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Full text of "A history of the rise and progress of the arts of design in the United States"

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 



r-rSfl 




A HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 




STEPHEN MIX MITCHELL 

1743-1835 
BY SAMUEL F. B. MORSE 

From the collection of The Connecticut Historical Society 



A HISTORY OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF 

THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

n 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

BY WILLIAM DUNLAP 

Vice-President of the National Academy of Design 

Author of the History of the American Theatre 

Biography of 0. F. Cooke, etc. 



A NEW EDITION, ILLUSTRATED 

Edited, with addition a by 
FRANK W. BAYLEY AND CHARLES E. GOODSPEED 



IN THREE VOLUMES 
VOLUME THREE 



BOSTON 

C. E. GOODSPEED & CO. 

1918 



COPYRIGHT, 1918 BY 
C. E. GOODSPEED & COMPANY 



/ V 



v. S 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 

CHAPTER I Page 

Charles Robert Leslie ....... 1 

CHAPTER II 
Rogers Brown Bo wen De Beet Boyd Exilious 

Lawrence Henri Gimbrede White Jones 

Jewett Throop Ames Smith Titian Peale 

Thomas Birch Stein Penniman Charles B. 
King Dowse Williams Volozon Miller - 
Bishop James Peale, Jr. ..... 15 

CHAPTER III 
Fisher Munson Frazee ...... 32 

CHAPTER IV 
West - - Ingham - - Munger Bridport Nelson 

Bennett 39 

CHAPTER V 
Academies ......... 48 

CHAPTER VI 

Durand Harding Reinagle Marsiglia Herring 
George and John V. Dixey Town Newton - 
Gondolfi Evers Scarlett Coffee Quidor . 60 

CHAPTER VII 
Morse Jouett Shaw Petticolas Wall Earl - 

Corwaine Jocelyn Johnston Dickinson . . 88 

CHAPTER VIII 
American Academy of Fine Arts National Academy of 

Design Hartwell Pekenino Cooke . . 119 



4859G9 



vi CONTENTS OF VOLUME III 

CHAPTER IX p^ 

Inman Cole ........ 135 

CHAPTER X 

Miss Hall De Rose Danforth Neagle Pratt 
Catlin - - Binon - - Yenni Parker Robinson 
The Two Stricklands Godefroi Dorsey Prud'- 
homme Steel C. V. Ward J. C. Ward . . 160 

CHAPTER XI 

Doughty -- Weir Robert M. Sully -- Miss Leslie 

Bruen John Durand Bush Cummings . . 175 

CHAPTER XII 

Audubon H. S. Mount S. A. Mount A. J. Davis 

Longacre Greenough ...... 202 

CHAPTER XIII 

Alexander -- Whitehorne Wall Hanks -- Tyler - 
Frederick S. Agate - - Alfred Agate - - Spencer - 
Chapman Augur C. C. Wright Lambdin - 
Oddie Main Newcombe Dodge Jane Stuart 

- Abraham John Mason Morton Hubard - 
Samuel Seymour Hatch ..... 232 

CHAPTER XIV 

Flagg - - Cranch - - Shumway Marchant - - William 
Sidney Mount Freeman Ferguson Torrey - 
Richardson Twibill Page Bisbee Crawley 
Newsam - - W T alter - - Bradish - - Watson James 
Smillie Mayr Rawdon Collections . . 259 

Addenda . 281 

Appendix . . 344 

Bibliography . . . 346 

Index . 379 

Errata 418 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III 

Stephen Mix Mitchell . . . Frontispiece 

From a painting by Samuel F. B. Morse page 

John Howard Payne ... . . 2 

From a painting by Charles Robert Leslie 

Pierre Henri . . : . . 20 

From a painting by himself 

Ezra Ames ......... 24 

From an engraving by H. B. Hall's Sons 

Thomas Birch 26 

From a daguerreotype 

Battle of Lake Erie 28 

From a painting by Thomas Birch 

Nathaniel Bowditch ....... 34 

From a marble bust portrait by John Frazee 

The L 7 . S. Frigate Hudson returning from a cruise with a 

fair wind . ..... 44 

From an engraving in aquatint by William J. 
Bennett 

Asher B. Durand . 60 

From a painting by himself 

JohnTrumbull . 62 

From an engraving by Asher B. Durand after a 
portrait by Waldo & Jewett 

Ariadne ......... 64 

From an engraving by Asher B. Durand after a 
painting by John Vanderlyn 

Chester Harding 66 

From an engraving by H. Wright Smith after a por- 
trait by Harding 

Loammi Baldwin, 2d ....... 68 

From a painting by Chester Harding 

vii 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III 

Page 

Mrs. Daniel Webster . . . . 70 

From a painting by Chester Harding 

Gilbert Stuart Newton .... 78 

From an etching by S. J. Ferris after a pencil drawing 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse ..... 88 

From an engraving by John Sartain after a photo- 
graph from life 

De Witt Clinton . . 96 

From a painting by Samuel F. B. Morse 

Matthew Harris Jouett .... 100 

From a painting by himself 

John Grimes . .... 102 

From a painting by Matthew Harris Jouett 

David C. Johnston ..... 112 

From an etching by himself 

Henry Inman ...... 134 

From a photograph 

David Paul Brown . . 136 

From a painting by Henry Inman 

Henry Pratt ... 138 

From a painting by Henry Inman 

Thomas Cole ... 140 

From a photograph 

John Neagle ........ 166 

From a photograph 

Richard M. Johnson ... ... 168 

From a painting by John Neagle 

Marquis De Lafayette . . . . . . .170 

From a painting by Henry Cheeves Pratt 

Pash-ee-pa-ho . . . 172 

From an engraving after a drawing by George Catlin 

William Strickland . . .174 

From a painting by John Neagle 

On the Susquehanna ..... .176 

From a painting by Thomas Doughty 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III ix 

Page 

John James Audubon ....... 202 

From an engraving by J. Sartain after a painting 
by F. Cruikshanks 

Golden Eye Duck 206 

From an engraving by R. Havell Jr., after a painting 
by John James Audubon 

The State House, Boston 210 

From a drawing by Alexander J. Davis after a 
design by Charles Bulfinch 

Andrew Jackson ........ 212 

From an engraving by James B. Longacre after a 
drawing by him 

Martha Washington . . . . . . .214 

From an engraving by J. B. Longacre after a minia- 
ture by Walter Robertson 

Horatio Greenough . . . . . . .216 

From a daguerreotype 

Mrs. Fletcher Webster 232 

From a painting by Francis Alexander 

John Gadsby Chapman ...... 244 

From a lithograph by himself 

William Page 264 

From a photograph by Brady 

John Larrabee ........ 282 

From a painting by Joseph Badger 

John Adams ........ 284 

From an engraving after a painting by Benjamin 
Blyth 

Evelyn Byrd . 286 

From a painting by Charles Bridges 

Charles Bulfinch . 288 

From a painting by Mather Brown 

Winthrop Chandler 290 

From an engraving by H. W. Smith 

George Robert Twelves Hewes ..... 292 
From a painting by Joseph Greenleaf Cole 

Michele Felice Corne 294 

From a painting by an unknown artist 



x ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III 

Page 

Ship Mount Vernon . . . . . 296 

From a heliotype after a fresco by Michele Felice 
Come 

Andrew Jackson ....... 298 

From an engraving by J. F. E. Prud'homme after 
a painting by R. E. W. Earl 

Major General Anthony Wayne ..... 300 
From a painting by Henry Elouis 

Samuel Sewall . 302 

From a painting by Nathaniel Emmons 

John Vinal . . . ... 304 

From a painting by John Mason Furnass 

Richard Mather 306 

From an engraving on wood by John Foster 

Gen. Henry Lee . . . ... 308 

From a painting by Sarah Goodridge 

Isaiah Thomas . 310 

From a painting by Ethan Allen Greenwood 

Benjamin Pickman . . . . . . .312 

From a painting by John Greenwood 

Colonel John May ... ... 314 

From a painting by Christian Gullager 

Colonel William Raymond Lee . . . . .316 
From a painting by N. Hancock 

Peter Harrison . . .318 

From an engraving after a painting by John Smibert 

John Johnston . . ... 320 

From a crayon portrait by himself 

Judge Daniel Davis ...... 322 

From a painting by John Johnston 

Rev. John Clarke . . .324 

From a painting by William Lovett 

Pierce-Johonnot-Nichols House . ... 326 

Samuel Mclntire architect. From a photograph 

Rev. Ezra Stiles . . .' 328 

From a painting by Reuben Moulthrop 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME III xi 

Page 

William Wignall Stevens . . .330 

From a painting by Henry Pelham 

Peter Pelham . ... 332 

From a painting by John Singleton Copley 

Sir William Pepperrell . 334 

From an engraving by Peter Pelham after a painting 
by John Smibert 

Jacob Perkins . 336 

From a lithograph by Richard J. Lane after a draw- 
ing by Chester Harding 

Milton ..... ... 338 

From an engraving by Perkins & Heath 

Charles Balthazar Julien Fevxe De Saint Memin . . 340 
From an engraving by himself 

Mrs. Susanna Holyoke Ward ..... 342 

From a painting by William Verstille 



A HISTORY OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS 

OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



CHAPTER I. 

CHARLES ROBERT LESLIE. 

THIS gentleman's talents, and the taste with which he has 
exerted them, have placed him in the foremost rank of living 
artists. His father, Robert Leslie, and his mother, Lydia 
Baker, were both Americans. They visited England in 1793 
or 4, and on the 17th of October, 1794, the subject of this 
sketch was born in London. Our cousins of Great Britain, 
who are very willing to cozen us out of anything that might 
do us credit, have claimed Leslie as an Englishman, although 
his parents returned to their native country and carried the boy 
with them before he was five years old. We would ask an Eng- 
lish ambassador residing at Pera, if he has sons born to him 
there, are they therefore Turks? No: Charles Robert Leslie 
is an American, and received his first instruction as a painter 
in America, and imbibed his taste and love for the art before 
he left the country to study systematically in Great Britain. 

It has so happened that many of our eminent artists were 
born in England, and removed to this country by their English 
parents while infants or children. Sully, Jarvis, Cummings, 
and Cole, all born in England, all imbibed their love for the 
fine arts, and their love for the institutions of this country in 
childhood. Two of them have never been out of the country, 
since brought into it, and the others were good painters before 
they sought additional knowledge by returning to the land of 
their nativity. 

The father of our painter was long established in Philadel- 
phia as a watchmaker, and there are persons living who recollect 
him as a very ingenious man. He was himself fond of drawing, 

l 



2 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and had attained both accuracy and skill in the art. His 
drawings of ships and of machinery are spoken of as being 
beautifully executed. Such was his attachment to this art, 
that when he sent his boy to school in New Jersey, he stipu- 
lated that he should be permitted to draw. Great facility of 
hand had been acquired by young Leslie in the exercise of his 
pencil and water colors during his apprenticeship, and his 
propensity was never discouraged by the liberal gentleman to 
whom he was bound, nor by any of the Americans around 
him. His first lessons in painting were received in America, 
and Americans enabled the youth to seek in Europe for further 
instruction. He found it, but still he found in Americans, 
though in Europe, his most efficient advisers and instructors. 

In the year 1811, happening to be in Philadelphia, my friends 
spoke to me of the cleverness of young Leslie, and I went with 
Mr. Sully to the house of Mrs. Leslie, the young painter's 
mother; but though introduced to her and her daughters, I 
did not see him. On the 16th of April I went with Mr. Trott to 
Mr. Edwin's, the engraver, for the purpose of viewing Leslie's 
drawings of Cooke, Jefferson, Blisset, and others, which he had 
made merely from seeing them on the stage in character; and 
which were to be published in the "Mirror of Taste." I 
thought them very extraordinary. Leslie was then in the 
bookstore of Messrs. Inskeep and Bradford, an apprentice. 
Two days after I saw him at the fish club on the Schuylkill, 
where he came with Bradford to sketch the scene, or some of 
the characters there assembled. I never saw him again till 
he called with his friend Morse to see me a day or two before 
he returned to England in April, 1834. 

On Mr. Leslie's arrival in this country in 1833, I addressed 
a letter to him, requesting such information as would enable 
me to be accurate in my biographical sketch of him for this 
work: his prompt, frank, manly reply is before me, and it would 
be injustice to him and to the reader not to give his own words. 

After mentioning the facts already given respecting his 
parents and his birth, he proceeds: "In 1799 my father re- 
turned to America with his family, consisting of himself, his 




JOHN HOWARD PAYNE 

1792 1852 
BY CHARLES ROBERT LESLIE 

From the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 



PATRONS OF LESLIE 3 

wife, and sister, and five children. We lived for a short time in 
the State of New Jersey, close to the Delaware, and directly 
opposite Philadelphia; and there I remember that, on being 
sent to school for the first time, a condition was made with the 
schoolmaster that I should be permitted to amuse myself with 
drawing on a slate, when not engaged in saying my lessons. 
My father, whose health had been long declining, died in 1804, 
in Philadelphia, where we then resided. Before this event, I 
had been sent to the University of Pennsylvania, where, under 
Dr. Rogers, professor of English grammar, history, etc., and 
Mr. Patterson, professor of mathematics, I received all the 
school education I ever had. Here, as well as at the little 
country school in Jersey, I was more attentive to drawing 
than to my other studies, though now obliged to practise it 
by stealth. In the year 1808 I was bound apprentice for seven 
years to Messrs. Bradford and Inskeep, booksellers, my 
mother being unable to give me the education of an artist. I 
had served nearly three years of my time when Mr. Bradford, 
who had acted more like a father than a master to me, became 
of opinion that I might succeed as a painter. He informed me 
that if I wished to devote myself to that art, he would cancel 
my indenture; and as some theatrical sketches that I had 
made had been shown, by him and another excellent friend 
(Mr. Joshua Clibborn), to some of the principal gentlemen of 
Philadelphia, he had no doubt of raising a fund, by means of 
a subscription, that would enable me to study two years in 
England. As I had secretly resolved to commence artist that 
moment I should become my own master, it may be readily 
imagined how overjoyed I felt at this most kind and unexpected 
proposal. 

"I know you object (and I think very properly) to the ap- 
plication of the title of patron of the arts" still more to that 
of patron of the artist "to the mere buyers of pictures; but 
I think you will allow that Mr. Bradford and the other friends 
who enabled me to become a painter, were 'patrons to me. I 
believe the following is a correct list of their names: S. F. 
Bradford, Mrs. Eliza Powell, J. Clibborn, J. Head, Joseph 



4 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Hopkinson, J. S. Lewis, N. Baker, G. Clymer, E. Penning- 
ton, William Kneass, Alexander Wilson, the ornithologist, G. 
Murray, Engraver, and one hundred dollars was also voted 
by the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. I went to Eng- 
land in 1811 with Mr. John Inskeep, Mr. Bradford's partner, 
who visited London on business; and after the sum subscribed 
was exhausted, Mr. Bradford continued to supply me with 
money until I could support myself. Just before my de- 
parture, Mr. Sully, with his characteristic kindness, gave me 
my first lesson in oil painting. He copied a small picture in 
my presence to instruct me in the process, and lent me his 
memorandum books, filled with valuable remarks, the result 
of his practice. He also gave me letters to Mr. West, Sir 
William Beechey, Mr. King (Charles B.), and other artists in 
London. My earliest friends in England were Messrs. King, 
Allston, and Morse. With the latter gentleman I shared a 
common room for the first year, and we lived under the same 
roof, until his return to America deprived me of the pleasure 
of his society. From Mr. West, Mr. Allston, and Mr. King" 
(all Americans) "I received the most valuable advice and 
assistance; and I had the advantage of studying for several 
years at the Royal Academy under Fuseli, who was keeper. 
I attempted original compositions, but received no money for 
anything, excepting portraits and copies of pictures, for several 
years. My employers at that time were almost entirely 
Americans, who visited or resided in London; among whom 
I may mention Mr. James Brown, the brother of Charles 
Brockden Brown (as I believe you know him). (You will be 
glad to hear that I saw this gentleman in good health on the 
18th of September, 1833.) " Mr. James Brown is an estimable 
friend of the writer's, whom he has not seen for many years, and 
of whose welfare he is always rejoiced to hear. 

I have now before me a portrait of my friend Doctor John 
W. Francis, painted by Leslie in London among his earlier por- 
traits, and that and the portrait of the painter's friend Mr. 
Dunlop, are the only portrait heads I have seen by him. He 
painted a most spirited group of children for Charles King, 



KINDNESS OF WEST 5 

Esq., when his family were in England: it is in a bold style, 
and admirable for attitude and expression. While my mind 
is occupied by the pictures of Leslie brought to New York, I 
will mention one which has always given me great delight 
it is a citizen's family enjoying the delights of the country, 
and is in the possession of Mr. Donaldson. 

In another letter Mr. Leslie writes: "I presented the letter 
Mr. Sully had given me to Mr. West immediately on my ar- 
rival, and he at once offered me all the assistance in his power 
in the prosecution of my studies. This offer was amply fol- 
lowed up by the most useful acts of kindness during the re- 
mainder of his life. He lent me his pictures to copy, allowed 
me to paint in his house, and spent a great deal of, what to 
him was of the greatest value, his time, in directing my studies. 
One of the first compositions I attempted was 'Saul and the 
Witch of Endor.' He came often to my room while I was 
engaged in it, and assisted me very greatly in the arrangement 
of the composition, effect, etc.* By his advice I sent it to the 
British Institution for exhibition, but as it was too fresh to 
varnish, the directors thought it unfinished,! and turned it 
out. Feeling severely disappointed, I went to Mr. West for 
consolation, and I received it. He desired me to bring the 
picture to his house. I did so, and by his advice varnished it 
in his large painting room. He then told me he would show 
it to some of the directors of the Institution, most of whom 
visited him frequently. In a few days I had the satisfaction 
to receive a note from him, telling me he had sold it for me to 
Sir John Leicester, one of these very directors." 

In a periodical work called the "Recorder," I find the follow- 
ing under the head of Master Leslie. The writer, after speaking 
of the interest taken by his friends in Philadelphia in his 
welfare, continues 

* We may judge by this statement of Mr. Leslie's of the assistance Mr. West gave 
to those who painted their composition pictures altogether under his roof and his eye. 
In the pictures of such men, painted under such circumstances, we see all the knowledge, 
not of the painter, but the instructor displayed. 

t This institution, like the American Academy of Fine Arts at New York, is not 
composed of artists. 



6 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

"That he has by his application and improvement justified 
the expectations of his friends, the writer a few days ago had 
ample proofs, by the examination of two pictures in oil, the 
first a copy from a ' Diana ' by our illustrious countryman 
West, the second an original composition of his own, the sub- 
ject chosen from Scott's * Marmion.' 

"In the first, Master Leslie has succeeded so perfectly, 
that it would require a connoisseur of more skill than I possess, 
to pronounce the picture a copy. It has the drawing, coloring, 
manner, and touch of Mr. West. 

"The second, which is sent as a tribute of gratitude to a 
lady hi Philadelphia, who interested herself in the young 
artist's fortunes, is a composition far above the level of medioc- 
rity, and as it tested, so it proved, the talents of its author. 
The subject is Constance before her bigoted judges, and at- 
tended by the executioners of their cruelty. The disposition 
and grouping are in a style of chaste simplicity, the figures of 
the distance characteristic and well kept; an executioner in 
the foreground is the most labored and best figure in the 
picture, and unfortunately the principal figure of the piece is 
the worst. 

"I write some time after having seen the picture which 
was immediately sent on to Philadelphia; but I fear not 
to assert, that the friends of Master Leslie and the fine arts 
may congratulate themselves upon proof to conviction, that 
his industry and talents have justified their efforts and their 
prediction." 

Leslie's picture of the murder of Clifford (now in the Penn- 
sylvania Academy) was painted before October, 1816, and 
had arrived in America. Allston spoke of it at the time as 
a work that did him great honor. A branch of composition, 
or rather a description of subjects more congenial to his 
taste soon after occupied his pencil, and his success has 
proved that such subjects are more to his mind than "battle 
and murder." 

He had likewise, in 1816, painted the portraits of John 
Quincy Adams and his wife; Adams being at that time our 



CABINET PICTURES 7 

ambassador at the Court of St. James. It was in this same 
year that Mr. James McMurtrie, of Philadelphia, being in 
London, requested the favor of Mr. West to allow a copy of 
the head of Christ by Guido, in Mr. West's possession, to be 
made by some competent artist. The request was granted, 
and Mr. Leslie pointed out as the painter the owner wished to 
copy his picture. Of this picture, Mr. Allston says in a letter 
to Mr. McMurtrie, "the copy is a very close one, and would 
embellish any collection." 

In 1818 Mr. Allston says that Leslie had just finished 
his beautiful little picture of "Anne Page and Master Slender," 
and intended coming to America in the spring of 1819: but 
in 1820 Leslie writes to a friend that the state ot the arts hi 
London is not in the most flourishing condition, notwithstand- 
ing, he says, "I have no other view for the present than that 
of remaining where I am. I am now painting a picture of 
'May day in the time of Queen Elizabeth', which, if I can do 
anything like justice to the subject, will, I think, be interest- 
ing. I shall endeavor to give as close a representation of the 
manners of the times as I can." 

In 1825 an artist writes from London to his friend in America, 
"The best pictures in the present exhibition are of Wilkie, 
Leslie, Hilton, and Lawrence." Sully says of Leslie's portrait 
of Sir Walter Scott, that is a "commanding work. The ex- 
pression natural, the effect forcible and true. The flesh color 
has too much of light red in it I think so notwithstanding 
the complexion of the original, because I find Leslie has too 
great love of that color and yellow ocher." 

I will now recur to Mr. Leslie's first letter, in which he gives 
a rapid account of the principal events of his life, to the period 
of his returning to America in 1833. "The first original compo- 
sition that made me known was ' Sir Roger de Coverley going 
to church,' painted for James Dunlop, Esq., my warm and 
steady friend from that time to this. In the year 1821, I was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1826 an 
academician. In 1825 I married Miss Harriet Stone, of Lon- 
don, and in 1833 my brother, without my knowledge, asked and 



8 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

obtained for me the situation of teacher of drawing at the 
Military Academy of West Point. This induced me to remove 
to America with my wife and children, and we arrived here in 
the autumn of 1833.* 

"Having given you an account of the patronage I met with 
before I left America, I feel it due to the country, where for 
twenty-two years I enjoyed the greatest advantages the world 
has now to offer to an artist, to mention one among many in- 
stances I could relate of the liberality of Englishmen. In the 
year 1823 I received a commission from the Earl of Egremont 
to paint him a picture, leaving the subject and price to my 
determination. I painted for him a scene between Sancho 
Panza and the Duchess, from * Don Quixote.' While it was in 
the exhibition he called and asked me, if I had received any 
commission for a similar picture. I told him I had not. He 
then said, 'You may, if you please, paint me a companion to 
it, and if anybody should take a fancy to it, let them have it, 
and paint me another. I wish to keep you employed on such 
subjects instead of portraits.' Soon after I received other com- 
missions, and Lord Egremont desired me to execute them, and 
reserve the one he had given me until I should be in want of 
employment. An offer was made to me before the picture of 
Sancho and the Duchess was sent to him, from an engraver, 
with great prospect of pecuniary advantage to me. I asked 
Lord Egremont if he would permit an engraving to be made. 
He wished to know how long the picture would be required. 
I wrote to him (he was then at Petworth) to say two years, 

* On the arrival of Mr. Leslie and his family, I mentioned the circumstance in a 
letter to Mr. Allston, and in his next to me (November 4, 1833), he says, "I am glad 
to hear of the safe arrival of my friend Leslie and his family. He is a valuable acquisition 
to our country, for he is a good man as well as a great artist. Leslie, Irving, and Sir 
Thomas Lawrence were the last persons I shook hands with on leaving London. Irving 
and Leslie had accompanied me to the stage office, and Sir Thomas, who was passing 
by on his morning ride, kindly stopped to offer me his good wishes. It is pleasant to 
have the last interview with those whom we wish to remember associated with kind 
feelings. I regret that the res angusti domi prevent my being one at the dinner of wel- 
come which you propose giving to Leslie. Pray say for 'me that I bid him welcome from 
my heart; no one values him more, for no one better knows his value." Mr. Leslie 
declined the dinner proposed by the National Academy of Design, but he passed his 
last evening in America with them by invitation. 



GENEROSITY OF LORD EGREMONT 9 

and immediately received the following reply. 'It is a long 
time, and I am afraid, at seventy-three, that I shall not live to 
see the picture in my possession; but however you shall have 
it.' The engraver, however, changed his mind, and begged 
I would release him from his engagement, which I was not 
sorry to do, and the picture went directly to Petworth. When 
Lord Egremont heard of my intended departuYe from Eng- 
land, he wrote to me in the kindest manner upon the subject, 
and expressed his fears that I had not met with sufficient en- 
couragement. He concluded his letter with these words: 'For 
my own part I can only say, that I will gladly give a thousand 
guineas for a companion picture to Sancho and the Duchess.' 
As this was more than double the price I had received for that 
picture, I replied that I should consider it a robbery to re- 
ceive it for one of the same size, but that I should be most 
happy to paint him a picture in America, if he would allow 
me, on condition that the price should not exceed 500 guineas; 
and this picture I am now to paint for him." But, alas! not 
in America. Leslie has returned to London, and while I am 
writing, may be painting for Lord Egremont, or some other 
capable of appreciating his worth, in the metropolis of Great 
Britain. The letter proceeds, "I have mentioned this last 
circumstance because a statement of it has appeared in some 
of the newspapers, in which it is erroneously said I refused 
the commission. Next to Sir George Beaumont, the Earl of 
Egremont was the first to appreciate Mr. Allston's merit. Sir 
George employed Mr. Allston to paint a large picture of the 
Angel delivering Saint Peter from prison, which he presented 
to the church of Ashby de la Zouch; and Lord Egremont pur- 
chased his 'Jacob's Dream,' and a smaller picture of a female 
reading. Lord Egremont remarked to me that the figures in 
'Jacob's Dream' reminded him more of Raphael, than any- 
thing else he had seen by any modern artist. 

"I omitted to mention in its proper place, that in 1817 I 
visited Paris, with Messrs. Allston and Collins. I spent three 
months there, making studies from pictures in the Louvre, and 
then returned to England through the Netherlands, in com- 



10 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

pany with Mr. Stuart Newton, whom I met in Paris on his 
way to London from Italy." 

From another letter of Mr. Leslie's, I will make an extract 
showing the intimate terms he was on with his great master, 
West, and some of the opinions of that profound artist. 

"The simple expedients of an artist are sometimes instruc- 
tive as well as amusing. I was one day in Mr. West's room, 
while he was painting his great picture of ' Our Saviour before 
Pilate.' On remarking that the helmets of some of the Roman 
soldiers were painted with a degree of truth that I thought 
could only be obtained from models, he took up one of the 
fire irons, and pointing to a small ball of polished steel that 
surmounted the handle, said, 'That was my helmet, sir.' * 

"Mr. West often condensed a great deal of the most im- 
portant instruction in a few words. In speaking of chiaro- 
scuro, he used to say, 'light and shadow stand still.' And 
he frequently expressed by a single word, 'continuity,' the 
great leading principle of composition, colors, and light and 
shadow. 

" I have heard him say that among the old masters there were 
but two that knew how to draw a tree Titian and Annibale 
Carracci.f In the same spirit Fuseli used to say, there had 
existed but two poets Shakespeare and Milton. Mr. West 
was of opinion that the superiority of the Venetian painters in 
coloring was in no respect owing to the materials they used. 
He thought we had better colors and oils than were known 
to Titian and Paul Veronese. I believe he was right, and that 
the Venetian secret, as it is called, was not a chemical secret. 
We must study nature, as they did, in the fields and in the 
streets, to arrive at it. Most of us confine our observations 
too much to our painting rooms. In the arrangement of colors 
in his pictures, Mr. West had adopted a theory taken from the 
rainbow, which he considered an unerring guide. I cannot help 

* The reader will be reminded of Mr. Sully's anecdote of the paroquet's wing, which 
served for the genii, in "Love conquers all." 

t It may be remarked, that the trees and foliage of West's " Calypso and Telema- 
chus," are perfect contrasts in manner to those of his other pictures yet, all true to 
nature, and of great beauty. 



WEST'S RAINBOW THEORY 11 

thinking that his too strict adherence to this rule produced a 
sameness in his works during the latter part of his life. He said 
Raffaelle was the only painter who understood this theory, 
and that it was from the study of the cartoons he (Mr. West) 
had discovered it.* In a small copy of the 'Peter Martyr' of 
Titian, which I saw at his house, I observed that the colors 
were arranged on a plan diametrically opposite to that of the 
rainbow. I asked him if he thought Titian was wrong, but he 
evaded the question by saying that Titian's eye was so fine 
that he could produce harmony by any arrangement. 

"It is fortunate for the art, that many of Mr. West's best 
works were engraved under his own eye, and at a period when 
line engraving had reached its utmost perfection. The 'Lear,' 
by Sharp, and the 'Death of Wolfe,' by Woollett, have never 
been surpassed perhaps never equalled. Woollett left be- 
hind him a fine etching of West's, 'Telemachus and Mentor 
shipwrecked on the island of Calypso ' ; it has been well finished 
by Pye, within these few years, though it is not yet so well 
known to collectors of engravings as it deserves to be. This 
charming composition is alone sufficient to prove, that Mr. 
West felt the poetry of landscape. In color, the picture is 
inferior to Claude in everything else the production of a 
kindred mind." 

The following, from a periodical, expresses my opinion of 
Mr. Leslie so well, that I give it here : 

"Leslie stands high in the rank of our painters of domestic 
scenes, on subjects connected with life and manners. He is 
all nature, not common, but select all life, not muscular, but 
mental. He delights in delineating the social affections, in 
lending lineament and hue to the graceful duties of the fireside. 
No one sees with a truer eye the exact form which a subject 
should take, and no one surpasses him in the rare art of inspiring 

* Those who recollect Sir Thomas Lawrence's picture of West (which Lawrence's 
biographers say he made a present to the American Academy, but for which he received 
$2000 from gentlemen who subscribed the sum in New York), will recall to mind the 
rainbow introduced in it and one of Raphael's cartoons, both explanatory of this 
theory of colors, the subject of that lecture which Lawrence represents him as in the 
act of delivering. 



12 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

it with sentiment and life. He is always easy, elegant and 
impressive; he studies all his pictures with great care, and, 
perhaps, never puts a pencil to the canvas till he has painted 
the matter mentally, and can see it before him shaped out of 
air. He is full of quiet vigor; he approaches Wilkie in humor, 
Stothard in the delicacy of female loveliness, and has a tender- 
ness and pathos altogether his own. His action is easy; there 
is no straining; his men are strong in mind without seeming to 
know it, and his women have sometimes an alluring nawetS, 
and unconscious loveliness of look, such as no other painter 
rivals. 

"It is so easy to commit extravagance to make men and 
women wave their arms like windmill wings, and look with all 
their might nay, we see this so frequently done by artists 
who believe, all the while, that they are marvellously strong in 
things mental that we are glad to meet with a painter who 
lets nature work in a gentler way, and who has the sense to 
see that violence is not dignity, nor extravagance loftiness of 
thought. We could instance many of the works of Leslie in 
confirmation of this; nor are his pictures which reflect the 
manners and feelings of his native America more natural or 
original than those which delineate the sentiments of his 
adopted land. We are inclined, indeed, to look upon some of 
Leslie's English pictures as superior even to those which the 
remembrance of his native land has awakened. Roger de 
Coverley going to church amid his parishioners Uncle Toby 
looking into the dangerous eye of the pretty Widow Wadman, 
and sundry others, are all marked with the same nature and 
truth, and exquisite delicacy of feeling. He touches on the 
most perilous topics, but always carries them out of the region 
of vulgarity into the pure air of genius. It is in this fine sensi- 
bility that the strength of Wilkie and Leslie lies; there is a 
true decorum of nature in all they do; they never pursue an 
idea into extravagance, nor allow the characters which they 
introduce to overact their parts. In this Leslie differs from 
Fuseli, who, with true poetic perception of act, seldom or ever 
made a true poetic picture. Leslie goes the proper length, 



IRVING AND LESLIE 13 

and not one step farther; but Fusel i, in his poetic race, always 
ran far past the winning post, and got into the regions of ex- 
travagance and absurdity. When Leslie painted Sancho 
Panza relating his adventures to the Duchess, he exhibited 
the sly humor and witty cunning of the Squire in his face, and 
added no action. When Fuseli painted the Wives of Windsor 
thrusting Falstaff into the bucking basket, he represented 
Mrs Ford and Mrs. Page as half flying: the wild energy with 
which they do their mischievous ministering is quite out of 
character with nature, with Shakespeare, and with the decorum 
of the art. 

"The pictures of Leslie are a proof of the fancy and poetry 
which lie hidden in ordinary things, till a man of genius finds 
them out. With much of a Burns-like spirit, he seeks subjects 
in scenes where they would never be seen by ordinary men. 
His judgment is equal to his genius. His coloring is lucid 
and harmonious; and the character which he impresses is 
stronger still than his coloring. He tells his story without many 
figures; there are no mobs in his composition; he inserts noth- 
ing for the sake of effect; all seems as natural to the scene as 
the leaf is to the tree. His pictures from Washington Irving 
are excellent. 'Ichabod Crane' haunts us; 'Dutch Courtship' 
is ever present to our fancy; 'Anthony Van Corlear leaving 
his mistresses for the wars,' is both ludicrous and affecting; 
'The Dutch Fireside,' with the negro telling a ghost story, is 
capital; and 'Philip, the Indian Chief, deliberating,' is a figure 
worthy of Lysippus." 

Washington Irving, Esq., has told me, that on arriving from 
the continent of Europe, where he had been some time, he 
found Newton and Leslie in the same house, and that while he 
was writing his " Sketch Book," he saw every step they made in 
their art, and they saw every line of his writing. Here was a 
communion of mind that could not but lead to excellence. 
Irving's admiration of Leslie, both as a man and an artist, is 
extreme. A cultivated mind, purity of moral character, refined 
taste, indefatigable study, by which his knowledge of drawing 
and skill in composition were such, that having determined his 



14 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

manner of treating a subject, and drawn it in, no change or 
alteration took place: in this a perfect contrast to his friend 
Newton. 

I have above said, that Mr. Leslie returned to London. 
In the only interview I had with him, which was hi my sick 
chamber a day or two previous to his embarkation on his 
return, he did not express any feeling of disappointment. 
With the government of the United States he certainly had no 
cause of complaint. He was invited to West Point as teacher 
of drawing, with the same emoluments and accommodations 
which his predecessor had enjoyed. But his friends, anxious 
that he should be with them, had assured him that the teacher- 
ship would be made a professorship, with additional advantages 
corresponding with the other professors, and that a painting 
room should be built for him. But in our representative 
government, this required an act of Congress, and the passage 
of the yearly appropriation bill. This act and appropriation 
were intended; but Mr. Leslie had taken post at West Point, at 
the commencement of winter, with his family, never before out 
of London. The winter is a trying season in a bleak situation 
on the Hudson a situation at other times redundant with 
charms. Mrs. Leslie is a London lady, and her family remained 
occupants of the house left by the artist; her heart was natur- 
ally at home. Leslie, I am told, upon an answer from the Secre- 
tary of War, that he could not order a painting room built 
until appropriation was made for it, gladly resigned the situa- 
tion, and took his family to London again, no doubt happy to 
escape from the bleak promontory on which they had passed 
a discontented winter. 1 



1 He died in London May 5, 1851. 



CHAPTER II. 

ROGERS BROWN BOWEN DE BEET BOYD - 

EXILIOUS LAWRENCE HENRI GIMBREDE WHITE 

JONES JEWETT THROOP AMES SMITH 

TITIAN PEALE THOMAS BIRCH STEIN 

PENNIMAN CHARLES B. KING DOWSE 

WILLIAMS VOLOZON MILLER 

BISHOP JAMES PEALE, JUN. 

NATHANIEL ROGERS. 

MR. ROGERS has long been of the first in rank among Ameri- 
can miniature painters. He was born in Bridgehampton, near 
Sag Harbor, east end of Long Island, in the year 1788. His 
father was John Y. Rogers, and Nathaniel has the honor of 
springing from the same class of citizens that gave birth to 
Benjamin West, Joseph Wright, John Vanderlyn, Ashur B. 
Durand, Alvan Fisher, Joseph Wood, Francis Alexander, 
William S. Mount, and a long list of artists; the yeomanry of 
the country, commonly called farmers, because they till the 
fields that support them; but in America, those fields are the 
property of the man who ploughs them, and their harvest his 
alone. 

His mother's name was Brown; the daughter of the clergy- 
man of the parish. This couple had the blessing of five sons, 
and the father, though an independent yeoman, knew that 
the territory, ample for one, would be a poor provision for five, 
and destined his boys after a good common school education, 
to be put apprentices to mechanic trades. Nathaniel was 
placed with a ship carpenter at Hudson; but when sixteen 
years of age, he accidentally received a cut on the knee, from 
which he never perfectly recovered, but which seems to have 
decided his fate for life. He had always had a desire to make 

15 



16 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

himself a draftsman, and now returned to the paternal dwell- 
ing, and being disqualified for active life, he was indulged in 
the intervals of pain with opportunities to gratify his love of the 
art. He was threatened with amputation of the injured limb, 
but by care, probably that of a mother, the leg was saved, and 
though the knee was never perfectly restored to action, it has 
increased in usefulness. Thus present evil, if not the conse- 
quence of vice, is often the parent of future good. He read, 
copied prints, and even made essays at designing, during his 
confinement. 

His physician, Dr. Samuel H. Rose, had a mind, education, 
and taste, that might have placed him among those who gain 
distinction in cities. Above all, he had a benevolent disposi- 
tion; and seeing the efforts of the suffering boy, he to alleviate 
them, and forward his love for the art, presented Nathaniel 
with a box of colors and pencils, and gave him some instruc- 
tions as to their use. This decided young Rogers' fate. He 
copied two miniatures which were in the house, and attempted 
the likeness of some friends. His father, as soon as he could 
walk, thought of sending him to New York for surgical ad- 
vice the son thought more of obtaining advice and instruc- 
tion in painting. In the meantime he accepted the charge of a 
school, but his mind was more occupied by the children of 
his fancy, than by those of the rustic yeomanry intrusted to 
his care; and he soon relinquished a task which his youth, 
and extremely mild disposition, made him, as I should judge, 
very unfit for. 

On a visit to Connecticut, having taken some ivory and 
his colors with him, he seems to have commenced miniature 
painter, like many others, without a knowledge of any portion 
of the art required. Those around him had never seen any- 
thing so pretty. Encouraged by their praises, and wishing 
to relieve his father's anxiety, who could not believe that a 
living was to be made by coloring pieces of ivory, he per- 
severed in painting at very low prices, until he accumulated 
sufficient to enable him to visit New York. The family that 
first gave him a start as a painter, was that of Captain Danforth 



DOUBTS REMOVED BY BANK NOTES 17 

Clark, of Saybrook. A man, from the painter's account, as 
amiable as himself. 

In 1811, when Wood had separated from Jarvis, Rogers 
came to New York and found him established, and full of em- 
ployment, in Broadway. Rogers was received by Wood and 
instructed in his art. For his instructor he ever retained a 
strong attachment, and in the days of his adversity, proved a 
friend to him and his children. This the virtue and prudence 
of Rogers enabled him to do bountifully. 

Mr. Rogers' father was long an unbeliever in the profitability 
of the choice his son had made of a profession; but Nathaniel 
now set up for himself, and found increasing employment; 
and by way of proving to the old man that he was doing well, 
he sent a handsome sum in bank notes to him, to remove his 
doubts, and dissipate his anxiety. This was a proud moment 
for the young painter, when he could ask his father to invest 
his money as he saw proper, for his future benefit. Wood 
removed to Philadelphia, and left the field open to Rogers, 
who, from that time to this, has continued prosperously to 
maintain a large family honorably, educate his children to 
his wish, and accumulate property. 

Mr. Rogers' first opportunity of deriving profit from paint- 
ing when in New York, was by Wood's employing him to work 
in the subordinate parts of his pictures; which, after Rogers 
had been with him one year, he liberally paid for. His inde- 
pendent establishment was in 1811. He married in 1818 to 
Caroline Matilda, the daughter of Captain Samuel Denison, 
of Sag Harbor; and they have a family of five children. Brown 
the miniature painter, whom I have called mysterious Brown, 
was of great service to Mr. Rogers, for he could teach him 
much. They reciprocally served each the other; for when 
Brown found his sight fail, he made use of Rogers' young eyes, 
and repaid him by instruction. 

Mr. Rogers possessed a good constitution, but from his close 
application to his sedentary occupation, his health declined, 
and in 1825 he was near falling a victim to the demon who had 
destroyed Malbone: but by hard riding, and relaxing from 



18 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

business, he was happier than his amiable predecessor; and 
has long been restored to health. For twenty-three years he 
has painted in New York, and there alone. He now is inde- 
pendent, and contemplates relinquishing painting as a pro- 
fession, though he never can as an amusement. He is a member 
of the National Academy of Design, and of several of our 
charitable and moral institutions. As a trustee of our public 
schools, he has devoted a large portion of his time to those 
foundations of our republican happiness. The life, conduct, 
and prosperity of this gentleman, are lessons for our younger 
artists. 1 

MYSTERIOUS BROWN. 

This gentleman was an Englishman, and had been thoroughly 
instructed in drawing with chalks and in miniature painting, 
as accomplishments. He came to America at the age of fifty, 
and by the elegance of his female portraits attracted and 
deserved employment. He was an amiable man, of genteel 
manners; but in literature or any portion of knowledge be- 
yond the chit-chat of the moment, he was ludicrously deficient. 
He resided in New York about twelve years, and then returned 
home. I am convinced that Brown was an assumed name. He 
was always poor and always well dressed. He would market 
for himself and cook for himself, sleeping and painting, and 
eating in the same room. With half his skill as a painter an- 
other man would have accumulated a fortune in this country; 
but he was shiftless and imprudent, constantly in debt for 
paltry sums, and haunted by the image of an imaginary catch- 
pole. There was no quackery about him : he readily communi- 
cated his professional knowledge, and Mr. N. Rogers received 
much information from him, which he repaid by assisting him in 
various ways. He was as ignorant of the ways of the world 
as he was of history, mythology, or geography, and with 
superior talents as an artist, and an amiable disposition, lived 
in obscurity and returned poor to his family connections in 
England, from whom he had been hidden for years under the 

1 Rogers died December 6, 1844, in the town of his birth. 



AN IRRITATING HABIT 19 

name of Brown. He practised Sir Joshua Reynolds's method 
of using the ideas of others in the composition of his pictures, 
and kept carefully in his trunk a collection of prints, as assist- 
ants. He was not singular in this practice, which by inducing 
the student to rely on others, prevents that observation of 
nature, which can alone lead to perfection. 

ABEL BOWEN C. DE BEET J. BOYD EXILIOUS. 

Mr. Bowen 1 is an engraver on wood settled in Boston. He 
is said to be a gentleman of talent and a skilful artist. He was 
the instructor of Alonzo Hart well in this art. 

Cornelius De Beet painted landscapes in Baltimore in 1812, 
and likewise fruit and flower pieces. 

J. Boyd was an engraver in Philadelphia in 1812. 

J. G. Exilious 2 exhibited landscapes in Philadelphia in 1812. 

CHARLES B. LAWRENCE. 

This gentleman was born near Bordentown, New Jersey, 
and the indications he made of talent induced Judge Hopkin- 
son to encourage his efforts. Rembrandt Peale has mentioned 
him as a pupil of his. He is said to have studied with Stuart, 
who said that Charles always had the start of him whenever 
he suggested anything. For example, when Stuart, who was 
instructing him in portrait painting, would say he thought 
some light or shade or touch was necessary, the pupil would 
reply, "I was just going to do so." "You had better glaze 
down that spot." "I was just thinking of it." Stuart wishing 
to put an end to this, told him that he reminded him of the 
servant of a nobleman who, when asked why this, or that, was 
not done, would always reply that he was going to do it, 
or thinking of it, until the master thought to stop this by ridi- 

1 Abel Bowen, a prolific engraver both on wood and metal, was born in Sand Lake 
Village, Greenbush, N. Y., December 23, 1790, and died in Boston March 11, 1850. 
"The Naval Monument" (1816), Snow's "History of Boston" (1825), and his own 
"Picture of Boston" (1829) contain good examples of his work. He was interested in 
antiquarian research and was the promoter of several publications. 

2 He was also an engraver and his name appears amongst the list of founders of the 
Philadelphia Society of Artists, 1810. 



20 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

cule, and said, "John, why the devil don't you wash my books?" 
"Just going to do it, my lord," said John, "I have got the 
water heating for the purpose." 

Charles took the hint, and no longer teased the painter with 
"just going to do it." 

I remember several of Mr. Lawrence's landscapes without 
merit, and a portrait in the Pennsylvania Academy that Mr. 
Thackara, the keeper, told me was much admired. It was 
smooth, hard, and destitute of any good quality. Mr. Lawrence 
wisely relinquished painting, and has found employment in 
private life, where he is said to be very estimable. 

PIERRE HENRI THOS. GIMBREDE. 

Both by birth Frenchmen, and both at one period in their 
lives miniature painters. Henri painted in Richmond, Virginia, 
and afterwards in Philadelphia; 1 his skill does not entitle him 
to notice: the same may be said of Gimbrede, but his inde- 
fatigable fund of animal spirits and his unwearied exertions 
made him a more conspicuous object. I have been told that 
he was first known in New York as a dancing master. I first 
kiiew him as a miniature painter without employment. He 
then tried engraving, and did some work for publishers of 
books, and had a workshop of some extent and several appren- 
tices. The prints he has published from drawings by himself 
show his utter want of skill or knowledge in the art, yet he was 
appointed teacher of drawing to the Military Academy at 
West Point. In this situation he continued until his death in 
December 1833. 2 

It must have required uncommon talents, or what is called 
cleverness, to teach that which he did not know: but by plac- 

1 The following notice in the Pennsylvania Packet shows that Pierre Henri was 
painting in Philadelphia in 1790: "Mr. P. Henri, miniature Painter from Paris, re- 
spectfully informs the Public that he is living in Front street, opposite the City Vendue 
(the Door facing the Tree) and that he will do himself the honor to wait on ladies, at 
their request." 

* Thomas Gimbrede was born in 1781, and according to Stauffer died October 25, 
1882. He came to the United States in 1802, and practised engraving with success, 
producing many examples of stippled portraits which, notwithstanding Dunlap's 
estimate above, are very creditable specimens of the art. 




PIERRE HENRI 
BY HIMSELF 



TWO CONNECTICUT PAINTERS 21 

ing before the pupils approved models and making himself 
acceptable, he got on. It adds to his celebrity, that the govern- 
ment, on his death, invited one of the best artists in existence 
to supply his place no, not to supply his place, but to fill 
a situation to which he had proved incompetent. How he 
obtained the appointment which Leslie occupied and Weir 
now fills, is one of the mysteries never to be explained. He 
was an enthusiast in animal magnetism, and is said to have 
suffered from it. 

L. WHITE WILLIAM R. JONES. 

Both Americans, and both practised in Philadelphia. White 
was a pupil of Birch's. He copied very well and attained to 
the painting of a tolerable portrait but tolerable will not do 
in an egg or a picture. He became enamoured with the stage, 
but there again tolerable is not sufficient; he then turned his 
attention to teaching elocution, and has attained standing and 
reputation. Mr. Jones pursues another path, and is a designer 
for and engraver of bank notes. This is inevitably a money- 
making business. 1 

WILLIAM JEWETT. 

This excellent artist and good man has long been so inti- 
mately associated with his friend Waldo, that he will be scarcely 
known alone Waldo and Jewett have become one appella- 
tion but William Jewett can stand alone both as a citizen 
and an artist. He sprung, like many other of our artists, from 
the honorable class of American yeomanry, but was deprived 
of his father at a very early age; and his mother and her infant 
children were received into the family of his father's father, 
where as soon as possible he was inured to the habits, hard- 
ships, and labors of an agricultural life. He was born in the 
town of East Haddam, Connecticut, February 14th, but in 
what year my informant is ignorant, I presume it was about 
1795. 

William worked on his grandfather's farm, sighing for the 
time when he might be put out to learn a trade, and the time 

*He was located in Philadelphia about 1810-24 and engraved some portraits in stipple. 



22 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

came, in good time. His mother (oh, how much are we all 
indebted to our mothers!) taught him the lessons which are 
usually taught at country schools, and the lessons of morality 
and religion which have guided him through life. 

At the age of sixteen, Jewett was placed with a relative, who 
was a coachmaker at New London, and there for more than 
two years his employment was preparing paints and assisting 
in coloring carriages. Mr. Jewett has from nature an eye for 
colors, and as a boy he was delighted with the bright; and 
the occupation he was engaged in awakened a desire to do 
more with such pleasing materials than he had then an oppor- 
tunity of essaying. He was a most useful assistant to the 
coachmaker, who treated him well, but as it proved shortly after, 
from selfish motives. 

Mr. Waldo came to New London and painted several por- 
traits. This was the first opportunity Jewett had had of seeing 
any painting of this kind, and he became dissatisfied with 
daubing carriages. In order to obtain more easy and frequent 
admittance to the sight of these wonders of art, Jewett offered 
to grind colors for the painter, who gladly accepted the offer. 
Thus commenced the connection of Waldo and Jewett. About 
this time the future artist made his first attempt at painting 
a head, which, as is always the case, was much admired by the 
ignorant, however great a prodigy of deformity. Mr. Waldo, 
well pleased with his color-grinder, invited him to accompany 
him to his place of permanent residence, New York; and offered 
to take him into his family, instruct him, and give him a 
small salary for his assistance, sufficient to find him in clothing. 
This offer was made for the term of three years. Gladly 
Jewett accepted the friendly invitation; but the coachmaker 
interposed his veto, and although the youth was not bound to 
him, forbade the bans, on pain of severe punishment. The 
ship and packet masters were forbidden to take the youth off; 
but he knew that no just claims existed to hold him, and de- 
termined to pursue the path that had been opened to him. He 
dispatched his books and other articles that might encumber 
an elopement, by a vessel to New York, and resolved to make 



JEWETT IN NEW YORK 23 

his way on foot to the great city. The coachmaker seeing that 
he probably would lose his servant, thought best to offer him 
his liberty, provided he gave his note payable with interest 
for the sum at which he valued his time of service. Jewett 
agreed, and faithfully in seven years paid the bond. Borrowing 
two dollars to pay his passage in the steerage of a ship for New 
York, and gaining credit for a "seven dollar coat," with a 
joyful heart, at the happy age of eighteen, the youth left all 
behind him that appeared cloudy in life, and looked forward 
to a world of brightness, beauty and roses. But the adventurer 
was aware that "evil communications corrupt good manners," 
and that temptations lay in his way, and he formed a few rules 
for his conduct which he religiously followed, when he entered 
amidst the vice and evil examples with which all large towns 
abound. The first was, not to profane the Sabbath, and to 
attend worship at least once on that day. Secondly, to read 
every day at least twenty verses in the Bible. Thirdly, to avoid 
all bad or questionable company. And lastly, to honor and 
faithfully serve his new master. 

Mr. Jewett has said, "finding my home pleasant and my 
situation altogether agreeable, I had no inclination to change 
it for eighteen years." He studied drawing and passed much 
of his time at the receptacle of the antique casts, which were 
then deposited at the custom house near the Bowling Green. 
After three years' study in drawing he began to paint, making 
copies and paying great attention to coloring, and during 
another three, he assisted his instructor and improved himself 
by reading and other study. Painting from nature followed, and 
gave him still greater delight; his love for the art increasing 
with his practice of it. He has said, that "the whole excellence 
of the art" at this time appeared to him to consist "in a bold 
and judicious opposition of light and shade, and a free light 
manner of handling the color." 

About this time, Jewett and his friend Waldo passed some 
months painting landscapes in the open air and fields, near 
the banks of the Hudson, with much pleasure as men and profit 
as artists. After being with Waldo ten years, he was offered 



24 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

a joint interest in his business of portrait painting, if he would 
devote himself entirely to that department of art, he accepted 
the offer, and the partnership of Waldo and Jewett has con- 
tinued prosperously from that time to this. 

With the practice of portrait painting grew the love of it, and 
a corresponding improvement. Mr. Jewett is altogether an 
American painter, and seems to have considered the study of 
nature at home of more use to him as an artist than the study 
of old pictures abroad. On this subject others may differ. 
When I look at the works of some of our painters, and without 
meaning disrespect to others, I would instance those of William 
Sidney Mount, I am inclined to the same opinion, and it is 
strengthened when I contemplate the pictures of some traveled 
artists; but when I see those of Sully, Morse, Weir, Leslie, 
Allston and many others, I wish that after the proper course 
of study and at a proper age, our artists may visit the schools 
and study the wonders of European art. 

That several of our artists have already rivalled those of 
modern Europe in painting and engraving, is acknowledged: 
and I do not see any impediment to that progressive improve- 
ment, which shall in time place all our arts of design upon an 
equality at least with those of the best days of Greece and 
Italy. " 

THROOP AND AMES. 

Of Mr. Throop I only know that he practised engraving 
on copper in Boston, and was a teacher of Alonzo Hartwell, 
who afterwards preferred wood engraving. 1 

Mr. Ames was a coach painter in Albany; but attempting 
portraiture, so far succeeded, that, in 1812, his portrait of 
Governor George Clinton was exhibited, much to the painter's 
credit, in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He, for 
many years, painted the portraits of most of the western 
members of the legislature, and of many others: and I have 
reason to believe, that in old age he enjoys the blessing of 

1 0. H. Throop. He was located in New York City in 1825. 







EZRA AMES 

1768-1836 
FKOM AN ENGRAVING BY H. B. HALL'S SONS 



THE SON OF A GREAT ENGRAVER 25 

competency, derived from his enterprise and industry. He 
has a son who paints miniatures. 1 

JOHN RUBENS SMITH T. PEALE. 

The first-mentioned person is an Englishman, and the son of 
an English artist, who educated him for his profession. He 
painted portraits in water colors, in New York, in 1812 (per- 
haps a little earlier), no way distinguished for their merit. I 
remember his attempting to copy one of Sully 's portraits in oil, 
under his instructions, but it was a lamentable failure. 

He removed to Boston and opened a drawing school, for 
which he was in many respects well qualified; but his man- 
ners, and utter want of every feeling necessary for society, 
rendered his residence there of short duration. He returned 
to New York, and was a successful teacher of drawing. He 
likewise occasionally designed, and both etched and scraped 
in mezzotinto. His design and etching of George Frederick 
Cooke's monument, erected by Kean to the memory of his 
predecessor, in St. Paul's churchyard, New York, with the 
figures of Kean and Dr. Francis, had some notoriety at the 
time, and more in England since Kean's death. He removed 
to Philadelphia and, I believe, continues there, a successful 
teacher of drawing. 2 

Titian Peale was born in Pennsylvania; the son of Charles 
Willson Peale, a naturalist and draughtsman. He executed 
the drawings of the birds for the first volume of Chas. Lucien 
Bonaparte's " American Ornithology," and part of those of the 
fourth volume. 

THOS. BIRCH. 

This artist is the son of William Birch, the enamel painter 
above mentioned, and was brought to this country in 1794, 

1 Ezra Ames was born in 1768 and died February 23, 1836. 

2 He was born about 1770 and died August 21, 1849, in the city of New York. 
In person he has been described as "short in figure, with a large head, peculiar one- 
sided gait and an indescribable expression of countenance." Although not inheriting 
the conspicuous ability of his father, John Raphael Smith, as an engraver, he neverthe- 
less produced work which has some artistic merit and considerable antiquarian interest. 



26 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

when he was seven years of age. 1 Like many others of our sub- 
jects, he is English by birth, but an American artist. He could 
from infancy (to use his own expression) "sketch a little." He 
of course had his father for an instructor: but, as he advanced 
in life and art, he preferred the instruction of nature, and 
studied on the banks of the Schuylkill, his father's place of 
residence being Philadelphia. He had for his companions, in 
sketching the beautiful scenes near the river, John Wesley 
Jarvis, Samuel Seymour, and sometimes Thomas Sully; but 
that could only have been after 1805, and when Birch was 
approaching manhood. 

Mr. Birch is a good landscape painter, and a very fine painter 
of marine pieces. He has exhibited, at the gallery of the National 
Academy, Clinton Hall, New York, many masterpieces in this 
branch of painting. Engravings from Vernet's "Seaports," and 
other marine subjects, first kindled in him the love of similar 
subjects. His first regular essays in this department were made 
at the commencement of the late war between his adopted 
and his native country. England was known as his country, 
but he felt as an American. The triumphs of the "bit of 
striped bunting" kindled his enthusiasm, and the desperate 
fights which could lower the flag and the pride of the boasted 
mistress of the ocean, were his chosen subjects. 

His first picture of this description, painted to order, was 
the "Engagement of the Constitution and the Guerriere," 
for Mr. James Webster, a publisher, of Philadelphia. The 
next was the "Wasp and Frolic," for Nicholas Biddle, the 
present president of the United States Bank. The battles of 
the frigate "United States" with the "Macedonian" -those 
which resulted in Perry's victory on Lake Erie, and McDon- 
ough's on Lake Champlain, with a succession of similar sub- 
jects furnished employment to his pencil in the path he had 
chosen, and in which he stands unrivalled in our country. 

1 Thomas Birch was born in Warwickshire, England, July 26, 1779, coming to Amer- 
ica in 1794 with his father. They first settled at Neshaminy Bridge, Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania, removing to Philadelphia about 1800. Thomas Birch painted a few 
portraits early in his career, but after 1807 devoted his efforts to marine painting. 
He died in Philadelphia January 14, 1851. 




THOMAS BIRCH 
1779 1851 

From a Daguerreotype 



TALENT, DISSIPATION AND MEDIOCRITY 27 

STEIN. 

A portrait painter of this name was born in Washington, 
Virginia, but principally exercised his professional skill beyond 
the Alleghanies. He is said to have had talent. 

In 1820 he painted portraits in Steubenville; and the sight 
of his work, and his manner of working, kindled that latent 
spark in the mind of Thos. Cole, which has since burst into 
flame, and thrown a glow over the wilds of America and the 
plains of Italy. Mr. Stein died a young man. 

PENNIMAN. 1 

This is the name of an ornamental painter, who flourished 
in Boston about this time and after. He had more talent and 
skill than many who aspire to higher branches of the art. If 
he had had that education, or those feelings, which would have 
led him to aspire to the character and conduct of a gentleman, 
he would have been a good artist and a respectable citizen; 
but he became a drunkard, and died despised or lamented, 
according to the feelings of those who were acquainted with 
his talents and his conduct. He had the honor of being the 
first teacher of Alvan Fisher. 

CHARLES B. KING. 

This gentleman was born at Newport, Rhode Island, in the 
year 1785. 2 What circumstances in early life led to the choice 
of painting as a profession I know not, but may presume the 
inclination to imitate pictures and the objects by which we 

1 John R. Penniman, an artist who lived and painted in Roxbury, Mass., is noted 
for his well-executed pictures of Boston Common and other views in and about Boston. 
Penniman was at one time employed by Willard the clockmaker. In Drake's "History 
of Roxbury," and elsewhere, he is called John Ritts Penniman, but in the record of his 
marriage in Boston to Susannah Bartlett, September 8, 1805, his name is given as 
John Ritto Penniman. On the back of a painting by him of "The Last Supper," 
hanging in the Chancel of the Old North Church, Boston, his signature appears as 
John Ritto Penniman, which is probably correct. 

2 Charles B. King for many years lived at Newport, R. I., during the summer and 
passed his winters for forty years in Washington. Mr. King showed his love for his 
native town by the gift of numerous paintings and several thousand dollars to the 
Redwood Library of Newport. He died at Washington, D. C., March 18, 1862. 



28 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

are surrounded, led him (as we find in every instance of boys 
who have become painters or engravers) to mar his copy and 
ciphering books, and after a time to copy some print which 
elicited the admiration of admiring ignorance, and roused the 
ambition of the youth to become another West or Raphael. 
When I wrote my " History of the American Theatre," I re- 
marked that all my heroes, future Alexanders, Othellos, 
Richards, and Henries, began the career of glory by running 
away not from the enemy, but their friends. The heroes of 
the palette and maul stick are equally uniform in their com- 
mencement, which is almost always as above supposed for Mr. 
King. 

His first instructor was Edward Savage, who had a mingled 
establishment, half painting gallery, half museum, from 1788 
onwards, in New York. John Crawley was a fellow student 
with King, and John W. Jarvis had preceded them and set up 
for himself. I must date Mr. King's sojourn with Savage at 
about 1800 and on to 1805. I am obliged to guess, as he refuses 
to satisfy my curiosity by giving me any information In 1805 
he found his way to London, and remained in that city a most 
assiduous student for nearly seven years, enjoying the benefit 
of the Academy and the instruction of the benevolent West. In 
1809 Mr. Sully found King in the above situation, and they 
became roommates and fast friends from that time to this. In 
1811, when Charles R. Leslie went to London, he there found 
King, and acknowledges his obligations to his friendship. 

The reader of this work will find in the biography of Thomas 
Sully many particulars relative to his friend C. B. King. 
Sully says of him, "I found him, as a fellow student, the most 
industrious person I ever met with. He limited his hours of 
sleep to four was jealous of the least loss of time his meals 
were dispatched in haste, even then (while eating) he read 
some instructive book. By this unremitting assiduity he has 
amassed a fund of useful knowledge." I presume that it is 
his industry in painting that has served him instead of genius, 
in which nature has stinted him. It appears that all he has 
acquired has been by very hard study; and Mr. King is an ex- 




a 



3 03 > 

"" 5 "^ 

o I 

a> 



i- 

H 

H 



INDUSTRY AND SUCCESS 29 

ample of a man of very moderate genius who has acquired 
much in his profession, and commanded that employment which 
has made him independent in his circumstances, and an object 
of attention in society. 

In the communication from which I have made the above 
extract, Mr. Sully continues thus: "He has much mechanical 
skill, and good taste in architecture. As a man, he is one of 
the purest in morals and principle. Steady in his friendship, 
and tenderly affectionate. I have known him receive many 
injuries, but never knew him to resent one generally return- 
ing good for evil when he had the opportunity: in short, 
without professing to belong to any particular set of Christians, 
he is the best practical Christian I ever was acquainted with." 

Mr. King, as I have said, returned from England in 1812, 
and I remember with pleasure the picture of the girls and the 
cat which he brought with him, painted when he and Sully 
were together in London. He set up his easel in Philadelphia, 
but did not succeed to his wish, and removed to Washington 
City in the year 1816. Sully says, "He began the world at 
Washington with little other materials than his palette, pencils 
and books; and he has now amassed a secure independence 
that is, with his moderate wants." 

King has remained a bachelor. He built a house at Wash- 
ington, and a good picture gallery. In his gallery he has ex- 
hibited several of my pictures, and his conduct has not only 
been honorable but friendly. In 1824 I visited Washington 
and found Mr. King full of business and a great favorite, 
assiduously employed in his painting room through the day, 
and in the evening attending the soirees, parties, and balls of 
the ambassadors, secretaries of the cabinet, president or other 
representatives and servants of the people, and justly esteemed 
everywhere. 

He has contrived several mechanical machines for facili- 
tating the labor of artists. He uses a slender rod of wire 
about a foot long, to ascertain the proportions of his picture, 
compared with the original. It is gauged with white paint, 
about an inch from the top, which is held upright at such dis- 



30 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

tance from the subject as to effect one division the face of a 
sitter for example. If the proportion of the arm to the face is 
wanted, hold it in the same position and place the nail of the 
thumb in the corresponding place of intersection of the arm 
on the rod. By applying this gauge to the picture you may 
correct the proportions. But all mechanical aids are mischiev- 
ous. The artist should depend alone on his eye. 

Mr. King is ever ready to impart instruction. Mr. George 
Cooke acknowledges with pleasure and gratitude that he was 
his first instructor, giving him precept and example without fee 
or reward. 

In person and manners Mr. King is prepossessing. He has 
not the polish of a court, neither has he the duplicity of a 
courtier. A frankness and naivete have attended him through 
life, seldom found in men who have mingled so much in 
society. 

DOWSE WILLIAMS D. A. VOLOZON. 

Mr. Dowse is not an artist, but has encouraged the progress 
of art in America. He is the proprietor of a large number of 
drawings, and a still greater number of prints, colored and un- 
colored; fifty-two paintings in water colors, invaluable for 
their correctness and beauty, and for the truth with which 
they represent the style, the composition, the drawing, and 
the coloring of those masters, whose works we rarely see on this 
side of the Atlantic. 

Williams 1 painted both in oil and miniature, at this period 
(1813), in Boston. He was likewise a professor of electricity; 
and in addition modelled in wax. He was a small, short, self- 
sufficient man; very dirty, and very* forward and patronizing 
in his manner. 

D. A. Volozon 2 was a French artist, who painted for some 
years in Philadelphia, principally in crayons. His exhibited por- 
traits are said to be indicative of patience and industry, as well 

1 Henry Williams was born in Boston in 1787 and died there October 21, 1830. He 
made silhouettes and painted miniatures and life-size portraits in oil. 

2 Denis A. Volozon made historical pictures in Philadelphia about 1820. He also 
made a few landscapes. 



PORTRAIT MODELLING 31 

as classical knowledge of his art. He likewise taught drawing, 
and was the early instructor of Mr. Paradise. 

G. M. MILLER T. BISHOP J. PEALE, JUN. 

Miller was by birth a Scotchman. 1 He would have been an 
artist of eminence, if he could have made bread enough to sup- 
port himself and wife, by the profession of modelling. But he 
came to us before the time when merit could be appreciated, 
or the pretender known from the artist. His busts of C. W. 
Peale, Bishop White, Commodore Bainbridge, and Mrs. 
Jerome Bonaparte, are proofs of his talents. By these talents 
as an artist he could not live, and from necessity turned gold 
beater. He died in the year 1818. 

Bishop painted miniatures in Philadelphia. A lady of this 
name has exhibited some modelling in wax, probably the widow 
of Thomas Bishop, and sister-in-law to Miller, above men- 
tioned. 

James Peale, jun. painted and exhibited sea pieces in Phila- 
delphia; probably the son of James Peale, and nephew of 
Charles Wilson Peale. 



1 There is evidence that George "Miller" may have been a German, as we sometimes 
find his name spelled "Muller." He was a man of parts, being potter, stonecutter, 
modeller, a member of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and of the Columbian 
Society of Arts. In addition to the portrait busts mentioned by Dunlap he modelled 
those of Washington in 1798, Albert Gallatin and Mrs. Madison. The earliest notice 
of him in Philadelphia is in 1798. 



CHAPTER III. 

FISHER MUNSON FRAZEE. 

ALVAN FISHER 1814. 

THE following extract from a letter written by this excellent 
artist and estimable man, in answer to my request for informa- 
tion respecting his career, is so honorable to him, that I publish 
it, rather than give its contents in my own words : 

"I was born on the 9th of August 1792, in the town of Need- 
ham, County of Norfolk, State of Massachusetts. While 
young, I left that town for Dedham, where my connections have 
resided, and some continue to reside to this day, therefore, I 
have always hailed from Dedham. Until past eighteen years 
of age I was engaged in a country store; and greatly against 
the wishes of my friends (who intended that I should go into 
a mercantile counting room in this place), determined to be a 
painter a fondness for which business the account books of 
the store in which I was engaged could most abundantly 
prove, could they be found: they probably would somewhat 
resemble the old illuminated manuscripts. In consequence of 
this determination to be an artist, I was placed with a Mr. 
Penniman, who was an excellent ornamental painter, with him 
I remained upwards of two years. From him I acquired a 
style which required years to shake off I mean a mechanical 
ornamental touch, and manner of coloring. In 1814 I com- 
menced being artist, by painting portraits at a cheap rate. 
This I pursued until 1815. I then began painting a species 
of pictures which had not been practised much, if any, in this 
country, viz: barnyard scenes and scenes belonging to rural 
life, winter pieces, portraits of animals, etc. This species of 
painting being novel in this part of the country, I found it a 

32 



RURAL SUBJECTS 33 

more lucrative, pleasant and distinguishing branch of the art 
than portrait painting, which I then pursued. I continued 
this course until 1819-20, when I gradually resumed portrait 
painting, which I have practised more or less to this time, so 
that at present my principal business is portraiture. It is 
seldom that I am without orders for painting other than por- 
traits. April 1825 I visited Europe. During my absence I 
travelled in England, France, Switzerland and Italy, visiting 
all that an artist usually visits. My journey in Switzerland 
was made on foot, the only way a traveller can see that pictur- 
esque country. In Paris I studied drawing at a private life 
academy, and made copies from the old masters in the gallery 
of the Louvre. Previous to my going abroad I travelled and 
painted in many parts of this country; since my return I have 
made Boston my home, and generally resided there, and am, 
I suppose, permanently fixed there for life. I believe, sir, 
that you have not seen a class of my paintings, such for ex- 
ample as the 'Escape of Sargeant Champ,' 'Mr. Dustin saving 
children from the savages,' 'The Freshet,' 'Lost Boy,' etc. 
As these paintings and many of the like character were painted 
to order for gentlemen in this city, it is this class of pictures 
which have been as advantageous as any other to my reputation 
as an artist. 

"I do not know that I have communicated anything which 
can interest the public; my life has been without striking inci- 
dents; it has been what I apprehend to have been the life of 
most of the American artists, a life of toil, seeking the realiza- 
tion of a dream of hope and disappointment of cloud and 
sunshine, so that it is difficult, perhaps, to say whether I was 
wise or foolish in choosing a profession." 

I have seen many of Mr. Fisher's early works in scenes 
belonging to rural life cattle and landscapes; and remember 
them as promising that excellence to which I doubt not that 
his pencil has attained. He opened an exhibition in Boston 
last year (1833) in conjunction with Messrs. Doughty, Hard- 
ing & Alexander, which I understand has added to the reputa- 
tion of all concerned, and given ample remuneration for their 



34 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

labor. Mr. Fisher's uniform conduct through life has evinced 
an amiable disposition and perfect moral worth. 1 

Lucius MUNSON. 

This ingenious and lamented young gentleman was born at 
New Haven, Connecticut, in 1796. Always attached to 
drawing and painting, he had, however, as he approached 
manhood, determined to become an agriculturist, and was 
about purchasing a farm, but a friend, himself a good artist, 
encouraged him to follow the bent of his inclination and be- 
come a painter. He accordingly devoted himself to the study 
of drawing and painting. I remember him assiduously drawing 
in New York in 1817 and 18. 

He had commenced as a professional portrait painter in 
New Haven in 1815. In 1820 he visited South Carolina, 
professionally, and the next year sailed for Bermuda. His 
mind was bent on visiting Europe, and he painted incessantly 
for the purpose of accumulating the means necessary to a resi- 
dence in London, and travelling on the Continent. From Ber- 
muda he went to Turks' Island took sick and died, I believe 
in 1822. An amiable man and promising artist cut off in the 
springtide of his hopes. 2 

JOHN FRAZEE. 

The struggles of an individual, who appears to have every 
circumstance that attends his situation, from the earliest 
childhood, opposed to his well being, but who ultimately 
places himself in the rank of those honored for genius and 
for moral conduct, must be looked upon with admiration by 
all; and such a one is raised, in my opinion, above the favorite 
of fortune, who attains equal eminence in the scale of society. 

The ancestors of John Frazee were emigrants from Scot- 
land, and landed at Perth Amboy among the early settlers of 
that place. The family name was Frazer, and was changed to 
Frazee by the grandfather of John. Our subject was born on 

1 Alvin Fisher died in Dedham, Mass., February 14, 1863. 

2 Lucius Munson was born December 15, 1796. He died in Turks Island July 21, 
1823. 




NATHANIEL BOWDITCH 

1773-1838 
BY JOHN FRAZEE 

From the collection of the Boston Athenaeum 



YOUTH OF A SCULPTOR 35 

the 18th of July, 1790, in the upper village of Rah way. His 
mother's name was Brookfield, and he was her tenth child. 
Shortly after his birth she was deserted by an unworthy hus- 
band, and left to struggle with the ills of poverty. 

At the age of five John was taken to the protection of his 
grandmother, Brookfield, whose character was similar to that 
of her daughter; and from these worthy women the child de- 
rived the basis of his moral and religious education. The boy 
was the household drudge, as well as the outdoor laborer, but 
cheerfully assisted his aged relatives; even milking the cow, 
churning, and working for his grandmother, and doing the 
field work. Neither the schoolboy instruction nor the school- 
boy sport, fell in due degree to John; and his principal amuse- 
ment, when not at work, was to cut the forms of familiar ob- 
jects out of boards or shingles, and to chalk figures upon the 
doors. His reward for these efforts was, to have his ears boxed, 
and the prediction that he would be a limner. 

John was removed from his grandmother, and placed with 
a farmer of the name of De Camp, whose character and con- 
duct were of the most deplorable kind. The boy remained 
in this habitation of vice, a slave to a brutal family, for two 
years. He had eluded the propositions made to bind him to 
De Camp, and escaped from this bondage at the age of thirteen, 
to his mother and grandparents, who joyfully received and 
protected him. 

He was now strong enough to manage and work the little 
farm of old Brookfield, and his mother procured him the ad- 
vantage of a little more schooling. Circumstances, however, 
removed him from the occupation of an agriculturist, and he 
was bound apprentice to a country bricklayer, of the name of 
Lawrence. 

Another trial awaited young Frazee. The bricklayer took 
out a license for tavern keeping; and John, in addition to 
working on the farm, and laying bricks, had to become a 
tavern waiter. In the winter, when sleighing parties were fre- 
quent, many a night was passed in attending upon and sup- 
plying the reveller and the drunkard. But even here, with 



36 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

every temptation and example around him, the precepts of his 
mother and her mother preserved him. Besides, he had seen 
the evils of intemperance and gambling; and, at an early age, 
he resolved to eschew those vices, and kept his resolve firmly. 

Sundays were his own, and he devoted them to teaching 
himself penmanship, and attempting to draw with his pen. 

So far Frazee had proceeded in life's career without a knowl- 
edge of the instrument which was destined to open a brighter 
career for him the chisel: but in the summer of 1808, Law- 
rence having contracted to build a bridge over Rahway River 
at Bridgetown, was ambitious enough to wish his name chiseled 
in a neat tablet of stone, with the date of the year the work 
was finished. Upwards of forty men were employed on the 
bridge, two or three of whom were stonecutters from New 
York, but none would undertake to immortalize the bridge 
builder. John asked permission to try his hand with the 
chisel, and the master consenting, he prepared the tablet and 
engraved on it, "Built by William Lawrence, A.D. 1808." 
This was the first work with the chisel by the future sculptor. 
He was now eighteen years of age, active, strong and vigorous, 
and acknowledged as a skilful workman. From this period 
the chisel and mallet appeared to him the tools of his choice, 
and he aimed at becoming a stonecutter instead of a brick- 
layer. 

Even before he was "out of his time" as an apprentice to 
the bricklayer, he was called upon to exercise his skill as a 
stonecutter upon a building his master was employed to erect 
for Peter De Wint Smith, near Haverstraw on the Hudson. 
He had acquired confidence in his skill, and having offered to 
undertake the ornamental stone work of the building, his ambi- 
tion was encouraged by Mr. Smith, and he succeeded to the 
satisfaction of all parties. I feel a pleasure in pointing out the 
first monuments of Frazee's progress towards the art he now 
excels in, and would willingly make a journey to see the tablet 
of Rahway bridge, and the ornamental work on the house at 
Haverstraw. I admire the energy of the youth who could thus 
rise above the depressing circumstances of his early condition; 



BRICKLAYING TO SCULPTURE 37 

and I see a lesson to all in the manner his efforts were seconded, 
and his moral character preserved and improved. 

At this time Frazee felt the want of early instruction. Read- 
ing, writing, and the first rules of arithmetic were the whole 
of his learning. As he mingled in society, he felt his deficiencies. 
But yet he had to look for bread notwithstanding which 
he pursued his study of arithmetic, and by the aid of Mr. 
Wilson of Fairfield, Connecticut, improved himself in useful 
knowledge. To this friend Mr. Frazee remains unalterably 
attached. The first years of his freedom passed in bricklaying 
in summer, making headstones in winter, and in the evenings 
teaching psalmody. 

In the summer of 1813, Mr. Frazee married Jane, the 
daughter of Garret Probasco of Spotswood, in his native State. 
For this partner he had prepared a home by purchasing a small 
house in Rahway, and adding to it a workshop for his business 
of stonecutting. In 1814 he entered into partnership with a 
former fellow apprentice, and they established themselves as 
stonecutters at New Brunswick. 

At what time Mr. Frazee made his way to New York, my 
guide has left me uninformed. I remember him in partnership 
with his brother in Broadway as a stonecutter. What induced 
him to attempt modelling the human figure I know not. Mr. 
Durand tells me that his first attempt was to copy the bust of 
Franklin. He found himself in the path intended for him, and 
soon modelled a figure of one of his children eating a pie. I 
remember the admiration I felt (when in one of our exhibitions 
of the National Academy, of which he became a student and 
a member), at seeing a bust of his mother, modelled by him. 
I am told that as early as 1817 he executed a design represent- 
ing fruit and flowers, even when he resided in Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 

The first bust Mr. Frazee chiseled in marble was that of 
John Wells, Esq., 1824; this is in Grace Church, New York. 
It was executed from imperfect profiles, after his death. From 
this beginning he has progressed to a perfection which leaves 
him without a rival at present in the country. The bust of 



38 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Mr. Wells was, as I believe, the first portrait in marble at- 
tempted in the United States. 

At present Mr. Frazee* is full of employment. He has exe- 
cuted (having been commissioned to proceed to Richmond, 
Virginia, for the purpose) a bust of Chief Justice Marshall. I 
have seen with admiration his bust of Daniel Webster, and 
with more that of Dr. Bowditch: both chiseled in marble with 
skill and taste. He has also recently executed, with great 
fidelity, a bust of N. Prime, Esq. of New York. He has seven 
busts engaged for the Athenaeum in Boston, to which city he 
has recently been to model the likenesses. 

*Frazee got rid of his partner, but incurred debt which induced hard work among the 
tombstones, his only employment, and strict economy. So ignorant was he at this 
time, that he had never heard of the American Academy of Fine Arts at New York, 
and when told that it was an exhibition of pictures and statues, he was puzzled to know 
how that could constitute an academy. Conscious of ignorance, and thirsting for 
knowledge, Frazee applied assiduously to books for instruction. In 1815, he lost his 
oldest child, a son, and on his tombstone made his first attempt on the human figure 
it was a representation of " Grief. " At this time, Frazee employed himself in carving 
for the cabinet-makers in the evening: he likewise cut letters in steel for branding. 
Removing to New York, Frazee in conjunction with his brother William, opened a mar- 
ble shop in Greenwich Street, the first of May 1818. Statuary marble costs in the block 
$22 per cubic foot. Two thousand dollars have been paid in nine months by Frazee 
for this article. Mantelpieces and tombstones occupied Frazee for some years, and 
from 1819 to 1823, his principal study was lettering, which he carried to high perfection. 
To this was united monumental memorials in marble, which our churches may long be 
proud of. It was not until the year 1820, that Frazee saw the casts in the old academy. 
His child's model caused an introduction to Trumbull, who told him that nothing in 
sculpture "would be wanted in this country for yet a hundred years." Frazee says in 
all his conversation, he was "cold and discouraging respecting the arts " and exclaims, 
" Is such a man fit for a president of an Academy of Fine Arts? " In 1825 he finished his 
first bust in marble, John Wells, Esq. This bust he modelled from an imperfect picture, 
and then executed it in marble without teacher or instruction. He contrived a machine 
for assisting him to transfer the likeness of the model to the marble. The monument 
and bust cost $1000. At the instance of the Hon. G. C. Verplanck, Congress appro- 
priated $500 in 1831, for a bust of John Jay, and Frazee executed it much to the satis- 
faction of his employers, and his own fame. The bust of Nathaniel Prime opened his 
way to Boston. In 1833, Thomas W. Ward, of that city having seen it., induced his 
friends to order busts of Daniel Webster and Dr. Bowditch. Webster, at the re- 
quest of the sculptor, delivered a congressional speech while Frazee modelled. I will 
give the names of some of the portraits he has modelled more recently, "Judge 
Story Judge Prescott Thomas II. Perkins and John Lowell." In 1831, Frazee 
entered into a partnership with Robert E. I. ..unit/, who had for two years before 
worked with him as a journeyman at ornamental sculpture. Mr. Frazee is deter- 
mined to execute the "whole figure," as he says, without visiting Italy. His first 
wife died in 1832, leaving him with five children (having lost five) and he is married to 
a second, Lydia, daughter of Thomas Place of New York. Notwithstanding the 
prophecy of Mr. Trumbull, Mr. Frazee is in full employment, and the demand for 
sculpture in our happy country is daily increasing. 



CHAPTER IV. 

WEST INGHAM MUNGER BRIDPORT NELSON 

BENNETT. 

WILLIAM E. WEST. 

THIS gentleman is one of those able artists who do honor 
to our country, and raise its reputation for talent and virtue in 
Europe; yet I have very imperfect information respecting 
him. 

I suppose him to be the son of William West, the son of the 
rector of St. Paul's, Baltimore, who went to England and 
studied painting with B. West in 1789. My obliging and much- 
valued correspondent, J. R. Lambdin, Esq. upon whom full 
reliance can be placed, says, that "the father of Wm. E. 
West resided in Lexington, Kentucky, and was a man of un- 
common mechanical talents." 1 Of the son he says, "I know 
little of the early life of West: he painted miniatures several 
years before going to Philadelphia, where he studied with 
Sully," the friend and refuge of all who applied to him. "He 
practised several years at Natchez, where are many of his best 
pictures (meaning, of course, of that time). His great patron, 
and the person who was instrumental in sending him to Europe, 
was the late Mr. Evans, of that city. He left the United States 
in 1822; and shortly after gained considerable notoriety by his 
portrait of Lord Byron, painted at Leghorn. He is now (1833) 
hi London." 

In a letter to me, C. R. Leslie, Esq. says, "We have another 
countryman in England, Mr. W. E. West, who is probably 
known to you by the engravings from his portraits of Lord 

1 W. E. West was born at Lexington, Ky., December 10, 1788, and died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., November 2, 1857. He was the son of Edward West, a watchmaker and 
inventor. 



40 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Byron and the Countess Guiccioli. In Moore's ' Life of Byron ' 
you will find a very interesting account of the poet, while 
sitting for his picture, written by Mr. West." 

Moore says, " He sat for his picture to Mr. West, an Ameri- 
can artist, who has himself given the following account. 

" 'On the day of appointment, I arrived at two o'clock, and 
began the picture. I found him a bad sitter. He talked all 
the time, and asked a multitude of questions about America 
how I liked Italy; what I thought of the Italians, etc. 
When he was silent he was a better sitter than before; for he 
assumed a countenance that did not belong to him, as if he 
was sitting for a frontispiece to * Childe Harold.' ' ' How he 
could be a better sitter on this account I know not: perhaps 
the little word 'no/' has been omitted in Harper's edition. '"In 
about an hour our first sitting terminated; and I returned to 
Leghorn, scarcely able to persuade myself that this was the 
haughty misanthrope whose character was always enveloped in 
gloom and mystery for I do not ever remember to have met 
with manners more gentle and attractive. The next day I re- 
turned, and had another sitting of an hour; during which he 
seemed anxious to know what I should make of my under- 
taking. 

" 'While I was painting, the window from which I received 
my light was suddenly darkened, and I heard a voice exclaim, 
E troppo bello! * I turned and discovered a beautiful female 
stooping down to look in, the ground on the outside being on 
a level with the bottom of the window.' ' This was Byron's 
mistress, the Countess Guiccioli. The painter being intro- 
duced to her, and the noble lord appearing very fond of her, 
he became 'a much better sitter.' 

"The next day," proceeds the painter, "I was pleased to 

* As I copy this from Harper's edition of Moore's "Life of Byron," which has. for a 
frontispiece, an American engraving, marked as from a painting by Wm. E. West, I 
look in vain for the beauty attributed to the sitter or to the picture It would be 
better for the Harpers to save the expense of their decorations, for they only deform 
their publications and do injustice to American art. I protest against such specimens 
as this of West's "Byron," the portrait of Benjamin West, in Cunningham's Works; 
that of Mrs. Siddons, and many others. Our arts are not in so low a state as these 
paltry things would lead us to suppose. 



BYRON AND GUICCIOLI 41 

find the progress I had made in his likeness had given satis- 
faction: for when we were alone he said, he had a particular 
favor to request of me would I grant it? I said I should be 
happy to oblige him; and he enjoined me to the flattering task 
of painting the Countess Guiccioli's portrait for him." 
This the painter did, and the noble lord told him the history 
of his "connection with her." 

This appears to me very much like "much ado about noth- 
ing," and I will spare my readers any more of the painter's 
account of this worthy pair. Leslie says : 

"Mr. West is a modest man. His best pictures are from 
'the Pride of the Village,' and 'Annette de 1'Arbre.' The 
pathos and natural expression of the last attracted the admira- 
tion of Mr. Stothard and Mr. Rogers, two men whose good 
opinion is well worth having. His pictures have a merit not 
the most common in the art. The principal figures are much 
the best. Mr. West spent some years in Italy. If you meet 
with Washington Irving you will be able to obtain much more 
information than I can give you about him: Irving and he 
were very intimate." 

Such is the testimony of C. R. Leslie: it is fully confirmed 
by Mr. Irving. West experienced some disappointment in 
respect to selling this portrait of Byron; which he brought to 
London, thinking no price could be too high for John Bull to 
give for the acknowledgedly best likeness of the popular poet. 
He refused a very liberal offer (I am afraid to say how much), 
and the public feeling fell and the value of Byron's head with it. 
I have seen but one of Mr. W. E. West's pictures, which is the 
portrait of William Beach Lawrence, Esq. late our charge 
des affaires at the court of St. James, London. This is a well- 
painted portrait, and very fine likeness of the original. 

CHARLES CROMWELL INGHAM. 

Charles Cromwell Ingham was born in Dublin in the year 
1796. Descended from a gentleman who came to Ireland as 
an officer in Cromwell's army, the great protector's name has 
been given regularly to one of the family of Ingham, until it 



42 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

reached our painter. We have seen that Gilbert Stuart's father 
had, in his veneration for the exiled Stuarts, who, by their 
bigotry, vice, and tyranny, had been driven from the throne 
of Great Britain, given to Gilbert the additional name of 
Charles, which the painter dropped on arriving at the years 
of maturity: so our young Irishman, feeling indignant at old 
Noll's usurpation of kingly power and abandonment of democ- 
racy, dropped the name of Cromwell since coming to man's 
estate; but hesitates even now as to abandoning an appella- 
tion which is associated with so many and so great virtues. 

Every artist remembers his juvenile propensity to deform 
every substance placed before him by the evidences of his 
imitative genius and love of the beautiful. Every form, natural, 
artificial, or fanciful, is subjected to the growing desire of 
rivalling the works of nature and of art, and of fixing the 
evanescent, or even the imaginary, so as to be subjected to the 
physical eye. Ingham has said, in conversation, that his first 
attention to pictures originated in being himself, when a child 
in petticoats, made the subject for a painter's skill, and placed 
upon a pile of big books on a chair, to raise him to a level 
with the artist's eye, who had undertaken to portray him, as 
well as all the taller personages of the family. From that 
time he remembers the pleasure he took in examining the por- 
traits at his grandfather's house, and particularly the sparkling 
gold lace of the old-fashioned habiliments and glittering 
splendor of the buttons; and soon the whitewashed walls of 
the kitchen received proofs of his talents whenever he could 
seize on a piece of charcoal, and work unobserved by the 
cook. 

This childish propensity to imitate persons and objects 
he saw attracted attention, and he was, of course, pleased with 
being the object of attention, and carried the proofs of his skill 
from the kitchen to the higher regions. Full of the animal 
spirits incident to his age, he was often made the object of 
amusement to the ladies connected with or visiting his father's 
family. On one occasion, full of glee and childish prattle, 
sitting at a table with several ladies, suddenly the door opened, 



AN IRISH ARTIST 43 

and a very large woman, of remarkable appearance, entered. 
"Give me a pencil," cried the child; "give me a pencil, and I 
will make her picture." The sister of Mr. Gumming (afterwards 
his teacher), was present, and she gave him a set of her brother's 
brushes, to encourage his propensity for painting. 

The praises bestowed upon his attempts, and the progress 
he made, encouraged him, and induced his friends to place 
him, at the age of thirteen, at the Dublin Institution; where 
he drew for one year, and then was received as a pupil by Mr. 
William Gumming, the best painter of ladies' portraits ever in 
Dublin, and a thoroughly accomplished artist. 

With Mr. Gumming young Ingham studied four years. Of 
his teacher he uniformly speaks as being an excellent artist, a 
liberal man, and a finished gentleman. 

After "the Union," when the wealth of Ireland was drawn 
to England, there were but three portrait painters in Dublin, 
and they had not full employment. What a contrast does this 
afford to New York! Of miniature painters there were more 
and several painters of water-colored views, but they relied 
principally upon teaching. 

The young pupil of Gumming received a premium for a com- 
position in oil colors, representing the "Death of Cleopatra," 
which, as I have seen, I can speak of as a wonderful specimen 
of skill, considered as the production of a boy. 

Mr. Ingham came to New York with his father's family in 
1816, and his " Cleopatra " was exhibited at the gallery of the 
American Academy of the Fine Arts, at the first exhibition 
got up by that institution. The young painter was at that 
time twenty years of age, but with the appearance of sixteen. 
He soon attracted attention, and was established as a portrait 
painter; and has continued to paint hi this city, from the time 
of his arrival to this day, with constant employment and uni- 
form improvement. He has exercised his art generally in oil, 
but has occasionally painted miniatures in water colors, on 
ivory, with a truth of drawing, beauty of coloring, and ex- 
quisite finish, only rivaled by the best and first in the country. 
He never painted in that style, or with those materials, until 



44 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

he came to New York. His last miniature (and he says it 
shall be his last), a lady, half length, will bear competition with 
any in that branch of the art, hi all the qualities for which 
miniatures are valued. 

The peculiar style of oil painting which this artist has 
adopted is (as it respects this country) emphatically his own. 
It may be designated as the style of exquisite finishing. His 
process is successive glazings; and he produces a transparency, 
richness, and harmony of coloring rarely seen in any country. 
It is my opinion, that no living artist can rival him in this 
mode of painting. His high finish, added to his knowledge of 
the more essential parts of his art, has made him principally 
the ladies' portrait painter. 

This style is liable, when unskilfully attempted, to fall into 
hardness; and, instead of flesh, to represent polished ivory. 
Some of Mr. Ingham's earlier pictures, after he became an 
American painter, have this defect. But he has persevered 
in what he thought a manner suited to his powers, his taste, 
and his eye; and the public, as well as judges of the art, have 
rewarded him by applause almost universal and unqualified. 
His skill and his taste have appeared to be in a state of uniform 
and progressive improvement. 

Besides portraits, Mr. Ingham has produced several com- 
positions of figures in oil, of a size less than life, almost minia- 
ture. The most prominent of these is a scene from Byron's 
"Don Juan." His first very attractive portrait was a young 
girl laughing. His " White Plume " gamed him great applause, 
but it has been followed by works that throw it in the 
shade. 

With great frankness of manner, and some of the peculiarities 
of his country, Mr. Ingham is a most pleasant companion, 
and his virtues render him an inestimable friend. He is among 
that large class of our present artists who are looked up to, 
and sought for, in the most enlightened society. He has long 
been an academician of the National Academy of Design, 
and an efficient member of the council. 1 

'Charles Cromwell Ingham died December 10, 1863. 




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TALENTS AND NO TALENTS 45 

GEORGE MUNGER H. BRIDPORT NELSON. 

Mr. Hunger devoted himself in early life to miniature paint- 
ing. He was born at Guilford, Connecticut, in the year 1783. 
After arriving at years of maturity, that loathsome disease, the 
smallpox, left him in a state that prevented his pursuing his 
studies for eleven years. In 1816 he painted miniatures of 
extraordinary merit, as I am informed by an artist well quali- 
fied to judge, and after practising his profession eight years, he 
died in 1824. 

Mr. Bridport was born in London 1794, and emigrated to 
America in 1816, residing in Philadelphia principally, but 
occasionally exercising his art of miniature painting in other 
parts of the country. He studied at the Royal Academy and 
afterwards with C. Wilkin, miniature painter in London. 

Mr. Bridport has forwarded the arts of design by teaching 
drawing and water color painting. 1 

Nelson painted portraits in Pittsburgh in 1816, but where 
he came from or where he went I know not. Chester Harding 
took his first lesson from studying his portraits, which entitles 
him to a niche in my temple of immortality, not from any 
merit of his own, but from that of his pupil. He painted vilely, 
and required payment for communicating the art he did not 
possess. 

WILLIAM JAMES BENNETT. 

Mr. Bennett's first appearance on the theatre of American 
arts was in 1816. He was born in London in 1787, 2 and at a 
suitable age enjoyed the advantages of the Royal Academy. 
He was a pupil of Westall's, but seems to have had a greater 
taste for landscapes than for the species of composition for 
which his master is most known. 

At the age of eighteen he had an appointment connected 

1 Hugh Bridport opened a drawing academy in Philadelphia in 1817 in connection 
with his brother, George Bridport, and about 1818 he was associated with the English 
architect, John Haviland, in a school for teaching architecture and drawing. Bridport 
engraved a few very good portraits in the stipple manner. 

1 Dunlap would seem to be in error in giving the date of birth of Bennett as 1787, 
as he was engraving in London in 1803. He died in New York in 1844. 



46 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

with the medical staff of the army, and was sent with the forces 
which Great Britain, in 1805, transported to Egypt. This 
voyage opened a fine field for the draftsman and landscape 
painter, and he improved the opportunity for study. He saw a 
portion of that country of wonders, which sacred and profane, 
ancient and modern history has made so familiar to us. But 
Egypt is not a country to delight a landscape painter - 
though a country of wonders, it is not in modern days a country 
of beauties. 

The forces amidst which the young painter was enrolled, 
arrived only to be too late, and the next land submitted to his 
pencil was Malta. History and the romance of history have 
shed a lustre over this rocky isle, and the views which Mr. Ben- 
nett's portfolio possesses of this frontier of Christendom, when 
the knights of the cross resisted the mighty power of the 
infidel, are worthy of one who felt that he represented scenes 
known to fame and dear to the imagination. 

After returning home, the artist, still attached to the mili- 
tary hospital, was sent with Sir James Craig a second time 
into the Mediterranean. Craig is well remembered by the 
writer when he was the captain of the light infantry company 
of the forty-seventh; often the guest of my father, and occupy- 
ing a centre room in the barracks at Perth Amboy, whose 
ruins mark the time when France and England fought their 
battles in the woods of America. Under this commander Mr. 
Bennett visited several parts of Italy in the routine of duty, 
and Florence, Naples, and Rome with leave of absence. This 
gave him further opportunity to cultivate the art he loves, and 
to make drawings of scenes which nature and association render 
picturesque and interesting beyond most on our globe. 

Since his arrival in the United States, Mr. Bennett has 
exercised the art of both painting and engraving, happily 
multiplying by one the products of the other. The gallery 
of the National Academy of Design at New York (of which 
institution he is a member, and the keeper, in the sense that 
term is understood in London) is yearly decorated by his land- 
scapes and sea pieces, in water colors, the latter altogether un- 



AN ENGRAVER IN AQUATINT 47 

rivalled; and at the same time with prints from his engravings. 
Within a few years this gentleman has, by taking a wife 
from the daughters of the land, become an American. 



CHAPTER V. 

ACADEMIES. 

CHANCELLOR LIVINGSTON had been a president of the as- 
sociation for promoting the fine arts in New York, and after 
him Charles Wilkes and others. The institution was almost 
forgotten for several years. In 1816, De Witt Clinton was 
the president, and under his influence and that of his friend 
Doctor Hosack, together with Cadwallader D. Golden, John 
R. Murray, Charles Wilkes, and William Cutting, an effort 
was made to revive an institution, the object of which was to 
cultivate taste, forward the progress of civilization, and all the 
refinements on which man depends for his enjoyments in life. 

The time was propitious in some respects, and by the liberal- 
ity of Dr. Hosack and the influence of De Witt Clinton, the 
object was accomplished to a certain extent. 

Fortunately, a long building, facing on Chambers Street, 
which had been erected for, and occupied as an almshouse, 
was at this time empty. The paupers had been transferred to 
a palace at Bellevue. Application was made to the corpora- 
tion, and the place was appropriated in part to the American 
Academy of the Fine Arts. Money was borrowed from the 
Bank of New York, by Dr. Hosack, to fit the centre portion 
of the building for exhibitions. Galleries for pictures and 
statuary were made ready. The casts were removed, repaired, 
and put up. Preparations were made for borrowing pictures, 
and otherwise collecting them for an exhibition in imitation of 
Philadelphia, for the purpose of furnishing funds to repay the 
loan, and, as some persons hoped, to establish schools for 
designing. 

De Witt Clinton, the present presiding officer, having used 
his influence to give this impulse to the body, proposed that 
Mr. Trumbull should succeed him in the office, and declared 
his determination to resign it. 

