gal- 
leys, had destroyed the Spanish fleet, and all the imperial 
power seemed drawing to an end in Italy. But Doria sud- 
denly declared /or the emperor ; pestilence carried cif Lautrec 
and half of his troops ; and Charles, suifsriug only from alarm, 
had again grasped the power with a firm resolution to unite 
henceforward closely with the pontiii', whose humiliation had 
nearly cost him so dear. On his side Clement VII., hearing the 
Italians reproach him for his illegitimate birth, and evcu refuse 
him the title of pope, said aloud, that he would rather be the 
emperor's groom than the sport of his people. On the 20lh 
June 1528, a peace between the heads of the Empire and of the 
Church was concluded at Barcelona, based on the destruction 
of heresy; and in November a diet was convoked to meet at 
Spires on the 21st Febraary 1520. Charles was resolved to 
endeavour at first to destroy the Reform by a federal vote ; but 
if this means did not suffice, to employ his whole power against 
it. The road being thus traced out, they were about to com- 
mence operations. 

Germany felt the sei-iousucss of the position. Mournful 
omens filled every mind. About the middle of January, a great 
brightness in the sky had suddenly dispersed the darkness of 
the night.l " What that forebodes," exclaimed Luther, " God 
only knows !" At the beginning of April there was a rumoiu' 
of an earthqtiake that had engulfed castles, cities, and whole 
districts in Carinthia and Istria, and split the tower of St. Mark 

1 An aurora borealis. " Magnum cbastna, quo noi tota illnminabatur." L. Eppb» 

54 OMENS. 

at Venice into four parts. •• If that is true," said the reformer, 
" these prodigies are the forerunners of the day of Jesus Christ."* 
The astrologers declared that the aspect of the quartiles of Sa- 
turn and Jupiter, and the general position of the stars, was 
ominous. 2 The waters of the Elhe rolled thick and stormy, 
and stones fell from the roofs of churches. "All these things," 
exclaimed the terrified Melancthon, " excite me in no trifling 

The letters of convocation issued by the imperial government 
agreed hut too well with these prodigies. The emperor writing 
from Toledo to the elector, accused him of sedition and revolt. 
Alarming whispers passed from mouth to mouth that were 
sufficient to cause the fall of the weak. Duke Henry of Meck- 
lenburg and the elector-palatine hastily returned to the side of 

]^ever had the sacerdotal party appeared in the diet in such 
numbers, or so powerful and decided.* On the 5th March, Fer- 
dinand, the president of the diet, after him the Dukes of Bava- 
ria, and lastly the ecclesiastical Electors of Mentz and Treves, 
had entered the gates of Spires surrounded by a numerous 
armed escort.* On the loth March, the Elector of Saxony ar- 
rived, attended only b}'' Melancthon and Agricola. But Philip 
of Ilesse, faithful to his character, entered the city on the 18tli 
March to the sound of trumpets, and with two hundred horse- 

The divergence of men's minds soon became manifest. A 
papist did not meet an evangelical in the street without casting 
angry glances upon him, and secretly threatening him with 
nerfidious machinations.^ The elector-palatine passed the 
Saxons without appearing to know them,' and although John 
of Saxony was the most important of the electors, none of the 
chiefs of the opposite party visited him. Grouped around tlieir 
tables, the Roman-catholic princes seemed absorbed in games 
of hazard.^ 

But erelong they gave positive marks of their hostile dispo- 
sition. The elector and the landgrave were prohibited from 

* Si vera Runt, diem Ghrisfi pi-oecurrunt hccc monstrix. (I-. Kpp., iii, 4r>8.) These 
prodigies, if true, are precursors of the day of Christ. ^ Adspoctum rtrfiayivut 

Saturni et Juvis. Corp, Ref., i, 1073. ' Ego iion Icviter commovcor his rebus. 

Ibid.,10TG. * Nunquam fuit tanta frequeiitia ullis conciliis aa^ii^iaiv quanta 

in }iis est. (Ibid., 1039.) Never at any councils was there so (;roat nn utiondaiico of 
higli pi iuslH as at these. ° Moguntinum et Trevirenseni cum comitatu arniatc 

Seckend., ii, 129. • Vultu significant quantum nos oderint, ct quid in.achin- 

enttir. (Corp. Uef., i, 10-10.) Hy tlieir looks they show how much they hate us and 
what they are plottinjf. ' I'falz kennt kcin Sachsen mehr. Epp. Albcrti jfans- 

feld. * Adversse partes proceres alea trmpus perdere. (L. Epp., iii, 438.) The 

loaJei'g of the opposite party are iosinp tlieir time at play. 


iaTinof the Gospel preacted in their mansions. It was asaerted 
€Ten at this early period that John -was about to be tiu-ued out 
of Spires, and deprived of his eloctorate.^ "We are tha exe- 
cration and the sweepings of the world," said Melanethon ; 
*'but Christ will look down on his poor people, and wiU pre- 
serve them. "2 In truth, God was with the witnesses to his 
Word, The people of Spires thirsted for the Gospel, and the 
elector wrote to his son on Palm Sunday: "About eight thou- 
sand persons were present to-day in my chapel at morning and 
evening worship." 

The Koman party now quickened their proceedings: their 
plan was simple but energetic. It was necessary to put down 
the religious liberty that had existed for more than three years, 
and for this purpose they must abrogate the decree of 1526, 
and revive that of 1521. 

On the 15th March the imperial commissaries announced to 
the diet that the last resolution of Spires, which left all the 
states free to act in conformity with the inspirations of their 
<;onsciences, having given rise to great disorders, the emperor 
had annulled it by virtue of his supreme power. This arbitrary 
act, which had no precedent in the empire, as well as the des- 
potic tone in which it was notified, fiUed the evangelical Chris- 
tians with indignation and alarm. "Christ," exclaimed Sturm, 
*'has again fallen into the hands of Caiaphas and Pilate." ^ 

A commission was charged to examine the imperial proposi- 
tion. The Archbishop of Salzburg, Faber, and Eck, that is 
to say, the most violent enemies of the Reformation, were among 
its members. " The Turks are better than the Lutherans," 
said Faber, "for the Turks observe fast-days, and the Luther- 
ans violate them. If we must choose between the Holy Scrip- 
tures of God and the old errors of the Church, we should reject 
the former."* Every day in full assembly Faber casts some 
new stone at us Gospellers," says Melanethon.^ "Oh, what 
an Iliad I should have to compose," added he, "if I were to 
report all these blasphemies!" 

The priests called for the execution of the edict of Worms, 
1521, and the evangelical members of the commission, among 
•whom were the Electors of Saxony and Sturm, demanded on 

1 Alii eidusam Spirae, alii ademtum electnr;itum . (L. Epp^ iii, 433.) Some said 
■that he was exc'.u(!ed from Spires, others that he was deprived of his electorate. 

' Se<l Christus respiciet et salrabit populum pauperem. Corp. Ret, i, 1(M0. 
^ ' Christus est denuo in manibus Caiaphi et Pilati. Junjc Beytraige, 4. * Vo- 

<nferatus est Tiircos Ltitheranis meliores esse. Corp. Ref., p. lotl. ' Malle 

abjicere scriptiiram quam Teteres enrores Ecclesiae. (Ibid., p. 1046.) That he would 
sooner cast away the Scriptures than the ancient errors of the Church. • Faber 

iapidat nos quotidie pro concione. Ibid. 


tlie contrary the maintenance of the edict of Spires, 1526- 
The latter thus remained within the bounds of le<za!it . whilst 
their adversaries were driven to coups d'ttat. In fact, a ne^v- 
order of things having been legally established in the empii-e, 
no one could infringe it; and if the diet presumed to destroy by 
force what had been constitutionally established three years 
before, the evangelical states had the right of opposing it. 
The majority of the commission felt that the re-establishment 
of the ancient order of things would be a revolution no les& 
complete than the Reformation itself, flow could they sub- 
ject anew to Rome and to her clergy those nations in whose 
bosom the Word of God. had been so richly spread abroad? 
For this reason equally rejecting the demands of the priests 
and of the evangelicals, the majority came to a resolution on 
the 24th March that every religious innovation should continue 
to be interdicted in the places where the edict of Worms hadbeea 
carried out; and that in those where the people had deviated from 
it, and where they could not conform to it without danger of 
revolt, they should at' least effect no new reform, they should 
touch upon no controverted point, they should not oppose the 
celebration of the mass, they should permit no Roman Cathoiie 
to embrace Lutheranism,^ they should not decline the Episcopal 
jurisdiction, and should tolerate no anabaptist or sacramenta- 
rians. The status-quo and no proselytism — such were the 
essentials of this resolution. 

The majority no longer voted as in 152G: the Avind had turned 
against the Gospel. Accordingly this proposition, after having 
been delayed a few days by the festival of Easter, was laid be- 
fore the diet on the 6th April, and passed on the 7th.- 

If it became a law, the Refoi-mation could neither be ex- 
tended into those places where it was as yet unknown, nor be 
established on solid foundations in those Avhere it already existed. 
The re-establishment of the Romish hierarchy, stipulated in, 
the proposition, would infallibly bring back the ancient abuses;, 
and the least deviation from so vexatious an ordinance would 
easily furnish the Romanists with a pretext for completing the 
destruction of a Avork already so violentl}- shaken. 

The Elector, the Landgrave, the Margrave of Brandenburg, 
the Prince of Anhalt, and the Chancellor of Luneburg, on one 
side, and the deputies for the cities on the other, consulted to- 
gether. An entirely new order of things was to proceed from 

* Nee CnthoUooR a libcro rolipionis cxercitio inipodiri dehcrp, iicqne cuiqunm ex 
liis licero Lutheraiiismum amplocti. (Seckeiul., ii, r.'7.) That neither ought the Ca- 
tholics to be impeileti iti the free exercise of their religion, nor any one of them aU 
lowed to embrace Lutheranism, ^ Blcidan, i, 2S1. 



tills council. If they had beeu animated by selnshiiess, tliey 
would perhaps have accepted this decree. In fact thej werj 
left free, in appearance at least, to profess their faith : oii-ut 
they to demand more ? could they do so ? Were they hound to 
constitute themselves the champions of liberty of conscience in 
ail the world ? Xevcr, perhaps, had tlicre been a more critical 
situation ; but these noble-minded men came victorious out of 
the trial. What! shoukl they legalize by anticipation the scaf- 
fold and the torturel Should they oppose the Holy Ghost in its 
work of converting souls to Christ! Should they forget their 
Master's command: " Go ye into all the world and preach the 
Gospel to every creature " ? If one of the states of the empire 
desired some day to follow their example and be reformed, 
should they take away its power of doing so? Having them- 
selves entered the kingdom of heaven, should they shut the 
door after them ? No ! rather endure everything, sacrifice 
evervthinor, even their states, their crowns, and their lives. 

" Let us reject this decree," said the princes. " In matters 
of conscience the majority has no power," — " It is to the de- 
tree of 1523," added the cities, '• that we are indebted for the 
peace that the empire enjoys: its abolition would fiU Germany 
with troubles and divisions. The diet is incompetent to do 
more than preserve religious liberty imtil a council meets."' 
Such in fact is the grand attribute of the state, and if in our 
diiys the protestant powers should desire to influence the 
Eomish governments, they shoidd strive solely at obtaining 
for the subjects of the latter that religious liberty which the 
pope confiscates to'his own advantage wherever he reigns alone, 
and by which he profits greatly in every evangelical state. 
Some of the deputies proposed refusing all assistance against 
the Turks, hoping thus to force the emperor to interfere in this 
religious question. But Sturm called upon them not to mix 
up political matters with the salvation of souls. They resolved 
therefore to reject the proposition, but without holding out any 
threats. It was this noble resolution that gained for modem 
times liberty of thought and independence of faith. 

Ferdinand and the priests, Avho were no less resolute, deter- 
mined, however, on vanquishing what they called a daring ob- 
stinacy; and they commenced with the weaker states. They" 
began to frighten and divide the cities, which had hitherto- 
pursued a common course. On the 12th April they vrere sum- 
moned before the diet: in vain did they allege the absence of 
some of their number, and ask for delay. It was refused, and 
the call was hurried on. Twenty-one free cities accepted the 


proposition, of the diet, and fourteen rejected it. It was a bold 
act on the part of the latter, and was accomplished in the midst 
•of the most painful sufferings. " This is the first trial," said 
Pfarrer, second deputy of Strashurg; "now wiU come the 
second; we must either deny the Word of God or — be burnt." ^ 

A violent proceeding of Ferdinand's immediately commenced 
the series of humiliations that Avere reserved for the evangelical 
cities. A deputy of Strashurg should, in conformity with the 
decree of Worms, have been a member of the imperial govern- 
ment from the commencement of April. He was declared ex- 
cluded from his rights until the re-establishment of the mass in 
Strashurg. All the cities united in protesting against this ar- 
bitrary act. 

At the same time, the elector-palatine and King Ferdinand 
himself begged the princes to accept the decree, assuring them 
that the emperor would be exceedingly pleased with them. 
"We will obey the emperor," replied they calmly, "in every- 
thing that may contribute to maintain peace and the honour 
•of God." 

It was time to put an end to this struggle. On the 18th 
April it was decreed that the evangelical states should not be 
heard again; and Ferdinand prepared to inflict the decisive 
blow on the morrow. 

When the day came, the h;.2g appeared in the diet, sur- 
rounded by the other commissaries of the empire, and by seve- 
ral bishops. He thanked the Roman-catholics for their fidelity, 
and declared that the resolution having been definitively agreed 
j to, it was about to be drawn up in the form of an imperial de- 
cree. He then announced to the elector and his friends, that 
their only remaining course was to submit to the majority. 

The evangelical princes, who had nut expected so positive a 
declaration, were excited at this summons, and jiassed, ac- 
cording to custom, into an adjoining chamber to deliberate. 
But Ferdinand was not in a humour to wait for their answer. 
He rose, and the imperial commissaries with him. Vain were 
all endeavours to stop him. " I have received an order from 
his imperial majesty, "replied he; "I have executed it. AH 
is over." 

Thus did Charles's brother notify an order to the christian 
princes, and then retire without caring even if there was any 
xeply to bo made ! To no purpose they sent a deputation en- 
treating the king to return. " It is a settled affair," repeated 

* Dat wort Gottes zu wiedeirufcn odor aber brcniicti. Junq Beytriige, p. 37. 



Ferdinand; " submission is all that remains. "^ This refusal 
completed the schism: it separated Rome from the Gospel. 
Perhaps more justice on the part of the empire and of the pa 
pacy might have prevented the rupture that since then has 
•divided the Western Church. 


The Protest— Principles of the Protest— Supremacy of the Gospel— Christian Unk-n 
Ferdinand rejects the Protest — Attempt at Conciliation — Exultation of the Va- 
jrists— Evangelical Appeal — Christian TnitT a Reality — Diiogers of the Protest- 
ants The Protestants Icare Spires — The Princes tf.e true Reformers — Germany 

and Reform. 

If the imperial party displayed such contempt, it was not with- 
out a cause. They felt that weakness was on the side of the 
Reformation, and strength with Charles and the pope. But 
the weak have also their strength ; and of this the evangelical 
j)rinces were aware. As Ferdinand paid no attention to their 
complaints, they ought to pay none to his absence, to appeal 
from the report of the diet lo the Word of God, and from the 
Emperor Charles to Jesus Christ, the King of kings and Lord 
of lords. 

They resolved upon this step. A declaration was drawn up 
to that effect, and this was the famous Protest that hencefor- 
ward gave the name of Protestant to the renovated Chiu-ch. 
The elector and his allies having returned to the common hall 
of the diet, thus addressed the assembled states:* 

"Dear Lords, Cousins, Uncles, and Friends I Having re- 
paired to this diet at the simimons of his majesty, and for the 
common good of the empire and of Christendom, we have heard 
and learnt that the decisions of the last diet concerning our 
holy Christian faith are to be repealed, and that it is proposed to 
substitute for them certain restrictive and onerous resolutions. 
" King Ferdinand and the other imperial commissaries, bv 
affixing their seals to the last Recess of Spires, had promised, 
liowever, in the name of the emperor, to carry out sincerely 
and inviolably all that it contained, and to permit nothing that 
■was contrary to it. In like manner, also, you and we, electors, 
princes, prelates, lords, and deputies of the empire, bound our- 

1 Die artikel weren beschlossen. Jung Bevtr., p. 90. » There arc two copies 

-of this act : one of them is brief, and the other, nhich is longer, was transmitted in 
writing to the imperial commissaries. It i« fr<3m the latter we extract the passages 
in the text They will both be found in Jauj Beytn^, p. 91-1(». See al»o Miiller's 
Bistorii der ProUltation, p. 52. 


selves to maintain always and with our whole might every ar- 
ticle of that decree. 

•' We cannot therefore consent to its repeal: — 
" Firstly, because we believe that his imperial majesty (as- 
well as you and we), is called to maintain firmly what has been 
unanimously and solemnly resolved. 

" Secondly, because it concerns the glory of God and the 
salvation of our souls, and that in such matters we ought to 
have regard, above all, to the commandment of God, who is 
King of kings and Lord of lords ; each of us rendering him 
account for himself, without caring the least in the world about 
majority or minority. •■• 

" We form no judgment on that which concerns you, most 
dear lords ; and we are content to pray God daily that he wiU 
bring us all to unity of faith, in truth, charity, and holiness 
through Jesus Christ, our throne of grace and our only Mediator. 
" But in Vi'hat concei'ns ourselves, adhesion to your resolu- 
tion (and let every honest man be judge!) would be acting 
against our conscience, condemning a doctrine that we main- 
tain to be christian, and pronouncing that it ought to be abo- 
lished in our states, if we could do so without trouble. 

" This would be to deny our Lord Jesus Christ, to reject 
his holy Word, and thus give him just reason to deny us in 
turn before his Father, as he has threatened. 

" What ! we ratify this edict ! We assert that when Al- 
mighty God calls a man to His knowledge, this man cannot 
however receive the knowledge of God I Oh ! of what deadly 
backslidings should we not thus become the accomphces, not 
only among our own subjects, but also among yours! 

" For this reason we reject the yoke that is imposed on usv 
And although it is universally known that in our states the 
holy sacrament of the body and blood of our Lord is becomingly 
administered, we cannot adliere to what the edict proposes 
against the sacramentarians, seeing that the imperial edict did 
not speak of them, that they have not been heard, and that we 
cannot resolve upon such important points before the next 

" Moreover" — and this is the essential part of the protest — 
"the new edict declaring the ministers shall prgachthe Gospel, 
explaining it according to the writings accepted by the holy 
Christian Church; we think that, for this regulation to have 
any value, we should first agree on what is meant by the true 
and holy Church. Now, seeing that there is great diversity 

> Eiii jegUcher fur Bich selbt vor Gott stelien. Jung Bej trage. p. 9G. 


■of opinion in this respect ; that there is no sure doctrine but 
sucli as is conformable to tbe Word of God ; that tlie Lord 
forbids the teaching of any other doctrine ; that each text of 
the Holy Scriptures ought to be explained by other and clearer 
texts ; that this holy book is in all things necessaiy for the 
Christian, easy of understanding, and calculated to scatter the 
■darkness ; we are resolved, with the grace of God, to maintain 
the pure and exclusive preaching of his holy Word, such as it 
is contained in the biblical books of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, without adding ariything thereto that may be contrary 
to it.^ This Word is the only truth ; it is the siu-e rule of all 
doctrine and of all Ufe, and can never fail or deceive us. He 
■who builds on this foundation shall stand against aU the powers 
•of hell, whilst aU the human vanities that are set up against 
it shall fall before the face of God. 

" For these reasons, most dear lords, uncles, cousins,, and 
friends, we earnestly entreat you to weigh carefully our griev- 
ances and our motives. If you do not yield to our request, we 
Protest by these pi-esents, before God, our only Creator, Pre- 
server, Redeemer, and Saviour, and who will one day be our 
judge, as well as before all men and all creatures, that we, for 
us and for our people, neither consent nor adhere in any man- 
ner whatsoever to the proposed decree, in any thing that is 
contrary to God, to his holy Word, to our right conscience, to 
^e salvation of oiu* souls, and to the last decree of Spires. 

" At the same time we are in expectation that his imperial 
majesty wiU behave towards us like a christian prince who loves 
God above all things; and we declare ourselves ready to pay 
unto him, as well as unto you, gracious lords, all the affection 
and obedience that are our just and legitimate duty." 

Thus, in presence of the diet, spoke out those courageous 
men whom Christendom will henceforward denominate TuE 

They had barely finished when they announced their inten- 
tion of quitting SpirCwS on the morrow.* 

This protest and declaration produced a deep impression. 
The diet was rudely interrupted and broken into two hostile 
parties, — thus preluding war. Tlie majority became the prey 
of the liveliest fears. As for the Protestants, relying, jure 
hnmano, upon the edict of Spires, and, jure divino, upon the 
Bible, they were fuU of courage and firmness. 

The principles contained in this celebrated protest of the 19tli 


Allcin Gottes Trort, lanter nnd rein, nnd iiiohts rtas dnvrieder ist. Junj Beytragtw 
•I. ^ Also zu verrittcn uriaub genummen. Ibid., p. 5i 


April 1529, constitute the very essence of Protestantism. New 
tiiis protest opposes two abuses of man in matters of faitli: the 
first is the intrusion of the civil magistrate, and the second the 
arbitrary authority of the Church. Instead of these abuses. 
Protestantism sets the power of conscience above the magis- 
trate; and the authority of the Word of God above the visible 
church. In the first place, it rejects the civil power in divine 
thiu'TS, and says with the prophets and apostles: We must obey 
God rather than man. In presence of the crown of Charles the 
Pifth, it uplifts the crown of Jesus Christ. But it goes farther: 
it lays down the principle, that all human teaching should be 
subordinate to the oracles of God. Even the primitive Church, 
by recognizing the writings of the apostles, had performed an 
act of submission to this supreme authority, and not an act of 
authority, as Rome maintains; and the establishment of a tri- 
bunal charged with the interpretation of the Bible, had termi- 
nated only in slavishly subjecting man to man in what should 
be the most unfettered — conscience and faith. In this cele- 
brated act of Spires no doctor appears, and the Word of God 
reigns alone. Never has man exalted himself like the pope;, 
never have men kept in the background like the reformers. 

A Romish historian maintains that the word Protestant sig- 
nifies enemy of the emperor and of the pope} If he means that. 
Protestantism, in matters of faith, rejects the intervention both 
of the empire and of the papacy, it is well. But even this ex- 
planation does not exhaust the signification of the word, for 
Protestantism threw off man's authority solely to place Jesus 
Christ on the throne of the Church, and his Word in the pulpit. 
There has never been anything more positive, and at the same- 
time more aggressive, than the position of the Protestants at 
Spires. By maintaining that their faith alone is capable of 
saving the world, they defended with intrepid courage the 
rights of Christian proselytism. We cannot abandon this 
proselytism ^vithout deserting the prostcstant principle. 

The Protestants of Spires were not content to exalt tho 
truth; they defended charity. Faber and tho other papal 
partisans liad endeavoured to separate the princes, who in 
general walked with Luther, from the cities that ranged them- 
selves rather on the side of Zwingle. CEcolaiupadius had im- 
mediately written to Mclancthon, and enlightened him on the 
doctrines of the Zurich Reformer. He had indignantly rejected 
tho idea tliat Christ was banished into a corner of heaven, and 
had energetically declared {!:at, a^-L-ordlng to the Swiss Chris- 

• rcniuelles In ronlir.ecin rallavioi^ii, C. T. !., \ . :'■' 

cimisTiAx uxioy. 


tians, Christ was in every place upholding all tilings by the 
"Word of his power.* "With the visible symbols," he added, 
"we give and we receive the invisible grace, Kke all the 

These declarations were not useless. There were at Spires 
two men who from different motives opposed the efforts of 
Faber, and seconded those of CEcolampadius. The landgrave, 
ever revolving projects of alliance in his mind, felt clearly that 
if the Christians of Saxony and of Hesse allowed the con- 
demnation of the Churches of Switzerland and of Upper Ger- 
many, they would by that very means deprive themselves of 
powerful auxiliaries.^ Melanethon, who unlike the landgrave 
was far from desiring a diplomatic alliance, lest it should 
hasten on a war, defended the great principles of justice, and 
exclaimed: "To what just reproaches should we not be ex- 
posed, were we to recognise in our adversaries the right of 
condemning a doctrine Avithout having heard those who defend 
it!" The union of all evangelical Christians is therefore a 
principle of primitive Protestantism. 

As Ferdinand had not heard the protest of the 19th Aprils 
a deputation of the evangelical states went the next day to 
present it to him. The brother of Charles the Fifth received 
it at first, but immediately after desired to return it. Then 
was witnessed a strange scene — the king refusing to keep the 
protest, and the deputies to take it back. At last the latter,, 
out of respect, received it from Ferdinand's hands; but they 
laid it boldly upon a table, and directly quitted the haU. 

The king and the imperial commissaries remained in pre- 
sence of this formidable writing. It was there — before theiv 
eyes — a significant monument of the corn-age and faith of the 
Protestants. Irritated against this silent but mighty witness, 
which accused his tyranny, and left him the responsibility of 
all the evils that were about to burst upon the empire, the 
brother of Charles the Fifth called some of his councillors, and 
ordered them instantly to carry the important document back 
to the Protestants. 

All this was unavailing; the protest had been registered in 
the annals of tr.e Avorld, and nothing could erase it. Liberty 
of thought and of conscience had been conquered for ages to 
^ ^ '^' := all evangelical Germany, foreseeing these things, 

L C!-.qr.e u: et portet omnia verbo rirtutis sua;. Hist. S.ier., ii, 112. 
- X««;j yap rh» aiparai ftiTBC. t£t rvuSh.uf ioarat. (IbiiLJ The invisible 

, jewith the invirible ?yinboi'=. ■ '' — ; i- '!.: r o!<^t m i'^ls T:r,iret, 

(tec::., -S- 127J Me did bis ntn;-: -n to unite ' 


was moved, at this courageous act, and adopted it as the ex- 
pression of its Avill and of its faith. Men in every quarter 
beheld in it not a mere political event, but a christian action, 
and the youthful electoral prince, John Frederick, in this re- 
pect the organ of his age, cried to the Protestants of Spires : 
"May the Almighty, who has given you grace to confess ener- 
getically, freely, and feai-lcssly, preserve you in that christian 
firmness until the day of eternity!"! 

While the Christians were filled Avith joy, their enemies were 
frightened at their own work. The very day on which Ferdi- 
nand had declined to receive the protest (Tuesday 20th April), 
at one in the afternoon, Henry of Brunswick and. Philip of 
Baden presented themselves as mediators, announcing, how- 
ever, that they were acting solely of their own authority. 
They proposed that there should be no more mention of the 
decree of Worms, and that the first decree of Spires should be 
maintained, but with a few modifications; that the two parties, 
while remaining free imtil the next council, should oppose every 
ncAv sect, and tolerate no doctrine contrary to the sacrament 
of the Lord's body.^ 

On Wednesday, 21st April, the evangelical states did not 
appear adverse to these propositions; and even those who 
had embraced the doctrines of Zwingle declared boldly that 
such a proposal Avould not compromise their existence. "Onlj 
let us call to mind," said they, "that in such diflicult matters 
we must act, not with the sword, but with the sure Word of 
God.' For, as St. Paid says: What is not of faith is sin. If 
therefore we constrain Christians to do what they believe un- 
just, instead of leading them by God's Word to acknowledge 
what is good, we force them to sin and incur a terrible re- 
ejjonsibility. " 

The fanatics of the Roman party trembled as they saw the 
victory nearly escaping from them; they rejected all compro- 
mise, and desired purely and simply the re-ostablishmcnt of the 
papacy. Their zeal overcame everything, aJidthe negotiations 
were broken off. 

On Thursday, 22d April, the diet re-asscmblcd at seven in 
the morning, and the Recess was read precisely as it liad been 
previously drawn up, without even mentioning the attempt at 
conciliation which had just failed. 

1 In CO mnnsuroR esse, lU'c passuros ut uHiv liominum itincliinntione nb ea sententiu 
(livellercntur. (Scckrml., ii, I'Ji.) That tlioy were to nliiile tlurein, and not allow 
themselves (o Ixs iliivcii from that sentiment by any nuicliiiiatinn of men. 

■* Ver(;Icifli artiUel. Jiiiij; 13c.\tra);e, p. 05. » In iliei-en Sfli«cren Sachen, 

nicnta niit (JcWiilt nooli Sclivyenlt, xondcrn mit Gottcs v;< « itBuin wort, Ibiil., )). iS). 
This Uou'.iueiit is fVoni the pa vt Sturm 

eicliatiox of the papists. 


Faber triumphed. Proud of having the ear of kings, he 
tossed himself furiously about, and to look at him, one would 
have said (according to an eve-witness) that he was a Cyclops 
forging in his cavern the monstrous chains M-ith which he was 
iibout to bind the Reformation and the reformers. ^ The papist 
princes, carried away by the timault, gave the spur, says Me- 
lancthon, and flung themselves headlong into a path filled with 
dangers.* Nothing was left for the evangelical Christians but 
to fall on their knees and cry to the Lord. "All that remains 
for us now to do," repeated Melancthon, "is to call upon the 
Son of God."- 

The last sitting of the diet took place on the 2-tth April. 
The princes renewed their protest, in which fourteen free and 
imperial cities joined ; and they next thought of giving their 
•appeal a legal form. 

On Sunday, 2.5th April, two notaries. Leonard Stetner of 
Treysingen and Pangraee Saltzmann of Bamberg, were seated 
before a small table in a narrow chamber on the ground-floor 
of a house situated in St. John's Lane, near the church of the 
same name in Spires, and around them were the chancellors of 
die princes and of the evangelical cities, with several witnesses.* 

This little house belonged to an humble pastor, Peter Mu- 
terstatt, deacon of St. John's, who taking the place of the 
elector or of the landgrave, had offered a domicile for the im- 
portant act that was preparing. His name shall in consequence 
be transmitted to posterity. The document having been defi- 
nitively drawn up, one of the notaries began reading it. " Since 
there is a natural communion between all men," said the Pro- 
testants, " and since even persons condemned to death are per- 
mitted to unite and appeal against their condemnation ; how 
much more are we, who are members of the same spiritual 
body, the Chmch of the Son of God, children of the same Hea- 

Miy Father, and consequently brothers in the Spirit, ^ autho- 
. .zed to imite when our salvation and eternal condemnation are 

After reviewing all that had passed in the diet, and after in- 

oalating in their appeal the principal documents that had 

reference to it, the Protestants ended by saying: " We there- 

» C: clops nie nunc ferocem se facit. (Corp. Ret, i, 1062.) That Cjcl. ps is now 
b«'f>mingr ferocious. 3 xTt inerediantor labricum isti iter, impingendo stimulis 

•calors. Ibid. *De quo reliquum est ut invocemus Pilium Det Ibid. 

* Cut«fm in eincm Eleinen Stiiblein. Jung Bertriige, p. 78. Instrumentum AppelU- 
tionis. s Membra unius corporis spiritualis Jesu Christi et filii nnius patrig 

«Dlestis, idcoque fratres spiritu-nles. (Seckcnd., u. 1-30.) Members of one spiritual 
bMT. Jesus Christ and chUdren of our he.irenlT Father, aud therefore spiritaal 


foro appeal for ourselves, for our subjects, and for all who re- 
ceive or who shall hereafter receive tlie Word of God, from all 
past, present, or future vexatious measures, to his Imperial 
Majesty, and to a free and universal assembly of holy Christen- 
dom." This document filled twelve sheets of parchment; the 
signatures and seals were affixed to the thirteenth. 

Thus in the obscure dwelling- of the chaplain of St. John's 
was made the first confession of the true christian union. In 
presence of the AvhoUy mechanical unity of the pope, tliese 
confessors of Jesus raised the banner of the living unity of 
Christ ; and, as in the days of our Saviour, if there were many 
synagogues in Israel, there was at least but one temple. The 
Christians of Electoral Saxonj', of Luneburg, of Anhalt, of 
Hesse and the Margravate, of Strasburg, Nuremberg, Dim, 
Constance, Lindau, Memmingen, Kcmptcu, Xordlingen, Ileil- 
bronn, Reutlingen, Isny, Saint Gall, Weissemburg, and Wind- 
sheim, took each other's hands on the 25th April, near the 
church of St. John, in the face of threatening persecutions. 
Amo"g them might be found those who, like Zwingle, acknow- 
ledged in the Lord's Supper the entirely spiritual presence of 
Jesus Christ, as well as those who, with Luther, admitted his 
corporeal presence. There existed not at that time in the 
evangelical body any sects, hatred, or schism; christian unity 
was a reality. That upper chamber in which, during the early 
days of Christianity, the apostles with the women arid tlio 
brethren "continued witli one accord in prayer and supplica- 
tion,"^ and that lower chamber Avherc, in the first days of the 
Reformation, the renewed disciples of Jesus Christ presented 
themselves to the pope and the emperor, to the world and to 
the scafi'old, as forming but one bod}-, are the two cradles of 
the Church; and it is in this its hour of weakness and humi- 
liation that it shines forth with the brightest glory. 

After this appeal each one returned in silence to liis dwelling. 
Several tokens excited alarm for the safety of the Protestants. 
A short time previously Mclancthon hastily conducted through 
the streets of Spires toward the Rhine his friend Simon Gry- 
naius, pressing him to cross the river. The latter was asto- 
nished at such precipitation.* "An old man of grave and 
Bolemn air, but who is unknown to me," said Mclancthon, 
"appeared before mo and said: In a minute officers of justice 
will bo sent by Ferdinand to arrest Grynajus." As he was 
intimate with Faber, and had been scandalized at one of his 

* Acts, 1, 14. ^Miranti quae essct tanta; refitinationiii cau«a. Ciimerarius Vltft. 

Mfl., p. lU 



sermons, Gryoreus went to Iiim, r.nd begged him no longer to 
make war against the truth. Faber dissembled his anger, but 
immediately after repaired to the king, from whom he had 
obtained an order against the importunate professor of Heidel- 
berg.' ilelancthon doubted not that God had saved his friend 
by sending one of his holy angels to forewarn him. Motionless 
on the banks of the Rhine, he waited until the waters of that 
stream had rescued Grynaius from his persecutors. "At last, 
cried ilelancthon, as' he saw him on the opposite side, " at last 
he is torn from the cruel jaws of those who thirst for innocent 
blood. "2 When he returned to his house, Melancthon was in- 
formed that officers in search of Giynreus had ransacked it 
from top to bottom.' 

There was nothing to detain the Protestants longer in 
Spires, and accordingly, on the morning after their appeal 
(Monday, 2Gth xVpril), the elector, the landgrave, and the Dukes 
of Luneburg, quitted the city, reached Wonns, and then re- 
turned by Hesse into their own states. The appeal of Spires 
was published by the landgrave on the 5th, and by the elector 
on the 13th of May, 

Melancthon had returned to Wittemberg on the 6th of May, 
persuaded that the two parties were about to draw the sword. 
His friends v.-ere alarmed at seeing him agitated, exhausted, 
and like one dead.* " It is a great event that has just taken 
place at Spiixs," said he; " an event pregnant with dangers, 
not only to the empire, but to religion itself.^ All the pains 
of heU oppress me."^ 

It was Melancthon's greatest affliction, that these evils were 
attributed to him, as indeed he ascribed them himself. " One 
single thing has injured us," said he; "our not having approv- 
ed, as was required of us, the edict against the Zwinglians." 
Luther did not take this gloomy view of affairs: but he was far 
from comprehending the force of the protest. " The diet," 
said he, " has come to an end almost without results, except 
that those who scourge Jesus Christ have not been able to sa- 
tisfy their fury."' 

Posterity has not ratified this decision, and on the contrary, 

1 Faber qui val.le offenderetur oration! tali, d:ssiinul;!i c t:r.nen omnia. (Camer.Tita 
MpI., p. 113.) 2 Ereptus quasi e faucibiis eoraiii qui s-itiuiit sanguiiiem inn<.centiiii::. 
(Mel. ad Camtr. '2M April, Corp. Ref., i, lOCi.) Saatclied as it were Ironi the jaws of 
those mlio thirst for tBe blood ot the inni>cetit. ' Afflait armata qtueUam manus' 

ad coiiiprehendum Gon.-puni nitssa. Giirmer. Vil:i Mfl.. p. 113. * It:i fuit pci - 

turhatus ut primis diebu< peiie cx;iuctus sit. C'ji-p. iJef.,!, 1067. ^.Noiieniii! 

taiituiii impcrium, sed religioetiam periclitantur. Ibid. «Oni:ies dolores 

nfeiiii I'ppri-sserant me. Ibid., 1067, lOf*. ' Christo-mastiges it !'.-vchf^ 

tjrranni suum fuii.reni non potunrunt I'Xi.krc. (:,. E; tt Liiico. Gth Mar. 15i;\! " Tl>e 
6coU!-gers of Christ and tvraiits ot souls iiave i:or ••.ro iil'.e to satiate tbeir furj. 


dating from this epoch the definitive formation of Protestant- 
ism, it has hailed in the Protest of Spires one of the greatest 
movements recorded in history. 

Let us see to whom the chief glory of this act belongs. The 
part taken hy the princes, and especially by the Elector of 
Saxony, iu the German Reformation, must strike every impar- 
tial observer. These are the true Reformers — the true martyrs. 
The Holy Ghost, that bloweth where it listeth, had inspired 
them with the courage of the ancient confessors of the Church; 
and the God of election was glorified in them. Somewhat later, 
perhaps, this great part played by the princes may have pro- 
duced deplorable consequences : there is no grace of God that 
man cannot pervert. But nothing should prevent us from ren- 
dering honour to whom honour is due, and from adoring the 
work of the eternal Spirit in these eminent men who, under 
God, were in the sixteenth century the liberators of Christendom. 

The Reformation had taken a bodily form. It was Luther 
alone Avho had said No at the Diet of Worms: but churches and 
ministers, princes and people, said No at the Diet of Spires. 

In no country had superstition, scholasticism, hierarchy, and 
popery, been so powerful as among the Germanic nations. These 
simple and candid people had humbly bent their neck to the 
yolce that came from the banks of the Tiber. But there was 
in them a depth, a life, a need of interior liberty, which, sanc- 
tified by the Word of God, might render them the most ener- 
getic organs of Christian truth. It was from them that was 
destined to emanate the reaction against that material, exter- 
nal, and legal system, which had taken the place of Christian- 
ity; it was they who were called to shatter in pieces the skeleton 
which had been substituted for the spirit and the life, and res- 
tore to the heart of Christendom, ossified by the hierarchy, the 
generous beatings of which it had been deprived for so many 
ages. The universal Church will never forget the debt it owes 
to the princes of Spires and to Luther. 


Onion necessary to Reform— Lutlier's Doctrine on the Lord's Supper— A Lutheran 

WarnioK rroposcd Conference at Marburc — Molniicthon and Zwin^le — Zwingle 

leaves Zurich— Rumours in Zurich— The Reformers at Murbuig— Carlstadt's 
Petition— Preliminary discussions— IIol> Ghost— Original Sin— Baptism— I.uthcr, 
Melancthon, and Zwingle— Opening of the Conference— The Prayer of the Cliurch 
—Hoc est Corpus Mfini— Syllogism of (Ecolampadius— The Flesh profitetli no- 


tlimg Lambert convinced — Luther's Oi<l Son^ — Agitation in the Conference — Ar- 
rival of new Deputies — Christ's Uuiauni;y finite — Mathematics and Popery — Tes- 
thnony of tlie Fathers — Testimony of Augustine — Argument of the Velvet Cover 
— Snd of the Conference — The Landgrave mediates— Xeeessity of Cnioii — Luther 
rejects Zningle's hand — Sectarian Spirit of tlie Germans — Bucer's Dilemma — 
Cliristian Charity prevails — Luther's Report — Unity of Doctrine — Unity in Diver- 
sity — Signatures — T"o Extremes — Three Views — Germ of Popery — Departure — 
Luther's Dejection — Turks before Vieima — Luther's Battle-Sermon and Agony^ 
Lutlier's Firmness — Victory — Exasperation of the Papists — Threatening Pros- 

The Protest of Spires had still furtlier increased the iudigna- 
tion of the papal adherents ; and Charles the Fifth, according 
to the oath he had made at Barcelona, set ahout preparing "a 
suitable antidote for the pestilential disease with which the Ger- 
mans were attacked, and to avenge in a striking manner the 
insult offered to Jesus Christ." ^ The pope, on his part, en- 
deavoured to combine all the other princes of Christendom in 
this crusade; and the peace of Cambray, concluded on the 5th 
August, tended to the accomplishment of his cruel designs. It 
left the emperor's hands free against the heretics. After hav- 
ing entered their protest at Spires, it was necessary for the 
evangelicals to think of maintainiujj it. 

The protestant states that had already laid the foundations 
of an evangelical alliance at Spires, had agreed to send depu- 
ties to Rothach ; but the elector, staggered by the representa- 
tions of Luther, who was continually repeating to him, " In 
returning and rest shall ye be saved; in quietness and in con- 
fidence shall be your strength;"' ordered his deputies to listen 
to the propositions of his allies, but to decide upon nothing. 
They adjourned to a new conference, which never took place. 
Luther triumphed; for himian alliances failed. " Christ the 
Lord will know how to deliver us without the landgrave, and 
even against the landgrave," said he to his friends.^ 

Philip of Hesse, who was vexed at Luther's obstinacy, was 
convinced that it arose from a dispute about words. " They 
will hear no mention of alliances because of the Zwinglians,'* 
said he ; " well then, let us put an end to the contradictions 
that separate them from Luther." 

The union of all the disciples of the Word of God seemed in 
fact a necessary condition to the success of the Reformation. 
How could the Protestants resist the power of Rome and of the 
empire, if they were divided ? The landgrave no doubt wished 

' Illatamque Christo iniuriam pro viribns ulciscentur. Damont, Corp. Univ. Difu 
lomatique. iv, 1,5. " ' Isaiah, iix, 15. L. Epp. iij, 4M. ' Unser Herr 

Christus, ic. (Ibid.) This confidence of Luther shocks a Lutheran historian— Planic, 

70 lutiiek's doctrixk ox the lord's supper. 

to unite tlielr minds, that he might afterwards he ahle to unite 
their arms ; hut the cause of Christ was not to triumph hv the 
sword. If they should succeed in uniting their hearts and 
prayers, the Reformation would then find such strength in the 
faith of its children, that Philip's spearmen would no longer he 
necessary. . 

Unfortunately, this union of minds, that was now to be 
sought after above all things, Avas a very difficult task, Luther 
in 1519 had at first appeared not only to reform, hut entirely 
renovate the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, as the Swiss did 
somewhat later. " I go to the sacrament of the Lord's Sup- 
per," he had said, " and I there receive a sign from God that 
Christ's righteousness and passion justify me ; such is the use 
of the sacra mcut."^ This discourse, which had gone through 
several impressions in the cities of Upper Germany, had pre- 
pared men's minds for the doctrine of Zwingle. Accordingly 
Luther, astonished at the reputation he had gained, published 
this solemn declaration in 1527: "I protest before God and 
before the whole world that I have never walked with the sa- 

Luther in fact was never Zwinglian as regards the Commu- 
nion. Far from that, in 1519, he still believed in Transub- 
Btantiation. Why then should he speak of a sign ? It was 
for this reason. While, according to Zwingle, the bread and 
Avine are signs of the body and blood of Christ ; according to 
Luther, the very body and blood of Jesus Christ are signs of 
God's grace. These opinions are widclj^ dilfcreut from one 

Ere long this disagreement declared itself. In 1527 Zwingle, 
in his Friendly Exposition,^ refuted Luther's opinion Avith mild- 
ness and respect. Unluckily the pamphlet of the Saxon re- 
former, "against the enthusiasts," Avas then issuing from the 
press, and in it Luther expressed his indignation that his ad- 
versaries should dare to speak of christian unity and peace. 
" Well !" exclaimed he, " since they thus insult all reason, I 
will give them a Lutheran Avarning.' Cursed be this concord! 
cursed be this charity ! doAvn, down Avith it to the bottomless 
pit of hell ! If I sbould murder your father, your mother, 
your Avife, your child, and then, Avishing to murder you, I 
should say to you, * Let us be at peace, my dear friend ! ' Avhat 
answer Avould you make ? — It is thus that the enthusiasts, 

i In tlic wHtiDit cntitleil. Dass diese M'orte noctifcste Sti'h^n. L. 0pp., xix. 

3 Arnica eregesis, id est, i:xpositio Eiichiiristias neijotii ad M. Lutlierum. Zw. Ol>p. 

s Eiiic Lutliciische Waruunt;- L. 0pp., xix, oOl. Wider die Sclnvarmgeister. 


■who miiider Jesus Christ my Lord, God the Father, and Chris- 
tendom my mother, wish to murder me also ; and thou they 
say. Let us be friends !" 

Zwingle wrote two replies " to the excellent Martin Luther," 
in a cold tone and with a haughty calmness moi-e difficult to- 
pardon than the invectives of the Saxon doctor. " We ought 
to esteem you a vessel of honour, and we do so with joy," said 
ho, "notwithstanding your faults." Pamphlet followed pam- 
phlet. Luther always writing with the same impetuosity, and 
Zwingle with unalterable coolness and irony. 

Such were the doctors whom the landgrave undertook to re- 
concile. Already, during the sitting of the Diet of Spires, 
Philip of Hesse, who was afflicted at hearing the papists con- 
tinually repeating, " You boast of your attachment to the pure 
Word of God, and yet you are nevertheless disunited,"^ had 
made overtures to Zwino-le in writins:. He now went farther, 
and invited the theologians of the different parties to meet at 
Marburg. These invitations met with various receptions. 
Zwingle, whose heart was large and fraternal, answered the 
landgrave's call ; but it was rejected by Luther, who discover- 
ed leagues and battles behind this pretended concord. 

It seemed, however, that great difficulties would detain 
Zwingle. The road from Zurich to ^larburg lay through the 
territories of the emperor and of other enemies to the Reforma- 
tion ; the landgrave himself did not conceal the dangers of the 
journey;- but in order to obviate these difficulties, he promised 
an escort from Strasburg to Hesse, and for the rest " the pro- 
tection of God."' These precautions were not of a nature to 
reassure the Zurichers. 

Reasons of another kind detained Luther and Melancthon. 
" It is not right," said they, " that the landgrave has so much 
to do with the Zwinglians. Their error is of such a nature 
that people of acute ujinds are easily tainted by it. Reason 
loves what it understands, particularly when learned men clothe 
their ideas in a scriptural dress." 

Melancthon did not stop here, but put forth the very extra- 
ordinary notion of selecting papists as judges of the discussion. 
" If there were no impartial judges," said he, " the Zwinglians 
would have a good chance of boasting of victory."* Thus, ac- 
cording to Melancthon, papists would be impartial judges when 
the real presence was the subject of discussion ! He went still 

* Inter nos ipsos de religionis doctrina non conscntire. Zw. Epp., ii, 2S7. 

' Viam Francofurdi capias, quam autem hac pericuiosioreni esse putamus. Ibid, 
p. 312. ' Juvante Deu tuti. Ibid, p. 3i9. * Papistiscbe als unpar- 

tcisclie. Corp. Ret"., i, IOCS. 


farther. '* Let the elector," he wrote on the May to th» 
Prince Electoral, "refuse to permit our journey to Marburg, 
so that we may be able to allege this excuse." The elector 
would not lend himself to so disgraceful a proceeding; and the 
reformers of Wittemberg found themselves compelled to accede 
to the request of riiiJip of Hesse. . JBut they did so with these 
words: " If the Swiss do not yield to us, all your trouble will 
he lost ;" and they Avrote to the theologians among their friends 
who were convoked by the prince: " Stay away if you can; 
your absence will be very useful to us."i 

Zwingle, on the contrary, who Avould have gone to the end 
of the world, made every exertion to obtain permission from the 
magistrates of Zurich to visit Marburg. " I am convinced," 
said he to the secret council, " that if we doctors meet face t©i 
face, the splendour of truth will illuminate our eyes."^ But 
the council, that had only just signed the first religious peace,' 
and who feared to see war burst out afresh positively refused 
to allow the departure of the reformer. 

Upon this Zwingle decided for himself. He felt that hi& 
presence was necessary for the maintenance of peace in Zurich; 
but the welfare of all Christendom summoned him to Marburg. 
Accordingly, raising his eyes towards heaven, he resolved to 
depart, exclaiming, " God! thou hast never abandoned ufr; 
Thou wilt pei'fonu thy Avill for thine own glory."* During the 
night of the 31st August, Zwingle, who was unwilling to wait 
for the landgrave's safe- conduct, prepared for his journey. 
E-odolph Collins, the Gicek professor, Avas alone to accompany 
him. The reformer wrote to tlie Smaller and to the Great 
Council: ** If I leave without informing you, it is not, most 
wise lords, because I despise your authority; but, knowing the 
love you bear towards me, I foresee that your anxiety will op^ 
pose my going," 

As he was writing these words, a fpurth message arrived 
from the landgrave, more pressing still than the preceding ones. 
The reformer sent tlie prince's letter to the burgomaster with 
his own; he then quitted his house privily by night,* conceahng 
his departui-e both from friends, whose importunity he feared, 
and from enemies, whose snares he had good cause to dread. 
He did not even tell his wife where he was going, lest it should 
distress her. lie and Collins then mounted two horses that 

1 SI poten, noil ndesge. h. Epp., iii, 501. ' Ut veriutis splendor oculo* 

nostros feriat. Zw. Epp., ii, 3'2I. ' See below. Ilo<ik xvi, chap, ii, anno 15i9. 

* Dti nunquani falkiitis, qui nos niiiK|unni desoruit, (.Tiitiutn reputavi. Zw. j£pp« 
ii, 85G. * Sabbuti die, inane ante luocui, 1 Scplembri*. lu:d. 



had been liired for the puq)ose,* and rode off rapidly in th& 
direction of Basle. 

During the day the rumour of Zwingle's absence spread 
through Zurich, and his enemies were elated. " He has fled_ 
the country," said they; "he has run away with a pack of 
scoundrels! " " As he was crossing the river at Bruck," said 
others, " the boat upset and he was drowned." " The devil," 
affirmed many, with a malicious smile, " appeared to him bodily 
and carried him off."* — " There was no end to their stories," 
says Bullinger. But the council immediately resolved on ac- 
ceding to the wish of the reformer. On the very day of his^ 
departure they appointed one of the councillors, Ulrich Funck, 
to accompan}' him to Marburg, who forthwith set out with one 
domestic and an arquebusier. Strasburg and Basle in like 
manner sent statesmen in company with their theologians, 
under the idea that this conference would doubtless have, also,, 
a political object. 

Zwingle arrived safely at Basle,' and embarked on the river 
on the 6th September with (Ecolampadius and several mer- 
chants.* In thirteen hours they reached Strasburg, where the 
two reformers lodged in the house of Matthew Zell, the catlie- 
dral preacher. Catherine, the pastor's wife, prepared the 
dishes in the kitchen, waited at table, according to the ancient 
German manners,* and then sitting down near Zwingle, listened 
attentively, and spoke with so much piety and knowledge, that 
the latter soon ranked her above many doctors. 

After discussing with the magistrates the means of resisting 
the Romish league, and the organization to be given to the 
christian confederacy,^ Zwingle quitted Strasburg; and he and 
his friends, conducted along by-roads, through forests, over 
mountains and valleys, by secret but sure paths, at length 
reached Marburg, escorted by forty Hessian cavaliers.' 

Luther, on his side, accompanied by Melancthon, Cruciger,. 
and Jonas, had stopped on the Hessian frontier, declaring that 
nothing should induce him to cross it without a safe-conduct 
from the landgrave. This document being obtained, Luther 
arrived at Alsfeld, where the scholars, kneeling under the re- 
former's windows, chanted their pious hymns. He entered 

1 Eqais cnnductoriis. Zw. Epp., ii, S61. ' Der Tufel rere by imm gesin . 

Balling., ii, 234. > Integer et snnus Basiliatn perrenit Zw. Epp, ii, 36U 

♦ Aliquos mercatomnfi fide dignos, comites. Ibiil. 5 Ich bin 14 Tag magd 
nnd X.bchin gewesen. FiissL Beytr, v, 313. See her remarkable correspondence 
with the superintendent Rabus. Ibid., 191-361. « De jure prsesidendi coo- 
Ciliis civitatum christianarum. Ibid,, 364. See book xvi. of this History. 

* Per devia et Bjlvas, montes et valies, tutissimos et occultos. Ibid., 36& 


Mailjurg on the SOtli September, a day after the arrival of the 
Swiss. Both parties went to inns; but they had scarcely 
alighted, before the landgrave invited them to come and lodge 
in the castle, thinking by this means to bring the opposing 
parties closer together. Philip entertained them in a manner 
truly royal. ^ "Ahl" said the pious Jonas, as he Avandered 
through the halls of tlie palace, "it is not in honour of the 
Muses, but in honour of God and of his CJirist, that we are so 
munificently treated in these forests of Ilcssel" After dinner, 
■on the first day, Giicolampadius, Hedio, and Bucer, desirous of 
entering into the prince's views, went and saluted Luther. The 
latter conversed aifectionatcly with OHcolampadius in thccastlc- 
<;oiu-t; but Bucer, Avith wliom he had once been very intimate, 
and who was now on Zwingle's side, having approached him, 
Lutlier said to him, smiling and making a sign with his 
hand: " As for you, you are a good-for-nothing fellow and a 
knave! "^ 

Tlie unhappy Carlstadt, who had begun this dispute, was at 
that time in Friesiand, preaching the spiritual presence of 
Christ, and living in such destitution that he had been forced 
to sell his Hebrew Bible to procure bread. The trial liad 
crushed his pride, and he wrote to tlie landgrave: " We are 
but one body, one house, one people, one sacerdotal race; wo 
live and die by one and the same Saviour.^ For tliis reason, 1, 
poor and in exile, humbly pray 3'our higlmcss, by the blood of 
Jesus Christ, to allow me to be present at the disputation." 

But liow bring Luther and Carlstadt face to face? and yet 
^ how repel the unhappy man? The landgrave, to cvtricate him- 
self from tliis difficulty, referred him to the Saxon reformer. 
Carlstadt did not appear. 

Philip of ITcssc desired that, previously to the public confer- 
ence, the theologians should have a private interview. It mus 
however considered dangerous, says a contempoi-ary, for Zwingle 
and Luther, mI.o were botli naturally violent, to contend with 
one another at the very beginning; tuid as (Ecolampadius and 
Melancthon were the mildest, they were apportioned to the 
roughest chamjHons.'* On Friday, the 1st October, after divine 
service, Luther and fficolampadius Averc conducted into ono 
chamber, and Zwingle and Melancthon into another. The 
combatants Avcre then left to struggle two and two. 

The principal contest took place in the room of Zwiuglo and 

* K^icppit ill itrci! Iiojiilio ct inoiisa rog:ili. Corp. Ref., i, lOSC. » Subridons 

aliquaiituluii) ii'spDiidit : <ii <;j iiciiuam ci )i«?>uJo. Sculteti Aniinl., nd 152y. '■> St.'ite 
fuperd uf Cussel. * Ab^etliuilt zu Ueii ruhreii. ISuU., ii, 2l'5. 


Melancthon. " It is affirmed," said Molancthon to Zwingle, 
" that some among vou speak of God after the manner of the 
Jews, as if Christ vr;is not essentially God." " I think on the 
Holy Trinity," repKeJ Zwing'e, "irith the Council of Nice 
and the Athanasian creed." " Conncils! creeds ! What does 
that mean ? " asked Melancthon. " Have you not continually 
repeated that yon recognise no other authority than that of 
Scripture?" " We have never rejected the councils," replied 
the Swiss reformer, "Trhcn they are based on the authority of 
the Word of Goil.^ Tlie four first councils are truly sacred 
as regards dcctrine, and none of the faithful have ever rejected 
them." This important declaration, handed dow^n to us by 
(Eeolampadius, characterizes the refoi-mod theology.* 

*' But you teach." resumed Melancthon, " like Thomas 
Munster, that the Holy Gliost acts quite alone, independently 
of the sacraments and of the Word of God." . " The Holy 
Ghost,"' replied Zwingle, " works in us justification by the 
Word, hut by the Word preached and tmderstootl, by the soul 
and the marrow of the Word, by the mind and will of God 
clothed in human language."' 

" At least,"' continued Melancthon, "you deny original sin, 
and make sin consist only in actual and external works, like 
the Pelagians, the philosophers, and the Papists." 

This was the principal difficulty. " Since man naturally 
loves himself," replied Zwingle, " instead of loving God ; in 
that there is a crime, a sin that condemns him."* He had 
more than once before expressed the same opinion : ' and yet 
Melancthon exidted on hearing him : " Our adversaries,"' said 
he afterwards, "have given way on all these points I " 

Luther had pursued the same method with (Ecolampadius 
as Melancthon with Zwingle. The discussion had in particu- 
lar turned on baptism. Lnther complained that the Swiss 
would not acknowledge that by this simple sacrament a man 
became a member of the Church. " It is true," said (Ecolam- 
padius, " that we require faith — either an actual or a future 
faith. Why shotild we deny it ? Who is a Christian, if it be 
not he who believes in Christ ? However, I shotdd be unwill- 
ing to deny that the water of baptism is in a certain sense a 

* ITbi unquam concPJa rejicioios, T«rbtdiTiiii aoctoritati saSUta! fZw. 0pp., it. 
ISl.) Where do ne ev«r reject coancQs 5a|^H)rted in Ae andicritr of the Divine 
Word 1 -The n .r '. B^formeii kased to Aataagmih the doctrine and tlie 

chuTch of Znin.-. : i'l-um those of Lncher. * Ucas et medidla 

Tttrbimeiiset T.; Icta tamen bnmanis Tcsfiis. (Zir. Bpp, ir, ]<3i.) Tka 

mind and nutn u i Uw mind and the will of God, tboogh dotbed in b^. 

msn Uninia::e. -^ jLiiam,iieccat)am. Ibid., 17?. <I)epeceato«irirt> 

naU ab Urtx abegiom. Uid, iti. fiSL 


water of regeneration ; for Ly it lie, -whom the Cliurcli knew 
not, becomes its child."' ^ 

These four theologians were in the very heat of their discus- 
sions, when domestics came to inform them that the prince's 
dinner Avas on the table. They immediately arose and Zwingle 
and Melancthon meeting Luther and (Ecolampadius, who were 
also quitting their chamber, the latter approached Zwingle, and 
whispered mournfully in his ear: " I have fallen a second time- 
into the hands of Dr. Eck.'"^ In the language of the reform- 
ers nothing stronger could be said. 

It does not appear that the conference between Luther andi 
GEcolampadius was resumed after dinner. Luther's manner 
held out very little hope ; but Melancthon and Zwingle re- 
turned to the discussion, and the Zurich doctor finding the 
Wittembcrg professor escape him like an eel, as he said, and 
take, " like Proteus, a thousand different forms," seized a pen 
in order to fix his antagonist. Zwingle committed to writing 
whatever Melancthon dictated, and then wrote his reply, giving 
it to the other to read.^ In this manner they spent six hours, 
three in the morning, and three in the afternoon.* They pre- 
pared for the general conference. 

Zwingle requested that it should be an open one ; this Luther 
resisted. It was eventually resolved that the princes, nobles, 
deputies, and theologians, should be admitted ; but a great 
crowd of citizens, and even many scholars and gentlemen, who 
had come from Frankfort, from the Rhine districts, from Stras- 
burg, from Basle and other Swiss towns, were excluded. Brentz 
speaks of fifty or sixty hearers ; Zwingle, of twenty -four only.'' 

On a gentle elevation, watered by the Lahn, is situated an 
old castle, overlooking the city of Marburg ; in the distance 
may be seen the beautiful valley of the Lahn, and beyond, the 
mountain-tops rising one above another, until they are lost in 
the horizon. It was beneath the vaults and Gothic arches of 
an antique chamber in this castle, known as the Knight's Hall, 
that the conference was to take place. 

On Saturday morning (2d October) the landgrave took his 
seat in the hall, surrounded by his court, but in so plain a dresa 

' Atque ndco ipse nnn negarim, aquam bnptisml esse aqunin rcgcnernntem : flj 
eniin puer ecclesia), qui diuluin ab ecclesia iioii aRiioscebiitur. (Zw. Opp., iv, 193.x 
Ami therefore I am iiDt inclined to deny that the water uf baptism is rejjencratioa 
water ; fi.r lie •.vl}o was not acknowledged by the Church becomes a child of the- 
Church. * J.uthcruin CEcolamp.idem ita exccpit, ut ad nie vcniens clam quera- 

tur, Be denuo in Ecciuni incidisse. Zw. Epp., ii, 369. » At llelancthon, cum 

nimis lubricus esset et rrotii in morem se iu omnia transformaret, me compulit, ut 
■umpto cidamo miinu armurem. Ibid. * Istud colloquium sex in h.iras traxi- 

inus Ibid., 870. * y,uinquHginta out sexaninta colloquio pncsentes. Zw. 

Opp., Iv, 'JOl. Paucl arbitri ad suniniuin qiiiituor ct viginti. Epp. ii, o70. 


that no one would have taken him for a prince. He wished to 
avoid all appearance of acting the part of a Constantine in the 
aifairs of the Church. Before him was a table which Luther, 
JZwingle, Melancthon, and fficolampadius approached. Luther, 
taking a piece of chalk, bent over the velvet cloth which covered 
it, and steadily wrote four words in large characters. All eves 
followed the movement of his hand, and soon they read Hoc 
i:ST Corpus Meum.^ Luther wished to have this declaration 
continually before him, that it might strengthen his own faith, 
and be a sign to his adversaries. 

Behind these four theologians were seated their friends, — 
Hedio, Stm-m, Funck, Frey, Eberhard, Thane, Jonas, Cru- 
-ciger, and others besides. Jonas cast an inquiring glance 
upon the Swiss: "Zwingle," said he, "has a certain rusticity 
and arrogance;' if he is well versed in letters, it is in spite of 
Minerva and of the muses. In (Ecolampadius there is a na- 
tural goodness and admirable meekness. Hedio seems to have 
as much liberality as kindness ; but Buccr possesses the cun- 
ning of a fox, that knows how to give himself an air of sense 
and prudence." Men of moderate sentiments often meet with 
worse treatment than those of the extreme parties. 

Other feelings animated those who contemplated this assem- 
bly from a distance. The great men who had led the people 
in their footsteps on the plains of Saxony, on the banks of the 
Rhine, and in the lofty valleys of Switzerland, were there met 
face to face: the chiefs of Christendom who had separated from 
Rome, Avcre come together to see if they could remain one. 
Accordingly, from all parts of Germany, prayers and anxious 
looks were directed towards ilarburg. " Illustrious princes of 
the Word,'"' cried the evano-elical Church throufjh the month 
of the poet Cordus, "penetrating Luther, mild (Ecolampadius, 
magnanimous Zwingle, pious Snepf, eloquent Melancthon, 
courageous Bucer, candid Hedio, excellent Osiander, valiant 
Brentz, amiable Jonas, fiery Craton, Majnus, whose soul is 
stronger than his body, great Dionysius, and you Myconius — 
all you Avhom Prince Philip, that illustrious hero, has sum- 
moned, ministers and bishops, whom the christian cities have 
sent to terminate the schism, and to show us the way of truth; 
the suppliant Church falls weeping at your feet, and begs you 
by the bowels of Jesus Christ to bring this matter to a happy 

* This is my body. Z«v. 0pp., iv. 175. ' In Zwinglio ngreste quiddam est et 

arrogantulum. Corp. Ref., i, p. 1097. »Insignes yerbiproccres. Bull., ii, 236. 


issue, that the world may aclcnovvledge in your resolution tiie 
work of the Holy Ghost himself."^ 

The landgrave's chancellor, John Feige, having reminded 
them in the prince's name that the object of this colloquy was 
the re-estab!isliraent of union, " I protest," said Luther, " that 
I differ from my adversaries with regard to the doctrine of the 
Lord's Supper, and that I shall always differ from them. 
Christ has said, This is my body. Let them show me that a 
body is not a body. I reject reason, common sense, carnal ar- 
guments, and mathematical proofs. God is above mathema- 
tics." We have the Word of God; we must adore it and per- 
form it ! " 

It cannot bo denied," said fficolampadius, " that there are 
figures of speech in the Word of God; as Juhn is Ellas, the 
rock was CJirist, I am the vine. The expression This is my body, 
is a figure of the same kind." Luther granted that there were 
figures in the Bible, but denied that this last expression was 

All the various parties, however, of which the Christian 
Church is composed see a figure in these words. In fact, the 
Romanists declare that This is my body signifies not only "my 
body," but also "my blood," " my soul," and even "my Divi- 
nity," and " Christ wholly."' These words, therefore accord- 
ing to Rome, are a synecdoche, a figure by which a part is 
taken for the whole. And, as regards the Lutherans, the fi- 
gure is still more evident.* Whether it bo synecdoche, meta- 
phor, or metonymy, there is still a figure. 

In order to prove it, fficolampadius employed this syllo- 
gism : — 

"What Christ rejected in the sixth chapter of St. John, ho 
could not admit in the words of the Eucharist. 

"Now Christ, who said to the people of Capernaum, The 
flesh profiteth nothing, rejected by those very words the oral man- 
ducation of his body. 

" Therefore he did not establish it at the institution of his 

Luther. — " I deny the minor (the second of these proposi- 
tions); Christ has not rejected all oral mauducation, but only 

'Et cupiJo supplox vobis Ecclesia voto 
Visiros fiidit tiens ml pedes. IJull., ii, 236. 
s Deum esse supra mallieniaticnm. Zw. Opp., iv, 375. » If nny one donics- 

tfiHt the boil.ViiiKl bli.di] of our Siiviour Josus Gliri«t. mtli liis soul aud Ins diviuity, 
and consequently the nliole Jesus Christ (totuin Cllr^^tun^) is cmitaiued iu the sncro- 
inent of the Euciunist, let him bo anatlicnia. Council of Trent, sess. 13. * 'Iot« 

Christ! persona, form, concord., riU. 


a material inanducation, like that of the fiesh of oxen or of 
swine. "^ 

CEcoLAMPADius. — " There is danger in attributing too muchr 
to mere matter," 

LuinEK. — " Everything that God commands becomes spirit 
and hfe. If we lift up a straw, by the Lord's oi-der, in than 
very action we perform a spiritual work. Wc must pay at- 
tention to him Avho speaks, and not to wliat he says. God 
speaks: Men, Avorms, listen I — God commands: let the world 
obey! and let us altogether fall down and humbly kiss the 
Word. "2 

(EcoLAMPADius. — " But since we have the spiritual eating, 
what need of the bodily one ? " 

Luther. — " I do not ask what need we have of it; but I see 
it written, Eai, this is mt/ body. We must therefore believe and 
do. We must do — we must do!' — If God should order me to 
eat dung, I would do it, with the assurance that it would be 
ealutary." * 

\i this point Zwingle interfered in the discussion. 

vVe must explain Scripture by Scripture," said he, "We 
cannot admit two kinds of corporeal manducation, as if Jesus 
had spoken of eating, and the Capernaites of tearing in pieces, 
for the same word is employed in botli cases. Jesus says that 
to eat his flesh corporeally profiteth nothing (John, vi, 03); 
whence it would result that he had given us in the Supper a 
thing that would be useless to us. — Besides, there arc certain 
words that seem to me rather childish, — the dung, for instance. 
Tiic oracles of the demons were obscure, not so are those of 
Jesus Christ." 

LuTHEii. — '• A\Tien Christ says the flesh profiteth nothing, 
he speaks not of his own flesh, but of ours." 

ZwixGLE. — " The sold is fed with the Spirit and not with the 

Luther. — " It is Avith the mouth that we eat the body; the 
soul does not eat it."' 

Zwingle. — "Christ's body is therefore a corporeal nomish- 
ment, and not a spiritual." 

Luther. — " You are captious." 

Zwingle. — " Xot so; but you utter contradictory things." 

* Qualis est cam:s bovillse nut siul!a>. Sciilt., p. 217. ^ Qunm prtecipit quid, p:irfat 
inuudus ; et oinnes <iscu'.eii!ur verbuni. (Zw. 0pp., iv, 17C.) When he coummnds let 
Wie world obey, :ind lee us ail kis* the Word. ' -Van mus es thun saepe iaculcabat. 

Ibid. * Si jubcret fimum cornedere, facerem. Ibid. * Anima nou bJu 

ipsuii; (corpus) corporaliler. (Zw. Erp., ii, STc) The soul docs not eat the b;>jy 

^0 Luther's old song. 

LuTHEii. — " If God should present me wild apples, I should 
eai them spiritually. In the Eucharist, the mouth receives 
the body of Christ, and the soid believes in his words." 

Zwingle then quoted a great number of passages from the 
Holy Scriptures, in Avhich the sign is described by the very 
ihing signified; and thence concluded that, considering our 
Lord's declaration in St. John, llie Jlesh profiteth nothing , \xq 
must explain the words of the Eucharist in a similar manner. 

Many hearers were struck by these arguments. Among the 
Marburg professors sat the Frenchman Lambert; his tali 
and spare frame was violently agitated. He had been at first 
of Luther's opinion, ^ and was then hesitating between the two 
reformers. As he went to the conference, he said: " I desire 
to be a sheet of blank paper, on which the finger of God may 
■write his truth." Erelong he exclaimed, after hearing Zwingle 
and Qicolampadius: " Yes! the Spirit, 'tis that which vivifies. "- 
When this conversion was known, the Wittembergers, shrug- 
ging their shoulders, called it " Gallic fickleness." " What I" 
replied Lambert, " was St. Paul fickle because he was convert- 
•ed from Pharisaism? And have we ourselves been fickle in 
iibandoning the lost sects of popery?" 

Luther was, however, by no means shaken. " This is my 
bodily'" repeated he, pointing with his finger to tlie words 
written before him. " This is my body. The devil himself 
shall not drive me from that. To seek to understaijd it, is to 
fall away from the faith. "^ 

"But, doctor," said Zwingle, "St. John explains how 
•Christ's body is eaten, and you Avill be obliged at last to leave 
off singing always the same song. 

" You make use of immannerly expressions," replied Luther.* 
The Wittembergers themselves called Zwingle 's argument "his 
old song."* Zwingle continued without being disconcerted : 
" I ask you, doctor, whether Christ in the sixth chapter of St. 
John did not wish to reply to the question that had been put 
to him. 

Luther. — " Master Zwingle, you wish to stop my mouth by 
tlic arrogancy of your language. That passage has nothing 
to do here." 

Zwingle, hastily. — " Pardon me, doctor, that passage breaks 
your neck." 

1 See liis comniciit.iry on St. Luke, xxii, 19, 20. '■' He .Tddcd, that the body 

of Christ was in tlie Eucliarist neither niathemiiticnUy or coiniiieiisurably, nor really 
(iieque malhematico seu coniniensurative, neque re ipsa.) Epist. Lamb, dc Marb. 
coU *8i intenoKO, exeido a fide. ('Aw. Ei)p., ii, 177.) If I interroirate I 

fall from the faith. * Invidiosc loqueris. (Bull., ii, 228.) You speak invidiously 

(oflfcosively). » Vetcrein suam cuntilenam. Zw. 0pp., iv, iUl. 


Luther. — " Do not boast so much ! You are in Hesse, and 
not in Switzerland. In this country we do not break people's 

Then turning towards his friends, Luther complained bitter- 
ly of Zwingle ; as if the latter had reallv wished to break his 
neck. " He makes use of camp terms and blood-stained 
words," said he. ' Luther forgot that he had employed a simi- 
lar expression in speaking of Carlstadt. 

Zwingle resumed : " In Switzerland also there is strict 
justice, and we break no man's neck without trial. That ex- 
pression signifies merely that your cause is lost and hopeless." 

Great agitation prevailed in the Knight's Hall. The rough- 
ness of the Swiss and the obstinacy of the Saxon had come 
into collision. The landgrave, fearing to behold the failure of 
his project of conciliation, nodded assent to Zwingle's explana- 
tion. •' Doctor," said he to Luther, " you should not be of- 
fended at such common expressions." It was in vain: the 
digitated sea could not again be calmed. The prince therefore 
a,rose, and they all repaired to the banqueting hall. After 
dinner they resumed their tasks.' 

" I believe," said Luther, " that Christ's body is in heaven, 
but I also believe that it is in the sacrairvent. It concerns me 
little whether it be against nature, provided that it be not 
against faith.- Christ is substantially in the sacrament, such 
«s i;e was born of the Virgin." 

Q^COLAMPADICS, quoting a passage from St. Paul: " We kno^ 
not Jesus Christ after the flesh."' 

LrxHER. — " After the flesh means, in this passage, after 
our carnal aifections."* 

CEcoLAMPADics. — " You wmU not allow that there is a me- 
taphor in these words, This is my body, and yet you admit a 

Luther. — " Metaphor permits the existence of a sign only ; 
but it is not so with synecdoche. If a man says he wishes to 
drink a bottle, we understand that he means the beer in the 
bottle. Christ's body is in the bread, as a sword in the scab- 
bard,^ or as the Holy Ghost in the dove." 

The discussion was proceeding in this manner, when Osian- 
der, pastor of Nuremberg, Stephen Agricola, pastor of Augs- 
burg, and Brentz, pastor of Halle in Swabia, author of tht 
famous Syngramma, entered the hall. These also had been 

^ Verbum istud, tanquam castrense et cnientum. Hospin., p. 131. ' Noii euro 

<JU0(1 sit contra nuturain, modo non contra fidem. Zw. 0pp., iv, ITS. * 2 Con. 

▼, 16. * Pro carnalibus affectibus. Zw. 0pp., iv, p. 202. • Corpus eSl 
In pane sicut gladius in viigiiia. Ibi-l. 


invited by the landgrave. But Brentz, to whom Luther had 
vrritten that he should take care not to appear, had no doubt 
by his iudecisiou retarded his own departure as well as that of 
his friends. Places were assigned them near Luther and Mel- 
ancchou. " Listen, and speak if necessary," they were told. 
They took but little advantage of this permission. " All of 
us, except Luther," said Melancthon, "were silent personages." ' 

The struggle continued. 

When Zwingle saw that exegesis was not sufficient for 
Luther, he added dogmatical theology to it, and, subsidiarily,, 
natural philosophy. 

" I oppose you," said he, " with this article of our faith ;. 
Ascendit in ccelum — ho ascended into heaven. If Christ is iu 
heaven as regards his body, how can he be in the bread? Th& 
Word of God teaches us that he was like his brethren in all 
things (Ileb., ii, 17). He therefore cannot be in several places- 
at once." * 

Luther. — " Were I desirous of reasoning thus, I would un- 
dertake to prove that Jesus Christ had a wife ; that he had. 
black eyes,- and lived in our good country of Germany.^ I care 
little about mathematics." 

" There is no question of mathematics here," said Zwingle,. 
" but of St. Paul, who writes to the Philippians, j«t«f(p«v luixov. 

LuTllER, interruptbvj him. — " Read it to us in Latin or ia 
German, not in Greek. 

Zwingle [in Latin). — " Pardon me: for twelve years past I | 
have made use of the Greek Testament only." Then continu- 
ing to read the passage, he concluded from it that Christ's hu- 
manity is of a finite nature like our own. 

LuTIlER, pointing to the words written before htm. — "Most dear 
sirs, since ray Lord Jesus Clirist says, Hoc est corpus mewn, I 
believe that his body is really there." 

Here the scene grew animated. Zwingle started from his- 
chair, sprung towards Luther, and said, striking the table be- 
fore him : * 

" You maintain then, doctor, that Christ's body is locally ia 
the Eucharist; for you say Christ's body is really there — titere 
there,'' repeated Zwingle. " There is an adverb of place.*" 
Christ's body is then of such a nature as to exist in a plaee^ 

' Fnimns Ku/pce, •^ecruxa, (Corp. Ret., i, 1098.) We were dumb facet. 

^ Quod uxuiem ct iiigros oculos liabuis.set. Scultet., p. 'i'ib. ^ In Gemiania 

diutiinium cniitubi-niium eKisse. Zw. Opii., iv, '.'02. ♦ Having tuken the 

fonit of a lervunt. I'liil., ii, 7. • Ibi Zwlnglius illieo prosiliens. Scultet., p. 2'J6, 

«>Uu, <Xn, (In. Vii cot adverbium loci. Hiid. 


If it is in a place, it is ia lieaven, wiience it foi!o'»vs tuat it is 
not in the bread," 

LcTiiER. — " I repeat tliat I have notliing to do witli mathe- 
matical proofs. As soon as the words of consecration are 
pronounced over the bread, the body is there, however wicked 
be the priest who pronounces them." 

ZwiXGLE. — "You are thus re-establishing Popery."' 

Luther. — " This is not done through the priest's merits, 
but because of Christ's ordinance. I will not, when Chi-ist's 
body is in question, hear speak of a particular place. I abso- 
lutely wiU not." 

Zwixgle. — " Must every thing, then, exist precisely as you 
will it?" 

The landgrave perceived that the discussion was growing 
hot; and as the repast was waiting, he broke off the contest.* 

The conference was continued on the next day, Sunday, the 
3d October, perhaps because of an epidemic (the Sweating- 
Sickness) that had just broken out at Marburg, and which did 
not allow any great prolongation of the colloquy. Luther, re- 
tm-ning to the discussion of the previous evening, said : 

" Christ's body is in the sacrament, but it is not there as in 
a place." 

ZwiXGLE. — " Then it is not there at all." 

Luther. — " Sophists say, that a body may very well be in 
several places at once. The universe is a body, and yet we 
cannot assert that it is in a particular place." 

ZwiXGLE. — "Ah! you speak of sophists, doctor; are you 
really after all obliged to return to the onions and flesh-pots of 
Egypt ? 5 As for Avhat you say, that the universe is in no 
particidar place, I beg all intelligent men to weigh this proof.'' 
Then Zwingle, who, whatever Luther may have said, had more 
than one arrow in his quiver, after estabUshing his proposition 
by exegesis and philosophy, resolved on confirming it by the 
testimony of the Fathers of the Church. 

" Listen," said he, " to what Fulgentius, bishop of Ruspa 
in Numidia, said, in the fifth century, to Trasamond, king of 
the Vandals : ' The Son of God took the attributes of true 
humanity, and did not lose those of true divinity. Born in 
time, according to his mother, he lives in eternity according 
to the divinity that he holds from the Father : coming from 
man, he is man, and consequently in a place ; proceeding from 
the Father, he is God, and consequently present in every place. 

1 Damit richtend ir ( pnpstum uf. Zw. 0pp. iii, 37. 3 Coena instabat ee 

diremit certamen. lb., iv, ITj. ' Ad eajpas et o'.Ias .iEgyptiacas. lb., ii, part 3, 57, 


According to his human nature, he was absent frcrm heaven 
while he was upon earth, and quitted the earth when he as- 
cended into heaven ; but, according to his divine nature, he 
remained in heaven, when he came down thence, and did not 
abandon the earth when he returned thither. ' " ^ 

But Luther still replied : " It is written, This is my bod)/." 
Zwingle, becoming impatient, said, "All that is idle wrang- 
ling. An obstinate disputant might also maintain this ex- 
pression of our Saviour to his mother, Behold thy son, point- 
ing to St. John. Vain would be every explanation, he woidd 
continue crying No, no ! lie said Eccefilius tuus. Behold thy 
son, behold thy son ! Listen to a new testimony; it is from 
the great Augustine : * Let us not think,' says he, ' that Christ, 
according to his human form, is present in every place; let us 
beware, in our endeavour to establish his divinity, of taking 
away his truth from his body. Christ is now every where pre- 
sent, like God ; and j-et, in consequence of his real body, he is 
in a definite part of heaven.' " ^ 

"St. Augustine," replied Luther, "is not here speaking of 
the Eucharist. Christ's body is not in the Eucharist, as in a 

QEcolampadius saw that he might take advantage of this as- 
sertion of Luther's. "The body of Christ," said he, "is not 
locally in the Eucharist, therefore no real body is thei'e ; for 
every one knows that the essence of a body is its existence in 
a place." 

Here finished the morning's discussion. 

OEcolampadius, upon reflection, felt convinced that Luther's 
assertion might l)e looked upon as an approximation. "I re- 
member," said he after dinner, "that the doctor conceded this 
morning that Christ's body was not in the sacrament as in a 
place. Let us therefore inquire amicably what is the nature 
of Christ's bodily presence." 

"You will not make me take a step further," exclaimed Lu- 
tlier, who saw where they Mished to drag him; "You have 
Tulgentius and Augustine on your side, but all the other 
Fathers are on ours." 

OEcolampadius, who seemed to the Wittembcrgers to be vex- 
atiously precise, ^ then said, "Name these doctors. We will 
take upon ourselves to prove that they arc of our opinion." 

1 Secundum luimanam Rubst.nnti^itn, absens cn>lf), cum esset in terra, ot derelin- 
quons terrain cum asocndisset in ccelum. l^'ulgcntius to Kino; Trasamond, lib. ii. 

- In loco :ili(iuo creli propter veri coiT>oris modum. Aug. Ep., p. 57. ' Quern 

onnies speraRSemus initiorcm, iiiterdum vidcbatur paulo niin-o sior, sed citra contu- 
ineliam. (/.w. Oi>p., iv, 201.) Wlien we all had liopid be would be inildir, he seemed 
Boiiiewliat more morose, but was not contumelious. 


"We "vrill not name tliem to you,"^ said Luther. "It was 
in his youth," added he, "that Augustine wrote what you have 
quoted; and, besides, he is an obscure author." Then retreat- 
incj to the ground which he had resolved never to quit, he was 
no longer content to point his finger at the inscription, Hoc est 
corpus meum, but seized the velvet cover on which the words 
were written, tore it off the table, lield it up in front of 
Zwingle and CEcolampadius, and placing it before their eyes,* 
"See!" said he, "seel This is our text: you have not yet 
driven us from it, as you had boasted, and we care for no other 

"If this be the case," said CEcolampadius, "we had better 
leave off the discussion. But I will first declare, that, if we 
quote the Fathers, it is only to free our doctrine from the re- 
proach of novelty, and not to support our cause by their autho- 
rity." Xo better definition can be given of the legitimate use 
of the doctors of the Church. 

There was no reason, in fact, for prolonging the conference. 
"As Luther was of an intractable and imperious disposition," 
says even his great apologist Seckendorf, "he did not cease 
from calling upon the Swiss to submit simply to his opinion."* 

The chancellor, alarmed at such a termination of the collo- 
quy, exhorted the theologians to come to some understanding-. 
"I know but one means for that," said Luther; "and this it 
is: Let our adversaries believe as we do." "We cannot," an- 
swered the Swiss. "Well then," rejoined Luther, "I abandon 
you to God's judgment, and pray that he will enli^-hten vou.^' 
"We will do the same," added fficolampadius. 

While these words were passing, Zwingle sat silent, motion- 
less, and deeply moved; and the liveliness of his affections, of 
which he had given more than one proof during the conference, 
was then manifested in a very different manner. He burst 
into tears in the presence of all. 

The conference was ended. It had been in reality more 
tranquil than the docmnents seem to show, or perhaps the 
chroniclers appreciated such matters differently from ourselves. 
"With the exception of a few sallies, all had passed off quietly, 
in a com-teous manner, and with very great gentleness," savs 
an eye-witness.* "During the colloquy no other words than 
these were heard: 'Sir, and very dear friend, your charitv,' or 

1 Non nominabiinns illos. Scultet, p. 2-.'8. -Da hub Luther die Samma- 

tendeck auf, und Zeigt ihm den Spruch, dea er mit kreyden hett fiir sich i;eschrieben. 
Osiander : Siederer's Xachrichten, ii, 114. * Lutherus vero ut erat fero et ini- 

pvrioso ingeiiio. Seek., p. 135. ♦ Omnia humanusime et sumoia cum man. 

tuetadine traasieebantur. Zw. 0pp., iv, 201. 


other similar expressions. Not a word of schism or of heresy. 
It might have heen said that Luther and Zwingle were hrothers, 
and not adversaries."^ This is the testimony of Brentz. But 
these flowers concealed an ahyss, and Jonas, also an eye-witness, 
styles the conference "a very shai-p contest."* 

The contagion that had suddenly broken out in Marburg was 
creating frightful ravages, and filled everybody Avith alarm.' 
All were anxious to leave the city. " Sirs," remarked the 
landgrave, "you cannot separate thus." And desirous of giv- 
ing the doctors an opportunity of meeting one another with 
minds unoccupied with theological debates, he invited them to 
his table. This was Sunday night. 

Philip of Hesse had all along shown the most constant atten- 
tion, and each one imagined him to be on his side. "I wtjuld 
rather place my trust in the simple words of Christ.than in the 
subtle thoughts of man," was a remark ho made according to 
Jonas;* but Zwingle affirmed that this prince entertained the 
same opinions as himself, although with regard to certain per- 
sons he dissembled the change. Luther, sc'nsible of the weak- 
ness of his defence as to the declarations of the Fathers, trans- 
mitted a note to Philip, in which several passages were pointed ^ 
mt from Hilary, Chrysostom, Cyprian, L-ena2US, and Ambrose, 
which he thought were in his favour. 

The time of departure drcAV near, and nothing had been done. 
The landgrave toiled earnestly at the union, as Luther wrote 
to his wife.* He invited the theologians one after another into 
his closet;*' he pressed, entreated, warned, exhorted, and con- 
iured them. " Think," said he, " of the salvation of the chris- 
tian republic, and remove all discord from its bosom."' Never 
had o-cueral at the head of an army taken such pains to win a 


A final meeting took place, and undoubtedly the Church has 
seldom witnessed one of greater solemnity, Luther and Zwingle, 
Saxony and Switzerland, met for the last time. The sweating 
sickness was carrying oif men around them by thousands;* 
Charles the Fifth and the pope were uniting in Italy; Ferdi- 
nand and the Roman Catholic princes were preparing to tear in 
pieces the Protest of Spires; the thunder-cloud became more 

1 AmicUsime Dominc, Vestrn cliaiitas, et id geiuis nixisscs Lvitliorum et 

Zuln-Vmm noii advcrsarios. Z«-. 0pp., iv,201. =" Acpninio certainine. Corp. 

Uef i 1090 =• Nisi Sudor Aiiglicus subito M;irburg;um iiivusisset et terrore 

omnium aiiimos percutissist. llospin., p. 131. « Dicitur ]>i»Iam pi-oclainusse. 

Corp. Ref., p. 109V. " Da arbcit der Lnnduraf heftig. h. Epp. iii, ol2. 

e Unumqueinque nostrum seorsim absque arbitris. Zw. Opp , iv, -.'03. » Com- 

pullans roiraiis, monens, exhortans, postulans ut Ueipublicx Uhnstiaiuo rationem 
haberemus, et discordiatn c medio tolleremus. Ibid. » Multa peneruat 

miilia. Hospin., p. 131. 


threatening everyday; union alone seemed capable of saving 
the Protestants, and the hour of departure was about to strike 
— an hour that would separate them perhaps for ever. 

"Let us confess our union in all things in which we agree," 
said Zwingle; "and as for the rest, let us remember that we 
are brothers. There will never be peace between the chui'clics 
if, while we maintain the grand doctrine of salvation by faith, 
we cannot differ on secondary points."' Such is, in fact, the 
true principle of Christian union. The sixteenth century was 
still too deeply sunk in scholasticism to understand this: let us 
hope that the nineteenth century will comprehend it better. 

"Yes, yesi" exclaimed the landgrave; "you agree! Give 
"then a testimony of your unity, and recognise one another as 
brothers." — "There is no one upon earth with whom I more 
desire to be united, than with you," said Zwingle, approaching 
the Wittemberg doctors.* (Ecolampadius, Buccr, and Hedio 
«aid the same. 

"Acknowledge them I acknowledge them as brothers!" 
continued the landgrave.* Their hearts were moved; they 
were en the eve of unity: Zwingle, bursting into tears, in the 
presence of the prince, the courtiers, and divines (it is Luther 
himself who records this),* approached Luther, and held out 
his hand. The two families of the Reformation were about to 
be united: long quarrels were about to be stifled in their cradle; 
but Luther rejected the hand that was offered him: "You have 
a different spirit from ours," said he. These words communi- 
cated to the Swiss, as it were, an electric shock. Their hearts 
sunk each time Luther repeated them, and he did so frequently. 
He himself is our informant. 

A brief consultation took place among the Wittemberg doc- 
tors. Luther, Melancthon, Agricola, Brentz, Jonas, and 
Osiander, conferred together. Convinced that their pecuhar 
<ioctrine on the eucharist was essential to salvation, they con- 
sidered all those who rejected it as without the pale of tlie 
faith. "What folly 1"^ said Melancthon, who afterwards 
nearly coincided with Zwingle's sentiments: "they condemn 
us. and yet they desire we should consider them as our brothers I" 
"What versatility!" added Brentz: "they accused us but 
lately of worshipping a bread-god, and they now ask for com- 

1 Quod nulla tinqnam Ecclesiarum pax constitata sit, s! non in multis nliis diss*n. 
■tienui a se facultatem faciant. (Scultet., p. 207.) That no i^eace was established in 
■churches without allowing others to difi'er from them in maiiv things. - Es 

'%rer?ndt keine^liith uff Erden. Bull.,ii,22j. » Idque Princeps vKl.ioi;r?ebat. 

L. Epp., iii, 513. * Zwinglias palam lacrvmans coram Langrariu et omnibos. 

Oospin., p. 136. » TUe eorum staltitiam : Corp. Uef., i, 110c. 

88 bucer's dilemma 

muulon -with us!"^ Then, turning towards Zwingle and bis 
friends, tlie Wittembergers said: "You do not belong to the 
communion of the Christian Church; we cannot acknowledge 
you as brethren!"- 

The Swiss were far from j)artaking of this sectarian spirit. 
•"We think," said Bucer, "that your doctrine strikes at the 
glory of Jesus Christ, avIio now reigns at the right hand of the 
Father. But seeing that in all things you acknowledge your 
dependence on the Lord, we look at your conscience, which 
compels you to receive the doctrine you profess, and we do not 
doubt that you belong to Christ." 

"And we," said Luther — "we declare to you once more 
that our conscience opposes our receiving you as brethren." — 
" If such is the case," replied Bucer, "it would be folly to ask it." 

"I am exceedingly astonished that you wish to consider 
me as your brother, " pursued Luther. "It shows clearly that 
you do not attach much importance to your own doctrine." 

" Take your choice," said Bucer, proposing a dilemma to 
the reformer: "either you should not acknowledge as brethren 
those who diftcr from you on any point — and if so, you will 
not find a single brother in your own ranks ^— or else you will 
receive some of those who differ from you, and then you ought 
to receive us." 

The Swiss had exhausted their solicitations. "We are 
conscious," said they, " of having acted as if in the presence 
of God. Posterity will be our witness."* They were on the 
point of retiring: Luther remained like a rock, to the land- 
grave's great indignation.'^ The Hessian divines, Kraft, Lam- 
bert, Snepf, Lonicer, and Melander, united their exertions tO' 
those of the prince. 

Luther was staggered, and conferred anew with his col- 
leagues. "Let us beware," said he to his friends, "of wipin"- 
our noses too roughly, lest blood should comc."^ 

Then turning to Zwinglo and Qilcolampadius, they said: 
"Wo acknowledge you as friends; we do not consider you as 
brothers and members of Cln-ist's Church.' But we do not 
exclude you from that universal charity which we owe even to 
our enemies."* 

' Nos tnnnuam nrtoratores pnniflci Dei traduxerant. Zw. 0pp., Iv, 203. » Eo* 

a conimunione Ecclesiie ChristiaiiiB nlieiios esse. Ibiii. ' Nemo nltcri rel 

inter ipsos frntcr ciit. (Ibid., 194.) N<mo will bo ii brotiicr citiicr to Ids own people, 
or to .nny other person. •• Id testiibitur posteritns. Ibid. » I'liiieipi. 

lllud durum videbiitur. Ibid., '.'03. 'Nenimis inungendo, snnguincm elicereitius. 

h. Epp. in his letter uiittcu to Ceibellius on the same day— Mondaj'. 1 Agnoscere 

quidem velimus tanipiani amicos, scd uon taiiquain fratrcs. (Zw. 0pp., iv, 203.) W* 
may be willing indeed to acknowledge you as friends, but not as brethren. 

■ Charitate quo: etiaui hosti debcter. Ibid, 190. 

lutiier's repout to the coxferexce. 89 

The hearts of Zwingle, Qicolaiupadius, and Bucer, wera^ 
ready to bui-st,^ for this coucession was ahuost a new insult. 
"Let us carefully avoid all harsh and violent words and writ- 
ings," said they; "and let each one defend himself without 

Luther then advanced towards the Swiss, and said: '"We 
consent, and I offer you the hand of peace and charity," The 
Swiss rushed in great emotion towards the Wittembergors, 
and ail shook hands.^ Luther himself was softened: christian 
charity resumed her rights in his heart. "Assuredly," said 
he, "a great poi'tion of the scandal is taken away by the sup- 
pression of our fierce debates; we could not have hoped for so 
much. May Christ's hand remove- the last obstacle that se- 
parates us.* There is now a friendly concord between us, and 
if we persevere in prayer, bi'Otherhood AviU come." 

It was desirable to confimi this important result by a report. 
"We must let the christian world know," said the landgrave, 
" that, except the manner of the presence of the body and blood 
in the eucharist, you are agreed in all the articles of faith. "^ 
This was resolved on; but who shoiild be charged witli drawing 
up the paper? All eyes were turned upon Luther. The Swiss- 
themselves appealed to his impartiality. 

Liither retired to his closet, lost in thought, uneasy, and 
finding the task very difficult. "On the one hand," said he, 
"I should like to spare their weakness; but, on the other, I 
would not in the least degree strike at the holy doctrine oF 
Christ." He did not know how to set about it, and his anguish 
increased. He got free at last. "I will draw up the articles," 
said he, "in the most accurate manner. Do I not know that 
whatever I may write, they will never sign them?"'' Erelong 
fifteen articles were committed to paper, and Luther, holding 
them in his hand, repaired to the theologians of the two parties. 

These articles are of importance. The two doctrines that 
were evolved in Switzerland and in Saxony, independently of 
each other, were brought together and compared. If they were- 
of man, there would be found in them a servile uniformity, or 
a remarkable opposition. This was not the case. A great- 

' Indignissime affecti sunt Zw. 0pp., iv, 190. 2 Quisque suam sententiani 

docer.t absque invectiTis. (L. Epp., iii, 514.) Let every one teach his owii view with- 
out invective. ' Dedimus tamen manus pacis et caritatis. Ibid., -313. 
*Utinam et ille reliquus scrupulus per Cliristum tandem tollatur. — in his k-tter writtea 
to Gerbellius after leaTing; this meeting. ' TJt orbi t'liristiano notum fiereC" 
eos in omnibus fidei capitibus consentirc. (Hospin., p. 127.) Tliat it miiht be ii;ade 
known to tl;e Christian world that they agree in ail the leadinR articles of foitli. 

* Het gern ihrer Schw.ichheit vtr«chont, Xiedercr Nachr., ii, 1".'0. '' Docli 

Riletz STirach er Ich niU die artikil auf aller pesste ftellen, sy werdens doch r.iehft- 
annemen. Ibid. 


unity was found between the German and the Swiss Keforma- 
tions, for they both proceeded from the same Divine teaching; 
an.d a diversity on secondary points, for it was by man's in- 
strumentality that God had effected them. 

Luther took his paper, and reading the first article, said : 
"First, we believe that there is one sole, true, and natural 
God, creator of heaven and earth and of all creatures; and that 
this same God, one in essence and in nature, is three-fold in 
person, that is to say. Father, Sou, and Holy Ghost, as was 
declared in the Nicene Council, and as all the Christian Church 

To this the Swiss gave their assent. 

They were agreed also on the divinity and himianity of Jesus 
'Christ; on his death and resurrection, on original sin, justifica- 
tion by faith, the operation of the Holy Ghost and of the Word 
of God, baptism, good works, confession, civil order, and tra- 

Thus far all were united. The Wittembergers could not re- 
cover from their astonishment. ^ The two parties had rejected, 
on the one hand, the errors of the papists, who make religion 
little more than an outward form; and, on the other, those of 
the Enthusiasts, who speak exclusively of internal feelings; and 
they were found drawn up under the same banners between 
these two camps. But the moment was come that would se- 
_parate them. Luther had kept till the last the article on the 

The reformer resumed: 
/ "We all believe with regard to the Lord's Supper, that ii 
ouoht to be celebrated in both kinds, according to the primitive 
institution ; that the mass is not a work by which a Christian 
obtains pardon for another man, whether dead or alive ; that 
the sacrament of the altar is the sacrament of the very body 
and very blood of Jesus Christ; and that the spiritual mandu- 
cation of this body and blood is specially necessary to every 
true Christian."^ 

It was now the turn of the Swiss to be astonished. Luther 
continued : 

"In like manner, as to the use of the sacrament, we are 
agreed that, like the Word, it was ordained of Almighty God, 
in order that weak consciences might be excited by the Holy 
■Ghost to faith and charity." 

I Quod mirari non satis potuimus. Brcntius, 7.\r. 0pp., iv, 203. * Quod 

spiritu.'Uis niauducatio }iujus corporis et sanguinis uuicuique ClirUOano proecipus 
uecessaria ait. Scultct., p. 232. 


The jov of the Swiss was redoubled. Liitlier continued: 
"And although at present we are not agreed on the question 
whether the real body and blood of Christ are corporeally pre- 
sent in the bread and wine, yet both the interested parties shall 
cherish more and more a truly christian charity for one another, 
so far as conscience permits ; and we will all earnestly implore 
the Lord to condescend by his Spirit to confirm us in the sound 
<loc trine."* 

The Swiss obtained what they had asked: unity in diversity. 
It was immediately resolved to hold a solemn meeting for the 
•signature of the articles. 