48 



THE KEEPER'S RESIGNATION . 49 

Previous to this time, Mr. Jarvis had gained a name justly 
as a painter of eminence, and Mr. Vanderlyn had recently re- 
turned from a residence on the continent of Europe, and had ex- 
hibited his noble picture of "Marius," and his unrivalled picture 
of "Ariadne," besides many fine copies from the Italian masters. 
In the formation of this intended academy, Jarvis seems never 
to have been thought of, and Vanderlyn, though at first associ- 
ated with the founders, very soon retired; and when afterwards 
asked by De Witt Clinton (Trumbull being president, and the 
society in operation), to become a director answered, "It is 
too late." This application was made to Mr. Vanderlyn in 
presence of the writer, who was then a director, he and Clinton 
having gone to Vanderlyn's room for the purpose. 

Mr. Vanderlyn was right. Previously to the first exhibition, 
an apartment adjoining the gallery had been allotted to Mr. 
Vanderlyn for his pictures. It was that afterwards called 
the library and directors' room. And another apartment had 
been appropriated to Mr. John Rubens Smith, of London, as 
a private drawing school (he being a drawing master), in addi- 
tion to his compensation for services as keeper. This man 
had knowledge in his profession; but was in his manners abrupt, 
pretending, at times dictatorial, and at times disgustingly 
obsequious. He was chosen by the president; but he was 
unmanageable . 

At a public meeting of organizers, Smith rose and stated 
that he could not occupy the apartments allotted to him for 
his school, as the parents of his pupils would not allow their 
children to come to a room adjoining to which a number of 
indecent pictures were exhibited, making use of a term re- 
specting them still more improper. All present stared at the 
speaker. He repeated, and concluded by saying that if these 
pictures were not removed "he declined the office of keeper." 
Silence ensued. At length a director said, "Very well, Mr. 
Smith." Smith was confused again repeated and stood 
hesitating. The words were repeated, "Very well, Mr. Smith." 
"Then I resign the office." "Very well, Mr. Smith." And 
Dr. Hosack rose, and bowed as he repeated the words. Smith 



50 . HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 
> 

was bowed out of the room, and out of office. The consequence 
of some silent influence, however, was, that Vanderlyn removed 
his pictures, and never would associate or take part with the 
institution. Mr. Trumbull was thus left dictator. 

In the autumn of 1816, about the middle of October, the 
first exhibition of the revived American Academy of Fine Arts 
was opened. New pictures and old were borrowed, and all 
lent gratuitously; except that two hundred dollars were paid 
to the president for the use of his paintings. The receipts were 
far beyond expectation, and the directors began to make ex- 
penditures, as if they had opened a never-failing mine. On 
the eighteenth of December 1816, a code of by-laws was 
adopted. The laws provided that the present board of directors 
should elect from the stockholders, "a number not exceeding 
twenty academicians, artists by profession." That "after the 
election of January the seventh, 1817, twenty associates shall 
be elected, artists by profession." That "there shall not be 
more than three academicians in the board of five directors." 
The duties of the officers were pointed out. The law relative 
to exhibitions, says, "all artists of distinguished merit shall be 
permitted to exhibit their works." "Amateurs shall be invited 
to expose in the gallery of the academy, any of their per- 
formances which may be thought worthy of exhibition." 
That "at each stated monthly meeting, two directors shall be 
appointed visitors," to see that all duties are performed, and 
report on the affairs of the academy. 

It was enacted by the legislature, that eleven directors in- 
stead of five, should govern the academy. It will be found 
that the directors of 1817 consisted of three lawyers, two 
physicians, one hardware merchant, one professor of mathe- 
matics, one architect, one drawing master, and two portrait 
painters. De Witt Clinton delivered an address, and resigned. 

At the election of January the seventh, the return of officers 
of the academy was, John Trumbull, president, John R. Mur- 
ray, vice-president, Cadwallader D. Golden, William Cutting, 
John G. Bogart, David Hosack, Archibald Bruce, Archibald 
Robertson, Benjamin W. Rogers, William Dunlap, John 



STUDENTS INVITED 51 

McComb, Samuel L. Waldo, and James Renwick, directors. 
John Pintard, treasurer; Alexander Robertson, secretary; 
William Dunlap, keeper and librarian. Of these, including the 
president, four were artists: seven were lawyers, physicians, 
and merchants. 

Several of the president's pictures were offered to the 
academy at $3500 each, for the two largest ("The Woman 
taken in Adultery," and "Suffer little children"), and others at 
lower prices. A committee was appointed, consisting of 
Murray, Hosack, and Dunlap, to purchase, and a debt in- 
curred which could ultimately only be paid by returning the 
pictures. 

This purchase, or debt, was one cause of the failure of the 
institution to fulfil its intents. The other was, that the presi- 
dent opposed the opening of schools. 

After it was found that the receipts of the exhibition could 
be exhausted, and money could be wanted, subscribers or 
shares were solicited, and a person employed and paid to 
obtain them. They were honored with the title of patrons. 

During some months of summer weather in 1817-18, the 
gallery of the statues, or saloon of the antique, was regularly 
attended by the keeper, and irregularly attended by some few 
students, and one artist (Mr. Durand), who then was an excel- 
lent draftsman; as the casts were made part of the exhibitions, 
students could only be admitted early in the morning, and the 
whole business declined. 

I will pass over rapidly what I fear may prove to the general 
reader uninteresting (but what must stand recorded), and come 
to those events which led to the formation of a real academy of 
fine arts. In the year 1824-5, the American Academy again 
invited students to draw from the casts, provided they came 
between the hours of six and nine, A.M. The opportunity was 
eagerly sought, but it was soon found that the hope of advan- 
tage to be derived from the treasures of ancient art, was 
illusory. There was no keeper or instructor. The young men 
who attended at six o'clock at seven o'clock were some- 
times admitted, and sometimes excluded, and generally had 



52 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

to wait at the door for hours, if admitted, and then were 
frequently insulted always, if they had presumed to knock. 
At length a scene occurred which seemed to put an end to the 
pretence of an academy being open to students. Of this scene 
the writer happened to be a witness.* 

I had been accommodated by the common council of the 
city, with a painting room in the building, and coming to the 
place generally before breakfast, to prepare for the labor of 
the day, witnessed the treatment which those who wished to 
instruct themselves received. On the occasion alluded to 
Messrs. Cummings and Agate, even then artists, although 
young, came to the door and found that it was closed; they 
were turning away, when I advised them to speak of the 
exclusion to the directors. They replied, "that it would be 
useless," and at that moment one of the directors appeared, 
coming from Broadway towards them. I urged the young gen- 
tlemen to speak to him: but they declined; saying, they had 
so often been disappointed, that they "gave it up." The 
director came and sat down by the writer, who mentioned the 
subject of the recent disappointment, pointing to the two young 
men, who were still in sight. The conduct of the person whose 
duty it was to open the doors at six o'clock, A.M. was promptly 
condemned by this gentleman, and while speaking, the presi- 
dent appeared coming to his painting room, which was one of 
the apartments of the academy. It was unusually early for him, 
although now probably between seven and eight o'clock. Be- 
fore he reached the door, the curator of the academy opened 
it, and remained. On Mr. TrumbulPs arrival, the director 
mentioned the disappointment of the students; the curator 
stoutly asserted that he would open the doors when it suited 
him. The president then observed, in reply to the director, 
"When I commenced my study of painting, there were no 
casts to be found in the country. I was obliged to do as well 
as I could. These young men should remember that the gen- 

*At this period some of the gentlemen who afterwards became members of the 
National Academy of Design, attended for a short time at the gallery, and their names 
are to be found in the matriculation book, as if regular students of an academy, al- 
though there was no teacher and, frequently no admission. 



ARTISTS DISAPPOINTED 53 

tlemen have gone to a great expense in importing casts, and 
that they (the students) have no property in them"; con- 
cluding with these memorable words for the encouragement 
of the curator, " They must remember that beggars are not 
to be choosers." 

We may consider this as the condemnatory sentence of the 
American Academy of the Fine Arts. 

During the autumn of 1825, S. F. B. Morse, Esq. was an 
active agent in forming what was called a drawing association. 
He, as well as his brother artists, and all who wished to study 
the arts of design desired that schools might be established for 
the purpose. They saw that the institution called the American 
Academy of the Fine Arts, had nothing in common with any 
existing academy for the teaching of art, and that from its con- 
struction and direction there was no hope that it could be made 
to answer the purposes of an academy. They saw that it was 
a "joint stock company," composed of persons of every trade 
and profession, who thought the privilege of visiting the exhibi- 
tions an equivalent for twenty-five dollars such persons 
were the electors of the directors, and entitled to be themselves 
elected directors. Artists could only share these privileges 
by purchasing stock, and might be controlled in everything 
respecting their profession by those who were ignorant of the 
arts. Artists had sprung up who might challenge competition 
with any in the world, and maintain the challenge.* 

So circumstanced, Mr. Morse suggested to some artists that 

* Artists returned from Europe, who had devoted years to the study of their pro- 
fession, amid the splendid galleries and collections of England and the continent, 
where their minds had become filled with devotion to the art, and earnest and anxious 
wishes for its advancement in their own country; with them they also brought experi- 
ence, and an intimate acquaintance with the principles and systems on which the 
flourishing institutions of the old world are conducted. They saw, with regret, the 
deficiencies of the Academy; the total inaptitude of the system upon which it was 
conducted; the want of energy in its management; and the little probability that, 
burdened as it was with debts, and governed by men who knew nothing practically of 
the arts for whose encouragement it professed to be established, the institution would 
ever prove a source of good to them, or the community. They saw that in fact the 
institution was not an academy of arts; that it was merely a company formed for the 
purchase and exhibition of pictures; that even this purpose was not fulfilled, for there 
were no funds wherewith to purchase, and the exhibitions were notoriously of the same 
pictures every year; and that in reality it was to them, as if no academy existed. 



54 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

an association might be formed "for the promotion of the 
arts, and the assistance of students." It was merely a plan for 
improvement in drawing, to be called the drawing association; 
the members to meet a certain number of evenings each week, 
for mutual instruction and the promotion of union. Each 
member furnished a small sum for expenses, officers were 
appointed, and an organized body formed. Casts were pro- 
duced by the members, and borrowed from the old institution, 
no enmity was thought of, and the meetings took place in the 
unoccupied apartments of the Philosophical Society. 

The members of this association soon found that it was con- 
sidered as dependent upon the American Academy of Fine 
Arts, and a director of that institution suggested that the gen- 
tlemen should sign the matriculation book, thus connecting 
themselves as pupils in drawing, painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, and engraving, to the very worthy lawyers, physicians, 
and merchants who composed and directed the old academy, 
as it began now to be called. 

This proposition caused the suggestion of forming a new 
academy. It was proposed by some, immediately to return the 
casts borrowed from the old institution, but it was thought 
that it would indicate hostility. All were unwilling to be 
looked upon as dependent upon an institution which had neg- 
lected them, and was inefficient in its present form to the ends 
they desired. It was suggested that perhaps a plan might be 
fallen on which the artists might unite with the academy: 
"and that by becoming parties to a revision and remodelling 
of its constitution and by-laws, the practical knowledge and 
experience of the artists, and the valuable collection of the 
academy, might be rendered reciprocally subservient to the 
promotion of the art, for whose cultivation they were associ- 
ated. This was cordially received, and it was the general wish, 
that it might be found practicable. But before taking any 
measures to ascertain whether any plan of this nature could be 
devised and carried into execution, it was thought advisable by 
several of the members of the association, that some method 
should be resorted to, of uniting the views, and concentrating 



AGREEMENT SOUGHT FOR 55 

the opinions of all upon the subject of their situation. It was 
therefore proposed that a committee should be appointed, to 
draw up and lay before the association, a distinct statement of 
its views, and of the exact relation in which it stood to the 
American Academy of Fine Arts." 

It was the wish of the associates to have an union with the 
academy, for though they felt themselves competent to form 
a new academy to be governed by themselves, they knew the 
advantages that would be derived from the use of the casts of 
the old institution (expressly intended by the original founders 
for the use of students), and the disadvantages of being in ap- 
pearance, hostile to the gentlemen who composed the body of 
stockholders of the American Academy. Therefore "it was 
their wish that there should be but one institution: and they 
held themselves ready to join, heart and hand, in building it 
up, so soon as it should be placed on such a footing, that they 
could unite in it with confidence and with well-founded hopes 
of such a management, that the energies of all might be directed 
to the attainment of the noble ends of an Academy of Fine 
Arts." This wish was communicated to the American Acad- 
emy, and the hope expressed that means should be found to 
admit the artists to such share in the direction, as should be 
for the benefit of all. This wish was reciprocated by the di- 
rectors, and they transmitted a resolution, which "appointed 
a committee of three to meet a similar committee of the associa- 
tion, and to confer with them, upon the subject matter of the 
report, which had been laid before the board." 

Committees were appointed, met, conferred and adjourned 
"leaving the form of the report to be adjusted by the two 
chairmen." 

The result was, that the committee of directors, "engaged or 
guaranteed to exert all their influence to effect the election of 
six artists into the board of directors," and six artists were 
chosen from the artists of the city, "who, if not already quali- 
fied," by being stockholders, "should qualify themselves by 
the purchase of a share each, and be recommended to the 
electors as representatives of the whole body of artists." 



56 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Six artists were unanimously chosen by the associated artists, 
and four of them not being stockholders of the old institution, 
one hundred dollars was paid from the treasury of the associ- 
ated artists for the shares necessary to qualify them. 

The associated artists, and those elected to represent them, 
looked upon the affair as settled, and left the election to take its 
course; but the evening previous to the election they were 
informed by an anonymous letter that some of the names given 
in by them as candidates, would by the intrigues of certain 
directors be struck off the ticket. They announced that none 
of their candidates would serve, unless all were chosen. They 
considered themselves as the judges of their representatives, 
and of those fit to direct an academy. The election took 
place, and two of the six candidates chosen by the artists were 
alone elected. They immediately resigned. Here was not only 
a breach of faith an injury inflicted by taking the money 
of the association (which was never returned), but at the 
time of the election, the most contumelious expressions were 
used by members of the directory. The artists were declared 
unnecessary to the institution; and the writer heard one of the 
directors, whose name is spared, proclaim that "artists were 
unfit to manage an academy were always quarrelling among 
themselves" and conclude with these words, explanatory of 
the transaction " Colonel Trumbull says so." 

"It is worthy of remark, that the names of the six candidates 
were given in to the officers of the academy, seventeen days 
before the election took place; and so far from any official ob- 
jection being made to the mode or purpose of presenting them, 
that when a difficulty appeared which seemed likely to pre- 
vent the acquisition of the hundred dollars, which by agree- 
ment were to be paid to render them eligible, that difficulty 
was removed by a special vote of the directors, which the 
artists were certainly justified in considering as a tacit assump- 
tion of the agreement entered into by then* committee, and a 
pledge for its fulfilment else, why take the money of the 
association? That it was so intended, in my opinion there can 
be no doubt; nor do I believe that the intention was frustrated 



NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN 57 

through the agency or with the concurrence of the directors; 
but that there was an agency within the government of the 
academy, hostile to the union; and that this agency was suc- 
cessfully exerted, is established by the facts. 

The artists now resolved to organize a new academy, for 
their own instruction and the forwarding of the arts; and to 
govern it, as all other academies of fine arts are, and have been 
governed, by artists alone. 

The National Academy of Design was formed the officers 
were elected eighteen days after the repulse which the desire 
for harmony had experienced. Samuel F. B. Morse was 
elected president. 

Immediately after the organization of the new institution, 
measures were taken to open its first exhibition; and notwith- 
standing the many difficulties under which they labored in 
this commencement of their undertaking, such as the want of 
a convenient and properly lighted room, etc., the artists suc- 
ceeded in collecting together such a display of talent as sur- 
prised every visitor of their newly formed gallery, consisting of 
works of living artists only; which had never before been ex- 
hibited, and which, by the rule of the institution, can never be 
included in any future exhibition; a plan which insures novelty 
at least. The expenses of this, their first year of existence as an 
academy, were somewhat greater than the proceeds of their 
exhibition, and the deficit was provided for by a small assess- 
ment upon the members, which was promptly and cheerfully 
paid. Not discouraged by this result, they immediately de- 
termined on another effort in the ensuing year; and to defray 
the expenses of the school, they concluded to receive from every 
student a small sum, sufficient to meet the expenses of lights 
and fuel. In their second annual exhibition (in which was 
found a more splendid display of living talent than had ever 
before been presented in this city), they were more successful; 
their receipts not only defrayed their expenses, but left them 
something in their treasury. Now, however, their greatest 
difficulty arose the room in which the students assembled to 
prosecute their studies, had been, till this time, loaned to them; 



58 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

but the society which had so generously befriended the Acad- 
emy, could spare the room no longer. No alternative, there- 
fore, was left to them, but to hire a room, or break up their 
school. An application for assistance to the common council, 
was not listened to; they therefore resolved to incur the risk 
of hiring for the year, the room in which they had made their 
exhibition, over the Arcade baths in Chambers Street. 

They afterwards removed their schools and statuary to 
Clinton Hall. A noble collection of casts has been opened to 
students, and the eighth annual exhibition proudly announced 
and universally acknowledged as the most encouraging proof 
of the progress of the fine arts in the country, and of the 
propriety of the measures adopted by those who organized, 
and in despite of misrepresentation and obliquy, support the 
National Academy of Design. 

SOUTH CAROLINA ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS. 

"In January 1821, my friend Morse had several conversa- 
tions with me about the practicability of establishing an 
academy" (this is from Mr. Cogdell). "We agreed to have a 
meeting we solicited the Main Hall of the city. Mr. Morse 
moved that the honorable Joel R. Poinsett take the chair; 
Mr. Jay, that Mr. Cogdell act as secretary. Mr. Morse then 
submitted a resolution asking of the council a site in the public 
square for the building, and we adjourned. 

"A number of artists and amateurs were requested to meet at 
my office, where the first organization was made of the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts. Gentlemen were named officers and directors ; 
on my writing to them, they accepted. Thus was brought into 
existence the South Carolina Academy of Fine Arts. 

" JOEL R. POINSETT, President. 

Directors. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, Charles Fraser, 

Joshua Cantir, John S. Cogdell, 

John B. White, Wm. Jay, architect, 

Charles C. Wright, die sinker, William Shields, 

James Wood, engraver. Chs. Simmons, engraver. 



A SHORT-LIVED ACADEMY 59 

"The legislature granted a charter, but my good sir, as they 
possessed no powers under the constitution to confer taste or 
talent, and possessed none of those feelings which prompt to 
patronage they gave none to the infant academy. We have 
had as splendid exhibitions as I have seen in any other city. 
On the presentation of my bust of Dr. J. E. Holbrook, I re- 
ceived, from the directors, under the eleventh rule, the title of 
academician; but cui bono? 

"The institution was allowed, from apathy and opposition, 
to die, and the property has been sold recently to pay its debts; 
but Mr. Poinsett and myself, with a few others, have purchased 
with a hope of reviving the establishment." 



CHAPTER VI. 

DURAND HARDING REINAGLE MARSIGLIA HERRING 
GEORGE AND JOHN V. DIXEY TOWN NEWTON 

GONDOLFI EVERS SCARLETT 

COFFEE QUIDOR. 

ASHUR B. DURAND. 

THIS gentleman, although our first engraver, by universal 
acclamation, has passed so far on the journey through life with 
so few of those struggles or vicissitudes which give pungency 
to the tale of the biographer, that I have little more to say of 
him, than that he is one of the most amiable men I have 
known as well as one of the best artists. 

Ashur B. Durand, engraver and painter, was born at Spring- 
field, New Jersey, in 1796. His father being a watchmaker, 
gave him a very early opportunity of scratching on copper, 
which, with drawing, was his delight from infancy. Finding 
that he could produce pictures from the plates of metal he 
worked on, by a process of his own in printing, he beat out 
pieces of copper, made tools to suit his hands and his notions 
of what such things should be, and finally, before his appren- 
ticeship to an engraver, arrived at making something like an 
engraver's plate, and producing a print from it. One of the 
evidences of his propensity to engraving at a very early age, 
is a powder horn, which he ornamented with figures and 
flowers, and is still preserved by him as a curiosity. 

We all know that the most laborious patience is a necessary 
qualification for excelling in the art of engraving, but this 
qualification was denied by nature to young Durand, and only 
acquired by the effort of a superior mind. The first exercise 
of his patience occurred thus: A French gentleman who 
employed the elder Durand in his business of repairing watches, 

60 




ASHER B. DURAND 
1796 1886 
BY HIMSELF 



APPRENTICESHIP 61 

saw some of the boy's prints, and much pleased with the evi- 
dence of talent, requested him to engrave a portrait of a friend 
which he had on the lid of his snuff box. This was a task 
which Ashur perceived to be beyond his power, but he was 
ambitious and was persuaded to undertake it. He procured a 
proper plate made a drawing from the snuff box trans- 
ferred it to the copper and began. Two days he worked in- 
cessantly, and then became impatient. Two whole days, and 
yet but little progress made on one piece of copper. He then 
in some sort, by anticipation, found how tiresome it is to work 
months and years on one plate. He was about giving up the 
portrait, but his better genius prevailed, and he persevered 
until he produced a work that excited the admiration of the 
owner of the snuff box and encouraged himself. 

During this early period of his existence books were sought 
after with avidity, but it was to examine and study the pictures 
in them, rather than for the information to be derived from 
letter press. The images presented to his mind by the painter 
and engraver, filled it with a delight that almost excluded the 
ideas of the author as given by the printer. 

In the year 1812, he was apprenticed to Mr. Peter Maverick, 
above mentioned, the son of Peter R. Maverick. During this 
apprenticeship his principal employment was copying from 
English book engravings for publishers illustrations for 
Scott's works making a part. But becoming intimate with Mr. 
Samuel Waldo, he received advice and instruction from that 
gentleman respecting portraiture, which led to his execution 
of his first engraving in that department, where he now stands 
pre-eminent. Mr. Waldo had made a study from a beggar, 
hired for the purpose, which gamed him much credit on its 
exhibition; and young Durand engraved a plate from it, fol- 
lowing the dictates of his own judgment and evincing his powers 
in original engraving. 

In the year 1817 Mr. Durand's term of apprenticeship 
expired, and he entered into partnership with Maverick. At 
this period Durand attended at the school of the antique be- 
longing to the American Academy of the Fine Arts, which for 



62 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

a short time assumed the character of a real academy. I was 
a director and the keeper, but Durand's skill in drawing far 
surpassed the keeper's. He was an artist before he came to 
the school, which indeed was only opened to students before 
breakfast, or from six to nine in the morning, and that for a 
short period. While the partnership with Maverick lasted, 
the usual employment of Durand was similar to that of the 
apprenticeship; copying prints from English books and working 
on plates for bank notes. 

The preference which Trumbull gave to Durand by employ- 
ing him to the exclusion of Maverick, broke up the partner- 
ship, and Mr. Durand opened a separate establishment. 
The skill displayed by the engraving of the plate of "The 
Declaration of Independence," placed Durand at the head of 
his profession in America. The engraving was made from the 
miniature portraits in the painter's small finished picture, 
and happily the likenesses are admirably preserved, and some 
of the defects of the original in the drawing, amended. 

Soon after the completion of this three years' work, for 
which he received the very inadequate sum of three thousand 
dollars, he designed and engraved his "Musidora"; but his 
graver was in constant demand from that time to this for por- 
traits of various dimensions. 

A few years ago Mr. Durand became the purchaser of Mr. 
Vanderlyn's beautiful picture of the Sleeping Ariadne, and he 
has at intervals employed his burin in engraving a plate from 
it, which I have seen nearly finished, and which will immortal- 
ize him as an engraver. In the meantime, the engraver has 
solaced himself for the tedious operations of the burin, by em- 
ploying the more rapid agency of the pencil and palette. The 
first effort he made with these instruments was a portrait of 
his mother. The next, and the first that I saw, was a portrait 
of John Frazee, since eminent as a sculptor. In portrait paint- 
ing Mr. Durand has gone on in rapid improvement until his 
pencil may be said to rival his graver. I will mention as I 
recollect them at the moment; his portrait of Governor Ogden, 
of his native State, a worthy Revolutionary veteran who 




JOHN TRUMBULL 
1756-1843 

FROM AN ENGRAVING BY AsHER B. DURAND AFTER A PORTRAIT BY WALDO AND JEWETT 
The original portrait is in the collection of the Trumbull Gallery, Yale College 



TRUMBTJLL'S TROPHY 63 

never deserted the cause of his country, and that of James 
Madison, one of the sages of that Revolution and a framer of 
our federal constitution, who has defended it with his pen, 
and as chief magistrate, supported its dignity by a war with 
Great Britain declared in opposition to the great aristocratical 
interest of the nation. This last portrait was made by Mr. 
Durand in 1833, and for the purpose he visited the ex-president 
at his residence in Virginia, experiencing the pleasure of the 
conversation of the veteran statesman, and that flowing from 
the first approbation elicited by his picture. 

Mr. Durand was an original member of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, and has long been one of the council, and is 
now likewise the secretary of the institution. The exhibitions 
of this academy have been uniformly enriched by his engravings 
and paintings. A group of his three children I remember with 
pleasure, and lately a group of two ladies, small full lengths, of 
still greater merit. But, not confined to busts or full-length 
portraits, Mr. Durand has produced several landscapes of 
unquestionable excellence. 

He has lately been called upon by the president of the 
nominal American Academy of the Fine Arts, to cut an inscrip- 
tion upon a brass sword, which, as it seems to contradict the 
statement made to Mr. Herring, which I have inserted in this 
work, calls for my notice. This inscription runs thus: 

"This sword was taken from a German soldier, 

by John Trumbull, 

In a skirmish near Butt's Hill, Rhode Island, 
August 29th, 1778." 

The reader will find, p. 24, vol. ii. of this work, the following 
words: "A few days before the battle of Trenton" (that is, 
in December 1776), "news was at that time received that the 
British had landed at Newport, Rhode Island, with a con- 
siderable force. General Arnold was ordered to proceed to 
Rhode Island to assume the command of the militia, to oppose 
them; and Trumbull was ordered to proceed with him as 
adjutant-general. The headquarters were established at Provi- 



64 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

dence for the winter; and there, in the month of March 
Colonel Trumbull received his commission as adjutant-general 
with the rank of Colonel; but dated in the month of September 
instead of the month of June." 

This was copied from a ms. written by Mr. Herring, and 
dictated by Mr. Trumbull. It proceeds to state that the com- 
mission was returned to Congress declining the service, and 
the resignation accepted. I have shown that this acceptation 
is recorded as of the resignation of John Trumbull deputy 
adjutant-general, and is dated in March 1777. Mr. Herring's 
ms. proceeds thus: "A correspondence of some length en- 
sued, which terminated, after some weeks, in the acceptance 
of the resignation, and thus his military career terminated." 
That is, in March 1777. In the ms. in his own handwriting, 
he states the resignation to be April 19th, 1777. "He then," 
continues his amanuensis, "returned to Lebanon (to the object 
of his first love, he said), and afterward went to Boston to 
profit by studying the works of Copley and others, where he 
remained until 1779." This statement is the same as that 
published in the National Portrait Gallery, under the patron- 
age of the academy over which Mr. Trumbull presides yet 
here, in 1834, we have it recorded in brass, that he took a 
sword "from a German soldier in a skirmish near Butt's Hill, 
Rhode Island, August 29th, 1778." The reader will recollect 
that both statements are from Mr. Trumbull. 

As an engraver of flesh Mr. Durand stands unrivalled in 
America, and by his truth of drawing he gives portrait en- 
graving all the advantages of the likeness preserved in the 
original paintings placed before him. His heads in Herring 
and Longacre's National Portrait Gallery are perfect repre- 
sentations of the painters' copies from nature. 

In a late letter from Horatio Greenough to Washington 
Allston, he says, that "Durand's engraving after Harding's 
portrait of Charles Carroll, which he showed in a coffee house 
at Florence, quite astonished the Italians; they would hardly 
believe that it was executed by an American." 

Mr. Durand's character is that of the most perfect truth and 



HARDING'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY 65 

simplicity. As a husband, a father, and a citizen, he is without 
blemish from evil report. He is an honor to those arts which 
delight to honor him. 1 

CHESTER HARDING. 

From himself. 

"I was born in the town of Conway, Mass. Sept. 1st, 1792. 
My childhood and youth were spent in the way common to 
children of poor parentage, in this portion of the country; the 
winter months devoted to the acquisition of the rudiments of 
education, and the remainder of the time to agricultural pursuits. 

"At the age of twenty-one I began the trade of chairmaking 
with my brother. This mode of life I followed for about two 
years; but as I did not entirely fancy the calling, I embraced 
the first fair prospect that presented itself of my bettering my 
means of living. I tried various ways of accumulating property, 
amongst which was keeping a tavern in a country village in 
the western part of New York. This and all others failing, I 
embarked at the head of the Allegheny River in a 'flat,' with 
my wife and one child, and floated down this beautiful stream 
in search of adventures. 

"Pittsburgh was now to become the theatre for the new 
part I was to take in the great drama of life. I had no dis- 
tinct notion of what I was to do for a living, and I felt for the 
first time in my life that I was a penniless stranger. After 
overcoming a great many difficulties, I opened a sign painter's 
shop, and continued in that branch of the useful arts until July 
1817. During this period (a year and a half) I conceived the 
idea of painting portraits. I had become acquainted with a 
Mr. Nelson, 'an ornamental sign and portrait painter,' as 
his advertisement ran, and was much enamoured of his pic- 
tures. I sat to him for my own portrait, and also caused my 
wife to sit for hers, although I was by no means in a condition 
to afford the money they cost, which was ten dollars each. 

1 Time has fully justified Dunlap's appreciation of Durand's ability as an engraver. 
His subsequent career as a painter and his high personal reputation sustained to the 
end of a long life reflect credit to this day upon the history of American art. He died 
September 17, 1886. 



66 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Mr. Nelson was one of that class of painters who have secret 
modes of painting faces, and would sell a 'receipt,' but saw 
no advantage that could possibly grow out of his giving his 
experience to another; so that I never saw my own portrait 
in an unfinished state, nor would he let me be present at the 
painting of my wife's portrait. Here I must date the com- 
mencement of my present line of life. These pictures, although 
as bad as could well be produced in any new country, were, 
nevertheless, models for my study and objects of my admira- 
tion. Soon after I took these pictures home, I began to analyze 
them; and it was not long before I set a palette, and then seating 
myself before my wife, made my first attempt. In this I was 
eminently successful; and I question if I have ever felt more 
unalloyed pleasure in contemplating what I might consider at 
the time my pet picture, than I did when I first discovered a 
likeness to my wife in my own work. This success led me to 
think much of portrait painting, and I began to grow dis- 
gusted with my vocation, neglected my customers, and thought 
seriously of following my newly discovered goddess, regardless 
of consequences. I now conceived the plan of going to Ken- 
tucky, which was almost as soon executed as formed. During 
my residence in Pittsburgh I painted a few portraits, perhaps 
ten or twelve, and in each I could always trace some remote 
resemblance to the originals. This gave me some confidence 
in myself, so much so that I ventured, though with some 
misgivings, to announce myself as a portrait painter in the 
town of Paris, Kentucky. 

"Here my mode of life underwent a great change. I was 
now pursuing a profession which had always been deemed 
honorable, though of that circumstance I had not the most 
remote idea. I regarded it in a more favorable light than I 
did the calling I had just abandoned, because it gave me more 
pleasure in the prosecution of it, not that it was more honor- 
able. I took rooms and commenced business at once. My 
price was $25, which to the high-minded Kentuckians was a 
trifle, though to me it seemed exorbitant; but that price I was 
advised to charge, and at that price I opened my new shop. 




CHESTER HARDING 
1792-1866 

FROM A PORTRAIT BY HIMSELF 
Engraved by H Wright Smith 



HARDING IN THE WEST 67 

"In this small town I painted near a hundred heads, and 
found that I was sufficiently in funds to enable me to visit 
Philadelphia. I forthwith set off, and passed five or six weeks 
in looking at the portraits of Mr. Sully and others, and then 
returned to Kentucky to renew my labors with increased 
strength. I had now begun to think more favorably of my 
profession, and I determined to distinguish myself in it. I 
I felt at the same time that there were more difficulties in 
the way than I had dreamed of before I went to Philadelphia. 
A knowledge of these difficulties I believe for a while impeded 
my progress. I thought that my pictures, after my return 
were not as good as those I painted before I had thought so 
much of the art and its intricacies; and I am now persuaded 
that the knowledge of the many obstacles that I must over- 
come before I could arrive at distinction in the art, had the 
effect of intimidating me, and it was a good while before I 
could get into my former free style of painting. About this 
time too, the currency of the State became sadly deranged, 
and all classes were obliged to curtail their expenses, so that 
my affairs did not prosper so well after I returned from 
Philadelphia as they did before I went. 

"I shifted my place of residence several tunes, but failing to 
produce any very considerable interest in my favor, I made 
a grand move to St. Louis, Missouri. 

"I had the good fortune to meet with constant occupation 
and at the advanced price of forty dollars. I remained in 
this place until July, 1821. During my stay here, I greatly 
improved my pecuniary circumstances, and for the first time 
began to think of visiting Europe. In the autumn after I left 
St. Louis, I made my debut in the city of Washington. I 
painted a few heads for exhibition ; so that by the time Congress 
met, I made something of a display. I was successful beyond 
my most sanguine expectations. I painted something like 
forty heads, during this winter and spring. The autumn fol- 
lowing I went to Boston, chiefly on a pilgrimage to Stuart. 
I saw him and many of his works, and felt, as every artist 
must feel, that he was without a rival in this country. I 



68 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

spent a week or so in Boston, and then went back to my native 
country, Massachusetts, with my mind filled with feelings very 
foreign to those I started into the world with, many years be- 
fore. I had while at Washington become acquainted with 
Mr. E. H. Mills, our senator at that time in Congress, who 
induced me to open rooms in Northampton. Here I painted 
a number of heads ; and while in that town I was employed by 
some gentlemen living in Boston, who thought so favorably 
of my pictures, that they urged me to go to that city and estab- 
lish myself. I said no not while Stuart was there. But they 
urged me so much, and at the same time offered to procure 
several sitters for me, that my reluctance was overcome, and I 
accordingly found myself in the same city with Stuart, seeking 
employment from amongst his admirers. 

"The gentlemen who urged me to come to Boston, more than 
fulfilled their promises. They brought me many sitters, and 
in all respects were deserving of my highest gratitude. My 
room became a place of fashionable resort, and I painted the 
enormous number of eighty heads in six months; and I verily 
believe, I had more than twice that number of applicants for 
portraits in that time. Mr. Stuart is too well known to allow 
of the supposition that my portraits could bear any sort of 
comparison with his; yet, such was the fact, that while I had 
a vast deal more offered than I could execute, Mr. Stuart was 
allowed to waste half his tune in idleness, from want of sitters. 
Is not this a hard case? I can account for this public freak 
only in the circumstances of my being a back woodsman, 
newly caught; then the circumstance of my being self-taught 
was trumpeted about much to my advantage. 

"Perhaps, to the superficial observer, there is no circum- 
stance in the history of an artist, that carries such a charm with 
it, as that of being self-taught while to those competent of 
judging, it conveys no other virtue with it, than that of per- 
se verence. By self-taught, is here meant not having any par- 
ticular instructor. It matters little how an artist arrives at a 
sort of midway elevation, at which all with common industry 
may arrive. But it is the man of genius, who soars above the 




LOAMMI BALDWIN, 2o 

1780-1838 
BY CHESTER HARDING 

From the collection of Mr. Loammi F. Baldwin 



SOLITARY LIFE IN LONDON 69 

common level, and leaves his less-favored brethren to follow 
in his track with mingled feelings of envy and admiration. 

"I now found myself in funds sufficient for a trip across the 
Atlantic, and notwithstanding the thousand tunes I had been 
told that I could learn nothing by going to London, and the 
pressing business I must give up, I set sail for Liverpool the 
first of August, 1823. 

"On arriving in London, I found myself in a wilderness of 
art, and an equally dense wilderness of people. For a month 
or two my mind was in the greatest confusion. I was perfectly 
solitary; and from seeing so much of art, instead of being stimu- 
lated to exertion by it, became in a degree indifferent to all the 
sublime works that were within my reach. I felt that the old 
masters had been much over-rated, and that the greatest merit 
their works possessed was, that they bore the undoubted marks 
of antiquity. I don't know whether any other artist, on his 
first visiting the treasures of art in the old world, has been for 
a time satiated with them as I was. But my experience proves 
satisfactorily to me the truth of the hackneyed quotation of 
'Drink deep, or taste not/ etc. By degrees, however, as I 
became familiar with the works of Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir 
Joshua and others, I began to perceive a change of feeling 
towards the old masters. I began to see new beauties every 
day in Raphael's cartoons, which at first struck me as little 
better than scene painting at the theatre. 

"If I was peculiar in my feelings of indifference, I cannot ac- 
count for it to myself. I am willing to confess, however, that 
on my first arrival in London, my solitary life was made more 
so by the contrast that I was forced to draw between my lonely 
situation in London, and that I so lately left in Boston. I was 
now left to myself, and my thoughts naturally turned upon my- 
self; and perhaps I felt more mortification than I was willing 
to admit, at discovering that I was not so rich in acquire- 
ments as my friends had very innocently led me to think. 
While in this state of mind, I did not derive all the advantage 
from- my opportunities that I might have done, had my mind 
been bent on improvement alone. 



70 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

"In a short time I began to get rid of this apathy, and it 
soon became my greatest pleasure to visit those very works, 
which had at first so disappointed my expectations. I soon 
found that my funds were insufficient to support me one year in 
London, though I thought them ample for two; and it became 
necessary that I should paint portraits, or shorten my contem- 
plated visit. Amongst my first, was a head of Mr. Rush, our 
minister in London at that time. 

"I was more than usually successful in the likeness. It had 
the effect of inducing others to sit, and it was the indirect 
means of introducing me to the Duke of Sussex, whose patron- 
age I subsequently enjoyed to a considerable extent. I was 
indebted to his royal highness for an introduction to the Duke 
of Hamilton, who was particularly kind to me during the whole 
of my stay in Great Britain. He sat to me for several portraits 
of himself, and invited me to stay with him at Hamilton 
Palace, which invitation I gladly accepted. I spent near 
three weeks at this splendid place. There are few richer gal- 
leries in Great Britain than that of Hamilton Palace; and 
amongst its rare gems is the original 'Daniel in the Lions' 
Den,' by Rubens, many splendid Van Dycks, etc. 

"During my stay in England I had the good fortune to 
spend a few weeks at Holkham, the seat of Mr. Coke. Here 
I saw a great deal of high life; and it requires but little imagina- 
tion to see, that the transition from the backwoods of Missouri 
to this seat of luxury and elegance, was most imposing, and, in 
some respects, embarrassing. My mornings were spent chiefly 
in looking at the 'old masters/ and the afternoons in shooting. 
In early life I had been in the frequent habit of shooting bears 
and other large game; but on this occasion I felt almost as 
ignorant of the fashions of the field as I was of those of the 
dinner table and drawing room. However, the sport of killing 
pheasants and partridges, that at first seemed to me so trifling, 
became, in a short time, very interesting. I met a good many 
noblemen of high rank during my visit here; and one of the 
most distinguished by the distinguished, was Mr. Chantry. I 
had the pleasure of shooting by his side by day, and sitting by 
his side at dinner. 




MRS. DANIEL WEBSTER 
BY CHESTER HARDING 

From the collection of Mrs. Charles H. Joy 



LONDON ARTISTS IMPARTIAL 71 

"I was an exhibitor at Somerset House, every year while 
I was in England. I always profited by the comparison of 
my pictures with those about them, although it was always at 
the expense of my vanity. I invariably found that my pictures 
looked better to me, while in my own room, than they did by 
the side of the distinguished artists of the day. I used some- 
times to indulge the feeling, that I had not justice done me in 
the hanging of my pictures at the Royal Academy : but I was 
compelled to admit, after due reflection, that the committee 
had done me more justice in placing me where they did, than 
if they had placed me more conspicuously in comparison with 
better painters. And I am led to believe, that the body of 
artists who have the management of this great institution are 
actuated by feelings entirely liberal, free from jealousy or 
envy. There is a charm in the bare walls even of Somerset 
House, that excites a student to emulation: but when those 
walls are filled with the works of cotemporary artists, one 
cannot but feel proud of his profession, and disposed to give 
himself up to its study, caring for nothing else. Unfortunately 
for that state of mind, which is such perfect bliss, the worldly 
cares about house rent, food, and clothing, for his wife and 
children, will break the spell. I am thoroughly convinced, that 
had I been a bachelor, when I was in London, I should have 
been there at this time. But I then had a wife and four chil- 
dren, which rendered it necessary that I should realize a certain 
amount of money every year. When an artist is harassed in his 
financial concerns, his mind is in no state to pursue the arts 
with pleasure or profit. In the course of the three years I was 
abroad I painted to the amount of 12,000 dollars; which sum 
was just sufficient for my expenses. 

"I visited Paris; but my stay was so short, and my total 
ignorance of the language of the country so great, that I will 
make no comment upon the artists or the schools in that city. 
I returned to Boston in the autumn of 1826; since which I 
have made it my headquarters." 

The frank and manly manner in which Mr. Harding an- 
swered my request to contribute a portion to my " History of 



72 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

the Arts of Design," by giving me some notices of himself and 
his progress, has induced me to publish the above in his own 
words. I can add little to the information it contains. 

My personal knowledge of this gentleman is slight, and 
made at intervals. When I was painting portraits in Utica 
he introduced himself to me in my painting room, and I was 
pleased with his appearance and manners. I noticed that he 
immediately selected the best head I had painted there a 
proof of a true eye and taste. I again met him in Boston 
and witnessed the impression his talents made in that city 
previous to his going to Europe. 

Of late Messrs. Harding, Fisher, Doughty, and Alexander, 
have, in conjunction, exhibited their pictures in Boston with 
great effect; and as I am informed, with great profit, both in 
money and increased reputation. 

Mr. Harding, I am told, has purchased a beautiful country 
seat in the neighborhood of Northampton, in his native State, 
where he and his family will probably enjoy the fruits of his 
industry, perseverance, and talents. He is now acknowledged 
as standing in the foremost rank of portrait painters in the 
United States. 1 

HUGH &EINAGLE. 

Mr. Reinagle was born in Philadelphia. His father was a 
professor of music, and partner with Wignell in the Chestnut 
Street Theatre. Hugh was a pupil of John J. Holland. He 
painted landscape both in water color and oil. A panorama 
of New York was painted by him, which was exhibited in 
Broadway. For many years he was principal scene painter at 
the New York theatres; and in 1830 went to New Orleans, in 
consequence of offers from Mr. Caldwell, manager of the 
American Theatre at that place, and there died of Asiatic 
cholera in 1834. Mr. Reinagle was a man of amiable disposi- 
tion, correct conduct, and unblemished reputation. He left a 
widow and large family, I fear slenderly provided for. 

1 Chester Harding died in Boston April 1, 1866. 



THE SON OF A BREWER 73 

G. MARSIGLIA. 

Mr. Marsiglia, a native of Italy, arrived at New York about 
the period of 1817. He has painted many portraits, and 
exhibited several historical and other compositions of merit. 
He finishes with care, and colors with great clearness and 
brilliancy not always with harmony. His productions of 
the complicated kind are remarkable for great beauties and 
obvious faults. He is an academician of the National Academy 
of Design, and is esteemed for his amiable manners and correct 
deportment. 

JAMES HERRING. 

This intelligent and very enterprising gentleman is, like 
several other American painters, a native of England. The 
progress of the arts of design is at this time facilitated by the 
persevering enterprise of Mr. Herring as a publisher. 

James Herring was born in London in the year 1796, and 
brought to this country by his father at the age of ten. The 
father was one of the many who sought in the United States 
of America the protection of a government more perfect, or 
less oppressive to the plebeian population, than that of Great 
Britain. Arriving at New York, he established himself as a 
brewer and distiller in the neighborhood of the Bowery; but 
the business failed in 1812, in consequence of circumstances 
connected with our second war with England. Two years 
after, James was left, by the death of his father, without prop- 
erty or profession, and with a wife, at the age of eighteen. 
He had served his father in his brewhouse and distillery, but 
had no inclination to be the servant of a stranger. The spirit 
of the country was upon him, and he resolved to choose his 
own path in life. As a boy he had outdone his schoolmates in 
drawing, the desire to become a painter had grown with his 
growth, and he now thought of painting as the means of present 
subsistence and future prosperity. But the difficulties attend- 
ing the commencement, and the struggles necessary for the 
present support of a family, required uncommon energy, and 
he possessed it. 



74 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

He applied to a person of the name of Thatcher, who was 
then publishing prints manufactured by himself, and suited to 
the time; such as fights between our frigates and the English; 
and young Herring was employed by him to color these tri- 
umphs of genius and patriotism. John Wesley Jarvis was 
engaged in scraping mezzotintos for the same market, and 
Herring got some employment in coloring from him. But 
a publisher of maps was his best patron; in coloring these 
his wife could assist him, and with her aid he earned a decent 
living. The patron, however, did not do so well, and found 
it necessary to make a precipitate retreat without notifying his 
creditors, among whom was Herring. Fortunately, the young 
man found that his debtor had stopped at Philadelphia, and 
he pursued him on foot, found him, and obtained part of the 
money due to him. But his employment in New York had 
been diminished by the failure of the map maker, and he 
looked about him for something in the city to which fortune 
had led him that might supply the deficiency; and he found 
it. Matthew Carey was a map publisher, and was willing to 
give him as much work as he could undertake. He removed 
his wife to Philadelphia, and they jointly carried on the busi- 
ness of coloring maps, until finally they employed girls to 
assist them, whom they taught. Carey paid three dollars a 
hundred, and Herring & Co. could make a clear $20 a week. 
Such particulars of the steps by which a youth makes his way 
up in the world, are very interesting to me I hope my readers 
participate in my feelings. 

His attention was called to drawing, at this time, by an ap- 
plication for a profile. This led to making profiles and coloring 
them. He then attempted a delineation of the whole face; 
and by a successful experiment made in New Jersey, he suc- 
ceeded in gaining employment in that State as a portrait 
painter in water colors, and finally in oil. From New Bruns- 
wick to Easton he was the portrait painter. A citizen of New 
York saw his work, and invited him thither to paint some 
members of his family. This succeeded, he had more appli- 
cants, removed his family to the great commercial metropolis, 



THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 75 

and in a short time was an established portrait painter in the 
Bowery, near the spot at which he commenced life in the 
brewhouse and distillery of his father. 

A fit of sickness caused him to reflect on the helpless situa- 
tion of his wife and children ft he should die, and he projected 
the establishment of a circulating library, which in such an 
event they could continue. When restored to health he, by 
the perseverance of several years, at times when not employed 
in painting, accomplished, and finally established one in Broad- 
way, where it now yields him a handsome annual income of 
$1500. This success, and the intercourse with prints and 
books, suggested that scheme of publication to which I alluded 
in commencing this memoir " The National Portrait 
Gallery," a work honorable to our country. 

Mr. Longacre of Philadelphia having a project of the same 
nature in agitation, the two were united, and the work now 
gives employment to many of our engravers, and stimulates 
to that exertion on which the progress of the fine arts depends. 
I have seen twelve numbers of this elegant publication, and 
seen most of them with sincere admiration. Many of the en- 
gravings are from approved paintings, and answer public 
expectation both for likeness and execution. The 12th number 
is the most highly and expensively ornamented, but is not 
satisfactory to me, and I feel myself bound to notice the cause 
of my dissatisfaction. The greater part of the number is very 
properly devoted to George Washington, and instead of one 
portrait of him the editors have given two, besides a beautiful 
medallion. But unfortunately neither of the portraits have a 
semblance of George Washington. One is a very finely en- 
graved plate by Durand, our first engraver, and one of our 
best draughtsmen, copied by him from Mr. Trumbull's full- 
length picture of Washington at Yale College, which has not 
a feature like the hero. It must be remembered that the painter 
is president of the institution under whose patronage the 
National Portrait Gallery is published; and the picture is said, 
in that work, to be "regarded by the artist as the finest por- 
trait of General Washington in existence." Apparently as a 



76 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

contrast, another portrait follows in the same number, neatly 
engraved in an inferior style, from a copy, and apparently 
from a poor copy, of one of Stuart's " Washingtons," with most 
of the deformities attending these copies; and it is given as 
being from a portrait painted by G. Stuart. I would ask why 
was not Mr. Durand engaged to engrave from Stuart's original 
picture in the Athenaeum at Boston (or his own fine copy of 
it), that a fair comparison might be made by those still re- 
maining who knew the hero, and that in reality the world might 
see the intelligent and benevolent countenance of Washington. 
I do not attribute this arrangement to Messrs. Herring and 
Longacre: the influence which produced it is manifest. It 
reminds me of the mode in which Mr. Rembrandt Peale ex- 
hibited his certificate-" Washington," with a wretched copy of 
a copy, made by himself and placed on the floor without frame, 
beneath the portrait which he had the authority of Mr. Custis, 
Judge Marshall, and in fact all he asked for their signatures, 
for calling the only likeness of Washington. There appears 
to be a sinister intention in publishing the work of an inferior 
artist by the side of an engraving from the burin (in beautiful 
line style) of our best engraver. The very valuable work of 
Messrs. Herring and Longacre is increasing in popularity: 
the effect of this malign influence, called patronage, is, that 
in No. 12 they have given, at great expense, two portraits of 
Washington, and neither like. The medallion is more like 
than either. 

GEORGE DIXEY JOHN V. DIXEY. 

George is the son of John Dixey, an English sculptor here- 
tofore mentioned. The subject of this notice was born in 
Philadelphia, and studied under the direction of his father. 
The only models of which I have any knowledge, executed by 
this gentleman, are "Theseus finding his father's sword"; 
" Saint Paul in the Island Malta," and " Theseus and the Wild 
Boar." 

John V. Dixey is the youngest son of John Dixey, and like- 
wise instructed by his father. In 1819, he modelled " St. John, 



TOWN'S CHOICE LIBRARY 77 

writing the Revelations." I remember Mr. John V. Dixey well 
as a student of drawing with good promise and very prepos- 
sessing manners. He has painted several landscapes in oil, 
highly creditable to him, which have been exhibited at the 
gallery of the National Academy of Design. 

ITHIEL TOWN. 

Of the time or place of this eminent architect's birth I am 
ignorant. He has long been prominent among the artists of 
New York, and I believe is a native of New England. Mr. 
Town travelled in Europe, and examined the works of art 
with a learned eye and judgment. His library of such works 
is truly magnificent, and unrivalled by anything of the kind 
in America, perhaps ixp private library in Europe is its equal. 
He is connected with A. J. Davis, Esq., as an architect, and 
from him I have received a notice of some of the designs of 
Mr. Town for public buildings, as well as some of those de- 
signed and executed in company. Under the head of A. J. 
Davis, this notice will be found. 

It would give me pleasure to lay before the public a more 
full account of this scientific and liberal artist, whose splendid 
library is open to the inspection of the curious, and freely 
offered for the instruction of the student. I have been dis- 
appointed in not receiving promised information. 

GILBERT STUART NEWTON. 

This gentleman is the nephew of Gilbert Stuart, being his 
sister's son. He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, September 
2, 1795, owing to the circumstance of his parents removing 
thither from Boston when the British were driven from that 
town by Washington and his undisciplined, half-armed host. 
After his father's death, Newton, a child, was brought by his 
mother to her home in 1803, and resided in Charlestown near 
Boston. When his uncle took up his residence in Boston he 
received his instruction, and at that time I heard of him as a 
youth painting with great promise of excellence. 

Colonel Sargent in a letter to me says (when mentioning 



78 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Gilbert Stuart), "his nephew Stuart Newton was very dis- 
pleasing to him, for he affected to know so much, and disputed 
with him so frequently, that Mr. Stuart finally became cool 
to him and cut his acquaintance. Newton now," that is, 
at the time of his late visit to the United States, "speaks of his 
uncle most disrespectfully, as I believe he does of most Ameri- 
can painters." This agrees with the story of his provoking 
the old man by telling him that he would show him how to 
paint, and of the uncle turning him out of the room. 

Newton was a short time in Italy, and as he proceeded 
through France to England he met Leslie in Paris, and they 
travelled to London together in 1817, through the Nether- 
lands, and from that tune these extraordinary men have been 
linked together in the strongest bonds of friendship. 

Many Americans had their portraits painted by Stuart 
Newton in Paris and London. I have seen several that were 
brought to New York, which were nowise extraordinary. 
He had not yet got into the path which was destined to lead 
him to fame. The first picture that I saw, indicative of his 
high talent, was the poet reading his verses to a gallant whose 
mistress was at the moment waiting for him by appointment. 
I saw this at my friend Doggett's frame store in Boston, and 
while I was admiring it, the author's uncle came in. I ex- 
pressed to him my pleasure, and was surprised at his coldness, 
not then knowing that the uncle and nephew had parted coolly. 
I afterwards saw in New York the Sleeping Girl under the 
influence of an old man's lecture, in the possession of Philip 
Hone, Esq., but I saw at the same time, a picture which 
excelled it, notwithstanding its splendid coloring; that was 
Leslie's "Anne Page and Master Slender." 

In a letter to me from West Point dated January 28, 1834, 
Mr. Leslie thus speaks of his friend: "You will no doubt like 
to have some account of my friend Newton. I met him for 
the first time in Paris in 1817. He was then on his way from 
Italy to England, and we travelled together through Brussels 
and Antwerp to London. Mr. Newton had gone from America 
to Italy for the purpose of pursuing his studies there. But he 




GILBERT STUART NEWTON 
1795- 1835 

FROM AN ETCHING BY S. J. FERRIS, AFTER AN ORIGINAL PENCIL DRAWING 
BELONGING TO MR. ClIARLES HENRY HART 



NEWTON'S SELF-CONFIDENCE 79 

had the sagacity to discover soon after his arrival, that Italy 
with all its treasures of ancient art, is not at present the best 
place for a beginner. There is nothing more certain than that 
a young artist acquires his taste from the living artists that 
are about him much more than from the works of those who 
are gone. Mr. Newton painted a portrait or two in Italy, and 
some of the leading painters asked him what colors he used, 
and seemed desirous of receiving information from him.* 
When he arrived in London the artists were surprised to see 
a young man beginning so well; but none of them asked him 
what colors he used, and he now found he was among men 
from whom he could learn the art. 

"Mr. Newton is blessed with an exquisite eye for coloring. 
He had also a great advantage in being from his childhood 
familiar with the works of his illustrious uncle Stuart. He very 
soon became known in England, and with less study than is 
usual, arrived at and maintains a very high rank among 
English artists. His comic pictures possess genuine humor; 
and as you have, no doubt, seen the engraving from his picture 
of the Vicar of Wakefield restoring Olivia to her mother, you 
can judge of his power in the pathetic I know of nothing 
in the art more exquisitely conceived than the figure of Olivia. 

"Mr. Newton was once asked if he was an historical painter. 
'No,' said he, 'but I shall be one next week.' He, like all men 
who know what the art really is, estimated it by its intrinsic 
excellence much more than by the classifications of history, 
familiar life, portrait, landscape, etc. For my own part, I 
would much rather have been the painter of one of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds' best portraits, or one of Claude's landscapes, than 
of any historical picture by Guido, Dominechino, or Annibal 
Carracci, I ever saw. If dramatic invention, a true expression 
of the passions and feelings of human nature and a perfect 
knowledge of physiognomy, are to be estimated by their 
rarity, Hogarth was the greatest painter the world ever saw. 
Yet, according to the received classification, his art must take 

* See hereafter R. W. Weir's remarks upon the present race of painters in Italy; 
and those of T. Cole. 



80 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

a lower rank than that of his father-in-law, Sir James Thornhill, 
who decorated the dome of St. Paul's with the history of the 
saint from which the church is named." 

Notwithstanding my exalted opinion of Mr. Leslie, I must 
here remark, that his love for the branch in which he excels 
may mislead his judgment on this question. He appears to 
confound the rank of the painters Hogarth and Thornhill, 
with the rank of the branches of art they pursued. That 
Hogarth was incomparably the best painter, is no argument 
for the supremacy of familiar painting over historic. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds' Infant Hercules places him higher, in my 
opinion, than any portrait he ever painted; and if he could 
have executed a great historical event or scriptural subject as 
well, he would have been exalted still higher. My opinion of 
the qualifications required for historical composition, and the 
value to be placed on choice of subject is known, and as I 
have no pretensions to eminence in any branch of the art, my 
opinion must at least be received as impartial. Leslie says: 
"I have here and there mixed up some of my own notions 
with my accounts of other people. If you agree with me in 
any opinion I have expressed and think it worth publishing, 
I hope you will give it the advantage of your own language." 
Although I may differ in opinion from this eminent artist, I 
hold his opinions in too high estimation to keep them from the 
public; and I should as soon attempt to mend his pictures as 
his language. 

To my inquiries respecting Newton, Washington Irving 
has given the following answer: 

"New York, March 9th, 1884. 

"My dear Sir, 

"I know nothing clear and definite about Mr. Newton's 
early life and his connections. He was born in Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, where his father held a post, I think in the commissariat 
of the British army. I am not certain whether his father 
was not a native of Boston, but feel sure that his mother was, 
and that she was sister to Stuart the painter, after whom New- 
ton is named. On the death of his father, which happened 



IRVING ON NEWTON 81 

when Newton was a boy, his mother returned to her relations 
in Boston. Here Newton was reared; and being intended for 
commercial life, was placed with a merchant. While yet a 
stripling, however, he showed a talent and inclination for 
drawing and painting, and used to take likenesses of his friends. 
These were shown about and applauded, sufficiently to gratify 
his pride and confirm his propensity: and in a little while it 
became apparent that he would never become a merchant. His 
friends were determined to indulge him in his taste and wishes, 
j.nd hoped that he might one day rise to the eminence of his 
distinguished uncle. One of his elder brothers, who was en- 
gaged in commerce, being about to make a voyage to Italy, 
took Stuart Newton with him, and placed him at Florence, to 
improve himself in his art. Newton was never very assiduous 
in his academical studies, and could not be prevailed upon to 
devote himself to that close and patient drawing after the living 
models, so necessary to make an accomplished draughtsman; 
but he almost immediately attracted the attention of the oldest 
artists by his talent for color. They saw, in his juvenile and 
unskilful sketchings, beautiful effects of color, such as are to 
be met with in the works of the old masters, gifted in that 
respect. Several of the painters would notice with attention 
the way in which he prepared his palette and mixed his colors; 
and would seek, by inquiry of him, to discover the principles 
upon which he proceeded. He could give none. It was his 
eye that governed him. An eye for coloring, in painting, is 
like an ear for harmony in music, and a feeling for style in 
writing a natural gift, that produces its exquisite result 
almost without effort or design in the possessor. 

"Newton remained but about a year in Italy, and then re- 
paired to Paris, from whence he soon passed to England 
arriving in London about the year 1817. Here he was fortu- 
nate enough to find his countrymen, Washington Allston and 
Charles R. Leslie, both sedulously devoted to the study and 
practice of the art, and both endowed with the highest qualifica- 
tions. Allston soon returned to the Lfnited States, but Leslie 
remained: and from an intimate companionship for years with 



82 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

that exquisite artist and most estimable man, Newton derived 
more sound principles, elegant ideas, and pure excitement 
in his art, than ever he acquired at the Academy. Indeed the 
fraternal career of these two young artists, and their advance- 
ment in skill and reputation, ever counselling, cheering, and 
honoring each other, until they rose to their present distin- 
guished eminence, has something in it peculiarly generous and 
praiseworthy. Newton has, for some years past, been one of 
the most popular painters in England, in that branch of 
historical painting peculiarly devoted to scenes in familiar life. 
His coloring is almost unrivalled, and he has a liveliness of 
fancy, a quickness of conception, and a facility and grace of 
execution, that spread a magic charm over his productions. 
His choice of subjects, inclining chiefly to the elegant, the gay 
and piquant, scenes from Moliere, from ' Gil Bias,' etc. yet he 
has produced some compositions of touching pathos and 
simplicity : among which may be mentioned, a scene from the 
' Vicar of Wakefield,' depicting the return of Olivia to her 
family. 

"Of Newton's visit to this country, his marriage, etc. you 
have doubtless sufficient information. Should you desire any 
additional information on any one point, a written question 
will draw from me all that I possess. When I am well enough, 
however, to bustle abroad I will call on you, and will be able, 
in half an hour's chat, to give you more than I can write in a 
day. 

"I am, my dear sir, 

"Very truly yours, 
"WASHINGTON IRVING." 

Mr. Newton, it is said, congratulates himself upon being 
born a subject to the king and aristocracy of Great Britain: 
and on one occasion, in New York, at a large dinner party, 
got up and disclaimed being a citizen of the United States. - 
He cannot, however, shake off the stigma of being an American 
painter. That he should prefer being thought a subject 



ARISTOCRATIC TENDENCIES 83 

and a native of a province, which places him in a kind of 
mongrel situation, neither Englishman nor American, though 
it lowers him in my estimation as a man, cannot detract from 
his great merit as an artist. Washington Irving, in con- 
versation has represented Newton to me as a man of great 
talent, quick to conceive and powerful to execute. He agrees 
with Leslie in ascribing to him an extraordinary eye for color; 
and says, that the rapidity of his execution almost exceeds be- 
lief. He has never applied himself with the necessary dili- 
gence to the study of drawing; yet, with the want of accuracy 
consequent to that neglect, his taste in composition and har- 
mony of coloring, cover all defects, or cause them to be 
forgotten; while the eye is delighted and the imagination 
excited by his treatment of familiar subjects of pathos or of 
humor. 

If a friend, who sees the progress of a picture, objects to any 
part, Newton defends it vehemently: perhaps, like Sir Fretful, 
asserts, that it is the best portion of his work; but if the friend 
returns the next day, he may find that part expunged and 
repainted. So great is his facility, that he never hesitates 
to dash out a figure, or a group: and, as Mr. Irving has said, 
"if one of his figures on the surface of his canvas could be 
scraped off, we should find half a dozen under it or might 
detect six legs to one man four painted and covered over, 
before the artist had adopted the last pair." 

Mr. Newton's manners have been stigmatized as pert, and 
occasionally approaching to puppyism. He is said to delight 
in contradiction, especially of widely received opinions. But 
he must have a great and solid mass of good sense under this 
surface, as well as great and uncommon quickness, both of obser- 
vation and repartee, and, at the bottom of all, an amiable dis- 
position; or he would not, as he is, be the friend and favorite 
companion of Charles R. Leslie and Washington Irving. When 
he was in New York, the rector of Grace Church at that tune 
displayed his collection of paintings to Newton, saying (no 
doubt expecting a compliment to his taste and judgment in 
selecting), "I think you will say they are tolerable." "Toler- 



84 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

able!" said the painter; "tolerable! why yes; but would you 
eat a tolerable egg?" 

When Mr. Irving returned to London, after a long absence 
on the continent, he anticipated great enjoyment from the 
society of Allston and Leslie; but he only arrived time enough 
to take leave of the great historical painter, who returned to 
the land he loved even better than England; his intimacy with 
Leslie he resumed, with renewed delight. On one occasion 
they had made an appointment to pass a day on Richmond 
Hill, and Leslie asked if he might take with them a young 
artist who had lately returned from Italy. It was agreed to: 
and on this occasion Irving first saw Stuart Newton. They 
passed a day of frolic and fun (such frolic and fun as became 
such men), and from that time Newton, Leslie, and Irving 
were inseparable while the latter remained in London. 

Newton, as he disliked the labor of study, and found that 
historical or fancy composition required more exertion of mind 
than portrait painting, had determined to paint portraits, and 
not trouble himself with any other labor than that of copying 
his sitter. Irving, who had seen his talent for humorous and 
domestic scenes (for he would dash off a sketch of an incident 
as rapidly as another could relate it, and then throw it away 
as a thing of no value), remonstrated with him, and endeavored 
to rouse his pride and ambition by depreciating portrait 
painting. But, as he defended a weak spot in his picture, so 
he defended the propriety of his choice talked of Van Dyck 
and Reynolds, and all the men famous for portraiture; and 
finally parted from his friend in a huff, saying, among other 
things, "that, knowing his predilection for portrait painting, 
it was improper," or perhaps using a harsher expression "in 
Mr. Irving to speak of that branch of art as he had done." 
Some days after, Irving called upon the offended painter, and 
found him engaged in painting "The Poet reading his Verses 
to the impatient Gallant." "Aha! now you are in the right 
road!" exclaimed the friend. And from that time forth the 
artist devoted himself to that species of composition in which 
he has been so eminently successful. 



A MASTER-ENGRAVER 85 

It is well known that, on his visit to the United States, Mr. 
Newton married a young lady of Boston, and carried her to 
the land he loved best: but unhappily his domestic happiness 
has been clouded, if not destroyed, by a malady which has 
cut him off from his friends, and deprived the world of those 
exertions which added to the innocent pleasures of life, and 
promoted a taste on which no small portion of human happiness 
depends. 1 

MONRO GONDOLFI. 

The best foreign engraver that ever visited this country. 
He was a native of Bologna. In his youth he had studied and 
practised painting, and was noted for his skill as a draughtsman 
and the beauty of his water-color drawings. The art of en- 
graving engaged his affections, and he soon made himself an 
engraver; but, on visiting Paris, where his roving disposition 
led him, he became a pupil of the celebrated Bervic for a 
short time. In Paris he engraved several of the plates for the 
splendid edition of the pictures in the Louvre. Returning to 
Italy, he engraved and published several justly admired 
works, particularly a holy family after Guido, and a St. 
Cecilia, after a painting of his own. This last I have seen and 
admired. I know of but one copy in New York, which is in 
possession of Doctor Hugh M'Lean. 

However admirable Gondolfi's works render him as an artist, 
his conduct as a man has been that of a detestable profligate. 
He a second time left his native city for Paris, abandoned an 
amiable wife, and discarded his son, a sculptor of much promise. 
He carried with him to Paris a vulgar and ignorant peasant 
girl, with whom, as his wife, he came to New York in 1817. 

Trumbull engaged him for four thousand dollars to engrave 
his "Declaration of Independence." Heath had demanded 
eight thousand. Gondolfi made his bargain before he knew 
the value of money in America, and the cost of living; he soon 
cancelled it, declaring that four thousand dollars would not 
support him and his madam, while he labored at the plate, 

1 GUbert Stuart Newton died at Chelsea, England, August 5, 1835. 



86 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and supply him with claret. He showed me a water-colored 
painting of his own designing, which he called his "Fantasie." 
It consisted of beautiful heads, and parts of figures floating in 
clouds, here and there grouped and drawn, colored, and finished 
exquisitely. He visited Philadelphia, but soon returned to 
New York, and then, as my informant who went to Europe 
with him shortly after, tells me, he formed a design of visiting 
the South Sea Islands, and passing the remainder of his days 
in the fancied simplicity of nature and innocence, to do which, 
he thought it necessary to shake off his nominal wife, the 
Italian peasant whom he had brought from home but she 
chose to share his simplicity and innocence with him, and he 
gave up the scheme. He then suddenly set off for Italy, after 
attempting again to leave behind him the specimen of Bolognese 
rusticity he had brought with him and introduced as his wife. 
She was tenacious, and like the fruits of all evil doing, kept her 
hold his torment and his shame. 

As an artist, Gondolfi deservedly ranks high. His engrav- 
ings are distinguished for boldness, and at the same time 
faithfulness to the originals: and what is particularly to be 
remarked in his works, is the variety of his style, and its adapta- 
tion to that of the painter he copies. 

Some of his works, which are spoken of as masterpieces in 
the art, have not been seen in this country. He showed a 
sensitiveness about his reputation well worthy of imitation, not 
allowing his plates to be used, the moment after they began 
to fail, but destroying them at once. For this reason the 
prints from his works are not so numerous, as those of others 
who have engraved less and his prints are all in fact proof 
impressions. Most of his works have been subscribed for, 
before they were finished, and are therefore scarcely ever to be 
met with, but in private collections. 

Is it not strange, that any one should be so sensitively careful 
of his reputation as an artist, and utterly regardless of his 
reputation as a man, and blind to the consequences that must 
follow his dereliction of the duties of a citizen, a husband, and 
a father? 



MINOR ARTISTS 87 

JOHN EVERS. 

This gentleman was born at New Town, Long Island, the 
17th of April, 1797, and his inclinations leading him to land- 
scape drawing, he chose as a profession scene painting; in 
which branch of art he was instructed by J. J. Holland. Mr. 
Evers has exhibited several landscapes in oil, of decided merit. 
He is a member of the National Academy of Design. In 
private life he is justly esteemed as an honorable and amiable 
man, and in his profession as a skilful artist. 

SAMUEL SCARLETT COFFEE QUIDOR. 

Mr. Samuel Scarlett, a landscape painter, was born in 
Staffordshire, and came to America at the age of thirty-five. 
He went to London at twenty years of age, to study painting 
with Mr. N. Fielding, called the English Denner, from the 
high finish of his pictures. From London Mr. Scarlett removed 
to Bath, where he remained until he emigrated to Philadelphia. 
In 1829 he was appointed curator to the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of the Fine Arts, and has of late painted but little. Mr. 
Scarlett is one of those, who, if not the most encouraged as 
artists, do honor to their profession by their conduct as men. 

Mr. Coffee is an Englishman, and a modeller in clay. He 
has executed many small busts in this way, with decided merit. 
I believe he now resides in Charleston, South Carolina. 

Mr. Quidor was a pupil of John Wesley Jarvis. He had 
painted several fancy subjects with cleverness. His picture 
of Rip Van Winkle has merit of no ordinary kind. His principal 
employment in New York, has been painting devices for fire 
engines, and work of that description. 



CHAPTER VII. 

MORSE JOUETT SHAW PETTICOLAS - - WALL EARL 
- CORWAINE JOCELYN JOHNSTON DICKINSON. 

SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE. 

THIS gentleman, the eldest son of the Rev. Jedediah Morse, 
D.D. the first American geographer, was born in Charlestown, 
Mass., April 27, 1791. His maternal great grandfather, from 
whom he derived his first name, was the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Finley, a former president of Princeton College. From his 
mother came the name of Breese. Mr. Morse received his 
education at Yale College under Dr. D wight, and was graduated 
in 1810. Washington Allston, Esq. a little previous to this 
time had returned from Europe. Morse had from a very early 
age resolved on the profession of a painter, and his acquaintance 
with Mr. Allston confirmed him more strongly in his resolution. 
The father of Mr. Morse, finding the passion for painting 
incorrigible in his son, determined to indulge him in his wishes 
to take advantage of the means of studying in Europe; and 
Mr. Allston being about to sail for England, young Morse 
was put under his charge, and in August, 1811, he arrived in 
London. A few weeks only had elapsed when Mr. C. R. Leslie 
also arrived in London, from Philadelphia, to pursue his 
studies in the same profession. Similarly situated in so many 
respects, an ardent friendship was formed between the two 
young painters, which has continued unbroken to the present 
hour. They took rooms together at No. 8, Buckingham Place, 
Fitzroy Square, a house which has become somewhat cele- 
brated as the residence of a succession of American artists for 
some thirty years.* 

* It is now occupied by Cheney, a promising engraver from Boston. 

88 




SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 
1791 - 1872 

FROM AN ENGRAVING BY JoHN SARTAIN AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH FROM LIFE 



A USEFUL LESSON 89 

Mr. Morse had letters to West and to Copley (the latter 
then quite infirm and fast failing), and received from both 
every encouragement, but especially from the former. An 
anecdote is related of West in relation to the first drawing 
shown by Morse, which is worthy of recording for the useful 
lesson which it teaches to students. 

Morse, anxious to appear in the most favorable light before 
West, had occupied himself for two weeks in making a finished 
drawing from a small cast of the Farnese Hercules. Mr. West, 
after strict scrutiny for some minutes, and giving the young 
artist many commendations, handed it again to him, saying, 
"Very well, sir, very well, go on and finish it." "It is finished," 
replied Morse. "Oh no," said Mr. West, "look here, and here, 
and here," pointing to many unfinished places which had 
escaped the untutored eye of the young student. No sooner 
were they pointed out, however, than they were felt, and a week 
longer was devoted to a more careful finishing of the drawing, 
until, full of confidence, he again presented it to the critical 
eyes of West. Still more encouraging and flattering expressions 
were lavished upon the drawing, but on returning it the advice 
was again given, "Very well indeed, sir, go on and finish it." 
"Is it not finished?" asked Morse, almost discouraged. "Not 
yet," replied West, "see, you have not marked that muscle, 
nor the articulations of the finger joints." Determined not to 
be answered by the constant "go on and finish it" of Mr. West, 
Morse again diligently spent three or four days retouching 
and reviewing his drawing, resolved if possible to elicit from 
his severe critic an acknowledgment that it was at length 
finished. He was not, however, more successful than before; 
the drawing was acknowledged to be exceedingly good, "very 
clever indeed"; but all its praises were closed by the repetition 
of the advice, "Well, sir, go on and finish it." "I cannot finish 
it," said Morse, almost in despair. "Well," answered West 
"I have tried you long enough; now, sir, you have learned 
more by this drawing than you would have accomplished in 
double the time by a dozen half -finished beginnings. It is not 
numerous drawings, but the character of one, which makes a 



90 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

thorough draughtsman. Finish one picture, sir, and you are a 
painter." * 

The first portraits painted in London, both by Morse and 
Leslie, were portraits of each other, in fancy costume. Morse 
was painted by Leslie in a Scotch costume, with black plumed 
bonnet and tartan plaid, and Leslie by Morse in a Spanish 
cavalier's dress, a Van Dyck ruff, black cloak, and slashed 
sleeves; both these portraits are at the house of their ancient 
hostess, who retains mementos of the like character some 
product of the pencil of each of her American inmates. 

It was about the year 1812, that Allston commenced his 
celebrated picture of the "Dead Man restored to Life by touching 
the bones of Elijah," which is now in the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Arts; in the study of this picture he made a model in clay 
of the head of the dead man, to assist him in painting the 
expression. This was the practice of the most eminent old 
masters. Morse had begun a large picture to come out before 
the British public at the Royal Academy exhibition; the 
subject was the dying Hercules, and in order to paint it with 
the more effect, he followed the example of Allston, and deter- 
mined to model the figure in clay. It was his first attempt at 
modelling. His original intention was simply to complete such 
parts of the figure as were useful in the single view necessary 
for the purpose of painting, but having done this, he was 
encouraged, by the approbation of Allston and other artists, 
to finish the entire figure. After completing it, he had it cast 
in plaster of paris, and carried it to show to West. West 
seemed more than pleased with it. After surveying it all 
around critically, with many exclamations of surprise, he sent 
his servant to call his son Raphael. As soon as Raphael made 
his appearance, he pointed to the figure and said, "Look there 
sir, I have always told you any painter can make a sculptor." 

From this model Morse painted his picture of the "Dying 

* When Mr. West was painting his "Christ Rejected," Morse calling on him, the 
old gentleman began a critical examination of his hands, and at length said, "Let me 
tie you with this cord, and take that place, while I paint in the hands of the Saviour." 
Morse of course complied West finished his work, and releasing him, said, "You 
may say now, if you please, that you had a hand in this picture." 



SOCIETY OF ARTS MEDAL 91 

Hercules," of colossal size, and sent it, in May 1813, to the 
Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House. The picture 
was well received. A critic of one of the journals of that day, 
in speaking of the Royal Academy, thus notices Morse: "Of 
the academicians, two or three have distinguished themselves 
in a pre-eminent degree; besides few have added much to 
their fame, perhaps they have hardly sustained it; but the 
great feature in this exhibition is, that it presents several 
works of very high merit by artists with whose performances, 
and even with whose names we were hitherto unacquainted. 
At the head of this class are Messrs. MONRO* and MORSE. The 
prize of History may be contended for by Mr. Northcote and 
Mr. Stothard. We should award it to the former. After these 
gentlemen, Messrs. Hilton, Turner, Lane, Monro, and Morse, 
follow in the same class." (London Globe, May 14th, 1813.) 
In commemorating the "pre-eminent works of the exhibition," 
out of nearly two thousand pictures, this critic places the 
" Dying Hercules " among the twelve first. 

This success of his first picture was highly encouraging to 
Morse, but it was not confined to the picture: upon showing 
the plaster model to an artist of eminence, he was advised by 
him to send it to the Society of Arts to take its chance for the 
prize in sculpture, offered by that society for an original cast of 
a single figure. Finding that the figure he had modelled came 
within the rules of the society, he sent it to their rooms, and 
was not a little astonished a few days after at receiving a 
notice to appear on the 13th of May, in the great room at the 
Adelphi, to receive in public the gold medal, which had been 
adjudged to his model of the " Hercules." On that day there 
were assembled the principal nobility of Britain, the foreign 
ambassadors, and distinguished strangers; among them but 
two Americans. The duke of Norfolk presided, and from his 
hands Morse received the gold medal, with many compli- 
mentary remarks. It is worthy of notice, that at this period 
Great Britain and the United States were at war. 

* This most promising young artist was the son of the celebrated physician Dr. 
Munro, of London, famous for his treatment of insane patients. He died but a few 
months after this notice of him. 



92 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

We see in this another instance of the impartiality with 
which the English treated our artists. Allston and Leslie were 
treated in the same manner during this period of national 
hostility. Allston says England made no distinction between 
Americans and her own artists; yet Trumbull, as we have 
seen, attributes his failures at this time to the enmity of the 
English. We are glad to bear testimony to the good feeling 
of the enlightened public of Great Britain, which placed them 
above a mean jealousy or a barbaric warfare upon the arts. 

Encouraged by this flattering reception of his first works in 
painting and in sculpture, the young artist redoubled his ener- 
gies in his studies, and determined to contend for the highest 
premium in historical composition, offered by the Royal Acad- 
emy the beginning of the year 1814. The subject was, "The 
Judgment of Jupiter hi the case of Apollo, Marpessa, and 
Idas." The premium offered was a gold medal and fifty guineas. 
The decision was to take place in December of 1815. The 
composition, containing four figures, required much study; 
but by the exercise of great diligence, the picture was completed 
by the middle of July. Our young painter had now been in 
England four years, one year longer than the time allowed him 
by his parents, and he was obliged to return immediately 
home; but he had finished his picture under the conviction, 
strengthened by the opinion of West, that it would be allowed 
to remain and compete with those of the other candidates. 
To his regret, his petition to the council of the Royal Academy 
for this favor, handed in to them by West, and advocated 
strongly by him and Fuseli, was not granted; he was told that 
it was necessary, according to the rules of the Academy, that 
the artist should be present to receive the premium it 
could not be received by proxy. Fuseli expressed himself in 
very indignant terms at the narrowness of this decision. Thus 
disappointed, the artist had but one mode of consolation, he 
invited West to see his picture before he packed it up, at the 
same time requesting Mr. West to inform him, through Mr. 
Leslie, after the premiums should be adjudged in December, 
what chance he would have had, if he had remained. Mr. 



MORSE IN BOSTON 93 

West, after sitting before the picture for a long time, promised 
to comply with the request, but added, "You had better 
remain, sir." * 

Morse, however, was obliged to return, and in August 1815, 
he embarked for his native country. Early in the following 
year Mr. West, true to his promise, sent him word that from 
the moment he saw the picture he had not a doubt respecting 
its rank; as president of the Academy he could not prejudge 
the case at the time, but he regretted the necessity of Morse's 
return home, as the premium he said would certainly have 
been awarded to his picture had he remained in London till 
December. This picture was shown for sale in the artist's 
room, in Boston, for more than a year, but without a single 
inquiry from any one respecting the price. It was afterwards 
presented to the late John A. Allston, Esquire, of Georgetown, 
South Carolina, a gentleman who had employed the pencil of 
the artist in numerous and costly pictures. 

Morse returned to his country flushed with high hopes of 
success in that department of painting in which he had gained 
laurels abroad. With the exception of two or three portraits, 
painted principally with a view to study the head, the whole 
time, a period of four years, was expended in the study of 
historical painting. He opened his rooms in Boston, and so 
far as social hospitality was concerned, his reception was most 
flattering; all the attentions of polite society were lavished on 
him; at dinner and evening parties he was a constant guest, 
and he was buoyed up with the hope that this attention would 
lead to professional orders, but he was disappointed. After 
remaining a year in that city without receiving a single order 
for an historical picture, or even an inquiry concerning the 
price of those already painted, his thoughts were for the first 
time seriously turned to consider the precarious prospects of a 

* It is an interesting anecdote which I have from Mr. West's eldest son, that his 
father's mind was so vigorous during his last illness (from which he expected to re- 
cover) that he contemplated painting another large picture on the scale of " Death on 
the Pale Horse." The subject was " Christ looking at Peter after the Apostle's Denial." 
He was completing the sketch when taken ill. The subject is one of the finest, and justi- 
fies what I have said of West's judgment in selecting events suited to the high purposes 
of art. 



94 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

professed historical painter in the United States. His father 
had given him a liberal education, and had with limited 
means and other children to educate, supported him for four 
years in London, while acquiring the knowledge necessary for 
the highest branch of the art to which he had devoted himself; 
and finding no demand for his ability in that branch of the 
art, he determined that he would no longer call upon his 
father for aid, but try what he could do in portraiture, although 
he had never made it his study. He prepared a few small 
panels for painting on, packed up his painting materials and 
proceeded eastward, turning his back in sorrow and disap- 
pointment upon Boston. In New Hampshire he found em- 
ployment for small portraits at $15 each, and his hands so 
full, that in a few months he returned home with his pockets 
well lined. Two important events happened during this visit 
which affected his future life. He became acquainted with 
Miss Walker, and engaged to become her husband when 
fortune should be propitious; and he fell in with a southern 
gentleman who introduced himself, and gave Morse assurance 
of full employment at the South, at four times the price he was 
painting for in New Hampshire. He immediately wrote to 
Dr. Finley, of Charleston, S. C., his uncle, for advice respect- 
ing a visit to that city, and received his warm invitation to 
come as his visitor and make a trial. Accordingly Mr. Morse 
proceeded to the hospitable city. Some weeks, however, 
passed on and no employer appeared. "This will not do, sir," 
he said to the Doctor, "I must ask you to permit me to paint 
your portrait as a remembrance, and I will go home again." 

He painted Doctor Finley's portrait, which was seen by his 
friends, and before it was finished he had three engagements 
made. The names were put down on a sheet of paper, and 
he began to paint the portraits in rotation more names were 
subscribed, more sheets of paper wanted, and his list in a few 
weeks amounted to 150 names, engaged at $60 each. His 
prospects were now bright, and he determined to work hard, 
and with money in his pocket and this list of subscribers, to 
return to New Hampshire, marry, and return next winter to 



PAINTING IN WASHINGTON 95 

Charleston with a wife. Stimulated by such prospects, he did 
work hard, and for something more than three months, finished 
four portraits a week. He left Charleston with $3000 and 
engagements for a long time to come. 

His marriage and return to Charleston took place of course, 
and he continued his visits every winter to Charleston until 
the close of the fourth. 

This brings my memoir to the year 1819-20. At this period 
the rumor reached him of the great success of the "Capuchin 
Chapel," as an exhibition picture, and his hopes of becoming 
an historical painter were revived by a plan he formed of 
painting an interior of the House of Representatives, at 
Washington, with portraits of the members. This, he thought, 
might be sent with an agent to various cities, and the revenue 
derived from its exhibition would enable him to employ himself 
in the branch of the art for which his studies in London had 
prepared him. 

Having removed his family to New Haven, he proceeded to 
Washington and made the necessary studies for this great 
subject. The picture he painted at home, and it cost him the 
labor of eighteen months. When finished, a most complicated 
work of beautiful architecture, with a multitude of figures, 
making a painting 8 feet by 9, it was exhibited to a loss of 
several hundred dollars, in addition to the cost of time lost 
in painting it.* Much of the little fortune accumulated by 
his labor in Charleston had been called for by a reverse in his 
father's situation, which he was not likely to spare his means 
in relieving. He was now again poor, and with a family to 
maintain. 

At this period, 1822-3, he sought employment at New York, 
and by the friendly aid of Mr. James Hilhouse, well known as 
a man of taste and a distinguished poet, he was introduced to 
the family of Isaac Lawrence, Esquire, where he found his 
works and talents justly appreciated, and his skill as an artist 

* This picture was rolled up and packed away for some years. Finally, a gentleman 
offered $1000 for it, which was accepted, and our House of Representatives in a body 
removed to Great Britain. 



96 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

put in requisition. This led to an order from the corporation 
of New York for a full-length portrait of General Lafayette, 
who being then at Washington, Morse went thither and painted 
the head of the venerable patriot, making the necessary draw- 
ings for the picture. 

This was in the winter of 1824-5. I was at the time in 
Washington city, and embarking, in February, 1825, at Balti- 
more, on my return home, met Mr. Morse, likewise returning, 
and in deep affliction, having heard of the death of his wife. 
He had taken a house in New York, and had the prospect, 
when he came to Washington, of returning to the enjoyment 
of domestic happiness as a man, and of prosperity as an artist. 

His wife died at New Haven, and thither he proceeded, to 
his parents and his children. The full length of Lafayette 
occupied his time for some months in New York; but it was 
begun in misfortune and prosecuted in sorrow. A series of 
occurrences, all of the same funereal character, called him 
from his labors to his duties, as a son and a father, at New 
Haven. One of his children lay at the point of death his 
aged and venerable father, the first who taught us the geog- 
raphy of our country, died his beloved mother died and 
he felt himself a desolate being, with only the ties of parental 
affection to hold him to this earth. 

It was amidst these afflictions that his love for his art in- 
duced him to form that association of artists for mutual im- 
provement which resulted in the establishment of the only 
academy for teaching the fine arts that has existed in America, 
The National Academy of Design. A school for students, with 
competent teachers, professors, and lecturers. A notice of 
this institution, and the causes which led to its establishment, 
will be found under the head of Academies. 

Mr. Morse's exertions and success drew upon him the bitter 
enmity and malignant vituperation of the dictator and leaders 
of the nominal American Academy of the Fine Arts; and of 
course, in consequence of sneers and misrepresentations, the 
ill will of the friends of these gentlemen. Morse being elected 
president, and having been the original mover in the forma- 




I)E WITT (LIN TON 

1709 -18-28 
BY SAMUEL F. B. MOKSK 

Fniin the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art 



HONORS IN LONDON 97 

tion of the association for mutual improvement, had to bear 
the greater share of the calumny which was propagated against 
all the artists concerned in this establishment. He has borne 
it, or repelled it, until, as is the course ordained, the shafts 
have rebounded, and are fixed as thorns in the flesh of those 
who aimed them at the reputation (the heart of hearts) of men 
who were serving their country, by devoting their time and 
talents to the progress of those arts which are the pride of 
civilized society, and the source of all the elegant comforts of 
domestic life. 

Mr. Morse delivered a course of lectures on the fine arts, 
before the New York Athenaeum, which was received by 
crowded audiences with delight. This was the first course of 
lectures on the subject read in America. These lectures were 
repeated to the students and academicians of the National 
Academy of Design. 

In 1829 Mr. Morse found himself in circumstances to visit, 
not only England again, but to reside, for a sufficient time in 
Italy to study the works of art, copy many of the best pictures, 
and to improve in every branch of painting, to a degree which 
has surprised me as much as it has given me pleasure. On his 
arrival from America he found his friends, Newton and 
Leslie, in London, and with them attended two lectures at the 
Royal Academy, both remarkable for circumstances of very 
different natures. Leslie introduced Morse to the academicians, 
who received the president of the National Academy of Design 
with peculiar honor. The first of these lectures was remark- 
able, as being the last time Sir Thomas Lawrence was out of 
his house. The second, for a compliment paid by the lecturer 
to Washington Allston. Martin Archer Shee, the successor of 
Lawrence, was, on this occasion, requested to take the presi- 
dential chair: Morse, Leslie, and Newton, sat at his right 
hand. Mr. Greene, the lecturer, remarked, that he was glad 
Mr. Morse was present, as he had had occasion to mention an 
American gentleman who was an honor to the Royal Academy, 
Mr. Allston: and in the course of his lecture he quoted two of 
Allston's sonnets. 



98 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Returning homeward he made a stop in Paris, and pursued 
his studies in the Louvre. He there made a picture of that 
celebrated gallery, copying in miniature the most valuable 
paintings as hanging on the walls.* Of this splendid work my 
friend James Fenimore Cooper speaks thus, in a letter to me 
dated Paris, March 16th 1832: "Morse is painting an exhibi- 
tion picture that I feel certain must take. He copies admirably, 
and this is a drawing of the Louvre, with copies of some fifty 
of its best pictures." 

The picture of the gallery of the Louvre was not finished 
until Morse returned to New York; but when nearly finished 
and removed from the gallery, the Chevalier Alexander Le 
Noir, conservateur of the Museum of France (a celebrated 
antiquary, who is now engaged in arranging the papers on 
the ruins of Palenque in Mexico, mentioned at page 4, vol. i, 
of this work), wished to see the painting, and made an appoint- 
ment for the purpose. He sat long before it, and complimented 
the artist highly, who received the praise as the effusion of 
politeness; but the next day he had a proof of the learned 
critic's good opinion, for he received from him two folios and 
a quarto, published by him, containing several hundred plates, 
descriptive of the ancient monuments of France and their 
history. 

On leaving Paris he returned to London, and had the satis- 
faction of renewing former recollections and acquaintances, 
and particularly of enjoying the society of his friend Leslie. 
His good old friend and master, West, was no more, and his 
younger friend and instructor, Allston, was in America; but 
he had recollections of the latter brought to his mind very un- 
expectedly. Morse had brought a letter to a gentleman from 
Italy, whose direction was No. 11 Tinny Street, London. 
After an absence of sixteen or seventeen years, he had no 
remembrance of the street, or thought that it was connected 

* This picture was finished in New York, and exhibited in that city and in New 
Haven. Every artist and connoisseur was charmed with it, but it was "caviare to the 
multitude." Those who had flocked to see the nudity of Adam and Eve, had no curi- 
osity to see this beautiful and curious specimen of art. It has been purchased by 
George Clarke, Esq., of Otsego, and removed to Hyde Hall, on Otsego Lake. 



PAINFUL SCENE RECALLED 99 

with any transactions of interest to him. He sought the 
street, and on entering it he saw objects which appeared 
familiar to him; but which might only have reminded him of 
those dreamy sensations we experience throughout life, when 
entering a strange place we feel as if all the scene was merely 
a renewal of former impressions, made we know not how or 
when. He inquired for No. 11 of a gentleman passing, who 
exclaimed, "Surely I know you, sir." "My name is Morse." 
"And have you forgotten that house," pointing to it, "that 
is No. 11, my name is Collard, and there, with you and your 
friend Allston, and his friends Coleridge and Lonsdale, I have 
passed many happy hours in times past." The reality now 
flashed upon Morse he entered the house, and found him- 
self in the apartment where he had witnessed such poignant 
scenes of distress in former days the chamber in which his 
dear friend and mentor's wife had expired, and where he had 
seen that friend deprived of reason in consequence of the 
sudden bereavement. 

On the 16th of November, 1832, Mr. Morse arrived in 
New York, and relieved me from the charge I had sustained 
as vice-president of the National Academy of Design, to the 
presidency of which institution he had been re-elected annually. 
I have mentioned his great improvement in his profession. 
I have a letter from Mr. Allston of late date (1834), in which 
he says to me, "I rejoice to hear your report of Morse's advance 
in his art. I know what is in him, perhaps, better than any 
one else. If he will only bring out all that is there, he will show 
powers that many now do not dream of." * 

* Mr. Morse has told me that he formed a theory for the distribution of colors 
in a picture many years since, when standing before a picture of Paul Veronese, which 
has been confirmed by all his subsequent studies of the works of the great masters. 
This picture is now in the National Gallery, London. He saw in it that the highest 
light was cold; the mass of light warm; the middle tint cool; the shadow negative; and 
the reflections hot. He says he has tried this theory by placing a white ball in a box 
lined with white, and convinced himself that the system of Paul Veronese is the order 
of nature. Balls of orange or of blue so placed, give the same relative result. The 
high light of the ball is uniformly cold, in comparison with the local color of the ball. 
"I have observed in a picture by Rubens that it had afoxy tone, and on examination I 
found that the shadow (which according to my theory ought to be negative), was 
hot. Whenever I found this to be the case, I found the pictures foxy." On one occasion, 
his friend Allston said to him while standing before an unfinished painting, "I have 



100 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Mr. Morse has been appointed, by the University of New 
York, professor of the literature of the fine arts. 1 

MATTHEW JOUETT. 

My wish to gain accurate information of this gentleman 
and other painters of the West, induced me to write to the 
Hon. Henry Clay, as a known friend to the fine arts. He 
referred me to his son Henry Clay, Jr. Esq., of Maplewood 
near Lexington, from whom I received a very friendly letter, 
of which the following is an extract: "Jouett, as you per- 
haps know, was a man of taste and possessed a vein of humor 
copious and rich, but unaffected and innocent in its tendency, 
which made him a charming companion, and which will per- 
haps greatly add to the interest of his biography. Of him I 
can send you a very accurate notice. Of Harding, the ac- 
count will not be so full. He has removed from this State, 
but I can send you some particulars connected with his early 
career while a resident and painter in Kentucky. I will en- 
deavor also to send you a similar account of West." This 
promise was made last January, and I have reminded Mr. 
Clay of it, but imperious circumstances, no doubt, have pre- 
vented the fulfilment. My correspondent John Neagle, Esq. 
of Philadelphia, says, "I saw Jouett in Lexington, Kentucky, 
in the year 1819. He was the best portrait painter west of 
the mountains. He studied with G. Stuart, and painted some- 
what in his manner. I saw in his room a head of Henry Clay, 
much in general arrangement like Stuart. He was a tall, 
thin man. I know he admired Stuart much, and desired me 
by letter to send him a copy of my portrait of Mr. Stuart." 
From this circumstance, I judge that the death of Mr. Jouett 
did not take place until about the year 1826. J. R. Lambdin, 
Esq., writes to me thus of Jouett: "Matthew Jouett was born 
in Fayette county, Kentucky, and educated; for the bar. 

painted that piece of drapery of every color, and it will not harmonize with the rest 
of the picture." Morse found that the drapery belonged to the mass of light, and said 
"according to my theory it must be warm; paint it flesh color." "What do you mean 
by your theory?" Morse explained as above. Allston immediately said, "It is so. 
It is in nature," and has since said, " Your theory has saved me many an hour's labor." 
1 Samuel Finley Breese Morse died April 1, 1872. 




MATTHEW HARRIS JOUETT 

1783 1826 
BY HIMSELF 



STUART'S GIFTED PUPIL 101 

He entered the army during the last war, and was one of those 
brave sons of Kentucky, who distinguished themselves on 
our western frontier. At the close of the war he practised 
painting for a short time as an amusement, but being dis- 
satisfied with the life of a lawyer determined on adopting the 
profession, and accordingly visited Boston in 1817, and was for 
several months, as is well known, a favorite pupil of Stuart's. 
No man ever made better use of the time than did Jouett. 
His pictures, though executed with an appearance of careless- 
ness, possess much of the character of his master. He upheld 
the argument of Reynolds regarding vermilion and lake, and 
as he seldom varnished his pictures, the consequence is, that 
more than one-fifth of them have so much faded in their 
carnations, as to be little more than a chalk board. I have some 
of his portraits executed at the south, which would have done 
credit to Stuart in his best days. Having married early in 
life, he settled his family on a farm in the vicinity of Lexington, 
from whence during the winter, he migrated to the South, 
and practised successfully in New Orleans and at Natchez. 
His well-stored mind his astonishing powers of conversation 
and companionable disposition, caused his society to be con- 
stantly courted, and gave him an amount of employment never 
enjoyed by any other artist in the West. He died at Lexington, 
in 1826, shortly after his return from a visit to the South, 
in the forty-third year of his age." Of course this extraordinary 
man, gentleman and artist, was born in 1783. 1 

JOSHUA SHAW. 

A landscape painter of eminence, was born in the memorable 
year 1776, in Bellingborough, Lincoln County, England. 
Left an orphan at a very early age, he had to pass through the 
hardships which genius so often encounters in its way to the 
level it ultimately attains. A farmer's boy a mender of 

1 Matthew Harris Jouett, second son of John and Sallie Robards Jouett, was born 
April 22, 1787, in Mercer County, Kentucky. After studying with Stuart, he returned 
to Lexington, Ky., and later painted portraits in New Orleans. In 1824 he painted 
Lafayette from life at Frankfort, Ky. Jouett died August 10, 1827. About 350 por- 
traits by him are recorded. 



102 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

broken windows a post boy carrying the mail apprentice 
to a country sign painter, and at the age of manhood, a sign 
painter himself, and a married man in Manchester. Through 
these various stages young Shaw had practised drawing and 
latterly easel painting, with a view to casting off the mechanic 
and becoming an artist. With a strong constitution and stronger 
determination, he persevered in improving himself in flower 
painting, still life, portraiture and landscape, and finally suc- 
ceeded in attracting public attention, had orders for pictures 
and dropped the business of sign painting forever. 

The exact time of Mr. Shaw's coming to this country I do 
not know; but he had long contemplated America as the land 
of promise. I first met him in Norfolk, returning from a visit 
to South Carolina. He practised his profession in Philadelphia 
many years with deserved applause. Of late years he has 
turned his attention to mechanics, and invented improve- 
ments in gun locks with eminent success. This pursuit has 
led him to Europe, and he has revisited his native country. I 
see by the public prints that he has obtained a premium from 
the emperor of Russia, for improvements in naval warfare. 
He is again in Philadelphia and actively engaged in establish- 
ing an exhibition of the works of living artists, preparatory to 
schools in which the arts of design may be taught. I remember 
a stag hunt by Mr. Shaw with great pleasure, seen some years 
back. 

EDWARD F. PETTICOLAS. 1 

Of this gentleman, my correspondent T. Sully says, "1 
think Petticolas must have been born in Philadelphia. His 
family settled in Richmond about 1805. I painted in miniature 
then, and gave some instruction to Petticolas; the father 
instructed my wife in music as an equivalent. Petticolas after- 
wards took to oil painting visited England and France 
returned and married a lady of Richmond, and again visited 
Europe and returned; after a short residence in Richmond he 
visited Europe for the third time, and is now (1833) in Rich- 
mond." 

1 He was the son of Phillipe S. Petticolas. 




JOHN GRIMES 

1799-1837 
BY MATTHEW HARRIS JOUETT 

From tin- follcotion of The Metropolitan Museum of Art 



TIMID IN ART AND MANNERS 103 

In 1821, I visited Mr. Petticolas in Richmond, and saw the 
portraits he had in his painting room. His style was chaste, 
his coloring clear, and I felt that he deserved all the employ- 
ment of that city. Mr. George Cooke however found em- 
ployers in Richmond, and probably Petticolas was neglected. 
There was a modest manner in the artist, and rather a want of 
boldness in his work. 

Sully in another letter, speaking of this gentleman, says, "he 
would have made an able and excellent portrait painter had 
he kept to London. He has knowledge, elementary, especially; 
but is timid and cramped. Correct and gentlemanly in de- 
portment; much beloved in Richmond, but is too fond of 
seclusion to get on." When Mr. Petticolas returned from his 
second visit to England in 1826, he told Mr. Sully that Mrs. 
Dunlop (herself a painter), had been a sitter to Lawrence, and 
said that he made use of carefully finished studies made from 
his sitters, for painting from in then 1 absence; and these studies 
were the chief means of completing the portrait. 

WILLIAM G. WALL. 

This gentleman was born in Dublin, 1792, and landed in 
New York the first of September, 1818, where he commenced 
his career as an artist. The first views he made for publishing 
were scenery of the Hudson, and he has continued a successful 
application of his talents to landscapes in oil and water colors 
ever since. His pictures were a great attraction at the early 
exhibitions of the National Academy of Design in 1826-7 and 
8. Mr. Wall has of late resided at Newport, Rhode Island, but 
has removed to New Haven, where he is pursuing his profession 
with great success. He has sold many of his late pictures at 
from three to four hundred dollars each. This gentleman has 
been indefatigable in studying American landscape, and his 
reputation stands deservedly high. A short time before the 
death of Thomas Jefferson, he wrote to Mr. Wall, offering him 
in the most friendly manner, the situation of teacher of drawing 
and painting at his college of Charlotteville; but as it was not 
made a professorship, Mr. Wall declined. Mr. Wall's practice, 



104 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

of late is to color all his drawings from nature on the spot, 
"the only way," as he says, "to copy nature truly." 

AUGUSTUS EARL. 

The reader will find in the first volume of this work a notice 
of Mr. Earl of Connecticut, at page 263; and at page 115 of 
volume two a Mr. Earl is mentioned who died at Charleston, and 
who I supposed was an Englishman, principally from the circum- 
stance that Mr. Sully told me he had seen his widow in London, 
and communicated to her circumstances connected with his 
death. I have from recent information reason to believe that 
the person who died in Charleston, was the same mentioned 
in the previous page, as I now know that Earl of Connecticut 
married when studying in London, and left his wife and chil- 
dren there when he returned home; and that he was the father 
of Augustus Earl, known as the wandering artist. Augustus 
was the intimate friend and fellow student of C. R. Leslie and 
S. F. B. Morse. 

The latter gentleman has related to me some particulars of a 
ramble he took in company with Earl, when they both were 
students of the Royal Academy in 1813. With their sketch- 
books and drawing apparatus, they visited the seashore and 
the towns adjacent, making pedestrian excursions into the 
country in search of scenery, and sometimes meeting an ad- 
venture. On one occasion, their aim after a day's ramble was 
to reach Deal, and there put up for the night, but they found 
when about five miles from the town, that they had to cross a 
dreary moor, and the sun was about to withdraw his light from 
them. As they mounted a stile they were met by a farmer, who 
accosted them with, "Gentlemen, are you going to cross the 
moor so late?" "Yes. We can't lose our way, can we? " "No. 
But you may lose your lives." "How so?" "Why there be 
always a power of shipping at Deal, and the sailors be sad 

1 Augustus was the son of James Earl. He published a book in 1832 entitled "Nar- 
rative of a Nine Months' Residence in New Zealand." In the preface to this book it 
is stated that he rambled through America in 1818-20. If he was at one time in New 
York as Dunlap states, he was probably an itinerant. The Earl genealogy gives his 
birth as 1793. He is supposed to have died in the thirties. 



THE DANGEROUS MOOR ( 105 

chaps; they come ashore and rob and murder on the moor, 
without your leave or by your leave." "Has there anything of 
the kind taken place lately?" "Why, yes, a young woman was 
murdered not long ago by two sailors. You will see the spot 
on your way, if you will go, there is a pile of stones where she 
was killed. The fellows were taken, and I saw them hanged." 
"So, there is no danger from them, then." "About a mile 
further on, you will see bushes on your left hand there a 
man was murdered not long ago but the worst place is 
further on you will come to a narrow lane with a high hedge 
on each side it will be dark before you get there, and in 
that lane you will come to a stile, and just beyond you will 
see a white stone set up, and on it is written all the circum- 
stances of the murder of a young woman, a neighbor of mine, 
who was coming home from town all dressed in white, with a 
bundle in her hand tied in a dark-red handkerchief but, 
gentlemen, you had better turn back and stop the night at 
my house, and you shall be heartily welcome." They thanked 
him, but saying they were two, and a match for two, they 
full of confidence pursued their route. It soon became twilight. 
They found the heap of stones, and a slight shudder occurred 
when looking on the dreary scene, and the mark by which 
murder was designated. They passed on rather tired, and 
striving to keep up each other's courage until they came to the 
bushes. Here was another spot where foul murder had been 
committed. They quickened then* pace as they found darkness 
increased, and now they came to the lane with the high hedge 
row on each side, which rendered their way almost a path of 
utter darkness. They became silent, and with no pleasant 
feelings expected to see the stile, and if not too dark, the stone 
erected to commemorate the murder of the young girl in white, 
with the dark-red handkerchief. "What's that?" said Earl 
stopping. "I see nothing," said Morse "yes now that 
I stoop down I see the stile." "Don't you see something 
white beyond the stile?" "That, I suppose is the white 
stone." "Stones do not move," said Earl. Morse stooped 
again, so as to bring the stile against the sky as a background 



106 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and whispered, "I see someone on the stile hush." A 
figure now approached, and as they stood aside to give ample 
room for it to pass, they perceived a tall female dressed in 
white, with a dark-red bundle in her hand. On came the 
figure, and the lads gazed with a full recollection of the farmer's 
story of murder, and some feelings allied to awe. On she 
came, and without noticing them passed to go over the moor. 
"It will not do to let it go without speaking to it," thought 
Morse, and he called out, "Young woman! are you not afraid 
to pass over the moor so late?" "Oh no, sir," said the ghost, 
"I live hard by, and when I've done work, I am used to crossing 
the moor in the eve good night," and on she tripped. 

The young painters laughed at each other, and pursued 
their way without further thought of ghosts or murderers. 
They saw indeed the murder-marking monument, but it was 
too dark to read the tale, and they soon found themselves in 
comfortable quarters after their long day's ramble, and forgot 
their fears and their fatigues together. 

Eighteen years, or more after, Mr. Morse inquired of Leslie 
for their old companion Earl, and learned that he had been 
rambling far beyond Deal. "He had visited every part of the 
Mediterranean," said Leslie "roamed in Africa rambled 
in the United States sketched in South America at- 
tempted to go to the Cape of Good Hope in a wornout Margate 
hoy, and was shipwrecked on Tristan d'Acunha, where he 
passed six months with some old tars who hutted there at 
length a vessel touched the desolate place and released him. 
He then visited Van Dieman's Land, New South Wales, and 
New Zealand, where he drew from the naked figure, and saw 
the finest forms in the world addicted to cannibalism. Return- 
ing to Sydney, he, by way of variety proceeded to the Caroline 
Islands stopped at the Ladrones looked in upon Manila 
and finally settled himself at Madras, and made money as a 
portrait painter. Not content he went to Pondicherry, and 
there embarked for France, but stopped at the Mauritius, and 
after some few more calls at various places, found his way 
home. Here his sister had married a Mr. Murray, a relative 



A ROVING DISPOSITION 107 

of the Duke of Athol, and being left a widow, found a home as 
charge des affaires for his grace, who you know is a harmless 
madjnan, thinks himself overwhelmed with business, and shuts 
himself up with books and papers, which he cannot understand, 
and then calls for his coach and rides out on some important 
errand, which forgotten, he returns again. Earl wrote and 
published his travels, and attracted some attention. One day 
he came to me with delight painted on his face, ' I am an- 
chored for life I have an offer of 200 a year, and everything 
found me, only to reside under the roof of the Duke of Athol, 
and ride out with him when he takes it in his head to call his 
coach I am settled at last ! ' I congratulated him ' You 
can write and draw at your leisure, and give us all your ad- 
ventures.' 'Yes nothing could be happier.' A few weeks 
after Earl came again. ' Congratulate me, Leslie.' * What has 
happened?' 'I have been offered a berth in a ship bound to 
the South Pole! I have accepted it it is just what I wish.' 
And he is now in his element again; for rove he must as long 
as he lives." 

It may be asked, how is Augustus a subject for this work? 
Independent of being the son of a Yankee, he when in America 
exercised his profession in New York, living in the house with 
Mr. Cummings, the father of the well-known miniature painter. 
This was in 1818. Thomas S. Cummings, then a boy, was 
encouraged in his attempts at art by Earl, and possesses many 
of his sketches which are replete with character. Mr. Cum- 
mings describes Earl as being at that time a fair-complexioned, 
flaxen-haired young man. He is probably now as black as his 
favorites of the South Sea Islands. 



AARON H. CORWAINE. 

This unfortunate child of genius was born in Kentucky, 
and as my correspondent T. Sully, Esq. thinks, near Maysville. 
In 1818 he studied with Mr. Sully, who says, "His first at- 
tempts, when with me, evinced remarkable tact. He was, how- 
ever, indolent, and this might in a measure have been caused 



108 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

by his infirm health." He had a painting room in Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, in the house of Mr. Earl, the frame- 
maker; and Sully says, "he might be seen at almost any hour 
lounging at Earl's shop door." 

This shop of Earl's, it must be remarked, contained all the 
best engravings, and paintings were brought thither to be 
framed. Corwaine would stretch himself on the floor by a 
picture, and appear to devour it with his eyes. "His figure, 
manners, and kind mode of expression," continues Sully, "put 
me in mind of the mild and bland appearance of Leslie. He 
was gentle and full of kind sympathy and delicate taste he 
was candid and guileless. After a short residence in Phila- 
delphia he returned to the western country, I think Maysville. 
I heard of him from time to time, of his increasing industry 
and consequent improvement. Three or four years ago he 
wrote to ask my advice in visiting Europe for improvement, 
and according to what I said on the subject, he repaired to 
London. I have been often requested to advise in the like 
case, and have always recommended the English school as 
the best for portrait painting; but Corwaine is one of the few 
who have followed my counsel. Of all those who have studied 
on the continent, I have not found one whose style, as a por- 
trait painter, has not been rendered unfit for the taste of this 
country. 

"Corwaine left Philadelphia, when he embarked for London, 
in a bad state of health, but with some hope that the sea 
voyage would restore it, and an ardent desire to redeem lost 
time. Misfortune attended his steps from this time to the 
day of his death. The funds he had provided to defray his 
charges in London were all lost by the failure of the merchant 
in whose hands he had placed them shortly after his arrival: 
meanwhile his disease was aggravated by close application to his 
studies. He has since told me that the overstrained effort to 
continue the work in hand, which engaged his attention, has 
caused him to faint. He returned to Philadelphia penniless, 
with a ruined constitution and depressed spirits, to die in the 
arms of his kind and faithful cousins, two maiden ladies, the 



CORWAINE'S EARLY DEATH 109 

Miss Cones, in whose house he resided until death relieved 
him from his pains at the early age of twenty-eight. 

"The few studies and copies made by Corwaine when in 
London show what high ground he would eventually have 
taken, had life been continued." 

Extracts from an Obituary Notice. 

"Cincinnati, July 17th, 1830. 

"Died, In Philadelphia on the 4th instant, Mr. A. H. 
Corwaine, portrait painter, in the 28th year of his age. 

"The subject of this notice was a native of Kentucky, and 
like many of the legitimate children of genius, he struggled 
in the commencement of life with every obstacle that want of 
family influence and of wealth could present. In early youth 
he wandered to Maysville, and making himself master of the 
rudest materials of his art, he commenced his rough attempts 
at sketching portraits. These, coarse as they were, were dis- 
tinguished by that quality which marked his productions at a 
maturer period; that of catching some powerful point of feature 
and expression, which gave peculiar force to his likenesses. 
On his coming to Cincinnati, some years ago, and while yet 
a boy, several gentlemen of this city, struck with his wonder- 
ful powers, induced him to place himself under the direction 
of Mr. Sully, and furnished him with the means of remaining 
in Philadelphia for two or three years. On quitting Phila- 
delphia he established himself in Cincinnati, where he remained 
in the prosecution of his art until the spring of 1829. 

"Ardently devoted to his art, he resolved to connect his im- 
provement in it with the pursuit of health. With this view 
he selected England as the place of his European visit. In 
London his health seemed at first to be improved, but in the 
beginning of the past winter, symptoms of returning disease 
became alarming, and he came to Philadelphia, where, after 
lingering some months, he bowed to the decrees of Providence, 
and was called to a better world, while yet in the morn of 
life." 



110 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

N. JOCELYN. 

This gentleman, who, like A. B. Durand, is both engraver 
and painter, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, in the year 
1796. Mr. Jocelyn has passed through many scenes of life 
with honor, and is an independent man: but of the particulars 
of those events or exertions which have led to his present 
eligible situation in his native city, I am ignorant; although 
I had been promised ample information on the subject, which 
I was anxious to obtain, as I know that Mr. Jocelyn's con- 
nections with distinguished men, both at home and abroad, 
and his talent for observation, would have made my memoir 
of him interesting and instructive. 

I know that, in 1815, he was a student of drawing and 
engraving; and engaged in the latter, as a profession, at Hart- 
ford, in Connecticut, in 1818. Although he has studied and 
practised oil painting, he has continued his professional exer- 
tions as an engraver. In 1820 he professed himself a portrait 
painter; and visiting Savannah, Georgia, he practised with 
success and improvement. 

Mr. Jocelyn was a member of the Graphic Company at Hart- 
ford, whose principal business was bank-note engraving. The 
bank-note system has been friendly to the arts of design, and 
stimulated as well as employed very many artists. 

In 1826, when the National Academy of Design opened 
their first exhibition, at the corner of Reade Street and Broad- 
way, Mr. Jocelyn exhibited several portraits of merit. In 
1829, he visited London, as I believe, on business connected 
with mechanical inventions: but whatever it was, he observed 
with the eye of a shrewd and talented man, the works of art 
around him. With the skilful and amiable Danforth, whose en- 
graving from Leslie's "Uncle Toby and the Widow" has made 
him universally known among his countrymen, Mr. Jocelyn 
had always been in strict friendship; and when in London they 
lived together, together enjoying the society of their cele- 
brated countrymen, Leslie and Newton. 

Mr. Jocelyn is established at New Haven; and has, in 1834, 
the most eligible suite of rooms for his painting and exhibition 



THE "AMERICAN CRUIKSHANK" 111 

of any artist I know of. I saw specimens of his head portrait- 
ure in August, 1834, which placed him, in my opinion, in the 
rank of our best portrait painters, though not foremost of the 
rank. 

Long married, this gentleman fulfils the duties of a good 
citizen, and enjoys the esteem of all around him. 1 

D. C. JOHNSTON. 2 
HIS ANSWER TO MY INQUIRIES. 

"Sir By particular desire I have placed myself, as Coleman 
says, 'bolt upright on my head's antipodes,' to detail to you 
the most remarkable incidents of my interesting life and ad- 
ventures from infancy, up to the present time and to con- 
vince you that of all opiates, there is none so powerful when 
administered by so skilful a hand as myself as a certain 
quantity of ink and paper. To begin at the beginning, and 
preserve future ages from such uncertainty as at present 
exists, concerning the nativity of Homer and other cele- 
brated characters, I hereby declare, that in the drab-colored 
city of brotherly love I first saw the light of day, under what 
particular planet I am unable to say; but of this you may 
learn something, if you can lay your hand on an almanac for 
1799, under the head of March. 

"Had my parents adopted for me a profession which my 
earliest propensities seemed to recommend, I might at this 
time have been 'a rude and boisterous captain of the sea'; 
for according to all authentic information, I neglected no 
opportunity to indulge in a hearty squall; by some, however, 
the propensity was attributed to an unusual development of 

1 Nathaniel Jocelyn died in New Haven, Conn., January 13, 1881. 

2 Johnston was a clever caricaturist. Drawings by him on stone of contemporary 
actors were issued from the lithographic establishment of Pendleton in Boston about 
1825-30. These productions are now scarce and he is best known by a periodical 
publication in the years 1830-49 entitled "Scraps," which gained for him the name of 
the "American CruikshaCnk," and which may have been inspired by Cruikshank's 
"Sketches," published in London 1828-32. Johnston had a fertile imagination and a 
keen sense of the ludicrous which his facility in the use of the etching needle enabled 
him to effectively display, but he was lacking in the essential artistic qualities necessary 
to place him in the high rank of the English illustrator. He died in Dorchester, Mass., 
November 8, 1865. 



HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

% 

the organ of tune, which, at the time was no doubt supposed 
to be a species of hand-organ, situated not far from honor, 
as set by Swift; for I seldom was allowed to complete more 
than half a dozen bars in a vocal solo, without a smart ac- 
companiment by somebody, on this supposed organ. At the 
same time, my parents might have been suspected of having 
adopted this opinion; but my opinion now is that that conduct 
was entirely devoid of phrenological prejudices; it was neces- 
sary for my own happiness, that my particular propensity 
should be overcome, to effect which, it was deemed necessary 
whenever I chose to indulge in so selfish a gratification, as a 
squall, not to seek for bumps on my head, but to turn me 
bottom up, and apply a wholesome quantity of bumps to the 
opposite part of the anatomical structure. This capsizing sys- 
tem, though particularly disagreeable to a structure not copper- 
bottomed, had the desired effect; my penchant for squalls 
gradually subsided, and calms became more frequent, till at 
length I thought the latter decidedly preferable to the former, 
attended with the inevitable organ accompaniment. 

"My schoolboy days were remarkable only for backward- 
ness of study, and forwardness of petty mischief; in reading, 
between mouthing, mumbling, and skipping hard words, I got 
on indifferently well. In penmanship, judging from a few early 
specimens which occasionally meet my eye, I evinced more 
than ordinary taste, and generally managed to destroy the 
cold and monotonous appearance of the white paper, by pass- 
ing my little finger, or perhaps the cuff of my coat, over the 
undried ink, or by an accidental blot licked up with the tongue, 
thereby producing a pleasing effect, chiaroscuro, which the 
tasteless Domine was unable to appreciate; insensible to the 
harmony of light and shade, he universally denounced my best 
effects as vile, every page of my copybook he no doubt con- 
ceived to be a rivulet of pot hooks and hangers, meandering 
through a meadow of smut; and as many pages as my book 
contained, so many thwacks did I receive on my palm, by way 
of improving my hand. In figures (that is, caricature figures), 
I^was more successful; these I usually exchanged with some of 



Let me caZc'datt. -Virt art /ou.r plates. 
each plate containing about twtlve , 
iUa,sfrat,onS,-fau.r times twtlve art jerfyttykt^ 
Jorfy tifhtjor ont dollar &, a quarter. Jbleu my tu.l / 

a fraction over ti*octntf(>crJkcfc/i.!tfiv>tharye 
fJorUae.r>priss matter!! VIPY ckttt/t isYnf p 




39 NUMBER OR CALCULATION 



PORTRAIT OF DAVID C. JOHNSTON 

From ;in etching by the artist in " Phrenology Exemplified and Illustrated," 1837. 



CARICATURING DISASTROUS 113 

my fellow scholars, for a slate full of such figures as suited 
the preceptor, who not unfrequently approved of my calcula- 
tions, without calculating himself, that they were received as a 
quid pro quo, for a wretched attempt at a likeness of himself or 
his assistant. Having completed my schooling (with the excep- 
tion of the last eighteen months, or two years), after the 
above fashion, a choice of profession became the next subject o* 
consideration with my parents. My graphic efforts, though 
wretched in the extreme, had acquired for me a certain degree 
of reputation among my friends and relatives; and as I un- 
questionably was fond of picture making, it was decreed that I 
should become an artist. Painting at this time would have been 
my choice, but this branch not being so lucrative and generally 
useful as engraving, I was placed some time in 1815, under 
the tuition of Mr. Francis Kearny, a gentleman of established 
reputation, both as an engraver and draughtsman; in this situa- 
tion I remained four years, during which time I acquitted my- 
self to the satisfaction of my worthy tutor. At the termination 
of my pupilage, there was but little business doing in book 
and print publishing, which necessarily produced a general 
state of idleness among artists of the burin, particularly among 
the junior class, who, like myself, had just acquired the enviable 
distinction of artist of my own book. Under these circumstances, 
I added publisher to my newly acquired title, and occasionally 
put forth a caricature of dandies, militia trainings, etc. In 
these efforts I succeeded so far, that sundry well-known char- 
acters in each department were readily recognized, the prints 
met with ready sale, and I began to aspire to something above 
dog collars and door plates; the engraving of which constituted 
an important branch of my business. 

"In the plentitude of my vanity, I began to think that I had 
assuredly taken a certain 'tide in the affairs of men,' and was 
flowing on to fortune, at the rate of ten knots an hour; but 
dandies and exquisites held it not honest, to have their follies 
thus set down and exposed at the shop windows; and valiant 
militia colonels and majors, in overhanging epaulets, breathed 
nought but slaughter, blood, and thunder; my customers, the 



114 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

print and booksellers, being threatened with libel suits on one 
hand, and extermination on the other, chose rather to avoid 
such difficulties, than to continue the sale of my productions. 

"This unexpected turn of tide rendered it necessary for me to 
look about for employment in some way, that would enable me 
to provide food and clothing (for I could not consent to re- 
main dependent on my parents), and at the same time, allow 
me a portion of leisure to devote to my pencil. I was at this 
time fond of the theatre, and had acquired no inconsiderable 
reputation among my acquaintance, as a mimic not only of 
actors, but of many individuals in private life, and was reck- 
oned good at a comic song, and altogether a nice man for a 
small party. These wonderful accomplishments induced me to 
try my fortune on the boards. The theatre was then open but 
four nights per week, and I calculated on having many hours 
per day for my more agreeable avocations. Without delay 
therefore, I made application to the manager, Mr. Wood; who 
selected for me the part of Henry, in 'Speed the Plough,' in 
which character I in a few days made my debut, as the saying 
is, before a splendid and enraptured audience. 

"The first appearance of a novice has been compared to the 
state of a person that has just been shot at and missed; I know 
not what my appearance was, but judging from my feelings, I 
must have looked more like -a person hit than missed; the shot 
having carried away the words of my author, my head seemed 
pirouetting on its vertebra, the footlights danced like wills o' 
the wisp; the audience appeared to be seated in an immense 
rocking chair in full seesaw; to my eye everything was topsy 
turvy, and to my ear, everything was buzz. Fortunately this 
sensation was but of short duration, the plaudits of the good- 
natured audience were soon recognized by my tympanum, the 
lights ceased to dance, the rocking-chair became stationary, the 
lost words of my author returned, and Henry was himself 
again, and commenced walking into the audience without 
material deviation from the usual mode of representing the 
character. There might have been a few accidental new read- 
ings, which at present I do not recollect, I but remember one 



JOHNSTON AS AN ACTOR 115 

point, though not a new one, was made sharper than usual, 
and proved to be a decided hit; to explain which, it becomes 
necessary to inform you that in consequence of a primitive 
misunderstanding between my knees, they never failed to come 
to blows, as soon as my legs were put in motion; I was, there- 
fore, at a very early age sent to dancing school, as the most 
effective means to correct this joint animosity. The experiment 
was not only attended with success, but resulted in so great a 
fondness for 'tripping it on the light fantastic toe,' that I soon 
became the most indefatigable toe-shaker or artiste (to use the 
more fashionable term), of my age. This brings me to the 
point alluded to, which occurred in the dance with Miss Bland- 
ford; my terpsichorean powers would have excited the envy 
of the muse herself. Poor Robert Handy, who scarcely knew 
a pirouette from a double shuffle, was, 'in amazement lost'; 
the electrified audience for a while kept their approving hands 
moving in time to my heels, until I commenced cutting three 
and four, and pigeon winging backward and forward; this was 
'going the whole swine'; the audience were obliged to yield 
the palm, and I was acknowledged the most dancing Henry 
that had appeared for years. Instead of asking myself, like a 
silly fool, where could Henry have learned to dance? I merely 
asked, like a sensible actor, what can I do to get applause? 

"A few evenings previous to my appearance, I witnessed the 
opera of the 'Devil's Bridge/ and heard the poor peasant Florian 
introduce a song with considerable applause, beginning 

' I have health, I have grounds, 
I have wealth, I have hounds/ etc. 

Being acquainted with the representative of Florian, I took 
the liberty to hint to him, that according to my notion, his 
song was by no means suited to the part. 'Not suited to the 
part!' he exclaimed, 'what the devil have I to do with what 
suits the part? my object is to suit the audience, and if you 
expect to succeed in this profession, you must put such ridicu- 
lous notions out of your head, young man.' 

" My second character was Master Slender, whether my per- 
formance of this part was an improvement on my first appear- 



116 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ance, I will not pretend to say. I but know that I felt much 
more at ease than in the sentimental Henry. My appearance 
as a young gentleman, was succeeded by an offer of an engage- 
ment from the manager, to fill the situation of what is techni- 
cally called, the walking gentleman, in which capacity I remained 
during the first season. 

"The second season was commenced by an advance of salary 
and a slight addition of business; that is, a minor comic char- 
acter was now and then trusted to me, and occasionally, a 
second or third-rate scoundrel; so that by the time I began the 
third season, I was a sort of actor of all work. 

"I had run through an extensive range of characters from 
first and second robber, to the man of wax in 'Romeo and 
Juliet' from the grave-digger to Laertes from Sheepf ace to 
Sir Benjamin Backbite from African Sal and Dusty Bob to 
the Duke of Venice. During my actorship I occasionally put 
forth something in the print way, sometimes a political carica- 
ture, and now and then a theatrical star; so that between my 
salary, my pencil and my graver, I lived rather comfortably; 
but as I never was positively stage struck, I kept a sharp 
lookout for an opportunity to bid adieu to the shield and 
truncheon; to carotty wigs and poisoned goblets. To facilitate 
this object I engaged with the Boston managers for the season 
of 1825. My motive for making this move was owing to a 
more extensive sale of my graphic productions hi that city 
than in my native place. A short residence in Boston con- 
vinced me that by applying myself to cut copper, I should 
soon be enabled to cut the boards. I gradually became known 
to the book publishers, who being in want occasionally of 
designs both for wood and copper, my humble abilities were hi 
a short time more than appreciated and so liberally rewarded, 
that at the close of the season I thanked the ladies Thalia and 
Melpomene, particularly the former, who to my taste is the 
more agreeable of the two; and in the language of a moving 
shopkeeper, begged a continuance of former favors in my new 
or rather old stand, which I still occupy, designing prints for 
booksellers and publishers. Most of my time, however, is 



JOHNSTON'S "SCRAPS" 117 

taken up in drawing on blocks for wood engravers. I manage 
occasionally as opportunity offers, to execute a political carica- 
ture, and steal time enough to make something for the annual 
exhibition of the National Academy of New York, and ditto 
for the Boston Athenaeum; the few odds and ends of time that 
remain I work up into scraps, which brings me to the end of 
the year and to the end of my epistle, for which you are u<4 
doubt very thankful. 

"You are perhaps not a little surprised at the length of this 
epistle, knowing as I do, that in your notice of me you can 
come to Hecuba in half a dozen lines, but as I generally have 
at this season of the year a week or two of leisure time, I thought 
I could not do better than employ part of it in bestowing my 
tediousness upon you and giving you the whole life, that you 
may choose your lines where you please. 

"I remain Sir, 

"Your most obt. serv't. 

"D. C. JOHNSTON. 

"To William Dunlap, Esq." 

DANIEL DICKINSON. 

The good sense of the following letter in answer to my in- 
quiries, induces me to publish it entire. Mr. Dickinson is in 
many respects a contrast to his brother Anson Dickinson, 
before mentioned; though not a better artist. 

"I was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, in 1795; was never 
under any master; Nathaniel and Smith Jocelyn and myself, 
were brother tyros in the art at New Haven, where we studied 
drawing all at the same time, principally from drawing and 
other books. I adopted a style between my brother Anson's, 
Malbone's and J. Wood's, fifteen years after my brother com- 
menced; being that number of years younger. Being led to 
miniature painting on ivory, I have employed my leisure time 
in fancy subjects, such as might best illustrate female beauty 
and grace. In 18.30, I began to study oil painting, and have 
lately finished my first original in that style, and if successful 



118 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

shall pursue this branch, as it will afford a greater field par- 
ticularly in works of fancy. The encouragement I receive en- 
ables me to remain in the same city in which I first commenced, 
Philadelphia, without ever painting in any other; I have been 
stationary upwards of fourteen years; the latter part of which 
time my yearly income is about sixteen hundred dollars." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS NATIONAL ACADEMY OF 
DESIGN HARTWELL PEKENINO COOKE. 

ACADEMIES. 

I CANNOT admit into this work the paltry attacks made by 
the enemies of the National Academy of Design, when they 
found that artists could establish a real academy, governed 
by artists with artists for teachers, having an exhibition which 
supported their school and other expenses, and becoming 
properly appreciated by the public. It is true that the exhibi- 
tion annually of the works of living artists destroyed the exhibi- 
tion of the old academy, called annual, but only so as open all 
the year. It is true that the old institution sunk into insignifi- 
cance and contempt; but it was the natural consequence of 
that dictation by which it was governed, which had told the 
patrons that artists could not govern an academy, and were 
not to be entrusted with its interests or its property. 

The corporation of New York at length gave notice to the old 
academy that they must remove. Destruction seemed now to 
stare the institution in the face; but Doctor Hosack saved 
them by offering to appropriate ground and erect a building 
to receive the casts, and open exhibitions, for the advance- 
ments of the arts. He demanded merely interest for the money. 
Mr. Trumbull gave an excellent plan; an architect was em- 
ployed, and the academy, as it is called, was erected in Barclay 
Street. It was opened and an exhibition made. The public 
went to see the building; and finding the same casts and pictures 
which had been seen for years, they were satisfied and went 
no more. The rent of the building and perhaps a surplus is 
obtained by letting out the rooms to adventurers and picture 

119 



120 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

dealers; but for all the purposes of an academy, it remains to 
this day dead. The directors, with Mr. Trumbull at their 
head, are an institution to let out rooms for the exhibition of 
pictures or statuary. 

There have been isolated portions of time when the statuary 
has been opened to students, particularly soon after the estab- 
lishment of the National Academy of Design; so far the latter 
institution has additional credit for opening to artists the 
treasures originally intended for their use. 

The National Academy of Design had been in successful 
operation for years, with schools, gratuitous teaching, profes- 
sors and lectures, and still the calumny that artists could not 
govern an academy, and were prone more than any other men 
to quarrelling, first propagated under sanction of Mr. Trum- 
bull's name as above stated, was repeated. Well meaning 
friends of the arts, ignorant of the circumstances which led to 
the formation of the National Academy of Design, and of the 
benefits it is diffusing by its schools, not only among professors 
of the fine arts, but among professors of those arts which 
contribute to the comforts, as well as elegancies of domestic 
life, were led to believe that the artists were injuring the cause 
most dear to them. Every academician has in turn been ac- 
costed with "Why do you not join the old academy?" And 
as it is impossible to enter on a history of the fine arts, and 
explain the nature of an academy for teaching them when thus 
questioned in the street or the drawing room, I have sometimes 
briefly said, "Union with an institution composed of perhaps 
two hundred men of all professions, governed by a majority, 
must place a few artists in a minority, and of course we must 
put ourselves and our flourishing academy under the direction 
of men who are necessarily ignorant of the arts we profess and 
wish to teach. These men have said we are unfit to govern 
ourselves, or to be entrusted with their property; property 
intended for the use of artists. By an union we must place 
ourselves under the direction of men who assume a tone of 
superiority to professors of the fine arts. The poor slave is 
only rescued from contempt by the knowledge that he is 



DR. HOSACK'S LIBERALITY 121 

compelled to be such. The slave by choice, must be the most 
contemptible of all human beings. We are now free: we direct 
our own work, and the time and manner of it, and we direct it, 
like working bees in the hive of society to the general good of 
the hive." 

During these years of prosperity to the National Academy, 
my friend Doctor Hosack, but for whom the old institution 
would perhaps have been altogether extinct, had repeatedly 
urged me to devise some plan by which the National Academy 
and the friends of the arts should all be united. He had re- 
peatedly said with his characteristic liberality, that he wished 
everything to be directed by, and opened to the use of artists. 
There appeared to be only the selfish ambition of one man in 
the way. 

On the return of S. F. B. Morse, Esq., the president of the 
National Academy of Design, from a three years' visit to 
Europe, Doctor Hosack renewed his conversations on this 
subject both with the writer and Mr. Morse, and by appoint- 
ment the Doctor and the president had a meeting expressly 
to discuss the subject. On this occasion, Dr. Hosack showed 
himself particularly anxious that the artists should have the 
benefit of the building he had erected, and the accumulated 
property of the old institution. Some time after this meeting, 
a notification was received from the directors of the old acad- 
emy, or American Academy of the Fine Arts, by the council 
of the National Academy, saying that they had appointed 
three gentlemen as a committee, to confer with three of the 
council. Immediately, Messrs. Morse, Dunlap and Durand, 
were appointed by the council, and met Messrs. Hosack, Rogers 
and Glover, three directors of the old academy. Henry F. 
Rogers, Esq., frankly said that he did not know what proposi- 
tion was to be made, or how to open the business. Mr. Dunlap 
suggested as a first step, to sink both academies and establish 
a new one, by a new title. This was a rash suggestion and 
happily did not take effect, though at the time it met with 
the approbation of all present. Mr. Rogers said that he now 
for the first time saw a probability of union. The committee 



122 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

of the National Academy said they would not agree to any 
other mode of government than that they had adopted, and 
found successful: a council of artists chosen by artists. The 
other gentlemen, particularly Messrs. Hosack and Rogers, 
avowed their wish to have no share in the direction of an 
Academy of Arts. Mr. Glover assented. A general plan of 
union was agreed on : the committee of the National Academy 
agreeing for the sake of very inadequate advantage, to en- 
cumber the institution (if their constituents consented), with 
the stockholders and honorary members of the old institution. 
The committees adjourned to meet again. They did so; the 
delegates from the American Academy being changed to 
Messrs. Hosack, Flandin and Herring. After several meetings, 
and after every point had apparently been settled, Messrs. 
Morse and Herring were appointed to draw up the project of 
agreement. It was done and presented to the council of the 
National Academy and agreed to; the ratification to depend 
upon a meeting of Academicians. 

Messrs. Hosack, Flandin and Herring, were by agreement 
to call a meeting of the directors of their institution, and lay 
the report before them, and the two committees agreed to meet 
at Doctor Hosack's to know the result. Dr. Hosack and Mr. 
Flandin came directly from the meeting of the directors, and 
finding the committee of the National Academy in waiting, 
reported: not that the project agreed upon had been laid be- 
fore the directors not that they had discussed and adopted or 
rejected it but that Mr. Trumbull had taken a paper from 
his pocket, which he brought to the meeting and read, and 
that they all agreed to it and ordered it to be printed. How 
these gentlemen answer to themselves the presenting to any 
person the project or report of their proceedings before the 
meeting took place, I cannot divine. Mr. Trumbull rejected 
the whole, and the whole was rejected. It had been repeatedly 
asked at the meetings of the committees, if in case there was 
an union, Mr. Trumbull would be elected president: and 
always answered that it must depend solely on the artists, none 
others by agreement being electors. It was known that he 



THE COMMITTEES AGREE 123 

would not be elected, as it was known that the artists thought 
him incompetent or worse. 

This abortive labor was reported to a meeting of the members 
of the National Academy, and a resolution was unanimously 
adopted, that the agreement of the committees of the two 
institutions should be published together with Mr. Trumbuil's 
rejection. 

I print here the joint report of the committees; Mr. Trum- 
bull's address prepared before the directory had seen or heard 
the report; and extracts from an examination of that address, 
by S. F. B. Morse. 

"JOINT REPORT of the Committees of Conference appointed by the American Academy 

of Fine Arts, and the National Academy of Design, to arrange the terms of a union of 

the two institutions. 

The artists and friends of the fine arts, at present embodied in the city of New York, 
in the two academies, called the American Academy of Fine Arts, and the National 
Academy of Design, mutually impressed with a conviction, that the great object for 
which they have associated, viz. the promotion of the fine arts, can be better accom- 
plished by a union of the means, for that purpose collected in each institution, have 
entered into negotiations through a committee, of conference, appointed by each of 
the academies, which committee, having given the whole subject a deliberate examina- 
tion, beg leave respectfully to report to the stockholders of the American Academy of 
Fine Arts, and the academicians of the National Academy of Design, the result of 
their labors. 

It was represented on the part of the American Academy, that this academy was 
possessed of property (of indefinite value), such as casts from the antique, pictures, 
prints, etc., highly useful to an academy, in the instruction of artists; that this property 
was held by stockholders, who had purchased shares, by the payment of twenty-five 
dollars each share. That the object of such purchase was not to obtain any dividend 
in money, but was intended for the encouragement of the arts, by furnishing means of 
study to artists particularly, and the public generally; and that for such payment they 
are entitled to certain privileges in the institution, viz. free admission for each of the 
stockholders and his immediate family, to the exhibitions of the academy; liberty to 
transfer his right by sale of his stock, to perpetuate it to his heirs, and to vote for 
directors and other officers of the academy at the annual elections. It was further 
represented that debts (to a certain amount) were contracted in the necessary opera- 
tions of the academy, and that the means to pay these debts, and the current expenses 
of the institution, were, in the last resort, the sale of the property of the academy; 
or, ordinarily, the receipts of the exhibitions, and the rental of rooms not immediately 
used by the academy. 

It was represented on the part of the National Academy of Design that this academy 
was also possessed of property (of indefinite value) of a nature similar to that pos- 
sessed by the American academy, and intended for the same general and particular 
purposes; that the academic body consisted of artists exclusively, and that attached 
to the institution were a body of honorary members, having privileges of a nature, 
in some respects, similar to those of the stockholders of the American academy. They 
(the honorary members) have free admission, not only to the exhibitions and library, 
but also to the lectures; they are not responsible in any way, for the expenses, the debts, 
or management of the institution. It was further represented that debts (to a certain 



124 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

amount) were contracted in the necessary operations of the academy, and that the 
means to pay these debts, and the current expenses of the institution, were, in the last 
resort, the sale of the property of the academy; or, ordinarily, the receipts of the 
exhibition and the rental of rooms, not immediately used by the academy. 

In the view of these two representations, it appeared to the united committee, 
tha* there were here two institutions agreeing 

1st. In professing the same general object, viz. the promotion of the fine arts. 

2d. In possessing property of similar character to promote this end. 

3d. In having debts to a small amount, to be liquidated by the same means, and 
in depending, also, on similar means for replenishing the treasury. 

It further appeared, that the differences to be accommodated, consist principally 
in reconciling the privilege of voting transferable and inheritable possessed by the 
stockholders of the American Academy, with the exclusive right possessed by the 
academicians of the National Academy (they being all professional artists), of electing 
their own members. This point was considered vital, and as presenting the most seri- 
ous obstacle in the way of uniting the two academies. It was contended on the part 
of the American Academy, that each stockholder possessed certain privileges of prop- 
erty to the amount of his share of stock; that the privilege of voting was designed solely 
to secure to him the proper application of his property and no more. It was urged 
on the other hand, by the National Academy, that such power operated more than 
was intended, by controlling the opinions and plans relating to the management of 
an institution designed for instruction in the arts, and which management, they, as 
artists, thought they might, without presumption, claim best to know, as being within 
the province of their own profession, and in which they felt the deepest interest. 
They urged, that the power to control by vote the elections into the body of artists, 
or the election of officers to manage the concerns of the academy, was a power incon- 
sistent with the judicious management of an academy of arts, and unauthorized by 
any precedent in any known academy; all such institutions in the world having artists 
exclusive in its academic body. They further contended, that to the exertions and 
professional labors of the artists, was naturally owing the principal interest of the exhi- 
bitions, and as these were the chief source of income, and as they were responsible for 
the debts of the academy they ought of right be uncontrolled in measures which they 
might deem best adapted to promote these ends. 

It appeared, therefore, to the committee, after long and serious attention, that this 
point might be adjusted in the following way: 

A new academy, to be called the New York Academy of the Fine Arts, shall be 
formed, embodying the members of the two academies, viz. the American Academy 
of the Fine Arts, and the National Academy of Design, on the following general plan 
in reference to this point and others of minor importance: 

There shall be four classes of membership, viz. academicians, associates, lay mem- 
bers, and honorary members. 

The academicians of the American Academy of Fine Arts, and the academicians 
of the National Academy of Design being academicians of each body on the 8th of 
January 1833, and whose names are hereunto annexed, shall constitute the primitive 
body of academicians in the New York Academy of Fine Arts. 

The associates of the American Academy of Fine Arts, and the associates of the 
National Academy of Design, being associates of each body on the 8th of January 
1833, and whose names are hereunto annexed, shall constitute the body of associates 
in the New York Academy of Fine Arts. 

The stockholders of the American Academy of Fine Arts shall constitute the body 
of lay members in the New York Academy of Fine Arts. 

The honorary members of the American Academy of Fine Arts, and the honorary 
members of the National Academy of Design, shall constitute the body of honorary 
members in the New York Academy of Fine Arts. 

The property of the American Academy of Fine Arts, and the property of the 



TRUMBULL'S OBJECTIONS 125 

National Academy of Design, shall be the property of the New York Academy of 
Fine Arts, subject to conditions hereinafter named. 

For the debts of the American Academy of Fine Arts, and for the debts of the Na- 
tional Academy of Design, the New York Academy shall become responsible. 

The property of the American Academy of Fine Arts shall be held in trust by five 
trustees, representatives of the stockholders, or lay members, and chosen annually by 
them, in such manner as they may think proper. The property aforesaid shall be held 
liable for the debts of the American Academy of Fine Arts only. 

The property of the National Academy of Design shall be held in trust by five / 
trustees, chosen annually by the academicians, in such manner as they may think / 
proper. The property aforesaid shall be held liable for the debts of the National 
Academy of Design only. Said property, or any part thereof, shall, in no case, be sold 
or alienated by the New York Academy, without the consent of the trustees of each 
property respectively; but in its use for the instruction and benefit of the institution, 
shall be under the sole management of the Academy. 

Each member of the Academy, viz. academicians, associate, lay member and honor- 
ary member, with his own immediate family, shall have access to all the exhibitions of 
the Academy, to the lectures, to the schools, and to the library, free of expense during 
his life. 

It appeared to the committees, that by the adoption of this plan by the two acad- 
emies, and embodying these principles in the constitution of a new Academy, the 
principal difficulties, if not all, that exist will be removed. There will be a mutual 
abandonment of the name of the two academies in adopting the name of New York 
Academy of Fine Arts. The artists in both academies will be united on the same equal 
terms. The honorary members of each will also be on equal terms, and the present 
stockholders of the American Academy of Fine Arts, as lay members, will have the 
same security as at present, through their trustees, for the faithful application of 
their property, while for the use of said property they have the same real advantages 
that they now enjoy, with the additional prospect of seeing improved and larger exhi- 
bitions, annually increasing, under the management of a united body of artists. 

[That the reader may have the whole subject on both sides before him, the Address 
of Col. Trumbull, which made the examination necessary, is appended. 
At a meeting of the Directors of the American Academy of the Fine Arts, held at their 

building in Barclay Street, on the %8th day of January, 1833, the following paper was 

read by the President, a copy ordered to be entered on the minutes, and 300 copies to be 

printed. 
GENTLEMEN, 

We have heard the Report of the Committee which was appointed to confer with 
the Committee of the National Academy of Design, on the subject of a proposed union 
of the two academies; and you will permit me to leave the chair a few moments, for the 
purpose of offering my opinion upon the subject. 

It appears to me that the Academy of Design require the abolition of the stock- 
holders of this academy, as the basis of the negotiation, the sine qua non, on their part, 
of a union; you will permit me to state at large the reasons why I regard this basis 
as utterly inadmissible. 

It has been proved by all experience, and, indeed, it is a truism, that the arts cannot 
flourish without patronage in some form; it is manifest that artists cannot interchange- 
ably purchase the works of each other and prosper; they are necessarily dependent 
upon the protection of the rich and the great. In this country there is no sovereign 
who can establish and endow academies, as Louis XIV., did in Paris, and at Rome; or 
as the late George III., did in London; and, in case of want of success in their early 
efforts, to aid them, as the latter monarch did aid the Royal Academy of London, by 
a gift from the privy purse, to the amount of 5000, or $25,000. 

The governments, that is, the legislative assemblies of our nation, or of the separate 
States, cannot be looked up to by the arts, with any hope of protection like this; the 



HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

church offers us as little hope as the State; and the fine arts, those arts which polish 
and adorn society, are, in this country, thrown for protection and support upon the 
bounty of individuals, and the liberality of the public. 

The foundation of this institution was laid by a few individuals, not artists; at 
the head of whom stood the late Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, and his brother, 
Edward Livingston, now Secretary of State of the United States; these gentlemen raised 
a subscription, in snares of $50, which amounted to nearly $3000, and this sum, under 
the direction of the same Robert R. Livingston, when minister of the United States at 
the court of France, purchased the fine collection of casts from the antique statues, etc., 
which constitute the pride of this institution. And the influence of the same Robert 
R. Livingston, obtained from Napoleon Bonaparte a gift of the magnificent collection 
of engravings and works on the arts, which will be the boast of your future library. 
Thus, these gentlemen, the original subscribers, became holders of a joint stock, com- 
posed of $50 shares. And the distinguished individual, Robert R. Livingston, who was 
the author of the plan our first president and, in the fullest sense, the founder of 
this Academy, was not an artist; he was nothing more than a stockholder. 

Again, gentlemen, John R. Murray and Charles Wilkes, Esq., to whom, next after 
Chancellor Livingston, we are indebted for our existence through the struggles of a 
feeble infancy, were not artists; but merely stockholders. 

Again, gentlemen, when, in the year 1815 or 16, the bounty of the corporation offered 
to us the shelter of a roof, and money was wanted to new model the interior of the alms- 
house, and to convert the small rooms which had been built for the convenience and 
comfort of the poor, into large and lofty apartments suited to the purposes of the arts, 
have we forgotten how that money was obtained? Did not a gentleman, now present 
with us as a director, borrow the sum required, from a bank in this city, upon his own 
private note? And was that gentleman an artist? No. Dr. Hosack was but a stockholder. 

Again, when, by a contract with the gentleman last named, this building was 
furnished and prepared for use, have we forgotten that a distinguished artist, now one of 
our academicians, hired our room for the exhibition of a splendid and pathetic picture, 
at a handsome rent for three months? Have we forgotten that, by some strange fatal- 
ity, that fine picture failed to obtain popular approbation? Do we not know that, under 
these circumstances, it would have been ruinous to the artist to be compelled to pay 
$300, and very discouraging to the Academy to lose it? And have we forgotten that an 
end was put to this embarrassment, and both parties relieved by the munificent inter- 
position of a gentleman here present; a director, but not an artist? No, he is but a 
stockholder. 

Again, gentlemen, how did we obtain the glorious portrait of Mr. West, the master- 
piece of Sir Thomas Lawrence? Was it purchased by our own funds? No. Twenty 
gentlemen gave the necessary sum by subscription, in shares of $100 each. And were 
these subscribers artists? No; with the exception of a very few, they too, were stock- 
holders. 

And, recently, gentlemen, have we not received an unrivalled present from John 
Jacob Astor, Esq., in two marble busts of the late emperor and empress of the French, 
executed by command of the emperor, by the late celebrated Canova, in his finest 
manner? And is Mr. Astor an artist? No; he too, is only a stockholder. 

With such an enumeration of munificent acts of stockholders before us, can there 
be one among us who can be persuaded to consent to the monstrous act of ingratitude 
proposed, of violating, or attempting to violate the right of suffrage and of property 
which, by our charter, are vested in those gentlemen? I trust, there is not one who 
can deliberately consent to it. 

At least, gentlemen, I, whose name stands in your first charter, granted in 1808, as 
one of the original grantees, and first vice-president of the institution, and who have 
had the honor during many successive years to be elected your president, feel myself 
bound by the most imperious duty to guard vigilantly your interests and your honor. 
And I do here most deliberately and most solemnly repeat what I have before said 



SOLICITUDE FOR STOCKHOLDERS 127 

informally: that never, while I live and have my reason, will I, a stockholder, consent 
to such a violation of their rights, and of our own duties, as is proposed; and no motive, 
not even the union of the two academies, will ever weigh with me to change this solemn 
resolution. 

Gentlemen, I beg leave to call to your recollection that, on the 16th of February, 
1830, I asked the attention of this board to the draught of two by-laws, which I then 
offered, and which, after lying upon your table for consideration, an unusual length of 
time, were, on the 4th of March, 1831, called up on the motion of Dr. Hosack, seconded 
by Mr. Robertson, and unanimously adopted. They are entered on the 24th page of \ 
your book of minutes, from which, with your permission, I will read them. 

These ordinances were proposed by me for the purpose of removing those objections, 
which, so far as I could understand them, had induced artists to withdraw themselves 
from this, and to form a new academy; by the first, artists are no longer required to 
pay twenty-five dollars, in order to become stockholders and members with us; the 
exhibition of a work of art in our rooms, approved of course by us, as being entitled 
by its merits to be exhibited, admits every one who may wish it, to a free participation 
with us in all our rights as stockholders. And by the second, which requires that at all 
future times, a majority of the directors shall be artists by profession, in the actual 
exercise "of their several pursuits, whether of painting, sculpture, architecture, or 
engraving," it was intended to guard the interests of the arts, in the most effectual 
manner, without violating the rights of the stockholders. 

It appears to me, that by these two ordinances, the doors of this institution are 
thrown open for the admission of all who choose to enter. While the preliminary de- 
mand of the National Academy of Design requires nothing less than the unconditional 
surrender of all the chartered rights of all the parties in this institution. 

If, then, the proposed union cannot be effected upon some other basis, I presume 
the negotiation is at an end; and the two academies must remain as they are, separate 
and rival institutions. 

And, however this may be lamented, we of the American Academy of the fine arts, 
have the satisfaction of knowing that the separation did not originate with us. We did 
not secede; we were seceded from. And I confess that, at the time, I felt most severely, 
not only the act, but the manner of the secession; but time and reflection have dissi- 
pated entirely those gloomy anticipations of ruin which I felt at first. We have sur- 
vived the first fury of the tempest, and I am confident that we shall safely ride out the 
gale. 

The separation took place in 1825, and was soon followed by an apprehension that 
the corporation was about to withdraw from us their protection, and to leave us without 
a roof under which to shelter our heads; and soon this fear was realized and we 
received formal notice to quit. 

Thank God, we did not sink under this accumulation of evils : on the contrary, our 
energy was roused to greater exertions; and now we find ourselves, still, by the favor of 
a stockholder, under an excellent roof, at a moderate rent, with fine apartments, a re- 
spectable property, and few debts. And what I regard as the surest, happiest omen of 
future prosperity, the members who left us are already replaced by young men of emi- 
nent talents and unwearied industry. While others are rapidly coming forward, like 
the young leaves of spring, to replace with renovated beauty and vigor, what may 
have been desolated by the tempests of winter. 

Gentlemen, let us not forget that since the separation in 1825, this city is immensely 
increased in numbers and in opulence. When I see entire streets of new and magnificent 
houses, which have been built in the upper part of the city since that period, I almost 
imagine myself to be carried back to Paris or to London. All these houses are elegantly 
furnished, and inhabited by families who manifestly must have some taste for the arts. 
There was a time when I felt a wish that we had not two hundred stockholders, who, 
with their families are free to visit our exhibitions: I did consider this as an unfortu- 
nate deduction from our probable receipts; but now my fears on that head have van- 



128 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ished; for what are two hundred to the multitude of opulent families who may, and will, 
and do, visit the various exhibitions. It does now appear to me that there is a fair 
prospect in future of ample patronage for both academies, and that we have only to 
persist in an honorable and amicable emulation: the very spirit of fair emulation will 
probably elevate the arts to a higher degree of excellence than could reasonably be 
expected if either of the academies stood alone, possessing a monopoly of the rewards 
and honors of our pursuits. 

Gentlemen, there can be no doubt, but that the united efforts of the artists of both 
academies, would form one splendid exhibition: and as the payment of one rent is 
easier than of two, no one can doubt, that a union of all the artists on proper terms, 
would be advantageous to all. But, gentlemen, even gold may be purchased at too 
high a price; and it does appear to me, that the price demanded by the National 
Academy of Design, as the condition of union, is altogether extravagant, and utterly 
inadmissible. 

May I beg, gentlemen, that this paper may be copied into your minutes. 

JOHN TRUMBULL. 

January 28, 1833. 

The committee from the National Academy reported that the council had unani- 
mously accepted it. The committee from the American Academy reported that " Col- 
onel Trumbull left the chair, and made an address against accepting it; and that after 
the address, the majority seemed so manifestly opposed to the report, that it was 
deemed unnecessary to put it to vote, and it was ordered to be placed on file. Colonel 
Trumbull's address was ordered to be entered on the minutes and three hundred copies 
to be printed!" The address is accordingly published, and it contains sentiments so 
disparaging to the arts, and representations to the recent negotiations, and of the 
origin of the National Academy so erroneous and so injurious, that we cannot, in 
justice to ourselves and our profession, permit it to pass without examination. 

The first pages of the address are principally occupied in enumerating various munifi- 
cent acts of the stockholders of the American Academy. There can be no difference of 
opinion on the character of acts like these. I therefore, need not dwell on this part, 
further than to ask, for what purpose is all this parade of names and rich gifts? Is it 
to inform us that the stockholders of the American Academy are liberal? Who denies 
it? Surely not the National Academy. We have uniformly, in public and private, done 
ample justice to the generosity and good intentions of the founders of the American 
Academy. How is this "enumeration of munificent acts" made to bear against the 
report? Colonel Trumbull says, "with such an enumeration of munificent acts of stock- 
holders before us, can there be one among us who can be persuaded to consent to the 
monstrous act of ingratitude proposed, of violating, or attempting to violate the rights 
of suffrage and of property, which, by our charter, are vested in those gentlemen? 
I trust there is not one who can deliberately consent to it. At least gentlemen, I, 
whose name stands in your first charter, granted in 1808, as one of the original grantees, 
and first vice-president of the institution, and who have had the honor, during many 
years to be elected your president, feel myself bound by the most imperious duty to 
guard vigilantly your interests and your honor. And I do here most deliberately and 
most solemnly repeat, what I have before said informally, that never, while I live and 
have my reason, will I, a stockholder, consent to such a violation of their rights, and of 
our own duties, as is proposed; and no motive, not even the union of the two Academies, 
will ever weigh with me to change this solemn resolution." And what is this monstrous 
act of ingratitude which has been proposed, and has caused all this vehemence of 
protestation? Examine the report, is there in it any proposition for "violating or at- 
tempting to violate the rights of suffrage and of property" of any individual? That 
instrument contains the terms on which there is to be a mutual surrender of rights, for 
a great and important object to both parties. Cannot one propose to another an equiva- 
lent for his property without being liable to a charge of "attempting to violate his 



ALL INTERESTS SAFEGUARDED 129 

rights!" Have we asked on our part for a surrender of any 'property or privilege with- 
out offering an equivalent, ay, more than an equivalent? Let us look at this point. ^ 

What gives the right to vote in the American Academy? Is it not a share of stock? 
And is not the value calculable in dollars and cents? The price of a share is twenty-five 
dollars. Each stockholder's vote then is worth twenty-five dollars. The interest of 
twenty-five dollars is one dollar and fifty cents per annum, which sum would annually 
purchase three season tickets for the annual exhibition in the proposed new academy. 
Each stockholder's family will contain on an average five persons; consequently, merely 
by free admission to the annual exhibition, he would receive nearly double the interest 
of his money; and when in addition we offer free attendance upon all the lectures, th^ 
schools and the library, for which others must pay annually at least twelve dollars, do 
we offer nothing for a twenty-five dollar share? Fifty per cent., one would think, is 
good interest. But this is not all. We make ourselves responsible for the debts of the 
American Academy. We free the stockholders from this burden, and take it upon 
ourselves to pay them from our own labors, from the profits of our own exhibitions 
(our own property being liable for our debts in the last resort and the property of the 
American Academy for their debts in the last resort) ; further, we ask only for the use 
of their property. We propose a board of trustees who are to hold the property of the 
American Academy, and without whose consent that property can never be alienated; 
and these trustees are to be elected annually, not by the artists, but by the present 
stockholders. A strange "violation of property" truly, when it is left so under the 
control of its owners that it cannot be alienated without their consent. Yet, says 
Colonel Trumbull, we have a "violation of the rights of suffrage and of property" of 
the Academy. Have we offered no equivalent for a twenty-five dollar share? 

The National Academy agree to grant to the body of academicians, one of "the 
parties" of the American Academy, the same privileges with their own academicians; 
they agree to grant to the body of associates, another of " the parties " of the American 
Academy, the same privileges with their own associates; they agree to grant to the 
honorary members, the only remaining "party" of the American Academy the same 
privileges with their honorary members. With all this in the report lying before him, 
the author of the address has the boldness to say, "the preliminary demand of the 
National Academy of Design, requires nothing less than the UNCONDITIONAL surrender 
of all the chartered rights of ALL THE PARTIES in this institution." 

Let it be remembered, that it was only on the ground that the American Academy 
desired to make such a change in its constitution as would give the control to artists, that 
the National Academy consented to any negotiation whatever. The language of all 
the stockholders, with whom some of the members of the National Academy conversed 
previous to the negotiations, was "it is the desire of the great mass of the stockholders 
to give up the institution into the hands of the artists"; these were the very words, often 
repeated, in and out of the committee. The answer was, "well, gentlemen, if this be 
the disposition, then all can easily be arranged; we have only to settle the manner and 
the terms." The result of the arrangement is in the report, which speaks for itself. 

As the National Academy did not seek this negotiation, so they are not dissatisfied 
at its termination. They regret, however, that occasion has been taken from it to fill 
the public ear with renewed disparaging representations of themselves and their pro- 
fession. The author of the address goes out of his way (for it belongs to no part of his 
argument against the report), to revive some hard names, with which, in the early 
stages of the existence of the National Academy, it was attempted to make us obnox- 
ious. He says, "we of the American Academy of Fine Arts, have the satisfaction of 
knowing that the separation did not originate with us. We did not secede, we were 
seceded from," etc. Here, and in several other parts of the same page, are the epithets 
reiterated of secession and separation. The impression left upon the public mind is, 
that we were formerly artists of the American Academy, and that, having deserted 
that institution, we had set up another in opposition. It is time the public should be 
undeceived, if it be deceived on this point. The gentlemen who formed the National 



130 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Academy of Design, were a class of thirty independent artists, who, having the inter- 
ests of their own profession to consult, combined together eight years ago, for mutual 
benefit, in a society called the Drawing Association, which afterwards resolved itself 
into the National Academy. They were not united and never had been united to the 
American Academy, neither were they opposed to it. But were not those that formed 
the National Academy, stockholders in the American Academy? No, four only out of 
the thirty artists were stockholders in the American Academy; where then is the 
ground for the epithets, secession, separation, etc.? It is true the artists established an 
academy, but not by secession, as I have shown, nor in opposition, as I shall show, before 
I close. 

On the first page of the address appears the following paragraph: "It has been 
proved by all experience, and, indeed, it is a truism, that the arts cannot flourish, 
without patronage in some form; it is manifest, that artists cannot interchangeably 
purchase the works of each other and prosper; they are necessarily dependent upon the 
protection of the rich and the great. In this country there is no sovereign who can 
establish and endow academies, etc." 

Let us see how this paragraph will read by substituting literature for the arts; for 
it is as applicable to the one as the other. It is a truism, that literature cannot flourish 
without patronage in some form; it is manifest, that authors cannot interchangeably 
purchase the works of each other and prosper; they are necessarily dependent on the 
protection of the rich and the great, etc. All this is as true of authors as of artists: 
now let me ask of any author, what kind of patronage he seeks from the rich and the 
great? What sort of dependence he has on them for protection in this country, since there 
is no sovereign to whom he can look for protection, no aristocracy on which he can de- 
pend for patronage? Is there a man of independent feelings, of whatever profession he 
may be, who does not feel disgust at language like this? And is it to be supposed that 
the artists of the country are so behind the sentiments of their countrymen, as not 
to spurn any patronage or protection that takes such a shape as this? The artist, 
poor, helpless thing, must learn to boo and boo in the halls and antechambers of my 
lord, implore his lordship's protection, advertise himself painter to his majesty or his 
royal highness, boast over his fellows, because he has his grace for a patron, and think 
himself well off if he may be permitted* to come in at the back door of his patron's 
gallery. 

If there are any who desire to have such a patronizing institution as this if 
there are artists who desire to be thus protected and thus dependent, it is a free country, 
and there is room for all; every man to his taste; but the artists of the National 
Academy have some sense of character to be deadened, some pride of profession to be 
humbled, some aspirings after excellence in art to be brought down, some of the inde- 
pendent spirit of their country to lose, before they can be bent to the purposes of such 
an anti-republican institution. In making these remarks on the language and senti- 
ments of the address, I disclaim identifying them with those of the stockholders of the 
American Academy. I know not that there are any who have imbibed such degrading 
notions of the arts, or such contemptuous opinions of artists; if there are, we wish them 
to rally round just such a tree as the sentiments of the address would nurture. We be- 
lieve that our climate is uncongenial to the growth of such an aristocratic plant; and 
that the public will not be long in deciding whether such an institution, or the National 
Academy, is most in harmony with the independent character of the country. 

I come now to speak of the fundamental cause of the collisions between the two 
academies; collisions which, it is to be feared, will often recur, until this cause shall be 
removed. It lies in the name of Academy of Arts, given at its formation to the American 
Academy of Fine Arts. It was not an Academy of Arts, and could not be, for it wanted 
the essential quality of an Academy of Arts, viz., a body of artists to control its concerns; 
and no provision is made in its constitution, to give it into the hands of artists at a 

' "All artists shall be permitted to exhibit their works. Amateurs shall be invited to 
expose their performances." 



A GENUINE ACADEMY 131 

future period. Every Academy of Arts in the world is exclusively under the control 
of artists, who elect into their own body, choose their own officers, and manage the 
entire concerns of the Academy; subject only, in aristocratic and despotic countries, to 
the approval or disapproval of the king or emperor, and even in England the monarch, 
the patron, has yielded to the will of the artist.f 

[Laws of the American Academy of Fine Arts. 

t An anecdote of an occurrence, not long ago, in the Royal Academy of London 
will well illustrate the kind of control in that monarchical country, which the king 
exercises over the artists. Sir Thomas Lawrence's death occasioned the vacancy ' 1 
the presidential chair of the Royal Academy. The king (George IV.), desirous of 
seeing the celebrated Wilkie elevated to the vacant seat, hinted his wishes, in a tone a 
little too dictatorial to the academicians. The academicians, feeling that their inde- 
pendence was attacked, and although Wilkie was a deserved favorite with them all, 
and but for the officiousness of the king would have been their choice, immediately 
elected Sir M. A. Shee their president, who still fills the chair with honor to himself 
and to the Academy. So strong was public opinion in favor of this of act of independ- 
ence, that the king ratified their choice. 

I have thought it my duty to place before the public these 
transactions and documents; indeed in this work it was un- 
avoidable. Let the general reader pass over the chapters on 
academies, but let the lover of the arts peruse them carefully, 
and he will never again ask the question, "Why do not the 
two institutions unite?" or listen to assertions, that the artists 
who form and govern the National Academy of Design are 
"disorganizes," or "seceders" from an academy of which they 
were members, or dissatisfied persons who desired to possess 
property belonging to others. 

The National Academy of Design is rich in beautiful casts 
from the antique, and splendid models for the student of 
ornament in architecture and the mechanic arts. The school is 
opened three evenings in the week, the teachers being artists 
of the first class, and the teaching gratuitous. Never having 
had any encouragement from government, either of the United 
States, the State of New York, or the city of New York, the 
institution has incurred a debt in establishing its schools for the 
public benefit, otherwise students would not incur any expense. 
They now pay for light and fire. There are three distinct schools 
now open: one for drawing from the antique, one for modelling, 
and one for the study of ornament, or the ornamental school.* 

* I am informed that the artists of Philadelphia have organized an Academy of 
Design, to be directed by artists, and composed of artists only, with an annual exhibi- 
tion of the works of living artists, to support these schools, and form a fund for the 
unfortunate professors of art. They have called it "The Artist's Fund Academy." 



132 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

List of donations from friends of the arts to the National 
Academy of Design, New York. 

A bust, being his first attempt in sculpture presented by J. S. Cogdell, Esq. 

Two pictures, one "Presenting Flowers to the Pope," the other a battle piece pre- 
sented by Louis Mark, Esq., consul at Bavaria. 

A cast of Milo presented by Mr. Dixey. 

A cast of a dog from the antique presented by Michael Paff, Esq. 

A number of casts of various descriptions presented by Messrs. Archibald and 
Alexander Robertson. 

Statue of Mercury and a bronze Midas presented by Cav. Alberto Thorwaldsen. 

Venus of Thorwaldsen, and Venus and Cupid by Gibson presented by Daniel Coit, 
Esq. 

Statue of Venus entering the bath presented by Richard Wyatt, Esq. 

Cupid and bust of Columbus presented by Signore Trentenova. 

Farnese Hercules, a splendid colossal cast, being the only one on this side of the At- 
lantic presented by G. W. Lee, Esq. 

Augustus (bust), Torso, and Antinoiis, of the Braschi palace (colossal) presented 
by Mendes J. Cohen, Esq. 

A number of bronze medals presented by Signore Girometti. 

A bust of Americus Vespucius presented by J. J. Browere. 

Vase of the Villa Albani, Genie suppliant, Houdon's anatomical figure, Legs of Ger- 
manicus, and a variety of parts of the human body in plaster, from nature and the 
antique, also the arabesque ornaments of the Loggie of Raffaelle and rare works on 
the arts presented by J. Fenimore Cooper, Esq. 

A valuable collection of impressions from antique and modern gems presented by 
Lieut. G W. Williams, of the engineer corps. 

Several volumes to the library presented by Thomas Dixon, Esq. 

Planches anatomiques, a 1'usage des jeunes gens presented by F. G. King, M.D. 

Several engravings by himself presented by M. E. Corr, engraver and professor at 
Antwerp. 

A medallion presented by Count Hawkes le Grice. 

A copy of Rubens' picture of the fates, weaving the web of life of Mary de Medicis 
presented by C. M. Patterson, Esq. 

A donation of fifty dollars presented by Miss Glover. 

ALONZO HARTWELL MICHAEL PEKENINO GEORGE COOKE. 
Mr. Hartwell l now distinguished among our engravers on 
wood, was born in Littleton, Mass., February 19, 1805, and 
at the age of seventeen, placed with a merchant in Boston, 
but preferring the fine arts, particularly engraving, he trans- 
ferred himself to the workship of Mr. Throop, and practised 
with the burin until his master removed from Boston. Hartwell 
then engaged with Mr. Abel Bowen, a wood engraver, and with 
him has acquired the beautiful art he professes. 

1 Hartwell entered business as a wood engraver on his own account in 1826 and 
continued to practise the art until 1851, after which he devoted himself to portrait 
painting. He was associated with Abel Bowen and John C. Grossman as the American 
Engraving & Printing Co., in 1834, afterwards (with others) merged in the Boston 
Bewick Co. Hartwell died in Waltham, Mass., January 17, 1873. 



AN ENGRAVER IN STIPPLE 133 

Pekenino 1 was a Piedmontese architect and draughtsman, who 
on arriving, exhibited very clever specimens of drawing with 
the pen, shaded by stippling with that instrument. He applied 
to Mr. Durand for instruction in engraving, and was received 
as a pupil. He soon succeeded in engraving several heads, 
among which was one of his instructor, from a portrait by 
Waldo and Jewett. He removed to Philadelphia and worked 
for a time; but wishing to return to Europe, by way of raising 
the wind for the voyage, he erased the name of Durand from 
the plate he had engraved, representing his teacher in honest 
art, and substituted that of Bolivar, then high in popular 
favor, and making our peaceful fellow-citizen pass for the 
fire-eating liberator, he sold the counterfeit readily, and got 
off with the spoil. 

Mr. Cooke was born in St. Mary's county, Maryland, the 
llth of March, 1793. He had the usual desire in childhood 
to represent forms in the shape of pictures, and with about the 
usual success of those who are tempted in after life to pursue 
the arts of design. His father was a lawyer, and gave George 
a good education. In his fourteenth year (1807) he first saw 
a portrait in oil, it was by Stuart: this he attempted to copy 
in water colors, and his attempt encouraged General Mason 
to write for the terms on which C. W. Peale would receive him 
as a pupil. He was referred to Rembrandt, just then returned 
from Europe, who was willing to receive him, says my informant 
"for something like 2000 dollars." This put a damper for a 
time to young Cooke's hopes, as his father did not encourage 
them. In the year 1817, Mr. Cooke married Miss HJeath of 
Virginia, and in some measure guided by Charles B. King, 
he again after the death of his father attempted painting. 

In the 27th year of his age, Mr. Cooke commenced painting 
professionally, and says that, "from that day to this he has 

1 Michele Pekenino appears to have made but a short stay in this country, the years 
1820 and 1822 being probably those of his arrival and departure. He was evidently on 
terms of intimacy with Durand, although Dunlap's statement that Pekenino was 
taught to engrave by Durand is questioned by Stauffer. It is certain that there is no 
similarity in the work of the two men, one of whom engraved portraits in stipple with 
much delicacy and taste, while the other worked in line with great success and each in 
a manner peculiar to himself. 



134 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

never been without a subject engaged," if the time engaged 
in travelling be excepted. This I believe is more than any 
other painter can say with truth. In Alexandria and in Rich- 
mond Mr. Cooke found constant employment, but his labors 
affected his health, and he determined to visit Europe. Ac- 
companied by his wife, he sailed from New York for Havre 
the 26th of July, 1826. In the Louvre he studied the works of 
olden time. After a month in Paris, Mr. Cooke hastened to 
Italy. His first permanent residence was in Florence, where 
he entered as a student of the casts and statues of the academy. 
He studied anatomy. But his principal devotion was to copy- 
ing from the old masters in the galleries. From October 
1827 to June 1829, he studied in Rome, as he has said, "day 
and night." Naples he merely visited. Returning to Paris, 
he stopped in the cities in his route, and on his arrival at the 
capital of France found his health so much impaired, that he 
was obliged to place himself under the care of a celebrated 
surgeon, and undergo an operation which happily restored 
him. 

After an absence of five years Mr. Cooke returned to New 
York, 1830, in which city he has exhibited his works with 
success, and, as he has said, found constant employment. 

Mr. Cooke is an intelligent man, and communicates his ideas 
by words with great fluency and propriety. In the course of 
his European studies he has been harassed by ill health; but 
judging from the number of copies made by him, and brought 
home, his industry has been very great, and he has employed 
himself assiduously. Perhaps copying a less number might have 
been equally advantageous to his style and general improve- 
ment. 




HENRY INMAN 
1801 - 1846 

FROM A. PHOTOGRAPH 



CHAPTER IX 

INMAN COLE. 

HENRY INMAN. 

THIS eminent artist was born at Utica, in the State of New 
York, on the 28th of October, 1801. His infancy and that 
of this great and flourishing place are coeval. His parents 
were English, and among the first settlers of Utica. Like most 
who are prominent as painters, his early delights were con- 
nected with pictures, and his first aspirations to be enrolled 
among famous artists. He read, as soon as he could read, a 
translation from Madame de Genlis' "Tales of the Castle," 
and here he found food to nourish and strengthen his love. 
Among the notes to one of the stories contained in that work, 
are to be found brief biographies of celebrated painters and 
sculptors. He never wearied of poring over their histories; 
and the name of Raphael embodied in his young mind all that 
could be conceived of greatness. It is a proof of an extraordi- 
nary intellect, when the love of facts supersedes the universal 
appetite for fiction. 

The father of Mr. Inman perceiving the bent of his son's 
mind, thus early disclosed, kindly encouraged his inclinations. 
An itinerant drawing master was engaged to give him lessons: 
but the poor man and poorer artist, soon found it necessary to 
decamp from Utica, leaving his pupil and his creditors to mourn 
his absence. 

About the year 1812 the parents of Mr. Inman removed to 
the city of New York, and there the study of drawing was re- 
commenced under a competent teacher, who was engaged at 
the day school which Henry attended. About the year 1814, 
Wertmiiller's celebrated picture of Danae was exhibited at 

135 



136 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Mr. Jarvis's rooms in Murray Street, and thither, as to other 
exhibitions, the father of the young aspirant took him. Henry 
was not satisfied with one visit to the rooms of such a painter 
as Jarvis, and the result of his second visit is so well told by 
himself, in a letter from which I am permitted to make|the 
extract, that I give it in his own words: 

"On a second visit when I went alone, I saw Mr. Jarvis 
himself, who came up from his painting room into the apart- 
ment in which the "Danae" with other works of art, was placed. 
On observing his entrance with maul stick in his hand, and 
palette on his arm, I removed my hat and bowed, presuming 
that he was the proprietor of the establishment. At that time 
I regarded an artist with peculiar reverence. Without noticing 
my salutation he walked rapidly towards me, and with his 
singular look of scrutiny, peered into my face. Suddenly he 
exclaimed, 'By heavens, the very head for a painter!' He 
then put some questions to me, invited me below stairs, and 
permitted me to examine his portfolios. He shortly after 
called upon my father and proposed to take me as a pupil. I 
was at this time preparing for my entrance to the West Point 
Institution as a cadet, for which I had already obtained a war- 
rant. My father left the matter to myself, and I gladly acceded 
to Mr. Jarvis's proposal. I accordingly entered upon a seven 
years' apprenticeship with him. Notwithstanding his phreno- 
logical observations upon my cranium, a circumstance con- 
nected with my first effort in oil colors would seem to contradict 
the favorable inference it contained. Another of his students 
and myself were set down before a small tinted landscape, 
with instructions to copy it. Palettes and brushes were put 
into our hands, and to work we went. After much anxious 
looking and laborious daubing, Mr. Jarvis came up to see 
what progress we had made. After regarding our work for 
some moments in silence, he astounded us with these words, 
'Get up! Get up! These are the damn'dest attempts I ever 
saw ! Here ! Philip ' (turning to a mulatto boy who was grind- 
ing paints in another part of the room), ' take the brushes 
and finish what these gentlemen have begun so bravely!' All 




DAVID PAUL BROWN 

1795 1872 
BY HENRY INMAN 



VERSATILITY OF INMAN 137 

this took place in the presence of several strangers who had 
come to look at the gallery. You can imagine what a shock 
our self-love received. Such mortifications are the most en- 
during of all remembrances. Notwithstanding this rebuff, I 
managed to make other and more successful efforts." 

Well might he say so. A short time after he worked upon 
the same Canvasses with his teacher. Mr. Inman remained 
with Mr. Jarvis during the whole time of his engagement, and 
with him visited New Orleans and other cities. 

Immediately upon his emancipation he commenced portrait 
and miniature painter, well qualified for both branches. He 
must have entered into another engagement as soon as the first 
was ended, for I remember meeting him, and congratulating 
him upon his freedom and success, adding, "Now as soon as 
you can visit Europe," and being told the next day that he 
was married to Miss O'Brian. To judge by his success, a 
visit to Europe would have been superfluous. In miniatures 
Mr. Inman is second only to the works of Malbone, but the 
demand for oil portraits in large has induced him to relinquish 
that branch of art to his friend and former pupil Thomas S. 
Cummings. 

In 1824-5, Mr. Inman joined the association of artists for 
drawing, and on the establishment of the National Academy 
of Design, was elected vice-president, which office he filled 
until his removal to Philadelphia, within a short distance of 
which city, at Mount Holly, he had purchased an estate, or 
farm and cottage, where he can paint surrounded by his family 
with the delights of rural scenes in summer, and the comforts 
of his own fireside in winter. 

The versatility as well as excellence of Mr. Inman as an 
artist, was once expressed to me by Mr. Sully in nearly these 
words, "I remember going round your exhibition of the 
National Academy at Clinton Hall in New York, and seeing a 
fine landscape, I asked, 'Who painted this?' The answer was 
'Inman.' Then I came to a beautiful group of figures - - 'All, 
this is very clever let us see whose this is,' I looked at my 
catalogue, 'Inman.' Then some Indians caught my eye - 



138 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

catalogue again 'Inman.' A little further on, and I ex- 
claimed, 'By George, here is the finest miniature I have seen 
for many a day ! ' it was a lady in black, ' Who is this miniature 
painter?' 'Inman.' His large portraits I was acquainted with 
but this variety of style took me altogether by surprise." 

To Mr. Inman the Arts of Design owe, in addition to his 
many pictures and their influence, two excellent painters, one 
in oil and the other in miniature, in the latter Mr. Thomas S. 
Cummings, in the former Mr. G. W. Twibill. 

Since writing the above, Mr. Inman has removed with his 
family to New York, having, as I understand, engagements 
which would render his country residence inconvenient. 1 

THOMAS COLE. 

It appears to me that few pictures can be more touching 
than that of an amiable, virtuous, well educated, and tenderly 
nurtured family, expatriated by reverse of fortune, and strug- 
gling among strangers for a subsistence. The parents obliged 
to have recourse, not only to temporary expedients, to prolong 
their own existence for the sake of their children, but to try 
avocations, of which their only knowledge is derived from the 
reading of days when books were the elegant employment 
of leisure hours, and the study of science the favorite pursuit 
of life. 

Let us suppose such a family composed of females, with the 
exception of the father and the youngest child, transported 
from England, and all its ever-ready facilities for pleasure and 
comfort, to the western wilds of America. 

The father of such a family applies the knowledge he had 
gained from books, to the establishment of a manufactory on a 
puny scale, of some articles which begin to be wanted in the 
newly risen towns of the West; and which requires little capital 
or credit. He hopes that, by saving the cost of transportation 
which a bulky article incurs in proportion to its value, he may 
with profit supply his neighbors at a rate lower than the trader. 
The mother and the daughters cheerfully assist renounce all 

1 Henry Inman died in New York City January 17, 1846. 




HENRY PRATT 

1761-1838 
BY HENRY INMAN 

From the collection of The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 



ANGLO-AMERICAN PAINTERS 139 

former elegancies attend to the domestic economy with 
scrupulous frugality, and aid in such part of the creative process 
as comes within their sphere. 

For a time, industry and ingenuity appear to succeed; but 
the sale of the wares is tardy; the term of credit expires; the 
effort fails, and poverty is rendered more poor perhaps is 
aggravated by want of power to fulfil engagements made in 
perfect good faith. 

This is in part an imaginary, and in part a picture from 
real life. Mr. Cole, now one of the first painters in landscape, 
as I believe, that the world possesses, and one of its most ami- 
able of men, was born in England, 1 and brought to America in 
childhood; and although by birth English, his relatives both 
by the male and female side, resided in this country previous 
to his birth. His grandfather was a farmer, that is, what all 
American farmers are, a yeoman cultivating his own soil, near 
Baltimore, in the latter part of the last century. His family, 
like that of C. R. Leslie, is Anglo-American, some born on 
one side the ocean and some on the other. Himself, like 
Leslie, born in England, yet bred in America; and so strong 
is his desire to have a right to call that country his, which he 
feels to be his, that I have heard it said he has exclaimed, "I 
would give my left hand to identify myself with this country, 
by being able to say I was born here." 

This is strong language, yet it agrees with that enthusiasm, 
which marks his character an enthusiasm generally supressed 
by modesty, but apparent in the works of his pencil. 

His family, consisting of his parents, three sisters, and him- 
self the youngest child, and only son, resided at one time in 
Philadelphia, afterwards in Pittsburg, and then in Steubenville, 
Ohio. In this last place, in 1818, his father established a 
paper-hanging manufactory, and Thomas was early engaged 
in drawing patterns and combining pigments for colors. This 
was his first step on that ladder, whose summit he has attained. 

From his infancy he was fond of drawing, and passionately 

1 Thomas Cole, the only son of James and Mary Cole, was born in Bolton-le-Moor, 
England, February 1, 1801. He died February 11, 1848, at Catskill, N. Y. 



140 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

devoted to the contemplation of the scenery of nature. An 
excessive bashfulness joined to this love of the combination of 
land, water, and sky, which the ordinary eye may be said not 
to see, caused him to avoid the society not only of adults, but 
of children of his own age he sought and found in nature 
the pleasure which seemed denied to him elsewhere. 

To ramble through the woods, or on the beautiful banks of 
the Ohio, indulging in day dreams, was the apparently idle 
occupation of a most active mind of one who has proved 
a most persevering and industrious practitioner and student of 
nature's lessons. 

I am permitted to copy a part of a letter, in which the painter 
speaks of this period of his life. "My school opportunities 
were very small; reading and music were among my recreations, 
but drawing occupied most of my leisure hours. My first 
attempts were made from cups and saucers, from them, I 
rose to copying prints, from copying prints to making originals. 
My employment in my father's business was somewhat to 
my mind, but there was too little art and too much manual 
labor for one of an imaginative mind. 

"About the year 1820, Mr. Stein, a portrait painter, came 
to Steubenville. I became acquainted with him saw him 
paint, and considered his works wonderful I believe they 
were respectable. He lent me an English work on painting, 
(I have forgotten its title), it was illustrated with engravings, 
and treated of design, composition, and color. This book 
was my companion day and night, nothing could separate us 
my usual avocations were neglected painting was all in all to 
me. I had made some proficiency in drawing, and had en- 
graved a little both in wood and copper, but not until now had 
my passion for painting been thoroughly roused my love for 
the art exceeded all love my ambition grew, and in my imagi- 
nation I pictured the glory of being a great painter. The 
names of Stuart and Sully came to my ears like the titles of 
great conquerors, and the great masters were hallowed above 
all earthly things." 

About this period, his father's affairs were unprosperous, and 




THOMAS COLE 

1801-1847 
From a photograph 



COLE'S TIMIDITY 141 

the youth felt himself called upon for exertion in some new 
field, for his own support, and the assistance of his beloved 
family. He determined to be a painter. In the letter above 
quoted from, is a passage which marks his character, and could 
only come from himself. He says: 

"I had painted several landscapes, but had never drawn 
from nature, although I had looked at her 'with a loving eye.' 
One of these landscapes Judge Tappan, of Steubenville, hap- 
pened to see, and being pleased with it, invited me to look at 
a copy he had made from Stuart. He lent me a palette, and 
gave me some excellent advice. This kindness I repaid un- 
gratefully, for I unfortunately broke the palette; and although 
I often met him in the street, my excessive bashfulness pre- 
vented me from making any explanation or apology for keeping 
it so long. This circumstance gave me much pain, and although 
it may appear trivial, it marks my common conduct in those 
days, and is one of a thousand follies of that nature committed 
through diffidence. Indeed it is only of late years that I have 
surmounted this weakness. I long endeavored to conquer it, 
and often when I knew my folly, and struggled with it, I have 
heard my heart beat, and felt myself incapable of utterance, in 
the presence of persons neither distinguished or talented. 
This weakness perhaps might be dignified with the title of 
nervousness; be that as it may, I have in a great measure con- 
quered it, or it has cured itself." 

Up to this time young Cole had only made drawings of 
heads with the black lead pencil, but now, 1820, he took up 
the palette to paint portraits. His father first submitted to 
the operation. It was pronounced like. Another and another 
succeeded; and the three, although painted unskilfully and 
without proper materials, gave satisfaction and encouraged 
the would-be painter to proceed in a path that he hoped 
would lead to the object of his wishes, the power to assist his 
beloved parents and sisters. From this affectionate group he 
parted for St. Clairsville, thirty miles from home. On a clear 
keen morning in February, the young adventurer climbed the 
hills that surround Steubenville; the glittering frost crystals 



142 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

dancing in the air; and although on foot and heavily laden, 
his spirits were light, and hope and youthful confidence added 
the wings of Mercury to his feet. Over his shoulder was slung 
a green baize bag, containing a scanty stock of wearing apparel, 
his German flute, his paints, a cumbrous stone mutter and 
brushes of various kinds, many of them his own manufacture. 
His equipments for entering the world were all heavy except 
his purse, which contained but one solitary dollar. 

The morning, like the morning of life, was bright, the earth 
was firm under his feet; but as the day advanced a thaw came 
on, the walking became laborious and his limbs weary, and 
about twenty miles on his way he encountered a rivulet with- 
out bridge and but slightly frozen. He sought a crossing 
place; and at length, enticed by the appearance of horses' 
tracks on the ice, he ventured and reached the middle of the 
stream in safety, but his frail bridge broke and he was plunged 
to the bottom. Happily the water reached no higher than his 
breast, and lifting the green bag with all his treasure over his 
head, he walked to the opposite shore, breaking the ice for a 
passage, and not knowing but every step would plunge him 
deeper in the cold element, or subject him to being carried 
under the ice we may be thankful that neither happened 
and glowing with the exertion, he reached the shore in safety. 
The evening was now coming on, and with it the freezing 
state of the atmosphere our pedestrian had two miles to go 
in his dripping clothes, the road was up hill, but he ran all 
the way, and thus probably prevented the inconveniences 
which might be anticipated from his adventure. At the village 
of Mount Pleasant he found the hospitality of an inn and a 
kind landlord, who lent him dry clothes; there, seated by a 
blazing fire with a good supper before him, he felt like one 
who had overcome all difficulties, and was about to enjoy the 
fruits of his victory. So terminated the first day of a journey, 
in search of fame and fortune, as a portrait painter. 

Early the next day our adventurer arrived at St. Clairsville, 
and his first inquiries of the landlord were to ascertain what 
hopes he might indulge of success as a painter. The answers 



THE GERMAN ITINERANT 143 

were most discouraging. A German painter had been some 
time in the village, and had painted all the paintable faces. 
Cole felt his hopes at once blighted, but he was too proud to 
recede and return to Steubenville without further effort, and 
the first was to visit the German and look at his works. One 
glance revived his hopes; and though conscious of his own 
deficiencies, when he saw the abortive attempts of his rival, he 
might have exclaimed with the Italian, "auch io sono pitlore." 
He determined to wrestle with this German Hercules, and was 
fortunate enough to find a saddler willing to sit for his por- 
trait in exchange for a saddle, Hope whispering, "perhaps 
some one else will give you a horse for a portrait " but the 
horse never came to be saddled. The saddler's picture was 
thought like and one who had been in Philadelphia pronounced 
the handling excellent. Poor Cole, struggling for life, little 
thought of handling, and scarcely knew the meaning of the 
word. His next employer was an officer of militia, who paid 
him with a silver watch. Another sitter, a storekeeper, fur- 
nished the watch with a gold chain, which proved like the gold 
chains of Michael Perez, the "Copper Captain." 

Mr. Cole has said to a friend that nothing delighted him so 
much as that his sitters should fall asleep (which was not un- 
frequent), he then felt that he had them in his power. Poor 
as were both his pictures and the payment, Cole advanced his 
reputation, and was pronounced better than Des Combes, the 
German, who left the field to him, and his triumph was com- 
plete when he was required "to doctor" the German's pic- 
tures for the cure he received a pair of shoes and a dollar 
the first and last he received in St. Clairsville. The saddle, 
watch and watchchain were not found sufficient at the end 
of three months to satisfy the landlord of his inn, who would 
not be painted in payment; however, he took the chattels, in 
addition to a drinking scene for his bar room, and suffered his 
boarder to depart with the dollar in his pocket. He had been 
advised by a gentleman of Zanesville, one hundred miles off, 
to visit that place, with assurance of his influence in his favor: 
he further promised to sit for his portrait and "did not doubt 



144 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

but Duncan, the tavern keeper of Zanesville, would agree 
to have himself painted in payment of board." 

Here were bright prospects ! and in three days the pedestrian 
painter reached Zanesville, with his green baize bag on his 
back. During this time he walked incessantly from morn till 
night, except that in the middle of the day he sat down by a 
spring, pulled out the crust he had saved from his breakfast, 
and after his frugal meal made the woods ring with the notes 
of his flute. His flute was not only the solace of his solitude, 
but procured him, like that of Goldsmith, at night a lodging 
and kind treatment, without the usual disbursement for such 
favors at an inn. Notwithstanding this cheap travelling, he 
arrived with empty pockets at Zanesville. His prospects on 
entering the town did not appear so brilliant as when he 
was one hundred miles off, and when he entered "Duncan 
the tavern keeper's" inn, he found his German evil genius, 
who had been a week before him, and painted the landlord and 
his family. The person who invited the visit, did not desert 
him, he sat for his portrait, and the unconquerable spirit of 
youth buoyed the young painter and carried him through. 
He took a room, offered himself as a teacher of drawing he 
had no sitters, and but two scholars. At length he was patron- 
ized by a tailor and a barber; but when the time of settlement 
with his landlord came, the scoundrel who had tempted him 
to stay by engaging an historical picture, would only be satisfied 
by cash. In vain the young man stated that he had only 
stayed at his house in consequence of his promise to employ 
him that he was destitute and could not pay. The reasonings 
of poverty are always poor; he was answered by a threat of 
the jail, and was only relieved by several gentlemen combining 
and paying the debt, trusting, as well they might, to his 
countenance, manners, and assurances of reimbursement. 

He had been two months in Zanesville, and had concluded 
a treaty of peace with Des Combes, the German. It was based 
upon this condition from the Dutchman: "If you will say 
notink apout ma bigtures, I will say notink apout yours." 

Chilicothe now was the land of promise, and another hun- 



THE BANKS OF THE SCIOTA 145 

dred miles was to be trudged on foot with the green baize bag 
and its luggage, strapped over the pedestrian's shoulder. It 
was now the burning heat of summer, and health as well as 
hope began to fail. But on on the wanderer must go, and 
in two days and a half he came in sight of Chilicothe, on the 
noon of an excessively hot day. To walk forty miles a day 
was no difficult task to this apparently delicate young man. 
Happily he had always accustomed himself to the exercise 
which has enabled him, in the days which succeeded these of 
necessity, to walk for pleasure or to explore the beauties of 
nature for his incomparable landscapes, over distances that 
would, in naming, appal most athletic men. To mount the 
hills, to climb the precipice, which promised a picturesque 
view, and to overcome difficulties in the pursuit of his studies 
which opened subjects that otherwise were closed to him, has 
been the practice of his happier days, and has added both to 
his strength of body and power of pencil. 

Fatigued and heated as he was when he gained the first 
view of Chilicothe, he found himself near the banks of the 
Sciota, he sought the shade of the trees which bordered the 
river, bathed himself, washed a shirt, and sat down to ruminate 
while it dried. He took courage. Chilicothe, a new field of 
action, was before him the German was behind him, and 
happily again never haunted him. He had stopped at a village 
called Lancaster (through which Cole passed and heard the 
blessed news), and finding an opening in a new b'ne, threw 
away palette and brushes, and commenced preaching. 

Encouraged by these considerations, the young itinerant 
entered Chilicothe, and at first fortune seemed to smile. The 
landlord of the inn and his wife consented to take their por- 
traits for his board; but no more sitters came. He obtained 
some pupils in drawing, but the hope of accumulating some- 
thing to carry to those for whose welfare he wished to labor, 
became fainter and fainter all that he had yet done was done 
in vain. He received information that the family intended to 
remove to Pittsburg he abandoned his plan of pursuing his 
journey to Tennessee, and determined to return. At Chili- 



146 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

cothe, notwithstanding his strict economy, his expenses ex- 
ceeded his means, and some small debts were due. On a 
picture of Washington, painted from the print, he relied for 
relief, and sent it to auction. It sold for five dollars; but a 
friend rescued the picture and obtained twenty-five for him, by 
a raffle. He now turned his face towards home and after five 
days and a few hours' walking entered Steubenville and found 
himself in the arms of those who rejoiced to receive the 
wanderer whether rich or poor. 

The family removed to Pittsburg, but he unexpectedly 
found himself in request at Steubenville, and remained during 
the winter employed in painting portraits. He was called upon 
to exercise his skill as a scene painter likewise, by an association 
of those who play for their own amusement. 

His father, on arriving at Pittsburg, endeavored to estab- 
lish a floor-cloth manufactory, and Thomas repaired thither 
to assist. He applied himself assiduously to designing patterns, 
preparing colors, and all the labor that might aid the project, 
but all failed, doubtless through want of capital. The spring 
had arrived, and the young painter seemed to awake to the 
beauties of nature in landscape, and to feel not only his love 
for, but his power in that branch of art. Heretofore, in his 
pursuit of art, he had been straying in a wrong path. He now 
began in 1823, to make studies from nature. Every morning 
before it was light, he was on his way to the banks of the 
beautiful Monongahela, with his paper and pencils. He made 
small, but accurate studies of single objects; a tree, a leafless 
bough every ramification and twig was studied, and as the 
season advanced he studied the foliage, clothed his naked 
trees, and by degrees attempted extensive scenes. He had now 
found the right path, and what is most extraordinary, he had 
found the true mode of pursuing it. Thus in those studies 
whose results we now see, he passed the early morning, and 
by nine o'clock returned to the labor of the day as a manu- 
facturer. 

To me the struggles of a virtuous man endeavoring to 
buffet fortune, steeped to the very lips in poverty, yet never 



JOURNEY TO PHILADELPHIA 147 

despairing, or a moment ceasing his exertions, and finally over- 
coming every obstacle, is one of the most sublime objects of 
contemplation, as well as the most instructive and encouraging, 
that can be presented to the mind. Such a man is truly a hero, 
whether he sink or swim. 

But the struggles of young Cole were not yet over. Besides 
his studies and his labor in the manufactory, Thomas engraved 
in mezzotinto a head of Jackson, and painted several por- 
traits and landscapes. So passed the summer, and the winter 
brought colder and more blighting prospects to the manufac- 
turers. The young man saw that he must be a painter or starve, 
and determined to go to Philadelphia and seek his fortune. 
With means altogether inadequate, but looking only to the 
end, he obtained the consent of his parents once more to ven- 
ture from home. His fond mother was always confident of 
his success, and would have sacrificed everything to aid him in 
his favorite pursuit. 

Early one dark morning in November, there was a sprink- 
ling of snow on the ground, he took leave of his parents and 
sisters, rich in good wishes and blessings, but poor in pocket: 
a few dollars were all that could be spared to aid his long 
journey and adventurous purpose. His trunk was placed in a 
carrier's wagon, and he promised his mother to travel with it. 
This arrangement impeded the traveller, besides subjecting 
him to the necessity of hearing, especially at night, the blas- 
phemy and obscene language of his conductor, and those who 
put up at the carriers' inns by the way. During the day he 
escaped from this moral pestilence by walking ahead, but then 
he had the trouble of retracing his steps to learn what had be- 
come of his trunk, and the drunkard who had charge of it. 
He generally found his guide engaged in a drunken quarrel. 
Thus sleeping at night on straw and walking by day exposed 
to the sleet and rain, which at this season usually enshroud the 
Alleghanies, he at length entered the great city of Philadelphia. 
He had before only seen it as a child, and now the lofty build- 
ings, wide streets and busy multitude, struck him with ad- 
miration and awe. Accustomed to the lowly structures of the 



148 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

West and the solitude of the wilderness, he felt oppressed, and 
in the midst of a crowd of strangers his spirits sunk under a 
sense of solitude greater far than that of the forest. 

He was now to seek instruction and employment. His plan 
for living, as he could not pay for board, was to take an empty 
room, sleep in the blanket he had brought from home, and 
live upon bread and water. And he commenced this mode of 
life. But the hardships he had previously undergone from 
cold and poor fare, brought on a serious illness. One morning 
after a night in December passed in misery from cold, he found 
himself scarcely able to rise, and in excruciating pain. He made 
his way down stairs, and told the people of the house that he 
was very ill. They were strangers to him and far from rich; 
but the woman was rich in that which characterizes the sex, 
and during an illness of several weeks, he received her kind 
attentions, although no good Samaritan appeared to pay the 
cost. The young adventurer's funds were soon exhausted. 
By selling a camera obscura and some other articles, he pro- 
cured a stove and fuel, and as soon as he was able commenced 
painting. 

He obtained through the kindness of Mr. Thackara the 
keeper, permission to draw at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts, but was so overwhelmed by the specimens of art, 
that he used to go day after day and gaze on the casts and 
pictures, until the keeper aroused him, saying, "Young man, 
this is no place to lounge in; your permission is for you to 
draw here." This was a hard cut to the sensitive youth; but 
the old gentleman meant well, and was afterwards kind to him. 