They were read over again. (Ecolampadius, Zwingle, Bucer, 
and Hedio, signed them first on one copy; while Luther, Me- 
lancthon, Jonas, Osiander, Brentz, and Agricola, wrote their 
names on the other ; both parties then subscribed the copy of 
their adversaries, and this important document was sent to the 
press. 2 

Thus the Reformation had made a sensible step at Marburg. 
The opinion of Zwingle on the spiritual presence, and of Luther 
on the bodily presence, are both found in Christian antiquity ; 
but both the extreme doctrines have been always rejected: that 
of the Rationalists, on the one hand, who behold in the Eu- 
charist nothing but a simple commemoration; and of the Pa- 
pists, on the other, who adore in it a transubstantiation. These 
are both errors ; while the doctrines of Luther and Zwingle, 
and the medium taken by Calvin, already maintained by some 
-of the Fathers, were considered in ancient times as difierent 
views of the same truth. If Luther had yielded, it might have 
been feared that the Church would fall into the extreme of ra- 
tionalism ; if ZAvingle, that it would rush into the extreme of 
popery. It is a salutary thing for the Church that these dif- 
ferent views should be entertained; but it is a pernicious thing 
for individuals to attach themselves to one of them in such a 
manner as to anathematize the other. " There is only this little 
«tumbling-block," wrote Melancthon, "that embarrasses the 
Church of our Lord."^ 

All, — Romanists and Evangelicals, Saxons and Swiss, — 
admitted the presence, and even the real presence of Christ ; 

' Osiandar (a Lutheran) employs the accusative, " in den rechten Verstand," which 
•would indicate a movement towards an object that ue do not possess ; BuUinzer 
and Scuitet (both reformed divines) have the dative. • ' BuUinger and others 

Indicate the 3J October as the day on whicli the articles were signed ; Osiander, an 
eye-witness, and whose narrative is very exact, says it was the 4th. which agrees with 
all^ the other data. s Hie unus in Ecclesia hseret scrupulus. (Corp. Ref., i, 

H6<5.) This one scruple remains in the churcii. 


but here was the essential point of separation: Is this presence- 
effected by the faith of the communicant, or by the opus o])ciatum 
of the priest? The germs of Popery, Sacerdotalism, Puseyisni, 
are inevitably contained in this latter thesis. If it is maintain- 
ed that a wicked priest (as has been said) operates this real 
presence of Christ by three words, we enter the church of th& 
pope. Luther appeared sometimes to admit this doctrine, but 
he has often spoken in a more spiritual manner; and taking 
this great man in his best moments, Ave behold merely an es- 
sential unity and a secondary diversity in the two parties of 
the Reformation. Undoubtedly the Lord has left his Church 
outward seals of his gi'ace ; but he has not attached salvation 
to these signs. The essential point in the connection of the 
faithfid with the Word, with the Holy Ghost, with the Head 
of the Church. This is the great truth which the Swiss Kc- 
form proclaims, and which Lutheranism itself recognises. 
After the Marburg conference, the controversy became more 

There was another advantage. The evangelical divines at 
Marburg marked with one accord their separation from the 
Papacy. Zwingle was not without fear (unfounded, no doubt) 
with regard to Lutlier: these fears were dispersed. " Xow 
that we are agreed," said he, " the Papists will no longer hope 
that Luther will ever be one of them."^ Tbo !Marburg articles 
were the first bulwark erected in common by the reformers 
against Rome. 

It was not, then, in vain that, after the Protest of Spires, 
Philip of Hesse endeavoured, at Alarburg, to bring together 
the friends of the Gospel. But, if the religious object Avas par- 
tially attained, the political object almost entirely failed. They 
could not arrive at a confederation of Switzerland and Ger- 
many. Nevertheless, Philip of Hesse and Zwingle, Avith a view 
to this, had numerous secret conversations, Avhich made the 
Saxons uneasy, as they Avero not less opposed to Zwinglc's po- 
litics than to his theology. " When you haA'c reformed tbo 
peasant's cap," said Jonas to hira, "you Avill also claim to 
reform the sable hat of princes." 

The landgraA'c having collected all the doctors at his tabla 
on tlie last day, they shook hands in a friendly manner,* and 
each one thouirht of Icaviui; tbe town. 

On Tuesday the, 5th October, Philip of Ilessc quitted ilar- 

> Pontifiol non uUrn possunt Rper.iro Luthcrum Buum fore. (Zw. 0pp., ii, SwO.) 
Tlie luipktH can mi liiiij;er )i<«iie that Luther will be theirs. * Die ilaiiil ciu- 

SDiier tirUiitlicli gebotteii. liiil., ii, i'M. 


.burg era-ly, and in tlie afternoon of the same dav Luther de- 
parted, accompanied bvhis colleagues ; but he did not go forth 
as a conqueror. A spirit of dejection and alarm had taken 
possession of his miud.^ He "writhed in the dust, like a worm, 
according to his own expression. He fancied he should never 
eee his wife and children again, and cried out that he, "the 
^•onsoler of so many tortured souls, was now without anv conso- 
lation: "2 

This state might partly arise from Luther's want of bro- 
therly feeling; but it had other causes also. Soliman had 
<;ome to fulfil a promise made to King Ferdinand. The latter 
having demanded, in 1528, the surrender of Belgrade, the sultan 
had haughtily replied that he would bring the keys himself to 
Vienna. In fact, the Grand Turk, crossing the frontiers of 
Oermany, had invaded countries " on which the hoofs of the 
Mussidman war-horses had never trod," and eight days before 
the conference at ilarburg, he had covered with his innumera- 
ble tents the plain and the fertile hills in the midst of which 
rise the walls of Vienna. The struggle had begun under 
ground, the two parties having dug deep galleries beneath tl.>^ 
ramparts. Three different times the Turkish mines were ex- 
ploded; th.e walls were thrown do'wn;' " the balls flew tlirougli 
the air like a flight of .small birds, " says a Turkish historian; 
-and there was a horrible banquet, at which the genii of death 
joyously drained their glasses."* 

Luther did not keep in the background. He had already 
•written against the Turks, and now he published a Battle - 
Sermon. " Mahomet," said he, " exalts Christ as being with- 
out sin; but he denies that he was the true God; he is therefoi-e 
His enemy. Alas! to this hour the world is such that it seems 
everywhere to rain disciples of Mahomet. Two men ought to 
oppose the Turks; the first is Christian, that is to say. Prayer; 
the second is Charles, that is to say, The sword." And in an- 
other place, " I know my dear Gennans well, fat and well-fed 
swine as they are; no sooner is the danger removed than they 
think only of eating and sleeping. Wretched man ! if thou 
dost not take up arms, the Turk will come; he will carry thee 
away into his Turkey; he will there sell thee like a dog; and 
thou shalt serve him night and day, under the rod and the 
cudgel, for a glass of water and a morsel of bread. Think on 

1 Ego v!X et oegre domum reversus sum. L. Epp., iii, 5i'0. 2 gic me vei.inte 

Angelo Satar.a*, ut desperariin me riruni et salnira >-isurum meos, (Ibid.) A mes- 
Bciisrcr of Satjiii so vexing me I desp.iired of being able in life and health to seo 
Illy family. ' Ipsam nrbcm in tribu? loci«, sufibsosolo et pu'ivere suppositp 

Olsjicit et patcfccit. Ibid., 513. ♦ Dscheialsade. quoted by Ranke 

94 Luther's agont and firmness. 

this; be converted, and implore the Lord not to give thee the 
Turk for thy schoolmaster."^ 

The two arms pointed out by Luther were, in reality, vigor- 
ously employed; and Soliman, perceiving at last that he was 
not the soul of the universe," as his poets had styled him, but 
that there was a sti'ength in the world superior to his own, 
raised the siege of Vienna on the 16th October; and " the sha- 
dow of God over the two worlds," as he called himself, " dis- 
appeared and vanished in the Bosphorus." 

But Luther imagined that, when retiring from before the 
walls of Vienna, " the Turk, or at least his god, who is the 
devil," had rushed upon him; and that it was this enemy of 
Christ and of Christ's servants that he was destined to combat 
and vanquish in his frightful agony. ^ There is an immediato 
reaction of the violated law upon him who violates it. Now 
Luther had transgressed the royal law, which is charity, and 
he suifered the penalty. At last he i-e-entered Wittemberg, 
and flung himself into the arms of his friends, " tormented by 
the angel of death." ^ 

Let us not, however, overlook the essential qualities of a re- 
former that Luther manifested at Marburg. There are in God's 
work, as in a drama, different parts. What various characters 
we see among the Apostles and among the Reformers! It has 
been said that the same characters and the same parts were 
assigned to St. Peter and to Luther, at the time of the For- 
mation and of the Reformation of the Church.* They were- 
both in fact men of the initiative, who start forward quite 
alone, but around whom an army soon collects at the sight of 
the standard which they wave. But there was perhaps in the 
reformer a characteristic not existing to the same degree in tho 
apostle : this was firmness. 

As for ZAvingle, he quitted Marburg in alarm at Luther s- 
intolerance. " Lutheranism," Avrotehe to tho landgrave, *' will 
lie as heavy upon us as popery." * Ho reached Zurich on the 
19th October. " The truth," said ho to his friends, " has 
prevailed so manifestly, that if ever any one has been defeated 
before all the world, it is Luther, although ho constantly ex- 
claimed that he was invincible." '^ On his side, Luther spoke 

» Ileer predigt wider die Turken. L. 0pp. (W.) xx, 2631. = Forte ipsum 

Turcam pnrliiu in isto ngone co^or ferre et vincere, saltern ejus Ueum, diaboluiu. 
(L. Epi>., iii, 5'20.) Perhaps partly in tliat agony I am freed to combat and vanquish 
the Turk liiniself, or at least his Rod— tho devil. ^ Angelus Satanaj, vel quis- 

quis est diabohis mortis ita me latigat. (Ibid., C15.) A messenger of Satan, or tho 
devil of death, whoever he be, so annoys me. * Dr. Vinet * Das I,u- 

therthum werde so schwer, als das I'apsthum. Z\v. Epj)., p. 37+. « Lutlierus 

impudens et contumax aperte est victus. (Ibid., p. 1(70.) i^utUer, iuipuikiit aud 
stubborn, was openly evcrcoir.e. 


in a similar strain. "It is through fear of their fellow-citi- 
zens,"' added he, ''that the Swiss, although vanquished, are- 
unwilling to retract.'' ^ 

If it should be asked on which side the victory really was, 
perhaps we ought to say that Luther assiimcd the air of a con- 
queror, but Zwingle was so in reality. The conference propa- 
gated through all Germany the doctrine of the Swiss, which 
had been little known there until then, and it was adopted by 
an immense number of persons. Among these were LatFards, 
first rector of St. Martin's school at Brunswick, Dionysius 
Melauder, Justus Lening, Hartmann, Ibach, and many others. 
The landgrave himself, a short time before his death, declared 
that this conference had induced him to renounce the oral man- 
ducation of Christ.* 

Still the dominant principle at this celebrated epoch was 
unity. The adversaries are the best judges. The Roman Ca- 
tholics were exasperated that the Lutherans and Zwinglians 
had aixreed on all the essential points of faith. " They have a, 
fellow-feeling against the Catholic Church," said they, " as 
Herod and Pilate against Jesus Christ. " The enthusiastic sects 
^aid the same,' and the extreme hierarchical as well as the 
txtreme radical party deprecated alike the unity of Marburg. 

Erelong a greater agitation eclipsed all these rumours, and 
events which threatened the whole evangelical body, proclaimed 
its great and intimate union Avith new force. The emperor, 
it was everywhere said, exasperated by the protest of Spii-es, 
had landed at Genoa with the pomp of a conqueror. After 
having sworn at Barcelona to reduce the heretics under the 
power of the pope, he was going to visit this pontiff, humbly 
to bend the knee before him ; and he would rise only to cross 
the Alps and accomphsh his terrible designs. " The Empe- 
ror Charles," said Luther, a few days after the landing of this 
prince, " has determined to show himself more cruel against 
us than the Turk himself, and he has already uttered the most 
horrible threats. Behold the hour of Christ's agony and weak- 
ness. Let us pray for all those who wiU soon have to endure 
captivity and death.'"* 

Such was the news that then agitated all Germany. The 
grand question was, whether the Protest of Spires could be 
maintained against the power of the emperor and of the pcpc 
This was seen in the year 1530. 

1 iletuebant plebem suam ad qttam non licuisset rererti. Zw. Opp, ii, 19. 

2 Rommeis Anmerkungen, p. 227-229. ^ Poiitificus et catabaptistis mul- 
turn <iisplicu;t consensus Marpurgi. (Scultet., p. 20S.) The agreement of Marborg 
greatly Jispie::sed tljo oapists and c-tj^baptists. * Carolus Caesar muitO' 
utrocius minatur et sscvire sutuit in no?, qiiam Turoa. L. Epp., iii, 324. 




Two strilcing Lessons — Charles V. in Italy — The German Envoys— Tlieir Eoldnesa 
—The Landgrave's Present — The Envoys under arrest — Their Keleasc and De- 
parture—Meeting of Cliarles and Clement— Gattinara's rroposition— Clement's 
Arms — War imminent— Luther's CHyections — The Saviour's Coming — Charles's 
conciliatory Language— The Emperor's Motives. 

The Reformation was accomplislied in the name of a spiritual 
principle. It had proclaimed for its teacher the Word of God', 
for salvation, Faitli ; for King, Jesus Christ ; for arms, the 
Holy Ghost ; and had by these very means rejected all worldly 
elements. Rome had been established by tlie laiv of a carnal 
commandment ; the Reformation, by the power of an endless life} 

If there is any doctrine that distinguishes Christianity from 
every other religion, it is its spiritualit3^ A heavenly life 
brought it down to man — such is its work ; thus the opposition 
of the spirit of the Gospel to the spirit of the world, Avas the 
^reat fact which signalized the entrance of Christianity among 
tlio nations. But what its Founder had separated, had soon 
•come together again ; the Church had fallen into the arms of 
the world ; and by this criminal union it liad been reduced to 
tlio deploi'ablc condition in which we find it at the era of the 

Thus one of the greatest tasks of the sixteenth century was 
to restore the spiritual element to its rights. The Gospel of 
the reformers had nothing to do with the Avorld and with poli- 
tics. Wliilo the Roman hierarchy had become a matter of 
diplomacy' and a court intrigue, the Reformation was destined 
to exercise no other influence over princes and peojile than that 
which proceeds from the Gospel of peace. 

If the Reformation, having attained a certain point, became 
untrue to its nature, began to parley and temporize with the 

1 Ilobrenj, vii, IG, 


-world, and cease thus to follo-w up the spiritual principle that 
it had so loudlv proclaimed, it was faithless to God and to it- 

Henceforward its decline was at hand. 

It is impossible for a societr to prosper if it be unfaithful to 
the principles it lavs down. Having abandoned what consti- 
tuted its life, it can find naught hut death. 

It was God's ttlU that this great truth shoxild be inscribed 
on the very threshold of the temple He was then raising in the 
world ; and a striking contrast was to make this truth stand 
gloriously prominent. 

One portion of the reform was to seek the alliance of the 
world, and in this alliance find a destruction full of desolation. 

Another portion, looking up to God, was haughtily to reject 
the arm of the flesh, and by this Tery act of faith secure a noble 

If three centuries have gone astray, it is because they were 
unable to comprehend so holy and so solemn a lesson. 

It was in the beginning of September 1529 that Charles V., 
the rictor by battles or by treaties over the pope and the King 
of France, landed at Genoa. The shouts of the Spaniards ha^. 
saluted him as he quitted the Iberian peninsula : but the de» 
jected eyes, the bended heads, the silent lips of the Italians 
given over to his hands, alone welcomed him to the foot of the 
Apennines. Every thing led to the belief that Charles would 
indemnify himself on them for the apparent generosity with 
which he had treated the pope. 

They were deceived. Instead of those barbarous chiefs of 
the Goths and Huns, — instead of those proud and fierce em- 
perors, who more than once had crossed the Alps and rushed 
upon Italy, sword in hand and with cries of vengeance, the Ita- 
lians saw among them a young and graceful prince, with pale 
features, a delicate frame, and weak voice, of wiiming man- 
ners, having more the air of a courtier than of a warrior, scru- 
pulously performing all the duties of the Romish rehgion, and 
leading in his train no terrible cohorts of German barbarians, 
but a brilliant retinue of Spanish grandees, who condescend- 
ingly paraded the pride of their race and the splendour of their 
nation. This prince, the victor of Europe, snoke only of peace 
and amnesty ; and even the Duke of Ferrara, who of all the 
Italian princes had most cause of fear, having at Modena placed 
the keys of the city in his hands, heard from his friendly lips 
the most xmeipected encouragements. 


Whence did this strange conduct proceed ? Charles had 
shown plainly enough, at the time of the captivity of Francia- 
I., that generosity towards his enemies was not his dominant 
virtue. It was not long before this mystery Avas explained. 

Almost at the same time with Charles there arrived in Italy, 
by way of Lyons and Genoa, three German burgesses, whose 
whole equipage consisted of six horses.^ These were John 
Ehinger, burgomaster of Memmingen, who carried his head 
high, scattered money around him, and who was not remark- 
able for great sobriety; Michael Caden, syndic of Nuremberg, 
a worthy, pious, and brave man, but detested by the Count of 
Nassau, the most influential of Charles's ministers; and, lastly, 
Alexis Fraueutraut, secretary to the Margrave of Brandenburg,, 
who, having married a nun, was in very bad odour among the 
Roman Catholics. Such were the three men whom the Pro- 
testant princes, assembled at Nuremberg, commissioned to bear^ 
to the emperor the famous Protest of Spires. They had pur- 
posely chosen these deputies from a middle station, under the 
impression that they would incur less danger.* To carry such 
a message to Charles V. was, to say the truth, a task that few- 
persons cared to execute. Accordingly a pension had been se- 
cured to the widows of these envoys in case of misfortune. 

Charles was on his way from Genoa to Bologna, and stay- 
ing at Piacenza, when the three Protestant deputies overtook 
him. These plain Germans presented a singular contrast in 
the midst of that Spanish pomp and Romish fervour by which 
the young prince was surrounded. Cardinal Gattinara, the 
emperor's chancellor, who sincerely desired a reform of the 
Church, procured them an audience of Charles V. for the 22d 
of September ; but they were recommended to be sparing ia 
their words, for there Avas nothing the emperor so much dis- 
liked as a Protestant sermon. 

The deputies were not checked by these intimations ; and,, 
after handing the protest to Charles, Frauentraut began to 
speak : " It is to the Supreme Judge that each one of us must 
render an account," said he, " and not to creatures who turn at 
every wind. It is better to fall into the most cruel necessity, 
than to incur the anger of God. Our nation will obe}"^ no de- 
crees that are based on any other foundation than the Holj 

Such was the proud tone held by these German citizens tO' 

I Lci(ati5 attribueruiit cquos se.t (SecUend., ii, 134.) They BBsijrncd six horses to 
the deputies. = Ut cssent tutiores. Ibid., l;io. ' Neque suuruin esse 

▼Irium aut officii, ut cos iid impossibiliii ct iioxi.i uditrr.,it. (Ibid., l;!4.) It was neU 
tber in their power nor their duty to compel them to tilings impossible and noxiou«. 

THE landgrave's PRESENT. 99 

the emperor of the west. Charles said not a word — it woold 
have heen paving them too much honour; but he charged one 
of his secretaries to announce an answer at some future time. 

There was no hurry to send back these paltry ambassadors. 
In vain did they renew their solicitations daily. Gattinara 
treated them with kindness, but Nassau sent them away with 
bitter words. A workman, the armourer to the court, having 
to visit Augsburg to purchase arms, begged the Count of Nas- 
sau to despatch the Protestant deputies. " You may tell them," 
replied the minister of Charles V., ♦' that we will terminatft 
their business in order that you may have travelling compa- 
nions. But the armourer having found other company, they 
•were compelled to wait. ' 

These envoys endeavoured at least to make a good use of 
their time. " Take this book," said the landgrave to Caden 
at the very moment of departure, giving him a French work 
bound in velvet, and richly ornamented, " and deliver it to the 
emperor."* It was a summary of the Christian Faith which 
the landgrave had received from Francis Lambert, and which 
had probably been written by that doctor. Caden sought an 
opportunity of presenting this treatise; and did so one day, as 
Charles was going publicly to mass. The emperor took the 
book, and passed it immediately to a Spanish bishop. The- 
Spaniard began to read it,' and lighted upon that passage of 
Scriptvire in which Christ enjoins his apostles not to exercise 
lordship.* The author took advantage of it to maintain that 
the minister, charged with spiritual matters, should not inter- 
fere with those which are temporal. The papist prelate bit 
his lips, and Charles, who perceived it, having asked, " Well, 
what is the matter?" the bishop in confusion had recourse to a 
falsehood.* " This treatise," replied he, " takes the sword 
from the christian magistrate, and grants it only to nations 
that are strangers to the faith." Immediately there was a 
great uproar: the Spaniards above all were beside themselves. 
" The wretches that have endeavoured to mislead so young a 
prince," said they, " deserve to be himg on the first tree by 
the wayside!" Charles swore, in fact, that the bearer should 
suffer the penalty of his audacity. 

At length, on the 12th October, Alexander Schweiss, impe- 
rial secretary, transmitted the emperor's reply to the deputies. 
It said that the minority ought to submit to the decrees passed 

* Ilortleben, von den TJrsachen des deutschen Kriegs, p. 50, a LibdhnD 
decanter ornatam. Scultet., p. 253. ^ Cum obiter legisset. Ibid. 

* Luke, xxii. Z& s Falso et maligne relatom esset Seckend, ii, 13S. 


in diet, and that if the Duke of Saxony and his allies ^vore 
contumacious, means Avould not be wanting to compel them. 

Upon this Ehinger and Caden read aloud the appeal to the 
emperor drawn up at Spires, whilst Frauentraut, Avho had re- 
nounced his quahty of deputy and assumed that of a notary,^ 
took notes of what was passing. When the reading was 
finished, the deputies advanced towards Schweiss, and presented 
the appeal. The imperial secretary rejected the document with 
amazement; the deputies insisted; Schweiss continued firm. 
They then laid the appeal on the table. Schweiss was stag- 
gered; he took the paper, and carried it to the emperor. 

After dinner, just as one of the deputies (Caden) had gone 
out, a tumult in the hotel announced some catastrophe. _ It 
was the imperial secretary who returned duly accompanied. 
«' The emperor is exceedingly irritated against you on account 
of this appeal," said he to the Protestants; "and he forbids 
you, under pain of confiscation and death, to leave your hotel, 
to write to Germany, or to send any message whatsoever.'" 
Thus Charles put ambassadors under arrest, as he would the 
ofilcers of his guard, desirous in this manner of showing his 
contempt, and of frightening the princes. 

Caden's servant slipped in alarm out of the hotel, and ran 
to his master. The latter, still considering himself free,^ wrote 
a hasty acount of the whole business to the senate of Nurem- 
berg, sent off his letters by express, and returned to share ni 
the arrest of his colleagues.* 

On the 28d of October, the emperor left Piacenza, carrymg 
the three Germans with him. But on the 30th he released 
Ehinger and Frauentraut, who, mounting their horses in the 
middle of the night, rushed at full speed along a rout thronged 
with soldiers and robbers. "As for you," said Granvelle to 
Caden, " you will stay under pain of death. The emperor ex- 
pects that the book you presented to him will be given to the 
pope." 5 Perhaps Charles thought it pleasant to show the 
Eoman pontiff this prohibition issued against the ministers of 
God to mingle in the government of nations. But Caden, pro- 
fitting by the confusion of the court, secretly procured a horse, 
and fled to Ferrara, thence to Venice, from which place he re- 
turned to Nuremberg.** 

Sibl non dcf.-re media quibus nd id compellerentur. SocUend., ii, 133. 

9 Tabelllonis sive nutarii ..fficium. Ibid. » Sub capitis pcena, ne pcdem a. 

diversario ii..,vca..t. ( Under pain of death not to stir a fout from the inn. 

♦ A famulo certiur l:.cttiR, rem omnem si-iiatui aperuit. Ibid. Ut idem 

Bcriptum exinbtat quoque I'ontifici. bcultet., p. 254. « Silentio conscendlt 

Squum. Ibid. 


The more Charles appeared irritated against Germany, the 
greater moderation he showed towards the Italians ; heavy pe- 
cuniary contributions were all that he required. It was beyond 
the Alps, in tho centre of Christendom, by means of these very 
religious controversies, that he desired to establish his power. 
He pressed on, and required only two things : behind him, — 
peace ; with him, — money. 

On the 5th of November he entered Bologna. Everything 
was striking about him : the crowd of nobles, the splendour of 
the equipages, the haughtiness of the Spanish troops, the four 
thousand ducats that were scattered by handfuls among the 
people ; ^ but above all, the majesty and magnificence of the 
voung emperor. The two chiefs of Romish Christendom were 
about to meet. The pope quitted his palace with all his court; 
and Charles, at the head of an army which would have con- 
quered the whole of Italy in a few days, affecting the hxmiility 
of a child, fell on his knees, and kissed the pontiff's feet. 

The emperor and the pope resided at Bologna in two adjoin- 
ing palaces, separated by a single wall, through which a door- 
way had been opened, of which each had a key ; and the young 
and politic emperor was often seen -visiting the old and crafty 
pontiff, carrying papers in his hand. 

Clement obtained Sforza's forgiveness, who appeared before 
the emperor sick and leaning on a staff. Venice also was for- 
given: a million of crowns arranged these two matters. But 
Charles could not obtain from the pope the pardon of Florence. 
That illustrious city was sacrificed to the Medici, "consider- 
ing," it was said, "that it was impossible for Christ's vicar to 
demand anything that is unjust." 

The most important affair was the Reformation. Some re- 
presented to the emperor that, victor over all his enemies, he 
should carry matters with a high hand, and constrain the Pro- 
testants by force of arms.* Charles was more moderate he 
preferred weakening the Protestants by the Papists, and then 
the Papists by the Protestants, and by this means raising his 
power above them both. 

A wiser course was nevertheless proposed in a solemn con- 
ference. "The Church is torn in pieces," said Chancellor 
Gattinara. "You (Charles) are the head of the empire; you 
(the pope) the head of the Church. It is your duty to pro^-ide 
hj common accord against xmprecedented wants. Assemble 
the pious men of all nations, and let a free council, deduce from 

1 In Tularus sparsum aurum quatuor millia dacatonun. I, Epp, iii, 565. 
* Armis ccgando*. Seckend., vi. 112 ; Maimbourg, 0, 191. 


the Word of God a scheme of doctrine such as may be received 
by every people." * 

A thunderbolt, falling at Clement's feet could not have start- 
led him raore. The offspring of an illegitimate union, and 
having obtained the papacy by means far from honourable, and 
squandered the treasures of the Church in an unjust war, this 
pontiff had a thousand personal motives for dreading an assem- 
bly of Christendom. " Large congregations," replied he, 
•' serve only to introduce popular opinions. It is not by the 
decrees of councils, but with the edge of the sword, that we 
shoidd decide controversies."* 

As Gattinara stiU persisted: " What!" said the pope, angrily 
interrupting him, " you dare contradict me, and excite your 
master against me!" Charles rose up; all the assembly pre- 
served profound silence, and the prince resuming his seat, 
seconded his chancellor's request. Clement was content to say 
that he would reflect upon it. He then began to work upon 
the young emperor in their private conferences, and Charles 
promised at last to constrain the heretics by violence, while the 
pope should summon aU other princes to his aid.' "To over- 
come Germany by force, and then erase it from the surface of 
Ihe earth, is the sole object of the Italians," they wrote from 
Venice to the elector.* 

Such was the sinister news which, by spreading alarm among 
the Protestants, should also have united them. Unfortunately 
a contrary movement was then taking place. Luther and some 
of his friends had revised the Marburg articles in a sense ex- 
clusively Lutheran, and the ministers of the Elector of Saxony 
had presented them to the conference at Schwabach. The re- 
formed deputies from Ulm and Strasburg had immediately 
withdrawn, and the conference was broken up. 

But new conferences had erelong become necessary. The 
express that Caden had forwarded from Piacenza had reached 
Nuremberg. Every one in Germany understood that the arrest 
of the princes' deputies was a declaration of war. The elector 
was staggered, and ordered his chancellor to consult the theo- 
logians of Wittemberg. 

1 Orntio de Congressu Bononiensi, in Melancthonis Orationum, iv, 87, and Cffilcs- 
tinus Hist. Concil., 1830, Augustso, i, 10. Respectable authors, Walsh, MuUer, and 
Beausobre, incorrectly quote at full length the speeches delivered at this conferences 
They are amplifications ; but to deny that they have gomn historical foundation 
would be fly in ^ to the opposite extreme. ' Non concilii dccretis, sed annis con- 

trovcrsias dirimendai. Scultet., p. 248 ; Maimbourn the Jesuit, ii, 177. 

3 I'ontifex ut cajterl Christiani principes, ipsos pro viribus juvcnt. Guicciardini, 
xix, 908. * Ut Germania vi ct amus opprimatur funditus delcatur ct eradicetur. 

(Ciclestin^ 1, 42.) That by force and arms Germany may be overthrown, utterly do- 
troycd, and rooted up. 



*' "We cannot on our conscience," replied Luther on the 18th 
5sovember, "approve of the proposed alliance, ^^c would 
rather die ten times than see our Gospel cause one drop of 
blood to be shed.' Our part is to be like lambs of the slaughter. 
The cross of Christ must be borne. Let your highness be 
without fear. We shall do more by our prayers than aU our 
enemies by their boastings. Only let not your hands be stained 
Avith the blood of your brethren 1 If the emperor requires us to 
be given up to his tribunals, we are ready to appear. You 
cannot defend our faith: each one should believe at his own 
risk and peril."* 

On the 29th November an evangelical congress was opened at 
Smalkald, and an imexpected event rendered this meeting still 
more important. Ehinger, Caden, and Frauentraut, who had 
escaped from the grasp of Charles V., appeared before them.' 
The landorrave had no further doubts of the success of his plan. 

He was deceived. No agreement between contrary doc- 
trines, no alliance between politics and religion — were Luther's 
two principles, and they stiU prevailed. It was agreed that 
those who felt disposed to sign the articles of Schwabach, and 
those only, should meet at Nuremberg on the 6th of January'. 

The horizon became hourly more threatening. The papists 
of Germany wrote one to another these few but significant 
words: " The Saviour is coming.""* "Alas" exclaimed Luther, 
"what a pitiless saviour! He will devovu- them all, as well as 
us." In effect, two Italian bishops, authorized by Charles V., 
•demanded in the pope's name all the gold and silver from the 
<;hurches, and a third part of the ecclesiastical revenues: a pro- 
■ceeding which caused an immense sensation. "Let the pope 
go to the devil," replied a canon of Paderborn, a little too 
freely.' "Yes, yesi" archly replied Luther, "this is your 
saviour that is coming I" The people already began to talk 
of frightful omens. It was not only the living who were 
agitated: a child stUl in its mother's womb had uttered horri- 
ble shrieks.6 "All is accomplished," said Luther; "the Turk 
has reached the highest degree of his power, the glory of the 
papacy is declining, and the world is splitting on every side."' 
The reformer, dreading lest the end of the world should arrive 
before he had translated all the Bible, published the prophecies 

> Lieber lehn mal todt sejTi. JEpp., iii, 526. »Anf sein eipen Fahr glaaben. 

Ibid, 527. ' Adrenerant et gesta referebant. Seckend.,ii, 14<> ; Sleidan, i, 235. 

* Inriccm scriptUlant, dicentes : Salvator Tenit. L. Epp, iii, 640. » Dat d« 

Duwel dem Bawst int Lieff fare. Ihid. • Infans in nttro, audiente tot* 

€unilia, bis vociferatus est. (Ibid.) A child in the womb, in hearing of the whota 
tunily, icreamed twica • Dedication of Daniel to John Frederick. Ibid., 545. 


of Daniel separately,— "a work," said he, "for these latter 
times." Historians tell us," he added, "that Alexander the- 
Great always placed Homer under his pillow: the prophet 
Daniel is worthy not only that kings and princes should lay 
him under their heads, but carry him in their hearts; for he 
will teach them that the government of nations proceeds from 
the power of God. We are balanced in the hand of the Lord, 
as a ship upon the sea, or a cloud in the sky."i 

~i et the frightful phantom that Philip of Hesse had not 
ceased to point out to his allies, and whose threatening jaws, 
seemed already opening, suddenly vanished, and they discovered, 
in its place the graceful image of the most amiable of princes. 
On the 21st January, Charles had summoned all the states- 
of the empire to Augsburg, and had endeavoured to employ 
the most conciliatory language. "Let us put an end to all 
discord," he said, "let us renounce our antipathies, let us offer 
to our Saviour the sacrifice of all our errors, let us make it 
our business to comprehend and weigh with meekness the 
opinions of others. Let us annihilate all that has been said 
or done on both sides contrary to right, and let us seek after 
christian truth. Let us all fight under one and the same 
leader, Jesus Christ, and let us strive thus to meet in one 
communion, one church, and one unity."* 

What language! How was it that this prince, who hitherto 
had spoken only of the sword, should now speak only of peace?- 
Some may say that the wise Gattinara had a share in it; that 
the act of convocation was drawn up under the impression of 
the terror caused by the Turkish invasion ; that the emperor 
already saw with how little eagerness the Roman Cathohcs of 
Germany seconded his views; that he wished to intimidate the 
pope; that this language, so full of graciousness, was but a 
mask which Charles employed to deceive his enemies; that he 
wished to manage religion in true imperial fashion, like Theo- 
dosius and Constantino, and seek first to unite both parties by 
the influence of his wisdom and of his favom-s, reserving tO' 
himself, if kindness shoidd fail, to employ force afterwards. 
It is possible that each of these motives may have exercised a 
certain influence on Charles, but the latter appears to us nearer 
the truth, and more conformable to the character of this prince. 
If Charles, however, showed any inclination to mildness, the 
fanatical Ferdinand was at hand to bring him back. "I will 

» Schwebt in seiner Mnclit, wie cin Schiff auf dem Mccr, ja wie eine Wolke unter 
dem Hiinmel. I^ Epp., iii, 555. a Wie nir alio uiittr eiiicm Cliristo scjn und 

itreiten, yor&teiiiiiaiin's UiUundciibuch, i, 1, 


continue negotiating without coming to any conclusion," wrote 
he to his brother; "and should I even be reduced to that, do 
not fear; pretexts wiU not be wanting to chastise these rebels, 
and JO a will find men enough who will be happy to aid you ia 
your revenge."^ 


The Coronation — The Emperor made a Deacon — The Romish Church and the State- 
— Alarm of the Protestants — Luther advocates Passire Resistance — Brack's noble 
Advice — Articles of Faith prepared — Luther's Strong Tower — Lather at Coburg— - 
Charles at Innspruck— Two Parties at Court — Gattinara— The King of Denmark 
won over by Charles — Piety of the Elector — Wiles of the Romanists. 

Charles, like Charlemagne in former times, and Xapoleon ia 
later days, desired to be crowned by the pope, and had at first 
thought of visiting Rome for that purpose; but Ferdinand's 
pressing letters compelled him to choose Bologna.* He ap- 
pointed the 22d February for receiving the iron crown as king 
of Lombardy, and resolved to assume the golden crown, as 
emperor of the Romans, on the 2-ith of the same month — his 
birthday and the anniversary of the battle of Pavia, and which 
he thought was always fortunate to him.' 

The offices of honour that belonged to the electors of the 
empire were given to strangers; in the coronation of the Em- 
peror of Germany aU was Spanish or Italian. The sceptre 
was carried by the Marquis of Slontferrat, the sword by the 
Duke of Urbino, and the golden crown by the Duke of Savoy. 
One single German prince of little importance, the Count- 
palatine Philip, was present: he carried the orb. After these 
lords came the emperor lumself between two cardinals; then 
the members of his council. All this procession defiled across- 
a magnificent temporary bridge erected between the palace and 
the church. At the very moment the emperor drew near the 
church of San Petronio, where the coronation was to take 
place, the scaftolding cracked behind him and gave way: 
many of his train were wounded, and the multitude fled in 
alarm. Charles calmly turned back and smiled, not doubting 
that his lucky star had saved him. 

At length Charles V. arrived in front of the throne on which 
Clement was seated. But before being made emperor, it was 

1 Bucholz Geschichte Ferdinands, iii, 432. - Sopravennero lettere di Ger— 

mania che lo soUicittaTaoo a transferirsi in qucUa provincia. Guicciardini, L. xx. 
* Katali suo quern semper i'eiiceni habiiit. Seckeiid.. ii, 150. 



necessary that he should be promoted to the sacred orders. 
The pope presented him with the surplice and the amice to 
make him a canon of St. Peter's and of St. John Lateranus, 
^nd the canons of these two churches immediately stripped him 
of his royal ornaments, and robed him with the sacerdotal gar- 
ments. The pope went to the altar and began mass, the new 
'•canon drawing near to wait upon him. After the offertory, 
the imperial deacon presented the water to the pontiff; and 
then kneeling down between two cardinals, he communicated 
from the pope's hand. The emperor now returned to his 
throne, where the princes robed him with the imperial mantle 
brought from Constantinople, all sparkling with diamonds, and 
€harles humbly bent the knee before Clement VII. 

The pontiff, having anointed him with oil and given him 
the sceptre, presented him with a naked sword, saying : " Make 
use of it in defence of the Church against the enemies of the 
faith!" Next taking the golden orb, studded with jewels, 
which the count-palatine held, he said: "Govern the world 
with piety and firmness!" Last came the Duke of Savoy, 
-yrho carried the golden crown enriched with diamonds. The 
prince bent down, and Clement put the diadem on his head, 
saying: "Charles, emperor invincible, receive this crown 
which we place on your head, as a sign to all the earth of the 
authority that is conferred upon you." 

The emperor then kissed the white cross embroidered on the 
pope's red slipper, and exclaimed: "I swear to be, with all 
my powers and resources, the perpetual defender of the ponti- 

I fical dignity and of the Church of Rome." ^ 

The two princes now took their seats under the same canopy, 
but on thrones of unequal height, the emperor's being half a 
foot lower than the pontiffs, and the cardinal-deacon pro- 
claimed to the people "The invincible emperor. Defender of 
the Faith." For the next half-hour nothing was heard but 
the noise of musketry, trumpets, drums, and fifes, all the bells 
of the city, and the shouts of the multitude. Thus was pro- 

■ claimed anew the close union of politics with religion. The 
mighty emperor, transformed to a Roman deacon and humbly 
serving mass, like a canon of St. Peter's, had typified and de- 

• clared the indissoluble union of the Romish Cluirch with the 
State. This is one of the essential doctrines of Popery, and 

1 Omnibua viribus, ingenio, et facultatlbus suis Pontificiao dignitatis et Romanas 
Ecclesice perpetuum fore dcfensorem. (Crelestiii. Hi»t. Commit. Aug. 16.) That ho 
would always, with all his niiiid, means, and might, be the defender of the dlgnitj of 
I thb I'ope and the Roman Church. 



x>ne of the most striking characteristics that distinguish it 
from the evangelical and the Christian Church. 

Nevertheless, during the whole of the ceremonv, the pope 
seemed iU at ease, and sighed as soon as men's eyes ceased 
to gaze on him. Accordingly, the French ambassador wrote 
to his court that these four months which the emperor and 
pope had spent together at Bologna, would hear fruit of which 
the King of France would assuredly have no cause to complain.^ 

Scarcely had Charles V. risen from before the altar of San 
Petronio, ere he turned his face towards Germany, and ap- 
peared on the Alps as the anointed of the Papacy. The letter 
of convocation, so indulgent and benign, seemed forgotten: all 
things were made new since the pope's blessings: there was but 
one thought in the imperial train, the necessity of rigorous 
measures; and the legate Campeggio ceased not to insinuate 
irritating words into Charles's ear. " At the first rumour of 
the storm that threatens them," said Granvelle, " we shall sec 
the Protestants flying on every side, like timid doves upon 
which the Alpine eagle pounces."* 

Great indeed was the alarm throughout the empire; already 
even the affrighted people, apprehensive of the greatest disas- 
ters, repeated everywhere that Luther and Melancthon were 
dead. " Alas!'' " said Melancthon, consumed by sorrow, when 
he heard these reports, " the rumour is but too true, for I die 
daily."' But Luther, on the contrary, boldly raising the eye 
of faith towards heaven, exclaimed: " Our enemies triumph, 
but erelong to perish." In truth the councils of the elector 
displayed an unprecedented boldness. " Let us collect our 
troops," said they; "let us march on the Tyrol, and close the 
passage of the Alps against the emperor."* Phihp of Hesse 
uttered a cry of joy when he heard of this. The sword of 
Charles had aroused his indolent allies at last. Immediately 
fresh couriers from Ferdinand were sent to hasten the arrival 
■of Charles, and all Germany was in expectation. 

Before carrying out this gigantic design, the elector desired 
to consult Luther once more. The emperor in the midst of the 
electors was only the first among his equals; and independent 
princes were allowed to resist another prince, even if he were 
of higher rank than themselves. But Luther, dreading above 
aU things the intervention of the secular arm in church affairs, 

^ Letter to iL L' Admiral, 35th February. Legrand, Sstoire da Dirorce, iii, 386. 

' Tanqxum colnmbae, adTeniente aqaila, dispergentor, Rommel Anmerkongen, 
p. 336. > Ego famam de qua scribis intelligo nimis reram esse, morior eaim 

qaotidie. Corp. Ret, ii, lH. * Cum copiis quas habitant per Tyrolenseqn 

ditionem incedenti occurrere et Allium traDEitam impedire< Seckead^ ii, 1^ 

108 bruck's noble advice, 

was led to reply on the 6tli March in this extraordinary man- 
ner: " Our prince's subjects are also the emperor's subjects^ 
and even more so than princes are. To protect by arms the 
emperor's subjects against the emperor, would be as if the bur- 
gomaster of Torgau wished to protect by force his citizen* 
against the elector." 

"What must be done then?" — '♦Listen," replied Luther. 
" If the emperor desires to march against us, let no prince un- 
dertake our defence. God is faithful: he will not abandon us."^ 
All preparations for war were immediately suspended, the land- 
grave received a polite refusal, and the confederation was dis- 
solved. It was the will of God that his cause should appear 
before the emperor without league and without soldiers, havino- 
faith alone for its shield. 

Never perhaps has such boldness been witnessed in feeble- 
and unarmed men; but never, although under an appearance of 
blindness, was there so much wisdom and understanding. 

The question next discussed in the elector's council was, 
■whether he should go to the diet. The majority of the coun- 
cillors opposed it. "Is it not risking everything," said they 
"to go and shut oneself up within the walls of a city with a 
powei-ful enemy?" Bruck and the prince-electoral were of a 
different opinion. Duty in their e^-^es was a better councillor 
than fear. " What!" said they, " would the emperor insist so 
much on the presence of the princes at Augsburg only to draw 
them into a snare? We cannot impute such perfidy to him." 
The landgrave, on the contrary, seconded the opinion of the 
majority. "Remember Piacenza," said he. " Some unfore- 
seen circumstance may lead the emperor to take all his enemies 
in one cast of the net." 

The chancellor stood firm. " Let the princes only comport 
themselves with courage," said he, " and God's cause is saved." 
The decision was in favour of the nobler plan. 

This diet was to be a lay council, or at the very least a na- 
tional convention.* The Protestants foresaw that a few un- 
important concessions would be made to them at first, and 
then that they would be required to sacrifice their faith. It 
was therefore necessary to settle what were the essential arti- 
cles of Christian truth, in order to know whether, by what 
means, and how far they might come to an understanding with 
their adversaries. The elector accordingly had letters sent on 
the 14th March to the four principal theologians of Wittem- 

* Cum hiEC comitia pro coiicilio nut conventu iintioiiali liaberi vidoautur. SocUend 
U, i". Letter to the Elector, Corp. Utf., ii, '.'6. 


berg, setting them this task before all other business.^ Thus, 
instead of collecting soldiers, this prince drew up articles : they 
■were the best armament. 

Luther, Jonas, and Melancthon (Pomeranus remaining at 
"Wittemherg,) arrived at Torgau in Easter week, asking leave 
to deliver their articles in person to Charles the Fifth.* •' God 
forbid I" replied the elector, "I also desire to confess my 

John having then confided to Melancthon the dehnitive ar- 
rano-ement of the confession, and ordered general prayers to be 
offered up, began his journey on the 3d April, with one hun- 
dred and sixty horsemen, clad in rich scarlet cloaks embroider- 
ed with gold. 

Every man was aware of the dangers that threatened the 
elector, and hence many in his escort marched with downcast 
eyes and sinking hearts. But Luther, full of faith, revived the 
courage of his friends, by composing and singing with his fine 
voice that beautiful hymn, since become so famous : Ein feste 
Burg ist wiser Gotte, Our God is a strong tower.' Never did 
soul that knew his own weakness, but which, looking to God, 
despised every fear, find such noble accents. 

"With our own strength we nought can do, 

Destruction yawns on every side : 
He fights for us, our champion true. 

Elect of God to be our guide. 
What is his n.ame ? The anointed One, 

The God of armies he ; 
Oi earth and heaven the Lord alone — 
TYith him, on field of battle wou, 
Abideth victory. 

This hymn was sung during the diet, not only at Augsburg, 
but in all the churches of Saxony, and its energetic strains 
were often seen to revive and inspirit the most dejected minds.* 

On Easter-eve the troop reached Coburg, and on the 2od 
April the elector resvmied his journey; but at the very moment 
of departure Luther received an order to remain. " Some one 
has said, ' Hold your tongue, you have a harsh voice,' " wrote 
he to a friend.5 He submitted, however, without hesitation, 

1 Omnibus sepositis aiiis rebus. L. Epp., iii, 5 "4. ' Different projects will 

be found in fontenmann's Urkundenbuch, i, p. 63-103, a- d in the Coip. Ref., it, p. 
973, sqq. Thfise that were presented were doubtless Uie ArtieuU nou eoneedendi, 
Articltt not to be conceded. They treat of the communion in both kinds, of celibacy 
the mass, orders, the l>ope, convents, confession distinction of nie:!ts, and of the 
.sacr.iment8, Idid., 93L ' We have attempted a very feeble transhition of the se- 

cond stanza. * Qui trisfem etiiim et abjec;um auimuni erigere et exlalaiare, 

et velut <»^a5-(i^ii> possent. Sculu, p. 270. » Sed erat qui dicerec: Tace ttl, 

babes muhin: \> c ta. h. £,Ji>,: r.. :;. 


setting an example of that passive obedience which he so holdljr 
advocated. The elector feared that Luther's presence would' 
still further exasperate his adversaries, and drive Charles to 
extreme measures : the city of Augsburg had also written to. 
him to that eifect. But at the same time John was anxious to^ 
keep the reformer within reach, that he might be able to con- 
sult him. He was therefore left at Coburg, in the castle over- 
looking the town and the river Itz, in the upper story on the 
south side. It was from this place he wrote those numerous 
letters dated from the region of birds; and it was there that for 
many months he had to maintain with his old enemy of the 
Wartburg, Satan, a struggle full of darkness and of anguish. 

On the second May the elector reached Augsburg ; it had 
been expected that he would stay away, and to the great as- 
tonishment of all, he was the first at the rendezvous. ^ He 
immediately sent Dolzig, marshal of the court, to meet the 
emperor and to comphment him. On the 12th May Philip of 
Hesse, who had at last resolved on not separating himself from 
his ally, arrived with an escort of one hundred and ninety 
horsemen ; and almost at the same time the emperor entered' 
Innspruck, in the Tyrol, accompanied by his brother, the 
queens of Hungary and Bohemia, the ambassadors of France, 
England, and Portugal, Campeggio the papal legate, and other 
cardinals, with many princes and nobles of Germany, Spain, 
and Italy. 

How to bring back the heretics to obedience to the Church 
was the great topic of conversation in this brilliant court amono^ 
nobles and priests, ladies and soldiers, councillors and ambas- 
sadors. They, or Charles at least, -were not for making them 
ascend the scaffold, but they wished to act in such a manner^ 
that, untrue to their faith, they should bend the knee to the 
pope. Charles stopt at Innspruck to study the situation of Ger- 
many, and ensure the success of his schemes. 

Scarcely was his arrival known ere a crowd of people, high 
and low, flocked round him on every side, and more than 
270,000 crowns, previously raised in Italy, served to make the 
Germans understand the justice of Rome's cause. " All these 
heretics," was the cry, " Avill fall to the ground and crawl to 
the feet of the pope." * 

Charles did not think so. He was, on the contrary, aston- 
ished to see what power the Reformation had gained. Ha 
momentarily even entertained the idea of leaving Augsburg, 

> Mirantibus hominibus. Seek., ii, 163. = Zum kreutz kriechen wcrdem 

If atbcsiua I'red, p, ai. The allusion is to tlie cross cmbroidercci on the's slipper.. 


alone, and of going straight to Cologne, and there proclaiming 
his brother king of the Romans. ^ Thus, religious interests^ 
would have given way to dynastic interests, at least so ran the 
report. But Charles the Fifth did not stop at this idea. The 
question of the Reformation was there before him, increasing- 
hourly in sti-ength, and it could not be eluded. 

Two parties divided the imperial court. The one, numeroua 
and active, called upon the emperor to revive simply the edict 
of Vrorms, and, without hearing the Protestants, condemu- 
their cause.* The legate was at the head of this party. "Do 
not hesitate," said he to Charles ; " confiscate their property, 
establish the inquisition, and punish these obstinate heretics 
■with fire and sword." ' The Spaniards, who strongly seconded 
these exhortations, gave Avay to their accustomed debauchery, 
and many of them were arrested for seduction.* This was a 
sad specimen of the faith they wished to impose on Germany, 
Rome has always thought lightly of morality. 

Gattinara, although sick, had painfully followed in Charles's- 
train to neutralize the influence of the legate. A determined 
adversary of the Roman policy, he thought that the Protest- 
ants might render important services to Christendom. "There- 
is nothing I desire so much," said he, " as to see the Elector 
of Saxony and his allies persevere courageously in the profes- 
sion of the Gospel, and call for a free religious council. If 
they allow themselves to be checked by promises or threats, I 
hesitate myself, I stagger, and I doubt of the means of salva- 
tion."* The enlightened and honest members of the Papal- 
Church (and of whom there is always a small number) neces- 
sarily sympathize with the Refonuation. 

Charles V., exposed to these contrary influences, desired to-- 
restore Germany to religious unity by his personal interven- 
tion : for a moment he thought himself on the eve of success. 

Amongst the persons who crowded to Innspruck was the 
unfortunate Christian, king of Denmark, Charles's brother-in- 
law. In vain had he proposed to his subjects undertaking a 
pilgrimage to Rome in expiation of the cruelties of which he 
was accused : his people had expelled him. Having repaired to 
Saxony, to his uncle the elector, he had there heard Luther,. 

I Iter Coloniam versus decrerisse. Epp. Zw., May 13. » Alii censent Caa. 

sarem debere, edicto proposito, sine ulla cogitatione damnare causam nostram. (Corp- 
Ref., ii, 57.) Some think that the emperor ought to issue the edict, and condemn oar 
cause without anj consideration. ' Instruetio data Cccsari dal Reverendis- 

«imo Campeggio. Ranke, iii, 288. * Sich die Spanier zu Inspruck unflathig 

gehalten. Corp. Ref., ii, 56. s Semper vaci'Jatumm de vera et certa salutis 

adipiscendae ratione (Seek., ii, 57.) That he woult' slways raciliate as to the true 
and certain method of obtaining salvation. 



and liad embraced the evangelical doctrines, as far at least as 
external profession goes. This poor dethroned monarch couid 
not resist the eloquence of the poAverful ruler of t\ro worlds, and 
Christian, won over by Charles the Fifth, publicly placed him- 
self again under the sceptre of the Roman hierarchy. AH the 
papal party uttered a shout of triumph. Nothing equals their 
credulity, and the importance they attach to such valueless ac- 
cessions. " I cannot describe the emotion with which this news 
has filled me," Avrote Clement VII. to Charles, his hand trem- 
Ming with joy; " the brightness of your majesty's virtues be- 
gins at last to scatter the darkness : this example will lead to 
numberless conversions." 

Things were in this state Avhen Duke George of Saxony, 
Duke William of Bavaria, and the Elector Joachim of Brau- 
■denburg, the three German princes who were the greatest ene- 
mies to the Reformation, hastily arrived at Innspruck. 

The tranquillity of the elector, whom they had seen at Augs- 
burg, had alarmed them, for they knew not the source whence 
John derived his courage : they fancied he was meditating some 
perfidious design. "It is not without reason," said they to 
Charles, " that the elector John has repaired the first to Augs- 
burg, and that he appeared there with a considerable train : he 
wishes to seize your person. Act then with energy, and allow 
us to oti'er your majesty a guard of six thousand horse." ^ Con- 
ference upon conference immediately took place. The Protest- 
ants were affrighted. " They arc holding a diet at Innspruck," 
said Melancthon, " on the best means of having our heads. "^ 
But Gattinara prevailed on Charles to preserve his neutrality. 

"While this agitation prevailed in the Tyrol, the evangehcal 
€hristians, instead of mustering in arms, as they were accused, 
sent up their prayers to heaven, and the Protestant princes 
were preparing to render an account of their faith. 

The Elector of Saxony held the first rank among them. 
Sincere, upright, and pure from his youth, early disgusted with 
the brilliant tourneys in Avliich he had at first taken ^avt, John 
of Saxony had joyfully hailed the day of the Reformation, and 
the Gospel liglit had gradually penetrated liis serious and re- 
flective mind. His great pleasure was to liave the IIol}"^ Scrip- 
tui'es rciid to him during the latter hours of the day. It is true 
that, haviii;; mrived at an advanced age, the pious elector 
sometimes lell asleep, but he soon awoke with a start, and re- 

» Ut muRcuIc ngtTcf, «eT ijiille cqnltiini, pncsidinm ei offcrcntcs. ycclc, ii, 15G. 
» n)i liiibcntur dc luistris ctTvictbus coniitia. (Curp. Rit., ii, IS.) They are there 
hoidliii; u Ulut un uui- hcuds. 


peated the last passage aloud. Although moderate and a friend 
of peace, he vet possessed an energy that was powerfully arous- 
ed by the great interests of the faith. There is no prince ia 
the sixteenth century, and none perhaps since the primitive times 
of the Church, who has done so much as John of Saxony for 
the cause of the Gospel. Accordingly it was against him that 
the first efforts of the Papists were directed. 

In order to gain him over, they wished to put in operation 
very different tactics from those which had been previously em- 
ployed. At Spires the evangehcals had met with angry looks 
in every quarter; at Augsburg, on the contrary, the Papists 
gave them a hearty welcome; they represented the distance that 
separated the two parties as very trifling, and in their private 
conversations made use of the mildest language, "seeking thus 
to entice the credulous Protestants to take the bait," says an 
historian.! The latter yielded with simplicity to these skilfui 

Charles the Fifth was convinced that the simple German* 
would not be able to resist his star. "The king of Denmark 
has been converted," said his courtiers to him, "why should 
^ot the elector follow his example? Let us draw him into the 
imperial atmosphere." John was immediately invited to come 
and converse familiarly with the emperor at Innspruck, with an 
assurance that he might reckon on Charles's particular favour. 

The prince-electoral, John Frederick, who on seeing the ad- 
vances of the Papists had at first exclaimed: " We conduct our 
affairs with such awkwardness, that it is quite pitiablel" allow- 
ed himself to be caught by this stratagem. " The Papist prin- 
ces," said he to his father, "exert every means of blackenino- 
our characters. Go to Innspruck in order to put a stop to 
these underhand practices; or if you are unwilling, send me in 
your place." 

This time the prudent elector moderated his son's precipi- 
tancy, and replied to Charles's ministers, that it was not proper 
to treat of the affairs of the diet in any other place than that 
which the emperor had himself appointed, and begged in con- 
sequence, that his majesty would hasten his arrivaf.* This wm 
the first check that Charies met with. 

* Sedcendorf. 



Augsburg — The Gospel preached — The Emperor's Message — The Sermons proUU 
ted — Firmness of the Elector — The Elector's Reply — Preparation of the Confes- 
sion—Luther's Sinai — His Son and his Father — Luther's Merriment— Luther's 
Diet at Coburg — Saxony, a Paradise below— To the Bishops — Travail of the 
Church — Charles — The Pope's Letter — Melancthon on Fasting — The Church, 
the Judge — The Landgrave's catholic Spirit. 

Meantime Augsburg was filling more and more every day. 
Princes, bishops, deputies, gentlemen, cavaliers, soldiers in rich 
uniforms, entered by every gate, and thronged the streets, the 
public places, inns, churches, and palaces. All that was most 
magnificent in Germany was there about to be collected. The 
critical circumstances in Avhich the empire and Christendom 
were placed, the presence of Charles V. and his kindly manners, 
the love of novelty, of grand shows, and of lively emotions, tore- 
the Germans from their homes. All those who had great in- 
terests to discuss, without reckoning a crowd of idlers, flocked 
from the various provinces of the empire, and hastily made 
their way towards this illustrious city.^ 

In the midst of the crowd the elector and the landgrave Avere 
resolved to confess Jesus Christ, and to take advantage of this 
convocation in order to convert the empire. Scarcely had' 
John arrived when he ordered one of his theologians to preach, 
daily with open doors in the church of the Dominicans.* On 
Sunday the 8th May, the same was done in the church of St. 
Catherine; on the 13th, Philip of Hesse opened the gates of 
the cathedral, and his chaplain Snepff there proclaimed the 
Word of Salvation; and on the following Sunday (May 15) this 
prince ordered Cellarius, minister of Augsburg and a follower 
of Zwingle, to preach in the same temple. Somewhat later the 
landgrave firmly settled himself in the church of St. Ulric, 
and the elector in that of St. Catherine. These Avere the two 
positions taken up by these illustrious princes. Every day the 
Gospel Avas preached in these places to an immense and atten- 
tive crowd.' 

The partisans of Rome were amazed. They expected to see- 
criminals endeavouring to dissemble their faults, and they met 
with confessors of Christ with uplifted heads and Avords of 
power. Desirous of counterbalancing these sermons, the Bishop 

I Omnes nlliciebat. Coihlreus, p. 191. ' Rogantibus Augustanis publioe 

In tempium Uominiuorum. Seek. Lat., p. 193. * Tiigligin den kirclien, un- 

ventort; dazukommt sebrviel Volks. Corp. It (f ii, 63. 


of Au<ys"burg ordered his suffragan and his chaplain to ascend 
the pidpit. But the Romish priests imderstood better how to 
say mass than to preach the Gospel. " They shout, they 
bawl," said some. " They are stupid fellows," added all their 
hearers, shrugging their shoulders.^ 

The Romanists, ashamed of their own priests, began to grow 
ancrry,* and imable to hold their ground by preaching, had re- 
course to the secular power. " The priests are setting won- 
drous machines at work to gain Caesar's mind," said Melanc- 
thon.' They succeeded, and Charles made known his displea- 
sure at the hardihood of the princes. The friends of the pope 
then drew near the Protestants, and whispered into their ears, 
" that the emperor, victor over the King of France and the 
Roman Pontiff, would appear in Germany to crush all the 
Gospellers."* The anxious elector demanded the advice of his 

Before the answer was ready, Charles's orders arrived, 
brought by two of his most influential ministers, the Counts of 
Kassau and of Nuenar. A more skilful choice could not have 
been made. These two nobles, although devoted to Charles, 
were favourable to the Gospel, which they professed not long 
after. The elector was therefore fully disposed to listen to 
their coimsel. 

On the 2-lth May, the two counts delivered their letters to 
John of Saxony, and declared to him the emperor's exceeding 
grief that religious controversies should disturb the good im- 
derstanding which had for so many years imited the houses of 
Saxony and Austria;* that he was astonished at seeing the 
elector oppose an edict (that of Worms) which had been imani- 
mously passed by all the states of the empire; and that the 
alliances he had made tended to tear asunder the unity of Ger- 
many, and might inimdate it with blood. They required at 
last that the elector would immediately put a stop to the evan- 
gehcal preachings, and added, in a confidential tone, that they 
trembled at the thought of the immediate and deplorable conse- 
quences which would certainly follow the elector's refusal, 
*' This," said they, "is only the expression of our own per- 
sonal sentiments." It was a diplomatic manoeuvre, the empe- 

1 Clamant et rociferantar. Andires homines stupidissimos atque etiam gensa 
commnnicarentea. (Corp,Rcf.,ii,86.) They shout, they bawl. Tou would hear mea 
■who are most stupid, and even deroid of common sense. * Urebat hec pontifices. 

(Scultet., p. 271.) This stung the papists. ' '0< a(;^^it^tis miri- machinis 

oppugnant. Corp. Ref., ii, 70. ♦ Erangelicos omnes obtriturum. Sctiltet., 

p. 269. » These instructions may be found in Coelestio, i, 50, and Forstenuum 

Uric., i, no 


ror having enjoined them to give utterance to a few threats, 
but solely as if proceeding from themselves. ^ 

The elector was greatly agitated. " If his majesty forbids 
the preaching of the Gospel," exclaimed he, " I shall imme- 
diately return home." ^ He waited however for the advice of 
his theologians. 

Luther's answer was ready first. " The emperor is our 
master," said he; " the town and all that is in it belong to 
him If your highness should give orders at Torgau for this 
to be done, and for that to be left undone, the people ought 
not to resist. I should prefer endeavouring to change his ma- 
lesty's decision by humble and respectful solicitation; but if he 
persists, might makes right; we have but done our duty " 
Thus spoke the man who has often been represented as a rebel. 
Melancthon and the others were nearly of the same opinion, 
except that they insisted more on the necessity of representing 
to the emperor, " that in their sermons nothing controversial 
was introduced, but they were content simply to teach the doc- 
trine of Christ the Saviour.* Let us beware, above all,' con- 
tinued they, " of leaving the city. Let your highness with an 
intrepid heart confess in presence of his majesty by what won- 
derful ways you have attained to a right understanding ot the 
truth,' and do not allow yourself to be alarmed at these thun- 
der-claps that fall from the lips of our enemies." io contess 
the truth— such was the object to which, according to the Re- 
formers, everything else should be subordinate. 

Will the elector yield to this first demand of Charles, and 
thus begin, even before the emperors arrival, that list of sacri- 
fices the end of which cannot be foreseen? 

No one in Augsburg was firmer than John. In vain did the 
reformers represent that they were in the emperors city, and 
only strangers :« the elector shook his head. " Melancthon m 
despair wrote to Luther: "Alas! how untractable is our old 
man'" ^ Nevertheless he again returned to the charge, i^or- 
tunaiely there was an intrepid man at the elector-s r.ght hand, 
the chancellor Bruck. who feeling convinced that puhcy, hon- 
our, and above all, duty, bound the friends ot the Ketormation 
to resist the menaces of Charles, said to the elector: The 

I Ouidquid duri Electori denuntiaba.-t »u.. vcluti nomine et n.jnssi (Ucebant 
,8ocU HlSfi ) AnvM,in« hnrsh which they decla^d to the eU;ct..r. il.ey spoke as t 
S'i^SL. n«n.e ..a ...o. ^ M;.^ -;-;:;--;-;- 

S;Si.::'"-.^p. -iu.^: Th. no d^au^h. tna..., ... .,.ht h. ^^ 

B Ouoni.xio plane ineniwr.iMhiitqueiniiifico. ma., n. . /, , . 

. " 1 ■!,«» n,i,l 46 7 aed noster senejc difficihs e^t. IblcJ. 

Jam »unius lii»iiii«H- un.i., io " 


emperor's demand is but a worthy beginning to bring about the 
definitive abolition of the Gospel. ^ If we yield at present, they 
■mil crush us by and by. Let us therefore humbly beg his 
majesty to permit the continuance of the sermons." Thus, at 
that time, a statesman stood in the foremost rank of the con- 
fessors of Jesus Christ. This is one of the characteristic fea- 
tures of this great age, and it must not be forgotten, if we 
would understand its history aright. 

On the 31st May, the elector sent his answer in writing to 
Charles's ministers. "It is not true," it bore, "that the 
edict of Worms was approved of by the six electors. How 
coiild the elector, my brother, and myself, by approving it, 
have opposed the everlasting word of Almighty God ? Accor- 
dingly, succeeding diets have declared this edict impossible to 
to be executed. As for the relations of friendship that I have 
formed, their only aim is to protect me against acts of violence. 
Let my accusers lay before the eyes of his majesty the alliances 
they have made ; I am ready to produce mine, and the empe- 
ror shall decide between us. — Finally, as to the demand to sus- 
pend our preachings, nothing is proclaimed in them but the 
glorious truth of God, and never was it so necessary to us. We 
cannot therefore do without it ! ^ 

This reply must necessarily hasten the arrival of Charles; 
and it was urgent they shovdd be prepared to receive him. 
To proclaim their belief, and then be silent, was the whole plan 
of the protestant campaign. A Confession was therefore ne- 
cessary. One man, of small stature, frail, timid, and in great 
alarm, was commissioned to prepare this instrument of war. 
Philip Melancthon worked at it night and day: he weighed 
every expression, softened it down, changed it, and then fre- 
quently returned to his first idea. He was wasting away his 
strength; his friends trembled lest he should die over his task; 
and Luther enjoined him, as early as the 12th of May, imder 
pain of anathema, to take measures for the preservation of 
"his little body," and not " to commit suicide for the love of 
God."3 " God is as usefully served by repose," added he, " and 
indeed man never serves him better than by keeping himself 
tranquil. It is for this reason God willed that the Sabbath 
should be so strictly observed."* 

Notwithstanding these solicitations, Melancthon's application 

1 Ein. fiiggamer An&ng dcr Niderlirengung des Erangelii. (Corp. Ref.,ii, 76.) 
« Quo carere nan possit Seek., p. 156 ; Muller, Hist. Prot, p. 506. 
» Utsub anathemate cogain te in regulas ser>andi corpusculi tui. L. Epp. ir, !•. 
• Ideo enim Sabbatom Toluit tain rigide prae ceteris serrari. Ibid. 



augmented, and he set about an exposition of the christian 
faith at once mild, moderate, and as little removed as possible 
from the doctrine of the Latin Church. At Coburg he had 
abeady put his hand to the task, and traced out in the first 
part the doctrines of the faith, according to the articles of 
Schwabach; and in the second, the abuses of the Church ac- 
cording to the articles of Torgau, making altogether quite a 
new work. At Augsburg he gave a more correct and elegant 
form to this Confession.' 

The Apology, as it was then called, was completed on the 
11th May; and the elector sent it to Luther, begging him to 
mark what ought to be changed. " I have said what I thought 
most useful," added Melancthon, who feared that his friend 
would find the Confession too weak ; " for Eck ceases not to 
circulate against us the most diabolical calumnies, and I have 
endeavoured to oppose an antidote to his poisons."* 

Luther replied to the elector on the 15th May: " I have read 
Master Philip's Apology; I like it well enough, and have no 
corrections, to make. Besides, that would hardly suit me, for 
I cannot walk so meekly and so silently. May Christ our 
Lord grant that this work may produce much and great fruit." 

Each day, however, the elector's councillors and theologians, 
in concert with Melancthon, improved the Confession, and en- 
deavoured to render it such that the charmed diet shovdd, in 
its own despite, hear it to the very end.^ 

While the struggle was thus preparing at Augsburg, Luther 
at Cobm-g, on the summit of the hill, " on his Sinai," as he 
called it, raised his hands like Moses towards heaven.* He 
was the real general of the spiritual war that was then waging; 
his letters ceased not to bear to the combatants the directions 
which they needed, and numerous pamphlets issuing from his 
stronghold, like discharges of musketry, spread confusion in 
the enemy's camp. 

The place where he had been left was, by its solitude, fa- 
vourable to study and to meditation.^ " I shall make a Zion 
of this Sinai," said he on the 22d April, "and I shall build 
here three tabernacles; one to the Psalms, another to the Pro- 
phets, and a third to Esop!" This last word may well 

startle us. The association belongs neither to the language 

1 More rhectorically. Feci aliquando ertrdfixuriooi quam Coburgse soripseram. 
Corp. Ref., il, 40. ^ Quia £ckiu8 addidit i^iafiakixuraras 'SiafioXxf contra 

nos. Ibid., 45. ' In Apologia quotidie multa niut4imus. (Ibid., 60.) Wo 

daily make many changes In the Apology. * Matliesiu» I'redijjtcn, p. 92. 

* Longe amffioissimus et studiii commodissimus. L. Epp^ iv, 2. 


•nor the spirit of the Apostles. It is true that Esop was not 
to be his principal study: the fables were soon laid aside, and 
truth alone engaged Luther. " I shall weep, I shall pray, I 
shall never be silent," wrote he, " until I know that my cry 
has been heard in heaven." * 

Besides, by way of relaxation, he had something better than 
Esop; he had those domestic joys whose precious treasures the 
Reformation had opened to the ministers of the Word. It was 
at this time he wrote that charming letter to his infant son, ia 
which he describes a delightful garden where children dressed 
in gold are sporting about, picking up apples, pears, cherries, 
and plums; they sing, dance, and enjoy themselves, and ride 
pretty little horses, with golden bridles and silver saddles.* 

But the reformer was soon drawn away from these pleasing 
images. About this time he learnt that his father had gently 
fallen asleep in the faith which is in Jesus Christ. " Alas ! " 
exclaimed he, shedding tears of filial love, " it is by the sweat 
of his brow that he made me what I am."' Other trials as- 
sailed him; and to bodily pains were added the phantoms of 
his imagination. One night in particular he saw three torches 
pass rapidly before his eyes, and at the same moment heard 
■claps of thunder in his head, which he ascribed to the devil. 
'His servant ran in at the moment he fainted, and after having 
restored him to animation, read to him the Epistle to the Ga- 
latians. Luther, who had fallen asleep, said as he awoke: 
" Come, and despite of the devil let us sing the Psalm, Out of 
the deptJis have I cried unto thee, Lord! " They both sang the 
hymn. While Luther was thus tormented by these internal 
noises, he translated the prophet Jeremiah, and yet he often 
deplored his idleness. 

He soon devoted himself to other studies, and poured out the 
"floods of his irony on the mundane practices of courts. He saw 
Venice, the pope, and the King of France, giving their hands 
to Charles V. to crush the Gospel. Then, alone in his chamber 
in the old castle, he burst into irresistible laughter. " Mr. 
Par-ma-foy (it was thus he designated Francis I.), In-nomine- 
Domini (the pope), and the republic of Venice, pledge their 

•goods and their bodies to the emperor Sanctissimum fcedus. 

A most holy alliance truly! This league between these four 
powers belongs to the chapter Non-credimus. Venice, the pope, 

^ Orabo igitur et plorabo, non quieturus donee, Ac L. Epp., iT, 2. ' ThU 

ietter, which is a masterpiece of its kind, may be found in Luther's Epp., iv, 41, and 
.also in Riddle's "Luther and his Times," p. 268. » Per ejus sudores aluit 

et finxit qnalis smn. (Epp., it, 33.) B; his sweat be brought me up and made va» 
■wUat lam. 



and France become imperialists! . . . .But these are three per- 
sons in one substance, filled with unspeakable hatred against the 
emperor. Mr. Par-ma-foy cannot forget his defeat at Pavia ; 
Mr. In-nomine-Domini is, 1st, an Italian, which is already too 

much; 2d, a Florentine, which is worse; 3d, a bastard that 

is to say a child of the devil; 4th, he will never forget the dis- 
grace of the sack of Rome. As for the Venetians: they are 
Venetians: that is quite enough; and they have good reason to 
avenge themselves on the posterity of Maximilian. All this 
belongs to the chapter Firmiter-credimus. But God will help 
the pious Charles, who is a sheep among wolves. Amen." ' 
The ex-monk of Erfurth had a surer political foresight than 
many diplomatists of his age. 

Impatient at seeing the diet put off from day to day, Luther 
formed his resolution, and ended by convoking it even at Co- 
burg. "We are already in full assembly," wrote he on the 
28th April and the 9th May. " You might here see kings, 
dukes, and other grandees, deliberating on the affairs of their 
kingdom, and with indefatigable voice pubHshing their dogmas- 
and decrees in the air. They dwell not in those caverns which 
you decorate with the name of palaces: the heavens are their 
canopy; the leafy trees form a floor of a thousand colours, and 
their walls are the ends of the earth. They have a horror of 
all the unmeaning luxury of silk and gold; they ask neither 
courses nor armour, and have all the same clothing and the 
same colour. I have not seen or heard their emperor; but if 
I can understand them, they have determined this year to make 

a pitiless war upon the most excellent fruits of the earth, 

— Ah! my dear friends," said he to his colleagues,^ to whom 
he was writing, " these are the sophists, the papists, who are 
assembled before me from all quarters of the world to make 
me hear their sermons and their cries." These two letters, 
dated from the " empire of ravens and crows,'' finish in the fol- 
lowing mournful strain, which shows us the reformer descend- 
ing into himself after this play of his imagination: " Enough 
of jesting! — jesting which is, however, sometimes necessary te 
dispel the gloomy thoughts that overwhelm me,"' 

Luther soon returned to real life, and thrilled with joy at 
beholding the fruits that the Reformation was already bearing, 
and which were for him a more powerful " apology" thanevea 
the Confession of Melancthon. " Is there in the whole world a 

» To Gasp, of Teutlcbcn, 19th June. L. Epp, iv, 37. a An seine Tlschgesellen, 

messmates or table-companions. Ibid., 7. » Scd serio et nccessariu joco qui 

mihi irrueutes cogitationet repelleret. Ibid., 14. 



Binorle country to he compared to your liighness's states," wrote 
he to the elector, " and which possesses preachers of so pure 
a doctrine, or pastors so fitted to hring about the reign of 
peace? Where do we see, as in Saxony, hoys and girls well 
instructed in the Holy Scriptures and in the Catechism, in- 
creasing in wisdom and in stature, praying, heheving, talking 
of God and of Christ better than has been done hitherto by all 
the vmiversities, convents, and chapters of Christendom?" ^ — ■ 
" My dear Duke John, says the Lord to you, I commend this 
paradise to thee, the most beautiful that exists in the world, 
that thou mayst be its gardener. " And then he added; "Alas! 
the madness of the papist princes changes this paradise of God 
into a dirty slough, and corrupting the youth, daily peoples 
with real devils their states, their tables, and their palaces." 

Luther, not content with encouraging his prince, desired also 
to frighten his adversaries. It was with this intent that he 
wrote at that time an address to the members of the clergy as- 
sembled at Augsburg. A crowd of thoughts, like lansquenets 
armed cap-a-pie, " rushed in to fatigue and bewilder him ; "* 
and in fact there is no want of barbed words in the discourse 
he addresses to the bishops. " In short," said he to them in 
conclusion, " we know and you know that we have the Word 
of God, and that you have it not. pope! if I live I shall be 
a pestilence to thee; and if I die, I shall be thy death?'* 

Thus was Luther present at Augsburg, although invisible; 
and he effected more by his words and by prayers than Agricola, 
Brentz, or Melancthon. These were the days of travail for the 
Gospel truth. It was about to appear in the world with a 
might, destined to eclipse aU that had been done since the 
time of St. Paul; but Luther only annoimced and manifested 
the things that God was effecting: he did not execute them 
himself. He was, as regards the events of the Church, what 
Socrates was to philosophy: " I imitate my mother (she was a 
midwife)," this philosopher was in the habit of saying; " she 
does not travail herself, but she aids others." Luther — and he 
never ceased repeating it — has created nothing; but he has 
brought te hght the precious seed, hidden for ages in the bosom 
of the Church. The man of God is not he who seeks to form 
his age according to his own peculiar ideas, but he who, dis- 

1 Eg waichst jetzt daher die zart Jugsnd Ton Knaiblin nn Maidlin. L. Epp., iv, 31. 

' Ut plurimos Lansknecktos, prorsus ri repellere cogar, qui insalatati non cessant 
obstrepere. {Ibid., 10.) That I am forced violenUy to repel the Tery many lansquenet* 
who, uninTited, cease not to din me. ' Pesiis eram rivus, moriens ero mcM^ 

tua, papa. (L. Opp, xx, 161.) pope I Uring I was your pla^e,dyingl shall b* 
your death. 


•tinctly perceiving God's truth, such as it is found in his Word, 
and as it is hidden in his Church, brings it to his contemoo- 
raries with courage and decision. 

Never had these qualities been more necessary, for matters 
were taking an alarming aspect. On the 4th June died Chan- 
•cellor Gattinara, who was to Charles the Fifth " what Ulpian 
">vas to Alexander Severus," says Melancthon, and with him all 
the human hopes of the Protestants vanished. " It is God," 
Luther had said, "who has raised up for us a Naaman in the court 
of the King of Syria." In truth Gattinara alone resisted the 
pope. When Charles brought to him the objections of Rome : 
"Remember," said the chancellor, "that you are master!" 
Henceforward everything seemed to take a new direction. The 
pope required that Charles should be satisfied with being his 
^' lictor," as Luther says, to carry out his judgments against 
-the heretics.^ Eck, whose name (according to Melancthon) 
was no bad imitation of the cry of Luther's crows, heaped one 
upon another 2 a multitude of pretended heretical propositions, 
'extracted from the reformer's writings. They amounted to four 
hundred and four, and yet he made excuse that, being taken 
unawares, he was forced to restrict himself to so small a num- 
=ber, and he called loudly for a disputation Avith the Lutherans. 
They retorted on these propositions by a number of ironical 
and biting theses on " wine, Venus, and baths, against John 
.Eck ; " and the poor doctor became the general laughing-stock. 

But others went to work more skilfully than he. Cochloeus, 
who became chaplain to Duke George of Saxony in 1527, beg- 
/ged an interview with Melancthon, "for," added he, "I can- 
not converse with your married ministers." ^ Melancthon, who 
was looked upon with an evil eye at Augsburg, and who had 
complained of being more solitary tliere than Luther in his 
castle, * was touched by this courtesy, and was still more fully 
penetrated with the idea that things should be ordered in the 
mildest manner possible. 

The Romish priests and laymen made a great uproar, be- 
cause on fast days meat was usually eaten at the elector's 
court. Melancthon advised his prince to restrict the liberty of 
his attendants in this respect. " This disorder," said he, "far 
from leading the simple-minded to the Gospel, scandalizes 

1 Tantum Uctorem suum in hseretlcos. Epp., It, 10. ' Magnum acervum 

oonclusionum congessit. Coip. Ilcf., p. 39. ' Cum uxoratis presbyteris tuis 

privatim coUoqui non hitendimus. (Ibid., p. 82.) We intend not to confer privately 
with your wived presbyters. * Nos non minus sumus monaclii quam vos in 

ilia arce vestra. (Ibid., p. 46.) We are not less monks than you are in that castle of 


; them." He added, in his ill-humour: " A fine holiness truly, 
1 to make it a matter of conscience to fast, and yet to be night 
I and day given up to wine and folly I"' The elector did not 
! yield to Melancthou's advice ; it -would have been a mark of 
? weakness of which his adversaries would have known how to 
take advantage. 

On the 31st May, the Saxon Confession was at length com- 
municated to the other Protestant states, who required that it 
should be presented in common in the name of them all. ^ But 
at the same time they desired to make their reservations with, 
regard to the influence of the state. " We appeal to a coun- 
■cil," said Melancthon; "we will not receive the emperor as 
our judge ; the ecclesiastical constitutions themselves forbid 
him to pronounce in spiritual matters.^ Moses declares that 
it is not the civil magistrate who decides, but the sons of Levi. 
St. Paul also says (1 Cor., xiv), * let the others judge,' which 
cannot be understood except of an entire christian assembly ; 
■and the Sa^"iou^ himself gives us this commandment : ' Tell it 
■unto the Church.' We pledge, therefore, our obedience to the 
emperor in all civil matters ; but as for the Word of God, we 
demand liberty." 

AU were agreed on this point ; but the dissent came from 
another quarter. The Lutherans feared to compromise their 
cause if they went hand in hand with the Zwinglians. " This 
IS Lutheran madness," replied Bucer: "it Avill perish of its 
•own weight."* But, far from allowing this madness "to 
perish," the reformed augmented the disunion by exaggerated 
complaints. " In Saxony they are beginning to sing Latin 
hymns again," said they; "the sacred vestments are resumed, 
and oblations are called for anew.' We would rather be led 
Jo the slaughter, than be Christians after that fashion." 

The afflicted landgrave, says Bucer, was " between the ham- 
mer and the am-il ;" and his allies caused him more uneasiness 
than his enemies.^ He applied to Rhegius, to Brentz, to Me- 
lancthon, declaring that it was his most earnest wish to see 
concord prevail among all the evangelical doctors. " If these 
fatal doctrines are not opposed," rephed Melancthon, " there 
■will be rents in the Church that wiU last to the end of the 

I Und dennoch Tag und Nacht vol! und toll seyn. Corp. Ret, ii, p. 79. 2 Ja 

gemein in aller Fureten und Stadte Namen. Ibid., ii, p. sa » Die ecmititu- 

tiont* canonical den Kaysem verbieten zu richten und sprechen in geistlichen sachen. 
Ibid^ p. 66. * De Lutheranis furoribus . . . sua ipsi mole ruent, Zw. Epp., ii, 

432. 8 Hinc Latins resumuntur cantiones, repetuntur sanctae Testes. 

(Ibid., p. 457.) Hence Latin chants are resumed and sacred vestments are again 
calleS for. * Cattus inter sacrum et sazum stat, et de sociis magis (joad 

liostibus solicitus est. Zw, Epp,, ii, 157. 

124 THE landgrave's catholic SPmiT. 

world. Do not the Zwinglians boast of their full coffers, of 
having soldiers prepared, and of foreign nations disposed to 
aid them ? Do thej not talk of sharing among them the rights 

and the property of the bishops, and of proclaiming liberty. 

Good God! shall we not think of posterity, which, if we do not 
repress these guilty seditions, will be at once without throne 
and without altar ?"i—" Xo, no! we are one," replied this ge- 
nerous prince, who was so much in advance of his age; "we 
all confess the same Christ, we all profess that we must eat 
Jesus Christ, by faith, in the eucharist. Let us unite." AID 
was unavailing. The time in which true catholicity was to 
replace this sectarian spirit, of which Rome is the most per- 
fect expression, had not yet arrived. 


AgitaUon in Augsburg— Violence of the Imperialists— Charles at Munich— Charles's 
Arrival— The Nuncio's Blessing— The imperial Procession— Charles's Appearance 
—Enters Augsburg— Te Deum— The Benediction— Charles desires the Sermons 
to be discontinued-Brandenburg ofTers his head-The Emperor's Request for 
Corpus Christi— Refusal of the Princes— Agitation of Cliarles-The Princes op- 
pose Tradition— Procession of Coi-pus Christi— Exasperation of Cliarles. 

In proportion as the emperor drew near Augsbum-, the anxie- 
ties of the Protestants continued increasing. The burghers of 
this imperial city expected to see it become the theatre of strange 
events. Accordingly they said that if the elector, the land- 
grave, and other friends of the Reformation were not in the 
midst of them, they would all desert it.^ "A great destruc- 
tion threatens us," was repeated on every side.^ One of Charles's 
haughty expressions above all disquieted the Protestants. 
" What do these electors want with me?" he had said impa- 
tiently; "I shall do what I please!"* Thus arbitrary ride 
was the imperial law destined to prevail in the diet. 

To thus agitation of men's minds was added the ao-itation of 
the streets, or rather one led to the other. Masons and lock- 
smiths were at work in all the public places and crossino-s, 
laboriously fastening barriers and chains to the walls, that 
might be closed or stretched at the first cry of alarm. 1= At the 
same time about eight hundred foot and horse soldiers were seen 

« Kdne Kirche und kein Kegriment Corp. Ref., U, 95. a Wo Sachsen. Ilcssen 

undandereLutherischonithiewiiren. Ibid., 89. » Mi natur nobis Satan 

grande exiUum. Ibid., 92. « Er wolte et machen, wie es Ihm eben wir* 

Ibid., 88. » Neu aufgerichte Kctten und Stock, Ibid., 6S. 


atrolling the streets, dressed in velvet and silk,* whom the 
aagistrates had enrolled in order to receive the emperor with 

Matters were in this state, and it was about the middle of 
Jay, when a number of insolent Spanish quartermasters ar- 
ived, who, looking with contemptuous eyes on these wretched 
lurghers, entered their houses, conducted themselves with vio- 
ence, and even rudely tore down the arms of some of the 
irinces.- The magistrates having doiegated councillors to treat 
rith them, the Spaniards made an impudent reply. "Alas !" 
aid the citizens, " if the servants are so, what will their mas- 
ers be ? " The ministers of Charles were grieved at their im- 
tertinence, and sent a German quartermaster, who employed 
he forms of German politeness to make them forget this Spa- 
lish haughtiness. 

That did not last long, and they soon felt more serious alarm. 
Che Council of Augsburg were asked what was the meaning 
)f these chains and soldiers, and they were ordered, in the em- 
)eror's name, to take down the one and disband the other. The 
nagistrates of the city answered in alarm, " For more than ten 
rears past we have intended putting up these chains;^ and as 
or the soldiers, our object is simply to pay due honour to his 
Majesty." After many parleys it was agreed to dismiss the 
;roops, and that the imperial commanders should select afresh 
1 thousand men, who should make oath to the emperor, but be 
paid by the city of Augsburg. 

The imperial quartermasters then resumed all their insolence; 
ind no longer giving themselves the trouble of entering the 
houses and the shops, they tore down the signboards of the 
Augsburg citizens, and wrote in their place how many men 
und horses the latter would be required to lodge.* 

Such were the preludes to the work of conciliation that 
Charles V. had announced, and that he was so slow in begin- 
lung. Accordingly his delay, attributed by some to the crowds 
of people who surrounded him with their acclamations ; by 
others to the solicitations of the priests, who opposed his entry 
into Augsburg, until he had imposed silence on the ministers; 
and by others, finally, to the lessons the pope had given him 
in the arts of policy and stratagem,* still more estranged the 
elector and his aUies. 

* Mit sammet und seide auFs kr^sUictist aussestrichen. Corp. Ref., ii, 66. 

* Den junegn FUrsten zu Nenbui-g ilire wappen abgeiissen. Ibid., 55. ' Vor 
lehn Jahivn in Sinn gebali. Ibid., G6. * (ielien iiieht niebr in die Ilaiiser und 
•chrieben an die Tbiir. Ibid, 89. > Caasarem instructura arte pontiflcuis 
<Hijerere causas niorae. L. Eyp, iir, 31. 



At last Charles, having quitted lunspruck two days after- 
Gattinara's death, arrived at Munich on the 10th June. His. 
reception was magnificent. About two miles from the town a 
temporary fortress had been erected, around which a sham- 
fight took place. Soldiers mounted to the assault, mines were- 
exploded ; discharges of artillery, clouds of smoke, the clash of 
arms, the shouts of the combatants, delighted the eyes and ears-. ' 
of the emperor;! within the city, theatres had been raised in .' 
the open air, in which the Jewish Esther, the Persian Cambyses, ^ 
and other pieces not less famous, were represented ; and the 
whole, combined with splendid fire-works, formed the welcome i 
given by the adherents of the pope to him whom they styled, j 
their saviour. < 

Charles was not far distant from Augsburg. As early as- 
the 11th June, every day and every hour, members of the im- ; 
perial household, carriages, waggons, and baggage entered the 
city, to the sound of the clacking whip and of the horn;^ and ' 
the burghers in amazement gazed with dejected eyes on aU this- < 
insolent train, that feU upon their city like a flight af locusts.* 

At five o'clock in the morning of the 15th June,* the elec- 
tor, the princes, and their councillors, assembled at the town- 
hall, and ere long arrived the imperial commissaries, with orders 
for them to go out and meet Charles. At three in the after- 
noon the princes and deputies quitted the city, and, having 
reached a little bridge across the river Lech, they were halted - 
and waited for the emperor. The eyes of every member of the- 
brilliant assemblage, thus stopping on the smiling banks of an 
alpine torrent, were directed along the road to Munich. At: 
length, after waiting two or three hours, clouds of dust, and a. 
loud noise announced the emperor. Two thousand of the im- 
perial guard marched first; and as soon as Charles had come 
to within fifty paces of the river, the electors and princes alight- 
ed. Their sons, who had advanced beyond the bridge, per- 
ceiving the emperor preparing to do the same, ran to him and 
begged him to remain on horseback: •'"' but Charles dismounted 
without hesitation,^ and approaching the princes with an ami- 
able smile, cordially shook hands with them. Albert of Mentz, 
in his quality of arch-chancellor of the empire, now welcomed, 
the emperor, and the Count-palatine Frederick rephcd in behalf 
of Charles. 

1 D&i hat Kais. Maj. wohl gefallen. Forstemann, Urkundcn, i, 246. ' Alio 

Btund die Wagen, der Tross und viel gesinds uacli einander herein. Corp. Rcf., U,, 
90. ' Fiiiden aber wenig Freuden feucr. Ibid. ♦ Zu raorjfeiis, um 

fUnf Dhr. F. Url|»»nden, i, 263. ^ xb Electorum filiis qui pronroratit rogatiw. . 

Seek., ii, 101. ' Mox ab equis desccuderuat. Cochlceus 



While this was passing, three individuals remained apart oa . 
a little elevation;* these were the Roman legate, proudly seated 
on a mide, glittering with purple, and accompanied by two other 
cardinals, the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Bishop of Trent. 
The Nuncio, beholding all these great personages on the road, 
raised his hands, and gave them his blessing. Immediately 
the emperor, the king, and the princes who submitted to the 
pope, feU on their knees; the Spaniards, Italians, Xetherlanders, 
and Germans in their train imitated their movements, casting 
however a side-glance on the Protestants, who, in the midst of 
this humbly prostrate crowd, alone remained standing.^ Charles 
did not appear to notice this, but he doubtless understood 
what it meant. The Elector of Brandenburg then delivered a 
Latin speech to the legate. He had been selected because he 
spoke this language better than the princes of the Church; and 
accordingly, Charles, when praising his eloquence, slily put in. 
a word about the negligence of the prelates.' The emperor 
now prepared to remoimt his horse; the Prince-electoral of Sax- 
ony, and the young princes of Luneburg, Mecklenburg, Branden- 
burg, and Anhalt, rushed towards him to aid him in getting, 
into his saddle: one held the bridle, another the stirrup, and all. 
were charmed at the magnificent appearance of their powerful 
sovereign.'' The procession began to move on. 

First came two companies of lansquenets, commanded by 
Simon Seitz, a citizen of Augsburg, who had made the cam- 
paign of Italy, and was returning home laden with gold.* Next 
advanced the households of the six electors, composed of princes, 
counts, councillors, gentlemen, and soldiers; the household of 
the Dukes of Bavaria had slipped into their ranks, and the four 
hundred and fifty horsemen that composed it marched five 
abreast, covered with bright cuirasses, and wearing red doub- 
lets, while over their heads floated handsome many-coloured 
plumes. Bavaria was already in this age the main support of ' 
Rome in Germany. 

Immediately after came the households of the emperor and 
of his brother in striking contrast with this warlike show. They 
were composed of Turkish, Pohsh, Arabian, and other led 
horses; then foUowed a multitude of young pages, clad in yellow 
or red velvet, with Spanish, Bohemian, and Austrian nobles in 
robes of silk and velvet;^ among these the Bohemians had the 

Auf ein Ort geruckt. F. Trkunden, i, 256. ^ Primam constantto specimen.- 

(Seck. ii, 101.) A fii-st specimen of firmness. » Pre'.atorum autem negligentiam 

accasarct Ibid. * Conscendentem juniores principes adjuverunt IbidL and 

F. Urkunden, i, 253, * Bekleit toh gold. Lit. clothed with gold. J. Urkundea* . 

1. 258. 6 Yiel sammete unde seiden Riicke. L. 0pp., xx, 201. 



most martial air, and gracefully rode their superb and prancing 
coursers. Last the trumpeters, drummers, heralds, grooms, 
footmen, and the legate's cross-bearers, announced the approach 
of the princes. 

In fact these powerful lords, whose contentions had so often 
filled Germany with confusion and war, now advanced riding 
peacefully side by side. After the princes appeared the electors; 
and the Elector of Saxony, according to custom, carried the 
naked and glittering imperial sword immediately before the 
•emperor. 1 

Last came the prince, on whom all eyes were fixed.* Thirty 
years of age, of distinguished port and pleasing features, robed 
in golden garments that glittered all over with precious stones,^ 
wearing a small Spanish hat on the crown of his head,* mounted 
on a beautiful Polish hackney of the most brilliant whiteness, 
riding beneath a rich canopy of red, white, and green damask 
borne by six senators of Augsburg, and casting around him 
looks in which gentleness was mingled with gravity, Charley 
excited the liveliest enthusiasm, and every one exclaimed that 
he Avas the handsomest man in the empire, as well as the might- 
iest prince in the world. 

He had at first desired to place his brother and the legate at 
his side ; but the Elector of Mentz, attended by two hundred 
guards arrayed in silk, had claimed the Emperor's right hand; 
and the Elector of Cologne, with a hundred well-armed attend- 
ants, had taken his station on the left. King Ferdinand and 
the legate came next; to whom succeeded the cardinals, ambas- 
sadors, and prelates, among whom was remarked the haughty 
Bishop of Osma, the emperor's confessor. The imperial cav- 
alry and the troops of Augsburg closed the procession. 

Never, according to the historians, had anything so magni- 
ficent been seen in the empire;* but they advanced slowly, and 
it was between eight and nine o'clock in the evening before they 
reached the gates of Augsburg. « Here they met the burgo- 
master and councillors, who prostrated themselves before 
Charles, and at the same time the cannon from the ramparts, 
the bells from all the steeples in full peel, the noise of trumpets 
and kettle-drums, and the joyful acclamations of the people, 
re-echoed with loud din. Stadion, bishop of Augsburg, and his 
clergy robed in white, struck up the Adveni^ti desirabilis; and 

1 Noster pnnc.cps de more pnctulit ensem. Corp. Ref., ii, 118. a Omnium 

oculos in see ronvertif. Seek., ii, ICO. ^ Xotus gcnimis ooruscabat Ibid. 

* Bin Itleiii Spanisch Ilutleiii. F. Urkunden, i, 260. » Antea in imperio non 

•rat visa. Seek., ii, lliO. o Ingressus est in urbem intra octavam ct nouauj. 

bid.. 114. 


mx canons, advancing with a magnificent canopv, prepared to 
conduct the emperor to the cathedi-al, when Charles's horse, 
startled at this unusual sight, suddenly reared,^ and the emperor 
had some difficulty in mastering him. At length Charles en- 
tered the minster, which was ornamented with garlands and 
flowers, and suddenly illuminated hy a thousand torches. 

The emperor went up to the altar, and falling on his knees, 
raised his hands towards heaven.* During the Te Deum, the 
Protestants observed with anxiety that Charles kept conversing 
in a low tone with the Archbishop of Mentz ; that he bent his 
€ar to the legate who approached to speak to him, and nodded 
in a friendly manner to Duke George. AU this appeared to 
them of evil omen ; but at the moment when the priests sang 
the Te ergo qucesumus, Charles breaking off his conversations, 
suddenly rose, and one of the acolytes running to him with a 
gold-embroidered cushion, the emperor put it aside, and knelt 
on the bare stones of the church. All the assembly knelt with 
him ; the elector and the landgrave alone remained standing. 
Duke George, astonished at such boldness, cast a threatening 
glance at his cousin. The Margrave of Brandenburg, carried 
away by the crowd, had fallen on his knees; but having seen his 
two allies standing, he hastily rose up again. 

The Cardinal-archbishop of Salzburg then proceeded to pro- 
nounce the benediction; but Campeggio, impatient at having as 
jet taken no part in the ceremony, hastened to the altar, and 
rudely thrusting the archbishop aside, said sharply to him : ' 
*' This office belongs to me and not to you." The other gave 
■way, the emperor bent down, and the landgrave, with difficulty 
concealing a smile, hid himself behind a candelabrimi. The 
hells now rang out anew, the procession recommenced its march, 
and the princes conducted the emperor to the palatinate (the 
name given to the bishop's palace), which had been prepared 
for him. The crowd now dispersed: it was after ten at night. 

The hour was come in which the partizans of the papacv 
•flattered themselves with the prospect of rendering the Protes- 
tants untrue to their faith. The arrival of the emperor, the 
procession of the holy sacrament that was preparing, the late 
hour, — aU had been calculated beforehand; "the nocturns of 
treason were about to begin," said Spalatin. 

A few minutes of general conversation took place in the em- 
peror's apartments; the princes of the Romish partv were then 

1 Da entsetzt stch K. M. Hengst fur solchem Himel. F. Urkunden. i, 261. 
aihrhandaufgehebt. Ibid. » Cardinalem Igatus castigatum fcbeijlt, 

'Beck., ii, ISI. 


allowed to retire; but Charles had given a sign to the Elector 
of Saxony, to the Landgrave of Hesse, to George, margrave of 
Brandenburg, to the Prince of Anhalt, and to the Duke of 
Luneburg, to follow him into his private chamber.^ Ilis^ 
brother Ferdinand, who was to serve as interpreter, alone went 
in with them. Charles thought that so long as the Protestant 
princes were before the world, they would not yield; but that 
in a private and friendly interview, he might obtain all he de- 
sired of them. 

"His majesty requests you to discontinue the sermon," said 
Ferdinand. On hearing these words the two elder princes (the 
elector and the margrave) turned pale and did not speak ;2 there 
was a long silence. 

At last the landgrave said: "We entreat your majesty to- 
withdraw your request, for our ministers preach only the pure 
Word of God, as did the ancient doctors of the Church, St. 
Augustine, St. Hilary, and so many others. Of this your 
majesty may easily convince yoursdf. We cannot deprive 
ourselves of the food of the Word of God, and deny his Gospel." * 

Ferdinand, resuming the conversation in French* (for it was 
in this language that he conversed with his brother), informed 
the emperor of the landgrave's answer. Nothing was more 
displeasing to Charles than these citations of Hilary and 
Augustine; the colour mounted to his cheeks, and he was- 
nearly giving way to his anger.* "His majesty," said Fer- 
dinand in a more positive tone, "cannot desist from his demand" 
— "Your conscience," quickly replied the landgrave, "has no 
right to command ours."^ As Ferdinand still persisted, the 
margrave, who had been silent until then, could contain him- 
self no longer; and without caring for interpreters, stretched 
out his neck towards Charles, exclaiming in deep emotion: 
"Rather than allow the Word of the Lord to be taken from 
me, rather than deny my God, I would kneel down before your 
majesty and have my head cut off!" As he uttered these 
simple and magnanimous words, says a contemporary,' the. 
prince accompanied them with a significant gesture, and let 
his hands fall on his neck like the headsman's axe. The ex- 

* Ad conclave suum. Corp. Ref., pp. 106, 114. => Pic bcode alte Fiirsten zum. 

bochst«n entsctz. (Ibid.) ' Se noii posse cibo verbi Dei carere, ncc saiia coii- 

gclentia Evangelium negare. (Ibid., lin.) That they cannot want tlie fond of the; 
Word of God, nor with a sound conscience deny tlie Gospel. * In Franzosischer 

Sprache. (Ibid., 107.) o Sich darob etwas angcrbt und crhitzt. (Ibid., 113.) 

•> K. M. gewisscn soy nbcr kcin Ilcrr und nityster ubor ihr gcnisscn, (Ibid.) 
' Ut Bimpliciter, ita m.ignanimiter, says Brcntz, (Ibid.) As magnanimouBly •»- 


citement of the princes was at its height: had it heen necessary, 
they would all four have instantly walked to the scaffold. 
Charles was moved hy it; surprised and agitated, he hastily 
cried out in his bad German, making a show of checking the 
landgrave: "Deal- prince, not the head I not the headl"' But he 
had scarcely uttered these few words when he checked himself. 

These were the only worda that Charles pronoimced before 
the princes during aU the diet. His ignorance of the German 
lano^uaffe, and sometimes also the etiquette of the Escurial, 
compelled him to speak only by the mouth of his brother or of 
the count-palatine. As he was in the habit of consecrating 
four hours daily to divine worship, the people said: "He talks 
more with God than with men." This habitual silence was 
not favourable to his plans. They required activity and elo- 
quence; but instead of that the Germans saw in the dumb 
coimtenance of their youthful emperor, a mere puppet, nodding 
his head and winking his eyes. Charles sometimes felt very 
keenly the faults of this position: "To be able to speak Ger- 
man," said he, "I would willingly sacrifice any other language, 
even were it Spanish or French, and more than that, one of 
my states." 1 

Ferdinand saw that it was useless to insist on the cessation 
of these meetings; but he had another arrow in his quiver. 
The next day was the festival of Corpus Christi, and by a cus- 
tom that had never as yet been infringed, all the princes and 
deputies present at the diet were expected to take part in the 
procession. Would the Protestants refuse this act of courtesy 
at the very opening of a diet to which each one came in a con- 
ciliatory spirit? Have they not declared that the body and 
blood of Christ are really in the Host? Do they not boast of 
their opposition to Zwingle, and can they stand aloof, without 
being tainted Avith heresy ? Xow, if they share in the pomp 
that surrounds "the Lord's body;" if they mingle with that 
crowd of clergy, glittering in luxury and swelling with pride, 
who carry about the God whom they have created; if they are 
present when the people bow down; will they not irrevocably 
compromise their faith? The machine is well prepared; its 
movements cannot fail; there is no more doubt! The craft of 
the Italians is about to triumph over the simplicity of these 
German boors! 

Ferdinand therefore resumes, and making a weapon of the 
very refusal that he had just met with: " Since the emperor," 

* E» ware Spanlsch oder Franzosisch \ind daxu dnes Landes minder. Corp. Ret, 

132 THE princes' retdsax. 

Baid he, "cannot obtain from you the suspension of your as- 
semhhes, he begs at least that you will accompany him to- 
morrow, according to custom, in the procession of the Holy 
Sacrament. Do so, if not from regard to him, at least for the 
honour of Almighty God.'"^ 

The princes were still more irritated and alarmed. " Christ," 
said they, "did not institute his sacrament to be worshipped." 
Charles persevered in his demand, and the Protestants in their 
refusal.* Upon this the emperor declared that he would not 
accept their excuse, that he would give them time for reflection, 
and that they must be prepared to reply early on the morrow. 

They separated in the greatest agitation. The prince-elec- 
toral, Avho had waited for his father in the first hall along with 
other lords, sought, at the moment the princes issued from the 
emperor's chamber, to read on their countenance what had 
taken place. Judging from the emotion depicted on their 
features that the struggle had been severe, he thought that his 
father was incurring the greatest dangers, and accordingly, 
grasping him by the hand, dragged him to the staircase of the 
palace, exclaiming in affright, as if Charles's satellites were 
already at his heels, "Come, come quickly!" 

Charles, who had expected no such resistance, was in truth 
confounded, and the legate endeavoured to exasperate him stiU ' 
more."^ Agitated, filled with anger and vexation, and utter- 
ing the most terrible threats,* the young emperor paced hastily 
to and fro the halls of his palace; and unable to wait for the 
answer until the morrow, he sent in the middle of the night to 
demand the elector's final decision. "At present we require 
sleep," replied the latter; " to-morroAV we will let you know our 
determination."* As for the landgrave, he could not rest any 
more than Charles. Scarcely had he returned home, when he 
sent his chancellor to the Nuremberg deputies, and had them 
awoke to make them acquainted with what had taken place. ^ 

At the same time Charles's demand was laid before the theo- 
logians, and Spalatin, taking the pen, drew up their opinion 
during the night. "The sacrament," it bore, "was not insti- 
tuted to bo worshipped, as the Jews worshipped the brazen 
image.'' We are here to confess the truth, and not for the 
confirmation of abuses. Let us therefore stay away ! " This 

' Kt saltern in honorem Dei illud facerent. Corp. Ref, ii, 116. ' Pcrsistit 

Ctvsnr in postulationc, perelsternnt. illi in recusntione. Ibid., 115. ' A sscvitia 

I^egati Itoinanensium ciiptivi. Iliid., llfi. * Hinc secutc siinf grnvissimae minu', 

jactafoe stenssinia; Oa?mnrig indi'rnationcs. Ibid. * Q-iiete sibi npiis esse dicens, 

respoiisum in diem nltcnini distulit. Seek., ii, I(!2. * Mat nacliren nns aufwec- 

ken lasKpn. Corp. Itef., ii, 106. ' VVie die Jitden die Sclilunge liabcn angebe- 

thot. Ibiil., 111. 


opinion confirmed the evangelical princes in their determination; 
and the day of the 16th June began. 

The elector of Saxonj, feeling indisposed during the night 
commissioned his son to represent him; and at seven o'clock 
the princes and councillors repaii-ed on horseback to the em- 
peror's palace.* 

The Margrave of Brandenburg was their spokesman. "You 
know," said he to Charles, "how, at the risk of our lives, my 
ancestors and myself have supported your august house. But, 
in the things of God, the commands of God himself oblige me 
to put aside all commandment of man. We are told that death 
awaits those who shall persevere in the sound doctrine: I am 
ready to suffer it." He then presented the declaration of the 
evangelical princes to the emperor. " We wiU not countenance 
by our presence," said they, "these impious human traditions, 
which are opposed to the word of God. We declare, on the 
contrary, without hesitation, and with one accord, that we must 
expel them from the Church, lest those of its members that are 
still sound should be infected by this deadly poison."* "If 
you will not accompany his majesty for the love of God," said 
Ferdinand, "do so at least for the love of the emperor, and as 
vassals of the empire.' His majesty commands you." "An 
act of worship is in question," repb'ed the princes, "our con- 
science forbids it." Then Ferdinand and Charles haviuc con- 
versed together in a low tone: "His majesty desires to see," 
said the king, "whether you will obey him or not.'"* At the 
same time the emperor and his brother quitted the room; but 
the princes, instead of following him as Charles had hoped, re- 
turned full of joy to their palaces. 

The procession did not begin tiU noon. Immediately behind 
the canopy imder which the elector of Mentz carried the host, 
canie the emperor alone, with a devout air, bearing a taper in 
his hand, his head bare and shorn like a priest's, although the 
noon-day sun darted on him its most ardent rays.^ By expos- 
ing himself to these fatigues, Charles desired to profess aloud 
his faith in what constitutes the essence of Roman-eatholicism. 
In proportion as the spirit and the life had escaped from the 
primitive chm-ches, they had striven to replace it bv forms, 
shows, and ceremonies. The essential cause of the Romish 

1 Heute zu sieben IThren sind gemeldete Fiirsten. Corp. Ref.iii. 107. sCfelestin, 
i, 82. » Ut vassalli et principes imperii. Cochlceus. p. IW. * Sie wo!l« 

■ehen, ob sie I. M. gehorchsam leisteu Oder nicht Corp. Rcf., ii, 103. » Cleri- 

caliter, detonso capillo. . Zw. Epp., ii, 471. Xudo capite sub meridiani solU ardoribui. 
Pallavicini, i, 228. 


■worship is found in that decline of charity and faith which ca- 
tholic Christians of the first ages have often deplored; and the 
history of Rome is summed up in this expression of St. Paul, 
Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof} But 
as the power was then beginning to revive in the Church, the 
form began also to decline. Barely a hundred citizens of Augs- 
burg had joined in the procession of the 16th June. It was 
no longer the pomp of former times: the christian people had 
learned anew to love and to believe. 

Charles, however, under an air of devotion concealed a 
wounded heart. The legate was less able to command him- 
self, and said aloud that this obstinacy of the princes would 
be the cause of great mischief to the pope.^ When the pro- 
cession was over (it had lasted an hour), Charles could no 
longer master his extreme irritation; and he had scarcely re- 
turned to his palace, when he declared that he would give the 
protestant princes a safe-conduct, and that on the very next 
day these obstinate and rebellious men should quit Augsburg;' 
the diet Avould then take such resolutions as were required for 
the safety of the Church and of the Empire. It was no doubt 
the legate who had given Charles this idea, which, if executed, 
would infallibly have led to a religious war. But some of the 
princes of the Roman party, desirous of preserving peace, suc- 
ceeded, though not without difficulty, in getting the emperor 
to withdi-aw his threatening order.* 


The Sermons prohibited — Compromise proposed and accepted— The Herald— Cu- 
riosity of the Citizens — The New Preacliers — The Medley of Poperj* — Lutlier en- 
courages the Princes — Veni Spiritus — Mass of the Holy Ghost — The Sermon — 
Opening of the Diet — The Elector's Prayer — Insidious Plan of the Romanists — . 
Yaldez and Melancthon— No Public Discussion — Erangelical Firmness prevails. 

Charles, being defeated on the subject of the procession, re- 
solved to take his revenge on the assemblies, for nothing galled 
him like these sermons. The crowd ceased not to fill the vast 
church of the Franciscans, where a Zwinglian minister of lively 
and penetrating eloquence was preaching on the Book of Jo- 
shua.' Ho placed the kings of Canaan and the children of 

» 2 Timothy, lii, 8. a Sarpl, Council of Trent, i, 99. s Ut mox altera, 

die, cum salvo-conductu, Lutheranl ablrent domum. Cochl., p. 193. ♦ Pacis et 

concordise avidi, supplicurnntejus majestatiut sedataira. Ibid. ''Maximum 

populi concursuB ampUssiina iBde. Ibid, 


Israel before them: his congregation heard them speak and saw 
them act, and every one recognized in the kings of Canaan the 
emperor and the idtra-montane princes, and in the people of 
God, the adherents of the Reformation. In consequence, his 
liearers quitted the church enthusiastic in their faith, and filled 
with the desire of seeing the abominations of the idolaters fall 
to the ground. On the 16th June, the Protestants deliberated 
on Charles's demand, and it was rejected by the majority. "It 
is only a scarecrow," said they, "the Papists only desire to see 
if the nail shakes in the wall, and if they can start the hare 
from the thicket." 

The next morning (17th June) before breakfast, the princes 
replied to the emperor. " To forbid our ministers to preach 
purely the holy Gospel would be rebellion against God, who 
wills not that his Word be bound. Poor sinners that we are 
we have need of this Divine Word to surmount our troubles. '^ 
Moreover, his majesty has declared, that in this diet each 
doctrine should be examined with impartiality. Now, to order 
us henceforward to suspend the sermons would be to condemn 
ours beforehand." 

Charles immediately convoked the other temporal and spir- 
itual princes, who arrived at mid- day at the palatine palace, 
and remained sitting until the evening ;2 the discussion was 
exceedingly animated. "This very morning," said some of 
the speakers, " the Protestant princes, as they quitted the 
emperor, had sermons delivered in public."' Exasperated at 
this new affront, Charles with difficulty contained himself. 
Some of the princes, however, entreated him to accept their 
mediation, to which he consented : but the Protestants were 
immovable. Did these heretics, whom they imagined to re- 
■duce so easily, appear in Augsburg only to humiliate Charles ? 
The honour of the chief of the empire must be saved at any cost. 
" Let us ourselves renounce our preachers," said the princes ; 
"the Protestants will not then persist in keeping theirs!" 

The committee accordingly proposed that the emperor 
should set aside both Papist and Lutheran preachers, and 
-should nominate a few chaplains, with authority to announce 
ihe pure Word of God, without attacking either of the two 
•parties.* "They shall be neutral men," said they to the 
Protestants ; neither Faber nor his partisans shall be admit- 

» Nee se illo anim« nutrimento carere. Cilestinus, Hist Comit, i 83- Forst Ur. 
Iranden, i, 283 2 Cassar a meridie. Seek., 165. Den gangen T:>-. C orp. Rel 

.il,llo. ' Eo ipso die conciones continuata?. Seckend., p. 165. * Cxsare 

omnea tain papistarum quam evanjelioonun concione«. Corj). Ref., ii, 116. 


ted."— "But they will condemn our doctrine. "—" By no- 
means. The preacher shall do nothing but read the text of 
ttie Gospels, Epistles, and a general confession of sins."i 
The evangelical states required time to reflect upon it. 

"We must accept it," said Melancthon ; "for if our ob- 
stinacy should lead the emperor to refuse hearing our con- 
fession, the evil would be greater still." 

" We are called to Augsburg," said Agricola, " to give an- 
account of our doctrine, and not to preach."* 

.. ri,'. ''^^^'^^ ^^ "^ ^^"^^ disorder in the city," remarked Spalatin. 
"The sacramentarians and enthusiasts preach here as well- 
as we : we must get out of this confusion." 

" What do the papists propose ?" said other theologians ;. 
"to read the Gospels and Epistles without explanation. 
But is not that a victory ? What ! we protest against the 
interpretations of the Church ; and lo ! priests who are to 
read the Word of God without their notes and commentaries, 
that IS to say, transforming themselves into protestant mini- 
sters !" ! admirable wisdom of the courtiers !" exclaimed 
Melancthon, smiling. ^ 

To these motives were added the opinions of the lawyers. 
As the emperor ought to be considered the rightful magistrate 
of an imperial city, so long as he made it his residence, all 
jurisdiction in Augsburg really belonged to him. 

" Well, then," said the protestant princes, " we agree to 
silence our preachers, in the hope that we shall hear nothing 
offensive to our consciences. If it were otherwise, Ave should 
feel ourselves constrained to repel so serious an insult.* 
Besides," added the elector, as he withdrew, " Ave expect that 
if at any time Ave desire to hear one of our chaplains in our 
OAA'n palace, Ave shall be free to do so."^ 

They hastened to the emperor, Avho desired nothing better 
than to come to an understanding Avith the Protestants on 
this subject, and Avho ratified everything. 

This Avas Saturday. An imperial herald Avas immediately 
sent out, Avho, parading the streets of the city at seven in 
the evening to the sound of trumpets,*' made the folloAving 
proclamation: — " yes, yes!" Thus ordains his imperial 

1 Qui tantutn rccitent Evnngolium et epistolnm yea/n.jU.itriKas. (Corp. Kef., ii, 
119.) Who shall only read the Gospol and Epistles verbatim. '■> Non sumus 

parochi AuKUStanoruni, nddod lie. (Ibid.) AVe are not parishioners of AuRsbm-R. 

3 Vide niiram Kai)iuiitiam Aulicoruni. Ibid. •• Vt do rcinediis propulsandaa- 

injuriae cogitent. (Seek., ii, 105.) To think of the means of repelling insult. 

* Ob je einer eineii Prediger in seiner Ifcrberg fur sich prodigen liess. Corp. Rcf,^ 
H, 118. » Per tubidncs et hcralduni. Sturn\iu8, Zw. Epp, p. 4Clh 

» Hbrt, Hbrt. Corp. lict:, ii, 12*. 


majestj-, our most gracious lord: no one shall be allowed to 
preach in Augsburg except by his majesty's nomination, 
under penalty of incurring the displeasure and puniishment of" 
his majesty. 

A thousand different remarks were exchanged in the house*^ 
of the citizens of Augsburg. " "We were very impatient," said 
they, " to see the preachers appointed by the emperor, and 
"who wiU preach, (0 ! unprecedented wonder !) neither against 
the evangelical doctrine nor against the doctrine of the pope I"^ 
" We must expect,"' added another, " to behold some Tele- 
graph or some chimera with the head of a lion, a goat's body, 
and a dragon's tai]."^ The Spaniards appeared well satisfied 
with this agreement, for many of them had never heard a single 
sermon in their lives; it was not the custom in Spain; but 
Zwingle's friends were fiUed with indignation and alarm.^ 

At length Sunday the 19th June arrived; every one has- 
tened to the chmches, and the people who fiUed them, with eyes 
fixed on the priest, and with attentive ears,* prepared to listen 
to what these new and strange preachers would say.^ It was 
generally believed that theu- task would be to make an evan- 
gelico-papistical discom-se, and they were very impatient to 
hear this marvel. But 

" The mountain in labour gave birth to a mouse." 

The preacher first read the common prayer'; he then added 
the Gospel of the day, finished with a general confession of" 
s'ms, and dismissed his congregation. People looked at one 
another in sui-prise: "Yerily," said they, " heTe is a preacher 
that is neither Gospeller nor Papist, but strictly textual."*^ 
At last all biu-st into laughter; "and truly," adds Brentz, 
"there was reason enough."'' In some churches, however, 
the chaplains, after reading the Gospel, added a few puerile 
words, void of Christianity and of consolation, and in no way- 
founded on the holy Scripture.^ 

1 Omnes banc aridissime expectant Corp. Ref., ii, 116. ' ChiTr.seram aut 

Tragelaphum ahquem expectamus. (Ibid.) The Tragelaph is a fabulous animal 
partaking of the nature of a goat and a stag. RepresentatioBS of it were common on 
drinking-bowls and goblets among the ancient Greeks. * Multos deterreatw 

Sturm to Zwingle, Epp., p. 46*!. * Arrectis auribus. Corp. Ret, ii, 116. 

' Quid novi novus concionator allaturus sit (Ibid., 117.) What novelty the new 
pre.icher would adduce. * Sic habes concionatorem neque evangelicum nequo 

papisticum, sed nudum textualem. (Ibid.) Thus you have a preacher neither evan- 
gelical nor papistical, bat barely tcxtuaL " Rident omnes, et certe res valda 
ridicula est (IbidJ All laugh ; and certainly the thing is very ridiculous. 

* Paueula qusedam, eaque puerilia et inepta. ncc Christiane, absque fundamento 
Terbi Divini et consolatione. (Seek., ii, IGo.) Some few things, and these puerile and 
fooiish, not in a christian manner, without foundation in the Word of God, and wiih. 
oat consolation. 


After the so-called sermon, they proceeded to the mass 
That in the cathedral was particularly noisy. The emperor 
■was not present, for he was accustomed to sleep until nine 
or ten o'clock, ^ and a late mass was performed for him; but 
Ferdinand and many of the princes were present. The pealing 
notes of the organ, the resounding voices of the choir, echoed 
through the minster, and a numerous and motley crowd, rush- 
ing in at all the doors, filled the aisles of the temple. One 
might have said that every nation in the world had agreed to 
meet in the cathedral of Augsburg. Here were Frenchmen, 
there Spaniards, Moors in one place, Moriscos in another, on 
one side Italians, on the other Turks, and even, says Brentz, 
those who are called Stratiots. ^ This crowd was no bad re- 
presentation of the medley of popery. 

One priest alone, a fervent Romanist, dared to offer an 
apology for the mass in the church of the Holy Cross. 
Charles, wishing to maintain his authority, had him thrown 

•into the Grayfriars' prison, whence they contrived to let him 

-escape. As for the evangelical pastors of Augsburg, almost 
all left the city to hear the Gospel elsewhere. The protestant 
princes were anxious to secure for their churches the assistance 
of such distinguished men. Discouragement and alarm fol- 
lowed close upon this step, and even the firmest were moved. 
The elector was .inconsolable at the privation imposed upon 

'him by the emperor. " Our Lord God," said he, heaving a 
deep sigh, "has received an order to be silent at the Diet of 
Augsburg. ^ From that time forward Luther lost the good 

/ -opinion he had previously entertained of Charles, and foreboded 
the stormiest future. " See what will be the end of all this," 
said he. "The emperor, who has ordered the elector to re- 
nounce the assemblies, will afterwards command him to re- 

.nounce the doctrine; the diet will enter upon its paroxysm, and 
nothing will remain for us but to rely upon the arm of the 
Lord." Then giving way to all his indignation, he added: 
"The papists, abandoned to devils, are transported with rage; 
and to live they must drink blood. They wish to give them- 
selves an air of justice, by giving us one of obstinacy. At 
Augsburg you have not to deal with men, but with the very 

.gates of hell." Melancthon himself saw his hopes vanish. 
•" All except the emperor," said he, "hate us with the most 

» Dormire »olet usque ad nonam nut decimam. Corp. Ref., ii, 127. » Ibi vU 

dcas hie Gallos, hie Ilispanos, hie Ethiopcs, illic etiam Etliiopissas, hie Italos, illic 
•tiam Turcas. aut quos vocant Stratiotas. Ibid. » Ilac rntione, Deo ejusque 

•reibo gilentium est impositutn. (Seclt., ii, 1G5.) For tliis reason silence was imposed 
on God and his Word. * Ct nisi sanguinem biberint. vivere non possint. Ibid. 


violent hatred." The danger is great, very great, ^ . . . 
Prav to Christ that he may save us!" But Luther, however 
full of sorrow he might he, far from heing cast down, raised 
his head and endeavoured to reanimate the courage of hi3 
bretliren. "Be assured and doubt not," wrote he to them, 
" that you are the confessors of Jesus Christ, and the ambas- 
sadors of the Great King." - 

They had need of these thoughts, for their adversaries, 
■elated by this first success, neglected nothing that might des- 
troy the Protestants, and taking another step forward, pro- 
posed forcing them to be present at the Romish ceremonies.' 
♦' The Elector of Saxony,'' said the legate to Charles, " ought 
in virtue of his office of grand-marshal of the empire to carry 
the sword before you in all the ceremonies of the diet. Order 
him therefore to perform his duty at the mass of the Holy 
Ghost, which is to open the sittings." The emperor did so 
immediately, and the elector, imeasy at this message, called 
together his theologians. If he refused, his dignity woidd be 
taken away ; and if he obeyed, he would trample his faith 
under foot (thought he), and would do dishonoiu- to the Gospel. 

But the Lutheran divines removed the scruples of their 
prince. ** It is for a ceremony of the empire,'' said they, " as 
grand-marshal, and not as a Christian, that you are sum* 
moned ; the Word of God itself, in the history of Xaaman, 
■authorises you to comply with this invitation." * The friends 
of Zwingle did not think so ; their walk was more decided 
than that of Wittemberg. " The martyrs allowed themselves 
to be put to death," said they, " rather than burn a grain of 
incense before the idols." Even some of the Protestants, hear- 
ing that the Veni Spiritus was to be simg, said, wagging their 
heads : " We are very much afraid that the chariot of the 
Spirit, which is the Word of God, having been taken away by 
the papists, the Holy Ghost, despite their mass, wiU never 
reach Augsburg."^ Neither these fears nor these objections 
were listened to. 

On Monday the 20th Jime, the emperor and his brother, 
with the electors and princes of the empire, having entered the 

• Ma^nnm omnino periculnm est, Corp. Ref., ii, 118. * Ea fides Tivifieabit 

et cons.:>labitur ros, quia Magni Regis estis legati. (L. Epp, v, 59.) That faith irill 
quicken and console you, because jou are the ambassadors of the Great King. 

» Sarpi, Hist. Council of Trent, book i, 99. « 2 Kings, r, 18. Exemplo X*«. 

tnania. Seek, ii, 167 ; Sarpi, p. 99. » Xe ablato Spiritus rehiculo, quod est Ter- 

bum Dei, Spiritus Sanctos ad Augustam prae pedum imbecillitate perrenire nonpoasit, 
<Corp. BeC, ii, 116.) Lest having cast away the chariot of the Spirit, which is the 
"Word of God, the Holy Spirit may not be able, from weakness of feet, to arrire at 


cathedral, took their seats on the right side of the choir ; or 
the left >yere placed the legate, the archbishops, and bishops ; 
m the middle were the ambassadors. Without the choir, in a 
gallery that overlooked it, were ranged the landgrave and 
other Protestants, who preferred being at a distance from the 
host.i The elector, bearing the sword, remained upright near 
the altar at the moment of the adoration. The acolytes, hav- 
ing closed the gates of the choir immediately after,^ Vincent 
Pompmello, archbishop of Salerno, preached the sermon. He 
commenced with the Turks and their ravages, and then, by an 
unexpected turn, began suddenly to exalt the Turks even above 
the Gei-mans. " The Turks," said he, " have but one prince 
whom they obey ; but the Germans have many who obey no 
one. The Turks live under one sole law, one only custom, 
one only religion ; but among the Germans there are some who 
are always wishing for new laws, new customs, new religions. 
They tear the seamless coat of Christ ; they abolish by devilish 
inspirations the sacred doctrines established by unanimous con- 
sent, and substitute for them, alas! buffoonery and obscenity.^ 
Magnanimous emperor, powerful king !" said he, turning to- 
wards Charles and his brother, " sharpen your swords, wield 
them against these perfidious disturbers of religion, and thus 
bring them back into the fold of the Church.* There is no 
peace for Germany so long as the sword shall not have entirely 
eradicated this heresy. ^ St. Peter and St. Paul ! I call 
upon you ; upon you, St. Peter, in order that you may open 
the stony hearts of these princes with your keys ; and upon 
you, St. Paid, that if they show themselves too rebellious, you 
may come Avith your sword, aiul cut in pieces this unexampled 

This discourse, intermingled with panegyrics of Aristides, 
Themistocles, Scipio, Cato, the Curtii and Scajvola, being 
concluded, the emperor and princes arose to make their offer- 
ings. Pappenh^im returned the sword to the elector, who had 
intrusted it to him ; and the grand-marshal, as well as the 
margrave, went to the offertory, but with a smile, as it is re- 
ported.6 This fact is but little in harmony with the character 
of these princes. 

» Abstinendo ab ndorationo liostia . (Seek., ii, 110.) By nbstaininj; fioni suloration 
of tho host. 2 Eiant eiiiin clioii tores clausic, nee qnistjuain orationi interfuit. 

(Corp. Eef., li, 120.) For tlie gates of the choir ivero closed, and no one was present 
at the discourse. » Diabolica persuasione eliininant, et ad Fourrilia ac inipu. 

dica quoeque dediicunt. raUuvkini, Hist. Triil. C, i, 23. « Exacunnt gladioa 

quos in perversos illos perturbatorcs. Corp. Ilef., ii, 120. » Nisi eradicata fun- 

ditus per gladium hicresi ilia. Ibid. 6 frotestantes etiaui ad o<rer»ndum 


At lengtli tliev quitted tlie catliedral. No one, except the 
friends of the nuncio, was pleased with the sermon. Even the 
Archbishop of Mentz was offended at it. " "What does he 
mean," exclaimed he, "bycallingon St. Paul tocut the Germans 
with his sword ? " Nothing but a few inarticulate sounds had 
teen heard in the nave; the Protestants eagerly questioned 
those of their party who had been present in the choir. "The 
more these priests inflame people's minds, and the more they 
urge their princes to bloody wars," said Brentz at that time, 
*' the more we must hinder ours from giving way to violence."' 
Thus spoke a minister of the Gospel of peace after the sermon 
of the priests of Rome. 

After the mass of the Holy Ghost, the emperor entered liis 
carriage,* and having reached the town-hall, where the sittings 
of the diet were to take place, took his seat on a throne cover- 
ed with cloth of gold, while his brother placed himself on a 
bench in front, of him ; then all around them were ranged the 
electors, forty-two sovereign princes, the deputies from the 
cities, the bishops, and ambassadors, forming indeed that illus- 
trious assembly which Luther, six weeks before, had imagined 
he saw sitting in the air.^ 

The count-palatine read the imperial proposition. It referred 
to two points; the war against the Turks, and thrs religious 
controversy. " Sacrificing my pi-ivate injuries and interests 
to the common good," said the emperor, " I have quit.ed my 
hereditary kingdoms, to pass, not without great danger, into 
Italy, and from thence to Germany. I have heard with sorrow 
of the divisions that have broken out here, and which, striking 
not only at the imperial majesty, but still more at the com- 
mandments of Almighty God, must engender pillage, confla- 
gration, war, and death."* At one o'clock the emperor, ac- 
companied by all the princes, returned to his palace. 

On the same day the elector gathered around him all his co- 
religionists, whom the emperor's speech had greatly excited, 
and exhorted them not to be turned aside by any threats from 
a cause which was that of God himself.' All seemed penetrated 
with this expression of Scripture: "Speak the word, and it 
shall not stand; for God is with us."^ 

munuscuTa in altari, ut moris erat, accessiss?, sed cum ri=u. (Spalat. Seek., ii, 167.) 
The Protestan s also drew near to offer gifts on the altar, as the custom was, but 
\ritli laufchter. i Ut iiostros principe'^ ab iinporcuna violeiui;i retineamus. 

Corp. Ref., ii, 120. * Imperator cum omnibus in curiam vectiis est Sturm 

to Zw. Epp.. ii. 4:30. ^ Ex volucrum monedulammque regno. L. Epp., iv, lH 

* Niclit ;fnders dann z;i Raub, lirandt, und Kriefj. F. "-kunden, i, .307. 

* GohoHiitus est ad iatrepidam causae Dei asseiitionen) S»i:ij ii, 108. 

* Iiaiali, viii, 10. 

142 THE elector's PRAYER. 

The elector had a heavy burden to bear, Not only had he 
to -walk at the head of the princes, but he had further to defend 
himself against the enervating influence of Melancthon. Through- 
out the whole of the diet this prince offers to our notice no 
mere abstraction of the state, but the noblest individuality. 
Early on Tuesday mornings feeling the necessity of that invi- 
sible strength which, according to a beautiful figure in the 
Holy Scriptures, causes us to ride upon the high places of the 
earth; and seeing, as was usual, his domestics, his councillors, 
and his son assembled around him, John begged them affec- 
tionately to withdraw.^ He knew that it was only by kneel- 
ing humbly before God that he could stand with courage be- 
fore Charles. Alone in his chamber, he opened and read the 
Psalms: then falling on his knees, he offered up the most fer- 
vent prayer to God;- next, wishing to confirm himself in the 
immovable fidelity that he had just vowed to the Lord, he went 
to his desk, and there committed his resolutions to writing. 
Dolzig and Melancthon afterwards saw these lines, and were 
fiUed with admiration as they read them. 

Being thus tempered anew in heavenly thoughts, John took 
up the imperial proposition, and meditated over it, then, hav- 
ing called in his son and the chancellor Bruck, and Melancthon 
shortly after, they all agreed that the deliberations of the diefi 
ought to commence with the affairs of religion; and his allies,, 
who were consulted, concurred in this advice. 

The legate had conceived a plan diametrically opposed to 
this. He desired to stifle the religious question, and for this 
end required that the princes should examine it in a secret 
committee. ""^ The evangelical Christians entei-tained no doubt 
that if the truth was proclaimed in the great council of the 
nation, it would gain the victory; but the more they desired a. 
public confession, the more it was dreaded by the pope's friends. 
The latter wished to take their adversaries by silence, without 
confession, without discussion, as a city is taken by famine- 
without fighting and Avithout a storm: to gag the Reformation, 
and thus reduce it to powerlcssness and death, were their tactics. 
To have silenced the preachers was not enough: the princes 
must be silenced also. They wished to shut up the Reforma- 
tion as in a dungeon, and there leave it to die, thinking 

1 Hane remotis omnibus consiliariis et ministris. Seek., ii, 1G9. ^ Precibus 

ardentissimis a Deo suecessum negotii petiisset Ibid. ' Qune cum ndmirn- 

tioiic leffisse dicuntur. Ibid. * Si acturi sunt sccreto et inter sese, nulla 

publica disputatione vel nudicntia. (U Epp., iv, 43.) If tlxey would act secretly and' 
among tliemselvcs, without any puDlic discussion or audience. 


ihey would thus get rid of it more surely than by leading it to 
the scaffold. 

This plan was well conceived: it now remained to be put in. 
execution, and for that purpose it was necessary to persuade 
the Protestants that such a method would be the surest for 
them. The person selected for this intrigue was Alphonso 
Valdez, secretary to Charles V., a Spanish gentleman, a 
worthy individual, and who afterwards showed a leaning to- 
wards the Reformation. Policy often makes use of good men 
for the most perfidious designs. It was decided that Valdez 
should address the most timid of the Protestants — Melancthon. 

On the 16th or 17th of June, immediately after the arrival 
of Charles, Valdez begged Melancthon to call on him. " The 
Spaniards," said he, "imagine that the Lutherans teach im- 
pious doctrines on the Holy Trinity, on Jesus Christ, on the 
blessed Mother of God.^ Accordingly, they think they do a 
more meritorious work in killing a Lutheran than in slaying a 

" I know it," replied Melancthon, " and I have not yet been 
able to succeed in making your fellow-countrymen abandon 
that idea," 

" But what, pray, do the Lutherans desire ?" 

" The Lutheran question is not so complicated and so un- 
seemly as his majesty fancies. We do not attack the Catholic. 
Church, as is commonly believed ;* and the whole controversy 
is reducible to these three points. The two kinds in the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, the marriage of pastors, and the 
abolition of private masses. If we could agree on these arti- 
cles, it would be easy to come to an understanding on the others." 

" Well, I wiU report this to his majesty." 

Charles V. was charmed at this communication. " Go," 
said he to Valdez, " and impart these things to the legate, and 
ask Master Philip to transmit to you in writing a short expo- 
sition of what they believe and what they deny." 

Valdez hastened to Campeggio. " What you relate pleases 
me tolerably," said the latter. " As for the two kinds in the 
sacrament, and the marriage of priests, there will be the means 
of accommodation ; ^ but we cannot consent to the abolition of 
private masses." This would have been in fact cutting off on© 
of the greatest revenues of the Church. 

1 Hispanis penraasnm esse Lntheranosinipie de SanctissimaTrinitate. Ex relatione 
Bpalati in Seek,, ii, 165. 2 jj^^jj ^deo per eos Ecclesiain Cathoiicam oppugnari, 

quam ,-ulgo putaretur. (Ibid., 100.) That the Catholic Church was not so assailed • 
by them as wa.-. commonly supposed. » Mit beider Gestalt sacramenu oder des ' 

P£affen und Monch Ehe. Orp. Ref., ii, 123, 

144 THE elector's ZEAL. 

On Saturday, June 18, Valdez saw Melancthon again. 
** The emperor begs of you a moderate and concise exposition," 
said he, " and he is persuaded that it will be mor<^ advanta- 
geous to treat of this matter briefly and privatel/,^ avoiding 
all public hearing and prolix discussion, which would only en- 
gender anger and division." — "Well," said Melancthon, "I 
will reflect upon it." 

Melancthon was almost won over ; a secret conference agreed 
better with his disposition. Had he not often repeated that 
peace should be sought after above all things ? Thus every 
thing induced the legate to hope that a public struggle would 
be avoided, and that he might be content, as it were, to send 
mutes against the Reform, and strangle it in a dungeon.* 

Fortunately the chancellor and the Elector Frederick did not 
think fit to entertain the propositions with which Charles had 
■commissioned the worthy Valdez. The resolution of these lay 
members of the Church saved it from the false step its doctors 
were about to take; and the wiles of the Italians failed against 
■evangelical firmness. Melancthon was only permitted to lay 
the Confession befoz'e the Spaniard, that he might look into it, 
and in despite of the moderation employed in it, Valdez ex- 
claimed : " These words are too bitter, and your adversaries 
will never put up with them !" ' Thus finished the legate's ma- 


The Elector's Zeal — The Signing of the Confession — Courage of the Princes — Me- 
lancthoii's Weakness — The Legate's Speech — Delays — The Confession in Danger 
—The Protestants are firm — Melancthon's Despondency — Luther's Prayer and 
Anxiety — Luther's Texts — His Letter to Melancthon — Faith. 

•Charles, compelled to resign himself to a pubUc sitting order- 
ed on Wednesday, 22d June, that the elector and his allies 
should have their Confession ready for the ensuing Friday. 
The Roman party were also invited to present a confession of 
faith; but they excused themselves, saying that they were sa- 
tisfied with the Edict of Worms. 

The emperor's order took the Protestants by surprise, for the 
negotiations between Valdez and Melancthon had prevented 

1 Die Sache in einer Enge und Stille vorzu nehmen. Corp. Rcf., ii, 123. 

2 Caelestin, Hist. Comit. August., p. 193. Intelligo hoc rouf ap-^ii»Kt( nioliri, ut 
omnino nihil agatur de ncgotiis ecclesiasticis. (Ibid., 57.) I uiKU-rsuiod the aim of 
the prelates to be, tliat nothing at all be done concerning eccloisiastical matters. 

» Ac plane putarit viKoiri^n esse quani ut ferrc possent adversarii. Ibid., \Mi, 


the latter from putting the finishing stroke to the Confession. 
It was not copied out fair; and the conclusions, as well as the 
exordium, were not definitivelv drawn up. In consequence of 
this, the Protestants hegged the Archbishop of Mentz to ob- 
tain for them the delay of a day; but their petition was refused.^ 
Thev therefore laboured incessantly, eren during the night, to 
correct and transcribe the Confession. 

On Thursday, 23d June, all the Protestant princes, deputies, 
councillors, and theologians met early at the elector's. The 
Confession was read in German, and all gave their adhesion to 
it, except the landgrave and the Strasburgers, who required a 
change in the article on the ^cr^ment.* The princes rejected 
their demand. 

The Elector of Saxony was already preparing to sign it, 
when Melancthon stopped him : he feared giving too pohtical 
a colouring to this religious business. In his idea it was the 
Church that should appear, and not the State. " It is for 
the theologians ^nd ministers to propose these things," said he ;' 
" let us reserve for other matters the authority of the mighty 
ones of the earth." — " God forbid that you should exclude 
me," replied the elector ; " I am resolved to do what is riglil 
without troubling myself about my Crown. I desire to con- 
fess the Lord. My electoral hat and my ermine are not so 
precious to me as the cross of Jesus Christ. I shall leave on 
earth these marks of my greatness ; but my Master's cross 
will accompany me to heaven." 

How resist such christian language! Melancthon gave way. 

The elector then approached, signed, and handed the pen 
to the landgrave, who at first made some objections ; however 
the enemy was at the door ; was this a time for disunion ? At 
last he signed, but with a declaration that the doctrine of the 
Eucharist did not please him.* 

The margrave and Luneburg having joyfully subscribed their 
names, Anhalt took the pen in his turn, and said, " I have 
tUted more than once to please others; now, if the honour of 
my Lord Jesus Christ requires it, I am ready to saddle my 
horse, to leave my goods and life behind, and rush into eter- 
nity, towards an everlasting crown." Then, having signed, 

I Dasselbige abgeschlagen. Corp. Ref., ii, 127. ' Argenfinenses ambierunt 

•liquid ut excepto ardculo sacramenti sosciperentor. (Ibid, 155.) The Strasbare>-rs 
made somj attempt to get the article of the sacrament eiceDte<l. * Noa pn:i- 

ciptim nomine ediseddocentium.qaitheologiToca-itur. (Gamer., p. IM.) To be put 
fcrth, not in the name of the priivces, but of the teachers, who are termed theologians. 

* L.iadirraTias subscribit nnbiscntn, sed tamen dicit sibi, de Sacramento, a nostrii 
non satisSeri. (Corp. Ref., ii, 15'.) The landjp-are subscribes with us, but yet says 
to tnmytf that cor.cemin(; the sacrament our riews are not satisfactory to hiiu. 


this youthful prince said, turning to the theologians, " I would 
rather renounce my subjects and my states, rather quit the 
country of my fathers staff in hand, rather gain my bread by 
cleaning the shoes of the foreigner, than receive any other doc- 
trine than that which is contained in this Confession." Nurem- 
berg and Reutlingen alone of the cities subscribed their signa- 
tures;^ and all resolved on demanding of the emperor that the 
Confession should be read publicly.* 

The courage of the princes surprised every one. Rome had 
crushed the members of the Church, and had reduced them to 
a herd of slaves, whom she dragged silent and humiliated be- 
hind her: the Reformation enfranchised them, and with their 
rights it restored to them their duties. The priest no longer 
enjoyed the monopoly of religion; each head of a family again 
became priest in his own house, and aU the members of the 
Church of God were thenceforward called to the rank of con- 
fessors. The laymen are nothing, or almost nothing, in the 
sect of Rome, but they are the essential portion of the Church 
of Jesus Christ. Wherever the priestly spirit is established, 
the Church dies; wherever laymen, as these Augsburg princes, 
understand their duty and their immediate dependence on 
Christ, tiie Church lives. 

The evangelical theologians were moved by the devotedness 
of the princes. " When I consider their firmness in the con- 
fession of the Gospel," said Brentz, " the colour mounts to ray 
cheeks. What a disgrace that we, who are only beggars beside 
them, are so afraid of confessing Christ!" ' Brentz was then 
thinking of certain towns, particularly of Halle, of which he 
was pastor, but no doubt also of the theologians. 

The latter, in truth, without being deficient in devotedness, 
were sometimes wanting in courage. Melancthon was in con- 
stant agitation; he ran to and fro, slipping in everywhere 
(says Cochloeus in his Philippics), visiting not only the houses 
and mansions of private persons, but also insinuating himself 
into the palaces of cardinals and princes, nay, even into the 
court of the emperor; and, whether at table or in conversation, 
he spared no means of persuading every person, that nothing 
was more easy than to restore peace between the two parties. * 

One day he was with the archbishop of Salzburg, who in a 
long discourse gave an eloquent description of th« troubles pro- 

1 Confegglonl tantum subscripserant NuromberRa et Reutlingen. (Corp. Ref., ii. 
i;S.) a Dfcretuin est ut publicaj recitandw concessio ab -1 niperatore peteretur. 

heck., », 169. » Rubore sulluador non mediocri, quod iios, pias illis mendici, 4c. 

Coip. Ref., ii, 125. ♦ Oursitabat luno iiide, perrcptaiis ac peuetraus, CocUi. 

i'lul. 4, in ApoU 



duced, as lie said, by the Reformation, and ended with a pe- 
roration "written in blood," as Melancthon characterized it.^ 
Philip in agony had ventured during the conversation to slip 
in the word conscience. "Conscience!" hastily interrupted 
the archbishop, " Conscience! — ^Vhat does that mean? I tell 
you plainly that the emperor will not allow confusion to be thus 
brought upon the empu-e." — Had I been in Melancthon's 
place," said Luther, " I should have immediately replied to the 
archbishop : And our Emperor, oiu"s, will not tolerate such 
blasphemy." — "Alas," said Melancthon, " they are all as full 
of assurance as if there was nb God."* 

Another day Melancthon was with Campeggio, and con- 
jured him to persevere in the moderate sentiments he appeared 
to entertain. And at another time, as it would seem, he was 
with the emperor himself.' Alas ! said the alarmed Zwing- 
lians, " after having qualified one-half of the Gospel, Me- 
lancthon is sacrificing the other." * 

The wiles of the Ultramontanists were added to Philip's de- 
jection, in order to arrest the courageous proceedings of the 
princes. Friday, 24th June, was the day fixed for reading 
the Confession, but measures were taken to prevent it. The 
sitting of the diet did not begin till three in the afternoon ; the 
legate was then announced ; Charles went to meet him as far 
as the top of the grand staircase, and Campeggio, taking his 
seat in front of the emperor, in King Ferdinand's place, deli- 
vered a harangue in Ciceronian style. Xever," said he, " has 
St. Peter's bark been so violently tossed by such various waves, 
whirlwinds, and abysses.* The Holy Father has learnt these 
things with pain, and desires to drag the Church from these 
frightful gulfs. For the love of Jesus Christ, for the safety 
of your country and for your own, mighty Prince ! get rid 
of these errors, deliver Germany, and save Christendom!" 

After a temperate reply from Albert of ilentz, the legate 
[uitted the town-hall, and the evangelical princes stood up ; 
ut a fresh obstacle had been provided. Deputies from Austria, 
Carinthia, and Carniola, first received a hearing.^ 

Much time had thus elapsed. The evangelical princes, how- 
ever, rose up again, and the Chancellor Briick said: " It is 

^ Addebat Epilogum plane sanguine «criptum. Corp. Ref., ii, 12S. ' Securt 

sunt quasi nullus sit Deus. Ibid., 156. ' Melancthon a Tjesare, Salisbunensl 

et Campegio vocatus est, Zw. Epp , ii, 473. * Ut cum niit garit tam inulta 

cedat et reliqua. (Ibiil.) That since he has softened go many matters lie may yieii 
the rest also. * Neque unquain tam vainis stctarum turbinibus iiavirulu I'eui 

fiuctiiaverit. Seek., ii, 1G3. * Oratto valile lug.ibris i-t iiiiserabilis coiitia 

Turcas. (Corp. Ktf., ij, 154.) The Olsc^ urse was very lugulrlous and •MiUiiiigagaloM 
tlie Turks, 



pretended tliat new doctrines not based on Scripture, that 
heresies and schisms, are spread among the people by us. Con- 
sidering that such accusations compromise not only our good 
name, but also the safety of our souls, ^ we beg his majesty will 
have the goodness to hear what are the doctrines we profess." 

The emperor, no doubt, by arrangement with the legate, 
made reply that it was too late; besides, that this reading 
vrould be useless; and that the princes should be satisfied with 
putting in their Confession in writing. Thus the mine, so 
skilfully prepared, worked admirably; the Confession, once 
handed to the emperor, would be thrown aside, and the Refor- 
mation would be forced to retire, without the papists having 
even condescended to hear it, without defence, and overwhelmed 
with contumely. 

The protestant princes, uneasy and agitated, insisted. 
"Our honour is at stake," said they; "our souls are en- 
dangered. ^ We are accused publicly; publicly we ought to 
answer." Charles was shaken; Ferdinand leant towards him, 
and whispered a few words in his ear: ^ the emperor refused a 
second time. 

Upon this the elector and princes, in still greater alarm, 
said for the third time, with emotion and earnestness : * "For 
the love of God, let us read our Confession! No person is 
insulted in it." Thus were seen, on the one hand, a few faith- 
ful men, desiring with loud cries to confess their faith; and on 
the other, the great emperor of the west, surrounded by a 
crowd of cardinals, prelates, and princes, endeavouring to 
stifle the manifestation of the truth. * It was a serious, vio- 
lent, and decisive struggle, in which the holiest interests were 

At last Charles appeared to yield: " His Majesty grants 
your request," was the reply to the princes; but as it is now 
too late, he begs you to transmit him your written Confession, 
and to-morrow, at two o'clock, the diet will be prepared to 
hear it read at the Palatine Palace." 

The princes were struck by these words, which, seeming to 
grant them everything, in reality granted nothing. In the 
first place, it Avas not in a public sitting at the town-hall, but 
privately in his own palace, that the emperor was willing to 

' Verum etinm ad nnimrc dispcndium aut saliitcin .Tti'rnani. Seek., ii, 189. 

2 Ihre Seele, Elire uiid (Jlimpf belunget. Corp. Kef., ii. I'-'S. ' Vidcrant 

enim eum subinde aliquid illi in nurem insusiirrare. (Seek., ii, lf)9.) For they Ii ad 
gcon him ever and anon whisper something i. to his ear. * Zum dritten nial 

heftij; anpehalten. Cor]>. lief., ii, r.>8. 5 (Jiirimisistcbant Cajsarem magua 

BUinero cardiiialcs et inalati ifflesiastic' '^ ;ck., ii, loJ. 


hear them;' dieu thejhad no douht that if the Confession left 
their hands it was all over with the putlic reading. They 
therefore remained firm. " The work has been done in great 
haste," said they, and it was the truth; "pray leave it with 
us to-night, that we may revise it." The emperor was obliged 
to yield, and the Protestants returned to their hotels full of 
joy; while the legate and his friends, perceiving that the Con- 
fession was ine\'itable, saw the morrow approach with conti- 
uuaUy increasing aniiety. 

Among those who prepared to confess the evangelical truth, 
was one, however, whose heart was fiUed with sadness: — it was 
Melancthon. Placed between two fires, he saw the reformed, 
and many even of his own friends, reproach his weakness; 
while the opposite party detested what they called his hypo- 
crisy. His friend Camerarius, who nsited Augsburg about 
this time, often foimd him plunged in thought, uttering deep 
sighs, and shedding bitter tears. * Brentz, moved with com- 
passion, coming to the imhappy Philip, would sit down by his 
side and weep with him; ' and Jonas endeavom-ed to console 
him in another manner, by exhorting him to take the book of 
Psalms, and cry to God with all his heart, making use of 
Davids words rather than of his own. 

One day intelligence arrived which formed a general topic 
of conversation in Augsburg, and which, by spreading terror 
among the partisans of the pope, gave a momentary relief to 
Melancthon. It was said that a mule in Rome had given 
birth to a colt with crane's feet. " This prodigy," said Me- 
lancthon thoughtfully, " announces that Rome is near its 
end;" * perhaps because the crane is a bird of passage, and 
that the pope's mule thus gave signs of departure. Melancthon 
had immediately written to Luther, who replied that ht was 
exceedingly rejoiced that God had given the pope so striking a 
sign of his approaching fall. ^ It is good to recall to memory 
these puerilities of the age of the reformers, that we may bet- 
ter understand the high range of these men of God in mat- 
ters of faith. 

These idle Roman stories did not long console Melancthon. 
On the eve of the 25th of June, he was present in imagination 

1 Non quidem publice in prsetorio, sed privatim in palatio suo. Corp. Ret, ii, 124. 
3 Xon modo suspirantem sed profundentem lacrymas conspcii. Camer., p. 121. 

* Brentius assidebat haec scribenti, una lacrvmans. Corp. Ref., ii, 126. 

* Romse quaedam mula peperit, et partus habuit pedes gniis. Vides si^ificari 
exirium Romae per schismata. (Ibid., p. 126.) A certain mule produced at Rome, 
»nd the progeny had the feet of a crane. Tou see that the destruction of Rome, by 
schisms, is signified. 5 Gaudeo papac signum datum in mula puerpera, ut 
citini ncrcat. L. Enn.. it_ A. 


at the reading of that Confession which he had drawn up, 
which was about to be proclaimed before the world, and in 
which one word too many or too few might decide on the ap- 
probation or the hatred of the princes, on the safety or ruin of 
the Reformation and of the empire. He could bear up no 
longer, and the feeble Atlas, crushed under the burden of the 
world upon his shoulders, gave utterance to a cry of anguish. 
♦' All my time here is spent in tears and mourning," wrote he 
to Vitus Diedrich, Luther's secretary in the castle of Coburg; ^ 
and on the morrow he wrote to Luther himself: " My dwelling 
is in perpetual tears. * My consternation is indescribable. ^ 
my father! I do not wish my words to exaggerate my 
sorrows; but without your consolations, it is impossible for me 
to enjoy here the least peace." 

Nothing in fact presented so strong a contrast to Melanc- 
thon's distrust and dejection, as the faith, calmness, and exul- 
tation of Luther. It was of advantage to him that he was not 
then in the midst of the Augsburg vortex, and to be able from 
his stronghold to set his foot with tranquillity upon the rock of 
God's promises. lie was sensible himself of the value of this 
peaceful hermitage, as he called it.* " I cannot sufficiently 
admire," said Vitus Diedrich, " the firmness, cheerfulness, and 
faith of this man, so astonishing in such cruel times. " 

Luther, besides his constant reading of the Word of God, ' 
did not pass a day without devoting three hours at least to 
prayer, and they were hours selected from those the most fa- 
vourable to study. ^ One day, as Diedrich approached the 
reformer's chamber, he heard his voice,'' and remained motion- 
less, holding his breath, a few steps from the door. Luther 
was praying, and his prayer (said the secretary) was full of 
adoration, fear, and hope, as when one speaks to a friend or to 
a father.^ " I know that thou art our Father and our God," 
said the reformer alone in his chamber, " and that thou wilt 
scatter the persecutors of thy children, for thou art thyself en- 
dangered with us. All this matter is thine, and it is only by 
thy constraint that we have put our hands to it. Defend us 
then, Father!" The secretary, motionless as a statue, in 
the long gallery of the castle, lost not one of the words that the 

1 Ilic CDiisuinitur omiie mihi tempus in lacrjmis et luctu. Corp. Ref., ii, 126. 

9 Versnmur hie in miserrimia curia ct plane perpetuis liicrymia. Ibid., p. UO. 

» Mira consternatio aniinoruni nostri)rum. Ibid. * Ex eiemo tacita. L. 

Epp. iv, 51. U is tlms lie dates his letter. » Assidue autem ilia dih^entiore 

verbi Dei traetalione »Ut. Crp. Kef., ii, 159. » NuUus abit dies, quin ut mini, 

mum tres boras eas<|ue studiis optinias in orationibiiB pmiat. Ibid. ? Scmel 

iiiliii cotigit ut orantein eum audirem. (Ibi.l ) It once liappened to mc to hear him 
B Taata spe et Hdc ut cum pnire et ainico cuUoqui Beiitiat. Ibid. 


ttTTHEK'S ASXi^TT — HIS TfclTS. 151 

clear and resounding voice of Luther bore to his ears. ' The 
reformer was earnest with God, and called upon him with such 
imction to accomplish his promises, that Diedrich felt his heart 
glow within him.* " Oh! exclaimed he, as he retired, " How 
could not these prayers hut prevail in the desperate struggle 
at Augsburg I" 

Luther misht also have allowed himself to be overcome with 
fear, for he was left in complete ignorance of what \^ a takmg 
place in the diet. A Wittemberg messenger, who should have 
brought him forests of letters (according to his own expression), 
liaving presented himself: *' Do you bring any letters?" asked 
Luther. "No!" " How are those gentlemen?" "Well!" 
Luther, grieved at such sQence, returned and shut himself up 
in his chamber. 

Erelong there appeared a courier on horseback carrying 
despatches from the elector to T organ; "Do you bring me 
any letter?" asked Luther, "No!" " How are those gentle- 
men?" continued he, fearfully. "Well!" " This is strange, 
thought the reformer. A waggon having left Coburg laden 
with flour (for they were almost in want of provisions at 
Augsburg), Luther impatiently awaited the return of the 
driver; but he returned empty. Luther then began to revolve 
the gloomiest thoughts in his mind, not doubting that they 
were concealing some misfortune from him. ' At last another 
individual, Jobst Nymptzen, having arrived from Augsburg, 
Luther rushed anew towards him, with his usual question: 
" Do you bring me any letters? He waited trembling for the 
reply. "No!" " And how are those gentlemen?" "Well!" 
The reformer withdrew, a prey to anger and to fear. 

Then Luther opened his Bible, and to console himself for 
the silence of men, conversed with God. There were some 
passages of Scripture in particular that he read continually. 
We point them out below. * He did more; he wrote with his 
own hand many declarations of Scripture over the doors and 
windows, and on the walls of the castle. In one place were 
these words from the 118th Psalm: / shall not die, but live, and 
declare the works of the Lord. In another, those of the 12th 

1 Turn orantem clara Toce, procul stans, andivi. Corp. Re£, ii, 159. ' Ardebat 

mihi quoque animus singular! qnodam impetu. Ibid. * Hie coepi cogitare tristia, 

8a!ipirin$, tos aliquid mail me celare Telle. L. Epp., iv, 60. * 2 Tim., lii, 12 ; 

Philip., u, 12, 13 ; John, x, 17. 18 : Matth., xvi, 18 ; Psalm xlri 1, 2 : 1 John, iT,4 : Psalm 
It, 23 ; xxvii, 14 : John, xri. 33 : Lnke, xvii, 5 : Psalm xxiii, 11 ; cxlv, IS, 19 ; xci, 14, 15 ; 
Sirach, ii, 11 ; 1 Maccab., ii, 61 ; M th., Ti, 31 ; 1 Peter, r, 6. 7 ; Matth., x, 28 ; Rom., 
iT and vi : Hrb. t and xi ; 1 Sam., iT, IS : xxii, 4-8 ; ii, 30 ; 2 Tim., ii, 17-19 ; i, 12 ; 
Eph., iii, 20, 2L Among these passages niU be obsened two verses taken from tlio 
Apocrypna, but whos« equivalenU might ea-sily be found iu the Word of God. 


chapter of Proverbs: The wat/ of the wicked seduceth them ; and 
over his bed, this passage from the 4th Psami: I wili lay me 
down in peace and sleep ; for thou, Lord, only makest me dwell 
in safety. Never perhaps did man so environ himself with the 
promises of the Lord, or so dwell in the atmosphere of his 
Word and live bj his breath, as Luther at Coburg. 

At length letters came. " If the times in which we live 
were not opposed to it, I should have imagined some revenge," 
wrote Luther to Jonas, " but prayer checked my anger, and 
anger checked my prayer. ^ I am delighted at that tranquil 
mind which God gives our prince. As for Melancthon, it is 
his philosophy that tortures him, and nothing else. For our 
cause is in the very hands of Him who can say with un- 
speakable dignity : No one shall pluck it out of my hands. I 
would not have it in our hands, and it would not be desirable 
that it were so. * I have had many things in my hands, and 
I have lost them all; but whatever I have been able to place in 
God's, I still possess." 

On learning that Melancthon's anguish stiU continued, Lu- 
ther wrote to him ; and these are the words that should be pre- 
served : — 

" Grace and peace in Christ ! in Christ, I say, and not in 
, the world. Amen. I hate witli exceeding hatred those extreme 
cares Avhich consume me. If the cause is unjust, abandon it ; 
if the cause is just, why should we belie the promises of Him 
who commands us to sleep without fear ? Can the devil do 
more than kill us ? Christ will not be wanting to the Avork of 
justice and of truth. He lives; he reigns; what fear, then, can 
we have ? God is powerful to upraise his cause if it is over- 
thrown, to make it proceed if it remains motionless, and if we 
are not worthy of it, he will do it by others. 

" I have received your Apology,' and I cannot understand 
what you mean, when you ask what we must concede to the 
papists. We have already conceded too much. Night and 
day I meditate on this aifair, turning it over and over, dili- 
gently searching the Scriptures, and the conviction of the truth 
of our doctrine every day becomes stronger in my mind. With 
the help of God I will not permit a single letter of all that we 
have said to bo torn from us. 

"The issue of this affair torments you, because you cannot 

'Sed orandi tompus iion sinebat irnsci, et ira non sinebat ornre. ( L. Kpp., iv, 4(5.) 
The time for prayer liiil not allow ma to be angry, ami unger did not allow me to 
pray, 3 Xeu vellem, nee consultum esset, iu nostra inanu esse. Ibid. 

* The Oonfessiou revised uud corrected. 

JUSE 25, 1530. 


luidei-stanu it. But if you could, I would not have the least 
share in it. God has put it in a ' common place,' that you 
■wiU not find either in your rhetoric or in your philosophy: that 
place is called Faith.'^ It is that in which suhsist all things 
that we can neither understand nor see. AVhoever wishes to 
touch them, as you do, vnH have tears for his whole reward. 

" If Christ is not with us, where is he in the whole imiverse? 
If we are not the Church, where, I pray, is the Church? Is 
it the Dukes of Bavaria, is it Ferdinand, is it the pope, is it 
the Turk, who is the Church ? If we have not the Word of 
God, who is it that possesses it ? 

" Only we must have faith, lest the cause of faith should be 
foimd to be without faith." ^ 

" If we fall, Christ falls with us, that is to say, the Master 
of the world. I would rather fall with Christ, than remain 
standing with Cffisar." 

Thus wrote Luther. The faith which animated him flowed 
from him hke torrents of Hving water. He was indefatigable: 
in a single day he wrote to Melancthon, Spalatin, Brentz, Ag- 
ricola, and John Frederick, and they were letters full of life. 
He was not alone in praying, speaking, and believing. At the 
same moment, the evangelical Christians exhorted one another 
every where to prayer. ^ Such was the arsenal in which the 
weapons were forged that the confessors of Christ wielded be- 
fore the Diet of Augsburg. 


The 25Ui June 1530— The Palatine Chapel— BecoUections and Contrast — The Con- 
fession — Prolo^e — Justification — The Cliurch — Free Will and Works — Faith — 
Interest of the Hearers — The Princes become Preachers — The Confession — Abuses 
—Church and State — The two Governments — ^Epilogue — Argumentation — Pru- 
dence Church and State^The Sword — Moderate Tone of the Confession — Its 

Defects — A new Baptism. 

At length the 25th June arrived. This was destined to be the 
greatest day of the Reformation, and one of the most glorious 
in the history of Christianity and of mankind. 

As the chapel of the Palatine Palace, where the emperor had 
resolved to hear the Confession, coidd contain only about two 

^ Deus posuit earn in locum qaendam eommunem, quern in tua rhetorica non habes 
nee in philosophia tua ; is rocatnr Jidts. L. £i^, ir, 53. 2 Tantum est opus 

fide, ne causa fidei sit sine fide. rbid„ 61. * Wittembergse scribunt, ta.-n 

diligenter ibi Ecclesiam orare. (Ibid, 69.) They write from Wittemberg that the 
Chorcb there prays so diligsBtlj. 



hundred persons,^ before three o'clock a great crowd was to be 
Been surrounding the building and thronging the court, hoping 
by this means to catch a few words; and many having gained 
entrance to the chapel, all were turned out except those who 
were, at least, councillors to the princes. 

Charles took his seat on the throne. The electors or their 
representatives were on his right and left hand; after them, 
the other princes and states of the empire. The legate had re- 
fused to appear in this solemnity, lest he should seem by his 
presence to authorize the reading of the Confession.* 

Then stood up John the elector of Saxony, with his son John 
Frederick, Philip landgrave of Hesse, the Margrave George of 
Brandenburg, Wolfgang prince of Anhalt, Ernest duke of 
Brunswick-Luneburg, and his brother Francis, and last of all 
the deputies of Nuremberg and Reutlingen. Their air was 
animated and their features radiant with joy.^ The apologies 
of the early Christians, of TertuUian and Justin Martyr, hardly 
reached in writing the sovereigns to whom they were addressed. 
But now, to hear the new apology of resuscitated Christianity, 
behold that puissant emperor, whose sceptre, stretching far be- 
yond the Columns of Hercules, reaches the utmost limits of the 
world, his brother the King of the Romans, with electors, 
princes, prelates, deputies, ambassadors, all of whom desire to 
destroy the Gospel, but who are constrained by an invsible 
power to listen, and, by that very listening, to honour the 

One thought was involuntarily present in the minds of tho 
spectators, — the recollection of the Diet of Worms.* Only 
nine years before, a poor monk stood alone for this same cause 
in a hall of the town-house at Worms, in presence of the em- 
pire. And now in his stead behold the foremost of the electoi'S, 
princes, and cities ! What a victory is declared by this simple 
fact ! No doubt Charles himself cannot escape from this re- 

Tlie emperor, seeing the Protestants stand up, motioned them 
to sit down; and then the two chancellors of the elector, Bruck 
and Bayer, advanced to the middle of the chapel, and stood 
before the throne, holding in their hands, the former the Latin 
and the other the German copy of the Confession. The em- 
peror required the Latin copy to be read.* " We are Germans," 

* Capiebat forsan ducentos. Jonas, Corp. Ref., ii, 157. ' Sarpi, Hist. Coun- 

cil Trent, i, 101. » I.«>to et al:icri aninio ct vultu. Scultct., i, 273. * Ante 

dccennium in conventu Wormatensi. Curp. Rif., ii, 153. * CiBsar Latinum 

prelci,'i vulebaU Seek., ii, 170. 


said the Elector of Saxony, " and on German soil; I hope 
therefore your majesty will allow us to speak German." If 
the Confession had been read in Latin, a language unknown to 
most of the princes, the general effect would have been lost. 
This was another means of shutting the mouth of the Gospel. 
The emperor complied with the elector's demaud. 

Bayer then began to read the evangelical Confession, slowly, 
seriously, distinctly, with a clear, strong, and sonorous voice, 
which re-echoed under the arched roof of the chapel, and car- 
ried even to the outside this great testimony paid to the truth. ^ 

"Most serene, most mighty, and invincible emperor and most 
gracious lord," said he, "we who appear in your presence, de- 
clare ourselves ready to confer amicably with you on the fittest 
means of restoring one sole, true, and same faith, since it is for 
one sole and same Christ that we fight. 2 And in case that 
these religious dissensions cannot be settled amicably, we then 
offer to your majesty to explain our cause in a general, free, 
and Christian council."* 

This prologue being ended, Bayer confessed the Holy Tri- 
nity, conformably with the Nicene Council,* original and her- 
editary sin, "which bringeth eternal death to all who are not 
born again,"* and the incarnation of the Son, "very God and 
very man,"^ 

"We teach, moreover," continued he, "that we cannot be 
justified before God by our own strength, our merits, or our 
works ; but that we are justified freely for Christ's sake through 
faith,' when we believe that our sins are forgiven in virtue of 
Christ, who by his death has made satisfaction for our sins: 
this faith is the righteousness that God imputeth to the sinner. 

" But we teach, at the same time, that this faith ought to 
bear good fruits, and that we must do all the good works com- 
manded by God, for the love of God, and not by their means 
to gain the grace of God." 

The Protestants next declared their faith in the Christian 
Church, "which is," said they, "the assembly of all true be- 
lievers and all the saints,"' in the midst of whom there are, 

1 Qui clare, distincte, tarde et voce adeo grandi et sonora earn pronunciavit Scul. 
tet., p. 276. » Ad unam veram concordem religionem, sicut omnes sub nno 

Christo sumos et miiitamus. (Confessio, Praefatio. Urknnd., i, iH.) To one true 
harmoniiiu'' religion, as we all are and serve under one Christ. ' Causam 

dictnros 111 tali generali, libero, et Cliristiano concilia Ibid., 479. ♦ Et tanien 

tres sunt personae ejusdeni essentiae. Ibid., SSr2. * Titium originis, afftr- 

ens aeternam mortem his qui non renascuntur. Ibid., 483. • TJnus Christns, 

vere Deus. et vere homo. Ibid. ^ (^ikI homines non possintjustificari coram 

Deo, propriis viribus, meritis, aut operibiis, sed gratis, propter Christum, per fidem 
Confessio, Pi»'atii>. Urkund., i, 4i>4. 8 Congregatio sanctorum et vere cr«. 

dentium. Ibid., 437. 


revertlieless, in tliis life, many false Christians, hypocrites even, 
and manifest sinners; and, they added, "that it is sufficient 
for the real unity of the Church that they agree on the doctrine 
of the Gospel and the administration of the sacraments, with- 
out the rites and ceremonies instituted by men being everywhere 
the same. ' ' ' They proclaimed the necessity of baptism, and de- 
clared "that the body and blood of Christ are really present and 
administered in the Lord's Supper to those who partake of it."* 

The chancellor then successively confessed the faith of the 
evangelical Christians touching confession, penance, the na- 
ture of the sacraments, the government of the Church, eccle- 
siastical ordinances, political government, and the last judg- 
ment. "As regards free will," continued he, " we confess that 
man's will has a certain liberty of accomplishing civil justice, 
and of loving the things that reason comprehends ; that man 
can do the good that is Avithin the sphere of nature — plough 
his fields, eat, drink, have a friend, put on a coat, build a house, 
take a wife, feed cattle, exercise a calling ; as also he can, of 
his own movement, do evil, kneel before an idol, and commit 
murder. But we maintain that without the Holy Ghost he can- 
not do what is righteous in the sight of God." 

Then, returning to the grand doctrine of the Reformation, 
and recalling to mind that the doctors of the pope "have never 
ceased impelling the faithful to puerile and useless works, as 
the custom of chaplets, invocations of saints, monastic vows, 
processions, fasts, feast-days, brotherhoods," the Protestants 
added, that as for themselves, while urging the practice of truly 
christian works, of which little had been said before their time,^ 
"they taught that man is justified by faith alone; not by that 
faith which is a simple knowledge of the history, and which 
wicked men and even devils possess, but by faith, believes not 
only the history, but also the effect of the history,* which believes 
that through Christ we obtain grace ; which sees that in Christ we 
have a merciful Father ; which knows this God; which calls upon 
him; in a word, which is not without God, as the heathen are." 

"Such," said Bayer, "is a summary of the doctrine profes- 
sed in our churches, by which it maybe seen that this doctrine 
is by no means opposed to Scripture, to the universal Church, 

1 Ad voriim unitatem Euclesiie, satis est consent ire de doetrina Evangelii et admi- 
nistratioiie, Bacramentoruiii, nee necesse est, <fc,c. Coiilessio, Traifatio. Uikund., i, 486. 

S Quod cori>"s et sanguis Chrisli, vera ailsitit et distnbuuntur vesceiitibus in cosna 
Domini, i". Urkund., i, 488. » He quibus rebus oliin paruin docebant conciona- 

tores; tatum pueriliact non necessaria opera uigebant. Ibicj., 495. On which subjects 
preachers formerly taught little ; they only urged puerile and not necessary works. 

* Son tantuin historita iiutitiain, scd fldem quate credit non tantum historiam, sud 
etiaiu tilectuni historiuj. Ibid., 11)8. 


nor even to the Romish Chxireh, such as the doctors describe 
it to us;i and since it is so, to reject us as heretics is an offence 
against unity and charity." 

Here terminated the first part of the Confession, the aim of 
which was to explain the evangelical doctrine. The chancellor 
read with so distinct a voice, that the crowd, which was unable 
to enter the haU, and which filled the court and aU the ap- 
proaches of the episcopal palace, did not lose a word.* This 
reading produced the most marvellous effect on the princes who 
thronged the chapel. Jonas watched every change in their 
coimtenances,' and there beheld interest, astonishment, and 
even approbation depicted by ttims. " The adversaries imagine 
thev have done a wonderful thing by forbidding the preaching 
of the Gospel," wrote Luther to the elector; "and they do not 
see, poor creatures! that by the reading of the Confession in 
the presence of the diet, there has been more preaching than 
in the sermons of ten doctors. Exquisite subtlety! admirable 
expedient I Master Agricola and the other ministers are re- 
duced to silence; but in their place appear the Elector of Sax- 
ony and the other princes and lords, who preach before his 
imperial majesty and the members of the whole empire, freely, 
to their beard, and before their noses. Yes, Christ is in the 
diet, and he does not keep silence: the Word of God cannot be 
bound. They forbid it in the pulpit, and are forced to hear it 
in the palace ; poor ministers cannot announce it, and great 
princes proclaim it ; the servants are forbidden to listen to it, 
and their masters are compelled to hear it; they will have no- 
thing to do with it during the whole course of the diet, and 
they are forced to submit to hear more in one day than is heard 
ordinarily in a whole year .... When all else is silent, the very 
stones cry out, as says our Lord Jesus Christ."* 

That part of the Confession destined to point out errors and 
abuses still remained. Bayer continued : he explained and de- 
monstrated the doctrine of the two kinds ; he attacked the com- 
pulsory celibacy of priests, maintained that the Lord's Supper 
had been changed into a regular fair, in which it was merely 
a question of buying and selling, and that it had been re-estab- 
lished in its primitive purity by the Reformation, and was cele- 
brated in the evangelical churches with entirely new devotion 

1^ Xihil iaesse quod discrepar a Scriptaris rel ab Ecclesia CathoUca, rel ab Ecelesia 
Romana, quatenasex S<.Tiptoribti8 nota est. (F. Urkund, i, 501.) That there is nothing 
in it at variance with Scriptiire or the Catholic Church, or the Church of Rome, as 
known from writers. ^ Verum etiam in area iuferiori et Ticinis locis exaudiri 

potaeriL Scultct., p. 271. * Jonas scribit Tid-^se se rultus omnium de quo mibi 

spondet narrationem coram. (L. Epp., iv, 71.) Junas writes that be saw all tbdr 
books, and promises me an account of it in person. * IbitL 82. 


and gravity. He declared that the sacrament was administered 
to no one who had not first made confession of his faults, and 
he quoted this expression of Chrysostom : "Confess thyself to 
God the Lord, thy real Judge; tell thy sin, not with the tongue 
but in thy conscience and in thy heart." 

Bayer next came to the precepts on the distinction of meats 
and other Roman usages. "Celebrate such a festival" said 
he; "repeat such a prayer, or keep such a fast; be dressed in 
such a manner, and so many other ordinances of men — this is 
what is now styled a spiritual and christian life; while the good 
works prescribed by God, as those of a father of a family who 
toils to support his Avife, his sons, and his daughters — of a mo- 
ther who brings children into the world, and takes care of them 
— of a prince or of a magistrate who governs his subjects, are 
looked upon as secular things, and of an imperfect nature." 
As for monastic vows in particular, he represented that, as the 
pope could give a dispensation from them, those vows ought 
therefore to be abolished. 

The last article of the Confession treated of the authority of 
the bishops : powerful princes crowned with the episcopal mitro 
were there; the Archbishop of Mentz, Cologne, Salzburg, and 
Bremen, with the Bishops of Bamberg, Wurzburg, Eichstadt, 
Worms, Spires, Strasburg, Augsburg, Constance, Coire, Pas- 
sau, Liege, Trent, Brixen, and of Lebus and Ratzburg, fixed 
their eyes on the humble confessor. He fearlessly continued, 
and energetically protesting against that confusion of Church 
and State which had characterized the Middle Ages, he called 
for the distinction and independence of the two Societies. 

" Many," said he, "have unskilfully confounded the episcopal 
and the temporal power; and from this confusion have resulted 
great wars, revolts, and seditions.^ It is for this reason, and 
to reassure men's consciences, that we find ourselves constrain- 
ed to establish the difference, which exists between the power 
of the Church and the power of the sword.' 

"Wo therefore teach that the power of the keys or of the 
bishops is conformably with the Word of the Lord, a command- 
ment emanating from God, to preach the Gospel, to remit or 
retain sins, and to administer the Sacraments. This power 
has reference only to eternal goods, is exercised only by the 
minister of the Word and docs not trouble itself with political 
administration. The political, administration on the other 

> Nonnulli incommode commiscuerant potestatem ecclesiasticam ct potcstatera 
gladii; et ex hac coiifusimie, &e. (Drkuiid. Confes. Au;,'s., i, 63a.) Some have iiicn- 
veiiientl;! confuundfU ecclesiastical power ami the power of the sworii.aiui this coiifil- 

•lon, (V 

* CoacU sunt oslendcitt iU.>ciimen ccclesi.ibtica' potustati;. et gladii- 


hand, is busied with, every thing else but the Gospel. Tho 
magistrate protects, not souls, but bodies and temporal posses- 
sions. He defends them against all attacks from without, and, 
by making use of the sword and of punishment, compels men 
to observe civil justice and peace. ^ 

" For this reason we must take particular care not to min- 
gle the power of the Church with the power of the State.* The 
power of the Church ought never to invade an office that is for- 
eign to it ; for Christ himself said : Mi/ kingdom is not of this 
world. And again : Who made me a judge over you? St. Paul 
said to the Philippians : Our citizenship is in heaven.^ And to 
the Corinthians : The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but 
mighty through God. 

"It is thus that we distinguish the two governments and the 
two powers, and that we honour both as the most excellent gifts 
that God has given here on earth. 

" The duty of the bishops is therefore to preach the Gospel, 
to forgive sins, and to exclude from the Christian Church all 
who rebel against the Lord, but without human power, and solely 
by the word of God.* If the bishops act thus, the churches 
ought to be obedient to them, according to this declaration of 
Ohrist : Whoever hearetli you heareth me. 

"But if the bishops teach anything that is contrary to the 
Gospel, then the churches have an order from God which for- 
bids them to obey (Matt., vii, 15 ; Galatians, i, 8; 2 Cor., xiii, 
8, 10). And St. Augustine himself, in his letter against Per- 
tilian, writes : ' We must not obey the catholic bishops, if they 
go astray, and teach anything contrary to the canonical Scrip- 
tures of God."' 

After some remarks on the ordinances and traditions of the 
Church, Bayer came to the epilogue of the Confession. 

"It is not from hatred that Ave have spoken," added he, 
"nor to insult any one; but we have explained the doctrines 
that we maintain to be essential, in order that it may be under- 
stood that we admit of neither dogma nor ceremony which is 

1 Politica administratio rersatur enim circa alias res quam ETangeliam; magistra- 

tus defendit non mentes sed corpora et coercet homines gladio. Urkund. Confes. 

Augs., i, biX) Civil government is employed a.Viut other things than the Gospel : the 
magistrate defends not minds but bodies, and coerces nieu by the sword. 2 jjon 

igiturcommiscendjesunt potestates ecclesiasticse et civile*. Ibid. ' Greek, PhiL, 

iii, 20. taXiTivfia. Scott and Henry Comment * Excludere a communione 

Ecclesia, sine vi humana sed verbo. (Urkund. Confes. Augs., i, M4.) To exclude from 
the communion of the Church without human force, but by the Word. * Neo 

catholicis episcopis consentiendum est, sicuti forte falluntnr aut contra canor.icaj 
Dei scripturas aliquid sentiunt (Ibid., 544.) Nor are we to consent to the Ca- 
tholic bishops, as they are perhaps mistaken and have some opinion coatrarj to th« 
canonical Scnptures of God, 

160 CltUttCH AND STATE, 

contrary to tlie Holy Scriptures, and to the usage ot the uni- 
versal Churcli." 

Bayer then ceased to read. He had spoken for two hours : 
the silence and serious attention of the assembly were not once 

This Confession of Augsburg will ever remain one of the 
masterpieces of the human mind enlightened by the Spirit of God. 

The language that had been adopted, while it was perfectly 
natural, was the result of a profound study of character. These 
princes, these warriors, these politicians who were sitting in the 
Palatine Palace, entirely ignorant as they were of divinity, 
easily understood the Protestant doctrine ; for it was not ex- 
plained to them in the style of the schools, but in that of every- 
day life, and with a simplicity and clearness that rendered all 
misundei'standing impossible. 

At the same time the power of argumentation was so much 
the more remarkable, as it was the more concealed. At one 
time Melancthon (for it was really he who spoke through the 
mouth of Bayer) was content to quote a single passage of Scrip- 
ture or of the Fathers in favour of the doctrine he maintained-, 
and at another he proved his thesis so mueh the more strongly, 
that he appeared only to be declaring it. With a single stroke 
he pointed out the sad consequences that would follow the rejec- 
tion of the faith he professed, or with one word showed 
poi-tance for the prosperity of the Church ; so that, while listen- 
ing to him, the most violent enemies were obliged to acknowledge 
to themselves that there was really something to say in favour 
of the new sect. 

To this force of reasoning the apology added a prudence no 
less remarkable. Melancthon, while declining with firmness 
the errors attributed to his party, did not even appear to feel 
the injustice of these erroneous imputations ; and Avhile point- 
ing out those of Popery, he did not say expressly they were 
those of his adversaries; thus carefully avoiding everything 
that might irritate their minds. In this he showed himself wise 
as a serpent and harmless as a dove. 

But the most admirable thing of all is the fidelity with which 
the Confession explains the doctrines most essential to salva- 
tion. Rome is accustomed to represent the reformers as the 
creators of the Protestant doctrines; but it is not in the six- 
teenth century that we must look for the days of that creation. 
A bright track of light, of which Wicklitfe and Augustine 
mark the moJ^t salient points, carries us back to the apostolic 

' M:t grosser Stiilc unci Ernst. Di-iicli's Apologie, p. 59. 

iro SWORD. 161 

■Bge: it was tben that slione in all their brilliancy the creative 
days of evangelical truth. Yet it is true (and if this is what 
Rome means, we fully concur in the idea), never since the time 
•of St. Paul had the Christian doctrine appeared with so much 
beauty, depth, and life, as in the days of the Keformation. 

Among these doctrines, that of the Church, which had been 
so long disfigured, appeai-ed at this time in all its native pu- 
rity. With what wisdom, in particular, the confessors of 
Augsburg protest against that confusion of religion and poli- 
tics which, since the deplorable epoch of Constantine, had 
changed the kingdom of God into an earthly and carnal insti- 
tution! Undoubtedly what the Confession stigmatizes with 
the greatest energy is the intrusion of the Church into man to 
combat it. The evil of the three centuries Avhich have passed 
away since then, is to have subjected the Church to the State; 
and we may believe that Luther and Melanctiion Avoidd have 
found against this disorder thunders no less powerful, ^^^lat 
they attack in a general sense, is the confusion of the two so- 
cieties; what they demand, is their independence, I do not say 
their separation, for separation of Church and State was quite 
unknown to the Reformers. If the Augsbxirg confessors Averc 
unwiUing that things from above should monopolize those of 
the earth, they would have been still less willing for things of 
earth to oppress those from heaven. 

There is a particidar application of this principle, which the 
Confession points out. It wills the bishops should reprimand 
those who obey wickedness, " but without human power, and 
solely by the Word of God." It therefore rejects the use of 
the sword in the chastisement of heretics. This we see is a 
primitive principle, fundamental and essential to tlie Reforma- 
tion, as the contrary doctrine is a primitive principle, funda- 
mental and essential to the Papacy. If among Protestants 
we find some ■wTiting, or even some example oppospd to this, it 
is but an isolated fact, which cannot invalidate the official prin- 
ciples of the reform — it is one of those exceptions which always 
serve to confirm the rule. 

Finally, the Augsburg Confession does not usurp the rights 
of the Word of God; it desires to be its handmaid and not its 
rival ; it does not found, it does not regulate the faith, but 
simply professes it. "Our churches teach," it says; audit 
will be remembered that Luther considered it only as a sermon 
preached by princes and kings. Had it desired more, as has 
since been maintained, i)y that very circumstance it would have 
been nullified. 


Was, liowcver, the Confession able to follow in all things- 
the exact path of truth ? We may be permitted to doubt it. 

It professes not to separate from the teaching of the Catho- 
lic Church, and even from that of the Romish Church — bv 
which is no doubt signified the ancient Roman Church — and 
rejects the popish particularism which for about eight centuries, 
imprisoned men's consciences. The Confession, however, seems 
overlaid with superstitious fears when there is any question of 
deviating from the views entertained by some of the Fathers 
of the Church, of breaking the toils of the hierarchy, and of 
acting as i-egards Rome, without blamable forbearance. This, 
at least, is what its author, Melancthon, professes. " We do 
not put forward auy dogma," said he, " which is not founded 
on the Gospel or on the teaching of the Catholic Church ; we 
are prepared to concede everything that is necessary for the 
episcopal dignity ;^ and, provided the bishops do not condemn 
the Gospel, we preserve all the rites that appear indifferent to 
us. In a word, there is no burden that we reject, if Ave can 
bear it without guilt. " ^ 

Many will think, no doiibt, that a little more independence- 
would have been proper in this matter, and that it would have- 
been better to have passed over the ages that have followed the 
times of the apostles, and have frankly put in practice the 
grand principle which the Reformation had proclaimed: " There- 
is for articles of faith no other foundation than the Word of God. ^ 

Melancthon's moderation has been admired; and, in truth,, 
while pointing out the abuses of Rome, he was silent on what 
is most revolting in them, on their disgraceful origin, their 
scandalous consequences, and is content to show that they are 
in contradiction to the Scripture. But he does more, he is 
silent on the divine right claimed by the pope, on the number 
of the sacraments, and on several other points. His great 
business is to justify the renovated, and not to attack the de- 
formed. Church. " Peace, peace!" was his cry. But if, in- 
stead of all this circumspection, the Reformation had advanced 
with courage, had wholly unveiled the Word of God, and had 
made an energetic appeal to the sympathies of reform thea 
spread in men's hearts, would it not have taken a stronger and 
more honourable position, and would it not have secured more- 
extensive conquests ? 

1 Conccssuros omnia qu:o ad diBiiitntem EpUcoporum stabiliendam iH-rtincnt- 
(Corp. lief., ii, 431.) Tliat they would concede every thing ^vhitl^ tends to cstublish the 
dignity of the bisliops. ^ Nullum dctractiiviuuis onus, nuod sine scelere suspici 

posset. (Ibid.) We have decl.ared no burdeu wliieli could be Uirno without sin. 

» Solum, «cr6uiu l>ei condit arlicidos fid«i. i M irord of God alone founds artieUt 


The interest that Charles the Fifth showed in listening to 
the Confession seems doubtful. According to some, he en- 
deavoured to imderstand that foreign language;* according to 
others, he fell asleep.- It is easy to reconcile these contradic- 
tory testimonies. 

When the reading was finished. Chancellor Bruck, with the 
two copies in his hand, advanced towards the emperor's secre- 
tary and presented them to him. Charles the Fifth, who was 
wide awake at this moment, himself took the two Confessions, 
handed the German copy, considered as official, to the Elector 
of Mentz, and kept the Latin one for himself.^ He then made 
reply to the Elector of Saxony and to his allies, that he had 
graciously heard their Confession;'' but as this affair was one 
of extreme importance, he required time to deliberate upon it. 

The joy with which the Protestants were fiUed shone in their 
eyes.* God had been with them; and they saw that the strik- 
ing act which had so recently been accomplished imposed on 
them the obligation of confessing the truth with immovable 
perseverance. "I am overjoyed," wrote Luther, "that I have 
lived vmtil this hour, in which Christ has been publicly exalted 
by such illustrious confessors and in so glorious an assembly." 6 
The whole evangelical church, excited and renovated bv this 
public confession of its representatives, was then more inti- 
mately xmited to its Divine Chief, and baptised with a new 
baptism. "Since the apostolic age," said they (these are the 
■words of a contemporary), "there has never been a greater 
work or a more magnificent confession."' 

The emperor, having descended from his throne, approached 
the Protestant princes, and begged them in a low tone not to 
publish the Confession; ^ they acceded to his request, and every 
one withdrew. 

1 Satis attentus erat Caesar. Jonas in Corp. Ref., ii, 184. s Cum nostra 

confessio legeretur, obdomuTit. Brentius in Corp. Ret, ii, 245. » The Latin 

copy, deposited in tlie archives of the imperial house, should be found at Brussels ■ 
and the (German copy, sent afterwards to the Council of Trent, ought to be in the 
Vatican. ♦ Gnedichlich vemohmen. F. Urkund., ii, 3. * Cum incre- 

dibili protestantium gaudia Seek., ii, 170. « nim vehementer placet vixisse 

ia banc boram. (L. Epp., iv, 71.) I am exceedingly glad that I have lived to this 
hour. 1 Grosser und hdher Werk. Mathesius, Hist, p. 9^.98, • In i^H 

angeredet und gebethen. Corp. R«£, ii, 143. 



Effect on the Romanists— Luther demands religious Liberty— His dominant Idea 
—Song of Triumph— Ingenuous Confessions— Hopes of the Protestants— Failure of 
the Popish Intrigues— The Emperor's Council— Violent Discussions— A. Refuta- 
tion proposed-Its Authors-Rome and the Civil Power-Perils of the Confessor* 
— Melancthon's Minimum— The Emperor's Sister— Melancthon's Full— Luther 
opposes Concession-The Le-ate lepels Melanelhon-The Pope's Decision— 
Question— Melancthon's Schuol-matters— Answer. 

The Romanists had expected nothing like this. Instead of a 
hateful controversy, they had heard a striking confession of 
Jesus Christ; the most hostile minds were consequently dis- 
armed. "We would not for a great deal," was the remark on 
every side, "have missed being present at this reading."^ The 
effect was so prompt, that for an instant the cause was thought 
to he definitely gained. The bishops themselves imposed silence 
on the sophisms and clamours of the Fabers and the Ecks.^ 
"All that the Lutherans have said is true," exclaimed the 
Bishop of Augsburg; "we cannot deny it."^ — "Well, doctor," 
said the Duke of Bavaria to Eck, in a reproachful tone, "you 
had given me a very different idea of this doctrine and of this 
affair."^ This was the general cry; accordingly the sophists, 
as they called them, were embarrassed. "But, after all," said 
the Duke of Bavaria to them, "can you refute by sound reasons 
the Confession made by the elector and his allies ?''—" With the 
writings of the apostles and prophets — no!" replied Eck; "but 
with those of the Fathers and of the councils — yes!"* "I un- 
derstand," quickly replied the duke; "I understand. The 
Lutherans, according to you, are in Scripture; and we are ■ 


The Archbishop Hermann, elector of Cologne, the Count- 
palatine Frederick, Duke Erick of Brunswick-Luneburg, Duke 
Henry of Mecldenburg, and the Dukes of Pomerania, were 
gained over to the truth; and Hermann sought erelong to es- 
tablish it in his electorate. 

The impression produced in other countries by the Confes- 
sion was perhaps still greater. Charles sent copies to all th( 
courts; it was translated into French, Italian.c and even into 

» Brucks Gcschichto der Ilun.ll. in denSachen dcs Glauhens zu Augsbourg. FbrsU-- 
mann Archiv., p. 50. - Multi episcopi ad paec-m sunt inclinati. L. Kpp., iv, 70. 
» nia quaj recitata sunt, vera pura Veritas ; non possumus inficiari, (Corp. Kef., ii, 
15*.) Those tilings which liuve been read arc U'ue, arc pure truth ; we cannot deny it 
* Bo liabman Im vor nicht gesa-t. Matlies. Iljst., p. 90. ' Mit Propheteii 

und Aposteln scluiften niclit. Matlics. Hist. v. 09. • Csesar sibi iecit 


Spanish and Portuguese; it circulated through all Europe, and 
thus accomplished what Luther had said: "Our Confession 
will penetrate into every court, and the sound thereof will 
spread through the whole earth." ^ It destroyed the pre- 
judicies that had been entertained, gave Europe a sounder 
idea of the Reformation, and prepared the most distant countries 
to receive the seeds of the Gospel. 

Then Luther's voice began to be heard again. He saw that 
it was a decisive moment, and that he ought now to give the 
impulse that would gain religious liberty. He boldly demanded 
this liberty of the Roman-cathohc princes of the diet;* and at 
the same time endeavoured to make his friends quit Augsburg. 
Jesus Christ had been boldly confessed. Instead of that long 
series of quarrels and discussions which was about to become 
connected with this com-ageous act, Luther would have wished 
for a striking rupture, even should he seal with his blood the 
testimony rendered to the Gospel. The stake, in his idea, 
would have been the real catastrophe of this tragedy. " I 
absolve you from this diet, in the name of the Lord," ^ wrote 
he to his friends. " Now home, return home, again I say 
Aome! Would to God that I were the sacrifice offered to this 
Dew council, as John Huss at Constance !" * 

But Luther did not expect so glorious a conclusion: he com- 
pared the diet to a drama. First, there had been the exposi- 
tion, then the prologue, afterwards the action, and now he 
waited for the tragic catastrophe, according to some, but which 
in his opinion, would be merely comic* Every thing, he 
thought, would be sacrificed to pohtical peace, and dogmas 
would be set aside. This proceeding, which, even in our own 
days, would be in the eyes of the world the height of wisdom, 
was in Luther's eyes the height of foUy. 

He was especially alarmed at the thought of Charles's inter- 
vention. To ^vithdraw the Church from all secular influence, 
and the governments from aU clerical influence, was then one 
of the dominant ideas of the great reformer. "You see," 
wrote he to Melancthon, " that they oppose to our cause the 
same argument as at Worms, to wit, still and for ever the 
judgment of the emperor. Thus Satan is always harping on 

nosti-am confesdonem reddi lUlica et Gallica liui;aa. (Corp. R^ ii, 155. The 

French translation will be found mTorstemann's Urkunden^ i, 35~. ArticUs prinei- 

paulx de la foy. The emperor caused our Confession to be translated for him into 
French and Italian. » Perrumpet in omnes aulas Principmn et Reguiii. L. Epp, 

•^1 96. - E;):stle to the Elector of Mentz. Ibid., 74. s I^'itur absolve 

TOS in nomine Domini ab isto convenw. Ibid., 96. * Vellem e_o saori- 

ficium esse hujus norissimi concilii, sicut Johannes Huss ContantiLC. (Ibid., 110. I 
eoulil «Tsh to be the sacrifice of this latest council, like John Huss a: Constance. 


the same string, and that emaciated strength* of the civil power 
is the only one which this myriad-wiled spirit is ahle to find 
against Jesus Christ." But Luther took courage, and boldly 
raised his head. "Christ is coming," continued he; "he is 
coming, sitting at the right hand. . . . Of whom? not 
of the emperor, or we should long ago have been lost, hut of 
God himself: let us fear nothing. Christ is the King of kings 
and the Lord of lords. If he loses this title at Augsburg, he 
must also lose it in all the earth, and in all the heavens." 

Thus a song of triumph was, on the part of the confessors 
of Augsburg, the first movement that followed this courageous 
act, unique doubtless in the annals of the Church. Some of 
their adversaries at first shared in their triumph, and the others 
were silent; but a powerful reaction took place erelong. 

On the following morning, Charles having risen in ill-humour 
and tired for want of sleep, the first of his ministers who ap- 
peared in the imperial apartments was the count-palatine, as 
wearied and embarrassed as his master. " We must yield 
Bomething," said he to Charles ; " and I would remind your 
majesty that the Emperor Maximilian was willing to grant the 
two kinds in the Eucharist, the marriage of priests, and li- 
berty with respect to the fasts." Charles the Fifth eagerly 
seized at this proposition as a means of safety. But Granvelle 
and Campeggio soon arrived, who induced him to withdraw it. 

Rome, bewildered for a moment by the blow that had struck 
her, rose up again with energy. "I stay Avith the mother," 
exclaimed the bishop of Wartzburg, meaning by it the Church 
of Rome; "the mother, the mother!" "My lord," wittily 
replied Brentz, " pray, do not, for the mother, forget either 
the Father or the Son!" — "Well! I grant it," replied the 
Archbishop of Salzburg to one of his friends, " I also should 
desire the communion in both kinds, the marriage of priests, 
the reformation of the mass, and liberty as regards food and 

other traditions But that it should be a monk, 

a poor monk, who presumes to reform us all, is what we can- 
not tolerate." * — " I should have no objection," said another 
bishop, " for Divine Worship to be celebrated everywhere as 
it is at Wittemberg; but we can never consent that this new 
doctrine should issue from such a corner.' And Melancthon, 
insisting with the Archbishop of Salzburg on the necessity of 

» Sic Satan chorda st-mper oberrat cadem, et mille-artlfex lUe non luibet contra 

Christum, nisi unum illud elumbe robur. L. Epp. iv, 100. ' Sed quod unu£ 

monachus dcbeat nos rcformare omnes. Corp. Ref., ii, 155. » Aus dem Locli 
and Winckel. L. 0pp., xi, 307. 


« reform of the clergy : " Well ! and hovr can you vrisli to 
•reform us ?" said the latter abruptly: " •we priests have al- 
■ways been good for nothing." This is one of the most inge- 
nuous confessions that the Reformation has torn from the 
priests. Every day fanatical monks and doctors, brimful of 
sophisms, were seen arriving at Augsburg, who endeavoured 
to inflame the hatred of the emperor and of the princes. ^ " If 
■we formerly had friends,'' said Melancthon on the morrow of 
the Confession, " now we possess them no longer. We are 
here alone, abandoned by all, and contending against measure- 
less dangers." * 

Charles, impelled by these contrary parties, affected a great 
indifference. But without permitting it to be seen, he endea- 
voured, meanwhile, to examine this affair thoroughly. " Let 
there not a word be wanting," he had said to his secretary, 
when requiring from him a French translation of the Confes- 
sion. " He does not allow anything to be observed," whispered 
the Protestants one to another, convinced that Charles was 
gained; " for if it were known, he would lose his Spanish states: 
let us maintain the most profound secrecy." But the empe- 
ror's courtiers, who perceived these strange hopes, smiled and 
shook their heads. " If you have money," said Schepper, one 
<)f the secretaries of state, to Jonas and Melancthon, '* it will 
he easy for you to buy from the Italians whatever religion you 
please ;' but if your purse is empty, your cause is lost.'' Then 
assuming a more serious tone : "It is impossible," said he, 
*' for the emperor, surrounded as he is by bishops and cardi- 
nals, to approve of any other religion than that of the pope." 

This was soon evident. On the day after the Confession 
(Sunday, 26th June), before the breakfast hour,* all the depu- 
tations from the imperial cities were collected in the emperor's 
antechamber. Charles, desirous of bringing back the states of 
the empire to unity, began with the weakest. " Some of the 
cities," said the count-palatine, " have not adhered to the last 
Diet of Spires : the emperor calls upon them to submit to it." 

Strasburg, Niiremberg, Constance, Ulm, Reutlingen, Heil- 
bronn, Memmingen, Lindau, Kempten, Windsheim, Isny, and 
Weissemburg, which were thus summoned to renounce the 
famous protest, thought the moment curiously chosen. Thej 
asked for time. 

The position was complicated: discord had been thrown in 

> Quotidie confluunt hnc sophistae ac monachi. Corp. Ref, ii, 141. 'Noshic 

«oU ac deserti. Ibid. s Nos, si pecuniam haberemus, facile religionem quam 

*ellemus emturos ab Italia. Ibid., 156. * HeuteTOrdemmorsrenessen. Ibid., H 



the midst of the cities, and intrigue was labouring dailj ta 
increase it.^ It was not only between the popish and the 
evangelical cities that disagreement existed; but also between 
the Zwinglian and the Lutheran cities, and even among the 
latter, those which had not adhered to the Confession of Augs- 
burg manifested great ill-humour towards the deputies^f 
Reuthngen and Nuremberg. This proceeding of Charles the 
Fifth was therefore skilfully calculated; for it was based on 
the old axiom, Divide et impera. 

But the enthusiasm of faith overcame all these strata"-ems, 
and on the next day (27th June), the deputies from the^cities 
transmitted a reply to the emperor, in which they declared that 
they could not adhere to the Recess of Spires " without disobey- 
ingGod, and without compromising the salvation of their souls." * 

Charles, who desired to observe a just medium, more from 
poHcy than from equity, wavered between so many contrary 
convictions. Desirous nevertheless of essaying his meditating 
influence, he convoked the states faithful to Rome, or Sunda}° 
2Gth June, shortly after his conference with the cities. 

All the princes were present: even the pope's legate and tho 
most influential Roman divines appeared at this council, to tho 
great scandal of the Protestants. " What reply should bo 
made to the Confession?" was the question set by Charles the 
Fifth to the senate that surrounded him.^ 

Three different opinions were proposed. "Let us beware," 
said the men of the papacy, "of discussing our adversaries' 
reasons, and let us bo content with executing the edict of 
Worms against the Lutherans, and with constraining them by 
arms."* — "Let us submit the Confession to the examination 
of impartial judges," said the men of the empire, " and refer 
the final decision to the emperor. Is not even the reading of 
the Confession an appeal of the Protestants to the imperial 
power?" Others, in the last place (and these were the men 
of tradition and of ecclesiastical doctrine), were desirous of 
commissioning certain doctors to compose a refutation, Avhich 
should be read to the Protestants and ratified by Charles. 

The debate was very animated; the mild and the violent, 
the politic and the fanatical, took a decided course in the as- 
sembly. George of Saxony and Joachim of Brandenburg- 
showed themselves tho most inveterate, and surpassed in this 

» Eb slnd unter uns Stiidten, viel practica und Seltsames wespiis. Com. Kef., ii, 15L 
» Ohiie Verlftzunp der gcwiKseu Kegeii Gott. F. Urkuml., ii. (;. 

* Adversarii nostri jam doliberant iiuid vclint respoiidere. Corp. Ucf'., ii, ilCtli Juna. 