The pictures he painted were sent to auction and sold for a 
mere trifle. He has said "this was indeed 'the winter of my 
discontent.' " His heart sunk as he felt his deficiencies in art, 
when standing before the landscapes of Birch and Doughty; 
but it was only by feeling the deficiency, that it could be reme- 
died. But the incipient artist could not devote his time to 
study he must work for bread, and gladly he undertook to 
paint on the backs of bellows for a japanner, the most lucrative 
employment that had offered; but in this japanner he found 



APPRECIATION OF COLE 149 

a friend, and he gave him a commission to paint a large picture 
a copy from the print of Louis XVIth., and his family; 
though the price was small, it enabled him to live and work. 
He painted some portraits, and received his first commission 
for a landscape price seven dollars. Summer came and La- 
fayette, the nation's guest, came. Transparencies were wanted, 
and Cole got some of this work to do, by an introduction to 
Bass Otis. 

His father and family passed through Philadelphia to take 
up their residence in New York, and after passing another 
winter in the capital of Pennsylvania, still unknown as a 
painter, he followed. In New York he set up his easel in his 
father's garret, and painted some landscapes which were placed 
in the store of Mr. Dixey, who was friendly, and here Mr. G. 
W. Bruen saw and purchased one of his pictures for $10. Mr. 
Bruen sought the young artist's acquaintance, and as he wished 
to visit the banks of the Hudson for the purpose of study and 
sketching, the same gentleman encouraged him, and furnished 
him a small sum for that purpose. The result of this excursion 
was three pictures, which Mr. Bruen's interest placed at 
Coleman's for sale at $25 each. Trumbull saw them and 
purchased one, and the same day called on me, and expressed 
his admiration of the unknown young man's talent. Durand 
accidentally came in, and we all immediately went to see the 
landscapes. 

I remember the sensitive and amiable painter, then seen by 
me for the first time, standing in presence of the three above- 
mentioned, like a school boy in presence of the trustees, and 
looking an image of diffidence before men, neither of whom 
could produce a rival to the works he offered for the paltry 
price of $25 each. Trumbull had had the first choice I had 
the second, and Durand took the third. Trumbull had pre- 
viously said to me, "this youth has done what I have all my 
life attempted in vain." When I saw the pictures, I found 
them to exceed all that this praise had made me expect. P. 
Hone, Esq., soon offered me $50 for my purchase, which I 
accepted, and my necessities prevented me from giving the 



150 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

profit, as I ought to have done, to the painter. One thing I 
did, which was my duty. I published in the journals of the 
day, an account of the young artist and his pictures; it was no 
puff, but an honest declaration of my opinion, and I believe it 
served merit by attracting attention to it. 

From that time forward, Mr. Cole received commissions to 
paint landscapes from all quarters; was enabled to increase 
his prices, and his facility of handling, as well as his truth of 
drawing and power of coloring. 

The judicious reader will perceive while perusing the fore- 
going, that some of the facts I have related, in my own way, 
must have come from the subject of my memoir. They were 
drawn from him by my solicitation; and he proceeded no 
further in his narrative than his arrival at New York, and the 
friendship of Mr. Bruen. I wrote to him for notices of his 
visit to Europe his opinion of artists there, and the state of 
the arts in short, I pressed him to bring down the biographi- 
cal sketch to the present time. He has complied with my 
Urgent request, and I feel that I should do injustice to my reader 
and my subject if I did not give his communication as received. 
It is evidently an honest exhibition of truth, both as to facts, 
feelings and opinions; and although some of the opinions, par- 
ticularly those respecting Turner, may be found in opposition 
to high authority, already stated in this book, they are not to 
be overlooked. The opinions of Mr. Cole on the subject of 
landscape, I look upon as the highest authority: as I consider 
his mind of the first order, and his works in that department 
of art, superior to those of any painter of the present day, 
that has come under my inspection. His words are: 

"A great deal might be said on the subjects of England and 
Italy; but to say that which will be most available to you may 
be difficult. I did not find England so delightful as I antici- 
pated. The gloom of the climate, the coldness of the artists, 
together with the kind of art in fashion, threw a tone of melan- 
choly over my mind, that lasted for months, even after I had 
arrived in sunny Italy. Perhaps my vanity suffered. I found 
myself a nameless, noteless individual, in the midst of an im- 



COLE SLIGHTED IN LONDON 151 

mense selfish multitude. I did not expect much, scarcely any- 
thing more than to have an opportunity of studying, and show- 
ing some of my pictures in the public exhibitions, and to a few 
individuals of taste in my own room. I did study; but the 
pictures I sent two seasons, both to the Royal Academy and 
the British Gallery, were, without exception, hung in the worst 
places; so that my acquaintance had difficulty in knowing 
them. I was mortified; not that they had been so disposed, 
but because the vilest daubs, caricatures, and washy imitations, 
were placed in excellent situations. 

"The last time I exhibited (or sent pictures to be exhibited), 
I had expected a little different treatment, for one of the hang- 
ing committee of the Royal Academy had led me to expect 
something better I was disappointed. At the British Gal- 
lery I had hopes also: Mr. Samuel Rogers had promised to 
intercede for me; but unfortunately he was called out of town 
at the very moment he could have aided me; and my pictures 
had to stand on their own merits, which, in the eyes of the 
hangsmen, amounted to nothing. On the varnishing day I 
found them in the most exalted situations. 

"At the Gallery of the British Artists I exhibited once, and 
was better treated. My picture of a 'Tornado in an American 
Forest' was placed in a good situation, and was praised exceed- 
ingly in several of the most fashionable papers. 

"The Society of British Artists is governed by artists them- 
selves, which may account for the favorable manner in which 
I was treated in their exhibition. 

"I have said, that I found the artists in London cold and 
selfish: there might be exceptions, but I found few. My own 
works, and myself most likely, had nothing to interest them 
sufficiently to excite attention: the subjects of my pictures 
were generally American the very worst that could be chosen 
in London. I passed weeks in my room without a single artist 
entering, except Americans. Leslie was friendly, although he 
never appeared to think there was any merit in my works; and 
Newton called on me twice in two years. I saw him often; 
for although none would trouble themselves to call on me, a 



152 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

wish to acquire information in my art induced me to visit 
them. 

"To Sir T. Lawrence I was introduced by a letter from Mr. 
Gilmor, of Baltimore: he treated me in a very friendly man- 
ner, was pleased with my pictures, and sent his carriage for 
me to come and breakfast with him. We breakfasted at eight 
in a spacious apartment, filled with works of art we con- 
versed on the fine arts and America he said he was much 
indebted to America, for he had some highly esteemed ac- 
quaintances Americans. After breakfast he took me into his 
painting room, which was a picture wilderness. A short time 
afterwards I met him at the British Gallery, and he invited me 
to go with him to Sir R. Peel's, in a few days, to see his collec- 
tion; but death, whose hand was already upon him, deprived 
me of that pleasure; I lost a valuable acquaintance, and the 
world, a distinguished man. 

"Mr. Joshua Bates, a partner of Baring Brothers & Co. 
formerly of Boston, was one of my best friends, and purchased 
several pictures from me. Mr. Rogers, the poet, also took an 
interest in me; and the friendship of his family, and particu- 
lary of Mr. Henry Rogers, served in some measure to lighten 
many hours that would otherwise have been spent in my soli- 
tary room. Both the Rogerses had choice collections of pic- 
tures; that of Samuel was the most valuable, but Henry's had 
been selected with great care. To Mr. S. Rogers I was intro- 
duced through means of Mr. Fenimore Cooper, and I found 
him a valuable acquaintance. 

"Although, in many respects, I was delighted with the Eng- 
lish school of painting, yet, on the whole, I was disappointed: 
my natural eye was disgusted with its gaud and ostentation 1 
to color and chiaroscuro all else is sacrificed design is for- 
gotten; to catch the eye by some dazzling display, seems to be 
the grand aim. The English have a mania for what they call 
generalizing; which is nothing more nor less than the idle art 
of making a little study go a great way, and their pictures are 
generally things 'full of sound and fury, signifying nothing.' 
The mechanical genius of the people exhibits itself in the 



CRITICISM OF TURNER 153 

mechanism of the art their dextrous management of glazing, 
scumbling, etc. Frequent and crowded exhibitions of recently 
painted pictures, and the gloom of the climate, account for the 
gaudy and glaring style in fashion. There are few exceptions 
among the artists of England to this meretricious style; even 
Wilkie and Leslie, in their late pictures, have become more 
washy and vapid than in their former productions. 

"Turner is the prince of the evil spirits. With imagination 
and a deep knowledge of the machinery of his art, he has pro- 
duced some surprising specimens of effect. His earlier pictures 
are really beautiful and true, though rather misty; but in 
his late works you see the most splendid combinations of 
color and chiaroscuro gorgeous but altogether false there 
is a visionary, unsubstantial look about them that, for some 
subjects, is admirably appropriate; but in pictures, represent- 
ing scenes in this world, rocks should not look like sugar candy, 
nor the ground like jelly. 

"These opinions of existing English art, I know, may be 
considered heterodox; but I will venture them, because I be- 
lieve them correct. The standard by which I form my judg- 
ment is beautiful nature; and if I am astray, it is on a path 
which I have taken for that of truth. 

"In May, 1831, I left England for the continent. When I 
arrived in Paris I found, to my great disappointment, that the 
works of the old masters in the Louvre were covered by an 
exhibition of modern French works, and there was no expecta- 
tion of a removal of them for some time. I left Paris on my 
way to Italy. 

"Modern French painting pleased me even less than English. 
In landscape they are poor in portrait, much inferior to the 
English; and in history, cold and affected. In design they are 
much superior to the English; but in expression, false. Their 
subjects are often horrid: and in the exhibition at the Louvre 
I saw more murderous and bloody scenes than I had ever seen 
before. 

"The melancholy which I experienced in England continued 
with me for several months after I had arrived in Italy. I 



154 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

looked upon the beautiful scenery, and knew it to be beautiful, 
but did not feel it so. Previous to going to Rome I passed nine 
months in Florence; which I spent in studying the magnificent 
collections there, and in painting several pictures; among 
which was a small 'Sunset on the Arno,' and a wild scene, for 
Mr. Gilmor, of Baltimore. The 'Arno' was exhibited in the 
Academy of St. Luke, and seemed to attract attention. The 
Grand Duke is said to have been much pleased with it, but he 
did not buy it. I studied the figure, part of my time, and 
drew from the life, at the Academy; and painted my ' Dead 
Abel,' which was intended as a study for a large picture, to 
represent Adam and Eve finding the body of Abel. 

"Florence to me was a delightful residence. The magnificent 
works of art, the quietness and seclusion in which a man. can 
live, make it a painter's paradise. Indeed, to speak of Italy 
is to recall the desire to return to it. And what I believe 
contributes to the enjoyment of being there, is the delightful 
freedom from the common cares and business of life the 
vortex of politics and utilitarianism, that is forever whirling 
at home. 

"In Rome I was about three months, where I had a studio in 
the very house in which Claude lived. The Roman heads 
that you have seen I painted there. I made several excursions 
into the Campagna. I went to Tivoli, Aricia, and Nemi; and 
obtained sketches, from which I painted on my return to Flor- 
ence. The large view of the Aqueducts, the Cascatelles of 
Tivoli, and several other pictures, which you have seen. Mr. 
C. Lyman and Mr. Hoyt gave me commissions for those two 
paintings in Rome; as did Mr. Field, for that of the Fountain 
of Egeria and another. 

"From Rome I went to Naples, where I spent several weeks 
pleasantly. I visited Pompeii, Vesuvius, and Psestum; and at 
the last place made sketches, from which I have painted, since 
my return, a view of those magnificent temples, for Miss 
Douglas. The commission was given in Rome. 

"Returned to Florence, I painted more pictures in three 
months than I have ever done in twice the time before or since. 



MODERN ITALIAN ART 155 

I was in the spirit of it: and I now grieve that information of 
the sickness of my parents, with their desire for my return, 
should have broken in upon me. I packed up and sailed from 
Leghorn in October, 1832, without seeing Switzerland, which 
I had so longed to see (for I left France by way of Marseilles) 
and without seeing Venice. In that three months I painted 
the Aqueduct picture, the view of the Cascatelles of Tivoli, 
Mr. Lord's pictures of Italian scenery, four small pictures for 
Mr. Tappan, a small view near Tivoli, and several others. - 

that I was there again, and in the same spirit! 

" What shall I say of modern Italian art? I am afraid you will 
think I looked at all with a jaundiced eye. I have been told that 

1 did so at the ancient also: if so, I have lost much enjoyment. 
I can only speak as I have felt. Italian painting is perhaps 
worse than the French, which it resembles in its frigidity. In 
landscape it is dry, and, in fact, wretched. There are a few 
German and English artists in Rome, who paint with more 
soul than the Italians. It would scarcely be credited, that, 
surrounded by the richest works of the old schools, there should 
be a total ignorance of the means of producing brilliance and 
transparency; and that, among the greater part of the Italians, 
glazing is unknown: and the few who, from seeing the English 
at work, have acquired some knowledge of it, use magilps 
and varnishes as though they were deadly poisons. Indeed, 
of all meagre, starved things, an Italian's palette is the per- 
fection. The pictures of the great Italian masters gave me 
the greatest delight, and I labored to make their principles 
my own; for these, which have stood best the criticism of 
ages, are produced on principles of truth, and on no abstract 
notion of the sublime or beautiful. The artists were gifted 
with a keen perception of the beautiful of nature, and imi- 
tated it in simplicity and single heartedness. They did not 
sit down, as the modern artist too often does, with a precon- 
ceived notion of what is or ought to be beautiful: but their 
beau ideal was the choicest of nature they often introduced 
absurdities and things of bad taste in their pictures; but they 
were honest there was no affectation. I do not believe that 



156 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

they theorized, as we do; they loved the beauty that they saw 
around them, and painted. 

"Many of the old masters have been praised for their defects, 
and the blackness of age has been called tone; and there are 
some whose merits appear to me to be but small. Salvator 
Rosa's is a great name his pictures disappointed me he is 
peculiar, energetic, but of limited capacity, comparatively. - 
Claude, to me, is the greatest of all landscape painters, and 
indeed I should rank him with Raphael or Michaelangelo. 
Poussin I delighted in; and Ruysdael, for his truth, which is 
equal to Claude, but not so choice. 

"Will you allow me here to say a word or two on landscape? 
It is usual to rank it as a lower branch of the art, below the 
historical. Why so? Is there a better reason, than that the 
vanity of man makes him delight most in his own image? In 
its difficulty (though perhaps it may come ill from me, al- 
though I have dabbled a little in history) it is equal at least to 
the historical. There are certainly fewer good landscape pic- 
tures in the world, in proportion to their number, than of his- 
torical. In landscapes there is a greater variety of objects, tex- 
tures, and phenomena to imitate. It has expression also; not 
of passion, to be sure, but of sentiment whether it shall be 
tranquil or spirit-stirring. Its seasons sunrise, sunset, the 
storm, the calm various kinds of trees, herbage, waters, 
mountains, skies. And whatever scene is chosen, one spirit 
pervades the whole light and darkness tremble in the atmos- 
phere, and each change transmutes. 

"This is perhaps all unnecessary to you; but I have so 
often been surprised at the almost universal ignorance of the 
subjects that I am induced to speak. I mean to say, that 
if the talent of Raphael had been applied to landscape, his 
productions would have been as great as those he really did 
produce. 

"I should like to say something of Mr. Reed, and the liberal 
commissions he has given me; but I feel rather delicate on the 
subject on account of his having expressed a desire that I 
should not say much about the matter. I am not sure whether 



PICTURES PLANNED 157 

you saw the large composition, * Italian Scenery,' that I painted 
for him, and which was in the exhibition last season. 

"I have, since I came into the country,* been engaged on a 
series, the subject of which I will trouble you with: it is to 
be the History of a Scene, as well as an Epitome of Man. - 
There will be five pictures: the same location will be pre- 
served in each. The first will be the Savage state; the second, 
the Simple, when cultivation has commenced; the third, the 
state of Refinement and highest civilization; the fourth, the 
Vicious, or state of destruction; the fifth, the state of Desola- 
tion, when the works of art are again resolving into elemental 
nature. 

"I would give you (but that I am afraid I have tired you al- 
ready) a fuller description of what I did intend to do, but un- 
fortunately my intentions cannot be fulfilled. I have advanced 
far with the two first pictures, and find all my gold is turning 
to clay. I know my subject is a grand one, and I am disap- 
pointed at finding that my execution is not worthy of it. In 
the first picture I feel that I have entirely failed : in the second 
I am rather better pleased; but perhaps it is because there is 
so much unfinished. I have no doubt but they will please 
some of my indulgent friends, but they are not what I want. 

"I am afraid I have trespassed on your time, if I have, it is 
because I scarcely knew what would be useful to you, and 
when I am talking about pictures, I 'take no note of time.' 
A word about my picture of the Angel, and as it was painted 
last winter, in about two months I could not afford more 
it has been a losing concern to me; its exhibition in New York 
cost me ninety dollars more than receipts; I hope it will do 
better in Boston. I had forgotten to say that I made but one 
copy during my sojourn in Europe, and that was from a small 
'Wilson' of H. Rogers. Since writing the previous remarks on 
Turner, I have happened to find in an English magazine, 'The 
Metropolitan,' a critique on him that will serve to corroborate 
what I have said; as you may not have an opportunity of seeing 
that periodical, I will copy the part relating to this painter. 

* This was written at Catskill in September, 1834. 



158 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

" 'Putting aside all the jargon of criticism, stand by and 
hear what the multitude say to his conglomerations of yellow, 
white, and red: the surprise, the ridicule, the contempt that 
they excite. Painting may be an abstruse art in its practice, 
but in its effect, it ought to be on a level with the meanest 
capacity. It is a problem, the solution of which lies, as to its 
truth, in the mere act of turning from the picture made by the 
hand of man, circumscribed by a gilt frame, to that made by 
the hand of God, belted in by the horizon. The mere spectator 
may not feel the poetry, the exquisite taste of the arrangement, 
the classical grouping, but he can feel and he does understand 
the truth or falsehood of the representation. Turner's pictures 
may be fine, but they are not true.' ' 

The pictures mentioned by Mr. Cole painted by him in Italy 
and immediately after his return, I have seen and admired: 
indeed it is upon their merits that I ground my opinion as 
above expressed. As to the rank in which he places his favorite 
branch of the art, I differ from him. The reader may remember 
(or may see), that Leslie places his particular branch (as Cole 
does his) on a level with history painting. It is very natural 
that it should be so; but until I am convinced that it requires 
as great variety and amount of knowledge to represent a 
landscape, or a scene of familiar life, as it does a great historic 
event; or that a landscape, or domestic scene, can fill the 
mind, like the contemplation of a picture, representing an 
event on which the destinies of mankind depended, an 
event which will influence those destinies to all eternity I 
must continue to differ from my two amiable and enlightened 
friends. 

I have in another page spoken of the munificent patronage 
Mr. Luman Reed, of New York, has bestowed on the fine arts, 
and his friendship for our distinguished artists. Mr. Cole 
has felt as if he was prohibited from speaking of this gentle- 
man's liberality. I am free to say, that I consider him as 
standing among the greatest benefactors to the fine arts, and 
the most purely disinterested that our country can boast. 

I visited Mr. Reed's gallery some months ago, and saw the 



A GENEROUS BUYER 159 

picture of Italian scenery which Mr. Cole painted for him. 
When it was finished, Mr. Reed asked the painter what price 
he put upon it. "I shall be satisfied," said Cole, "if I receive 
$300; but I should be gratified if the price is fixed at $500." 
"You shall be gratified," said the liberal encourager of art. 
And he commissioned him to paint five more pictures of the 
same size at the same price, for his gallery. 



CHAPTER X. 

Miss HALL DE ROSE DANFORTH NEAGLE PRATT 
CATLIN BINON YENNI PARKER ROBINSON - 
THE TWO STRICKLANDS GODEFROI DORSET - 
PRUD'HOMME STEEL C. V. WARD J. C. WARD. 

ANNE HALL. 

"Miss ANNE HALL is a native of Pomfret, in Connecticut, 
and the third daughter of Dr. Jonathan Hall; who was a phy- 
sician of eminence in that vicinity, and whose excellence will 
be long remembered and related in the place where he resided. 

"It has been said, that our propensities are hereditary; and 
the truth of this remark may be exemplified in the instance of 
Miss Hall, whose grandfather, David Hall, D.D. of Sutton, 
Massachusetts, possessed uncommon talents, both for painting 
and music, though the duties of his profession gave him little 
leisure for their cultivation. Her father also had great taste 
in everything connected with the fine arts, and by judicious 
criticism, and well-timed encouragement, fostered the genius 
of his daughter, which began to be developed at a very early 
age. When only five or six years old, she gave indications of 
talent in the imitative arts, and used to cut out figures with the 
scissors, and model little images in wax, which were surprisingly 
beautiful, as the work of a child. These elicited the admira- 
tion of the visitors of her parents, one of whom, presented 
her with some water colors and pencils, the first paints she 
ever used. Her father being pleased with her attempts, gave 
her a box of colors from China: and afterwards, her brother 
C. H. Hall, Esq., who resided in New York, and who was 
delighted with the specimens of taste and skill which she sent 
him, supplied her from time to time with such materials for 

160 



A TALENTED MINIATURIST 161 

painting and drawing as might most facilitate her progress. 
With these she used to imitate nature; and few of the beauti- 
ful flowers, birds, fishes, or insects, which inhabited the neigh- 
boring woods and streams, escaped the eye or the pencil of 
the young artist. The seclusion of her situation in the country, 
prevented her from seeing what had been done by others, 
but nature being her only model was perhaps the source of her 
originality. Soon the ' human face divine ' became the favorite 
object of her contemplation, and was preferred to all others. 

"In this state of progress, she accompanied her oldest sister 
in a visit to some friends in Newport, R. I., where at her 
father's request, she took some lessons in the art of applying 
colors to ivory, instead of paper, from Mr. S. King, an artist 
of respectability, who had previously had the honor of giving 
lessons in oil painting, to our distinguished countryman Mr. 
Allston. Her stay in Newport was very short, and at her 
early age, of little value to her subsequent progress in miniature 
painting. 

"Her brother, who afterward resided for some years in 
Europe, was enabled to procure some fine pictures both in oil 
and water colors, which he sent to his sister, and she was 
encouraged to copy them, until she could in some manner ap- 
proach to their excellence. By comparing these with nature, 
she was enabled to avoid the formality of a mere copyist, 
and justly to delineate the forms and colors with which her 
fancy was imbued, when she again attempted original com- 
position. 

"Being in New York some time after this, she received in- 
struction in oil painting from Mr. Alexander Robertson, at 
that time, and still an excellent teacher of painting. She 
painted some pleasing pictures in oil, but eventually relin- 
quished it to devote herself more exclusively to miniature paint- 
ing. In this style her pencil has not only been a source of 
pleasure, but has enabled her to enjoy 'the glorious privilege' 
of being independent. She has been favorably distinguished 
by the artists in New York and elsewhere, and has received 
much kind attention from those whose praise is honor. To 



162 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

conclude with the words of Solomon, 'give her the fruits of her 
hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates.' ' 

The above is from a friend, who, at my request, has given 
me this brief, but elegant notice. My attention to Miss Hall, 
was attracted by seeing several miniature copies from oil pic- 
tures by old masters, particularly two from Guido, executed 
with a force and glow of coloring that surprised and delighted 
me. Her late portraits in miniature are of the first order. 
I have seen groups of children composed with the taste and 
skill of a master, and the delicacy which the female character 
can infuse into works of beauty beyond the reach of man 
except it might be such a man as Malbone, who delighted in 
female society, and caught its purity. I have lately seen a full 
length of the oldest child of Dr. John W. Francis (and called 
John from his father), which is composed with the beautiful 
simplicity of some of Reynolds' or Lawrence's portraits of 
children, and is in coloring glowing, and masterly in the touch. 

This lady has occasionally exhibited with the National 
Academy of Design, and was elected unanimously an academi- 
cian. Her portrait of a Greek girl attracted much attention. 
It has been engraved. Of the few pictures of Miss Hall which 
I have had the pleasure of seeing, a portrait of Samuel Ward, 
Jr., and a group of two girls and a boy, the children of Samuel 
Ward, Esq. are particularly deserving of praise. The group 
is, in composition, coloring, and expression, beyond anything 
I have seen for a long time. It reminds me of Malbone. The 
flowers, and the children combine in an elegant and well- 
arranged bouquet. The same high praise belongs to a group 
of two ladies and a boy, combined with flowers still her 
management of infantile beauty when the difficulties attendant 
upon such studies are considered, makes me place the full 
length of Master Francis among the chefs d'ceuvre of Miss 
Hall; but perhaps the best original picture she has executed, 
is a group of a mother and child, the latter almost naked, and 
clasped to the mother's bosom. The mother is Madonna-like, 
and the child perfect in attitude and expression. This group 
represents Mrs. Jay, the wife of Dr. Jay, and her infant. 



AN ACADEMY STUDENT 163 

ANTHONY LEWIS DE ROSE. 

I give the brief notice which Mr. De Rose has favored me 
with, as I think it honorable to him, and more satisfactory 
than I could present in my own words: 

"I was born in the city of New York, on the 17th of August 
1803, and began my professional career in the winter of 1821, 
by setting out upon the world as a professed artist, after 
studying scarcely a year and a half; so eager was I to claim 
the distinction which I fancied belonged to an artist. I was 
designed for a mechanical employment, by my only surviving 
parent; but such was my repugnance to being forced to learn 
the secrets and mysteries of a trade, whether I would or no, 
that my scruples and the melancholy it caused, finally pre- 
vailed, and I was suffered to follow my inclinations and de- 
sires, in the pursuit of art. I commenced the rudiments of 
drawing with a young artist in New York; after studying six 
months with him, I was placed under the instructions of J. R. 
Smith, an excellent teacher of drawing, and I think I owe 
much of my subsequent success to his admirable system of 
instruction; occasionally I drew at the academy in Chambers 
Street under your directions, during the brief hours allowed 
for that purpose by the board of directors. 

"You may remember too, that I have been a constant atten- 
dant upon your course of lectures in our academy, and un- 
doubtedly owe much to them, as having given a proper direc- 
tion to my course of study. I have copied but few pictures, 
preferring nature her charms have won and claimed my 
entire admiration. Pleased with my first success in portrait 
painting, I wandered over many parts of our widely extended 
country in search of employment, and from a restless desire 
to see its varied beauty. Since the foundation of our excellent 
academy (the National Academy of Design), my professional 
views have taken a higher aim; I have occasionally employed 
my pencil in historical composition, with what success you 
shall witness at our next annual exhibition." 



164 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

M. I. DANFORTH. 

This gentleman, one of the best engravers in London, was 
born in Hartford, Connecticut. 1 He began to engrave in 1818 
as a pupil of the Hartford Graphic Company, mentioned above, 
in the notice of E. Tisdale. He moved to New Haven and en- 
graved professionally in 1821. For a publisher of Hartford 
he copied one of Raphael Morghen's fine prints; and so well, 
that my informant says, the proprietor has not yet published 
it, and keeps it to palm off hereafter as a genuine Morghen. I 
hope the trick will be exposed and result in disgrace, as all 
falsehood ought. 

In 1826 Mr. Danforth joined the National Academy of 
Design in New York, and studied in the school. In 1827 he 
went to London with the intention of engraving there a portrait 
of De Witt Clinton, painted by S. F. B. Morse, president of the 
National Academy, for which a subscription was attempted, 
but the project failed. 

In London Mr. Danforth pursued his studies assiduously 
at the Royal Academy, and drew industriously from the Elgin 
marbles, his drawings from which attracted much attention 
and admiration: he likewise painted in water colors, copying 
some of the oil pictures of the old masters, with great effect 
and perfect truth. 

Mr. N. Jocelyn arrived in London in 1829, and renewing 
his intimacy with Danforth, they resided together. Newton, 
Leslie, and Sir T. Lawrence, were the intimate friends and 
admirers of Mr. Danforth. He formed himself as an artist, 
by his independent study in London, and did not put himself 
under the direction of any engraver. He has engraved Leslie's 
portraits of Scott and Washington Irving, and a daughter of 
Lord Holland, for an annual. The beautiful picture by Leslie 
of Uncle Toby and the Widow, is before me, as engraved by 
Danforth in very fine style. This print was Leslie's gift to me 
on his leaving America in 1834. 

Mr. Danforth is a moral and religious man; of a retiring 

1 Mosely Isaac Danforth was born in 1801 and died in New York City in 1862. 



A COACH-MAKER'S APPRENTICE 165 

disposition; an honor to art and a blessing to society, as every 
such man must be. 

JOHN NEAGLE. 

The following words have already been inserted in this 
work: "It too often happens that the biographer after dilat- 
ing with enthusiasm on the merits of the artist, is obliged, with 
shame and mortification, to confess or to palliate the vices or 
grossness of the man." In very few instances has this "shame 
and mortification" fallen to my lot. The artists of the present 
day in our country, among whom Mr. Neagle holds a dis- 
tinguished place, have emulated in their conduct the best 
men, as they have rivalled in their works the best professors 
of the fine arts. 

Mr. Neagle was born in Marlborough Street, Boston, the 
capital of Massachusetts, on the 4th day of November, 1799. 
His parents were residents of Philadelphia, and on a visit to 
Boston at the time of his birth. The father of this gentleman 
was a native of Doneraile in the county of Cork, Ireland, and 
his mother, whose name was Taylor, was the daughter of a 
New Jersey yeoman, and born near Bordentown. John lost 
his father when he was but four years of age. His mother 
still lives. With the usual desire to draw figures of things 
earthly and unearthly, the boy's efforts were directed to some- 
thing like systematic drawing by a school fellow. This was 
Petticolas, afterwards and now the well-known artist of Rich- 
mond. Neagle looked up to him as a master, and imitated 
his attempts, until he became a wonder himself to his school- 
mates. His mother married a second husband, who was no 
friend to John or to the arts, and he passed through the evils 
of a stepfather's ill will. After the education of a common 
English school, the boy was sent to the drawing school of 
Signer Pietro Ancora for one quarter, and then placed by 
his stepfather in his grocery store. By his own choice young 
Neagle was apprenticed to Mr. Thomas Wilson, a coach and 
ornamental painter, but had his ambition aroused by the am- 
bition of his master, who became a pupil of Mr. Bass Otis 



166 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

the portrait painter. John had to carry palettes and brushes 
to and fro, which introduced him to Otis's painting room, and 
created the determination to become as great a painter as the 
man whose works he admired above all things. Having ac- 
cess to materials, he applied himself day and night to drawing 
and painting, "in his own way," and when not employed by 
his master. The skill acquired by his own exertions rendered 
him the most profitable to Wilson of all the apprentices hi 
ornamental work. By his indentures, John was bound to 
serve five ye,ars and five months, which left him a period of 
eighteen months' freedom before he was of age, which was in 
1820. 

During his apprenticeship he had some lessons, by an ar- 
rangement with Wilson, from Mr. Otis, for about two months, 
which is all the instruction he ever had as a pupil to a profes- 
sional painter. The attempts of the apprentice were encouraged 
and praised by Krimmel, C. W. Peale, Otis, Sully, and others, 
and he was a favorite with Wilson, who appreciated his use- 
fulness and his talents. The first portraits the young painter 
attempted were during his apprenticeship, and the truth of 
likeness even from the commencement gained him applause 
and encouraged his efforts. Mr. Neagle has said, that in after 
years, however much he may have otherwise improved, he 
could not have improved the likeness in his first subjects. 

I will copy from a letter before me Mr. Neagle's account 
of his first interview with Mr. Sully: "Mr. Sully then lived 
where the Athenaeum now is, in Fifth Street, and he had on his 
easel a study for the pro-scenium, or part over the stage, for 
the Chestnut Street Theatre. I was at that time an apprentice, 
and went with Mr. Otis to Mr. Sully 's painting room, where 
he left me alone with him. The very polite but formal manner 
in which he received me I shall never forget, particularly 
when he assured me, that 'the arts did not point the way 
to fortune, and that had he been a merchant, with the same 
perseverance which had characterized his efforts in art, he 
might have realized a fortune.' " I have shown the vicissitudes 
which attended Sully's professional career, and probably this 




JOHN NEAGLE 

1796-1865 
From a photograph 



A JOURNEY WITHOUT SUCCESS 167 

conversation occurred at a time when fortune frowned and the 
public forgot him. Neagle continues: "On my departure he 
invited me to visit his exhibition room, whenever I felt a desire 
which I often did but never paid him a personal visit until 
1822, after he had called upon me to congratulate me, as he 
said on my great success in the exhibition, presenting me at 
the same time with a card of invitation in his own handwriting, 
to Earl and Sully 's gallery." It was some years before Neagle 
became intimate in Sully 's family; but the intimacy, when it 
took place, led to the marriage with one of the painter's 
daughters. 

It was in 1818, and before he began to practise his profes- 
sion in Philadelphia, thinking he might better compete with 
painters beyond the mountains, he travelled to Lexington, 
Kentucky, with a view to establish himself in that growing 
place. His first inquiry was, "Is there any portrait painter in 
Lexington?" and to his amazement he was told there were 
two. He went in search of them, and chance directed him 
first to Mr. Jouett's painting room. On looking at this gentle- 
man's works he saw at once that he had no prospect of being 
the leading painter in Lexington. In fact he found in Jouett 
a good and well-instructed artist. There was no hope of em- 
ployment, and the young adventurer's money was expended. 
He determined to go on to New Orleans, and if no good fortune 
occurred, to find his way home by sea. To pay his passage down 
the great river of the west, was out of the question, he therefore 
offered himself to the captain of a boat to work his way. His 
dress not comporting with his purse or his offer, the rough 
boatmen thought he was a dandy who jeered them, and soon 
gave him such indications of their dislike to quizzing, except 
among themselves, that he was glad to retreat without giving 
hopeless battle to a half horse half alligator. 

Happily for Neagle, the flow of population from the Atlantic 
States to the West is so great, that an inhabitant of any of 
the cities of the old States can hardly fail to meet some one 
with whom he is acquainted. The young painter in this dilemma 
was accosted by one who had known him in Philadelphia, and 



168 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

finding that he was awkwardly situated, frankly offered him 
assistance. The offer of the loan of a few dollars* was accepted, 
and the youth once more afloat, was wafted with the current 
towards the great commercial emporium of the West. As they 
approached New Orleans he felt the necessity of raising a 
further supply, and opening his trunk to consult its contents 
on the means of raising the wind, he was fortunate enough to 
get up a gentle breeze by a sale of part of his wardrobe to the 
skipper. He was now landed at New Orleans, one of the most 
extravagant places for board and lodging in the United States, 
and he would have found himself most awkwardly situated 
again, but that here he met another acquaintance from the 
East. This gentleman had been a sitter to him for his portrait, 
and now bought a Washington's head of him, which he had 
brought from Philadelphia rolled up in his trunk: this enabled 
him to take passage for the city of Penn, where in due time he 
safely arrived. Neagle is not the only American who has been 
extricated from difficulty by that same head. 

Neagle's business improved after his travels, and he became 
an established portrait painter in the metropolis of Pennsyl- 
vania, although Kentucky had rejected him. In May 1820, 
he married Miss Mary Chester Sully, a daughter of Thomas 
Sully, Esq., and continued to improve by his unwearied study 
and application to his art. A full-length picture of a black- 
smith, painted in 1826, size of life, at his forge, excited very 
general attention, and as general applause. This was the 
portrait of Patrick Lyon, who having made a fortune by his 
industry as a blacksmith, and ingenuity as a locksmith, chose 
to have his portrait painted in the costume of Vulcan, with all 
the paraphernalia attendant upon his fiery occupation. 

"Do it at full length," said Lyon, "do it your own way 
take your own time, and charge your own price paint me as a 
blacksmith I don't wish to be represented as what I am not 
a gentleman." Mr. Neagle had an order for a second picture 
of Lyon. One of them was purchased for the Athenaeum, Boston. 

* The name of this friend was Bum, and the painter afterward presented him with 
his portrait, probably of $100 price, for the three dollars then lent him. 




Copyright Detroit Publishing Co. 

RICHARD M. JOHNSON 

1781-1850 
BY JOHN NEAGLE 

From the collection of the Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C. 



PATRICK LYON THE BLACKSMITH 169 

After being exhibited in Philadelphia, much to the artist's 
credit, Lyon's portrait was loaned to the National Academy 
of Design, for one of their annual exhibitions of the works of 
living artists, and I published the following notice of the picture 
into the "American." 

" Patrick Lyon the Blacksmith. One of the best, and most 
interesting pictures in the present exhibition of the National 
Academy at the Arcade Baths, is a blacksmith standing by his 
anvil, resting his brawny arm and blackened hand upon his 
hammer, while a youth at the bellows, renews the red heat of 
the iron his master has been laboring upon. 

" This picture is remarkable, both for its execution and sub- 
ject. Mr. Neagle of Philadelphia, the painter, has established 
his claim to a high rank in his profession, by the skill and 
knowledge he has displayed in composing and completing so 
complicated and difficult a work. The figure stands admirably; 
the dress is truly appropriate; the expression of the head equally 
so; and the arm is a masterly performance. The light and 
indications of heat, are managed with perfect skill. In the 
background at a distance, is seen the Philadelphia prison, and 
thereby 'hangs a tale,' whether true in all particulars, is 
perhaps of little moment; I give it as I took it. 

" Pat Lyon, as he is familiarly called in the city of Penn, was 
the blacksmith and locksmith of the Bank of , and the 
vaults having been entered and a large amount of money car- 
ried off, suspicion fell upon the man of locks, bolts, and bars. 
So strong were the suspicions of the directors, that Pat was 
arrested, and imprisoned for a long time in the castle, which, 
by his desire, the painter has introduced into this historical 
portrait. 

" In process of time, however, the real culprits were found to 
be the watchmen employed to guard the bank, and not the 
blacksmith who had fashioned its iron securities. Pat, who 
probably manufactured the locks and bars which held him in 
the city prison, was released, and made his old employers and 
recent persecutors pay handsome damages. He became rich, 
and with a liberal spirit engaged Mr. Neagle, a young artist 



170 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

struggling for fame and fortune, to paint his portrait, not as 
Patrick Lyon, Esq. but as Pat the blacksmith, supported by 
that hammer and anvil, with which and on which he forged his 
own wealth, and hammered iron bars into bank notes and 
eagles. 

" Another story is told of the blacksmith, which displays some 
humor, and if known to the visitors of the exhibition, where 
Mr. Neagle's picture is displayed, may enable them to see more 
in the face of Pat, than they otherwise might do without. 
Being sent for to open an iron chest made by himself, lock and 
all, whose owner had lost the key, Pat dexterously performed 
the operation, and holding the lid with one hand, presented 
the other, with a demand for ten dollars. It was refused. Pat 
let fall the lid, the spring lock took its former hold, and the 
blacksmith walked off, leaving the treasure as fast sealed as 
before. There was no remedy, and reluctantly the owner of the 
strong box, again sent for Pat. He promptly appeared, and 
the box was as quickly opened. The first demand of ten dol- 
lars was instantly offered; but no, 'I must have twenty now,' 
says the operator: and twenty was paid without demur, for the 
lid and the lock were still in the iron grasp of the maker." 

Mr. Neagle has contributed much to the information con- 
tained in this work. His anecdotes of Stuart have, I hope, 
amused every reader, and his account of Stuart's advice to 
him, when the veteran was sitting to the young painter, will in- 
struct the student. I have seen many excellent portraits from 
the easel of Mr. Neagle, some of which have been engraved, 
and are more generally known than others; I will only men- 
tion those of Dr. Chapman, Commodore Barren, and the 
Rev. Mr. Pilmore. 

My previous pages have given particulars of Mr. Neagle's 
visit to the place of his birth (from which he was removed an 
infant), and to the great portrait painter Stuart, of whom he 
has said, "he treated me like a child." 

Of his first interview with Allston, I have a memorandum 
before me - "Mr. Allston, with whom I dined thrice at his own 
house, was also kind; he took the pains to go to Mr. Stuart's 




MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE 

1757-1834 
BY HENHY CHEEVES PRATT 

From the collection of Mrs. George Thayer 



ANOTHER LANDSCAPE PAINTER 171 

painting room to see my picture of him, compared it with the 
life, and complimented me by his favorable opinion." 

After the journey to the West, Mr. Neagle set up his easel in 
Southwark, and worked, first at fifteen, then twenty, then 
twenty-five and thirty dollars a head. His employment in- 
creased, and he painted a half length of Robert Walsh, and 
other distinguished men sought him, though out of the city. 
In 1822, he removed into town, and soon after raised his price 
to fifty dollars a head. From this he has advanced to eighty, 
ninety, and finally to a hundred dollars. Mr. Neagle is full of 
the love of his art, ardent, industrious, and justly impressed 
with a sense of the high and honorable stand his profession is 
entitled to, and the conduct necessary in its professors. 1 

HENRY C. PRATT GEORGE CATLIN. 

This amiable and intelligent gentleman, Henry Cheeves 
Pratt, was born at Oxford, 2 New Hampshire, on the 13th of 
June 1803. His instructor in painting was Samuel F. B. Morse 
(afterwards president of the National Academy of Design), 
when that gentleman was practising in Boston, on his arrival 
from his visit to and studies in London. In a letter which I 
have seen, he says, speaking of Mr. Morse, "It is to the 
liberality and kindness of that gentleman, that I am indebted 
for the knowledge I have of the art." Mr. Pratt commenced 
painting landscapes and portraits at New Haven in 1823, and 
continues the practice of both branches at this time in Boston. 

Mr. Cole, our great landscape painter, travelled on foot 
with Pratt over the White Mountains, both sedulously study- 
ing the sublime of nature in those regions above the clouds. 
His friend Cole speaks in glowing terms of his pure love of 
nature, excellent good sense, and kindness of disposition. His 
portraits are well drawn, and possess much that is most valued 
in that branch of art. His landscapes are uncommonly well 
composed and executed, but somewhat deficient in coloring. 

1 Neagle died September 17, 1865, in Philadelphia. 

1 Dunlap is in error concerning the place of his birth. Pratt was born in Orford, 
N. H. He died in Wakefield. Mass., November 27, 1880. 



172 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

George Catlin, Esq., is a native, as I am told, of one of the 
Eastern States, 1 and was educated for the bar. What induced 
him to prefer painting I do not know: he probably, with 
Ranger, thought that law was "a damned dry study." I first 
became acquainted with him at Albany, when as a miniature 
painter he had gained the good will of De Witt Clinton, and 
was making an attempt in small oil painting of the governor. 
This was certainly very poor but it led to greater things, for 
when the corporation of New York City wanted to have a full- 
length picture of Clinton, as governor, he chose Catlin as the 
painter. His motive was undoubtedly praiseworthy, as it must 
have been to aid the young artist, but he was wrong: the 
city of New York was entitled to a portrait from a man of 
established reputation, if not from the best painter in the State, 
and Catlin was utterly incompetent. He has the distinguished 
notoriety of having produced the worst full-length which the 
city of New York possesses. 

Mr. Catlin is since better known as a traveller among the 
western Indians, and by letters published in the Commercial 
Advertiser. He has had an opportunity of studying the sons 
of the forest, and I doubt not that he has improved both as a 
colorist and a draughtsman. He has no competitor among the 
Black Hawks and the White Eagles, and nothing to ruffle 
his mind in the shape of criticism. 

BINON YENNI J. PARKER ROBINSON. 

Mr. Binon was a French sculptor, who exercised his art in 
Boston in the year 1820. He executed a bust of John Adams 
of considerable merit, and was an early instructor of Horatio 
Greenough. Mr. Yenni was a Swiss artist, who painted street 
views in New York. He went with Commodore Stewart as 
draughtsman to the Pacific Ocean. 

J. Parker. A sufficient notice of Mr. Parker will be found in 
Stuart's biography. I remember him in New York painting 
poor portraits. 

1 George Catlin was born in Wyoming Valley, Penn. He died at Jersey City, N. J. 
in 1872. 




fell 

A W 

ISt 111 

^ ^ u p( 




PASH-EE-PA-HO 

FROM AN KN'GBAVING AFTER A DRAWING BY GEORGE CATLJN 



ARCHITECTS 173 

Mr. Robinson was a miniature painter of some skill, who came 
from London and resided in Philadelphia for some years. He 
showed me a miniature of Mr. West, for which he said the old 
gentleman sat, and in the background he represented a part 
of West's great picture of "Christ Rejected." He came to 
America after 1817. He was then a man advanced in life, and 
he died about 1829. 1 

WILLIAM STRICKLAND GEORGE STRICKLAND. 

I think I remember Mr. William Strickland when in the 
scene shop of the Park Theatre, a companion of Hugh Reinagle 
and a pupil of John Joseph Holland. When Holland rebuilt 
that theatre, Strickland's father was the carpenter. If I err, 
it is because Mr. Strickland is among the very modest artists, 
who do not choose to answer my inquiries, or assist my efforts 
to be accurate in the history of the Arts of Design. He has 
studied diligently been to Europe to see the work of art, 
and stands high as an architect. He built the Bank of the 
United States, Philadelphia, after the model of the antique, 
the only model we have. 2 

George is his brother, and also designs in architecture; he 
has taught architectural drawings in the Franklin Institute. 
Both reside in Philadelphia, and I believe are Americans by 
birth. 

MAXIMILIAN GODEFROI JOHN DORSET. 

Mr. Godefroi was a French gentleman and architect, who 
was driven to this country by the events of the French Revolu- 

1 John Robinson came to Philadelphia in 1817, remaining until his death. A minia- 
ture of Samuel Milligan is signed " J. R. 1819." 

2 William Strickland, eminent as an architect and engineer, was born in Philadelphia 
in 1787 and died in Nashville, Tenn., April 7, 1854. He established his reputation as 
an architect by designing the Masonic Hall on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, and for 
many years was employed on the public buildings of that city, among them the United 
States Bank, the Merchants Exchange, the United States Mint and the United States 
Naval Asylum. His last great work was the State capitol, Nashville, Tenn., beneath 
which he was buried. In 1825 Strickland went to England to study the canals and 
railway systems and on his return superintended the building of the railroad between 
Newcastle and Frenchtown, Md. He did some portrait painting and engraving. 
William Strickland designed the lid of Washington's coffin and was present when the 
coffin was opened October 7, 1837. 



174 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

tion, and married in Baltimore, where he resided many years. 
He finally returned to France, and is supposed to have been 
restored to his estates. Mr. Godefroi built the beautiful Gothic 
chapel, at St. Mary's College, and the Unitarian Church, 
Baltimore. He designed and erected the Battle Monument, and 
in conjunction with B. H. Latrobe he built the Exchange of 
Baltimore. The design was Latrobe's. M. Godefroi was a 
candidate for building the United States Bank, Philadelphia; 
and in 1811 and 1813 he exhibited in that city many original 
drawings. 

Mr. Dorsey is an architect of Philadelphia. He designed the 
Gothic building in Chesnut Street and other conspicuous 
edifices. 

E. PRUD'HOMME JAMES W. STEEL. 

Mr. Prud'homme was born in the Island of St. Thomas, and 
brought by his parents to New York, at the age of eight years. 
He is a good draughtsman and engraver. He commenced 
working on his own account at the age of seventeen, and is 
now engaged in engraving for the National Portrait Gallery of 
Herring and Longacre, and has distinguished himself. 1 

Mr. Steel is an Irishman and engraves well in the line man- 
ner. I have seen an excellent print of his, from Mr. John 
Neagle's portrait of the Rev. G. T. Bedell, published in 1831. 2 

C. V. WARD AND J. C. WARD. 

These artists are, I believe, natives of New York, and 
brothers. They both have painted landscapes for many years. 
Both have merit. Their pictures have clearness, and many 
other requisites, but appear to me rather the imitations of art 
than nature. 



1 John Francis Eugene Prud'homme was born October 4, 1800. He was a skillful 
engraver in stipple, later working on bank notes. He was a brother-in-law of Thomas 
Gimbrede and from 1834 to 1853 Curator of the National Academy of Design. 

2 James W. Steel was born in Philadelphia, 1799, and died there June 30, 1879. 




WILLIAM STRICKLAND 

1787 1854 
By JOHN NEAGLE 

From the collection of The Ehrich Galleries. New York 



CHAPTER XI. 

DOUGHTY WEIR ROBERT M. SULLY Miss LESLIE - 
BRUEN JOHN DURAND BUSH CUMMINGS. 

THOMAS DOUGHTY. 

THIS gentleman was born in the year 1793, on the 19th of 
July, in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Doughty says, "At the age of fifteen or sixteen, I 
was put out with a younger brother to learn the ' leather busi- 
ness,' at which I served a regular apprenticeship, and pursued 
the business a few years afterwards. I attempted three or 
four paintings in oil during the latter part of my apprentice- 
ship, but they were mere daubs, inasmuch as I had never 
received any instruction in oils, and I may as well add here 
perhaps, that the only instructions I ever received, were, I 
may say almost in my childhood at a most excellent school: our 
master used to allow those boys who evinced any talents for 
drawing, one afternoon in each week to practise, but without 
the aid of a master; he would inspect the drawings himself - 
but the time is so far back that I have no recollection as to the 
result of my studies; I merely remember the fact that I did 
draw some at that time. 

"The other and only opportunity that ever occurred, was in 
the latter part of my apprenticeship, when I received one 
quarter's tuition at a night school in drawing in 'Indian ink.' 
The opportunities above mentioned no doubt implanted within 
my bosom a love for painting which only strengthened with 
my dislike for the trade I had learned; and contrary to the 
wishes of all my friends, I resolved to pursue painting as a 
profession, which, in their opinion, was a rash and uncertain 
step! My mind, however, was firmly fixed, I had acquired a 

175 



176 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

love for the art which no circumstance could unsettle. I was 
then, I believe, in my 27th or 28th year, with a wife and child 
to support; and I must confess, a dull and gloomy prospect as 
regarded pecuniary remuneration; but then I was consoled 
with the reflection, that in all probability my condition iii 
life would be bettered. I knew also that I should be improving 
from year to year. Consequently my embarrassments would 
lessen as I acquired knowledge and practice." 

Mr. Doughty has long stood in the first rank as a landscape 
painter he was at one time the first and best in the country. 
He now resides in Boston, and has this year (1834), in conjunc- 
tion with Harding, Alvan Fisher and Alexander, got up a 
splendid and popular exhibition of the works of the four, much 
to the benefit of the company. 

ROBERT W. WEIR. 

This gentleman has the high merit of making his way 
through difficulties which might have appalled a mind of less 
firmness, and likewise that of having, in the very heyday of 
youth, resisted the allurements of pleasure in the witching land 
of Italy, allurements which, if yielded to, would have marred 
that fame and fortune to which he is destined 

In prosecuting this undertaking I have applied very gener- 
ally to artists for information respecting themselves and 
others. I have found them ready to assist me, in giving accuracy 
and value to my work, very much in proportion to their stand- 
ing as men and professors of the ennobling arts which have 
occupied their thoughts through life. The most worthy have 
been most frank, and among them is Mr. Weir. I shall make 
use of his letters by sometimes quoting his words, and some- 
times mingling the knowledge communicated by him, with 
that appertaining to myself. 

Mr. Weir says, "The lights and shadows of my early days, 
to use technical phraseology, were not well balanced, leaving 
little that I can now turn to with recollections of pleasure." 

Robert W. Weir was born on the 18th of June 1803, at New 
Rochelle, in the State of New York. His parents were in good 




i 



(H 



CHILD LABOR 177 

circumstances, and the first ten years of his existence were 
passed without his experiencing any other sorrows than those 
which seem to be affixed to the period of childhood, by way 
of preparing us for the struggles of after life. Residing with 
his parents at his father's country seat, in New Rochelle, the 
period of infancy passed smoothly; but in the year 1813, a 
ruthless storm of misfortune came which blasted all his pleasant 
prospects. His father's mercantile business failed, and in one 
year all his property went to satisfy creditors. "I was taken 
from the academy," Mr. Weir writes, "and placed in a cotton 
factory, where my thoughts were turned from books and play, 
to be chained to the steady and almost ceaseless motions of a 
spinning jenny. I gained little credit, however, from my 
application, as I was never considered a good workman or very 
attentive to the duties required in waiting upon the machinery, 
and in eighteen months lost my employment by caricaturing 
one of the dignitaries of the establishment. 

"About the end of the year 1815, my father endeavored to 
re-establish himself in business in the city of New York, but 
his health had been undermined by misfortune, and he never 
recovered from the blow which deprived him of his wealth; 
so that after some fruitless attempts, he gave it up in despair. 
He then offered his services to an extensive mercantile house, 
who appreciated his worth, and whose confidence he enjoyed 
until the time of his death. During the period of his hardest 
struggles, my father's anxiety respecting my education ap- 
peared to be one of his greatest troubles. The expense that 
he could so ill bear and yet incurred on my account, and the 
many inconveniences he was content to suffer for my future 
good, still harrow my soul when I think how little I have been 
able to give back in return." 

If it were possible in youth to realize how delightful the 
remembrance of faithfully performed duties towards our 
parents would be to mature years, and how sharp the pangs of 
remorse, if conscious of a contrary course of conduct, how 
many youthful follies would be checked, and in how many 
instances would man be saved from ruin! But not only igno- 



178 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ranee of the future, but of the probable result of our actions 
seems to be the lot of youth. Many, and the writer is one, 
look back in old age, and feel as if in scarcely one occurrence 
of a long life they have done their duty and more especially 
to parents. The words of Mr. Weir, still in the prime of life, 
are to me a proof that he has "given back in return" all that 
the exertions of a virtuous course of life has enabled him to 
pay to the authors of his existence. 

Let him again speak for himself. "About this time a relative 
from Albany made us a visit, and observing my father's un- 
easiness on my account, offered, on condition that I should 
accompany him home, to complete my education at his own 
expense, provided nevertheless, that I should devote such 
portion of my time to his business as was not actually taken 
up by my studies, and this assistance was to be considered as 
an equivalent for my expenses. These preliminaries being 
agreed upon, we set out late in the fall of 1816, in a sloop 
bound for Albany; but on account of the ice could not proceed 
farther than Athens, where we arrived wearied with the tedious- 
ness of the passage, and determined to land and proceed to 
the first inn, where we might procure some mode of conveyance 
to our place of destination. 

"Beside my uncle and myself there were three other passen- 
gers, who agreed to accompany us, and as the night was fine 
and clear and frosty, and the ground rang like metal beneath 
our tread, we promised ourselves a pleasant exhilarating walk. 
With these feelings and under these agreeable auspices, we 
pursued our way for about two miles, occasionally hearing an 
anecdote, or a story of some bold deed of manly prowess, or 
tale of true love crossed, when we were suddenly and unex- 
pectedly met by two heavy looking square-built pedestrians, 
dressed in sailor's attire, and accosted in the rough language 
of that peculiar class, with 'shipmates, how late is it?' Im- 
mediately three watches were displayed, and the time given in 
answer. With an 'Umph' and thanks which sounded like 
curses, our ' shipmates ' left us and proceeded towards the point 
from which we had started; but it was not many minutes before 



DESERTION IN DANGER 179 

we heard approaching footsteps in our rear, and upon turning 
discovered two figures on the summit of the hill we had just 
descended, darkly contrasted with the sky, which was lighted 
by the moon. The effect was instantaneous upon all we 
started off like frighted deer at the utmost speed we could make, 
but finding myself left behind by the fleetness of my chivalric 
companions (who had all been heroes in the stories they had 
told), and being incumbered with a bundle, upon which I 
placed too great value to part with, I determined to turn from 
the road at the first favorable place and conceal myself among 
the bushes until the rogues should pass. My retreat was scarcely 
made and my concealment effected before they came up, and 
stopping near the place, they struck their clubs upon the ground 
in great dudgeon, and with a few hearty curses upon the long 
legs of my uncle and his companions they gave up the chase 
and returned leisurely back. 

"It may be supposed that my mind was not inactive during 
the few moments of suspense after secreting myself. My 
thoughts turned to my uncle, who had left me without any 
apparent concern, to manage for myself; and when I had crept 
from my place of concealment and followed on to overtake my 
courageous companions, I could not help weighing the value 
my uncle set upon the person and welfare of his nephew, and 
finding it light in the balance. I joined my fellow pedestrians, 
and without further danger or adventure arrived at the place 
of our destination, my affections a little cooler than when we 
started, and my uncle somewhat shy of the anecdote 
which, by the way, I took much pleasure in telling, and not 
unfrequently made it the subject of a sketch, generally 
scratched on the blank leaf of some favorite book of my kind 
relative, not much to his delight or the increase of his affection 
to his nephew. 

"My stay with my uncle was little short of a year, and the 
misery I suffered is indescribable; yet I endured it all rather 
than afflict my father with a knowledge of my unhappiness, 
which, in the end, was quick enough in finding its way to his 
ear, and my recall was then immediate. My father examined 



180 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

me as to my attainments, and I was found wanting, and again 
sent to school. 

"It so happened that opposite the schoolhouse, Mr. Jarvis 
had his painting room, and I frequently lingered about the 
door in order to get a glimpse at the mystery of his art; but 
after many fruitless attempts, I at length summoned courage 
enough to enter the precincts of his studio, and gratify my 
curiosity, while I asked his terms as if I wanted my portrait 
painted; but this was not in presence of the great man himself; 
Mr. Jarvis was not at home, and my inquiries were politely 
answered by his pupil, who kindly stated the different prices of 
the various sizes, and offered to sketch my head on Bristol- 
board for five dollars. This was my first interview with my 
friend Inman; and we little thought at that time that we should 
be better acquainted.* 

"My father at length procured a situation for me in a re- 
spectable French mercantile house at the South, and in the fall 
of 1817 I bade farewell to my friends, and for the first time 
beheld my father's tears, as he placed me in charge of the 
captain of the vessel, which was to bear me from my native 
State. The influence of those tears was lasting, and I can safely 
say they saved me from many an error. 

"I remained in this situation about eighteen months, when 
it was thought advisable to remove this branch of the concern 
and unite it to the main house at New York. My services 
were duly appreciated, and I had advantageous offers from two 
of the principal houses in the place, with one of which I closed, 
and after making a short visit home, was to return and take 
my place as head clerk. 

"On my arrival at New York, I found my father well, and my 
mother absent on a visit in the country. She was soon to return, 
and I went to the wharf hoping to meet her, having intimation of 
the time she was expected. I waited at the boat to receive her, 

* Mr. Weir says, "the first book on painting that fell in my way was Dryden's 
translation of Du Fresnoy, with notes by De Piles. I read it with enthusiastic delight; 
every word sank deep within me, and caused tears of joy, and shouts of ecstasy to 
escape at every page; my soul swelled with pure zeal for the art, and when I finished, 
I felt better and happier, and resolved to be a painter." 



FIRST ATTEMPTS AT DRAWING 181 

and after all the passengers but one had gone ashore, was begin- 
ning to think of returning home disappointed; but not liking to 
leave the spot, without making some inquiry, I addressed myself 
to a lady who sat opposite, with a hat and veil which concealed 
her face, and who was apparently waiting for some one whom she 
expected. I had scarcely opened my lips, when she exclaimed, 
'My son! is it indeed you?' and burst into tears. 

"My appearance must have been much altered, for I had 
suffered severely from a fever, previous to my embarking for 
home, and the disease still lingered on me. My mother could 
not think of again parting with me, and in her solicitude for 
my health, discovered a cancerous pimple on my face, which 
gave her much uneasiness. To quiet her fears, I submitted to 
a most painful operation, which confined me to a dark room 
and low diet for near two months, at the end of which time I 
felt as little inclined to leave home as my mother could wish. 

"I now entered as head clerk in a mercantile establishment 
at New York, and after three years had an offer of coming in as 
a partner. My father, however, dissuaded me from the terms; 
and, as I thought I never should amass property sufficient to 
commence on my own footing, I determined to turn my atten- 
tion to something that did not require lucre for its capital. 
My fondness for sketching had often been displayed on sundry 
books and bits of paper in the vicinity of the desk and counting 
room, and had rather been encouraged by my father, who, 
I must confess, heard my determination with surprise. At first 
he endeavored to dissuade me from my scheme, but finding 
me resolved, he changed his views, and promised to help me 
as far as he was able.* 

* " My first, and only instruction in the art, was received from Robert Cook, an 
English painter in heraldry, who sought employment in this country as a teacher of 
painting. He was a worthy man, and had seen something of art in his own country, 
but had not devoted much time to study; he consumed his precious hours in making 
fruitless experiments in search of some other and better vehicle than oil to paint with. 
I devoted from six to eight o'clock in the morning to study with Mr. Cook, three times 
a week, for three months, and the rest of the day attended to my business as clerk. I 
learned one salutary lesson from him which has been repeatedly confirmed by others 
that time is too valuable to be consumed in making experiments, and I have contented 
myself with the knowledge of others, or have stated my views to some scientific friend, 
whose leisure enabled him to investigate the question, and waited patiently the result." 



182 

"In the fall of 1821, I set myself seriously to work, and 
after several fruitless attempts, succeeded in making a tolerable 
copy of a portrait. At this time I became acquainted with Mr. 
Paff, who kindly lent me several pictures, which I took great 
pains, as well as pleasure in copying, and succeeded so well 
as to attract the attention of many connoisseurs of high 
standing. 

"My fame as a copyist had reached Philadelphia, and during 
the fever of 1822, I received a commission from that city 
to copy a famous picture then exhibiting there, for which I 
received $200. This was my first commission. The copy after- 
wards went to New Orleans and sold for $1100, and subse- 
quently was brought to New York for exhibition, but being 
damaged on the passage, was withheld from the public, who 
may congratulate themselves on being spared their patience 
and twenty-five cents each. 

"On my return to New York, I made a small sketch of Paul 
preaching at Athens, which I offered to a gentleman of taste 
and apparent love for the arts, for the small sum of eight dol- 
lars, but he declined it, and Mr. Paff became the purchaser at 
five dollars, and the payment made in old prints. I was now 
solicited by the person to whom I had first offered it, to pur- 
chase the sketch back from Mr. Paff, as he was willing to give 
any sum under fifty dollars, and think himself happy in the 
possession of it; but its owner declined selling it on any terms, 
saying it was the best thing I had ever painted, or ever would 
paint.* 

* "About three years ago, i.e. in 1830, and after my return from Italy," says Mr. 
Weir, " Mr. P. sold this sketch for fifty dollars, and the purchaser called upon me and 
wished to have a companion, repeating what Mr. P. had said respecting my ability 
to paint another as good. At the end of three days the second sketch was finished (the 
subject of which was Peter and John curing the lame), and was so much superior to 
the first, that Mr. P. contrived to purchase them back for a very high price, and still 
keeps them in his possession." The young painter called upon Mr. Trumbull after his 
long absence in Europe, and Trumbull showing Weir one of his early compositions, asked 
him if he remembered it. "Yes sir," said Weir, "and I remember that you bought it 
of Mr. Paff, and when I waited upon you, delighted to be noticed by the president of 
the American Academy, you told me I had better turn my attention to making shoes." 
This Weir has said made him sick for a week after; but the reception Morse received 
from the same person, when in London he waited upon him, a youth full of hope and 
encouraged by Allston and West, is still more characteristic: "You had better go home 
again." 



A GREWSOME OBJECT 183 

"After the praise which had been bestowed on the sketch of 
Paul preaching at Athens, I was induced to attempt the same 
subject as large as life. This laborious undertaking occupied 
me about nine months, during most of which I was beating 
about through a sea of trouble, sometimes rubbing out whole 
platoons of figures, and at others, laboring hard to raise re- 
cruits for another obliterating sweep. Thus I worked on, 
occasionally dunned for rent of an attic in that part of the old 
almshouse, granted to the American Academy of Fine Arts, 
rent free by the corporation, for the purpose of encouraging the 
arts, and occasionally receiving a visit from some friend whose 
anxiety for my failure or success had induced him to climb 
ladders, ascending through trap doors and working a dusty 
way through the rubbish which was stowed away in this garret, 
to the place in which I pursued my studies, in silence and 
solitude. 

"At last this work was completed and publicly exhibited at 
Washington Hall. It attracted some little attention; but I 
believe chiefly because it was the work of a New Yorker, and 
one who had never received any regular instruction in the 
art. I was however encouraged by compliments, to apply 
myself with redoubled ardour to the study of the art I had 
determined to pursue. 

"I was convinced of the necessity of obtaining a knowledge 
of anatomy.* For this purpose I commenced a course under 
Doctor Post, and greatly injured my health by application to 
that branch of my profession. My next step was to learn 

* "My first essay in the study of anatomy was rather ludicrous. I had been pre- 
sented with the half of a barber's head, who had been executed about a week before for 
murder. It had been divided through the middle, and the tongue remained in my part. 
I wrapped it up in my handkerchief, and late at night walked home with it under my 
arm. The novelty of carrying such a commodity set my imagination to work, and 
thoughts arose on the way, respecting that unruly member, which had so often wagged 
fluent with lies, to please its owner's customers; and before reaching my father's house, 
my feverish fancy was so much excited, that I began to think it might wag again. 
Having reached my bed chamber, I deposited the troublesome burthen in my trunk, 
and crept to bed; not to sleep for the thoughts which had possession of my brain, and 
certain disagreeable odors emitted from the trunk pursued me, and after tossing about 
until two o'clock in the morning, I determined to get up and carry my treasure back. 
In my anxiety I had forgotten that every house must be shut at that time, and I 
wandered the silent and deserted streets until daylight enabled me to find my friend, 
who relieved me from my disgusting load." 



184 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Italian, for my hopes and desires now rested on and centered 
in Italy. I had determined to go, and, if by no other means, 
to work my passage over before the mast. I had now made 
some valuable friends, and among others, Henry Carey, by 
whose kindness and assistance I was enabled to realize the 
hopes I had entertained, and visit in comparative ease the land 
of art the theatre where Michaelangelo, Raphael and Titian, 
and the host of other artists had figured, and left behind a 
school unsurpassed for simplicity and greatness of design. 

"It had been an amusement for me occasionally to paint a 
picture, and, nearly obliterating it with dirt, to put it in the 
way of some would-be connoisseur, who, after examining it at- 
tentively, would pronounce it an undoubted work of some one 
of the old masters. I have several libels upon antiquity of 
this kind to answer for, and one in particular which had nearly 
lost me the friendship of a brother artist. I had called one 
morning, and found him delightfully employed in copying one 
of my antiques. 'What are you about, Tom?' I exclaimed. 
'Ah!' was his reply, 'there's a jewel for you! that's an un- 
doubted original of Annibale Carracci.' 'An undoubted hum- 
bug,' was my rejoinder. Tom turned his dark eyes fiercely 
on me, repeating 'Do you doubt it? do you doubt it? why 
Mr. P. lent it to me yesterday, and at the same time told me 
it cost him $300.' 'Well Tom, I can only say, if you take 
that picture out of the frame, you will find on the lower edge 
of the panel, the initials of my name.' To satisfy himself he 
took it out, and there the little tell-tales were. The next day, 
Tom sent the picture home, with many thanks to the owner, 
and at the same time threw his copy into the fire. In the same 
manner I had copied some of Rembrandt's etchings so close 
as to be with difficulty detected, and was on the eve of turning 
my attention seriously to the publication of etchings from 
various old pictures in the possession of different gentlemen in 
New York, but, like many other things of the kind, it fell 
through, after the first or second plate was finished. 

"On the 15th of December, 1824, I bade adieu to friends 
and country, and after a tedious passage of sixty days, I found 



UNWELCOME CRITICISM 185 

myself in Leghorn. It was my custom while at sea to sketch, 
and during the passage I had illustrated great part of Dante's 
'Inferno.' These sketches were not without merit, though some 
of them were rough enough, to be sure. After remaining a 
short time at Leghorn, during which I visited Pisa, and ex- 
amined the works of art contained in the cathedral, and the 
curious frescos of the Campo Santo, I prepared for my de- 
parture to Florence. 

"When I waited upon our consul for the necessary docu- 
ment to safe travelling, he said with apparent sincerity, 'Mr. 
Weir, I have a picture in the next room, and I should like to 
have your candid opinion of its merits. I have been offered 
$5000 for it, which I refused.' With some little ceremony I 
was ushered in, and after a nice adjustment of light, during 
which the pedigree of the picture was detailed its loss its 
miraculous discovery, which was effected simply by a small 
piece of blue drapery in one corner, the only part visible and 
then the green silk curtain which hung before it was withdrawn, 
and a Venus of undue proportions was displayed. I was candid 
enough to say what I thought; but had no sooner expressed my 
opinion, than with a low growl the curtain passed before the 
picture, and my astonished ears were saluted with 'Sir, your 
passport is ready.' ' 

Artists are of course desirous to see good pictures, and are 
pleased to be invited by the owners, who thereby pay a com- 
pliment to the artist's judgment but he frequently has to pay 
a cruel tax for the gratification he experiences. An anecdote 
told of Fuseli, shows how an older artist than Mr. Weir was, 
in 1824, managed in similar circumstances. A noble lord in- 
vited the painter to see a jewel of a painting, of which he was 
the happy possessor, and lauded it to the skies. Fuseli felt 
bound to go to the nobleman's house, and took a pupil with 
him. After the usual ceremony, the painting was displayed 
and the artist examined it, and ejaculated, "Extraordinary!" 
The owner reiterated its praises pointed out its beauties 
and still Fuseli cried "Extraordinary!" After a decent length 
of time the painter and his pupil departed. On their way 



186 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

home, the pupil finding his master silent, said, "Mr. Fuseli, I 
don't think much of that picture what did you mean by 
'extraordinary'?" "Extraordinary bad," was the reply. 

I return to Mr. Weir's narrative. "At Florence, my first 
thoughts were to settle a plan of study. It had been my prac- 
tice to affect a bold, dashing, apparently off-hand execution; 
and the masters I most admired were those who excelled in 
embodying their ideas with the fewest touches, and those so 
nicely laid on as to express all that labor and high finish could 
accomplish. But after observing the early works of those very 
men so celebrated for their execution, I was surprised to find 
them in every instance, most minutely, even laboriously 
finished. It then struck me, that I had commenced where I 
should have left off, and with difficulty compelled myself to 
go through the drudgery of studying with the greatest care 
and precision; that by doing so I might get the habit of ex- 
pressing things with care, and at the same time with truth. 
It was no easy matter to throw off my loose habits, and it cost 
me some trouble to accomplish it; but when done, I took de- 
light in studying nature in every detail, and the very dryness 
that I before despised, now pleased me as correctness and truth. 

"The Chevalier Pietro Benvenuti was at this time occupied 
in painting the life of Hercules in fresco for the grand duke, 
and as my ambition propelled to history, I contrived to become 
his pupil. The scene of study was in the Pitti Palace; but the 
slow process of plastering and tracing, staining, hatching and 
stippling was too tedious for me, and I conceived my time 
misspent in acquiring, what at home would perhaps never be 
required of me; I therefore left my witty master, and the 
society of gods and centaurs, and went to the fields to study 
nature as she is, content to take her with all her faults, and 
leave to others the colder and more circuitous route of approach- 
ing her shrine through halls of Grecian art. 

"Among the acquaintance I made at the palace, was Madam 

D , a lady of distinction, whose influence gained me several 

commissions, and among others one from the Princess Pauline. 
The subject was of a fanciful nature, and I was to have intro- 



DEFECTS OF THE MODERN ITALIANS 187 

duced her likeness, but illness deprived me of her sittings, and 
after several different appointments, she sent me her miniature 
as a substitute; but before I had time to use it, her death de- 
prived me of the opportunity of fulfilling the commission. 
Another of my acquaintance, who appeared to take a great 

interest in my welfare, was a Mr. O , a most rare specimen 

of Italian character: he was fawning, subtle, and vindictive, 
and took umbrage at my leaving Signer Benvenuti. Several 
little circumstances took place which sometimes irritated and 
sometimes soothed him, but at length he let me know that 
unless I left Florence, my life was in danger. 

"On visiting different galleries with Italian artists, I was 
not a little surprised to hear them burst out in raptures when 
viewing the coloring of Titian and Paul Veronese. With 
unaffected delight they appeared to feel and enjoy the effect 
of good color; but when they returned to their own studies, 
their cold leaden hues were but a sad apology for flesh, and 
contradicted the enthusiasm exhibited before the great masters 
of old. I was confident it was not because they did not feel 
what they talked so feelingly about, but suspected that their 
bad coloring was owing to their manner of study to their 
continuing so long to work with chalk, and accustoming the 
eye to see nothing but light and shade. This rendered the eye 
unfit, or deceptive, when they took the brush in hand, and at- 
tempted to give color at the same time with form. I have 
even gone home with some and endeavored to show them 
what little I knew; and with one, who was painting a Narcissus, 
I painted the right arm with the reflection in the water for 
him; but with what success he finished the picture I cannot 
say the last time I saw it he had not matched a single tint. 
His lights were too pink, his middle tint was warm, and his 
shadows too cold. 

"It is the same with all of them from Camuccini down, with 
the exception of Bozzioli, whose works have great brilliancy 
as well as depth and transparency; and may entitle him to the 
reputation of being the best colorist of the present Italian 
school. As for Camuccini, who is certainly one of the finest 



188 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

draughtsmen living, his coloring is deplorable his flesh is 
cold and leaden, as well as his skies and backgrounds; and 
his draperies are nearly all positive colors, either scarlet, blue 
or bright yellow; and composed in such a way as to offend 
the eye; their violent contrast destroying even that which we 
know to be good. His cartoons, however, are beautiful. 
They are finished compositions, as large as life, drawn with 
black and white chalk on a tinted ground. You do not feel 
the want of color when looking at them they are every- 
thing you could wish but when in the next room the finished 
picture is shown, you scarcely recognize the composition, so 
forcibly are some parts obtruded by strong and violent color, 
while others, that in the cartoon appear as foreground objects, 
are weakened by cold and retiring tints. The habit too, of 
working with small pencils is injurious to good coloring; 
and the charm of fine broad execution is seldom seen in the 
works of modern Italian artists. There is a lion hunt by 
Camuccini from a picture of Rubens, painted entirely with 
quill brushes, and the same texture pervades the whole surface 
- hair, fur, flesh, are all alike. 

"I painted in Florence 'Christ and Nicodemus,' and the 
'Angel releasing Peter.' 

"I believe it was about the beginning of December, 1825, 
when I left Florence, and stopped a day at Sienna to examine 
the celebrated outlines in the pavement of the cathedral, and 
the works of Pinturicchio in the sacristy, which by the way are 
very exquisite, and in a better state of preservation than any- 
thing of their time that I recollect to have seen; but as my face 
was set towards Rome, and my heart many leagues in advance, 
it constrained me to be satisfied with merely looking, when 
perhaps if I had made even the slightest sketch, it would have 
enabled me at this time to draw conclusions with nearly the 
same correctness as if I had the picture before me. It is per- 
haps an error which young artists too frequently make of 
trusting their memory with too much, and paper with too 
little even though the sketch be rough and hurried, it is 
better than none. 



WEIR AND GREENOUGH IN ROME 189 

"A few days brought me to the gates of the great city of 
art, where I entered most unpropitiously amidst hail and rain, 
but it did not prevent me from seeing the Colosseum, and some 
works of art before I retired for the night. Here I found our 
friend Greenough, who had lately arrived; and we soon agreed 
to take rooms together, which we happily procured on the 
Pincian Hill. Our home was situated opposite to that which 
had been occupied by Claude Lorraine, and between those 
known as Salvator Rosa's and Nicolo Poussin's. You may im- 
agine that in the midst of such, to us 'holy ground/ our enthusi- 
asm was not a little excited. There we set ourselves most 
industriously to work, and as you wished me to detail to you 
our mode of study, I will attempt it : 

"We rose tolerably early, and either pursued some study 
in our own room, or went to the French academy and drew 
from the antique until breakfast time, after which we separated, 
Greenough to his studio, whilst I either went to the Vatican, or 
the Sistine Chapel, or some of the private galleries, that are 
liberally thrown open for the purpose of study. There I worked 
away until three o'clock, at which hour they closed. I then 
took a lunch, and either a stroll through St. Peter's, or the 
antique galleries of the Vatican, or went to the French academy 
and drew from casts, or to my own room, or in the fields, 
and drew from nature until six, which was our dinner hour. 
We then assembled at the Bacco di Lione ; a famous eating 
house, the dining hall of which had been the painting room of 
Pompio B attorn. It was in this room where he received Rey- 
nolds with the pompous salutation of 'Well, young man, walk 
in, walk in, you shall see Pompio Battoni paint.' The art 
had been long declining in Italy, and poor Battoni was the 
mere smoke after the last flame had flickered out. It served 
our imagination, however, and formed a part of that atmos- 
phere of art which surrounds the student in Rome, that makes 
his lamp burn bright, and his enthusiasm strong. 

"After dinner, or rather, after supper, all the artists met at 
a place called the Greek coffee house, where we had our coffee, 
and chatted until seven; at which hour the life schools opened, 



190 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and we separated, some to the French or Italian, and Greenough 
and myself to the English; where we studied from the life 
until nine o'clock, and then, if the night proved fine and the 
moon shone bright, we formed small parties, to go and dream 
among the ruins of imperial Rome. This formed our round of 
daily occupation; we lived and moved in art: it was our food, 
ready at all times, we had but to stretch out our hands and 
pluck what we wanted. 

"The studies that I made from the old masters were chiefly 
from Raphael's frescos in the Vatican, the Prophets and 
Sybils of Michaelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, and Titian and 
the great colorists that were to be found in the minor collec- 
tions; the drawings from Raphael were made the size of the 
original; those from Michaelangelo were reduced. My studies 
in color were nearly all finished copies; which I now regret, 
as I think too much time was consumed in making them, 
when sketches of the compositions of one color merely, without 
entering into the minutiae of tints, would have answered all 
the purposes as well, and perhaps better. 

"There was much need of system in all this. I saw artists 
fly from one thing to another, without any apparent fixed prin- 
ciple. At one time they pursued a train of studies that ap- 
peared to lead them on, when they would stop short in the 
midst of apparent success and pursue an opposite course, in 
search of Flemish detail and finish; which led them down to 
littleness, and consumed their time in learning the mere tricks 
of art. 

" With much skill in drawing, among the Italian artists, 
there is a great deal that retards their progress as painters; 
they continue too long with the port crayon, and lose their eye 
for color; and when they take their palette in hand, and 
with the living model before them, they find it too much to 
embody both color and drawing at once. Their productions 
are cold and heavy, and the beauty of the drawing lost, in a 
measure, under the leaden hues which a constant habit of 
seeing things only in black and white gives them. 

"I recollect an observation that Etty made; it struck me 



NEGLECT OF NATURE 191 

as being correct, and I have tried to adopt it. He said, 'as 
he intended to be a painter, and acquire some fame with the 
point of his brush, he thought it best to begin at once, and use 
it at all times and upon all occasions, in preference to anything 
else.' Thus you would then get color, drawing, and mechanical 
dexterity, which those who work with a hard point, such as 
lead or chalk, seldom or never attain, as painters. 

"Another, and perhaps better reason, why the modern 
Italians do not excel in painting flesh, or giving a true texture 
to the different substances they wish to express, is, that they 
do not paint portraits, or copy individual nature, as they see 
it, but try to make all their figures Apollos or Herculeses, by 
bending nature to their preconceived notions of what she ought 
to be, as derived from casts and stone. It is this introduction 
of art that makes them reject nature as they find it, and substi- 
tute in the place of an easy development of her parts, the 
squared and flattened lines which they say constitute style. 
and make their copy resemble the model in nothing but its 
latitude. There is one thing that has often surprised me; it 
is, that those who set out in life with the purpose of acquiring 
an art to represent nature, after being but a short time in 
the presence of the works of the old masters, change their 
veneration for the mother of all good, to the works of the 
geniuses that have been, and thus copy nature at two or three 
removes; and which, if pursued, would, in a short time, reduce 
art to the lowest degradation and servility. 

"I cannot help thinking, that those 'mighty Dutchmen,' 
as our friend Greenough used to call them, have done the art 
a great and lasting good: their simple imitations speak with 
the voice of nature, and teach us how to represent her. 

"I made several compositions during my stay in Rome, 
with separate studies for each part; but as my business was 
rather to collect materials, I contented myself with gathering 
into my portfolio such hints and studies as I thought would 
enable me to pursue my profession with advantage after my 
return. There was one study from the life, representing the 
back of a female, which I believe you have seen, but which 



192 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

unluckily got me into rather an awkward situation; and to 
prevent the like from occurring again, I painted it out. 

"My purse was barely sufficient for my support; and once, 
when I indulged myself with the purchase of a suit of armor, 
I was obliged to retrench, and live upon ten cents a day, for 
near a month, before I relieved myself from the embarrassment 
it caused. 

"After living near two years in Rome, I paid a visit to 
Naples, where Mr. Greenough had gone but a short time previ- 
ous. Here I was joined by an English architect, with whom 
I made an extensive excursion to Psestum, where we measured 
the temples, and made such notes as we thought would be of 
use: and on our return were joined by Mr. Greenough, who 
accompanied us to Rome. My intentions were, to have walked 
to Venice and returned home by way of France; but the illness 
of a friend made me relinquish the idea, and embark with 
him from the nearest port. I had secret hopes of returning; 
but my father had died during my absence, and circumstances 
of a domestic nature obliged me to remain. 

"I have, however, until lately, cherished the thought of 
again seeing Europe; but I am now married, and feel myself 
anchored for life, especially as I have some little kedges out, 
that have moored me to the soil." 

Mr. Weir has been appointed to the situation Charles R. 
Leslie occupied at West Point, as teacher of drawing, in its 
various departments, to the cadets. This honorable station 
will not deprive us of his talents as a painter, the duties of 
the office leaving time for executing those compositions in 
which he delights. 

Mr. Weir has produced a great many finished pictures 
since his return from Italy, several of which have been en- 
graved. His "Red Jacket" is well known. This chief of the 
Senecas exhibited a fine specimen of savage manners when 
he came with his attendants, or companions of the forest, to 
the painter's room. He seated himself down on an ample arm- 
chair with the nonchalance of a superior, and his wild tribesmen 
surrounded him. A scene only to be found occasionally in our 



RED JACKET PAINTED BY WEIR 193 

country once their country. This picture is in the collection 
of Samuel Ward, Esq. and is too well known to need my 
eulogium.* Some scenes from Scott and Fenimore Cooper 
have employed Mr. Weir's pencil; but his last and best familiar 
subject is, his "Boat Club." Landscape has occupied his at- 
tention much of late, and his improvement in that branch of 
art is striking. His friend Gulian C. Verplanck has written 
some scenes, in a dramatic form, to accompany one of the 
painter's landscapes, with figures representing the march of 
the Constable Bourbon to Rome. 1 

* I have received a communication from Dr. J. W. Francis, on the subject of Red 
Jacket's interview with the painter Weir: I have room only for the following para- 
graph. "It becomes not me," says Dr. Francis, "to speak of the peculiar merits of the 
painting of Red Jacket (Saguoaha, or Keeper-awake), by Weir. It is admitted by 
the competent, to eclipse all other delineations of our Indian chiefs, and demands, as 
a work of art, no less regard than the subject himself, as one of pre-eminent considera- 
tion among our aborigines. The circumstances, however, which gave the artist the op- 
portunity of portraying the distinguished warrior and great orator of the Seneca 
nation, deserve at least a short notice. An acquaintance of some years with Red 
Jacket, which was rendered, perhaps, more impressive in his recollection by occasional 
supplies of tobacco, led him to make an appointment with me to sit for his picture 
upon his arrival in the city. When he came to New York, in 1828, with his interpreter, 
Jamieson, he very promptly repaired to the painting room of Mr. Weir. For this pur- 
pose he dressed himself in the costume which he deemed most appropriate to his char- 
acter, decorated with his brilliant overcovering and belt, his tomahawk and Washing- 
ton medal. For the whole period of nearly two hours, on four or five successive days, 
he was as punctual to the arrangements of the artist as any individual could be. He 
chose a large armchair for his convenience; while his interpreter, as well as himself, 
was occupied, for the most part, in surveying the various objects which decorated the 
artist's room. His several confederates, adopting the horizontal posture, in different 
parts of the room, regaled themselves with the fumes of tobacco to their utmost grati- 
fication. Red Jacket occasionally united in this relaxation; but was so deeply absorbed 
in attention to the work of the painter, as to think perhaps of no other subject. At 
times he manifested extreme pleasure, as the outlines of the picture were filled up. The 
drawing of his costume, which he seemed to prize, as peculiarly appropriate, and the 
distant view of the Falls of Niagara (scenery nigh his residence at the Reservation), 
forced him to an indistinct utterance of satisfaction. When his medal appeared com- 
plete, he addressed his interpreter, accompanied by striking gestures; and when his 
noble front was finished, he sprang from his seat with great alacrity, and seizing the 
artist by the hand, exclaimed, with great energy, 'Good! good!' The painting being 
finished, he parted with Mr. Weir with a satisfaction apparently equal to that which he 
doubtless, on some occasions, had felt, in effecting an Indian treaty. Red Jacket must 
have been beyond his seventieth year when the painting was made: he exhibited in 
his countenance somewhat of the traces of time and trial upon his constitution; he 
was, nevertheless, of a tall and erect form, and walked with a firm gait. His character- 
istics are preserved by the artist to admiration ; and his majestic front exhibits an alti- 
tude surpassing every other that I have seen of the human skull. As a specimen for 
the craniologist, Red Jacket need not yield his pretensions to those of the most astute 
philosopher. He affirmed of himself, that he was born an orator. He will long live by 
the painting of Weir, in the poetry of Halleck, and by the fame of his own deeds." 

1 Robert Walter Weir died May 1, 1889. 



194 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ROBERT M. SULLY. 

This gentleman has frankly communicated the incidents of 
his life, and in language I do not wish to alter. In answer to 
my inquiries he says : 

"I was born in Petersburgh, Virginia, July 17, 1803. 1 My 
father you may probably remember as an actor, for many 
years attached to the Charleston Theatre. Between my ninth 
and tenth year, not long after my father's death, I evinced 
extreme fondness for drawing, which was increased if not ex- 
cited by the sight of some of his drawings. When a youth 
he received some instruction from Nasmyth, the celebrated 
landscape painter of Edinburgh. I am certain that his talent 
for that branch of the art (landscape) was very great. I 
have sketches of his in my possession fully justifying my 
assertion. 

"About sixteen or seventeen, I determined to become a 
painter, in spite of the many difficulties and deprivations at- 
tending the profession; all of which were prudently pointed 
out by my friends. I was in my eighteenth year when I visited 
Philadelphia for the purpose of obtaining instructions from 
my uncle, T. Sully. Here my zeal, hitherto wasted in ill 
directed efforts, was for the first time applied to a proper 
course of study. I was enthusiastic and worked hard, and I 
think my progress was rapid. My obligations to my uncle 
I shall ever remember with gratitude. 

"I remained with him eight or nine months, and on my re- 
turn to Virginia commenced professionally 'A prophet hath 
no honor in his own country/ I soon found that a painter 
is generally equally unfortunate in the city of his residence. 
I must not, however, omit the name of one of my earliest 
patrons, Mr. J. H. Strobia of Richmond. I can apply the 
term patron to him, as his kindness proceeded, I am convinced, 
far more from the desire to encourage and assist me than from 
any wish to possess my works. I despise the canting term of 
patron as it is generally used, as much as I should the artist 

1 Robert Matthew Sully was the son of Matthew and nephew of Thomas Sully. 
He died at Madison, Wis.. October 16, 1855. 



CRITICISMS OF LONDON ARTISTS 195 

who could descend to apply it to those who, after all, give him 
merely the value of his services. 

"My uncle's letters about this time were very encouraging, 
and strongly advised me to visit London as soon as possible. 
I felt a strong desire to follow his advice, and to assist my 
purpose, I visited several towns in North Carolina, where I 
was successful. 

"I determined to sail for England the following summer, and 
took passage from Virginia to London August 1, 1824, and 
arrived September 23d. 

"Hurled into this vortex of art, it was some little time before 
I could sufficiently recover from the excitement produced 
by the change, to commence a regular course of study. 

"Of the living artists Lawrence became my first idol; but 
having remained some time in London, and carefully studied 
the works of Reynolds, my admiration for the former some- 
what lessened. Nothing so delighted me as the pictures of 
Reynolds; and frequently (as some fine engraving from his 
works would catch my eye) have I reconciled myself to the 
loss of my dinner, and spent my last shilling to possess it. 

"Jackson, the second portrait painter, I think surpassed 
Lawrence in color. There is a fine rich tone in his pictures 
very like Reynolds; but he wanted the grace and elegance of 
Lawrence. I found none equal to Leslie and Newton in their 
peculiar walk. In the higher ranks of history, Haydon, Gitty 
and Hilton, I certainly thought inferior to Allston. A picture 
of the last mentioned artist was exhibited at the British gal- 
lery. (' Jacob's dream.') My opinion originated from a sight 
of that exquisite production. 

"In the course of my second year in London I painted a 
portrait of C. Beloe, the secretary of the British Institution. 
It was shown to the veteran in art, Northcote; it gained his 
approbation, although qualified by a very judicious criticism, 
which ended with his sending me an excellent picture by Sir 
J. Reynolds to copy; from which I derived much improve- 
ment. About this time I also painted a portrait of Mr. North- 
cote. The portrait of Mr. Beloe was exhibited the same year 



196 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

at Somerset House; that of Northcote, some little time after, 
at the Suffolk Street exhibition. My acquaintance with North- 
cote furnished me with much useful information respecting 
Reynolds (his master), Opie, Gainsborough, and others." 

It is to be regretted that young artists are not permitted to copy 
in the different collections. In the Angerstein and Dulwich gal- 
leries, they are allowed to make sketches in water colors; but 
little improvement can be derived from that system of study. 

"The older artists I found little disposed to aid their 
younger brethren in art, either by advice or the loan of their 
pictures. I must make one exception; Mr. Leslie was not 
only very kind in directing my studies and criticising my 
work, but in lending me many of his own studies. I sailed 
from Liverpool July 15, 1828, and arrived in America in 
September, after an absence of four years." 

Mr. Sully has performed the promise made by his early 
works. I have never seen either him or his paintings; but I 
have the testimony of those I confide in as to the merit of both. 

Mr. Sully's portrait of Northcote gained him great credit 
in London, and was praised by artists and connoisseurs. I 
find in the "Inquirer" a notice of some copies made by Mr. 
Sully, which I copy on account of the subjects: "The paint- 
ing of Pocahontas was brought from Warwickshire, England, 
about the year 1772, by Ryland Randolph of Turkey Island, 
in the county of Henrico, Virginia; and sold in 1784 by the 
administrator of the estate to Thomas Boiling of Cobbs, one 
of the descendants of the Indian princess." (So says a certifi- 
cate, but certificates are very deceitful things.) "The original 
is crumbling so rapidly that it may be considered as having 
already passed out of existence." So much for immortality 
by the pencil! But, like men, one picture generates another 
in its likeness, and the graver and the press continue the 
existence of the artist and his work. 

Miss LESLIE. 

This lady's merit, as a painter, would have distinguished 
the name of Leslie in the fine arts, if her brother had not al- 



LESLIE'S SISTER 197 

ready placed it among the most distinguished of the present 
age. She was born in Philadelphia, a short time before her 
father and mother made that visit to England which has occa- 
sioned the claim made by that country upon Charles Robert. 
The father and mother of this highly talented family of chil- 
dren (for another sister has displayed graphic powers as a 
writer) were Robert Leslie and Lydia Baker; who visited 
London in 1793, taking with them the subject of this portion 
of our work, an infant, and returning to America with their 
children in 1799. 

Miss Leslie, as well as her brother, showed her taste for 
drawing when a child, but never painted, as a regular employ- 
ment, until 1822, when on a visit to her brother in London. 
She then copied a number of his pictures, and two or three 
pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds. She also painted occasionally 
portraits of her friends. Her first attempt in oil was a portrait 
from nature as large as life. 

She returned to Philadelphia in 1825, with Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Carey, her sister and brother-in-law; and again visited 
her brother, in London, in 1829. Several of the copies she 
made after that time were engraved in this country for the 
" Atlantic Souvenir." Her brother-in-law, Mr. Carey, possesses 
an admirable copy, which she made from one of Mr. Newton's 
best pictures; the subject is from the " Sentimental Journey." 

We have seen, among other things, from the pencil of this 
lady, her copy from the "Sancho and Duchess" of her brother; 
which is so admirably executed, that I should have pronounced 
it the original of Charles Robert. 

ROBT. C. BRUEN JOHN DURAND BUSH. 

Mr. Bruen was an apprentice to P. Maverick, with A. B. 
Durand, and afterwards practised engraving with great suc- 
cess, but became deranged; and in the winter walked upon 
the ice of the river into the water and was drowned. 

Mr. John Durand, a brother of A. B. Durand, was a most 
promising engraver. Originally a jeweller; but, on taking 
up engraving, he appeared to make progress as by inspiration, 



198 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

under his brother's tuition: but death put a period to a progress 
which his brother thinks would have placed him at the head 
of the profession. He invented a machine for bordering bank- 
notes, which was used by Maverick, Durand, & Co. He 
died at the age of twenty-eight, after two years' application to 
engraving. 

Of Mr. Bush all I can say is, that finding there was an artist 
of this name, I wrote to my never-failing source of information, 
Thomas Sully, requesting some account of him. His answer, 
dated 1833, is -"Bush was befriended (I had almost said 
patronized, a word I hate as much as you do) by Clay 
studied a short time in Philadelphia, and now pursues his 
vocation in the western country." 1 

THOMAS S. CUMMINGS. 

Mr. Cummings was born in England, and brought to New 
York an infant. He is the only child of Charles and Rebecca 
Cummings. The place of this gentleman's birth was Bath: 
the time August 26, 1804. Shortly after Thomas' birth his 
father removed to Bristol, and from thence came to America, 
when our subject was yet in early childhood All Mr. Cum- 
mings' ideas, except some very faint traces of Bristol, are 
American. When he was about fourteen years of age, Au- 
gustus Earl, the traveller and painter, came to New York, 
and took part of the house (as an office) occupied by the father 
of Mr. Cummings. Earl saw the boy's drawings and en- 
couraged him to proceed. His father placed him at the drawing 
school of J. R. Smith, and in 1821 he was received as a pupil 
by Henry Inman, who had but recently left the guidance (as 
an artist) of Jarvis. During three years' study with so excellent 
a master as Inman, Mr. Cummings became a painter in oil and 
water colors (or miniature), but preferred, and of course suc- 
ceeded best in the latter, which he had made peculiarly his 

1 Joseph H. Bush, of German descent, was born in Frankfort, Ky., in 1794. At 
seventeen he became a pupil of Thomas Sully at Philadelphia and after two years of 
study he opened a studio at Frankfort, passing his winters in New Orleans and Natchez 
painting portraits. He died in Lexington, Ky., January 11, 1865. Among the portraits 
painted by Bush are those of Gen. Zachary Taylor, Gov. John Adair, Judge Thomas B. 
Monroe and Gen. Martin D. Hardin. 



AMERICAN ARTISTS DEMOCRATIC 199 

study. At the end of three years the teacher and pupil entered 
into a partnership, which continued three years, and a friend- 
ship was founded which is unbroken. Inman devoted himself 
almost exclusively to oil painting, leaving Cummings, in the 
year 1827, the best instructed miniature painter then in the 
United States, by withdrawing from that branch of the art 
altogether. 

It will be remarked by any reader of this work, that a great 
many of our eminent artists were born in Europe, brought to 
this country in infancy, or when boys, and became artists as 
well as Americans. We will here mention some, who, as well 
as Mr. Cummings, are in this predicament. Charles R. Leslie, 
John Wesley Jarvis, Thomas Cole, Thomas Sully; and even 
Charles Ingham was but a youth when he arrived in America; 
and although well taught in the rudiments of the art, has 
become the excellent painter he is since his arrival. 

It is a most happy circumstance for a country so liable to 
be flooded by emigrants, who are strangers to its constitution, 
laws, manners, and customs, that the children of these stran- 
gers, whose fathers are so apt to misunderstand us, all become 
Americans, even though they first drew breath in Europe. 
There may be some who imbibe prejudices from then* parents, 
and are but pseudo-republicans, and "not to the manner" 
reconciled; but generally every man bred in America is a 
democrat; learns to estimate worth by talent and virtue alone, 
and not by fortune or descent; and to see that the democratic 
system is not that which European sophists represent, a level- 
ling by bringing down the few, but an equalizing, by lifting 
up the many. 

We do not know one artist (born in Europe, and educated 
in America), who is not an American democrat. 

Portrait painting is vulgarly stigmatized as a branch of the 
art devoted to the gratification of vanity. I can say most con- 
scientiously, that far the greater number of applicants for 
portraits are those who submit to the ceremony of sitting for 
the gratification of others; and the portrait painter has gener- 
ally the satisfaction of knowing that he exerts his skill in behalf 



200 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

of the best feelings of our nature. The painter of miniatures has, 
perhaps, even more than the painter in large, this satisfaction; 
and although the painter in oil, and on a large scale, not un- 
frequently feels as if he stood higher than his brother, whose 
delicate and exquisitely touched work is dependent on more 
seemingly fragile materials, yet we know that the works of 
Trott and Malbone, Brown and Rogers, Shumway, Inman, 
Ingham, and Cummings, and the delicate productions of Miss 
Hall on ivory, have, and will for years to come, raise sensa- 
tions in the bosoms of those who gaze on them, which may 
rival any excited by the works of their brethren, that are dis- 
played in gallery and hall. The contemptuous expression of 
"a faded miniature," will often meet the eye; but I know 
that a miniature painted by an artist like Mr. Cummings, and 
treated as miniatures ought to be that is, kept as we keep 
jewels, only for occasional gratification will lose neither force 
nor freshness for centuries. The best portrait we have of one 
of England's greatest men, once a republican and always a 
friend to the most precious of liberty "liberty of conscience," 
Oliver Cromwell, is the miniature by Cooper. 