* Ke?n aifendatn esse vi. non audiuiiduin causum. (Ibid., 154.) We iiiuiit do the 
tiling by t'uruv, not bear the cause. 


respect ercn tlie ecclesiastical princes.^ " A certain clown, 
V liom you know Avell, is pushing them aU from behind," *^ 
ite Melancthon to Luther; " and certain hypocritical theo- 
_ian3 hold the torch and lead the whole band." This clown 
• s doubtless Duke George. Ev.-u the princes of Bavaria, 
„om the Confession had staggeiea at first, immediately rallied 
round the chiefs of the Roman party. The Elector of Mentz, 
the Bishop of Augsburg, the Duke of Brunswick, showed them- 
selves the least unfavourable to the evangelical cause. " I can 
by no means advise his majesty to employ force," said Albert. 
" If his majesty should constrain their consciences, and should 
afterwards quit the empire, the first victims saciificed would 
te the priests; and wlio knows whether, in the midst of these- 
discords, the Turks would not suddenly fall upon us?" But 
this somewhat interested wisdom of the archbishop did not 
find many supporters, and the men of war immediately plunged 
into the discussion with their harsh voices. *' If there is any- 
fighting against the Lutherans," said Count Felix of Wer- 
denburg, " I gratuitously offer my sword, and I swear ncAer 
to return it to its scabbard until it has overthiown the strong- 
hold of Luther." This nobleman died suddenly a few days 
after, from the consequences of his intemperance. Then the 
moderate men again interfered: " The Lutherans attack no one 
article of the faith," said the Bishop of Augsburg; let us 
come to an arrangement with them; and to obtain peace, let 
us concede to them the sacrament in both kinds and the mar- 
riage of priests. I would even yield more, if it were necessary. ' ' 
Upon this loud cries arose: " He is a Lutheran," they ex- 
claimed, " and you will sec that he is fully prepared to sacri- 
fice even the private masses!" — " The masses! we must not 
even think of it," remarked some with an ironical smile ; 
" Rome wiU never give them up, for it is they which maintain 
her cardinals and her courtiers, with their luxury and their 
kitchens."^ The Ax-chbishop of Salzburg and the Elector of 
Brandenburg replied with great violence to the motion of the 
Bishop of Augsburg. " The Lutherans," said they abruptly, 
" have laid before us a Confession written with black ink on 
white paper. WeU: if I were emperor, I would answer them 
"With red ink* — "Sirs," quickly replied the Bishop of Augs- 
burg, "take care then that the red letters do not fly in your 

* Hi sunt duces, et quidem acerrimi alterius partis. Corp. Ref., ji, 154. 

* Omnes unus [,'ubemat rusticus. (Ibid.. •.'6th June, 176.) One rustic governs all. 
» Cardinel, Clmrstusaiien, Praclit uiid Kiiclien. Uriiilt Apol., p..63. 

* Wir vruliten autiiorten mit einer Schrift init Rubiickeu geschreben. Corp. B«Ct. 


faces!" The Elector of Mentz was compelled to interfere and 
• calm the speakers. 

The emperor, desirous of playing the character of an um- 
pire, would have wished the Roman party at least to have 
placed in his hands an act of accusation against the Reform: 
but all was now altered; the majority, becoming daily more 
compact since the diet of Spires, no longer sided with Charles. 
Full of the sentiment of their own strength, they refused to 
assume the title of a party, and to take the emperor as a 
judge. '* What are you saying," cried they, " of diversity 
between the members of the empire? There is but one legiti- 
mate party. It is not a question of deciding between two 
opinions whose rights are equal, but of crushing rebels, and 
of aiding those who have remained faithful to the constitution 
of the empire." 

This haughty language enlightened Charles: he found they 
had outstripped him, and that, abandoning his lofty position 
of arbiter, he must submit merely to be the executer of the 
orders of the majority. It was this majority which hencefor- 
ward commanded in Augsburg. They excluded the imperial 
councillors who advocated more equitable views, and the 
Archbishop of Mentz himself ceased for a time to appear in 
the diet. * 

The majority ordered that a refuta-tion of the Evangelical 
doctrine should be immediately drawn up by Romish theolo- 
gians. If they had selected for this purpose moderate men 
like the Bishop of Augsburg, the Reformation would still have 
) had some chance of success with the great principles of Chris- 
tianity; but it was to the enemies of the Reform, to the old 
champions of Rome and of Aristotle, exasperated by so many 
defeats, that they resolved to intrust this task. 

- They were numerous at Augsburg, and not held in verj 
great esteem. "The princes," said Jonas, "have brought 
their learned men with them, and some even their unkarned 
and their fools.'" * Provost Faber and Doctor Eck led the 
troop; behind them was draAvn up a cohort of monks, and 
above all of Dominicans, tools of the Inquisition, and impatient 
to recompense themselves for the opprobrium they had so long 
endured. There was the provincial of the Dominicans, Paul 
Hugo, their vicar John Bourkard, one of their priors Conrad 
Koelein, Avho had written against Luther's marriage; with a 
number of Carthusians, Augustines, Franciscans, and the 

I Non renit iu genatuin. CoTyt. Kef., ii, 173. ' Quidem etiam »uo8 ineraditoi 

«t ineptoi. 


vicars of several bishops. Such were the men who, to the 
number of twenty, were commissioned to refute Melancthon. 

One might beforehand have augiired of the work by the 
workmen. Each one understood that it was a question, not of 
refuting the Confession, but of branding it. Campeggio, who 
doubtless suggested this ill-omened list to Charles, was well 
aware that these doctors were incapable of measuring them- 
selves with Melancthon; but their names formed the most 
decided standard of popery, and announced to the world clearly 
and immediately what the diet proposed to do. This was the 
essential point. Rome would not leave Christendom even hope. 

It was, however, requisite to know whether the diet, and the 
emperor who was its organ, had the right of pronouncing in 
this purely religious matter. Charles put the question both to 
the Evangelicals and to the Romanists. ^ 

'• Your highness," said Luther, who was considted by the 
elector, " may reply "ivith all assurance: " Yes, if the emperor 
wish it, let him be judge! I will bear everything on his part; 
but let him decide nothing contrary to the Word of God. 
Your highness cannot put the emperor above God himself. ' 
Does not the first commandment say, Thou shalt have no other 
Gods before me? 

The reply of the papal adherents was quite as positive in a 
contrary sense. " We think," said they, " that his majesty, 
in accord with the electors, princes, and states of the empire, 
has the right to proceed in this affair, as Roman Emperor, 
guardian, advocate, and sovereign protector of the Church and 
of our most holy faith."* Thus, in the first days of the Re- 
formation, the Evangelical Church frankly ranged itself under 
the throne of Jesus Christ, and the Roman Church xmder the 
flceptre of kings. Enlightened men, even among Protestants, 
iave misimderstood this double nature of Protestantism and 

The philosophy of Aristotle and the hierarchy of Rome, 
thanks to this alliance with the civil power, were at length 
about to see the day of their long-expected triumph arrive. So 
long as the schoolmen had been left to the force of their syllo- 
gisms and of their abuse, they had been defeated; but now 
Charles the Fifth and the diet held out their hands to them; 
the reasonings of Faber, Eck, and Wimpina were about to be 
coimtersigned by the German chancellor, and confirmed by the 

1 S«ie the document extracted from the archives of Bararia in F. ITrkund., il, 9, 
» Konnen den Kaiser nicbt uber GDtt setzen. L. Epp, ir, 83. » RomiaelKn 

Kaiaer, Vogt, Advocaten und Obiisten Beschirmer der kirken. F. Crkund., ii, 10. 


great seals of the empire. "\Mio could resist them? Tho 
Ilomish error has never had any strength except by its union 
with the secular arm; and its victories in the Old and in tho 
New Wdrld arc owing, even in our days, to state patronage. ^ 
These things did not escape the piercing eye of Luther. He 
saw at once the weakness of the argument of the papist doctors 
and the power of Charles's arm. " You are waiting for your 
adversaries' answer," wrote he to his friends in Augsburg; " it 
is already written, and here it is: The Fathers, the Fathers, 
the Fathers; the Church, the Church, the Church; usage, cus- 
tom; but of the Scriptures — nothing!"^ — " Then the emperor, 
supported by the testimony of these arbiters, will pronounce 
against you;^ and then will you hear boastings from all sides 
that will ascend up to heaven, and threats that will descend 
even to hell." 

Thus changed the situation of the Reform. Charles was 
obliged to acknowledge his weakness: and, to save the appear- 
ance of his power, he took a decisive part with the enemies of 
Luther. The emperor's impartiality disappeared: the state 
turned against the Gospel, and there remained for it no other 
saviour than God. 

At first many gave Avay to extreme dejection: above all, 
Melancthon, who had a nearer vi«w of the cabals of the adver- 
saries, exhausted moreover by long vigils, fell almost into 
despair.* " In the presence of these formidable evils," cried 
he, "I see no more hope."^ And then, however, he added — - 
" Except the help of God." 

The legate immediately set all his batteries to work. Al- 
ready had Charles several times sent for the elector and tho 
landgrave, and had used every exertion to detach them from 
the Evangelical Confession.'' Melancthon, uneasy at these 
secret conferences, reduced the Confession to its minimum, and 
entreated the elector to demand only the two kinds in tho 
Eucharist and the marriage of priests. " To interdict tho 
former of these points," said he, " Avould be to alienate a great 
number of Christians from the communion; and to forbid tho 
second would be depriving the Church of all the pastors capa- 
ble of edifying it. Will they destroy religion and kindle civil 
war, rather than aj^jily to these purely ecclesiastical constitu- 

* Otahcite for instance. ' Patres, Pntres, Patrcs ; Ecclesiu, Ecclesia, Ecclesia ; 

vsxiit, consuctudo, prasterea o Scriptiira nihil. L. Epp., iv, 96. » Pronuntiabit 

Cesar contra vos. Ibiil. ♦ Quadani tiistitia et quasi descsperatione vexntur. 

Corp. Ret'., ii, 163. "> Quid nobis sit spprandum in fantis odiis iniinicorum. (Ibid., 

1<5.) Wliat liavo we tu liopo in such liatred of our enemies I * Lugati 

Morinberg ad Seuatuni. Ibid., 161. 

i£ELAXCIHOX'S MLN'Iiirif. 173 

tions a mitigation that is neither contrary to sound morals nor 
to faith?'' 1 The protestant princes begged Melancthon to go 
himself and make these proposals to the legate. ^ 

Melancthon agreed : he began to flatter himself with suc- 
cess; and, in truth, there were, even among the papists, indi- 
viduals who were favourable to the Reformation. There had 
recently arrived at Augsburg, from beyond the Alps, certain 
propositions tolerably Lutheran,' and one of the emperor's 
■confessors boldly professed the doctrine of justification by faith, 
■cursing "those asses of Germans," said he, " who are inces- 
santly braying against this truth."* One of Charles's chap- 
lains approved even the whole of the confession. There was 
something farther still: Charles the Fifth having consulted the 
Crandees of Spain, who were famous for their orthodoxy: " If 
the opinions of the Protestants are contrary to the articles of 
the faith,'' they had replied, let your Majesty employ all his 
power to destroy this faction; but if it is a question merely of 
certain changes in human ordinances and external usages, let 
aU violence be avoided."* "Admirable reply!" exclaimed 
Melancthon, who persuaded himself that the Romish doctrine 
was at the bottom in accordance v,-ith the Gospel. 

The Reformation found defenders in even still higher sta- 
tions. Mary, sister of Charles the Fifth, and widow of King 
Louis of Hungary, arriving at Augsburg three days after the 
reading of the Confession, ^vith her sister-in-law the Queen of 
Bohemia, Ferdinand's wife, assiduously studied the Holy Scrip- 
tures; she carried them with her to the himting parties, in 
which she foimd little pleasm'e, and had discovered therein the 
jewel of the Reform, — the doctrine of gratuitous salvation. 
This pious princess made her chaplain read evangelical sermons 
to her, and often endeavoured, although with prudence, to ap- 
pease her brother Charles with regard to the Protestants.® 

Melancthoj, encouraged by these demonstrations, and at the 
same time alarmed by the threats of war that the adversaries 
did not cease from uttering, thought it his duty to purchase 
peace at any cost, and resolved in consequence to descend in 
his propositions as low as possible. He therefore demanded an 
interview with the legate in a letter whose authenticity has been 

1 Melancthon ad Due Sax. Elect. Corp. Kef., ii, 16?. » Principcs nostri mise- 

runt nos ad R. D. V. Ibid, 171. ' Perveiienint ad nos propositioiies qujedam 

Italica satis Lutheranse. Ibid, 163. ♦ Istis Germanis asiuis. nobis in hac parte 

obgannientibus. Ibid. * Hispauici proceres prsBclare et sapienter responderunt 

Cssari. (Ibid., 179.) The grandees of Spain answered the emperor noblv and wisely. 

•"H Htk^ii eLuTtxtaJits; studet nobis placare fratrem. Ibid, ITi 


unreasonably doubted.^ At the decisive moment the heart 
of the reform champion fails, — his head turns — ^he staggers — 
he falls ; and in his fall he runs the risk of dragging with him 
the cause which martyrs have already watered with their blood. 

Thus speaks the representative of the Reformation to the re- 
presentative of the papacy : — 

" There is no doctrine in which we differ from the Roman 
Church ;2 we venerate the universal authority of the Roman 
PontiflF, and we are ready to obey him, provided he does not 
reject us, and that of his clemency, which he is accustomed to 
show towards all nations, he will kindly pardon or approve 
certain little things that it is no longer possible for us ta 
change. . . . Now then, will you reject those who appear 
as suppliants before you? Will you pursue them with fire and 
sword? . . . Alas ! nothing draws upon us in Germany 
so much hatred, as the unshaken firmness with which we main- 
tain the doctrines of the Roman Church.^ But with the aid 
of God, we will remain faithful, even unto death, to Christ and 
to the Roman Church, although you should reject us.* 

Thus did Melancthon humble himself. God permitted this- 
fall, that future ages might clearly see how low the Reforma- 
tion was wilhng to descend in order to maintain unity, and 
that no one might doubt that the schism had come from Rome; 
but also, assuredly, that they might learn how great, in every 
important work, is the weakness of the noblest instruments. 

Fortunately there was then another man who upheld th& 
honour of the Reformation. j!\t this very time Luther wrote 
to Melancthon: " There can be no concord between Christ and 
Belial. As far as regards me, I will not yield a hair's breadth.* 
Sooner than yield, I should prefer suffering everything, even 
the most terrible evils. Concede so much the less, as your 
adversaries require the more. God will not aid us until we are 
abandoned by all. " ^ And fearing some weakness on the part 
of his friends, Luther added : " If it were not tempting God, 
you would long ago have seen me at your side!" ' 

Never, in fact, had Luther's presence been so necessary, for 
the legate had consented to an interview, and Melancthon was 
about to pay court to Campeggio.* 

I See the Corp. Ilef, ii, 1C3. ^ Dogma nullum habemus diversum ab Ecclesi.i 

Romana. Ibiii., 170. ^ Quam quia Ecck-siio Uomanie doguiata surama con- 

stantia licfeiidiinus. Ibid. ♦ Vel si recusabitis nos in gratiam recipcre. (Ibid.) 

Even if you shall refuse to receive us into favour. » At certe pro nica persona, 

ne pilum quidem cedam. L. Epp., iv, 88. * Neque enim juvabiinur ni deserU 

prlus simuB. (Ibid., 91.) We shall not be assisted unless we arc previously deserted. 

t Certe jamduduni coram vidissetis inc. Ibid.. !•;<. * Ego multoa prehe*. 

•are Boleo et Campegium ctium. Corp. lief, ii 193. 


The Sth of July was tlie day appointed by the legate. Hi» 
letter inspired Philip with the most sanguine hopes, " The 
cardinal assures me that he will accede the usage of the two 
kinds, and the marriage of priests," said he; " I am eager to 
visit him!"'l 

This ^-isit might decide the destiny of the Church. If the 
legate accepted Philip's ultimatum, the evangelical countries 
would be replaced under the power of the Romish bishops, and 
all would have been over with the Reformation; but it was 
saved through the pride and blindness of Rome. The Papists 
believing it on the brink of the abyss, thought that a last blow 
would settle it, and resolved, like Luther, to concede nothing, 
" not even a hair's breadth." The legate, however, even while 
refusing, assumed an air of kindness, and of yielding to foreign 
influence. " I might have the power of making certain con- 
cessions, but it would not be prudent to use it without the con- 
sent of the German princes;- their wUl must be done; one of 
them in particidar conjures the emperor to prevent us from 
yielding the least thing. I can grant nothing." The Roman 
prince, with the most amiable smile, then did all he could to 
gain the chief of the protestaut teachers. Melancthon retired 
£lled with shame at the advances he had made, but still de- 
ceived by Campeggio. *' Xo doubt," said he, " Eck andCoch- 
Iceus have been beforehand with me at the legate's." ' Luther 
entertained a different opinion. " I do not trust to any of these 
Itahans," said he; "they are scoundrels. When an Italian 
is good, he is very good; but then he is a black swan." 

It was truly the Italians who were concerned. Shortly after 
the 12th of July arrived the pope's instructions. He had re- 
ceived the Confession by expi-ess,* and sixteen days had suffi- 
ced for the transmission, the deliberation, and the return. 
Clement would hear no mention either of discussions or of coun- 
cil. Charles was to march straight to the mark, to send an 
army into Germany, and stifle the Reformation by force. At 
Augsburg, however, it was thought best not to go so quickly 
to work, and recourse was had to other means. 

" Be quiet; we have them, said the Romish doctors. Sensi- 
ble of the reproach that had been made against them, of having 
misrepresented the Reformation, they accused the Protestants 
themselves of being the cause. " These it is," they said, " who 

^ Propero enim ad Campegiuin. Corp. Ref., ii, 174. ' Se nihil posse do- 

cemere niside voUmtate pri;icipum Gennaiiiae. Ibid., 174. ' Forte ad leg*- 

turn veniebant Eccins et Cochlreus. Ili.i., 175. * Nostra Confessio ad Romam- 

per Tertdarios missa est. Ibid., 13G, 2i9. 

376 THE pope's decision QUESTION. 

to give themselves an air of being in accord with us, no'w uia- 
somble tiieir heresy; but we will catch them in their own nets. 
If they confess to not having inserted in their Confession all 
that they reject, it will be proved that they are trifling with us. 
If, on the contrary, they pretend to have said everything, they 
will by that very circumstance be compelled to admit all that 
they have not condemned. " The protestant princes were there- 
fore called together, and they were asked if the Reformation 
•was confined to the doctrines indicated in the Apology, or if 
there was something more.^ 

The snare was skilfully laid. The papacy had not even 
been mentioned in Melancthon's Confession ; other errors 
besides had been omitted, and Luther himself complained of 
it aloud. "Satan sees clearly," said he, "that your Apologv 
has passed lightly over the articles of purgatory, the worship 
of saints, and, above all, of the Pope and of Antichrist." The 
princes requested to confer with their allies of the towns; and 
all the Protestants assembled to deliberate on this momentous 

They looked for Melancthon's explanation, wlio did not 
■decline the responsibility of the affair. Easily dejected through 
his own anxiety, he became bold Avhenever he was directlj 
attacked. " All the essential doctrines," said bo, "have been 
set forth in the Confession, and every error and abuse that ig 
opposed to them has been pointed out. But vms it necessary 
to plunge into all those questions so full of contention and 
animosity, that are discussed in our universities" Was it 
necessary to ask if all Christians arc priests, if the primacv of 
the pope is of right divine, if there can be indulgences, if every 
good work is a deadly sin, if there are more than seven sacra- 
ments, if they may be administered by a layman, if divine 
election has any foundation in our own merits, if sacerdotal 
consecration impresses an indelible character, if auricular 
confession is necessary to salvation? . . No, no! all these 
things are in the province of the schooL, and by no means 
essential to faith." * 

It cannot be denied that in the questions thus pointed out 
by Melancthon there were important points. However that 
may bo, the evangelical committee were soon agreed, and on 
the morrow they gave an answer to Charles's ministers, drawn 
up with as much frankness as firmness, in wliich they said 

1 An plara vclitnus Caesari pi-reponere controversa qunm feccrimus. (Corp. Rcf., ii, 
188.) AVIiothcr «e wish to lay more controverted points before tilt -jmperor than y\e 
hare done, ^ MeUnncthoiiis Judicium. Ibid., 182. 


•" that the Protestants, desirous of arriving at a cordial under- 
standing, had not wished to complicate their situation, and had 
proposed not to specify all the errors that had been introduced 
into the Church, but to confess all the doctrines that were 
essential to salvation; that if, nevertheless, the adverse party 
felt itself urged to maintain certain abuses, or to put forward 
any point not mentioned in the Confession, the Protestants 
declared themselves ready to reply in conformity with the 
Word of God." ^ The tone of this answer showed pretty 
■clearly that the evangelical Christians did not fear to follow 
their adversaries wherever the latter should call them. Ac- 
cordingly the Roman party said no more on this business. 


The Refutation — Charles's Dissatisfaction — Interview with the Princes — The S\vis« 
at Augsburg — Tetrapoiitan Confession — Zwingle's Confession — Afflicting Divi- 
sions — The Elector's Faith— His Peace — The Lion's Skin — The Rt-futatioii— One 
Concession — Scripture and the Hierarchy — Imperial Commands — Interview be- 
tween Melancthon and Campeggio^I'olicy of Charles — Stormy Meeting — Resolu- 
tions of the Consistory — Prayers of the Church — Two Miracles — The Emperor'j 
Menace — The Princes' Courage — The Mask ^ Negotiations — The Spectres a' 
Spires — Tumult in Augsburg. 

The commission chai-ged to refute the Confession met twice 
a-day, ^ and each of the theologians who composed it added to 
it his refutations and his hatred. 

On the loth July the work was finished. " Eck with his 
band," ^ said Melancthon, "transmitted it to the emperor." 
Great was the astonislmient of this prince and of his ministers 
at seeing a work of two hundred and eighty pages filled with 
abuse.* " Bad workmen waste much wood," said Luther, 
" and impious writers soil much paper." This was not all: 
to the Refutation were subjoined eight appendices on the 
heresies that Melancthon had dissembled (as they said), and 
wherein they exposed the contradictions and " the horrible 
sects" to which Lutheranism had given birth. Lastly, not 
confining themselves to this official answer, the Romish theo- 
logians, who saw the sun of power shining upon them, filled 
Augsburg with insolent and abusive pamphlets. 

There was but one opinion on the Papist Refutation; it was 

1 Aus Gottes Wort, welter bericht lu thun. F. Urkundenbuch, ii, 19. 

' Bis die convenire dii uiitur. Zw. Epp., ii, 472. » Eccius cum sua commani- 

pulatione. Corp. Uet\ ii, 193. ♦ Longum et plenum coimciis scriptnra. Corpt 

Bel, ii, 133. 

3 M 


found confused, violent, thirsting for blood. ^ Charles thee 
Fifth had too much good taste not to perceive the difference 
that existed between this coarse work and the noble dignity of 
Melancthon's Confession. He rolled, handled, crushed, and so 
damaged the two hundred and eighty pages of his doctors, that 
when he returned them two days after, says Spalatin, there 
were not more than twelve entire. Charles would have been, 
ashamed to have such a pamphlet read in the diet, and he re- 
quired, in consequence, that it should be drawn up anew,, 
shorter and in more moderate language. ^ That was not easy, 
"for the adversaries, confused and stupified," says Brentz,. 
«' by the noble simpUcity of the evangelical Confession, neither . 
knew where to begin nor where to end; they accordingly took j 
nearly three weeks to do their work over again." ' ' 

Charles and his ministers had great doubts of its success; 
leaving, therefore, the theologians for a moment, they imagined 
another manceuvre. " Let us take each of the protestant 
princes separately," said they: "isolated, they will not re- 
sist." Accordingly, on the 15th July, the Margrave of 
Brandenburg was visited by his two cousins, the Electors 
of Mentz and of Brandenburg, and by his two brothers the 
Margraves Frederick and John Albert. " Abandon this new- 
faith, " said tlicy to him, " and return to that which existed a ■ 
century ago. If you do so, there are no favours that you may | 
not expect from the emperor; if not, dread his anger." * 

Shortly after, the Duke Frederick of Bavaria, the Count of 
Nassau, De Rogendorf, and Truchses, were announced to the 
Elector on the part of Charles. "You have solicited the 
emperor," said they, " to confirm the marriage of your son 
with the Princess of Juliers, and to invest you with the elec- 
toral dignity; but his majesty declares, that if you do not 
renounce the heresy of Luther, of which you are the principal 
abettor, he cannot accede to your demand." At the sama 
time the Duke of Bavaria, employing the most urgent solicita- 
tions, accompanied with the most animated gestures * and the 
most sinister threats," called upon the elector to abandon his 
faith." " It is asserted," added Charles's envoys, " that yow 

» Adeo confusn, incondita. violenta, sanguinolenta ct crudelis ut (Co.> 
Kef. ii,193.) So confuBed. indiB.^sted. bloody, and m-ucl, they were asliained 

5 nodie avctorihus ipsis Sophistis, a Cffi.are rursus cs.e redd.ta.n ut e.nendetr.. ct 
civiUus componutu.-. (Ibid.) To-day it was .-.Kain retuvne.l by the emperor to the 
sophists, its authors, to be emended and composed n.ore civilly. Noatiu con- 

fegsiono ita sfupidos, attonitos. et eoiifasos. Ibid. t ..p. »«'.. ii, ;'"» ' ' • 

Urkund ii.W. B Mit redcn und Gebchrden pnuhtii; civ.eiKt. If id^ .JOI. 

• Xtina's diras promissis ingentibus adjicieus. iV.^y. V.W; i", 484.) Adding a«r 
threats to vast promises. 



Lave made an alliance with the Swiss. The emperor cannot 
believe it; and he orders you to let him know the truth." 

The Swiss I it was the same thing as rebellion. This alli- 
ance was the phantom incessantly invoked at Augsbmg to 
alarm Charles the Fifth. And in reality deputies or at least 
friends of the Swiss, had already appeared in that city, and 
thus rendered the position stiU more serious. 

Bucer had arrived two days before the reading of the Con- 
fession, and Capito on the day subsequent to it.^ There was 
even a report that Zwingle woidd join them.^ But for a long 
time all in Augsburg, except the Strasburg deputation, were 
ignorant of the presence of these doctors. ' It was only 
twenty-one days after their arrival that Melancthon learnt it 
positively,* so great was the mystery in which the Zwinglians 
were forced to enshroud themselves. This was not without 
reason; a conference with Melancthon having been requested 
by them: " Let them write," replied he; " I should compro- 
mise our cause by an interview with them." 

Bucer and Capito in their retreat, which was hke a prison 
to them, had taken advantage of their leisure to draw up the 
TetrapoUtan Confession, or the confession of the four cities. 
The deputies of Strasburg, Constance, Memmingen, and Lin- 
dau, presented it to the emperor.^ These cities purged them- 
selves from the reproach of v»-ar and revolt that had been con- 
tinually objected against them. They declared that their only 
motive was Christ's gloiy, and professed the truth "freely, 
boldly, but without insolence and without scurrility." ^ 

Zwingle about the same time caused a private confession to 
be communicated to Charles,' which excited a general uproar. 
" Does he not dare to say," exclaimed the Romanists, " that 
the mitred and withered race (by which he means the bishops) is 
in the Church what hump-backs and the scrofida are in the 
body?"' — " Does he not insinuate," said the Lutherans; " that 
we are beginning to look back aft^r the onions and garlic of 
Egypt?" — " One might say with great truth that he had lost 

^Venimus hue, ego pridie solemnitatis Diri Johannis, Capito die dominica se- 
quente. Zw. Epp., ii, 4T2. - Rumor apud nos est, et te cam tuis Helvetiis 

comitia adTolatnrum. Ibid^431,467. ' Ita latent ut non quibuslibet sui co- 

piam faciant. Corp. Ref., p. 196. ♦ Capito ct Bucerns adsunt. Id hodie certo 

comptri. Ibid. * Cinglianae ciritates propriam C'infessionem obtulenint 

Csesari. Ibid., 187. This C >iifv.ssion will be found in S'urMyer, CoUectio Con- 
fessionum.p. 740. "Ingenue ac fortiter; citra procaciam tamen et saanai, 

id fateri et dicere qnod res est. Zw. Epp., ii, 4S5. 1 See Niemeyer ColL ConC, 

p. 16. » Pedatum et Tr.itratnni genus Episcoporum, id esset in Ecclesia. quod 

gibbi et struraata in coirore. (Ibid.) Z«i:is!e compares the bbhops to the dr.- and 
ftllitless that support the vi-.ies. 


his senses," exclaimed Melanctlion.^ " All ceremonies, ac- 
cording to liim, ought to be abolished; all the bishops ought 
to be suppressed. In a M^ord, all is perfectly Helvetic, that is 
to say, supremely barbarous." 

One man formed an exception to this concert of reproaches, 
and this was Luther. " Zwingle pleases me tolerably," wrote 
he to Jonas, "as Avell as Bucer."^ By Bucer, he meant no 
doubt the Tetrapolitan Confession: this expression should be 

Thus three Confessions, laid at the feet of Charles the Fifth, 
attested the divisions that Avere rending Protestantism. In 
vain did Bucer and Capito endeavour to come to an under- 
standing with Melancthon, and write to him: " We will meet 
where you will, and when you Avill; Ave will bring Sturm alone 
with us, and if you desire it, we Avill not even bring hini."^ 
all was unavailing. It is not enough for a Christian to con- 
fess Christ; one disciple should confess another disciple, even 
if the latter lies under the shame of the world; but they did 
not then comprehend this duty. •' Schism is in the schism," 
said the Romanists, and the emperor flattered himself Avith an 
easy victory. " Return to the Church," Avas the cry from 
every side, " A\'hich means," interrupted the Strasburgers, " let 
us put the bit in your mouths, that we may lead you as avo 

All these things deeply afflicted the elector, Avho Avas besides 
still under the burden of Charles's demands and threats. The 
emperor had not once spoken to him,''"' and it Avas everywhere 
said that his cousin George of Saxony Avould be proclaimed 
elector in his stead. 

On the 28th July, there Avas a great festival at the court. 
Charles, robed in his imperial garments, whose value was said 
to exceed 200,000 gold ducats, and displaying an air of ma- 
jesty Avhich impressed respect and fear,^ conferred on many 
princes the investiture of their dignities; the elector alone Avas 
excluded from these favours. Erelong he Avas made to under- 
stand more plainly Avhat Avas reserved for him, and it Avas in- 
sinuated, that if he did not submit, the emperor Avould expel 
him from his states, and inflict upon him the severest punish- 

' Dicas simpliciter mente ciiptum esse. Corp. Ref., p. W3. - Zwinfrluismihi 

■ane placet, et Uucerus. L. Kpp., iv, 110. ' A'eniemus quo etqiiaiulo tu voles. 

Corp. Ref. ii, 203. * Una tamen omnium vox : Revertimini ad IJcclesiam. Zw. 

Epp., ii, 48-t. ' CoIloq\ilum ejus luniduin frui potuisse. Seek., ii, 164. 

• Apparult Caesar m.f jestate .... iiisignitus vestibus suis impcrialibus. Corp. Ret 
a. Hi, '' MUlIor, Uesch. der Protestation, p. 715. 

rm, electob's faith 181 

The elector tiirued pale, for he doubted not that such would 
certainly be the termination. How with his small territory 
could he resist that powerful monarcii who had just vancjiushed 
France and Italy, and now saw Germany at his feet? And 
besides, if he coidd do it, had he the right? Frightful night- 
mares pursued John in his dreams. He beheld himself 
stretched beneath an immense mountain under which he lay 
painfully struggling, while his cousin George of Saxony stood 
on the summit and seemed to brave him. 

John at length came forth from this furnace. " I must 
either renounce God or the world," said he. "Well! my 
choice is not doubtful. It is God who made me elector, — me, 
who was not worthy of it. I fling myself into his arms, and 
let him do with me what shall seem good to him." Thus the 
elector by faith stopped the mouths of lions and subdued king- 
doms." * 

All evangehcal Christendom had taken part in the struggle 
of John the Persevering. It was seen that if he should now 
fall, all would fall with him ; and they endeavom-ed to support 
him. *' Fear not," cried the Christians of Magdeburg, " for 
your highness is under Christ's banner."* " Italy is in expec- 
tation," wrote they from Venice; "if for Christ's glory you 
must die, fear nothing." ^ But it Avas from a higher source 
that John's courage was derived. " I beheld Satan as light- 
ning fall from heaven," said his Master.* The elector, in like 
manner, beheld in his di'eams George fall from the top of the 
mountain, and lie dashed in pieces at his feet. 

Once resolved to lose every thing, John, free, happy, and 
tranquil, assembled his theologians. These generous men de- 
sired to save their master. " Gracious lord," said Spalatrn, 
" recoUect that the Word of God, being the sword of the Spi- 
rit, must be upheld, not by the secular power, but by the hand 
of the Almighty." * — " Yes !" said all the doctors, " we do not 
wish that, to save us, vou should risk your childreu, yoiu- sub- 
jects, your states, your crown .... We will rather give our- 
selves into the hands of the enemy, and conjure him to be sa- 
tisfied with our blood."® John, touched by this language, 
refused, however, their solicitations, and firmly repeated these 
words, Avhich had become his device : " I also desire to confess 
my Saviour." 

' Hebrews, xi, 33, 34. * Unter dem Hecrpannjr Jesu Christi. Ibid., p. 131, 

» Etiamsi more subeanda tibi foret ob Christi gloriam. (Corp. Ret, ii, iiS. L. l\ 

RoscUL) Even death should be endured by you for the glory of Ciirist. 
♦ Luke. X, 18. * Gottes Wort keines wegs dureh nelUich Schwert. F. rris. 

und., ii, S2. • Sie woUen ihnen an ihrem Bliite geniigen lasseo. Ibid., i<0, . 


It was on the 20tli July tliat lie replied to tlic pressing argu- 
ments by which Charles had endeavoured to shake him. He 
proved to the emperor that, being his brother's legitimate heir, 
he could not refuse him the investiture, which, besides, the 
Diet of Worms had secured to him. He added, that he did not 
blindly believe what his doctors said, but that, having recog- 
nised the Word of God to be the foundation of their teaching, 
he confessed anew, and without any hesitation, all the articles 
of the Apology. " I therefore entreat your majesty," con- 
tinued he, " to permit me and mine to render an account to 
God alone of what concerns the salvation of our souls." * The 
Margrave of Brandenburg made the same reply. Thus failed 
this skilful manojuvre, by which the Romanists had hoped to 
break the strength of the Reformation. 

Six weeks had elapsed since the Confession, and as yet there 
was no reply. " The Papists, from the moment they heard 
the Apology," it was said, " suddenly lost their voice." ^ At 
length the Romish theologians handed their revised and cor- 
rected performance to the emperor, and persuaded this prince 
to present it in his own name. The mantle of the state seemed 
to them admirably adapted to the movements of Rome. " These 
sycophants," said Melancthon, "have desired to clothe them- 
selves with the lion's skin, to appear to us so much the more 
terrible." ^ All the states of the empire were convoked for the 
next day but one. 

On Wednesday, 3d August, at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
the emperor, sitting on his throne in the chapel of the Pala- 
tinate Palace, attended by his brother, with the electors, prin- 
ces, and deputies, the elector of Saxony and his allies were 
introduced, and the count-palatine, Avho was called '*<Charles's 
mouth-piece," said to them : " His majesty having handed your 
Confession to several doctors of different nations, illustrious by 
their knowledge, their morals, and their impartiahty, has read 
their reply with the greatest care, and submits it to you as his 



Alexander Schweiss then took the papers and read the Refu- 
tation. The Roman party approved some articles of the Confes- 
sion, condemned others, and in certain less salient passages, it 
distinguished between what must be rejected and what accepted. 

1 Forstemann'g Urkundenbucli, pp. 80-92, 113-119. ' Papistas obmutuisse 

ad ipsoruin Confcssionem. Cochl., p. 195. » Volucrunt fijcoplmiita) tlicologi 

A«o»7?» Uluni sibi cirouindare, ut cssent nobis formidabiliores. Corp., Ilef., p. 252. 

♦ Velut suiim suaqtie publica auctoritate roboratam. (Urkundeubuch, ii, 144.) A« 
Ins own, confirmed by hi.s own unj tlie public authority, to be received by all with 
unanimous content. 


It gave way on an important point ; the opus operatvm. The 
Protestants having said in their 13th Article that faith was 
necessary in the sacrament, the Romish party assented to it ; 
thus abandoning an error which the papacy had so earnestly 
defended against Luther in that very city of Augsburg, by the 
mouth of Cajetan. 

Moreover, they recognised as truly christian the evangelical 
"doctrine on the Trinity, on Christ, on baptism, on eternal pxm- 
ishment, and on the origin of evU. 

But on all the other points, Charles, his princes, and his 
theologians, declared themselves immovable. They maintained 
that men are born with the fear of God, that good works are 
meritorious, and that they justify in union with faith. They 
tipheld the seven sacraments, the mass, transubstantiation, the 
■withdrawal of the cup, the celibacy of priests, the invocation of 
-saints, and denied that the Church was an assembly of the 

This Refutation was skilful in some respects, and, above all, 
in what concerned the doctrine of works and of faith. But on 
other points, in particular on the withdrawal of the cup and 
the celibacy of priests, its arguments were lamentably weak, 
and contrary to the well known facts of history. 

"While the Protestants had taken their stand on the Scrip- 
tures, their adversaries supported the divine origin of the hier- 
archy, and laid down absolute submission to its laws. Thus, 
the essential character, which stUl distinguishes Rome from the 
Reformation, stood prominently forth in this first combat. 

Among the auditors who filled the chapel of the Palatinate 
Palace, concealed in the midst of the deputies of Nuremberg, 
■was Joachim Camerarius, who, whUe Schweiss was reading, 
leant over his tablets, and carefully noted down all he could 
collect. At the same time others of the Protestants, speaking 
to one another, were indignant, and even laughed, as one of 
their opponents assures us.' " Really ," said they with one 
consent, " the whole of this Refutation is worthy of Eck, Fa- 
ber, and Cochlceus !" 

As for Charles, little pleased with these theological disser- 
tations, he slept during the reading;* but he awoke when 
Schweiss had finished, and his awakening was that of a lion. 

The count-palatine then declared that his majesty found the 
articles of this Refutation orthodox, catholic, and conformable 
to the Gospel ; that he therefore required the Protestants to 

* Mold e Latherania inepte cachionabantur. (C->chlcEus. p. 895.) Many of the Lu- 
laughed lika foois. 2 Imperator it«rum obdormlrit. Uwp. ReC U, 2ii. 


abandon their Confession, now refuted, and to adhere to all the 
aiticles which had just been set forth ;i that, if they refused, 
the emperor would remember his office, and would know how to 
show himself the advocate and defender of the Roman Church. 
This language was clear enough : the adversaries imagined 
they had refuted the Protestants by commanding the latter to 
consider themselves beaten. Violence — arms — war — were all 
contained in these cruel words of Charles's minister.* The 
princes represented that, as the Refutation adopted some of 
their articles, and rejected others, it required a careful exami- 
nation, and they consequently begged a copy should he given 

The Romish party had a long conference on this demand : 
night was at hand ; the count-palatine replied that, consider- 
ing the late hour and the importance of this affair, the emperor 
would make known his pleasm-e somewhat later. The diet se- 
parated, and Charles the Fifth, exasperated at the audacity of 
the evangelical princes, says Cochloeus, returned in ill humour 
to his apartments.^ 

The Protestants, on the contrary, withdrew full of peace ; 
the reading of the Refutation having given them as much con- 
fidence as that of the Confession itself.* They saw in their 
adversaries a strong attachment to the hierarchy, but a great 
ignorance of the Gospel — a characteristic feature of the Romish 
party; and this thought encouraged them. " Certainly," said 
they, " the Church cannot be where there is no knowledo-e of 
Christ." ' 

Melancthon alone was still alarmed: he Avalked by siohtand 
not by faith, and, remembering the legate's smiles, he had 
another interview with him, as early as the 4th August, still 
demanding the cup for the laity, and lawful wives for the 
priests. " Then," said he, " our pastors will place themselves- 
again under the government of bishops, and we shall be able 
to prevent those innumerable sects with which posterity is- 
threateued."^ Melancthon's glance into the future is remark- 
able : it does not, however, mean that he, like many others^ 
preferred a dead unity to a living diversity. 

Campeggio, now certain of triumphing by the sword, dis- 

* Petiit Ciesar ut omnes in illos articulos consentiant. Corp. Ucf., ii, 245. 

' Orationis suinma atrox. Und., -J3. ' Cassar nou Mqiut auimo forobat 

eorum contumaciam. Cochl., p. 195. * Fact! sunt ercctiore animo. Corp. 

Ref., ii, 259. " Ecclcsiam ibi non esse, ubi innoratur Clirisfjs. Tlie Churcli is 

not wliere Christ is unlcnown. Quod nisi fiet, quid in tot scctis ad posteros 

futuruin sit. (Cori)., Ref., ii, 148.) Unless tliis be done wliat will become of posterity 
with so many sect*! 


d:4;nfiilly handed tliis paper to Cocliloeus, who hastened to re- 
iutc it. It is hard to say whether Melancthon or Campeggio 
was the more infatuated. God did not permit an arrangement 
that woidd have enslaved his Church. 

Charles passed the whole of the 4th and the morning of the 
6th August in consultation with the Ultramontane party. " It 
will never be by discussion that we shall come to an under- 
standing, said some; and if the Protestants do not submit vol- 
untarily, it only remains for us to compel them." They never- 
theless decided, on account of the Refutation, to adopt a middle 
course. During the whole of the diet, Charles pursued a skil- 
ful policy. At first, ho refused every thing, hoping to lead 
away the princes by violence; then he conceded a few unim- 
portant points, under the impression that the Protestants, hav- 
ing lost all hope, would esteem so much the more the little he 
j'ielded to them. This was what he did again under the pre- 
sent circumstances. In the afternoon of the fifth, the count- 
palatine announced that the emperor would give them a copy 
of the Refutation, but on these conditions ; namely, that the 
Protestants should not reply, that they should speedily agree 
with the emperor, and that they would not print or communi- 
cate to any one the Refutation that should be confided to them. ^ 

This communication excited murmurs among the Protest- 
ants. " These conditions," said they all, *' are inadmissible." 
— " The Papists present us with their paper," added the Chan- 
cellor Bruck, " as the fox offered a thin broth to his gossip the- 

The ssavoury bi-oth upon a plate by Reynard was served up, 

But Mistress Stork, with her Jong beak, she could not get a sup.- 

" If the Refutation," continued he, " should come to be known 
without our participation (and how can we prevent it ?), wo 
shall be charged with it as a crime. Let us beware of accept- 
ing so perfidious an offer.' We already possess in the notes 
of Camerarius several articles of this paper, and if we omit any 
point, no one will have the right to reproach us with it." 

On the next day (6th August) the Protestants declared to 
the diet that they preferred declining the copy thus offered to 
them, and appealed to God and to his majesty.* They thus 
rejected all that the emperor proposed to them, even what he 
considered as a favour. 

1 F. rrkund„ ii, 179 ; Corp. Ref., ii, 256 ; Briich, Apol, 72. ' Glack wie der 

Puths brauchet, da er den t^torch zu gast lud. Briick, Apol., 74. ' Qnaiido - 

exemplum per alios in \-ulgus exire poterat. Corp. Ref., ii, 76. * Das Sic e» - 
Uott und Kavs. Maj. besclilen mufften. Urkund.. ii, ISl. 


Agitation, anger, and affriglit were manifested on every besch 
of that august assembly.^ This reply of the evangelicals was 
war— was rebellion. George of Saxony, the Princes of Bava- 

tria, all the violent adherents of Rome, trembled Avith indigna- 
tion; there was a sudden, an impetuous movement, an explosion 

•of murmurs and of hatred; and it might have been feared that 
the two parties would have come to blows in the very presence 

•of the emperor, if Archbishop Albert, the Elector of Branden- 
burg, and the Dukes of Brunswick, Pomerania, and Jtleclden- 
burg, rushing between them, had not conjured the Protestants 
to put an end to this deplorable combat, and not drive the 

^emperor to extremities.* The diet separated, their hearts filled 
with emotion, apprehension, and trouble. 

Never had the diet proposed such fatal alternatives. The 
hopes of agreement, set forth in the edict of convocation, had 

■only been a deceitful lure : now the mask was thron-n aside ; 

; submission or the sword — such was the dilemma offered to the 
Reformation. All announced that the day of tentatives was 

^passed, and that they were beginning one of violence. 
^ In truth, on the 6th July, the pope had assembled the con- 

-sistory of cardinals in his palace at Rome, and had made known 
to them the protestant ultimatum; namely, the cup for the laity, 
the marriage of priests, the omission of the invocation of saint.i 
in the sacrifice of the mass, the use of ecclesiastical property 
already secularised, and for the rest, the convocation of a coun- 
cil. "These concessions," said the cardinals, "are opposed to 
the rehgion, discipline, and laws of the Church.^ We reject 
them, and vote our thanks to the emperor for the zeal which 
he employs in bringing back the deserters." The pope having 
thus decided, every attempt at conciliation became useless. 
Campeggio, on his side, redoubled in zeal. He spoke as if 

'in his person the pope himself were present at Augsburg.* ' ' Let 
the emperor and the right-thinking princes form a league," said 
he to Charles; "and if these rebels equally insensible to threats 

- and promises, obstinately persist in their diabolical course, then 

. lot his majesty seize fire and sword, let him take possession of 

. all the property of the heretics, and utterly eradicate these ve- 
nomous plants.' Then let him appoint holy inquisitors, who 

» Und darob wie mtxn Spiiren maaf, ein Entzet zen gcliabt. Urkund,, ii, 181. 

' Hi uccedunt ad iiostros princij)e8 et jubeut oinittcro hoc certainen, no Cujsar vc- 

bementius commoveatur. Corp. Ret'., ii, 'ioi. ^ Oppositas reliijioiii, discipUnic, 

legibusque EcclcHite. ralluv., i, 234. * Als were der Papst selbst gegenwartij^ 

. gewcst. Bruck, Apol., 6L'. * Se alcuiii .... perscverassero in quota diabolica 

▼ia quella 8. M. jiotra inettcre la mano ul I'erro e al foco et radicitus e.rlirpare questa 

▼ciieiiata pianta. Instructio data Cajsari a rercrundissiino Canipeggi in dicta Augus- 

' tana, 1Q30. 


-^ ill go on the track of the Remnants of Reformation, and pro- 

d against them, as in Spain against the Moors. Let him 
put the university of Wittemherg under ban, burn the heretical 
books, and send back the fugitive monks to their convents. 
But this plan must be executed Avith courage." 

Thus the jurisprudence of Rome consisted, according to a 
prophecy uttered against the city which is seated on seven hills, 
in adorning itself with pearls that it had stolen, and in becoming 
drunk with the blood of the saints. * 

While Charles was thus urged on with blind fury by the diet 
and the pope, the protestant princes, restrained by a mute in- 
dignation, did not open their mouths,* and hence they seemed 
to betray a weakness of which the emperor was eager to profit. 
But there was also strength concealed under this weakness. 
"We have nothing left," exclaimed Melancthon, "but to em- 
brace our Sa\-iour's knees." In this they laboured earnestly. 
Melancthon begged for Luther's prayers ; Brentz for those of his 
own church: a general cry of distress and of faith ran through 
evangelical Germany. "You shall have sheep," said Brentz, 
"if you wiU send us sheep: you know what I mean."' The 
sheep that were to be offered in sacrifice were the prayers of 
the saints. 

The Church was not wanting to itself. "Assembled every 
day," wrote certain cities to the electors, "we beg for you 
strength, grace, and victory, — victory full of joy." But the 
man of prayer and faith was especially Luther. A calm and 
sublime courage, in which firmness shines at the side of joy — 
a courage that rises and exults in proportion as the danger in- 
creases — is what Luther's letters at this time present in every 
line. The most poetical images are pale beside those energetic 
expressions which issue in a boiling torrent from the reformer's 
soul. "I have recently witnessed two miracles," wrote he on 
the 5th August to chancellor Bruck; "this is the first. As I 
•was at my window, I saw the stars, and the sky, and that vast 
and magnificent firmament in which the Lord has placed them. 
I could nowhere discover the columns on which the Master has 
s pported this immense vault, and yet the heavens did not fall . . . 

"And here is the second. I beheld thick clouds hanging 
above us like a vast sea. I could neither perceive ground on 
which they reposed, nor cords by which they were suspended ; 
and yet they did not fall upon us, but saluted us rapidly and 
fled away. 

' Revelation, xvii and rriiL » Tacita indignatio. Corp. Ret. ii, J&t. 

» Habebitis ores, si ore* ad nos mittatis : intelligiti* quas toIo. Ibid, 246. 


"God," continued he, 'Mvill choose the manner, the tkie, 
and the place suitable for deliverance, and he will not linger. 
What the men of blood have begun, they have not yet finished 

: Our rainbow is faint their clouds are threaten- 

^^S the enemy comes against us T»'ith frightful machines 

But at last it will be seen to whom belong the ballista;, 

and from what hands the javelins are launched.l It is no 
matter if Luther perishes: if Christ is conqueror, Luther is con- 
queror also."* 

The Roman party, who did not know what was the victory 
of faith, imagined themselves certain of success. 

The doctors having refuted the Confession, the Protestants 
ought, they imagined, to declare themselves convinced, and all 
would then be restored to its ancient footing: such was the 
plan of the emperor's campaign. lie therefore urged and calle<i 
upon the Protestants; but instead of submitting, they announced 
a refutation of the Refutation. Upon this Charles looked at 
his sword, and all the princes who surrounded him did the same. 
John of Saxony understood what that meant, but he remain- 
ed firm. " The straight line," said he (the axiom Avas famihar 
to him), "is the shortest road. " It is this indomitable firmness 
that has secured for him in history the name of John the Per- 
severing. He was not alone : all those protestant princes who 
had grown up in the midst of courts, and who were habituated 
to pay an humble obedience to the emperor, at that time found 
in tlieir faith a noble independence that confounded Charles the 

With the design of gaining the Marquis of Brandcnbru-g, 
they opened to him tlic possibility of according him some j>us- 
sessions in Silesia on which he had claims. "If Christ is 
Christ," replied he, "the doctrine that I have confessed is truth." 
— "But do you know," quickly replied his cousin the Elector 
Joachim, "what is your stake?" — "Certainly," replied tlie 
margrave, "it is said I shall be expelled from this countrv. 
Well! may God protect me ! " One day Prince Wolfgang "of 
Anhalt met Doctor Eck. "Doctor," said he, "you are excit- 
ing to war, but you will find those who will not be behindhand 
with you. I have broken many a lance for my friends in my 
time. My Lord Jesus Christ is assuredly worthy I should do 
as much for him." 

At the sight of this resolution, each one asked himself whe- 
ther Choi-les, instead of curing the disease was not augmcntino- 

> In fine vidcbitur ciijus toni L. Epp., iv, 130. a Viiiciit Christu* 

modut niliil refert si ptreut Lutlicrus, quia victore ChriKto victor erit. Ibiit., 139. 

THE iUSK. 1S9 

it. Reflections, critislms, jests, passed between the citizens ; 
and the good sense of the people manifested in its own fashion 
wliat they thought of the folly of their chief. We will adduce 
•one instance. 

It is said that one day, as the emperor was at table with 
several Roman-catholic princes, he was infonned that some 
comedians begged permission (according to custom) to amuso 
their lordships. First appeared an old man wearing a mask, 
and dressed in a doctor's robe, who advanced with difficulty 
carrying a bundle of sticks in his arms, some straight and some 
crooked. He approached the wide fireplace of the Gothic hall, 
threw down his load in disorder, and immediately withdrew.^ 
Charles and the courtiers read on his back the inscription — 
JoKN' Reuchlix. Then appeared another mask with an intel- 
ligent look, who made every exertion to pare the straight and 
the crooked pieces;- but finding his labour useless, he shook 
his head, turned to the door, and disappeared. They read — 
Erasmus of Rotterdam. Almost immediately after advanced 
a monk ■with bright eye and decided gait, carrying a brasier of 
lighted coals. ^ He put the wood in order, set fire to it, blew 
and stirred it up, so that the flame rose bright and sparkling 
into the air. He then retired, and on his back were the words 
— Martijj Luther. 

Next approached a magnificent personage, covered with all 
the imperial insignia, who, seeing the fire so bright, drew his 
sword, and endeavoured by violent thrusts to extinguish it ; 
but the more he struck, the fiercer burnt the flames, and at 
last he quitted the hall in indignation. His name, as it would 
seem, was not made known to the spectators, but all divined it. 
The general attention was soon attracted by a new character. 
A man, wearing a surplice and a mantle of red velvet, with an 
alb of white wool that reached to his heels, and having a stole 
around his neck, the ends ornamented with pearls, advanced 
majestically. Beholding the flames that already filled the hearth, 
he wrung his hands in terror, and looked around for sometliing 
to extinguish them. He saw two vessels at the very extremity 
of the hall, one filled with water, and the other with oil. He 
rushed towards them, seized unwittingly on that containing the 
oil, and threw it on the fire.* The flame then spread with such 
violence that the mask fled in alarm, raising his hands to hea- 
ven; on his back was read the name of Leo X. 

1 Persona larva contecta, habitu doctorali portabat struem li-jTioruin. T X. Fabri- 
«iua. opp. omnia, ii, S-U. a ll:c ci>iiabatur curva rectis ein?qua<-e ligni^ 

roid. ' In azuin ferens igneni et vrunas. Ibid. ^Currensifa 

•saphoram oleo plenam. IbiU , iSi. 


The mystery was finished ; but instead of claiming their re- 
muneration, the pretended actors had disappeared. No one 
asked the moral of this drama. 

The lesson, however, proved useless ; and the majority of the 
diet, assuming at the same time the part assigned to the em- 
peror and the pope, began to prepare the means necessary for 
extinguishing the fire kindled by Luther. They negotiated in 
Italy with the Duke of Mantua, who engaged to send a few 
regiments of light cavalry across the Alps;i and in England 
with Henry VIII., who had not forgotten Luther's reply, and 
who promised Charles, through his ambassador, an immense 
subsidy to destroy the heretics. "^ 

At the same time frightful prodigies announced the gloomy 
future which threatened the Reform. At Spires fearful spectres 
in the shape of monks with angry eyes and hasty steps, had 
appeared during the night. "What do you want ?" they had 
been asked. — " We are going," they replied, "to the Diet of 
Augsburg !" The circumstance had been carefully investigated, 
and was found perfectly trustworthy.^ " The interpretation is 
not difficult," exclaimed Melancthon: "Evil spirits are coming 
to Augsburg to counteract our exertions, and to destroy peace. 
They forebode horrible troubles to us."* No one doubted thi.s. 
"Everything is advancing towards war," said Erasmus.- 
" The diet will not terminate," wrote Brentz, "except by tlio 
destruction of all Germany."'' "There will be a slaughter of 
the saints," exclaimed Bucer, "which will be such that the 
massacres of Diocletian will scarcely come up to it."'' War and 
blood — this was the general cry. 

Suddenly, on the night of Saturday, Gth August, a great 
disturbance broke out in the city of Augsburg.* There was 
running to and fro in the streets; messengers from the emperor 
were galloping in every direction; the senate was called together 
and received an order to allow no one to pass the gates of tlic 
city.3 All were afoot in the imperial barracks; the soldiers 

» Che tentaiio col Duca di Mantona d' avereil modo di condiirre 1000 cavalli le;;- 
gicri d' Italia in caso si facesse Kuerra in Geniiunica. Nic. Tielolo Relat. 

2 Cui (Csesari) iiiBentem vim pecunioe in )ioc sacrum bellum contra liasreticos An- 
glus promisisse fertur. (Zw. Epp., ii, 484.) To whom (tlie emperor) the English kins 
is snid to liave promised an immense sum of money for tlie sacred war njjainst the 
heretics. » Res et diligenter iiiquisita ct explorata maxlmequo ajiitr/irrof .. 

Corp Ref., ii, '-'59. * Monacliorum Spirensium (pxr/xa plane idgnihcac 

horri'bilem toinnltnm. Ibid., 260. " Vides rem plane tendere ad beUnm. 

Corp Ref. An«., 1-', p. 268. • Comitia non finicntur nisi totius Germaniiu 

malo'ot exitio. ' Co'rp! Ref., ii. 216. ' Lanicna sanctorum quaUs vU 

Dioclctiani tempore fuit. Rue. Ep. Aug.. U, IWO. » Tnnmltum magnum 

fuisse in civitate. Corp. Ref., il. 277. » Facto autem intcmposta nocte 

CaoMr senatui maudavit, ne quenquam per porta* urbis sua> omittant. Ibid. 


got readv tlieir arms; the regiments were drawn up, and at 
daybreak (about three o'clock on Sunday morning) the emperor's 
troops, in opposition to the custom always observed in the diet, 
relieved the soldiers of the city and took possession of the gates. 
At the same time it was reported that these gates would not 
be opened, and that Charles had given orders to keep a strict 
watch upon the elector and his allies.^ A terrible awakening 
for those who still flattered themselves with seeing the religious 
debates conclude peacefully! Might not these unheared-of mea- 
sures be the commencement of wars and the signal of a fright- 
ful massacre? 


Philip of Hesse — Temptation — Union resisted — The Landgrare's Dissimulation — 
The Emperor's Order to the Protestants— Brandenburg's threatening Speeches ■ 

Resolution of PhiJip of Hesse — Flight from Augsburg— .DiscoverT — Charles's 

Emotion — Rerolution in the Diet — MetamorphoEis — Unusual Moderation — Peace, 

Trouble and anger prevailed in the imperial palace, and it was- 
the landgrave who had caused them. Firm as a rock in the 
midst of the tempest with which he was surrounded, Philip of" 
Hesse had never bent his head to the blast. One day, in a 
public assembly, addressing the bishops, he had said to them, 
" My lords, give peace to the empire; we beg it of you. If you 
will not do so, and if I must fall, be sure that I wUl drag one 
or two of you along with me."' They saw it was necessary to- 
employ milder means with him, and the emperor endeavoured 
to gain him by showing a favourable disposition with respect 
to the county of Katzenellenbogen, about which he was at 
variance with Xassau, and to Wurtemberg, which he claimed 
for his cousin Ulric. On his side Duke George of Saxony, his 
father-in-law, had assured him that he would make him hi* 
heir if he would submit to the pope. " They carried him to 
an exceeding high moimtain, whence they showed him all the 
kingdoms of the world and the glory thereof," * says a chro- 
nicler, but the landgrave resisted the temptation. 

One day he heard that the emperor had manifested a desire 
to speak to him. He leapt instantly on his horse and appeared 
before Charles.' The latter, who had with him his secretary 

> Daff man auf den Churfurst zu Sachsen aufschen haben coll. Briick, ApoL, p. 80. 
- Auf den hohen berg gefuhrt. Lanze's Chroiu'c * Von ihr lelbct gen 

Hof geritten. Corp. Ref., ii, 165. 


Schweiss and the Bishop of Constance, represented that he had 
four complaints against him; namely, of having violated the 
€dict of Worms, of despising the mass, of having, during his 
absence, excited all kinds of revolt, and, finally, of having 
transmitted to him a hook in which his sovereign rights were 
■attacked. The landgrave justified himself; and the emperor 
fiaid that he accepted his replies, except with regard to the 
faith, and begged him to show himself in that respect entirely 
■submissive to his majesty. "What would you say," added 
Charles, in a winning tone, "if I elevated you to the regal 
■dignity? ^ But, if you show yourself rebellious to my orders, 
then I shall behave as becomes a Roman emperor." 

These words exasperated the landgrave, but they did not 
move him. "I am in the flower of my age," replied he, "and 
I do not pretend to despise the joys of life and the favour of the 
great; but to the deceitful goods of this world I shall always 
prefer the ineffable grace of my God." Charles was stupified; 
he could not understand Philip. 

From this time the landgrave had redoubled his exertions to 
=unite the adherents of the Reformation. The Zwinglian cities 
felt that, whatever was the issue of the diet, they would he the 
iirst victims, unless the Saxons should give them their hand. 
But this there was some difficulty in obtaining. 

"It does not appear to me useful to the public weal, or safe 
for the conscience," wrote Melancthon to Bucer, "to load our 
princes with all the hatred your doctrine inspires. "^ The 
Strasburgers replied, that the real cause of the Papists' hatred 
was not so much the doctrine of the Eucharist as that of jus- 
tification by faith. "All we, Avho desire to belong to Christ," 
said they, "are one, and have nothing to expect but death."' 

This was true; but another motive besides checked Melanc- 
thon. If all the Protestants united, they would feel their 
strength, and Avar would be inevitable. Therefore, then, no 

The landgrave, threatened by the emperor, rejected by the 
theologians, began to ask himself what he did at Augsburg. 
The cup was full. Charles's refusal to communicate the Ro- 
mish Refutation, except on inadmissible conditions, made it 
run over. Philip of Hesse saw but one course to take — to quit 
ths city. 

Scarcely had the emperor made known the conditions which 

* (^uin et ill rejjeni te evpliendum cunibiiiins. IloiiiniMl, rhilip der Gr., i, 263. 

• Nostrospiiiicipes oiier;ire irividia vestri di'gmntis. Corp. Uet'., ii. •221. 

' Arptisfiiiie quoque iiittr iioH coiijuncti wseitius, quotquot Cliristi csso rolumoa. 

Ibid., p. :;;;6. 

THE laxdgrave's dissimulatioit. 193 

he placed on the communication of the reply, than on Fridav 
evening, 5th August, the landgrave, going alone to the count- 
palatine, Charles's minister, had begged for an immediate audi- 
ence with his majesty. Charles, who did not care to see him, 
pretended to be busy, and put off Philip until the following 
Sunday.^ But the latter answered that he could not wait; 
that his wife, who was dangerously ill, entreated him to return 
to Hesse without delay; and that, being one of the youngest 
princes, the meanest in understanding, and useless to Charles, 
he humbly begged his majesty would permit him to leave on 
the morrow. The emperor refused. 

We may well understand the storms this refusal excited in 
Philip's mind: but he knew how to contain himself; never had 
he appeared more tranquil; during the whole of Saturday (6th 
August), he seemed occupied only with a magnificent tourney 
in honour of the emperor and of his brother Ferdinand.* He 
prepared for it publicly; his servants went to and fro, but under 
that din of horses and of armour, Philip concealed very differ- 
ent designs. " The landgrave conducts himself with very grea^ 
moderation," wrote Melancthon to Luther the same day.^ " H^ 
told me openly that, to preserve peace, he would submit to con. 
<litions still harder than those which the emperor imposes on 
us, and accept all that he could without dishonouring the 

Yet Charles was not at ease. The landgrave's demand pur- 
sued him; all the Protestants might do the same, and even quit 
Augsburg unexpectedly. The clue, that he had hitherto so 
skilfully held in his hands, was perhaps about to be broken: 
it was better to be violent than ridiculous. The emperor 
therefore resolved on striking a decisive blow. The elector, 
the princes, the deputies, were stiU in Augsburg : and he must 
at every risk prevent their leaving it. Such were the heavy 
thoughts that on the night of the 6th August, while the Pro- 
testants were calmly sleeping,* banished repose from Charles's 
eyes ; and which made him hastily arouse the councillors of 
Augsburg, and send his messengers and soldiers through the 
streets of the city. 

The protcstant princes were still slumbering, when they re- 
ceived on the part of the emperor, the unexpected order to re- 
pair immediately to the Hall of the Chapter.^ 

1 Gum imp^rati>r dilationem reapondendi asta quodara accepwset. Corp. Re£, u, 
2M, 276. ^ A'i l>j'i<K equestres in honnrem OJBsaris instituendo* pablice sese ap- 
p.iravit. beck., ii, 172. » L(ind:rrarins vaide moderate se gerit. Corp. Ret, 

ii. 254. * E^o vem somno sopitus dulciter quiescebam. Ibid., 273. • Mano 

facto Caesar. . . it>iiv<«arii nostras principes. Ibid., 277 ; Briick, ApoLi pi. ?•• 
\> N 

194 Brandenburg's threatening speeches. 

It was eight o'clock when they arrived. They found there 
the Electors of Brandenhurg and Mentz, the Dukes of Saxony^ 
Brunswick, and Mecklenburg, the bishops of Salzburg, Spires,. 
and Strasburg, George Truchses, the Margrave of Baden's re- 
presentative, Count Martin of (Elting, the Abbot of Weingar- 
ten, and the Provost of Bamberg. These were the Commis- 
sioners nominated by Charles to terminate this great affair. 

It was the most decided among them, Joachim of Branden- 
burg, who began to speak. " You know," said he to the Pro- 
testants, " with what mildness the emperor has endeavoured to 
re-establish unity. If some abuses have crept into the Chris- 
tian Church, he is ready to correct them in conjunction with 
the pope. But how contrary to the Gospel are the senti- 
ments you have adopted! Abandon then your errors, do not 
any longer remain separate from the Chm-ch, and sign the 
Kefutation without delay. ^ If you refuse, then through your 
fault how many souls will be lost, how much blood shed, what 
countries laid waste, Avhat trouble inall the empire! And you," 
said he, turning towards the elector, " your electorate, your 
life, all will be torn from you, and certain ruin will fall upon- 
your subjects, and even upon their wives and children." 

The elector remained motionless. At any time this lan- 
guage would have been alarming: it was stiU more so now that 
the city Avas almost in a state of siege. " We now under- 
stand," said the Protestants to one another, " why the imperial' 
guards occupy the gates of the city." * It was evident, in- 
deed, that the emperor intended violence.^ 

The Protestants were unanimous: surrounded with soldiers^ 
at the very gates of the prison, and beneath the thousand^ 
swords of Charles, they remained firm. All these threats did 
not make them take one step backwards.* It was important 
for them, however, to consider their reply. They begged for 
a few minutes' delay, and retired. 

To submit voluntarily, or to be reduced by force, such waa 
the dilemma Charles proposed to the evangelical Christians. 

At the moment when each was anxious about the issue of 
this struggle, in which the destinies of Christianity were cour 
tending, an alarming rumour suddenly raised the agitation of 
all minds to its height. 

The landgrave, in the midst of his preparations for the tour- 

i nt lententite quam in refutatione audiviisent giucribant, Corp. Ref., ii, 277. 

' Intelligis nunc cur porUs munita; fuerunt IWd. ' Quia volebat Cseaar 

BORtros violentiu ad suam scntentiain cogcre. Ibid, * Sed hoB minos nontrov- 

ntblJ commorerunt : perstant in touteuUa nee vel tantillum recedunt. Ibid< 


nament, meditated the most serious resolution. Excluded by 
Charles from every important deliberation, irritated at the 
treatment the Protestants had undergone during this diet,^ con- 
vinced that tliey had no more chance of peace,* not doubting 
that their liberty Tvas greatly endangered in Augsburg, and 
feeling imable to conceal under the appearance of moderation 
the indignation ■with Tvhich his soul was filled, being besides of 
a quick, prompt, and resolute character, Philip had decided 
on quitting the city and repairing to his states, in order to act 
freely, and to serve as a support to the Reformation. 

But Avhat mystery was required! If the landgrave was taken 
in the act, no doubt he would be put under arrest. This dar- 
ing step might therefore become the signal of those extreme 
measures from which he longed to escape. 

It was Saturday, the 6th August, the day for which Philip 
had requested the emperor's leave of absence. He waits untU 
the commencement of the night, and then, about eight o'clock, 
disgTiised in a foreign dress, without bidding farewell to any of 
his friends,' and taking ever}- imaginable precaution,* he makes 
for the gates of the city, about the time when they are usually 
closed. Five or six cavaliers foUow him singly, and at a littk 
distance.' In so critical a moment wiU not these men-at-armi 
attract attention? Philip traverses the streets without danger, 
approaches the gate,^ passes with a careless air through the 
midst of the guard, between the scattered soldiers, no one 
moves, all remain idly seated, as if nothing extraordinary was 
going on. Philip has passed without being recognised. ' His 
five or six horsemen come through in like manner. Behold 
them aU at last in the open country. The little troop inmie- 
diately spur their horses, and flee with headlong speed far from 
the walls of the imperial city. 

Yet Philip has taken his mteasures so well, that no one as 
yet suspects his departure. When during the night Charles 
occupies the gates with his own guards, he thinks the land- 
grave still in the city. ^ When the Protestants were assembled 

1 Commotus indiguitate actionum. Goi-p. Ret, ii, 260. * Spcm pacis ab- 

jecisse. Ibid. » Clam omnibus abit. Ibid. * Multa cum cautela. 

Seek., ii, 172. » Clam cum paucis equitibus. Corp. Ref., ii, 277 : Mit 5 oder 

6 pferden. Ibid., 263. « Seckendorf, and XI. de Rommel no doubt after him, 

iaj- that the landgrave went out through a secret gate (port aurbis secretion. Seek., ii, 
172 ; Rommel, i, 270.) I prefer the contemporary evidence, particularly that of 
Brentz, which gays : Vesperi priusquam porta urbis clauderentur, urbe elapsus est 
(Corp. Ref., ii, 277.) The chief magistrate of Augsburg, who alone had the keys of the 
wicket, would never have dared to favour the departure of the landgrave. 

' Abierat ille ignotu*. Ibid., 2ul. ^ £xi8tiinab«: enim Caesar adhao 

pnMto adease. Ibid 


at eiglit in the morning in the Chapter-hall, the princes of 
ooth parties were a little astonished at the absence of Philip of 
Hesse. They were accustomed, however, to see him keep 
aloof, and thought he might be out of humour. No one ima- 
gined he was between twelve and fifteen leagues from Augsburg. 

After the termination of the conference, and as all were 
returning to their hotels, the elector of Brandenburg and his 
friends on the one hand, elated at the speech they had delivered^ 
the Elector of Saxony and his allies on the other, resolved tc 
sacrifice everything, inquiries were made at the landgrave's 
lodgings as to the reason of his absence; they closely ques- 
tioned Saltz, Nuszbicker, Mayer, and Schnepf. At last the 
Hessian Councillors could no longer keep the secret. " The 
landgrave," said they, "has returned to Hesse." 

This news circulated immediately through all the city, and 
shook it like the explosion of a mine. Charles especially, who 
found himself mocked and frustrated in his expectations — 
Charles, who had not had the least suspicion, ^ trembled, and 
was enraged. ^ The Protestants, whom the landgrave had not 
admitted to his secret,^ were as much astonished as the Ro- 
man Catholics themselves, and feared that this inconsiderate , 
departure might be the immediate signal for a terrible perse- 
cution. There was only Luther, who, the moment he heard 
of Philip's proceeding, highly aj^proved of it, and exclaimed: 
" Of a truth all these delays and indignities are enough to 
fatigue more than one landgrave."* 

The Chancellor of Hesse gave the Elector of Saxony a let- 
ter that his master had left for him. Philip spoke in this 
ostensible document of his wife's health ; but he had charged 
his ministers to inform the elector in private of the real causes 
of his departure. He announced, moreover, that he had given 
orders to his ministers to assist the Protestants in all things, 
and exhorted his allies to permit themselves in no manner to 
be turned aside from the Word of God.* "As for me," said 
he, "I shall fight for the Word of God, at the risk of my 
goods, my states, my subjects, and my life." 

The effect of the landgrave's departure was instantaneous: 
a real revolution was then effected in the diet. The Elector of 
Mentz and the Bishops of Franconia, Philip's near neighbours, 
imagined tlicy already saw liim on their frontiers at the head 

» Cwsni <! nihil suspicante. Corp. Uef., 277. ' Imperator re inspcrata com- 

motus. Seek., ii, 172. ' Umvissend des Churfursten von Sucliseti uml uiiserer. 

Curp. Ref., ii, 2(i3. * Es tiibchtu wolil ista mora et inriignilai nucliciiien land- 

gmvcTi inilile iniichen. Tj. Epp, iv, 1S4. * Ut iiuUo luodu a verbo Dei ab- 

•trubi aut terreri .sc pati;itiu-. Stckn ii. 172. 


of a powerful army, and replied to the Arclibisliop of Salzburg, 
who expressed astonishment at their alarm: " Ah! if you'were 
in our place you ■would do the same." Ferdinand, knowing 
the intimate relations of Philip with the Duke of "VViirtemberg, 
trembled for the estates of this prince, at that time usurped by 
Austria; and Charles the Fifth, undeceived with regard to 
those princes whom he had believed so timid, and whom he 
had treated with so much arrogance, had no doubt that this 
sudden step of Philip's had been maturely deliberated in the 
common council of the Protestants. All saw a declaration of 
war in the landgrave's hasty departure. They called to mind 
that at the moment when they thought the least about <t, they 
might see him appear at the head of his soldiers, on the fron. 
tiers of his enemies, and no one was ready; no one even wishei 
to be ready! A thunderbolt had fallen in the midst of the 
diet. They repeated the news to one another, with troubled 
eyes and affrighted looks. All was confusion in Augsburg ; 
and couriers bore afar, in every direction, astonishment and 

This alarm immediately converted the enemies of the re- 
form. The violence of Charles and the princes was broken in 
this memorable night as if by enchantment; and the furious 
wolves were suddenly transformed into meek and docile lambs.^ 

It was still Sunday morning: Charles the Fifth immediately 
convoked the diet for the afternoon.* " The landgrave has 
quitted Augsburg," said Count Frederick from the emperor; 
" his majesty flatters himself that even tlie friends of that 
prince were ignorant of his departure. It is without the em- 
peror's knowledge, and even in defiance of his express prohibi- 
tion, that Philip of Hesse has left, thus failing in all his duties. 
He has wished to put the diet out of joint.* But the emperor 
conjures you not to pei-mit yourselves to be led astray by him, 
and to contribute rather to the happy issue of this national 
assembly. His majesty's gratitude will thus be secured to you.'* 

The Protestants replied, that the departure of the landgrave 
had taken place without their knowledge; that they had heard 
of it with pain, and that they would have dissuaded him. 
Nevertheless they did not doubt that this prince had solid 
reasons for such a step; besides he had left his councillors 
with full powers, and that, as for them, they were ready ta 
do everything to conclude the diet in a becoming manner. ^^ 

* Sed nanc Tiolentiam abitua Landgravii interrupiL Corp. Ref., p. 277. 
'Nam cum pauci* post horis resciscunt Landgravium elapsum, convocant iterua 
BMtro*. Ibid. * Zertrennung dieses Reichstags ru verursachen. Ibid. ?6*. 


Then, confident in their rights, and decided to rcoist Charles's 
arbitrary acts, they continued: " It is pretended that the 
gates were closed on our account. We beg your majesty to 
revoke this order, and to prevent any similar orders being given 
in future." 

Never -was Charles the Fifth less at ease; he had just spoken 
as a father, and they remind him that a few hours back he had 
acted like a tyrant. Some subterfuge was requisite. "It is 
not on your account," replied the count-palatine, " that the 
emperor's soldiers occupy the gates. ... Do not believe those 
who tell you so. . . . Yesterday there was a quarrel between 
two soldiers,^ and a mob Avas collected. . . . This is why the 
emperor took this step. Besides, such things will not be done 
again without the Elector of Saxony, in his quality of marshal 
of the empire, being first informed of them." An order Avas 
given immediately to re-open the gates. 

No exertions were now spared by tlie Roman party to con- 
vince the Protestants of their good will: there was an unac- 
customed mildness in the language of the count-palatine and 
in the looks of Charles. ^ The princes of the papal party, 
once so terrible, were similarly transformed. They had been 
hastily forced to speak out ; if they desired -war, they must 
Degin it instantly. 

But they shrunk back at this frightful prospect. How, with 
the enthusiasm that animated the Protestants, take up arms 
against them! Were not the abuses of the Church every where 
acknowledged, and could the Roman princes be sure of their 
own subjects? Besides, what would be the issue of a war but 
the increase of the emperor's power? The Roman-catholic 
states, and the Duke of Bavaria in particular, would have been 
glad to see Charles at war with the Protestants, in the hope 
that he would thus consume his strength; but it Avas, on the 
contrary, with their own soldiers that the emperor designed 
attacking the heretics. Henceforth they rejected the instru- 
mentality of arms as eagerly as they had at first desired it. 

Everything had thus changed in Augsburg: the Romish 
party was paralyzed, disheartened, and even broken up. The 
sword already drawn Avas hastily thrust back in the sheath. 
Peace! peace! was the cry of all. 

1 £8 habe ein Trabant mit einem andem ein Unwill gehabt Corp. Ucf., il, 266. 
3 MuUo alio tempore mitius et beiiignius quam tunc cum protestantibus cgerit 
(Beck., ii, 172.) At no time did he treat the Protestants more mildly and kindly'. 

THE MIXED coMinssiox 199 


The Mixed Oommission — The Three Points — ^Romish Dissimulation — Abuses — Con- 
cessions — The Main Question — Bishops and Pope conceded — Danger of Conces- 
sion Opposition to the pretended Concord — Luther's opposing Letters — The 

Word above the Church — Melancthon's Blindness— Papist Infatuation — A new 
Commission — Be Men and not Women — The Two Phantoms — Concessions — The 
Three Points — The great Antithesis — Failure of Conciliation — The Gordion Knot 
— A Council granted — Charles'* Summons — Menaces — Altercations — Peace op 
War— Bomanism concedes — Protestantism resists — Luther recalls his Friends. 

The diet now entered upon its third ptasis, and as the time 
of tentatives had been followed by that of menaces; now that 
«f arrangements was to succeed the period of threatenings. 
Kew and more formidable dangers were then to be encountered 
by the Reformation. Rome, beholding the sword torn from 
its grasp, had seized the net, and enlacing her adversaries with 
" cords of humanity and bands of love," was endeavouring to 
drag them gently into the abyss. 

At eight o'clock in the morning of the 16th August, a mixed 
commission was framed, which counted on each side two 
princes, two lawyers, and three theologians. In the Romish 
party, there were Duke Henry of Brunswick, the Bishop of 
Augsburg, the Chancellors of Baden and Cologne, with Eck, 
Cochloeus, and Wimpina; on the part of the Protestants, wer« 
the Margrave George of Brandenburg, the Prince Electoral of 
Saxony, the Chancellors Bruck and Heller, with Melancthon, 
Brentz, and Schnepf.^ 

They agreed to take as basis the Confession of the evan- 
gelical states, and began to read it article by article. The 
Romish theologians displayed an imexpected condescension. 
Out of twenty-one dogmatical articles, there were onlyisix or 
seven to which they made any objection. Original Sin stopped 
them some time; at length they came to an understanding; 
the Protestants admitted that Baptism removed the guilt of 
the sin, and the Papists agreed that it did not wash away 
concupiscence. As for the Church, they granted that it con- 
tained sanctified men and sinners; they coincided also on Con- 
fession. The Protestants rejected especially as impossible the 
enumeration of all the sins prescribed by Rome. Dr. Eck 
yielded this point.* 

There remained three doctrines only on which they differed, 

■1 F. rrknndenbach, ii, 219. ' Die Siind die man nicht wisse, die durff nkht 

beichten. F. Urkonden., ii, 223. 



The first was that of Penance. Tbo llomish doctors taught 
that it contained three parts: coiitrition, confession, and satis- 
faction. The Protestants rejected the latter, and the Roman- 
ists clearly perceiving that with satisfaction would fall indul- 
gences, purgatory, and other of their doctrines and profits, 
vigorously maintained it. " We agree," said they, " that the 
penance imposed by the priest does not procure remission of 
the guilt of sin: but we maintain that it is necessary to obtain 
remission of the penalty." 

The second controverted point was the Invocation of Saints; 
and the third, and principal one, .Justification by Faith. It 
was of the greatest importance for the Romanists to maintain 
the meritorious influence of works: all their system in reality 
was based on that. Eck therefore haughtily declared war on 
the assertion that faith alone justifies. " That word soZe," said 
he, "we cannot tolerate. It generates scandals, and renders men 
brutal and impious. Let us send back the sole to the cobbler. '' i 
But the Protestants would not listen to such reasoning; 
and even when they put the question to each other, Shall 
we maintain that faith alone justifies us gratuitously? 
" Undoubtedly, undoubtedly," exclaimed one of them with ex- 
aggeration, " gratuitously and uselessly:' 2 They even adduced 
strange authorities: " Plato," said they, " declares that it is 
not by external works, but by virtue that God is to be adored ; 
and every one knows these verses of Gate's: 

Si deus est animus, nobis ut carmina dicunt, 
Hie tibi prsscipue pura sit mente colendus." ' 

" Certainly," resumed the Romish theologians: "it is only 
of works performed with grace that we speak; but we say that 
in such works there is something meritorious." The Protes- 
tants declared they could not grant it. 

They had approximated however beyond all hope. The 
Roman theologians, clearly understanding their position, had 
purposed to appear agreed rather than be so in reality. Every- 
one knew, for instance, that the Protestants rejected transub- 
stantiation: but the article of the Confession on this point,, 
being able to be taken in the Romish sense, the Papists bad 
admitted it. Their triumph was only deferred. The general 

1 Man soil die Sole cin well zura Schuster Schicken. Urkund., ii, 2'i5. ThUi 
wretched pun of Eck's i-equires no comment. ' Orcnino, cmnino, addendum 

etiam /rujtra. (Scultet., p. 289.) Uy nil means, by all means! we must also add in 
«ai»i. * If God is u spirit, as tlie poets teach, he should be worshipped witlv 

. pure mind. 

ABUSES — coycEssioxs. 201 

expressions tiiat -were used on the controverted points, would 
permit somewhat later a Romish interpretation to be given to 
the Confession; ecclesiastical authority would declare this the 
only true one; and Rome, thanks to a few moments of dissimu- 
lation, would thus reascend the throne. Have we not seen in 
our days the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church in- 
terpreted in accordance with the Council of Trent? There are 
causes in which falsehood is never awanting. This plot was 
as skilfully executed as it was profoundly conceived. 

The commissioners were on the best terms with one another 
and concord seemed restored. One single uneasiness disturhed 
that happy moment: the idea of the landgrave: *' Ignorant 
that we are almost agreed," said they, " this young madbrain 
is doubtless already assembling his army; we must bring him 
oack, and make him a witness of our cordial union.*' On the 
morning of the 13th, one of the members of the Commission 
(Duke Henry of Brunswick), accompanied by a councillor of 
the emperor, set out to discharge this difficult mission.* Duke 
George of Saxony supplied his place as arbitrator. 

They now passed from the first part of the Confession to the 
second: from doctrines to abuses. Here the Romish theolo- 
gians could not yield so easily, for if they appeared to agree 
with the Protestants, it was all over with the honour and powef 
*>f the hierarchy. It was accordingly for this period of the 
•jombat that they had reserved their cunning and their 

They began by approaching the Protestants as near as they 
could, for the more they granted, the more they might draw the 
Reform to them and stifle it. '* We think," said they, " that 
with the permission of his holiness, and the approbation of hia 
majesty, we shall be able to permit, until the next council, the 
communion in both kinds, wherever it is practised already; 
only, your ministers shoidd preach at Easter, that it is not of 
divine institution, and that Christ is wholly in each kind.* 

Moreover, as for the married priests," continued they, 
" desirous of sparing the poor women whom they have seduced, 
of providing for the maintenance of their innocent children, and 
of preventing every kind of scandal, we wiU tolerate them until 
the next council, and we shall then see if it will not be right to 
decree that married men may be admitted to holy orders, as 
was the case in the primitive Church for many centuries.' 

' Brunswigus coactus est abire -raof to» fiaxtSata quem timent coiitrahere exer. 
eitum. Scultet., p. 299 . 3 Vorschlage des Anschlusseg der Sieben des Gegen- 

theils, Urk., ii, 251, s Wie von alters in der ersten Kirche etliche HunWt. 

Jahre, in Gebrauch gewesen. Ibid., 254. 


" Finally, "we acknowledge that the sacrifice of the mass is 
a mystery, a representation, a sacrifice of commemoration, a 
memorial of the sufiierings and death of Christ, accomplished 
on the cross."* 

This was yielding much: but the turn of the Protestants 
was come; for if Rome appeared to give, it was only to take 
in return. 

The grand question was the Church, its maintenance and 
government : who should provide for it ? They could see only 
two means : princes or bishops. If they feared the bishops, 
they must decide for the princes : if they feared the princes, 
they must decide for the bishops. They were at that time too 
distant from the normal state to discover a third solution, and 
to perceive that the Church ought to be maintained by the 
Church itself — by the christian people. " Secular princes in 
the long run will be defaulters to the government of the Church," 
said the Saxon divines in the opinion they presented on the 
18th August; "they are not fit to execute it, and besides it 
would cost them too dear : * the bishops, on the contrary, have 
property destined to provide for this charge." 

Thus the presumed incapacity of the state, and the fear they 
entertained of its indifi'erence, threw the Protestants into the 
arms of the hierarchy. 

They proposed, therefoi*e, to restore to the bishops their ju- 
risdiction, the maintenance of discipline, and the superintend- 
ence of the priests, provided they did not persecute the evange- 
lical doctrine, or oppress the pastors with impious vows and 
burdens. "We may not," added they, "without strong rea- 
sons, rend that order by which bishops are over priests, and 
which existed in the Church from the beginning. It is danger- 
ous before the Lord to change the order of governments." Their 
aro-ument is not founded upon the Bible, as may be seen, bu* 
upon ecclesiastical history. 

The Protestant divines went even farther, and, taking a last 
fitep that seemed decisive, they consented to acknowledge the 
,pope as being (but of human right) supreme bishop of Chris- 
tendom. " Although the pope is Antichrist, wo may be under 
his government, as the Jews were under Pharaoh, and in later 
days under Caiaphas." We must confess these two compari- 
6ons were not flattering to the pope. " Only," added the doc- 
tors, "let sound doctrine be fully accorded to us." 

The Chancellor Bruck alone appears to have been conscious 

* Eu Emnnerunj; und Gedachtniss. Urk., U, 253. ' Igt Ihuen auch nicht 

satoglich. Dazu Kostct cs zu vicl. Ibid., 247. 


of the truth : he wrote on the margin with a firm hand : " We 
cannot acknowledge the pope, hecause we say he is Antichrist, 
and because he claims the primacy by divine right." * 

Finally, the Protestant theologians consented to agree with 
Rome as regards indifferent ceremonies, fasts, and forms of 
"worship; and the elector engaged to put under sequestration 
Ihe ecclesiastical property already secularized, until the deci- 
sion of the next council. 

Never was the conservative spirit of Luthcraulsm more clear- 
ly manifested. " We have promised our adversaries to concede 
to them certain points of church government, that may be 
granted without wounding the conscience," wrote Melancthon.* 
But it began to be very doubtful whether ecclesiastical conces- 
sions would not drag with them doctrinal concessions also. 
The Reform was drifting away .... still a few more fathoms, 
and it would be lost. Already disunion, trouble, and affright 
■were spreading among its ranks. " Melancthon has become 
more childish than a child," said one of his friends ;' and yet 
he was so excited, that the Chancellor of Lunebm-g having 
made some objections to these imprecedented concessions, the 
little master of arts proudly raised l^is head, and said with a 
sharp, harsh tone of voice : " He who dares assert that the 
means indicated are not christian is a liar and a scoundrel."* 
On which the chancellor immediately repaid him in his own 
coin. These expressions cannot, however, detract from Me- 
lancthon's reputation for mildness After so many useless 
efforts, he was exhausted, irritated, and his words cut the deeper, 
as they were the less expected from him. He was not the only 
one demoralized. Brentz appeared clumsy, rude, and uncivil; 
Chancellor Keller had misled the pious Margrave of Branden- 
burg, and transformed the corn-age of this prince into pusiUa- 
nimity : no other himian support remained to the elector than 
his chancellor Bruck. And even this firm man began to grow 
alarmed at his isolation. 

But he was not alone: the most earnest protests were received 
from without. " If it is true that you are making such con- 
cessions," said their affrighted friends to the Saxon divines, 
" christian liberty is at an end.^ What is your pretended con- 
cord ? a thick cloud that you raise in the air to eclipse the sun 

1 Cum dicimus emn Antichmtum. Urk., ii, 217. * Nos politica qnaedam 

soncessuros qnae sine offensione conscientiiE. (Corp. Be£, ii, 3020 That we will con- 
cede some matters of govermnent which can be conceded without offence to the con- 
science, s Philippus ist kindischer denn ein Kind worden. Baumgartner, 
Ibid.,S€3. * Der LUge als ein Bbsewichst. Ibid^ Sol. ^ Actimi est 
de Christiana libertate. Ibid., 295. 


that was beginning to illuminate the Church.i Never will the 
christian people accept conditions so opposed to the Word of 
God; and 3-our only gain will be the furnishing the enemies of 
the Gospel with a specious pretext to butcher those who remain 
faithful to it." Among the laymen these convictions were ge- 
neral. "Better die with Jesus Christ," said all Augsburg,* 
" than gain the favour of the whole world without him !" 
^ Xo one felt so much alarm as Luther when he saw the glo- 
rious edifice that God had raised by his hands on the point of 
falling to ruin in those of Melancthon. The day on which this 
news arrived, he wrote five letters,— to the elector, to Melanc- 
thon, to Spalatin, to Jonas, and to Erentz, all equally filled 
v/ith courage and with faith. 

"I learn," said he, "that you have begun a marvellous 
work, namely, to reconcile Luther and the pope ; but the pope 
will not be reconciled, and Luther begs to be excused.' And 
if, in despite of them, you succeed in this afi'air, then after your 
example I vrill bring together Christ and Belial. 

*' The world I know is full of wranglers who obscure the 
doctrine of justification by faith, and of fanatics who persecute 
It. Do not be astonished at it, but coultnue to defend it with 
courage, for it is the heel of the seed of the woman that shall 
bruise the head of the serpent.* 

" Beware also of the jurisdiction of the bishops, for fear we 
should soon have to recommence a more terrible struggle than 
the first. They will take our concessions widely, very^widely, 
always more widely, and will give us theirs narrowly, very 
narrowly, and always more narrowly.* AH these negotiations- 
are impossible, unless the pope should renounce his papacy. 

"A pretty motive indeed our adversaries assign! They 
cannot say they restrain their subjects, if we do not publish 
everywhere that they have the truth on their side: as if God 
only taught his Word, that our enemies might at pleasure ty- 
rannize over their people. 

"They cry out that we condemn all the Church. No, wo 
do not condemn it; but as for them, they condemn all the Word 
of God, and the Word of God is more than the Church. "« 

1 Quid ea concordia aliud esset quam nataj jam et divulgato luci obducere iiubeni. 
(Baumgartner, Corp. Ref., ii, 21(6.) What else would that concord be than to bring a" 
cloud over the light already risen and spread abroad ? a Die gauge Stadt 

saRt. Ibid., '.'a7. s ged papa nolet et Luthcrus dcprccatur. L. Epp., iv, H4. 

* Nam hie est ille unicus calcaneus seminis antiquo serpenti advcrsantis. Ibid., 151, 
3 Ipsi cnim nostras coiiccssioncs largo, largius, largissime, suas vero, stricte, strio. 
tiuB, Etrictissime. (Ibid., 145.) For they will take our concessions widely, more widely, 
snost widely ; but their own strictly, more stricUy, most strictly, ' « Sed ab jpsj/fc, 

totum veibum Dei, quod plue quum eccksia est, dauinari. UEpp., iv, 1*5, 


Tliis important declaration of the reformers decides the con- 
troversv between the evangelical Christians and the Papacy : 
unfortunately we have often seen Protestants return, on this 
fundamental point to the error of Rome, and set the visible 
Church above the Word of God. 

"I write to you now," continues Luther, "to believe with 
all of us (and that through obedience to Jesus Christ), that 
Campeggio is a famous demon. ^^ I cannot tell how violently I 
am ao-itated by the conditions which you propose. The plan 
of Campeggio and the pope has been to try us first by threats, 
and then, if these do not succeed, by stratagems ; you have 
triumphed over the first attack, and sustained the terrible com- 
inrr of Caesar: now, then, for the second. Act with courage, 
and yield nothing to the adversaries, except what can be proved 
with evidence from the very Word of God. 

"But if, which Chi-ist forbid I you do not put forth all the 
Gospel; if, on the contrary, you shut up that glorious eagle in 
a sack; Luther — doubt it not I — Luther wiU come and glori- 
ously deliver the eagle.* As certainly as Christ lives, that shall 
be done!" 

Thus spoke Luther, but in vain ; everything in Augsburg 
was tending towards approaching ruin; Melancthon had a ban- 
dage over his eyes that nothing could tear of. He no longer 
listened to Luther, and cared not for popularity. " It does not 
become us," said he, "to be moved by the clamours of the vul- 
gar:' we must think of peace and of posterity. If we repeal 
the episcopal jurisdiction, what will be the consequence to our 
descendants? The secular powers care nothing about the in- 
terests of religion.* Besides, too much dissimilarity in the 
churches is injurious to peace: we must unite with the bishops, 
lest the infamy of schism should overwhelm us for ever."* 

The evangelicals too readily listened to Melancthon, and vi- 
gorously laboured to bind to the papacy by the bonds of the 
hierarchy that Church which God had so wonderfully emanci- 
pated. Protestantism rushed blindfold into the nets of its 
enemies. Already serious voices announced the return of the 
Lutherans into the bosom of the Romish Church. "They are 
preparing their defection, and are passing over to the Papists," 
said Zwingle.* The politic Charles the Fifth acted in such a 

1 Quod CanipcjRrns est unus magnas et insiguis diabolus. (L. Epp.. iv, 147.) That 
Campev'gi" is "ii great ami notable devil. ' Veniet, ne dubiia, reniet Lnt- 

terus, liam- ar|uilaiii lil>ei-aturus magnitice. Ibid., 155. * Sed nos niliil 

decet vul^fi claiiionbiis in iveri. Coi-p. R<'f., ii, 30J. ♦ Profani jurisdictionem 

eedesiastirHiii et siinilia negotia religionem non corent. Ibid. * Xe sohis- 

taatis iiif;iiiiia |H-rpetu'i laboreinus. Ibid. • Lutherani defectionem parant 

«d Papislas. Zw. Ep(k, ii, ML 


manner, that no haughty word should compromise the victory; 
but the Roman clergy could not master themselves: their prid© 
and insolence increased every day. " One would never believe," 
said Melancthon, "the airs of triumph which the Papists give 
themselves." There was good reason! the agreement was on 

the verge of conclusion: yet one or two steps and then,, 

woe to the Reformation ! 

Who could prevent this desolating ruin? It was Luther who 
pronounced the name towards which all eyes should be turned; 
"Christ lives," said he, "and He by whom the violence of our 
enemies has been conquered will give us strength to surmount 
their wiles." This, which was in truth the only resource, did 
not disappoint the Reformation. 

if the Roman hierarchy had been willing, under certain ad- 
missible conditions, to receive the Protestants who were ready 
to capitulate, all would have been over with them. When once 
it held them in its arms, it would have stifled them; but God 
blinded the Papacy, and thus saved his Church. "No conces- 
sions," had declared the Romish senate; and Campeggio, elated^ 
with his victory, repeated, "No concessions!" He moved hea. 
ven and earth to inflame the Catholic zeal of Charles in thia 
decisive moment. From the emperor he passed to the princes , 
"Celibacy, confession, the withdrawal of the cup, private mas- 
ses ! " exclaimed he : " all these are obligatory : we must have 
all." This was saying to the evangelical Christians, as the- 
Samnites to the ancient Romans: " Here are the Caudine Forks;, 
pass through them!" 

The Protestants saw the yoke, and shuddered. God revived, 
the courage of confessors in their weakened hearts. They 
raised their heads, and rejected this humiliating capitulation. 
The commission Avas immediately dissolved. 

This was a great deliverance but soon appeared a fresh dan- 
ger. The evangelical Christians ought immediately to have- 
quitted Augsburg; but, said one of them,^ "Satan, disguised 
as an angel of light, blinded the eyes of their understanding." 
They remained. 

All was not yet lost for Rome, and the spirit of falsehood 
and of cunning might again renew its attacks. 

It was believed at court that this disagreeable termination 
of the commission was to be ascribed to some wrong-headed 
individuals, and particularly to Duke George. They therefore 
resolved to name another, composed of six members only: on 
the one aide Eck, with the Chancellors of Cologne and Baden ; 

» Baumg»rtncr to Spenjler. Corp. Ref., ii, 363. 


on the other, Melancthon, -srith the Chancellors Bruck and Hel- 
ler. The Protestants consented, and all was begun anew. 

The alarm then increased £.:iiong the most decided followers 
of the Reformation. "If we expose ourselves unceasingly to 
new dangers, must we not succumb at last?"' The deputies 
of Nuremberg in particular declared that their city would never 
place itself again imder the detested yoke of the bishops. "It 
is the advice of the undecided Erasmus that Melancthon fol- 
lows," said they. " Say rather of Ahithophel " (2 Sam., xv), 
replied others. "However it may be," added they; "if the 
pope had bought Melancthon, the latter could had done nothing 
better to secure the victory for him."^ 

The landgrave was especially indignant at this cowardice, 
"Melancthon," wrote he to Zwingle, "walks backwards like a 
crab."' From Friedwald, whither he had repaired after his 
flight from Augsburg, Philip of Hesse endeavoured to check 
the fall of Protestantism. "^Yhen we begin to yield, we al- 
ways yield more,"' wrote he to his ministers at Augsburg. 
"Declare therefore to my allies that I reject these perfidious 
conciliations. If we are Christians, what we should pursue is, 
not our own advantage, but the consolation of so many weary 
and aiflicted consciences, for whom there is no salvation if we 
take away the Word of God. The bishops are not real bishops 
for they speak not according to the Holy Scriptures. If we 
acknowledge them, what would follow? They woidd remove 
our ministers, silence the Gospel, re-establish ancient abuses, 
and the last state would be worse than the first. If the Pa- 
pists will permit the free preaching of the pure Gospel, let us 
come to an understanding with them ; for the truth will be the 
strongest, and wiU root out all the rest. But if not I — Xo. 
This is not the moment to yield, but to remain firm even xinto 
death. Baffle these fearful combinations of Melancthon, and 
tell the deputies of the cities, from me, to be men, and not 
women.* Let us fear nothing : God is with us." 

Melancthon and his friends, thus attacked, sought to jus- 
tify themselves : on the one hand, they maintained, that if they 
preserved the doctrine it would finally overthrow the hierarchy. 
But then why restore it? Was it not more than doubtful 
whether a doctrine so enfeebled would still retain strength 

I Fremunt et alii soca ac indignantiir regnum Episcopormn restitui Corp. Ret, 
i),328.) Their other allies murmur and are indignant that the region of the bishops is 
restored. - Si conductus quanta ipse voluisset pecunia a papa esset. (Ibid,. 

833.) If he had been liired by the pope for as large a sum as he pl?ased. 

* Retro it, ut cancer. Zvr, Epp., ii, 5')^ * Das ae nicht weyber sejvn eoa> 

4em manner. Corp. Rcf., ii, 327, 


suflScient to shake the Papacy ? On the other hand, Melanc- 
thon and his friends pointed out two phantoms hefore which 
they shrunk in affright. The first was war, which, in their 
opinion, was imminent. "It will not only," said they, "hring 
numberless temporal evils with it, — the devastation of Germany, 
murder, violation, sacrilege, rapine ; hut it will produce spiri- 
tual evils more frightful still, and inevitably hring on the per- 
turbation of all religion. "1 The second phantom was the 
supremacy of the state. Melancthon and his friends foresaw 
the dependence to which the princes would reduce the Church, 
the increasing secularization of its institutions and of its in- 
struments, the spiritual death that would result, and shrank 
back with terror from the frightful prospect. " Good men do 
not think that the court should regulate the ministry of the 
Church," * said Brentz. " Have you not yourselves expe- 
rienced," added he ironically, " with what wisdom and mild 
ness these boors ('tis thus I denominate the officials and prefecta 
of the princes) treat the ministers of the Church, and the Church 
itself. Rather die seven times !'■ — "I see," exclaimed Melanc. 
thon, "what a Church we shall have if the ecclesiastical gov- 
-ernment is abolished. I discover in the future a tyranny far 
more intolerable than that which has existed to this day."' 
Then, bowed down by the accusations that poured upon him 
from every side, the unhappy Philip exclaimed : " if it is I who 
have aroused this tempest, I pray his majesty to throw me, like 
Jonas, into the sea, and to drag me out only to give me up to 
torture and to the stake."* 

If the Romish episcopacy were once recognised, all seemed 
■easy. In the Commission of Six, they conceded the cup to the 
laity, man-iage to the pastors, and the article of prayer to saints 
appeared of little importance. But they stopped at three doc- 
trines which the evangelicals could not yield. The first was 
the necssity of human satisfaction for the remission of the penal- 
ties of sin ; the second, the idea of something meritorious in ev- 
ery good work; the third, the utility of private masses. "Ah! " 
quickly replied Campeggio to Charles the Fifth, " I would 
rather be cut in pieces than concede anything about masses.''* 

What!'' replied the politicians, "when you agree on all the 

1 Coiifusio et jierturbatio relipionum. Corp. Ref., ii, 882. 2 pt aula minis- 

teriuin in iccU-sia nnlinet bonis noil videtur consultiim. (Ibid., 3f!'.'.) OJood men do 
not think it Wfll advised for the court to ordniii the ministi^ in tlie church. 

' Video po»tf;i inulto iiitoU'rabiliorem futur.'im tvrannidein quntn unquam antea 
fuisse. Ibiil., 3:14. * Si mea causa iia:c teinpcstas coacta eRt, me statiin vJut 

Jonnin in mareejipiat. Ibid., 382. » Er woUte siih mIiu uui' Stucker Zur*. 

iaw!) I<iss(;n. L. (.ipp.. xx, S"?**. 


^reat doctrines of salvation, will vou for ever rend the unity of 
the Church for three such trivial articles ? Let the theologians 
make a last effort, and we shall see the two parties unite, and 
Rome emhrace Wittemberg. " 

It was not so: under these three points was concealed a 
•whole system. On the Roman side, they entertained the idea 
that certain works gain the Divine favour, independently of 
the disposition of him who performs them, and by virtue of the 
. "wiU of the Church. On the evangelical side, on the contrary, 
they felt a conviction that these external ordinances were mere 
human traditions, and that the only thing which procured man 
the Divine favour was the work that God accompUshed by 
Christ on the cross; while the only thing that put him in pos- 
session of this favour was the work of regeneration that Christ 
accomplishes by his Spirit in the heart of the sinner. The 
Romanists, by maintaining their three articles, said: The 
■Church saves," which is the essential doctrine of Rome; the 
■evangeHcals, by rejecting them, said: "Jesus Christ alone 
saves," which is Christianity itself. This is the great antithesis 
•which then existed, and which still separates the two Churches. 
With these three points, which placed souls under her depend- 
ence, Rome justly expected to recover everything; and she 
showed by her perseverance that she understood her position. 
But the evangelicals were not disposed to abandon theirs. 
The Christian principle was maintained against the ecclesiastical 
principle which aspired to swallow it up: Jesus Christ stood 
firm in presence of the Church, and it was seen that hencefor- 
ward all conferences were superfluous. 

Time pressed: for two months and a half Charles the Fifth 
had been labouring in Augsburg, and his pride suffered because 
four or five theologians checked the triumphal progress of the 
■conqueror of Pavia. "^^^lat!" said they to him,- "a few days 
sufficed to overthrow the king of France and the pope, and you 
cannot succeed with these gospellers!" They determined on 
breaking off the conferences. Eck, irritated because neither 
stratagem nor terror had been effectual, could not master him- 
self in the presence of the Protestants. "Ah!" exclaimed he, 
at the moment of separation, *'why did not the emperor, when 
he entered Germany, make a general inquest about the Lu- 
therans? He would then have heard arrogant answers, wit- 
nessed monsters of heresy, and his zeal suddenly taking fire, 
would have led him to destroy all this faction, "^ But now 

1 Hsc inflammassent Imperatorem ad totam banc factior.eiTi delendam. Corp. BcC, 
9 O 


Bruck's mild language and Melancthon's concessions prevent 
him from getting so angrj as the cause requires." Eck said 
ttese Avords with a smile; but they expressed all his thoughts. 
The colloquy terminated on the 30th August. 

The Romish states made their report to the emperor. They 
-were face to face, three steps only from each other, without 
either side being able to approach nearer, even by a hair's- 

Thus, then, Melancthon had failed; and his enormous con- 
cessions were found useless. From a false love of peace, h& 
had set his heart on an impossibility. Melancthon was at the 
bottom of a really christian soul. God preserved him from his- 
great weakness, and broke the clue that was about to lead him 
to destruction. Nothing could have been more fortunate for 
the Reformation than Melancthon's failure; but nothing could;,, 
at the same time, have been more fortunate for himself. His- 
friends saw that though he was willing to yield much, he 
could not go so far as to yield to Christ himself, and his defeat 
justified him in the eyes of the Protestants. 

The Elector of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg: 
sent to beg Charles's leave to depart. The latter refused at 
first rather rudely, but at last he began to conjure the princes 
iiot to create by their departure new obstacles to the arrange- 
ments they soon hoped to be able to conclude.^ We shall 
see what was the nature of these arrangements. 

The Romanists appeared to redouble their exertions. If they 
now let the clue slip, it is lost for ever: they laboured accord- 
ingly to reunite the two ends. These were conferences in th© 
gardens, conferences in the churches, at St. George's, at St. 
Maurice's, between the Duke of Brunswick and John Frederick 
the elector's son, the Chancellors of Baden and of Saxony, the 
Chancellor of Liege and Melancthon; but all these attempts 
were unavailing. It was to other means they were going to 
nave recourse. 

Charles the Fifth had resolved to take the affair in hand, 
and to cut the Gordian knot, which neither doctors nor princes 
could initie. Irritated at seeing his advances spurned and his 
authority compromised, he thought that the moment was come 
for drawing the sword. On the 4th September, the members 
of the Roman party, who were still endeavouring to gain over 
the Protestants, whispered these frightful intentions in« Me- 
lancthon's ears, "We scarcely dare mention it," said they r 
" the Bword is already in the emperor's hands, and certain 

> Autwort des Kaiseri:, itc Uekund., ii, 313. 



people exasperate him more and more. He is not easily ca- 
raged, but once angrj, it is impossible to quiet him."^ 

Charles had reason to appear exacting and terrible. He had 
at length obtained from Rome an unexpected concession — a 
council. Clement YII. had laid the emperor's request before a 
congregation: "How will men who reject the ancient councils 
submit to a new one?" they had replied. Clement himself 
had no wish for an assembly, which he dreaded alike on ac- 
count of his birth and conduct.- However, his promises at 
the Castle of St. Angelo and at Bologna rendered it impossible 
for him to give a decided refusal. He answered, therefore, 
that "the remedy would be worse than the disease;^ but that 
if the emperor, who was so good a Cathohc, judged a council 
absolutely necessary, he woiild consent to it, under the express 
condition, however, that the Protestants should submit in the 
meanwhile to the doctrines and rites of the Church." Then as 
the place of meeting he appointed Rome I 

Scarcely had news of this concession spread abroad, than 
the fear' of a Reformation froze the papal court. The public 
charges of the Papacy, which were altogether venal, immedi- 
ately fell, says a cardinal, and were offered at the lowest price,* 
without even being able to find purchasers.* The Papacy was 
compromised; its merchandise was endangered; and the /?nc« 
current immediately declined on the Roman exchange. 

On Wednesday, 7th September, at two in the afternoon, the 
protestant princes and deputies having been introduced into the 
chamber of Charles the Fifth, the count-palatine said to them, 
"that the emperor, considering their small number, had not 
expected they would uphold new sects against the ancient 
usages of the Universal Church; that, nevertheless, being de* 
sirous of appearing to the last fuU of kindness, he woidd re- 
quire of his holiness the convocation of a council; but that in 
the meanwhile they should return immediately into the bosom 
of the Catholic Church, and restore everything to its ancient 

The Protestants repUed on the morrow, the 8th September, 
that they had not stirred up new sects contrary to the Holy 

' Sescio an aosim dicere, jam ferrum in mana Csesaris esse. Corp. Re£, u, 3*2. 

'In earn (concilii celebrationem) Pontificis animus band propendebatar. Fallavi- 
cini, i, 251, » Al contrario, remedio e pin pericoloao e per partorir mag^^iori 

mail. Lettere de Principe, ii, 197. * Znilgatus concilii rumor .... publica 

Romse munera .... jam in i-ilissiir.nnn pretium decidissent. (Pallav., i, 251.) The 
rumour of a council spread abroad .... public offices at Rome would now har« 
(alien to the lowest price. » Che non se non troTano danari. Lett, di Prin., 

iiJ, S. • Interim restitui debore omnia P.n;iistis. Corp. Ref., ii, 355. Se« 

tHrnt ErHarang de* Kaittrt Karl. r. Ui kunden., ii, S9l. 

212 MEXACE3. 

Scriptures;! that, quite the reverse, if they had not agreed 
with their adversaries, it was because they had desired to re- 
main faithful to the Word of God; that, by convoking in Ger- 
many a general, free, and christian council, it would only be 
doing what preceding diets had promised; but that nothing 
should compel them to re-establish in their churches an order 
of things opposed to the commandments of God." 

It was eight in the evening when, after a long deliberation, 
the Protestants were again called in. " His majesty,'" said 
George Truchses to them, " is equally astonished, both that 
the catholic members of the commissions have accorded so 
much, and that the protestant members have refused every- 
thing. What is your party in the presence of his imperial 
majesty, of his papal holiness, of the electors, princes, estates 
of the empire, and other kings, rulers, and potentates of 
Christendom? It is but just that the minority should yield to 
the majority. Do you desire the means of conciliation to be 
protracted, or do you persist in your answer? Speak frankly ; 
for if you persist, the emperor will immediately see to the 
defence of the Church. To-morrow at one o'clock you will 
bring your final decision." 

Never had such threatening words issued from Charles's 
mouth. It was evident he wished to subdue the Protestants 
by terror; but this end was not attained. They replied the 
next day but one — a day more having been accorded them — 
that new attempts at conciliation would only fatigue the em- 
peror and the diet; that they only required regulations to 
maintain political peace until the assembling of the council.* 
" Enough," replied the redoubtable emperor; " I will reflect 
upon it; but in the mean time let no one quit Augsburg." 

Charles the Fifth was embarrassed in a labyrinth from 
which he knew not how to escape. The State had resolved to 
interfere with the Church, and saw itself compelled to have 
immediate recourse to its ultima ratio — the sword. Charles 
did not desire war, and yet how could he now avoid it? If he 
did not execute his threats, his dignity was compromised, and 
his authority rendered contemptible. Ho sought an outlet on 
one side or the other, but could find none. It therefore only 
remained for him to close his eyes, and rush forward heedless 
of the consequences. These thoughts disturbed him: these 
cares preyed upon him; he was utterly confounded. 

It was now that the elector sent to beg Charles would not 

*■ Nit neue, Secten wieder die heilige Schriflft. BrUck, Apol, p. 136. » Urkuiv- 

den., ii, 410 ; Bruck, Apol., p. 139. 


he offended if he left Augsburg. " Let him await mv answer," 
abruptly replied the emperor: and the elector having rejoined 
that he would send his ministers to explain his motives to his 
majesty: " Xot so many speeches," resumed Charles, with 
irritation; " let the elector say whether he wiE stay or not!" ' 

A rumour of the altercation between these two powerful 
princes having spread abroad, the alarm became universal; 
it was thought war would break out immediately, and there 
was a great disturbance in Augsburg.* It was evening: men 
■were running to and fro; they rushed into the hotels of the 
princes and of the protestant deputies, and addressed them with 
the severest reproaches. " His imperial majesty," said they, 
"is about to have recourse to the most energetic measuresi" 
They even declared that hostilities had begun: it was whis- 
pered that the commander of Horneck (Walter of Ivronberg), 
elected by the emperor grand-master of the Teutonic order, 
was about to enter Prussia with an army, and dispossess Duke 
Albert, converted by Luther.' Two nights successively the 
same timiult was repeated. They shouted, they quarrelled, 
they fought, particularly in and before the mansions of the 
princes: the war was nearly commencing in Augsburg. 

At that crisis (12th September), John Frederick, prince- 
electoral of Saxony, quitted the city. 

On the same day, or on the morrow, Jerome Wehe, chancel- 
lor of Baden, and Count Truchses on the one side; Chancellor 
Bruek and Melancthon on the other, met at six in the morning 
in the church of St. Maurice.* 

Charles, notwithstanding his threats, could not decide 
on employing force. He might no doubt by a single word 
to his Spanish bands or to his German lansquenets have 
seized on these inflexible men, and treated them hke Moors. 
But how could Charles, a Xetherlander, a Spaniard, who had 
been ten years absent from the empire, dare, without raising 
all Germany, offer violence to the favourites of the nation? 
Would not the Roman-catholic princes themselves see in this 
act an infi-ingement of their privileges? War was unseason- 
able. •' Lutheranism is extending already from the Baltic to 
the Alps," wrote Erasmus to the legate: " You have but one 
thing to do: tolerate it."^ 

The negotiation begun in the chm-eh of St. Maurice was 

* Kurtz mit Solchen worten ob er erwarten wolte oder nicht t Briick, Apol., p. 1*S» 
' Bill beschwerlich Gesohrey zu Augsbourg aen selben abend ausge broclien. Ibid« 

p. 145. ' Man wiirde ein Krie<»s-volk in Preusseu Schicken. Ibid., p. Ua, 

* Ibid., p. 15.i-ieO. ' A mare Baltico ad Helveiios, Eras. £pp., xiv, 1. 

214 Luther's appeal. 

continued between the Margrave of Brandenburg and Count 
Truchses. The Roman party only sought to save appearances, 
and did not hesitate, besides, to sacrifice everything. If asked 
merely for a few theatrical decorations — that the mass should 
be celebrated in the sacerdotal garment, with chanting, read- 
ing, ceremonies, and its two canons.^ All the rest was re- 
ferred to the next council; and the Protestants, till then, should 
conduct themselves so as to render account to God, to the coun- 
cil, and to his Majesty. 

But on the side of the Protestants the wind had also changed. 
Now they no longer desired peace with Rome: the scales had 
at last fallen from their eyes, and they discovered with affright 
the abyss into which they had so nearly plunged. Jonas, Spa- 
latin, and even Melancthon were agreed. *' We have hitherto 
obeyed the commandment of St. Paul, Be at peace with all 
men,'' said they; " now we must obey this commandment of 
Christ, Beicare ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypo- 
crisy. On the side of our adversaries is nothing but cunning 
and perfidy, and their only aim is to stifle our doctrine, which 
is truth itself.- They hope to save the abominable articles of 
purgatory, indulgences, and the Papacy, because we have passed 
them by in silence. ^ Let us beware of betraying Christ and 
his Word in order to please Antichrist and the devil."* 

Luther at the same time redoubled his entreaties to with- 
draw his friends from Augsburg. " Return, return," cried 
lie to them; " return, even if it must be so, cursed by the popo 
and the emperor.* You have confessed Jesus Christ, offered 
peace, obeyed Charles, supported insults, and endured blas- 
phemies. I will canonize you, I, as faithful members of Jesus 
Christ. You have done enough, and more than enough: now 
it is for the Lord to act, and he will act ! They have our 
Confession, they have the Gospel; let them receive it, if thej 

will; and if they will not, let them go . If a war should 

come, let it come! We have prayed enough; we have dis- 
cussed enough. The Lord is preparing our adversaries as tho 
victim for the sacrifice; he will destroy their magnificence, and 
deliver his people. Yes! he will preserve us even from Baby- 
lon, and from her burning walls." 

1 In gewbUnlichen Kleidiingen rait Gesang und Lesen. (Urk., ii, 418.) The canoa 
WU8 a frame of card-board placed on the altar before the priest, and which contained 
the Apostle's Creed with various prayers. =" Eitel List, gefahrliche Tucke, &c 

Jonas Urkund., ii, 428. » Die graulichc artikel. Spalat., Ibid., 428. Da 

Primatu Papse, de Purgatorio, do Indu'.gentiis. Melancthon, Corp. Bef., ii, 374. 

* Dem Teufel und Antichrist »u gefallen, Urk., ii, 431. » Vel maledicU » 

Papa et Caesare. L. Epp., iv, 182-171. 



-The Elector's Preparatives and Indignation— Recess of Augsburg— Irritating lan- 
guage — Apology of the Confession — Intimidation — Final I iitervie-w— Messages of 
Peace — Exasperation of the Papists — Restoration of Popery — Tumult in the 
Church — Union of the Churches— The Pope and the Emperor- Close of the Diet 

Armaments — Attack on Geneva — Joy of the Evangelicals — Establishment of 


Thus Luther gave the signal of departure. They replied to 
■the reformer's appeal, and all prepared to quit Augsburg on 
Saturday, 17th September. At ten at night, Duke Ernest 
of Luneburg assembled the deputies of Nuremberg and the 
ministers of the landgrave in his hotel, and announced to them 
that the elector was determined to leave the next morning, 
without informing any one, and that he would accompany him. 
*' Keep the secret," said he to them, " and know that if peace 
.cannot be preserved, it will be a trifling matter for me to lose, 
<jombating with you, all that God has given me."l 

The elector's preparations betrayed his intentions. In the 
middle of the night Duke Henry of Brvmswick arrived hastily 
at his hotel, beseeching him to wait ; ^ and towards morning 
Counts Truchses and Mansfeldt announced that, on the mor- 
-row between seven and eight, the emperor would give him his 

On Monday, 19th September, the elector purposing to leave 
Augsbm-g immediately after his audience with Charles, break- 
fasted at seven o'clock, then sent off his baggage and his cooks,' 
^nd ordered his officers to be ready at ten o'clock. At the 
moment when John quitted the hotel to wait upon the emperor, 
.all the members of his household were drawn up on each side 
booted and spurred;* but, having been introduced to Charles, 
he was requested to wait two, four, or six days longer. 

As Boon as the elector was alone with his allies, his indig- 
nation burst forth, and he even became violent. " This new 
•delay will end in nothing,"* he said; •' I am resolved to set 
•out, happen what may. It seems to me, from the manner in 
which things are arranged, that I have now completely the air 
•of a prisoner." The Margrave of Brandenburg begged him to 
be calm. " I shall go," the elector still replied. At last he 

* AUes das, so Ihm Gott geben haitt, darob zu verlieren ein geringes ware. Corp, 
Ref., ii, 379. ^ jn der selben Xacht Ibid. ' Pi-aemissis fere omnibus 

dmpedimentis una cum cocis. Ibid., 3SS. * Gestiefeldt und gespornt. Ibid^ 

^380. ' Etwas darob schwermiitig und hitzig erzeigbt. Ibid. 


yielded, and having appeared again before Charles the Fifths 
he said, " I will wait until Friday next ; and, if nothing is 
done by that time, I shall leave forthwith." 

Great was the anxiety of the Protestants during these four 
days of expectation. Most of them doubted not that, by ac- 
ceding to Charles's prayers, they had delivered themselves into 
the hands of their enemies. " The emperor is deliberating 
whether he ought to hang us or let us live," wrote Brentz. ^ 
Fresh negotiations of Truchses were Avithout success. * 

AU that now remained for the emperor was to draw up, in 
common with the Romish states, the recess of the diet. This 
was done; and that the Protestants might not complain of its 
having been prepared without their knowledge, he assembled 
them in his palace on Thursday, 22d September, the day pre- 
vious to that fixed for the elector's departure, and had his pro- 
ject read to them by the count-palatine. This project Mas in- 
sult and war. The emperor granted to the elector, the five 
princes, and the six cities,^ a delay of six months, imtil the 
15th April next year, to come to an arrangement with the 
Church, the Pope, the Emperor, and all the princes and mo- 
narchs of Christendom. This was clearly announcing to them 
that the Romanists were very willing to delay until the usual 
period for bringing armies into the field. 

Nor was this all: the delay was granted only on the express 
condition that the Protestants should immediately join the 
emperor in reducing the Anabaptists, and all those who opposed 
the holy sacrament, by which were meant the Zwingliaa 
cities. He wished by this means to tie the hands of the Pro- 
testants, and prevent the two families of the Reformation frora 
uniting during the winter. 

Finally, the Protestants were forbidden to make any inno- 
vations, to print or sell anything on the objects of faith, or to 
draw any one whatever to their sect, "■ since the Confession had 
been soundly refuted by the Holy Scriptures." Thus the Re- 
formation was oflScially proclaimed a sect, and a sect contrary 
to the Word of God. 

Nothing was more calculated to displease the friends of 
the Gospel, who remained in Charles's presence astonished, 
alarmed, and indignant.* This had been foreseen ; and, at 

^ Adhnc deliberat Ctesar pendendum ne nobis sit, an diutius vivcndum. Corp. 
Ref., ii. ' Urkund., ii, 455.472. ' Nuremberg and Heutlingen, to 

which were added Uie cities of Kerapten, Heilbronn, Windshcini, and Weisseniburg, 
Ibid., 474.478. * Protestantcs vehementcr hoc decreto niinime expectato ter- 

riti. (Seek., ii, 200.) The Protestants were exceedingly alarmed at this decree, 
which was by no means expected. 


die moment when the Protestants were about to enter the- 
emperor's chamber, Truchses and Wehe, making signs to them, 
mysteriously shpped a paper into their hands, containing a 
promise that if, on the loth April, the Protestants required a 
prolongation of the delay, their request would certainly be 
granted.* But Bruck, to whom the paper was given, was not 
deceived, " A subtle ambuscade," said he; " a masterpiece of 
knavery! God will save his own, and will not permit them to 
fall into the snare." - This trick, in fact, served only still 
more to increase the courage of the Protestants. 

Bruck, without discussing the recess in a political point of 
view, confined himself to what was principally at stake, the 
Word of God, " We maintain,'' said he, "that our Confes- 
sion is so based on the holy Word of God, that it is impossible 
to refute it. We consider it as the very truth of God, and we 
hope by it to stand one day before the judgment seat of the 
Lord." He then announced that the Protestants had refuted 
the Refutation of the Romish theologians, and holding in his 
hand the famous Apology of the Confession of Augsbtirg writ- 
ten by Melancthon, he stepped forward, and offered it to Charles 
the Fifth. The count-palatine took it, and the emperor was- 
already stretching out his hand, when Ferdinand having whis- 
pered a few words, he beckoned to the count, who immediately 
returned the Apology to Dr. Bruck.^ This paper, and the 
"Commonplaces," are the reformer's masterpieces. The 
embarrassed emperor told the Protestants to come again at eight 
the next morning. 

Charles the Fifth, resolving to employ every means to get 
his decree accepted, began by entreaties; and scarcely was t'ne 
Margrave of Brandenburg seated to take his evening repast, 
when Truchses and Wehe appeared before him, using every 
kind of discourse and argument, but without success. •♦ 

The next day (Friday, 23d September), the evangelical 
princes and the deputies of the cities assembled at five in the 
morning at the margrave's hotel, where the recess was again 
read in the presence of Truchses and Wehe, Chancellor Bruck 
assigning seven reasons for its rejection. " I undertake," said 
Wehe, " to translate the recess into German in such a manner 
that you can accept it. As for the word sect, in particular, it 
is the clerk who placed it there by mistake." ^ The mediators- 

» Brtick, Apologie, p. 183, ' Betriige, meisterstock, aber Gott errettet die 

■anen. rbid. » Auf Konig Ferdinandus winclce wieder geben. Ibid., . 

p. 18*. * Xach essen allerleT Rede Disputation und Persuasion furgewcndt»- 

Urt, ij, 601. * Sondem votn Schreiber gesetzt, der dis nicht geacbt. Ibid.*. 


218 nrriMiDATioN. 

retired in haste to communicate to Charles the complaints of 
the Protestants. 

Charles and his ministers gave up every idea of reconcilia- 
tion, and hoped for nothing except through fear. The Pro- 
testants having reached the imperial palace at eight o'clock, 
they were made wait an hour; the Elector of Brandenhurg 
then said to them in Charles's name: " His Majesty is aston- 
ished beyond measure that you still maintain your doctrine to 
he based on the Holy Scriptures. If you say the truth, his 
majesty's ancestors, so many kings and emperors, and 
even the ancestors of the Elector of Saxony, were heretics! 
There is no Gospel, there is no Scripture, that imposes on us 
the obligation of seizing by violence the goods of another, and 
of then saying that we cannot conscientiously restore them. 
It is for this reason, added Joachim, after these words, which 
he accompanied with a sardonic smile, " I am commissioned to 
•inform you, that if you refuse the recess, all the Germanic states 
will place their lives and their property at the emperor's dis- 
posal, and his majesty himself will employ the resources of all 
his kingdoms to complete this affair before leaving the empire." 
"We do not accept it," replied the Protestants firmly. — "Hi? 
majesty also has a conscience," then resumed the Elector of 
Brandenburg, in a harsh tone; " and if you do not submit, he 
-will concert with the pope and the other potentates on the best 
means of extirpating this sect and its new errors." But in 
vain did they add threat to threat: the Protestants remained 
calm, respectful, and unshaken. "Our enemies, destitute of 
all confidence in God," said they, "would shake like a reed in 
presence of the emperor's anger, and they imagine that we 
should tremble in like manner; but Ave have called unto God, 
and he will keep us faithful to his truth." 

The Protestants then prepared to take their final leave of 
the emperor. This prince, whose patience had been put to a 
severe trial, approached to shake hands according to custom; 
and beginning with the Elector of Saxony, he said to him in a 
low voice: " Uncle, uncle! I should never have expected this of 
you." The elector was deeply affected: his eyes filled with 
tears: but, firm and resolute, he bent his head and quitted 
Charles without reply. It was now two in the afternoon. 

While the Protestants were returning to their hotels, calm 
and happy, the Romish princes retired to theirs, confused and 
dispirited, uneasy and divided. They doubted not that the conge 
•which had just been granted to the Protestants would be re- 
.:garded by them aa a declaration of war, and that on quitting 


Augsburg, they would rush to arms. This thought terrified 
them. Accordingly, the Elector of Saxony had hardly reach- 
ed his palace, when he saw Dr. Ruhel, councillor of the Elec- 
tor of Mentz, hastening towards him, commissioned by his 
master to deliver this message: "Although my brother the 
elector (Joachim of Brandenburg) has declared that the states 
of the empire are ready to support the emperor against you, 
know that both myself and the ministers of the elector-palatine 
and of the Elector of Treves immediately declared to his ma- 
jesty that we did not adhere to this declaration, seeing that we 
thought very favourably of you.i I intended saying this to 
the emperor in your presence, but you left so precipitately 
that I Avas unable." 

Thus spoke the primate of the German Church, and even 
the choice of his messenger was significant: Dr. Ruhel was 
Luther's brother-in-law. John begged him to thank his master. 

As this envoy retired, there arrived one of the gentlemen of 
Duke Henry of Brunswick, a zealous Romanist. He was at 
first refused admittance on account of the departure, but re- 
turned hastily, just as Bruck's carriage was leaving the court- 
yard of the hotel. Approaching the carriage-door, he said: 
*' The duke informs the elector that he wiU endeavour to put 
things in a better train, and will come this winter to kill a 
■wild boar with him." - Shortly after, the terrible Ferdinand 
liimself declared that he would seek every means of preventing 
an outbreak.' All these manifestations of the afirighted Ro- 
man-catholics showed on which side was the real strength. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon the Elector of Saxony, ac- 
companied by the Dukes of Luneburg and the Princes of An- 
halt, quitted the walls of Augsburg. " God be praised," said 
Luther, " that our dear prince is at last out of heU!"* 

As he saw these intrepid princes thus escaping from his 
hands, Charles the Fifth gave way to a violence that was not 
usual with him.* " They want to teach me a new faith," 
■cried he; " but it is not with the doctrine that we shall finish 
this matter: we must draw the sword, and then shall we see 
who is the strongest." '^ All around him gave way to their in- 
■dignation. They were astonished at the audacity of Bruck, 
who had dared call the Romanists — heretics ! ' But nothing 
irritated them so much as the spirit of proselytism which in 

^ Wussten auch nicht anders denn wohl undgut. Urk., p, 210. ' Ein Sawe 

fahen helfen. Ibid,, p. 211. * Corp. Re£, ii, 387. * Ein raal aua der 

Hblle los ist. L. Epp.. iv, 175. * Der Kaiser ist fast hitzig im Handel. Corpi, 

Bet, ii, 591. « Es gehbren die Fauste dar zu. Ibid., 592 ; Urkund-, ii, 710. 

' Fur Ketzer acgezogea. Ibid. 


those glorious days characterized evangelical Germany ; and 
the anger of the Papists was particularly directed against the 
Chancellor of Luneburg, "who," said they, " had sent more 
than a hundred ministers into different places to preach the new 
doctrine, and who had even publicly boasted of it." ^ — " Our 
adversaries thirst for our blood," wrote, as they heard these 
complaints, the deputies of Nuremberg, who remained almost 
alone at Augsburg. 

On the 4th October, Charles the Fifth wrote to the pope;, 
for it was from Rome that the new crusade was to set out: 
" The negotiations are broken off; our adversaries are more 
obstinate than ever; and I am resolved to employ my strength 
and my person in combating them. For this reason I beg 
your holiness wiU demand the support of all christian princes." 

The enterprise began in Augsburg itself. The day on which 
he wrote to the pope, Charles, in honour of St. Francis of As- 
sisi, whose feast it was, re-established the Cordeliers in that 
city, and a monk ascending the pulpit said: "All those who 
preach that Jesus Clii'ist alone has made satisfaction for our 
sins, and that God saves us without regard to our Avorks, are 
thorough scoundrels. There are, on the contrary, t^vo roads 
to salvation: the common road, namely, the observance of the 
commandments; and the perfect road, namely, the ecclesiasti- 
cal state." Scarcely was the sermon finished ere the congre- 
gation began to remove the benches placed in the church for 
the evangelical preaching, breaking them violently (for they 
were fixed with chains), and throwing them one upon another. 
Within these consecrated walls two monks, in particular, armed 
with hammers and pincers, tossed their arms, and shouted like 
men possessed. ' ' From their frightful uproar," exclaimed some» 
" one would imagine they were pulling down a house. "^ It 
Avas in truth the house of God they wislied to begin dcstro^'ing. 

After the tumult was appeased, they sang mass. As soon a» 
this was concluded, a Spaniard desired to recommence breaking 
the benches, and on being prevented by one of the citizens, they 
began to hurl chairs at each other; one of the monks, leaving 
the choir, ran up to them and was soon dragged into tlie fray; 
at length the captain of police arrived with his men, who 
distributed their avcU directed blows on every side. Thus be- 
gan in Germany the restoration of Roman-catholicism: popidar 
violence has often been one of its most powerful allies. 

1 Bis in die Hundert Prediger in andere Lande Schiken helfen dasdbst die ncue 
Lthre zu predigen. Urkund., ii, C46. '■' Kin lUt llaus abbrechen. Corp. Ret^,ti,iO(k 


On the 13th October the recess was read to all the Romish 
Btates, and on the same day they concluded a Roman league. * 

Two cities had signed the Confession, and two others had 
Assented to it; the imperialists hoped, however, that these 
powerless municipalities, affrighted at the imperial authority, 
woiild withdraw from the protestant union. But on the 17th 
October, instead of two or four cities, sixteen imperial towns, 
among which were the most important in Germany, declared it 
was impossible to grant any support against the Turks so long 
as public peace was not secured in Germany itself.^ 

An event more formidable to Charles had just taken place. 
The unity of the Reformation had prevailed. " We are one in 
the fundamental articles of faith," had said the Zwinglian cities, 
*' and in particular (notwithstanding some disputes about words 
among our theologians), we are one in the doctrine of the com- 
munion in the body and blood of our Lord. Receive us." The 
Saxon deputies immediately gave their hands. Nothing unites 
the children of God so much as the violence of the adversaries. 
** Let us unite," said all, " for the consolation of our brethren 
and the terror of our enemies." ^ 

In vain did Charles, who was intent on keeping up division 
among the Protestants, convoke the deputies of the Zwinoflian 
cities; in vain, desiring to render them odious, had he accused 
them of fastening a consecrated wafer to a wall and firing bul- 
lets at it;* in vain did he overwhelm them with fierce threats; 
— all his efforts were useless. At length the evangelical party 
•was one. 

The alarm increased among the Roman party, who resolved 
on fresh concessions. " The Protestants call for public peace," 
said they; " well then, let us draw up articles of peace." But, 
on the 29th October, the Protestants refused these offers, be- 
cause the emperor enjoined peace to all the world, without 
binding himself. " An emperor has the right to command peace 
to his subjects," haughtily answered Charles; "but it has 
never been heard that he commanded it to himself." ^ 

Nothing remained but to draw the sword ; and for that 
Charles made every preparation. On October 25th, he wrote 
to the cardinals at Rome: " We inform you that we shall spare 

1 Ratschlag, etc. UrkunA, ii, 737-740. = Wo sie nicht einen gemeines 

Frieiens versicliert. Corp. Ref, ii, 111, 416. » Diesem Tbeil desto mehr 

Freuds und Trost und dem gegentheil Ei-schrecken. Urkund., ii, 723. * An 

eiue Wand geiieftet und dazu geschossen. Coi-p. Ref., ii. 423. » These n». 

gotiatioas will b« fouad in Forsterinanu's Urkunaea., p. 750-793. 



neither kingdoms nor lordships; and that we shall venture 
even our soul and our body to complete such necessary matters," 

Scarcely had Charles's letter been received, before his major- 
domo, Pedro de la Cueva, arrived in Rome by express, "The 
season is now too far advanced to attack the Lutherans imme- 
diately," said he to the pope; " but prepai-e everything for this 
enterprise. His majesty thinks it his duty to prefer before aU 
things the accomplishment of your designs," Thus Clement 
and the emperor were also imited, and both sides began to 
concentrate their forces. 

On the evening of the 11th November, the recess was read 
to the protestant deputies, and on the 12th they rejected it, de- 
claring that they did not acknowledge the emperors power to 
command in matters of faith. The deputies of Hesse and of 
Saxony departed immediately after, and on the 19th November 
the recess was solemnly'- read in the presence of Charles the Fifth, 
and of the princes and deputies who were still in Augsburg. 
This report was more hostile than the project communicated 
to the Protestants, It bore, among other things (and this is 
only a sample of the urbanity of this official doctrine), that 
"to deny free will was the error not of man, but of a brute.'* 
- — "We beg his majesty," said the Elector Joachim, after it 
was read, " not to leave Germany, until by his cares one sola 
and same faith be re-established in all the empire." 

The emperor replied, that he would not go farther than hi» 
states of the Low Countries. They desired that deeds should 
follow close upon Avords, It was then n,early seven in the- 
evening; a few torches, lighted up here and there by the ushers, 
and casting a pale light, alone illuminated this assembly: they 
separated Avithout seeing each other: and thus ended, as by 
stealth, that diet so pompously announced to the christian world. 

On the 22d November, the recess was made public, and two 
days after Charles the Fifth set out for Cologne, The ruler of 
two worlds liad seen all his influence baffled by a few Christians j 
and he who had entered the imperial city in triumph, now quit- 
ted it gloom}", silent, and dispirited. The mightiest power of 
the earth was broken against the power of God. 

But the emperor's ministers and officers, excited by the pope, 
displayed so much the more energy. The states of the empiro 
were bound to furnish Charles, for three years, 40,000 foot, 
8000 horse, and a considerable srnn of money;* the Margrave- 

' Urkundcn., ii, 823 ; Corp. lief., ii, 487. =< 40,000 zu Tusa und 8000 «n Row.. 

Ibid., 399, 


Henrj of Zenete, the Count of Nassau, and other nobles, made 
considerable levies on the side of the Rhine; a captain going, 
through the Black Forest called its rude inhabitants to his 
standard, and there enrolled six companies of lansquenets ; King, 
Ferdinand had written to all the knights of the Tyrol and of 
Wurtemberg to gird on their cuirasses and take down their 
swords; Joachim of Talheim collected the Spanish bands in the 
Low Countries, and ordered them towards the Rhine; Peter 
Scher solicited fiom the duke of Lorraine the aid of his arms; 
and another chief hastily moved the Spanish army of Florence 
in the direction of the Alps. There was every reason to fear 
that the Germans, even the Roman-catholics, would take Lu- 
thers part ; and hence principally foreign troops were levied. ' 
Kothing but war was talked of in Augsburg. 

On a sudden a strange rumour was heard.* The siomal is 
given, said every one. A free city, lying on the confines of the 
Germanic and Roman world, — a city at war with its bishop, in 
alliance with the Protestants, and which passed for reformed 
even before really being so, had been suddenly attacked. A 
courier from Strasbm-g brought this news to Augsburg, and it 
circulated through the town with the rapidity of Ughtning. 
Three days after Michaelmas, some armed men, sent by the 
Duke of Savoy, pillaged the subm-bs of Geneva, and threatened 
to take possession of the city, and put all to the edge of the 
sword. Every one in Augsburg was amazed. "Hoi " ex- 
claimed Charles the Fifth, in French, "the Duke of Savoy has 
begun too soon."' It was reported that Margaret, governor 
of the Low Countries, the p«pe, the Dukes of Lorraine and 
Gueldres, and even the King of France, were directinof their 
troops against Geneva. It was there that the army of Rome 
intended fixing its point d'appui. The avalanche was gather- 
ing on the first slopes of the Alps, whence it would rush over 
all Switzerland, and then roU into Germany, burying the Gos- 
pel and the Reformation imder its huge mass.* 

This sacred cause appeared to be in great danger, and never 
in reality had it gained so noble a triiunph. The coup de main 
attempted on those hiUs, where six years later Calvin was to 
take his station, and plant the standard of Augsburcr and of 
Nazareth, having failed, all fears were dispelled, and the vic- 

1 L^ati Norinb. ad Senatnm, 11th October. Corp. Ret, u. 402 ; Legati Sm. ad Elec- 
torem, 10th October. IJrkund^ ii, 711. » Shortly before the close of the diet 

' Hatt der Kayser outer andem in Franzosisch geredet. Urk., ii, 421. 

« Geneva eipugnata, bellum etiam urbibus Gemiania. Snperioris inferretiir. (Corp.. 
Ret, ii, 402.) Genera being taken, n ar would be made oa the cities of Upper Ger- 
man; alsa 


tory of the confessors of Christ, for an instant obscured, shone 
forth anew in all its splendour. 

While the emperor Charles, surrounded hy a numerous train 
of princes, was approaching the hanks of the Rhine sad and 
dispirited, the evangelical Christians were returning in triumph 
to their homes. Luther was the herald of the victory gained 
at Augshui-g hy Faith. " Though our enemies should have 
around them, heside them, with them, not only that puissant 
Roman emperor, Charles, but the emperor of the Turks and 
his Mahomet," said he, "they could not intimidate, they could 
not frighten me. It is I who in the strength of God am re- 
solved to frighten and overthrow them. They shall yield to 
me — they shall fall — and I shall remain upright and firm. 

My life shall he their headsman, and my death their hell! * 

God blinds them and hardens their hearts; he is driving them 
towards the Red sea: all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots 
and his horsemen, cannot escape their inevitable destiny. Let 
them go then, let them perish, since they Avill it so! - As for 
us, the Lord is with us." 

Thus the Diet of Augsburg, destined to crush the Reforma- 
tion, was what strengthened it for ever. It has been usual to 
consider the peace of Augsburg (1555) as the period when-the 
Reform was definitively established. That is the date of legal 
Protestantism; evangelical Christianity has another — the au- 
tumn of 1530. In 1555 was the victory of the sword and of 
diplomacy; in 1530 was that of the Word of God and of Faith; 
and this latter victory is In our eyes the truest and the surest. 
The evangelical history of the Reformation in Germany is 
nearly finished at the epoch we have reached, and the diploma- 
tic history of legal Protestantism begins. Whatever may now 
be done, whatever may be said, the Church of the first ages 
has reappeared; and it has reappeared strong enough to show 
that it will live. There will still be conferences and discus- 
sions; there will still be leagues and combats; there will even 
be deplorable defeats; but all these are a secondary movement. 
The great movement is accomplished: the cause of faith is won 
by faith. The eff'ort lias been made: the evangelical doctrine 
has taken i-oot in the world, and neither the storms of men, 
nor the powers of hell, will ever be able to tear it up. 

I Mein Icben soil ihr Honker seyn, L. 0pp., xx, 304. ' Tndftnt Hfitar t 

percaut, quomudu sic rulunt. L. Epp., iv, 1C7. 




Originality of the Swiss Reform— Change — Three Periods of Reform — Switzerland 
Romande — The two Morements in the Church— Aggressive Spirit — The School- 
master — Farel's new Baptism — Mysticism and Scholasticism— A Door is opened 
—Opposition — ^Lausanne — Manners of Uie Clergy — Farel to Galeotto — Fare! and 
the Monk— The Tribunal— The Monk cries for Pardon — Opposition of the Or- 
monds — A false Convert — Christian Unity. 

The divisions -which the Reformation disclosed within its 
bosom, on its appearance before the Diet of Augsbm-g, hum- 
bled it and compromised its existence ; but we must not forget 
that the cause of these divisions was one of the conditions of 
the existence of the regenerated church. No doubt it would 
have been desirable for Germany and Switzerland to have 
agreed ; but it was of still greater importance that Germany 
and Switzerland should have each its original Reform. If 
the Swiss Refonnation had been only a feeble copy of the 
German, there would have been uniformity, but no duration. 
The tree, transplanted into Switzerland, without having taken 
deep root, would soon have been torn up by the vigorous hand 
that was erelong about to seize upon it. The regeneration of 
Christianity in these mountains proceeded from forces peculiar 
to the Helvetic Church, and received an organization in con- 
formity with the ecclesiastical and political condition of that 
country. By this very originality it communicated a parti- 
cular energy to the principles of the Reformation, of much 
greater consequence to the common cause than a servile uni- 
formity. The strength of an army arises in great measure 
from its being composed of soldiers of different arms. 

The military and political influence of Switzerland was 
declining. The new developments of the European nations, 
Bubsequent to the sixteenth century, were about to banish to 
their native mountains those proud Helvetians, who for so 
long a period had placed their two-handed sworda in the 
9 P 


balance in wliich the destinies of nations were weighed. The 
Reformation communicated a new influence in exchange for 
that which was departing. Switzerland, where the Gospel 
appeared in its simplest and purest form, was destined to give 
in these new times to many nations of the two worlds a more 
salutary and glorious impulse than that which had hitherto 
proceeded from its halberds and its arquebuses. 

The history of the Swiss Reformation is divided into three 
periods, in which the light of the Gospel is seen spreading 
successively over three diff'erent zones. From 1519 to 1526 
Zurich was the centre of the Reformation, which was then 
entirely German, and was propagated in the eastern and nor- 
thern parts of the confederation. Between 1526 and 1532 
the movement was communicated from Berne: it was at once 
German and French, and extended to the centre of Switzer- 
land from the gorges of the Jura to the deepest valleys of the 
Alps, In 1532 Geneva became the focus of the light; and 
the Reformation, which was here essentially French, was esta- 
blished on the shores of the Leman lake, and gained strength 
in every quarter. It is of the second of these periods — that 
of Berne — of which we are now to treat. 

Although the Swiss Reformation is not yet essentially 
French, still the most active part in it is taken by Frenchmen. 
Switzerland Rornande^ is yoked to the chariot of Reform, and 
communicates to it an accelerarted motion. In the period we 
are about to treat of, there is a mixture of races, of forces, and 
of characters from wliich proceeds a greater commotion. In 
no part of the christian world will the resistance be so stub- 
born; but nowhere will the assailants display so much courage. 
This petty country of Switzerland Romande, enclosed within 
the collosal arms of the Jura and the Alps, Avas for centuries 
one of the strongest fortresses of the Papacy. It it is about 
to be carried by storm; it is going to turn its arms against its 
ancient masters; and from these few hillocks, scattered at the 
foot of the highest mountains in Europe, M-ill proceed the re- 
iterated shocks that will overthrow, even in the most distant 
countries, the sanctuaries of Rome, their images, and their 

There are two movements in the Church: one is effected in- 
wardly, and its object is its preservation; the other is effected 
outwardly, and the object aimed at is its propagation. There 

'Tlie French jinrt of Switzerland, conipri'iing the cantons of Geneva, Vaud, Neuf- 
chaiel, and part of those of Friburg, B^ruo, and A'aUils. 



is tlius a doctrinal Cliurch and a missionary Churcli. These 
two movements ought never to be separated, and -whenever 
they are disunited, it is because the spirit of man, and not the 
Spirit of God prevails. In the apostolic ages these two tend- 
encies were evolved at the same time and with equal power. 
In the second and third centuries the external tendency pre- 
vailed; after the Council of Nice (325) the doctrinal movement 
resimied the superiority; at the epoch of the irruption of the 
northern tribes the missionary spirit revived; but erelong came 
the times of the hierarchy and of the schoolmen, in which all 
doctrinal powers warred within the Church to found therein a 
despotic government and an impure doctrine — the Papacy. 
The revival of Christianity in the sixteenth century, which 
emanated from God, was destined to renovate these two move- 
ments, but by purifying them. Then indeed the Spirit of 
God acted at once externally and internally. In the days of 
the Reformation there were tranquil and internal developments; 
but there was also a more powerful and aggressive action. 
Men of God had for ages studied the Word, and had peace- 
fully explained its salutary lessons. Such had been the work 
of Vesalia, Goch, Groot, Radewin, Ruybrook, Tauler, Thomas 
a Kempis, and John Wessel ; now, something more was re- 
quired. The power of action was to be combined with the 
power of thought. The Papacy had been allowed all neces- 
sary time for laying aside its errors ; for ages men had been 
in expectation ; it had been warned, it had been entreated ; all 
had been unavailing. Popery being imwUling to reform itself, 
it became necessary for men of God to take its accompHsh- 
ment upon themselves. The calm and moderate influence of 
the precursors of the Reform was succeeded by the heroic and 
holy revolutionary work of the Reformers ; and the revolution 
they effected consisted in overthrowing the usurping power to 
re-establish the legitimate authority. " To everything there 
is a season," says the preacher, " and a time to every purpose 
under heaven : a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that 
which is planted ; a time to break down, and a time to build 
up." ^ Of all Reformers, those who carried the aggressive 
spirit to its highest degree were the men who came from 
France, and more especially Farel, whose labours we have 
now to consider. 

Never were such mighty effects accomplished by so puny a 
force. In the government of God we pass in an instant from 
the greatest to the least of things. We now quit the haughty 

> £ccle&, iii, 1-3. 


Charles V. and all that court of princes over which he presides, 
to follow the steps of a schoolmaster ; and leave the palaces of 
Augsburg to take our seats in the lowly cottages of Switzer- 

The Rhone, after issuing, near St. Gothard, from the 
mountains of the Furka, from beneath an immense sea of 
eternal ice, rolls its noisy waters through a rugged valley 
separating the two great chains of the Alps ; then issuing 
from the gorge of St. Maurice, it wanders through a more 
smiling and fertile country. The sublime Dent du Midi on 
the south, the proud Dent de Morcles on the north, pictur- 
esquely situated opposite each other, point out from afar to the 
traveller's eye the beginning of this latter basin. On the tops 
of these mountains are vast glaciers and threatening peaks, 
near which the shepherds in the midst of summer lead their 
nimierous flocks to pasture: while, in the plain, the flowers 
and fruits of southern climes grow luxuriantly, and the laurel 
blooms beside the most exquisite grapes. 

At the opening of one of the lateral valleys that lead into 
the Northern Alps, on the banks of the Grande Eau that falls 
In thunder from the glaciers of the Diablerets, is situated the 
small town of Aigie, one of the most southern in Switzerland, 
For about fifty years it had belonged to Berne, with the foiir 
parishes (mandemens) which are under its jurisdiction, namely, 
Aigle, Bex, Ollon, and the chalets scattered in the lofty valleys 
of the Ormonds. It is in this country that the second epoch 
of the Swiss Reformation was destined to begin. 

In the winter of 1526, 1527, a foreign schoolmaster, named 
Ursinus, arrived in this humble district. He was a man of 
middle stature, with red beard and quick eyes, and who, with 
a voice of thunder (says Beza) combined the feelings of a hero: 
his modest lessons were intermingled with new and strange doc- 
trines. The benefices being abandoned by their titularies to 
ignorant curates, the people, who were naturally of rude and 
turbulent habits, had remained without any cultivation. Thus 
did this stranger, who Avas no other than Farel, meet with new 
obstacles at every step. 

Whilst Lefevre and most of his friends had quitted Strasburg 
to re-enter France, after the deliverance of Francis I., Farel 
had turned his steps towards Switzerland; and on the very first 
day of his journey, he received a lesson that he frequently re- 
called to mind. 

IIo was on foot accompanied by a single friend. Night had 
closed around them, the rain fell in torrents, and the travellers. 


iu despair of finding their road, had sat down midway, drenched 
•with rain.^ "Ah!" said Fare!, "God, hj showing me my help- 
lessness in these little things, has wiUed to teach me how weak 
I am in the greatest, without Jesus Christ!"* At last Farel, 
springing up, plunged into the marshes, waded through the 
waters, crossed vineyards, fields, hills, forests, and valleys, and 
at length reached his destination, covered with mud and soaked 
to the skin. 

In this night of desolation, Farel had received a new baptism. 
His natural energy had been quelled: he became for some time 
at least, wise as a serpent and harmless as a dove; and, as not 
unfrequently happens to men of such disposition, he at first 
overstepped his aim. BeUeving that he was following the ex- 
ample of the apostles, he sought, in the words of QEcolampadius, 
"by pious frauds to circumvent the old serpent that was hissing 
around him."' He represented himself to be a schoolmaster, 
and waited imtil a door should be opened to him to appear as 
a reformer.* 

Scarcely had Magister Ursinus quitted the schoolroom and 
his primers, than, taking refuge in his modest chamber, he be- 
came absorbed in the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures, and the 
most learned treatises of the theologians. The struggle between 
Luther and Zwingle was commencing. To which of these two 
chiefs should the French Reform attach itself? Luther had 
been known in France for a much longer time than Zwingle; 
yet Farel decided in favour of the latter. Mysticism had cha- 
racterized the Germanic nations during the Middle Ages, and 
scholasticism those of Roman descent. The French were iu 
closer relation with the dialectician Zwingle than with the mystic 
Luther ; or rather they were the mediators between the two 
great tendencies of the Middle Ages ; and, while giving to the 
Christian thought that correct form which seems to be the pro- 
vince of southern nations, they became the instruments of God 
to spread through the Church the fulness of life and of the Spi- 
rit of Christ. 

It was in his little chamber at Aigle that Farel read the first 
publication addressed to the Germans by the Swiss reformer.' 
"With what learning," cries he, "does Zwingle scatter the 
darkness! with what holy ingenuity he gains over the wise, and 

' Gravabat nox, opprimebat pluvia .... coegit viae difficultas in media sedere via 
sub pluvia. Farel to Capito and Bucer. Neufchatel MS. * Voluit Domi- 

nus per infirma haec, docere quid possit homo in majoribus, Coct. Eppt MS. of Xeuf- 
chateL * Piis artibus et apostolicis versatiis ad circumveniendum ilium 

opus est. CEcol. to Farel, 27th December 1526. Neufchatel MS. ■♦ Ubi ostium 

patuerit, tunc adversariis Uberius obsistetur. Ibid. » Pia et arnica ad Lu- 

Uieri sermonem apologia. 0pp. voL ii, t. 2. p. 1. 


what captivating meekness he unites with deep erudition T 
Oh! that by the grace of God this work may win over Luther, 
so that the Church of Christ, trembling from such violent 
shocks, may at length find peace! "^ 

The schoolmaster Ursinus, excited by so noble an example, 
gradually set about instructing the parents as well as the chil- 
dren. He at first attacked the doctrine of Purgatory, and next 
the Invocation of Saints. "As for the pope, he is nothing," 
said he, "or almost nothing, in these parts; 2 and as for the 
priests, provided they annoy the people with all that nonsense, 
which Erasmus knows so well how to turn into ridicule, that 
is enough for them." 

Ursinus had been some months at Aigle: a door was opened 
to him ; a flock had been collected there, and he believed the 
looked-for moment had arrived. 

Accordingly, one day the pnident schoolmaster disappears. 
'Jl am WiUiam Parel," said he, "minister of the Word of God." 
The terror of the priests and magistrates was great, when they 
saw in the midst of them that very man whose name had al- 
ready become so formidable. The schoolmaster quitted his 
humble study ; he ascended the pulpit, and openly preached 
Jesus Christ to the astonished multitude. The work of Ursinus 
was over: Farel was himself again. ^ It was then about the 
month of March or April 1527, and in that beautiful valley, 
whose slopes were brightening in the warm rays of the sun, 
all was fermenting at the same time, the flowers, the vineyards, 
and the hearts of this sensible but rude people. 

Yet the rocks that the torrent meets as it issues from the 
Diablerets, and against which it dashes at every step as it falls 
from eternal snows, are more trifling obstacles than the preju- 
dice and hatred that were shown erelong in this populous valley 
to the Word of God. 

The Council of Berne, by a licence of the 9th of March, had 
commissioned Farelto explain the Holy Scriptures to the people 
of Aigle and its neighbourhood. But the arm of the civil 
magistrate, by thus mingling in religious aff'airs, served only 
to increase the irritation of men's minds. The rich and lazy 
incumbents, the poor and ignorant curates, were the first to cry 
out. "If this man," said they one to another, "continues 
preaching, it is all over with our benefices and our Church."* 

In the midst of this agitation, the baililF of Aiglo and tho 

I Ut Christi succussft undiquo Ecclesin, pncis non nihil sentiat. Zw. Epp., li, 20. 

' Papa nut iiuUu.s Rut modicus liic est. Ibid., 36. ^ The name of Ursiims 

was doubtless taken from tho bear (nr»a) which was on tho shield of B«rne. Ursinua 
meant Bernese. * J. <I. Ilotlinger, II. R, U., iii, 364. 

LAt:SAK>'E. 231 

goremor of tte four mandemens, Jacques de Roverea, instead 
of supporting the minister of their excellencies of Berne, eagerly 
embraced the cause of the priests. " The emperor," said they, 
" is about to declare war against all innovators. A great army 
will shortly arrive from Spain to assist the Archduke Ferdi- 
nand." ^ Farel stood firm. Upon this the bailiff and Roverea 
exasperated by such boldness, interdicted the heretic from every 
kind of instruction, whether as minister or schoolmaster. But 
Berne caused to be posted on the doors of all the churches in 
the four mandemens a new decree, dated the 3d of July, in 
which their excellencies, manifesting great displeasure at this 
interdiction "of the very learned Farel from the propagation of 
the Divine Word,^ ordered aU the officers of the state to allow 
him to preach publicly the doctrines of the Lord." 

This new proclamation was the signal of revolt. On the 
25th July, great crowds assembled at Aigle, at Bex, at OUon, 
and in the Ormonds, crying out, "No more submission to 
Bemel down with Farell" From words they soon proceeded to 
actions. At Aigle the insurgents, headed by the fiery syndic, 
tore down the edict, and prepared to fall upon the reformed. 
These, promptly imited and surrounding Farel, resolved to de- 
fend him. The two parties met face to face, and blood was 
near flowing. The firm countenance of the friends of the 
Gospel checked the partisans of the priests, who dispersed, and 
Farel, quitting Aigle for a few days, carried his views farther. 

In the middle of the beautiful valley of the Leman, on hills 
which overlook the lake, stands Lausanne, the city of the bi- 
shop and of the Virgin, placed under the patronage of the Dukes 
of Savoy. A host of pilgrims, assembling from all the sur- 
rounding places, knelt devoutly before the image of Our Lady, 
and made costly purchases at the great fair of indulgences that 
was held in its precincts. Lausanne, extending its episcopal 
crosier from its lofty towers, pretended to keep the whole 
country at the feet of the pope. But owing to the dissolute 
life of the canons and priests, the eyes of many began to be 
opened. The ministers of the Virgin were seen in public 
playing at games of chance, which they seasoned with mockery 
and blasphemy. They fought in the churches ; disguised as 
soldiers, they descended by night from the cathedral hiU, and 
roaming through the streets, sword in hand and in liquor, sur- 
prised, woimded, and sometimes even killed the worthy citizens ; 
they debauched married women, seduced yoimg girls, changed 

I Ferdinando advenhmnu esse insrentem ex Hispania ei^ercitam. ZwingUns, Epp. 
ii, 64 ; dated 11th Maj 1527. ' I'obibita verbi divini propagatio. Choupard USL 


their residences into hous of ill-fame, and heartlessly turned 
out their young children to beg their bread.' Nowhere, per- 
haps, was better exemplified the description of the clergy 
given us by one of the most venerable prelates at the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century : " Instead of training up 
youth by their learning and holiness of life, the priests train 
birds and dogs ; instead of books, they have children ; they 
sit with topers in the taverns, and give way to drunkenness." ^ 

Among the theologians in the court of the Bishop Sebastian 
of Montfaucon, was Natalis Galeotto, a man of elevated rank 
and great ui-banity, fond of the society of scholars, and him- 
self a man of learning,^ but nevertheless very zealous about 
fasts and aU the ordinances of the Church. Farel thought 
that, if this man could be gained over to the Gospel, Lau- 
sanne, " slumbering at the foot of its steeples," would perhaps 
awaken, and all the country with it. He therefore addressed 
himself to him. "Alas! alas!" said Farel, "religion is now 
little better than an empty mockery, since people who think 
only of their appetites are the kings of the Church. Chris- 
tian people, instead of celebrating in the sacrament the death 
of the Lord, live as if they commemorated Mercury, the god 
of fraud. Instead of imitating the love of Christ, they emu- 
late the lewdness of Venus ; and, when they do evil, they fear 
more the presence of a wretched swineherd than of God Al- 

But Galeotto made no reply, and Farel persevered. " Knock ; 
cry out with all your might," wrote he in a second letter; " re- 
double your attacks upon our lord." Still there was no an- 
swer. Farel returned to the charge a third time, and Natalis, 
fearing perhaps to reply in person, commissioned his secretary, 
who forwarded a letter to Farel full of abusive lanofuafrc.^ 
For a season Lausanne was inaccessible. 

After having thus contended with a priest, Farel was des- 
tined to struggle with a monk. The two arras of the hierarchy 
by which the Middle Ages had been governed were chivalry 
and monachism. The latter still remained for the service of 
the Papacy, although falling into decay. " Alas!'' exclaimed 
a celebrated Carthusian, " what an obstinate devil would fear 

1 Ilistoire de la Hcformation Suisse by Kucliat, 1, 35. ' Pro lihros sibi libero* 

coraparant, pro sludio coiicubinas amant. Tritheini Instit. Vitio SaccrdotalU, p. 
765. The play upon libros and liheros (books and children) cannot be conveyed in 
English. » Urbanus, doctus, iiiaf^nus, consuetudino doctornm obligatus. 

Farel to Galeotto. Neufchatel MS. * Pluris faciunt uuserrinii subulci aspcc- 

tuin ([uam omnipotentis Dei. Farel to Galeotto. Ibid. Tulsare, 

Tociferari perge, ncc prius cessa quam, itc. Ibid. * Ntoniis totas iinplevit e» 

oonrieiis. I bill. 


to do, a reprobate and arrogant monk will commit without 
hesitation." ^ 

A mendicant friar, who dared not oppose the reformer in 
a direct manner at Aigle, ventured into the village of Noville, 
situated on the low gi-ounds deposited by the Rhone as it falls 
into the Lake of Geneva. The friar, ascending the pulpit, 
exclaimed, " It is the devil himself who preaches by the mouth 
of the minister, and all those Avho listen to him wUl be damned." 
Then, taking courage, he slunk along the bank of the Rhone, 
and arrived at Aigle with a meek and humble look, not to 
appear there against Farel, whose powerful eloquence terribly 
alai'med him, but to beg in behalf of his convent a few barrels 
of the most exquisite wine in all Switzerland. He had not 
advanced many steps into the town before he met the minister. 
At this sight he trembled in every limb. " ^Vhy did you 
preach in such a manner at Neville ?" demanded Farel. The 
monk, fearfid that the dispute would attract public attention, 
and yet desirous of replying to the point, whispered in his 
ear, "I have heard say that you are a heretic and misleader of 
the people. " " Pro ve it, '' said Farel. Then the monk ' ' began 
to storm," says Farel,* and, hastening down the street, endea- 
voured to shake off his disagreeable companion, "turning now 
this way, now that, like a troubled conscience."^ A few citi- 
zens beginning to collect around them, Farel said to them, 
pointing to the monk, "You see this fine father; he has said 
from the pulpit that I preach nothing but lies." Then the 
monk, blushing and stammering, began to speak of the offer- 
ings of the faithful (the precious wine of Yvorne, for which he 
had come begging), and accused Farel of opposing them. The 
crowd had now increased in number, and Farel, who only 
sought an opportunity of proclaiming the true worship of God, 
exclaimed with a loud voice, " It is no man's business to ordain 
any other way of serving God than with which he has com- 
manded. We must keep his commandments without turning 
either to the right hand or to the left.* Let us worship God 
alone in spirit and in truth, offering to him a broken and a 
contrite heart." 

The eyes of all the spectators were fixed on the two actors 

1 Quod agere veretur obstinatus diabolus, intrepide agit reprobos et contumax mo- 
Bitchus. Jacob ron Juterbock; de Negligentia Prelatorum. a Cummenga de 

le tempester; in the narrative he gives of this adventure to the nuns of Vevay. Neuf- 
chatel ilS. s Toumant maintenant de ga, maintenant de la, comma fait l.-\ 

conscience mal assuree. Ibid. * 11 n'apparlient a personne vivante d'ordonntr 

autre mauiero de taire service d Dieu, que celle qu'il a commandee. Nous deyans 
earder ses commandemens, sana :irer ni a la dextre, ni a la senestre. Ibid, 


in this scene, the monk with his wallet, and the reformer with 
his glistening eye. Confounded by Farel's daring to speak of 
any other worship than that which the holy Roman Church 
prescribed, the friar *' was out of his senses; he trembled, and 
was agitated, becoming pale and red by turns. At last, taking 
his cap off his head, from under his hood, he flung it on the 
ground, trampling it under foot and crying: «* I am surprised 

that the earth does not gape and swallow us up! "* 

Farel wished to reply, but in vain. The friar with downcast 
eyes kept stamping on his cap, "bawling like one out of his 
wits;" and his cries resounding through the streets of Aigle, 
drowned the voice of the reformer. At length one of the spec- 
tators, who stood beside him, plucked him by the sleeve, and 
said, " listen to the minister, as he is listening to you." The 
affrighted monk, believing himself already half-dead, started 
violently and cried out: "Oh, thou excommunicate! layest 
thou thy hand upon me?" 

The little town was in an uproar; the friar at once furious 
and trembling, Farel following up his attack with vigour, and 
the people confused and amazed. At length the magistrato 
appeared, ordered the monk and Farel to follow him, and shut 
them up, " one in one tower and one in another." ' 

On the Saturday morning Farel was liberated from his pri- 
son, and conducted to the castle before the officers of justice, 
where the monk had arrived before him. The minister began 
to address them: "My lords, to whom our Saviour enjoins 
obedience without any exception, this friar has said that the 
doctrine which I preach is against God. Let him make good 
his words, or, if he cannot, permit your people to be edified." 
The violence of the monk was over. The tribunal before which 
he was standing, the courage of his adversary, the power of 
the movement which he could not resist, the weakness of his 
cause, — all alarmed him, and he was now ready to make mat- 
ters up. " Then the friar fell upon his knees, saying: Mj 
lords, I entreat forgiveness of you and of God. Next turning 
to Farel : And also, Magister, what I preached against you was 
grounded on false reports. I have found you to be a good man, 
and your doctrine good, and I am prepared to recall my words."* 

Farel was touched by this appeal, and said: "My friend, do 

i Hors de sens, trcmbloit, s'agitoit, palissoit et rougixsoit tour &, tour. Enfin tirant 
son bonnet do ea tete, hors du chaperon, il le rua a terre, jettant et mcttant son pitid 
sus, en s'ccriant : " Jo suis esbahi comme la torre r.o nous abjtno! Neufchatcl MS. 

2 li'un en uno tour, et I'autro en I'nutre. Ibid. 3 Lors le frdre se jota i 

(fenoux disart: Me8>ciKncurs, jo dcinande mercl a Dieu et a vous. Et aussi, 

Magister ce que j'ui DrGchc contie vous a 6t6 par de faux rapports, etc. Ibid. 


not ask forgiveness of me, for I am a poor sinner like other 
men, putting mj trust not in my own righteousness, but in the 
death of Jesus." * 

One of the lords of Berne coming up at this time, the friar, 
who already imagined himself on the brink of martyrdom, 
began to wring his hands, and to turn now towards the Bernese 
councillors, now towards the tribunal, and then to Farel, cry- 
ing, "Pardon, pardon!" — " Ask pardon of our Saviour,'" re- 
plied Farel. The lord of Berne added; " Come to-morrow and 
hear the minister's sermon; if he appears to you to preach the 
truth, you shall confess it openly before all; if not, you will 
declare your opinions: this promise in my hand." The monk 
held out his hand, and the judges retired. " Then the friar 
went away, and I have not seen him since, and no promises or 
oaths were able to make him stay."* Thus the Reformation 
advanced in Switzerland Romande. 

But violent storms threatened to destroy the work that was 
hardly begun. Romish agents from the Valais and from Sa- 
voy had crossed the Rhone at St. Maurice, and were exciting 
the people to energetic resistance. Tumultuous assemblages 
took place, in which dangerous projects were discussed; the 
proclamations of the government were torn down from the 
church-doors; troops of citizens paraded the city; the drum 
beat in the streets to excite the populace against the reformer: 
everywhere prevailed riot and sedition. And hence, when 
Farel ascended the pulpit on the 16th February, for the first 
time after a short absence, some papist bands collected roxmd 
the gate of the church, raised their hands in tumult, uttered 
savage cries, and compelled the minister to break off in his 

The council of Berne thereupon decreed that the parishioners 
of the four mandemens should assemble. Those of Bex de- 
clared for the Reform; Aigle followed their example, but with 
indecision; and in the mountains above OUon, the peasants, 
not daring to maltreat Farel, excited their wives who rushed 
upon him with their fulling-clubs. But it was especially the 
parish of the Ormonds which, calm and proud at the foot of 
its glaciers, signalized itself by its resistance. A companion 
of Farel's labours, named Claude (probably Claude de Glout- 
inis,) when preaching there one day with great animation, was 
suddenly interrupted by the ringing of the bells, whose noise 

1 Je mis paurre pecheur comme les aatres, ajant ma fiance, non en ma justice, 
mais a la mort de Jesns. Ifeufchatel J{3. * Puis qnand le frdre fiit Jiaxti, 

depujs ne I'ai tu, et naUes promesses ni sennens ne I'ont pa (aire demearer. Ibid. 


was such that one might have said all hell was busy pulling 
them. " In fact," says another herald of the gospel, Jacques 
Camralis, who chanced to he present, "it was Satan himself, 
who, breathing his anger into some of his agents, filled the 
ears of the auditors with all this uproar. "^ At another time, 
some zealous reformers having thrown down the altars of Baal, 
according to the language of the times, the evil spirit began to 
blow with violence in aU the chalets scattered over the sides of 
the mountains ; the shepherds issued precipitously like ava- 
lanches, and fell upon the church and the evangelicals. "Let 
us only find these sacrilegious wretches," cried the furious Or- 
mondines; "we will hang them, — we will cut off their heads, 
— we will burn them, — we will throw their ashes into the Great 
Water."* Thus were these mountaineers agitated, like the 
wind that roars in their lofty valleys with a fury unknown to 
the inhabitants of the plains. 

Other difiiculties overwhelmed Farel. His fellow-labourers 
were not all of them blameless. One Christopher BalUsta, 
formerly a monk of Paris, had written to Zwingle: " I am but 
a Gaul, a barbarian,' but you will find me pm-e as snow, with- 
out any guile, of open heart, through whose windows all the 
world may see."* Zwingle sent Ballista to Farel, who waa 
loudly calling for labourers in Christ's vineyard. The fine lan- 
guage of the Parisian at first charmed the multitude; but 
it was soon necessary to beware of these priests and monks 
disgusted with popery. " Brought up in the slothfulness of 
the cloister, gluttonous and lazy," says Farel, " Ballista could 
not conform to the abstemiousness and rude labours of the 
evangelists, and soon began to regret his monk's hood. When 
he perceived the people beginning to distrust him, he became 
like a furious monster, vomiting waggon-loads of threats."' 
Thus ended his labours. 

Notwithstanding all these trials, Farel was not discouraged. 
The greater the difficulties, the more his energy increased. 
Let us scatter the seed every where, " said he, " and let civilized 
France, provoked to jealousy by this barbarous nation, embrace 
piety at last. Let there not be in Christ's body cither fingers, 

1 Sell Satlinn per ejus servos, voluit nurcs nuditorum ejus sono cymbali implere. 
(Neufcliatel MS.) Ji'it Satun, bj his Borvants, wished to fill the cars of liis hearei-s 
with tho sound of the cymbal. ' Quo iiivcnto suspcnderetiir primum, 

delude diglius coinbuii, ultcrius capitis obtruncntione, riovisshne iu nquis mcrgeretur. 
Ibid. sjle qwantuinvis Galium et barbanim. Zw. Epp., ii, 205. 

« Absque ullo fuco, iiivi'uin, et iiporti fenestratiquc pectoris. (Ibid.) Without any 
rIoss, snow-white, my breast open and with a window in it. » Quam beatus hio 

venter incanduitt quot niinarum plauatni 1 Solent tak!> bulluoi, itc. Keufchatel MS. 


or hands, or feet, or eyes, or ears, or arms, existing separatelj 
and working eaeli for itself, but let there be only one heart 
that nothing can divide. Let not variety in secondary things 
divide into many separate members that vital principle which 
is one and simple.^ Alas! the pastures of the Church are 
trodden xmder foot, and its waters are troubled ! Let us set 
our minds to concord and peace. ■ ^^Tien the Lord shall have 
opened heaven, there will not be so many disputes about bread 
and water.* A fervent charity — that is the powerful batter- 
ing-ram with which we shall beat down those proud walls, those 
material elements, with which men would confine xis."' 

Thus wrote the most impetuous of the reformers. These 
words of Farel, preserved for three centuries in the city where 
he died, disclose to us more clearly the intimate nature of the 
great Revolution of the sixteenth century, than all the venture- 
some assertions of its popish interpreters. Christian unity 
thus from these earliest moments found a zealous apostle. 
The nineteenth century is called to resume the work which the 
sixteenth century was unable to accomplish. 


State Religion in Berne — Irresolution of Berne — Almanack of Heretics — Evange- 
lical Majority — Haller— Z\ringle's Signal — Anabaptists in Berne — Victory of the 
Gospel — Papist ProTocations— The City Companies — Proposed Disputation^^b. 
jections of the Forest Cantons — The Church, the Judge of Controrersaries Un- 
equal Contest — Zwingle — A Christian Band — The Cordelier's Chorch — Opening 
of the Conference — The sole Head — Cnity of Error — A Priest converted at the 
Altar — St. Vincent's Day — The Butchers — A strange Argument — Papist Bitter- 
ness — Necessity of Reform — Zwiugle's Sermon — Visit of the King of kings — Edict 
of Reform— Was the Reformation political ! 

Of all the Swiss cantons, Berne appeared the least disposed to 
the Reformation. A military state may be zealous for rehgion, 
but it will be for an external and a disciplined religion : it re- 
quires an ecclesiastical organization that it can see, and touch, 
and manage at its will. It fears the innovations and the free 
movements of the Word of God: it loves the form and not the 
life. Napoleon, by restoring religion in France in the Concordat^ 

1 Ne in digitos, manus, pedes, oculos, nares, aures, brachia, cor quod nnnm est dis- 
cindatur, et quae in rebus est varietas, principium non facial multiplex. (Neafchatel 
MS.) Let not the heart, which is one, be cut up into fingers, hands, feet, eyes, nostrils, 
ears, arms ; nor the variety which is in things make the origin manifold. * An 

allnsion to the controversies on anabaptism and the real presence. Non tanta erit 
super aqua et pane contentio, nee super gramine, tolutaque obsidione. Ibid. Tha 
sense of these latter words is obscure. » Ciiaritas fortissimus ariea. (Farfi 

to Bocer lOtb May lo29.] Charity is the strongest battering-ram. 


has given us a memorable example of this truth. Such, also 
was the case with Berne. Its government, besides, was ah- 
Borbed in political interests, and although it had little regard 
for the pope, it cared still less to see a reformer put himself, as 
Zwingle did, at the head of public affairs. As for the people, 
feasting on "the butter of their kine and milk of their sheep, 
with fat of lambs,"' thev i^emained closely shut up within the 
narrow circle of their material wants. Religious questions 
were not to the taste either of the rulers or of their fellow-citi- 

The Bernese government, being without experience in reli- 
gious matters, had proposed to check the movement of the 
Reform by its edict of 1523. As soon as it discovered its mis- 
take, it moved towards the cantons that adhered to the ancient 
faith; and while that portion of the people whence the Great 
Council was recruited, listened to the voice of the Reformers, 
most of the patrician families, who composed the Smaller 
Council, believing their power, their interests, and their honour 
menaced, attached themselves to the old order of things. From 
this opposition of the two councils there arose a general unea- 
siness, but no violent shocks. Sudden movements, repeated 
starts, announced from time to time that incongruous matters 
were fermenting in the nation; it was like an indistinct earth- 
quake, which raises the whole surface without causing any 
rents: then anon all returns to apparent tranquillity.* Berne, 
which was always decided in its pohtics, turned in i-eligious 
matters at one time to the right, and at another to the left; 
and declared that it would be neither popish nor reformed. To 
gain time was, for the new faith, to gain everything. 

What was to turn aside Berne from the Reformation, was 
the very cause of precipitating it into the new way. The 
haughtiness with which the five primitive cantons arrogated 
the guardianship of their confederates, the secret conferences 
to which Berne was not even invited, and the threat of address- 
ing the people in a direct manner, deeply offended the Bernese 
oligarchs. Thomas Murner, a Carmelite of Lucerne, one of those 
rude men who act upon tbe popxdace, but who inspire disgust 
in elevated minds, made the cup run over. Furious against 
the Zurich calendar, in which the names of the saints had been 
pxirposcly omitted, he published in opposition to it the "Alma- 
nack of Heretics and Church-robbers," a tract filled with lam- 
poons and invectives, in which the j^ortraits of the reformers 
and of their adherents, among whom were many of the most 

I Pcut.i XX.XU, 11. 1 Bundesliac'on. Confliktc Ucr Ucrnisclien Kii-cUc. d. 19. 


considerable men of Berne, were coupled with the most brutal 
inscriptiens.' Zurich and Berne in conjunction demanded sa- 
tisfaction, and from this time the union of these two states 
daily became closer. 

This change was soon perceived at Berne. The elections of 
1527 placed a considerable number of friends of the Refonn in 
the Great Council; and this body, forthwith resuming its right 
to nominate the members of the Smaller Council, which had 
been usurped for twenty years by the Bannerets and the Six- 
teen, removed from the government the most decided partisans 
of the Roman hierarchy, and among others Gaspard de Muli- 
nen and Sebastian de Stein, ^ and filled the vacancies with 
members of the evangelical majority. The union of Chui-ch and 
State, which had hitherto checked the progress of the Reform 
in Switzerland, was now about to accelerate its movements. 

The reformer Haller was not alone in Berne. Kolb had 
quitted the Carthusian monastery at Nuremberg, in which he 
had been compelled to take refuge, and had appeared, before 
his compatriots, demanding no other stipend than the liberty 
of preaching Jesus Christ. Already bending under the weight 
of years, his head crowned with hoary locks, Kolb, young in 
heart, full of fire, and of indomitable courage, presented boldly 
before the chiefs of the nation that Gospel which had saved 
him. Haller, on the contrary, although only thirty-five years 
old, moved with a measured step, spoke with gravity, and pro- 
claimed the new doctrines with imusual circumspection. The 
old man had taken the young man's part, and the youth that 
of the gray-beard. 

Zwingle, whose eye nothing escaped, saw that a favourable 
hour for Berne was coming, and immediately gave the signal. 
"The dove commissioned to examine the state of the waters is 
returning with an olive-branch into the ark," wrote he to Hal- 
ler; ''come forth now, thou second Noah, and take possession 
of the land. Enforce, be earnest, and fix deeply in the hearts 
of men the hooks and grapnels of the Word of God, so that they 
can never again be rid of them."^ — "Your bears," wrote he to 
Thomas ab Hofen, "have again put forth their claws. Please 
God that they do not draw them back until they have torn 
everything in pieces that opposes Jesus Christ." ' 

HaUer and his friends were on the point of replying to this 

> Quum nadus-tertius Humeri Calendarium legissem, partim ridendo horaiais 
etuUissimam impudentiam. (Ecolam. to Zwingle, Febr. lai", Epp., ii, 26. 

3 MulUnen e Seaatoria dignitate protrustw est Lapides quoque. Haller to Zwin. 
gle, April 25, 1527. » Acideos ac hamos, sic in mortalium pectora dkaitte, ut 

etiam a relint, non possint. Zw. Epp., ii, 10. 


appeal, wlien their situation became complicated. Some ana- 
baptists, wbo formed every where the extreme party, arriving 
at Berne in 1527, led away the people from the evangelical 
preachers "on account of the presence of idols. "^ Haller had 
a useless conference with them. " To what dangers is not 
Christianity exposed," cried he, " wherever these furies have 
crept in!"* There has never been any revival in the Church, 
without the hierarchical or radi^^al sects endeavouring to dis- 
turb it. Haller, although alarmed, still maintained his unal- 
terable meekness. " The magistrates are desirous of banish- 
ing them," said he; " but it is our duty to drive out their errors, 
and not their persons. Let us employ no other weapons than 
the sword of the Spirit."' It was not from popery that the 
Reformers had learnt these principles. A public disputation 
took place. Six anabaptists declared themselves convinced, 
and two others were sent out of the country. 

The decisive moment was drawing near. The two great 
powers of the age, the Gospel and the Papacy, were stirring 
with equal energy ; the Bernese councils were to speak out. 
They saw on the one hand the five primitive cantons taking 
daily a more threatening attitude, and announcing that the 
Austrian would soon reappear in Helvetia, to reduce it once 
more into subjection to Rome ; and on the other they beheld 
the Gospel every day gaining ground in the confederation. 
"Wliich was destined to prevail in Switzerland — the lances of 
Austria or the Word of God? In the uncertainty in which the 
councils were placed, they resolved to side with the majority. 
Where could they discover a firm footing, if not there? Vox 
populi, vox Dei. "No one," said they, "can make any change 
of his own private authority: the consent of all is necessary." * 

The government of Berne had to decide between two man- 
dates, both emanating from its authority : tliat of 1523, in fa- 
vour of the free preaching of the Gospel, and that of 1526, in 
favour " of the sacraments, the saints, the mother of God, and 
the ornaments of the churches." State messengers set out 
and traversed every parish: the people gave their votes against 
every law contrary to liberty, and the councils, supported by 
the nation, decreed that "the Word of God should -be preach- 
ed pubUcly and freely, even if it should be in opposition to the 

' Ne plebem dehortentur ab auditlone conclonum nostrarum ob idolorum prrcsen- 
tiara. (Zw. Epp., ii, 4y.) Lest they dissuade the people from licaring our sermons, 
because of the presence of idols. * Coiisideruviiiius omnes periculutn urbis 

nostras ot totius Christianismi, ubi illae furiaj irrcpscrint. Ibid., 60. 

» Nostrum est, omnia gladio spiritus refelloro. Ibid. « Ut privata auoto. 

ritate nemo quippiam immutarc prxsumat Ualler to VnUian. 


«tatutes and doctrines of men." Such was the victory of tlie 
■Gospel and of the people over the oligarchy and the priests. 

Contentions immediately arose throughout the canton, and 
€very parish became a battle-field. The peasants began to 
dispute ■with the priests and monks, in reliance on the Holy 
Scriptures. " If the mandate of our lords," said many, " ac- 
cords to our pastors the liberty of preaching, why should it not 
grant the flock the liberty of acting?'* — " Peace, peacel" cried 
the councils, alarmed at their own boldness. But the flocks 
resolutely declared that they would send away the mass, and 
keep their pastors and the Bible.' Upon this the papal parti- 
sans grew violent. The banneret Kuttler called the good peo- 
ple of Emmenthal, " heretics, rascals, wantons ;" but these 
peasants obliged him to make an apology.* The bailiff of 
Trachselwald was more cunning. Seeing the inhabitants of 
Rudersweil listening with eagerness to the Word of God, which a 
pious minister was preaching to them, he came with fifers and 
trumpeters, and interrupted the sermon, inviting the viUago 
girls by words and by lively tunes to quit the chm-ch for the 

These singular provocations did not check the Reform. Sij 
of the city companies (the shoemakers, weavers, merchants, 
bakers, stone-masons, and carpenters) abolished in the churches 
and convents of their district all masses, anniversaries, advow- 
sons, and prebends. Three others (the tanners, smiths, and 
tailors) prepared to imitate them;' the seven remaining com- 
panies were undecided, except the butchers, who were enthu- 
siastic for the pope. Thus the majority of the citizens had 
embraced the Gospel. Many parishes throughout the canton 
had done the same; and the avoyer d'Erlach, that great adver- 
sary of the Reformation, could no longer keep the torrent with- 
in bounds. 

Yet the attempt was made: the bailiffs were ordered to note 
the irregularities and dissolute lives of the monks and nuns; 
all women of loose morals were even turned out of the clois- 
ters. ■* But it was not against these abuses alone that the Re- 
formation was levelled; it was against the institutions them- 
selves, and against popery on which they were founded. The 
people ought therefore to decide. — " The Bernese clergy," said 

^ Incolas rallis Emmenthal Senatum adiiss«, misjomqne missam fesisse. (Zw. 
Epp. it, 104.) The inhabitants of the valley of Emmenthal appealed to the senate, 
and gave the missal its dimissal, * Pueros, hereticos, et homines lascivoik 

Elid., 106. ^Hiller toZwingle, 4thXovemberl527. Epp., ii, lOf . 

* i. J. Ilottinger, II. Kirchen., viii, 394. 

9 (i 


they, " must he convoked, as at Zuricli, and let the two doc- 
trines he discussed in a solemn conference. We ■vvill proceed 
afterwards in conformity with the result." 

On the Sunday following the festival of Saint Martin (llth 
Novemher), the council and citizens unanimously resolved that 
a public disputation should take place at the beginning of the 
succeeding year. " The glory of God and his Word," said 
they, " will at length appear!" Bernese and strangers, priests 
and laymen, all were invited by letter or by printed notice to 
come and discuss the controverted points, and by Scripture 
alone, Avithout the glosses of the ancients, and renouncing all 
subtleties and abusive language.' Who knows, said they, 
whether all the members of the ancient Swiss confederation may 
not he thus brought to unity of faith? 

Thus, Avithin the walls of Aerne, the struggle was about to- 
take place that would decide the fate of Switzerland; for the 
Example of the Bernese must necessarily lead with it a great 
part of the confederation. 

The Five Cantons, alarmed at this intelligence, met at Lu- 
cerne, Avhere they were joined by Friburg, Soleure, and Claris. 
There Avas nothing either in the letter or in the spirit of the 
federal compact to obstruct religious liberty ._ " EA'ery state," 
said Zurich, " is free to choose the doctrine that it desires tO' 
profess." The Waldstettes,2 on the contrary, Avished to de- 
prive the cantons of this independence, and to subject them to 
the federal majority and to the pope. They protested, there- 
fore, in the name of the confederation, against the proposed 
discussion. " Your ministers," Avrote they to Berne, " dazzled 
and confounded at Baden by the brightness of truth, Avould de- 
sire by this ncAv discussion to hide their shame; but aa'C entreat 
you to desist from a plan so contrary to our ancient alliances."" 
— " It is not Ave who have infringed them," replied Berne; " it 
is much rather jom- haughty missive that has destroyed them. 
We will not abandon the Word of our Lord Jesus Christ." 
Upon this the Roman cantons decided on refusing a safe-con- 
duct to those Avho should proceed to Berne. This Avas giving 
token of sinister intentions. 

The Bishops of Lausanne, Constance, Basle, and Sion, being 
invited to the conference under pain of forfeiting all their pri- 
vileges in the canton of Berne, replied that, since it Avas to be 
a disputation according to the Scriptures, they had nothing to 

» Solam gacram Scripturnm, absque veterum gloBsematis. Haller to Zninsle. 19th 
November 1527. Epp., ii, 113. ^ The iuhiibitants of the primitive (ieinocra- 

tlo cautoDi, Sdnvytz, Uri, Uiidcrvi-ald, aud Liuceme, to which Zug may be added. 


do witli it. Thus did these priests forget the words of one of 
the most illustrious Roman doctors of the fifteenth century: 
" In heavenly things man should be independent of his fellows, 
and trust in God alone. "^ 

The Romanist doctors followed the example of the hishops. 
Eck, Murner, Coehlceus, and many others, said wherever they 
went: " We have received the letter of this leper, of this ac- 
cursed heretic, Zwingle.- They want to take the Bible for 
their judge; but has the Bible a voice against those who do it 
violence? We will not go to Berne; we will not crawl into 
that obscure corner of the world; we will not go and combat 
in that gloomy cavern, in that school of heretics. Let these 
villians come out into the open air, and contend with us on level 
ground, if they have the Bible on their side, as they say." 
The emperor ordered the discussion to be adjotu-ued; but on 
the very day of its opening, the council of Berne replied, that as 
every one was already assembled, delay would be impossible. 

Then, in despite of the doctors and bishops, the Helvetic 
Church, assembled to decide upon its doctrines. Had it a 
right to do so? No; — not if priests and bishops were appointed 
as Rome pretends, to form a mystic bond between the Churck 
and our Lord; Yes — if they were established, as the Bibl<J 
declares, only to satisfy that law of order by virtue of which 
all society should have a directing power. The opinions of the 
Swiss reformers in this respect were not doubtful. The grace 
which creates the minister comes from the Lord, thought they; 
but the Church examines this grace, acknowledges it, proclaims 
it by the elders, and in every act in which faith is concerned, 
it can always appeal from the minister to the Word of God. 
Try the spirits — pioie all tilings, it says to the faithful. Th6 
Church is the judge of controversies;' and it is this duty, in 
which it should never be found wanting, that it was now about 
to fulfil in the disputation at Berne. 

The contest seemed unequal. On one side appeared the 
Roman hierarchy, a giant which had increased in strenorth 
during many centuries; and on the other, there was at first 
but one weak and timid man, the modest Berthold HaUer. " I 
cannot wield the sword of the Word," said he in alarm to his 
friends. " If you do not stretch out your hands to me, all is 
over." He then threw himself trembUug at the feet of the 

> John Goch, Dialogus de quatuor erroribu', p. 237. 2 Epistolani leproi^ 

damnati, haretici Zwin^lii accepi. (Eck to G. A. Zeil, Zw. Epp, ii, 126.) I haye m. 
ceived the letter of the Ipprous d;iiniie<I heretic, Zvringie. » Judex eontrv* 

rerriarum — 1 Jjhn, iv, 1 ; 1 Thts«« v, 21. 


Lord, and soon aroso enlightened and exclaiming, " Faltli in 
the Saviour gives me courage, and scatters all my fears."* 

Yet he could not remain alone: all his looks were turned 
to-wardy Zwingle: " It was I Avho took the hath at Baden," 
wrote CEcolainpadius to Haller, " and now it is Zwingle who 
should lead off the hear-dance in Berne." ^ — " We are hetween 
the hammer and the anvil," wrote Ilaller to Zwingcle; "we 
hold the wolf bj the ears, and know not how to let him go.' 
The houses of De Watteville, Noll, Tremp, and Berthold are 
open to YOU. Come, then, and command the battle in person." 

Zwingle did not hesitate. He demanded permission of the 
Council of Zurich to visit Berne, in order to show there " that 
his teaching Avas full of the fear of God, and not blasphemous ; 
mighty to spread concord through Switzerland, and not to 
cause troiibles and dissension. " * At the ver}-- time that Haller 
received news of Zwingle's coming, OEcolampadius Avrote to 
him: " I am ready, if it he necessary, to sacrifice my life. Let 
us inaugurate the new year, by embracing one anotlier to the 
glory of Jesus Clirist. " Other doctors wrote to the same effect. 
" These, then," cried Haller with emotion, " these are the aux- 
iliaries that the Lord sends to my infirmity, to aid mc in fight- 
ing this rude battle I" 

It was necessary to proceed Avith circumspection, for the vio- 
lence of the oligarchs and of the Five Cantons is well known.' 
The doctors of Claris, Schaffhausen, St. Gall, Constance, Ulm, 
Lindau, and Augsburg assembled at Zurich, to proceed under 
the same escort as Zwingle, Pellican, Collin, Megander, Gross- 
man, the commander Schmidt, BuUinger, and a great number 
of the rural clergy, selected to accompany the reformer. " When 
all this game traverses the country," said the pensioners, " we 
will go a-hunting, and see if we cannot kill some, or at least 
catch them and put them into a cage." 

Three hundred chosen men, selected from the companies of 
Zurich and from the parislies within its precincts, donned tlieir 
breastplates and shouldered their arquebuses; but in order not 
to give tlic journey of these doctors the appearance of a mili- 
tary expedition, they took neither colours, fife, nor drum; and 
the trumpeter of the city, a civil officer, rode alone at the head 
of the company. 

> Fiiles in Doiiiintim mo aiiimat, ut nihil vcrear. Zw. Epp., ii, 121!. 

'■' An allusion to the dispute at liaden, a celebrated bathin^j-place, and to the ai'n.i 
of Berne. Iliid., 113. ' Luputn auribus tonenius. Zuriuli MS. 

♦ Nequc ad Dcrtuibationem nostv.oaliiKB Helvetia!. Z.v. Epp., ii, 120. 

» Oligarciiiw 111 aM;,-iili3 ob-n-iiinuionL (Ibil., 123.) Let the uligurchs murmur ia 


On Tuesday the 2d of January they set out. Never had 
Zwingle appeared more cheerful. " Glory Le to the Lord," 
said he, "my courage increases every day." ^ The hurgo- 
master Roust, the town-clerk of Mangoldt, with Funek and 
Jaekli, both masters of arts, and all four delegated by the 
council, were on horseback near him. They reached Berne 
on the 4th of January, having had only one or two unimportant 

The Cordeliers' Church was to serve as the place of con- 
ference. Tillmann, the city architect, had made arrangements 
according to a plan furnished by Zwingle.* A large platform 
had been erected, on which were placed two tables, and around 
them sat the champions of the two parties. On the evangelical 
side were remarked, besides Haller, Zwingle, and Qicolampa- 
dius. many distinguished men of the Reformed Church, strangers 
to Switzerland, as Bucer, Capito, and Ambrose Blarer. On 
the side of the Papacy, Dr. Treger of Friburg, who enjoyed a 
high reputation, appeared to keep up the fire of the combaf. 
As for the rest, whether through fear or contempt, the most 

mous Roman doctors were absent. 

The first act was to publish the regulations of the confer- 
ence. " No proof shall be proposed that is not drawn from, 
the Holy Scriptures, and no explanation shall be given of 
those Scriptures that does not come from Scripture itself, 
explaining obscure texts by such as are clear." After this, 
one of the secretaries, rising to caU over the roll, shouted with 
a loud voice that re-echoed through the church, — The Bishop 
of Constance I No one replied. He did the same for tlie 
Bishops of Zion, Basle, and Lausanne. Neither of these pre- 
lates was present at this meeting, either in person or by deputy. 
The Word of God being destined to reign alone, tlie Roman 
hierarchy did not appear. These two powers cannot walk to- 
gether. There were present about three hundred and fifty 
Swiss and German ecclesiastics. 

On Tuesday, 7th January, 1528, the burgomaster Vadian 
of St. Gall, one of the presidents, opened the disputation. 
After him the aged Kolb stood up and said: " God is at this 

.oraent agitating the whole world; let us, therefore, humble 
ourselves before him;" and he pronounced with fervour a con- 
fession of sins. 

This being ended, the first thesis was read. It ran thus: 

1 Crescit Doir.ino gloria, mihi anirnns in hac po^a. Z'v. Epp. V.-idiann. 
' TlUmannus urbU architectus Ity-um joita tuam def.nnatioueiu operabit. Ibid^ 
a, 123. 


" The holy christian Church, of which Christ is the sole 
head, is born of the Word of God, abideth in it, and listeneth 
not to tlie voice of a stranger." 

Alexis Guat, a Dominican monk — "The word so/e is not in 
Scripture. Cliiist has left a vicar here below." 

Hallku. — " The vicar that Christ left is the Holy Ghost." 

TiiEGER. — " See then to what a pass things have come these 
last ten years. This man calls himself a Lutheran, that a 
Zwinglian; a third, a Carlstadtian; a fourth an QEcolampadist, 
a fifth, an Anabaptist." . . . 

BucER. — " Whosoever preaches Jesus as the only Saviour, 
we recognise as our brother. Neither Luther, nor Zwingle, 
nor CEcolampadius, desires the faithful to bear his name. 
Besides, you should not boast so much of a mere external unity. 
When Antichrist gained the upperhand throughout the Avorld, 
in the east by Mahomet, in the west by the pope, he was able 
to keep the people in unity of error. God permits divisions, 
in order that those who belong to him may learn not to look 
to men, but to the testimony of the Word, and to the assurance 
of the Holy Ghost in their hearts. Thus then, dearly beloved 
brethren, to the Scriptures, the Scriptures ! ^ Church of 
Berne, hold fast to the teaching of Him who said, Come unto 
me, and not, Co7ne vvto my vicar!" 

The disputation then turned successively on Tradition, the 
merits of Christ, Transubstantiation, the Mass, Prayer to the 
Saints, Purgatory, Images, Celibacy, and the disorders of the 
Clergy. Rome found numerous defenders, and among others, 
Murer, priest of Rapperswyl, who had said: "If they wish to 
burn the two ministers of Berne, I will undertake to carry 
them both to the stake." 

On Sunday the 19th of January, the day on which the doc- 
trine of the mass was attacked, Zwingle, desirous of acting on 
fhe people also, went into the pulpit, and reciting the Apostles' 
Creed, made a pause after these words : " He ascended into hea- 
.-en, and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; 
rrom thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead." 
These three articles," said ho, "are in contradiction to the 
iiass." All his hearers redoubled their attention; and a 
iriest, clothed in his sacerdotal vestments, who was preparing 
10 celebrate the holy sacrifice in one of the chapels, stopped in 
astonishment at Zwingle's words. Erect before the consecra- 
ted altar on which lay the chalice and the body of the Saviour. 
vvith eyes fixed upon the reformer, whose words electrified the 

> Barum frotpwic Christen! Ziir Schrift, zur Schrift! Acta Zw., ii, 92. 

ST. TiyCEXT'S DAT. 247 

people, a prey to the most violent struggles, and beaten down 
by the Aveight of truth, the agitated priest resolved to give up 
•everything for it. In the presence of the whole assembly, he 
stripped off his priestly ornaments, and throwing them on the 
altar, he exclaimed : " Unless the mass reposes on a more 
solid foundation, I can celebrate it no longer!" The noise of 
this conversion, effected at the very foot of the altar, immedi- 
ately spread through the city,l and it was regarded as an im- 
portant omen. So long as the mass remains, Rome has gained 
everything : as soon as the mass falls, Rome has lost all. The 
mass is the creative principle of the whole system of Popery. 

Three days later, on the 22d January, was the feast of St. 
Vincent, the patron of the city. The disputation that had 
been continued during Sunday was suspended on that day. 
The canons asked the council what they were to do. "Such 
of you," replied the council, "as receive the doctrine of the 
theses ought not to say mass; the others may perform divine 
•worship as usual."' - Every preparation was accordingly made 
for the solemnity. On St. Vincent's eve the bells from every 
steeple announced the festival to the inhabitants of Berne. On 
the morrow the sacristans lit up the tapers ; incense fiUed the 
temple, but no one appeared. Xo priests to say mass, no faith- 
ful to hear it! Already there was a vast chasm in the Roman 
sanctuary, a deep silence, as on the field of battle, where none 
but the dead are lying. 

In the evening it was the custom for the canons to chant 
vespers with great pomp. The organist was at his post, but 
no one else appeared. The poor man left thus alone beholding 
•with sorrow the fall of that worship by which he gained his 
bread, gave utterance to his grief by playing a mourning-hymn 
instead of the majestic Magnificat: " Oh, wretched .Judas, what 
hast thou done, that thou hast thus betrayed our Lord ? " After 
this sad farewell, he rose and went out. Almost immediately, 
some men, excited by the passions of the moment, fell upon his 
beloved organ, an accomplice in their eyes of so many super- 
stitious rites, and their Anolent hands broke it to pieces. No 
more mass, no more organ, no more anthems ! A new Supper 
and new hymns shall succeed the rites of popery. 

1 Das lachet menklich und ward durch die gantzen Stadt kundt. Bulling., i, 438, 
In this and other quotations, « e preserve the orthography of the times. 

• liuUinger says, on the contrary, that the council posi'.ively forbade the mass. But 
Bullinger, who is a very animated writer, is not always exact in diplomatic matter*. 
The council would not have come to such a resolution before the close of the disctis- 
«ion. Other contemporary historians and oflSicial documents leave no room for doubt 
on inis point Stettler, in his Chronicle, pars ii, 6. ad annum 15J8, details these pnv 
caediogs as in the text. 