Mr. Cummings stands, if not the first in his branch of por- 
trait painting, certainly among the first, and by his liberality 
to younger artists, and his exemplary conduct as a man and a 
gentleman, must be looked to as one of those who are raising 
the Arts of Design to that station in public estimation which 
they claim as their right. He has long been one of the council 
and the treasurer of the National Academy of Design, and has 
delivered lectures on his art to the students. 

Mr. Cummings is altogether an American artist: his success 
in his profession, and his early marriage, which has placed 
him in youth at the head of a large family, have prevented 
even the desire to visit Europe, except as every lover of art 
feels at times a wish to see the wonders of ancient masters. 
Mr. Cummings married in 1822, a young lady, born like him- 
self, in England, and brought in childhood to our hemisphere, 
Miss Jane Cook. The marriage is happy, for the parties are 
virtuqjvs. I have witnessed the correctness of Mr. Cummings' 



PROBITY AND FILIAL PIETY 201 

conduct as a man of business, and his filial piety to his parents. 
He is one of the few who may reflect through life that he has 
fully repaid the trouble and anxiety which every good father 
experiences in his endeavors to forward the welfare of his 
children. 

Among the many beautiful portraits which Mr. Cummings' 
constant practice produces, I will only mention those of Miss 
O'Bryan, Mrs. Cummings, Mr. H. Inman, and Mr. Hatch. 
These, and many others, will bear comparison with any works 
in that branch of the art. 



CHAPTER XII. 

AUDUBON H. S. MOUNT S. A. MOUNT A. J. DAVIS 
LONGACRE GREENOUGH. 

JOHN JAMES AUDUBON. 

THIS very enterprising ornithologist and artist has attracted 
great attention by undertaking to publish from drawings and 
writings of his own on American ornithology, the figures in 
which are the size of life. How much science gains by increasing 
the picture of a bird beyond that size necessary to display all 
the parts distinctly, is with me questionable; but the work of 
Mr. Audubon, as far as I have seen it, is honorable to his skill, 
perseverance and energy. It is gratifying to see the arts of 
design enlisted in the cause of science, and it is one of the many 
proofs of man's progress towards the goal intended for him. 
It has been observed that superstition, always the enemy of 
reason, is often the parent and the nurse of the fine arts. It 
would be more just to say that in the progress of man from 
barbarism to civilization, ignorance engenders superstition, 
and artful men enlist in her cause for a time those arts, which 
by diffusing knowledge will ultimately overthrow her. Science 
and literature become the allies of the fine arts, and in the 
ages to come, even more than in the present, art will be the 
friend and coadjutor of reason, the propagator of truth, and 
the support of religion. Public and private buildings will 
employ the architect, the sculptor, and the painter; while the 
volumes which increasing knowledge produces will require 
decorations and illustration from the designer and engraver. 
In works on natural history we see the incalculable advantage 
of the arts of design to convey those images which words can- 
not present to the mind. For this reason I view the works of 
Mr. Audubon with a partial eye; but my feelings in his favor 

202 




JOHN JAMES AUDUBON 

1780-1851 

FROM AN ENGRAVING BY J. SARTAIN AFTER THE PAINTING BY F. CRUIKSHANKS 



AUDUBON AND BONAPARTE 203 

have been damped by the exaggerated praises inserted in our 
public journals, and by the style of his biography, published 
and written by himself. However, it is my duty from such 
sources as are presented to me, to give a memoir of the artist; 
and those sources are verbal communications with Alexander 
Lawson, the friend of Wilson, and jealous of, perhaps, even 
inimical to, Audubon, and Mr. Audubon's own account of 
himself, which may be considered as that of a friend. 

I will first give the testimony and narrative of Lawson, who 
is undoubtedly biased against the rival of his friend Wilson, 
but whose character places him above doubt as to the facts he 
states. 

Lawson's account of his first knowledge of Audubon is as 
follows: On a certain occasion, a well-known Quaker gentle- 
man of Philadelphia, told his friend Lawson that a wonderful 
man had arrived in the city, from the backwoods (all the 
wonders come from the backwoods), bringing paintings of 
birds, beautiful beyond all praise, colored with pigments, 
found out and prepared by himself, of course a self-taught origi- 
nal genius. Lawson was at this time engraving for Charles 
Bonaparte's ornithology. One morning, very early, Bona- 
parte roused him from bed he was accompanied by a rough 
fellow, bearing a portfolio. They were admitted and the port- 
folio opened, in which were a number of paintings of birds, 
executed with crayons, or pastils, which were displayed as 
the work of an untaught wild man from the woods, by Bona- 
parte, and as such, the engraver thought them very extraordi- 
nary. Bonaparte admired them exceedingly, and expatiated 
upon their merit as originals from nature, painted by a self- 
taught genius. 

Audubon for the "rough fellow" who had borne the port- 
folio, was the ornithologist and artist sat by in silence. At 
length, in the course of this examination, they came to the 
picture of the "Horned Owl." Bonaparte, who had been 
liberal in admiration and commendation throughout the exhibi- 
tion, now declared this portrait to be superior to Wilson's of 
the same grave personage. "It is twice as big," said the 



204 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

engraver. On examining it closely he thought, notwithstand- 
ing its size, that it had a remarkable resemblance to his friend 
Wilson's original picture of the same bird. "Come here, my 
dear," said he to his daughter, "bring down the Horned Owl." 
It was brought, and Audubon's proved to be a copy from 
Wilson's, reversed and magnified. 

Lawson told me that he spoke freely of the pictures, and 
said that they were ill drawn, not true to nature, and anatom- 
ically incorrect. Audubon said nothing. Bonaparte de- 
fended them, and said he would buy them, and Lawson should 
engrave them. "You may buy them," said the Scotchman, 
"but I will not engrave them." "Why not?" "Because 
ornithology requires truth in forms, and correctness in the 
lines. Here are neither." In short, he refused to be employed 
as the engraver, and Audubon departed with the admirer 
who had brought him. During this visit Lawson said that 
Audubon did not once speak to him. It appears that at this 
time Mr. Audubon's only plan was to sell the paintings. 

After a time Charles Bonaparte came again to the engraver, 
bringing with him one of the pictures, which he said he had 
bought, and requested to have it engraved for his work. 
Lawson consented, but it was found too large for the book. 
Bonaparte wanted him to reduce it. "No. I will engrave it 
line for line, but I will not reduce it, or correct it in any part." 
He then pointed out the defects, showing that this and that 
part were untrue; concluding, "Let him reduce it, and I will 
engrave it." Soon after, Audubon came to the engraver with 
the same picture, and said, "I understand that you object to 
engraving this." "Yes, it is too large for the book." "And 
you object to my drawing?" "Yes." "Why so?" "This leg 
does not join the body as in nature. This bill is, in the crow, 
straight, sharp, wedge-like. You have made it crooked and 
waving. These feathers are too large." "I have seen them 
twice as large." "Then it is a species of crow I have never 
seen. I think your painting very extraordinary for one who is 
self-taught but we in Philadelphia are accustomed to seeing 
very correct drawing." "Sir, I have been instructed seven 



HOSTILITY OF LAWSON 205 

years by the greatest masters in France." "Then you made 
dom bad use of your time," said the Scotchman. 

In the picture of the turkey, the engraver says that Audu- 
bon has given the bird a flat foot the thumb or hinder claw 
flat whereas in nature it is not and cannot so be used. "But 
that I am the engraver of Wilson's work," he continued, "I 
would expose this man." 

In opposition to this, we know from Mr. Audubon that 
he was born in Louisiana; we know that he has been well 
received and complimented in Europe; and is well spoken of 
by many in this country. It is now some years since his visit 
to Mr. Lawson, and although his drawing might then be 
incorrect, his persevering and energetic character would sur- 
mount the deficiency. His knowledge and his skill would be 
constantly increasing. 

Mr. Sully told me that Audubon, on his first coming to 
Philadelphia visited him, and expressed his desire to acquire 
the art of portrait painting, and become a portrait painter. 
That he took rooms near him and received his instructions, but 
was soon discouraged and gave up the pursuit. Sully considered 
him as a man of talents. This was in 1824. He offered re- 
muneration for the instruction he had received, which was 
declined. Of his birds Mr. Sully spoke highly, saying they 
were very fine, particularly the red bird and the "wren and 
her young." The date of the attempt to become a portrait 
painter agrees with Lawson's account of his arrival in Phila- 
delphia, and with the date, the 5th of April, 1824, which 
Audubon in his autobiography, gives as the time of his arrival 
in that city; but he says nothing of his attempt at portrait 
painting, or Mr. Sully's instructions. He mentions M'Murtrie 
and Sully as friendly to him 

We will now refer to Mr. Audubon's published account of 
himself, which I could wish had less mystification about it. 
This autobiography is dated "Edinburgh, March 1831." 
The title page of the book gives us his name and titles, "John 
James Audubon, F. R. S. S. L. & E., etc. etc." He tells us, 
in the introduction to his ornithological biography, that he 



206 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

"received life and light in the new world"; but this is little 
more definite than saying that he was born on the globe; he 
leaves us to fix the spot between the north and south poles; 
but I understand he gives New Orleans, or at least Louisiana 
as the place of his birth, and the United States of America as 
his country. 

Mr. Audubon tells us that "the productions of nature" be- 
came his playmates, and he soon felt that intimacy with them, 
"not consisting of friendship merely, but bordering on frenzy, 
must accompany" his "steps through life." His father en- 
couraged and instructed him in his study of nature when or 
where we are not told. When a child he "gazed with ecstasy 
upon the pearly and shining eggs as they lay imbedded in the 
softest down." His wishes were, in childhood, all frenzy and 
ecstacy, and he says as he grew up "they grew with my form." 
His father showed him pictures of birds, and he tried to copy 
them "to have been torn from the study would have been 
death to me." "I produced hundreds of these rude sketches 
annually." 

Notwithstanding this frenzy and ecstasy growing with his 
growth, we are- told that he "applied patiently and with in- 
dustry" to the study of drawing; and at the age of seventeen, 
after "many masters" had "guided his hand," he says he 
"returned from France, whither I had gone to receive the 
rudiments of my education." And then, at the age of seven- 
teen, "my drawings had assumed some form. David had 
guided my hand in tracing objects of a large size." 

"I returned," he proceeds, "to the woods of the new world 
with fresh ardor, and commenced a collection of drawings, 
which I henceforth continued, and which is now publishing 
under the title of 'The Birds of America.' ' Thus it must 
appear that the collection of drawings publishing in 1831, 
was begun when he was seventeen years of age. 

"In Pennsylvania," he says, "a beautiful state, almost cen- 
tral on the line of our Atlantic States, my father, in his desire 
of proving my friend, gave me what Americans call a beauti- 
ful plantation"; and here he "commenced his simple and 



ARDUOUS ORNITHOLOGICAL PURSUITS 207 

agreeable studies." We next understand, from him, that he 
became a husband. That he tried various branches of com- 
merce, and failed in them all. Twenty years passed in these 
commercial experiments, one of which, as I understand, was 
keeping a shop in Broadway, New York, where he failed as 
in the others. His failures in commerce he attributes to his 
"passion for rambling and admiring those objects in nature 
from which alone," he says, "I received the purest gratifica- 
tion. I had to struggle against the will of all who called them- 
selves my friends. I might here, however, except my wife and 
children. The remarks of my other friends irritated me be- 
yond endurance, and breaking through all bonds, I gave 
myself up to my pursuits. I undertook long and tedious jour- 
neys: ransacked the woods, the lakes, the prairies, and the 
shores of the Atlantic. Years were spent away from my family." 
And during all this time, he says, "Never, for a moment, did 
I conceive the hope of becoming in any degree useful to my 
kind." It appears, from this statement, that he had no object 
in view but self -gratification. To the importance of his studies, 
to the happiness of mankind, his mind was awakened by acci- 
dentally becoming acquainted with a prince, the Prince of 
Musignano. On the 5th of April, 1824, Mr. Audubon arrived 
at Philadelphia. Dr. Mease was his only acquaintance; on 
him he waited and produced his drawings; he introduced him 
to Charles Lucien Bonaparte, who introduced him to the 
Natural Society of Philadelphia. "The patronage I so much 
wanted," he says, "I soon found myself compelled to seek 
elsewhere." New York receives him more kindly, and he glides 
"over our broad lakes to seek the wildest solitudes of the path- 
less and gloomy forests." No notice of his attempt to become 
a portrait painter in Philadelphia. In the forests beyond the 
lakes he determines on visiting Europe again. "Eighteen 
months elapsed. I returned to my family then' in Louisiana, 
explored every portion of the vast woods around, and at last 
sailed towards the old world." It appears that he landed in 
England about the year 1826-7. 

The autobiographer now digresses, and tells us his mode of 



208 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

drawing by the compass: and he tells us that he resided sev- 
eral years at the village of Henderson in Kentucky; but at 
what period he does not inform us. He tells us, that leaving 
Henderson he absented himself from his family for several 
months, but had sent to them a box containing representations 
of "nearly a thousand inhabitants of the air." On his return 
he found that the rats had invaded the box and eaten all the 
paper birds. This produced insanity positive madness for 
several days, "until the animal powers being recalled into 
action," he says, "through the strength of my constitution, I 
took up my gun, my note book, and my pencil, and went 
forth as gaily as if nothing had happened." In "a period not 
exceeding three years" he had "his portfolio filled again." 
This was, of course, if I can understand Mr. Audubon, before 
he conceived the design of being the benefactor of the human 
race by publishing his drawings. 

We have seen that Mr. Audubon went to England in 1826, 
or 7. He tells us that America being his native country, he 
left it with regret, after in vain trying to publish his "illustra- 
tions" in the United States. "In Philadelphia, Wilson's princi- 
pal engraver, amongst others, gave it, as his opinion to my 
friends, that my drawings could never be engraved." We have 
seen what Lawson says on this subject. 

Mr. Audubon landed at Liverpool, and the Rathbones, the 
Roscoes etc. took him by the hand the drawings rejected in 
America, were received with praises at Liverpool; and after- 
ward visiting "fair Edina," he met with equal success. Of 
England, he says, "I found all her churches hung with her 
glories, and her people all alive to the kindest hospitality." In 
Scotland, he was equally caressed, and he there commenced 
publishing his "illustrations." He acknowledges with great 
propriety that to Britain he owes his success. "She furnished 
the artists through whom my labors were presented to the 
world. She has granted me the highest patronage and honors." 

We have seen what Wilson, a modest unpretending man did 
for the science of Ornithology, and the skill he acquired as a 
draughtsman, without having his hand guided by David and, 



PARENTAGE OF AUDUBON 209 

many masters. We have seen that his merits were appreciated 
in America, although he did not call himself an American. 

Before concluding the autobiography, the author enters 
into a defence of the size of his plates. He praises his own 
candor as a writer surely whether intended or not, he has 
exhibited a strange picture of himself I may admire, but I 
cannot esteem such a man. 

It was after his visit to Britain, and before his return to that 
country and the publication of his biography, that I had a few 
interviews with him, in the Lyceum of Natural History of New 
York, and in my own painting room. If I did not become 
attached to him, it was not because he failed in compliments 
to my work. I saw the plates he then had with him, and 
admired them generally some of them much and I 
admired the energy he had shown, in so far accomplishing his 
purpose. 1 

1 Captain Jean Audubon, who was later to become the father of the great ornitholo- 
gist and artist, was married August 24, 1772, at Nantes, France, to Anne Moynet, a 
widow. Captain Audubon , a roving sailor, met in Haiti, Santo Domingo, a woman 
whom he has described only as a " Creole of Santo Domingo," that is, one born on the 
island, of French parentage, and known by the name of Rabin. To them was born a 
son on the twenty-sixth of April, 1785. This boy received the baptismal name of Jean 
Jacques Fougere shortly before his sixteenth birthday. When Jean Audubon left the 
West Indies in 1789 he took with him his son Jean and Rosa, an infant sister, whose 
mother was Catherine Bouffard, also a " Creole of Santo Domingo." After spending 
some time in the United States he returned to Nantes, France, and in March, 1793, the 
two children were legally adopted by Jean and Anne Moynet Audubon. Jean Audubon 
and his wife settled some property upon "Jean Rabin" which he refused to accept, 
saying, "My own name I have never been permitted even to speak; accord me that of 
Audubon, which I revere as I have cause to do." (Herrick Audubon the Naturalist 
N. Y., D. Appleton & Co., 1917.) The first definite date Audubon ever gave concern- 
ing his own life was that of his marriage in 1808 to Lucy Green, daughter of William 
Bakewell. Young Audubon lived at Mill Grove, Penn., now Audubon, from the winter 
of 1804 to the spring of 1805, when he returned to France. In May, 1806, he was again 
in America, remaining in New York as late as August, 1807, when he departed for 
Kentucky on a trading trip, returning to Pennsylvania early in 1808. After his mar- 
riage, Audubon went again to Kentucky, making a brief visit to Philadelphia in 1811. 
He remained in Kentucky until the winter of 1819-20, when he accepted a position as 
taxidermist in the Western Museum at Cincinnati, Ohio, where he resided nearly a 
year and then went to New Orleans, pursuing his studies in the South, returning to 
Philadelphia in 1824. In August, 1824, he went to New York, Sully having given him 
letters to Stuart, Alls ton and Trumbull. At this time Audubon met John Vanderlyn 
and sat to him for the figure of Vanderlyn's portrait of General Jackson. Audubon 
visited Meadville, Penn., in 1824. and while in that city painted several portraits. 
Late in 1824, after a tour of the Great Lakes, he started down the Ohio for Louisiana. 
He remained in the South until May, 1826, when he again started for Europe, landing 
at Liverpool on July 21, and was at once invited to show his drawings at the Royal 



210 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

H. S. MOUNT SHEPARD A. MOUNT. 

These gentlemen are brothers, and brothers to Wm. Sidney 
Mount, hereafter mentioned. H. S. Mount, the elder, was 
devoted to sign painting, but distinguished himself by pictures 
of still life of great merit. He became a student of the National 
Academy of Design, and exhibited frequently in the gallery of 
Clinton Hall. Born at Setauket, on Long Island, the son of 
a substantial yeoman. His early years were those of a "farm- 
er's boy." He continues the business of sign painting, with 
talents for a higher grade of art. t 

Shepard A. Mount has devoted himself to portrait painting, 
likewise a student of the National Academy, his efforts in the 
branch he has chosen promise success. 

ALEXANDER JACKSON DAVIS 

Is the son of Cornelius Davis, and was born in the city of 
New York, July 24, 1803. 

Leaving school, at the age of sixteen, he accompanied an 
elder brother to one of the southern cities of the Union, where 
he became actively engaged at a printing office, in composing 
types for the daily paper, of which his brother was the ostensible 
editor. Like another Franklin, strongly addicted to reading, 
he limited himself to the accomplishment of a fixed task, and 
being a quick compositor, he would soon complete it, and fly 
to his books, but not like Franklin, to books of science and 
useful learning, but to works of imagination, poetry, and the 
drama; whence, however, he imbibed a portion of that high 
imaginative spirit so necessary to constitute an artist destined 
to practise in the field of invention. 

Academy. He worked and prospered in England and Scotland until April, 1829, when 
he sailed for New York, and on arrival departed for Philadelphia, going to Louisiana in 
October of that year to join his family. On April 1, 1830, Audubon and his wife sailed 
for Liverpool, returning to America in August of the following year. During the year 

1831 he travelled in many parts of the country, made an extended visit to Boston in 

1832 and from thence in 1833 went to Labrador. In September, 1833, he was again in 
New York. From New York he went to Charleston, S. C., then to Richmond, Va., and 
to Baltimore. In 1834 Audubon was constantly studying and painting the wild life. 
In April, 1834, he again went to England to remain until June, 1836, when he returned 
to America, going to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, then to Charleston and 
New Orleans. In the summer of 1837 Audubon returned to England. In 1839 he was 
again in New York, remaining until his death, January 27, 1851. 



EDUCATION OF AN ARCHITECT 211 

I have known him, says my informant, pass hours in puzzling 
over the plan of some ancient castle of romance, arranging 
the trap doors, subterraneous passages, and drawbridges, as 
pictorial embellishment was the least of his care, invention all 
his aim. His brother would often condemn such studies, and 
profiting by the salutary admonition of his fraternal counsellor, 
he occasionally directed his reading to history, biography and 
antiquities, to language, and the first principles of the mathe- 
matics. 

At the age of twenty he left the printing office, and returning 
to New York, a friend advised him to devote himself to archi- 
tecture, as a branch of art most likely to meet with encourage- 
ment, and one for which, by the particular bent of his mind, 
he appeared to be well fitted. About this time, the Antique 
School was opened in the apartments of the Philosophical 
Society, where artists met to draw from the model. The 
National Academy of Design grew out of this association, and 
Mr. Davis was one of the earliest members. He now applied 
himself to perspective, the grammar of his art, made draw- 
ings of the public buildings of the city, for Mr. A. T. Goodrich 
the bookseller and publisher, and plans for Mr. Brady, archi- 
tect, two of his earliest employers, and thus became gradually 
initiated into some of the first principles of his art. With Mr. 
Brady, at that time, says my informant, the only architect in 
New York, he passed some time in the study of practical archi- 
tecture, and classical antiquities. In the spring of 1826, he 
opened an office in Wall Street, as an architectural draughts- 
man, and furnished proprietors and builders with plans, eleva- 
tions, and perspective views for public and private edifices 
both in town and country. Some of the first embellishments of 
the " New York Mirror," also proceeded from his pencil. 

Yet a tyro in his profession, in the winter of 1827 he went to 
Boston, and made many views of the principal edifices in that 
city for publication. A large view of the Boston State House 
(a building by no means remarkable for its beauty, but dis- 
tinguished by its character and location), was the first to engage 
his attention. This view was drawn from actual admeasure- 



212 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ment, and is to this day, says my informant, the finest specimen 
of lithography, in the class of architecture, yet produced on 
this side the Atlantic. Harvard University, the Market 
houses, and the Bunker Hill Monument also furnished subjects, 
and he made of each an excellent view. 

Mr. Davis had not been long in Boston, before he attracted 
the attention of Dr. Parkman, and of Dr. Bigelow, whose 
beautiful models in architecture, and private collections were 
opened to him, and who invited him to study at the library 
and galleries of the Athensenum. Availing himself of the ad- 
vantages so liberally afforded him at this noble library, then 
the only respectable one on the fine arts, in the western hemi- 
sphere, he continued in reading, extracting and study for 
two winters, when he returned to New York. In New York 
he published a large folio on the architecture of that city, a 
work already scarce, and lauded in Europe. 

In February 1829, proposals were made to him by Ithiel 
Town, Esq., architect and bridge engineer, then recently from 
the east, and an association was formed under the firm of 
Ithiel Town and A. J. Davis, architects, and an office opened 
in the Merchants' Exchange for the transaction of business. 
In the immense library which Mr. Town had then accumu- 
lated, and which has since increased so as to include every 
work on architecture, sculpture and painting, which Europe has 
produced, together with a great collection of engravings, Mr. 
Davis continues to enjoy a wide field for study, and the attain- 
ment of eminence. The many noble edifices of which he is the 
joint architect with Mr. Town, are now in the course of publica- 
tion in the first volume of the "American Architect," a work of 
imperial quarto, edited by the artists themselves, and useful 
alike to the amateur and practitioner, exhibiting a series of 
sound precepts and perfect design. We may enumerate some of 
the most important of their works. 

The State Capitol * and Episcopal church at New Haven, 

* This capitol is in the form of the ancient Greek temple, and is of the Doric amphi- 
prostyle species. The columns are between seven and eight feet in diameter. The 
material is brick, but this matters not, "form alone fastens on the mind in works of 
art, the rest is meretricious, if used as a substitute to supersede this grand desideratum. 




ANDREW JACKSON 

17671845 

FROM THE ENGRAVING BY JAMES B. LoNGACRE AFTER HIS DRAWING FROM LIFE 



BUILDINGS DESIGNED BY DAVIS 213 

with the residences of James Hillhouse, Jun.,* and A. N. Skin- 
ner, Esq.* in the outskirts of the same city. 

A Presbyterian church and the Town Hall at Middletown 
Street, with the residence of Mr. Russel.f 

The residences of Mr. Bowers,! and Saml. Whitmarsh, at 
Northampton, Mass. 

The City Hall at Hartford, Connecticut. 

The church of the French Protestants^ in the city of New 
York, The West Presbyterian church. Mr. Arthur Tap- 
pan's store, Pearl Street, in which granite piers were first 
introduced in New York; and Jones's Court, Wall Street, with 
the new Custom House, now in progress. 

The capitol of Indiana, and the capitol of North Carolina, 
both of the Doric order; and designs have been given for 
building to accommodate the several departments at Wash- 
ington. For a new patent office, and for improvements in 
and around the capitol of the United States. Two or three 
designs for the University, one for the Merchants' Exchange, 
the Clinton Hall, Astor's Hotel, and very many residences. 
My informant thinks that many of these designs have suffered 
in execution by the hands of blundering workmen; and others 
have been tortured by the ignorance and self-sufficiency of 
proprietors or commissioners; but all tended to advance the 
progress of legitimate art and taste in the land.|| 

* Ionic prostyle from the temple on the Ilissus. 

t Corinthian amphiprostyle, from the monument of Lysicrates. 

j Ionic amphiprostyle, from the temple of Erectheus. 

Doric amphiprostyle pseudoperipteral. 

IT Tetrastyle Ionic prostyle, with dipteral portico. This edifice is of marble, and the 
columns are four feet four inches in diameter, and thirty-eight feet high. The interior 
is in the form of a Latin cross, with a dome over the intersection, and the ceiling is 
supported by eight Ionic columns of the Erecthonian example, three feet in diameter. 

Octastyle Doric, pseudoperipteral, with dipteral porticos, twenty-nine columns, 
five feet six inches in diameter, and thirty-one high. 

|| Although omitted in chronological order, I take this opportunity of connecting 
the name of JOHN KEARSELEY with the subject of architecture, of which art he was 
one of the early practitioners in this country. He was a physician, and an amateur 
architect; and gave the plan of the State House in Philadelphia, which was begun in 
1729, and finished in 1734. This building is endeared to Americans, as under its roof 
the independence of the country was resolved upon and declared, I saw it nearly in its 
pristine state in 1783, on the day of the seventh anniversary of the patriotic and 
heroic act. The bell which was heard in its steeple by the colonists, was inscribed with 
these words: "proclaim liberty throughout the land, and to all the people thereof"; 



214 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

J. B. LONGACRE. 

This accomplished artist, who is not only a good engraver, 
but an excellent draughtsman and portrait painter, was born 
in Chester County, near the birthplace of Benj. West. At 
what time, Mr. Longacre, although he promised that and other 
information, has neglected to inform me. John F. Watson, 
Esq. author of the "Annals of Pennsylvania" and other 
works, saw his genius and placed him with George Murray 
the engraver. Watson in a letter to me says, "I found him a 
country boy in West^s neighborhood, took him into my family 
and book store, and afterwards procured him a place as an 
artist with Murray the engraver in Philadelphia." 

Some of the most faithful likenesses in the National Por- 
trait Gallery, conducted by Longacre in Philadelphia, and 
Herring in New York, are from the pencil of J. B. Longacre, 
and many of them engraved by himself. As an artist and a 
man, Mr. Longacre is among the most estimable. 1 

HORATIO GREENOUGH. 

I cannot do justice to the biographical sketch of this accom- 
plished gentleman, and eminent sculptor, unless I publish 
without alteration the materials that have been put in my 
hands. And first the letter from the sculptor's brbther, Henry 
Greenough, Esq., of Boston: 

"Dear Sir In answer to your inquiries respecting my 
brother Horatio Greenough, although I shall confine myself to 
the points you mention, particularly, I shall endeavor to be 
communicative, so as to give you some choice of matter; 
whatever I write, is with this view, hoping you will prune with 
an unsparing hand, as my brother, having learned from some 
source that the honor of a notice in your much desired work, 
was intended him, expressed a hope in a late letter to me that 

and it fulfilled its prophetic bidding, being the first to give tongue to the proclamation 
of July 4th 1776. The words are to be found in Leviticus, xxv. 10. Dr. Kearseley also 
gave the plan of Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

1 James Barton Longacre was born in Delaware County, Pa., August 11, 1794, and 
died in Philadelphia January 1, 1869. Besides the excellent plates engraved by him 
for the "National Portrait Gallery," he executed some larger engravings of distin- 
guished merit. He was appointed engraver to the United States Mint in 1844. 




MARTHA WASHINGTON 

1734-1802 

FROM AN ENGRAVING BY J. B. LoNGACRE AFTER A MINIATURE BY WALTER ROBERTSON 



YOUTH OF GREENOUGH 215 

it might be confined as far as possible, to a few facts and dates. 
'A note to Allston's life,' says he, 'might tell all of me which is 
essential. What is the use of blowing up bladders, for posterity 
to jump upon, for the mere pleasure of hearing them crack ? ' 

"This passage I quote merely to apologize for the poverty 
of my communication, which, for your sake and the usefulness 
of your works, I could wish more valuable. 

"He was born in Green Street, Boston, on the sixth of 
September, 1805. * At an early age he was placed at school, to be 
instructed in the course of his studies in the branches necessary 
to fit him for a collegiate education. His instructors were 
changed from time to time as he advanced, or as more eligible 
situations presented themselves. Most of these were masters 
of country academies, at some distance from Boston. I myself 
recollect twelve different persons, under most of whom we 
studied together. 

"He was distinguished for his proficiency in the classics, 
and especially for his excellent memory; having once obtained 
a prize for having committed in a given time, more lines of 
English poetry, than any of his competitors by a thousand and 
odd. To mathematics he had always a repugnance, and made 
little show; though the taste, I suspect, rather than the talent, 
was wanting. 

"Being generally robust, and of an active and sanguine tem- 
perament, he usually entered with great ardor into all the 
games and amusements at school. In the athletic exercises, as 
running, jumping, and swimming, he excelled most of his age. 
But many of his amusements were of a nature to show a decided 
propensity for the profession which he finally chose. 

"Although seeing an elder brother constantly engaged in 
drawing and painting, might have induced him to do the 
same, from mere imitation; yet in the manufacture of his 
playthings, a love of the beauty of form early manifested itself. 
His schoolfellows often begged of him to carve them wood 
scimitars and daggers, as every one he made surpassed the last 
in beauty. I recollect in particular, a small pocket pistol of his 

1 Horatio Greenough died December 17, 1852. 



216 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

manufacture, which was cast of lead, and mounted on a very 
graceful formed stock, inlaid with flowers and ornamental 
work, of thin strips of lead, which had when new, the appear- 
ance of silver. On several occasions when detected in manufac- 
turing playthings in school hours, his performances procured 
him praise for their ingenuity and beauty, instead of the 
intended reprimand. 

"I might mention numerous instances of this kind, but will 
merely speak of one more favorite amusement. This was 
the manufacture of little carriages, horses, and drivers of bees- 
wax of different colors, which being very small (the wheels of 
the circumference of a cent), were the admiration of all our 
visitors, from their beauty and delicacy. The carriages were 
formed on exceedingly graceful models, trimmed and lined with 
bits of silk and gold cord, and with the horses, which were very 
well modelled, had quite the air of the equipages of some lilli- 
putian noble. 

"A small room was, by the consent of our parents, appro- 
priated for the manufacture and preservation of these articles, 
and invention soon suggested the idea of laying out, on long 
pine tables, estates for the supposed proprietors of these 
equipages. The houses and stables were laid out, as it were, 
on a ground plan merely, the apartments being divided, like 
pews in a church, by partitions, made of drawing paper, and 
furnished with miniature articles of similar manufacture; and 
in this room, and with these puppets, adventures were drama- 
tically gone through, with great enthusiasm, in play hours, 
for nearly two years, when the system having arrived at what 
seemed the 'ne plus ultra,' was abandoned for some new 
project. 

"I have often heard him attribute his first wish to attempt 
something like sculpture to having constantly before his eyes 
a marble statue of Phocion, a copy of the antique, which my 
father caused to be placed, with its pedestal, as an ornament 
to a mound in the garden. His first attempts were made in 
chalk, on account of its whiteness and softness. He soon at- 
tempted alabaster, or rather rock plaster of paris (unburnt) 




HORATIO GREENOUGH 

1805- 1852 
FROM A DAGUERREOTYPE 

From the collection of Mr. Horatio Greenough Curtis 



JUVENILE ATTEMPTS 217 

with equal success; and within a few weeks of his first attempt 
he had been so assiduous as to transform his chamber to a 
regular museum, where rows of miniature busts,, carved from 
engravings, were ranged on little pine shelves. I recollect, 
in particular, a little chalk statue of William Penn, which he 
copied from an engraving in the 'Portfolio,' from the bronze 
statue in Philadelphia. A gentleman who saw him copying, 
in chalk, the bust of John Adams by Binon, was so pleased 
with his success, that he carried him to the Athenaeum and pre- 
sented him to Mr. Shaw, I believe the first founder of the 
institution, and at that time the sole director. My brother was 
then about twelve years old, and of course was much edified 
by Mr. Shaw's conversation, who assured him, as he held the 
chalk in his hand that there were the germs of a great and 
noble art. He then showed him the casts there, and promising 
him he should always find a bit of carpet, to cut his chalk 
upon, whenever he wished to copy anything, gave him a carte 
blanche to the 'fine arts' room, with its valuable collection of 
engravings, etc. He may be considered from this time as study- 
ing with something like a definite purpose and with some 
system. The friendship of Mr. Solomon Willard, of Boston, 
soon initiated him into the mysteries of modelling in clay, 
which he had unsuccessfully endeavored to acquire from 
directions in the 'Edinburgh Cyclopedia'; and Mr. Alpheus 
Gary, a stone cutter of Boston, gave him a similar insight into 
the manner of carving marble, so as soon to enable him to 
realize his wishes in the shape of a bust of Bacchus. He profited 
much also by the friendship of Mr. Binon, a French artist 
then in Boston, going daily to his rooms and modelling in his 
company. 

"His progress was so rapid, that his father no longer op- 
posed his devoting most of his time to these pursuits; insisting 
only on his graduating at Harvard University, Cambridge, 
on the ground that if he continued in his determination, a 
college education would only the better fit him for an artist's 
life. He accordingly entered college at the age of sixteen, A.D. 
1821. His time was now almost exclusively devoted to reading 



218 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

works of art, and in drawing and modelling, and the study of 
anatomy Professor Cogswell, the librarian of the University, 
assisted him in the former by a loan of a valuable collection of 
original drawings, as well as by his counsel and criticisms: 
and to Dr. George Parkman, of Boston, he was indebted for 
most of his anatomical knowledge, learned from his books, 
skeletons, and preparations. These are, however, not the only 
gentlemen to whom he was indebted for such real services, and 
of whom he always speaks with affection and gratitude: but 
as the object of the present communication is merely to trace 
the order of his studies and works as an artist, I have avoided 
mentioning any names excepting as tending to show how any 
main object of study had been effected. 

"Notwithstanding the benefit he must be sensible of having 
derived from his studies at Cambridge, I have heard him say 
he estimated them little in comparison to what he obtained 
from the friendship of Mr. W. Allston, whose acquaintance he 
made at the house of Mr. Edmund Dana, the brother of Mr. 
R. Dana the poet. With Mr. Allston much of his time, during 
his junior and senior years, was spent. By him his ideas of 
his art were elevated, and his endeavors directed to a proper 
path. 

"Towards the close of the senior year, a vessel being about 
to sail for Marseilles, he obtained permission from the govern- 
ment of the college to leave before the usual time, and his 
diploma was forwarded to him afterwards. He arrived at 
Marseilles in the first of the autumn, and proceeded directly 
by land to Rome. This was in 1825. 

"The unbounded facilities afforded by Rome to a young 
artist, enabled him to carry into effect the plans of study he 
had formed under Mr. Allston's advice. His mornings were 
devoted to making careful drawings of the antique; his after- 
noons to modelling from the life some subject of his own com- 
position, which enabled him to exert his invention, and bring 
into play the practice of the morning; and his evenings to 
drawing from the Nudo at the academy. Having letters to 
Thorwaldsen, he was enabled to profit by the visits which he 



GREENOUGH VISITS ROME 219 

so readily pays to young artists, to improve them by his criti- 
cism, or encourage by approbation. My brother often says, 
however, that in the mechanical part of the art he learned most 
from young fellow students. 

"A young friend once complained to him, that for himself 
he could get no instruction from his master ''When I ask him 
anything about the management of my clay,' says he, 'he begins 
to talk about what a great man was Phidias.' My brother ad- 
vised him to be more frank in his communications with his 
fellow students, as they usually take a pleasure in explaining 
how they overcame a late difficulty and communicating any 
mechanical expedient while the master, to keep up his dig- 
nity partly, and partly as being the subject of real interest to 
him, loves to discourse on general principles, and laud the 
powers of genius, to which it is natural he should wish his 
own success attributed. 

"He had made many studies in chalks, i.e. crayons, and 
clays, and besides several busts of the size of life, had finished 
a model of a statue of Abel in Rome (1825-6), when his studies 
were unfortunately suspended for a year or more, by his 
taking the malaria a little before the termination of his first 
year. (1826.) 

"The effects of this illness were so severe as to oblige him 
to return to America, after having made an excursion to 
Naples in company with some friends, who had kindly taken 
charge of him, but without any benefit to his health. He ac- 
cordingly sailed from Leghorn for Boston, where he arrived 
in perfect health. His seasickness and consequent benefit of 
the sea air, having done for him what medicine had been 
unable to effect. 

"About a year was now passed by him in America, the first 
five or six months at home with his father's family, where his 
time was spent in drawing and modelling. At the beginning 
of the winter he left home for the purpose of modelling the bust 
of President J. Q. Adams, at Washington; besides the bust of 
Adams, he also modelled a likeness of Chief Justice Marshall, 
and on his way home modelled one or two busts in Baltimore. 



220 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

"Soon after returning from Washington, he made arrange- 
ments for returning to Italy, for the purpose of executing in 
marble the several models for which he had commissions, and 
accordingly left us in the month of March, 1827. 

"From Gibraltar and Marseilles he proceeded directly to 
Carraca, where he remained three months or more, during 
which time he finished two busts and saw others prepared. 
His design in thus settling for a time at Carraca, was, I believe, 
for the purpose of making himself thoroughly acquainted with 
all the details of preparing and finishing works of sculpture, for 
which, Carraca, being the grand workshop of the Italian 
sculptors, gave him every opportunity. 

"His next remove was to Florence, which he had fixed upon 
as his headquarters, on account of the advantages in the study 
of his art and its healthiness. During his first year there, he 
became in a manner the pupil of Bartolini, whom he still con- 
siders the first portrait sculptor in existence. A marble Venus, 
in the possession of Lord Londonderry has made the name of 
Bartolini deservedly honored in England. His time, since 
then, has been fully occupied in the execution of commissions 
from his countrymen. These works are nearly all in America, 
and two of them are more generally known, having been 
exhibited, namely, the group of the Chanting Cherubs, belong- 
ing to J. Fenimore Cooper, and the Medora,* belonging to 
Mr. R. Gilmor, of Baltimore. With the exception of one winter, 
spent in Paris, where he modelled busts of General Lafayette, 
Mr. Cooper and one or two other individuals, his time has 
been spent altogether in Florence. 

"He is now almost exclusively occupied in the execution of 
the statue of Washington for Congress, only recreating himself 
occasionally by attending to smaller works. 

"In giving you these facts I have endeavored to be rather 
particular, as one is less likely to come to any false conclusions, 
when thoroughly possessed of any matter. It is scarcely 
necessary to add, that they are intended merely as memoranda, 

* Greenough's Medora, sculptured for R. Gilmor, of Baltimore is spoken of as a 
work of great perfection. 



WEIR AND GREENOUGH 221 

which I hope will be generalized as much as possible. If I 
have omitted anything important, by your informing me of it, 
I can now answer you readily, and will do all in my power with 
great pleasure. 

"I remain, sir, your obedient servant, 

"HENRY GREENOUGH." 

By the preceding letter the reader has seen that the studies 
of the young artist were interrupted by illness, before he had 
been quite a year in Rome. Robert W. Weir, Esq. of New 
York, was his fellow student, though in different branches of 
the arts of design. To Mr. Weir I am indebted for some par- 
ticulars relative to his interesting friend at this period. They 
occupied apartments and studios under the same roof, and the 
one modelled his clay and chiselled his marble in one apartment, 
while the other copied or composed with the crayon, or the 
treasures of the palette. All around was classic ground 
they studied where Poussin and Claude, and other immortal 
names had studied before them. But they were too ardent and 
indefatigable in their studies, and Greenough's health was sink- 
ing. The season of malaria approached, and the sculptor re- 
tired from Rome and labor for a short time. His more fortunate 
companion remained with unimpaired strength, partly owing 
to a greater diversity in his various occupations, more exercise 
and air as he visited and studied in the various galleries of 
paintings, while Greenough exhausted himself by incessant 
study at home, from hired models either in drawing or modelling 
through the day, beside visiting the academies for drawing 
in the evening, and often rising in the night to resume his 
labors. 

Weir, left sole possessor of these ample apartments, and 
knowing that ten dollars the month was an expense too great 
for his funds, removed to a less fashionable quarter of the 
immortal city, and took apartments at four dollars the month. 
When Greenough returned, not finding accommodations under 
the same roof, he established his studio and apartments in 
another quarter, and the friends were thus separated. This 



222 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

separation operated with lu's incessant application to produce 
an alarming state of body and mind in the sculptor. His 
strength declined, and he became melancholy. 

One day, the woman who had charge of Gre'enough's 
apartments came to Weir, saying, "I wish, sir, you would come 
to Signer Horatio, for he is very miserable. I wish you had 
not been separated from him." The painter found his friend 
declining fast, and very much dejected. He removed to his 
apartments, and undertook the office of nurse. Medical advice 
recommended change of air, and Mr. Weir abandoned his 
studies, and accompanied his friend to Naples. His complaint, 
originating in indigestion, caused by his sedentary employ- 
ment and anxious exertions, did not yield to change of place, 
and it was determined that he should return home. Weir de- 
termined to accompany him, and gave notice to the sufferer's 
family of the weak and alarming state in which he would be 
presented to them. They embarked at Leghorn, the young 
painter taking sole charge of his friend, a year younger than 
himself and provided with medicine and medical advice. The 
voyage had a happy effect, and Mr. Weir had the pleasure of 
restoring his friend to his family in Boston, in a condition very 
different from that his letter had led them to expect. As we 
have seen by the letter of the sculptor's brother, he remained a 
year in America, and when passing through New York to 
Washington, he was introduced to me. 

On his return to Italy he made Florence his headquarters, 
and when my friend James Fenimore Cooper and his family 
visited that city, he was introduced to his young countryman 
Greenough, and necessarily was pleased with his appearance, 
manners and conversation. He had then executed only busts 
in marble, and had few or no orders. He was pursuing his 
studies diligently, designing and modelling executing some 
heroic fancy by moulding it in clay, and dismissing it again 
by dashing the fabric to pieces. The English and American 
travellers passed him by, to employ Italians orders came 
from America to inferior artists but Greenough was an 
American. 



THE CHANTING CHERUBS 223 

Some of the young ladies of Mr. Cooper's family in the 
course of their studies were copying a print from a picture of 
Raphael, in which were two cherubs singing. Fenimore saw 
with regret the neglect Greenough experienced, and was con- 
vinced that if he had an opportunity of executing a figure, or, 
still more to show his powers, a group, it would bring him 
into notice; and the thought of the chanting cherubs struck 
him as a group of great beauty, and suited to Greenough's 
taste. He gave him the order, and the young sculptor, only 
having the print before him, which the young ladies had been 
copying, produced the lovely group which we have seen. 
The effect of raising a name for Horatio Greenough was pro- 
duced; and to produce a greater effect, by convincing Ameri- 
cans that they had a countryman superior in talent and skill to 
the Italians they were employing, Cooper sent the group 
home to be exhibited, This is the first group from the chisel 
of an American artist * 

* Extract from a letter from Mr. Cooper, published in the New York American of the 

30th of April, 1831. 

Most of our people who come to Italy employ the artists of the country to make 
copies, under the impression that they will be both cheaper and better, than those 
done by Americans studying there. My own observation has led me to adopt a different 
course. I am well assured that few things are done for us by Europeans, under the same 
sense of responsibility, as when they work for customers nearer home. The very occu- 
pation of the copyist infers some want of that original capacity, without which no 
man can impart to a work, however exact it may be in its mechanical details, the charm 
of expression. In the case of Mr. Greenough, I was led even to try the experiment of 
an original. The difference in value between an original and a copy, is so greatly in 
favor of the former, with anything like an approach to success, that I am surprised 
more of our amateurs are not induced to command them. The little group I have sent 
home, will always have an interest, that can belong to no other work of the same 
character. It is the first effort of a young artist, who bids fair to build for himself a 
name, and whose life will be connected with the history of the art in that country, 
which is so soon to occupy such a place in the world. It is more; it is probably the first 
group ever completed by an American sculptor. 

The subject is taken from a picture in the Pitti Palace at Florence, and which is 
well known as "La Madonna del Trono." The picture is said to be by Raphael, though 
some pretend to see the work of one of his scholars in the principal figure. The Virgin 
is seated on a throne, and the principal subject is relieved, according to the fashion of 
that day, by cherubim and angels, represented as singing or sounding the praise of the 
infant. We selected two little cherubs, or rather two infant angels, who are standing 
at the foot of the throne, singing from a scroll, to be transferred to the marble. They 
are as large as life, if one may use the term on such an occasion, and are beautifully 
expressive of that infantine grace and innocence, which painters love to embody in 
those imaginary beings. 



224 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

I left Florence for Naples before the work had commenced in marble, and I can only 
speak of it, as I saw it in the plaster. In that state it was beautiful, and I can safely 
say, that all the time I was in Italy, I saw no modern work of the same character that 
gave me so much pleasure on account of the effect. It was universally admired, and 
really I think it deserved to be so. 

In the picture, these angels were accessories, and when they came to be principals, 
it was necessary to alter their attitudes. Then the painter could give but half the 
subject, whereas the sculptor was obliged to give all. Again, the former artist was 
enabled to produce his effect by the use of colors; while the latter, as you well know, 
is limited to lights and shades. Owing to these differences between the means and the 
effects of the two arts, Mr. Greenough had little more aid from the original than he 
derived from the idea. Perhaps the authority of Raphael was necessary to render 
such a representation of the subject palatable in our day. 

I think you will be delighted with the expression of the youngest of these two 
imaginary beings. It is that of innocence itself, while it is an innocence superior to the 
feebleness of childhood. It represents rather the want of the inclination than of the 
ability to err, a poetical delineation of his subjects in which Raphael greatly excelled, 
and which, in this instance, has been certainly transferred to the marble with singular 
fidelity and talent. 

Agreeably to the conditions of our bargain, Mr. Greenough has the right to exhibit 
this little group for his own benefit. I hope that the peculiarity of its being the first 
work of the kind which has come from an American chisel, as well as the rare merit of 
the artist, will be found to interest the public at home. 

********* 

Yours, truly, 

J. FENIMORE COOPER. 

Dresden, July 29, 1830. 

When this beautiful group had been a sufficient time in 
America to become known, Mr. Cooper conceived the hope of 
influencing the government to employ Greenough on a statue 
of Washington for the capitol. He accordingly wrote to the 
president, and to Mr. McLane, the secretary of the treasury, 
strongly urging the honorable plan of a statue of the American 
hero, by the first American sculptor who had shown himself 
competent to so great a task. Fenimore Cooper's wishes were 
realized, and a law passed, by which Greenough is commis- 
sioned to execute a statue of Washington for the capitol. 

In a letter to Mr. Greenough I asked for information relative 
to himself for this work, and this is his answer: 

Florence, Dec. 1, 1833. 

"Dear Sir Your letter, introducing Mr. Fay, was pre- 
sented to me by that gentleman, in person, the day before 
yesterday. You will be happy to learn that he has entirely 
recovered his health. He has taken a comfortable and pleasant 



GREENOUGH'S SUPPORTERS 225 

apartment for the month. I look forward to the winter with 
less dread, in hopes of enjoying his society. I beg you will 
rest assured, that my best services, in behalf of any friend of 
yours, are at your command. The nature of my occupations 
prevents me from personally assisting strangers here so far 
as I could wish; but I can always command a few moments, 
to attend to the necessary, the indispensable. 

"I thank you for the opinion you express of what little I 
have done in the art of sculpture: I have not yet had the time 
to do much. I fear that the circumstances under which I began 
my career will ever prevent me realizing my idea of what 
sculpture should be. Still the effort may be useful to future 
artists, and yield some works of a relative and special value. 
I cannot pretend to occupy any space in a work consecrated to 
American art. Sculpture, when I left home, was practised 
nowhere, to my knowledge, in the United States. I learned 
the first rudiments of modelling from a Frenchman, named 
Binon, who resided long in Boston. My friends opposed my 
studying the art; but gently, reasonably, and kindly. It 
would require more time than you would find it profitable to 
spend, to listen to the thousand accidents that shaped my in- 
clination to the study of this art. I might perhaps interest 
you more by mentioning the many instances in which I have 
been comforted, assisted, advised, induced, in short, to per- 
severe in it by acquaintance and friends. I could tell you 
of the most generous efforts to assist me, on the part of men 
who scarcely knew me of the most flattering and encourag- 
ing notice by elegant and accomplished women but I might 
hurt or offend those who have so kindly helped me; and (what 
I shrink from also for myself), I fear there would be a fearful 
disproportion between the seed and the fruit. 

"Mr. Cogswell, who now keeps an academy at Northamp- 
ton, contributed perhaps more than any one to fix my purpose, 
and supplied me with casts, etc., to nurse my fondness of 
statuary. Allston, in the sequel, was to me a father, in what 
concerned my progress of every kind. He taught me first 
how to discriminate how to think how to feel. Before I 



226 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

knew him I felt strongly but blindly, as it were; and if I should 
never pass mediocrity, I should attribute it to my absence 
from him. So adapted did he seem to kindle and enlighten 
me, making me no longer myself, but, as it were, an emanation 
of his own soul. 

"Dr. J. Parkman, during my sophomore year, proposed 
to assist me in obtaining some knowledge of anatomy. He 
supplied me with bones, preparations, etc. every week; as 
also with such books as I could not get from the college library. 
He not only continued this kindness during the three years 
of my remaining college life, but lent me generous assistance 
in forwarding my studies by travel. I began to study art in 
Rome, in 1826. Until then I had rather amused myself with 
clay and marble than studied. When I say, that those materials 
were familiar to my touch, I say all that I profited by my 
boyish efforts. They were rude. I lived with poets and poetry, 
and could not then see that my art was to be studied from 
folk who eat their three meals every day. I gazed at the Apollo 
and the Venus, and learned very little by it. It was not till I 
ran through all the galleries and studios of Rome, and had 
had under my eye the genial forms of Italy that I began to feel 
nature's value. I had before adored her, but as a Persian does 
the sun, with my face to the earth. I then began to examine 
her and entered on that course of study in which I am still 
toiling. 

"Fenimore Cooper saved me from despair, after my second 
return to Italy. He employed me as I wished to be employed; 
and has, up to this moment, been a father to me in kindness. 
That I ever shall answer all the expectations of my friends is 
impossible; but no duty, thank God! extends beyond his 
means. 

"I sigh for a little intercourse with you, gentlemen, at home: 
I long to be among you; but I am anchored here for the next 
four years. I will not risk a voyage before my statue is done. 
I think it my duty not to run away at the first sight of the 
enemy. 

"When I went, the other morning, into the huge room in 



LETTER FROM COOPER, 227 

which I propose to execute my statue, I felt like a spoilt boy, 
who, after insisting upon riding on horseback, bawls aloud 
with fright at finding himself in the saddle, so far from the 
ground! I hope, however, that this will wear off. Begging 
you will remember me kindly to our common friends, and 
particularly to wicked Morse, 

"I am, dear sir, 

"Yours, truly, 

" HORATIO GREENOUGH." 

Another statue ought to proceed from the same hand. 
America must have a statue of Lafayette, the companion, the 
friend of Washington the American republican Lafayette. 
Greenough has a claim to the execution of this statue, inde- 
pendent of his talents and skill. When in Paris, Fenimore 
Cooper urged Lafayette to sit to the young American sculptor. 
But one likeness in marble had been made of the republican 
hero. David had executed a likeness but it was ideal, and 
it was French. Lafayette had determined that this should be 
the only one, and the last of his sittings, but Cooper wished to 
see an American Lafayette, and a facsimile of the man America 
loves. The old man at length consented, and Greenough 
executed his task at La Grange, and according to his friend 
Cooper's wish, made a facsimile. That this is so literally, I 
wished to be assured, and wrote to Mr. Cooper I give his 
answer below, in the following extract of a letter: 

"Dear Sir You are very right in supposing that I have 
some knowledge of Greenough's bust of General Lafayette. 
The circumstances connected with its being modelled, are all 
known to me, and as they are also connected with its authen- 
ticity, the late melancholy event may give them value. 

"Mr. Greenough came up to Paris from Florence, in the 
autumn of 1831, with a desire to obtain sittings for this very 
bust. It happened that General Lafayette manifested a good 
deal of reluctance, and I was employed as a mediator. David 
had made a bust of him not long before, and I found our 



228 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

venerable friend had entered into some sort of an understand- 
ing, that this was to be the one to transmit to posterity. 
Singular as it may appear in this age of sculptors, when works 
of this nature are so very abundant, I do not remember ever 
to have seen anything of General Lafayette that had the least 
pretension to be the production of an artist of any eminence 
but these heads of David and Greenough. There are a great 
many plaster casts, it is true, but they all seem to have been 
made at random, and to be of the class of conjectural resem- 
blances. Let this be as it may, David was deservedly a favorite 
with General Lafayette, and the latter seemed indisposed to 
do anything which might invade his interests. My own office 
was consequently a little delicate, for I was on very friendly 
terms with Mr. David also, and should certainly have declined 
interfering for any other than Greenough. But it was so 
flattering to ourselves, and so desirable in every point of view 
to get a likeness by a native artist, that the matter was pushed 
a little perhaps beyond the strict rules of propriety. General 
Lafayette yielded at last to my importunities, saying in his 
pleasant way, 'Well, we will have this bust too, and it shall 
be the American bust; while David's shall be the French bust; 
and if I have made any promise to David, it could not have 
included America.' He attached to this concession the condi- 
tion that I should meet him at Greenough's rooms, and be 
present at the sittings, most, if not all of which I attended. 

"I am thus particular, for the point at issue is the future his- 
torical representation of the head of one of the most illustrious 
men of our time. 

"The bust of David is like, it cannot be mistaken, but it is in 
his ordinary manner heroic, or poetical. The artist has aimed 
more at a sentiment, than at fidelity of portraiture or nature. 
On the other hand, the bust of Greenough is the very man, and 
should be dear to us in proportion as it is faithful. As Lafayette 
himself expressed it, one is a French bust, the other an Ameri- 
can. Each possesses the characteristics of its proper people. 
There appears to me to be just the difference between these 
two busts, that there is between the well-known picture of the 



BUST OF LAFAYETTE 229 

'Oath of the Jeii de Paume,' and that of Trumbull's 'Declara- 
tion of Independence.' Each is faithful to the character of 
its country. As Lafayette had two countries, so, in some re- 
spects, he may be said to have had two characters. His air, 
though always calm and dignified, was not always the same 
when addressing French and American audiences. With the 
former, he sometimes assumed the more artificial tone, that is 
better suited to the genius of their language; while with us, he 
submitted more to nature. The two busts in question, one 
might almost think, had been intended to perpetuate these 
peculiarities. Chateaubriand describes Washington as having 
an air that was calm, rather than noble; and, if I understand 
his meaning, he had found in him the quiet and simplicity of the 
American Lafayette, rather than the manner of the French 
Lafayette. All this, however, must be taken with great allow- 
ance, for Lafayette was at all times, and at all places, more 
than usually simple and natural for a Frenchman. He was of 
the ancient race of gentlemen, a class that, as you well know, 
let them be of what people they might, were always to be 
distinguished for these qualities. 

"The fidelity of Greenough's bust may be proved by a single 
fact, to which I can personally testify. The head of Lafayette 
was very remarkable. The forward part of it, or the brows, 
the face, jaws, cheeks, and indeed all the features were massive 
and noble; while the portions behind seemed to be formed 
on an entirely different scale. His ears were the largest I 
remember ever to have seen, but they lay so flat to the head, 
and the portion of the head where these organs are placed, 
was so contracted in comparison with the face, that when one 
stood directly before the latter, at the distance of three or four 
feet, no part of them was to be seen. Greenough pointed out 
to me this peculiarity, in which I cannot be mistaken, for I 
took great care to assure myself of it; and, unless deceived, I 
think Mr. Morse can testify to the same thing. I caused the 
latter, who was often with us at the sittings, to observe it also. 
The bust of Greenough is true in this particular, which I think 
is the fact with no other, and you will readily understand how 



230 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

much such a distinguishing mark would effect the faithfulness 
of a resemblance. I cannot recall another head formed in this 
manner. 

"I do not know what Mr. Greenough has done with his bust, 
but I should think it would now become an object of great 
value, for to those who knew and loved General Lafayette, 
it must be very desirable to possess so faithful a copy of his 
head. 

"You have the history of the cherubs almost as well as my- 
self. They were made at Florence by Mr. Greenough, chiefly 
in the year 1829; and I believe them to be the first group ever 
designed and executed by an American sculptor; if, indeed, 
they are not the first figures. In this sense, they must become 
historical, to say nothing of their intrinsic merit, or of the 
growing reputation of the artist. Greenough had great diffi- 
culty in making them, for it is not an easy matter to find in 
Italy children well formed and of the proper age, to serve as 
models, on account of a vicious practice which prevails of 
swaddling the infants in a way to affect their limbs. I chose 
the subject for two reasons, one of which was natural enough, 
while the other is one you may possibly think a little imperti- 
nent. The first was a due regard to my purse, which would 
scarcely bear the drain of a heavier work, and the second was 
a notion I had imbibed that the bias of Greenough's mind 
just then, was adverse to success in his art. I found him bent 
altogether on the Michaelangelo or the heroic school; certainly 
a noble and commendable disposition in a sculptor, but one 
that was not so well suited to the popular taste, as that which 
is connected with the more graceful forms of children and 
females. It was my wish, that he should do something to win 
favor from those who are accustomed to admire Venuses and 
Cupids, more than the Laocoon and the Dying Gladiator. 
Thousands would be sensible of the beauty of a cherub who 
would have no feeling for the sublimity and mystery of the 
Moses of Buonarotti. With this view the subject was selected. 
There certainly was an innocent little conspiracy between us 
that this group should pave the way to a Washington for the 



PATRIOT, AUTHOR AND ARTIST 231 

capitol, and glad am I to say that the plot (I believe the only 
one of the kind of which I have to accuse myself), has com- 
pletely succeeded. Its benefits, I firmly believe, will be as 
great to the nation as to the artist. 

"I do not know that I can communicate any other facts that 
will be of use to the work you have in hand, for the success 
of which you have my best wishes. 

"I am, dear sir, ever your friend, 

"J. FENIMORE COOPER." 

It will be to me a most gratifying circumstance, if my country 
should owe a perfect resemblance in marble of the country's 
friend the country's honored guest the unbending man of 
truth, who resisted tyranny in every shape, either in threats, 
or tortures, or seductive smiles to the suggestions of a pure 
patriot, and great writer, and the skill of an accomplished 
artist and gentleman, both natives of the soil. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ALEXANDER - - WHITEHORNE WALL HANKS TYLER 

FREDERICK S. AGATE ALFRED AGATE SPENCER 

CHAPMAN AUGUR C. C. WRIGHT LAMBDIN 

ODDIE MAIN NEWCOMBE DODGE 

JANE STUART ABRAHAM JOHN MASON 

MORTON HUBARD SAMUEL 

SEYMOUR HATCH. 

FRANCIS ALEXANDER. 

THIS gentleman, now (1834), one of our most successful 
portrait painters, has answered my inquiries with so much 
naiveti, such good feeling and good sense, that I should do injus- 
tice to him and my work, if I attempted to give his very inter- 
esting story in any words but his own. His early efforts, his 
success, his gratitude to those who noticed him, are all honor- 
able, and show that he is still the child of nature. 

"Since you pay me the compliment to number me among 
those whose names shall appear in your proposed work, and 
since you ask of me some of the events of my life, I shall no 
longer hesitate to comply, at least in part. Well then, to begin 
at the beginning, I was born at Killingsby, Windham County, 
Connecticut, on the 3d of February, 1800. l My father being a 
farmer of moderate circumstances, of course my course in early 
life was none of the smoothest; it being 'midst rocks and 
stumps, briers and thistles, and finally, through all the per- 
plexities and privations incident to the life of a poor farmer's 
son. I might tell you of going barefooted to church, hundreds 
of times in warm weather, three miles distant, and of a thousand 
similar incidents, such as would only convince you of early 

1 Francis Alexander died in Italy in 1880. 

282 




MRS. FLETCHER WEBSTER 

1811-1886 

(CAROLINE STORY WHITE) 
BY FRANCIS ALEXANDER 

From the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 



RURAL SURROUNDINGS 233 

poverty after all; the relation of such facts might not interest 
your readers so much, perhaps, as it might injure the feelings of 
my very aged and very respectable parents. (Their ages are 76 
and 77, and they are living in much comfort and quiet, in a 
beautiful white cottage which I erected two years ago, expressly 
for their benefit.) From the age of eight up to twenty, I 
labored almost incessantly, the eight warm months of the year, 
upon my father's farm. The other four months in the year I 
went to a country district school, till I was seventeen. My 
eighteenth and nineteenth winters I kept school (in the same 
district where I had been one of the scholars previously), and 
taught the small fry under my charge, the bad pronunciation 
and bad reading which I had imbibed from my old school- 
masters, and which I have found it so difficult to unlearn 
since. I had never received any pay whatever for services 
upon the farm, except food, clothing and schooling, so you 
may well guess that the forty dollars which I received for 
school keeping, formed a pile, in my eye, more majestic than 
an Egyptian pyramid. The next winter I received forty-four 
dollars for the same time, in the same district. The summer 
intervening, I labored upon the farm, and the summer follow- 
ing till August; during that month loss of bodily strength, 
owing to the severe labor in haying and reaping, obliged me 
to hang up my scythe and sickle, and take to the house. I 
was only comfortably ill however, and for diversion I went out 
in the boat fishing upon the pond, the beautiful pond, which 
helps to make the scenery about my father's house so very 
picturesque. Well, I caught a pickerel, some perch and roach; 
while I was idly gazing upon their beautiful tints and fine 
forms, it occurred to me that they would look very pretty 
painted, and thought of a box of water colors which had been 
left me by a boy (which cost a shilling; it was such as children 
use), and I went immediately home with the determination of 
painting the fish. I laid them on the table, hunted up one 
solitary camel's hair pencil which had been given me years 
before, and went to copying nature for the first time. (I must 
digress to say that I had in boyhood a taste for sketching birds 



234 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and other objects with my pen and slate pencil, from fancy. 
At school, they called me a 'curious boy'; and would bring all 
their white scraps of paper for me to illustrate with pen and 
ink; and I remember to have tarried many a 'noontide' in the 
schoolhouse to sketch for the little girls, while all of my own 
sex were playing ball in the field.) But to return, I painted the 
fish I was delighted with the pictures I thought then, and 
know now, that they were more like real objects than any 
paintings I had then seen. The family praised them; and an old 
fisherman, who happened to see them, said, if the painted 
fish were cut out of the paper and laid upon the floor with 
real fish, that he should mistake the shadow for the reality! 
I, who had never received so much praise before, attempted 
other objects from nature, such as real flowers, dead birds, etc., 
with about the same success as before. I then made up my 
mind to become an ornamental or sign painter, merely because 
I thought I could make more money than by farming. My 
ambition rose no higher. Indeed, my reading had been so 
limited, and my birth so obscure, that I thought sign painting 
the highest branch of painting in the world. I had been at 
Providence had seen the signs there, and those were the 
only marvels in painting that I saw till I was twenty, excepting 
two very ordinary portraits that I had seen at some country 
inn. 

"I made up my mind to go to New York to learn to paint: 
I hardly knew what. My partiality to New York I believe, 
arose from the following trifling circumstance: an old peddler, 
who frequented my father's house with picture books, took 
great pleasure in showing me the pictures or cuts of all the 
books in his budget because, I evinced so much interest. He 
dwelt on the comparative excellences of Boston and New 
York cuts. Those books published by Samuel Wood and sons, 
New York, pleased me most. I thought the cuts much the 
finest. The crazy peddler acknowledged the justness of my 
criticism. He was a model for Michaelangelo in his propor- 
tions; height six and a half feet, with the head of Jupiter 
Tonans; he had graduated from one of the colleges, I believe, 



ALEXANDER IN NEW YORK 235 

and seen better days. If he were alive now, I would make a 
pilgrimage to paint him. Well, the old peddler's influence upon 
my youthful taste was so lasting, that at the age of twenty, I 
did not think of visiting any other city for instruction. I 
remembered the old man's words, that 'they do these things 
better in New York than in any city in the country.' I talked 
of visiting New York immediately; my friends all remon- 
strated with one accord and one voice; my brothers said I had 
better go into the field to work; and they all talked of lazi- 
ness, and a thousand other things in order to laugh me out of 
it. They called it a wild project; a last resort of idleness to 
get rid of work, etc. But still I persisted, and went, against 
the advice of all my friends and acquaintance. I started with- 
out letters or without an acquaintance in New York; but when 
I got as far as Pomfret, Mr. Prescott Hall, learning the object 
of my visit to the city, gave me a letter of introduction to 
his brother Charles H. Hall, then and still a resident there. 
Charles was very polite to me; accompanied me to see the 
various exhibitions of painting in the city. He exerted him- 
self also, to get me a place for instruction. He recommended 
me to J. R. Smith as a pupil, and him to me as a good instructor. 
Mr. Smith said he should form a class in the course of fifteen 
days, and would then take me in. I awaited with little patience 
for the fifteen days to expire, and then he did take me in to his 
drawing room, just long enough to tell me that his pupils had 
not returned from the country, and that he should not open 
his school, or give instruction for the present. My little stock 
of money was going, and time flying. While kept in suspense 
by Mr. Smith, I met a townsman of mine, who introduced me 
to an elderly gentleman in Warren Street, a Mr. McKoy; a 
gentleman of some taste and skill in painting ornamental work. 
He was very kind to me and gave me much good advice, and 
an introduction to Alexander Robertson, then secretary to the 
Academy of Fine Arts. Mr. Robertson received me in his 
school, gave me a few little things to copy in lead pencil and 
India ink, and finally, at my particular request, he let me paint 
in oils, or rather copy two or three first lessons for girls, such 



236 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

as a mountain or lake, very simple. I wanted to be put for- 
ward to something more olifficult, but he said 'No'; that I 
could not be allowed to copy heads or figures till I had been 
with him a number of months; so, of necessity I left, after 
staying five or six weeks with him, for my money was all gone 
but barely enough to carry me home. 

"To make another attempt, I again went to New York, 
by way of Norwich and New London. I wished to go rapidly, 
owing to my natural impatience, yet I felt obliged to go as 
cheap as possible. I took a deck passage on board the * Fulton,' 
Captain Law, who told me that I should be set down in New 
York, for four dollars. I lodged on the cold deck (in September), 
without blanket or cloak. The 'Fulton' in those days ex- 
changed passengers at New Haven with the 'Connecticut,' 
Captain Bunker. It so happened that between the two cap- 
tains or their two secretaries, they took seven dollars from 
me before I got to New York which was too decided a removal 
of my 'deposites' to be forgotten even at this late period. 
The sum was more important to me than three hundred now. 
Those that slept in the cabin and fared sumptuously, paid 
only nine dollars. I was not allowed to look below. As the 
captains of the boat may be both alive, perhaps, were it 
worth the notice, you would be obliged to omit the mention of 
the circumstances, though I should admire to have them read it. 

" While at Robertson's school I had free access to the acad- 
emy over the schoolroom. That was a field of wonder to me, 
and what I saw there induced me afterwards to try my hand at 
painting heads or portraits. However, as I knew nothing of 
flesh coloring (and hardly anything of the tints of landscape, or of 
mixing them) I began, after my return home, to ornament the 
plaster walls of one of the rooms, in my father's house, with 
rude landscapes, introducing cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, hens 
and chickens, etc. Those who saw my productions looked 
astonished, but no farmer had taste enough to have his wall 
painted in the same way; I waited for patronage in landscape, 
but not having it, I determined to try my hand at portraits, 
so I shut myself up in the room I had just painted from top 



THE FIRST PORTRAIT 237 

to bottom, and painted the head and shoulders of a man from 
fancy; I did not care whom it resembled, I only strove to 
apply the shadows about the eyes, nose and mouth, so as to 
produce the effect of those I had seen in the Academy at New 
York. I painted away, and began to be pleased with my 
work as I advanced, and whistled in time with my feelings, 
my aged mother hearing me, came and knocked at the door, 
and said, 'y ou are successful, my son I know by your whis- 
tling.' I seldom paint a portrait, or anything else nowadays 
without thinking of the kind voice of my mother on that occa- 
sion; it was the first word I had heard uttered to encourage me 
onward in my new pursuit. I finished the head and drapery 
all at one sitting down, and then exhibited my work to my 
family; they seemed surprised, and all of them began to speak 
kindly to me (for after my return from New York up to this 
period my friends were silent. They knew I had spent all my 
money in the said city, and they seemed to avoid laughing at 
me, because they pitied me) and so I took courage. The 
neighbors met the same evening at the schoolhouse, half a 
dozen of them, perhaps, to talk of hiring a master. I had 
talked of keeping school myself again, merely because I could 
not get employ in ornamenting; so I went to the schoolhouse 
with the picture in my hand. The neighbors were thunder- 
struck; they praised it, and gazed at it till the business of the 
meeting was well-nigh forgot; my brother William gazed stead- 
ily at it at least half an hour without speaking; at length he 
exclaimed, 'well, Frank, if you paint ten years, you will not 
paint another so good as that.' I replied very modestly, 'I 
have seen better in New York!' They praised it till I really 
thought I had done something wonderful. The next day I 
called in a nephew of three years of age, and while he leaned 
upon my knee, and played about me, I painted his portrait 
and finished it all at one standing. The day following I took 
the portrait of another nephew, six years old, and I repre- 
sented him laughing, and showing his white rows of teeth. I 
forgot to mention that I painted the first head named above, 
which astonished the neighbors, upon the lid of an old chest; it 



238 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

was off the hinges. I painted the two last mentioned upon 
pieces of boards I picked up; the portraits of my nephews were 
called excellent likenesses. My fame had now spread half a 
mile in one direction. I was offered five dollars by a Mr. Mason 
(he was my first patron, so I mention his name) to paint a 
little miss, full length. I painted her, and they all said it was a 
hit; then the girl's mother offered me a dollar a day to come and 
paint the rest of the family, half a dozen of them. I went, and 
received thirteen dollars for thirteen days ! My fame had now 
travelled seven miles. I was invited to Thompson, to paint 
several families, received three dollars a head and my board. 
As soon as I had earned fifty or sixty dollars, I returned to New 
York for instruction in portrait painting, but I could not ob- 
tain it. The old gentleman mentioned above, Mr. McKoy, 
gave me Mr. Stuart's mode of setting the palette, and Colonel 
Trumbull lent me two heads to copy, and treated me with 
much kindness. The same remark will also apply to Waldo 
and Jewett, they also lent me two portraits to copy. After 
copying the above named portraits, and one or two more, I 
was obliged to go back to Connecticut, my funds being ex- 
hausted. On my return, I had the boldness to ask eight dollars 
a portrait, and received it. I was forced to travel though, 
from town to town, to find business. Among others, I painted 
two in Thompson, which were sent to Providence to be framed. 
There they attracted the attention of the widow of General 
James B. Mason, she immediately sent to Killingsby for me to 
come to Providence to paint her family, promising me fifteen 
dollars a portrait. Accordingly I went, and was received into 
her family, where I remained five weeks, during which time I 
painted half a dozen. When I had finished two or three, she 
took me into her chaise and drove all over Providence exhibiting 
them, and praising them to her numerous influential friends, 
and thus she prepared the public to receive me most graciously 
as soon as I left her hospitable mansion. This same Mrs. 
Mason died, while I remained in Providence, when I lost one 
of my most valuable, and disinterested friends. I have met with 
many friends since I took up painting, but among them all, 



MRS. MASON OF PROVIDENCE 239 

I remember no one who was so zealous, active, and untiring 
in my behalf as Mrs. Mason, nor any one to whom I am half 
so much indebted for my somewhat successful career, as to 
her. You may leave out anything relative to me, if you will 
give a short tribute to her memory. I painted two years or 
more in Providence, and received constant employ, and from 
fifteen to twenty-five dollars for my portraits. I afterwards 
came to Boston, bringing a painting of two sisters with me, 
which I carried to Mr. Stuart for his opinion; I will give you 
his remarks, he said that they were very clever, that they 
reminded him of Gainsborough's pictures, that I lacked many 
things that might be acquired by practice and study, but that 
I had that, which could not be acquired. 

" He invited me to come to Boston, and set up as a portrait 
painter, so accordingly after going home and making the 
necessary preparations, I returned and commenced painting in 
that city, where I remained in the full tide of successful experi- 
ment until I set sail for Italy, on the 23d of October, 1831. 
In Boston I received forty dollars for the head and shoulders, 
twenty-five by thirty inch canvas, and more according to the 
size; two years afterwards I received fifty dollars, and seventy- 
five for the kit-cat size; these were the prices till I went away. 
I forgot to mention that Colonel Trumbull gave me a very 
kind letter to Mr. Stuart, which I presented him when I 
carried the two sisters for his inspection. I sailed for Genoa, 
saw the fine paintings there, went to Florence, staid there 
five or six weeks, renewed my acquaintance with Mr. Thomas 
Cole, went with him to Rome, roomed with him there three 
months; thence we went to Naples together, visited Hercu- 
laneum, Pompeii, and Psestum together, and returned to Rome 
again in company. This circumstance I mention as a specimen 
of my good fortune, I have the highest respect for Mr. Cole's 
character and talents, but it is useless for me to say more of 
one whom you know how to appreciate. While at Rome I 
painted the portrait of Miss Harriet Douglas of New York. 
Sir Walter Scott being there at the time, and an acquaintance 
of hers, he came with Miss Douglas in her carriage to my 



240 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

studio, where he remained nearly an hour, conversing all the 
while in a most familiar manner. I had painted an original 
Magdalen, it was standing on one side of the studio at the time, 
and Sir Walter moved his chair up within six feet of it; there 
he sat looking at it for some minutes without speaking: I was 
all impatience to know what he would say. He turned away 
with the laconic remark, 'she's been forgiven.' I returned to 
Florence, staid a few weeks, went to Venice, staid seven months; 
returned to Rome the following winter, and staid three months 
more; returned again to Florence, visited Bologna, Pisa, and 
Leghorn; thence to Paris, staid there twenty days; thence to 
London, there ten days only, left it in the London Packet for 
New York, arrived in New York on the 25th August or 24th. 
After visiting my friends a month or two, I took my old room 
again here in Boston (Columbian Hall), where I have com- 
menced painting with success, receive a hundred dollars for 
portraits, have not fixed upon prices yet for more than busts, 
choosing to recommend myself first, knowing that the good 
people of our country are willing to pay according to merit. 

"Mr. Cole can, perhaps, give you some information about 
your humble servant, if you desire more. When I was a farmer, 
I used to go three miles before sunrise to reap for a bushel of 
rye per day, and return at night. Oh! had you seen me then, 
winding my way to my labors, shoeless, and clad in trowsers 
and shirt of tow, with my sickle on my shoulder! as you are a 
painter, you might have given me a few cents to sit for my 
picture, but you would not have taken any notes for biography. 
I have written upon a large sheet, and compactly, hoping to 
have plenty of room, but I might add so much more. 

"Yours truly, 

"FRANCIS ALEXANDER." 

JAMES WHITEHORNE W. ALLEN WALL. 
Mr. Whitehorne was born the 22d of August, 1803, in the 
town of Wallingford, Rutland County, Vermont. With the 
usual disposition which leads to painting, he became acquainted 



PORTRAIT AND SIGN PAINTER 241 

with an amateur of the art in 1823, who loaned him books and 
drawings to copy. Biographical notices of eminent painters 
stimulated him to undertake the profession, and he came to 
New York, and studied in the school of the National Academy 
of Design, of which he is now a member. He commenced pro- 
fessionally, in 1826 : and has a share of the employment given 
to portrait painters. The moral conduct of this gentleman, 
and his amiable manners, ensure him the esteem of all who 
know him. 

Mr. W. Allen Wall, the son of an Englishman, who emigrated 
to America, was born in New Bedford, May 29, 1821. He was 
apprenticed to a clock and watchmaker, but when out of his 
time, relinquished the business for a profession he more de- 
lighted in. About the year 1826 he commenced portrait paint- 
ing, and in 1832 was enabled to visit England, France and 
Italy, for improvement. He has returned to his native country, 
and is employed in his profession. I have not seen his pictures. 1 

JERVIS F. HANKS G. WASHINGTON TYLER. 
Mr. Hanks is a painter of portraits, but his principal em- 
ployment is in sign and ornamental painting. He informs me 
that he is a native of Pittsford, Otsego County, New York, 
and born in 1799. He received a good common school education, 
as a boy, and when but thirteen years of age, enlisted as a 
soldier, in the army of the United States; and as such, did 
duty at the battles of Chryslers Fields, Chippewa, Lundy's 
Lane and Fort Erie. He was discharged in 1815, with a certifi- 
cate and recommendation from the officers of the llth Infantry, 
for a cadet's situation, at West Point. It appears that after the 
war, Hanks was again at school, and under the guardianship of 
his father, who, removing to Wheeling, in Virginia, in 1817, 
the youth accompanied him. He, after this, appears to have 
wandered from place to place as a sign painter, and occasionally 
taught school. 

1 William A. Wall, an excellent portrait painter, was born in 1801. He studied with 
Thomas Sully and went to Europe in 1831, returning to New Bedford in 1833, where he 
remained. While in Italy, Wall made the portrait or N. P. Willis, now in the New York 
Historical Society. 



242 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

In 1823 Mr. Hanks saw the artists and pictures in Phila- 
delphia, and, returning to Virginia, commenced portrait 
painting. In 1827 he "found his way" to New York, with his 
family, where he could not gain employment sufficient as a 
painter of portraits, but has succeeded by adding sign painting 
or rather, making that his principal occupation. 

Mr. Tyler was the son of Samuel Tyler, and grandson of 
Joseph Tyler, long a favorite on the stage of New York. He 
was born in the year 1805, and at the age of fourteen was put 
apprentice to a coach painter. George had probably imbibed 
a love of painting from seeing a picture of Garrick, by Pine, in 
his grandfather's possession, and two or three other portraits. 
The lad soon discovered talent, and executed the principal 
parts of coach painting with peculiar success. He received 
instructions from John R. Smith. In 1827, he commenced 
portrait painting; he married, and was apparently improving 
in his profession, when he was attacked by disease, and on the 
13th of May, 1833, died, leaving behind him several pictures of 
considerable merit, and (of much more consequence) a name 
without blemish a character pure and amiable. 

FREDERICK S. AGATE ALFRED AGATE. 
Frederick S. Agate is a most amiable and rapidly improving 
artist, who has recently embarked for Italy to pursue his 
studies. He was born in the village of Sparta, West Chester 
County, New York, in the year 1807. He had the usual pro- 
pensity for scrawling and scratching figures of beasts, birds, 
and "things in general"; and moreover an early ambition to 
versify, and might, with Audrey, "thank the gods for making 
him poetical." At the age of thirteen he became acquainted 
with that excellent old gentleman, Mr. Rollinson the engraver, 
and through his influence, and that of the Rev. Mr. Witting- 
ham, his grandson, he was removed to New York, and placed 
under the tuition of John R. Smith as his instructor in drawing. 
He was afterwards received as a pupil by S. F. B. Morse, 
Esq., whose friendship he obtained and stifl enjoys. In 1827, 
Mr. Agate took a room in Broadway and commenced portrait 



ARTISTS OF PROMISE 243 

painter. For a time his efforts appeared timid, but within two 
or three years he has felt a just confidence in himself, and 
"The Dead Child," "Forrest, in the character of Metamora," 
and still later his historical picture of "Ugolino" from Dante, 
stamp his character as an artist of genius and power. His 
best portrait is a late one of his old friend Rollinson. 

By his industry he is now enabled to proceed to Europe for 
a term of study, which he limits to two years; and so well 
prepared as he is in knowledge and moral worth, two years, I 
doubt not, will return him to us an accomplished and first-rate 
artist. 

His brother and pupil, Alfred Agate, under his instructions 
and those of Thomas S. Cummings, Esq., is at this time a good 
and rapidly improving miniature painter, with apparently the 
same amiable character which marks the senior brother. 

FREDERICK R. SPENCER. 

This gentleman was born in the town of Lennox, Madison 
County, New York, on the 7th June, 1806. His parents were 
from the New England States: his father, General Ichabod 
S. Spencer, from Massachusetts, and his mother from Con- 
necticut. Mr. Spencer experienced the usual boys' inclination 
for imitating prints, and at the age of fifteen, being with his 
father in Albany, saw for the first time, a gallery of portraits; 
they were the works of Mr. Ames. His desire for painting 
increased, and in 1822 he attempted some portraits of his 
relations, and evinced his love of art by going frequently 
from his father's residence to Utica, thirty miles, to see my 
pictures on Scriptural subjects, exhibiting there. I then first 
saw Mr. Spencer and was pleased with his ardor, as I have 
since been with his manners and his progress in the art he 
pursues. He says I at that time gave him some valuable in- 
structions, and has expressed his gratitude. I can freely say 
that I never withheld the knowledge I possessed from any 
artist, young or old. 

In 1822 Mr. Spencer was placed as a student at Middle- 
burg Academy, in Genesee County, New York, where he 



244 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

acquired a knowledge of the classics, but was more devoted to 
the study of mathematics. His father being a lawyer, took 
him into his office as a student, but yielded to his desire of 
becoming a painter, and sent him, in 1825, to New York, 
where he drew from the casts of the American Academy, and 
had the favor of the president, and his instruction in the 
methods he was to pursue. The young painter returned home 
and painted at his father's house, but in 1827 commenced 
professionally at a village in the neighborhood, at from three 
to ten dollars a head. His uncle introduced him to better 
business in Albany, and he there painted portraits between two 
and three years. He likewise painted in Utica, but finally 
made New York his headquarters, where he has been in con- 
stant employment to the present time, and with increasing 
reputation. 

JOHN G. CHAPMAN 

Was born in Alexandria, District of Columbia, on the llth 
of August, 1808. 1 He was intended by his parents for the pro- 
fession of the law, but like many recorded in this work, his 
scrawls in his books indicated an inclination to figuring in 
another line of life. George Cooke (now an artist in New 
York) married a connection of young Chapman; and to an 
early acquaintance with him, Mr. Chapman attributes his 
devotedness to the arts. At the age of sixteen he made his 
first attempt in oil painting. From C. B. King, Esq. he 
obtained some plaster casts and commenced his study of 
drawing. 

In 1827 Mr. Chapman became professionally a painter, 
leaving home with a determination to enable himself by his 
art and industry to visit Italy. At Winchester, in Virginia, 
he commenced his career with success. In the autumn of 
1827 he went to Philadelphia, and studied from the casts in 
the Pennsylvania Academy. He was denied the privilege of 

1 Dunlap is in error in date of birth. It should be December 8, 1808. 

John Gadsby Chapman had a studio for several years at Washington, D. C., during 
which period he painted "The Baptism of Pocahontas," now in the rotunda of the 
National Capitol. In 1848 he returned to Rome where he resided many years. He died 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., November 28, 1889. 




JOHN GADSBY CHAPMAN 

1808 1889 

FROM A LITHOGRAPH BY HIMSELF 



PICTURES BY CHAPMAN 245 

painting in the building. By the aid of friends Mr. Chapman 
was enabled to visit Europe, passed a short time in Paris, 
then proceeded to Italy, and commenced his studies in the 
Vatican. Here he met his friend Mr. Cooke. Copying from 
the old masters, and the study of the naked figure at the 
Academy occupied the student. It was some time, Mr. Chap- 
man has said, before he could appreciate Raphael and Michael- 
angelo, but he became an enthusiast in his admiration. 

Before leaving Rome the young painter selected for the 
subject of an original picture, "Hagar and Ishmael fainting in 
the wilderness," now in the possession of John Linton, of 
New Orleans. The figures of this picture were the size of life. 
It was engraved as the first representation of American art in 
the "Giornall di Belle arti," published at Rome, in November 
1830. In company with S. F. B. Morse, Esquire, Mr. Chapman 
visited much of the scenery about Rome and Naples. From 
Rome he went to Florence, and studied six months, then visited 
Bologna, Venice, and Milan, and revisited Paris. In 1831 Mr. 
Chapman returned home, and found employment in his native 
city, where he opened an exhibition of the pictures remaining 
in his possession of those copied in Italy, and others painted 
after his return. Mr. Chapman has painted Mrs. Drake as 
Lady Macbeth, and a portrait of Mr. Madison, which is now in 
the hands of an engraver. Silas E. Burrows, of New York, has 
a picture painted for him by Mr. Chapman, and James Feni- 
more Cooper has a copy of Guide's "Aurora." The latter I 
have seen, and can give my opinion that it is a specimen of 
Mr. Chapman's skill, which places him above all the copyists of 
Italian pictures who have recently visited Italy except Messrs. 
Morse and Weir. It is a fine picture. 

A Madonna and child, from Murillo, and a Flora from 
Titian, are possessed by John Gadsby, Washington city; a 
woman tuning a guitar, from Metzu, and an original portrait 
of Horatio Greenough, belong to the Boston Athenaeum. 

Mr. Chapman's intention is to fix himself professionally at 
the seat of the United States Government, where, I doubt not, 
from what I have seen of his works and heard of his merits, he 



246 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

will command the attention of the public servants and national 
legislators. 

H. AUGUR. 

Mr. Augur was born at New Haven, the 21st February 
179 1. 1 His father was a joiner and carpenter, and the boy had 
an early propensity for handling tools, which the father dis- 
couraged; and to lead him into commerce, bound him appren- 
tice at the early age of nine and a half years to a grocer; but 
the grocer was not all grocer, he was a tool-using animal and 
handled his awl, so that young Augur had the pleasure of 
making something, and to make anything was better with 
him than to make money by traffic. He attended the grocery, 
and made shoes until the time of servitude expired. His 
father furnished a capital of $2000 to place him in an eligible 
company of dry goods retail merchants, as they are called in 
Connecticut; and the young man entered life in the first rank 
of New Haven society, as a prosperous merchant. His partners 
have continued such to this time; but by the hocus-pocus of 
trade, bank credits, notes and indorsements, at the end of 
a few years Mr. Augur's $2000 was lost, and he was declared 
to be indebted to his partners (or one of them) $7000, and no 
longer a merchant. His situation reduced him almost to despair. 
He found himself shunned by former associates, and he shunned 
them. His manly pride made him determine on exertion to 
pay the debt, and he felt no reluctance in stooping to any 
honest employment for that purpose. He borrowed $200 at 
enormous interest, and hired a small place which he opened 
as a fruit shop it succeeded he bought carver's tools, his 
old propensity continuing, and made a musical instrument, 
carving the mahogany framework in a bold and beautiful 
manner. This work I have seen and examined. He thus 
employed himself between the visits of customers to the shop. 
His old companions pass him, and see him not. One day sit- 
ting at his work, he saw two of his former companions stop 
before his shop window; one asked the other, "Who has set 
up a cookee shop here?" "Augur," was the reply. "What, 

1 Hezekiah Auger died January 10. 1858. 



WOOD-CARVING AND SCULPTURE 247 

Augur the merchant?" "Yes." "He'll break again he 
won't pay the rent." 

The instrument of music finished, he carried it to a cabinet- 
maker to have it varnished. His specimen induced an offer 
for carving the legs of mahogany chairs and things of that 
kind, which he accepted and earned good wages while attend- 
ing to his fruit store. In two years he paid part of his debt 
by means of honorable industry. But his partner creditor 
threatened his fears perplexed, and he sold his shop and 
his carving business to secure the means of extricating himself 
from debt. He invented and made a machine to manufacture 
worsted lace and worsted epaulets for non-commissioned offi- 
cers those branches of worthless worsted which, as Mande- 
ville says, make the stupid animal, man, imagine he is a 
hero, and strut as if his shoulders bore the gold or silver 
badges of his colonel. This speculation answered Augur 
lived a recluse, paid debt, and seems to have been willing to 
make money, provided he was making something else. He 
made looking-glass frames and mended old ones he learned 
to gild as well as carve. Employment diverted his thoughts 
from the enemy, who had ruined his hopes of fortune, and 
after a hard day's work, he slept sound until he could go to 
work again. He paid his debt, and no longer feared the sheriff. 
His father died and he supported his mother, whose house he 
still lives in. 

Always desirous of carving the human figure, he had from 
childhood looked with longing on the figureheads of the ships 
in the harbor. He now was desirous to make a bust in marble, 
and encouraged by Mr. Morse, he borrowed a head of 
Apollo, purchased a block of marble, and without further 
thought commenced metamorphosing the shapeless mass into 
a likeness of the sublime form before him. Delighted with 
his employment, he forgot the world and was forgotten, until 
having finished his bust it was seen, and he was hailed as an 
artist a sculptor a self-taught genius. Crowds begged to 
see the head all admired all were desirous of Mr. Augur's 



248 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

acquaintance, and those who had shunned now courted him. 
His ambition was excited, and he wished to become a sculptor. 
He wanted money, and some one was found to make a trial of 
borrowing a few hundred dollars. But the cold looks returned, 
and he received excuses. 

He found means to procure more pieces of marble, and 
chiselled a Washington. He then ventured on a statue, and 
produced, seven years ago (1827), a figure of Sappho, which 
was exhibited in Boston and sold there. He then conceived 
the design of a group Jephtha and his daughter, and exe- 
cuted it. These works he cut directly from the block, without 
the preparatory and necessary preliminary of making a model. 
This, though adding to difficulty and injuring the work, excited 
curiosity in the vulgar, and attention from artists. He says 
he had no view in his chiselling but to cheat thought, occupy 
his mind pleasantly, and drown reflection by this employment, 
as others drown the memory of misfortune by the glass and 
bottle. The Jephtha and daughter has been exhibited in New 
York, and I believe elsewhere. His works are now on exhibi- 
tion at his house in New Haven. He says he has received 
abundance of compliments and little money. He has at present 
an order from Washington city for a bust of Chief Justice 
Ellsworth, and another from Hartford for that of the president 
of a public institution. Orders for monuments he has several; 
and I think, from appearances, with his habits and industry is 
doing well. He has adopted modelling before chiselling, as 
other sculptors do; and is now engaged in designing, in clay, a 
statue, whose name or character he at present conceals.* 

CHARLES CUSHING WRIGHT. 

This gentleman is well known as an engraver and die-sinker. 
Born in the town of Damariscotta, fifteen miles east of the 
Kennebec River, Maine. When only nine months old his father 
(a Scotchman) died, leaving the family in indigent circum- 
stances. When he was about the age of thirteen, a stranger 
Charles Cushing, whose name Mr. Wright adopted saw and 

* This notice is given from memory, after conversing with Mr. Augur. 



WRIGHT'S MERCANTILE CAREER 249 

liked the boy, and proposed to educate him. The liberal offer 
was accepted, and he was sent to a boarding school; but he had 
not been long there when his friend died, leaving no provision 
for the boy, who, by this unfortunate bereavement, was 
deprived of the benefits of an education. 

An uncle, a merchant in Wiscasset took young Wright into 
his counting house, and promised, if, after a trial, they liked 
each other, to bind him an apprentice for eight years, and 
teach him his calling, After a short stay, however, the con- 
duct of his aunt forced him to leave his uncle, and he did so 
with as much joy as a prisoner feels when released from thrall. 
By an unfortunate accident, which happened soon after this, 
he fractured his leg, and for a year was disabled from work- 
ing. A great part of this time he devoted to acquiring a knowl- 
edge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Thrown upon his 
own resources for a livelihood, and thirsting, as young minds 
often do, to see the world, he resolved to follow the sea; but the 
Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts had so paralyzed commerce, 
that he found no opportunity to indulge his inclination. 

War with England being declared in 1812, he felt a mili- 
tary ardor, which was checked by his relations, they being of 
the party opposed to the war. However, he soon left his native 
State and arrived in that of New York, where he attached 
himself as clerk to a sutler of the 25th Regiment, with whom 
he remained more than a year. During this period he was 
witness to many of the stirring scenes on the lines, and on 
several occasions volunteered in them. He was present at the 
capture of Little York and Fort George, and also in the battle 
of Stoney Creek, in which action he received a musket wound. 
Peace being proclaimed, Mr Wright settled in trade at Sacketts 
Harbor, where, from his extensive military acquaintance, he 
was pursuing a profitable business. Unfortunately, however, 
his prosperous career was checked: a servant of the family in 
which he resided administered poison in the food, which so 
injured him that for many a day his life was despaired of, and 
its effects he felt for years after. On his recovery, the next step 
in his eventful life was to bind himself an apprentice to John 



250 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Osborn, a jeweller and watchmaker of Utica, with whom, after 
a time, he removed to Homer, Cortlandt County. With this 
gentleman he remained till he was twenty-one years of age, 
working chiefly at the silversmith's forge. 

Not exactly relishing this business, and seeing, accidentally, 
some books illustrated with plates by Scoles, he became en- 
amored of the art of engraving: but how to pursue it was 
the question all around him were as grossly ignorant of the 
art as he was. At length he found an encyclopedia in the 
library of a friend, which contained a short description of 
engraving. Studying this thoroughly, he determined to com- 
mence the business having made his own tools, and plated 
out a piece of copper he engraved a watchcard; which, for 
want of better material, was printed on the backs of playing 
cards. 

Before he was twenty-two years of age, Wright had advanced 
considerably in the art, and then, for the purpose of further 
improvement removed to Albany, and thence to New York, a 
perfect stranger, with only five dollars in his pocket. Here he 
soon became acquainted with a gentleman from Georgia, by 
whose persuasion he removed to Savannah, and remained there 
till the disastrous fire of 1820. His shop burned, and the city 
in ruins, he proceeded to Charleston, South Carolina, where he 
remained four years. In 1824, Mr. Wright formed a partner- 
ship with A. B. Durand and brother, in the bank-note business, 
under the firm of Durand and Wright, and settled in the city 
of New York. 1 

A die-sinking establishment was offered for sale, which he 
purchased. Although this was not the branch in which he had 
been lately engaged, yet it was one in which he had already 
made great proficiency. While in Charleston, Mr. Wright 
executed a number of dies and portraits sunk in steel: the 
first, in 1820, of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of South 
Carolina, being (says my informant) the first portrait sunk in 
steel by a native American artist a fact worthy to be re- 
membered. At this day there are only two American die 

1 Wright died in New York June 11, 1854. 



THE BEST PAINTER IN THE WEST 251 

sinkers, Mr. Wright of New York, and Mr. Gobrecht of Phila- 
delphia. Since then, Mr. Wright has executed many dies for 
medals; but that branch not affording him sufficient occupation, 
his time is chiefly engaged in one more adapted to the wants of 
the country that of xylographic and copperplate engraving, 
in company with Mr. C. Durand. 

The last medal executed by Mr. Wright, was of Edwin 
Forrest*; a die, which, while it testifies how justly talent and 
worth are appreciated by the citizens of New York, is a fine 
specimen of the art, and reflects great credit on the artist. 

J. R. LAMBDIN. 

This estimable gentleman and artist is now probably the 
best painter on the western side of the Alleghanies, and a per- 
manent resident in the city of Louisville. 

Mr. Lambdin was born in Pittsburg on the 10th of May, 
1807. From the age of twelve he devoted all the time he 
could command to drawing, carving, and engraving on wood. 
His unconquerable desire to become an artist originated from 
a visit made by Jer. Paul to Pittsburg, and the exhibition of a 
full-length " Washington " by him, as a sign, in the neighbor- 
hood of Lambdin's place of abode. 

Early in 1823 young Lambdin visited Philadelphia, and 
placed himself under the tuition of Mr. E. Miles, having de- 
termined on painting as his profession. After six months 
passed with this teacher, he was received as a pupil by Mr. 
Sully, and painted under his guidance for a year. He then 
returned to Pittsburg. 

In 1827, some offers of assistance having been made, to 
enable Mr. Lambdin to pursue his studies in Europe, he 
repaired to New York for the purpose of embarkation; but a 

* It having been very generally known, that Edwin Forrest, the tragedian (a man 
in whom talents and worth are rarely excelled) was about visiting Europe, it was 
thought by many of the citizens of New York, a fitting occasion on which to testify 
to him their high appreciation of his talents as an actor, and his character as a man; 
and a voluntary subscription was made for that purpose. Designs were made by 
C. C. Ingham, Esq. N. A. and a die was sunk by Mr. Wright, for a gold medal, which 
was struck. This medal was presented to Mr. Forrest on the 25th of July, 1834, at a 
public dinner given to him by the subscribers and others, at which the Vice-Chancellor 
presided. 