On the next day there was the same silence. Sudden] r, 
however, a hand of men with loud voices and hasty step was 
heard. It was the Butchers' Company that, at this moment 
so fatal to Rome, desired to support it. They advanced, car- 
rying small fir-trees and green branches, for the decoration of 
their chapel. In the midst of them was a foreign priest, be- 
hind whom walked a few poor scholars. The priest officiated; 
the sweet voices of the scholars supplied the place of the mute 
organ, and the butchers retired proud of their victory. 

The discussion was drawing to a close; the combatants had 
dealt vigorous blows. Burgauer, pastor of St. Gall, had 
maintained the real presence in the host; but on the 19th Jan- 
uary he declared himself convinced by the reasonings of Zwin- 
gle, QScolampadius, and Bucer ; and Matthias, minister of 
Saengen, had done the same. 

A conference in Latin afterwards took place between Farcl 
and a Parisian doctor. The latter advanced a strange argu- 
ment. "Christians," said he, "are enjoined to obey the 
devil; ^ for it is said, Submit unto tliine adversary (Matt., v, 25); 
now our adversary is the devil. How much more then should 
we submit to the Church!" Loud bursts of laughter greeted 
this remarkable syllogism. A discussion Avith the anabaptists 
terminated the conference. 

The two councils decreed that the mass should be abolished, 
and tliat every one might remove from the churches the orna- 
ments he had placed there. 

Immediately twenty-five altars and a great number of images 
wei-e destroyed in the cathedral, yet without disorder or blood- 
shed; and the children began to sing in the streets (as Luther 
informs us) : * 

By the Wonl at length we're saved 
From a god in ii mortar br.aycd. 

The hearts of the adherents of the Papacy were filled with 
bitterness as they heard the objects of their adoration fall one 
after another. " Should any man," said John Schneider, 
*' take away the altar of the Butchers' Company, I will take 
away his life." Peter Thorman compared the cathedral strip- 
ped of its ornaments to a stable. " When the good folks of 
the Oberland come to market," added he, " they will be happy 
to put up their cattle in it." And John Zehender member of 
the Great Council, to show the little value he s^t on such a 

» No« tencmur obcdire diabolo. J. J. Ilottiiiger, iii, 405. 'J Pucri iii ]ilatei» 

•antant: se esse a Deu pistu libera tus. L. £pp., iii, 'iUU. ^ 


place of worship, entered it riding on an ass, insulting and 
cursing the Reform, A Bernese, who chanced to he there, 
having said to him, "It is hy God's will that these images 
have been pulled down," — " Sav rather hy the devil's,'" replied 
Zehender; " when have you ever been with God so as to learn his- 
will? ' ' He was fined twenty livres, and expelled from the coun- 
cil.^ What times! what mannersi" exclaimed many Roman- 
ists; "what culpable neglect! How easy would it have been to 
prevent so great a misfortune! Oh! if our bishops had only 
been willing to occupy themselves more with learning and s, 
little less with their mistresses!"* 

This Reform was necessary. When Christianity in the 
fourth century had seen the favour of princes succeed to per- 
secution, a crowd of heathens rushing into the church had 
brought with them the images, pomps, statues, and demigods 
of paganism, and a likeness of the mysteries of Greece and 
Asia, and above all of Egypt, had banished the Word of Jesus 
Christ from the christian oratories. This Word returning ia 
the sixteenth century, a pmincation must necessarily take 
place ; but it could not be done without grievous rents. 

The departure of the strangers was drawing near. On the 
28th January, the day after that on which the images and 
altars had been thrown down, while their piled fragments still 
encumbered here and there the porches and ai.slcs of the cathe- 
dral, Zwingle crossing these eloquent ruins, once more ascended 
the pidpit in the midst of an immense crowd. In great emo- 
tion, directing his eyes by turns on these fragments and on 
the people, he said: "Victory has declared for the truth, but 
perseverance alone can complete the triimiph. Christ per- 
severed even until death. Fercndo vincihir fortuna. Cornelius 
Scipio, after the disaster at Canute, having learnt that the 
generals surviving the slaughter meditated quitting Italy, en- 
tered the senate-house, although not yet of senatorial age, and 
drawing his sword, constrained the affrighted chiefs to swear 
that they would not abandon Rome. Citizens of Berne, to you 
I address the same demand: do not abandon Jesus Christ." 

We may easily imagine the effect produced on the people 
by such words, pronounced with Zwingle's energetic eloquence. 

Then, turning towards the fragments that lay near liim: 
" Behold,'" said he, "behold these idols! Behold them con- 
quered, mute, and shattered before us ! These corpses must 

1 History of Berne, by Tillier, iii, 257. s Si stndionun qaam scortorum nas~ 

tri episcfpi amantiores essent. (Rucliat, i, 576. Letter of J. de Hunsitcr, priest at 
Scieure.) If our bishops were fonder of study tban of harlots. 

"250 2";7ixgle's seemox. 

be dragged to the shambles, and the gold you have spent upon 
euch foolish images must henceforth be devoted to comforting 
in their misery the living images of God. Feeble souls, ye 
shed tears over these sad idols ; do ye not see that they break, 
do yo not hear that they crack like any other wood, or like any 
other stone? Look! here is one deprived of its head .... 
{Zwingle pointed to the image, and all the people fixed their 
€yes upon it) ; here is another maimed of its arms.^ If this ill 
^sage had done any harm to the saints that are in heaven, and 
if they had the power ascribed to them, would you have been 
able, I pray, to. cut off their arms and their heads ? " 

" Now then," said the powerful orator in conclusion, " stand 
fast in the liberty wl;erewith Christ hath made you free, and 
be not entangled again Avith the yoke of bondage (Gal., v, 1). 
Fear not ! That God who has enlightened you, will enlighten 
your confederates also, and Switzerland, regenerated by the 
Holy Ghost, shall flourish in righteousness and peace." 

The words of Zwingle Avere not lost. The mercy of God 
-called forth that of man. Some persons condemned to die for 
sedition were pardoned, and all the exiles were recalled. 
" Should we not have done so," said the council, " had a great 
prince visited us ? Shall we not much more do so, now that 
the King of kings and the Redeemer of our souls has made his 
"Cntry among us, bearing an everlasting amnesty ?" ^ 

The Romish cantons, exasperated at the result of the dis- 
-cussion, sought to harass the return of the doctors. On ar- 
riving before Bremgarten, they found the gates closed. The 
bailiff Schutz, who had accompanied them with two himdred 
men-at-arms, placed two halberdiers before Zwingle's horse, 
two behind him, and one on each side; then putting himself at 
the Reformer's left hand, while the burgomaster Roust station- 
■ed himself on the right, he ordered the escort to proceed, lance 
in rest.^ The avoyers of the town being intimidated, came to 
& parley; the gates Avere opened; the escort traversed Brem- 
garten amidst an immense crowd, and on the 1st February 
reached Zurich Avithout accident, which ZAvingle re-entered, 
says Luther, like a conqueror.* 

The Roman-catholic party did not dissemble the check they 
had received. " Our cause is falling," said the friends of Rome.' 
*' Oh ! that we had had men skilled in the Bible ! The impe- 

> Hie lUt ciner, dein ist's lioupt nb, dem andern ein arm, A-c. Zw. 0pp., ii, 228. 

3 Da der Kdnig aller KbnJKe .... llaller, by Kirchhofer, p. 439. ' Mit ben 

Spyessen fur deii hauften. ISuII. Chr., i, i39. * Zwingol triumphator et inip*- 

rator gloriosu*. L. Epp., iii, 290. » Ruunt res nostra). Letter of the prl««t 

J, da Mullcr, an eyewitness of tlie discussion. Ructiat, i, ST5. 


tuosity of Zwiu2rle supported our adversaries; his ardour was 
never relaxed. That brute has more knowledge than was ima- 
gined.^ Alas I alas ! the greater partj has vanquished the 
"better." - 

The Council of Berue, desirous of separating from the pope, 
relied upon the people. On the 30th January, messengers go- 
ing from house to house convoked the citizens; and on the 2d 
February, the burgesses and inhabitants, masters and servants, 
tmiting in the cathedral, and forming but one family, with 
hands upraised to heaven, swore to defend the two councils in 
^ they should undertake for the good of the State or of the 

On the 7th February 1528, the council published a general 
edict of Reform, and " threw for ever from the necks of the 
Bernese the yoke of the four bishops, who," said they, "know 
well how to shear their sheep, but not how to feed them."^ 

At the same time the reformed doctrines were spreading 
among the peoj^. In every quarter might be heard earnest 
and keen dialogues, written in rhyme by ilanuel, in which the 
pale and expiring mass, stretched on her death-bed, was loudly 
calimg for all her physicians, and finding their advice useless, 
at length dictating with a broken voice her last will and testa- 
ment, which the people received with loud bursts of laughter. 

The Reformation generally, and that of Berne in particular, 
iias been reproached as being brought about by political mo- 
tives. But, on the contrary, Berne, which of all the Helvetic 
states was the greatest favourite of the court of Rome — which 
Lad in its canton neither a bishop to dismiss nor a powerful 
clergy to humiliate — Berne, whose most influential families, 
the Weingartens, Manuels, Mays, were reluctant to sacrifice 
the pay and the service of the foreigner, and all whose tradi- 
tions were conservative, ought to have opposed the movement. 
The Word of God was the power that overcame this political 

At Berne, as elsewhere, it was neither a learned, nor a de- 
mocratic, nor a sectarian spirit that gave birth to the Reforma- 
tion. Undoubtedly, the men of letters, the liberals, the sectarian 
enthusiasts, rushed into the great struggle of the sixteenth 
century; but the duration of the Reform would not have been 
long had it received its life from them. The primitive streno^h 
of Christianity, reviving after ages of long and complete pros- 

* Doctior tatnen haec bellaa est quam patabam. Bachat, i, 575. ' Vicitque 

f»ars major meliorem. Ibid. » BalL Chr«>!i., i, 466. ♦ Hundeshagen, 

Coiiftiktc der Bemisehen Kirche, p. 72. 


tration, was the creative principle of the Reformation; and it 
was ere long seen separating distinctly from the false allie* 
that had presented themselves, rejecting an incredulous learn- 
ing hy elevating the study of the classics, checking all dema- 
gogic anarcliy by upholding the principles of true liberty, and 
repudiating the enthusiastic sects by consecrating the rights of 
the Word and of the Christian people. 

But while we maintain that the Reformation was at Berne, 
as elsewhere, a truly christian work, we are far from saying 
that it was not useful to the canton in a political sense. All 
the European states that have embraced the Reformation have 
been elevated, while those which have combated it have been 


The Reform accepted by ihe People— Faith, Purity, and Chaiity First Evangclica) 

Communion — Bernese Proposition to the Diet — Cavern, and Head of Bcatu— . 
Tlireatenins Storm from the mountains — Revolt — Confusion in Berne — Enter- 
walden crosses the Brunig— Energy of Berne— Victory — Political Advantages. 

It now became a question of propagating throughout all the 
canton the Reform accomplished in the city. On the 17th 
February, the council invited the rural parishes to assemble 
on the following Sunday to receive and deliberate upon a com- 
munication. The whole Church, according to the ancient 
usage of Christendom, was about to decide for itself on its 
dearest interests. 

The assemblies were crowded ; all coriditions and ages were 
present. Beside the hoary and the trembling head of the aged 
man might be seen the sparkling eye of the youthful herdsman. 
The messengers of the council first read the edict of the Refor- 
mation. They next proclaimed that those who accepted it 
should remain, and that those who rejected it should withdraw. 

Almost all the assembled Parishioners remained in their 
places. An immense majority of the people chose the Bible. 
In some few parishes this decision was accompanied with ener- 
getic demonstrations. At Arberg, Zofingen, Brugg, Aran, and 
Burcn, the images were burnt. "At Stauffberg, " it was said, 
'•idols were seen carrying idols, and throwing one another in- 
to the flames. "1 

^ Da trcgt ein ( dfji den andcrn In das fliiiwr. Bull. Chron., ii, 1. A man «!:os8- 
business it was to the tlocks, and who liud been nicknamed (Jotz-scliorer (idoU 
thearer), had made liiiiiself very distinjcnislicii amonf; those who ciiiricd the im!i(,'e» 
to tlie tire. Such was the origin of this puimlar h'^jcnd, und it is the key tn many 

FAITH, Pnnxr, AXD CnARITT. 253 

The images and the mass had disappeared from this vast 
canton. "A great cry resomided far and wide," writes Bol- 
linger.^ In one day Rome had fallen throughout the country, 
without treachery, violence, or seduction, hy the strength of 
truth alone. In some places, however, in the Hasli, at Fruti- 
gen, Unterseen, and Grindewald, the malcontents were heard 
to say: "If they abolish the mass, they should also abolish 
tithes." 2 The Roman form of worship was preserved in the 
Upper Simmenthal, a proof that there was no compulsion on 
the part of the state. 

The wishes of the canton being thus manifested, Berne com- 
pleted the Reformation. All excesses in gambling, drinking, 
and dancing, and all unbecoming dress, were forbidden by pro- 
clamation. The houses of ill- fame were destroyed, and their 
wretched inhabitants expelled from the city.' A consistory 
■was appointed to watch over the public morals. 

Seven days after the edict, the poor were received into the 
Dominican cloister, and a little later the convent of the Island 
•was changed into an hospital ; the princely monastery of Ko- 
nigsfield was also devoted to the same useful purpose. Charity 
followed everywhere in the stops of faith. "We wiU show," 
said the council, "that we do not use the property of the con- 
Tents to our own advantage;"' and they kept their word. The 
poor were clothed with the priests' garments ; 'the orphans de- 
corated with the ornaments of the church. So strict were they 
in these distributions, that the state was forced to borrow money 
to pay the annuities of the monks and nuns; and for eight days 
there was not a crown in the public treasury.^ Thus it was 
that the State, as it has been continually asserted, grew rich 
■with the spoils of the Church ! At the same time they invited 
from Zurich the ministers Hofmeister, Megander, and Rhellican, 
to spread throughout the canton the knowledge of the classics 
^^ and of the Holy Scriptures. 

Hk. At Easter the Lord's Supper was celebrated for the first time 
■^^ according to the evangelical rites. The two councils and all 
the people, with few exceptions, partook of it. Strangers were 
struck with the solemnity of this first communion. The citizens 
of Berne and their wives, dressed in decent garments, which 
recalled the ancient Swiss simplicity, approached Christ's table 
with gravity and fervour;* the heads of the state showed the 

> Das «-yt und breit ein gross gesclirey and wunder gepar. B;i!l. Chron., ii. 1. 

3 J. J. Hottinger, iii. 414. * Hoc uuum tibi dico sccrt-tissime. (Ilaller to 

Zwingle, 21st Junu:ir>-, 1530.) This one tiling I tell you as the greatest secret. 

* Relucet eniiu in illorum vestiiu et liabhu nescio quid v us Helvetiae sim. 

yllcilatis. Hofmeister to Zwingle. Zw. Epp., ii, 1C7. 


same holy devotion as the people, and piously received the bread: 
from the hands of Berthold Haller. Each one felt that the 
Lord vras among them. Thus Ilofmeister, charmed at this so- 
lemn service, exclaimed: "How can the adversaries of the Word, 
refuse to embrace the truth at last, seeing that God himself 
renders it so striking a testimony!" * 

Yet everything was not changed. The friends of the Gospel 
Avitnessed with pain the sons of the chief families of the republic 
parading the streets in costly garments, inhabiting sumptuous 
houses in the city, dwelling in magnificent mansions in the 
country — true seignorial abodes, following the chase with hound 
and horn, sitting down to luxurious banquets, conversing in li- 
centious language, or talking with enthusiasm of foreign wars 
and of the French party. "Ah," said the pious people, "could 
we but see old Switzerland revive Avitli its ancient virtues!" 

There was soon a powerful reaction. The annual renewal 
of the magistracy being about to take place, the councillor 
Butschelbach, a violent adversary of the Gospel, was ejected for 
adultery: four other senators and twenty members of the Great 
Council were also replaced by friends of the Reformation and of 
public morality. Emboldened by this victory, the evangelical 
Bernese proposed in tke diet that every Swiss shoidd renounce 
foreign service. At these words the warriors of Lucerne started 
under their weighty armour, and replied with a haughty smile: 
"When you have returned to the ancient faith we will listen to 
your homilies." All the members of the government, assembled 
at Berne in sovereign council, resolved to set the example, and 
solemnly abjured the pay of foreign princes. Thus the Refor- 
mation showed its faith by its works. 

Another struggle took place. Above the lake of Thun rises 
a chain of steep rocks, in the midst of which is situated a deep> 
cavern, Avhere, if we may believe tradition, the pious Breton, 
Beatus, came in ancient times to devote himself to all the aus- 
terities of an ascetic life ; but especially to the conversion of 
the surrounding district that was still heathen. It was affii-med 
that the head of this saint, who had died in Gaul, was preserved 
in this cavern ; and hence pilgrims resorted thither from every 
quarter. The pious citizens of Zug, Schwytz, Uri, and Argo- 
via, groaned, as tliey thought that tlie holy head of the apostle 
of Switzerland would hereafter remain in a land of heretics. 
The abbot of tlic celebrated convent of Muri in Argovia and 
flome of his friends set out, as in ancient times the Argonauts 

I Ea res ma(;iiiiin npi-m mihi injecit de illis lucrundls qui liacteim fuerunt malo 
niori;;iTi verbo. (Zw. Epp., ii, 1G7.) This thing gave me great hope of gaining those 
who have bitlierto been diiubcdient to the Word. 


went in quest of the golden fleece. They arrived in the humble 
guise of poor pilgrims, and entered the cavern ; one skilfully 
took away the head, another placed it mysteriously in his hood^ 
and they disappeared. The head of a dead mani — and this 
was all that Rome saved from the shipwreck. But even this 
conquest was more than doubtful. The Bernese, who had 
gained information of the procession, sent three deputies on the 
18th May, who, according to their report, found this famous 
head, and caused it to be decently inteiTcd before their eyes in, 
the cemetry belonging to the convent of Interlaken. This con- 
test about a skull characterizes the Church that had just given, 
way in Berne before the vivifying breath of the Gospel. Let 
the dead bury their dead. 

The Reformation had triumphed in Berne; hut a storm was 
gathering imperceived in the mountains, which threatened to 
overthrow it. The State in union with the Church recalled its 
ancient renown. Seeing itself attacked by arms, it took up 
arms in its turn, and acted with that decision which had for- 
merly saved Rome in similar dangers. 

A secret discontent was fermenting among the people of the 
valleys and mountains. Some were still attached to the ancient 
faith; some had only quitted the mass because they thought 
ihey would he exempted from tithes. Ancient ties of neigh- 
bourhood, a common origin, and similarity of manners, had 
*nited the inhabitants of the Obwald (Unterwalden) to those 
\)f the Hash and of the Bernese Oberland, which were separated 
only by Mount Brunig and the high pass of the Yoke. A 
rumour had been set afloat that the government of Berne had 
profaned the spot where the precious remains of Beatus, the 
apostle of these mountains, were preserved, and indignation im- 
mediately filled these pastoral people, who adhere firmer than 
others to the customs and superstitions of their forefathers. 

But while some were excited by attachment to Rome, others 
were aroused by a desire for liberty. The subjects of the mon- 
astery of Interlaken, oppressed by the monkish rule, began to 
cry out, " We desire to become our own masters, and no lono^r 
pay rent or tithes." The provost of the convent in afi"rio-ht 
eeded all his rights to Berne for the sima of one hmidred thou- 
sand florins ; ^ and a bailiff accompanied by several councillors, 
went and took possession of the monaster}*. A report was 
soon spread that they were about to transfer all the property 
of the convent to Berne; and on the 21st April hands of men 

» Totnm regTium suum tradiderunt in manus magiatratos uostri. Uall«r t»- 
Swingle, 31st March. 


from Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Eingelberg, Brienz, and 
other places, crossed the lake, or issued from their lofty val- 
leys, and taking forcible possession of the cloister, swore they 
would go even to Berne in quest of the goods which the citi- 
zens had dared to take from them. 

They were quieted for a time ; But in the beginning of June, 
the people, at the instigation of Unterwalden, again arose in 
all the Hasli. The Landsgemeinde ^ having been convoked, it 
decided by a majority of forty voices for the re-establishment 
of the mass. The pastor Jaekli was immediately expelled ; a 
few men crossed the Brunig, and brought back some j^riests 
from Unterwalden, to the sound of fifes and trumpets. They 
were seen from afar descending the mountain, and shouts, both 
loud and long, replied to them from the bottom of the valley. 
At last they arrived : — all embraced one another, and the people 
celebrated the mass anew with great demonstrations of joy. 
At the same time, the people of Frutigen and of the fertile val- 
ley of Adelboden assailed the castellan Renter, carried off his 
•flocks, and established a Roman-catholic priest in the place c^ 
their pastor. At Aesclii even the women took up arms, drov# 
out the pastor from the church, and brought bach the images 
in triumph. The revolt spread from hamlet to hamlet and from 
valley to valley, and again took possession of Interlaken. All 
the malcontents assembled there on the 22d October, and swore, 
Avith bauds upraised to heaven, boldly to defend their rights 
and liberty. 

The republic was in great danger. All the kings of Europe, 
and almost all the cantons of Switzerland, were opposed to the 
Gospel. The report of an army from Austria, destined to in- 
terjiosc in favour of the pope, spread through the reformed 
cantons.* Seditious meetings took place every day,' and the 
people refused to pay their magistrates either quit-rent, service, 
tithes, or even obedience, unless they shut their eyes to the 
designs of the Roman-catholics. The council became con- 
fused. Amazed and confounded, exposed to the mistrust of 
some and to the insults of others, they had tlie cowardice to 
separate under the pretext of gathering the vintage, and fold- 
ing their arms, in tlie presence of this great danger, tlicy 
waited until a Messiah should descend from heaven (says a re- 
former) to save the republic* The ministers pointed out the 

* The nsscinbly of all the people. ' Auiiisti nimiruin quain se apparent 

Auilr'uici ad lielliiin, advcrsus quos ignoratur. Suspicaiitui- quidam in Uelvetios. 
((Ecu', to Z"'. Epp., ii, Ifil.; You have lieard, no doubt, hoiv the Austrians are pr«. 
I>ai-;ii>; for war, aj^ain^t whom is unknown, bonje suspcft it is ai^'ainst the Swiss. 

^ ;?(!ditiii8oruiu cuncursus sunt quotidiani. 'Aw. Epp., ii, 2'J7. ♦ Nunc, inino 

suuin Mc'Ssiain ad>eiii>se Hj)ejaiiti;s. (Ihid.) llnpin^' that now, now tl.cir ilobsiali haJ 


danger, forewarned and conjured thena; but thev all turned a 
deaf ear. '' Christ languishes in Berne," said Haller, *' and 
appears nigh perishing."^ The people were in commotion: 
they assembled, made speeches, murmured, and shed tears! 
Everywhere — in all their tumultuous meetings — might be heard 
this complaint of Manuel on Papists and the Papacy: * 

With rage our foes their hateful threats denounce. 
Because, Lord, we love Thee best of all ; 
Because at sight of Thee the idols fall ; 

And war and bloodshed, shuddering, •we renounce. 

Berne was like a troubled sea, and Haller, who listened to 
the roaring of the waves, wrote in the deepest anguish: 
" Wisdom has forsaken the wise, counsel has departed from 
the councillors, and energy from the chiefs and from the peo- 
ple. The number of the seditious augments every day. AlasI 
what can the Bear, oppressed with sleep, oppose to so many and 
to such sturdy hunters? ' If Christ withdraw himself, we 
shall all perish." 

These fears were on the point of being realized. The smaller 
•cantons claimed to have the power of interfering in matters ot 
faith without infringing the federal compact. While six hun- 
dred men of Uri kept themselves ready to depart, eight hun- 
dred men of Unterwalden, bearing pine-branches in their hats, 
symbols of the old faith, with haughty heads, with gloomy and 
threatening looks, crossed the Brunig under the ancient banner 
of the country, which was borne by Gaspard de Flue, a very 
unworthy grandson of the great Nicholas.* This was the first 
violation of the national peace for many a year. Uniting at 
Hasli with the men of Brienz, this little army crossed the lake, 
passed under the cascades of Giesbach, and arrived at Unter- 
seen, thirteen hundred strong, and ready to march on Berne 
to re-establish the pope, the idols, and the mass in that rebel- 
lious city. In Switzerland, as in Germany, the Reformation 
at its outset met with a peasant war. At the first success, 
new combatants would arrive and pour through the passes 
of the Brunig upon the unfaithful republic. The army was 
only six leagues from Berne, and already the sons of Unter- 
walden were proudly brandishing their swords on the banks of 
the lake of Thun. 

Thus were the federal alliances trodden under foot by those 

1 Ita latipief Chri'tiis aptid nos. Zw. Epp., ii, '227. ' Dass wjr hand d' Got- 

«en gewortm bin. flMiiii and Prayer. • Quid hspc iTiter tot et tantos rena- 

tores robiisujis. Zw. E\>y, ii, 2?3. * A ceiebrited lieriuu who prevented a civil 

war in Switzerland in l-iSl, 

9 R 


very persons who aspired to the name of conservatives. Berne- 
had the right to repel this criminal attack by force. Sud- 
denly calling to mind her ancient virtues, the city roused her- 
self, and vowed to perish rather than tolerate the intervention 
of Unterwalden, the restoration of the mass, and the fiery vio- 
lence of the peasants. 1 There was at that moment in the^ 
hearts of the Bernese one of those inspirations that come from 
above, and which save nations as well as individuals. " Let 
the strength of the city of Berne," exclaimed the avoyer 
d'Erlach, " be in God alone, and in the loyalty of its people." 
All the council and the whole body of the citizens replied by 
noisy acclamations. The great banner was hastily brought, 
forth, the townspeople ran to arms, the companies assembled 
and the troops of the republic marched out with the valiant 
avoyer at their head. 

Scarcely had the Bernese government acted thus energeti- 
cally, before it saw the confidence of its friends increase, and 
the courage of its adversaries diminish. God never abandons 
a people who are true to themselves. Many of the Oberland- 
ers became intimidated, and deserted the ranks of the revolt. 
At the same time deputies from Basle and Lucerne represented 
to Unterwalden that it was trampling the ancient alliances 
under foot. The rebels, disheartened by the firmness of the 
republic, abandoned Unterseen, and retired to the convent of 
Interlaken. And soon after, when they beheld the decision of 
their adversaries, distressed besides by the cold rains that fell 
incessantly, and fearing that the snow, by covering the moun- 
tains, would prevent their return to their homes, the men of 
Unterwalden evacuated Interlaken diu-ing the night. The Ber- 
nese, to the number of five thousand men, entered it immedi- 
ately, and summoned the inhabitants of the Hasli and of tha 
bailiwick of Interlaken to assemble on the 4th November in 
the plain that surrounds the convent.* The day being ar- 
rived, the Bernese army drew up in order of battle, and then 
formed a circle within which D'Erlach ordered the peasants to 
enter. Hardly had he placed the rebels on the left and the 
loyal citizens on the right, before the muskets and artillery fired 
a general discharge, whose report re-echoing among the moun- 
tains, filled the insurgents with terror. They thought it the 
signal of their death. But the avoyer only intended to show 
that they were in the power of the republic. D'Erlach, who. 

I Quam mltsam reducem aut violentiam viUanonim pati. Haller to Zwingle, 2«th. 
Octo(>er. ' Tradition saji that it was on the spot where the hotel ot lutcr- 

Uk«n now •tandi, .'' 

TiCTOBT. 2^ 

addressed them immediately after this strange exordium, had 
not iinished his speech, before thev all fell on their knees, and, 
confessing their crime, begged for pardon. The republic was 
satisfied: the rebellion was over. The banners of the district 
were carried to Berne, and the Eagle of Interlaken in union 
with the Wild-goat of Hasli, hung for a time beneath the 
Bear, as a trophy of this victory. Four of the chiefs were 
put to death, and an amnesty was granted to the remainder 
of the rebels. "The Bernese," said Zwingle, "as Alexander 
of ^lacedon in times of old, have cut the Gordian knot with 
courage and with glory." ^ Thus thought the reformer of 
Zurich; but experience was one day to teach him, that to cut 
such knots is required a different sword from that of Alex- 
ander and of D'Erlach. However that may be, peace was 
restored, and in the valleys of the Hasli no other noise was 
heard than the sublime tumult borne afar by the Reiohen- 
bach and the surroimding torrents, as they pour from cue 
mountain-tops their multitudinous and foaming waters. 

"VMiile we repudiate on behalf of the Church the swords 
of the Helvetic bands, it woidd be unwise not to acknow- 
ledge the political advantages of this victory. The nobles 
had imagined that the Reformation of the Church would en- 
danger the very existence of the State. They now had a 
proof to the contrary: they saw that when a nation receives 
the Gospel, its strength is doubled. The generous confidence 
with which, in the hour of danger, they had placed some of 
the adversaries of the Reformation at the head of affairs and 
of the army, produced the happiest results. All were now 
convinced that the Reformation would not trample old recol- 
lections under foot: prejudices were removed, hatred was ap- 
peased, the Gospel gradually rallied all hearts around it, and 
then was verified the ancient and remarkable saying, so often 
repeated by the friends and enemies of that powerful republic 
— " God is become a citizen of Berne." 

1 Bemenses pro sua dignitate nodutn hunc, quemadinodam Alexander Xacedo^ 
€ordiain dUsectari. (Zw. Epp., ii, its.) The Bernese, as became thesa, have cat tiu* 
fiordian knot, like Alexander of Macedoo. 



Reformation of St. Gall— Nuns of St. Catherine— Reformation of Glarie, Borne, 
Appenzell, the Grisons, Schaft'hausen, and tlie Rhine District — A Popish Miracle 
—Obstacles in Basle — Zeal of the Citizens — CEcolanipadius marries — Witticism of 
ErasnitLS — First Action — Half Measures— Petition of the Reformed. 

The reformation of Berne was decisive for several cantons. 
The same wind that had blown from on high with so much 
power on the country of De Watteville and Haller, threw down 
*' the idols " in a great part of Switzerland. In many places 
the people were indignant at seeing the Reformation checked 
by the timid prudence of diplomatists; but when diplomacy was 
put to flight at Berne, the torrent so long restrained poured 
violently onwards. 

Vadian, burgomaster of St. Gall, who presided at the Bernese 
disputation, had scarcely returned home, when the citizens, 
•with the authority of the magistrates, removed the images 
from the church of St. Magnus, carried to the mint a hand of 
the patron saint in silver, with other articles of plate, and dis- 
tributed among the poor the money they received in cvchange; 
thus, hke Mary, pouring their precious ointment on the head 
of Christ.^ The penple of St. Gall, being curious tu unveil the 
ancient mysteries, laid their hands on the abbey it^self, on the 
shrines and crosses which bad so long been presented to their 
adoration; but instead of saintly relics, they found, to their 
great surprise, nothing but some re.>iin, a few pieces of money, 
several paltry wooden images, some old rags, a skull, a large 
tooth, and a siuiil's slielll Home, instead of that noble fall 
which marks the ends of great characters, sunk in the midst 
of stupid su'jer.stiti(ins, shaiueful frauds, and tlie ironical 
laughter of a wliolc nation. 

Such discovciii's unfortunately excited the passions of the 
multitude. One evening some evil-disposed persons, wishing 
to alarm the [loor nuns of St. Cjitherinc, who had olistinatcly 
resisted the Uef(jrin, surrounded the convent witli loud cries. 
In vain did ibe iiun.s .bariicatle the doors: the walls were soon 
ficaled. ami tlie good uine, meat, confeetionaries, and all the 
far fioni a.><eetie delicacies of the cloister became the prey of 
these rude je.-'ters. Aimtlier persecution awaited tluni. Doc- 
tor Schapj)elei liiiving l)eeM appointed their catechist. they were 

* Wiu- ptniiinxit iinu licn Anmii iiu»xi-tli>-ilt. J. J. HuttinKer. in. 415, St, Mat- 


recommended to lay aside tlieir monastic dress, and to attend 
his heretical sermons " clothed like aE the world,'" said the 
sister Wiborath. Some of them embraced the Reform, but 
thirty others preferred exile. ^ On the 5th February, 1528, a nu- 
merous synod framed the constitution of the church of St. Gall. 

The struggle was more violent at Glaris. The seeds of the 
Gospel truth, which Zwingle had scattered there, prospered 
but little. The men in power anxiously rejected every inno- 
vation, and the people loved better " to leap and dance, and 
work miracles, glass in hand,'^ as an old chronicle says, •* than 
to busy themselves about the Gospel." The Landsgemeinde 
having pronounced, on the 15th May, 1528, in favour of the 
mass by a majority of thirty-three voices, the two parties were 
marked out with greater distinctness: the images were broken 
at Matt, Elm, and Bettschwanden, and as each man remained 
aloof in his own house and village, there was no longer in 
the canton either council of state or tribunal of justice. 
At Schwanden, the minister Peter Rumelin, having invited 
the Pioman-catholics to a disputation with him in the church, 
the latter, instead of discussing, marclied in procession to 
the sound of drmus round the place of worship in which the 
Reformed were assembled, and then rushing into the pastor's 
house, which was situated in the middle of the city, des- 
troyed the stoves and the windows: the irritated Reformed 
took their revenge and broke the images. On the 15th April, 
1529, an agreement was concluded, by virtue of which every 
man was free to choose between the mass and the sermon. 

At Wesen, where Schwytz exercised sovereignty conjointly 
with Glaris, the deputies of the former canton threatened the 
people. Upon this the young men took the images out of the 
churches, carried them to an open place near the banks of the 
picturesque lake of Wallenstadt, above which soar the moun- 
tains of the Ammon and of the Seven Electors, and cried: 
•'Look! this road (that by the lake) leads to Coire and to 
Rome; that (to the south) to Glaris; this other (to the west) 
to Schwytz; and the fourth (by the Ammon) to St. GaU. 
Take which you please! But if you do not move off, you 
shall be burnt!" After waiting a few moments, these vouno- 
people flung the motionless images into the fire, and the 
Schwytz deputies, eye-witnesses of this execution, withdrew in 
consternation, and filled the whole canton with projects of ven- 
ijednco that were but too soon realized. 

m tne cauion of Appenzell, where a conference had been 

» An. Gesch. St. Gall, ii, 52P. J. J. Hottinger, 416. Muller ; Hottinger, ii, 91, 


opened, there suddenly appeared a band of Roman-catholicB, 
armed with whips and clubs, and crying out ; " Where are these 
preachers? we are resolved to put them out of the village." 
These strange doctors wounded the ministers and dispersed the 
assembly with their whips. Out of the eight parishes of the can- 
ton, six embraced the Reform, and AppenzeU became finally 
divided into two little sections, the one Romanist and the other 

In the Grisons religious liberty was proclaimed; the parishes 
had the election of their pastors, several castles were rased to 
the ground to render all return to arbitrary government impos- 
sible, and the affrighted bishop went and hid in the Tyrol his 
anger and his desire for vengeance. "The Grisons," said 
Zwingle, "advance daily. It is a nation that by its courage 
reminds us of the ancient Tuscans, and by its candour of the 
ancient Swiss."* 

Schaffhausen, after having long "halted between two opin- 
ions," at the summons of Zurich and of Berne removed the im- 
ages from its churches without tumult or disorder. At the 
same time the Reformation invaded Thurgovia, the valley of 
the Rhine, and other bailiwicks subordinate to these cantons. 
In vain did the Roman-catholic cantons, that Avere in the ma- 
jority, protest against it. "When temporal affairs are con- 
cerned," replied Zurich and Berne, "we Avili not oppose a 
l)lurality of votes; but the Word of God cannot be subjected 
to the suffrages of men." All the districts that lie along the 
banks of Thur, of the lake of Constance, and of the Upper 
Rhine, embraced the Gospel. The inhabitants of Mammeren, 
near the place where the Rhine issues from the lake, flung 
their images into the water. But the statue of St. Blaise, 
after remaining some time upright, and contemplating the un- 
grateful spot whence it was banished, swam across the lake to 
Catahom, situated on the opposite shore, if M-e rnay believe the 
account of a monk named Lang. ^ Even while running away. 
Popery worked it miracles. 

Thus were the popular superstitions overthrown in Switzer- 
land, and sometimes not without violence. Every great deve- 
lopment in human affairs brings with it an energetic opposition 
to that which has existed. It necessarily contains an aggres- 
sive element, wiiich ought to act freely, and by that means 
opens the new path. In tlio times of the Reformation the doc- 
tors attacked the pope, and the people the images. The 

^ Ocua animo reteres Tuscos roferens, candore veteres Helretios. Zw. Bpp. 
3 J. J. lloUinser, iii, i'2G. 


movement almost always exceeded a just moderation. In order 
that human nature may make one step in advance, its pioneers 
must take many. Every superfluous step should be condemned, 
-and yet we must acknowledge their necessity. Let us not forget 
this in the history of the Reformation, and especially in that of 

Zurich was reformed ; Berne had just become so : Basle 
still remained, before the great cities of the Confederation were 
gained over to the evangelical faith. The reformation of this 
learned city was the most important consequence resulting 
from that of the warlike Berne. 

For six years the Gospel had been preached in Basle. The 
meek and pious CEcolampadius was always waiting for happier 
times. " The darkness,'' said he, " is about to retire before 
the rays of truth." ^ But his expectation was vain. A triple 
aristocracy — the superior clergy, the nobles, and the univer- 
sity — checked the free expansion of christian convictions. It 
was the middle classes who were destined to effect the triumph 
of the Reformation in Basle.- Unhappily the popular wave 
invades nothing without tossing up some foul scum. 

It is true that the Gospel had many friends in the councils : 
but being men of a middle party, they tacked backwards and 
forwards like Erasmus, instead of sailing straight to the port. 
They ordered " the pure preaching of the Word of God ;" but 
stipulated at the same time that it should be " without Lu- 
theranism." The aged and pious Bishop Utenheim, who was 
living in retirement at Bruntrut, tottered daily into the church, 
supported by two domestics, to celebrate mass with a broken 
voice. Gundelsheim, an enemy of the Reformation, succeeded 
him erelong ; and on the 23d Septemli.r. followed by many 
exiles and with a train of forty horses, he made his triumphal 
entry into Basle, proposing to restore everything to its ancient 
footing. This made (Ecolampadius write in alarm to Zwingle: 
" Our cause hangs upon a thread." 

But in the citizens the Reform found a compensation for the 
disdain of the great, and for the terrors inspired by the new- 
bishop. They organized repasts for fifty and a hundred guests 
€ach; CEcolampadius and his colleagues took their seats at 
these tables with the people, where energetic acclamations and 
-reiterated cheers greeted the work of the Reformation. In a 

»Sn€rabara enim tenebras reritatis radio cessuras tandem. Zw. Epp., ii 136. 
Major pars civitatis qua; toto corde dolet tantis nos dissidiis laborare. '(Ibid, 7.5,) 
The greater part of the citv, who are grieved with their whole heart that we UbuttT 
auder such suspicions. 


Buort time even the council appeared to incline to the side of 
the Gospel. Twenty feast-days were retrenched, and the 
priests were permitted to refuse celebrating the mass. " It is- 
all over with Rome," was now the cry. But OEcolampadius, 
shaking his head replied; "I am afraid that, by wisliing to sit 
on two stools, Basle will at last fall to the ground." ^ 

This was at the period of his return from the discussion at 
Berne. He arrived in time to close the eyes of his pioua 
mother; and then the reformer found himself alone, succum- 
bing under the weight of public and domestic cares ; for his- 
house was like an inn for all fugitive Christians. " I shall 
marry a Monica," * he had often said, " or else I shall remain. 
a bachelor." He thought he had now discovered the " chris- 
tian sister" of whom he was in search. This was Wilibrau- 
dis, daughter of one of the Emperor Maximilian's knights, and 
widow of a master of arts named Keller, — a woman already 
proved by many trials. He married her, saying : "I look t» 
the ordinances of God, and not to the scowling faces of men." 
This did not prevent the sly Erasmus from exclaiming: 
" Luther's affair is called a tragedy, but I maintain it is a- 
comedy, for each act of the drama ends in a wedding." This 
vitticism has been often repeated. For a long time it was the 
fashion to account for the Reformation by the desire of the 
princes for the church-property, and of the priests for mar- 
riage. This vulgar method is now stigmatized by the best Ro- 
man controversiahsts as *' a proof of a singularly narrow mind. 
The Reformation originated," added they, in a true and chris- 
tian, although unenlightened zeal." 

The return of (Ecolampadius had still more important con- 
sequences for Basle than it had for himself. The discussion at 
Berne caused a great sensation there. "Berne, the powerful 
Berne, is reforming!" was passed from mouth to mouth. 
•' How, then!" said the people one to another, " the fierce 

Bear has come out of liis den he is groping about for tho 

rays of the sun. . . . and Basle, tho city of learning — Basle, tho 
adopted city of Erasmus and of (Ecolampadius, remains in 

On Good Friday (10th April 1528), without the knowledge 
of tho council and (Ecolampadius, five workmen of tlie Spin- 
nerfl' Company entered tho church of St. Martin, which wa*. 

1 Voreorfine nc dnm srmprr iitrncni'! Bella Redere velif, utmquo extriuJiitnr (I'iiinn- 
(tn. (Zw. Kpp., ii, IW.) I iim iilVaiil Icsl, wlili- she nliviiys wislies to sit on botli siools, 
she hi' lit length pnslicd fivmi hoth. 2 The name of St. Ausustinc's iii. tlier. 

•A See Mohler's Stmbolik, both in the preface and in the body of the weik. Thi« 
la one of thfi most iniportaut writinKS produced by Uome since the time of lioBsuet. 


that of tl:e reformer, and where the maos vras already abolish- 
ed, apd carried away all the "idols." On Easter Monday, 
after the evening sermon, thirty-four citizens remoTcd all the 
images from the church of the Augustines. 

This was going too far. Were they desirous, then, of draw- 
ing Basle and its councils from that just medium in which they 
had tiU this moment so wisely halted ? The council met has- 
tily on Tuesday morning, and sent the five men to prison ; but, 
on the intercession of the burghers, they were released, and 
the images suppressed in five other churches. These haK mea- 
sures suflSced for a time. 

On a sudden the flame burst out anew with greater violence. 
Sermons were preached at St. Martin's and St. Leonard's 
against the abominations of the cathedral ; and at the cathe- 
dral the reformers were called " heretics, knaves, and profli- 
gates.'"* The papists celebrated mass upon mass. The bur- 
gomaster Meyer, a friend of the Reform, had with him the- 
majority of the people; the burgomaster Meltinger, an intre- 
pid leader of the partizans of Rome, prevailed in the councils : 
a collision became inevitable. " The fatal hour approaches,"^ 
says CEcolampadius, " terrible for the enemies of God !" * 

On Wednesday the 23d December, two days before Christ- 
mas, three hundred citizens from all the companies, pious and 
worthy men, asbembled in the hall of the Gardeners' Company, 
and there drew up a petition to the senate. During tliis time 
the friends of popery, who resided for the most part in Little 
Basle and the suburb of St. Paul, took up arms, and brandish- 
ed their swords and lances against the reformed citizens at the 
very moment that the latter were bearing their petition to the 
council, and endeavoured, although incfiectually, to bar their 
road. Meltinger haughtily refused to receive the petition, and 
charged the burghers, on the faith of their civic oath, to retura 
to their homes. The burgomaster Meyer, however, took the 
address, and the senate ordered it to be read. 

" Honoiu-ed, wise, and gracious Lords," it ran, "we, your 
dutiful fellow-citizens of the companies, address you as weU- 
beloved fathers, whom we are ready to obey at the cost of our 
goods and of our lives. Take God's glory to heart; restore 
peace to the city; and oblige all the people's preachers to ilis- 
CUS3 freely with the ministers. If the mass be true, we desire 
to have it in our chui-ches ; but if it is an abomination before 

* Ketzer, schelmen, und btiben. Bulllnj., ii, 3C * Jiaturatur fauUu bora- 

et treinec<la hostibus L'ei. Zw. £pp., iv, 213. 


■God, why, through love for the priests, should we draw down 
His terrible anger upon ourselves and upon our children?" 

Thus spoke the citizens of Basle. There was nothing revo- 
lutionary either in their language or in their proceedings. They 
^desired what was right with decision, but also with calmness. 
All might still proceed with order and decorum. But here be- 
gins a new period : the vessel of reform is about to enter the 
port, but not until it has passed through violent storms. 


•Crisis in Basle — Half-measures rejected — Reformed Propositions — A Night of Terror 
— Idols broken in the Cathedral — The Hour of Madness — Idols broken in all the 
Churches — Reform legalized — Erasmus in Basle — A great Transformation — Re- 
volution and Reformation. 

The bishop's partisans first departed from the legal course. 
Pilled with terror on learning that mediators were expected 
from Zurich and Berne, they ran into the city, crying that an 
Austrian army was coming to their aid, and collected stones 
in their houses. The reformed did the same. The disturbance 
increased hourly, and in the night of the 25th December the 
Papists met under arms: priests with arquebuse in hand were 
numbered among their ranks. 

Scarcely had the reformed learnt this, when some of them 
running hastily from house to house, knocked at the doors and 
awoke their friends, who, starting out of bed, seized their mus- 
kets and repaired to the Gardeners' Hall, the rendezvous of 
tlieir party. They soon amounted to three thousand. 

Both parties passed the night under arms. At every moment 
a civil war, and what is worse, " a war of hearths," might 
break out. It was at last agreed that each party should no- 
minate delegates to treat with the senate on this matter. The 
reformed chose thirty men of respectability, courage, faith, and 
experience, who took up their quarters at the Gardeners' Hall. 
The partisans of the ancient faith chose also a commission, but 
less numerous and less respectable: tlicir station was at the 
Fishmongers' Hall, The council was constantly sitting. All the 
gates of the city, except two, Avere closed ; strong guards were 
posted in every quarter. Deputies from Lucerne, Uri, Schaff- 
hausen, Zug, Schwytz, Mulhausen, and Strasburg, arrived 
successively. The agitation and tumult increased from hour 
to hour. 


It was necesfary to put an end to so violent a crisis. The 
senate faithful to its ideas of half-measures, decreed that the 
priests should continue to celebrate the mass; but that all, 
priests and ministers, should preach the Word of God, and for 
this purpose should meet once a-week to confer upon the Holj 
Scriptures. They then called the Lutherans together in the 
Franciscan church, and the Papsits in that belonging to the 
Dominicans. The senate first repaired to the former church, 
where they found two thousand five hundred citizens assembled. 
The secretary had hardly read the ordinance before a great 
agitation arose. " That shall not be," cried one of the people.'- 
" We will not put up with the mass, not even a single one!" 
exclaimed another; an'3 all repeated, " No mass, — no mass, — 
we will die sooner I"* 

The senate having next visited the Dominican church, all 
the Romanists, to the nimiber of six hundred, among whom 
were many foreign servants, cried out; we are ready to sacrifice 
our lives for the mass. We swear it, we swear it!" repeated 
they with uplifted hands. " If they reject the mass — to arms! 
to armsl"2 

The senate withdrew more embarrassed than ever. 

The two parties were again assembled three days after. 
<I]colampadius was in the pulpit. " Be meek and tractable," 
said he; and he preached with such unction that many were 
ready to burst into tears.* The assembly offered up prayers, 
and then decreed that it would accept a new ordinance, by 
virtue of which, fifteen days after Pentecost, there should be a 
public disputation, in which no arguments should be employed 
tut such as were drawn from the Word of God : after this a ' 
general vote should take place upon the mass, that the majo- 
rity should decide the question, and that in the meanwhile the 
mass should be celebrated in thi-ee churches only; it being 
however understood, that nothing should be taught there that 
was in opposition to the Holy Scriptures. 

The Romanist minority rejected these propositions: "Basle," 
said they, "is not like Berne and Zurich. Its revenues are 
derived in great measure from countries opposed to the Refor- 
mation!" The priests having refused to resort to the weeklv 
conferences, they were suspended; and during a fortnight there 
was neither sermon nor mass at the cathedral, or in the churches 
of St. Uhnc, St. Peter, and St. Theodore. 

1 Quidam e plebe clamitabat : Hoc non fietl Zw. Epp., ii, 253. ' Nos plane t» 

non feremus, aut moriemur omnes. Ibid. * At altera pars minitabkt 

praelia si missam rejicerent. Ibid. * Ct nemo non commoveretur et profiecta 

fera inilii 1: crymas excussisseu Ibid. 


Those who remained faithful to Rome resolved upon an in- 
trepid defence. Meltinger placed Sebastian MuUer in the -oulpit 
at St. Peter's, from which he had been interdicted, and this 
hot-headed priest vented such abusive sarcasms against the 
Reform, that several of the evangelicals, who were listenin"- to 
the sermon, were insulted and nearly torn in pieces. 

It was necessary to arouse Basle from this nightmare, and 
strike a decisive blow. "Let us remember our liberty," said 
the reformed citizens, "and what we owe to the glory of Christ, 
to pubhc justice, and to our posterity."! They then demand- 
ed that the enemies of the Reformation, friends and relations 
of the priests, who were the cause of all these delays and of 
all these troubles, should no longer sit in the councils until 
peace was re-established. This was the 8th February, The 
council notified that they would return an ansv.-er on the morrow. 

At six o'clock in the evening, twelve hundred citizens were 
assembled in the corn-market. They began to fear that the 
delay required by the senate concealed some evil desio-n. ""Wo 
must have a reply this very night," they said. The senate was 
convoked in great haste. 

From that period aflfairs assumed a more threatening attitude 
in Basle. Strong guards were posted by the burghers in the 
halls of the different guilds; armed men patrolled the city, and 
bivouacked in the public places, to anticipate the machinations 
of their adversaries; ° the chains were stretched across the streets; 
torches Avere lighted, and resinous trees, whose flickering light 
scattered the darkness, Avere placed at intervals through tho 
town; six pieces of artillery Avere planted before the town-hall; 
and the gates of the city, as well as the arsenal and the ram- 
parts, were occupied. Basle was in a state of siege. 

There Avas no longer any hope for the Romish party. Tho 
burgomaster, Meltinger, an intrepid soldier and one of the heroes 
of Marignan, Avhere he had led ciglit hundred men into battle, 
lost courage. In the darkness he gained the banks of tjio 
Rhine Avith his son-in-laAV, the councillor Eglof d'Offenburgh, 
embarked unnoticed in a small boat, and rapidly descended tho 
stream amid the fogs of the night.' Other members of tho 
council escaped in a similar manner. 

This gave rise to neAv alarms. " Let us boAvare of their 
Mcret manojuvrcs," said the people, " Perhaps they are gone 

» Coj^itar.g quid glorifo Christi, quid juatltiaj public:c, quidquso postcritati Buaa 
deberct. (Ecol. Zui-ich MS. * Ne quid I'urte ab iidvcrsariis insid'-f'im 

•trueretur. Ibid. ^ Clam conscciisa naviouU fu(<ii, uesoio seuatu, elapsua 

•81. Ibid 


to fetch the Austrians, vrith whom they have so often threatened 
us! " The affrighted citizens collected arms from every quarter, 
and at hreak of day they had two thousand men on foot. 
The beams of the rising sun fell on this resolute but calm 

It was midday. The senate had come to no decision: the 
impatience of the burghers could be restrained no longer. 
Forty men were detached to visit the posts. As this patrol 
was passing the cathedral, they entered it, and one of the 
citizens, impelled by curiosity, opened a closet with his halberd, 
in which some images had been hidden. One of them fell out, 
and was broken into a thousand pieces against the stone pave- 
ment.^ The sight of these fragments powerfully moved the 
spectators, who began throwing down one after another all the 
images that were concealed in this place. None of them of- 
fered any resistance: heads, feet, and hands — all were heaped 
in confusion before the halberdiers. " I am much surprised," 
said Erasmus, " that they performed no miracle to save them- 
selves ; formerly the saints worked frequent prodiges for much 
smaller offences." * Some priests ran to the spot, and the pa- 
trol withdrew. 

A rxmiour, however, having spread that a disturbance had 
taken place in this church, three hundred men came to the 
support of the forty. " ^^hy,'' said they, " should we spare 
the idols that light up the flames of discord?' The priests in 
alarm had closed the gates of the sanctuary, drawn the bolts, 
raised barricades, and prepared everything for maintaining a 
siege. But the townspeople, whose patience had been exhausted 
by the delays of the council, dashed against one of the door.s 
■of the church; it yielded to their blows, and they rushed into 
the cathedral. The hour of madness had arrived. These 
men were no longer recognizable, as they brandished their 
swords, rattled their pikes, and uttered formidable cries: were 
they Goths, or fervent worshippers of God, animated by the 
zeal which in times of yore inflamed the prophets and the kings 
of Israel? However that may have been, these proceedings 
were disorderly, since public authority alone can interfere in 
public reforms. Images, altars, pictures — all were thro\ra 
down and destroyed. The priests who had fled into the vestry, 
and there concealed themselves, trembled in every limb at thn 
terrible noise made by the fall of their holy decorations. The 
work of destruction was completed without one of them ventur- 

* Cum halp:irHis quaM per ludum aperiieiit armarium idolorum, UDumque idoluB 
•ducereut. Oicul. iuiich MS. 'Eiasm. Opp^ p. 291, 


ing to save the objects of his worship, or to make the slightest 
remonstrance. The people next piled up the fragments in the 
squares and set fire to them; and during the chilly night the 
armed burghers stood round and warmed themselves at the 
crackling flame. ^ 

The senate collected in amazement, and desired to interpose 
their authority and appease the tumult ; but they might as well 
have striven to command the winds. The enthusiastic citizens 
replied to their magistrates in these haughty words : "What 
you have not been able to effect in three years, we wiU complete 
in one hour."* 

In truth the anger of the people Avas no longer confined to- 
the cathedral. They respected all kinds of private property;* 
but they attacked the Churches of St. Petei-, St. Ulric, St. Al- 
ban, andof the Dominicans; and in all these temples the "idols" 
fell under the blows of these good citizens of Basle, who were 
inflamed by an extraordinary zeal. Already they were making 
preparations to cross the bridge and enter Little Basle, which 
was devoted to the cause of popery, when the alarmed inhabi- 
tants begged to be allowed to remove the images themselves, 
and with heavy hearts they hastily carried them into the upper 
chambers of the church, whence they hoped to be able after a 
time to restore them to their old position. 

They did not stop at these energetic demonstrations ; tho 
most excited talked of going to the town-hall, and of constrain- 
ing the senate to accede to the wishes of the people ; but the 
good sense of the majority treated these brawlers as they de- 
served, and checked their guilty thoughts. 

The senators now perceived the necessity of giving a legal 
character to this popular movement, and of thus changing a 
tumultuous revolution into a durable reformation.* Democracy 
and the Gospel were thus established simultaneously in Basle. 
The senate, after an hour's deliberation, granted that in future 
the burghers should participate in the election of the two coun- 
cils ; that from this day the mass and images should be abo- 
lished throughout all the canton, and that in every deliberation 
which concerned the glory of God or the good of the state the- 
opinion of the guilds should be taken. The people, dehghted 
at having obtained these conditions, which secured their politi- 

> Lignig imaf^inum usi sunt vigilea, pro arccndo frigoro noctumo. Zurich MS, 
' Do quo Tos per triennium delibernstis, nihil efficientei, nos intra horani oinncm 
absolvcmug. (CEcol. Capitoni, Basic MS.) What yon have deliberated upon for three 
years, doing nothing, we shall acc"in])lisli within the lioiir. ' Nulll enim tel 

obolam abstulerunt. (Ibid.) None carried off a single penny. * Cadendum 

piabl Ibid. 


eal and religious liberty, returned joj-ful to their houses. It 
was now the close of day.' 

On the morrow, Ash-Wednesday, it was intended to distri- 
bute the ruins of the altars and other ornaments of the church, 
among the poor, to serve them for firewood. But these un- 
happy creatures, in their eagerness for the fragments, having 
begun to dispute about them, great piles were constructed ia 
the cathedral close and set on fire. " The idols," said some 
wags, " are really keeping their Ash-AVednesday to-day ! '* 
The friends of popery turned away their horror-stricken eyes 
from this sacrilegious sight, says OEcolampadius, and shed 
tears of blood. " Thus severely did they treat the idols," 
continues the reformer, " and the mass died of grief in conse- 
quence. "^ On the following Sunday hymns in Gerniaii wero 
sung at every church; and on the 18th February a general 
amnesty was published. Everything was changed in Basle» 
The last had become first, and the first last. While OEcolam- 
padius, who a few years before had entered the city as a stran- 
ger, without resources and without power, found himself raised 
to the first station in the Church, Erasmus, disturbed in the 
quiet study whence during so long a period he had issued his-^ 
absolute commands to the world of letters, saw himself com- 
pelled to descend into the arena. But this king of the schools 
had no desire to lay down his sceptre before the sovereign 
people. For a long time he used to turn aside his head when 
he met his friend CEcolampadius. Besides, he feared by re- 
maining at Basle to compromise himself with his protectors. 
" The torrent," said he, '* which was hidden underground has 
burst forth with violence, and committed frightful ravages.' 
My life is in danger: CEcolampadius possesses all the chm-ches. 
People are continually bawling in my ears; I am besieged with 
letters, caricatures, and pamphlets. It is all over: I am re- 
solved to leave Basle. Only shall I or shall I not depart by 
stealth? The one is more becoming, the other more secure." 

Wishing as much as possible to make his honour and his 
prudence agree, Erasmus desired the boatman with whom he 
was to descend the Rhine to depart from an unfrequented spot. 
This was opposed by the senate, and the timid philosopher 
was compelled to enter the boat as it lay near the bridge, at . 
that time covered with a crowd of people. He floated down 
the river, sadly bade adieu to the city he had so much loved, 

^ His conditionibus plebs Ista domum rediit, sab ipsum noctis crepuscolum. IbtdL 
Zurich MS. ' Ita Sievitum est iu idola, ac missa prae dolore eipiravit. Ibid... 

'Ba41ica torrens quidem, qui sub terra lab-batur, subL'.o erumpens, ^c Brr. Ep^ - 
«d Pirkheimer, July 1539. 


and retired to Friburg in Brisgau witn several other learned 

New professors wore invited to fill the vacant chairs in the 
university, and in particular Oswald Myconius, Phrygio, Se- 
bastian Munster, and Symon Grynseus. At the same time 
was published an ecclesiastical order and confession of faith, 
one of the most precious documents of this epoch. 

Thus had a great transformation been effected without the 
loss of a single drop of blood. Popery had fallen in Basle in 
-despite of the secular and spiritual power. "The wedge of 
the Lord," says (Ecolampadius, "has split this hard knot."^ 

We cannot, however, help acknowledging that the Basle 
Reformation may afford ground for some objections. Luther 
had opposed himself to the power of the many. "When the 
people prick up their ears, do not whistle too loud. It is bet- 
ter to suffer at the hand of one tyrant, that is to say, of a king, 
than of a thousand tyrants, that is to say, of the people." On 
this account the German Reformer has been reproached for 
acknowledging no other policy than servilisra. 

Perhaps when the Swiss reformation is canvassed, a con- 
trary objection will be made against it, and the Reform at 
Basle in particular, will be looked upon as a revolution. 

The Reformation must of necessity bear the stamp of the 
country in whieli it is accomplished: it will be monarchical in 
Germany, republican in Switzerland. Nevertheless, in religion 
as in politics, there is a great difference between reformation 
and revolution. 

In no sphere does Christianity desire either despotism, servi- 
tude, stagnation, retrogression, or death. But while looking 
for progress, it seeks to accomplish it by reformation and not 
by revolution. 

Refornuition works by the power of the Word, of doctrine, 
cultivation, and truth ; while revolution, or rather revolt, ope- 
rates by tlie j)ower of riot, of the sword, and of the club. 

Christianity proceeds by the inner man, and charters them- 
selves, if they stand alone, cannot satisfy it. No doubt politi- 
cal constitutions are one of the blessings of our age; but it is 
not suiiicioiit for tliese secui'itics to be committed to parchment: 
they must be written in the heart, and guaranteed by the man- 
ners of the people. 

Such were the principles of the Swiss Reformers; such were 
those of the Reform at Basle, and by these it is distinguished 
frum a rovulution. 

*■ Malo nodo suus cuneus ubvenit, (Ecol. Caplt, 

fakel's coinossiox. 273 

There were, it is true, some excesses. Never perhaps has a 
reformation been accomplished among men without some mix- 
ture of revolution. But it was doctrines, however, that were 
in question at Basle: these doctrines had acted powerfully on 
the moral convictions and on the lives of the people; the move- 
ment had taken place within before it showed itself without. 
But more than this: the Reformation was not satisfied with 
taking away; it gave more than it took; and, far from confin- 
ing itself to the work of destruction, it scattered rich blessings 
over all the people.^ 


Farel's CommUsion — F.irel at Lausanne and Morat — Xeafchatel — Farel preaches 
at Serriere — Enters Xeufchatel — Sermon — The Monkf — Farel's Preaching — Po- 
pery in Neufchatel — Canons and Monks unite — Fare! at Morat and in the Vully — 
Reformation of the Bishopric of Basle — Farel again in Xeufchatel — Placards — 
The Hospital Chapel — Civil Power invoked by the Romanists. 

The recoil of the discussion at Berne had overthrown Popery 
in a considerable part of German Switzerland. It was also 
felt in many of the churches of French Switzerland, lying at 
the foot of the Jura, or scattered amid the pine-forests of its 
elevated valleys, and which up to this time had shown the most 
absolute devotion to the Roman pontift". 

Farel, seeing the Gospel established in the places where the 
Rhone mingles its sandy waters with the crystal Leman, tm-ned 
his eyes to another quarter. He was supported by Berne. 
This state, which possessed jointly with Friburg the bailiwicks 
■of Morat, Orbe, and Granson, and which had alliances with 
Lausanne, Avenches, Payerne, Neufchatel, and Geneva, saw 
that both its interest and its duty alike called it to have the 
Gospel preached to its allies and subjects. Farel was em- 
powered to carry it among them, provided he obtained the con- 
sent of the respective governments. 

One day, therefore, journeying towards Morat, Farel arrived 
and preached the Gospel at the foot of those towers and battle- 
ments that had been attacked at three different periods by the 
armies of Conrad the Salic, Rodolph of Hapsburg, and Charles 
the Bold. Erelong the friends of the Reform amounted to a 
great number, A general vote having nevertheless declared in 
favour of the Pope, Farel proceeded to Lausanne. 

He was at first di-iven away by the bishop and the clergy, 

' Hagenbach, Vorlcsui^jcn, ii, 125, 200, S 


but soon reappeared provided with a letter from the lords of 
Berne. "We send him to you," said their excellencies to tho 
authorities of the city, "to defend his own cause and ours. 
Allow him to preach the Word of God, and bewai-e that you 
touch not a hair of his head." 

There was great confusion in the councils. Placed between 
Berne and the bishop, what could they do? The Council of 
Twenty-four, finding the matter very serious, convoked the 
Council of Sixty; and this body excusing itself, they convoked 
the Council of Two Hundred, on the 14th November, 1529^ 
But these in their turn referred the business to the Smaller 
Council. No one would have anything to do Avith it. The 
inhabitants of Lausanne, it is true, complained loudly of the 
holy members of their chapters, whose lives (they said) were 
one long train of excesses; but when their eyes turned on tha 
austere countenance of Reform, they were still more terrified. 
Besides, how deprive Lausanne of her bishop, her court, and her 
dignitaries? What! no more pilgrims in the churches, — no 
more suitors in the ecclesiastical courts, — no more purchasers 
in the markets, or boon companions in the taverns 1 — The 
widowed and desolate Lausanne would no longer behold the 
noisy throng of people, that were at once her wealth and her 
glory! — Better far a disorder that enriches, than a reform that 
impoverishes! Farel was compelled to depart a second time. 

He returned to Morat, and soon the Word gained over the 
hearts of the people. On feast-days, the roads from Payerne 
and Avenches were covered with merry bands, who laughingly- 
said to one another, "Let us go to Morat and hear the preach- 
ers!" and exhorted eacli other slily as they went along the road, 
"not to fall into the nets of the heretics." But at night all 
was changed. Grasped by the strong hand of truth, these very 
people returned, — some in deep thought, others discussing with 
animation the doctrines they had heard. The fire was spark- 
ling througliout all this district, and spreading in every direc- 
tion its long rays of light. This Avas enough for Parol : he- 
required new conquests. 

At a short distance from Morat lay one of the strongholds 
of Popery — the earldom of Neufchatel. Joan of Hocliberg, 
who had inherited this principality from her ancestors, had 
married, in 1504, Louis of Orleans, duke of Longuevillc. This 
French nobleman having supported the King of France in 1512, 
in a war against the Swiss, tho cantons had taken possession 
of Neufchatel, but had restored it to his widow in 1629. 

Few countries could have presented greater difficulties to 



tf.3 daring reformer. The Princess of Longueville, residing in 
Fiance in the suite of Francis I., a woman of courtly habits, 
vain, extravagant, always in debt, and thinking of Xeufchatel 
only as a farm that should bring her in a large revenue, Avas 
devoted to the Pope and Popery, Twelve canons with several 
priests and chaplains formed a powerful clergy, at whose head 
was the provost Oliver of Hochberg, natural brother to the 
princess. Auxiliaries full of zeal flanked this main army. On 
the one side there was the abbey of the Premonstrantes of 
Fontaine- Andre, three quarters of a league beyond the town, 
the monks of which, after having in the tweKth century cleared 
the grounds with theu- own hands,i had gradually become 
powerful lords, and, on the other side, the Benedictines of the 
Island of St. John, whose abbot, having been deposed by the 
Bernese, had taken refuge, burning with hatred and vengeance, 
in his priory at Corcelles. 

The people of Neufchatel had a great respect for ancient 
rights, and it was easy to take advantage of this state of feel- 
ing, considering the general ignorance, to maintain the inno- 
vations of Popery. The canons improved the opportunity. For 
the instructions of the Gospel they substituted pomps and shows. 
The church, situated on a steep rock, was tilled with altars, 
chapels, and images of saints : and religion, descending from 
this sanctuary, ran up and down the streets, and was traves- 
tied in dramas and mysteries, mingled with indulgences, mi- 
racles, and debauchery.* 

The soldiers of Xeufchatel, however, who had made the cam- 
paign of 1529 with the Bernese army, brought back to their 
homes the liveliest enthusiasm for the evangelical cause. It 
was at this period that a fraU boat, quitting the southern bank 
of the lake, on the side opposite Morat, and carrying a French- 
man of mean appearance, steered towards the Xeufchatel shore. 
Farel, for it was he, had learnt that the village of Serriere, si- 
tuated at the gates of Xeufchatel, depended as to spiritualities 
on the evangelical city of Bienne, and that Emer Beynon, the 
priest of the place, "had some liking for the Gospel." The 
plan of his campaign was immediately drawn up. He appeared 
before parson Emer, who received him with joy ; but what 
could be done? for Farel had been interdicted from preaching 
in any church whatever in the earldom. The poor priest 
thought to reconcile everything by permitting Farel to mount 


1 Propriis manibus. Ilkr. of Xeufchatel. by F. de Cliambrier, p. 
» ICemoires sur rBgUse coU^giale de Neufciiatel, p. 7*0. 


on a stone in the cemetery, and thus preach to the peopie, 
turning his back upon the church.* 

A great disturbance arose in Neufchatel. On one side the 
government, the canons, and the priests, cried, " Heresy!" but 
on the other, " some inhabitants of Neufchatel, to whom God 
had given a knowledge of the truth,"* flocked to Serriere. In 
a short time these last could not contain themselves: *' Come," 
said they to Farel, " and preach to us in the town." 

This was at the beginning of December. They entered by 
the gate of the castle, and leaving the church on the hill to the 
left, they passed in front of the canons' houses, and descended 
to the narrow streets inhabited by the citizens. On reaching 
the market-cross, Farel ascended a platform and addressed the 
crowd, which gathered together from all the neighbourhood, — 
weavers, vine-dressers, husbandmen, a Avorthyrace, possessing 
more feeling than imagination. The preacher's exterior was 
grave, his discourse energetic, his voice like thunder: his eyes, 
his features, his gestures, all showed him a man of intrepidity. 
The citizens accustomed to run about the streets after the 
mountebanks, were touched by his powerfid language. " Farel 
preached a sermon of such great efficacy," says a manuscript, 
" that he gained over much people." 

Some monks, however, with shaven crowns * glided among 
his hearers, seeking to excite them against the hei-etical mi- 
nister. " Let us beat out his brains," said some. " Duck 
him, duck him!" cried others, advancing to throw Farel into 
a fountain, which may still be seen near the spot where he 
preached. But the reformer stood firm. 

This first preaching was succeeded by others. To this Gos- 
pel missionary every place was a church; every stone, every 
bench, every platform was a pulpit. Already the cutting 
■winds and the snows of December should have kept the Neuf- 
chatelans around their firesides; " the canons made a vigorous 
defence;"^ and in every quarter "the shorn crowns" were in 
agitation, supplicating, menacing, shouting, and threatening, 
' — but all was useless. No sooner did this man of small sta- 
ture rise up in any place, with his pale yet sunburnt complex- 
ion, with red and uncombed beard, with sparkling eye and ex- 
pressive mouth, than the monks' labour was lost: the peopl* 

^^. de Perrot, ex-pastor of Serriere, and author of a work entitled " L'Eglise ct la 
Reformation," liassliown me tlie stone on wliicli Farel stood. 

3 " Aucuns de Neufeliutel, auxquels Dieu avuicnt donne conuoissancc dc la v6ritS," 
d(c. Choupard MS. ' t^uoted in the Choupard MS. * Rasorum 

remoramentn. FarcUu» Molano, Neufchatcl MS. * Contra tjranuica pnik. 

cepta. Ibid. 



collected around him, for it was the ^Yord of God that fell 
from his lips.^ All eyes were fixed on him: with open mouth 
and attentive ears they hung upon his words. ^ And scarcely 
did he begin to speak, when — Oh! wonderful work of God! he 
himself exclaims — this multitude believed as if it had but one 

The Word of God carried the town, as it were, at the first 
assault; and throwing down the devices Rome liad taken ages 
to compose, established itself in triumph on the ruins of human 
traditions. Farel saw in imagination Jesus Christ himself 
walking in spirit through the midst of this crowd, opening the 
eyes of the blind, softening the hard heart, and working mira- 
cles ' .... so that scarcely had he returned to his humble resi- 
dence before he wrote to his friends with a heart full of emo- 
tion: " Render thanks with me to the Father of mercies, in that 
he has shown his favour to those bowed down by a weighty 
tyranny;" and falling on his knees, he worshipped God.* 

But during this time what were the adherents of the pope 
doing in Xeufchatel? 

The canons, members of the General Audiences, of which 
they formed the first estate, treated both priests and laymen 
with intolerable haughtiness. Laying the burden of their 
oflSces on poor curates, they publicly kept dissolute women, 
clothed them sumptuously, endowed their children by public 
acts, fought in the church, haunted the streets by night, or 
went into a foreign country to enjoy in secret the produce 
of their avarice and of their intrigues. Some poor lepers 
placed in a house near the city were maintained by the pro- 
uce of certain offerings. The rich canons, in the midst of 
their banquets, dared take away the bread of charity from 
these unhappy wretches. 

The Abbey of Fontaine- Andre was at a little distance from 
the town. Xow the canons of Neufchatel and the monks or 
Fontaine were at open war. These hostile powers, encamped 
on their two lulls, disputed each other's property, wrested 
away each other's privileges, launched at one another the 
coarsest insidts, and even came to blows. " Debaucher of 
women!" said the canons to the Abbot of Fontaine-Andre, 
who returned the compliment in the same coin. It is the Re- 
formation which, through faith, has re-established the moral 

I Adverbamfestinarent. Farellus Molaao, Neufchatel MS. 2 Avide au- 

dientes. Ibid. * Quid Christus it. suis egeric. Ibid. *Gn\tiasergo, 

Fratres, mecom agite Fati-i misericordiarum, quod «it propitius gravi pressis tiran- 
nide. Ibid. 


laTT in Christendom, — a law that Popery had trodden xinder 

For a long time these conventual wars had disturhed the 
country. On a sudden they ceased. A strange event was 
passing in Neufchatel, — the "Word of God was preached there. 
The canons, seized with affright in the midst of their disorders, 
looked down from their lofty dwellings on this new movement. 
The report reached Fontaine- Andre. The monks and priests 
suspended their orgies and their quarrels. The heathen sen- 
sualism that had invaded the Church was put to the rout; 
Christian spirituahsm had re-appeared. 

Immediately the monks and canons, so long at war, embrace 
and unite against the reformer. " We must save religion," 
said they, meaning their tithes, banquets, scandals, and privi- 
leges. Not one of them could oppose a doctrine to the doctrine 
preached by Farel: to insult him was their sole weapon. At 
Corcelles, however, they went farther. As the minister was 
proclaiming the Gospel near the priory, the monks fell upon 
him: in the midst of them was the prior Rodolph de Benoit, 
storming, exciting, and striving to augment the tempest. He 
even had a dagger in his hand, according to one writer.^ Farel 
escaped with difficulty. 

Tliis was not enough. Popery, as it has always done, h&h 
recourse to the civil power. The canons, the abbot, and the 
prior, solicited the governor George de Rive at the same time. 
Farel stood firm. " The glory of Jesus Christ," said he, " and 
the lively affection his sheep bear to his Word, constrain me to 
endure sufferings greater than tongue can describe." ^ Erelong, 
however, he was compelled to yield. Farel again crossed the 
lake; but this passage was very different from the former. 
The fire was kindled ! — On the 29A December he was at 
Morat; and shortly after at Aigle. 

He was recalled thence. On the 7th January, religion was 
put to the vote at ^lorat, and the majority was in favour of the 
Gospel. But the Romish minority, supported by Friburg, im- 
mediately undertook to recover its ancient position by insults 
and bad treatment. •'Farel! Farell" cried the reformed party.* 

A few days after this, Farel, accompanied by a Bernese 
messenger, scaled that magnificent amphitheatre of mountains 
above Vevay, whence the eye plunges into the waters of the 

' Rosselet in Aimotat. I'arol Leben von Kirchofer. ' At levin fiicit omnia 

CiiriKtus, added he. (Farel to Dumoulin, 15th December. Neufchatel MS.) But 
Christ makes all tilings light. ' Choupard MS. Chambrier, nist do Neu£- 

obatel,]^ 293. 


Leman; and soon he crossed tte estates of Coimt John of 
"Omy^re, who was in the hahit of saying, •' We must burn this 
French Luther!" ^ Scarcely had Farel reached the heights of 
"Saint Martin de Vaud,* -when he saw the -vicar of the place 
with two priests running to meet him. " Heretic! devil!" cried 
they. But the knight, through fear of Berne, remained behind 
his walls, and Farel passed on. 

The reformer, not allowing himself to be stopped by the 
necessity of defending himself in Morat, or by the inclemency 
of the season, immediately carried the Gospel to those beautiful 
tills that soar between the smilkig waters of lakes Morat and 
Keufchatel into the villages of the Vully. This manoeuvre was 
crowned with the most complete success. On the 15th Feb- 
ruary four deputies from the Vully came to Morat to de- 
mand permission to embrace the Reform, which was immedi- 
ately granted them. " Let our-ministers preach the Gospel," 
said their excellencies of B«rne to the Friburgers, "and we will 
let your priests play their monkey tricks. We desire to force 
no man.' ' The Reform restored freedom of wUl to the chris- 
tian people. It was about this time that Farel wrote his beau- 
tiful letter " To all lords, people, and pastors," which we have 
■so often quoted.* 

The indefatigable reformer now went forward to new con- 
■quests. A chain of rocks separates the Juran valley of Erguel, 
already evangelized by Farel, from the coimtry of the ancient 
Hauraci, and a passage cut through the rock serves as a com- 
munication between the two districts. It was the end of April 
•when Farel, passing through the Pierre-Pertids,^ descended to 
the village of Tavannes, and entered the church just as the 
j)riestwas saying mass. Farel went into the pulpit: the aston- 
ished priest stopped, — the minister filled his hearers with 
emotion, and seemed to them an angel come down from heaven. 
Immediately the images and the altars fell, and "the poor 
priest who was chanting the mass could not finish it." ^ To 
put down Popery had required much less time than the priest 
tad spent at the altar. 

A great part of the bishopric of Basle was in a few weeks 
gained over to the Reformation. 

During this time the Gospel was fermenting in Neufchatel. 
"The young men who had marched with Berne to deliver Geneva 

^ IGssire of Berne to the Count of Graydre, 5th and 16th January 1530. 

' To the left of Uie modern road firom Vevay to Friburg. » Missive of Berne, 

^Cbonpard MS. ♦ A tous seigneurs, peuples, et pasteurs. See above. Vol. Ill, 

i>ook xii. * Petra Pertusa. * Done le pauvre pretre qui chantoit M 

metse ne la peat pas acberer. Old MS. qaoted iu the Choupard 3tS. 


from llie attacks of Savoj, recounted in their jovial meetings 
the exploits of the campaign, and related how the soldiers of 
Berne, feeling cold, had taken the images from the Dominicaa 
church at Geneva, saying, " Idols of wood are of no use hut to 
make a fire with in winter." 

Farel re-appeared in Neufchatel.* Being master of the lower 
part of the town, he raised his eyes to the lofty rocks on which 
soared the cathedral and the castle. The hest plan, thought 
he, is to hring these proud priests down to us. One morning 
his young friends spread themselves in the streets, and posted 
up large placards hearing these words: " All those who say mass 
are robbers, murderers, and seducers of the people} Great was 
the uproar in Neufchatel. The canons summoned their people, 
called together the clerks, and marching at the head of a large 
troop, armed with swords and cluhs, descended into the town, 
tore down the sacrilegious placards, and cited Farel before the 
tribunal as a slanderer, demanding ten thousand crowns damages. 
The two parties appeared in court, and this was all that Farel 
desired. " I confess the fact," said he, " but I am justified 
in what I have done. Where are there to be found more hor- 
rible murderers than these seducers who sell paradise, and thus 
nvdlify the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ? I will prove my 
assertion by the Gospel." And he prepared to open it, when 
the canons, flushed with anger, cried out: " The common law 
of Neufchatel, and not the Gospel, is in question here! Where 
are the witnesses?" But Farel, constantly reverting to that 
fearful assertion, proved by the Word of God that the canons- 
were really guilty of murder and robbery. To plea(;l such a 
cause was to ruin Popery. The court of Neufchatel, that had 
never heard a similar case, resolved according to ancient cus- 
tom to lay it before the council of Bcsangon,^ which not daring^ 
to pronounce the first estate of the General Audiences guilty 
of murder and robbery, referred the matter to the emperor 
and to a general council. Bad causes gain nothing by making 
a disturbance. 

At every step they wished to drive him back, Farel made 
one in advance. The streets and the houses were still his 
temple. One day when the people of Neufchatel were around 
him, "Why," cried they, "should not the Word of God bo 
proclaimed in a church?" They tlien hurried Farel along with 
them, opened the doors of the Hospital Chapel, set the minister 

1 Farellus buo more magna fortitudino jam-jam agit (Mcgandtr to Zwlngle, 6th. 
Aug. 1530.) Farel, as usual, behaves with great fortitude. ^ Do Chambrier, 

uist, de Neufchatel, i, 293. > I'rendre lei tntraivtM, 


ia the pulpit, and a numerous crowd stood silent before tim.- 
" In like manner as Jesus Christ, appearing in a state of po- 
verty and himiilitj, was born in a stable at Bethlehem," said 
the reformer; "so this hospital, this abode of the sick and of 
the poor, is to-day become his birthplace in the town of Neuf- 
chatel." Then feeling ill at ease in the presence of the 
painted and carved figures that decorated the chapel, he laid 
his hands on these objects of idolatry, removed them, and broke 
them in pieces.^ 

Popery, which anger had blinded, now took a step that it 
undoubtedly had a right to take, but which destroyed it: it 
had recourse to the secular arm, and the governor sent a depu- 
tation to the Bernese council, praying the removal of Fareland 
his companions. 

But almost at the same time deputies from the townspeople 
arrived at Berne. " Did not these hands bear arms at Inter- 
laken and at Bremgarten to support your Reformation," said 
they, "and will you abandon us in oirrs?" 

Berne hesitated. A public calamity was at that time filling 
ihe whole city with mourning. One of the most illustrious 
citizens of the republic, the Banneret of Weingarten, attacked 
by the plague, was expiring amid the tears of his sons and of 
his feUow-citizens. Being informed of the arrival of the 
!Neufchatelans, he rallied his waning strength: " Go," said he, 
and beg the senate in my name to ask for a general assembly 
of the people of Neufchatel for Sunday next.* This message 
of the dying banneret decided the council. 

The deputies from Berne arrived in Neufchatel on the 7th 
August. Farel thought that during the debates he had time 
to make a new conquest, and quitted the city. His zeal caa 
be compared only to St. Paul's. His body was small and 
feeble, but his activity was wholly apostolic: danger and bad. 
treatment wasted him every day, but he had within him a di- 
vine power that rendered him victorious. 

1 Choupard MS. - Wir.garterus iste infectus pcste apad senatoja nostra^ 

pia legatioiie. Hegander to Zwtcgl«. 



Valangin— Guillemette de Vergj-— Farel goes to the Val de Ruz— The Mass inter- 
rupted — Farel dragged to the River — Farel in Prison — Apostles and Reformers 
compared — Farel preacliingat Neufehatel — Installed in the Cathedral — A Whirl- 
wind sweeps over the People — The Idols destroyed — Interposition of the Gover- 
nor — Triumph of the Reformed. 

At the distance of a league from Neufehatel, beyond the moun- 
tain, extends the Val de Ruz, and near its entrance, in a pre- 
cipitous situation, where roars an impetuous torrent, surrounded 
hy steep crags, stands the town of Valangin. An old castle 
built on a rock, raises its A'ast walls into the air, overlooking 
the humble dwellings of the townspeople, and extending its 
jm-isdiction over five valleys of these lofty and severe moun- 
tains, at that time covered with forests of pine, but now peopled 
"by the most active industry.^ 

In this castle dwelt Guillemette de Vergy, dowager-countesa 
of Valangin, strongly attached to the Romish religion and fut 
•of respect for the memory of her husband. A hundred priests 
Jiad chanted high mass at the count's burial: when many peni- 
tent young Avomen had been married, and large alms distribu. 
ted; the curate of Locle had been sent to Jerusalem, aud Guil- 
lemette herself had made a pilgrimage for the repose of the soul 
of her departed lord. 

Sometimes, hoAvever, the Countess of Griiyere and other 
ladies would come and visit the widow of Vergy, Avho assembled 
in the castle a number of young lords. The fife and tam- 
bourine re-echoed under its vaulted roofs, chattering groups 
collected in the immense embrasures of its Gothic windows, 
and merry dances followed hard upon a long silence and 
gloomy devotion.* There was but one sentiment that never 
left Guillemette — this was her hatred against the Reforma- 
tion, in which she was warmly seconded by her intendant, 
ihe Sieur of Bellegarde. 

Guillemette and the priests had in fact reason to tremble. 
The 15th August was a great Romish festival — Our Lady of 
August, or the Assumption, whicli nil the faithful of the Val 
^e Ruz were preparing to keep. This was the very day Farel 
selected. Animated by the fire and courage of Elijah, he set 
out for Valangin, and a young man, his fellow-countryman, 

I Here are situated Chaux do Fonds, Locle, iic, ■ Uhambrier, Hist, de 

■Veufchatel, p. 276. 



and, as it would appear, a distant relation, Anthony Boyve, 
an ardent Christian and a man of decided character, accom- 
panied him.l . The two missionaries climbed the mountain, 
plunged into the pine forest, and then descending again into 
the valley, traversed Valangin, where the vicinity of the castle 
did not give them much encouragement to pause, and arrived 
tit a village, probably Boudevilliers, proposing to preach the 
Gospel there.* 

Already on all sides the people were thronging to the church; 
Farel and his companion entered also with a small number of 
the inhabitants who had heard him at Xeufchatel. The reformer 
immediately ascended the pulpit, and the priest prepared to 
celebrate mass. The combat began. "\Miile Farel was preach- 
ing Jesus Christ and his promises, the priest and the choir 
were chanting the missal. The solemn moment app'^JS.ched: 
the ineffable transubstantiation was about to take plaue: the 
priest pronounced the sacred words over the elements. At this 
instant the people hesitate no longer; ancient habits, an irre- 
sistible influence, draw them towards the altar; the preacher is 
deserted; the kneeling crowd has recovered its old worship; 

■Rome is triiunphant Suddenly a young man springs 

from the throng, — traverses the choir, — mshes to the altar, — 
snatches the host from the hands of the priest, and cries, as he 
■turns towards the people: " This is not the God whom you 
should worship. He is above, — in heaven, — in the majesty of 
the Father, and not, as you believe, in the hands of a priest." * 
This man was Anthony Boyve. 

Such a daring act at first produced the desired effect. The 
mass was interrupted, the chanting ceased, and the crowd, as 
if struck by a supernatural intervention, remained silent and 
motionless. Farel, who was stiU in the pulpit, immediately 
took advantage of this calm, and proclaimed that Christ "whom 
the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all 
things."* Upon this the priests and choristers with their ad- 
herents rushed to the towers, ran up into the belfry, and 
sounded the tocsin. 

These means succeeded: a crowd was collected, and if Farel 
"had not retired, his death and Boyve 's, would have been inevit- 
able. "But God," says the chronicle, "delivered them." 

1 Annals of Boyve and a familj MS. — This family has since giren several pastors to 
the Church of Xeufchatel. ^ There are two original manuscripts (both quoted 

in the Choupard MS.) which give an account of this transaction. On« says that Fa. 
rel preached at Valangin, the other indicates a village near Valangin. Ruchat has 
adopted the former version : I think the latter preferable. The second MS. appears 
to me older and more correct than the first. » Choupard MS. * Acts, ii, 21- 



They crossed the interval that separates Boudevilliers from 
Valangin, and drew near the steep gorges of the torrent of the 
Sejon. But how traverse that town, which the tocsin had 
already alarmed? 

Leaving Chaumont and its dark forests to the left, these two 
heralds of the Gospel took a narrow path that wound beneath 
the castle: they were stealing cautiously along, when suddenly 
a shower of stones assailed them, and at the same time a score 
of individuals, — ^priests, men, and Avomen, — armed with clubs, 
fell furiously upon them. " The priests had not the gout 
either in their feet or arms," says a chronicler; " the ministers 
were so beaten that they nearly lost their lives." ^ 

Madame de Vergy, who descended to the terrace, far from 
moderating the anger of the priests, cried out, "Drown them 
— drown them! throw them into the Seyon — these Lutheran 
dogs, who have despised the host !" ^ In fact, the priests were 
beginning to di-ag the two heretics towards the bridge. Xcver 
was Farel nearer death. 

On a sudden, from behind the last rock that hides Valangin 
in the direction of the mountain, there appeared "certain good 
persons of the Val de Ruz, coming from Neufchatel"^ and 
descending into the vaUey. "What are you doing?" asked 
they of the priests, with the intention no doubt of saving Farel; 
"put them rather in a place of safety, that they may answer 
for their proceedings? Would you deprive yourselves of tho 
only means in your power of discovering those infected by the 
poison of heresy?" 

The priests left off at these words, and conducted the pri- 
soners to the castle. As they were passing before a little 
chapel, which contained an image of the virgin, "Kneel down," 
said they to Farel and Boyve, showing them the statue ; 
"prostrate yourselves before Our Lady!" Farel began to ad- 
monish them: "Worship one God alone in spirit and in truth," 
said he to them, "and not dumb images without life or power." 
But tliey, continues the chronicle, "greatly vexed at his words 
and his firmness, inflicted on him so many blows that he was 
covered with blood, which even spirted ou the walls of the cha- 
pel. For a long time after the traces of it might still be seen." * 

^ Les pretres n'avoient pas la goutte aux pieds et aux bras, ct ils leg battirent telle- 
ment que peu «'en fallut qu'ils ne perdissent la Tie. Choupard MS. 

'Arcuu! al'eau! jettez les dans le Seyon ces cluens do Luthcricns qui ont m6> 
prisS le bon Dieu! Ibid. 'Ibid. * Clioupard MS. Muiseuz, 

rudenient faelics de sus propos et Constance, lui donndrent tant de coups, qu'ils le 
mlreut tout en sang, jusques la qu« son sang jaillissoit sur lus murailles de la cha- 
;>eUe. On en voyuit long tumps aprcs encore les marquM. 


They resumed their march — they entered the town — thej 
climbed the steep road that led to the esplanade where Gnille- 
mette de Vergy and her attendants waited for the " Luthe- 
rans;" so that, continues the chronicle, "from heating them 
thus continually, they were conducted all covered with filth 
and blood to the prisons, and let down almost lifeless into the 
dungeon {croton) of the castle of Valangin." Thus had Paul 
at Lystra been stoned by the Jews, drawn out of the city, and 
left for dead.^ The apostles and the reformers preached the 
€ame doctrine and suffered the same treatment. 

It may perhaps be said, that Farel and Boyve were too vio- 
lent in their attack; but the Church of the Middle Ages, which 
had fallen back into the legal spirit of Judaism, and into all 
the corruptions that flow from it, needed an energetic opposi- 
tion to lead it again to the principle of grace. Augustine and 
St. Paul reappeared in the Church of the sixteenth century; 
and whan we read of Boyve rushing in great emotion on those 
who were about to worship the bread of the mass, may we not 
recall to mind the action of St. Paul, rending his clothes, and 
running in among the people, who were desirous of worship- 
ping "men of like passions with themselves" ? * 

Farel and Boyve, thrust into the dungeons of the castle, 
could, like Paul and Silas in the prison at Philippi, " sing 
praises unto God." Messire de BeUegarde, ever ready to per- 
secute the Gospel, was preparing for them a cruel end, whea 
some townsmen of Neufchatel arrived to claim them. Madame 
de Valangin dared not refuse, and at the demand of the Ber- 
nese even instituted an inquiry, "to put a good face on the 
matter," says a manuscript. "Nevertheless the priest who 
had beaten Farel most, never after failed to eat daily at the 
lady's table, by way of recompense." ' But this was of little 
•consequence: the seed of tnith had been sown in the Val de 

At Neufchatel the Bernese supported the evangelical citizens. 
The governor, Avhose resources were exhausted, sent deputies 
to the princess, "begging her to cross the mountains, to ap- 
pease her people, who were in terrible trouble in consequence 
of this Lutheran religion." * 

Meantime the ferment increased. The townspeople prayed 
the canons to give up the mass: they refused; whereupon the 
citizens presented them their reasons in writing, and begged 
them to discuss the question with Farel. Still the same re^ 

__ *■ Acts, xiv, 19, 2 Ibid., 14. »Choupard MSk 

* Letter from the Governor to the Princess. 


fusal! — "But, for goodness' sake, speak either for or againatt** 
It vi'as all of no use! 

On Sunday, the 23d of October, Farel, who had returned to 
Neufchatel, was preaching at the hospital. He knew that the 
magistrates of the city had deliberated on the expediency of 
consecrating the cathedral itself to the evangelical worship. 
" Wliat then," said he, " will you not pay as much honour ta 

the Gospel as the other party does to the mass? And 

if this superstitious act is celebrated in the high church, shall 
not the Gospel be proclaimed there also?" At these words all 
his hearers arose. "To the church!" ci'ied they; "to the 
church!" Impetuous men are desirous of putting their hand* 
to the work, to accomplish what the prudence of the burgessea 
had proposed.! They leave the hospital, and take Farel with 
them. They climh the steep street of the castle : in vaia 
would the canons and their frightened followers stop the crowd: 
they force a passage. Convinced that they are advancing for 
God's glory, nothing can check thera. Insults and shouts as- 
sail them from every side, but in the name of the truth they 
are defending, they proceed: they open the gates of the Church 
of our Lady; they enter, and here a fresh struggle begins.. 
The canons and their friends assembled around the pulpit en- 
deavour to stop Farel; but all is useless. They have not ta 
deal Avith a band of rioters. God has pronounced in his Word, 
and the magistrates themselves have passed a definitive resolu- 
tion. The townspeople advance, therefore, against the sacer- 
dotal coterie; they form a close battalion, in the centre of 
which they place the reformer. They succeed in making theif 
way through the opposing crowd, and at last place the minis- 
ter in the pulpit without any harm befalling him.^ 

Immediately all is calm within the church and without ;. 
even the adversaries are silent, and Farel delivers " one of 
the most effective sermons he had hitherto preached." Their 
eyes are opened ; their emotion increases ; their hearts are 
melted ; the most obstinate appear converted ; and from every 
part of the old church these cries resound: " We will follow 
the evangelical religion, both we and our children, and in it will 
Tre live and die." ' 

Suddenly a whirlwind, as it were, sweeps over this multi- 

i Tills is the conclusion I draw from various papers, and in particular from the re- 
port of the meeting held at Neufchatcl by the Bernese deputies, in which the heads oO 
the burgesses declare, that it appeared to them a very good matter to take down the 
altars, itc. Hitherto only one pliasis of this action has been seen, — the popular move- 
ment; and the other, namely, the legal resolution of the magistrates of the city, ap- 
pears to have beeu overlooked* '■' Choupard MS. ' /bid. 


tude, and stirs it up like a vast sea. Farel's hearers desire, 
to imitate the pious King Josiah.^ " If we take away these, 
idols from before our eyes, wUl it not be aiding us," said they, 
"in taking them from our own hearts? Once these idols, 
broken, how many souls among our feUow-citizens, now dis- 
turbed and hesitating, will be decided by this striking mani- 
festation of the truth! We must save them as it were by 
fire."' 2 

This latter motive decided them, and then began a scene. 
tliat fiUed the Romanists with horror, and which must, ac- 
cording to them, bring down the terrible judgment of God on 
the city. 

The very spot where this took place would seem to add to- 
its solemnity. To the north, the castle-walls i-ise above th© 
pointed crags of the gloomy but picturesque vaUey of the 
Seyon, and the mountain in front of the castle presents to the- 
observers eye little more than bare rocks, vines, and black 
firs. But to the south, beneath the terrace on which this- 
tumultuous scene was passing, lay the wide and tranquil 
waters of the lake, with its fertile and pictiu*esque shores;. 
and in the distance the continuous summits of the higher 
Alps, with their dazzling snows, their immense glaciers, and 
gigantic peaks, stretch far away before the enraptured eye. 

On this platform the people of Xeufchatel were in commo- 
tion, paying little attention to these noble scenes of nature. 
The governor, whose castle adjoined the church, was com- 
pelled to remain an idle spectator of the excesses that he could. 
not prevent; he was content to leave us a description of them. 
*' These daring fellows," says he, " seize mattocks, hatchets,- 
and hammers, and thus march against the images of the 
saints." They advance — they strike the statues and the altars 
— they dash them to pieces. The figures carved in the foiu-- 
teenth eenttiry by the " imagers" of Count Louis are not 
spared; and scarcely do the statues of the counts themselves,, 
which were mistaken for idols, escape destruction. The towns- 
people collect all these fragments of an idolatrous worship;. 
they carry them out of the church, and throw them from the 
top of the rock. The paintings meet with no better treat- 
ment. " It is the devil," thought they with the early Chris- 
tians, " who taught the world this art of statues, images, and 
all sorts of hkenesses."* They tear out the eyes in the pic- 

12 Chron.,xxxir, 7. * Choupard MS. * Diabolum Sieculo intuli««e 

artifces statuaniiu et imaginum et omnis generis simulacrorom. TertuUian, de 
idolatria, cap, 3. 


turcs of the saints, and cut off their noses. The crucifix itself 
is thrown down, for this Avooden figure usurps the homage 
ihat Jesus Christ claims in the heart. One image, the most 
venerated of all, still remains: it is our Lady of Mercy, which 
Mary of Savoy had presented to the collegiate church ; hut 
Our Lady herself is not spared. A hand more daring than 
the rest strikes it, as in the fourth century the coloss-al statue 
of Serapis was struck. ^ " They have even hored out the 
eyes of Our Lady of Mercy, which the departed lady your 
mother had caused to he made," wrote the governor to the 
Duchess of Longueville. 

The reformed went still further : they seized the patens in 
■which lay the corpus Domini, and flung them from the top of 
the rock into the torrent ; after which, being desirous of show- 
ing that the consecrated wafers are mere bread, and not God 
himself, they distributed them one to another and ate them. . . . 
At this sight the canons and chaplains could no longer re- 
main quiet. A cry of horror was heard ; they ran up with 
their adherents, and opposed force to force. At length began 
the struggle that had been so much dreaded. 

The provost Oliver of Hochberg, the canons Simon of Neuf 
■chatel and Pontus of Soleilant, all three members of the privl 
council, had repaired hastily to the castle, as well as the other 
councillors of the princess. Until this moment they had re- 
mained silent spectators of the scene; but when they saw the 
two parties coming to blows, they ordered all " the supporters 
of the evangelical doctrine" to appear before the governor. 
This was like trying to chain the winds. Besides, why should 
the reformers stop? They were not acting without legitimate 
authority.'^ " Tell the governor," replied the townspeople 
haughtily, "that in the concerns of God and of our souls he 
has no command over us. "^ 

George de Rive then discovered that his authority failed 
against a power superior to his own. lie must yield, and save 
at least some remnants. lie hastened therefore to remove tlie 
images that still remained, and to shut them up in secret 
chambers. The citizens of Neufchatel allowed him to execute 
this measure. "Save your gods," thought they, "preserve 
them under strong bars, lest perchance a robber should de- 
prive you of the objects of your adoration!" * Ey degrees the 

1 Socrates, v. IB. a ' Par les quatru du dit Noufcliati'l," by the Four (the 

municipal autli(iiitics) of the said Neulolialel, remarks tlic priest Besancciiet. See 
■Iso the r«oe«s of tlie council held at Neufcliatel by M.M. of Berne, 4th November, 
laao. ' The Oovcrnor's letter to the J'rinceBS. ♦ Cur snb validis8imi« 

clavibus, injjeiitibusquo Bub clauatris con»ervatis, ue forts far aliquis irrcpat ! (Ar. 


tumult died avray, the popular torrent returned within its 
channel, and a short time after, in commemoration of this 
great dav, these words were inscribed on a pillar of the 
church : — 


An immense revolution had been effected. Doubtless it 
would have been better if the images had been taken away 
and the Gospel substituted in their place with calmness, as at 
Zurich ; but we must take into consideration the difficidties 
that BO profound and contested a change brings with it, and 
make allowance for the inexperience and excesses inseparable 
from a first explosion. He who should see in this revolution 
its excesses only, would betray a singidarly narrow mind. It 
is the Gospel that triumphed on the esplanade of the castle. 
It was no longer a few pictures or legends that were to speak 
to the imagination of the Ncufchatelans : the revelation of 
Christ and of the apostles, as it had been preserved in the 
Holy Scriptures, was restored to them. In place of the mys- 
teries, symbols, and miracles of Popery, the Reformation 
brought them sublime tenets, powerful doctrines, holy and 
eternal truths. Instead of a mass, void of God, and filled 
with human puerilities, it restored to them the Supper of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, his invisible yet real and mighty presence, 
his promises giving peace to the soul, and his Spirit, which 
changes the heart, and is a sure pledge of a glorious resurrec- 
tion. All is gain in such an exchange. 


The Romanists demand a Ballot— The Bemeseir. fiiTourof the Reform—Both par. 

ties come to the Poll — The Prudhomnies of Xeufchatel — Proposed Delay The 

Romanists grasp the S>vord — The Voting — it,nj..rity for Reform— Protestantism 
perpetual— The image of Saint John — A Miracle — Retreat of the Canons — Poperj- 
and the Gospel. 

The governor and his trusty friends had not, however, lost 
all hope. " It is only a minority," said they at the castle, 
" which has taken part in the destruction of the images ; the 

nobins contra gentes, vi, 257.) Why do you keep them under rery strong keys and 
huge doors? lest, perchance, gome thief should creep in. 

I On the 23d of October 1530, idolatry waa overtlirown and remored from this 
church by the citizens. 

9 T 


majority of the nation still obeys the ancient doctrine." M. 
de Rive had yet to learn that if, in a popular movement, the 
minority only appears, it is in some cases because the ma- 
jority, being of the same mind with it, prefers leaving the 
action to others. However that may be, the governor, think- 
ing himself upon sure ground, resolved to put the preservation 
of the mass to the vote. If the majority were doubtful, the 
combined influence of the government and clergy would make 
it incline to the side of Rome. The friends of the Reforma- 
tion perceiving this trick, and feeling the necessity of securing 
the integrity of the votes, demanded the presence of Bernese 
commissioners. This was at first refused. But Neufchatel, 
divided into two hostile parties, might at any time see her 
streets run blood : De Rive therefore called Berne to his aid. 

Anthony Noll and Sulpice Archer, both members of the- 
council, with Jacques Tribolet, bailiff of the Isle of St. John, 
all three devoted to the Reform, made their entry into Neuf- 
chatel on the 4th November, — an eventful day for the princi- 
pality, and one which Avould decide its reformation. The 
deputies proceeded to the castle, where they spoke with great 
haughtiness.^ " Their excellencies of Berne," said they to 
the governor, "are much astonished that you should oppose 
the true and pure Word of God. Desist immediately, or else 
your state and lordship may suffer for it. " ^ 

George de Rive was amazed; he had thought to summon 
helpers, and he had found masters. He made, however, an 
attempt to escape from the strait in which he was caught. The 
Roman-catholic cantons of Lucerne, Friburg, and Solcure, 
were also allies of the state. The governor insinuated to the 
Bernese deputies that he might well claim their intervention. 
At these words the deputies indignantly arose, and declared to 
M. de Rive, that if he did so, he might be the cause of his so- 
vereign's losing Neufchatel. The governor saw the impossi- 
bility of escaping from the net into which he had fallen. There 
remained no alternative but submission, and to watch the cur- 
rent of events which it was impossible for him to direct. 

It was not thus with the canons and the nobles. Not con- 
sidering themselves beaten, they surrounded the Bernese ; and 
mingling religion and politics, as is their wont in similar cases,, 
endeavoured to shako them. " Do you not sec," said they, 
" that unless we support tlic spiritual power, we shall compro- 
mise the civil power ? The surest bulwark of the throne is the 

■ Truis ambastadeurg qni me tinrent astez f;ros et rudcs propos. The Cloveriior t» 
the ri-iiiciei*. i* Ibid. 


altar I These men, whose defenders you have hecome, are but 
a handful of mischief-makers: the majority are for the mass!" 
— " Turn which way you like," repiled one of the stubborn 
Bernese, "even though the majority should be on your side, 
still you must go that way; never will our lordships abandon 
the defenders of the evangelical faith." ^ 

The people assembled at the castle for the definitive vote. 
The destiny of Neufchatel was about to be decided. On one 
hand were crowded around the governor the privy council, the 
canons, and the most zealous of the Romanists ; on the other 
were to be seen the four aldermen, the town-council, and a great 
number of the citizens, gravely ascending the steep avenue 
leading to the government-house, and di-awing up in front of 
their adversaries. On both sides there was the same attach- 
ment to their faith and the same decision; but around the can- 
ons were many anxious minds, troubled hearts, and downcast 
eyes, while the friends of the Reform advanced with uplifted 
heads, firm looks, and hearts full of hope. 

George de Rive, wishing to gain over their minds, began to 
address them. He dcocribed the violence with which the re- 
formed had broken the images and thrown down the altars' 
" And yet," continued he, " who founde'd this church? It \va* 
the princess's predecessors, and not the citizens. For which 
reason, I demand that all those who have violently infringed 
our sovereign's authority, be obliged to restore what they have 
taken away, so that the holy mass and the canonical hours 
may be celebrated anew." * 

Upon this the pnidhommes of Neufchatel advanced. They 
were not a troop of young and giddy persons, as the Papists 
had pretended; they were grave citizens, whose liberties were 
guaranteed, and who had weighed what they had to say. "By 
the illimiination of the Holy Ghost," replied they, " and by 
the holy doctrines of the Gospel, which are taught us in the 
pure Word of God, we will show that the mass is an abuse, 
■without any utility, and which conduces much more to the 
damnation than to the salvation of souls. And we are ready 
to prove that by taking away the altars, we have done nothing 
that was not right and acceptable to God."' 

Thus the two parties met face to face with " great hatred 
and division," says the Bernese report. The arbitrators con- 
sulted together. The governor persisted, feehng that this 

I Ciiambrier, Hist, de Xeufchate;, p. 29S. The Governor's letter. Quand bien U 
plus sera des votres, si passeiez vous pur la, Ac. ' Choupard MS.; Ueces du 

Uii. de Berne. » Ibiu. 


movement -would decide the future. A few votes Avould suffice 
for the triumph of Rome, and he reckoned on gaining them by 
his assurance. " You should understand," said he, " that the 
majority of this town, men and women, adhere firmly to the 
ancient faith. The others are hot-headed young soldiers, vain 
«f their persons, and puffed up with the new doctrine." ^ — 
**Well!" replied the Bernese deputies, "to prevent all mis- 
chief, let us settle this difference by the plurality of suffrages, 
in accordance with the treaty of peace made at Bremgarten 
between the cantons." 

This was what the refonned desired. " The vote ! the vote! " 
cried they according to the exjiression consecrated to such 
eases.* But tlie lord of Prangins and the priests, who had de- 
sired it when they were alone, shrunk back in the presence of 
Berne. "We ask for time," said they. If the reformed allow- 
ed themselves to be cheated by these dilatory measures, all Avas 
over. When once the Bernese had quitted Neufchatel, the 
governor and the clergy would easily have the upporhand. 
They therefore remained firm. " No, no," said they, " now ! 
• — no delay ! — not a day ! not an hour !" But the governor, 
in the face of a proceeding that would decide the legal fall of 
Popery, trembled, and obstinately opposed the cries of the 
people. The magistrates were already indignant, the burghers 
murmured, and the most violent looked at their swords. " The}' 
were resolved to compel us, sword in hand," wrote the gover- 
nor to the princess. A fresh storm was gathering over Neuf- 
chatel. Yet a few more minutes' resistance, and it would 
burst fufth upon the church, the town, and the castle, destroy- 
ing not only statues, images, and altars, but " there would 
have remained dead men," said the lord of Kive.^ lie gave 
way in trouble and affright. 

At the news of this concession, the partizans of Rome saw 
all their danger. They conferred, they concerted their meas- 
ures, and in an instant their resolution was taken: they were 
resolved to fight.* "My Lord," said they, turning to M. de 
Rive, and touching the hilt of their swords, "all of us who 
adhere to the lioly Sacrament are resolved to die mai'tyrs for 
our holy faith."* This demonstration did not escape the notice 
of the young soldiers who had returned from the GeneveseM'ar. 
One moment more and the swords would have been drawn, and 
the platform changed into a battlefield. 

1 Devez enieiKire que 1 1 pliitpiirt de cette ville, liotnmes et feramei, tiennent ferme> 
meiit n riir.rii'iitic loi. l,es uutres sunt Jeiines k*""* ''" ^rvierre, forU do \<i\ut person- 
lies, reiniili-' ik- la iioiivi'llp dootrine, .lyiiius h- fV-u a la totis Ibid. ' A< P^*", 

the majui'iiy. > Tlio (juvvnior'g letter tu Uie Princess. * Ibid. >Ibid... 



Monseigneur de Prangins, more wily than orthodox, shud- 
dered at the thought. "I cannot suffer it," said he to the 
most violent of his party; "such an enterprise would forfeit 
my mistress's state and lordship."^ — "I consent," said he to 
the Bernese, "to take the votes, with reserve neverthelesa of 
the sovereignty, rights, and lordship of Madame." — "And 
we," replied the townspeople, "with the leserve of our liberties 
and privileges." 

The Romanists, seeing the political power they had invoked 
now failing them, felt that all was lost. They will save their 
honour at least in this great shipwreck ; they will subscribe 
their names, that posterity may know who had remained faith- 
ful to Rome. These proud supporters of the hierarchy advanced 
towards the governor ; tears coursed down their rough cheeks, 
betraying thus their stifled anger. They wrote their signatures 
as witnesses at the foot of the solemn testament that Popery 
was now drawing up in Xeufchatel, in the presence of the Ber- 
nese deputies. They then asked, with tears in their eyes, 
" that the names and surnames of the good and of the perverse 
should be written in perpetual memory, and declared that they 
were still good and faithful burghers of Madame, and would do 
her service unto death I" - 

The reformed burgesses were convinced that it was only by 
frankly bearing testimony to their religious convictions that 
they could discharge their duty before God, their sovereign, 
and their fellow-citizens. So that the Catholics had scarcely 
protested their fidelity towards their lady, when, turning to- 
wards the governor, the reformed cried out : " We say the 
same in every other thing in which it shall please our Mistress 
to command us, save and except the evangelical faith, in which 
we live and die." ^ 

Everything was then prepared for taking the votes. The 
Church of Our Lady was opened, and the two parties advanced 
between the shattered altars, torn pictures, mutilated statues, 
and all those ruins of Popery, which clearly foretold to its par- 
tisans the last and irrevocable defeat it was about to under<yo. 
The three lords of Berne took their station beside the governor 
as arbitrators of the proceedings and presidents of the assemblv, 
and the voting began. 

> The Governor's letter to thi Trlnccss. ' Alors iceux dirent en pleurant 

que les noms et les sumoms des bons et des peners fussent ecrits en perpetuelle me- 
moire, et qulls protestoient Stre bons et fideles bourgeois de Madame, et Iiii faire ser- 
vice jusqu'a la mort a Governor's letter. Nous disons le semblable en 

toute autre chose oii il plaira a Madame nous commander, sauf et reserve icelle foi 
fivangelique, dans laquelle nous voulons vivre et moui-ir. 


George do Rive, notwithstanding tlie despondency of his 
friends, was not altogether without hope. All the partisans of 
the ancient worship in Neufchatel had heen forewarned ; and 
hut a few days previously the reformed themselves, hy refusing 
a *|)oll, had acknowledged the numerical superiority of their 
adversaries. But the friends of the Gospel in Neufchatel had 
a courage and a hope that seemed to repose on a firmer hasis. 
Were they not for the victorious party, and could they he van- 
quished in the midst of their triumph. 

The two parties, however, moved forward, confounded with 
one another, and each man gave his vote in silence. They 
counted each other: the result appeared uncertain; fear froze 
each party by turns. At length the majority seemed to declare 
itself; — they took out the votes, — the result was proclaimed. 
A majority of eighteen voices gave the victory to the Reforma- 
tion, and the last blow to the Papacy ! 

The Bernese lords immediately hastened to profit by this ad- 
vantage. " Live henceforth, " said they, " in good understand- 
ing with one another; let the mass be no longer celebrated; 
[et no injury be done to the priests ; and pay to your Lady, or 
to whomsoever they may be justly due, all tithes, quit-rent, 
cense, and revenues." These different points were proclaimed 
by the assembly, and a report was immediately drawn up, to 
which the deputies, the governors, and the magistrates of the 
city of Neufchatel affixed their respective seals. ^ 

Farel did not appear in all this business : one might have 
said that the reformer was not at Neufchatel: the citizens ap- 
pealed only to the Word of God ; and the governor himself, in 
his long report to the princess, does not once mention him. It 
was the apostles of our Lord, St. Peter, St. John, St. Paul, 
and St. James, who by their divine writings re-established the 
true foundations of the Church in the midst of the people of 
Neufchatel. The Word of God was the iaw of the prudhommts. 
In vain will the Roman Church say, "But these very Scrip- 
tures, — it is I who give them to you ; you cannot therefore be- 
lieve in them without believing in me." It is not from the 
Church of Rome that the Protestant Church receives the Bible. 
Protestantism has always existed in the Church. It has ex- 
isted alone in every place where men have been engaged in the 
study of the Holy Scriptures, of their divine origin, of their in- 
terpretation, and in their dissemination. The Protestantism 
of the sixteenth century received the Bible from the Protestant- 

' Reces de MM. de Berne, MS. Et que I'on pnic a Mudame ou a qui il sera dd jus. 
tement dimea, ceni, rentes et revenns. 

THE lilAOE OF ST. JOHK. 2.05 

ism of every age. When Rome speaks of the hierarchy, she 
is on her own ground: as soon as she speaks of the Scriptures, 
she is ou ours. If Farel had heen put forward in Xeufchatel, 
he would not perhaps have been able to stand against the pope; 
but the "Word of Christ alone was concerned, and Rome must 
fall before Jesus. ' 

Thus terminated, by a mutual contract, that day at first so 
threatenino-. If the Reformed had sacrificed any of their con- 
victions to a false peace, disorder would have been perpetua- 
ted in Xeufchatel. A bold manifestation of the truth, and the 
inevitable shocks that accompanied it, far from destroying so- 
cietv, preserved it. This manifestation is the wind that lifts 
the vessel from the rocks and brings it into the harbour. 

The lord of Prangins felt that, between fellow-citizens, " it 
is better to touch one another, even if it be by collision, than 
to avoid each other continually." The free explanation that 
had taken place had rendered the opposition of the two parties 
less irritating. " I give my promise," said the governor, " to 
undertake nothing against the vote of this day, for I am my- 
self a witness that it has been honest, upright, without danger, 
and without coercion."^ 

It was necessary to dispose of the spoils of the vanquished 
partv: the governor opened the castle to them. Thither 
•were transported the relics, the ornaments of the altars, the 
church papers, and even the organ; and the mass, expelled 
from the city, was there mournfully chanted every day. 

All the ornaments, however, did not take this road. Some 
davs after, as two citizens, named Fauche and Sauge, were 
going out together to their vineyards, they passed a little 
chapel, in which the latter had set up a ^voodea figure of St, 
John. He said to his companion, " There is an image I shaU 
heat mv stove with to-morrow." And, intact, as he returned, 
he carried away the saint and laid it down in front of his 

The next morning he took the image and put it on the fire. 
Immediately a horrible explosion spread dismay through this 
humble family. The trembling Fauche doubted not that it 
■was a miracle of the saint, and hastened to return to the mass. 
In vain did his neighbour Sauge protest to him upon oath that, 
during the night, he had made a hole in the statue, filled it 
with gunpowder, and closed it up again. Fauche would listen 


» Ungefahrlich, nngezwringen, aufrecht und red'.ich. Berne to Uie Governor, 17tli 
Sk. 1530. 


to nothing, and resolved to flee from tlie vengeance of the 
saints. He went and settled -with his family at Morteau io 
Franche Comte.^ Such are the miracles upon which the di- 
vinity of Ilome reposes! 

By degrees everything hecame settled: some of the canons, 
as 'Jacques Baillod, William de Pury, and Benedict Chamhrier, 
embraced the Reformation. Others were recommended by the 
governor to the priory of Motiers, in the Val de Travers; and, 
in the middle of November, at the time when the winds began 
to rage among the mountains, several canons, surrounded by a 
few singiug-boys, — sad relics of the ancient, powerful, ricli, 
voluptuous, and haughty chapter of Neufchatel, — painfully 
chmbed the gorges of the Jura, and went to conceal in these 
lofty and picturesque valleys the disgrace of a defeat, Avhich 
their long disorders and their insupportable tyranny had but 
too justly provoked. 

During this time the new worship was organised. In room 
of the high-altar were substituted two marble tables to receivo 
the bread and wine; and the Word of God was preached from 
a pulpit stripped of every ornament. The pre-eminence of the 
Word, which characterises the evangelical worship, replaced 
in the church of Neufchatel the pre-eminence of the sacrament, 
which characterises Popery. Towards the end of the second 
century, E-ome, that ancient metropolis of all religions, after 
having Avelcomed the christian worship in its primitive purity, 
had gradually transformed it into mysteries; a magic power 
had been ascribed to certain forms; and the reign of the sacri- 
fice offered by the priest had succeeded to the reign of the 
Word of God. The preaching of Farel had restored the W^ord 
to the rights which belonged to it; and those vaulted roofs, 
which the piety of Count Ulric II. had, on his return from 
Jerusalem, dedicated to the worship of the Virgin, served at 
last, after feur centuries, to nourish the faithful, as in the 
time of the Apostles, " in the words of faith and of good 

1 ijoyve Annais, US. •* 1 f ta., i», o. 



Reaction preparing— Failure of the Plot— Farel in Talangin and near the I*ike — 
De Belj at Fontaine— Farel's Sufferings— Marcourt at Valangin— Disgraceful Ex- 
pedient— Vengeance— Tlie Reform esublished— French Switzerland character- 
ized — Gathering Tempest. 

The convention, drawn up under the mediation of Berne, sti- 
pulated that " the change should tiike place only in the citj 
and palish of Xeufchatel." Must the rest of the country 
remain in darkness? This was not Farel's wish, and the zeal 
of the citizens, in its first fervoiu-, effectually seconded him. 
They visited the surrounding villages, exhorting some, com- 
bating others. Those who were compelled to Lihour with their 
hands during the day went thither at night. " Now, I am 
informed," writes the governor to the princess, " that they aro 
working at a reformation night and day." 

George de Rive, in alarm, convoked the magistrates of all 
the districts in the earldom. These good folks believed that 
their consciences, as well as their places, depended upon Ma- 
thime de LongueviUe. Affrighted at the thought of freely 
receiving a new conviction from the Word of God, they werfr 
([uite ready to accept it from the countess as they would a new 
iLipost; — a sad helotism, in which religion springs from the- 
soil, instead of descending from heaveul "We desire to live 
and die under the protection of our Lady," said the magistrates 
to the lord of Rive, " without changing the ancient faith^ 
Tntil it be so ordered by her.'''' ^ Rome, even after her fall, could 

I receive a deeper insult. 

These assurances of fidelity and the absence of the Bernese 

-cored De Rive's confidence, and he secretly prepared a reac- 
tiun among the nobles and the lower classes. There is in 
every historical catastrophe, in the fall of great establishments, 
and in the spectacle of their ruins, something which excites- 
and improves the mind. This was what happened at the pe- 
riod in question. Some were more zealous for Popery afteir 
its fall than in its day of power. The clergy ghding into the- 
houses said mass to a few friends mysteriously called together 
around a temporary altar. If a child was born, the priest 
njiselcssly arrived, breathed on the infant, made the sign of" 

^ Chonpard MS. Mooa voulons rirre et mourir sous la protection de Madame, san»- 
chanper 1 ancienne foi, jujju* a ee <pt( par Me en »oJ{ ardonne. 


the cross on its forehead and hreast, and baptized it according 
to the Roman ritual.l Thus they were rebuilding in secret 
what had been overthrown in the light of day. At length a 
counter-revolution was agreed upon; and Christmas-day was 
selected for the restoration of Roman-catholicism. While the 
Christians' songs of joy should be rising to heaven, the parti- 
sans of Rome were to rush into the church, expel the heretical 
assembly, overthrow the pulpit and the holy table, restore the 
images, and celebrate the mass in triumph. Such was the 
,plan of the Neufchatelan vespers. - 

The plot got wind. Deputies from Berne arrived at Neuf- 
chatel on the very eve of the festival. " You must see to this," 
eaid they to the governor: if the reformed are attacked, we, 
their co-burghers, will protect them with all our power." The 
<3onspirators laid down their arms, and the Christmas hymns 
were not disturbed. 

This signal deliverance augmented the devotion and zeal 
of the friends of the Gospel. Already Emer Beynon of Ser- 
riere, where Farel had one day landed from a small boat, as- 
cending the pulpit, had said to his parishioners: If I have been 
a good priest, I desire by the grace of God to be a stiU better 
pastor." It was necessary for these words to be heard from 
-erery pulpit. Farel recommenced a career of labours, fatigues, 
and struggles, which the actions of the apostles and missiona- 
ries alone can equal. 

Towards the end of the year 1530, he crossed the mountain 
in the middle of winter, entered the church of Valangin, went 
into the pulpit, and began to preach at the very moment that 
Guillemette de Vergy was coming to mass. She endeavoured 
to shut the reformer's mouth, but in vain, and the aged and 
noble dowager retired precipitately saying: "I do not think 
tills is according to the old Gospels; if there are any new ones 
that encourage it, I am quite amazed." ^ The people of Valan- 
gin embraced the Gospel. The afFrighted lieutenant ran to 
Neufchatel, thence to Berne, and on the 11th February, 1531, 
laid his complaint before the council; but all was useless. 
" Why," said their excellencies of Berne to him, " why should 
j^ou disturb the water of the river ? let it flow freely on." 

Farel immediately turned to the parishes on the slopes be- 
tween the lake and Mount Jura. At Corcelles a fanatic crowd, 

1 Berne to NeuffliaU>l, 17th December. ' Heme to the Governor, 23d Dec. 

* Chambrier, Hist, de Neufchatel et ViUangin, p. '2'J'.). Je ne croia pas que cc «oit 
'^■elon lc8 vieux cvaiigUes ; sll y en a de nouveaux cjui fassent ccla faire, j'en 8uis m- 


vrell armed and led on. bj the curate of Neufchatel, rushed into 
the church where the minister was preaching, and he did not 
escape without a wound. At Bevay, the abbot John of Li\Ton 
nnd his monks collected a numerous body of friends, sur- 
roimded the church, and having thus completed the blockade, 
entered the building, dragged the minister from the pulpit, and 
drove him out with blows and insults. Each time he reap- 
peared, they pursued him as far as Auvei-nier with stones and 

While Farel was thus preaching in the plain, he sent one of 
his brethren into the valley: it was John de Bely, a man of 
good family from Crest in Dauphiny. Beyond Valangin, at 
a little distance from Fontaine, on the left side of the road to 
Cernier, was a stone that remains to this day. Here in the 
open air, as if in a magnificent temple, this hearld of the Gos- 
pel began to proclaim salvation by grace.^ Before him stretch- 
ed the declivity of Chaumont, dotted with the pretty villages 
of Fenin, Yillars, Sole, and Savagnier, and beyond, where the 
mountains fell away, might be seen the distant and picturesque 
chain of the Alps. The most zealous of his hearers entreated 
him to enter the church. He did so; but suddenly the priest 
iiud his curate " arrived with great noise." They proceeded 
to the pulpit, dragged Bely down ; and then turning to the 
women and young persons of the place, " excited them to beat 
him and drive him away."* 

John de Bely returned to Xeufchatel, hooted and bruised, 
like his friend after the affair at Yalangin; but these evange- 
lists followed the traces of the Apostle Paul, whom neither 
whips nor scourges could arrest. ^ De Bely often returned to 
Fontaine. The mass was abolished erelong in tliis village; 
Bely was its pastor for twenty-seven years; his descendants 
have more than once exercised the ministry there, and now 
they form the most numerous family of agriculturists in the place. 

Farel, after evangelizing the shores of the lake to the south 
of Neufchatel, had gone to the north and preached at St, 
Blaise. The populace, stirred up by the priests and the lieu- 
tenant, had fallen upon him, and Farel escaped from their 
hands, severely beaten, spitting blood, and scarcely to be re- 
cognised. His friends had thrown him hurriedly into a boat, 
and conveyed him to Morat, where his wounds detained him for 
some time.* 

' It does not appear that Bely could have stood and preached on this stone, as is 
geriLTaUr said, unless what now remains is but a fragment of the original. 

» MS. AA. in the Choupard MS. ' 2 Cor., xi, 24, 25. * De Perrot ; LTSglJM 

«t la Reformaiion, ii, 45:^ 


At the report of this violence the reformed Neufchatclans 
felt their Wood boil. If the lieutenant, the priest, and his 
flock have bruised the body of Christ's servant, -wliich is truly 
the altar of the living God, why should they spare dead idols? 
Immediately they rush to St. Blaise, throw down the images, 
and do the same at the abbey of Fontaine-Andre, — a sanc- 
tuary of the ancient worship. 

The images still existed at Valangin, but their last hour 
was about to strike. A Frenchman, Anthony Marcoui-t, had 
been nominated pastor of Neufchatel. Treading in FareVs foot- 
steps, he repaired with a few of the citizens to Valangin on 
the 14th June, a great holiday in that town.^ Scarcely had 
they arrived when a numerous crowd pressed around the mini- 
ster, listening to his words. The canons, who were on the 
watch in their houses, and Madame de Vergy and M. de Belle- 
garde from their towers, sought how they could make a di- 
version against this heretical preaching? They could not em- 
ploy force because of Berne. They had recourse to a brutal 
expedient, worthy of the darkest days of Popery, and which, 
by insulting the minister, might divert (they imagined) the at- 
tention of the people, and change it into shouts and laughter. 
A canon,* assisted by the countess's coachman, went to the 
stables and took thence two animals, which they led to the spot 
where Marcourt Avas preaching. We will throw a veil over 
this scene: it is one of those disgraceful subjects that the pea 
of history refuses to transcribe.^ But never did punishment 
follow closer upon crime. The conscience of the hearers was 
aroused at the sight of this infamous spectacle. The torrent, 
that such a proceeding was intended to check, rushed out of 
its channel. The indignant people, undertaking the defence 
of that religion which their opponents had wished to insult, 
entered the church like an avenging wave; the ancient windows 
were broken, the shields of the lords were demolished, the relics 
scattered about, the books torn, the images thrown down, and 
the altar overturned. But this was not enough:' the popular 
Avave, after sweeping out the church, flowed back again, and 
dashed agairnst the canons' houses. Their inhabitants fled in 
consternation into the forests, and everything was destroyed in 
their dwellings. 

1 This inciiiunt is genernlly attributed to Fnrel, but Choupard, following an older 
manusoript, says le minittre de Neufcftatel, by which title he always ineiins M.ircourt 
and never FareL *Somo historians say " the conchman of the covmtess ;'* 

but Uhoupard, on three different occasions, writes a canon. The latter is no doubt 
more revolting ; but there id nothing incredible in it. » De equo admissario 

loquitur qui equam init. 



GuiUemette de Vergv and M. de Bellegarde, agitated and 
trembling behind their battlements, repented, but too late, of 
their monstrous expedient. Thej were the only ones who had 
not yet felt the popular vengeance. Their restless eyes watch- 
ed the motions of the indignant townspeople. The work is 
completed: the last house is sacked! The burghers consult to- 
gether. — horror! — they turn towards the castle, — they as- 
cend the hill, — they draw near. Is then the abode of the noble 
counts of Arberg about to be laid waste? But no! — "We 
come, ' ' said the delegates standing near the gate of the castle, 
"We are come to demand justice for the outrage committed 
aw-ainst religion and its minister." They are permitted to 
enter, and the trembling countess orders the poor wretches to 
be punished who had acted solely by her orders. But at the 
same time she sends deputies to Berne, complaining of the 
"great insults that had been offered her."^ Berne declared 
that the reformed should pay for the damage ; but that the 
countess should grant them the free exercise of their worship. 
Jacques Yeluzat, a native of Champagne, was the first pastor 
of Valangiu. A little later we shall see new struggles at the 
foot of Mount Jura. 

Thus was the Reformation established at Valangin, as it had 
been at Neufchatel: the two capitals of these mountains were 
gained to the Gospel. Erelong it received a legal sanction. 
Francis, marquis of Rothelin, son of the Duchess of Longue- 
viUe, arrived in the principality in March 1531, with the inten- 
tion of playing on this small theatre the part of a Fi-ancis I. 
But he soon found out that there are revolutions which an ir- 
resistible hand has accomplished, and that must be submitted 
to. Rothelin excluded from the estates of the earldom the 
canons who had hitherto formed the first power, and replaced 
them by four bannerets and four burgesses. Then, avaihnf 
himself of the principle that all abandoned property falls to the 
state, he laid bis hands upon their rich heritage, and proclaimed 
freedom of conscience throughout the whole country. AU the 
necessary forms having been obser\-ed with Madame, the pohtic 
M. de Rive became reformed also. Such was the support 
Rome received from the state, to which she had looked for her 

A great energy characterized the Reformation of French 
Switzerland; and this is shown by the events we have just 
witnessed. Men have attributed to Farcl this distinctive fea- 
ture of his work ; but no man lias ever created his own times ; 

' Curate of P. •■ < <>!'^ C i. nii 'r. r»e» p-ands titnp^res qu'on lui avail faiu. 


it is always, on the contrary, the times that create the man. 
The f reater the epoch, the less do individualities prevail in it. 
All the good contained in the events we have just related came 
from that Almighty Spirit, of which the strongest men are hut 
•weak instruments. All the evil proceeded from the character 
of the people; and, indeed, it was almost always Popery that 
began these scenes of violence. Farel submitted to the influence 
of his times, rather than the times received his. A great man 
may be the personification and the type of the epoch for which 
God destines him: he is never its creator. 

But it is time to quit the Jura and its beautiful valleys, 
brio-hteued by the vernal sun, to direct our steps towards the- 
Alps of German Switzerland, along which thick clouds and hor- 
rible tempests are gathering. The free and courageous people, 
who dwell there below the eternal glaciers, or on the smiling 
banks of the lakes, daily assume a fiercer aspect, and the col- 
lision threatens to be sudden, violent, and terrible. We have 
just been witnessing a glorious conquest: a dreadful catastrophe 
awaits U3. 




Two great Lessoas; — Cbrisdan AVariare — Zwingle, Pastor, Statesman, and Generaf 
— His nobie Character — Persecutions — Swiss Catholics seek an Alliance with 
Austria — Great Dissatisfaction — Deputation to the Forest Cantons — Zwingle'* 
Proposal — Moderation of Berne — Keyser's Martyrdom — Zwingle and War — 

Z« ingle's Error. 

It ivas the will of God that at the very gates of his revived^ 
Church there should be two great examples to serve as lessons 
for futui-e generations. Luther and the German Reformation, 
declining the aid of the temporal power, rejecting the force oF 
arms, and looking for victory only in the confession of the 
truth, were destined to see their faith ci'owned with the most 
brilliant success; while Zwingle and the Swiss Reformation, 
etretching out their hands to the mighty ones of the earth, and 
grasping the sword, were fated to witness a horrible, cruel, and 
bloody catastrophe fall upon the Word of God — a catastrophe- 
which threatened to engulf the evangelical cause in the most 
furious whirlpool. God is a jealous God, and gives not hi* 
glory to another; he claims to perform his own work himself, 
and to attain his ends sets other springs in motion than those- 
of a skilful diplomacy. 

We arc far from forgetting that we are called upon to relate- 
facts and not to discuss theories: but there is a principle which 
the history we are narrating sets forth in capital letters: it is 
that professed in the Gospel, where it says: The "weapoxs op 


maintaining this truth we do not place ourselves on the ground 
of any particular school, but on that of universal conscience^ 
and of the Word of God. 

Of all carnal support that religion can invoke, there is none- 
more injurious to it than arms and diplomacy. The latter 
throws it into tortuous ways ; the former hurries it into paths 
of bloodshed ; and religion, from whose brow has been torn the- 
double wreath of truth and meekness, presents but a degraded 


and humiliated countenance that no person can, that no person 
•desires to recognise. 

It was the very extension of the Reform in Switzerland that 
exposed it to the dangers under which it sunk. So long as it 
was concentrated at Zurich, it continued a religious matter ; but 
when it had gained Berne, Basle, Schaffhausen, St. Gall, Glaris, 
Appenzell, and numerous bailiwicks, it formed inter-cantonal 
relations ; and — here was the error and misfortune — while the 
•connexion should have taken place between church and church, 
it Avas formed between state and state. 

As soon as spiritual and political matters became mingled 
together, the latter took the upperhand. Zwingle erelong 
thought it his duty to examine not only doctrinal, hut also 
federal questions; and the illustrious reformer might be seen, 
unconscious of the snares beneath his feet, precipitating him- 
self into a course strewn with rocks, at the end of which a cruel 
■death awaited him. 

The primitive Swiss cantons had resigned the right of for- 
ming new alliances without the consent of all; but Zurich and 
Berne had reserved the power. Zwingle thought himself there- 
fore quite at liberty to promote an alliance with the evangeli- 
cal states. Constance was the first city that gave her adhe- 
sion. But this christian co-burghery, which migiit become 
the germ of a new confederation, immediately raised up nu- 
merous adversaries against Zwingle, even among the partisans 
of the Reformation. 

There was yet time: Zwingle might withdraw from public 
affairs, and occupy himself entirely with those of the Gospel. 
But no one in Zurich had, like him, that application to labour, 
that correct, keen, and sure eye, so necessary for politicians. 
If he retii-cd, the vessel of the state Avould be left without a 
pilot. Besides, he was convinced that political acts alone 
save the Reform. He resolved, therefore, to be at one and the 
same time the man of the State and of the Church. The re- 
gisters prove that in his later years he took part in the im- 
portant deliberations; and he was commissioned by the councils 
of his canton to write letters, compose proclamations, and draw 
up opinions. Already, before the dispute with Berne, looking 
upon war as possible, he had traced out a very detailed plan of 
defence, the manuscript of which is still in existence^ In 
1628 he did still more; he showed in a remarkable paper, how 
the republic should act with regard to the empire, France, and 
other European states, and with respect to tlie several canton* 

I Eschor et Huttinger, Archives, ii, 263. 

PERSECtrnoxs. 305 

and bailiwicks. Then, as if he had grown gray at the head 
of the Helvetic troops (and it is but just to remark that he 
had long lived among soldiers), he explained the advantages 
there would be in surprising the enemy; and described even 
the nature of the arms, and the manner of puj ploying them. 
In truth, an important revolution was then taking place in the 
art of war. The pastor of Zurich is at once the head of the 
state and general of the army: this double — this triple part of 
the reformer was the ruin of the Refx^rmation and of himself. 
Undoubtedly we must make allowances for the men of this 
age, Avho, being accustomed to see Rome wield two swords for 
so many centuries, did not understand that they must take up 
one and leave the other. We must admire the strength of 
that superior genius, which, while pursuing a political course, 
in which the greatest minds would have been absorbed, ceased 
pot however to display an indefatigable activity as pastor, 
preacher, divine, and author. We must acknowledge that the 
republican education of Zwingle had taught him to confound 
Lis country with his religion, and that there was in this great 
man enough to fill up many lives. We must appreciate that 
indomitable courage which relying upon justice, feared not, at 
a time when Zurich had but one or two weak cities for allies, 
to confront the redoubtable forces of the empire and of the 
confederation; but we should also see in the great and terrible 
lesson that God gave him, a precept for all times and every 
nation; and tinally, understand what is often forgotten, "that 
the kingdom of Christ is not of this world " 

The Roman-catholic cantons, on hearing of the new alliances 
of the refonnetl, felt a violent indignation. William, of Dies- 
bach, deputy from Berne at the diet, was forced to submit to 
the keenest reproaches. The sitting, for a while interrupted, 
■was resuiiicd immediately after his departure. " They may 
try to patch up the old faith," said the Bernese, as he with- 
drew; " it cannot, however, last any longer."^ In truth, they 
patched away with all their might, but with a sharp and en- 
yenomed needle that drew blood. Joseph Am Berg of Schwytz 
and Jactiues Stocker of Zug, bailiffs of Thurgovia, behaved 
"with cruelty towards all who were attached to the Gospel. 
They enforced agaiust them fines, imprisonment, torture, the 
scourge, confiscation, and banishment; they cut out the minis- 
ters' tongues, beheaded them, or condemned them to be burnt.* 

* STojien «ie Matxen am alten Glauhen. H^'ttingpr, Zwineli. p. 389. 

* Die Zuiiiieii xt'M:i.liizt, mil dem Scbnerdt ricbton uiiil rerbiaiiinL Bull., ii, 31. 

9 U 


At the same time they took away the Bibles and all the evan- 
gelical hooks; and if any poor Lutherans, fleeing from Austria, 
crossed the Rhine and that low valley where its calm waters 
flow between the Alps of the Tyrol and of Appenzell, — if these 
poor creatures, tracked by the lansquenets, came to seek a refuge 
in Switzerland, they were cruelly given up to their persecutors. 

The heavier lay the hands of the bailifi"s on Thurgovia and 
the Rheinthal, the greater conquests did the Gospel make. 
The Bishop of Constance wrote to the Five Cantons, that if 
they did not act with firmness, all the country would embrace 
the Reform. In consequence of this, the cantons convoked at 
Frauenfeld all the prelates, nobles, judges, and persons of note 
in the district; and a second meeting taking place six days after 
(6th December, 1528) at Weinfeld, deputies from Berne and 
Zurich entreated the assembly to consider the honour of God 
above all things, and in no respect to care for the threats of 
the world.^ A great agitation followed upon this discourse. 
At last a majority called for the preaching of the Word of God; 
the people came to the same decision; and the Rheinthal, as 
well as Bremgarten, followed this example. 

What was to be done? The flood had become hourly more 
encroaching. Must then the Forest Cantons open their valleys 
to it at last? Religious antipathies put an end to national 
antipathies; and these proud mountaineers, directing their looks 
beyond the Rhine, thought of invoking the succour of Austria,, 
which they had vanquished at Morgarten and at Sempach.*' 
The fanatical German party that had crushed the revolted 
Swabian peasants was all-powerful on the frontiers. Letters 
were exchanged; messengers passed to and fro across the river; 
at last they took advantage of a wedding in high rank that 
was to take place at Feldkirch in Swabia, six leagues from 
Appenzell. On the 16th February, 1529, the marriage-party, 
forming a brilliant cavalcade, in the midst of which the depu- 
ties of the Five Cantons were concealed, made their entry into. 
Feldkirch, and Am Berg had an immediate interview with the 
Austrian governor. " The power of the enemies of our ancient 
faith has so increased," said the Swiss, "that the friends of 
the Church can resist them no longer. We therefore turn our 
eyes to that illustrious prince who has saved in Germany the 
faith of our fathers." 

This alliance was so very unnatural, that the Austrians had 
Bome diflSculty in believing it to be sincere. "Take hostages," 

*■ Die £«r Gottes, uwer Seelen Heil. Bulling. Chron., u, 28. » jbid., «& 


said tlie Waldstettes, "^rrite the articles of the treaty vrith 
your own hands; conunand and we will obey! " — "Very good! " 
replied the Austrians; "in two months you will find us again 
at Waldshut, and we will let you know our conditions." 

A rumoiu- of these negotiations which spread abroad excited 
great dissatisfaction, even in the partisans of Rome. In no 
place did it burst out with greater force than in the council of 
Zug. The opposing parties were violently agitated; they 
stamped their feet, they started from their seats, and were 
nearly coming to blows; but hatred prevailed over patriotism. 
The deputies of the Forest Cantons appeared at Waldshut. 
they suspended the arms of their cantons by the side of those 
of the oppressors of Switzerland; decorated their hats with pea- 
cocks' feathers (the badge of Austria), and laughed, drank, and 
chattered with the Imperialists. This strange alliance was at 
last concluded.* "Whoever shall form new sects among the 
people," it ran, "shall be pimished with death; and, if need be, 
with the help of Austria. This power, in case of emergency, 
shall send into Switzerland six thousand foot soldiers, and four 
hundred horse, with aU requisite artillery. If necessary, the 
reformed cantons shall be blockaded, and all provisions inter- 
cepted." To the Romish cantons, then, belongs the initiativo 
of this measure so much decried. Finally, Austria guaranteed 
to the Waldstettes the possession, not only of the common bai- 
liwicks, but of all the conquests that might be made on the left 
bank of the Rhine. 

Dejection and consternation immediately pervaded all Switz- 
erland. This national complaint, which Bullinger has preserved, 
was simg in every direction: — 

Wail, Helvetians, wail. 

For the peacock's plume of pride 
To the forest cantons' savage bull 

In Mendship is allied. 

All the cantons not included in this alliance, with the excep- 
tion of Friburg, assembled in diet at Zurich, and resolved to 
send a deputation to their mountain confederates, with a view 
to reconciliation. The deputation, admitted at Schwytz in the 
presence of the people, was able to execute its mission without 
tumult. At Zug there was a cry of "Xo sermon! no sermon! " 
At Altorf the answer was: "Would to God that your new faith 
was buried for ever! " At Lucerne they received this haughty re- 
ply: "We shall know how to defend oui selves, our children, and 

» Bv^lUnge^ gires the treaty at full -.zr^y.n. Chron., ii, 49-59. 


our Children's children, from the poison of your rehellious priests." 
it was at Unierwalden that the deputation met with the worst 
reception. "We declare our alliance at an end," said they. 
"It is we, — it is the other Waldstettes who are the real Swiss. 
We graciously admitted you into our confederation, and now 
you claim to hecome our masters! — The emperor, Austria, 
France, Savoy, and Valais will assist us!" The deputies re- 
tired in astonishment, shuddering, as they passed before the 
house of the secretary Of state, where they saw the arms of Zu- 
rich, Berne, Basle, and Strasburg hanging from a lofty gibbet. 

The deputation had scarcely returned to Zurich and made 
this report, when men's minds were inflamed. Zwingle p'i'O- 
posed to grant no peace to Unterwalden, if it would not re- 
nounce foreign service, the alliance with Austria, and the 
government of the common bailiwicks. "No! no!" said Berne, 
that had just stifled a civil war in its own canton, "let us not 
be so hasty. When the rays of the sun shine forth, each one 
wishes to set out; but as soon as it begins to rain, every man 
loses heart ! The Word of God enjoins peace. li, is not 
with pikes and lances that faith is made to enter the heart. 
For this reason, in the name of our Lord's suficrings, we en- 
treat you to moderate your anger." 

This christian exhortation would have succeeded, if the fearful 
news that reached Zurich, on the very day when the Bernese 
delivered llieir moderate speech, had not rendered it unavailing. 

On Saturday the 22d May. Jacques Keyser, a pastor and 
father of a family in the neighbourhood of the Greiffensee, after 
coasting the fertile shores of this little lake, crossed the rich 
pastures of the bailiwick of Gruningen, passed near the Teu- 
tonic house if Bubikon and the convent of Ruti, and i-eached 
that simple and wild district bathed by the upper part of Lake 
Zurich. Milking his way to Oberkirk, a parisb in the Gaster 
district, between tlie two lakes of Zurich and Wallenstadt, of 
which he had been nominated pastor, and where be was to 
preach on the morrow, he crossed on foot the lengthened and 
rounded flanks of the Buchberg, fronting the picturesque 
heights of the Aminon. He was confidently advancing into 
those woods which for many weeks he had often traversed 
without obstruction, when he was suddenly seized by bix men, 
posted there to surprise him. and carried off to Schwyt7.. " The 
bailiffs." said they to the magistrates, "have onlered all in- 
novntiiig ministers to be brought before the tribunals:' here is 
one that we may bring you." Although Zurich mmiI Glaris 
Huerjxised; altbuugb the government of Gaster. wIkk- Keyser 


had been taken, did not then belong to Schwytz; the lands- 
gemeinde desired a victim, and on the 29th May they con- 
demned the minister to be burnt alive. On being informed of 
his sentence, Keyser burst into tear*. ^ But when the hour of 
execution arrived, he walked cheerfully to death, freely con- 
fessed his faith, and gave thanks to the Lord even with his 
latest breath. " Go and tell them at Zurich how he thanks 
us!" said one of the Schwytz magistrates, 'R-ith a sarcastic 
smile, to the Zurich deputies. Thus had a fresh mart^T fallen 
imder the hands of that formidable power that is " drunk with 
the blood of the saints."* 

The cup Avas full. The flames of Keyser's pile became the 
signal of war. Exasperated Zurich uttered a cry that re- 
soimded through all the confederation. Zwingle above all 
called for energetic measures. Everywhere, — in the streets, 
in the cotmcils, and even in the pulpits, — he surpassed in dar- 
ing even the most valiant captains. He spoke at Zurich, — 
he wrote to Berne. " Let us be firm, and fear not to take up 
arms," said he, " This peace, which some desire so much, is 
not peace, but war: while the war that we call for is not war 
but peace.' "We thirst for no man's blood, but we wul clip 
the wings of the oligarchy.* If we shun it, the truth of the 
Gospel and the ministers* lives wiU never be secure among us." 
Thus spoke Zwingle. In every part of Europe he beheld the 
mighty ones of the earth aiding one another to stifle the reviv- 
ing animation of the Church; and he thought that without some 
decisive and energetic movement, Christianity, overwhelmed by 
so many blows, would soon fall back into its ancient slavery. 
Luther under similar circumstances arrested the swords ready 
to be crossed, and demanded that the Word of God alonS 
should appear on the field of battle. Zwingle thought not thus. 
In his opLuion war was not revolt, for Switzerland had no 
master. " Undoubtedly," said he, "we must trust in God 
alone; but when He gives us a just cause, we must also know 
how to defend it, and like Joshua and Gideon, shed blood in 
behalf of our coimtry and our God." 

If we adopt the principles of justice which govern the rulera 
of nations, the advice of Zwingle was judicious and irre- 
proachable. It was the duty of the Swiss magistrates to de- 
fend the oppressed against the oppressor. But is not such 
language, which might have been suitable in the mouth of a 

1 Weinet taiftig. BulL, ii, 149. * Rer., rm, 6. » Bellniu cm bm 

ktSUmus, pax est, non bellam. Vita ZningUi, per 0. Mjconinm. 
• Oligarchue neni iuccidantor. Ibid. "^ 

310 zwingle's error. 

magistrate, blamable in a minister of Christ? Perhaps 
Zwingle forgot his quality of pastor, and considered himself 
only as a citizen, consulted by his fellow-citizens; perhaps he 
wished to defend Switzerland, and not the Church, by his 
counsels; but it is a question if he ought ever to have for- 
gotten the Church and his ministry. We think we may go 
even further; and while granting all that may be urged in fa- 
vour of the contrary supposition, we may deny that the secu- 
lar power ought ever to interfere with the sword to protect 
the faith. 

To accomplish his designs, the reformer needed even in 
Zurich the greatest unity. But there were many men in that 
city devoted to interests and superstitions which were opposed 
to him. " IIow long," he had exclaimed in the pulpit on the 
1st December, 1528, " how long will you support in the council 
these unbelievers, these impious men, who oppose the Word of 
God? " ' They had decided upon purging the council, as re- 
quired by the reformer; they had examined the citizens indi- 
vidually; and then had excluded all the hostile members. 


Free Preaching of the Gospel in Switzerland— Zwingle supports t!'e common Baili- 
wicks— War— Zwingle joins the army— The Zurich Army threatens Zug— The 
Landamman Aebli— Bernese Interposition — Zwingle's Opposition.-Swiss Cordi- 
ality-Order in the Zurich Camp— A Conference — Peace restored— Austriaa 
Treaty torn— Zwingle's Hymn— Nuns of Saint Catherine. 

On Saturday the 15th June 1529, seven days after Keyser's 
martyrdom, all Zurich was in commotion. The moment was 
come when Unterwaldcn should send a governor to the com- 
mon bailiwicks ; and the images, having been burnt in those 
districts, Unterwalden had sworn to take a signal revenge.* 
Thus the consternation had become general. " Keyser's pile," 
thought they, " will be rekindled in all our villages." Many 
of the inhabitants flocked to Zurich, and on their alarmed and 
agitated features, one might, in imagination, have seen reflect- 
ed the flames that had just consumed the martyr. 

These unhappy people found a powerful advocate in Zwingle. 
The reformer imagined that he had at last attained the object 
he never ceased to pursue — the free preaching of the Gospel in 

1 Den rath reinigen. Fiissli Beytrage, ir, !)1 > Den gotsen br«nd, «n inea 

ndtt der Hand lu rachen. Bull. Chron., ii, 193. 


Switzerland. To inflict a final blow would, in his idea, suf- 
fice to bring tbis enterprise to a favourable issue. " Greedy 
pensioners," said Zwingle to tbe Zurichers, " profit by the ig- 
norance of the mountaineers to stir up these simple souls against 
the friends of the Gospel. Let us therefore be severe upon 
these haughty chiefs. The mildness of the lamb would only 
serve to render the wolf more ferocious.' Let us propose to 
the Five Cantons to allow the free preaching of the Word of 
the Lord, to renounce their wicked alliances, and to punish the 
abettors of foreign service. As for the mass, idols, rites, and 
superstitions, let no one be forced to abandon them. It is for 
the Word of God alone to scatter with its powerful breath all 
this idle dust.* Be firm, noble lords, and despite of certain 
black horses, as black at Zurich as they are at Lucerne,^ but 
whose malice will never succeed in overturning the chariot of 
Reform, we shall clear this difficult pass, and arrive at the 
unity of Switzerland and at unity of faith." Thus Zwingle, 
while calling for force against political abuses, asked only li- 
berty for the Gospel; but he desired a prompt intervention, in 
^rder that this liberty might be secured to it. (Ecolampadius 
thought the same: " It is not a time for delay," said he: "it 
is not a timefor parsimony and pusillanimity! So long as the 
venom shall not be utterly removed from this adder in our bo- 
soms we shall be exposed to the greatest dangers.* 

The council of Zurich, led away by the reformer, promised 
the bailiwicks to support religious liberty among them; and no 
■sooner had they learnt that Anthony ab Acker of Unterwalden 
was proceeding to Baden with an army, than they ordered five 
hundred men to set out for Bremgarten with four pieces of 
artillery. This was the 5th June, and on the same evening the 
standard of Zurich waved over the convent of Mouri. 

The war of religion had begun. The horn of the Wald- 
stettes re-echoed afar in the moimtains: men were arming in 
^very direction, and messengers were sent off in haste to in- 
"voke the assistance of the Valais and of Austria. Three days 
later (Tuesday the 8th June), six hundred Zurichers, under the 
command of Jacques Werdmiiller, set out for Rapperschwyl 
and the district of G aster; and, on the morrow, four thousand 
men repaired to Cappel, under the command of the valiant 
■Captain George Berguer, to whom Conrad Schmidt, pastor of 

1 Lupus lenitate agni, magis masrisque vorax fit. Zw. Epp., ii, 296. 

* Dei verbum enim hos pulveres omnes facile tlatu suo disperget. Ibid., 238. 

* The Pensioners. — Exceptis aliquot nigris eguis. Ibid., 'J$S. * Venenum M 
domestico illo colubro. lUd. 


Kussnacht, had been appointed chaplain. "We do not v,-ish 
you to go to the war," said Burgomaster Roust to Zwingle; 
"for the pope, the Archduke Ferdinand, the Romish cantons, 
the bishops, the abbots, and the prehites, hate you mortally. 
Stay with the council: we have need of you." — "No!" replied 
Zwingle, who was unwilling to confide so important an enter- 
prise to any one; "when my brethren expose their lives I will 
not remain quietly at home by my fireside. Besides, the army 
also requires a watchful eye, that looks continually around it." 
Then, taking down his glittering halberd, which he had car- 
ried (as they say) at Marignan, and placing it on his shoulder, 
the reformer mounted his horse and set out with the army.i 
The walls, towers, and battlements were covered with a crowd 
of old men, children, and women, among whom was Anna, 
Zwingle 's wife. 

Zurich had called for the aid of Berne; but that city, whose 
inhabitants showed little disposition for a religious war, and 
which besides was not pleased at seeing the increasing influence 
of Zurich, replied, " Since Zurich has begun the war M^ithout 
us, let her finish it in like manner." The evangelical states 
were disunited at the very moment of the struggle. 

The Romish cantons did not act thus. It was Zug that 
issued the first summons; and the men of Uri, of Schwytz, and 
of Underwalden had immediately begun to march. On the 8th 
June, the great banner floated before the townhouse of Lucerne, 
and on the next day the army set out to the sound of the 
antique horns that Lucerne pretended to have received from the 
Emperor Cliarlemagne. 

On the 10th June, the Zui-ichers, who Avere posted at Cappel, 
sent a herald at daybreak to Zug, who was commissioned, ac- 
cording to custom, to denounce to the Five Cantons the rup- 
ture of the alliance. Immediately Zug was filled with cries 
and alarm. This canton, the smallest in Switzerland, not 
having yet received all the confederate contingents, was not in 
a condition to defend itself. The people ran to and fro, sent off 
messengers, and hastily' prepared for battle; the warriors fitted 
on their armour, iLe women shed tears, and the children shrieked. 
Already the first division of the Zurich array, amounting to 
two thousand men, under the command of William Tlioming, 
and stationed near the fiontier below Cappel, was preparing to 
march, when they observed, in the direction of Baar, a horse- 
man pressing the flanks of his steed, and galloping up as fast 

i Sondern sags nuf ein Uo8», viiul fujiite cine hubache Helpartcn auf doa Achseln. 
Piissli B''jtr.,iv, 103. > 


as tlie mountain wMcli he lAd to ascend would permit. It was 
Aebli, landamman of Glaris. " The Five Cantons are pre- 
pared," said he, as he arrived, "but I have prevailed upoa 
them to halt, if you will do the same. For this reason I en- 
treat my lords and the people of Zurich, for the love of God 
and the safety of the confederation, to suspend their march at 
the present moment." As he uttered these words, the brave 
Helvetian shed tears. ^ " In a few hours," continued he, '• I 
shall be back again. I hope with God's grace to obtain an 
honourable peace, and to prevent our cottages from being filled 
with widows and orphans." 

Aebli was known to be an honourable man, friendly to the 
Gospel and opposed to foreign service: his words, therefore, 
moved the Zurich captains, who resolved to halt. Zwingle 
alone, motionless and uneasy, beheld in his friend's intervention 
the machinations of the adversary. Austria, occupied in re- 
pelling the Turks, and unable to succour the Five Cantons, 
had exhorted them to peace. This, in Zwingle's opinion, was 
the cause of the propositions brought to them by the Landam- 
man of Glaris. So at the moment Aebli turned round to re- 
turn to Zug,- Zwingle approaching him, said with earnestness, 
" Gossip landamman, you will render to God an account of 
all this. Our adversaries are caught in a sack: and hence 
they give you sweet words. By and by they will fall upon us 
unawares, and there will be none to deliver us." Prophetic 
words whose fulfilment went beyond all foresight! " Dear- 
gossip I " replied the landamman, " I have confidence in God that 
all will go well. Let each one do his best." And he depai-ted. 

The army, instead of advancing upon Zug, now began to 
erect tents along the edge of the forest and the brink of the 
torrent, a few paces from the sentinels of the Five Cantons: 
while Zwingle, seated in his tent, silent, sad, and in deep 
thought, anticipated some distressing news from hour to hour. 

He had not long to wait. The Deputies of the Zurich coun- 
cil came to give reality to his fears. Berne, maintaining the 
character that it had so often filled as representative of the 
federal policy, declared that if Zurich or the cantons would not 
make peace, they would find means to compel them: this state 
at the same time convoked a" diet at Aran, and sent five thou- 
sand men into the field, under the command of Sebastian 
Diesbach. Zwingle was struck with consternation. 

' Das radt er mitt weynenden Ousen. Ball., ii, 169. ' Alls nun der Ammaa 

■wiederumm zu den 5 orten rjtea wollt Ibid., 170. Zwingle was godfather to oce of 
AebU'a children. 


Aebli's message, supported by that of Berne, was sent back 
hy the council to the army; for, according to the principles of 
the time, "wherever the banner waves, there is Zurich." — 
" Let us not be staggered," cried the reformer, ever decided 
and firm; " our destiny depends upon our courage; to-day 
they beg and entreat, and in a month, when we have laid down 
our arms, they will crush us. Let us stand firm in God. Be- 
fore all things, let us be just: peace will come after that." 
But Zwingle, transformed to a statesman, began to lose the 
influence which he had gained as a servant of God. Many 
could not understand him, and asked if what they had heard 
was really the language of a minister of the Lord. "Ah!" 
said one of his friends, who perhaps knew him best, Oswald 
Myconius. " Zwingle certainly was an intrepid man in the 
midst of danger; but he always had a horror of blood, even of 
that of his most deadly enemies. The freedom of his country, 
the virtues of our forefathers, and, above all, the gloiy of 
jChi'ist, were the sole end of all his designs.^ — I speak the truth, 
as if in the presence of God," adds he. 

While Zurich was sending deputies to Arau, the two armies 
received reinforcements. The men of Thurgovia and St. -:iall 
joined their banners to that of Zurich: the Valaisans and the 
men of St. Gothard united with the Romanist cantons. The 
4idvanced posts were in sight of each other at Thun, Lcematt, 
and Goldesbrunnen, on the delightful slopes of the Aibis. 

Never, perhaps, did Swiss cordiality shine forth brighter 
"with its ancient lustre. The soldiers called to one another in 
a friendly manner, and shook hands, styling themselves con- 
federates and brothers. " We shall not fight," said they. " A 
storm is passing over our heads, but we will pray to God, and 
he will preserve us from every harm. Scarcity afilicted the 
.army of the Five Cantons, while abundance reigned in the camp 
of Zurich.2 Some young famishing Waldstettes one day passed 
the outposts: the Zurichers made them prisoners, conducted 
them to the camp, and then sent them back laden with provi- 
sions, with still greater good-nature than was shown by Henry 
IV. at the siege of Paris. At another time, some w arriors of 
the Five Cantons, having placed a bucket filled with milk on 
the frontier-line, cried out to the% Zurichers that they had no 
-bread. The latter came down immediately, and cut their bread 
into the enemies' milk, upon which the soldiers of the two 

J Libertas patruc, virtutes avita, et imprimis gloria Christi. Osw. Myc. De vitu Zw. 
» A measure of corn was sold for a florin, and one of wine for a half-batz, about 
tUree ball-pence. Bull. Cliron., ii, 182. ^ 


parties uegan "with jokes to eat out of the same disb — some 
on this side, some on that. The Zurichers were dehghted that 
notwithstanding the prohibition of their priests, the WaJdstettes 
ate with heretics. ^\Tien one of the troop took a morsel that 
was on the side of his adversaries, the latter sportively struck 
him with their spoons, and said: " Do not cross the frontier!" 
Thus did these good Helvetians make war upon one another; 
and hence it was that the Burgomaster Sturm of Strashurg, 
one of the mediators, exclaimed: " You confederates are a 
singular people! When you are disunited, you live stUl in 
harmony with one another, and your ancient friendship never 

The most perfect order reigned in the camp of Zurich. 
Every day Zwingle, the commander Schmidt, Zink, abbot of 
Cappel, or some other minister, preached am»ng the soldiers. 
1^0 oath or dispute was heard ; ail disorderly women were 
turned out of the camp; praj'ers were offered up before and 
after every meal ; and each man obeyed his chiefs. There 
were no dice, no cards, no games calculated to excite quarrels; 
hut psalms, hymns, national songs, bodily exercise, wrestling, 
or pitching the stone, were the military recreations of the 
Zurichers.- The spirit that animated the reformer had passed 
'nto the army. 

The assembly at Arau, transported to SteinhauseJi in the 
neighbourhood of the two camps, decreed that each army 
should hear the complaints of the opposite party. The recep- 
tion of the deputies of the Five Cantons by the Zurichers was 
tolerably calm; it was not so in the other camp. 

On the 15th Jime, fifty Zurichers, surrounded by a crowd of 
peasants, proceeded on horseback to the Waldstettes. The 
sound of the trimipet, the roll of the drum, and repeated salvos 
of artillery announced their arrival. Nearly twelve thousand 
men of the smaller cantons, in good order, with uplifted heads 
and arrogant looks, were under arms. Escher of Zurich spoke 
first, and many persons from the rural districts enumerated 
their grievances after him, which the Waldstettes thought ex- 
aggerated. " When have we ever refused you the federal 
right?" asked they. "Yes, yes!" replied Funk, Swingle's 
friend; " we know how you exercise it. That pastor (Keyser) 
appealed to it, and you referred him — to the executioner!" 
*' Funk, you would have done better to have held your tongue," 
Baid one of his friends. But the words had slipped out: a 

^ Wenn ihr schon oneins sind, so sind ir eins. Ball. Chron., ii, 183. 

' Sondem sang, sprang, wurf und Stiefis die Steiae. FiissU Beyt., ir, 108. 


dreadful tumult suddenly arose; all the army of the Waldstettes 
was in agitation; the most prudent begged the Zurichers to 
retire promptly, and protected their departure. 

At length the treaty was concluded on the 26th June, 1529. 
Zwingle did not obtain all he desired. Instead of the free 
preaching of the Word of God, the treaty stipulated only Kberty 
of conscience; it declared that the common bailiwicks should 
pronounce for or against the Reform by a majority of votes. 
Without decreeing the abolition of foreign pensions, it was re- 
commended to the Romish cantons to renounce the alliance 
formed with Austria; the Five Cantons were to pay the ex- 
penses of the war, Murner to retract his insulting words, and 
an indemnity was secured to Keyser's family.^ 

An incontrovertible success had just crowned the warlike 
demonstration of Zurich. The Five Cantons felt it. Gloomy, 
irritated, silently champing the bit that had been placed in 
their mouths, their chiefs could not decide upon giving up the 
deed of their alliance with Austria. Zurich immediately re- 
called her troops, the mediators redoubled their solicitations, 
and the Bernese exclaimed: " If you do not deliver up this 
document, we will ourselves go in procession and tear it from 
your archives." At last it was brought to Cappel on the 26th 
June, two hours after midnight. All the army was drawn out 
at eleven in the forenoon, and they began to read the treaty. 
The Zurichers looked with astonishment at its breadth and 
excessive length, and the nine seals which had been affixed, 
one of which was in gold. But scarcely had a few words been 
read, when Aebli, snatching the parchment, cried out, 
"Enough, enough!" — " Read it, read iti" said the Zurichers; 
" we desire to learn their treason! " But the Bailiff of Glaris 
replied boldly: "I would rather be cut in a thousand pieces 
than permit it." Then dashing his knife into the parchment, 
he cut it in pieces in the presence of Zwingle and the soldiers,* 
and threw the fragments to the secretary, who committed them 
to the flames. " The paper was not Swiss," says BuUinger, 
with sublime simplicity. 

The banners were immediately struck. The men of Unter- 
walden retired in anger; those of Schywtz swore they would 
for ever preserve their ancient faith; while the troops of Zurich, 
returned in triumph to their homes. But the most opposite 
thoughts agitated Zwingle's mind. " I hope," said he, doing 

* Suprn, p. i77. The trcnty is piven entire in BiiUinRcr, ii, 185, and Riichat, ii, 

* TalMilliB foederis a pruetore Pajji Gliii-onensis (;luti>o concisu) et deleta>, id faod 
ipg* vidi. Zw. £pp., ii, 310. 

zwingle's HTaor. 317 

violence to his feelings, " that we bring back an honourable 
peace to our dwellings. It was not to shed blood that we 
set out.^ God has once again shown the great ones of the 
€arth that they can do nothing against us." Whenever he 
gave way to his natural disposition, a very different order of 
thoughts took possession of his mind. He was seen walking 
apart in deep dejection, and anticipating the most gloomy 
future. In vain did the people surround him with joyful 
shouts. " This peace,'' said he, " which you consider a tri- 
umph, you will soon repent of, striking your breasts." It was 
at this time that, venting his sorrow, he composed, as he was 
descending the Albis, a celebrated hymn often repeated to the 
soxmd of music in the fields of Switzerland, among the burgh- 
ers of the confederate cities, and even in the palaces of kings 
The hymns of Luther and of Zwingle play the same part in 
the German and Swiss Reformation as the Psalms in that of 

Do thou direct thy chariot, Lord, 

And guide it at thy will; 
Wiihout thy aid our strength is vain. 

And useless all our skill. 
Look, down upon ihy saints brought low, 
And prostrate laid before the foe. 

Beloved Pastor, who hast saved 

Our souls from death and sin. 
Uplift thy voice, awake thy sheep 

That slumbering lie within 
Thy fold, and curb with thy right hand 
The rage of Satan's fui-ious band. 

Send down thy pence, and banish strife. 

Let bitterness depart ; 
Revive the spirit of the past 

In every Switzt-r's heart: 
Then shall thy Church for ever sing 
The praises of her heavenly King. 

An edict, published in the name of the confederates, ordered 
the revival everywhere of the old friendship and brotherly con- 
cord; but decrees are powerless to work such miracles. 

This treaty of peace was nevertheless favourable to the Re- 
form. Undoubtedly it met with a violent opposition in some 
places. The nuns of the vale of St. Catherine in Tliurcovia, 
deserted by their priests and excited by some noblemen beyond 

• Cum non csedem facum pn.ffcti sumu*. Zw. E|-}>.. ii. ol«. 


the Rhine, who styled them in their letters, " Chivalrous women 
of the house of God," sang mass themselves, and appointed 
one of their number preacher to the convent. Certain deputies 
from the protestant cantons having had an interview with them 
the abbess and three of the nuns secretly crossed the river by 
night, carrying with them papers of the monastery and the 
ornaments of the church. But such insolated resistance as 
this was unavailing. Already in 1529 Zwingle was able to 
hold a synod in Thurgovia, which organized the church there^ 
and decreed that the property of the convents should be conse- 
crated to the instruction of pious young men in sacred learn- 
ing. Thus concord and peace seemed at last to be re-establish- 
ed in the confederation. 


Conqu«>8ts of Reform in Schaffhausen and Zurzack — Reform in Glarii! — To-day the 
Cowl, To-morrow the Reverse — Italian Bailiwicks — The Monk of Como — Egidio's 
Hope lor Italy — Call of the Monk of Locarno — Hopes of reforming Italy — Tlie 
Monks of Wettingen — Abbey of .Saint Gall — Kilian Kouffi — Saint Gall recovers its 
Liberty — The Reform in Soleure — Miracle of Saint Ours — Popery triumphs — The 
Grisons invaded by the Spaniards — Address of the Ministers to the Romish Can- 
tons — God's 'Word the Means of Unity — (Ecolanipadius for s;jiritual influence — 
Autonomy of the Church. 

Whenever a conqueror abandons himself to his triumph, in 
that very confidence he often finds destruction. Zurich and 
Zwingle were to exemplify this mournful lesson of history. 
Taking advantage of the national peace, they redoubled their 
exertions for the triumph of the Gospel. This was a legiti- 
mate zeal, but it was not always wisely directed. To attain 
the unity of Switzerland by unity of faith was the object of 
the Zurichers ; but they forgot that, by desiring to force on 
a unity, it is broken to pieces, and that freedom is the only 
medium in which contrary elements can be dissolved, and a 
salutary union established. "\A'hilc Rome aims at unity by 
anathemas, imprisonment, and the stake, christian truth de- 
mands unity through liberty. And let us not fear that liberty, 
expanding each individuality beyond measure, will produce by 
this means an infinite multiplicity. While wo urge every 
mind to attach itself to the Word of God, we give it up to a 
power capable of restoring its diverging opinions to a whole- 
some unity. 
•Zwingle at first signalized his victory by legitimate con- 



quests. He advanced with courage. " His eye and his arm 
were everywhere." "A few wretched mischief-makers," says. 
Salat, a Romanist chronicler, " penetrating into the Five 
Cantons, troubled men's souls, distributed their frippery, 
scattered everywhere little poems, tracts, and testaments,. 
and were continually repeating that the people ought not to 
believe the priests."' This was not all: while the Reform 
was destined to be confined around the lake of the Waldstettes 
to a few fruitless efforts, it made brilliant conquests among 
the cantons, — the allies and subjects of Switzerland; and all" 
the blows there inflicted on the Papacy re-echoed among the 
lofty valleys of the primitive cantons, and filled them with 
affright. Xowhere had Popery shown itself more detennined 
than in the Swiss mountains. A mixture of Romish des- 
potism and Helvetian roughness existed there. Rome was 
resolved to cpuquer aU Switzerland, and yet she beheld her 
most important positions successively wrested from her. 

On the 29th September 1529, the citizens of Schafiliausea 
removed the "great God"* from the cathedral, to the deep 
regret of a small nvmiber of devotees whom the Roman wor- 
ship still counted in this city ; then they abolished the mass, 
and stretched out their hands to Zurich and to Berne. 

At Zurzack, near the confluence of the Rhine and the Aar, 
at the moment when the priest of the place, a man devoted to 
the ancient worship, was preaching with zeal, a person named 
Tiifel (devil), raising his head, observed to him : " Sir, you 
are heaping insults on good men, and loading the pope and 
the saints of the Roman calendar with honour ; pray where do 
we find that in the Holy Scriptures?" This question, put in 
a serious tone of voice, raised a sly smile on man^ faces, and 
the congregation with their eyes fixed on the pulpit awaited 
the reply. The priest in astonishment and at his wit's end,. 
answered with a trembling voice: " Devil is thy name; thou 
actest like the Devil, and thou art the Devil! For this reason 
I will have nothing to do with thee.'' He then hastily left 
the pulpit, and ran away as if Satan himself had been be- 
hind him. Immediately the images were torn down, and the 
mass abolished. The Roman-catholics sought to console 
themselves by repeating everywhere : " At Zurzack it was the 
Devil who introduced the Reformation."^ 

The priests and warriors of the Forest Cantons beheld tha 

*■ Die sectischen haltend vil elends HUdel volTc gefundcn, 4c. Salat, Chron. 
• Le boa Dieu, probably the patron saint. W. * That der Tiiffel den ersten 



overthrow of the Romish faith in countries that lay nearer to 
them. In the canton of Claris, whence by the steep passes of 
the Klaus and the Pragel.^ the Reform might suddenly faU 
upon Uri and Schwytz, two men met face to face. At Mollis, 
Fridolin B runner who questioned himself every day by what 
means he could advance the cause of Christ,^ attacked the 
abuses of the Church with the energy of his friend Zwingle,» 
and endeavoured to spread among the people, who were pas- 
sionately fond of war, the peace and charity of the Gospel. 
At Claris, on the contrary, Valentine Tschudi studied with all 
the circumspection of his friend Erasmus to preserve a just 
medium between Rome and the Reform. And although, in 
consequence of Fridolin's preaching, the doctrines of purga- 
tory, indulgences, meritorious works, and intercession of the 
saints, were looked at by the Glaronais as mere follies and fables,* 
they still believed with Tschudi that the body and blood of 
Christ were substantially in the bread of the Lord's Supper. 

At the same time a movement in opposition to the Reform 
was taking place in that high and savage valley, where the 
Linth, roaring at the foot of vast rocks with jagged crests- 
enormous citadels which seem built in the air,— bathes the of Schwanden and Ruti with its waters. The Roman- 
catholics, alarmed at the progress of the Cospel, and wishing 
to save tliese mountains at least, had scattered with liberal 
hands the money they derived from their foreign pensions; 
and tVon. that time violent hostility divided old friends, and 
men wIm. appcai-ed to have been won over to the Cospel basely 
sou'rht for a pretext to conceal a disgraceful flight.'* "PeterS 
and" 1." w.K>te llas.h.rfer, pastor of Ruti, in despair, "are 
labouring in tiie vin.'yard, but alas! the grapes we gathered 
are not employed fur the sacrifice, and the very birds do not 
eat thetn. We Hsh, but after having toiled all night, we find 
that we have only cauglit leeches.'' Alas! we are casting 
pearls before dogs, and roses before swine!" The spirit of 

» Tlii- is tlu- .■..„.! l.v «l,i(h the nrinv of Suwaroff oRcap.-il in 1799, 'Nam 

onoti.!,.-..-! •,,-.• -Mle.. le Cinistianuin H.lj.MeMi piKt.ciem. (Zw. Epp., u, 
I'D K.,r im lusiuiii IS t.i c.MiHider -liiily in what wa.v 1 can assist (lie progress of 
Cliris'i liiiiv ' Au.l.-> fjr" intiepidK oniiiiMii e<-c-ltsi:e ubiiKUin ft omnia hu- 

maiia ,',.:«.•..,,.» ii. ..nuncai-ne verlii D.i .lai.ii.a.e. (Uii-Lj I .lare l,..l,lly condema 
•verv il.u-i- nltiie Cliun-l.. ami all liu.iian precepts, in the cnuiieiaimn of the Word 
^f ,;;,.! 4 Nu^r^s ..sse et labulas. Il.i.l., 13. » Jam nra 

coivi.-ii pali.i.Mliain .amiMt. (Il-i.l.. 2!'-') Now. convinced l.y many, they sing a 
P„l„„„l,. e I'ieii e llnnielin, pastor of Scliwaiiilen. ' Tola enim 

nocte pisea"r.s.«ant;"i'^"K'a>'. "HI"-'"!'"* '■'■I'l"'""- ^'"- Epp.. ii. IS. R.-.sdorfer evi- 
denll\ allii.le'. t.. hIi^h I'l 'iv ^avs of a kind of vine termed Afi>'^i<<iof: F. diverse tt»- 
p^,„li..,, .1 „ta uiiS. Ferunt earn nee ab alite ulla attingi Hist. Nat., lib. xi?, 

cap. XVIII, IH!C. 'ti. 


revolt against the Gospel soon descended from these valleys 
•with the noisy waters of the Linth aa far as Glaris and MoUis. 
*'The council, as if it had heen composed only of silly women, 
shifting its sails every day," said Rasdorfer;^ "one day it 
■will have the cowl, on the next it will not." * Glaris, like a 
leaf carried along on the bosom of one of its torrents, and 
which the waves and eddies drive in different directions, 
wavered, wheeled about, and was nearly swallowed up. 

But this crisis came to an end: the Gospel suddenly regained 
strength, and on Easter Monday 1530, a general assembly of 
the people " put the mass and the altars to the vote." A 
powerful party that relied upon the Five Cantons vainly op- 
posed the Reform. It was proclaimed, and its vanquished 
and disconcerted enemies were forced to content themselves, 
says BuUinger, with mysteriously concealing a few idols, which 
they reserved for better days. 

In the meanwhile, the Reform advanced in the exterior 
Bhodes of Appenzell,' and in the district of Sargans. But 
what most exasperated the cantons that remained faithful to 
the Romish doctrines, was to see it pass the Alps and appear 
in Italy, in those beautiful districts round Lake Maggiore, 
where, near the embouchere of the Maggia, within the walla 
of Locarno, in the midst of laurels, pomegranates, and cy- 
presses, flourished the noble families of Orelli, Muralto, Ma- 
goria, and Duni, and where floated since 1512 the sovereign 
standard of the cantons. "What I" said the Waldstettes, 
"is it not enough that Zurich and Zwingle infest Switzer- 
land ! They have the impudence to carry their pretended 
reform even into Italy, — even into the country of the pope!" 

Great irregularities prevailed there among the clergy: 
" Whoever wishes to be damned must become a priest," was 
a common saying.* But the Gospel succeeded in making its 
way even into that district. A monk of Como, Egedio a 
Porta, who had taken the cowl in 1511, against the wishes 
of his family,* struggled for years in the Augustine convent, 
and nowhere found peace for his soul. Motionless, environed, 
as it appeared to him, with profound night, he cried aloud: 
■" Lord, what wilt thou that I should do?" Erelong the monk 

* Venit vela indies senatus noster mulierculamm more. Hist. Nat, lib. xiv, cap. 
iriii, sec 22. ' Vult jam cucuUam, post non Tult. Ibid. That is, at one time it 

Tecogiii«e«, at another reject*, the Abbot of Saint Gali. » See Benedict Noll'g 

Letter to Zwingle, E|.p., ii, 635. * St Chortes Barroineo, archbishop of Milan, 

mppressed 9oinewh:it liittr several convents iu this district: " Monialium non dicam 
-collegia, sed aniantiiiin contubeniia," Raid he. Die evangel Gem. in Locarno von F. 

ejer, i, 109. ^ SubiliLxi memet a parentum patruciiiio, cucullamqae nigmm 

animo suarepL Ko. Epp., i, 443. 


of Como thought he heard these words in his heart : "Go to 
Ulrich Zwingle and he will tell thee." He rose trembling 
with emotion. " It is you," wrote he to Zwingle immediately, 
" hut no! it is not you, it is God who, through you, will de- 
liver me from the nets of the hunters." " Translate the New 
Testament into Italian," replied Zwingle ; " I will undertake- 
to get it printed at Zurich." This is what the Reform did for 
Italy more than three centuries ago. 

Egidio therefore remained. He commenced translating tho 
Gospel; hut at one time he had to beg for the convent, at 
another to repeat his " hours," and then to accompany one o£ 
the fathers on his journeys.^ Everything that surrounded hun 
increased his distress. He saw his country reduced to the 
greatest misery by desolating Avars, — men formerly rich, hold- 
ing out their hands for alms, — crowds of women driven by 
want to the most shameful degradation. He imagined that a. 
great pohtical deliverance could alone bring about the religious 
independence of his fellow-countrymen. 

On a sudden he thought that this happy hour was arrived.. 
He perceived a band of Lutheran lansquenets descending the 
Alps. Their serried phalanxes, their threatening looks, were- 
ilirected towards the banks of the Tiber. At their head 
marched Freundsberg, wearing a chain of gold around his neck,, 
and saying: " If I reach Rome I will make use of it to hang 
the pope." "God wills to save us," wrote Egidio to Zwingle: 
"write to the constable ;2 entreat him to deliver the people over 
whom he rules, — to take from the shaven crowns, whose God 
is their belly, the wealth which renders them so proud, — and, 
to distribute it among the people who are dying of hunger.. 
Then let each one preach without fear the pure Word of the 
Lord. — The strength of Antichrist is near at its fall!" 

Thus, about the end of 1526, Egidio already dreamt of the. 
Reformation of Italy. From that time his letters cease: the 
monk disappeared. There can be no doubt that the arm of 
Rome was able to reach him, and that like so many others, he 
was plunged into the gloomy dungeon of some convent. 

In the spring of 1530, a new epoch commenced for the. 
Italian bailiwicks. Zurich appointed Jacques Werdmuller 
bailiff of Locarno ; he was a grave man, respected by all, and 
who even in 1524 had kissed the feet of the pope ; he had since 

1 Confratrcs nonnulll viri certe ct pietatc et eruditione nequaquam conteraptlbiles. 
(Zw. Epp., i, 633.) Some brothers whose piety and erudition were certainly by no. 
meant contemptible. ' Bourbon, who commanded in Italy on behalf of th«. 

wnpcror. Supra, book ziii, p. 16. 


then been won over to the Gospel, and had sat down at the 
feet of the Saviour.^ " Go," said Zurich, " and bear yourself 
like a Christian, and in all that concerns the Word of God 
conform to the ordinances.'' Werdmiiller met with nothing 
but darkness in every quarter. Yet, in the midst of this 
gloom, a feeble glimmering seemed to issue from a convent 
situated on the delightful shores of Lake Maggiore. Among 
the Carmelites at Locarno was a monk named Fontana, skilled 
in the Holv Scriptures, and animated with the same spirit 
that had enlightened the monk of Como. The doctrine of 
salvation, " without money and without price," which God 
proclaims in the Gospel, filled him with love and joy. " Aa 
long as I live," said he, I will preach upon the Epistles of 
St. Paul ;" • for it was particularly in these epistles that he 
had foimd the truth. Two monks, of whose names we are 
ignorant, shared his sentiments. Fontana wrote a letter " to 
all the Church of Christ in Gemrany," which wa.s forwarded 
to Zwingle. We may imagine we hear that man of Mace- 
donia, who appeared in a vision to Paul in the night, calling 
him to Europe, and saying, " Come over and help us.''- — ■ 
" 0, trusty and well-beloved of Christ Jesus,'' cried the monk 
of Locarno to Germany, " remember Lazarus, the beggar, in 
the Gospel, — remember that humble Canaanitish woman, 
longing for the crumbs that fell from the Lord's table! 
hungry as Darid, I have recourse to the shew-bread placed 
npon the altar. A poor traveller devoured by thirst, I rush 
to the springs of hving water.* Plunged in darkness, bathed 
in tears, we cry to you who know the mysteries of God to 
send us by the hands of the munificent J. WerdmiiUer all 
the writings of the divine Zwingle, of the famous Luther, of 
the skilful Melancthon, of the mUd OEcolampadius, of the 
ingenious Pomeranus, of the learned Lambert, of the elegant 
Brentz, of the penetrating Bucer, of the studious Leo, of the 
vigilant Hiitten, and of the other illustrious doctors, if there 
are any more. Excellent princes, pivots of the Chiu-ch, our 
holy mother, make haste to deliver from the slaverj' of Baby- 
lon a city of Lombardy that has not yet known the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. We are but three who have combined together 
to fight on behalf of the truth ; * but it was beneath the blows 

^ Lake, x, 39. > Se dam Tirat satis de EpistoUs Pauli concionataraiu esse. 

Zw. Epp., U, *97. » Acts, XYi, 9. * DebilU et infirmas apud pisci- 

nam, saiutem mei et patrise toco mentis a£fecta citissime expectOL (Hottiuger, hbcoL 
16, pars i. p. C19.) Weak and i:sfinTi, I eagerlv, wiiU xaj whole soul, wait at the tat> 
pool for the salTation of mjs«lf and mj country. * Contederati conjui;ctique in 

czpeditioneni veritatis tre« tantum numero sumus. Hottiuger nbcuI 16, pars 2, f^ 69ll 


of a small body of men, chosen by God, and not by the thou- 
sands of Gideon, that Midian fell. Who knows_ if, from a 
small spark, God may not cause a great conflgration?" 

Thus three men on the banks of the Maggia hoped at that 
time to reform Italy. They uttered a call to which, for three 
centuries the evangehcal world has not replied. Zurich, how- 
ever, in these days of its strength and of its faith, displayed a 
holy boldness, and dared extend her heretical arms beyond the 
Alps. Hence, Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, and all the Roman- 
ists of Switzerland gave vent to loud and terrible threats, swear- 
ing to arrest even in Zurich itself the course of these presump- 
tuous invasions. 

But the Zurichers did not confine themselves to this : they 
gave the confederates more serious cause of fear by waging in- 
cessant war against the convents,— these centres of ultra-mon- 
tane fanaticism. The extensive monastery of Wittengen, around 
which roll the waters of the limmat, and which, by its proxi- 
mity to Zurich, was exposed more than any other to the breath 
of reform, was in violent commotion. On the 23d August, 
1529, a great change took place ; the monks ceased to sing 
Tnass; they cut off each other's beards, not without shedding a 
few tears ; they laid down their frocks and their hoods, and 
clothed themselves in becoming secular dresses.^ Then, in 
astonishment at this metamorphosis, they listened devoutly to 
the sermon which Sebastian Benli of Zurich came and preached 
to them, and erelong employed themselves in propagating the 
Gospel, and in singing psalms in German. Thus Wittengen 
fell into the current of that river which seemed to be everywhere 
reviving the confederation. The cloister, ceasing to be a house 
for gaming, gluttony, and drunkenness, was changed into a 
school. Two monks alone in all the monastery remained faith- 
ful to the cowl. ir 1 * 
The commander of Mulinen, without troubling himself about 
the threat of the Romish cantons, earnestly requested the com- 
mandcry of St. John at Ilitzkirch towards the Reformation. 
The question was put to the vote, and the majority declared 
in favour of the Word of God. "Ah!" said the commander, 
" I have been long pushing behind the chariot. "^ On the 4th 
September the commandery was reformed. It was the same 
with that of Wadcnswyl, with the convent of Pfeffcrs, and others 
besides. Even at Mury the majority declared for the Gospel ; 

I Bckldtend slch In erbiire ffcmeinc LmidKkleydor. Bull. Chron, U, 2L 
T*p., ii, 33i.) I lubonred Iomk in tor«»rd cl.unot belore it had Droc<HKl- 
ed BO far. 


but the minority prevailed through the support of the Five 
Cautons.l A new triumph, and one of greater value, was des- 
tined to indemnify the reform, and to raise the indignation of 
the Waldstettes to the highest pitch. 

The Ahbot of St. Gall, by his wealth, by tlie number of his 
subjects, and the influence which he exercised in Switzerland, 
was one of the most formidable adversaries of the Gospel. In 
1529, therefore, at the moment when the army of Zurich took 
the field against the Five Cantons, the Abbot Francis of Geis- 
berg, in alarm and at the brink of death, caused himself to be 
hastily removed into the strong castle of Rohrschach, not think- 
ing himself secure except within its walls. Four days after 
this, the illustrious Vadian, burgomaster of St. Gall, entered 
the convent, and announced the intention of the people to re- 
sume the use of their cathedral-church, and to remove the 
images. The monks were astonished at such audacit}-, and 
having in vain protested and cried for help, put their most pre- 
cious eifects in a place of safety, and fled to Einsidlen. 

Among these was Kilian Kouffi, head-steward of the abbey, 
a cunning and active monk, and, like Zwingle, a native of the 
Tockenburg. Knowing how important it was to find a sue 
cesser to the abbot, before the news of his death was bruited 
abroad, he came to an imderstanding with those who waited on 
the prelate ; and the latter dying on Tuesday in Holy Week, 
the meals were carried as usual into his chamber, and with 
downcast eyes and low voice the attendants answered every in- 
quiry about his heaHh. "While this farce was going on round 
a dead body, the monks who had assembled at Einsidlen re- 
paired in all haste to Rapperschwyl, in the territory of St. Gall, 
and there elected Kilian, who had so skilfully managed the affair. 
The new abbot went immediately to Rohrschach, and on Good 
Friday he there proclaimed his o^vn election and the death of his 
predecessor. Zurich and Glaris declared they would not recog- 
nise him, unless he could prove by the Holy Scriptures that a 
monkish life was in conformity with the Gospel. "We are 
ready to protect the house of God," said they; "and for this 
reason we require that it be consecrated anew to the Lord. 
But we do not forget that it is our duty also to protect the 
people. The free Church of Christ should raise its head in the 
bosom of a free people." At the same time the ministers of 
St. Gall published forty-two theses, in which they asserted 
that convents were not "houses of the Lord but houses of 
the devil."* The abbot supported by Lucerne and Schwytx, 

I l)a« ds3 sunder miist daa meer sin. Bull., ii, 241. > Thesis S. Ibid., 115. 


which with Zurich and Glaris exercised sovereign power in St. 
Gall, replied that he could not dispute about rights which he 
held from kings and emperors. The two natives of the Tock- 
enhurg, Zwingle and Kilian, were thus struggling around St. 
Gall, — the one claiming the people for the abbey, and the other 
the abbey for the people. The army of Zurich having ap- 
proached Wyl, Kilian seized upon the treasures and muniments 
of the convent and fled precipitantly beyond the Rhine. As 
soon as peace was concluded, the crafty monk put on a sec- 
ular dress, and crept mysteriously as far as Einsidlen, whence 
on a sudden he made all Switzerland re-echo with his cries. 
Zurich in conjunction with Glaris repHed by pubhshing a 
constitution, according to which a governor, "confirmed in 
the evangelical faith," should preside over the district, with a 
council of twelve members, while the election of Pastors was 
left to the parishes.! Not long afterwards, the abbot, expelled 
and a fugitive, while crossing a river near Bregentz, fell from 
his horse, got entangled in his frock, and was drowned. Of 
the two combatants from the Tockenburg, it was Zwingle who 
gained the victory. 

The convent was put up to sale, and was purchased by the 
town of St. Gall, "with the exception," says Bullinger, "of 
a detached building, called Hell, where the monks were left 
who had not embraced the Reform. "^ The time having ar- 
lived when the governor sent by Zurich was to give place to 
one from Lucerne, the people of St. Gall called upon the lat- 
ter to swear to their constitution. "A governor has never 
been^known," replied he, "to make an oath to peasants; it is 
the peasants who should make the oath to the governor!" 
Upon this he retired : The Zurich governor remained, and the 
indignation of the Five Cantons against Zurich, which so dar- 
ingly assisted the people of St. Gall in recovering their ancient 
liberties, rose to the highest paroxysm of anger. 

A few victories, however, consoled in some degree the par- 
tisans of Rome. Soleure was for a long time one of the most 
contested battle-fields. The citizens and the learned were in 
favour of Reform: the patricians and canons for Popery. 
Philip Grotz of Zug was preaching the Gospel there, and the 
council desiring to compel him to say mass, one hundred of the 
reformed appeared in the hall of assembly on the 13th Septem- 
ber 1529, and with energy called for liberty of conscience. As 

> OiePfarer soil den Gmcindcn irs gfalli ns zu erkiessen Zugestelt gyn. J!ull., il, 268 
2 AJein was ciii gebuw die Hell geuampt, das Hess man dcu Munclien Wyten. 
Ibid., 271. 


■Zurich and Berne supported tliis demand, their prayer was 

Upon this the most fanatical of the Koman-catholics, ex- 
asperated at the concession, closed the gates of the citj, 
pointed the guns, and made a show of expelling the friends of 
"the Reform. The council prepare to punish these agitators, 
•when the reformed, willing to set an example of christian 
moderation, declared that thev would forgive them.^ The 
Oreat Council then published throughout the Canton that the 
dominion of conscience belonging to God alone, and faith being 
the free gift of His grace, each one might follow the religion 
which he thought best. Thirty-four parishes declared for the 
Reformation, and only two for the mass. Almost aU the rural 
districts were in favour of the Gospel ; but the majority in the 
<;ity sided with the pope.* Haller, whom the reformed of 
Soleure had sent for, arrived, and it was a day of triumph for 
them. It was in the middle of winter : "To-day," ironically 
observed one of the evangelical Christians, "the patron saint 
{St. Ours) will sweat!" And in truth — oh! wonderful! — 
■drops of moisture fell from the holy image ! It was simply a 
little holy water that had frozen and then thawed. But the 
Romanists would listen to no raUlery on so illustrious a pro- 
^gy, which may remind us of the blood of St. Januarius at 
Kaples. All the city resounded with piteous cries, — the bells 
"were tolled, — a general procession moved through the streets, 
■ — and high mass was sung in honour of the heavenly Prince 
who had shown in so marvellous a manner the pangs he felt 
for his dearly beloved. "It is the fat minister of Berne (Hal- 
ler) who is the cause of the saint's alarm,** gaid the devout old 
women. One of them declared that she would thrust a knife 
into his body ; and certain Roman-catholics threatened to go to 
the Cordeliers' church and murder the pastors who preached 
there. Upon this the reformed rushed to that church and de- 
manded a public discussion : two hundred of their adversaries 
posted themselves at the same time in the church of St. Ours 
and refused all inquiry. Neither of the two parties was will- 
ing to be the first to abandon the camp in which it was entrench- 
•ed. The senate, wishing to clear the two churches thus in a 
manner transformed into citadels, annoimced that at Martin- 
mas, I. e. nine months later, a public disputation should take 

» Rochat, ii, 139. a Major pars agri abolita snperstitione a parte nostr* 

ttat. Major et potior pars nrbis a papistis. (Zw. Epp., ii, 489.) A majority of tb« 
country, hariig abolished sui)erstition, staad on oar side. The gT««ter and bettv 
part of the town are with the papists. 


place. But as the reformed found the delay too long, both 
parties remained for a whole week more under arms. Com- 
merce was interrupted, — the public offices were closed, — mes- 
sengers ran to and fro, — arrangements were proposed; but the 
people were so stiff-necked,^ that no one would give way. The 
city was in a state of siege. At last all were agreed about 
the discussion, and the ministers committed four theses to writ- 
ing, which the canons immediately attempted to refute. 

Nevertheless they judged it a still better plan to elude them. 
Nothing alarmed the Romanists so much as a disputation. 
•'What need have we of any ?" said they. "Do not the writ- 
ings of the two parties declare their sentiments?" The con- 
ference was therefore put off until the following year. Many 
of the reformed, indignant at these delays, imprudently quit- 
ted the city; and the councils, charmed at this result, which 
they were far from expecting, hastily declared that the people 
should be free in the canton, but that in the city no one should 
attack the mass. From that time the reformed were compell- 
ed every Sunday to leave Soleure and repair to the village of 
Zuchswyl to hear the Word of God. Thus popery, defeated in 
SO many places, triumphed in Soleure. 

Zurich and the other reformed cantons attentively watched 
these successes of their adversaries, and lent a fearful ear to 
the threats of the Roman-catholics, who were continually an- 
nouncing the intervention of the emperor ; when on a sudden- 
a report was heard that nine hundred Spaniards had entered 
the Grisons; that they were led by the Chatelain of Musso, re- 
cently invested with the title of marquis by Charles the Fifth ; 
that the chatelain's brother-in-law, Didier d'Embs, was also 
marching against the Swiss at the head of three thousand im- 
perial lansquenets; and that the emperor himself was ready to- 
support them with all his forces. The Grisons uttered a cry 
of alarm. The Waldstettes remained motionless ; but all the 
reformed cantons assembled their troops, and eleven thousand 
men began their march. ^ The emperor and the Duke of Mil- 
an having soon after declared that they would not support the 
chatelain, this adventurer beheld his castle razed to th& 
ground, and was compelled to retire to the banks of the Sesia^ 
giving guarantees of future tranquillity; while the Swiss sol- 
diers returned to their homes, fired with indignation against 
the Five Cantons, who by their inactivity had infringed the 
federal alliance." ^ " Our prompt and energetic resistance,'* 

1 Tarn dursB cenicU populus est Zw. Epp., ii, <89. » Bull. Chron., ii, 847, 

* Ward ein grosser Unwill wieder sie. Ibid., 361« 


sai'l tbey, "has undoubtedly baffled their perfidious designs; 
but the reaction is only adjourned. Although the parchment 
of the Austrian alliance has been torn in pieces, the alliance 
itself still exists. The truth has freed us, but soon the impe- 
rial lansquenets will come and try to place us again under the 
yoke of slavery." 

Thus in consequence of so many violent shocks, the two 
parties that divided Switzerland had attained the highest de- 
gree of irritation. The gulf that separated them widened daily. 
The clouds — the forerunners of the tempest — drove swiftly along 
the mountains, and gathered threateningly above the valleys. 
Under these circumstances Zwingle and his friends thought it 
their duty to raise their voices, and if possible to avert the- 
storm. In hke manner Nicholas de Flue had in former days- 
thrown himself between the hostile parties. 

On the 5th September 1530, the principal ministers of Zurich, 
Berne, Basle, and Strasburg, — (Ecolampadius, Capito, Megan- 
dcr, Leo Juda, and Myconius, — were assembled at Zurich in 
Zwingle's house. Desirous of taking a solemn step with the 
Five Cantons, they drew up an address that was presented te 
the Confederates at the meeting of the diet at Baden. How- 
ever unfavourable the deputies were, as a body, to these here- 
tical ministers, they nevertheless hstened to this epistle but not 
without signs of impatience and weariness.* "You are aware, 
gracious lords, that concord increases the power of states, and 
that discord overthrows them.^ You are yourselves a proof of 
the first of these truths. Setting out from a small beginning, 
you have, by a good understanding one with another, arrived 
at a great end. May God condescend to prevent you also from 
giving a striking proof of the second! ^Vhence comes disunion, 
if not from selfishness? and how can we destroy this fatal pas- 
sion, except by receiving from God the love of the common weal. 
For this reason we conjure you to allow the Word of God to 
be freely preached among you, as did your pious ancestors. 
When has there ever existed a government, even among the 
heathens, which saw not that the hand of God alone upholds a 
nation? Do not two drops of quicksilver imite as soon as you 
remove that which separates them? Away then with that 
which separates you from our cities, that is, the absence of 
the "Word of God ; and immediately the Almighty will unite 
us, as our fathers were xmited. Then placed in your moun- 
tains as in the centre of Christendom, you will be an example 

^ Lecta est epistola nostra in comitiis Badensibus. (EcoL to Bucer., 28th December,., 
• 1630. ' Wie mit einbeUigkeit kleine Ihug ifToss werdend. Zw. 0pp., it, <8, 

330 ArrroxoMY of the cnuRCH. 

to it, its protection and its refuge ; and after having passed 
through this vale of tears, being the terror of the wicked and 
the consolation of the faithful, you will at last be estabhshed 
in eternal happiness." 

Thus frankly did these men of God address their brothers, 
the Waldstettes. But their voice was not attended to. "The 
ministers' sermon is rather long,"^ said some of the deputies 
yawning and stretching their arms, while others pretended to 
find in it a new cause of complaint against the cities. 

This proceeding of the ministers was useless: the Wald- 
stettes rejected the Word of God, which they had been entreat- 
ed to admit; they rejected the hands that were extended to- 
wards tliem in the name of Jesus Christ. They called for the 
pope and not for the Gospel. All hope of reconciliation ap- 
peared lost. 

Some persons, however, had at that time a glimpse of what 
might have saved Switzerland and the Reformation, — the 
. autonomy (self-government) of the Church, and its independence 
of political interests. Had they been wise enough to dechne 
the secular power to secure the triumph of the Gospel, it is 
probable that harmony might have been gradually established 
in the Helvetic cantons, and that the Gospel would have con- 
-quered by its Divine strength. The power of the Word of 
God presented chances of success that were not afforded by 
pikes and muskets. The energy of faith, the influence of 
charity, would have proved a securer protection to Christians 
against the burning piles of the Waldstettes than diplomatists 
-and men-at-arms. None of the reformers understood this so 
clearly as (Ecolampadius. His handsome countenance, the 
-serenity of his features, the mild expression of his eyes, his 
long and venerable beard, the spirituality of his expression, a 
•certain dignity that inspired confidence and respect, gave him 
rather the air of an apostle than a reformer. It was the power 
of the inner word that he particularly extolled; perhaps he even 
went too far in spiritualism. But, however that may be, if 
any man could have saved Reform from the misfortunes that 
were about to befall it — that man was he. In separating from 
• the Papacy, he desired not to set up the magistracy in its 
stead. " The magistrate who should take away from the 
churches the authority that belongs to them," wrote he to 
Zwingle, " would be more intolerable tlian Antichrist himself 

1 T.ibellum sdpplicem nd quinque pnp-oR breviorem vcUent. (Zvv. Epp., ii, 611.) 
They would liavos petition of five paRCB to be shorter. FasUUiunt.tam sancta. (CEcoL) 
So little do they Jrehsh Barred thing*. 