252 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

failure in raising the requisite funds caused him to return dis- 
appointed to his native place; where, soon after, he established 
the Pittsburg Museum and Gallery of the Fine Arts, the first 
public exhibition of the works of art in the West. After a 
trial of four years, Mr. Lambdin removed with his collection 
to Louisville; where he has found greater encouragement for 
his exhibition, and more constant employment for his skill, as 
a portrait painter. His collection is rapidly augmenting, and 
his prospects of permanent prosperity are daily increasing. 
For much valuable information respecting the arts and artists 
of the West I am indebted to this amiable and enterprising 
gentleman. 

W. M. ODDIE WILLIAM MAIN. 

Mr. Oddie, though not a professional artist, is so distin- 
guished as a landscape painter, that I am happy to have the 
following notice from the pen of a friend who knows him well. 
"He was born in New York, about the year 1808, and first 
indicated a fondness for the arts after his marriage into the 
family of Henry Meigs, Esq. It was the practice of his father- 
in-law to amuse himself in the evenings with sketching wild 
images, such as a journey to the moon, with views of the scenery, 
of the plants, and rare and striking portraits of the moonites. 
These embodied * whim- whams/ I believe, first induced our 
friend Oddie to try his hand. He, however, was a lover of the 
romantic, as indeed he is now; and his themes were cottages 
and purling streams, with some gentle swain and his true love 
strolling through the meadows, or seated beneath the shade 
of some wide-spreading tree. By the way, trees used to puzzle 
him, and he generally kept his landscape clear of them, which 
gives his earlier sketches a somewhat barren appearance. He 
was frequently advised to get some instruction in the art, but 
declined, saying, he would battle it out by himself; and in this 
mood I found him, and soon convinced him, that there were 
many things he could be taught, in a very short time, which 
would consume months, and perhaps years, if left to himself 
to find out; and that, after he had learned all that could be 



MAIN'S TALENTS NEGLECTED 253 

taught him, he had still enough to learn when left to himself. 

"His eyes were opened at the first lesson, and his natural 
good taste led him on with a rapidity I have rarely seen 
equaled; and if pursued as a profession, would certainly lead 
him to excellence and honor. 

"Mr. Main was born in New York, but in what year I 
cannot say; and was induced to pursue engraving as a profes- 
sion, from hearing the conversation and seeing the works of a 
celebrated master, Munro Gondolfi, who made us a visit 
some years since. On his return to Italy he induced Main to 
accompany him, and he was to have been his pupil; but on 
their arrival at Florence, or in its vicinity, Main arose one 
morning, and, to his utter astonishment, found his friend had 
decamped, and left him to shift for himself. In this situation 
he applied to Raphael Morghen for admission into his studio. 
He was successful; and, in a short time, became his favorite 
pupil. On his return to his native country, he was a long time 
without employment. Occasionally, he said, he used to get 
a commission to cut a doorplate or a visiting card, and that 
was his share of patronage! At last he went to Messrs. Waldo 
and Jewett, and offered them forty dollars, I think, for the 
loan of their picture of Bishop Hobart, which was accepted, 
and he set himself to work to engrave it, as a specimen of 
what he could do. How well he succeeded every collector and 
artist can testify. The labor was immense, when it is con- 
sidered he was doing it merely as a specimen. His health 
began to give way: but still he consoled himself with the idea 
that, when finished, he would have his reward and regain all. 
At last it was completed, but it came to the world still-born: 
he scarcely sold enough to pay for the copper; and, I believe, 
had some idea afterwards of papering his room with the 
neglected impression. 

"Such is the fate of poor Main. His constitution is very 
delicate, and disappointment and neglect were more than he 
could bear. He of course declined the doorplates, etc, which 
the discerning public wished him to execute, and is now turned 
farmer. His health is returning slowly, and with it, I under- 



254 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

stand, his fondness for the art, to which he sometimes turns, as 
to his first love. 1 

G. W. NEWCOMBE JOHN W. DODGE. 

Mr. Newcombe is an English miniature painter, who arrived 
in New York in 1829. He was bora on the 28th September, 
1799. He has pursued his profession steadily in the city which 
received him, until the present time, with obvious improve- 
ment. His conduct, as a man and a citizen, has gained him the 
esteem of all who know him. 

Mr. Dodge was born in New York on the 4th of November, 
1807. With the common propensity of boys for making pic- 
tures, he bound himself apprentice to a sign painter at the 
age of seventeen, who was to instruct him in drawing, but was 
incapable. Young Dodge, however, instructed himself: and, 
borrowing a miniature from a friend, succeeded so well in 
copying it, that he attempted painting from the life, and, as 
soon as free from his apprenticeship, he commenced miniature 
painter. He has succeeded by making nature his instructor, 
and now stands among the prominent professors of the art in 
New York. 

JANE STUART. 

This lady is the youngest child of Gilbert Stuart, our great 
portrait painter. She occasionally painted during her father's 
life, and evinced much talent, but was not encouraged by him. 
After his death she commenced painting in oil professionally. 
She has imitated successfully her father's style of coloring, 
and is improving in her drawing. With attention and encourage- 
ment, where she had a right to expect it, from her father, she 
might have acquired a skill, before his death, that would have 
made her independent: I hope she has since done so by her 
own efforts. 

Col. Sargent says, "Stuart lost a promising son, whose 
talent, as an artist, he seemed very proud of: yet he would 
never give him any instructions; saying, that if he did he 

1 Main was one of the founders of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and was 
engraving as late as 1837. most of the time in the city of New York. 



A TALENTED WOOD-ENGRAVER 255 

never would be original, and that he thought it best to let 
young artists find out a road for themselves. Young Stuart 
would often apply to me for information, which I gave him at 
second hand. He had also a daughter, who is living: he was 
very vain of her genius also." 

When Mr. Neagle asked him why he did not instruct Jane, 
he answered, "When they want to know if a puppy is of the 
true Newfoundland breed, they throw him into the river; if 
true, he will swim without being taught." Such are the anoma- 
lies of man's character when not regulated by early instruction 
and confirmed by good habits. To most men nothing could 
appear more obvious than to assist in the improvement of 
children whose talents they were proud of. 

ABRAHAM JOHN MASON. 

This gentleman was born in Goswell Road, London, April 
4, 1794. 

He lost both parents before completing his ninth year, and 
was sent into Devonshire for education in the autumn of 1803. 
In the course of 1808, paying a premium of one hundred 
guineas, he was articled to the late Mr. Robert Branston, 
wood engraver, for seven years, at the expiration of which 
time he remained with that gentleman as an assistant for five 
years more. In the years 1819 and 20, while with Mr. Bran- 
ston, he was concerned in numerous bank-note experiments. 
Mr. Mason engraved for some months wholly on brass. In 
1821 he commenced wood engraving, professionally, on his 
own account. In March, 1826, Mr. Mason was elected a 
member of the Royal Incorporated Artists, for the establish- 
ment of an annuity fund, in London, to which he still belongs; 
and in September, 1827, was chosen a member of the com- 
mittee of management of the London Mechanics' Institution. 
In February, 1828, he delivered a private discourse to about 
forty of its members, on the history and practice of wood 
engraving: in consequence of this he was invited, by the 
Royal Institution of Great Britain, and London Institution, 
to prepare a public lecture on the same subject. In the course 



256 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

of preparation for his public lectures he became acquainted 
with several distinguished scholars and antiquaries. May 15, 
1829, he delivered his first public lecture at the Royal Institu- 
tion, before the first literati of the country, and the 27th, gave 
the same lecture before the London Institution. In the months 
of June and July, he delivered his full course of four lectures 
at the London Mechanics' Institution; in the intervals of 
which he lectured also at the London Literary Institution. 
On the 15th of July, 1829, he was admitted an honorary mem- 
ber of the London Mechanics' Institution; and received, subse- 
quently, votes of thanks fiom that and other institutions where 
he had lectured in London. 

In November, 1829, Mr. Mason sailed from London with his 
family for the United States, and arrived at New York Decem- 
ber 18th of that year. 1 He brought with him numerous letters 
of introduction and testimonials from public institutions, and 
individuals with whom he had been connected: Mr. Brougham 
(now Chancellor), Dr. Birbeck, Mr. Loudon, the horticulturist, 
J. C. Buckingham, the oriental traveller; the late Mr. North- 
cote, R. A.; Professor Pattison; Mr. Wakley; Mr. Ackerman, 
and others, to Dr. David Hosack, and other scientific gentle- 
men and professional men. In May, 1830, he was elected an 
associate of the National Academy of Design, and in April, 

1831, delivered his course of lectures to that body. In January, 

1832, he repeated his lectures to the National Academy by 
request; and in June, the same year, he was elected professor 
of wood engraving to the National Academy of Design. In 
the autumn of the same year, Mr. Mason received an invitation 
to lecture in Boston; and in November and December delivered 
his course to the Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge in 
that city.* 



1 Mason, finding his occupation unprofitable, returned to London in 1839. 

* The excellent treatise on wood engraving, i n this work, was furnished by Mr. 
Mason, and its merits speak louder than my commendations of his knowledge in the 
history, theory and practice of his most valuable art. 



SILHOUETTE CUTTING 257 

JOHN LUDLOW MORTON W. J. HUBARD S. SEYMOUR 
GEO. W. HATCH. 

I date the notice of Mr. Morton thus late (1830), as at this 
time he professed himself an artist, and made designs for our 
wood engravers. 

He is a native of New York, and son of General Morton. 
Mr. Morton was one of the builders up of the National Acad- 
emy of Design, a student of it, and is an academician. He has 
exhibited an historical picture from Scott's "Ivanhoe," which 
is, I believe, his only composition in oil colors. Happily situated 
in point of fortune, his time is divided between the arts and 
agricultural pursuits on the banks of the Hudson. 

Mr. Hubard had two very well painted heads in the exhibi- 
tion of the National Academy of Design, last May (1834). 
Robt. W. Weir previously to going to Europe, persuaded 
Hubard to try oil painting, and left him his materials for 
commencing. I know that he has had the advice of Sully. 
He was brought to this country, a boy, as Master Hubard, by 
some person or persons, who made money by his ingenuity 
as cutter of profiles in paper, at which he was uncommonly 
clever. He now, as I am informed, is a portrait painter in 
Baltimore. 1 

Mr. Seymour practised engraving and landscape painting 
in Philadelphia for several years. He went with the expedi- 
tion to the Yellow Stone River, with Captain Long, as draughts- 
man, "and performed his duty admirably," says my friend 
Sully. He is a native of England. 

Mr. Hatch is one of our prominent engravers, and designs 
with skill, taste, and accuracy. That I am not able to give a 
detailed and accurate notice of this very estimable gentleman 
is owing to a reserve, on his part, that is to me inexplicable. 
He is a native of the western part of the State of New York, 

William James Hubard commenced making silhouettes in England. After his 
arrival in this country he settled at Philadelphia and New York and later began to cut 
silhouettes in Boston, but the influence of Stuart induced him to paint small full- 
length portraits. One of the best examples of his work is the portrait of Charles Car- 
roll deposited in the Maryland Historical Society; there is also an excellent portrait of 
Henry Clay. He died in Richmond, Va., in the service of the Southern Confederacy, 
February 25, 1862. 



258 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

and was a pupil of Ashur B. Durand, our great engraver. Mr. 
Hatch resided in Albany, and, I believe, married there. He 
has been for some years a resident of the city of New York, 
and connected with a company for bank-note engraving. 
He began a picture some years ago, which has been favorably 
spoken of, but he says he shall not finish it until he has made 
his fortune. He is a member of the National Academy of 
Design, and I have admired his sketches at our sketch club. 
There is a vignette picture of "The Captors of Andre," noticed 
in the " Mirror " of January last, designed and engraved by 
Mr. Hatch, as vignette on a bank-note plate, issued by 
Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co. > 

1 George W. Hatch was born about the year 1805; died, Dobbs' Ferry, N. Y., 1867. 
He was a founder of the American Bank Note Company, and its president, 1863-66. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FLAGG - - CBANCH - - SHUMWAY MARCHANT WILLIAM 
SIDNEY MOUNT FREEMAN FERGUSON TORREY 
RICHARDSON TWIBILL PAGE BISBEE 
CRAWLEY NEWSAM WALTER BRA- 
DISH WATSON - - JAMES SMILLIE 
MAYR RAWDON COLLECTIONS. 

GEORGE W. FLAGG. 

THIS youth was born in New Haven, in the State of Con- 
necticut, on the 26th day of June, 1816. l 

The grandfather of Master Flagg was a native of Newport, 
in Rhode Island. He entered the Continental army as a sur- 
geon, at the commencement of the Revolutionary War, and 
continued in the service until its termination. He was in all 
the important campaigns in South Carolina and Georgia. 
After the war, he married Mrs. Allston, the widow of Captain 
William Allston, of Marion's army, and the mother of Wash- 
ington Allston. One of the issue of this marriage, is Henry 
C. Flagg, the father of our subject, who is a native of South 
Carolina. He was sent to the North for education at an early 
age, and has resided in New Haven (where he married), from 
the age of fifteen to the present time, with the exception of ten 
years, during which he practised his profession as a lawyer, 
in Carolina. From the circumstance of his change of location, 
George has lived several years at the South. In 1830, his 
father, in consequence of the ill health of his family, contem- 
plated returning to New Haven, and George, who had even 
then begun to paint, proceeded to Boston with Mr. Bowman, 
with whom he had commenced his studies in the art. 

1 He died in New York in 1897. 

259 



260 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

At twelve years of age, whilst at school at Charleston, he 
first evinced a taste for his favorite pursuit. It was not en- 
couraged by his parents, or by his grandmother with whom 
they resided. Possessed of an amiable disposition, and un- 
willing to give uneasiness, he seldom displayed his pencil in 
their presence, but sought every private opportunity of indulg- 
ing his bent. While other boys were engaged in sports, he 
would be closeted with his drawing materials. All the pocket 
money he received, was immediately converted into paints and 
brushes. His first attempt in oil colors, was at the age of 
fourteen. His first essay of portrait painting was in a likeness 
of Mr. Babcock, of Charleston; it was considered a true one, 
and in the opinion of competent judges, an extraordinary per- 
formance for a child of his age. His next effort was in a portrait 
of Bishop England. This attracted the attention of the original, 
who is a man of fine taste, as well as an accomplished scholar. 

It was useless any longer to restrain him; from the time of 
his first successful efforts his whole soul seemed fixed upon 
a single object. His mind was absorbed in the fascinating 
art; he would read nothing which did not tend to that point. 
He seldom conversed except upon the favorite topic; the 
company of playfellows became tedious; and from that period 
to the present, he has been the associate of men only of 
men from whom he could derive information. It is almost 
needless to say that he was now permitted to pursue unre- 
strained the object of his aim. In Charleston, he received 
every encouragement which could be expected, and soon be- 
came a favorite in the first circles. 

After his arrival in Boston, for eighteen months he enjoyed 
the benefit of occasional instruction from his uncle, Washing- 
ton Allston. From this time his commencement as an artist 
may be dated. His family was then residing in Charleston; 
the gentleman, under whose care he had been, soon left this 
country; his uncle lived in Cambridge; and thus situated, 
without consultation, he opened his room in Graphic Court, 
and boldly commenced his career in the world as a portrait 
painter. 



FLAGG AND HIS PATRON 261 

In Boston he experienced all the kindness and hospitality 
for which her enlightened inhabitants have been so long dis- 
tinguished. Here, also, he became a favorite, and met with 
all the patronage that could be desired. After eighteen months' 
residence hi Boston, he proceeded to New Haven, where he is 
now residing with his family. He has been established in that 
place for more than a year, persevering with the same zeal 
and industry which marked the commencement of his career. 
His portraits have already attained for him a name without 
relation to his age, and he has recently finished an original 
design from Shakespeare's "Richard III." which we under- 
stand will be brought out at an ensuing exhibition. 

It is a representation of the murder of the Princes in the 
Tower.* 

Mr. Allston writes to me, "My nephew, G. Flagg, was with 
me a few weeks since. He has met with a most munificent 
patron munificent for any country. f Not a quid pro quo 
patron, as I suppose you know. That boy, if I mistake not, 
will do great things one of these days. A great thing in his 
favor is, that his heart is as good as his head." 

*The slightest incidents in the life of one who has attracted public notice sometimes 
become interesting; at least to those whose pursuits are similar to his. 

We shall here digress for a moment, to relate an anecdote of this young gentleman, 
which may seem to give some idea of character, and is in keeping with the fact just 
mentioned. 

When but twelve years old, while bathing in the Sampit, one of his companions, 
who could not swim, ventured beyond his depth; he sunk in the presence of a number of 
men, who were at too great a distance to render assistance and could only stand as 
spectators, petrified by the awful scene. An exclamation of agony burst from the boys 
he plunged into the river with perfect coolness, and after a violent exertion of 
strength directed with skill and courage, succeeded in bringing the little sufferer safe 
on shore; upon landing, he fell exhausted, and was soon after extremely ill. It may 
not be unworthy of remark, that he was not the herald of this fact to his parents, or to 
any other person. 

tThe patron here mentioned, is LUMAN REED, Esq., of New York, who is, indeed, a 
munificent patron of art and artists. He has justly appreciated young Flagg, who 
under his direction, and supported at his expense, has, within these few days, embarked 
for Europe to complete his studies as an artist. 

Mr. Reed has built a large picture gallery, which, that it may have a proper light, 
is at the top of his house in Greenwich Street. There already may be seen some of the 
unrivalled landscapes of Cole, and the same artist is employed in painting several more 
for him. Mr. Reed has likewise given a commission for an historical picture to Mr. 
Morse, which will be executed, at least in part, this winter. To our princely mer- 
chants, Lurnan Reed, Esq. has set an example of a mode of expending the gifts of for- 
tune very different from the ostentatious displays of the dining or the drawing room. 



262 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

JOHN CRANCH E. SHUMWAY. 

Mr. Cranch, the son of the Hon. William Cranch, judge of 
the district court, Washington city, was born on the 2d of 
February 1807, and graduated at the Columbian College in 
1826; at which time he recited a poem of his own composition 
on painting. He devoted himself to the art, and received 
instructions from Messrs. King, Harding and Sully. He com- 
menced painting portraits at Washington in 1829, but, desirous 
of improvement, went to Italy in 1830. He was a short time 
in Rome, but, with other strangers, was ordered away as one 
of the friends of liberty. He went to Florence and resided 
until July 1832, then visiting Venice and again returning to 
Florence. Mr. Cranch has recently (1834) returned home, with 
a determination of testing his skill by the composition of an 
original composition, to be executed this winter. May success 
attend his efforts. 

Mr. Shumway stands in the foremost rank of the miniature 
painters of New York. He had the good fortune to be born on 
the most auspicious day in the year for an American, the 
Fourth of July, 1808. His birthplace is Middletown, Con- 
necticut. Mr. Shumway was intended by his friends for the 
store or the counting house; but, like many others, chose a 
path for himself, and happily has no cause to repent the choice. 
He came to New York in 1827, and entered as a student in the 
National Academy of Design. In 1829 he commenced painting 
professionally, and soon produced works which are honorable 
to himself and to the institution which aided his progress. 1 

E. D. MARCHANT. 

This gentleman has exhibited several portraits of superior 
merit in the gallery of the National Academy, and one or two 
groups entitling him to praise in composition. Of prepossessing 
manners and undoubted abilities, he must succeed in the 
profession he has chosen. 2 

1 Shumway was painting miniatures as late as 1833. 

1 Edward D. Marchant was born in Edgartown, Mass., December 16, 1806, and 
died at Asbury Park, N. J., August 15, 1887. He painted in the West about 1843 and 
afterwards in Philadelphia for many years. 



A PAINTER OF RUSTIC SCENES 263 

WILLIAM SIDNEY MOUNT. 

This young artist, who has dispayed uncommon talent both 
in fancy pictures or compositions of figures, generally rustic 
and comic, and at the same time in portrait painting, was born 
at Setauket, Long Island, on the 26th of November, 1807. 
At the age of seven he lost his father, a substantial yeoman 
cultivating his own farm, and "to the age of seventeen," he 
has said, "I was a hard working farmer's boy." An older 
brother at this time, 1824, sent for him to New York, and 
took him as an apprentice to sign painting. This brother, 
H. S. Mount, was above the ordinary standard of that occupa- 
tion, and William strove to excel him. He eagerly sought and 
examined pictures, and West's "Madness of Lear" and 
"Ophelia" led him to study composition. His selecting these 
from among the pictures exhibited in the same place is a proof 
of his discriminating eye and correct taste. 

In 1826, he entered as a student in the National Academy of 
Design. In 1827 he gave up the occupation of sign painting, 
and for the improvement of his health, returned to his first 
occupation, the culture of the earth on the paternal soil; 
but painting could not be forgotten. In 1828 he painted his 
first picture a portrait of himself: and in 1829 he com- 
menced professionally in New York as a portrait painter. But 
he evinced talents of a higher order, and soon produced his first 
composition picture, "The daughter of Jairus," at the annual 
exhibition of the academy of which he was a student. This 
attracted much attention. A rustic dance followed at the next 
exhibition, still better than his previous pictures, and showing 
that he had found the path in which he was destined to excel. 

Mr. Mount continued to study the antique at the National 
Academy of Design, and to advance rapidly hi his career. 
His portraits had progressive merit as well as his composition 
pictures, most of which were humorous or rustic. In 1833, 
at the annual exhibition of the National Academy at Clinton 
Hall, he produced his full-length portrait of Bishop Onder- 
donk, which elicited a universal burst of applause, and a just 
tribute of admiration from connoisseurs and artists. 



264 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

A constant attention and indefatigable application to draw- 
ing, from the time he first entertained hopes of becoming a 
painter to the present time, a profound study of such speci- 
mens of coloring as fell in his way, with a devotedness which 
has led him to the occupation of those hours, even of the night, 
which many waste in frivolity, to the practice and study of 
designing, has already been rewarded by skill of an uncom- 
mon grade, and must lead to future eminence in his exalted 
profession. 

Mr. Mount's health has not been unproved by changing 
the occupation of an agriculturist for that of a painter. In 
every other respect his prospects are highly encouraging. 
From personal knowledge I can speak of him as a young man 
of the best principles. Such talents as he has evinced, united 
with probity and industry, must carry him triumphantly 
through life. 

The last works he has exhibited at Clinton Hall, are a 
group of the table after dinner, very admirable, and a yeoman 
husking corn in the field, still more so. 

I was much pleased to receive the spontaneous eulogium of 
a much better judge than myself in a letter of August 1834, 
from Mr. Allston; he says: 

"I saw some pictures in the Athenaeum (Boston) last year, 
by a young man of your city Mount which showed great 
power of expression. He has, too, a firm, decided pencil, and 
seems to have a good notion of the figure. If he would study 
Ostade and Jan Steen, especially the latter, and master their 
color and chiaroscuro, there is nothing, as I see, to prevent 
his becoming a great artist in the line he has chosen. " 1 

JAMES FREEMAN DUNCAN FERGUSON M. C. TORREY 

-ANDREW RICHARDSON. 

Mr. Freeman was thrown upon his own resources at a very 
early age. He was born at Grand Passage, Nova Scotia 
(whither his parents had removed from the United States), in 
the year 1810. At the age of eight he was brought to Otsego 

William Sidney Mount died in New York City in 1868. 




WILLIAM PAGE 

1811-1885 
AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRADY 

From the collection of the Macbeth Galleries, New York 



MINOR MENTION 265 

County, N. Y. Through difficulties and hardships he made 
his way to the city of New York, to gain instruction in drawing 
and painting. He applied to me for that purpose in 1826, 
and received freely such as I could give. I have always de- 
clined taking a pupil, but never refused my advice or instruc- 
tion. He entered himself a student of the National Academy, 
and has worked his way to the honor of being an academician. 
He attracted much attention by exhibiting the head of an 
old Revolutionary soldier, hired to sit as a model. I remember 
Henry Inman saying, "I should be proud to be the painter of 
that head." Freeman has since painted larger pictures; but 
none better. It is in the possession of John I. Morgan, Esq. 
Mr. Freeman, with perseverance and the preservation of his 
good habits, must be an eminent painter. 

Mr. Ferguson was born in New York, the son of John 
Ferguson, Esq., at one time mayor of the city, and at his 
death, U. S. Naval officer. Duncan was the pupil of his brother- 
in-law, R. W. Weir, and a student of the National Academy. 
He has but recently commenced portrait painting, and has 
only to persevere and follow his teacher and he must succeed. 

Mr. Torrey is likewise a student of the National Academy 
of Design. I believe he is a native of New England. The 
last portrait I saw of his exhibition evinced a power that must 
lead with application to happy results. 1 

Mr. Richardson is an English gentleman, who has exhibited 
a number of landscapes at Clinton Hall. I am ignorant of his 
history. 

GEORGE W. TWIBILL WILLIAM PAGE. 
Mr. Twibill was born in the township of Lampetre, Dau- 
phine County, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The precise 
time of his coming to the city of New York, I do not know. 
Having chosen painting as his profession, he was for a short 
tune a pupil with Parissien (the third), but soon found a more 
efficient teacher in Henry Inman, with whom he placed him- 
self on the 10th of June, 1828. Mr. Twibill was soon a dis- 

1 Manassch Cutler Torrey, born in Salem, Mass., and a pupil of Henry Inman, painted 
portraits between 1831 and 1837. 



266 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

tinguished pupil of the National Academy of Design, of which 
he is now a member. 

In the year 1832, he commenced professionally, and distin- 
guished himself in a size of oil-colored portraits, too large to 
be called miniature, but below the size of life. His success 
has been satisfactory. He early married Miss O'Bryan, a sister 
of Mrs. Inman. Several of his full lengths of the above size, I 
have seen and admired. 

Mr. Page was born in Albany the 23d of January, 1811, 
of poor respectable parents. By aid of Dr. E. G. Durnell, he 
was placed as a pupil with Mr. James Herring in 1825, to 
learn the art of drawing and painting, and in 1826 became a 
pupil of Samuel F. B. Morse. He attended the National Acad- 
emy of Design, and in 1827 received a premium for drawing. 
The first picture he offered for exhibition was the only one 
rejected by the hangers of the National Academy of Design. 
His second was placed where it might not be noticed. But 
these failures stimulated his exertions he studied assiduously 
in the Academy, and at his easel, and in less than a year he 
brought for my inspection the head of a youth, so replete with 
beauty, that he was asked from what he had copied it. "From 
nature," and he produced the original. Mr. Page married the 
sister of Mr. Twibill, and is improving in his profession, both 
in historical and portrait painting. He has talents of uncom- 
mon strength. I have recently seen a specimen of mezzotinto 
engraving from a full length, small size, of Forrest the tragedian, 
which I think the best specimen of that mode of engraving, 
that an American artist has produced. The painting is by 
himself, from the life. 1 

JOHN BISBEE JOHN CRAWLEY, JR. ALBERT NEWSAM. 

These three gentlemen are good draughtsmen, and have 
devoted their time and talents to Lithography. 

Mr. Bisbee I remember as a student, assiduously drawing 
from the round, and with taste and judgment. 

Mr. Crawley is engaged at Endicott's and Swett's establish- 

1 William Page died at Tottenville, Staten Island, N. Y., October 1, 1885. 



LITHOGRAPHY 267 

ment, and I have seen some beautiful specimens of this mode 
of drawing by him. Lithography or drawing on stone, and 
taking impressions by the aid of acids, transferring innumer- 
able copies to paper, is a very useful invention, and tends 
to multiply pictures, many of them of a character which diffuses 
taste and facilitates the progress of art. When practised by a 
good designer its use is obvious. To be a good draughtsman 
on stone, requires the same study as to draw well on paper. 
It is a very pleasant occupation for females, and I have seen 
specimens from two young ladies, the daughters of Mr. Peter 
Maverick, deceased, which I thought ought to command for 
them an employment that would make them independent with 
common application. 

Mr. Newsam 1 is deaf and dumb, but endowed with much 
talent. I understand that he is the draughtsman of the litho- 
graphic prints, issued by Childs & Co. of Philadelphia.* 

THOMAS U. WALTER. 

Thomas U. Walter, architect, was born at Philadelphia in 
the year 1804. He served a regular apprenticeship to the 
trade of bricklaying and stone masonry with his father. During 
his apprenticeship he devoted his leisure hours to the study of 
architecture, having conceived a strong attachment to that 
art from his having been concerned in the capacity of brick- 
layer in the building of the bank of the United States, at Phila- 
delphia, a work in which his father was engaged as a master 
mason, and at which he labored with his own hands. He 
married in 1834. 

In the year 1825 Mr. Walter commenced business as a 
master bricklayer, still pursuing his favorite studies, which 
were greatly facilitated by a natural talent for drawing, and 

1 Albert Newsam, lithographer and engraver was born at Steubenville, Ohio, May 
20, 1809; died near Wilmington, Del., Nov. 20, 1864. He was an excellent draughts- 
man and produced a large number of drawings on stone and a few engravings. 

* The first lithographic establishment of which I have any knowledge was made 
amidst many difficulties by Mr. Imbert, of New York. They are now almost innumer- 
able throughout the United States. But however beautiful or perfect the plates are, 
the credit is transferred to the master of the establishment, and the artist is sunk. 
This must change. The artist must be announced, and must be the Master. 



268 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

an acquaintance with the science of mathematics. In the year 
1830 he became a pupil of William Strickland, Esq. under 
whose instructions he devoted his whole attention to the study 
of architecture and engineering for eighteen months. 

In the early part of the year 1832 the designs of Mr. Walter 
for the new county prison, at Philadelphia, were adopted, and 
committed to his charge for execution. This extensive estab- 
lishment is now almost completed, and presents a beautiful 
specimen of castellated architecture. 

Mr. Walter is also engaged as architect in the construction 
of the "Girard College for Orphans," at Philadelphia, a build- 
ing chaste and magnificent in design and elegant in execution, 
being a perfect example of the Grecian Corinthian order, the 
columns of which are each six feet in diameter, and more than 
55 feet in height, the portico when finished will extend around 
the whole building, and support an entablature and roof, all 
of which will be composed of white marble. 

Mr. Walter's designs for this establishment were adopted 
by the city councils in the early part of the year 1833, and on 
the succeeding fourth day of July, the cornerstone was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies. 

The Will's Hospital, for the relief of the indigent, blind, and 
lame, at Philadelphia, and several other public buildings are 
the work of this young artist. 

A. BRADISH. 

This gentleman resides at Geneva, State of New York, and 
I am assured has proved his talents as a portrait painter to the 
satisfaction of his employers. He has been invited to exercise 
his profession at Detroit, owing to his approved skill. I can 
only speak of him as an intelligent young man, full of enthusi- 
asm for his art, modest in his deportment, and esteemed most 
by those who know him best. 

S. WATSON J. SMILLIE CHRISTIAN MAYR. 
Mr. Watson is a gentleman who originally painted minia- 
tures in Edinburgh, but has devoted his talents to oil pictures, 
with success. He has exhibited an historical picture at Clinton 



SMILLIE FROM SCOTLAND 269 

Hall, of uncommon merit. Mr. Watson came to this country 
by way of Canada, with a view of retiring as an agriculturist. 

Mr. Smillie is a Scotch gentleman, who came to us likewise 
through Canada, he arrived in that province bringing with 
him an aged mother, but was much disappointed in that cold 
region. In New York he found difficulty at first in his search 
for employment, and was on the point of returning, when Mr. 
Weir invited him to his house, and engaged him to engrave 
from his picture of the Convent Gate. This led to an intro- 
duction to Durand, who gave him employment, and Mr. 
Smillie's talents once known, secured him a succession of em- 
ployers and an establishment to his wishes. Removing his 
parent to our city, he has taken a wife, and is among our most 
esteemed artists. A plate in one of the annuals (called the 
Equinoctial Storm) by Hatch and Smillie, is of exceeding 
beauty, and several of Smillie's steel plates have deservedly 
attracted public attention. 

Mr. Mayr is a German artist, and has shown much talent 
as a portrait painter. He is said to work with great rapidity. 
I have seen some groups of his painting which have a merit 
that must secure him success in his profession. 

FREEMAN RAWDON. 

Freeman Rawdon, line engraver and designer, is the first 
partner in the well-known firm of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch 
& Co., New York. He was born in Tolland, Connecticut, 
in 1804. Mr Rawdon's first efforts were under the direction 
of a brother, an engraver at Albany. Mr. Rawdon's success 
in designing and executing vignettes gained him the employ- 
ment of the Commercial Bank at Albany. His powers and 
skill, my informant says, were tested with those of Gideon 
Fairman by the New York Canal Company, and he gained 
their employment; and in it executed a design emblematic of 
the union of the lake waters with the Atlantic, much to their 
satisfaction and his credit. Mr. Rawdon removed to New 
York, and has established the present firm of Rawdon, Wright, 
Hatch & Co. whose works are too well known to call for eulogium. 



270 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

CONCLUSION. 

Collections of Pictures. In our extensive country these are 
so far asunder, and my knowledge of them so imperfect, that 
I fear my readers may exclaim, as it regards my account of 
them, "0 lame and impotent conclusion." 

I am conscious that every branch of the tree I have endeav- 
ored to rear will be but as a limb for others to graft on: but 
each may hereafter be made to flourish and bear fruit by some 
more skilful horticulturist; but to leave metaphors for the 
plain and simple language of truth, at which I hope I am more 
worth, I mean not to waste words in apologies for the imper- 
fections of my account of the collections of pictures in the 
country, but to tell all I know, and leave to others, who are 
interested in the subject, the pleasure of making it more perfect. 

As the first painter in point of time, of whom I have any 
knowledge, John Watson, was found at my native place, Perth 
Amboy, so there was the first collection of pictures I have 
heard of; and what it was in magnitude or merit is only known 
by faint and obscure tradition. This existed in 1725. Smibert's 
collection is the second that I can discover through the mists 
of time, and that, like the first, so indistinctly, as to be little 
more than a name. The date of this is 1728. Of the Hamilton 
collection we have more positive knowledge. It is mentioned 
in the biography of West. A Murillo is there spoken of, and 
it is certain there were other good pictures, but I have no record 
of them. We may date this collection from 1730 to 40. I have 
spoken of Trumbull's collection of pictures exhibited in the 
Park Theatre, 1804-5. These were principally wotks of old 
masters, which the tempestuous waves of the French Revolu- 
tion threw into his hands, and with them was exhibited his 
own splendid painting of the "Sortie," now in the Athenaeum 
of Boston.* This collection of old pictures was returned to 

* Until my biography of Mr. Trumbull was printed, I had not seen the work from 
which the following extracts are made, although published in London in 1825. The 
coincidence of opinions is striking, as it respects the "Sortie" particularly. 
"ARTS AND ARTISTS, Vol. 3. p. 199. 

"Mr. Trumbull, although an American, studied and pursued his profession for a 
long time in this country. He is now President of the New York Academy, and is the 



AMERICAN COLLECTIONS 271 

Europe, and remains there. The Steer collection I have made 
inquiry after; and Robert Gilmor, Esq. of Baltimore, gives me 
this account: "With respect to the Rubens pictures (as you 
call them) I, perhaps, can give you better information than 
most people, as the principal descendant of Rubens (whose 
private cabinet descended to his heirs, and was afterwards 
divided among them), was Mr. Steer of Antwerp, who came 
to this country when the French entered Holland, and brought 
out with him the greater part of the cabinet which remained in 
the family, comprising several fine heads by Van Dyck, Rubens, 
etc. Mr. George Calvert, of Bladensburg, married his daughter, 
and could give you further details. The pictures were boxed up, 
in Annapolis, for years, and were only once opened, I believe, 
to be aired. Stuart went there on purpose to see them, and 
admired them much. Mr. Steer afterwards built the present 
elegant residence of Mr. Calvert, near Bladensburg, and re- 
moved the pictures there, some of which were hung up in the 
rooms. After the peace of Amiens, or rather, I believe, after 
the revolution in Holland, returned he to Antwerp, carrying 
his pictures with him, which were afterwards divided in the 
family. The famous portrait by Rubens, called the Chapeau 
de paille, which belonged to the collection, never was brought 
to America, but was concealed at Antwerp, and as it could not 
be divided, it was sold at auction in the family, and Mr. Steer as 
the eldest representative of the family, was allowed to pur- 
chase it for fifty thousand francs; this I had from himself, in 
1818, when I was at Antwerp, and saw the picture in his 
possession, as well as such of the other pictures as fell to his 
share. Mr. Calvert has two or three Flemish pictures left to 

person whom Congress have employed to paint a series of pictures connected with 
certain events of the American Revolution. They are among the greatest and most 
unaccountable failures of the age: the President may not be superannuated, but these 
pictures are. It is a great pity : every lover of the art must grieve to see the first efforts 
of a young country so unhappily misdirected. There were several painters in America, 
who would have made a magnificent affair of that which is handled like a tapestry 
weaver by Mr. Trumbull. Yet Mr. Trumbull was a man of considerable power. 
His well-known 'Sortie of Gibraltar,' the original sketch of which has lately been 
exhibited at the Suffolk Street exhibition, was a very fine picture; but worth, it is 
true, everything else he has ever done. His portraits are no great things : they are bold 
and strong, but all of a family." 



272 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

him by Mr. Steer, but they are not of extraordinary merit." 
Portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds have occasionally reached 
our shores. I remember one in the Farmer family, formerly of 
Perth Amboy: a beautiful head of Major Jasper Farmer when 
a youth. Mr. Gilmor mentions "A portrait of old Mr. Carroll, 
by Reynolds, painted when he was in England; but it is much 
faded. There are also several portraits by Sir Joshua, at Tulip 
Hill, West River, the seat of the Galloways, now belonging to 
Virgil Rexey, Esq. solicitor of the treasury." In Annapolis, 
Baltimore, and other parts of Maryland, rich collections of 
pictures are to be found. My limited means, and still more 
limited health, have not allowed me to explore or examine 
these treasures. Mr. Gilmor says, "Mr. Caton has two pic- 
tures by Lawrence, and one by West (the Kentuckian). Mr. 
James Hoffman has a portrait by Lawrence, one by Phillips, 
and one by Newton. Mr. Riddell has a portrait also by Sir 
Thomas." The same liberal gentleman, Mr. Robert Gilmor, 
has, at my request, sent me a catalogue of his valuable collec- 
tion, which I give. 

List of some of the Pictures in the Collection of Robert Gilmor, of Baltimore. 

The finding of Moses, a large painting on canvas, brought into Philadelphia by the 
French emigrants at the commencement of the Revolution. It belonged to Savage 
the artist. Nicholas Poussin. 

A scene on the river Wye, at Amsterdam. Ludolph Backhuysen. 

A Fruit Piece, one of his best works. John David Latteem. 

Two Battle Pieces, brought into Baltimore by Groombridge. Borgognone. 

A small Landscape. Wynants. 

The Geographer, a highly finished picture of the Master. Ary de Voys. 

A Gentleman holding a Watch. A small Portrait, exquisitely finished, and sent here 
by one of the first connoisseurs in Holland. Ary de Voys. 

A Card Party. The principal figure a lady, with her back towards the spectator. This 
is one of the finest specimens of the master to be found in any collection, and in 
admirable preservation. Selected by the same connoisseur. Terburgh. 

A Garden Scene, with statuary, flowers, and animals. A brilliant picture, selected by 
the same connoisseur. John Weeninx. 

A Roman Charity. Selected by the same. Mechel. 

The Smokers. An engraved picture. A. V. Ostade. 

The Sailor. A fine specimen. Both of these selected by the same connoisseur. A. 
V. Ostade. 

The Scalded Boy. Selected by the same. Front Halls. 

Nymphs flagellating a Satyr. Vertangen. 

A Calm. William Vandevelde. 

His own Portrait (full-sized, half-length), holding a lighted candle. This and the fol- 
lowing pictures were part of a case of pictures sent by a gentleman in France to his 



THE GILMOR COLLECTION 273 

brother in New Orleans; but being shipwrecked on the coast of Cuba, was sold there 
to an American Captain at auction, and brought into Charleston, where it was pur- 
chased for Mr. G. Schalcken. 

A Vase of Flowers, equal to Van Huysum. The frame is ornamented with bees, which 
would authorize Jhe supposition that it had once been Bonaparte's. Abraham 
Mignon. 

A Portrait of one of the Family. Gilbert Stuart. 

Another Portrait of one of the Family. Jarvis. 

Two Portraits of the Family. Sir Thomas Lawrence. 

View on the Rhine. J. Vandermeer. 

View of Haarlem, his native place. Jacob Ruysdael. 

View of the Leeshore at Scheveling. Do. 

Small Landscape. Do. 

Cattle and Sheep, in a sunny Landscape. Omegank. 

Landscape, with Cattle. Vander Leeuw. 

Moonlight View on a canal in Holland. Vander Neer. 

Evening Scene on a river, with Cattle (engraved) . Albert Cuyp. 

View of the Lake of Nemi, near Rome. Richard Wilson. 

A Convent at Venice. Do. 

River Scene, in the style of Salvator Rosa. Pillement. 

The Custom House at Venice. Canaletti. 

Adoration of St. Francis. Antonio Balestra. 

A Lady in her Chamber, in conversation with her Cook. G. Metszu. 

A Miniature Salvator Mundi, on copper. A. Van Dyck. 

Two half-length portraits of a Lady and Gentleman. These pictures came from Spain 
to Mr. H. Hill, of Philadelphia: they had been seventy years in the family. A. 
Van Dyck. 

A Pair of Pictures; a Carousal and a Fair. Mischau. 

Sea-shore at Schevelinge, with numerous figures (engraved). Van Goyen. 

Scene in Hyde Park, got of Groombridge. George Barrett. 

A Mill near Baltimore, painted as a pendant to the preceding. Groombridge. 

Still Life and Fruit. Raphael Peale. 

A Slice of Water Melon. Sarah Peale. 

Fruit. James Peale. 

A Dead Partridge; admirably finished. F. Wiebke. 

A Battle Piece. Bredael. 

A Hunting Scene. Old Wycke. 

Interior of the Church at Delft. Henry Van Vliet. 

The Augurs; engraved by Goupy. This fine picture was brought into New York by 
the Collector of the Revenue about seventy or eighty years ago; was sold at his 
death, and bought by an old picture dealer and frame maker, who kept it for many 
years, and finally sold it to Mr. G. in 1804. Salvator Rosa. 

A Magdalen. Michael Angela da Caravaggio. 

Full-length Portrait of William III. when Prince of Orange. Smallsizp. JasparNestcher. 

A Bunch of Lilac. Van Pol. 

Portrait of a Lady; small size. P. van Slingelandt. 

A rich Scene, representing the Elements; finished very highly. Came from the collec- 
tion of the Prince de Mionaco. Breughcll and Van Balen. 

Two small River Scenes. Everdingen. 

Lot and his Daughters; formerly Mr. Bingham's. F. Bischay. 

Upright Land<cape, with Bathers. Zuccarelli. 

Imitation of Bronze. Sauvage. 

Portrait of himself, with a drinking glass. D. Teniert. 

Judith and Holofernes. The figures are portraits of himself, his wife, and his mother. 
This picture is in fine preservation: It was brought from Paris to London by Col. 



274 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Trumbull, and is mentioned in Buchanan's list. D. Teniers. 
Small Portrait of a Nobleman; formerly belonging to Wertmiiller. Holbein. 
Portrait of a Gentleman: small. Metsu. 
View on a Swiss Lake. Sachtleven. 

The Holy Family reposing in Egypt: From Da Hante's collection. Rubens. 
A very fine copy of Raphael's picture in the Louvre, painted for Francis I. Mignard. 
Two Portraits, male and female. De Grayer. 

Portrait of Mr. Coke, Chamberlain to George I. Sir Godfrey Kneller. 
Portrait of a Gentleman. Govert Flinck. 
Small Portraits of Grotius and his Wife. Meervelt. 
Fisherman's Hut. Morland. 

A Dutch Market: Large and finely colored. Snyders and Lang Jan. 
The Broken Pitcher; engraved by the artist. T. Barker, of Bath. 
A Landscape. Ruysdal Barker. 
Three Pictures, with Cattle. Rosa di Tivoli. 
Three fine Landscapes. Thomas Cole. 

Interior of a Kitchen, equal to Gerard Douw. Martin Zorp. 
Small Landscape. Hobbima. 

A fine Head of a Monk; formerly Mr. Meade's. Velasquez. 
Sick Beggar Boy: sent by the Dutch Connoisseur. Geernaut. 
Portrait of a Lady, with a Veil. Maes. 
Landscape. Wm. G. Wall. 
River Scene. A. Waterlo. 
Portrait of a Child. G. Stuart Newton. 
Architecture. Van Delon. 
Repose in Egypt. A fine picture, sent him by Greenough from Florence. Francisco 

Albano. 
One of the Heads in the cartoon of Ananias, in Fresco, from the collection of the Corsi- 

glore Galignani at Salerno; afterwards belonged to Rigaud, the R. A. and brought 

to New York by a gentleman sixteen years ago. N. B. The letters of Rigaud the 

son, and of Bacon the scuptor, go to support its claim to originality. Raphael. 
Portrait of Miss Kelly, in Julia. Sully. 

All the preceding are undoubtedly original. There are about 130 not mentioned, 
being either by the same masters, or of doubtful character, or not of sufficient im- 
portance to be thus noticed. 
A large landscape, with grand Architecture. Brought from France by Vandeilyn for 

Col. Burr, and sold at Mr. Aster's sale. Francisco Mitte. 
View of the Plautian Tomb at Tivoli. Verboom. 
Boys at Play. Imitation of bas relief. Jacques de Witt. 
Nymphs Bathing. Two pictures. Poelemberg. 

An English Actor in a Spanish Dress; unfinished. Robert Edge Pine. 
Portrait of the Marquis of Buckingham in his robes, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

Trumbull. 

A Party Carousing. Brower. 
Italian Architectural Piece. Berkheyden. 
Satyr and Nymphs. B. Groat. 

Himself and his Wife eating a Pie. Sent by the Dutch connoisseur. Jan Steen. 
Poultry. Sent by the same. Hondekoeter. 
Game Cocks Fighting. A fine specimen. Brought from Europe by Accambal, the 

French consul, thirty years ago. Hondekoeter. 

Portrait of Washington; painted for me two years before his death. Gilbert Stuart. 
St. Francis. Cigoli. 
Several Landscapes by Thos. Doughty. 
Old Woman pouring Water out of a Pitcher from a Window. Equal to G. Douw. 

Van Tol. 



OTHER COLLECTIONS 275 

A very fine Landscape, with Cattle; brought from France by a gentleman of Boston. 
It is engraved by La Bas Martini. N. Berchem. 
Seattle's Minstrel. Washington Allston, 

Besides other works of art, Mr. Gilmor possesses Greenough's Statue of Byron's 
Medora, said to be of exquisite workmanship. 

The collection of Joseph Bonaparte is noted under the biog- 
raphy of Thomas Sully, with his remarks on some of the 
pictures. Mr. Sully 's notice of Abram's collection is better 
than anything I can say on the subject, and is before given. 
Ward, of London, sent out a collection, which was exhibited 
with loss. But it is impossible, perhaps would be useless, to 
specify the many collections of paintings brought out from 
Europe for exhibition. Mr. Michael Paff has long possessed a 
valuable collection, which varies with the sales and purchases 
he makes; but he retains many that he justly values beyond 
the price which every day purchasers can give. Among these 
I may specify his "Magdalen," by Carlo Dolce; but so much 
superior to any Carlo Dolce within my limited knowledge, that 
I would fain attribute it to a higher source. 

The collection made by Richard Meade, Esq. when in 
Spain, now, as I believe, in the possession of Governeur Kemble, 
Esq. of Cold Spring, is extensive, and possesses many valuable 
pictures by old masters. The original marble bust, by Ceracchi, 
and other works of art, are attached to this collection. Miss 
Douglass, of New York, has a well-selected collection of 
European and American pictures the old masters are said 
to be good. 

In 1830 a collection was exhibited in Barclay Street, which 
possessed many undoubted originals of a high order. A Family 
Group, by Rubens, and another by Reynolds, were jewels, in 
my opinion; while some of Carlo Dolce's sunk into insignifi- 
cance. 

The collection of Doctor Hosack is extensive and valuable, 
I can only enumerate a part. - - "A Madonna and Child, by 
Correggio copy of La Belle Jardiniere of Raphael, with vari- 
ations copy of ' Madonna and Child,' from Van Dyck two 
beautiful small Landscapes, near Bath small Sketches of 
Lambderg and Golchossa ' Our Saviour blessing little Chil- 



276 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

dren' the 'Woman taken in Adultery' the 'Knighting of 
Wilton' and a full length of Washington, small size 'St. John 
and Lamb,' a copy 'Contemplation' the 'Falls of Niag- 
ara' all by Trumbull. Several of T. Cole's fine Landscapes; 
and many Portraits, by Stuart, Trumbull, Jarvis, Vanderlyn, 
Sully, Ingham, Dunlap, Wood, and Sharpies." 

The catalogue of the collection of Philip Hone, Esq. I give, as 
furnished by him at my request. 

COLLECTION OF PHILIP HONE, ESQ. OF NEW YORK 

1. Anne Page, Slender and Shallow. By Leslie. 

Shallow. Mistress Anne, my cousin loves you. 

Slender. Ay! that I do, as well as I love any woman in Gloucestershire. 

Shal. He will maintain you like a gentlewoman. 

Slen. Ay, that I will, come cut and long tail, under the degree of a squire. 

Shal. He will make you a hundred and fifty pounds jointure. 

Anne. Good Master Shallow, let him woo for himself. 

Merry Wives of Windsor, act iii, scene 4. 

2. The Dull Lecture. By G. Stuart Newton. 

These two pictures are among the best productions of the distinguished artists 
whose names they bear. I am of opinion there is nothing in this country by either of 
them equal to the above. Connoisseurs are divided in their opinion of their respective 
merits; each possessing the peculiar beauties of the painter's style, renders it difficult 
to determine which is best. I certainly hold them in equal estimation. Leslie's is one 
of the most beautifully finished pictures I ever saw; its details are admirable, and 
Shakespeare himself did not tell his story more eloquently than does this graphical 
and fascinating representation of one of his best scenes. 

The peculiar excellence of the "Dull Lecture" consists in its brilliant coloring, and 
the beautiful effects of light and shade; in which I consider it superior to the "Anne 
Page. " The figures are fully equal to those in that picture; and there is a quaint ness in 
the furniture and decorations of the room admirably adapted to the subject. Newton 
is a more dashing painter, and the general effect of his picture is finer than that of his 
accomplished rival; but it is not equal in finish and accuracy of detail. 

3. The Greek Girl, a beautiful little picture, by G. Stuart Newton: full of expres- 
sion, and colored in his best style. 

4. The Greek Youth. Painted by Weir, as a companion to the foregoing. One of 
his happiest efforts, and suffering nothing by a comparison with its Companion. 

5. La Baretta; also by Weir; of the same size as last. The subject was suggested 
by the Greek Girl, and the costume imitated from that picture, which was much 
admired and studied by Mr. Weir. 

6. Portrait of Rubens; copied from the original by Rembrandt Peale, and, in my 
opinion, an excellent picture. 

7. Little Boy and Bird's Nest, altered from one of the Cherubs in Correggio's Dunae, 
by Mr. Peale. 

8. Le Billet Doux, a spirited picture, by Le Co2ur, a French artist, painted in 1829. 

9. Domestic Happiness, by T. Clater, 1828. A fine representation of an English 
Cottager and his Wife and Children: drawn with great spirit, and superior in coloring 
to any of the works I have seen of this artist. 

10. The Water Gap on the Delaware River, by T. Doughty. The mountains, like 
all of this artist, very fine; but the outline, in some parts, is very hard, and the water 
not sufficiently transparent. 



THE HONE COLLECTION 277 

11. View of Ravensheuch Castle, on the Firth of Forth; by Thomson, of Dudding- 
tone, the Scottish Claude. This view was taken for me under the direction of a friend 
in Edinburgh. 

12. The Still Lake Catskill Mountain. 

13. The Falls of the Kauters Kill Catskill Mountain. 

These two splendid Landscapes are among the early productions of Cole, and were 
painted, I believe, before he removed to New York. They represent the magnificence 
of American Forest Scenery with the truth and force which characterize all the works 
of this truly American artist. 

14. View of the Black River. 

15. Passaic Falls, New Jersey. 

16. The Sugar Loaf Mountain, county of Wicklow, Ireland. 

17. View on the Jacondaga River. 

The four last are water-color drawings, by Wall, whose productions in water color 
have always been distinguished by delicacy and correctness. 

18. Castel a Mare. Bay of Naples. By Bennett. A water-color piece drawn from 
a sketch made by him on the spot, and among the best of the good things which he has 
produced;. 

19. Original Sketch of Lafayette, by Morse. A study for the full-length portrait 
painted for the corporation, and now in the Governor's room, City Hall. 

20. Portrait of Chancellor Kent, by Morse. 

21. Portrait of Thorwaldsen, the celebrated sculptor; an original, taken for me 
by Mr. Morse. A fine picture, and said to be a perfect likeness. 

22. Sketch by Mr. Dunlap, which served as a study for the principal figure in his 
great picture of "Calvary." 

23. View on the Hudson River, above West Point, by Hoyle. 

24. Portrait of a Girl, as Hebe, by Newton. One of his early productions painted 
in Boston, before he went to England. 

25. A fine copy, by Vanderlyn, of the Female Figure in the foreground of Raphael's 
Transfiguration. 

26. Portrait/of De^Witt Clinton, by Ingham, taken about fifteen years ago. A 
capital picture: the best likeness, and, I think, the only good one extant, of this illustri- 
ous man. 

48. A Greek, an'original portrait, by Miss Stuart, formerly owned by the Rev. Dr. 
Wainwright. 

The above are all the works of artists now living, and I do not know of a finer 
collection of modern pictures. I have several old pictures, some of which are dignified 
by the names of celebrated painters; but I do not esteem them sufficiently to induce 
me to furnish you with a catalogue. P. H. 

Feb. 10th, 1834. 

The collection of Gulian C. Verplanck, Esq. at Fishkill, is 
extensive and valuable. Charles Hall, Esq. has a fine collec- 
tion; and among them several pictures by Alvan Fisher. 
Robert Donaldson, Esq. has several by Leslie. Myndert 
Van Schaick, Esq. has Allston's "Rebecca at the Well," 
among many others. James Renwick, Esq. has a rich col- 
lection. Henry Carey, Esq. has several pictures by the old 
masters (Both, Guido, Peter Neifs the elder, Gerard Douw); 
and a few pictures by moderns (Doughty, Weir, etc.). 

T. Dixon, Esq. has a collection of modern pictures; among 



278 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

them many landscapes by Wall. P. Flandin, Esq. has several 
good pictures. Francis Winthrop, Esq. of New Haven, has 
Allston's sketch of "The Angel releasing St. Peter"; and several 
pictures by Krimmel. James Hilhouse, Esq. of New Haven, 
has a collection, among which are several landscapes by Cole. 
Of the collections at Boston I can say nothing, from my ignor- 
ance, only that the Athenaeum possesses a rich treasure. The 
Trumbull Gallery, at New Haven, is noticed under his bio- 
graphical sketch. The collection of Luman Reed, Esq. of 
Greenwich Street, already is rich in works of modern art; and 
his munificent spirit is enriching it daily from the pencils of 
Cole, Morse, and other prominent artists. Governeur Kemble, 
Esq. has a number of valuable paintings, ancient and modern. 

Mich. Paff, Esq. of New York, has not only been an industri- 
ous and successful collector of paintings, but has a very great 
and valuable collection of prints valuable many of them for 
their antiquity, and most of them for their intrinsic merit. 
Mr. Paff has rivals in this latter branch of the collector's avoca- 
tion in Mr. John Allen, likewise of New York, who possesses 
treasures of the works of the engraver, and Mr. Ithiel Town, 
whose splendid library I have noticed, has likewise a magnificent 
collection of prints. Hereafter, if this work shall be found to 
interest the public, some younger lover of the Arts of Design 
may add the names of artists, friends to art, and collectors of 
works of art, which have escaped the view of an aged valetu- 
dinarian. 

George P. Morris, Esq. editor and proprietor of the New 
York Mirror, deserves our notice and thanks as a friend of 
artists, and the arts of design. By the engravings which orna- 
ment this popular work, taste is propagated, and the study of 
the fine arts in all their branches encouraged. In the very 
expensive plate of "The Presidents," portrait painters and the 
first engravers were employed at liberal prices. The designs of 
several artists in landscapes and other subjects have done honor 
to the country, and added reputation to those employed. 

Notwithstanding the gratitude due to those who bring us 
the works of the old masters, I cannot but feel, as a living 



CONCLUSION 279 

artist, that the collectors of the pictures and statues executed by 
their contemporaries, and those who otherwise give them en- 
couragement and employment, are more entitled to praise 
than any purchaser of the works of bygone days. In this point 
of view I think Dr. Hosack, James Fenimore Cooper, Philip 
Hone, George P. Morris, Luman Reed, G. C. Verplanck, and 
many others, more entitled to thanks in these pages, than any 
collector of the works of antiquity, without denying the utility 
of such collections or their effect upon art. 

I have endeavored to show the progress of the Arts of 
Design in the colonies of Great Britain, slowly feeling their 
way amidst the darkness of ignorance; and their rapid advance 
as soon as those colonies had become an independent empire, 
governed by republican principles. I have traced the arts from 
a dependent infancy, feeble and tottering, to that state of ma- 
turity which corresponds with the political state of the country 
and its unparelleled growth in knowledge and power. Within 
the short space of one man's life we see arts which were un- 
known, successfully taught and practised throughout the wide 
extent of the republic, and in regions which were unexplored by 
civilized man within half a century. 

However discursive I have been in this work, I have had 
but one object in view: to show the steps by which the arts 
that place the civilized man so far above the savage, not only 
in power, but enjoyment, have arisen in America, to a level 
with those of any community now in existence and to an 
attentive reader I have shown that they are not at a stand, 
but are on the way to a much higher state of excellence. 

I have traced the progress of architecture from that period 
in which if a building was intended for anything more than 
mere shelter from the elements, its plan, and even the materials 
of which it was to be constructed, were necessarily imported 
from Europe, to that, in which our cities and villages are 
adorned with edifices towering in splendor and replete with 
taste in their design, from the plans of native artists: of 
painting, from the time when, if a father, a husband or a friend 
wished the portrait of one he loved, he must wait the arrival 



280 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

of an artist from Europe, to that, in which skilful painters 
abound in every district of our country: of engraving, from 
the rude scratching of figures on type metal, which told their 
meaning by labels proceeding from their mouths, to that, in 
which Danforth worthily multiplies the works of Leslie, and 
Durand astonishes the European, who, when looking at his 
plates, is told that the artist who rivals any in the world, has 
never crossed the Atlantic. 

I have written in good faith, with a full belief that the Arts 
of Design are necessary to the well-being of man; and that to 
encourage them and their students and professors is a good 
work. I will conclude my conclusion with the words of Richard- 
son (one of the earliest English writers on the arts) as they 
appear to me very much to the purpose: "After all, it must be 
confessed that the arts I have been discoursing of are not 
so necessary to human life as some others; mankind might 
indeed subsist without them. Ours is a mixed state, divided 
between struggling to avoid or to get rid of pain, and positive 
enjoyment: one is driving Hannibal out of Italy the other 
making foreign conquests: the one seems to be superinduced 
upon the Fall, the other, what was originally intended for us, 
in Paradise: and accordingly there are arts and employments 
subservient to us in each of these circumstances; the first kind 
are absolutely necessary, the other not. 

"Let those necessary ones boast of that necessity; they are 
ministerial to us only as wretched beings; whereas painting 
and sculpture are of the foremost in the number of those 
adapted to a state of innocence and joy : they are not necessary 
to our being; brutes and savage men subsist without them: 
but to our happiness as rational creatures, they are absolutely 
so." 



ADDENDA 

List of Painters, Sculptors, Architects and Engravers working in 
this country before 1835 and not previously mentioned in this work. 

A few notes in the following list are printed as given in the "appen- 
dix" to the first edition. These are indicated by the addition of 
the initial "D" in brackets. With these exceptions the "appendix" 
has been entirely re-written by the editors who have contributed 
nearly the whole of the text of this division of the book. 

ABERNETHIE. An engraver of this name made maps signed " Aber- 
nethie Sc. Charleston" for Ramsay's "History of the Revolution of 
South Carolina" (Trenton, 1785). 

ADAMS. Dunlap Adams, engraver, is now known only by his ad- 
vertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette of 1764. 

AITKEN. Robert Aitken, engraver, was born Dalkeith, Scotland, 
1734; died in Philadelphia, 1802. He published the Pennsylvania 
Magazine, 17756, for which he engraved maps and plans. 

AKIN. James Akin was born South Carolina about 1773, coming 
north to Salem, Mass., as we know he worked in that town in 1804 
engraving book illustrations and that in 1805 he was established in 
Newburyport, Mass., where he engraved a portrait from life of 
"Lord" Timothy Dexter. He painted portraits in water colors and 
made a series of caricatures of New England men. In 1808, Akin 
was in Philadelphia, and in the directories his name appears at dif- 
ferent times as engraver, designer, druggist, eating-house keeper and 
draftsman for patents. He also drew on stone. He died at Phila- 
delphia July 18, 1846. 

ALLARDICE. Samuel Allardice engraved in Philadelphia, where he 
died August 24, 1798. 

ALLEN. Joel Allen, engraver, was born Farmington, Conn., 1755; 
died 1825. 

ALLEN. Luther Allen, portrait painter and engraver, was born 

281 



282 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Enfield, Conn., 1780; died Ithaca, N. Y., 1821. Fielding notes a 
mezzotint portrait of Rev. Stephen Williams and a book-plate as 
engraved by him. He was located at Ithaca, N. Y., some time after 
1802. 

ALLEN. Miss Sarah Allen, a native of Salem, Mass., painted por- 
traits in that city in 1820. 

ANCORA. Pietro Ancora, an Italian painter and drawing master, 
taught Mr. Neagle to draw in Philadelphia. (D.) 

ANDERSON. Hugh Anderson, engraver, in Philadelphia about 
1811-24. 

ANDREWS. Joseph Andrews, engraver, born Hingham, Mass., 
August 17, 1805; died Boston, May 7, 1873. He was a skillful and 
prolific line-engraver and the proprietor of an extensive engraving 
business. 

ANNIN. William B. Annin, engraver, was a partner with George 
G. Smith as Annin & Smith, engravers, and of the Annin & Smith 
Senefelder Lithographic Co., of Boston until 1831. 

BACON. George Bacon engraved music in Philadelphia about 1815. 

BADGER. Joseph Badger, son of Stephen and Mercy Kettell 
Badger, was born Charlestown, Mass., March 14, 1708; died in 
Boston in 1765. About eighty portraits by Joseph Badger have been 
identified. The portrait of Capt. John Larrabee reproduced is the 
most important example of his work. 

BADGER. Joseph W. Badger, miniature painter New York. 
(D.) 

BAINBOROUGH. Bainborough was painting portraits in Shippen- 
port in 1830. An Englishman. (D.) 

BAKER. John Baker, engraver and etcher, executed a few large 
plates about 1832, including one of the Battle of Lexington and an- 
other of the Battle of Bunker's Hill, both from fictitious compositions. 

BALCH. Vistus Balch, engraver, born Williamstown, Mass., Feb- 
ruary 18, 1799; died Johnstown, N. Y., October 25, 1884. He was 
of the firms of Balch, Rawdon & Co., Albany, and Balch & Stiles, 
New York City. 

BANNERMAN. J. Bannerman, engraver, left a few signed plates 
made about the year 1800. 

BANNERMAN. W. W. Bannerman, engraver, was of the firm of 




JOHN LARRABEE 
BY JOSEPH BADGEB 

From the collection of Mr. Frank Bulkeley Smith 



ADDENDA 283 

Medairy & Bannerman, Baltimore. He etched portraits for the 
United States Magazine and Democratic Review, 1840-5. 

BARBER. John Warner Barber, engraver and topographical 
draughtsman, born Windsor, Conn., February 2, 1798; died 1885. 
He worked chiefly on wood and published various books for which he 
supplied the engravings and also historical letter-press. 

BARBER. William Barber, engraver, born London, May 2, 1807; 
died Philadelphia, August 31, 1879. He commenced as a silver-en- 
graver in Boston and later in life engraver for the United States Mint, 
Philadelphia. 

BARKER. William Barker, engraver, worked on script, maps, etc., 
in New York about 1800. 

BASSETT. W. H. Bassett, engraver, made plates for TrumbulTs 
"Poetical Works," published Hartford, 1820. 

BEAU. John Anthony Beau, engraver, advertised hi the New York 
Journal of December 13, 1770, as "Engraver and chaser. " No plates 
by him are known. 

BELAUME. J. Belaume was etching in New Orleans in 1825. 

BELKNAP. Zedekiah Belknap painted portraits in Massachusetts 
as early as 1810. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1807; 
died in Weathersfield, Vt. 

BILLINGS. A. Billings, engraver. One signed example of his work 
the book-plate of Richard Varick is known. Stauffer says he 
taught Abraham Godwin to engrave about 1782. 

BILLINGS. Joseph Billings, engraver, forged colonial paper money 
about 1770. No examples of his engraving can now be identified. 

BLANCHARD. W. Blanchard painted a miniature of William Ellery 
Channing. It was exhibited at the Boston Athenseum in 1834. 

BLYTH. Benjamin Blyth, a crayon portrait painter, born in 1746 
in Salem, Mass., the son of Samuel Blyth. There is no record of his 
death. His work was always in pastel, good in color and well-drawn, 
but hard and lacking in modelling. Blyth was admitted to Essex 
Lodge of Masons, Salem, Mass., March 1, 1781, and Joseph Felt in 
the "Annals of Salem" mentions a Mr. Blyth "limner" as living in 
that town in 1787. The best examples of his work are the portraits of 
John Adams and Abigail Smith Adams. He painted many other por- 
traits, including Washington after C. W. Peale, Rev. George White- 



284 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

field, Judge Samuel Curwen, Dr. Edward Holyoke, and Gen. John 
Thomas, the latter made in 1777. 

BOGARDUS. James Bogardus, engraver, die-sinker and inventor, 
born Catskill, N. Y., March 14, 1800; died New York City, April 13, 
1874. 

BORDLEY. Bordley now painting in Baltimore. (D.) 

BOUDIER. He was an engraver of portrait plates in the style of 
St. Memin; probably a visitor making a brief stay in this country, 
only one engraving with his signature being known. 

BOWER. John Bower, engraver, made plates of inferior execution 
in Philadelphia about 1810. 

BOWES. Joseph Bowes, engraver, worked in Philadelphia shortly 
before 1800. His engravings are few in number and poorly done. 

BOWMAN. A painter by this name born in Pennsylvania had a 
studio in Boston and exhibited in the early years of the Boston 
Athenaeum. (D.) 

BRACKET. Miss H. V. Bracket etched a plate about 1816 (the only 
one by her known), for Collins's Quarto Bible. 

BREWSTER. Edmund Brewster painted portraits in Philadelphia 
about 1818. 

BREWSTER. "John Brewster, portrait and miniature painter, deaf 
and dumb since birth. At Mr. Rufus Farnum's, 14 Summer st. " 
(From the Boston Citizen of December 29, 1802.) 

BRIDGES. In 1736, Col. Charles Byrd of "Westover," Virginia, 
wrote to Governor Spotswood introducing Charles Bridges as "a 
man of good family either by the frowns of misfortune or his own 
mismanagement obliged to seek his bread in a strange land, " adding 
"His name is Bridges and his profession painting and if you have any 
employment for him in that way he will be proud of obeying your 
command. He has drawn my children and several others in this 
neighborhood, and tho' he has not the master hand of a Lilly or 
Kneller, yet had he lived so long ago as when places were given to the 
most deserving, he might have pretended to be Sergeant Painter of 
Virginia. " Bridges was painting in Virginia for years, and a large 
number of portraits by him have been preserved. His women are 
graceful and well drawn and generally wear a single curl drawn over 
in front of one shoulder (see portrait reproduced of Evelyn Byrd). 





I 



JOHN ADAMS 

1735-1826 

BY BENJAMIN BLYTH 

FROM AN ENGRAVING 

The original in the Collection of Mrs. Charles Francis Adams 



ADDENDA 285 

In 1738 he lived in Williamsburg and was painting in Virginia as late 
as 1750. 

BROOKS. All that is known of this engraver's work is that he 
made a book-plate for Dr. J. Dove of Richmond, Va., probably 
about 1800. 

BROWN. Benjamin Brown, engraver, worked in stipple and line in 
New York, about 1812-19. 

BROWN. Lawrence Brown, "a Limner," according to the Select- 
men's Records of the Town of Boston, July 31, 1701, "Asks ad- 
mittance to be an inhabitant of this Towne wch is granted On condi- 
tion that he give Security to save the Town harmless. " 

BROWN. Uriel Brown painted portraits in Salem, Mass., in 1805. 

BRUFF. Charles Oliver Bruff, goldsmith, jeweler and engraver, 
was in New York City 1770-75. No examples of his engraving are 
now extant. 

BRULS. Michelson Godhart de Bruls, engraver, worked in New 
York City 1759-63. He advertised to execute several copper-plate 
plans and views. The subjects described are of considerable anti- 
quarian and topographical interest but it is possible that they were 
not all produced, as examples of most of them are not now known to 
collectors. 

BUDDINGTON painted portraits in New York City in 1798. 

BUELL. Abel Buell, engraver, born Killings worth, Conn., Feb- 
ruary 1, 1742; died New Haven, about 1825. 

BULFINCH. Charles Bulfinch, architect, born, probably near Bos- 
ton, Mass., August 8, 1763, son of Thomas Bulfinch. After his gradu- 
ation from Harvard College in 1781, he went abroad. In 1786 he 
returned to the United States and settled in Boston, where he became 
a successful and widely known architect. He designed the principal 
buildings of the City of Boston, including the State House, the City 
Hall and many theatres and churches. In 1817 he went to Washing- 
ton, where he superintended the reconstruction of the national capitol 
being engaged upon that work for thirteen years. He returned to 
Boston in 1830, and died there April 15, 1844. 

BULL. Martin Bull, goldsmith and engraver, born December 3, 
1744; died March 24, 1825. He lived in Farmington, Conn. Two 
book-plates represent his known engravings. 



286 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

BURGER, JR. This signature appears on copper-plate music en- 
graved for the New York Magazine of May, 1790. 

BURGIS. William Burgis evidently came from England to New 
York about 1718, where he published by subscription his South East 
Prospect of the City which he sent to London to be engraved by 
John Harris. Coming to Boston late in 1722, he established himself 
at the Crown Coffee House, kept by Thomas Selby at the (then) head 
of Long Wharf, and proceeded to draw from Noddles Island and pub- 
lish by subscription a North East Prospect of the town. Not being 
successful in this venture, he drew a South East Prospect from Castle 
Island, which was duly published by his landlord Selby and William 
Price the print dealer, having also been sent to London for John 
Harris to engrave. Selby died September 29, 1727, leaving a fortune 
of some seven hundred pounds to his widow Mehitable, whom Burgis 
married October 1, 1728, succeeding him also as "Tavernor" at the 
Crown Coffee House July 23, 1729. Burgis and his wife were con- 
stantly in the Courts as to Selby's estate and were accused of wasting 
it, but eventually made a satisfactory settlement with the other heirs. 
Burgis is variously referred to in the Court Records: Gentleman, 
Painter, Draftsman alias Innholder, and Innholder. Losing his license 
as "Tavernor" hi 1730 and having gone through his wife's estate he 
departed for parts unknown (otherwise New York), in 1731. His 
wife unsuccessfully asked for a divorce or annulment on these grounds 
in 1736. 

The only work which bears his name as engraver is the mezzo- 
tint view of Boston Light issued August 11, 1729, which is signed 
"W. Burgis del. & fecit." He is associated with the following 
engraved works as delineator or publisher: S. E. Prospect of New 
York, [1718], delineator and publisher; N. E. Prospect of Boston, 
[1722], delineator and publisher; S. E. Prospect of Boston, [1723], 
delineator; Prospect of the Colledges in Cambridge in New England, 
July 14, 1726; Draught of the Meeting House of the Old Church, 
Boston, June 5, 1727; Plan of Boston in New England, July 3, 1729, 
engraved by Thomas "Johnson"; View of the New Dutch Church, 
(New York), 1731-32. 

BURINE. A plate in Rees' Encyclopaedia, (Philadelphia, 1805- 
1818) is signed with this name. 




KVELYX BYRI> 
BY CHARLES BKIDGBH 



ADDENDA 287 

BURNAP. Daniel Burnap was an engraver of brass clock-faces in 
East Windsor, Conn., previous to 1800. 

BUTLER. M. Butler engraved maps, etc., about 1820. 

BUTTERWORTH. A. H. Butterworth engraved about 1828 a small 
book illustration. He probably did little work. 

BYFIELD. N. By field probably was the son of Nathaniel and 
Deborah Byfield and was born in Boston November 14, 1677. The 
signed portrait dated 1713 of Richard Middlecott shows him to have 
been an excellent painter. 

B., J. W. Engraver. Stauffer notices an engraving portraying 
an engagement between the Georgia Militia and the Creek Indians 
published about 1813 and bearing "J. W. B." as the initials of the 
engraver. 

B., S. P. These initials appear as engraver on a Virginia Insurance 
Policy. 

B., W. These initials are signed to a few plates published in Balti- 
more about 1828. 

CALLENDER. Benjamin Callender, Jr., engraver, was a nephew of 
Joseph Callender. He was born Boston March 16, 1773. His work 
appears to have been chiefly maps. In 1798 he removed to North- 
field, Mass., where he died February 22, 1856. 

CALLENDER. Joseph Callender, engraver and die-sinker, was born 
Boston, May 6, 1751, where he died November 10, 1821. He made 
dies for the Massachusetts mint, and engraved plates for books, ex- 
Hbris and commercial forms. Some of the plates in the Royal Ameri- 
can Magazine (Boston, 1774-75), were engraved by him. In 1784 he 
occupied the shop "formerly improved by Mr. N. Hurd, Engraver, 
Half Square, back of Mr. Shimmin's School, State St." 

CAMMEYER. W. Cammeyer engraved some book-illustrations in 
Albany, N. Y., about 1812. 

CAMPBELL. Robert Campbell, engraver, worked in Philadelphia 
about 1806-31. 

CAPELLANO. An Italian by the name of Capellano executed the 
statue on the Battle Monument at Baltimore and the basso relievos 
on the shaft. (D.) 

CARDELLI. Cardelli, an Italian, in America about 1818, only 



288 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

remembered as leaving two casts from modellings by himself of Mr. 
and Mrs. Trumbull. (D.) 

CARIO. Michael Cario, engraver, advertised in the American 
Weekly Mercury, Philadelphia, of July 8-15, 1736. We do not know 
of any existing specimens of his work. 

CARLIN. John Carlin, born in Philadelphia in 1813, was a deaf 
mute. He studied drawing under John Rubens Smith and portrait 
painting under John Neagle. 

CASILEAR. John W. Casilear practiced engraving for several years 
and during that time made plates of the seven presidents for the New 
York Mirror. He was also in the employ of the American Bank 
Note Company. He took up landscape painting later, went abroad, 
and studied in company with Durand, who taught him the technical 
side of art. He was born in New York June 25, 1811; died August 
17, 1893. 

CASSALI. Cassali, New York, engraver. (D.) 

CAUSICI. Causici, an Italian who sculptured the Washington for 
the monument at Baltimore, and several subjects for Congress at 
Washington, died at Havana. In 1816 a subscription was opened to 
raise one hundred and fifty dollars for a model of Washington to be 
placed in the Pennsylvania Academy. He modelled an equestrian 
statue of Washington at New York. The corporation granted him a 
place to work in, and the statue was exposed in the park. It was put 
up on the second of July, 1826. 

CHAMBERS. R. Chambers, engraver, worked in Washington, D. C., 
about 1820-26. 

CHANDLER. Winthrop Chandler was the youngest son of William 
and Jemima (Bradbury) Chandler and was born in Woodstock, 
Conn., April 6 (o. s.), 1747. Early in life, after the death of his father 
he chose portrait painting as a profession, and it is claimed he studied 
art in Boston. Some of his portraits in oil are preserved in Wood- 
stock, and Thompson, Conn., and in Worcester and Petersham, Mass. 
In addition to his portrait painting, he employed his time in house- 
painting, carving, etc. He died July 29, 1890, in Thompson, Conn. 
The Worcester Spy of August 19, 1790, contains an obituary notice. 

CHAPIN. William Chapin, engraver, born Philadelphia, October 
17, 1802; died there September 20, 1888. He worked principally 




CHARLES BULFINCH 

1763-1844 
BY MATHER BROWN 

(1786) 
From the collection of Miss Ellen Bulfinch 



ADDENDA 289 

on maps which he also published, and abandoned engraving in 
1840. 

CHARLES. H. Charles engraved a few plates in Philadelphia about 
1810. 

CHARLES. William Charles, engraver and caricaturist, native of 
Scotland; died in Philadelphia, in 1820. He was a prolific engraver 
and publisher of caricatures and juvenile literature, both in a style 
similar to contemporary English productions. He worked in line, 
stipple and aquatint. 

CHENEY. Benjamin and Timothy Cheney were clock makers and 
engraved clock-faces in East Hartford, Conn., 1781-1801. 

CHENEY. John Cheney, engraver, born South Manchester, Conn., 
October 20, 1801; died there August 20, 1885. He engraved largely 
for "Annuals" and produced plates which for delicacy and beauty of 
execution rank with the foremost engravers of his time. 

CHENEY. Seth Wells Cheney was born at East Hartford Woods, 
Conn., November 28, 1810, son of George and Electa (Woodbridge) 
Cheney. He came to Boston in 1829 where he learned the art of 
engraving. In 1833 he accompanied his brother, John Cheney, the 
engraver, to Europe and studied in Paris under Isabey, Delaroche and 
other French masters, returning home in 1834. In 1840 he began to 
draw in crayons and opened a studio in Boston the year following. 
He went to Europe again in 1843, returning to Boston in 1844. Mr. 
Cheney died in South Manchester, Conn., September 10, 1856. 

CHEVALIER. Augustin Chevalier, a native of France, executed the 
basso relievos of the Union Bank, Baltimore, and designed the facade 
of the Maryland Insurance office in South Street. (D.) 

CHILD. " Tom Child," a "painter Stainer," is referred to in Judge 
SewalTs diary. This is the Thomas Child who married Katherine 
Masters April 14, 1688, in Boston, and whose will was probated in 
1706. 

CHILDS. Cephas G. Childs, engraver, born Bucks County, Pa,. 
September 8, 1793; died Philadelphia, July 7, 1871. He engraved 
in stipple and line and associated with Henry Inman (Childs & 
Inmari), Philadelphia, in the business of lithography, employing 
Albert Newsam and P. S. Duval. Later he entered the field of 
journalism. 



290 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

CHIQUET. An engraver of this name did some work in New York 
City about 1814. 

CHORLEY. John Chorley engraved in Boston about 1820; his 
full-length "Washington" is a fine example of the art. He married 
Margaret Byron Doyle, daughter of an artist, and gave up engraving 
for a position in a Boston bank. 

CLARK. Abraham Clark, engraver, born Cooperstown, N. Y., 
was in partnership with Ralph Rawdon, as Rawdon, Clark & Co., en- 
gravers, Albany, N. Y., about 1825. 

CLARK. Alvan Clark, born in Ashfield, Mass., March 8, 1804, 
began a course of self-education as an engraver and was employed a 
few months at Boston where he also made water colors and india ink 
portraits. He also worked in Providence, R. I., New York, and Fall 
River, Mass. In 1835, he commenced to make miniatures and large 
portraits. At forty years of age Clark became interested in tele- 
scopes and made the first achromatic lenses manufactured in this 
country. Alvan Clark and Chester Harding each painted the other's 
likeness. His miniatures are generally signed and dated. 

CLARK. A man of this name engraved some plates in Lancaster, 
Pa., about 1820. 

CLAY. Edward W. Clay, engraver and lithographer, born Phila- 
delphia, 1792; died New York, December 31, 1857. He produced 
many caricatures. 

CLEMENS. Isaac Clemens, engraver. His advertisement appeared 
for a short time in the New York Gazette of 1776, but no specimens of 
his work are known. 

CLONNEY. James G. Clonney, miniature painter, New York. 
(D.) 

COATE. S. Coate engraved a portrait of John Wesley in 1803. 
According to Fielding this plate indicates an American origin. 

COBB. G. Cobb engraved a book-plate on copper and a wood-cut, 
in Boston about 1810. We have seen no other specimens of his en- 
graving. 

COLE. Jacques Moyse Dupre, afterwards known as Moses D. 
Cole, was probably born in Bordeaux, France, in 1783. He came to 
Newburyport, Mass., from the West Indies with his father in 1795 
and at the death of his father the same year he took the name of 




WINTHROP CHANDLER 

1747- 1790 

FltoM AN ENGRAVING BY H. W. SMITH 



ADDENDA 291 

Moses Dupre Cole. He remained in Newburyport where he painted 
many portraits. 

COLE. Joseph Greenleaf Cole was born in Newburyport in 1803, 
the son of Moses D. Cole. After studying with his father a few years 
he established himself in Boston where he died in 1858. Among the 
best of his portraits is that of George R. T. Hewes, the last survivor 
of the Boston Tea Party, belonging to the Bostonian Society and 
hanging in the Old State House, Boston. 

COLES. John Coles, said to be of English birth, is supposed to have 
been engaged for some time previous to 1776 in the production of 
heraldic paintings in and around Boston. He evidently considered, 
or pretended to consider, that the possessor of a name displayed in 
Guillim was thereby entitled to bear the arms described in that work, 
and in his heraldic drawing he not only disregarded the laws govern- 
ing the use of coat-armor, but the rules determining its representa- 
tion as well. His work has now chiefly a decorative and social-history 
value. A writer in the Heraldic Journal, (v. I, p. 95), speaking of 
Coles, says that " many families in New England possess old paintings 
of their Coats of Arms which all appear to have come out of the same 
mill," and describes their production as a "trade, certainly not art." 
Coles had a son of the same name who assisted him (see below) . He 
appears to have been living in Boston as late as 1813. 

COLES. John Coles, Jr., was a student with Frothingham under 
Gilbert Stuart, and painted in Boston from 1807 to 1820. He was a 
prolific painter, his portraits being all well drawn, good in color, but 
without style or arrangement. His pictures are always on panels, 
with lead color background. He painted in Boston, Providence and 
Worcester, Mass. 

CONARROE. George W. Conarroe commenced exhibiting portraits 
at the exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1829; 
at that time he was living in Salem, N. J. He lived after that date in 
Philadelphia, where he died in 1882. 

CONE. Joseph Cone, engraver, worked in Philadelphia and Balti- 
more about 1814-30. 

CONEY. John Coney, engraver, gold and silversmith, was born in 
Boston, January 5, 1655, where he died August 20, 1722. He engraved 
copper-plate Bills of Credit for the Province of the Massachusetts 



292 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Bay in 1702-3, which resemble in style and execution the bills of 
1690. Stauffer, in calling attention to this point, adds that if the 
assumption (that Coney engraved the earlier plates) is correct, John 
Coney was the first American engraver upon copper of record. In 
1702, John Foster, Esq., was instructed " to deliver the Copper Plates 
heretofore used for like occasion within the late Colony of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay [i. e., the plates of 1690] and deposited in his hands 
unto James Russell, Elisha Hutchinson, Esqrs., two of the Committee 
appointed for the service above said and pursuant to an Act for im- 
printing and Emitting Bills of Credit on this Province. And it was 
further ordered, That the Bills of Credit to be imprinted be stampt 
with three lyons passant gardent, with garter and crown over them 
contained in an escutcheon of a different figure for each number of 
bills of one and the same sum, the bills to be 2s, 2s6, 5s, 10s, 20s, 40s, 
3, and 5. " These bills were duly printed by Joseph Allen on the 
Province Roller Press. In 1714, John Coney, goldsmith, was granted 
leave to make return of the probate of the estate of Rev. John Higgin- 
son in Boston instead of Ipswich, he "being necessarily employed in 
the service of the Government referring to Plates for the bills of 
credit." 

CONN. James Conn, writing-master and engraver, of Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., in 1771, advertised as engraver of shop bills, etc. 

COOK. T. B. Cook, engraver, was working for New York pub- 
lishers in 1809-16. 

COOKE. Joseph Cooke was a goldsmith, jeweler and engraver, ac- 
cording to his announcement in the Pennsylvania Gazette of May 7, 
1789, although none of his engraved work is known to exist now. 

COOPER. An old view of Philadelphia is by Peter Cooper. The 
only record of him is the following item from the records of the Phila- 
delphia City Council: "Peter Cooper, painter, was admitted a free- 
man of the city in May, 1777." 

CORNE. In 1799, an Italian painter found his way to this country 
and settled in Salem, Mass. His name was Michele Felice Come". 
Although he was drafted into the army in his native country to repel 
the attack by the French on Naples, he had no taste for military 
service and at the invitation of Elias Basket Derby he fled the coun- 
try. He came to America in the ship " Mt. Vernon " and introduced 




GEORGE ROBERT TWELVES HEWES 

Last survivor of the "Boston Tea Party" 
BY JOSEPH GREENLEAF COLE 

From the collection of the Boslonian Society 



ADDENDA 293 

this vessel into several of his marine compositions. After a brief 
career in Salem, Mass., Corne removed to Boston where among his 
various activities he decorated interiors, including the Hancock 
House. Probably he had orders elsewhere as the walls of the Sullivan 
Dorr house at Providence, R. I., were decorated by him. When not 
employed more profitably, Corne filled his leisure moments by paint- 
ing ships and marine views. During the War of 1812-13, he painted 
a series of pictures portraying naval battles of the war. Abel Bowen 
availed himself of Corne's historical pictures for the embellishment of 
''The Naval Monument" (Boston, 1816), which he published, with 
engravings of the Corne pictures and descriptions of the battles. 
Some of the prints were made from the designs of Thomas Birch. 
Corne went to Newport to live in 1822 where in 1830 he bought an 
annuity which provided him with many comforts until the year of his 
death in 1832 at eighty years of age. The portrait of Corne repro- 
duced is attributed to his own hand but those familiar with his work 
discredit it as being superior to his ability. Several portraits of cabi- 
net size in India ink by Corne are in the collection of the Essex Insti- 
tute at Salem, Mass. 

CORNISH. A portrait of Charles Paxton signed " Cornish " is in the 
American Antiquarian Society at Worcester, Mass. 

Cox. James Cox came from London, where he colored prints for 
Boydell, to Philadelphia in 1794 and taught drawing. He was living 
in Philadelphia as late as 1833: 

COYLE. Coyle, an excellent scene painter and designer from Eng- 
land, died in New York, 1824. (D.) 

CUTLER. Jervis Cutler, a pioneer settler of Marietta, Ohio, born 
Martha's Vineyard, September 19, 1768; died at Evansville, Ind., 
June 25, 1846. He engraved a small copper-plate view of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in 1823, and is said to have practised engraving in Nashville, 
Tenn. 

DAGGETT. Alfred Daggett, engraver of New Haven, Conn., (Dag- 
gett & Ely, and Daggett, Hinman & Co.), was born New Haven, 
Conn., September 30, 1799; and died there January 27, 1872. 

DANBY. J. Danby was an engraver as appears by an advertise- 
ment in a Philadelphia newspaper of May 29, 1822. No work of his 
is known to us. 



294 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

DABLEY. E. H. Darley, portrait painter, Philadelphia. (D.) 

DARLEY. John Clarendon Darley, an artist of merit, Baltimore. 
(D.) 

DAWES. H. M. Dawes, according to Stauffer, engraved the book- 
plate of Rev. William Emerson prior to 1811. 

DEARBORN. Nathaniel Dearborn, engraver, born New England, 
1786; died in South Reading, Mass., November 7, 1852. Instructed 
by Abel Bowen, he engraved on both wood and metal and executed 
many plates for commercial and publishing concerns. 

DELLEKER. George Delleker was an engraver of Philadelphia, in 
partnership with G. H. Young as Delleker & Young. 

DEMILLIERE. Mr. Demilliere advertised to "make miniatures, 
oil portraits and fancy paintings" in the Diary of New York City, 
August 18, 1796. 

DENNING. Miss Charlotte Denning, miniature painter of Platts- 
burg. (D.) 

DE PEYSTER. Several portraits by Gerard Beekman De Peyster 
are in the New York Historical Society. 

DE VEAUX. James De Veaux was born in Charleston, S. C., in 1812 
and died in Rome, April 28, 1844. In 1829, through the assistance 
given him by interested citizens of his native city, De Veaux went 
to Philadelphia and received instruction from John Rubens Smith 
and Henry Inman and kind advice and assistance from Thomas Sully. 
In the fall of 1832, he commenced to practice portrait painting in 
Columbia, S. C., where he continued until the fall of 1835, going to 
Charleston for the whiter months. In the summer of 1836 De Veaux 
went to Europe to study, returning to America in May, 1838, spend- 
ing the summer of that year in New York in painting portraits. He 
went to South Carolina in 1839, to Virginia in 1840, and to Europe 
again in 1841, remaining until his death. 

DEWEY. The following advertisement appears in the Federal Re- 
publican of Baltimore, Md., June 22, 1810: "Profiles and miniatures 
in various styles," signed "S. Dewey, Baltimore. " 

DEWING. Francis Dewing, engraver, arrived in Boston, July 12 
1716, coming from London in the ship "Jollif Galley, ' ' Capt. John 
Aram, which he evidently announced in an advertisement under 
date of July 30, though not in the Newsletter, reading, "Lately 




MICHELE FELICE CORNE 

From the collection of the Redwood Library 



ADDENDA 295 

arrived from London, Francis Dewing who Engraveth and Printeth 
Copper Plates, Likewise Coats of Arms and cyphers in Silver Plate. 
He Likewise Cuts Neatly in wood and Printeth Callicoes &c. Lodg- 
ing at Mrs. Hawksworths against the Bunch of Grapes in King 
Street. " This was duly noted by the Town Clerk, (engravers being 
suspicious characters), who probably added "arrived in the Jollif 
Galley capt Aram Commander the beginning of July 1716." On 
July 9, 1718, a warrant was issued by Gov. Shute for his arrest as 
Francis Doing, for "being suspected to be concerned in Counter- 
feiting the Bills of Credit of this Province, and searching his chamber 
and seizing any tools and materials that probably have been em- 
ployed" etc. He was evidently cleared of the charge as on January 7 
following, Sheriff Edward Winslow was reimbursed 4-10-0 for his 
expenses in the arrest of "Doing." He flourished in Boston until 
1722, but whether he died of the smallpox or removed to St. Lucia in 
1723 is an open question. Among bis engraved works are: South- 
ack's Sea Coast of English America and the French New Settlements, 
1716, later issued under several other titles; Southack's Canso Har- 
bour, 1720; Southack's Casco Bay, 1720; Bonner's Town of Boston, 
1722, of which three states are now known, and possibly the first issue 
of Southack's New York to Cape Breton, in 1720. 

DICK. Alexander L. Dick, engraver, was a native of Scotland, born 
about 1805. About the year 1833 he came to the United States and 
founded an engraving establishment in New York City. 

DODD. Samuel Dodd engraved a small portrait of Washington 
in Newark, N. J. Fielding mentions no other example of his signed 
work as known and gives his birth as in 1797 and his death in 1862. 

DODSON. Richard W. Dodson, engraver, born Cambridge, Md., 
February 5, 1812; died Cape May, N. J., July 23, 1867. He 
engraved for the "National Portrait Gallery." 

DOOLITTLE. Curtis M. Doolittle was associated with Samuel B. 
Munson as Doolittle and Munson, engravers, in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 
1831-51. 

DOOLITTLE. Samuel Doolittle was an engraver. A bookplate 
bearing the signature "S. D. Set. 1804," is presumably his work. 
DORSET. John Syng Dorsey, surgeon, born Philadelphia, Decem- 



296 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ber 23, 1783; died there November 12, 1813. He engraved a few 
medical plates. 

DOTY & JONES. Engravers, working about 1830. 

DOUGAL. W. H. Dougal, engraver, born New Haven, Conn., about 
1808. He worked on plates for book illustrations and later was em- 
ployed by the United States Treasury Department, Washington. 
His name was originally "MacDougal. " 

DOUGHTY. Thomas Doughty was born July 19, 1793, in Phila- 
delphia, and was the earliest in point of years of the group of land- 
scape painters known as the Hudson River School. He died in New 
York, July 24, 1856. 

DOYLE. Margaret Byron Doyle was a daughter of W. M. S. Doyle. 
She became the wife of John Chorley, the engraver, and painted many 
excellent portraits in Boston between 1820 and 1830. 

DOYLE. William M. S. Doyle, the son of a British soldier, born 
in Boston in 1769. He painted in crayon and oil, made miniatures 
and silhouettes, and at the time of his death in May, 1828, he was pro- 
prietor of the Columbian Museum in Boston. Among his portraits 
are those of Gov. Caleb Strong, Isaiah Thomas and John Adams. 

DRAKE. Drake, an English artist, visited New York in 1821, and ex- 
hibited a full-length of Bonaparte, on the deck of the "Bellerophon. ' ' 
He went to Canada and painted successfully there. (D.) 

DRAPER. John Draper engraved chiefly on bank-notes in Phila- 
delphia, 1801-1845, and in partnership 1810-1823 as Murray, Draper 
Fairman & Co., followed by later partnerships with other engravers. 

DRAYTON. John Dray ton, engraver, worked about 1820, chiefly 
in aquatint. Some of his plates are finely colored, and are among the 
early specimens of this form of art in the United States. 

DREXEL. Francis Martin Drexel painted miniatures in Phila- 
delphia in 1818, coming to the United States in 1817 from Austria. 
In 1837 he abandoned painting and founded the banking house of 
Drexel & Company. 

DRUCEZ. Drucez was a miniature painter in New York in 1805. 

DURAND. Cyrus Durand, engraver, silversmith and inventor, born 
Jefferson, N. J., February 27, 1787; died at Irvington, N. J., Sep- 
tember 18, 1868. He was a brother of A. B. Durand and invented 
machinery for the improvement of bank-note engraving. 







SHIP MOUNT VERNON 

FROM A HELIOTYPE AFTER A FRESCO BY MlCHELE FELICE CoHNK 



ADDENDA 297 

DURANT. A portrait of John Waldo, 1720-1796, belonging to the 
Worcester Art Museum is signed on the back of the stretcher 
"painted by J. W. Durant 1791. " John Waldo Durant was born in 
the Island of St. Croix, West Indies, about 1774 and died in Phila- 
delphia in 1832. He probably received his early education in Boston. 
A painting of Cornelius Durant is owned by the family of Neal Dow 
of Portland, Maine. He also painted portraits of Col. John Heyliger 
and Mrs. John Heyliger (Sarah Kortright) and of Sarah (Kortright) 
Durant. 

Du SIMITIERE. Pierre Eugene du Simitiere, artist, born in Geneva, 
Switzerland, died in Philadelphia in October, 1784. He went to the 
West Indies about 1750, and, after spending fifteen years there, to 
New York, and in 1766 to Philadelphia. Here he became well known 
as a collector of curiosities and in 1782 he opened his collection to the 
public under the name of the American Museum. He painted nu- 
merous portraits, including one of Washington. His heads of thirteen 
notables Washington, Baron Steuben, Silas Deane, Joseph Reed, 
Gouverneur Morris, General Horatio Gates, John Jay, William H. 
Drayton, Henry Laurens, Charles Thompson, Samuel Huntington, 
John Dickinson, and Benedict Arnold were engraved by Benjamin 
Reading, and published in a quarto volume (London, 1783). He 
painted also miniatures in water-color, and made some designs for 
publications. His valuable collection of manuscripts and broadsides, 
forming material for a history of the Revolution, and comprising 
several volumes, is in the Philadelphia Library. Princeton conferred 
upon him in 1781 the honorary degree of M. A. 

EARL. R. E. W. Earl, a son of Ralph Earl by his second wife, born 
in England, probably came to America with his father, returned to 
London in 1809, and there had the advantage of intercourse with 
West and Trumbull. In 1814, Earl visited Paris. He returned to 
this country in 1815, landing in Georgia. He soon went to Tennessee 
where in 1818 he married Miss Caffery, a niece of Gen. Andrew Jack- 
son's wife. Earl painted portraits of Andrew Jackson in 1828, in 
1830 and again in!835, and these pictures with slight variations were 
copied by him many times. He died September 16, 1837, and is 
buried at The Hermitage. He seems to have had an interest in the 
Nashville Museum where many of his portraits were exhibited. 



298 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

EDDIE. Mr. Eddie painted portraits in New York some years back. 
(D.) 

EDDY. Isaac Eddy, engraver and surveyor, was a local Vermont 
practitioner of the art who executed a few Bible illustrations in 1812 
which are the crudest specimens of engraving we have seen. He was 
born in Weathersfield, Vt., February 17, 1777; died July 25, 1847. 

EDDY. James Eddy, engraver, born May 29, 1806, was employed by 
Pendleton, Boston, about 1830. He afterwards became a dealer in 
paintings and a successful business man. His later days were spent in 
Providence, R. I. 

EDDY. A folio map of New Hampshire with an inset view of 
Bellows Falls engraved in line is signed " O. T. Eddy, engraver, Wai- 
pole, (N. H.) Aug. 1817." 