(i. «. the pope)."^ — " The hand of the magistrate strikes •with 
the sword, hut the hand of Christ heals. Christ has not said, 
— If thy hrother will not hear thee, tell it to the magistrate, 
but — tell it to the Church. The functions of the State are dis- 
tinct from those of the Church. The State is free to do many 
things which the puritv of the Gospel condemns." * CEcolam- 
padius saw how important it was that his convictions should 
prevail among the reformed. This man, so mild and so spiri- 
tual, feared not to stand forth hodily in defence of doctrines 
then so novel. He expounded them before a synodal assembly, 
and next developed them before the senate of Basle.' It is a 
€trange circumstance that these ideas, for a moment at least, 
were acceptable to Zwingle; * but they displeased an assembly 
of the brethren to whom he communicated them; the politic 
Bucer above all feared that this independence of the Chtirch 
would in some measure check the exercise of the civil power.' 
The exertions of CEcolampadius to constitute the Church were 
not, however, entirely unsuccessful. In February, 1581, a diet 
of four reformed cantons (Basle, Zurich, Beme, and St. Gall), 
was held at Basle, in which it was agreed, that whenever any 
difficulty should arise with regard to doctrine or worship, an 
Assembly of divines and laymen should be convoked, which 
should examine what the Word of God said on the matter.' 
This resolution, by giving greater unity to the renovated 
Church, gave it also fresh strength. 


Zwingle and the Christian State — Zningle's double Part — Zwingle and Lather in 
Relation to Politics— FbUip of Hesse and the Free Cities— Projected Union be- 
tween Zwingle and Luiher — Zwiiigle's political Action — Project of Alliance 
against the Emperor — Zwingle adTocates active Resistance— He destines the Im- 
perial Crown for Philip^Faults of the Reformation — ^Embassy to Venice — Giddi. 
ness of the Reformation — Projected Alliance with France— Zwingle's plan of Al- 
liance — Approaching liiun— Slanders in the Fivs Cantons — Violence — Mysterious 
Paper — Berne and Itasle vote for Peace— General Diet at Baden — Evangelical 
Biet at Zurich — Political Refonnaiion of Switzerland — Activity of Zurich. 

^ Intolerabilior enim Antichristo ipso magistratos, qui Ecclesiis aoctoritatem saam 
«dimit. (Zw. Epp., ii, 510.) The magistrate who deprives the churches of their au- 
thurity i* more intolerable than Antichrist himself. ' Ipsorum functio alia 

est et ecclesiastica, moltaque ferre et facere potest qua ptiritas evangelica non ag- 
ooicit. (Ibid.) Their fimction and the ecclesiastical are different. They can bear 
acd do many things which Gospel purity admits not. ' Orationis mese qnam, fra. 

trum nomine, coram senatu babul. Ibid. * Ut tnihi magis ac magis arridet. 

Tbid., 518. * Ut non impediat alicubi magistratam Christianam. Baosr. 

to Zn., p. 836. • .*. i. Hotticger, iii, 55i. 


But it -was too late to tread in tJiia path wliick would have pre- 
vented so many disasters. The Reformation had already en- 
tered Avith all her sails set upon the stormy ocean of politics, 
and terrible misfortunes were gathering over her. The im- 
pulse communicated to the Reform came from another than 
(Ecolampadius. Zwingle's proud and piercing eyes — his harsh 
features, — his hold step, — all proclaimed in him a resolute mind 
and the man of action. Nurtm-ed in the exploits of the heroes 
of antiquity, he threw himself, to save Reform, in the footsteps 
of Demosthenes and Cato, rather than in those of St. John 
and St. Paul. His prompt and penetrating looks were turned 
to the right and to the left, — to the cabinets of kings and the 
councils of the people, whilst they should have been directed 
solely to God. We have already seen, that as early as 1527, 
Zwingle, observing how all the powers were rising against the 
Reformation, had conceived the plan of a co-burghcri/ or 
Christian State,i which should unite all the friends of the Word 
of God in one holy and powerful league. This Avas so much 
the easier as Zwingle's reformation had won over S trash urg, 
Augsburg, Ulm, Reutlingen, Lindau, Memmingen, and other 
towns of Upper Germany. Constance in December 1527, 
Berne in June 1528, St. Gall in November of the same year, 
Bienne in January 1529, Mulhausen in February, Basle in 
March, Schaffhausen in September, and Strasburg in Decem- 
ber, entered into this alliance. This pohtical phasis of 
Zwingle's character is in the eyes of some persons his high- 
est claim to glory; we do not hesitate to acknowledge it as his 
greatest fault. The reformer, deserting the paths of the apos- 
tles, allowed himself to be led astray by the perverse example 
of Popery. The primitive Cliurch never opposed their perse- 
cutors but with the sentiments derived from the Gospel of 
peace. Faith was the only sword by which it vanquished the 
mighty ones of the earth. Zv/ingle felt clearly that by enter- 
ing into the ways of worldly politicians, he was leaving those 
of a minister of Christ; he therefore sought to justify himself. 
" No doubt, it is not by human strength," said he, " it is by 
the strength of God alone that tlie Word of the Lord should 
be upheld. But God often makes use of men as instruments 
to succour men. Let us therefore unite, and from the sources 
of the Rliine to Strasburg let us form but one people and one 

Zwingle played two parts at once — lie Avas a reformer and 

» Civita« Christinnn. a Dnsa von oben hiiiab liie discs Rbj-ns, bis gen Strat* 

V>urg eiu Volk und Bundnigs wiirde. Z w. 0pp., ii, 28. 

zwikgle's doitble pabt. 333 

a magistrate. But tliese are two characters that ought not 
more to be united than those of a minister and of a soldier. 
"We will not altogether blame the soldiers and the magistrates: 
in forming leagues and drawing the sword, even for the sake 
of religion, they act according to their point of view, although 
it is not the same as ours; but we must decidedly blame the 
christian minister who becomes a diplomatist or a general. 

In October, 1529, as we have already observed, Zwingle re- 
paired to Marburg, whither he had been invited by Philip of 
Hesse; and while neither of them had been able to come to an 
understanding with Luther, the landgrave and the Swiss re- 
former, animated by the same bold and enterprising spirit, soon 
agreed together. 

The two reformers differed r^ot less in their political than in 
their religious system. Luther, brought up in the cloister and 
in monastic submission, was imbued in youth with the writ- 
ings of the fathers of the Church;' Zwingle, on the other hand, 
reared in the midst of Swiss liberty, had, during those early 
years which decide the course of all the rest, imbibed the his- 
tory of the ancient republics. Thus, while Luther was in fa- 
vour of a passive obedience, Zwingle advocated resistance 
against tyrants. 

These two men were the faithful representatives of their res- 
pective nations. In the north of Germany, the princes and 
nobility were the essential part of the nation, and the people — 
strangers to all political liberty — had only to obey. Thus, at 
the epoch of the Reformation they were content to follow the 
voice of their doctors and chiefs. In Switzerland, in the south 
of Germany, and on the Rhine, on the contrary, many cities, 
after long and violent struggles, had won civil liberty; and 
hence we find in almost every place the people taking a de- 
cided part in the Reform of the Church. There was good in 
this; but evil was close at hand. The reformers, themselves 
men of the people, who dared not act upon princes, might be 
tempted to hurry away the people. It was easier for the Re- 
formation to unite with republics than with kings. This fa- 
cility nearly proved its ruin. The Gospel was thus to learn 
that its alliance is in heaven. 

There was, however, one prince with whom the reformed 
party of the free states desired to be in union: this was Philip 
of Ilesse. It was he who in great measure prompted Zwingle's 
wa:-like projects. Zwingle desired to make him some return, 
and to introduce his new friend into the evangelical league. 
But Berne, watchful to avert anything that might irritate the 



emperor and its ancient confederates, rejected this proposaU 
and thus excited a lively discontent in the " Christian State." 
— "What!" cried thej, "do the Bernese refuse an alliance 
that would he honourahle for us, acceptahle to Jesus Christ, 
and terrible to our adversaries?" i " The Bear," said the high- 
spirited Zwingle, "is jealous of the Lion (Zurich); but there 
will be an end to all these artifices, and victory will remain 
with the bold." It would appear, indeed, according to a letter 
in cipher, that the Bernese at last sided with Zwingle, requiruig 
only that this alliance with a prince of the empire should not 
be made public* 

Still fficolampadius had not given way, and his meekness 
contended, although modestly, with the boldness of his impe- 
tuous friend. He was convinced that faith was destined to 
triumph only by the cordial union of all believers. A valuable 
relief occurred to animate his exertions. The deputies of the 
christian co-burghery having assembled at Basis in 1530, the 
envoys from Strasburg endeavoured to reconcile Luther and 
Zvvingle. fficolampadius wrote to Zwingle on the subject, 
begging him to hasten to Basle,^ and not show himself too un- 
yielding. " To say that the body and blood of Christ are really 
in the Lord's Supper, may appear to many too hard an expres- 
sion," said he, " but is it not softened, when it is added — 
spiritually and not bodily?" * 

Zwingle was immovable. " It is to flatter Luther that yoii. 
hold such language, and not to defend the truth.^ Edere est 
credere. ' ' « Nevertheless there were men present at the meeting 
who were resolved upon energetic measures. Brotherly love- 
was on the eve of triumphing : peace Avas to be obtained by 
union. The Elector of Saxony himself proposed a concord of 
all evangelical Christians, to which the Swiss cities were in- 
vited by the landgrave to accede. A report spread that Luther 
and Zwingle were about to make the same confession of faith. 
Zwingle, calling to mind the early professions of the Saxon, 
reformer, said one day at table before many witnesses, that 
Luther would not think so erroneously about the Eucharist, if 

' Ipsig et nobis honcstius, ob religionis et caritntis causam, Cliristo gratius, ob con— 
jnnctag vires utilius, liostibusque terribilius. (Zw. Epp., ii, 481.) More honourable 
to them and us because of religion and charity, more agreeable to Christ, more useful 
because of our combined strength and more terrible to our enemies. 

' Tantum rccusavcrunt aperte agerc. Ibid, 487. This cipher 3 appears to indicate 
the Bernese. » Si potes, mox advola. Ibid., 647. « Christl 

corpus et sanguinem adesse vero in coeua fortasse cuipiam durius sonat, sedmitigatur- 
dum adjungitur anitno non C(jrpore. Ibid. * Hxu omnia fieri pro Luthero 

neque pro Tcritate propugnandi causa. Ibid., 550. « To eat U to believe. . 



he were not misled by Melancthon.* The union of the whole 
of the Reformation seemed about to be concluded : it would 
have vanquished by its own weapons. But Luther soon proved 
that Zwingb was mistaken in his expectations. He required. 
a written engagement by which Zwingle and CEcolampadiua 
should adhere to his sentiments, and the negotiations were 
broken off in consequence. Concord having failed, there re- 
mained nothing but war. OEcolampadius must be silent, and. 
Zwingle must act. 

And in truth from that hour Zwingle advanced more and 
more along tliat fatal path into which he was misled by his cha- 
racter, his patriotism, and his early habits. Stunned b\' so 
many violent shocks, attacked by his enemies and by his bre- 
thren, he staggered, and his head grew dizzy. From tliiis- 
period the refonner almost entirely disappears, and we see in hia 
place the politician, the great citizen, who beholding a formid- 
able coalitv^1 preparing its chains-for ever}' nation, stands up. 
energetically against it. The emperor had just formed a closa 
aUiance with the pope. If his deadly schemes were not op- 
posed it wovdd be all over, in Zwingle's opinion, with Reforma- 
tion, with religious and political liberty, and even with the con- 
federation itself. "The emperor," said he, "is stirring up 
friend against friend, enemy against enemy: and then he en- 
deavours to raise out of this confusion the glory of the Papacy, 
and, above all, his own power. He excites the Chatelain of 
Musso against the Grisons — Duke George of Saxony against 
Duke John — the Bishop of Constance against the city — the 
Duke of Savoy against Berne — the Five Cantons against 
Zurich — and the bishops of the Rhine against the landgrave ; 
then, when the confusion shall have become general, he wiU 
fall upon Germany, will offer himseK as a mediator, and en- 
snare princes and cities by fine speeches, until he has them all 
imder his feet. Alas! what discord, what disasters, under the 
pretence of re-establishing the empire and restoring religion! " ' 
Zwingle went farther. The reformer of a small town in 
Switzerland, rising to the most astonishing political concep- 
tions, called for a European alliance against such fatal designs. 
The son of a peasant of the Tockenburg held up his head- 
against the heir of so many crowns. " That man must either 

I Memini dudum Tiguri te dicentem cum conTivio me exciperes, Lutherum non 
adeo perperam de Eucharistia seatire, nisi quod Melancthon ex alio eum cogeret. 
(Zw. Epp., ii, 562.) I recollect of jou telling me long ago, when I was your guest, tliat 
Luther would not have such erroneous views of the Eucharist were he not com;>eiie<l 
thereto bj Melancthon. 3 Q^, dissidi.-i, quas turbas, quae mala, qua» cladet! 

Ibid, 429. 


be a traitor or a coward," wrote he to a senator of Constance, 
*'w1tio is content to stretch and yawn, when he ought to bo 
collecting men and arms on every side, to convince the emperor 
that in vain he strives to re-establish the Romish faith, to 
■enslave the free cities, and to subdue the Helvetians.^ He 
showed U3 only six months ago how he would proceed. To- 
-day he will take one city in hand, to morrow another; and so, 
step by step, until they are all reduced. Then their arms 
will be taken away, their treasures, their machines of war, and 
■all their power. . . .Arouse Lindau and all your neighbours; if 
they do not awake, public liberty will perish under the pretext 
of religion. We must place no confidence in the friendship of 
tj^rants. Demosthenes teaches us that there is nothing so 
tateful in their eyes as •^'i^ "^^^^ -xoXiuii £X£t/9-£j'av.* The emperor with 
one hand offers us bread, but in the other he conceals a stone."' 
And a few months later Zwingle wrote to his friends in Con- 
stance; " Be bold; fear not the schemes of Charles. The 
■razor will cut him who is sharpening it."* 

Away, then, with delay! Should they wait until Charles 
the Fifth claimed the ancient castle of Hapsburg? The papacy 
-and the empire, it was said at Zurich, are so confounded to. 
^ether,* that one cannot exist or perish without the other. 
Whoever rejects Popery should reject the empire, and whoever 
rejects the emperor should reject the pope. 

It appears that Zwingle's thoughts even went beyond a 
simple resistance. When once the Gospel had ceased to be 
his principal study, there was nothing that could arrest him. 
" A single individual," said he, " must not take into his head 
to dethrone a tyrant; this would be a revolt, and the kingdom 
of God commands peace, righteousness, and joy. But if a 
whole people Avith common accord, or if the majority at least 
rejects him, without committing any excess, it is God himself 
who acts." 6 Charles V. was at that time a tyrant in Zwingle's 
€3'es; and the reformer hoped that Europe, awakening at length 
from its long slumber, would be the hand of God to hurl him 
from his throne. 

Never since the time of Demosthenes and of the two Catos 
had the world seen a more energetic resistance to the power of 
its oppressors. Zwingle in a political point of view is one of 

> Romnnam fidem restitucre, urbes liberns capere, Ilelvetios in ordinem cogere. 
Zn. Eiip., ii, March 1530. ' ''The frsedom of cities." These words are in 

<}re«lc in the original. ' Caesar altera nianu panem osfeiitat, altera lapidem 

celat. Ibid. * Incidet in cotcin aliquando iiovncula. Ibid.. 544. 

Bupst und Keyserthuinen habcnd sich dcrmnsiicn in cinandern gellickt. BolLflk 
K3. •Uolst csmitUott. Zw. Opp. 



the greatest characters of modem times: we must pay him this 
honour, which is, perhaps, for a minister of God, the greatest 
reproach. Everything was prepared in his mind to bring about 
a revolution that would have changed the history of Europe. 
He knew what he desired to substitute in place of the power 
he wished to overthrow. He had already cast his eyes upon 
the prince who was to wear the imperial crown instead of 
Charles. It was his friend the landgrave. " Most gracious 
prince," wrote he on the 2nd November, 1529, "if I write to 
you as a child to a father, it is because I hope that God has 

'chosen you for great events I dare think, but I dare noi; 

speak of them^ However, we must bell the cat at last.2 

All that I can du with my feeble means to manifest tho 

truth, to save the universal Church, to augment your power 
and the power of those who love God — with God's help, I will 
do." Thus was this great man led astray. It is the will of 
Ood that there be spots even in those who shine brightest in 
the eyes of the world, and that only one upon earth shaU say — 
*' Which of you com-inceth me of sin?"' We are now viewing 
the faults of the Reformation: they arise from the union of 
religion with politics. I could not take upon myself to pass 
them by; the recollection of the errors of our predecessors it 
perhaps the most useful legacy they have bequeathed to us. 

It appears that already at Marburg Zwingle and the land- 
grave had drawn out the first sketch of a general alliance 
against Charles V. The landgrave had undertaken to bring 
over the princes, Zwingle the free cities of Southern Germany 
and Switzerland. He went still further, and formed a plan of 
gaining over to this league the republics of Italy — the powerful 
Venice at least — that she might detain the emperor beyond the 
Alps, and prevent him from leading all his forces into Germany. 
Zwingle, who had earnestly pleaded against all foreign alliances. 
And proclaimed on so many occasions that the only ally of the 
Swiss should be the arm of the Almighty, began now to look 
around for what he had condemned, and thus prepared the way 
for the terrible judgment that was about to strike his family, 
his country, and his Church. 

He had hardly returned from Marburg, and had made no 
<ifficial communication to the Great Council, when he obtained 
from the senate the nomination of an ambassador to Venice. 
<jrreat men, after their first success, easily imagine that they 

^ Spero Deum te ad magnas res qnas quidem cogi'are sed non dUcere licet 

Zw. Epp., ii, 6<>6. - Svd £eri non potest quia tintiniiabulum aliquando fcl. 

^adnectatur. Ibid. 


can do every thing. It Avas not a statesman who was charged 
with this mission, but one of Zwingle's friends, who had ac- 
companied him into Germany, to the court of the future chief 
of the new empire — the Greek professor, Rodolph Collins, a. 
bold and skilful man, and who knew Italian. Thus the Reform 
stretched its hands to the Doge and the Procurator of St. 
Marc. The Bible Avas not enough for it — it must have the 
Golden Book: never did a greater humiliation befall God's Avork. 
The opinion Avhich Protestants then entertained of Venice may,. 
howcA'er, partly excuse Zwingle. There Avas in that city more 
independence of the pope, more freedom of thought, than in all 
the rest of Italy. Luther himself about this time wrote to 
Gabriel ZAvilling, pastor at T organ: " Wit-hwhat joy do I learn 
Avhat you Avrite to me concerning the Venetians. God be 
praised and glorified, for that they haA^e receiA^ed his- 

Collins Avas admitted, on the 2Gth December, to an audience- 
with the doge and senate, Avho looked Avith an air of astonish- 
ment at this schoolmaster, this strange ambassador, without 
attendants, and without parade. They could not CA-en under- 
stand his credentials, in so singular a style Avere they drawn 
up, and Collins Avas forced to explain their meaning. " I am 
come to you," said he, "in the name of the council of Zurich 
and of the cities of the christian cobm-ghery — free cities like 
Venice, and to Avhich common interests should unite you. 
The poAver of the emperor is formidable to republics ; he is 
aiming at a universal monarchy in Europe ; if he succeeds, 
all the free states will perish. We must therefore check him." ' 
The doge replied that the republic had just concluded an alli- 
ance Avith the emperor, and betrayed the distrust that so mys- 
terious a mission excited in the Venetian senate. But after- 
wards, in a private conference,' the doge, wishing to preserA'e 
a retreat on both sides, added, that Venice gratefully received* 
the message from Zurich, and that a Venetian regiment, 
armed and paid by the republic itself, should be always ready 
to support the evangelical Swiss. The chancellor, covered 
with his purple robe, attended Collins to the door, and, at the 
very gates of the ducal palace, confirmed the promise of sup- 
] ort. The moment the Reformation passed the magnificent 
porticos of St. Marc it Avas seized Avith giddiness; it could but 
stagger onwards to the abyss. They dismissed poor Collins 

> LfCtus audio de Vcnclis qua; scribiR, quod verbum Dei rcceperint, Deo gratia ae 
gloria. 7tli March I5i8. L. Epp., iii, 289. = Formidandam rcbus-publicl 

poteutlam Cajsaris, quie omnino ad Europce monarcliiam vergiL Zw. Epp., ii, < 4 6 » 

*Poitmk priratim alia retpondiise. Ibid. 


by placing in his hands a present of twenty crowns. Tlie 
rumour of these negotiations soon spread abroad, and the les* 
suspicious, Capito for example, shook their heads, and could 
see in this pretended agreement nothing but the accustomed 
perfidy of Venice.^ 

This was not enough. The cause of the Reform was fated 
to drink the cup of degradation to the very dregs. Zwingle, 
seeing that his adversaries in the empire increased daily in 
numbers and in power, gradually lost his ancient aversion for 
France ; and, although there was now a greater obstacle than 
before between him and Francis I., — the blood of his brethren 
shed by that monarch, — he showed himself favourably disposed 
to a union that he had once so forcibly condemned. 

Lambert Maigret, a French general, who appears to have 
had some leaning to the Gospel — which is a slight excuse for 
Zwingle — entered into correspondence with the reformer, giv- 
inof him to understand that the secret designs of Charles V. 
called for an alliance between the King of France and the 
Swiss republics. *' Apply yourself," said this diplomatist to 
him in 1530, " to a work so agreeable to our Creator, and 
■which, by God's grace, will be very easy to your mightiness.'" ^ 
Zwingle was at first astonished at these overtures. " The 
King of France," thought he, "cannot know which way to 
turn." ' Twice he took no heed of this prayer ; but the envoy 
of Francis I. insisted that the reformer should communicate 
to him a plan of alliance. At the third attempt of the am- 
bassador, the simple child of the Tockenbxirg mountains could 
no longer resist his advances. If Charles V. must fall, it 
cannot be without French assistance ; and why should not the 
Reformation contract an alliance with Francis I., the object 
of which would be to establish a power in the empire that 
should in its turn oblige the king to tolerate the Reform in 
his own dominions? Everything seemed to meet the wishes 
of Zwingle ; the fall of the tyrant was at hand, and he would 
drag the pope along with him. He communicated the gene- 
ral's overtures to the secret council, and Collins set out, com- 
missioned to bear the required project to the French ambas- 
sador. * "In ancient times," it ran, "no kings or people 
ever resisted the Roman empire with such firmness as those 
of France and Switzerland. Let us not degenerate from the 

> Perfidiam adrersus Csesarem, fidem rideri rolunt. Capito, Zw. Epp., ii, 445. 

' Open Creatori nostro acceprissimo, DominadoDi tuse facillimo, media gratia Dei. 
Zw. Epp., ii, 413. > Regem admodum des«sperare et inopem concilii rwo. 

•t nesciat quo se rertat Ibid., 414. * Bis negavi, at tertio misi, noa #ne 

•ooacientia Probulatarum. Ibid., 422. 


virtues of our ancestors. His moat Christian Majesty— all 
whose wishes are that the purity of the Gospel may remain 
undefiled * — engages therefore to conclude a« alliance with the 
christian cohurghery that shall he in accordance with the 
Divine law, and that shall he suhmitted to the censure of the 
evangelical theologians of Switzerland." Then followed an 
outline of the different articles of the treaty. 

Lanzerant, another of the king's envoys, rephed the same 
day (27th February) to this astonishing project of alliance 
about to be concluded between the reformed Swiss and the 
persecutor of the French reformed, under reserve of the censure 

of the theologians This was not what France desired : 

it was Lombardy, and not the Gospel that the king wanted. 
For that purpose, he needed the support of all the Swiss, 
But an alliance which ranged the Roman-catholic cantons 
against him, would not suit him. Being satisfied, therefore, 
for the present with knowing the sentiments of Zurich, the 
French envoys began to look coolly upon the reformers' 
scheme. " The matters you have submitted to us are admir- 
ably drawn up," said Lanzerant to the Swiss comnussioner, 
" but I can scarcely understand them, no doubt because of the 

weakness of my mind We must not put any_ seed into 

the ground, unless the soil be properly prepared for it." 

Thus, the Reform acquired nothing but shame from these 
propositions. Since it had forgotten these precepts of the 
Word of God: "Be ye not unequally yoked together with un- 
heUevers!"2 how could it fail to meet with striking reverses? 
Already, Zwingle's friends began to abandon him. The land- 
grave, who had pushed him into this diplomatic career, drew 
towards Luther, and sought to check the Swiss reformer, par- 
ticularly after this saying of Erasmus had sounded in the ears 
of the great: "They ask us to open our gates, crying aloud— 

the Gospel! the Gospel! Kaise the cloak, and under 

its mysterious folds you will find — democracy." 

While the Reform, by its culpable proceedings, was calling 
down the chastisement of Heaven, the Five Cantons, that were 
to be the instruments of its punishment, accelerated with all 
their might those fatal days of anger and of vengeance. They 
were irritated at the progress of the gospel throughout the con- 
federation, while the peace tbey had signed became every day 
more irksome to them. " We shall have no repose," said they, 

. Blbil enlmseaui esse In voUs IlcRis, atque ut EvangeUi purltM U- 
llcata permaneut. Ibid.. 417. »2Cor.,vl, U. 

yioLancE. 341 

"until we have broken these bonds and regained our former 
liberty." * A general diet was convoked at Baden for the 8th 
January 1531. The Five Cantons then declared that if justice 
was not done to their grievances, particularly with respect to 
the abbey of St. Gall, they would no more appear in diet. 
"Confederates of St. Glaris, Schaffhausen, Friburg, Soleure, 
and AppenzeU," cried they, "aid us in making our ancient 
alliances respected, or we will ourselves contrive the means of 
checking this guilty violence; and may the Holy Trinity assist 
us in this work!"* 

They did not confine themselves to threats. The treaty of 
peace had expressly forbidden all insulting language — "for 
fear," it is said, "that by insults and calumnies, discord should 
again be excited, and greater troubles than the former should 
arise." Thus was concealed in the treaty itself the spark 
whence the conflagration was to proceed. In fact, to restrain 
the rude tongues of the Waldstettes was impossible. Two 
Zurichers, the aged prior Ravensbiihler, and the pensioner 
Gaspard Godli, who had been compelled to renounce, the one 
his convent, and the other his pension, especially aroused the 
anger of the people against their native city. They used to 
say everywhere in these valleys, and with impimity, that the 
Zurichers were heretics ; that there was not one of them who 
did not indulge in unnatural sins, and who was not a robber 
at the very least ; ' that Zwingle was a thief, a murderer, and 
an arch-heretic ; and that, on one occasion at Paris (where he 
had never been), he had committed a horrible offence, in which 
Leo Juda had been his pander. •* " I shall have no rest," said 
a pensioner, " until I have thrust my sword up to the hilt in 
the heart of this impious Avretch." Old commanders of troops, 
who were feared by all on account of their unruly character ; 
the satellites who followed in their train ; insolent young people, 
sons of the first persons in the state, who thought everything- 
lawful against miserable preachers and their stupid flocks ; 
priests inflamed with hatred, and treading in the footsteps of 
these old captains and giddy young men, who seemed to take 
the pulpit of a church for the bench of a pot-house : aU poured 
torrents of insults on the Reform and its adherents. " The 
townspeople," exclaimed with one accord these drunken 
soldiers and fanatic priests, " are heretics, soul-stealers, con- 

*• Nitt ruwen biss sy der banden ledig. Bull, ii, 324. =Darzu helfe uns di« 

helij? dryfaltikeit. Ibid., 330. 'Es were kein Zurycher er hiitte chuy und 

irorchea gehygt. Bull., ji. 336. ♦ Alls der zu Parys ein Esel gehjgt ; un^ 

oaDe imm Leo Jud denselben gehept. Ibid. 


science-slayers, and Zwingle— tliat horrible man, who com- 
mits infamous sins — is the Lutheran God."^ 

They went still further. Passing from words to deeds, 
the Five Cantons persecuted the poor people among them who 
loved the Word of God, flung them into prison, imposed fines 
upon them, brutally tormented them, and mercilessly expelled 
them from their country. The people of Schwytz did even 
worse. Not fearing to announce their sinister designs, they 
appeared at a landsgemeinde wearing pine-branches in their 
hats, in sign of war, and no one opposed them. "The Abbot 
of St. Gall," said they, "is a prince of the empire, and holds 
his investiture from the emperor. Do they imagine that 
Charles V, will not avenge him?" — " Have not these heretics," 
said others, " dared to form a christian fraternittj, as if old 
Switzerland was a heathen country?" Secret councils were 
continually held in one place or another.* New alliances were 
sought with the Valais, the pope, and the emperor ' — blamable 
alliances, no doubt, but such as they might at least justify by 
the proverb: "Birds of a feather go together;" which Zurich 
and Venice could not say. 

The Valaisans at first refused their support: they preferred 
remaining neuter; but on a sudden their fanaticism was in- 
flamed. A sheet of paper was found on an altar — such at 
least was the report circulated in their valleys — in which Zu- 
rich and Berne were accused of preaching that to commit an 
oficnce against nature is a smaller crime than to hear mass! * 
Who had placed this mysterious paper on the altar? Came it 
from man? Did it fall from heaven? . . . They know not; 
but however that might be, it was copied, circulated, and read 
everywhere; and the effects of this fable, invented by some 
villain, says Zwingle,' was such that Valais immediately 
granted the support it had at first refused. The Waldstettes, 
proud of their strength, then closed their ranks; their fierce 
eyes menaced the heretical cantons; and the wind bore from 
their mountains to their neighbours of the towns a formidable 
clang of arms. 

At the sight of these alarming manifestations the evange- 
lical cities were in commotion. They first assembled at Basle 
in February, 1531, then at Zurich in March. " What is to be 
done," said the deputies from Zurich, after setting forth their 

» Der lutherlschen Gott. Bull., il, 837. ' Kadtschlagtend und tagentend 

fae3nnlich t. c. Ibid., 836. « NUwe frUndschaften, by den Wallisercn, dem 

Bapgt, un den Keysserisclien. Ibid. * Ut Bi quis rem obscajnam cum jumento 

■ire bove habeat, minus peecare quam si missam inaudiat. 7.vt. Epp., p. 610. 

* Perfldorum ac sceleraturum hominum commentum. Ibid, 


grievances; "how can vre punish these infamous calumnies, 
and force these threatening arms to fall?" — " We understand," 
replied Berne, " that you would have recourse to violence; but 
-think of these secret and formidable alliances that are forming 
■with the pope, the emperor, the King of France, with so many 
princes, in a word with all the priests' party, to accelerate our 
ruin; — think on the innocence of so many pious souls in the 
Five Cantons, who deplore these perfidious machinations; — 
think how easy it is to begin a war, but that no one can tell 
■when it will end."i Sad foreboding! which a catastrophe, 
beyond all human foresight, accomplished but too soon. " Let 
*is therefore send a deputation to the Five Cantons," continued 
Berne; "let us call upon them to punish these infamous calimi- 
nies in accordance with the treaty; and if they refuse, let us 
break off all intercourse with them." — " What will be the use 
of this mission?" asked Basle. "Do we not know the bruta- 
lity of this people ? And is i^ not to be feared that the rough 
treatment to which our deputies will be exposed, may make the 
matter worse? Let us rather convoke a general diet."' Schaff- 
iausen and St. Gall having concurred in this opinion, Berne 
isummoned a diet at Baden for the 10th April, at which depu- 
ties from all the cantons were assembled. 

Many of the principal men among the Waldstettes disap- 
proved of the violence of the retired soldiers and of the monks. 
They saw that these continually repeated insults would injure 
their cause. " The insults of which you complain," said they 
to the diet, "afflict us no less than you. We shall know how 
to punish them, and we have already done so. But there are 
violent men on both sides. The other day a man of Basle 
"having met on the highroad a person who was coming from 
Berne, and having learnt that he was going to Lucerne: — 
* To go from Berne to Lucerne,' exclaimed he, 'is passing 
from a father to an arrant knave!'" The mediating cantons 
invited the two parties to banish every cause of discord. 

But the war of the Chatelain of Musso having then broken 
out, Zwingle and Zurich, who saw in it the first act of a vast 
■conspiracy, destined to stifle the Reform in every place, called 
their allies together. "We must waver no longer," said 
Zwingle; "the rupture of the alliance on the part of the Five 
Cantons, and the unheard-of insults with which they load us, 
■impose upon us the obligation of marching against our ene- 
mies, ^ before the emperor, who is still detained by the Turks, 

' Ab«r sin end und ass^ng mbchte nieman bald wussen. BaU, ii, 34C. 
* St gwaltig ze uberxieben. Ibid, 366. 


shall have expelled the landgrave, seized upon Strasburg, and 
subjugated even ourselves." All the blood of the ancient Swiss 
seemed to boil in this man's veins; and while Uri, Schwjtz, 
and Unterwalden basely kissed the hand of Austria, this Zu- 
i-icher— the greatest Helvetian of the age— faithful to the 
memory of old Switzerland, but not so to still holier traditions, 
followed in the glorious steps of Stauffacher and Winkelried. 

The warlike tone of Zurich alarmed its confederates. Basle 
proposed a summons, and then, in case of refusal, the rupture 
of the alliance. Schaifhausen and St. Gall were frightened 
even at this step: "The mountaineers, so proud, indomitable, 
and exasperated," said they, " will accept with joy the disso- 
lution of the confederation, and then shall we be more ad- 
vanced?" Such was the posture of affairs, when, to the great 
astonishment of all, deputies from Uri and Schwytz made their 
appearance. They were coldly received; the cup of honour 
was not offered to them ; and they had to walk, according to 
their own account, in the midst of the insulting cries of°tlie 
people. They unsuccessfully endeavoured to excuse their con- 
duct.^ "We have long been waiting," was the cold reply of 
the diet, " to see your actions and your words agree." ^ The 
men of Schwytz and of Uri returned in sadness to their homes; 
and the assembly broke up, full of sorrow and distress. 

Zwingle beheld with pain the deputies of the evangelical 
towns separating Avithout having come to any dt cision. He 
no longer desired only a reformation of the Church; he Avished 
for a transformation in the confederacy; and it Avas this latter 
reform that he noAv Avas preaching from the pulpit, according- 
to Avliat Ave learn from Bullinger."^ Ho Avas not the only 
person Avho desired it. For a long time the inhabitants of the 
most populous and poAA'crful toAvns of SAvitzcrlanJ had cotu- 
plained that the Waldstcttes, whose contingent of men and 
money Avas much beloAv theirs, had an equal share in the deli- 
berations of the diet, and in the fruits of their victories. This 
had been the cause of division after tlie Burgundian Avar. The 
Five Cantons, by means of their adherents, had tlie majority. 
Now Zwinglo thought that the reins of Switzerland should be 
placed in the hands of the great cities, and, aboA'c all, in those 
of the poAverful cantons of JBerne and Zurich. New times, in 
his opinion, called for new forms. It Avas not sufficient to 
dismiss from every public office the pensioners of foreigii 


' Und wortt un<I work mit einnndern paiiKen werind. Bull., ii, 387. 

" Trang gnr h.Hftiii,' uff eine getnciiie Kiforinntion gemciner Ejdgenoschnft Iwa., 


princes, and substitute pious men in their place; the federal 
compact must be remodelled, and settled upon an equitable 
basis. A national constituent assembly would doubtless have 
responded to his wishes. These discourses, which were rather 
those of a tribune of the people than of a minister of Jesus- 
Christ, hastened on the terrible catastrophe. 

And indeed the animated words of the patriot reformer 
passed from the church where they had been delivered into the 
councils and the halls of the guilds, into the streets and the 
fields. The burning words that fell from this man's lips- 
kindled the hearts of his fellow-citizens. The electric spark, 
escaping with noise and commotion, was felt even in the most 
distant cottage. The ancient traditions of wisdom and pru- 
dence seemed forgotten. Public opinion declared itself ener- 
getically. On the 29th and 30th AprU, a number of horse- 
men rode hastily out of Zurich; they were envoys from the- 
council, commissioned to remind all the allied cities of the en- 
croachment of the Five Cantons, and to call for a prompt and 
definitive decision. Reaching their several destinations, the 
messengers recapitulated the grievances.* " Take care," said 
they in conclusion; "great dangers are impending over all of 
us. The emperor and King Ferdinand are making vast pre- 
parations; they aie about to enter Switzerland with large sums 
of money, and with a numerous army." 

Zurich joined actions to words. This state, being resolved 
to make every exertion to establish the free preaching of the 
Gospel in those bailiwicks where it shared the sovereignty with, 
the Romon-catholic cantons, desired to interfere by force wher- 
ever negotiations could not prevail. The federal rights, it 
must be confessed, were trampled under foot at St. Gall, in. 
Thurgo^-ia, in the Rheinthal ; and Zurich substituted arbitrary 
decisions in their place, that excited the indignation of the 
Waldstettes to the highest degree. Thus the number of ene- 
mies to the Reform kept increasing; the tone of the Five Can- 
tons became daily more threatening, and the inhabitants of the 
canton of Zurich, whom their business called into the moun- 
tains, were loaded with insults, and sometimes badly treated. 
These violent proceedings excited in turn the anger of the re- 
formed cantons. Zwingle traversed Thurgovia, St. Gall, and 
the Tockenburg, everywhere organizing synods, taking part 
in their proceedings, and preaching before excited and enthus- 
iastic crowds. In all parts he met with confidence and res- 
pect. At St. Gall an immense crowd assembled under his 

1 They are to be found in BulUn^r, ii, 36&^6. 


vrindows, and a concert of voices and instruments expressed the 
public gratitude in harmonious songs. Let us not abandon 
-ourselves," he repeated continually, " and all will go well." It 
was resolved that a meeting should be held at Arau on the 
12th May, to deliberate on a posture of affairs that daily be- 
•came more critical. This meeting was to be the beginning of 


Diet of Arau — Helvetic Unity — Berne proposes to close the Markets — Opposition of 
Zurich — Proposition agreed to and published — Zwingle's War Sermon — Blockade 
of the Waldstettes — No Bread, no Wine, no Salt — Indignation of the Forest Can- 
tons — The Roads blockaded — Processions — Cry of Despair — France tries to con- 
ciliate — Diet at Bremgarten — Hope — The Cantons inflexible — The strength of 
Zurich broken — Discontent— Zv\-iugle's false Position — Zwingle demands his Dis- 
mission — The Council remonstrate — He remains — Zwiugle at Bremgarten— 
Zwingle's Farewell to Bullinger — Zwingle's Agony — The Forest Cantons reject 
all Conciliation — Frightful Omens — The Comet— Zwingle's Tranquillity. 

Swingle's scheme with regard to the establishment of a ne\« 
Helvetian constitution did not prevail in the diet of Arau, 
Perhaps it was thought better to see the result of the crisis. 
Perhaps a more christian, a more federal view — the hope of 
procuring the unity of Switzerland by unity of faith — occu- 
pied men's minds more than the pre-eminence of the cities. 
In truth, if a certain number of cantons remained with the 
pope, the unity of the confederation was destroyed, it might bo 
for ever. But if all the confederation was brought over to the 
same faith, the ancient Helvetic unity Avould be established on 
the strongest and surest foundation. Now was the time for 
acting — or never; and there must be no fear of employing a 
violent remedy to restore the whole body to health. 

Nevertheless, the allies shrank back at the thouglit of res- 
toring religious liberty or political unity by means of arms; 
and to escape from the difficulties in which the confederation 
was placed, they sought a middle course between war and 
peace. " There is no doubt," said the deputies from Berne, 
" that the behaviour of the Cantons with regard to the Word 
of God fully authorises an armed intervention; but the perils 
that threaten us on the side of Italy and the empire — the 
danger of arousing the lion from his slumber — the general 
want and misery that afflict our people — the rich harvests that 
-will soon cover our fields, and which the war would infallibly 


destroy — the great number of pious men among the Wald- 
stettes, and whose innocent blood would flow along with that 
of the guilty: — all these motives enjoin us to leave the sword 
in the scabbard. Let us rather close our markets against the 
Five Cantons; let us refuse them corn, salt, wine, steel, and 
iron; we shall thus impart authority to the friends of peace 
-among them, and innocent blood wUl be spared."^ The meet- 
ing separated forthwith to carry this intermediate proposition to 
the different evangelical cantons; and on the 15th May again 
assembled at Zurich. 

Convinced that the means apparently the most violent were 
nevertheless both the surest and most humane, Zurich resisted 
the Bernese proposition with all its might. " By accepting 
this proposition," said they, " we sacrifice the advantages that 
we now possess, and we give the Five Cantons time to arm 
themselves, and to fall upon us first. Let us take care that 
the emperor does not assail us on one side, while our ancient 
<;onfederates attack us on the other ; a just war is not in op- 
position to the Word of God; but this is contrary to it — taking 
the bread from the mouths of the innocent as well as the guilty; 
straitening by himger the sick, the aged, pregnant women, 
children, and all who are deeply afliicted by the injustice of the 
Waldstettes.* We should beware of exciting by this means 
the anger of the poor, and transforming into enemies many 
who at the present time are our friends and brothers !" 

We must acknowledge that this language, which was Zwin- 
gle's, contained much truth. But the other cantons, and 
Berne in particular, were immovable. " When we have once 
shed the blood of our brothers," said they, " we shall never be 
able to restore life to those who have lost it ; while from the 
moment the Waldstettes have given us satisfaction, we shall 
be able to put an end to all these severe measures. We are 
resolved not to begin the war." There were no means of rim- 
ning coimter to such a declaration. The Zurichers consented 
to refuse supplies to the Waldstettes; but it was with hearts 
full of anguish, as if they had foreseen all that this deplorable 
measiu-e would cost them.' It was agreed that the severe 
step that was now about to be taken should not be suspended 
except by common consent, and that, as it would create great 
exasperation, each one should hold himself prepared to repel 
the attacks of the enemy. Zurich and Berne were commissioned 

» Und dadorch nnshuldiez Bliit erspart worde. BalL, ii, 383. » Krank*. 

*lte, ghwangere Trybcr, kinder und sunst betrubte. Ibid., 3d4. » SchnMTzUch 

and kunmerMcbUch. Ibid., 3S6. 


to notify this determination to the Five Cantons; and Zurich, 
discharging its task with promptitude, immediately forwarded 
an order to every hailiwick to suspend all communication with 
the Waldstettes, commanding them at the same time to ahstain 
from ill usage and hostile language. Thus the Reformation, 
becoming imprudently mixed up with political combinations, 
marched from fault to fault; it pretended to preach the Gospel 
to the poor, and Avas now about to refuse them bread! 

On the Sunday following — it was Whitsunday — the resolu- 
tion was published from the pulpits. Zwingle walked towards 
his, where an immense crowd was waiting for him. The 
piercing eye of this great man easily discovered the dangers of 
the measure in a political point of view, and his christian heart 
deeply felt all its cruelty. His soul was overburdened, his 
ejes downcast. If at this moment the true character of a 
minister of the Gospel had awoke within him; — if Zwingle with 
his powerful voice had called on the people to humiliation be- 
fore God, to forgiveness of trespasses, and to prayer; safety 
might ypt have dawned on " broken-hearted " Switzerland. 
Eut it was not so. More and more the Christian disappears 
in the reformer, r,nd the citizen alone remains; but in that 
character he soars far above all, and his policy is undoubtedly 
the most skilful. He saw clearly that every delay may ruin 
Zurich; and after having made his way through the congrega- 
tion, and closed the book of the Prince of Peace, he hesitated 
not to attack the resolution which he had just communicat(>d 
to the people, and on the very festival of the Holy Ghost, to 
preach Avar. "He Avho fears not to call his adversary a cri- 
minal," said he in his usual forcible language, " must be ready 
to follow the Avord Avith a bloAv.l If he docs not strike, he will 
be stricken. Men of Zurich! you deny food to the Pive Can- 
tons, as to evil doers; well! let the blow folloAv the threat, 
rather than reduce poor innocent creatures to starvation. If, 
by not talving the offensiA-e, you appear to believe that there i» 
not sufficient reason for punishing the Waldstettes, and yet 
you refuse them food and drink, you Avill force them by this 
line of conduct to take up arms, to raise their hands, and to 
inflict punishment upon you. This is the fate that awaits you. 

These Avords of the eloquent reformer moved the Avholo as- 
sembly. ZAvingle's politic mind already so influenced and mis- 
led all tlie people, that there Avero few souls christian enough 
to feel hoAV strange it was, that on the very day Avhen they 

> Pas er wortt und faust mitt einander gan lasse. Bull, ii, 388. 


^^re celebrating the outpouring of the Spirit of peace and lore 
upon the Christian Church, the mouth of a coinister of God 
should utter a provocation to war. They looked at this ser- 
mon only in a political point of view: "It is a seditious dis- 
course; it is an excitement to civil war!" said some. '* Xo," 
replied others, "it is the language that the safety of the state 
requires! ■' AU Zurich was agitated. " Zurich has too much 
fire, said Berne. " Berne has too much cunning," replied 
Zurich.^ Zwingle's gloomy prophecy was too soon to be ful- 

!No sooner had the reformed cantons communicated this piti- 
less decree to the Waldstettes than they hastened its execution; 
and Zurich showed the greatest strictness respecting it. Not 
only the markets of Zurich and of Berne, but also those of 
the free bailiwicks of St. Gall, of the Tockenburg, of the dis- 
trict of Sargans and of the valley of the Rhine, a country partly 
under the sovereignty of the Waldstettes, were shut against 
the Five Cantons. A formidable power had suddenly encom- 
passed with barrenness, famine, and death the noble founders 
of Helvetian liberty. Uri, Schwytz, Unterwalden, Zug, and 
Lucerne, were, as it seemed, in the midst of a vast desert. 
Then- own subjects, thought they at least, the communes that 
have taken the oath of allegiance to them, would range them- 
selves on then* side! But no; Bremgarten, and even Mellin- 
gen, refused all succour. Their last hope was in Wesen and 
the Gastal. Neither Berne nor Zurich had anything to do 
there; Schwytz and Glaris alone ruled over them; but the 
power of their enemies had penetrated everywhere. A majority 
of thirteen votes had declared in favour of Zurich at the 
landsgemeinde of Glaris; [and Glaris closed the gates of 
Wesen and of the Gastal against Schwytz. In vain did 
Berne itself cry out: " How can you compel subjects to re- 
fuse supplies to their lords?"' In vain did Schwytz raise 
its voice in indignation, Zurich immediately sent to Weseu 
— gunpowder and bullets. It was upon Zurich, therefore, 
that fell all the odium of a measure which that city had at 
first so earnestly combated. At Aran, at Bremgarten, at 
MeUingen, in the free bailiwicks, were several carriages laden 
with provisions for the Waldstettes. They were stopped, 
unloaded, aud upset: Avith them barricades were erected on 
the roads leading to Lucerne, Schwytz, and Zug. Already 

* It was Zningle who thus characterized the two ci'i-n :— 
Bern . klage Zurich ware zu hitzu; ; 
Zurich : Bern ware zu witzig. — Scettler. 


a 3'ear of dearth had made provisions scarce in the Five 
Cantons; — already had a frightful epidemic, the Sweating 
Sickness, scattered everywhere despondency and death: but 
now the hand of man was joined to the hand of God; the 
evil increased, and the poor inhabitants of these mountains 
beheld unheard-of calamities approach with hasty steps. No 
more bread for their children — no more wine to revive their 
exhausted strength — no more salt for their flocks and herds! 
Everything failed them that man requires for subsistence.^ 
One could not see such things, and be a man, without feel- 
ing his heart wrung. In the confederate cities, and out of 
Switzerland, numerous voices were raised against this impla- 
cable measure. What good can result from it? Did not St, 
Paul write to the Romans: " If thine enemy hunger, feed him; 
if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap 
coals of fire on his head " ? * And when the magistrates wished 
to convince certain refractory communes of the utility of the 
measure: " We desire no religious war," cried they. " If the 
Waldstettes will not believe in God, let them stick to the devil!'* 
But it was especially in the Five Cantons that earnest com- 
plaints were heard. The most pacific individuals, and even 
the secret partisans of the Reform, seeing famine invade their 
habitations, felt the deepest indignation. The enemies of 
Zurich skilfully took advantage of this disposition; they fos- 
tered these murmurs; and soon the cry of anger and distress- 
re-echoed from all the mountains. In^vain did Berne represent 
to the Waldstettes that it is more cruel to refuse men thfr 
nourishment of the soul than to cut off that of the body. 
"God," replied these mountaineers in their despair, " God 
causes the fruits of the earth to grow freely for all men!" ^ 
They were not content with groaning in their cottages, and 
venting their indignation in the council?; they filled all Swit- 
zerland with complaints and menaces.* " They wish to employ 
famine to tear us from our ancient faith; they wish to deprive 
our wives and our children of bread, that they may take from 
us the liberty we derive from our forefathers. When did such 
things ever take place in the bosom of the confederation? Did 
we not see, in the last war, the confederates with arms in their 
hands, and who were ready to draw the sword, eating together 
from the same dish? They tear in pieces old friendships — they 

• DcRhalb RjbAld grossen mangel erlittond an .illem dem ilas der Mensli gelaiben. 
•oil. BuU.,ii, 39C. 2 IbiiL Romans, xii, 20. » Hartmanii Ton Hall- 

wyll to Albert of Mtilincn, Ttli Aiigimt. * Kliigtend sicli uUcnt hulben wyt' 

ttDd breit. Bull, U, o97. 


trample our ancient manners under foot — they violate treaties 
— they hreak alliances. . . . We invoke the charters of our 
ancestors. HelpI helpl . . . Wise men of our people, give us 
vour adTiee, and all you who know how to handle the sling and 
the sword, come and maintain with us the sacred possessions, 
for which our fathers, delivered from the yoke of the stranger, 
united their arms and their hearts." 

At the same time the Five Cantons sent into Alsace, Bris- 
gau, and Swabia, to obtain salt, wine, and bread; but the 
administration of the cities was implacable; the orders were 
everywhere given and everywhere strictly executed. Zurich 
and the other allied cantons intercepted all communication, and 
sent back to Germany the supplies that had been forwarded to- 
their brethren. The Five Cantons were like a vast fortress, 
all the issues from which are closely guarded by watchful sen- 
tinels. The afflicted Waldstettes, on beholding themselves 
alone with famine between their lakes and their mountains, had 
recourse to the observances of their worship. AU sports, 
dances, and every kind of amusement were interdicted ; ^ prayers 
were directed to be offered up; and long processions covered 
the roads of Einsidlen and other resorts of pilgrims. They 
assumed the belt, and staff, and arms of the brotherhood to 
tvhich they each belonged; each man carried a chaplet in his 
hands, and repeated paternosters; the mountains and the valleys 
re-echoed with their plaintive hymns. But the Waldstettes did 
still more: they grasped their swords — they sharpened the 
points of their halberds — they brandished their weapons in the= 
direction of Zurich and of Berne, and exclaimed with rage: 
" They block up their roads, but we will open them with our 
right arms I"' * No one replied to this cry of despair; but there 
is a just Judge in heaven to whom vengeance belongs, and who 
will soon reply in a terrible manner, by punishing those mis- 
guided persons, who, forgetful of christian mercy, and makin<^ 
an impious mixture of political and religious matters, pretend to 
secure the triumph of the Gospel by famine and by armed men. 

Some attempts, however, were made to arrange matters; . 
but these very efforts proved a great humiliation for Switzer- 
land and for the Reform. It was not the ministers of the 
Gospel, it was France — more than once an occasion of discord 
to Switzerland — that offered to restore peace. Every proceed- 

i Stelltent ab spieVn, Tanzen.— Tscbnfi der CapeHer krieg, 153L This MS. U at. 
triVated to Egidius Tschudi, who must hare written it in 1533, in fevour of the ?i»» 
CuntoDi, and wag printed in the - Hi'lTetia,'' toI. ii, 165. * Trowtend aocb - 

4it Straasaen uflT zu than mit ;v\a!t. Bull^ ii, 397. 


ing calculated to increase its influence among the cantons was 
of service to its policy. On the 14th May, Maigret and Dan- 
gertin (the latter of whom had received the Gospel truth, and 
-consequently did not dare return to France),^ after some allu- 
sions to the spirit which Zurich had shown in this affair — a 
spirit little in accordance with the Gospel — said to the council: 
*'The king our master has sent you two gentlemen to consult 
•on the means of preserving concord among you. If war and 
tumult invade Switzerland, all the society of the Helvetians 
"will he destroyed, 2 and whichever party is the conqueror, he 
"will be as much ruined as the other." Zurich having replied 
that if the Five Cantons would allow the free preaching of the 
Word of God, the reconciliation would he easy, the French 
secretly sounded the Waldstettes, whose answer was: "We will 
never permit the preaching of the Word of God as the people 
of Zurich understand it." ^ 

These more or less interested exertions of the foreigners 
having failed, a general diet became the only chance of safety 
that remained for Switzerland. One was accordingly convoked 
at Bremgarten. It was opened in presence of deputies from 
France, from the Duke of Milan, from the Countess of Neuf 
chatel, from the Grisons, Valais, Thurgovia, and the district 
of Sargans; and met on five different occasions, — on the 14th 
and 20th of June, on the 9th July, and the 10th and 23d Au- 
gust. The chronicler Bullinger, who was pastor of Bremgar- 
ten, delivered an oration at the opening, in which he earnestly 
exhorted the confederates to union and peace. 

A gleam of hope for a moment cheered Switzerland. The 
blockade had become less strict; friendship and good neigh- 
bourhood had prevailed in many places over the decrees of the 
state. Unusual roads had been opened across the wildest 
mountains to convey supplies to the Waldstettes. Provisions 
wore concealed in bales of merchandise; and while Lucerne 
imprisoned and tortured its own citizens, who were found with 
the pamphlets of the Zurichers,* Berne punished but shghtly 
the peasants who had been discovered bearing food for Unter- 
"walden and Lucerne; and Claris shut its eyes at the frequent 
violation of its orders. The voice of charity, that had been 
momentarily stifled, pleaded with fresh energy the cause of 
their confederates before the reformed cantons. 

' Ep. Rugeri ad Hulling., 12th November 15C0. ' CiiivcrRa socictas HeUt4- 

tiorum dilubetur, si tuiiiiilttu ct bellum inter cam erupcrit. Zvi. Epp., ii, 6(H. 

' Rf6pondei"Uiit vcrl)i Uci predicntionern non lutiiros, quomodo nos intelligamui* 
Ibid , 607. « Warf sie in Gefaiignias. Bull., iii, SO. 


But the Five Cantons were inflexible. " We will not listen 
to any proposition before the raising of the blockade," said 
they. " We will not raise it," replied Berne and Zurich, 
" before the Gospel is allowed to be freely preached, not only 
in the common bailiwicks, but also in the Five Cantons." This 
•was undoubtedly going too far, even according to the natural 
Jaw and the principles of the confederation. The councils of 
Zurich might consider it their duty to have recourse to war 
for maintaining liberty of conscience in the common baili- 
wicks; but it was unjust — it was a usurpation, to constrain the 
Five Cantons in a matter that concerned their own territory. 
Nevertheless the mediators succeeded, not without much 
trouble, in drawing up a plan of conciliation that seemed to 
iharmonize with the wishes of both parties. The conference 
was broken up, and this project was hastily transmitted to 
the diflferent states for their ratification. 

The diet met again a few days after; but the Five Cantons 
persisted in their demand, without yielding in any one point. 
In vain did Zurich and Berne represent to them, that by per- 
cecuting the reformed, the canons violated the treaty of peace; 
in vain did the mediators exhaust their strength in warnings 
And entreaties. The parties appeared at one time to approxi- 
mate, and then on a sudden they were more distant and .mora 
irritated than ever. The Waldstettes at last broke up the 
third conference by declaring, that far from opposing the evan- 
gelical truth, they would maintain it, as it had been taught by 
the Redeemer, by his holy apostles, by the four doctors, and 
by their holy mother, the Church — a declaration that seemed 
a bitter irony to the deputies from Zurich and Berne. Never- 
theless Berne, turning towards Zuricli as they were separat- 
ing, observed: " Beware of too much violence, even should they 
attack you!" 

This exhortation was unnecessary. The strength of Zurich 
had passed away. The first appearance of the Reformation 
and of the reformers had been greeted with joy. The people, 
who groaned under a twofold slavery, believed they saw the 
<iawn of liberty. But their minds, abandoned for ages to su- 
perstition and ignorance, being unable immediately to realize 
the hopes they had conceived, a spirit of discontent soon spread 
among the masses. The change by which Zwingle, ceasing 
to be a man of the Gospel, became a man of the State, took 
away from the people the enthusiasm necessary to resist the 
terrible attacks they would have to sustain. The enemies of 
the Reform had a fair chance against it, so soon as its friends 
» Z 


abandoned the position that gave them strength. Besides,. 
Christians could not have recourse to famine and to war tO' 
secure the triumph of the Gospel, without their consciences he- 
coming troubled. The Zurichers ^'walked not in the Spirit, but 
in thejlesh ; now, the works of the flesh are hatred, variance, emida- 
tions, wrath, strife, seditions:'^ The danger without was increas- 
ing, while within, hope, union, and courage Avere far from, 
being augmented: men saw on the contrar3^ the gradual disap- 
pearance of that harmony and lively faith which had been the 
strength of the Reform. The Reformation had grasped the 
Bword, and that very sword pierced its heart. 

Occasions of discord were multiplied in Zurich. By the ad- 
vice of Zwingle, the number of nobles was diminished in the- 
two councils, because of their opposition to the Gospel; and 
this measure spread discontent among the most honourable- 
families of the canton. The millers and bakers Avere placed 
under certain regulations, which the dearth rendered necessary 
and a great part of the townspeople attributed this proceeding 
to the sermons of the reformer, and became irritated against 
him. Rodolph Lavater, bailiff of Kibourg, was appointed 
captain-general, and the officers who were of longer standing 
than he were offended. Many who had been formerly the most 
distinguished by their zeal for the Reform, now openly opposed 
the cause they had supported. The ardour with which the 
ministers of peace demanded war spread in every quarter a, 
smothered dissatisfaction, and many persons gave vent to their 
indignation. This unnatural confusion of Church and State^. 
which had corrupted Christianity after the age of Constantine,. 
was hurrying on the ruin of the Reformation. The majority 
of the Great Council, ever ready to adopt important and' 
salutary resolutions, was destroyed. The old magistrates,, 
who were still at the head of affairs, allowed themselves to be 
carried away by feelings of jealousy against men whose non- 
official influence prevailed over theirs. All those who hated 
the doctrine of the Gospel, whether from love of the world or 
from love to the pope, boldly raised their heads m Zurich. 
The partisans of the monks, the friends of foreign service, the 
malcontents of every class, coalesced in pointing out Zwingle 
as the author of all the sufferings of the people. 

Zwingle was heart-broken. He saw that Zurich and the 
Reformation were hastening to their ruin, and he could not 
check them. How could he do so, since, without suspecting 
it, he had been the principal accomplice in these disasters? 

I Galatians, v, 13, •-'O. 


What was to be done? Should the pilot remain in the ship 
which he is no longer permitted to save? There was but one 
means of safety for Zurich and for Z%vingle. He should have 
retired from the political stage, and fallen back on that king- 
dom which is not of this world ; he should, hke Moses, haTe kept 
his hands and his heart night and daj raised towards heaven, 
and energetically preached repentance, faith, and peace. But 
religious and political matters were united in the mind of this 
great man by such old and dear ties, that it was impossible 
for him to distinguish their line of separation. This confusion 
had become his dominant idea; the Christian and the citizen 
were for him one and the same character ; and hence it re- 
sulted, that all resources of the state — even cannons and ar- 
quebuses — were to be placed at the sendee of the Truth. 
\NTien one peculiar idea thus seizes upon a man, we see a 
false conscience formed within him, which approves of many 
things condemned by the Word of the Lord. 

This was now Zwingle's condition. War appeared to him 
legitimate and desirable ; and if that was refused, he had only 
to withdraw from public life : he was for everything or no- 
thing. He therefore, on the 26th July, appeared before the 
Great Council with dimmed eyes and disconsolate heart: "For 
eleven years," said he, " I have been preaching the Gospel 
among you, and have warned you faithfully and paternally of 
the woes that are hanging over you ; but no attention has 
been paid to my words ; the friends of foreign alliances, the 
enemies of the Gospel, are elected to the council, and whUe 
you refuse to foUow my ad^-ice, I am made responsible for 
every misfortune. I cannot accept such a position, and I ask 
for my dismission." The reformer retired bathed in tears. 

The council shuddered as they heard these words. AU the 
old feelings of respect which they had so long entertained for 
Zwingle were revived ; to lose him now was to ruin Zurich. 
The burgomaster and the other magistrates received orders to 
persuade him to recall his fatal resolution. The conference 
took place on the same day ; Zwingle asked time for considera- 
tion. For three days and three nights he sought the road 
that he should follow. Seeing the dark storm that was col- 
lecting from all quarters, he considered whether he ought to 
quit Zurich and seek refuge on the lofty hills of the Tocken- 
burg, where he had been reared, at a time when his country 
and his Church were on the pomt of being assailed and beaten 
down by their enemies, like corn by the haU-storm. He groan- 
ed and cried to the Lord. He would have put away the cup of 


bitterness that was presented to his soul, but could not gather 
Tip the resolution. At length the sacriiice was accompHshed, 
and the victim was placed shuddering upon the altar. Three 
days after the first conference, Zwingle reappeared in the coun- 
cil: "I will stay with you," said he, "and I will labour for 
the public safety — until death!" 

From this moment he displayed new zeal. On the one hand, 
he endeavoured to revive harmony and courage in Zurich; on 
the other, he set about arousing and exciting the allied cities to 
increase and concentrate all the forces of the Reformation. 
Faithful to the political vocation he imagined to have received 
from God himself— persuaded that it was in the doubts and want 
of energy of the Bernese that he must look for the cause of all 
the evil, the reformer repaired toBremgarten with Collins and 
Steiner, during the fourth conference of the diet, although he 
incurred great danger in the attempt. He arrived secretly by 
night, and having entered the house of his friend and disciple, 
Bullinger, he invited the deputies of Berne (J. J. de Watteville 
and Iin Hag) to meet him there with the greatest secrecy, and 
prayed them in the most solemn tone earnestly to reflect upon 
the dangers of the Reform. " I fear," said he, " that in con- 
sequence of our unbelief, this business will not succeed. By 
refusing supplies to the Five Cantons, we have begun a work 
that will be fatal to us. What is to be done ? Withdraw the 
prohibition? The cantons will then be more insolent and 
haughty than ever. Enforce it? They will take the offensive, 
and°if their attack succeed you will behold our fields red with 
the blood of the believers, the doctrine of truth cast down, the 
Church of Christ laid waste, all social relations overthrown, 
our adversaries more hardened and irritated against tlie Gospel, 
and crowds of priests and monks again filling our rural dis- 
tricts, streets, and temples And yet," added Zwingle, 

after a few instants of emotion and silence, " that also wiU 
have an end." The Bernese were filled with agitation by the 
solemn voice of the reformer. " We see," replied tliey, " all 
that is to be feared for our common cause, and we will employ 
every care to prevent such great disasters." — "I who write 
these things was present and heard them," adds Bullinger.^ 

It was feared that if the presence of Zwingle at Brcmgarten 
became known to the deputies of the Five Cantons, tlioy would 
not restrain their violence. During this nocturnal oonfcrenco 
three of the town-councillors were stationed as sentinels in front 

» TliMe worris arc in I.atin : Ilarc ip«o. <|ui h.i-o sr. ibo, ub illis audivl, prajsens col- 
loauio. DtiL, iii, 49. 

zwixgle's fakewell to bullixger. 357 

of Bullinger's house. Before daybreak, the reformer and his 
two friends, accompanied by Bullinger and the three councillors, 
passed through the deserted streets leading to the gate on the 
road to Zurich. Three different times Zwingle took leave of 
Bullinger, who was erelong to be his successor. His mind was 
filled with a presentiment of his approaching death; he could 
not tear himself from that young friend whose face he was never 
to see again; he blessed him amidst floods of tears. " my 
dear Henry!" said he, "may God protect you! Be faithful to 
our Lord Jesus Christ and to his Chm-ch." At length they 
separated; but at that very moment, says Bxillinger, a myste- 
rious personage, clad in a robe as white as snow, suddenly ap- 
peared, and after frightening the soldiers who guarded the gate, 
plunged suddenh' into the water, and vanished. BuUinger, 
Zwingle, and their friends did not perceive it ; Bullinger him- 
self sought for it all around, but to no purpc«e;^ still the sen- 
tinels persisted in the reality of this frightful apparition. 
Bullinger in great agitation returned in darkness and in silence 
to his house. His mind involuntai-ily compared the departure 
of Zwingle and the white phantom; and he shuddered at the 
frightful omen which the thought of this spectre impressed upon 
his mind. 

Sufferings of another kind pursued Zwingle to Zurich. He 
had thought that by consenting to remain at the head of affairs, 
he would recover all his ancient influence. But he was deceived: 
the people desired to see him there, and yet they would not 
follow him. The Zurichers daily became more and more in- 
disposed towards the war which they had at first demanded, 
and identified themselves with the passive system of Berne. 
Zwingle remained, for some time stupified and motionless before 
this inert mass, which his most vigorous exertions could not 
move. But soon discovering in every quarter of the horizon 
the prophetic signs, precursors of the storm about to burst upon 
the ship of which he was the pilot, he uttered cries of anguish, 
and showed the signal of distress. " I see," exclaimed he one 
day to the people from the pulpit, whither he had gone to "-iye 
utterance to his gloomy forebodings, — " I see that the most 
faithful warnings cannot save you ; you will not punish the 
pensioners of the foreigner. . . . They have too firm a support 
among us! A chain is prepared — behold it entire — it imrolls 
link after link, — soon wiU they bind me to it, and more than 
one pious Zuricher with me. ... It is against me thev are en- 
raged! I am ready; I submit to the Lord's will. But these 

* Ein menschen in ein schr.eeweissen Kleid. BulL, iii, 49. 

358 zwmoLE's Aoomr. 

people shall never be mj masters As for thee, Zurich, 

they will give thee thy reward ; they will strike thee on the 
head. Thou wiliest it. Thou refusest to punish them : well ! 
it is they who will punish thee.i But God will not the less 
preserve his Word, and their haughtiness shall come to an 
end." Such was Zwingle's cry of agony; hut the immobility 
of death alone replied. The hearts of the Zurichers were so 
hardened that the sharpest arrows of the reformer could not 
pierce them, and they fell at his feet blunted and useless. 

But events were pressing on, and justified all his fears. The 
Five Cantons had rejected every proposition that had been 
made to them. " Why do you talk of punishing a few 
wrongs?" they had replied to the mediators; "it is a question 
of quite another kind. Do you not require that we should re- 
ceive back among us the heretics whom we have banished, and 
tolerate no other priests than those who preach conformably to 
the Word of God? We know what that means. No — no — we 
wiU not abandon the religion of our fathers; and if we must 
see our wives and our children deprived of food, our hands Avill 
know how to conquer what is refused to us: to that we pledge 
our bodies — our goods — our lives." It was with this threat- 
ening language that the deputies quitted the diet of Bremgar- 
ten. They had proudly shaken the folds of their mantles, and 
war had fallen from them. 

The terror was general, and the alarmed citizens beheld 
everywhere frightful portents, terrific signs, apparently fore- 
boding the most horrible events. It was not only the white 
phantom that had appeared at Bremgarten at Zwingle's side: 
the most fearful omens, passing from mouth to mouth, filled 
the people with the most gloomy presentiments. The history 
of these phenomena, however strange it may appear, character- 
izes the period of Avhich we write. We do not create the times: 
it is our simple duty to paint them as they really were. 

On the 26th July, a widow chancing to be alone before her 
house, in the village of Castelenschloss, suddenly beheld a 
frightful spectacle — ^blood springing from the earth all around 
her.* She rushed in alarm into the cottage. . . .but, oh horri- 
ble! blood is flowing everywhere — from the wainscot and from 
the stones;' — it falls in a stream from a basin on a shelf, and 
even the child's cradle ovei-flows with it. The woman imagines 

1 Straafen willt sy nitt, des werden sy dich straafen. Bull., iii, 82. 

' Ante et post cam purus sanRuis ita acritcr ex dura terra eflluxit, ut ex vena incisa 
(Zw. Epp., ii, B27.) Before and behind her pure blood flowed from the hard ground 
M Btrongly as from an opened Tein. » Sed ctiam sanguis ex terra, lignta 

•t Upidibui effluxit Ibid. 

FRlGHTFrL OitEXS. 359 

tii&t the invisible hand of an assassin has been at work, and 
TUshes in distraction out of doors, crying mnrderl murder!^ 
The villagers and the monks of a neighbouring convent assem- 
ble at the noise — they succeed in partly effacing the bloody 
stains; but a little later in the day, the other inhabitants of 
the house, sitting down in terror to eat their evening meal under 
the projecting eaves, suddenly discover blood bubbling up in a 
pond — blood flowing from the loft — blood covering all the walls 
of the house. Blood — ^blood — everywhere blood I The bailiff of 
Schenkenberg and the pastor of Dalheim arrive — inquire into 
the matter — and immediately report it to the lords of Berne 
and to Zwingle. 

Scarcely had this horrible recital — ^the particulars of which 
are faithfully preserved in Latin and in German — filled aU 
minds with the idea of a horrible butchery, than in the western 
-quarter of the heavens there appeared a frightful comet,* whose 
immense train of a pale yeUow colour tm*ned towards the south. 
At the time of its setting, this apparition shone in the sky like 
the fire of a furnace.^ One night — on the 15th August as it 
■would appear* — Zwingle and George Miiller, formerly abbot of 
"Wettingen, being together in the cemetery of the cathedral, 
both fixed their eyes upon this ten-ific meteor. " This ominous 
globe," said Zwingle, "is come to light the path that leads to 
my grave. It will be at the cost of my life and of many good 
men with me. Although I am rather shortsighted, I foresee 
great calamities in the futtire.' The truth and the Church 
will mourn; but Christ will never forsake us." It was not 
only at Zurich that this flaming star spread consternation. 
Tadian being one night on an eminence in the neighbourhood 
of St. GaU, surrounded by his friends and disciples, after hav- 
ing explained to them the names of the stars and the miracles 
of the Creator, stopped before this comet, which denounced the 
^nger of God; and the famous Theophrastus declared that it 
foreboded not only great bloodshed, but most especially the 
death of learned and Ulustrious men. This mysterious phen- 
omenon prolonged its frightful visitation tmtil the 3d September. 

1 Ct eadem txcurreret caedem clamitans. Zw. Epp., ii, 6C7. ' Ein gar 

-eschrocklicher c .met, BulL, ii, 46. It was HaUev's comet, that retams about every 
76 years. It appeared last in lS-33. » Wie ein fhuwr in einer ess. Ibii 

Perhaps BiiUinger alludes in this way to the phenomenon remarked by Appian, as- 
"tronomer to Charles V, who observed this comet at Ingolstadt, and who says that the 
tail disappeared as the nucleus approached the horizon. In 1456, its appearance had 
already excited great terror. * Cometam jam tribus noctibus viderunt apnd 

nos alii, ego una tantum. putol-5 Angusti. ( Zw. Epp., p. 6-54.) Others with us haT« 
already seen the comet for three nights. I have seen it on one night only, I think IMfa 
■Aogast. * Ego c£culus non unam calamitatem expecto. Ibid., 636. 

360 zwingle's tranquillitt. 

When once the noise of these omens was spread abroad, mea 
could no longer contain themselves. Their imaginations were 
excited; they heaped fright upon fright: each place had its 
terrors. Two banners waving in the clouds had been seen on 
the mountain of the Brunig; at Zug a buckler had appeared 
in the heavens; on the banks of the Reiiss, reiterated explo- 
sions were heard during the night; on the lake of the Eour 
Cantons, ships with aerial combatants careered about in every 
direction. War — war; — blood — blood! — these were the gene- 
ral cries. 

In the midst of all this agitation, Zwingle alone seemed 
tranquil. He rejected none of these presentiments, but con- 
templated them with calmness. "A heart that fears God," 
said he, "cares not for the threats of the world. To forward 
the designs of God, Avhatever may happen, — this is his task. 
A carrier who has a long road to go must make up his mind 
to wear his waggon and his gear during tlie journey. If he 
carry his merchandise to the appointed spot, that is enough 
for him. We are the waggon and the gear of God. There 
is not one of the articles that is not worn, twisted, or broken; 
but our great Driver will not the less accomplish by our means 
his vast designs. Is it not to those who fall upon the field of 
battle that the noblest croAvn belongs? Take courage, then, 
in the midst of all these dangers, throuo-h which the cause of 
Jesus Christ must pass. Be of good cheer! although we 
should never here below see its triumphs with our own eyes. 
The Judge of the combat beholds us, and it is he who confers the 
crown. Others will enjoy upon earth the fruits of our labours; 
while we, already in heaven, shall enjoy an eternal reward."^ 
Thus spoke Zwingle, as he advanced calmly towards the 
threatening noise of the tempest, which, by its repeated flashes 
and sudden explosions, foreboded death. 


The Five Cantons decide for War— Deceitful Calm— Fatal Inactivity— Zurich fore- 
warned— IJanner of Lucerne planted— Manifesto— The Bailiwicks pillaged — The 
Monastery of Cappel— Letter— Infatuation of Zurich— New Warnings— The War 
begins— The Tocsin— A fearful NiKht— The War— Banner and Army of Zurich— 
Zwingle's Departure — Zwingle's Horse — Anna Zwingle. 

The Five Cantons, assembled in diet at Lucerne, appeared full 
of determination, and war was decided upon. "We will call 

1 Zw. Opp. Comment, in Jeremiam. This Work wag composed the Tery year off 
XwiDgle's death. 


upon tfae cities to respect our alliances," said they, "and if 
the J refuse, we wUl enter the common bailiwicks bv force to 
procure provisions, and unite our banners in Zug to attack the- 
enemy." The Waldstettes were not alou-?. The nuncio, being 
solicited by his Lucerne friends, had required that auxiliary 
troops, paid by the pope, should be put in motion towards 
Switzerland, and he announced their near arrival. 

These resolutions carried terror into Switzerland; the me- 
diating cantons met again at Arau, and drew up a plan that 
should leave the religious question just as it had been settled 
by the treaty of 1529. Deputies immediately bore these pro- 
positions to the different councils. Lucerne haughtily rejected 
them. "Tell those who sent you,'' was the reply, "that we 
do not acknowledge them as our schoolmasters. We would 
rather die than yield the least thing to the prejudice of our 
faith." The mediators returued-to Arau, trembling and dis- 
couraged. This useless attempt increased the disagreement 
among the reformed, and gave the Waldstettes still gi-eater 
confidence. Zurich, so decided for the reception of the Gospel, 
now became daily more irresolutel The members of the coun- 
cil distrusted each other; the people felt no interest in this 
war; and Zwingle, notwithstanding his imshaken faith in the 
justice of his cause, had no hope for the struggle that was 
about to take place. Berne, on its side, did not cease to en- 
treat Zurich to avoid precipitation. "Do not let us expose 
ourselves to the reproach of too much haste, as in 1529," was 
the general remark in Zurich. "We have sure friends in the 
midst of the Waldstettes; let us wait until they announce to 
us, as they have promised, some real danger." 

It was soon believed that these temporizers were right. In 
fact the alarming news ceased. That constant rumour of war, 
which incessantly came from the Waldstettes, discontinued. 
There were no more alarms — no more fears! Deceitful omen! 
Over the mountains and valleys of Switzerland, hangs that 
gloomy and mysterious sUence, the forerunner of the tempest. 

Whilst they were sleeping at Zurich, the Waldstettes were 
preparing to conquer their rights by force of arms. The chiefs, 
closely united to each other by common interests and dangers, 
found a powerful support in the indignation of the people. Itt< 
a diet of the Five Cantons, held at Brunnen on the banks of 
the Lake of Lucerne, opposite Grutli, the alliances of the con- 
federation were read; and the deputies, having been summoned 
to declare by their votes whether they thought the war just and 
lawful, all hands were raised with a shudder. Immediately 


the Waldstettes had prepared their attack with the pro- 
foundest mystery. All the passes had been guarded — all 
<;ommunication between Zurich and the Five Cantons had been 
rendered impossible. The friends upon whom the Zurichers 
had reckoned on the banks of the Lakes Lucerne and Zug, and 
•who had promised them inteUigence, were like prisoners in 
their mountains. The terrible avalanche was about to slip 
from the icy summits of the mountain, and to roll into the val- 
leys, even to the gates of Zurich, overthrowing everything in 
its passage, without the least forewarning of its fall. The 
mediators had returned discouraged to their cantons. A spirit 
of imprudence and of error — sad forerunner of the fall of re- 
publics as well as of kings — had spread over the whole city of 
Zurich. The council had at first given orders to call out 
the militia ; then, deceived by the silence of the Waldstettes, 
it had imprudently revoked the decree, and Lavater, the com- 
mander of the army, had retired in discontent to Ry- 
bourg, and indignantly thrown from him that sword which 
they had commanded him to leave in the scabbard. Thus the 
winds Avere about to be unchained from the mountains ; the 
waters of the great deep, aroused by a terrible earthquake, 
■were about to open ; and yet the vessel of the state, sadly 
abandoned, sported up and down Avith indifference over a 
frightful gulf, — its yard struck, its sails loose and motion- 
less — without compass or crew — without pilot, watch, or helm. 
Whatever were the exertions of the Waldstettes, they could 
not entirely stifle the rumour of war, which from chalet to 
chalet called all their citizens to arms. God permitted a cry 
of alarm — a single one, it is true — to resound in the ears of 
the people of Zurich. On the 4th October, a little boy, who 
knew not what he was doing, succeeded in crossing tlie fron- 
tier of Zug, and presented himself with two loaves at the gate 
of the reformed monastery of Cappel, situated in the farthest 
limits of the canton of Zurich. He Avas led to the abbot, to 
whom the child gave the loaves Avithout saying a Avord. The 
superior, with Avhom there chanced to bo at that time a coun- 
cillor from Zurich, Henry Peyer, sent by his government, 
turned pale at the sight. " If the Five Cantons intend en- 
tering by force of arms into the free bailiwicks,'' had said 
these tAvo Zurichers to one of their friends in Zug, "you Avill 
Bend your son to us Avith one loaf ; but you Avill give him two 
if they are marching at once upon the bailiwicks and upon 
Zurich." The abbot and the councillor wrote with all speed 
to Zurich. •' Be upon your guard! take up arms," said they ; 


but no credit was attached to this information. The council 
■were at that time occupied in taking measures to prevent the 
supplies that had arrived from Alsace from entering the can- 
Ions. Zwingle himself, who had never ceased to annoimce 
war, did not believe it. " These pensioners are really clever 
fellows," said the reformer. " Their preparations may be 
after aU nothing but a French manoeuvre."^ ^ 

He was deceived — they were a reality. Foiu- days were to 
accomplish the ruin of Zurich. Let us retrace in succession 
the history of these disastrous moments. 

On Sunday, 8th October, a messenger appeared at Zurich, 
and demanded, in the name of the Five Cantons, letters of 
perpetual alliance.^ The majority saw in this step nothing 
but a trick; but Zwingle began to discern the thunderbolt in 
the black cloud that was drawing near. He was in the pul- 
pit : it was the last time he was destined to appear in it ; and 
as if he had seen the formidable spectre of Rome rise fright- 
fully above the Alps, calling upon him and upon his people 
to abandon the faith: — " Xo — no!" cried he, "never will I 
deny my Redeemer!"' 

At the same moment a messenger arrived in haste from 
Mulinen, commander of the Knights-hospitallers of St. John 
at Hitzkylch. " On Friday, 6th October," said he to the 
councils of Zurich, " the people of Lucerne planted their banner 
in the Great Square.' Two men that I sent to Lucerne have 
been thrown into prison. To-morrow morning, Monday, 9th 
October, the Five Cantons wiU enter the baUiwicks. Already 
the country-people, frightened and fugitive, are running to us 
in crowds.'" — •' It is an idle story," said the cotmcils.* Never- 
theless they recalled the commander-in-chief Lavater, who sent 
off a trusty man, nephew of James Winckler, with orders to 
repair to Cappel, and if possible as far as Zug, to reconnoitre 
the arrangement of the cantons. 

The Waldstettes were in reality assembling round the ban- 
ner of Lucerne. The people of this canton; the men of 
Schwytz, Uri, Zug, and Unterwalden; refugees from Zurich 
And Berne, with a few Italians, formed the main body of the 
army, which had been raised to invade the free bailiwicks. 
Two manifestations were published — one addressed to the can- 
tons, the other to foreign princes and nations. 

» iiise ire Rustung mochte woll eine franzosische prattik sein. Bull., iii, 86. 

• Die ewige Blind abgeforderU J. J. Hottinger, iii, 577. According to Bullinger, 
this did not take place until Monday. ' Ire paner in den Brunnen gesteckt. 

Bull., iii, 80. * Ein gep'och and progerey und unt darauff setzend. Ibid. 



Tlie Five Cantons energetically set forth the attacks made 
upon the treaties, the discord sown throughout the confedera- 
tion, and finally the refusal to sell them provisions — a refusal 
whose only aim was (according to them) to excite the people 
against the magistrates, and to establish the Reform by force. 
"It is not true," added they, "that — as they are continually 
crying out — we oppose the preaching of the truth and the 
reading cf the Bible. As obedient members of the Church, we 
desire to receive all that our holy mother receives. But we re- 
ject the books and the innovations of Zwingle and his compan- 

Hardly had the messengers charged with these manifestoes 
departed, before the first division of the army began to march, 
and arrived in the evening in the free bailiwicks. The soldiers 
having entered the deserted churches, and seen the images of 
the saints removed and the altars broken, their anger was 
kindled; they spread like a torrent over the whole country, 
pillaged everything they met with, and were particularly en- 
raged against the houses of the pastors, where they destroyed 
the furniture with oaths and maledictions. At the same time 
the division that was to form the main army marched upon 
Zug, thence to move upon Zurich. 

Cappel, at three leagues from Zurich, and about a league 
from Zug, was the first place they would reach in the Zurich 
territory, after crossing the frontier of the Five Cantons. 
Near the Albis, between two hills of similar height, the Gran- 
ges on the north, and the Ifelsberg on the south, in the midst 
of delightful pastures, stood the ancient and wealthy convent of 
the Cistercians, in whose church were the tombs of many an- 
cient and noble families of these districts. The Abbot Wolf- 
gang Joner, a just and pious man, a great friend of the arts 
and letters, and a distinguished preacher, had reformed his 
convent in 1527. Full of compassion, rich in good works, par- 
ticularly towards the poor of the canton of Zug and the free 
bailiwicks, he was held in great honour throughout the whole 
country.2 He predicted what would be the termination of the 
war; yet as soon as danger approached, he spared no labour 
to servo his country. 

It was on Sunday night that the abbot received positive in- 
telligence of the preparations at Zug. He paced up and down his 
cell with hasty steps; sleep fled from his eyes; he drew near his 

' AIs wir Tertruwen Gott und der AVelt antnurt zu geben. BulL, iii, 101. 
3 That armen liiten vU guU . . . und bj aller Brburkeit In grossem antttiaiu 
BuU., iu, HI. 


lamp, and addressing his intimate friend, Peter Simmler, who 
succeeded him, and who was then residing at Kylchberg, a vil- 
lao-e on the borders of the lake, and about a league from the 
town, he hastily wrote these words: "the great anxiety and 
trouble which agitate me prevent me from busying myself with 
the management of the house, and induce me to write to you 

all that is preparing. The time is come the scourge 

of God appears.- .... After many journeys and inquiries, 
we have learnt that the Five Cantons will march to-day (Mon- 
day) to seize upon Hitzkylch, while the main army assembles 
its banners at Baar, between Zug and Cappel. Those from 
the valley of the Adige and the Italians will arrive to-day or 
to-morrow." This letter, through some unforeseen circum- 
stance, did not reach Zurich till the evening. 

Meanwhile the messenger whom Lavater had sent — the 
nephew of J. Winckler — creeping on his belly, gliding unper- 
ceived past the sentinels, and clinging to the shrubs that 
overhung the precipices, had succeeded in making his way 
where no road had been cleared. On an-iving near Zug, he 
had discovered with alarm the banner and the militia hastening 
from all sides at beat of drum : then traversing again these 
unknown passes, he had returned to Zurich with this infor- 

It was high time that the bandage should fall from the eyes 
of the Zurichers ; but the delusion was to endure until the end. 
The council which was called together met in small number. 
" The Five Cantons," said they, " are making a little noise to 
frighten us, and to make us raise the blockade."^ The coun- 
cil, however, decided on sending Colonel Rodolph Dumysen 
and Ulrich Funck to Cappel, to see what was going on ; and 
each one, tranquillized by this unmeaning step, retired to rest. 

They did not slumber long. Every hour brought fresh 
messengers of alarm to Zurich. " The banners of four can- 
tons are assembled at Zug," said they. " They are only 
waiting for Uri. The people of the free bailiwicks are flock- 
ing to Cappel, and demanding arms Help! help!" 

Before tlic break of day the council was again assembled, 
and it ordered the convocation of the Two Hundred. An 
old man, whose hair had grown gray on the battle-field and 
in the council of the state — the banneret John Schweitzer — 
raising his head enfeebled by age, and darting the last beam, 

> Vk 7,yt ixt hie, das die riit gottes cich wil erzeigen. Bull, iii, 87. * Naben 

den Wacli'eii, diiruh umwa; und gestrupji. Ibid. * St macbtand 

aleia ge|>rog. Ibid, lo3. 


as it were, from his eyes, exclaimed, "Now — at this very 
moment, in God's name, send an advanced-guard to Cappel, 
and let the army, promptly collecting round the banner, fol- 
low it immediately. '' He said no more ; but the charm was 
not yet broken. "The peasants of the free bailiwicks," said 
some, " we know to be hasty, and easily carried away. They 
make the matter greater than it really is. The wisest plan is 
to wait for the report of the councillors." In Zurich there 
was no longer either arm to defend or head to advise. 

It was seven in the morning, and the assembly was still 
sitting, when Rodolph Gwerb, pastor of Rifferschwyl, near 
Cappel, arrived in haste. " The people of the lordship of 
Knonau," said he, " are crowding round the convent, and 
loudly calling for chiefs and for aid. The enemy is approach- 
ing. Will our lords of Zurich (say they) abandon themselves, 
and us Avith them? Do they wish to give us up to slaughter ?" 
The pastor, who had witnessed these mournful scenes, spoke 
with animation. The councillors, whose infatuation was to- 
be prolonged to the last, were offended at his message. 
" They want to make us act imprudently," replied they, turn- 
ing in their arm-chairs. 

They had scarcely ceased speaking before a new messenger- 
appeared, wearing on his features the marks of the greatest, 
terror: it was Schwytzer, landlord of the "Beech Tree" on 
Mount Albis, " My lords Dumysen and Funck,'' said he, 
" liave sent me to you with all speed to announce to the coun- 
cil that the Five Cantons have seized upon Hitzkylch, and 
that they are now collecting all their troops at Baar. My 
lords remain in the bailiwicks to aid the frightened inhabi- 

This time the most confident turned pale. Terror, so long 
restrained, passed like a flash of lightning through every 
heart.i Hitzkylch was in the power of the enemy, and the 
war was begun. 

It was resolved to expedite to Cappel a flying camp of six 
hundred men with six guns ; but tlic command was intrusted 
to George Godli, M'hose brother was in the army of the Five 
Cantons, and he was enjoined to keep on the defensive. 
Godli and his troops had just left the city, when the captain- 
general Lavater, summoning into the hall of the Smaller 
Council the old banneret Scluveitzer, William Toning, cap- 
tain of the arquebusiers, J, Dcnnikon, captain of the artillery, 

1 INeier Bottsciiaft erachrack menklich UbeL Bull, ili, 104, 


Zwingle, and some others, said to them, '• Let us deliberate 
promptly on the means of saving the canton and the city. 
Let the tocsin inmiediately call out aU the citizens." The 
captain-general feared that the councils would shrink at this 
proceeding, and he wished to raise the landstrum by the 
simple advice of the chiefs of the army and of Zwingle. 
"We cannot take it upon ourselves," said they; "the two 
councils are still sitting; let us lay this proposition before 
them. " They hastened towards the place of meeting; but fatal 
mischance ! there were only a few members of the Smaller Coun- 
cil on the benches. " The consent of the Two Hundred is ne- 
cessary," said they. Again a new delay, and the enemy were 
on their march. Two hours after noon the Great Coimcil met 
again, but only to make long and useless speeches.^ At length 
the resolution was taken, and at seven in the evening the tocsin 
began to sound in all the countey districts. Treason united 
with this dilatoriness, and persons who pretended to be envoys 
from Zurich stopped the landstnmi in many places, as being 
contrary to the opinion of the council. A great number of 
• citizens went to sleep again. 

It was a fearful night. The thick darkness — a violent storm 
— the alarm-bell ringing from every steeple — the people rtmning- 
to arms — the noise of swords and guns — the sound of tnmipets 
and of drums, combined with the roaring of the tempest, the 
distrust, discontent, and even treason, which spread affliction 
in every quarter — the sobs of women and of children — the cries^ 
which accompanied many a heart-rending adieu — an earthquake 
which occurred about nine o'clock at night, as if nature her- 
self had shuddered at the blood that was about to be spilt, and 
which violently shook the motmtains and the valleys:* all in- 
creased the terrors of this fatal night, — a night to be followed 
by a stiU more fatal day. 

AMule these events were passing, the Zurichers encamped on 
the heights of Cappel to the number of about one thousand men, 
fixed their eyes on Zug and upon the lake, attentively watching 
every movement. On a sudden, a little before night, they per- 
ceived a few barks filled with soldiers coming from the side of 
Arth, and rowing across the lake towards Zug. Their ntimber 
increases — one boat follows another — soon they distinctly hear 
the bellowing of the Bull (the horn) of Uri,' and discern the 
banner. The barks draw near Zug; they are moored to the 

1 Ward so tH and lang darin geradschlagt. Bull., iii, 104. s Ein startrer 

Erdbi.iem, der I'ks Land, auch Berg und Thai gwaltiglich ersbiitt. Tschudi, HelTetia, 
ii, 186. » Vil schiffen uff Zug faren. und bort man luren den Uri StUr. BulLt 


ebore, whicli is lined witk an immense crowd. The warriors 
Uri and the arquebusiers of the Adige spring up and leap on 
shore, where they are received with acclamations, and take up 
their quarters for the night: behold the enemies assembled! 
The council are informed with all speed. 

The agitation was still greater at Zurich than at Cappel: 
the confusion Avas increased by uncertainty. The enemy at- 
tacking tliem on different sides at once, they knew not where 
-to carry assistance. Two hours after midnight five Imndred 
anen with four guns quitted the city for Bremgarten, and three 
or four hundred men with five guns for Wadenschwyl. They 
turned to the right and to the left, while the enemy was in front. 

Alarmed at its own weakness, the council resolved to apply 
without delay to the cities of the christian co-burghery. " As 
this revolt,'' wrote they, " has no other origin than the Word 
•of God, we entreat you once — twice — thrice, as loudly, as 
seriously, as firmly, and as earnestly, as our ancient alliances 
and our christian co-burghery permit and command us to do 
— to set forth without delay with all your forces. Haste .' 
haste! haste! Act as promptly as possible' — the danger is 
yours as -well as ours." Thus spake Zurich; but it was alreadj 
too late. 

At break of day the banner was raised before the town, 
house; instead of flaunting proudly in the wind, it hung droop 
ing down the staff — a sad omen that filled many minds with 
fear. Lavater took up his station under this standard; but 
a long period elapsed before a few hundred soldiers could be 
got together.2 In the square and in all the city disorder and 
confusion prevailed. The troops, fatigued by a hasty march 
or by long waiting, were faint, and discouraged. 

At ten o'clock, only 700 men were under arms. The selfish, 
the lukewarm, the friends of Rome and of tlie foreign pension- 
ers, had remained at home. A few old men who had more 
courage tlian strength — several members of tlic two councils 
who were devoted to the holy cause of God's Word — many 
ministers of the Church who desired to live and die with the 
Ecform — the boldest of the townspeoi)le and a certain number 
of peasants, especially those from the neighbourhood of the city 
— such were the defenders who, wanting that moral force so 
necessary for victory, incompletely armed, and without uniform, 
crowded in disorder around the banner of Zurich. 

The army sliould have numbered at least 4000 men; they 

» Ylcntr, yleiitTi, yientz., ufF« nl'.er nchncUist. Hull., iii, 110. ' Sammlet sich 

doch (iaK voick gniaehSHin. Ibid., IVt, 


•waited still; the usual oath had not been administered; and 
jet courier after courier arrived breathless and in disorder, 
announcing the terrible danger that threatened Zurich. AU 
this disorderly crowd vras ^•iolently agitated — thev no longer 
"waited for the commands of their chiefs, and many without 
taking the oath rushed through the gates. About 200 men 
thus set out in confusion. All those who remained prepared 
to depart. 

Zwingle was now seen issuing from a house before which a 
•caparisoned horse was stamping impatiently: it was his own. 
His look was firm, but dimmed by sorrow. He parted from 
bis wife, his children, and his numerous friends, without de- 
<;eiving himself, and with a bruised heart. ^ He observed the 
thick waterspout, which, driven by a terrible wind, advanced 
whirling towards him. Alas I he had himself called up this 
"hurricane by quitting the atmosphere of the Gospel of peace, 
and throwing himself into the midst of political passions. He 
was convinced that he would be its first victim. Fifteen days 
"before the attack of the Waldstettes, he had said from the 
pulpit: "I know the meaning of aU this: I am the person 
specially pointed at. AU this comes to pass — in order that ^ 
may die."- The covmcil, according to an ancient custom, ha^ 
-called upon him to accompany the army as its chaplain. 
Zwingle did not hesitate. He prepared himself without surprise 
and without anger, — with the calmness of a Christian who 
places himself confidently in the hands of his God. H the cause 
of Reform was doomed to perish, he was ready to perish with 
it. Surrounded by his weeping wife and friends — by his chil- 
<iren who clung to his garments to detain him, he quitted that 
house where he had tasted so much happiness. At the moment 
that his hand was upon his horse, just as he was about to 
mount, the animal violently started back several paces, and 
■when he was at last in the saddle, it refused for a time to move, 
rearing and prancing backwards, like that horse which the 
greatest captain of modern times had mounted as he was about 
to cross the Niemen. Many in Zurich at that time thought 
■with the soldier of the Grand Army when he saw Napoleon on 
the ground: "It is a bad omen I a Roman would go back I" * 
Zwingle having at last mastered his horse, gave the reins, ap- 
plied the spur, started forward, and disappeared. 

At eleven o'clock the flag was struck, and all who remained 

I Anna Rheinhard par G. Jleyer of Knonau, and BulL, iii, 33. » Ct e^ toUar 

fiunt omnia. De vita et obitn Zwinglii, Mjconias. ' Segur ; Hist, de XapoleoB 

«t de la Grande Arm^ i, 142. 9 a 

9 Jl ^ 


in the square — about 500 men — began their march along with 
it. The greater part were torn with difficulty from the arms 
of their famiUes, and walked sad and silent, as if they were 
going to the scaffold instead of battle. There was no order — 
no plan; the men were isolated and scattered, some running 
before, some after the colours, their extreme confusion present- 
ing a fearful appearance ; ^ so much so, that those who remained 
behind — the woman, the children, and the old men, filled with 
gloomy forebodings, beat their breasts as they saw them pass, 
and many years after, the remembrance of this day of tumult 
and sadness drew this groan from Oswald Myconius: " When- 
ever I recall it to mind, it is as if a sword pierced my heart.' 
Zwingle, armed according to the usage of the chaplains of the 
confederation, rode mournfully behind this distracted multitude. 
Myconius, when he saw him, was nigh fainting.^ Zwingle 
disappeared, and Oswald remained behind to weep. 

He did not shed tears alone; in all quarters were heard lamen- 
tations, and every house was changed into a house of prayer.^ 
In the midst of this universal sorrow, one woman remained 
silent; her only cry was a bitter heart, her only language the 
mild and suppliant eye of faith : — this was Anna, Zwingle's 
wife. She had seen her husband depart — her son, her brother, 
a great number of intimate friends and near relations, whose 
approaching death she foreboded. But her soul, strong as that 
of her husband, offered to God the sacrifice of her holiest affec- 
tions. Gradually the defenders of Zurich precipitated their 
march, and the tumult died away in the distance. 


The Scene of War— The Enemy at Zug— Declaration of War— Council— Army of 
the Forest Cantons appears— The first Gun fired- Zwingle's Gravity and Sorrow 
—Zurich Army ascending the Albis — Halt and Council at the Beech Tree—They 
quicken their March — Jauch's Reconnaissance — llis Appeal — Ambuscade. 

This night, which was so stormy in Zurich, had not been calmer 
among the inhabitants of Cappel. They had received the most 
alarming reports one after another. It was necessary to take 
up a position that would allow the troops assembled round the 

» NuUu« ordo, nulla consilia, nullai mentes, tanta animorura dissonantia, tarn hor- 
renda facies ante ct postsigna sjiarsim currcntium hominum. De vita et oh. Zwinglii, 

3 Quern ut vidi rtpeiitino dolore cordis vix consistebain. (Ibid.) When I saw hhn 
I could scarcely stand from a sudden pain at my heart. » Mancbainus uon certa 

sine jugibus suKpiriin, non sine prccibus ad Deum. (Ibid.) We remained, not cer. 
tainly without Incessant sighs, not without priijert to God, 


convent to resist the enemy's attack until the arrival of the re- 
inforcements that were expected from the citj. They cast 
their eyes on a small hiU, which lying to the north towards 
Zm-ich, and traversed hy the highroad, presented an mieven 
but sufficiently extensive surface. A deep ditch that surrounded 
it on three sides defended the approaches ; but a small bridge, 
that was the only issue on the side of Zurich, rendered a pre- 
cipitate retreat very dangerous. On the south-west was a 
wood of beech-trees; on the south, in the direction of Zug, was 
the highroad and a marshy valley. "Lead us to the Granges,"' 
cried all the soldiers. They were conducted thither. The ar- 
tUlerv was stationed near some ruins. The line of battle was 
drawn up on the side of the monastery and of Zug, and senti- 
nels were placed at the foot of the slope. 

Meantime, the signal was given at Zug, and Baar ; the 
drums beat: the soldiers of the Five Cantons took up their 
arms. A imiversal feeling of joy animated them. The churches 
were opened, the bells rang, and the serried ranks of the cantons 
entered the cathedral of St. Oswald, where mass was celebrated 
and the Host offered up for the sins of the people. All the 
army began their march at nine o'clock, with banners flyino". 
The avoyer John G older commanded the contigent of Lucerne; 
the landamman James Frouger that of Urd; the landamman 
Ryehmuth, a mortal enemy of the Reformation, that of Schwvtz; 
the landamman Zellger, that of Unterwalden; and Oswald Dooss 
that of Zug. Eight thousand men marched in order of battle: 
all the picked men of the Five Cantons were there. Fresh and