EDSON. Tracy Edson, engraver, is mentioned in Dunlap's original 
"Appendix" but is not known to Stauffer or Fielding. 

EDWARDS. Thomas Edwards advertised in the Boston Centinel of 
January 7, 1824, to paint portraits for $30 to $60, miniatures for $5 
to $10 and profiles for 50 cents to $5. He was a frequent exhibitor 
in the early years of the Boston Athenaeum. 

ELLIS. George B. Ellis, engraver, worked chiefly on book-illustra- 
tions in Philadelphia about 1825-38. 

ELOUIS. Jean Pierre Henri Elouis, or as he called himself in this 
country, Henry Elouis, was born in Caen, France, January 20, 1755, 
and died there December 23, 1843. He was destined for medicine but 
he studied art under the French painter, Jean Barnard Restout, going 
to London in 1783, where three years later he won the Royal Acad- 
emy Silver Medal for drawing of the human figure. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1785, 1786 and 1787, and at the beginning 
of the French Revolution emigrated to America, settling in Baltimore. 
Charles Willson Peale met him in 1791 at Annapolis, and calling him 
"Mr. Loise" mentions that "he paints in a new stile" querying "if 
this gentleman so cried up will do better than Mr. Pine whose reputa- 
tion was equally cried up. " In 1792 Elouis removed to Philadelphia 
and his name appears in the Directories for 1793 as "limner 201 Mul- 
bery." He remained in Philadelphia until 1799 during which period 
he gave instruction in drawing to Eleanor Custis and painted minia- 
tures of Washington and of Mrs. Washington. Elouis, travelling 







ANDREW JACKSON 

1767- 184.5 

FROM AN ENGRAVING BY J. F. E. PRUI>'HOMME AFTER A PAINTING BY R. E. W. E\RL 



ADDENDA 299 

over the United States, Mexico and South America, returned in 1807 
to France, leaving behind him many pictures, "particularly at Ha- 
vana and Philadelphia where he remained the longest." At Phila- 
delphia he painted many of the illustrious persons of the Revolution 
among others being the portrait of Gen. Anthony Wayne which is 
here reproduced. In 1811 he was made curator of the museum of his 
native town, which office he held for nearly thirty years. His por- 
traits are noted for their simplicity and directness. 

ELY. A. Ely, engraver. His name is signed to the engraved title- 
page of a music book published locally in Connecticut, about 1800. 

EMMES. Thomas Emmes of Boston was the engraver of the first 
copper-plate portrait produced in America, a very crudely executed 
engraving of Rev. Increase Mather, appearing as the frontispiece to 
"The Blessed Hope," etc., in Boston in 1701. The print (which 
appears in two states) is reproduced in Stauffer's "American En- 
gravers upon Copper and Steel" (The Grolier Club, N. Y., 1907), and 
is signed " Thos. Emmes Sculp. Sold by Nicholas Boone 1701." No 
other specimen of Emmes's work is known and little information 
concerning his identity has been discovered. 

EMMONS. A little known painter of considerable merit was Na- 
thaniel Emmons. He was the son of Nathaniel Emmons, born in 
Boston, 1703, and baptized December 5, 1704. Nathaniel Emmons 
died May 19, 1740, and is buried in the Granary Burying Ground, 
Boston. Administration of the Estate of Nathaniel Emmons, painter 
stainer, was granted to the widow Mary (Brooks) Emmons, June 3, 
1740. The inventory amounts to 34. Among the items are "eight 
mezzotint pictures, 64s two pictures 20s one hundred brushes 8.10 
Two pictures 15s sundry picture frames 5 and the Hon. Judge 
Sewall's portrait." This portrait is reproduced. It has been en- 
graved by O. Pelton. Among the other portraits known to be by 
Emmons are the following: William Clarke, 1670-1742; Andrew 
Oliver, 1706-1774, painted 1728; Rev. John Lowell, 1703-1767, 
painted 1728. 

ENGLEMANN. C. F. Englemann engraved a birth-certificate pub- 
lished near Reading, Pa., about 1814. 

EVANS. John Evans, portrait and miniature painter, commenced to 
practice his art in Philadelphia in 1809. He made views taken from 



300 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

nature in England, Ireland, Wales, the Western Islands and other 
places, and taught water-color drawing. 

EVERDELL. An engraver of this name was working in New York 
in 1816. 

FADRCHILD. Louis Fairchild was born in Farmington, Conn., in 
1800. He became an engraver and etcher and painted portraits in 
miniature. He was working in New York City in 1840. 

F'AIRMAN. Richard Fainnan, engraver, born 1788; died Phila- 
delphia, December, 1821. He was a brother of Gideon Fainnan by 
whom he was employed. 

FARMER. John Farmer, surveyor and engraver, born Hah* Moon, 
N. Y., February 9, 1798; died Detroit, Mich., March 24, 1859. He 
drew, engraved and published maps. 

FELTON. Robert Felton was an early die-sinker of Philadelphia, 
working about the year 1663. 

FETERS. W. T. Feters, engraver. His name is signed to a stippled 
portrait of Rev. John Davenport, done about 1820. 

FINN. Henry J. Finn was a miniature painter in Boston in 1833. 

FISHER. John Fisher engraved copper-plate loan-office certificates 
for the Continental Congress in 1773. 

FITCH. John Fitch was a steamboat inventor, clock-maker and en- 
graver, born South Windsor, Conn., January 21, 1743; died Bards- 
town, Ky., 1798. He engraved a map of the Northwest Country in 
1785. 

FLAGG. Josiah Flagg engraved some copper-plate music in Boston 
before the Revolutionary War. 

FLORIMONT. In the Pennsylvania Packet, Philadelphia of January, 
1781, is the announcement that "Austin Florimont, limner, lately 
arrived in this city, who is peculiarly happy in his likenesses, paints 
miniature and crayon pictures of all sorts at very reasonable 
prices. " 

FOLWELL. Samuel Folwell, miniature painter, born about 1765, 
was in New York in 1790 and came to New England about 1792. He 
was in Philadelphia in 1798 where he died November 26, 1813. As 
he engraved book-plates in 1792 for several residents of New Hamp- 
shire, he may have come from that state. 

FORHAM. H. L. Forham, New York. (D.) 




MAJOR-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE 

1745-1796 
By HENRY ELOUIS 

Prom the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



ADDENDA 301 

FORREST. Ion B. Forrest, engraver, born Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 
about 1814; died Hudson County, N. J., in 1870, engraved portraits 
for the "National Portrait Gallery." 

FOSTER. John Foster, printer, and engraver of what is supposed to 
be the first portrait engraved in America that of Richard Mather 
was born Dorchester, Mass., in 1648, and died there September 9, 
1681. He was, as far as is now known, the earliest engraver in this 
country. The portrait of Mather, (of which a reduced reproduction 
is here given) appears to have been engraved on the flat or grain side 
of two pieces of wood joined together, the original cut being about 
five inches wide by six inches high. There are several states of this 
engraving of which in all seven copies are known at this time (1918). 
Besides this cut, Foster engraved the seal of the arms of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony, and the map of New England for Hubbard's 
"Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians" (Boston, 1677). A 
broadside, "Divine Examples of God's Severe Judgments upon Sab- 
bath Breakers," etc., published in Boston (n. d.) has four crudely 
engraved cuts, one of which is signed "J. F. Sculp." These were 
probably engraved by Foster. He made no engraving on metal so 
far as can be learned. 

FRAZER. Oliver Frazer was born in Fayette County, Ky., on Feb- 
ruary, 1808. His father was a native of Ireland. He studied first 
under Jouett and then with Thomas Sully at Philadelphia. He visited 
Europe in 1834 and studied under G. P. A. Healey in Paris, and while 
there painted the portrait of Edwin Forrest, the actor. After travel- 
ling extensively in Europe he returned to America in 1838 to practice 
portrait painting. Frazer died February 9, 1864, at Lexington, Ky. 

FREDERICK. John L. Frederick was an engraver in Philadelphia 
1818-1845, and probably earlier in New York. 

FREEMAN. T. B. Freeman, Esq., was for a long time the principal 
encourager of the arts by publishing engravings in Philadelphia. (D.) 

FREEMAN. W. H. Freeman was an engraver in Baltimore about 
1830. Bible illustrations signed "Freeman" without initials and 
published in New York in 1816 may have been engraved by him. 

FURNASS. John Mason Furnass, engraver and portrait painter, 
was the son of John Furnass and Anne Hurd Furnass, sister of Na- 
thaniel Hurd, the engraver. Furnass was painting portraits in Boston 



302 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

in 1785. He was born March 4, 1763, and died of epilepsy at Dedham, 
Mass., June 22, 1804. Two copies after Teniers, painted by Furnass, 
were shown in the exhibition at the Boston Athenaeum in 1834. He 
made at least two portraits of John Vinal, the old schoolmaster of 
Boston, one of which is reproduced in this work. 

GAINS. In the vestry of Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., is a por- 
trait of Rev. James Honyman, pastor of the church from 1704 to 
1750, the year of his death. The portrait was engraved by Okey in 
1774, and is there attributed to " Gains. " 

GALLAND. John Galland engraved in Philadelphia about 1796- 
1817. 

GALLUDET. Edward Galludet, engraver, born Hartford, Conn., 
April 30, 1809; died there October 11, 1847. He worked for pub- 
lishers of "Annuals" about 1835^-0. 

GALLUDET. EJisha Galludet, engraver, was born New Rochelle, 
N. Y., about 1730. He was engraving in New York as early as 1759, 
and in that year he advertised to publish by subscription engravings 
described as "Six Representations of Warriors who are in the Service 
of their Majesties, the King of Great Britain and the King of Prussia," 
although we do not know of any examples now extant. Bookplates 
or ex-libris engraved by him as well as a small portrait of Rev. George 
Whitefield are occasionally met with. 

GARDEN. Francis Garden, a native of England advertised as an 
engraver in the Boston Evening Post, of March 4, 1745. No examples 
of engraving by him are known. 

GAUK. James Gauk, engraver. His name under this designation 
appears in the New York City directory for 1799-1804. 

GAVIN. H. Gavin engraved the frontispiece to a book published 
at Newburyport, Mass., 1796. 

GAW. R. M. Gaw was the engraver of a few plates which appear 
to have been made about 1829. 

GETZ. Peter Getz was a die-sinker, silversmith and jeweler, in 
Lancaster, Pa., late 18th century. 

GIBSON. The Morning Star of New York City of December 27, 
1811, has the following death notice: "Thomas Gibson, painter, died 
December 23, 1811." 



ADDENDA 303 

GILLINGHAM. Edward Gillingham engraved a large map of Boston 
and vicinity, published in 1819. 

GILMAN. J. W. Gilnaan, engraver, born Exeter, N. H., May 9, 
1741; died there June 16, 1823. He worked on copper-plate music 
for psalm and hymn books about 1770. 

GIMBER. Stephen H. Gimber engraved chiefly in mezzotint and 
stipple. He was a native of England, and worked in New York and 
Philadelphia about 1830-1856. 

GLADDING. K. C. Gladding was an engraver whose name appears 
on a few plates of "Rewards of Merit" done about 1825. 

G., L. At least two plates exist etched or engraved over these ini- 
tials about 1815. 

GLOVER. Dewitt Clinton Glover, engraver, was born DeRuyter, 
N. Y., 1817, and died there January 3, 1836. 

GOBRECHT. Christian Gobrecht, engraver and die-sinker, born 
Hanover, Pa., December 23, 1785; died in Philadelphia, July 23, 
1844. He made valuable improvements in medallic engraving. 

GOODACRE. W. Goodacre, New York. (D.) 

GOODING. In the Ontario Messenger, Canandaigua, N. Y., May 23, 
1815, Mr. William C. Gooding advertised to do Portrait and Minia- 
ture Painting. 

GOODMAN. Charles Goodman, engraver, born Philadelphia about 
1790; died there in 1830. He was in partnership with Robert Piggot 
as "Goodman & Piggot." 

GOODRIDGE. Sarah Goodridge was born at Templeton, Mass., 
February 5, 1788, daughter of Ebenezer and Beulah Childs Goodridge, 
and died in Boston December 28, 1853. She was self-taught with the 
exception of criticisms from Gilbert Stuart. Miss Goodridge worked 
in Boston, Washington and other eastern cities. 

GORDON. Alexander Gordon, artist, antiquary, author, musician, 
teacher and politician, "Sandy Gordon" as he is called by Sir 
Walter Scott in the "Antiquary "- was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, 
about 1692, came to Charleston, S. C. in 1743 and died there in Au- 
gust, 1754. In his will probated in Charleston he leaves to the Hon. 
Hester Beaufain "his Picture, Portraiture and Effigy by me." A 
similar bequest was made to the Rev. Mr. Heywood. To his son he 



304 

leaves "my own picture together with all and sundry my other Pic- 
tures, " etc. 

GRAHAM. George Graham, engraver, worked in stipple and mezzo- 
tint about the year 1800. He produced several folio engravings in- 
cluding portraits of John and Samuel Adams, Alexander Hamilton 
and Commodore Hull all now scarce and of interest to collectors. 
GRANT. J. Grant painted portraits in Philadelphia in 1829. 
GREENOUGH. John Greenough, an excellent portrait painter, was 
born in November, 1801, and died in Paris in November, 1852. 

GREENWOOD. Ethan Allen Greenwood, born in Hubbardston, 
Worcester County, Mass., in 1779; died there in 1856. He gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1806 and started to practice law in 
Hubbardston, but soon gave it up for painting in which he had been 
interested for some years. He had painted portraits as early as 1803 
and during his college course spent a part of his vacations in going 
about painting portraits. He began the study of drawing and paint- 
ing in New York with Edward Savage, a native of Princeton, Mass., 
and a neighbor of the Greenwood family, and for some years pursued 
his profession travelling more or less, especially hi New England, as 
an itinerant portrait painter. He finally settled in Boston and in the 
latter part of his life succeeded Edward Savage in the ownership of 
the New England Museum which afterwards became the Boston 
Museum. Many of the portraits in this museum were by Greenwood 
and Savage. He retired to Hubbardston and lost much of his fortune 
in various local enterprises. Greenwood not infrequently signed and 
dated his portraits as follows: "Greenwood Pinx 18." His portrait 
of Isaiah Thomas is reproduced. 

GREENWOOD. John Greenwood, son of Samuel and Mary Charnock 
Greenwood, was born in Boston December 7, 1727. In 1742 he was 
apprenticed to Thomas Johnston an engraver of Boston. His Ameri- 
can portraits were all painted before 1752 as he went that year to the 
Dutch Colony of Surinam where he continued his portrait work for 
the next ten years. Greenwood subsequently went to Paris and then 
to England where he settled as a mezzotint engraver, dying there 
September 16, 1792. The portrait reproduced of Benjamin Pickman 
of Salem is signed and dated 1749. Greenwood's portrait was en- 
graved by Pether. 




JOHN VINAL 

1736-1823 
BY JOHN MASOV FUKNASS 

From the collection of Mr. Frank Bulkeiey Smith 



ADDENDA 305 

GREGORY. Engraver. A Bible illustration engraved on copper is 
the only print bearing this name which we have seen. 

GRIDLEY. Enoch G. Gridley, engraver, worked in stipple and line 
about 1803-18. 

GRIMES. John Grimes whose portrait by Jouett is reproduced was 
born in 1779 and died at Lexington, Kentucky, December 27, 1837. 
The date and place of his death is obscure. He was a pupil of Mat- 
thew Harris Jouett and painted for some time at Nashville, Term. 

GRUNEWALD. Gustavus Grunewald painted landscapes in 1832 in 
Bethlehem, Pa. (D.) 

GULLAGER. Christian "Gullager," as he signs his name, was born 
in Denmark in 1762 and died in 1826. He painted excellent portraits 
in Boston from 1789 down to nearly the date of his death. Gullager 
followed President Washington to Portsmouth, N. H., and painted 
his portrait, the fact being recorded in Washington's Diary. He 
made portraits of George Richards Minot, Col. John May, Rev. 
James Freeman, Dr. Eliakim Morse, David West, Rev. Ebenezer 
Morse and Benjamin Goldthwait. 

HADFIELD. George Hadfield, Washington, gave the plan for the 
Executive Offices, and the plan of the City Hall, same place; died 
1826. (D.) 

HAINES. William Haines came from England to Philadelphia 
where he engraved excellent portraits 1802 to 1809 after which date he 
returned to England. 

HALBERT. A. Halbert, engraver, was a nephew of J. F. E. Prud'- 
homme, working in New York about 1835. 

HAMILTON. William Hamilton, a Scotch artist, who was in New 
York about a year, and exhibited several clever pictures in 1832, 
(D). 

HAMLIN. William Hamlin, engraver and maker of instruments 
for navigators, born Providence, R. I., October 15, 1772; died there 
November 22, 1869. He was self-instructed in the art of engraving 
which he practiced in mezzotint and a combination of mezzotint and 
stipple. His work includes several portraits of Washington after 
Savage's original and some book illustrations. His last plate, engraved 
in his ninety-first year, was a small one, after Houdon's bust of 
Washington. 



306 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

HAMM. Phineas Eldridge Hamm, engraver, was born in Philadel- 
phia, October 5, 1799, where he died January 31, 1861. 

HANCOCK. N. Hancock, who painted excellent miniatures, accord- 
ing to an advertisement in the Independent Chronicle of Boston was in 
that city in May, 1799. He was in Salem, Mass., 1805-1809. 

HARDING. A portrait of Mrs. John Lovett, signed J. L. Harding, 
1837, is owned in Woodstock, Conn. 

HARLAND. Thomas Harland is said to have engraved at Norwich, 
Conn., although we have seen no specimen of his work. 

HARRIS. J. T. Harris exhibited at the Boston Athenaeum a por- 
trait of a gentleman in 1833. 

HARRIS. Samuel Harris, engraver, born Boston, Mass., May, 1783; 
drowned July 7, 1810. He engraved stippled portraits for the Poly- 
anthos (where a portrait and an obituary notice of him also appear) . 

HARRISON. Charles P. Harrison, engraver, was a native of Eng- 
land, born 1783. He was a son of William Harrison, Sr., and came to 
Philadelphia with his father in 1794. 

HARRISON. J. P. Harrison, engraver, "was the first engraver who 
practised west of the Alleghanies; he was established in Pittsburg 
1817. " (D.) He is not mentioned by Stauffer or Fielding. 

HARRISON. Peter Harrison was the first professional architect in 
America. One of the stories often repeated is that Harrison came 
to America with John Smibert and Dean George Berkeley in 1728. 
As Peter Harrison was born June 14, 1716, he was but twelve years 
of age when Berkeley and Smibert came to America; he probably 
arrived early in the year 1745. On June 6, 1746, he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Edward and Arabella Williams Pelham, at Newport, 
R. I. In 1748-49 he designed and commenced the Redwood Library 
at Newport, R. L, and while so engaged was invited to prepare plans 
for the rebuilding of King's Chapel, Boston. In 1761 Harrison built 
the Brick Market House at Newport, R. I., afterwards used for a 
City Hall and in 1763 he built the Jewish synagogue in the same city. 
In 1768 Harrison removed to New Haven, Conn., where he died April 
30, 1775. Portraits of Peter Harrison and of his wife were painted by 
John Smibert. 

HARRISON. Richard Harrison, engraver. In Philadelphia about 
1820. 




Mr, Richard Mather. 



RICHARD MATIIKR 
15961669 

FROM AN ENGRAVING ON WOOD By JOHN FOSTER IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 
MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



ADDENDA 307 

HARRISON. Richard G. Harrison engraved in Philadelphia about 
1804-18; he took up bank-note work later. 

HARRISON. Samuel Harrison, engraver, born 1789; died in 1818, 
was a son of William Harrison, Sr. He engraved a map of Lake 
Ontario and Western New York. 

HARRISON. William Harrison, engraver, a native of England, came 
to this country to work for the Bank of Pennsylvania in 1794. He 
died October 18, 1803, leaving several sons, also engravers. 

HARRISON. William Harrison, Jr., engraver, worked in Phila- 
delphia about 1797-1819. 

HARRISON. William F. Harrison, an engraver engaged on bank- 
note work about 1831-40. 

HATCH. George W. Hatch, engraver, born about 1805 in New 
York State; died at Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., in 1867, worked for pub- 
lishers of "Annuals" and other books and also on bank-notes. 

HATHAWAY. J. Hathaway exhibited a portrait in miniature of a 
lady at the Boston Athenaeum in 1833. 

HAVILAND. John Haviland, an English artist, now in Philadelphia. 

CD.) 

HAY. William H. Hay, an engraver working in Philadelphia about 
1828. Plates signed "William Hay" appear about ten years earlier 
but may have been made by another man of the name. 

HAYS. Henry Hays, native of England, engraved bookplates in 
New York about 1830-55. 

HAZLETT. John Hazlett was the eldest son of Rev. William Hazlett 
who came to America during the War of the Revolution. Hazlett 
painted portraits in Hingham, Mass., and was working in Salem, 
Mass., in 1782 where he made both miniatures and large portraits. 

HENRY. John Henry, engraver, was in Philadelphia and Baltimore 
1793-1828. 

HENTZ. N. M. Hentz engraved a plate for the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia of which he was a 
member, in 1825. 

HERBERT. Lawrence Herbert, engraver, advertised in the Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette 1748-51, to engrave on gold, silver, copper or pewter. 

HESSELIUS. ; John Hesselius, was the son of Gustavus Hesselius 
and a nephew of Samuel Hesselius, a Swedish missionary. He was 



308 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

painting portraits in Philadelphia in 1755 but he had previously lived 
in Maryland and went to Virginia and Maryland again after his 
father's death in 1755. He married and settled at Annapolis, Md. 
A portrait labelled " Colonel William Fitzhugh aged 40 1698. Copy 
by J. Hesselius" is owned by a descendent. In 1775, John Champe 
of King George County bequeathed to his wife Anne, who was the 
daughter of Charles Carter, "the four pictures drawn last by Hessel- 
ius, to wit Colonel Charles Carter and Anne his wife, my own and 
the said Anne Champe." 

HEWITT. An engraver of this name made a few plates in Phila- 
delphia about 1820. 

HEWITT. J. Hewitt was an engraver of music. 

HILL. James Hill, engraver, produced a few crudely executed 
plates of Bible illustrations published in Charlestown, Mass., in 1803, 
and at least one large stippled engraving about 1792. 

HILL. John Hill, engraver, born London, 1770; died at West 
Nyack, N. Y., in 1850. He was a skillful engraver in aquatint, of 
which his plates for Wall's "Hudson River Portfolio" are good ex- 
amples. 

HILL. J. W. Hill, landscape painter New York. (D.) 

HILL. Pamelia E. Hill, miniature painter, was the daughter of 
Alfred and Persis (Jones) Hill of Framingham, Mass., where she was 
born May 9, 1803. She died in 1860. She painted miniatures of Mrs. 
Joel Thayer (Abigail Barstow), Miss L. B. Vose, Rev. Mr. Sharpe, 
Miss Walsingham, Rev. Mr. Croswell. There are several examples 
of Miss Hill's miniature work in the Worcester Art Museum. She 
exhibited for several seasons at the Boston Athenaeum. Her studio 
in 1834 was at 28 Somerset Street, Boston. 

HILL. Samuel Hill, engraver, (probably the son of Alexander and 
Thankful Hill, born Boston, July 27, 1750) worked in Boston and 
engraved in line a large number of plates for the Massachusetts Maga- 
zine 1789-96, and for other publications. His name does not appear 
in the Boston Directory after 1803. 

HILLER. The name of Joseph Hiller, who was collector of customs 
at Salem, Mass., 1789-1802, appears as the engraver of a small quarto 
mezzotint engraving of John Hancock. 

HILLER. J. Hiller, Jr., son of the foregoing, born Salem, Mass., 




GEN. HENRY LEE 

1756- 1818 
BY SARAH GOODRIDGE 

From the collection of Mr. Luke Vincent Lockwood 



ADDENDA 309 

June 21, 1777, and lost from a ship August 22, 1795, etched a very 
good copy of Joseph Wright's profile etching of Washington. It is 
signed "J. Hiller Ju'r Sculp. 1794." 

HILSON. This gentleman, one of the first comedians England has 
sent us, was likewise an amateur painter, a very skillful draughtsman, 
especially landscape with blacklead pencil. (D.) 

HILYEK. William Hilyer, portrait painter, New York. (D.) 

KINGSTON. Engraver. A billhead for the City Hotel, Alexandria, 
Va., about 1825, is signed by this name, with the address, "G. Town." 

HINMAN. D. C. Hinman worked alone and also as a member of the 
firm of Daggett, Hinman & Co., New Haven, Conn., about 1830-5. 

HOBAN. Hoban, Washington, D. C., gained the premium for the 
plan of the president's house (D.) 

HOIT. Albert Gallatin Hoit was born in Sandwich, N. H., in 1809. 
He painted many years in Boston and went to St. John and Halifax, 
N. S., 1837-38. He died in 1856. 

HOLYLAND. C. I. Holyland engraved in 1834. Only one plate by 
him is known to us. 

HOOGLAND. William Hoogland, engraver, worked in New York 
and Boston about 1815-1841. 

HOOKER. William Hooker, engraver, worked chiefly on charts 
and maps, about 1805-17. He was one of the founders of the Phila- 
delphia Society of Artists in 1810. 

HOPE. Thomas W. Hope, portrait and miniature painter, New 
York. (D.) 

HOPKINS. Daniel Hopkins engraved the music for Law's "The 
Rudiments of Music, " Cheshire, Conn., 1783. 

HOBTON. An engraver of this name worked in Philadelphia and 
Baltimore about 1830-35. 

HOULTON. J. Houlton engraved a membership certificate blank 
of the Charitable Marine Society of Baltimore about 1797. 

HOUSTON. H. H. or H. I. Houston was an engraver of stippled por- 
traits in Philadelphia 1796-8, and signed variously as above. He was 
employed by T. B. Freeman and was probably a native of Ireland. 

HOWE. Z. Howe engraved a frontispiece to Brownson's "A New 
Collection of Sacred Harmony," Simsbury, Conn., 1797. 



310 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

HOWES. S. P. Howes, a Boston miniature painter, exhibited a por- 
trait of S. Baker in 1833 at the Boston Athenaeum. 

HUGHES. Robert Ball Hughes, sculptor, was born in London in 
1806. He came to New York in 1829 and later to Boston, where he 
modelled in wax, marble and bronze. A marble statue of Alexander 
Hamilton made by him for the Merchants' Exchange, New York, 
was destroyed by fire in 1835. In later life he attained especial notice 
by his sketches burned on wood with a hot iron. He died in Boston, 
March 5, 1868. 

HUMPHREYS. William Humphreys, engraver, born Dublin, Ireland, 
1794; died Genoa, Italy, June 21, 1865. He acquired and practised 
the art of engraving in Philadelphia. In 1845 he took up his residence 
abroad. 

HUNTINGTON. Eleazer Huntington, engraver, worked in Hartford, 
Conn., on penmanship copy-books, maps, etc., about 1828-30. 

HUTT. John Hutt advertised in the New York newspapers of 1774 
to do miscellaneous engraving. Bookplates by him are now extant. 

HUTTON. J. HuHon was an Albany (N. Y.) engraver of limited 
practice about 1830. 

ILLMAN. Thomas Illman, engraver, was a native of England where 
he engraved before coming to America (about 1830). He was of the 
firm of "Illman & Pilbrow," Hudson Street, New York City. 

IMBERT. Anthony Imbert, proprietor of the first lithographic 
establishment in New York, was originally a French naval officer. 
He acquired the art of drawing during a long captivity in England as 
prisoner of war, and came to the United States probably about 1825, 
as in that year we find him located at 79 Murray Street, New York 
City, exercising his talents for the first time here in the production of 
lithographic drawings for Colden's "Memoir . . . presented . . . 
at the completion of the New York Canals" published in that year. 
From that time his name appears at brief intervals in many books 
containing lithographic illustrations, the latest date of such publica- 
tions of which we have note being the year 1831, when he was located 
at 104 Broadway. 

JACKSON. Engraver. A line engraving, "Capt. William Mason 
in the Magazine, Fort Niagara, Sept. 1826" is the only example of his 
work known. 




ISAIAH THOMAS 

1749-1831 
BY ETHAN ALLEN GKEENWOOO 

From the collection of the American Antiquarian Swiety 



ADDENDA 311 

JAMES. Mr. James painted in New York twenty-five years ago, 
and afterwards in Quebec. He was a native of New York. (D.) 

JAMIESON. Jamieson, a very ingenious artist in cameos, New 
York. (D.) 

JENCKES. Joseph Jenckes, inventor and die-sinker, born Colbrooke, 
England, 1602; died Saugus, Mass., March 16, 1683. He emigrated 
in 1642. Ten years later a mint for the Province having been estab- 
lished in Boston, Jenckes was employed at the Lynn Iron Works to 
make the dies for the "Pine tree shilling. " He built the first Ameri- 
can fire-engine and forwarded the progress of manufactures by a num- 
ber of valuable inventions. 

JOCELYN. Simeon S. Jocelyn, engraver, born New Haven, Conn., 
November 21, 1799; died Tarrytown, N. Y., August 17, 1879. He 
became prominent as an abolitionist. 

JOHNSON. David G. Johnson's name appears as engraver of a few 
plates about 1831^5. 

JOHNSON. Henrietta Johnson painted pastels in South Carolina as 
early as 1705. The portrait of Sir Nathaniel Johnson is signed 
"Aetatis 61 April 7, 1705, Henrietta Johnson, Fecit." She also 
painted Governor Broughton and thirteen other portraits by her have 
been identified. She was buried in St. Philips churchyard, Charles- 
ton, S. C., March 9, 1728-9. 

JOHNSTON. John Johnston, the portrait and figure painter, was the 
son of Thomas and Bathsheba (Thwing) Johnston and was born in 
Boston about 1753; died June 28, 1818. In early life he was appren- 
ticed to John Gore, a house and sign painter. In April, 1775, he 
joined Gridley's Artillery Regiment, served with General Henry Knox 
in 1776 and was severely wounded at Brooklyn, New York, in August, 
1776. He retired in October, 1777, and resumed the practice of his 
profession in Boston where he had a shop and studio on Court Street. 
Johnston married Miss Martha Spear and had one or two sons who 
died in infancy, and four daughters. 

JOHNSTON. Thomas Johnston (often called Johnson), japanner, 
heraldic painter, organ builder, and engraver, was born in 1708 and 
died in Boston, Mass., May 8, 1767, of apoplexy. He should not be 
confused with his three namesakes, respectively painter stainer, 
cabinet maker and joiner or his son, Thomas, Jr., japanner and or- 



312 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

ganist. He was admitted to the Brattle Street Church, June 5, 1726, 
married Rachel Thwing, June 22, 1730, and her cousin Bathsheba 
Thwing, August 7, 1747, who survived him and married Samuel 
Phillips Savage. Among his eleven children were William and John, 
portrait painters. In 1732, as japanner, he sold London Glasses, of 
all sorts and sizes, at the Golden Lyon in Ann Street near the Town 
Dock but in 1743 removed to his new home in Brattle Street. 

In addition to his work listed in Stauffer and Fielding he engraved 
"A Chart of Canada River from ye Island of Anticosty as far up as 
Quebeck, 1746"; a "Prospect of Yale College," 1749; Plan of the 
Kennebeck and Sagadahock Rivers, 1753; Blank Commissions for the 
Massachusetts Province from 1758 to 1767, (the plate being changed 
yearly); "Plan of ye Town of PownaUr" 1763; Walter's Grounds and 
Rules of Musick, 1764; Bay ley's Grounds and Rules of Musick, 1766; 
the South Battery Certificate, (often attributed to Revere) ; and a 

business card, a clock-face for Clapp. 

JUSTICE. Joseph Justice, engraver, produced work (of little merit) 
in New York and Philadelphia 1804-33. 

KEENAN. William Keenan, engraver and etcher, worked in Phila- 
delphia and afterwards in Charleston, S. C., 1830-35. 

KELLOGG. Jarvis Griggs Kellogg, engraver, was born Tolland, 
Conn., October 5, 1805; died at Hartford, Conn., July 24, 1873. 

KELLY. Thomas Kelly, engraver, a native of Ireland, born about 
1795; died New York City about 1841. He worked in line and stipple 
for book publishers. 

KENNEDY. James Kennedy, engraver, was working in New York 
City in 1797, and some years later went to Philadelphia. 

KENNEDY. S. Kennedy was designing and engraving in conjunc- 
tion with William Charles in Philadelphia in 1813. He was also a 
carver, gilder, and manufacturer of looking-glasses in 1801. 

KENSETT. Thomas Kensett, engraver, born in England, 1786; 

died 1829. He was of the firm of Shelton & Kensett, Cheshire, Conn. 

KIDDER. James Kidder made some topographical drawings and 

engraved a few plates in aquatint in Boston, Mass., about the year 

1813. His name appears in the Boston City Directory of 1831 as 

"artist." 

KIMBERLY. Denison Kimberly, successful both as portrait painter 




BENJAMIN PICKMAN 

1708-1773 
BY JOHN GREENWOOD 

From the collection of The Essex Institute 



ADDENDA 313 

and engraver, was born Guilford, Conn., 1814. He abandoned en- 
graving in 1858 and in 1862 was located as painter of portraits in 
Hartford and Manchester, Conn. 

KING. G. B. King, engraver, was in New York about 1830-34. 

KNEASS. William Kneass, engraver and die-sinker, was born Lan- 
caster, Pa., September, 1781; died in Philadelphia, August 27, 1840. 
He engraved in aquatint and line, and was of the firms of Kneass & 
Dellaker and Young, Kneass & Co. In 1824, he became engraver 
and die-sinker to the United States Mint, Philadelphia. 

KNIGHT. Charles Knight painted miniatures in Philadelphia after 
1800. 

LAKEMAN. N. Lakeman painted many portraits in Salem, Mass., 
about 1820. 

LALANNE. Miss Mary E. Lalanne exhibited several miniatures at 
the Boston Athenaeum in 1833. She married Dr. Horace Kimball 
and died soon after. 

LAMB. The advertisement of Anthony Lamb, engraver, appears 
in the New York Mercury of December 1, 1760. No examples of his 
work are now known. 

LAMB. John Lamb, silversmith and engraver, advertised in the 
New York Mercury of March 15, 1756. None of his work is now 
extant. 

LANG. George S. Lang, born Chester County, Pa., 1799, engraved 
a few plates in early life. 

LATROBE. Henry Sellen Boneval Latrobe, the oldest son of B. Henry 
Latrobe, was born in 1793 and gave early proofs of extraordinary 
talents. He was instructed, after graduating at St. Mary's College, 
Baltimore, by Mr. Godefroi, in civil and military architecture, and 
then entered his father's office, finished his education with him, and 
assisted in the public works at Washington. Sent to New Orleans 
to carry his father's plans into execution, his labors were interrupted 
by the invasion of the English, against whom he served as assistant 
engineer to Major Latour, and signalized himself by his skill and 
gallantry. In 1815 he was appointed a commissioner for the erection 
of a lighthouse. His design for this structure is thought one of the 
most simple and beautiful of the kind. In 1816 all his works for the 
bringing of water to New Orleans were destroyed by fire, and while 



314 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

endeavoring to remedy the mischief he was seized with fever and 
died in August after an illness of five days. 

LAUNITZ. Robert E. Launitz, I believe an Italian and now in New 
York, connected in business with John Frazee. (D.) 

LAVIGNE. An engraver of this name made a few stippled plates 
for books in Boston about 1814. 

LAWSON. Thomas B. Lawson, an excellent portrait painter, was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., January 13, 1807, and died in Lowell, 
Mass., June 4, 1888. He studied at the National Academy of Design 
and commenced painting at Newburyport in 1832. In 1844 he 
painted Daniel Webster. 

LEACH. Samuel Leach, engraver. His advertisement appears in 
the Pennsylvania Gazette of December 10, 1741. No examples of his 
work are now known. 

LEDDEL. The advertisement of Joseph Leddel, Jr., in the New 
York Weekly Post Boy of May 18, 1752, would indicate that he was 
engaged in general engraving, although no prints from plates by him 
are known. 

LEHMAN. An artist by the name of Lehman painted landscapes in 
Philadelphia in 1830. 

LEMET. L. Lemet, engraver, practiced in a manner similar to that 
employed by St. Memin, the drawings being first done life size and 
then reduced by the " physiognetrace. " He worked in Albany, N. Y., 
about 1805. 

LEPELLETIER. Engraver. Some maps engraved in 1814 bear his 
signature. 

; LESUEUB. Alexander Charles Lesueur, engraver, artist and 
zoologist was born Havre de Grace, France, January 1, 1778, where 
he died December 12, 1846. He came to Philadelphia in 1815, taught 
drawing and painting and became prominent in scientific circles. 
He returned to France in 1837. 

LEWIS. David Lewis, portrait painter, had a studio in 1805 at 2 
Tremont Street, Boston. 

LEWIS. J. Lewis, engraver. The book-plate of Dr. Peter Middle- 
ton, who was in New York 1750-1781, is signed by him. Maps pub- 
lished about 1813 bear the same signature. 

LEWIS. J. O. Lewis engraved a stippled portrait of Lewis Cass, 




COLONEL JOHN MAY 

1748-18152 
BY CHRISTIAN GULLAGEH 

From the collection of the American Antiquarian Society 



ADDENDA 315 

and in 1835 he drew on stone and published in Philadelphia a series 
of Indian portraits from sketches made by him in Detroit in 1833. 

LEWIS. W. Lewis painted portraits in Salem, Mass., in 1812. His 
work appeared frequently in the early exhibitions at the Boston 
Athenaeum. 

LEWIS. The following advertisement appeared in the Boston 
Weekly Journal of December 13, 1737: "Yardley Lewis of London 
late from Ireland dwelt lately in widow Howard's house near the 
north market place Draws family pictures by the Life, also surveys 
and draws maps." 

LINCOLN. James Sullivan Lincoln was born in Taunton, Mass., in 
1811. At ten years of age he came to Providence, R. I., where he 
was apprenticed to William D. Terry as an engraver. At seventeen 
he had chosen the profession of portrait painter and established his 
studio in Providence. He died January 18, 1888. He was the first 
president of the Providence Art Club. 

LONG. Robert Carey Long built the Union Bank and St. Paul's 
Church, Baltimore. (D.) 

LOVE. G. Love, engraver. A very crude frontispiece to Watts 
"Divine Songs," signed by Love, appeared in Philadelphia in 1807. 

LOVETT. Robert Lovett was an engraver chiefly of seals and dies, 
about 1816. 

LOVETT. William Lovett, although his career was a very brief one, 
was an excellent painter of miniatures, as is shown by the portrait, 
reproduced, of Rev. John Clarke. Lovett was born in Boston hi 1773 
and died in Boston June 29, 1801. 

LOWNES. Caleb Lownes was an engraver and die-sinker in Phila- 
delphia, working about 1775-1800. 

LUPTON. Mrs. Lupton modelled, and presented a bust of Governor 
Throop to the National Academy of Design. (D.) 

LYBRAND. J. Lybrand engraved a few plates about 1820. 

MAAS. Jacob Maas engraved in Philadelphia about 1824. 

MACK. Mack, a miniature painter in New York. (D.) 

MAGENIS. H. Magenis, a portrait painter, worked in Philadelphia 
in 1818. 

MAJOR. J. P. Major, engraver, a native of England, came to the 
United States in 1830 and engaged in banknote work. 



316 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

MANLY. John Manly, engraver and die-sinker, etched a portrait 
of Washington about 1790-1800. 

MAPES. J. J. Mapes, an amateur miniature painter and friend to 
the Arts of Design. (D.) 

MARCHANT. B. Marchant is known to have executed a few en- 
gravings about 1816. 

MARCHANT. G. W. Marchant engraved in Albany in 1834. 

MARE. There is a portrait signed "Jno Mare pinxt 1768" belong- 
ing to the Metcalf family of Melrose, Mass. 

MARSAC. The name of Harvey Marsac, engraver, appears in the 
New York City Directory for 1834. 

MARSH. William R. Marsh, engraver, was engaged on small work 
about 1833^-3. 

MARSHALL. A map in the atlas to John Marshall's "Life of George 
Washington, " 1804-7, was engraved by this man, of whom we know 
nothing else. 

MARSTON. J. B. Marston was painting portraits in Boston about 
1807. His portrait of Governor Caleb Strong is in the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

MARTIN. D. Martin, engraver, worked about the year 1796. 

MARTIN. E. Martin, engraver, worked in Cincinnati about 1826. 

MARTIN. J. B. Martin was an engraver and lithographer in Rich- 
mond, Va., about 1822. 

MASON. D. H. Mason was an architect and also engraved (chiefly 
music) in Philadelphia about 1805-30. 

MASON. The following advertisement is from the Boston Chronicle 
of June 7-11, 1768: 

"George Mason, Limner, begs leave to inform the public (with a 
view of more constant employ) he now draws faces in crayon for two 
guineas each, glass and frame included. As the above mentioned 
terms are extremely moderate, he flatters himself with meeting some 
encouragement especially as he professes to let no picture go out of 
his hands but what is a real likeness. Those who are pleased to em- 
ploy him are desired to send or leave a line at Mrs. Coffins near Green 
and Russel's Printing Office and they shall be immediately waited 
upon. " 

MASON. Jonathan Mason, Jr., of Mt. Vernon Street, Boston, ex- 




COL. WILLIAM RAYMOND LEE 

BY N. HANCOCK 
From the collection of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 



ADDENDA 317 

hibited portraits and figure subjects 1828-34 at the Boston Athen- 
aeum, among them his own portrait. 

MASON. William G. Mason, engraver, worked principally in Phila- 
delphia about 1822^5. 

MAUVAIS. A. Mauvais painted large portraits and miniatures at 
Savannah, Ga., in 1776. An excellent example of his work is the min- 
iature of Maj. John Gedney Clark, 1737-1784, a British Army officer, 
which is in the collection of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

MAVERICK. Maria A. and Emily Maverick were daughters of 
Peter Maverick. Each engraved, about 1830, an excellent stippled 
portrait of Shakespeare. 

MAVERICK. Samuel Maverick, son of Peter R. Maverick, engraved 
and printed copper-plates in New York about 1805-47. He appears to 
have been employed principally as a printer, and to have engraved 
incidentally. Stauffer states that there were two of the same name 
similarly employed. 

MAXON. The name of Charles Maxon, engraver, appears in the 
New York City Directory for 1833. 

McGiBBON. James McGibbon painted portraits in Boston in 1801. 

MclNTiRE. Samuel Mclntire, architect, wood carver, etc., of Salem, 
Mass., stands forth conspicuously as an example of early American 
genius. He was born January 16, 1757, the son of Joseph and Sarah 
(Ruck) Mclntire, and died February 6, 1811. Mclntire was first a 
carver, then a designer, and finally an architect. Although his work 
as an architect was local to Salem, Massachusetts, and the immedi- 
ate vicinity, his influence is seen in many sections of the country. 
Many houses in Salem are still preserved as evidence of the beauty 
of line and proportion which characterized his architectural designs. 
In 1782 he designed the Pierce- Johonnot-Nichols house at Salem 
here reproduced (now owned by the Essex Institute) one of his 
finest works, and in the years that followed he left further record 
for good taste in architecture, placing him with Bulfinch in the front 
rank of the architects of the period. (See Bibliography, p. 351, 
"The Woodcarver of Salem " by Cousins and Riley.) 

McKAY. Portraits of John Bush, 1755-1816, and of Mrs. Abigail 
Adams Bush, 1765-1810, signed "McKay" belong to the American 
Antiquarian Society, of Worcester, Mass. 



318 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

MEADOWS. R. M. Meadows engraved some well-executed por- 
traits about 1817. 

MEANCE. This brief announcement appears in the Gazette Fran- 
faise, New York, July 9, 1795 : "Meance, Miniature painter. " 

MEDAIRY & BANNERMAN. A Baltimore firm of engravers about 
the year 1828. 

MEEK. John Meer, who in Dunlap's Appendix is described as 
"enamel painter," was also a bank note engraver as appears by his 
letter to Thomas Jefferson written from Philadelphia, June 18, 1816, 
in which he gave a description of the advantages of his work over 
that of other engravers and enclosed a specimen patented by 
him July 1, 1815. This letter is now in the collection of Mr. W. 
K Bixby of St. Louis, Mo. 

MENG. John Meng was born hi Germantown, Pa., February 6, 
1734, the son of Christopher Meng of Manheim, Germany, who came 
to this country in 1728 and settled in Germantown. A few paintings 
by John Meng are still preserved in Germantown families and several 
are in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia. He 
did not receive much encouragement and went to the West Indies 
where he died in 1754 at twenty years of age. 

MERCER. A nephew of General Mercer was a miniature painter, 
instructed by C. W. Peale. (D.) 

MEYER. Henry Hoppner Meyer, an English miniature painter 
and nephew of the celebrated John Hoppner, visited this country 
about 1830. Amongst the miniature work he did was a portrait of 
President Andrew Jackson made in 1833. He engraved a few plates 
for Longacre & Herring's "National Portrait Gallery," 1834. 

MEYRICK. Richard Meyrick, engraver, advertised in the American 
Weekly Mercury for 1729. No example of his work is known to us. 

MIDDLETON. Thomas Middleton, amateur painter and etcher, 
was born Fanclure, S. C., February 13, 1797; died Charleston, S. C., 
September 27, 1863. 

MIFFLIN. J. H. Mifflin painted portraits in Philadelphia in 1832. 

MILBOURNE. Milbourne was the first good scene painter who 
visited this country. He was from London in 1792. (D.) 

MITCHELL. E. Mitchell, a native of England, engraved book- 
plates here about 1790. 




PETER HARRISON 

1716-1775 
BY JOHN SMIBEBT 



ADDENDA 319 

MITCHELL. Harvey Mitchell was painting poor portraits at 
Charleston, S. C., in 1830. 

MOFFAT. J. Moffat engraved a small portrait of Robert Burns, 
about 1830-35, the only example of his work we have seen. 

MOLINEUX. An engraver of Pittsburg, Pa., about 1831. 

MONACHISE. N. Monachise, painter of history and portraits, 98 
Locust Street, Philadelphia, 1832. (D.) 

MONTGOMERY. Robert Montgomery, engraver, advertised in the 
New York Packet of November 13, 1783. A book-plate engraved by 
him is known. 

MOONEY. A portrait of Gilbert McMasters, D.D., engraved by 
John Rubens Smith is inscribed "E. Mooney, N. Y. " 

MOORE. Isaac W. Moore, engraver, worked in Philadelphia about 
1831-33. 

MOORE. Thomas Moore appears in the Boston, Mass., Directory 
of 1828 as " artist. " He was a native of England and entered the 
lithographic establishment of Pendleton which he purchased in 
1836 and from then conducted a copper-plate and lithographic 
printing establishment at 204 Washington Street. He also founded 
the N. E. Bank Note Co., using Perkins' process of engraving. His 
name does not appear in the Directory after 1841. 

MORIN. J. F. Morin was an engraver, chiefly of commercial work, 
in New York City about 1825-31. 

MORS. Nathaniel Mors, goldsmith, born Dedham, Mass., October 
3, 1676, son of Ezra and Joanna (Hoare) Mors; died Boston, June 21, 
1748. In 1730 he was in partnership with Thomas Edwards, also a 
goldsmith. He engraved a crude line portrait of Rev. Matthew Henry 
published 1731 and worked on copper-plates for Massachusetts cur- 
rency 1735. 

MORSE. Hazen Morse is mentioned in the Boston, Mass., Direc- 
tory of 1813 as silversmith, and from 1820 to 1843 as engraver, a part 
of the time in partnership with J. W. Tuttle and George H. Morse. 
He was engaged chiefly on commercial work although he engraved in 
aquatint a folio view of Haverhill, which is in colors. 

MOULD. J. B. Mould engraved in New York about 1830. 

MOULTHROP. Reuben Moulthrop who was born in 1763, died at 



320 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

East Haven, Conn., in 1814. He painted portraits of Ezra Stiles and 
Jonathan Edwards. He also modelled in wax. 

MUGFORD. A crayon portrait by William Mugford is in the Pea- 
body Museum at Salem, Mass. 

MULLER. H. Muller, landscape painter, New York, 1828. (D.) 

MULLIKEN. Jonathan Mulliken, clock-maker, born Newburyport, 
Mass., 1746; died there June 19, 1782. A copper-plate engraving of 
the "Bloody Massacre" (of March 5, 1770), bears his name as en- 
graver, being otherwise a facsimile excellently made of Revere's 
plate of the same subject. Under what circumstances this interesting 
engraving was produced, we have not ascertained. 

MUNSON. Samuel B. Munson, engraver, was born in Connecticut, 
May 29, 1806, and died in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 6, 1880. He was 
working in New Haven, Conn., with S. S. Jocelyn about 1830. He 
was also at one time with G. K. Stillman as S. B. Munson & G. K. 
Stillman, and from 1831 to 1851 he was associated with Curtis B. 
Doolittle in Cincinnati, Ohio, under the firm name of Doolittle & 
Munson. After that date his name appears in the Cincinnati direc- 
tory alone until 1863, and again for the year 1870. 

MURPHY. A crudely executed engraving by this man was published 
in New York in 1807. 

MURRAY. John Murray, engraver, advertised in Rivington's 
Royal Gazette, New York, February 28, 1776, as engraver on silver- 
plate, seals, coats of arms, etc. He was in the 57th (British) 
Regiment. 

M., J. A portrait of Frederick III of Prussia engraved on copper 
and signed "J. M. AE 14 sculp 1758" appears in the "New York 
Almanac" for 1759. 

NEAGLE. James Neagle, engraver of a few plates, was born 1769; 
died Philadelphia, June 24, 1822. 

NEAGLE. John B. Neagle, engraver, son of John Neagle, born in 
England about 1796; died in Philadelphia, 1866. Like many en- 
gravers of his time he began on portrait work but devoted his later 
years to employment on bank notes. 

NEASE. Nease, engraver and die-sinker at the mint of the United 
States, Philadelphia, 1833. (D.) 

NESMITH. J. H. Nesmith engraved about the years 1805-28. 




JOHN JOHNSTON 

1752-1818 
BY HIMSELF 



ADDENDA 321 

NEWCOMB. D. Newcomb, engraver, worked in Boston about 1820. 

NICHOLSON. J. D. Nicholson engraved in a limited way, about 
1830. 

NORMAN. John Norman, engraver, publisher and architect, was 
born in 1748 and came from London to this country about the year 
1774. He first located in Philadelphia but afterwards (about 1781) 
settled in Boston where he died June 8, 1817. His plates, comprising 
portraits, historical scenes, maps and charts, are crudely engraved in 
line. 

NOTES. A book-plate of the Social Friends' Library of Dartmouth 
College is signed "Noyes sc. " In the records of the Society under 
date December 4, 1799, the following entry appears: "Voted that 
Josiah Noyes procure a copper plate to stamp the books of the 
library." 

NUTTING. Benjamin F. Nutting drew on stone for lithographers 
and painted portraits in Boston, 1826-84. 

NYE. E. Nye advertised as a portrait painter in the Rural Visitor, 
Burlington, N. J., of March 25, 1811. 

O'HARA. Miss O'Hara, miniature painter, New York. (D.) 

OKEY. Samuel Okey, engraver, was born in England and came to 
this country after 1767. He engraved and published in Newport, 
R. I., in partnership with Charles Reak crudely executed portraits in 
mezzotinto. All these plates are now scarce and of antiquarian value. 

ORMSBY. Waterman Lilly Ormsby, engraver, born Hampton, 
Conn., 1809; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., November 1, 1883. He applied 
a natural inventive genius to the production of various devices facili- 
tating the processes of engraving and became a founder of the Conti- 
nental Bank Note Company. He wrote a book on the subject of bank- 
note engraving. 

OSBORN. A few plates were engraved in stipple by M. Osborn 
who was in Baltimore about 1812. 

OSGOOD. Charles Osgood was born in Salem, Mass., February 25, 
1809, and in 1827 opened a studio in Boston to practice his profession 
as portrait painter. In 1828 he returned to Salem remaining until 
1840 and then after one year in New York came back to Salem 
where he lived until his death. His portraits hang upon the walls of 
historical societies in Boston and Worcester, Memorial Hall at Cam- 






322 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

bridge, the Peabody Institute at Peabody, the Essex Institute and 
the City Hall at Salem. 

OSGOOD. Samuel S. Osgood was born in New Haven, Conn., in 
1798 and was taken to Boston in 1808. In 1825 he returned to Con- 
necticut and established himself as a portrait painter in Hartford. 
He married in 1830 and went to Europe entering upon a course of 
study. While in England he painted Lord Lyndhurst, Mrs. Norton 
and others. He is said to have died in California in 1885. 

PALMER. J. Palmer engraved some Bible illustrations about 1826. 

PARADISE. John W. Paradise, engraver, son of John, the painter, 
born in New Jersey, 1809; died in New York, August 17, 1862. He 
engraved portraits and bank-notes and was one of the founders of 
the National Academy of Fine Arts of New York, in 1826. 

PARKER. Charles H. Parker, engraver, born Salem, Mass., about 
1795; died in Philadelphia in 1819. He worked chiefly on script and 
ornaments in which he was especially proficient. 

PARKER. George Parker, engraver, a native of England, worked 
on portraits for the "National Portrait Gallery." 

PARKER. Thomas H. Parker was a popular miniature painter in 
Hartford in 1829. He was born in Sag Harbor, L. I., in 1801. 

PARKER. Parker is mentioned incidentally in Stuart's life. (D.) 

PARKYNS. George I. Parkyns, painter and engraver, a native of 
England, came to Philadelphia in 1795, where he worked for T. B. 
Freeman. He engraved in aquatint a view of Mount Vernon. 

PARTRIDGE. Joseph Partridge painted a portrait of Rev. Stephen 
Gano of Providence, R. I. It was engraved by Pekenino and pub- 
lished in 1822. 

PEABODY. M. M. Peabody engraved chiefly in the stipple manner, 
working in Vermont and New York State about 1830. 

PEACOCK. In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Mass., are two portraits of John Bush and Mrs. Charles Platt Bush 
attributed to "Peacock. " 3)^ ^ U, C. W , fe*T" 

PEALE. Anna Claypoole Peale, the daughter of James Peale, was 
born Philadelphia March 6, 1791; died there December 25, 1878. 
Her maternal grandfather was James Claypoole, the limner of the 
colonial period. She married first Rev. Dr. William Stoughton and 
second Gen. William Duncan and is known in the art world by all 




JUDGE DANIEL DAVIS 

1713-1799 
BY JOHN JOHNSTON 

From the collection of Rear Admiral Charles Henry Davin 



ADDENDA 323 

three names. She worked for a time in Boston and was represented 
in the early exhibitions of the Boston Athenaeum. 

PEALE. Maria Peale, daughter of James Peale, painted still life in 
Philadelphia after 1810. 

PEALE. Sarah M. Peale, daughter of James Peale, painted flowers 
and still life in Philadelphia after 1816. 

PEASE. Joseph Ives Pease, engraver, born Norfolk, Conn., August 
9, 1809; died at Twin Lakes, Conn., July 2, 1883. He was a skillful 
and prolific engraver of book-illustrations and bank notes. 

PEASLEY. A. M. Peasley, engraver, produced a small amount of 
work in Newburyport, Mass., about 1804. 

PECKHAM. Robert Peckham, who was born in Petersham, Mass., 
in 1785, became an itinerant portrait painter travelling mostly in the 
country districts, but established for a while in Boston. He died at 
an advanced age in Westminster, Mass. Most of his portraits carica- 
ture their subjects, being flat, hard and stiff. Peckham painted John 
Greenleaf Whittier in 1833. 

PECKHAM. At Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., there is a portrait 
of Rev. Aug. Woodbury signed Rosa F. Peckham. 

PELHAM. Henry Pelham, son of Peter and Mary Copley Pelham, 
was born February 14, 1748-9. He engraved and painted in oil and 
made beautiful miniatures as is shown in the portrait reproduced 
of William Wagnall Stevens. He went to England about 1778 and 
practiced his profession and later went to Ireland where he became 
the agent of the Marquis of Lansdowne. While in America, Pelham 
practiced engineering and executed a map of Boston. He was 
drowned in 1806 while superintending some construction work in 
Kenmare, Ireland. 

PELHAM. Peter Pelham, portrait painter and mezzotint engraver 
of London, born about 1684, with his wife Martha and sons Peter and 
Charles came to Boston in 1726, where another son William was born 
February 22, 1729. On October 15, 1734, he married his second wife, 
Margaret Lowrey, and by her had Penelope, born in Boston 1735 and 
Thomas born in Newport, R. I. On May 22, 1748, he married his 
third wife, Mrs. Mary (Singleton) Copley, widow of Richard, tobac- 
conist, and mother of John Singleton Copley, by whom he had Henry, 
born March 14, 1749 (Copley's "Boy and the Squirrel") and Helen 



324 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Maria, baptized May 26, 1751, who died in infancy. Pelham was 
buried December 14, 1751, from Trinity Church and his widow Mary, 
May 4, 1789. Shortly after his arrival, he painted the portrait of 
Rev. Cotton Mather, who died February 13, 1728. After Mather's 
death, Pelham published by subscription a mezzotint of the same at 
five shillings each. The original portrait, in reverse of the engrav- 
ing, is at the American Antiquarian Society and an unfinished replica 
is in the possession of Mrs. Frederick Lewis Gay of Brookline, Mass. 
In 1739, he painted and engraved the portrait of Rev. Mather Byles 
of Hollis Street Church. The original of this portrait is now in pos- 
session of Mrs. Gay. In 1750, he painted and engraved the portraits 
of Rev. Charles Brockwell, Rev. Timothy Cutler, and Rev. William 
Hooper, followed in 1751 by the Rev. John Moorhead. He engraved, 
from portraits by Smibert, Rev. Benjamin Colman, 1735; Rev. Wil- 
liam Cooper, 1743, issued May 7, 1744; Sir William Pepperrell, which 
is here reproduced, 1747; Gov. William Shirley, issued July 27, 1747; 
Rev. Henry Caner, 1750; and Rev. Joseph Sewall. On June 7, 1750, he 
issued the portrait of Rev. Thomas Prince, from the painting by John 
Greenwood, another Boston artist, and on May 15, 1751, was granted 
permission by the Harvard College authorities as "Mr. Pelham of 
Boston, Painter, to take a Mezzotint Print from Mr. Hollis's Picture, 
now standing in the Hall; Providing all due Care be taken by him, 
that no Injury be done to sd Picture." This was the portrait of 
Thomas Hollis, late of London, a most generous benefactor to Har- 
vard College, who had died in 1731 aged 71. It was painted in 1722 
by Joseph Highmore and was given to the College on request of 
President Leverett and Mr. Colman. Pelham's mezzotint was issued 
September 17, 1751, and many years after his step-son John Singleton 
Copley painted from it a portrait to replace the original burnt in the 
fire of 1764. An unsigned mezzotint of President Holyoke, dated 
1749, is probably his work and he also engraved The City and 
Fortress of Louisburg, September 18, 1746. All of his engraved 
work both in England and America is in mezzotint. 

Portrait painting and engraving would not keep a growing family 
in Boston at that time and Pelham is found constantly in the papers 
advertising his various accomplishments. On December 30, 1731, an 
instrumental concert was given in his Great Room, late Dr. Noyes's 




REV. JOHN CLARKE 

1755 - 1798 
BY WILLIAM LOVETT 

Prom^tbc collection of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mas*. 



ADDENDA 325 

house, on Queen (now Court) Street. He had added a Dancing School 
by November 23, 1732, when an irate inhabitant devoted a column 
and a quarter of a newspaper to remonstrating against his Monthly 
Assemblies. In 1734 he taught writing, reading, dancing, painting 
and needlework, and on April 5 was considering breaking up house- 
keeping but was saved from that by his marriage to his second wife. 
On August 12, 1735, he was succeeded as Dancing Teacher in Queen 
Street, by Thomas Brownell, who died there October, 1737. Pelham 
had continued teaching, however, and on February 6, 1738, he kept 
his school in the house of Philip Dumaresque in Summer Street, next 
his own, and to his employment as a teacher had added painting on 
glass. On May 30, 1743, his son, Peter Jr., came home * after a nine 
years' musical education, and was ready to teach Harpsichord, Spinet, 
and the rudiments of Psalmody, Hymns and Anthems at his father's 
house or school in Leverett's Lane, now the corner of Congress and 
Exchange Streets. On September 12, 1743, the senior Peter's 
Evening Writing and Arithmetic School commenced its sessions and 
for several years was continued at his house in Queen Street, where 
dancing was again taught. Having married the widow Copley, 
tobacconist of Long Wharf, she removed that business to Pelham's 
house in Lindall's Row, now Exchange Street, where the Evening 
School continued its sessions. 

PELTON. Oliver Pelton, engraver, born in Portland, Conn., August 
31, 1798; died East Hartford, Conn., August 15, 1882. He was an 
engraver of bank notes (at one time in partnership with W. D. Terry 
as Pelton & Terry), and produced a considerable number of book- 
illustrations indifferently engraved. 

PENDLETON. The first lithographic press in Boston was established 
in 1825 by John and William S. Pendleton, brothers. William, 
who had been a copper-plate printer, attended to the business 
details; John had become interested in the subject of lithography 
while on a visit to Paris, and was the artist member of the firm. 
At the Pendleton lithographic establishment, which was conducted 
in Boston from 1825 to 1836, there was printed a vast number of' 
drawings on stone by contemporary artists. Amongst these artists 
were numbered Rembrandt Peale, Alexander, Johnston, Davis, Pen- 
niman, Swett, Hoogland and Edwards, whose work included com- 



326 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

mercial drawings, portraiture, maps and many very interesting 
topographical views. An early specimen drawn by D. C. Johnston 
accompanies a notice of the Pendletons in the Boston Monthly 
Magazine of December, 1825. John Pendleton also conducted a 
lithographic business in the year 1829 at 9 Wall Street, New York 
City; and in the year following, he was of the firm of Pendleton, 
Kearny & Childs, in Philadelphia. The Boston establishment 
was sold in 1836 to Thomas Moore, an employee, who conducted 
it until 1840. 

PERKINS. E. G. Perkins engraved a few book-illustrations pub- 
lished in Providence, R. I., about 1831. 

PERKINS. Jacob Perkins, inventor, son of Matthew and Jane 
(Dole) Perkins was born Newburyport, Mass., July 9, 1766. Ap- 
prenticed to a goldsmith at the age of twelve, he gave immediate 
evidence of inventive genius and mechanical skill. Before the year 
1800, recognizing the defective nature of copper-plate for engraving 
and the desirability of a more secure means of protecting bank-notes 
from forgery, he devised and put into practice a new method of bank- 
note engraving based upon the principle of check-plates engraved on 
soft steel and case hardened after engraving by which forgery became 
more difficult of execution and easier of detection while the economy 
of production was greatly increased by the superior wearing qualities 
of steel over copper. For this invention he was granted a patent by 
the United States Government on March 18, 1799, and supplementary 
patents covering further improvements were granted later. In 1805 
twenty-six banks had adopted Perkins' notes and the attention of 
the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts having 
been drawn to this subject, a bill was enacted in 1809 (Chap. 99, Acts 
of 1809, approved March 4, 1809), requiring all incorporated banks 
in the State to adopt bills printed from Perkins' patent stereotype 
steel plates. (See Perkins' Memorial to the General Court of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1806, printed in appendix to this volume). In 1809, Joseph 
C. Dyer was sent to introduce the system into Great Britain, and 
the following year he secured patents for Perkins in the United King- 
dom. Perkins formed a partnership in 1810 with Gideon Fairman, 
also a native of Newburyport, under the style of "Perkins & Fair- 
man." They published in that year a text-book of penmanship 




H-l 

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ADDENDA 327 

"Perkins & Fairman's Running Hand. Stereographic Copies. Pat- 
ent Steel Plates" which was, so far as we know, the earliest use 
of steel plates for books. In 1814, Perkins went to Philadelphia, en- 
tering the bank-note firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. In 
1816, in company with other engravers, he went to London to com- 
pete (it is said) for a prize offered by the Society of Arts of that city 
for the best means of preventing the forgery of bank notes. The 
result of this contest we do not know, but Perkins did receive from 
this Society both gold and silver medals for other useful inventions. 
While in London, Perkins and Fairman entered into partnership with 
Charles Heath, the English engraver, for the production of bank 
notes, book-illustrations, etc., by the "hardened steel" process, and 
many plates were engraved by this firm. The Transactions of the 
Society of Arts, vol. 38, London, 1821, contains a long account by 
them of their process. Perkins continued to reside in London and 
died there July 30, 1849. His process was the genesis of the suc- 
ceeding and highly perfected engraving adopted by the British 
Government for postage-stamps and the American Bank Note 
Company and the United States Treasury Department for bank 
notes. The process was introduced into Germany by Frommel in 
1824. 

PERKINS. Joseph Perkins, engraver, born Unity, N. H., August 19, 
1788; died in New York City, April 27, 1842. He worked on script 
engraving, and for a time was in partnership with A. B. Durand 
as Durand, Perkins & Co. 

PEROT. James Perot, silversmith, of New Rochelle, N. Y., is pre- 
sumed to have engraved his own book-plate, examples of which now 
exist. His period was about 1753. 

PERSICO. Persico, miniature painter, Philadelphia. (D.) 

PETTICOLAS. Phillip S. Petticolas, who was born in 1760 and died 
1843, painted miniatures in Richmond, Va., for many years. 

PICART. The signature of B. Picart appears on a caricature print 
published in New York about 1800. The name may be fictitious. 

PIERPONT. Benjamin Pierpont, Jr., son of Benjamin Pierpont, 
silver and goldsmith of Roxbury, Mass., engraved music in 1778. 

PIGALLE. Crudely executed copper-plates are signed "Pigalle" 
without initials and appear to have been engraved about 1800. 



328 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

PIGGOT. Robert Piggot, engraver, born New York City, May 20, 
1795; died in Sykesville, Md., July 23, 1887. He engraved in stipple 
in partnership with Charles Goodman as "Goodman & Piggot. " He 
was ordained to the priesthood of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
1823, although he continued to engrave for some time thereafter. 

PLANTEAU. Madam Planteau painted in Washington about 1820. 
CD.) 

PLATT. A nicely engraved stipple portrait of "Saml. Thomson- 
Botanist" bears the signature "H. Platt," but whether indicating 
the artist or engraver is uncertain. 

PLOCHER. Jacob J. Plocher, engraver, died in Philadelphia, 
December 27, 1820. 

PLUMB. A portrait of Francis Thomas of Maryland is engraved 
by Alfred Sealey and inscribed "Plumb, Pinxt. " 

POLK. Charles Peal Polk was a nephew of Charles Willson Peale. 
Polk was born in Maryland in 1767 and died in 1822. He painted 
fifty portraits of Washington without a sitting and may have painted 
one portrait of Washington later from life. 

PORTER. J. S. Porter painted miniatures in 1833, several being 
exhibited at the Boston Athenaeum. 

PORTER. J. T. Porter engraved in line the frontispiece to the "Nar- 
rative of John R. Jewett" published in Middletown, Conn., 1815. 

POTJPARD. James Poupard, engraver, was a native of Martinique 
and at one time an actor. He advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette 
of 1772 as "Engraver, Jeweller and Goldsmith, Front Street, Phila- 
delphia." He was in Philadelphia as late as 1807, and in New York 
in 1814. Lawsonsays: "He had been a player in Martinique, but the 
Creoles not duly appreciating his merits, he came to the United States, 
and turned his hand to engraving on type metal. He married a 
woman with some property, who was a fanatical Methodist, and Pou- 
pard, when with her, seemed as far gone as herself when away 
from her, he was a very merry fellow, and amused his companions by 
reciting and acting." 

PRINGLE. J. Pringle, portrait painter, New York. (D.) 

PURINGTON. J. Purington painted miniatures in Salem, Mass., in 
1802. 

PURSELL. Henry Pursell advertised in the New York Mercury of 




REV. EZRA STILES 

1727-1795 
BY REUBEN MOULTHROP 

From the collection of Yale University 



ADDENDA 329 

May 29, 1775, as an engraver. He engraved the British coat of arms 
for Rivington's Royal Gazette, 1780. 

RADCLIFFE. C. Radcliffe engraved stipple portraits in Phila- 
delphia about 1805. 

RALPH. W. Ralph, an engraver of crude line plates, was working 
in Philadelphia about 1794-1808. Much of his work was on juveniles 
and chap books. 

RAND. John Goffe Rand, born in Bedford, N. H., January 27, 
1801, painted several portraits of Judges in New Hampshire and 
many other portraits. He died in New York in 1868. 

RAUSCHNER. John Christian Rauschner, a Dane, seems to have 
wandered all over the eastern part of the country in the early years of 
the nineteenth century making wax portraits. In 1810 he worked in 
Philadelphia and also in New York City. Many examples of his work 
are in the collection of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

RAWDON. Ralph Rawdon engraved in Cheshire, Conn., and 
Albany, N. Y., about 1813-16. In Cheshire he was associated with 
Thomas Kensett. 

REICH. John Reich, once die-sinker at Philadelphia, employed 
by the mint, was the best artist in his line Philadelphia has had. 
He was passionately fond of music. Ill health obliged him to 
retire to the West, where he died. (D.) 

REICHE. F. Reiche was engraving on wood and copper in 
Philadelphia about 1800. 

REMICK. Christian Remick, son of Christian and Hannah Free- 
man Remick, was born April 8, 1726, at Eastham, Mass. He was a 
sailor by profession and during the War of the Revolution served on 
the privateers fitted out by the State of Massachusetts. He had 
some talent as an artist and employed it intermittently. The follow- 
ing advertisement from the Massachusetts Gazette and the Boston Post 
Boy of October 16, 1769, and subsequent issues, locates him in Boston 
at that date. 

"Christian Remich, lately from Spain, Begs Leave to inform the 
Public, That he performs all sorts of Drawing in Water Colours, such 
as Sea Pieces, Perspective Views, Geographical Plans of Harbours, 
Sea Coasts &ct. Also, colours Pictures to the Life, and Draws Coats 
of Arms, at the most reasonable Rates Specimens of his Per- 



HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

formances, particularly an Accurate View of the Blockade of Boston, 
with the landing of the British Troops on the first of October, 1768, 
may be seen at the Golden Ball and Bunch of Grapes Taverns, or 
at Mr. Thomas Bradford's North End, Boston." 

He married August 27, 1752, Sarah, daughter of Benjamin and 
Temperance (Dimmick) Freeman of Harwich, Mass., and was living 
in 1783. Remick's work as a draughtsman is now known solely by 
his "Perspective View of Boston Harbour" and "A Prospective 
View of Boston Commons and the Encampment of the 29th Regi- 
ment" of 1768. Five copies by him of the Harbour view have 
come down to the present time, all similar in design and differing 
chiefly in minor details. One of these copies, belonging to the Club 
of Odd Volumes of Boston, measures fifty-four inches in length by 
ten in height. The scene represented is that of the harbor with 
British men-of-war at anchor and boats filled with troops for land- 
ing. It is interesting to note in this connection that an engraving 
made by Paul Revere after an unknown artist represents the reverse 
of this view, i. e., the troops landing at Long Wharf with the town in 
the background. All copies of this view known to us are colored 
and three of those which we have seen are signed "Coloured by 
Christian Remick," giving significance to the suggestion made by 
Henry W. Cunningham ("Christian Remick, an early Boston artist," 
Boston 1904) that the original may have been drawn by Remick. 

RETZCH. Frederick August Moritz Retzch was born in 1799; died 
New Dresden, N. Y., June 11, 1857. He was a painter and also etched 
his own designs in illustration of Goethe, Schiller and others. 

REYNOLDS. Thomas Reynolds advertised as seal engraver in 
Philadelphia in the New York Daily Advertiser of January 2, 1786. 

RICHARDSON. S. Richardson's name appears as the engraver of a 
book-plate about 1795. 

RIDER. Alexander Rider made miniatures and historical com- 
positions in Philadelphia between 1818 and 1825. Among his pic- 
tures are "The Fortune Teller," a copy of Wilkie's "Rent Day," 
"Penn's Treaty with the Indians," "The Soldiers' Return," and 
"The Reception of General Lafayette at the State House." 

RILEY. An engraver of this name worked extensively on copper- 
plate music in New York about 1800. 




WILLIAM WIGNALL STEVENS 

BY HENRY PELHAM 
From the collection of Mr. Horatio Greenough Curtis 



ADDENDA 331 

ROBERTS. In the South Carolina Gazette, May, 1735, appeared the 
following advertisement: "This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen 
and others that Portrait painting and Engraving, Heraldry and House 
Painting are undertaken and performed expeditiously in a good 
manner and at the lowest rate by B. Roberts. " We have no knowl- 
edge whether any examples of the works of B. Roberts have survived 
or not. 

ROBERTSON. W. Robertson engraved script about 1831 in New 
York City. 

ROBINSON. W. Robinson etched in New York about 1830. 

ROBINSON. This name, without initials, appears on some very 
badly engraved plates in Weems' "Life of Washington, " Philadelphia, 
1815. 

ROCHE. His name, without initials, appears on some plates in a 
folio edition of " Josephus" published in New York City in 1791. 

ROCKEY. A. B. Rockey, who was born in Mifflinsburg, Pa., began 
painting in Philadelphia about 1825. 

ROLLINSON. Charles Rollinson engraved and printed copper- 
plates about 1808-32 in New York City. 

ROLPH. John A. Rolph, artist and engraver, was born in Essex, 
England, 1799; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 30, 1862. He came 
to the United States in 1833 and resided chiefly in New York. 

ROMANS. Bernard Romans, a native of Holland, born about 1720; 
came to America about 1755 and was employed as surveyor, engineer, 
botanist, explorer, soldier, draughtsman and engraver. He was in 
the military service of the Colonies at the outbreak of the Revolution, 
and engraved a view of the Battle of Bunker's Hill, a War Map of 
Massachusetts, and other plates, all crudely executed. He resigned 
from the army June 1, 1778. In 1779, he was captured and taken to 
England where he remained until 1784. It is supposed that he was 
murdered at sea while on his return to the United States in that year. 

ROWAND. "William Rowand portrait and miniature painter lately 
arrived from Glasgow". (Rivington's Royal Gazette, New York, 
December 6, 1777). 

RUGGLES. E. Ruggles, Jr., engraved a book-plate on copper about 
1790. 

RUSSELL. M. B. Russell was painting miniatures in Boston in 1834. 



332 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

SACHEVEBELL. John Sacheverell advertised in the Pennsylvania 
Gazette of March 15-22, 1732-33, to perform "all sorts of Engraving 
or Carving in Gold, Silver, Brass, Copper or Steel. " No examples 
of his work are known to us. 

ST. MEMIN. Charles Balthazar Julien Fevret de St. Memin was 
born in Dijon, France, March 12, 1770. He went to Canada in 1793 
and soon afterward to New York. His method in portraiture was 
unique. He first made a profile head, life size, in crayon on pink paper, 
then by a device of his own called a pantograph he made a mechanical 
reduction of his drawing to the size he wished to engrave it. After 
the plate was engraved, the life size crayon was framed and delivered 
with the copper-plate and twelve proofs for thirty-three dollars. A 
collected set of the engravings is at the Corcoran Gallery, Washing- 
ton, D. C. St. Memin's own proof collection of these engravings was 
photographed and published in New York in 1862 in a folio volume. 
In this work, unfortunately, the names of the subjects of many of the 
portraits are incorrectly given, doubtless owing to the difficulty of 
identification at so late a date. St. Memin was in New York, 1793 
to 1798; New Jersey, 1798; Philadelphia, 1798 to 1804; Baltimore, 
Annapolis and Washington, 1804 to 1807; Virginia, 1808; South 
Carolina, 1809, and again in New York, 1810, whence he returned 
to France, coming to America again in 1812 to remain for three 
years before going to his native country in 1815 to finish his career. 
In 1817 he was appointed director of the Museum at Dijon, France, 
and died there in 1852. 

SALMON. Robert W. Salmon, an excellent marine painter, whose 
pictures are generally numbered and dated on the back, was born in 
England and worked there until 1829 when he came to this country 
and at that time painted "The wharves of Boston" now belonging to 
the Bostonian Society and hanging in the Old State House, Boston. 
He was painting in Boston as late as 1840. 

SANDS. J. Sands engraved copper-plate music in Baltimore about 
1824. 

SANFORD. Isaac Sanford engraved music, and portraits in stipple, 
in Connecticut about 1783-1822. He advertised himself as "Minia- 
ture Painter and Engraver." 

SARTAIN. John Sartain, known principally as an engraver, was 




PETER PELHAM ? 

Ca. 1684 1751 
PAINTED BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY 

Original owned by Mr. Charles Pelham Curtis 



ADDENDA 333 

born in London, October 24, 1808. He came to this country in 1830 
and founded an engraving establishment at which a great number 
of plates were produced. Specimens of his own engraving in good 
state exhibit excellent examples of late mezzotint work. To his 
skill in engraving he added that of miniature painting and large por- 
traiture. He died in Philadelphia, October 25, 1897. 

SAULNIER. H. E. Saulnier engraved script in Philadelphia about 
1830-40. 

SAVORY. His name (without initials) appears on a print of Trinity 
Church, Pittsburg, with the address "Pitt.", about 1830-40. 

SAXTON. Joseph Saxton, born Huntington, Pa., March 22, 1790, 
was employed at the United States mint in Philadelphia and invented 
a medal ruling machine by which he produced two portraits which 
Stauffer describes as " beautifully executed. " He died in Washington, 
D. C., October 26, 1873. 

SCACKI. Francisco Scacki produced a large and poorly executed 
etching of the Battle of New Orleans. 

SCHETKY. Caroline Schetky painted miniatures and water colors 
in Philadelphia about 1820. She later married T. M. Richardson, 
also an artist, and lived in Boston. Under the name of Caroline 
Schetky Richardson, she was an exhibitor in the early years at the 
Boston Athenaeum. 

SCHOENER. A portrait painter by this name worked both in the 
large and in miniature about 1821 in New England, as a miniature of 
Deborah Ward by him is so dated and a lithographed portrait of Rev. 
William Jenks, 1778-1866, also bears his name as painter. 

SCHOYER. Raphael Schoyer was an engraver and printer of copper- 
plates in Baltimore and New York about 1824-26. 

SCHWARTZ. C. Schwartz produced stippled portraits (few in num- 
ber) in Baltimore about 1814. 

SCOLES. John Scoles was employed in engraving in New York 
about 1793-1844. His plates show little merit. 

SCOT. Robert Scot, an English watchmaker who is said to have 
received instruction in engraving from Sir Robert Strange, came to 
Philadelphia as early as 1783. He worked as an engraver on the illus- 
trations for Dobson's edition of Rees' Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, 
1794-1803), and made a full-length line engraving of Washington 



334 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

which is now very scarce. In 1793, he was appointed engraver to the 
United States Mint in Philadelphia. 

SCOT. In the Diary of Rev. William Bentley, page 51, volume III, 
under date of October 7, 1803, are the folio whig references to a Mr. 
Scot, an artist: "From the Catholic Church I passed with Mr. 
Winthrop, Mr. Scot, a Painter, " etc. "At Mr. Scots I saw several full 
lengths of Washington which pleased me, excepting the faces so 
different from those I saw. The little one designed when he had 
visited N. E. is nearest my remembrance of him. Mr. Adams I 
readily knew. Several paintings of Foreigners did honour to this 
young painter. The Head of Dr. Lathrop was compleat. Of Mr. 
Murray, Universalist not so much so. Gov. Strong too full faced. " 

SCOTT. Joseph T. Scott engraved maps on copper in Philadelphia 
about 1795. 

SCKIVEN. Edward Scriven engraved General Moultrie from Trum- 
bull for the National Portrait Gallery. (D.) 

SEAGER. Mrs. Seager and Miss Seager, miniature painters, New 
York. (D.) 

SEYMOUR. The advertisement of Joseph H. Seymour, engraver, 
appears in the Massachusetts Mercury of March 14, 1793, and he was 
probably working in Boston until 1795 or later. He was in Phila- 
delphia 1803-22. 

SHALLUS. Frederick Shallus, engraver, was born in Philadelphia 
about 1774; died there November 12, 1821. 

SHEFFIELD. An artist named Isaac Sheffield has left a few por- 
traits and figure pieces in and about New London, Conn. He was 
born in Guilford, Conn., in 1798. The portraits are all red faced and 
most of them of sea captains, with a single telescope in the hand of 
every one, and all stand before a red curtain. He died in 1845. 

SHIPMAN. Charles Shipman advertised as an engraver on copper- 
plate in the New York Mercury of May 16, 1768. 

SIMMONE. T. Simmone engraved a few plates in New York City 
about 1814-16. 

SIMMONS. Joseph Simmons advertised as engraver in the Penn- 
sylvania Gazette of January 3, 1765. No example of his work is known. 
SMALL. William Small, Baltimore, is now the architect of the Ex- 
change Hotel in that city. (D.) 



<' '/'"'- ;/ .y">r"'t ///v 



//-r />- /.^/ /Af v/X- ' //x//////. frM<V 

,' ',: 




SIR WILLIAM PEPPERRELL 

1696 1759 

BY JOHN SMIBERT 

FROM THE MEZZOTINT ENGRAVING BY PKTER I'KI.M \M 



ADDENDA 335 

SMILLIE. William dimming Smillie, brother of James Smillie, was 
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, September 23, 1813. He came to New 
York City from Quebec and engaged in bank-note engraving. 

SMITH. A. Smith was painting in New York in 1834. (D.) 

SMITH. G. Smith engraved script in New York City about 1800. 

SMITH. George Girdler Smith, a prolific engraver, was born Dan- 
vers, Mass.; died in Boston about 1858. In 1830, he was associated 
with William B. Annin, as "Annin & Smith." 

SMITH. The most noted architect in Philadelphia before the Revo- 
lution was Robert Smith, a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and a 
Quaker. He built the steeple of Christ Church, was the architect of 
Carpenter's Hall, of the original Zion Lutheran Church and the 
Walnut Street prison. He also designed Nassau Hall, Princeton. 

SMITH. R. K. Smith engraved a stippled portrait of Rev. John 
Flavel published in Richmond, Va., 1824. 

SMITH. A portrait of Maria Catherine Smith painted by Captain 
Thomas Smith in 1693 belongs to the Clapp family of Dorchester, 
Mass. 

SMITH. William D. Smith, engraver, was in Newark, N. J., in 1829 
and afterwards worked in New York City. 

SMITHER. James Smither, Jr., followed his father as an engraver, 
but we have little further knowledge of him or his work. 

SNYDER. H. W. Snyder engraved stippled portraits for the Poly- 
anthos (Boston, 1806-12), and was engraving in New York City as 
early as 1797. 

SOMERBY. J. E. Somerby engraved a few small marine charts for 
book illustration about 1804. 

SOPER. R. F. Soper was engraving under his own signature in 
1831; he was afterwards employed by J. C. Buttre. 

SPARROW. T. Sparrow was an engraver working in Annapolis, 
Md., about 1765-80. His signature appears on ex libris, plates for 
books and Maryland paper currency. 

SPENCER. Asa Spencer was engaged in bank-note engraving, being 
connected with several large firms producing this class of work. He 
died in England, April 1, 1847. 

SPENCER. W. H. Spencer was engraving in New York City about 
1825. 



336 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

STALKER. E. Stalker engraved vignettes for publishers in Phila- 
delphia about 1815. He appears to have been an English engraver 
who had a temporary residence in the United States. 

STEEPER. John Steeper advertised as an engraver in the Penn- 
sylvania Gazette of March 25, 1762. He produced a view of the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital engraved in association with Henry Dawkins, pub- 
lished in or about the year 1761. 

STEWARD. Portraits of the Rev. Eleazer Wheelock, first President 
of Dartmouth College, and John Phillips are signed "J. Steward," 
and a portait of John Kemble, painted by Steward, was engraved by 
H. H. Houston and published in 1791. Steward graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1780. 

STILES. Samuel Stiles, born East Windsor, Conn., July 15, 1796; 
died in New York, April 3, 1861. In 1824 he entered partnership 
with Vistus Balch at Utica, N. Y., and in 1828 took up bank note 
engraving in New York City. 

STONE. Henry Stone was engraving in line in Washington, D. C., 
about the year 1826. 

STONE. William J. Stone engraved in Washington about 1822. A 
map published 1840 is signed by Mrs. W. J. Stone as engraver. 

STORM. G. F. Storm, a native of England, was engraving in Phila- 
delphia about 1834. He did not remain long in this country. 

STOUT. George H. Stout was a commercial engraver in New York 
City about 1830-50. 

STOUT. James D. Stout engraved maps about 1813. 
STURDEVANT. S. Sturdevant engraved a portrait for a book pub- 
lished in Lexington, Ky., in 1822. Fielding gives this as the earliest 
known signed portrait engraved west of the Allegheny mountains. 

SULLY. Jane Cooper Sully, daughter of Thomas Sully, painted a 
few portraits. She was born January 14, 1807, married W. H. W. 
Darley February 16, 1833, and died March 3, 1877. 

SULLY. Lawrence Sully was born in Kilkenny, Ireland, December 
28, 1769. He was the eldest brother of Thomas Sully and came to 
this country with his father, settling in Charleston, S. C., removing 
later to Norfolk and then to Richmond, Va., where he died in 1803. 
Thomas Sully married his widow. His miniature of Patrick Henry, 
painted from life, is signed "L. S. 1795." 




JACOB PERKINS 
1766-1849 

FROM A LITHOGRAPH BY RlCHAHD J. LANE, AFTER THE DRAWING BY ClIKSTER HARDING 



ADDENDA 337 

SULLY. Thomas Willcocks Sully, son of Thomas Sully, was born in 
Philadelphia, January 3, 1811, and died April 18, 1847. He painted 
the portraits of Benton, Conner, Forrest, Hamilton, Maywood and 
Scott, the actors. These are inaccurately lettered "Thomas Sully" 
so that the father receives credit for the son's work. This may have 
occurred from the younger Sully's having dropped his middle name, 
calling himself "Thomas Sully Jr." He also painted Presidents 
Harrison and Tyler. 

SWAIN. W. Swain was painting in New York in 1834. (D.) 

TANNER. Henry S. Tanner, engraver, brother of Benjamin Tanner, 
was born in New York City, 1786; died there in 1858. He worked 
principally on bank notes and maps and was also an author and 
publisher. 

TERRIL. Isaac Terril engraved copper-plates for a music book 
of which he was author and publisher, in New Haven, Conn., 1806. 

TEW. David Tew engraved copper-plates for currency in 1788. 

THACKARA. William W. Thackara, engraver, was the son and 
partner of James Thackara. He was born Philadelphia, February 9, 
1791; died there April 19, 1839. 

THACKARA. The frontispiece to "The Instructor," by George 
Fisher, published in Burlington, N. J., 1775, is signed by "Thackara" 
as engraver. He was possibly the father of James Thackara men- 
tioned earlier in this work. 

THOMAS. Isaiah Thomas, printer, of Worcester, Mass., born 
Boston, January 19, 1749; died Worcester, Mass., April 4, 1831, en- 
graved during his apprenticeship to Zachariah Fowle, Boston, some 
remarkably crude type-metal cuts for a juvenile publication "The 
History of the Holy Jesus. " 

THOMPSON. Arad Thompson, who graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1807, lived and painted portraits in Middleborough, Mass. 

THOMPSON. Cephas G. Thompson was born in Middleborough, 
Mass. At eighteen years of age he painted portraits in Plymouth, 
Mass., and afterwards in Providence, R. I. He had a studio in New 
York 1837-47. Thompson resided in Italy in 1852-60, returning to 
New York to practice his profession. 

THOMPSON. An engraver of this name produced some poor work 
in New York City about 1834. 



338 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

THORNHILL. An engraver of this name worked on copper-plate 
music in Charlestovm, S. C., early in the nineteenth century. 

THROOP. Daniel Scrope Throop, engraver, was born Oxford, N. Y., 
January 14, 1800. He was working in Utica, N. Y., in 1824. 

THROOP. J. V. N. Throop, born Oxford, N. Y., April 15, 1794, 
produced a few plates in the '30's. 

TIEBOUT. Mademoiselle Tiebout, from Paris, miniature painter, 
New York. (D.) 

TILLER. Robert Tiller and his son of the same name were engrav- 
ing in Philadelphia about 1818-36. 

TODD. A. Todd engraved a profile portrait of Washington pub- 
lished in Concord, N. H., in 1812. This is the only specimen of his 
work seen by us unless some scientific plates signed "Gray & Todd" 
and published in Philadelphia in 1817 are by him. 

TOLMAN. John Tolman painted in Boston and in Salem, Mass., 
about 1816 and evidently travelled over the entire country as a por- 
trait painter. His home was in Pembroke, Mass. 

TOPPAN. Charles Toppan, engraver, was born Newburyport, 
Mass., 1796. He was a member of various partnerships of bank-note 
engravers; later president of the American Bank Note Co. 

TORRENS. Rosalba Torrens is mentioned by Ramsay in his His- 
tory of South Carolina as a painter of landscapes. She was practicing 
her art in Charleston in 1808. 

TORREY. Charles C. Torrey, brother of Manasseh C. Torrey, 
was located in Salem, Mass., about 1820 and died Nashville, Tenu., 
1827. He engraved a view of Harvard College published in 1823 
and a few small plates. 

TOWNSEND. The Cazenovia Pilot of January 1, 1812, announces 
that "John Townsend Teaches painting also." 

TROTT. An engraver of this name was working in Boston about 
1800-20. 

TROY. Edward Troy, animal painter, New York. (D.) 

TRUMAN. According to "The Annals of Kings Chapel" Edward 
Truman painted a portrait of Governor Thomas Hutchinson in 1741. 

TUCKER. William E. Tucker was born Philadelphia, 1801; died 
there 1857. He was a prolific engraver working for book-publishers 
and later for bank-note companies. 



J L '. . ,.j- a IN - ., JT iMiSZytfr^jf'- '__"' -..- . . V 'S* 

fefc; ^^^^^-^^^^^, 




FHOM AN ENGRAVING BY PEHKINS & HEATH 

" Patent Hardened Steel Plates " 



ADDENDA 339 

TULLY. Christopher Tully engraved the copper-plate illustration 
of a wool-spinning machine in the Pennsylvania Magazine of 1775. 
The machine delineated was invented by Tully and he is not known 
to have done any other engraving. 

TURNER. James Turner engraved a crudely executed view of 
Boston for the American Magazine of 1744. His advertisement as 
silversmith and engraver appears in the Boston Evening Post of June 
24, 1745. While in Boston he engraved a copper-plate portrait of 
Rev. Isaac Watts (1746). He removed to Philadelphia and appears 
to have worked there until his death in 1759, producing a variety of 
plates, maps, ex libris, etc. 

TUTHILL. W. H. Tuthill engraved a few book illustrations in New 
York about 1830 and also drew on stone. He may have been of the 
later firm of Tuthill & Barnard. 

TWICHEL. T. Twichel engraved a map of Hartford, Conn., for 
Gardner's Hartford City Directory, 1838. 

UNDERWOOD. Thomas Underwood, engraver of bank-notes, was 
born about the year 1795; died in Lafayette, Ind., July 13, 1849. 
He was of the firms of Fairman, Draper, Underwood & Co., and 
(later) Underwood, Bald, Spencer & Hufty. 

VALDENCIT. This engraver was a compatriot of and at one time 
associated with St. Memin in the production of the latter's engraved 
portraits. He also worked independently. 

VALLEE. Jean Francois Vallee, a Frenchman, painted miniature 
portraits in New Orleans about 1815, among his pictures being a por- 
trait of General Andrew Jackson. 

VALENTINE. Elias Valentine appears in the New York City direc- 
tories of 1810-18 as a printer and engraver of copper-plates. 

VANDERCHAMP. M. Vsnderchamp, a French artist, painted in 
New Orleans from 1830-34. (D.) 

VANDINE. Elizabeth Vandine of New Jersey in 1776 confessed 
herself the accomplice of her husband in counterfeiting Continental 
currency, which would seem to indicate that she engraved. 

VERGER. Peter C. Verger engraved in line a folio plate "The 
Triumph of Liberty," an allegorical subject, published in 1796. 
Stauffer gives as his opinion that the plate was done in France and 
brought to this country by the engraver. 



340 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

VERSTILLE. William Verstille was born in 1755 and died in Boston 
December 6, 1803. He painted miniatures in Philadelphia in 1782 
and later in Boston and Salem, Mass. His miniatures are recognized 
in nearly every instance by the piercing black eyes given his subjects. 

VJGNIER. A. Vignier painted landscapes in Philadelphia in 1811. 
(D.) 

WAGNER. William Wagner of York, Pa., made a few copper-plate 
engravings about 1820-35. His principal occupation was that of 
seal-engraver. 

WALTERS. John Walters, according to an advertisement in the 
Pennsylvania Packet of July 20, 1784, painted miniatures and made 
lockets, rings and hair pins in Philadelphia. 

WARNER. C. J. Warner engraved a stippled portrait of Gen. An- 
thony Wayne for Smith's "Monthly Military Repository" (N. Y. 
1796). 

WARNER. George D. Warner engraved in New York about 1791. 
Few specimens of his work are known. 

WARNER. William Warner, a portrait painter and engraver in 
mezzotint, was born in Philadelphia about 1813; died there in 1848. 

WARNICKE. John G. Warnicke was a Philadelphia engraver. He 
died December 29, 1818. Specimens of his work are not numerous. 

WARR. John Warr and John Warr, Jr., were working as engravers 
in Philadelphia about 1821-45. 

WARR. W. W. Warr engraved script in Philadelphia about 1830. 

WARREN. This advertisement appeared in the Virginia Gazette 
in 1769: "Henry Warren, limner, who is now in Williamsburg has 
had the satisfaction of pleasing most gentlemen who have employed 
him and should any in this place have a mind to please their fancy 
with night peices or keep in memory their families with family pieces 
or anything of the like (landscapes excepted) may be supplied by 
their humble servant. 

"If you're pleased then sure you'll recommend 
" Your humble servant to a tasty friend. " 

WARWELL. The following obituary notice appeared in the South 
Carolina Gazette of June 9, 1767. "Died on the 29th May, Mr. War- 
well Sr. a noted limner." It is quite probable that the miniatures 




CHARLES BALTHAZAR JULIEN FEVRE DE SAINT MEMIN 

1770-1852 

FROM AX KXGRAVIXG BY HIMSELF 



ADDENDA 341 

both dated 1760 of William Gibbes and Isaac Mazyck the third of 
the name, were painted by Warwell. 

WEINEDELL. C. Weinedell was painting in New York in 1834. 
(D.) 

WELCH. Thomas B. Welch, engraver, born Charleston, S. C., 
in 1814; died in Paris, November 5, 1874. 

WELLMORE. E. Wellmore was a miniature-painter and engraver, 
afterwards a clergyman. He engraved portraits for the "National 
Portrait Gallery" (1834-5). 

WELLS. Rachel Wells, a sister of Patience Wright, modelled in 
wax a portrait of Rev. George Whitefield. 

WELLSTOOD. John Geikie Wellstood was a native of Scotland, 
born in Edinburgh, January 18, 1813. In 1830 he came to New York 
and engaged in bank-note engraving which continued to be his life 
employment. He was the founder of the Columbian Bank Note Co., 
of Washington, D. C. 

WELSH. B. F. Welsh is said to have been engraving in New York 
City in 1824. 

WENTWORTH. In The Patrol, Utica, N. Y., February 2, 1815, 
appears this advertisement: "Likenesses pencil'd in profile, and 
painted in profile miniature, and portrait by Mr. Wentworth. " 

WEST. A Mrs. West painted very good portraits in Attleboro, 
Mass., about 1820. 

WESTON. Henry W. Weston was an engraver of small merit 
working in Philadelphia about 1803-06. 

WHARTON. T. H. Wharton was painting in New York in 1834. 
(D.) 

WHITE. G. I. White was an engraver of portraits about 1825-30. 

WHITE. John Blake White, artist and author, was born in Charles- 
ton, S. C., in 1782 and died there in August, 1859. In 1803 he went 
to London and became a pupil of Benjamin West; after returning 
he practised law. He excelled as an historical painter. Among his 
pictures are "Mrs. Motte presenting the arrows," "Marion inviting 
the British Officer to Dinner," and "The Battle of New Orleans." 
His painting of the "Grave Robbers" was exhibited at the Boston 
Athenaeum in 1833 and described in the catalogue. He was also the 
author of several dramas. 



342 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

WHITE. Thomas Sturt White advertised himself in the New Eng- 
land Weekly Journal (Boston) of July 8, 1734, as "Engraver from 
London" and there gave notice of his intention to return to London 
"unless he meets with sufficient encouragement to oblige him to stay. " 
No examples of his engraving while here are known. 

WIGHTMAN. Thomas Wightman was engraving on copper in 
Boston about 1802-20. 

WILLARD. Asaph Willard was in 1816 engraving in Albany with 
Ralph Rawdon under the firm name of Willard & Rawdon. He was 
later identified with the Graphic Co., of Hartford, Conn. 

WILLSON. J. Willson engraved copper-plate music published in 
New York City about 1800-10. 

WILMER. William A. Wilmer engraved portraits for Longacre & 
Herring's "National Portrait Gallery." 

WILSON. D. W. Wilson engraved a few known plates in Albany 
about 1825-30. 

WILSON. James Wilson and Isaac Eddy were the joint engravers 
of a large copper-plate delineating a tree illustrative of the world's 
growth from Adam, crudely executed at Bradford and Weathers- 
field, Vt., in 1813. 

WINTER. G. Winter was painting in New York in 1834. (D.) 

WOISERI. J. I. Bouquet Woiseri engraved in aquatint some large 
views of American cities about the year 1800. He was also a "de- 
signer, drawer, geographer and engineer" according to his self- 
description. 

WOOD. J. Wood engraved in Charleston, S. C., in 1826. 

WOODCOCK. T. S. Woodcock, engraver, was a native of Man- 
chester, England, who came to the United States about 1830. He 
worked in Brooklyn, N. Y., and Philadelphia and afterwards 
returned to England. 

WOODRUFF. William Woodruff engraved in Philadelphia about 
1817-24 and later in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WOODSIDE. John A. Woodside, the best sign painter of his day, 
was an artist of no ordinary merit. He worked in Philadelphia before 
1817. 

WOOLNOTH. T. Woolnoth engraved a plate for the "National 
Portrait Gallery." 




MRS. SUSANNA HOLYOKE WARD 

1779- I860 

BY WILLIAM VERSTILLE 
(1803) 

From the collection of Miss Mary W. Nichols 



ADDENDA 343 

WORRELL. An early Virginia artist named James Worrell painted 
a portrait of Judge John Tyler, 1747-1813 who was Governor of 
Virginia, 1808-1811. The portrait is at the College of William and 
Mary at Williamsburg, Va. 

WORSHIP. One of this name engraved plates of mechanical sub- 
jects published in Philadelphia about 1815-20. 

WRENCH. Miss Mary Wrench was painting miniatures in Phila- 
delphia before the Revolution according to the recollections of Charles 
Willson Peale who gave her instruction. She married William Rush, 
"modeller." 

YEAGER. Joseph Yeager was engraving and etching in Phila- 
delphia 1816-45. He made copies of etchings by Cruikshank and 
other English artists, for American reprints of books illustrated by 
them. 

YOUNG. J. H. Young was a Philadelphia engraver working both 
alone and in partnership (as "Kneass & Young" and "Young & 
Delleker") about 1817-45. 

YOUNG. Thomas Young we have been assured was a native of 
Providence, R. L, where he produced numerous portraits. It has 
been found impossible to ascertain the time either of his birth or of 
his death. The portraits of Thomas Coles, 1752-1844, and John 
Matthewson Eddy, 1782-1817, by Young are in the Providence 
Athenaeum and he also painted a portrait of Nehemiah Knight, gov- 
ernor of Rhode Island. 



APPENDIX 

To The Honourable The Senate and House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts in General Court assembled- 

The Memorial of Jacob Perkins of Newburyport in the County of Essex Gentle- 
man respectf ully sheweth- 

That your memorialist has invented and made a Stereotype Plate of Steel for 
impressing Bank Bills, by a new method and upon a new principle. He formerly in- 
vented a method of impressing such bills upon the like principle, with distinct copper 
plates, for each different Bank, for which, he obtained a Patent under the seal of the 
United States. He has since improved that method, by making the said steel plate, 
which can be fixed with seperate (c) dies, also made of steel, for all the different de- 
nominatians of bills and suited to the different stiles of Banks; so that all the bills 
impressed with his plate, for whatever bank, will, in all the material parts, check and 
perfectly compare with each other. He has also secured to himself and his assigns 
the exclusive right of using this improvement, according to the laws of the United 
States- 

Your memorialist has expended at least eight hundred days work of himself and 
his workmen, in making and perfecting his said steel plate, and was proceeding to 
avail himself of the fruits of his labour, by contracting with different banks for the use 
thereof, when he was much flattered to hear that the Legislature of the Common- 
wealth had, unsolicited by him, taken the subject into their wise consideration, and 
were contemplating to introduce this improvement into general use. He has under- 
stood the mode proposed for this purpose, by the bill now pending in the Honorable 
Court, and is willing to deliver up his said steel plate, with the necessary dies, on or 
before the first day of July next, to the Treasurer of the Commonwealth for the pur- 
pose expressed in said bill- 

This plate was intended and is equally well calculated for banks of other States, 
with the alteration only of a small part of the margin; but your memorialist under- 
standing, that it is desired to have the bills of all banks in this State to differ in their 
shape and appearance from those of other States, will also agree, in case the said bill 
passes into a Law, not to use said plate for any Banks out of this State; but to make a 
new plate for those banks, which shall differ in its form and appearance from that now 
made, so that the bills of all Banks in this State can be readily and certainly dis- 
tinguished from those of all others- 

This plate is made of case-hardened steel, so that it can be used as much as may 
be necessary for fifty years, without any sensible change or deteioration (sic). Your 
memorialist is also willing, in case such a law should be made, to print and impress 
all the bills required to be made in virtue thereof, as fast as they can be properly exe- 
cuted on the reasonable demand of the banks in this State. He will perform all the 
above services on terms similar to those for which he has heretofore agreed with sun- 
dry banks, with the addition of a reasonable compensation for his said plate, which 
will by these means be rendered useless to him for all other banks. His terms are as 
follow, Viz. 1st. He shall receive from each bank in full for printing and impressing 
their bills, at the rate of four dollars, for every hundred impressions or half sheets to 
be paid when the bills are delivered. 2 1 *. He shall receive from each bank, at the same 
time, the sum of forty dollars in full, for his said plate to indemnify him for the ex- 
pences and labour of making a new plate, which cannot be less than one thousand 

344 



APPENDIX 345 

dollars. $&. In addition to the above compensation for his labour and expence, he 
shall receive for the use of his patent-right, by every bank whose Capital Stock actu- 
ally paid in does not exceed one hundred thousand dollars, the sum of fifty dollars 
annually; by every bank whose Capital Stock so paid in is above one hundred thou- 
sand dollars and not exceeding the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, the sum of 
seventy dollars annually; and by every bank whose Capital Stock so paid in exceeds 
two hundred thousand dollars, the sum of ninety dollars annually- These annual 

payments to commence and the first payment to be made 

by each bank, in one year from the time when he begins to impress their respective 
bills; and to be continued by each bank untill (sic) they respectively cease to use the bills 
impressed by his said plate, or untill (sic) he, or his assigns cease to have the exclusive 
right of using his said improvement, And if the Proprietors of any bank after their 
bills are so impressed by him, shall pay in more of their capital stock, so as to make 
the amount thereof fall into a higher class, according to the above distribution, such 
bank shall immediately thereafter pay the annual sum above fixed for such higher 
class. These annual payments to be properly and satisfactorily secured to the said 
Perkins, his executors, administrators and assigns, by each bank at the time of re- 
ceiving their respective impressions- 

Your memorialist presumes, that the paper, which is directed by the said bill to 
be furnished by the Treasurer will be provided at the expence of the Commonwealth, 
the cost to be repaid by the several banks, as they respectively call for the same. 
But if this should be thought improper or inexpedient, your memorialist is willing to 
advance the price thereof, if it should be necessary, according to the contracts there- 
for made by the Treasurer, the cost to be repaid to him, by each Bank as they re- 
spectively call for and use the same. 

JACOB PERKINS. 
February 28 th , 1806. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AMERICAN ART AND 
ARTISTS BEFORE 1835. 

Compiled by 

FRANK H. CHASE, PH. D. 

Custodian of Bates Hall, Boston Public Library. 

The following list is not exhaustive. It consists of the more 
obvious titles in the catalogue of the Boston Public Library, with 
additional material from notes furnished by Mr. Goodspeed and Mr. 
Bayley, and from a few other sources. In the field of architecture, 
books of a general character have been excluded; in view of the 
biographical emphasis of Dunlap's work, it has seemed wise to 
restrict the list to books and articles which deal with individual 
architects. The arrangement of each section is strictly alphabetical; 
anonymous items are inserted under their titles. 

A. BIBLIOGRAPHIES. 

Bach, Richard F. Books on Colonial architecture. 23 articles. 

In Architectural Record, vols. 38-42, 1915-1917. 
Boston Public Library. List of books and magazine articles on 

American engraving, etching and lithography. In Boston Public 

Library Monthly Bulletin, vol. 9, December, 1904. 
Levis, Howard C. Bibliography of American books relating to prints 

and the art and history of engraving. London. 1910. 
Wegelin, Oscar, compiler. Bibliographical checklist of the plays 

and miscellaneous writings of William Dunlap (1766-1839). 

New York. 1916. 

B. GENERAL REFERENCE WORKS. 

Benezit, Emmanuel, editor. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire 
des peintres, etc., de tous les temps et de tous les pays. Paris. 
1911-1913. Vols. 1-2 (A to K). 

Bryan, Michael. Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers. 
Edited by G. C. Williamson. London. 1903-1905. 5 vols. 

346 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 347 

Champlin, John D., Jr., and Charles C. Perkins. Cyclopedia of 

painters and paintings. New York. 1886-1887. 4 vols. 
Clement, Clara Erskine. Painters, sculptors, architects, engravers and 

their works. 13th ed. Boston. 1895. 
Clement, Clara E., and Laurence Hutton. Artists of the nineteenth 

century and their works. Boston. 1880. 

Drake, Francis S. Dictionary of American biography. Boston. 1872. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. llth ed. Cambridge. 1910-1911. 29 vols. 
Hobbes, James R. Picture collector's manual. London. 1849. 2 vols. 
James, Ralph N. Painters and their works. London. 1897. 3 vols. 
Johnson, Rossiter, editor. Twentieth century biographical dictionary 

of notable Americans. Boston. 1904. 10 vols. 
Lira, Pedro F. Diccionario biografico de pintores. Santiago de Chile. 

1902. 
Nagler, Georg Caspar. Neues allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon. Mtin- 

chen. 1835-1852. 22 vols. 
National cyclopaedia of American biography. New York. 1898-1908. 

15 vols. 

New international encyclopaedia. New York. 1914-1916. 23 vols. 
Redgrave, Samuel. Dictionary of artists of the English school. Lon- 
don. 1874. 
Seguier, Frederick P. Critical and commercial dictionary of the works 

of painters. London. 1870. 
Shedd, Julia A. Famous painters and paintings. 4th ed. Boston. 

1896. 
Shedd, Julia A. Famous sculptors and sculpture. New ed. Boston. 

1896. 
Singer, Hans Wolfgang, editor. Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexicon. 3d 

ed. Frankfurt a. M. 1895-1906. 6 vols. 
Siret, Adolphe. Dictionnaire historique des peintres de toutes les 

ecoles. 2d ed. Paris. 1866. 
Spooner, Shearjashub. Biographical history of the fine arts. New 

York. 1865. 2 vols. 
Stephen, Leslie, and Sidney Lee, editors. Dictionary of national 

biography. London. 1885-1910. 69 vols. 
Thieme, Ulrich, and F. Becker, editors. Allgemeines Lexicon der 

bildenden KUnstler. Leipzig. 1907-1913. Vols. 1-9 (A. Dubois). 



348 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Wilson, James G., and John Fiske, editors. Appletons' cyclopaedia of 
American biography. New York. 1891-1894. 6 vols. 

C. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS CONTAINING MUCH PERTINENT 

MATERIAL. 

American Art News. New York, 1904 . 

American Magazine of Art. (Formerly Art and Progress.) New 
York. 1909. 

Architectural Record. New York. 1892 . 

Bostonian Society. Proceedings. Boston. 1883-1916. 34 vols. 

Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Publications. Boston. 1895- 
1917. 18 vols. 

Essex Institute. Historical collections. Salem. 1859-1916. 52 vols. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Magazine of His- 
tory and Biography. Philadelphia. 1877-1917. 41 vols. 

Magazine of American history. New York. 1877-1893. 30 vols. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. Proceedings. Boston. 1859-1917. 
50 vols. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art. Bulletin. New York. 1905 . 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Bulletin. Boston. 1903 . 

Worcester Art Museum. Bulletin. 1910^-. 

D. BOOKS TREATING WHOLLY OR DIRECTLY OF EARLY 
AMERICAN ART AND ARTISTS. 

Addison, Julia de Wolf. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Boston. 

1910. 

Allen, Charles D. American book-plates. New York. 1894. 
Allen, Charles D. Classified list of early American book-plates. 

To accompany an exhibition at the Grolier Club, October, 1894. 

New York. 1894. 

Allen, Charles D. Ex libris, essays of a collector. Boston. 1896. 
Allston, Washington. Lectures on art, and poems. New York. 1850. 
Allston, Washington. Outlines and sketches. Boston. 1850. 
American Academy of the Arts. Charter and by-laws. With an 

account of the statues, etc., belonging to the Academy. New 

York. 1815. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 349 

Amory, Martha B. Domestic and artistic life of John Singleton 

Copley. Boston. 1882. 
Andrews, William L. The Bradford map the city of New York 

at the time of the granting of the Montgomerie charter. New 

York. 1893. 
Andrews, William L. Essay on the portraiture of the American 

Revolutionary War. New York. 1896. 
Andrews, William L. Fragments of American history illustrated 

solely by the works of those of our own engravers who 

flourished in the XVHIth Century. New York. 1898. 
Andrews, William L. Iconography of the Battery and Castle Garden. 

New York. 1901. 
Andrews, William L. New Amsterdam, New Orange, New York. 

A chronologically arranged account of engraved views of the 

city, from MDCLI until MDCCC. New York. 1897. 
Andrews, William L. Paul Revere and his engraving. New York. 

1901. 
Andrews, William L. A prospect of the Colledges in Cambridge in 

New England. Engraved by William Burgis in 1726. New 

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364 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Gallery of National 

Portraiture, opening exhibition, November 18 to December 23, 

1905. Philadelphia. 1905. 
Redwood Library, Newport. Catalogue of art collection. Newport, 

1885. 
Society of Colonial Dames, State of New York. Loan exhibition of 

Colonial book-plates. New York. 1908. 
Yale College. Catalogue of paintings belonging to Yale College. 

New Haven. 1852. 
Yale College. Catalogue ... of the portraits, etc., belonging to 

Yale University. New Haven. 1892. 

b. Sale catalogues. 

Anderson Galleries, New York. Historical relics of George Wash- 
ington. To be sold April 19, 1917. New York. 1917. 

Carson sale. Unique collection of engraved portraits (belonging to 
Hampton L. Carson). Catalogue compiled by S. V. Henkels. 
Philadelphia. 1904. 4 vols. 

Clark sale. Catalogue of the Dr. Charles E. Clark collection of 
American portraiture. To be sold January 15-17, 1901. Boston. 
1901. 

Clay sale. Rare and valuable collection of portraits and choice 
engravings gathered by J. Henry Clay. To be sold December 3 
and 4, 1897. Philadelphia. 1897. 

Davis and Harvey. Rare engraved portraits of Gen. George Wash- 
ington and other notable Americans. To be sold May 4, 1906. 
Catalogue compiled by S. V. Henkels. Philadelphia. 1906. 

Goodspeed's Bookshop. Catalogue of a collection of books and 
almanacs formed to illustrate the art of engraving in America. 
Boston. 1909. 

Halsey sale. The Frederic R. Halsey collection of prints. Part I. 
Americana. To be sold November 1-3, 1916. New York. 1916. 

Holden sale. Catalogue of the collection of Americana and engravings 
formed by Edwin Babcock Holden. To be sold April 21 to May 
5, 1910. Compiled by Robert Fridenberg. New York. 1910. 

Manson sale. Alfred S. Manson collection of portraits. To be sold 
November 7-10, 1905. Boston. 1905. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 365 

Mitchell sale. Unequaled collection of engraved portraits . . . 
belonging to James T. Mitchell. To be sold January 18, 1906 
to February 27, 1908. Catalogue compiled by S. V. Henkels. 
Philadelphia. 1906-1908. 6 vols. 

Thomas Birch's Sons. Revolutionary manuscripts and portraits. 
To be sold April 5-6, 1892. Catalogue compiled by S. V. 
Henkels. Philadelphia. 1892. 

Whelen sale. Important collection of engraved portraits of Washing- 
ton . . . (and Franklin) belonging to Henry Whelen, Jr. To 
be sold April 27, 1909. Catalogue compiled by S. V. Henkels. 
Philadelphia. 1909. 

Whitmore sale. Catalogue of the private library of William H. 
Whitmore. To be sold November 11-14, 1902. Boston. 1902. 

G. BOOKS CONTAINING REPRODUCTIONS OF WORKS OF EARLY 

AMERICAN ART, CHIEFLY PORTRAITS. 
Ancestral records and portraits. A compilation from the archives 

of Chapter I, Colonial Dames of America. New York. 1910. 

2 vols. 
Benton, Josiah H. Story of the old Boston Town-house, 1658-1711. 

Boston. 1908. 
Bowen, Clarence W. History of the Centennial Celebration of the 

Inauguration of George Washington. New York. 1892. 
Bowne, Eliza S. A girl's life eighty years ago. New York. 1887. 
Bugbee, James M., editor. Memorials of the Massachusetts Society 

of the Cincinnati. Boston. 1890. 

Crawford, Mary C. Old Boston days and ways. Boston. 1909. 
Crawford, Mary C. Romantic days in the early Republic. Boston. 

1912. 

Crawford, Mary C. Social life in old New England. Boston. 1914. 
Delaplaine, Joseph. Delaplaine's repository of the lives and portraits 

of distinguished American characters. Philadelphia. 1815. 
Drake, Francis S. Memorials of the Massachusetts Society of the 

Cincinnati. Boston. 1873. 

Earle, Alice M. Child-life in Colonial days. New York. 1899. 
Earle, Alice M. Two centuries of costume in America. New York. 

1903. 2 vols. 



366 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Eaton, Arthur W. H. The famous Mather Byles. Boston. 1914. 
Glenn, Thomas A., editor. Some Colonial mansions, and those who 
lived in them. Philadelphia. 1898-1899. 2 vols. 

Griswold, Rufus W. The Republican court; or American society in 
the days of Washington. New York. 1867. 

Hardie, James. New universal biographical dictionary. New York. 
1805. 4 vols. 

Harrison, Frederick G. Biographical sketches of pre-eminent Ameri- 
cans. Boston> 1892. 4 vols. (Vols. 1-2.) 

Lee, Guy C., editor. History of North America. Philadelphia. 
1903-1907. 20 vols. (Especially vols. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12.) 

Longacre, James B., and James Herring. National portrait gallery 
of distinguished Americans. New York. 1834-1839. 4 vols. 

McClellan, Elisabeth. Historic dress in America, 1607-1800. Phila- 
delphia. 1904. 

McClellan, Elisabeth. Historic dress in America, 1800-1870. Phila- 
delphia. 1910. 

Northend, Mary H. Historic homes of New England. Boston. 1914. 

Peacock, Virginia T. Famous American belles. Philadelphia. 
1901. 

Robison, Jeanie F. J., and Henrietta C. Bartlett, editors. Genealogi- 
cal records . . . from family Bibles. New York. 1917. 

Sachse, Julius F. Portraits and busts in the collection of the American 
Philosophical Society. Philadelphia. 1898. 

Sale, Edith T. Manors of Virginia in Colonial times. Philadelphia. 
1909. 

Sanderson, John, and Robert Wain, editors. Biography of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. Philadelphia. 1823-1827. 
9 vols. 

Schuyler, John. Institution of the Society of the Cincinnati . . . 
1783. New York. 1886. 

Stanard, Mary N. Colonial Virginia; its people and customs. Phila- 
delphia. 1917. 

Stevens, John A., Jr. Colonial New York. Sketches, biographical 
and historical, 1768-1784. New York. 1867. 

Terhune, Mary V. (Marion Harland). More Colonial homesteads. 
New York. 1899. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 367 

Terhune, Mary V. (Marion Harland). Some Colonial homesteads 

and their stories. New York. 1897. 
Updike, Wilkins. History of the Episcopal Church in Narragansett, 

R. I. 2d ed., by Rev. Daniel Goodwin. Boston. 1907. 3 vols. 
Wharton, Anne H. Salons Colonial and Republican. Philadelphia. 

1900. 
Wharton, Anne H. Social life in the early Republic. Philadelphia. 

1902. 
Wilson, James G., editor. Memorial history of the City of New 

York. New York. 1892-1893. 4 vols. 
Winsor, Justin, editor. The memorial history of Boston. Boston. 

1880-1881. 4 vols. 

Winslow, Anna G. Diary of Anna Green Winslow, a Boston school- 
girl of 1771. Boston. 1894. 

H. ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS. 

Most of the abbreviations used in this section are obvious. Arch. Rec. = Archi- 
tectural Record; Art in Am. = Art in America; Mag. Am. Hist. = Magazine of Ameri- 
can History; M. H. S. Proc. = Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings; N. E. 
Mag. = New England Magazine (new series) ; Penn. Mag. = Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography; Mo. = Monthly. 

Allen, Charles D. The appeal of the bookplate, antiquarian and 

artistic. In Century, vol. 73, Dec. 1901. 

AUston's lectures (review). In New Englander, vol. 8, Aug. 1850. 
Amory, Martha B. John Singleton Copley, R. A. In Scribner's 

Mo., vol. 21, Mar. 1881. 
Apple ton, John. Alleged portrait of Rev. John Wilson, with notices 

of other early painters. In M. H. S. Proc., 1st ser., vol. 10, 1867. 
Armstrong, William. Some new Washington relics. I. From the 

collection of Mrs. B. W. Kennon. In Century, vol. 40, May, 

1890. 
Baker, William S. The first portrait of Washington. In Penn. Mag., 

vol. 16, 1892. 
Baker, William S. History of a rare Washington print. In Penn. 

Mag., vol. 13, 1889. 
Bartlett, Ellen S. John Trumbull, the patriot painter. In N. E. 

Mag., vol. 13, Jan. 1896. 



368 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Benjamin, Samuel G. W. Early American art. In Harper's Mag., vol. 

59, Nov. 1879. 
Benjamin, Samuel G. W. Fifty years of American art, 1828-1878. 

3 articles. In Harper's Mag., vol. 59, 1879. 
Bennett, Wells. Stephen Hallett and his designs for the National 

Capitol, 1791-1794. 4 articles. In Am. Inst. of Architects, 

Journal, vol. 4, 1916. 
Biographical notice of Edward G. Malbone. In Analectic Mag., 

vol. 6, Sept. 1815. 
Bowen, Clarence W. The inauguration of Washington. In Century, 

vol. 37, Apr. 1889. 

Bowles, Samuel. Chester Harding. In Atlantic, vol. 19, Apr. 1867. 
Brabazon, Thomas. Our earliest civic center. In Arch. Rec., vol. 

35, July, 1913. 

Bradley, Joseph P. Saint-Memin's portrait of Marshall. In Cen- 
tury, vol. 38, Sept. 1889. 
Breck, Joseph. Two portraits by Charles Willson Peale. In Art in 

Am., vol. 2, Oct. 1914. 
Brewer, Thomas M. Reminiscences of John James Audubon. In 

Harper's Mag., vol. 61, Oct. 1880. 
Brown, Glenn. Dr. William Thornton, architect. In Arch. Rec., 

vol. 6, July, 1896. 
Gary, Elizabeth L. The Gallery of National Portraiture in the 

Pennsylvania Academy. In Scrip, vol. 2, Aug. 1907. 
Clarke, Sarah. Our first great painter (Allston) and his works. In 

Atlantic, vol. 15, Feb. 1865. 
Clement, Clara E. Early religious painting in America. In N. E. 

Mag., vol. 11, Dec. 1894. 
Cleveland, Edith R. Archibald Robertson and his portraits of the 

Washingtons. In Century, vol. 40, May, 1890. 
Copley, Stuart, and Allston (Exhibition at the Boston Athenaeum). 

In Old and New, vol. 4, Dec. 1871. 
Cunningham, H. F. The old City Hall, Washington, D. C. In Arch. 

Rec., vol. 37, Mar. 1915. 
Cutler, C. B. The Albany Academy. 2 articles. In Arch. Rec., vol. 

39, 1916. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 369 

Darrach, Charles G. Christian Gobrecht, artist and inventor. In 

Perm. Mag., vol. 30, 1906. 
Davol, Ralph. Early American artists. In N. E. Mag., vol. 45, 

Jan. 1912. 
Dexter, J. Richards. Notable paintings from old Salem. In N. E. 

Mag., vol. 39, Dec. 1908. 
Doehn, Rudolf. Der Maler-Dichter Washington Allston. In Unsere 

Zeit, 1881, Heft 4. 
Downes, William H. Boston painters and paintings. 6 articles 

(1 and 2). In Atlantic, vol. 62, 1888. 
Downes, William H. Stuart's portraits of Washington. In N. E. 

Mag., vol. 9, Feb. 1894. 
Downes, William H., and Frank T. Robinson. Our American old 

masters. In N. E. Mag., vol. 13, Nov. 1895. 

Durand, John. John Trumbull. In American Art Rev., vol. 2, 1881. 
Dyer, Walter A. Samuel Mclntire, master carpenter. In House 

Beautiful, vol. 37, Feb. 1915. 
Eberlein, Harold D. Three types of Georgian architecture. 2 articles. 

In Arch. Rec., vols. 34, 37, 1913-1914. 
Edes, Henry H. Chief-Justice Martin Howard and his portrait by 

Copley. In Colonial Soc. of Mass. Pubs., vol. 6, Mar. 1900. 
Etting, Frank M. Portraiture of William Penn. In Scribner's Mo., 

vol. 12, May, 1876. 
Exhibition of pictures painted by Washington Allston, at Harding's 

Gallery, School Street. In No. Am. Rev., vol. 50, Apr. 1840. 
Fielding, Mantle. David Edwin, Engraver. 2 articles. In Penn. 

Mag., vol. 29, 1905. 
Fielding, Mantle. Engraved works of David Edwin (not mentioned 

in Mr. Hildeburn's list). In Penn. Mag., vol. 28, 1904. 
Fielding, Mantle. Joseph Andrews. 2 articles. In Penn. Mag., vol. 

31, 1907. 
Fielding, Mantle. Paintings by Gilbert Stuart, not mentioned in 

Mason's Life of Stuart. In Penn. Mag., vol. 38, 1914. 
Ford, Paul L. Some Pelham-Copley letters. In Atlantic, vol. 71, 

Apr. 1893. 
Fowler, Frank. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The American School. 

Some early painters. In Scribner's Mag., vol. 42, July, 1907. 



370 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Fowler, Frank. The Sully portraits at the U. S. Military Academy, 
West Point. In Scribner's Mag., vol. 43, Jan. 1908. 

Frothingham, Nathaniel L. Mr. Allston's painting of Saul and the 
Witch of Endor. In N. E. Art Union, Bulletin, No. 1, 1852. 

Gerry, Samuel L. The old masters of Boston. In N. E. Mag., vol. 

3, Feb. 1891. 

Gilliams, E. Leslie. A Philadelphia sculptor: William Rush. In 
Lippincott's Mag., vol. 52, Aug. 1893. 

Green, Samuel A. John Foster, the earliest engraver in New Eng- 
land. In M. H. S. Proc. 2d ser., vol. 19, 1905. 

Greenough, Henry. Washington Allston as a painter. In Scribner's 
Mag., vol. 11, Feb. 1892. 

Greenwood, Isaac J. Remarks on the portraiture of Washington. 
In Mag. Am. Hist., vol. 2, Jan. 1878. 

Gustavus Hesselius, the earliest painter and organ-builder in America. 
In Penn. Mag., vol. 29, 1905. 

Haddon, Rawson W. The Roger Morris house, or Jumel Mansion, 
New York City. 2 articles. In Arch. Rec., vol. 42, 1917. 

Hale, Edward E. The early art of Thomas Cole. In Art in Am., vol. 

4, Dec. 1915. 

Halsey, R. T. H. Malbone and his miniatures. In Scribner's Mag., 

vol. 47, May, 1910. 
Harrison, Constance C. Washington at Mount Vernon after the 

Revolution. In Century, vol. 37, Apr. 1889. 
Harrison, Constance C. Washington in New York in 1789. In 

Century, vol. 37, Apr. 1889. 
Hart, Charles H. Anthony Wayne. Presentation of his portrait 

(by Henry Elouis). In Penn. Mag., vol. 35, 1911. 
Hart, Charles H. Benjamin West's family. With unpublished letters 

of West. In Penn. Mag., vol. 32, 1908. 
Hart, Charles H. Charles Willson Peale's allegory of William Pitt. 

In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 48, 1915. 
Hart, Charles H. "The Congress voting independence." A painting 

by Robert Edge Pine and Edward Savage. In Penn. Mag., 

vol. 29, 1905. 
Hart, Charles H. Edward Savage, painter and engraver. In M. H. S. 

Proc., 2d ser., vol. 19, 1905. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 371 

Hart, Charles H. An etched profile portrait of Washington by 

Joseph Hiller, 1794. In Essex Inst. Hist. Coll., vol. 43, 1907. 
Hart, Charles H. Frauds in historical portraiture. In Am. Hist. 

Asso., Ann. Rept., 1913, vol. 1. 
Hart, Charles H. Gilbert Stuart's portraits of men. 4 articles. In 

Century, vols. 63, 69, 72, 76; 1902-1908. 
Hart, Charles H. Gilbert Stuart's portraits of women. 13 articles. 

In Century, vols. 55-59, 1897-1899. 
Hart, Charles H. Jouett's Kentucky children. In Harper's Mag., vol. 

101, June, 1900. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Alexander Hamilton. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 8, Apr. 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Andrew Jackson. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 9, July, 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Benjamin Franklin. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 8, Jan. 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Daniel Webster. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 9, May, 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of George Washington. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 8, Feb. 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Henry Clay. In McClure's Mag., 

vol. 9, Sept. 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. Life portraits of Thomas Jefferson. In McClure's 

Mag., vol. 11, May, 1898. 
Hart, Charles H. An original portrait of Dr. Franklin, painted by 

Joseph Wright. In Penn. Mag., vol. 32, 1908. 
Hart, Charles H. Original portraits of Washington. In Century, vol. 

37, Apr. 1889. 
Hart, Charles H. Original portraits of Washington. In Century, 

vol. 40, May, 1890. 

Hart, Charles H. Peale's original whole-length portrait of Washing- 
ton. In Am. Hist. Asso., Ann. Rept., 1896, vol. 1. 
Hart, Charles H. Peter Harrison, 1716-1775, first professional 

architect in America. In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 49, 1916. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Abraham Hasbrouck by John Vander- 

lyn. In Art in Am., vol. 5, Feb. 1917. 



372 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Jacques Louis David, by Rembrandt 

Peale. In Art in Am., vol. 3, Aug. 1915. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of James Ross, by Thomas Sully. In 

Art in Am., vol. 4, Oct. 1916. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of James Ward, R. A., by Gilbert Stuart. 

In Art in Am., vol. 4, Feb. 1916. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Jean Antoine Houdon, by Rembrandt 

Peale. In Art hi Am., vol. 3, Feb. 1915. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of John Grimes, by Matthew Harris 

Jouett. In Art in Am., vol. 4, April, 1916. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Mrs. Richard Ashhurst, painted by 

Thomas Sully. In Art in Am., vol. 5, Apr. 1917. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Richard Mentor Johnson by John 

Neagle. In Art hi Am., vol. 4, Aug. 1916. 
Hart, Charles H. Portrait of Thomas Dawson, Viscount Cremorne, 

by Mather Brown. In Art in Am., vol. 5, Oct. 1917. 
Hart, Charles H. Portraits of Patrick Henry. In Numismatic and 

Antiquarian Soc. of Phila., Proc., 1911. 
Hart, Charles H. Some notes concerning John Norman, engraver. 

In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 38, 1904. 
Hart, Charles H. A Spanish opponent of the Louisiana purchase. 

In Century, vol. 64, Oct. 1902. 
Hart, Charles H. Thomas Mifflin and Sarah Morris Mifflin, by John 

Singleton Copley. In Art in Am., vol. 5, June, 1917. 
Hart, Charles H. Two women of the eighteenth century: Gilbert 

Stuart's portraits of women. In Century, vol. 63, Jan. 1902. 
Hart, Charles H. Unknown life masks of great Americans. In 

McClure's Mag., vol. 9, Oct. 1897. 
Hart, Charles H. An unpublished life portrait of Washington. In 

McClure's Mag., vol. 8, Nov. 1896. 
Hart, Charles H. The Wilson portrait of Franklin. In Penn. Mag., 

vol. 30, 1906. 
Hart, Charles H., editor. Thomas Sully 's register of portraits, 1801- 

1871. 4 articles. In Penn. Mag., vols. 32-34, 1908-1910. 
Hazelton, John H. The historical value of TrumbulTs "Declaration 

of Independence." In Penn. Mag., vol. 31, 1907. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 373 

Hensel, William U. Jacob Eichholtz, painter. In Penn. Mag., vol. 

37, 1913. 
Hildeburn, Charles R. Contribution to a catalogue of the engraved 

works of David Edwin. 2 articles. In Penn. Mag., vol. 18, 1894. 
Hoeber, Arthur. The story of art in America. 4 articles (1-3). In 

Bookman, vols. 30-31, 1910. 
Howard, Cecil H. C. The Pepperrell portraits. In Essex Inst. 

Hist. Coll., vol. 31, 1894. 
Ho wells, John M. Charles Bulfinch, architect. In Am. Arch., vol. 

103, June, 1908. 

Hubard, William J. A national standard for the likeness of Washing- 
ton. In Mag. Am. Hist., vol. 4, Feb. 1880. 
Hyde, Charles C. A historian in color (John Trumbull). In Mag. 

Am. Hist., vol. 28, Oct. 1892. 
Jackson, Joseph. Bass Otis, America's first lithographer. In Penn. 

Mag., vol. 37, 1913. 

John Vanderlyn. In Putnam's Mag., vol. 3, June, 1854. 
Kimball, Fiske. Benjamin Henry Latrobe and the beginnings of 

architectural and engineering practice in America. In Michigan 

Technic, vol. 30, Dec. 1917. 
Kimball, Fiske. The genesis of the White House. In Century, vol. 

95, Feb. 1918. 
Kimball, Fiske. Latrobe's designs for the Cathedral of Baltimore. 

2 articles. In Arch. Rec., vols. 42, 43, 1917-1918. 
Kimball, Fiske. Thomas Jefferson and the first monument of the 

classical revival in America. 3 articles. In Am. Inst. of Archi- 
tects, Journal, vol. 3, 1915. 
Kimball, Fiske. Thomas Jefferson as Architect: Monticello and 

Shadwell. In Harvard Arch. Quar., vol. 2, June, 1914. 
Kip, William I. Recollections of John Vanderlyn, the artist. In 

Atlantic, vol. 19, Feb. 1867. 
L., W. P. Belshazzar's Feast (by Washington Allston). In Christian 

Examiner, vol. 37, July, 1844. 
Lamb, Martha J. Career of Benjamin West. In Mag. Am. Hist., 

vol. 27, Mar. 1892. 
Lamb, Martha J. The Ingham portrait of De Witt Clinton. In 

Mag. Am. Hist., vol. 27, May, 1892. 



374 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Lamb, Martha J. Unpublished Washington portraits; some of the 

early artists. In Mag. Am. Hist., vol. 19, Apr. 1888. 
Lester, Charles E. Charles Loring Elliott. In Harper's Mag., vol. 

38, Dec. 1868. 
Lichtenstein, Richard C. Early New England and New York heraldic 

bookplates. In N. E. Hist, and Geneal. Register, vol. 40, July, 

1886. 
Lichtenstein, Richard C. Early Southern heraldic bookplates. In 

N. E. Hist, and Geneal. Register, vol. 41, July, 1887. 
Lithography (with an original lithograph by Bass Otis) . In Analectic 

Mag., vol. 14, July, 1819. 
Lithography (with lithograph by T. Edwards). In Boston Monthly 

Mag., vol. 1, Dec. 1825. 
Lossing, Benson J. The National Academy of the Arts of Design, 

and its surviving founders. In Harper's Mag., vol. 66, May, 

1883. 
Lounsbery, Elizabeth. American miniature painters. The Mentor, 

No. 123, Jan. 15, 1917. 
Low, Will H. A century of painting in America; fathers of art in 

America. In McClure's Mag., vol. 20, Feb. 1903. 
May, Charles C. The New York City Hall. 3 articles. In Arch. 

Rec., vol. 39, 1916. 
Memoir of Jacob Perkins. In Boston Monthly Mag., vol. 1, Feb. 

1826. 
Morgan, John H. The work of M. Fevret de Saint-Memin. In 

Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, vol. 5, Jan. 1918. 
Morris, Hamilton S. Philadelphia's contributions to American art. 

In Century, vol. 69, Mar. 1905. 
N., S. F. Charles Bulfinch, architect. Brochure Series, vol. 9, June, 

1903. 
Neill, Edward D. Notice of a rare Washington portrait. In Macal- 

ester College contributions, Ser. l,No. 6, 1890. 
Owen, Frederick D. The first government architect, James Hoban, 

of Charleston, S. C. In Arch. Rec., vol. 11, Oct. 1901. 
Paine, Nathaniel. Early American engravings ... in the library 

of the American Antiquarian Society. In Am. Antiq. Soc. Proc., 

N. S. vol. 17, Apr. 1906. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 375 

Park, Lawrence. Joseph Badger, 1708-1765, and a descriptive list 

of some of his works. In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 51, 1918. 
Parkman, Francis. Report on the alleged Sharpless portraits of 

Washington. In M. H. S. Proc., 2d ser., vol. 3, Jan. 1887. 
Peale, Charles W. Extracts from correspondence relative to estab- 
lishment of the Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia. In 

Penn. Mag., vol. 9, 1885. 
Peale, Rembrandt. Washington portraits. Four letters. In Mag. 

Am. Hist., vol. 5, Aug. 1880. 
Peck, Grace B. Amateur art in early New England. In Harper's 

Mag., vol. 104, May, 1902. 

Perkins, Augustus T. Additional notes on the portraits by Black- 
burn and Smibert. In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 17, May, 1879. 
Perkins, Augustus T. Sketch of ... losses to ... literature and 

the fine arts occasioned by the great fire in Boston of 1872. 

In N. E. Hist, and Geneal. Register, vol. 27, Oct. 1873. 
Perkins, Augustus T. Sketches of the artists Blackburn and Smibert. 

In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 16, Dec. 1878. 
Perkins, Fairman and Heath. Prevention of forgery; siderographic 

process for multiplying copies of engravings. In Soc. of Arts, 

London, Trans., vol. 38, 1820. 
Piers, Harry. Artists in Nova Scotia. In Nova Scotia Hist. Soc. 

Coll., vol. 18, 1914. 
Pratt, Matthew. Autobiographical notes of Matthew Pratt, painter. 

In Penn. Mag., vol. 19, 1895. 
Rankin, William. An impression of the early work of J. S. Copley. 

In Burlington Mag., vol. 8, Oct. 1905. 
Record of impressions produced by the exhibition of Mr. Allston's 

pictures in 1839. In The Dial, vol. 1, 1840. 
Remarks on the progress and present state of the fine arts in the 

United States. In Analectic Mag., vol. 6, Nov. 1815. 
Rogers, Edmund L. Some new Washington relics. II. From the 

collection of Edmund Law Rogers. In Century, vol. 40, May, 

1890. 
Samuel, Bunford. Index to American portraits. 3 articles. In 

Penn. Mag., vol. 25, 1901. 



376 HISTORY OF THE ARTS OF DESIGN 

Sanborn, Franklin B. Thomas Leavitt and his artist friend, James 

Akin. In Granite Monthly, vol. 25, Oct. 1898. 
Schuyler, Montgomery. History of old Colonial architecture. In 

Arch. Rec., vol. 4, Jan. 1895. 
Schuyler, Montgomery. The architecture of American colleges. 10 

articles. In Arch. Rec., vols. 26-31, 1909-1912. 
Sellers, Horace W. Charles Willson Peale, artist-soldier. In Penn. 

Mag., vol. 38, 1914. 

Shackleton, Robert. A Benvenuto of the backwoods (Chester Hard- 
ing). In Harper's Mag., vol. 133, July, 1916. 
Siderographia, or the mode of perpetuating engravings on steel or 

other metals, invented by Messrs. Perkins, Fairman and Heath. 

In Ackermann's Repository of Arts, 2d ser., vol. 10, Nov. 1820. 
Slade, Denison R. Henry Pelham, the half-brother of John Singleton 

Copley. In Colonial Soc. of Mass. Pubs., vol. 5, Feb. 1898. 
Smibert, John. Smibert-Moffatt letters. In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 

49, 1915. 
Smith, Alice R. Huger. Charles Frazer, the friend and contemporary 

of Malbone. In Art in Am., vol. 3, June, 1915. 
Spencer, Edwina. Story of American painting. 5 articles. In Chau- 

tauquan, vols. 48-49, 1907-1908. 
Stapley, Mildred. Thomas Jefferson, architect. In Arch. Rec., vol. 

29, Jan. 1911. 
Stauffer, David McN. Lithographic portraits of Albert Newsam. 

4 articles. In Penn. Mag., vols. 24-26, 1900-1902. 
Stuart, Jane. Anecdotes of Gilbert Stuart. In Scribner's Mo., vol. 

14, July, 1877. 
Stuart, Jane. The Stuart portraits of Washington. In Scribner's Mo., 

vol. 12, July, 1876. 
Stuart, Jane. The youth of Gilbert Stuart. In Scribner's Mo., vol. 

13, Mar. 1877. 
Tarbell, Ida M. The story of the Declaration of Independence. In 

McClure's Mag., vol. 17, July, 1901. 
Tarbell, Ida M. The trial of Aaron Burr. In McClure's Mag., vol. 

18, Mar. 1902. 
Van Rensselaer, Mariana G. Washington Allston, A. R. A. In Mag. 

of Art., vol. 12, 1889. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 377 

Walton, William. American paintings in the Metropolitan Museum. 

In Scribner's Mag., vol. 42, Nov. 1907. 
Whitmore, William H. The early painters and engravers of New 

England. In M. H. S. Proc., vol. 9, May, 1866. 
Willard, Ashton R. Charles Bulfinch the architect. In N. E. Mag., 

vol. 3, Nov. 1890. 
Williams, George A. Robert Havell. Junior, engraver of Audubon's 

"The Birds of America." In Print-Collector's Quarterly, vol. 6, 

Oct. 1916. 
Willing, J. Thomson. Makers of American art. The Mentor, No. 45, 

Dec. 22, 1913. 
Wilson, Rufus R. America's first painters In N. E. Mag., vol. 

26, Mar. 1902. 
Winsor, Justin. Savage's portrait of Washington. In Harvard 

Graduates Mag., vol. 3, June, 1895. 
Woolsey, Theodore S. The American Vasari (William Dunlap). In 

Yale Review, N. S. vol. 3, July, 1914. 



INDEX 



Abercrombie, Dr., sits for Sully, ii. 266 

Abernethie, engraver, iii. 281 

Abrams, i. 362; iii. 275 

Academies, iii. 48-59, 119-132 

American Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 
48-57 (see also under Amer. Acad. of 
Fine Arts) 

National Academy of Design, iii. 57-58 
(see also under Nat. Acad. of Design) 
South Carolina Academy of Fine Arts, 
iii. 58-59 

Ackerman, iii. 256 

Adair, John, portrait of, iii. 198 note 

Adam, R., ii. 89 

Adams, Abigail Smith, portrait of, iii. 283 

Adams, Dunlap, engraver, iii. 281 

Adams, John, portrait of, i. 137, 196, 
262, ii. 38, iii. 283, 296, 304; bust of, 
iii. 172; quoted on Copley, i. 132; inci- 
dental references, ii. 9, 37 

Adams, John Quincy, portrait of, i. 196, 
245; bust of, iii. 219; letters from Trum- 
bull, ii. 66-72; incidental references, i. 
355, ii. 10 

Adams, Joseph Alexander, engraver, ii. 
136 

Adams, Samuel, on committee of safety, 
i. 177, 178; warned by Revere, i. 180; 
portrait of, iii. 304 

Adet, Pierre Augustus, portrait of, ii. 159 

Agate, Alfred, miniature painter, iii. 243 

Agate, Frederick S., portrait of Rollinson, 
i. 189, iii. 243; tries to get into rooms of 
American Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 
52; studies, iii. 242; "The Dead Child," 
iii. 243; "Forrest, in the character of 
Metamora," iii. 243; "Ugolino," iii. 
243 

Aitken, Robert, engraver, iii. 281 

Akin, James, letter to Trumbull on Dun- 
lap's unfavorable attitude toward cer- 
tain artists, ii. 102 note; ii. 103 note, 
iii. 281 

Albani, receives West, i. 48, 50 

Alexander, Cosmo, teacher of Stuart, i. 
167, 197, 198; portrait of Hunter, ii. 
345 



Alexander, Francis, birth aud childhood, 
iii. 232-234; determines to paint, iii. 
234; goes to New York, iii. 235; lessons 
from Alexander Robertson, iii. 235; 
returns home, iii. 236; begins portrait 
painting, iii. 236; returns to New York, 
iii. 238; patronized by Mrs. J. B. 
Mason, iii. 238; criticized by Stuart, 
iii. 239; goes to Italy, iii. 239; portrait 
of Harriet Douglass, iii. 239; iii. 325 

Allardice, Samuel, engraver, iii. 281 

Allen, Andrew, portrait of, ii. 250; inci- 
dental references, i. 319, ii. 144, 249 

Allen, Joel, engraver, iii. 281 

Allen, John, iii. 278 

Allen, Luther, painter and engraver, iii. 
281 

Allen, Paul, i. 323 

Allen, Miss Sarah, painter, iii. 282 

Allen, William, i. 46, 53, 118 note 

Allen, i. 46, 47, 56, 59 

Allston, John A., iii. 93 

Allston, Rachel Moore, ii. 296 note 

Allston, Washington, birth, ii. 296; child- 
ish love of the artistic, ii. 297; friend- 
ship with Malbone, ii. 140, 299, 302, 
306; early attempts at art, ii. 298-301 ; 
Smibert's influence on, i. 17-18, ii. 
300, 301 ; fondness for violent subjects, 
ii. 301; in London, ii. 304-308; student 
at Somerset House, ii. 304; exhibition 
at Somerset House, ii. 306; in France, 
ii. 308-312; Italy, ii. 312; notes on 
Italian masters, ii. 313, 314; return to 
America, ii. 314; marriage, ii. 315: re- 
turn to England, ii. 315; illness, ii. 815; 
publishes poems, ii. 317; death of wife, 
ii. 318; inability to satisfactorily pic- 
ture the healing of the sick, ii. 320- 
321 ; associate of the Royal Academy, ii. 
328; return to America, ii. 327; letter 
to McMurtrie, ii. 328-329. 330; second 
marriage, ii. 330; notes on his paint- 
ings, ii. 331-332; quoted on Mather 
Brown, i. 270-271; Fuseli, ii. 306-308; 
Malbone, ii. 140; W. S. Mount, iii. 
264; Pine, i. 378; Stuart, i. 210, 260- 



379 



380 



INDEX 



Allston, Washington Continued 

263; West, i. 52, 70-71, 86, 103, ii. 305- 
306; paintings: St. Peter, ii. 302; Judas 
Iscariot, ii. 302; "Dead Man Revived," 
i. 329, ii. 315, 323 note.; "The Mother 
and Child," ii. 318; Virgin and Child, 
ii. 322; Landscape, ii. 322; Jacob's 
Dream, ii. 324; Uriel in the Sun, ii. 
324; "Elijah in the Wilderness," ii. 
329; "Belshazzar's Feast," ii. 329; 
"Gabriel setting the guard of the 
Hc-avenly Host," ii. 333; portraits: 
Coleridge, ii. 316; King, ii. 316; inci- 
dental references, i. 117, 145, 166, 252, 
386, ii. 51, 55, 78 note, 139, 140, 141, 
142, 150, 159, 161, 274, 281, 372, iii. 4, 
8 note, 9, 81, 84, 88, 92, 97, 98, 99 and 
note, 218, 225, 259, 260 

Allston, William, ii. 296 note 

Alsop, Richard, i. 323 

American Academy of Fine Arts, forma- 
tion of, ii. 105; first officers, ii. 105-106; 
revival of, iii. 48; exhibition, iii. 50; 
officers, iii. 50; purchase of pictures 
from Trumbull, iii. 51; attitude toward 
students, iii. 51-53; towards artists, iii. 
53-57; erection of new building, iii. 119; 
failure to serve function of an academy, 
iii. 119-120; committee on union with 
Nat. Acad., iii. 121; failure to unite, iii. 
122; Joint Report of the Committees, 
iii. 123-125; TrumbuU's address on the 
Joint Report, iii. 125-128; incidental 
references, i. 77, 191, 328, 330, 347, 362, 
366, ii. 40, 55, 163, 165, iii. 96 

American Bank Note Co., iii. 258 note, 338 

American Magazine, iii. 339 

Ames, Ezra, portrait of Gov. George 
Clinton, iii. 24; 243 

Amherst, Lord, i. 103 

Amman, Justus, ii. 129 

Analectic Magazine, quoted on Malbone, 
ii. 137, 153-155; Wertmuller, ii. 119-121 

Ancora, Pietro, painter, iii. 165, 282 

Anderson, Alexander, engraver, ii. 134- 
136; engraving of Thomas Dilworth, ii. 
134 note; of "The Squirrel Opossum," 
i. 172 note; quoted, ii. 199; on Dawkins, 
i. 185; incidental references, ii. 363, 383 

Anderson, Hugh, engraver, iii. 282 

Andre, John, ii. 26, 29 

Andre, chief sculptor of the Capitol, ii. 8, 1 2 

Andrews, Joseph, engraver, iii. 282 

Angerstein, purchases Fuseli's Milton 
Gallery, ii. 307; ii. 261 



Annin, William B., engraver, iii. 282 

Anstey, John, ii. 42 

Antes, Anna Margaret, ii. 230. 

Anthony, Joseph, portrait of, i. 199; 207 
Anthony, Mrs., portrait of, i. 199 
Anthony, children, portraits of, i. 199 

Aram, Capt. John, iii. 294, 295 

Architecture, rise of: Egyptian, ii. 1-2; 
Grecian, ii. 2-4; Roman, ii. 4-5; Mo- 
hammedan, ii. 5; Norman, ii. 5; Gothic, 
ii. 6; American, ii. 7-10 

Arnold, Benedict, portrait of, iii. 297; in- 
cidental references, ii. 24, iii. 63 

Artist's Fund Academy, The, iii. 131 note 

Ash, I., purchases study of Sully's 
"Washington," ii. 273 

Association of Artists in America, ii. 121 
note 

Astor, John Jacob, iii. 126 

Athol, Duke of, iii. 107 

Audubon, Jean, iii. 209 note 

Audubon, John James, accused of lack of 
exactness by Lawson, iii. 203-205; en- 
couraged by Sully, iii. 205; childhood 
studies, iii. 206; begins drawing birds, 
iii. 206; wanderings, iii. 207; destruc- 
tion of drawings by rats, iii. 208; suc- 
cess in England, iii. 208; meeting with 
Dunlap, iii. 209; death, iii. 210 note; 
quoted on Catesby, iii. 346 

Augur, Hezekiab, carver and sculptor, 
iii. 246-248 

Babcock, portrait of, iii. 260 

Bacon, George, iii. 282 

Bacon, Mrs., portrait of, i. 127 

Badger, Joseph, i. 110 note; iii. 282 

Badger, Joseph W., iii. 282 

Bainborough, painter, iii. 282 

Bainbridge, William, bust of, iii. 31 

Baker, Gardner, i. 237 

Baker, John, engraver, iii. 282 

Baker, Lydia, mother of Leslie, iii. 1 

Baker, N., iii. 4 

Baker, S., portrait of, iii. 310 

Balch, Vistus, engraver, iii. 282 

Ball, Victoria, marries Ramage, i. 268 
note 

Banks, Sir Joseph, ii. 353 

Bannerman, J., engraver, iii. 282 

Bannerman, W. W., engraver, iii. 282 

Barber, John Warner, "History and An- 
tiquities of New Haven" quoted on 
Doolittle, i. 182-183; ii. 176 note; iii. 
283 

Barber, William, engraver, iii. 283 



INDEX 



381 



Bard, Mrs. Dinah, portrait of, i. 45 

Bard, Peter, portrait of, i. 45 

Baretti, Joseph, mistakes Stuart's work 

for West's, i. 218, 219; quoted on Ce- 

racchi, ii. 89 
Baring, Sir Francis, buys the "Sortie of 

the Garrison of Gibraltar," ii. 37; i. 88 
Barker, William, engraver, iii. 283 
Barker, Henry A., ii. 51, 52, 77 
Barlow, Joel, anecdote of Stuart's selling 

portrait of West, i. 227; friendship with 

Fulton, i. 274, 279; with Dunlap, i. 322; 

"Columbiad," i. 284, 285; ii. 160 
Barralet, John James, partnership with 

Lawson, ii. 171; portrait of Moreau, 

ii. 172; "First Landing of Columbus," 

ii. 173; ii. 124 

Barre, Colonel, sits for Stuart, i. 223 
Barrett, Mr. and Mrs., of Montreal, i. 331 
Barron, Commodore, portrait of, iii. 170 
Barrow, Thomas, ii. 157 
Barry, James, i. 56, 96 
Bartolini, Lorenzo, iii. 220 
Bartolozzi, Francesco, engraving of " The 

Death of Chatham," i. 131-132, 146, 

147; testimony on Delatre's engraving 

of "The Death of Chatham," i. 147, 

148; i. 228 

Barton, Benjamin Smith, ii. 336 note 
Barton, Rev. Thomas, i. 112 
Barton, ii. 385 
Bartow, Thomas, friend of Dunlap, i. 289- 

291, 292 

Bartram, John, ii. 351 
Bartram, William, ii. 336 note, 338 
Bassett, W. H., engraver, iii. 283 
Battoni, Pompeio, receives West, i. 52; 

teacher of Benbridge, i. 165, 166 
Bates, Joshua, friend of Cole, iii. 152 
Bayley, Frank W., i. 17 note 
Beach, H. C., i. 362 
Beau, John A., engraver, iii. 283 
Beaufain, Hon. Hester, portrait of, iii. 303 
Beaumont, Sir George, accoucnt of begin- 
ning of West's career in London, i. 57; 

patron of art, i. 58-59; i. 375; ii. 327 
Beaumont, Samuel, i. 366 
Beck, Dr. Lewis, 5. 360 
Beck, Dr. Thepdoric R., i. 353 
Beck, painter in west, ii. 382 
Bedell, Bishop G. T., engraving of, iii. 

174 
Beechey, Sir William, i. 141, 148; ii. 142, 

257, 263 note, 291, 308, 360 
Beekman, James, i. 191, 192 



Beekman, John, i. 191, 192 
Beekman, William, portrait of, i. 191 

Belaume', J., iii. 283 

Belknap, Zedekiah, painter, iii. 283 

Beloe, C., portrait of, iii. 195 

Belzoni, Giovanni Battista, ii. 2 

Belzons, M., instructor of Sully, ii. 114, 
238-239 

Benbridge, Henry, life, i. 164-167; por- 
trait of Pascal Paoli, i. 164 note; of 
Franklin, i. 165 note; of Truxton fam- 
ily, i. 165; inspires Sully, i. 166, 240, 
241; incidental references, i. 169, 287, 
388 

Bennett, William James, "The U. S. 
Frigate Hudson," by, i. 172 note; birth, 
iii. 45 and note; pupil of Westall, iii. 45; 
in Egypt and Malta with the army, 
iii. 46; painter and engraver in New 
York, iii. 46 

Benson, Egbert, bust of, ii. 91 

Bentivoglio, Cardinal, Smibert's copy of 
Van Dyck's head of, i. 18, 32, 118, ii. 
300 

Benton, Ann, marries Eliab Metcalf, ii. 
388 

Benton (actor), portrait of, iii. 337 

Benvenuti, Pietro, iii. 186 

Berkeley, Dr. George, picture of, by 
Smibert, i. 17; plan for university in 
Bermuda, i. 18-20, 22, 26; "Westward 
the course of empire," i. 19; "Minute 
Philosopher," i. 20, 27; receives thanks 
of Irish clergy for publications, i. 21; 
death, i. 21; epitaph, i. 21; estimate of, 
by Swift, i. 22-23; by Blackwall, i. 23; 
probable teacher of Copley, i. 118; 
Newport home of, ii. 344; iii. 306 

Berkeley, Mrs. George, i. 27 

Bernard, John, miniature of, i. 319 

Beroemde Enderneming op de Rivieren 
van London en Rochester, i. 98-101 

Berrian, i. 297 

Bervic, iii. 85 

Bewick, Thomas, ii. 129, 135 notr 

Biddle, Nicholas, portrait of, ii. 385, 386; 
iii. 26 

Bigelow, Dr. Jacob, iii. 212 

Billings, A., engraver, iii. 283 

Billings, Joseph, engraver, iii. 283 

Bingham, William, presents Lansdowne 
with Stuart's "Washington," i. 239. 
fails to copyright same, i. 240 

Binghum, Mrs. William, portrait of, i. 
241; i. 232 



382 



INDEX 



Binns, employs Sully to paint Simon 

Snyder, ii. 386 

Binon, sculptor, iii. 172, 217, 225 
Birbeck, Dr., iii. 256 
Birch, Thomas, painter, ii. 108, iii. 25-26, 

293 

Birch, William, enamel painter, ii. 121 
Bisbee, John, artist, iii. 266 
Bishop, T., miniature painter, iii. 31 
Blackburn, contemporary of J. Smibert, 

i. 29; influence on Copley, i. 117; ii. 15 
Blackwall, Dr., quoted on Berkeley, i. 23 
Blagden, G., Capitol architect, ii. 8, 12 
Blanchard, W., miniature painter, iii. 283 
Blandford, Miss, actress, iii. 115 
Bleeker, Anthony, i. 347 
Blisset, Francis, Leslie's drawing of, iii. 2 
Blyth, Benjamin, painter, iii. 283 
Bogardus, James, die-sinker, iii. 284 
Bogart, John G., cited, ii. 105 note; iii. 50 
Bonaparte, Charles, admires Audubon's 

work, iii. 203-205 

Bonaparte, Mrs. Jerome, bust of, iii. 31 
Bonaparte, Joseph, collection of pictures, 

ii. 277 

Bonaparte, Lucien, ii. 45, 97, 114 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, Ceracchi's plot 

against, ii. 93-97; i. 88; ii. 114; iii. 126 
Bordley, painter, iii. 284 
Boston Athenaeum, i. 232, 254, ii. 37, 

iii. 168, 245 

Boston Bewick Co., iii. 132 note 
Boston Museum, iii. 304 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, i. 232 note, 

235 note, ii. 273 
Boswell, James, i. 164 note 
Boudier, engraver, iii. 284 
Bouffard, Catherine, iii. 209 note 
Bourdon, French refugee and painter, ii. 

382 

Bowditch, Dr. Nathaniel, bust of, iii. 38 
Bowen, Abel, engraver, ii. 136, iii. 19, 

132, 293, 294 
Bowen, Daniel, owned Pine's pictures, 

i. 377; museum of, destroyed by fire, i. 

378; i. 381 note 

Bower, John, engraver, iii. 284 
Bowes, Joseph, engraver, iii. 284 
Bowman, offers to aid Allston, ii. 302 
Bowman, painter, iii. 259, 284 
Boyd, J., engraver, iii. 19 
Boyd, Robert, in "The Defence of 

Gibraltar," i. 136 
Boydell, Alderman, portrait of, i. 242; 

i. 135, 219, 227, 240, ii. 67, 106 



Bracket, Miss H. V., iii. 284 

Braddock, General Edward, i. 41 

Bradford, Samuel F., publishes Wilson's 
Ornithology, ii. 341 ; offers to help 
Leslie, iii. 3, ii. 340; iii. 2 

Bradish, A., portrait painter, iii. 268 

Brady, teacher of A. J. Davis, iii. 211 

Branston, Robert, wood-engraver, iii. 255 

Brevoort, i. 347 

Brewer, ii. 23 

Brewster, Edmund, iii. 284 

Brewster, John, iii. 284 

Brewster, die sinker, ii. 173 

Bridges, Charles, painter, iii. 284 

Bridgewater, Duke of, i. 273 

Bridport, George, iii. 45 note 

Bridport, Hugh, miniature painter and 
engraver, iii. 45 and note 

Brimmer, George, i. 234 

Britton, Thomas, portrait of, i. 167 note 

Brockwell, Rev. Charles, portrait of, iii. 
324 

Bromfield, Henry, i. 121 

Brooks, engraver, iii. 285 

Brougham, Lord, iii. 256 

Broughton, Governor, portrait of, iii. 
311 

Browere. J. J., iii. 132 

Brown, Benjamin, engraver, iii. 285 

Brown, Charles Brockden, portrait of, 
i. 317; i. 320, 322, 323, 363, ii. 340 

Brown, D. L., ii. 196 

Brown, Gawen, i. 269 note 

Brown, Elijah, i. 323 

Brown, James, iii. 4 

Brown, Joseph, ii. 105 

Brown, Lawrence, painter, iii. 285 

Brown, Mather, i. 269-271; portrait of 
Mr. and Mrs. Pope, i. 269; Mrs. 
Martyr, i. 269; Jefferson, i. 269 note; 
John Adams, i. 269 note; George IV as 
Prince of Wales, i. 269 note; George 
III, i. 269 note; self, i. 269 note; "Mar- 
quis Cornwallis receiving as Hostages 
the Sons of Tippoo Sahib," i. 269 note; 
ii. 287 

Brown (Mysterious Brown), iii. 17, 18, 19 

Brown, Uriel, painter, iii. 285 

Brownell, Thomas, dancing teacher, iii. 
325 

Bruce, Archibald, iii. 50 

Bruce, Captain, i. 124, 126 

Bruen, G. W., encourages Cole, iii. 149 

Bruen, Robert C., engraver, iii. 197 

Bruff, Charles O., goldsmith, iii. 285 



INDEX 



383 



Brugere, Monsieur and Madame, portraits 

of, ii. 267 

Bruhl, de, Count, i. 372 
Bruls, Michelson G. de, engraver, iii. 285 
Brimton, Richard, engraver, ii. 177 
Bryan, Guy, portrait of, ii. 279 
Bryant, William C., i. 347, 369 
Buchan, Earl of, letter to Copley, i. 140; 

presents box to Washington, ii. 82-85; 

letter to Washington, ii. 83-85 
Buckingham, J. C., iii. 256 
Buckingham, Marquis of, i. 33 
Buddington, ii. 213, iii. 285 
Buell, Abel, engraver, iii. 285 
Bulfinch, Charles, i. 356, ii. 8, iii. 285 
Bull, Martin, engraver, iii. 285 
Burger, J., silversmith, ii. 155 
Burger, Jr., music engraver, iii. 286 
Burgis, William, i. 174, note, iii. 286 
Burgkmair, Hans, ii. 129 
Burgoyne, Gen. John, ii. 18 note, 20, 23 
Burine, engraver, iii. 286 
Burlington, Lord, i. 9 
Burn, loans money to Neagle, iii. 168 

note 

Burnap, Daniel, iii. 287 
Burnet, John, i. 5 
Burns, Robert, portrait of, iii. 319 
Burr, Aaron, patron of Vanderlyn, ii. 158- 

159; portrait of, ii. 159; i. 188 
Burr, Theodosia, portrait of, ii. 159 
Burrows, Silas E., iii. 245 
Bush, Mrs. Abigail Adams, portrait of, 

iii. 317 
Bush, Mrs. Charles P., portrait of, iii. 

322 

Bush, John, portrait of, iii. 317, 322 
Bush, Joseph H., portrait painter, iii. 

198; portraits of Zachary Taylor, iii. 

198 note; Gov. John Adair, iii. 198 note; 

Judge Thomas B. Monroe, iii. 198 

note; Gen. Martin D. Hardin, iii. 198 

note 
Bussey, purchases Peale's copies of Italian 

masters, ii. 186 
Butler, M., engraver, iii. 287 
Butterworth, A. H., engraver, iii. 287 
Byfield, N., painter, iii. 287 
Byles, Catharine, i. 269 note 
Byles, Elizabeth, i. 269 note 
Byles, Mary, i. 269 note 
Byles, Rev. Mather, portrait of, iii. 324; 

letter to Copley, i. 130; i. 268 note 
Byrd, Col. Charles, sponsor for Charles 

Bridges, iii. 284 



Byrd, Evelyn, portrait of, iii. 284 

Byrd, William, i. 338, 339 

Byron, Lord, portrait of, iii. 39, 40, 41 

B., J. W., engraver, iii. 287 

B., S. P., engraver, iii. 287 

B., W., engraver, iii. 287 

Cabinet of Natural History, The. quoted 

on West, i. 64; on Peale, i. 157, 162-163 
Cadwalader, John, i. 158 note 
Cain, i. 149 
Caldwell, iii. 72 

Calhoun, John C., portrait of, ii. 163 
Callender, Benjamin, Jr., engraver, iii. 

287 

Callender, Joseph, engraver, iii. 287 
Calvert, George, iii. 271 
Cambreleng, i. 348 
Cammeyer, W., engraver, iii. 287 
Campbell, Robert, iii. 287 
Campbell, picture of Washington, i. 264 
Caner, Rev. Henry, portrait of, iii. 324 
Cantir, Joshua, iii. 58; ii. 114 
Capellano, sculptor, iii. 287 
Capitol (Washington), architecture of, 

ii. 7-8, 231-232 
Cardelli! modeller, iii. 287 
Carey, Henry, patron of Weir, iii. 184; 

iii. 197, 277 
Carey, Matthew, map publisher, iii. 74; 

ii. 156 

Cario, Michael, engraver, iii. 288 
Carlin, John, painter, iii. 288 
Carlini, sculptor, ii. 89 
Carpenter, Samuel, i. 31 note 
Carpi, da, Ugo, ii. 132 
Can-, Benjamin, music publisher, ii. 201 
Carracci, Annibal, iii. 79 
Carracci, Lodovico, ii. 310 
Carroll, Charles, portrait of, iii. 257 note, 

272 

Carter, Col. Charles, portrait of. iii. 308 
Carter, Mrs. Charles, portrait of, iii. 308 
Carter, William, ii. 161 
Carter, unfavorable comments on Copley, 

i. 127-128 

Carteret, Lord, i. 22 
Gary, Alpheus, engraver, iii. 217 
Casilear, John W., engraver, iii. 288 
Cass, Lewis, portrait of, iii. 814 
Cassali, engraver, iii. 288 
Catesby, Mark, ii. 336 note, 345, 346 
Catherine, Empress of Russia, i. 71, 885 
Catlin, George, portrait of De Witt 

Clinton, iii. 172 
Caton, Charles, i. 853 



384 



INDEX 



Caton, possesses pictures by Lawrence 

and William E. West, iii. 272 
Catton, Charles, Jr., paints horse of 
George III for Beechey, ii. 360; in 
America, ii. 361-362; "Noah's Ark," ii. 
362 

Catton, Charles, Sr., ii. 359 
Causici, sculptor, i. 348, iii. 288 
Caxton, William, ii. 128 
Ceracchi, Guiseppe, birth, ii. 88; in 
London, ii. 88-90; in America, ii. 90-92; 
in France, ii. 90, 93-97; plot against 
Bonaparte, ii. 93-97; death, ii. 90; bust 
of Reynolds, ii. 88; of Washington, ii. 
40, 90; of Mrs. Darner, ii. 88; of Hamil- 
ton, ii. 91 ; of Jefferson, ii. 91 ; of George 
Clinton, ii. 91; of Egbert Benson, ii. 91; 
of Paul Jones, ii. 91 ; of John Jay, ii. 91 ; 
Sacrifice of Bacchus, ii. 89; incidental 
references, i. 160, 385, ii. 104 
Chambers, Gen., ii. 12 
Chambers, Sir George, i. 198 
Chambers, R., engraver, iii. 288 
Chambers, Sir William, remonstrates 

with Copley, i. 131; ii. 80 
Chambers, Mrs., as Polly, by Pine, i. 375 

note 

Champe, John, portrait of, iii. 308 
Champe, Mrs. John, portrait of, iii. 308 
Champollion, Jean Francois, ii. 2 
Chandler, Winthrop, painter, iii. 288 
Channing, William EUery, portrait of, iii. 

283 

Chantrey, Sir Francis, iii. 70 
Chapin, William, engraver, iii. 288 
Chapman, John Gadsby, studies, iii. 244- 
245; "The Baptism of Pocahontas," 
iii. 244 note; "Hagar and Ishmael 
fainting in the wilderness," iii. 245; 
portraits of Mrs. Drake, iii. 245; Mr. 
Madison, iii. 245; Horatio Greenough, 
iii. 245 
Chapman, Dr., Nathaniel, i. 320; portrait 

of, iii. 170 

Chardon, Peter, i. 29 
Charles, H., engraver, iii. 289 
Charles, William, engraver, iii. 289 
Charles II, i. 99-100 
Chateaubriand, Francois Auguste, iii. 

229 
Chatham, Lord, likeness of, i. 153 and 

note, 154 

Chauminot, de, Madame, i. 371 
Chauncey, Charles, i. 334 
Cheney, Benjamin, clock-maker, iii. 289 



Cheney, John, engraver, ii. 176 note, iii. 

88, note, 289, 

Cheney, Seth W., artist, iii. 289 
Cheney, Timothy, clock-maker, iii. 289 
Chevalier, Augustin, iii. 289 
Child, Thomas, painter, iii. 289 
Childs, Cephas G., engraver, portrait of, 

ii. 276; iii. 289, 326 
Chiquet, engraver, iii. 290 
Chorlev, John, engraver, iii. 290 
Chorley, Mrs. John, i. 204, 210 
Church, Benjamin, engraving of, i. 176 

note 
Church, Dr. Benjamin, on committee of 

safety, i. 177 

Churchill, Charles, i. 176 note 
Clapp, Rev. Thomas, i. 26 
Clark, Abraham, engraver, iii. 290 
Clark, Alvan, lens maker, iii. 290 
Clark, Capt. Danforth, starts Rogers as 

painter, iii. 16 

Clark, Major John G., portrait of, iii. 317 
Clark, Rev. Jonas, i. 177, 178, 180 
Clark, Thomas, engraver, ii. 174 
Clark, of Lancaster, Pa., engraver, iii. 290 
Clark, miniature painter, ii. 103, 211 
Clarke, George, iii. 98 note 
Clarke, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 315 
Clarke, Susannah Farnum, marriage to 
Copley, i. 120 and note; goes to Eng- 
land, i. 121 note 
Clarke, Thomas, see Clark 
Clarke, William, portrait of, iii. 299 
Clarkson, Matthew, portrait of, i. 230 
Clarkson, West resides with, i. 40 
Claude, ii. 280; iii. 79, 155 
Clay, Edward W., engraver, iii. 290 
Clay, Henry, head by Jouett, iii. 100; 

portrait of, iii. 257 note 
Clay, Henry, Jr., quoted on Jouett, iii. 100 
Claypoole, James, i. 110, 111, iii. 322 
Clemens, Isaac, engraver, iii. 290 
Cleveland, vice consul in Havana, ii. 390 
Clibborn, J., iii. 3 

Clinton, De Witt, director of American 
Academy of Fine Arts, ii. 105; president 
of, iii. 48; portrait of, ii. 631; iii. 172 
Clinton, George, portrait by Trumbull, 
ii. 39; by Ames, iii. 24; bust by Cerac- 
chi, ii. 91; i. 322 
Clonnev, James G., miniature painter, iii. 

290 * 
Clymer, G., president of Pennsylvania 

Academy of Fine Arts, ii. 106; iii. 4 
Coate, S., engraver, iii. 290 



INDEX 



385 



Coates, Charlotte, marriage with Stuart, 
i. 228 

Coates, John, employs Sully to paint 
pictures, ii. 259 

Coates, Samuel, portrait of, ii. 268 

Cobb, G., engraver, iii. 290 

Cochran, James, i. 346 

Cochran, Walter, i. 346 

Coffee, clay modeller, iii. 87 

Cogdell, John Stephans, painting, ii. 371; 
clay modelling, ii. 372; bust of Moul- 
trie, ii. 372; financial difficulties, ii. 373; 
director of South Carolina Academy of 
Fine Arts, iii. 58; quoted on South 
Carolina Academy, iii. 58-59; donation 
to National Academy of Design, iii. 
132; ii. 113 

Cogswell, Joseph G., iii. 218, 225 

Cogswell, Mason F., i. 323 

Cohen, Mendes J., iii. 132 

Coit, Daniel, iii. 132 

Coke, Earl of Leicester, patron of Hard- 
ing, iii. 70 

Colbert, i. 170 

Golden, Cadwallader, portrait of, i. 114 

Golden, Cadwallader D., director of 
American Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 
50; quoted on Fulton, i. 281-283, 284- 
286; incidental references, i. 272, ii. 
164, 167, iii. 48 

Cole, James, iii. 139 note 

Cole, Joseph G., painter, iii. 291 

Cole, Mary, iii. 139 note 

Cole, Moses D., painter, iii. 290 

Cole, Thomas, birth, iii. 139 note; draws 
patterns for wall papers, iii. 139; early 
attempts at drawing, iii. 140; en- 
couraged by Judge Tappan, iii. 141; 
bashfulness, iii. 141; first portraits, iii. 
141; journey to St. Clairsville, iii. 141- 
142; struggles as a young painter, iii. 
143-146; begins landscape painting, iii. 
146; journey to Philadelphia, iii. 147; 
illness, iii. 148; struggles in Phila- 
delphia, iii. 148; in New York, iii. 149; 
success, iii. 150; exhibition in London 
galleries, iii. 151; acquaintance with 
Th<3mas Lawrence, iii. 152; comments 
on modern English art and artists, iii. 
152-153; on modern French art, iii. 
153; in Italy, iii. 154; on Italian art, 
iii. 155-156; on landscape painting, iii. 
156; "Tornado in an American Forest," 
iii. 151; "Sunset on the Arno," iii. 154; 
"Dead Abel," iii. 154; "Fountain of 



Egeria," iii. 154; "Italian Scenery," 
iii. 157; later works, iii. 157; incidental 
references, i. 351, iii. 27, 79 note, 171, 
239, 261 note 

Coleraine, Lord, i. 9 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, friend of 
Allston, ii. 314, iii. 99; portrait of, ii. 
316; ii. 327 

Coles, John, heraldic painter, iii. 291 

Coles, John, Jr., heraldic painter, iii. 291 

Coles, Thomas, portrait of, iii. 343 

Collard, iii. 99 

Collections of Pictures; owned by John 
Watson, iii. 270; Smibert, iii. 270; 
Hamilton, iii. 270; Trumbull, iii. 270; 
Steer, iii. 271; Robert Gilmor, iii. 272- 
275; Joseph Bonaparte, iii. 275; Abram, 
iii. 275; Ward, iii. 275; Michael Paff, 
iii. 275, 278; Richard Meade, iii. 275; 
Miss Douglass, iii. 275; David Hosack, 
iii. 275; Philip Hone, iii. 276-277; 
Gulian C. Verplanck, iii. 277; Charles 
Hall, iii. 277; Robert Donaldson, iii. 
277; Myndert Van Schaick, iii. 277; 
James Renwick, iii. 277; Henry Carey, 
iii. 277; T. Dixon, iii. 277; P. Flandin, 
iii. 278; Francis Winthrop, iii. 278; 
James Hilhouse, iii. 278; Boston 
Athenaeum, iii. 278; Trumbull Gallery, 
iii. 278; Luman Reed, iii. 278; Gouver- 
neur Kemble, iii. 278; John Allen, iii. 
278;Ithiel Town, iii. 278; Reynolds 
pictures in America, iii. 272 

Collins, Isaac, publisher, ii. 363 

Collins, iii. 9 

Collis, Christopher, i. 292 

Colman, Rev. Benjamin, portrait of, iii. 
324 

Columbian Academy of Painting, ii. 112 

Columbian Bank Note Co., iii. 341 

Columbian Museum, destroyed by fire, 
i. 378; i. 381 note 

Columbian Society of Artists, ii. Ill note 

Columbian Society of Arts, ii. 110 note 

Columbianum, The, ii. 104 

Conant, Chaiwcey, i. 361 

Conant, Colonel, i. 177 

Conant, John, i. 360, 361 

Conant, Samuel S., portrait of, i. 360, 363 

Conarroe, George W., painter, iii. 291 

Cone, Joseph, engraver, iii. 291 

Coney, John, engraver and goldsmith, iii. 
291, i. 174 note 

Conn, James, writing-master, iii. 292 

Conner, Edmon S., portrait of, iii. 337 



386 



INDEX 



Conrad, Robert T., i. 320 

Constable, Mr., i. 237 

Continental Bank Note Co., iii. 321 

Cook, Jane, marries T. S. Cummings, iii. 
200; portrait of, iii. 201 

Cook, Robert, teacher of R. W. Weir, iii. 
181 note 

Cook, T. B., engraver, iii. 292 

Cooke, George, painter, iii. 133, 244 

Cooke, George Frederick, portrait by 
Stuart, i. 247; Sully, ii. 268; Leslie, iii. 
2; monument to, iii. 25; memoirs of, 
by Dunlap, i. 322; iii. 103 

Cooke, Joseph, goldsmith and engraver, 
iii. 292 

Cooly, Dr. Samuel, i. 264 note 

Cooper, James Fenimore, bust of, iii. 220; 
donations to National Academy of 
Design, iii. 132; quoted on Greenough's 
cherubs, iii. 223-224, 230-231; on 
Morse, iii. 98; persuades Lafayette to 
sit for Greenough, iii. 227-228; owns 
Chapman's copy of Guide's "Aurora," 
iii. 245; incidental references, i. 347, 
349, 365, iii. 152, 220, 222, 223, 226, 279 

Cooper, Peter, painter, iii. 292 

Cooper, Samuel, miniature painter, i. 267 

Cooper, Thomas A., connection with New 
York Theatre, i. 322-323, ii. 198; 
entertains Dunlap, i. 328; miniature of, 
i. 319; aids Sully, ii. 245; plays joke 
on Sully, ii. 246-248; employs Gal- 
lagher, ii. 284; i. 320 

Cooper, Rev. William, portrait of, iii. 324 

Cooper, Major, i. 336 

Copley, John Singleton, birth, i. 118 note, 
119, 120; marriage, i. 120; residence 
in New York, i. 121; Europe, i. 121 
seq., 127-129; England, i. 119, 129- 
149; West's estimate of, i. 124; letter 
on trip to Europe, i. 125; Carter's 
description of, i. 127-129; route through 
Europe, i. 129; member of Royal 
Academy, i. 129-130; opposition to his 
exhibition of "The Death of Chatham," 
i. 131; character, i. 142; estimate of, i. 
142-143, 144, 145; anecdote on slow- 
ness as painter, i. 138, 145-146; sale of 
Boston house, i. 146-147; suit against 
Delatre, i. 147-149; death, i. 118 note; 
paintings: "Youth rescued from a 
Shark," i. 119, 132, 133, 136, 137, 145; 
"Death of Lord Chatham," i. 119, 121- 
122, 130-132, 133, 145; "Death of 
Major Pierson," i. 120, 132, 1S4, 135- 



136, 145; "Charles the First in the 
House of Commons," i. 120; "The Sur- 
render of Admiral de Winter to Lord 
Duncan," i. 120, 141; "The Defence of 
Gibraltar," i. 121, 136, 145; "Boy with 
the Squirrel," i. 123 and note, 140; 
" The Arrest of the Five Members of the 
Commons, by Charles the First, " i. 133, 
138-140; "The Resurrection," i. 141; 
" Samuel reproving Saul for sparing the 
People of Amalek," i. 142; "The Assas- 
sination of Buckingham," i. 135; 
"Charles signing Stratford's Death 
Warrant," i. 135; portraits of William 
Welsteed, i. 118 note; Ogilvie, i. 121; 
Harry Pelham, i. 121; Daniel Cromeline 
Verplanck, i. 121, 123 note; Izard, Mr., 
i. 124; Mrs., i. 12*; mother of Judge 
Bacon, i. 127; John Adams, i. 137; Lord 
Mansfield, i. 138; Mrs. Sargent, i. 144; 
Earl of Northampton, i. 141; Baron 
Graham, i. 141; Viscount Dudley, i. 
141; Viscount Ward, i. 141; Lord Sid- 
mouth, i. 141; Prince of Wales, i. 141; 
Lord Lyndhurst, i. 141; Hurd, i. 173; 
Hollis, 324; incidental references, i. 17, 
69, 156, 157, 164 note, 184, 199, 256, ii. 
15, 142, 192, 256, iii. 89, 323, 324 

Copley, Mrs. Mary (Singleton), mother 
of J. S. Copley, iii. 323, 325. 

Copley, Richard, father of J. S. Copley, 
iii. 323 

Coram, Thomas, painter, i. 165, 286, 287 

Come, Michele F., iii. 292; portrait of, 
iii. 293 

Cornish, painter, iii. 293 

Cornwallis, Charles, Earl, surrender of, 
i. 159 

Corr, M. E., iii. 132 

Correggio, ii. 264 note, 280 

Cort, Cornelius, engraver, i. 170 

Corwaine, Aaron H., painter, iii. 107-109; 
obituary on, iii. 109 

Cosway, Richard, painter, i. 148, ii. 142 

Cox, James, colorist, iii. 293 

Coyle, scene-painter, iii. 293 

Craig, Sir James, iii. 46 

Cranch, John, painter, iii. 262 

Cranch, William, quoted on N. Smibert, i. 
28-29 

Crane, Isaac, ii. 177 

Crawley, John, Jr., lithographer, iii. 266 

Crawley, John, Sr., birth, ii. 390; studies 
in New York, ii. 391; pupil of Savage, 
i. 382, iii. 28; in Norfolk, i. 329 



INDEX 



387 



Crespigne, West at house of, i. 48 

Cromwell, Oliver, miniature of, i. 149 

Grossman, John C., iii. 132 note 

Croswell, author assisted by, i. 853 

Croswell, Rev. Mr., portrait of, iii. 308 

Cruttenden, author's friend, i. 353, 360, 
362 

Gumming, William, teacher of C. C. 
Ingham, iii. 43 

Cummings, Charles, iii. 198 

Cummings, Rebecca, iii. 198 

Cummings, Thomas S., encouraged to 
draw by A. Earl, iii. 198; pupil and 
partner of Inman, iii. 198-199; treas- 
urer of National Academy of Design, 
iii. 200; marriage, iii. 200; portraits of 
Miss O'Bryan, iii. 201 ; Mrs. Cummings, 
iii. 201; H. Inman, iii. 201; Mr. Hatch, 
iii. 201; incidental references, iii. 52, 
107, 243 

Cunio (the), ii. 127 

Cunningham, Allan, quoted on West, i. 
33, 41, 72, 73, 77, 79, 82-85, 88-89, 97; 
condition of painting in England in 
1763, i. 56; Copley, i. 122, 123, 124- 
126, 127-132, 134-143; Lawrence, i. 
341; Raeburn's election to American 
Academy of Fine Arts, ii. 113 

Cunningham, Henry W., on Christian 
Remick, iii. 330 

Cunningham, of Montreal, i. 331 

Curtis, William, portrait of, i. 204 

Curwen, Judge Samuel, portrait of, iii. 
284 

Custis, Daniel P., i. 339 

Custis, Eleanor, ii. 402, 403, iii. 298 

Custis, George W. P., letter to Moors, ii. 
207 note 

Cutler, Jervis, iii. 293 

Cutler, Rev. Timothy, portrait of, iii. 324 

Cutting, William, ii. 105, 106, iii. 48, 50 

Daggett, Alfred, engraver, ii. 176 note, 
iii. 293 

Dalhousie, Lord, i. 332 

Dallas, Alexander J., ii. 385 

Dallas, George, ii. 385 

Dallaway, Rev. James, i. 11 

Dalton, Sir James, i. 27 

Dalton, i. 26 

Darner, Anna S., ii. 88 

Dana, Edmund, iii. 218 

Danby, J., engraver, iii. 293 

Dance, see Holland, Sir Nathaniel Dance 

Dandridge, i. 231, ii. 402 

Danforth, Mosely I., engraver, iii. 164 



Darley, E. H., painter, iii. 294 
Darley, John, i. 363 
Darley, John C., artist, iii. 294 
Dartmouth College, Social Friends' Li- 
brary book-plate, iii. 321 
Davenport, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 

300 

David, Jacques Louis, "Coronation of 
Bonaparte," i. 351; secures passport for 
Trumbull, ii. 46-47; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 88, ii. 90, iii. 206 
David, Pierre Jean, bust of Lafayette, iii. 

227-229 

Davis, Alexander Jackson, fondness for 
reading, iii. 210-211; studies archi- 
tecture, iii. 211; partnership with 
Ithiel Town, iii. 212; works, iii. 212- 
213; incidental references, ii. 1, iii. 77, 
325 

Davis, Isaac P., i. 234, 252, 254, ii. 251 
Davy, Robert, Dunlap's residence with, 

i. 303-304, 308, 337 
Dawes, H. M., engraver, iii. 294 
Dawes, William, i. 177, 178, 179 
Dawkins, Henry, engraver, i. 185, iii. 836 
Day, Thomas, aids Waldo, ii. 355 
Deane, Silas, portrait of, iii. 297 
Dearborn, Henry, ii. 35 
Dearborn, Henry A. S., ii. 85 
Dearborn, Nathaniel, engraver, iii. 294 
Dearborn, first western portrait painter, 

ii. 382 
De Beet, Cornelius, landscape painter, 

iii. 19 

Decatur, Stephen, portrait of, ii. 270 
De Kalh, Baron John, monument to, ii. 

379 

De Laer, John, i. 265 
Deknoy, Abraham, Jr., see De Launy 
Delatre, Jean Marie, engraving of "The 

Death of Chatham," i. 147-149 
De Launy, Abraham, Jr., sign painter, i. 

192, 296, 301; portrait of West, i. 192 
Delaware, Lord, i. S3, 78 
Delleker, George, engraver, iii. 294 
Demilliere, miniature painter, iii. 294 
Denispn, Caroline M., iii. 17 
Dennie, Joseph, description of, i. 320 
Denning, Charlotte, miniature painter, 

iii. 294 

Denny, Joseph, see Dennie 
Denon, Dominique Vivant, i. 88, ii. 2, 183 
De Peyster, Elizabeth, i. 161 
De Peyster, Gerard B., painter, iii. 294 
De Peyster, i. 191 



. 



388 



INDEX 



Derby, Elias Hasket, invites Come to 

America, iii. 292 
Derby, Mrs. Richard, portrait of, ii. 78 

note 

De Rose, Anthony L., iii. 163 
Des Combes, rival of Cole, iii. 143, 144 
De Veaux, James, painter, iii. 294 
Devons, Richard, i. 178 
Dewey, S., miniature painter, iii. 294 
Dewing, Francis, engraver, iii. 294 
Dexter, Timothy, portrait of, iii. 281 
Dick, Alexander L., engraver, iii. 295 
Dickinson, Anson, miniature painter, ii. 

369, iii. 117 

Dickinson, Daniel, painter, iii. 117-118 
Dickinson, John, i. 112, 158 note; portrait 

of, iii. 297 
Dilworth, Thomas, engraving of, ii. 134 

note 

Dixey, George, sculptor, iii. 76 
Dixey, John, sculptor, i. 390-391, iii. 76 
Dixey, John V., sculptor, iii. 76-77 
Dixey, iii. 132, 149 
Dixon, Thomas, iii. 132, 277 
Dobson, Thomas, book-seller, i. 240, ii. 

203, iii. 333 

Dodd, Samuel, engraver, iii. 295 
Doddridge, Phillip, ii. 12 
Dodge, John W., miniature painter, iii. 

254 

Dodson, Richard W., engraver, iii. 295 
Doggett, John, i. 344, ii. 273, iii. 78 
Doherty, author's assistant, i. 341, 342, 

344, 345, 346, 348 
Dombey, Joseph, ii. 351 
Donaldson, Robert, iii. 277 
Doolittle, Amos, engraver of Earl's draw- 
ings of the Battles of Lexington and 

Concord, i. 182-184 
Doolittle, Curtis M., engraver, iii. 295 
Doolittle, Samuel, engraver, iii. 295 
Dorsey, John S., ii. 266, iii. 295 
Dorsey, architect, iii. 174 
Doty & Jones, engravers, iii. 296 
Dougal, W. H., engraver, iii. 296 
Doughty, Thomas, i. 64, 157, iii. 175, 296 
Douglass, Harriet, portrait of, iii. 239 
Douglass, Miss, gives Cole commission 

for painting, iii. 154; collection of 

pictures owned by, iii. 275 
Douthat, Robert, entertains Dunlap, i. 

336-340 

Dove, Dr. J., book-plate of, iii. 285 
Dowse, iii. 30 
Doyle, Margaret B., painter, iii. 296 



Doyle, William M. S., painter, iii. 296 

Drake, painter, iii. 296 

Drake, Mrs., portrait of, iii. 245 

Draper, John, engraver, iii. 296 

Drawing Association, formation of, iii. 
53, 54; attempt to unite with American 
Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 54-57; 
formation of National Academy of 
Design, iii. 57 

Dray ton, John, engraver, iii. 296 

Drayton, William H., portrait of, iii. 297 

Drexel, Francis M., miniature painter, 
iii. 296 

Drucez, miniature painter, iii. 296 

Drummond, Dr., patron of West, i. 62; 
introduces West to George III, i. 63; 
i. 67 

Duane, William, i. 151 

Duche, Jacob, associate of West, i. 40; 
i. 33, 388 

Duche, Thomas Spence, i. 271-272; por- 
trait of Bishop Provoost, i. 272; Bishop 
Seabury, i. 272 

Dudley, Viscount, portrait of, i. 141 

Duffield, Edward, i. 110 

Dufresnoy, Charles Alphonse, i. 30, 39 

Dumaresque, Philip, iii. 325 

Duncan, William, ii. 338 

Duncan, Gen. William, iii. 323 

Duncan, tavern-keeper, iii. 144 

Dunlap, Samuel, portrait of, i. 296; in- 
cidental references, i. 288, 291, 292, 
293, 294, 313, 315, 317 

Dunlap, William, birth, i. 288; education, 
i. 288-290, 292, 294-295, 301; first 
visit to N. Y., i. 291; recollections of 
the Revolution, i. 292, 294; loses use 
of right eye, i. 295; begins to study 
painting, i. 296; acquaintance with 
Washington, i. 297-300; arrival in Eng- 
land, i. 302; meeting with West, i. 303; 
bashful ness, i. 304; studies under West, 
i. 303-306, 309; visit to Stamford, i. 
311; to Blenheim house, i. 312, 314; 
presents pictures to Mrs. Smyth, i. 
314; return to America, i. 315; joins 
literary society, i. 316; abandons art, i. 
315; marriage, i. 316; abolition ac- 
tivities, i. 317; miniature painter, i. 
318, 319, 321, 322, 323, 324; connection 
with New York Theatre, i. 322; author, 
i. 823, 324, 356, 359, 367; acquaintance 
with Stuart, i. 320, 324, 344; oil painter, 
i. 324, 328, 329-369; assistant pay- 
master-general, i. 325-328; financial 



INDEX 



389 



Dunlap, William Continued 

difficulties, i. 318, 328, 367; editor of 
"The Recorder," i. 323-324; keeper of 
American Academy of Fine Arts, i. 328, 
330, iii. 51; visit to Douthat, i. 336- 
340; lectures on fine arts, i. 367; re- 
ceives benefit, i. 368-369; in Boston, 
i. 318-320, 323-324, 344; Canada, i. 
330-334; London, i. 302-315; New 
York, i. 294-297, 300-302, 315-317, 
323, 328, 335, 347-369; Perth Amboy, 
i. 288-294, 317, 322-323; Philadelphia, 
i. 320-321, 328, 330, 341, 359, 363, 367; 
in Rocky Hill and Princeton, i. 297- 
300; Virginia, i. 328-330, 334-335. 336- 
341; Washington, i. 321-322, 348-349; 
recollections of West in his studio, i. 
71-72; visits Stuart, i. 225 note, 245; 
"History of the American Theatre," i. 
359, 367; director of American Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts, iii. 50; reasons why 
National Academy does not join 
American Academy, iii. 120; member of 
committee on the union of the two 
academies, iii. 121; portraits: Samuel 
Dunlap, i. 296; Mr. and Mrs. John 
Van Home, i. 298, 300; George Wash- 
ington, i. 300, 301; Sir Samuel Hood, 
i. 301; C. B. Brown, i. 317; Martha 
Washington, i. 300; Elihu H. Smith, 
i. 317; Cooper, i. 319; Bernard, i. 319; 
Mrs. Love, i. 322; J. J. Holland, i. 328; 
Matthew Glenn, i. 329; daughter of 
Glenn, i. 329; self, i. 334; Thomas Eddy, 
i. 357; James Hackett as Jonathan, i. 
357; Samuel S. Conant, i. 360; paint- 
ings: "Christ with the doctors in the 
Temple," i. 334; "Christ Rejected," i. 
335, 340, 341, 361; exhibition of, i. 342, 
344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 350, 351, 352; 
"The Bearing of the Cross," i. 345, 347, 
357, 365; exhibition of, i. 348, 350, 351, 
359; "Calvary," i. 350, 351, 352, 356; 
exhibition of, i. 357, 359, 360, 366; notes 
on, i. 358; copy of West's "Death on the 
Pale Horse," i. 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 
359; "Historic Muse," i. 362; "A child 
returning from school," i. 362; "Attack 
on the Louvre," i. 364; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 192, ii. 99, 175, iii. 49, 99, 149, 
243 

Dunlop, James, portrait of, iii. 4; iii. 7 

Dunlop, Mrs., sits for Lawrence, iii. 
103 

Dupre, Jacques M., see Cole, Moses D. 



Durand, Asher Brown, birth, iii. 60; early 
attempts at engraving, iii. 60-61; ap- 
prenticed to Peter Maverick, iii. 61; 
instructed by Waldo, iii. 61; studies at 
American Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 51, 
61; partner of Maverick, iii. 61, 62; of 
C. C. Wright, iii. 250; of Joseph Per- 
kins, iii. 327; portrait painter, iii. 62; 
member of National Academy of De- 
sign, iii. 63; character, iii. 64; death, 
iii. 64 note; cuts inscription on Trum- 
bull's sword, iii. 63; engraving of Trum- 
bull's "Declaration of Independence," 
ii. 64, iii. 62; Washington, iii. 75; 
"Musidora, " iii. 62; of Stuart's " Wash- 
ington," i. 232, iii. 76; of Vanderlyn's 
"Ariadne," ii. 162, iii. 62; portraits: 
mother, iii. 62; John Frazee, iii. 62; 
Aaron Ogden, iii. 62; James Madison, 
iii. 63; incidental references, ii. 295, 
370, iii. 2, 121, 258, 269 
Durand, Cyrus, iii. 251, 296 
Durand, John, engraver, iii. 197 
Durand. John, portrait painter, i. 169; 
portraits: Thomas Newton, i. 169 
note; Amy Newton, i. 169 note; Joshua 
Lathrop, i. 169 note; Mrs. Mercy 
Lathrop, i. 169 note; Rufus Lathrop, i. 
169 note; Mrs. Hannah Lathrop, i. 169 
note 

Durant, Cornelius, portrait of, iii. 297 
Durant, John W., painter, iii. 297 
Durant, Sarah (Kortright), portrait of, 

iii. 297 

Durell, William, ii. 135 
Durer, Albert, i. 5, 170, ii. 128 
Durnell, Dr., E. G., iii. 266 
Du Simitiere, Pierre E., painter, iii. 297 
Duval, P. S., lithographer, iii. 289 j 
Dwight, Sereno E., i. 344 $.-'. 

Dwight, Theodore, i. 323 
Dwight, Timothy, portrait of, i.^263; 
incidental references, i. 26, 27, 316, 328, 
ii. 7, iii. 88 j 

Dwight, Mrs. Timothy, portrait of, i. 263 
Dyer, Joseph C., introduced Perkins' 
steel plates into Great Britain, iii. 326 
Earl, Augustus, anecdote of walk on the 
moor, iii. 104-106; wanderings, iii. 106- 
107; encourages T. Cummings, iii. 198 
Earl, James, portrait painter, ii. 115 
Earl, Ralph, drawings of the Battles of 
Lexington and Concord, i. 182; por- 
traits of Timothy Dwight and wife, i. 
263; i. 264 and note 



390 



INDEX 



Earl, R. E. W., iii. 297 

Earl, iii. 108 

Eastburn, James, i. 324 

Eaton, Major, ii. 12 

Eckman, ii. 129 

Eddie, painter, iii. 298 

Eddy, Isaac, engraver, iii. 298, 342 

Eddy, James, engraver, iii. 298 

Eddy, John M., portrait of, iii. 343 

Eddy, O. T., engraver, iii. 298 

Eddy, Thomas, portrait of, i. 357 

Edelinck, Gerard, i. 170 

Edson, Tracy, engraver, iii. 298 

"Edward's Anecdotes of Painters," 
quoted on R. E. Pine, i. 375-376 

Edwards, Jonathan, portrait of, iii. 320 

Edwards, Thomas, painter, iii. 298 

Edwards, Thomas, partner of Nathaniel 
Mors, iii. 319 

Edwards, lithographic drawings, iii. 
326 

Edwin, David, birth, ii. 199; apprentice- 
ship, ii. 199-200; arrival in America, 
ii. 200; on condition of engraving in 
Philadelphia, ii. 201-202; engraving for 
Stuart, i. 242, ii. 203; of Stuart, ii. 204; 
pupil of Savage, i. 381; quoted on 
Stuart, i. 249, 250, 251; Barralet, ii. 
171-173; teacher of Jarvis, ii. 212; 
incidental references, i. 253, ii. 110, iii. 2 

Edwin, John, ii. 199 

Egremont, Lord, i. 103, ii. 326, iii. 8-9 

Eickholtz, Jacob, education, ii. 384; 
apprentice to coppersmith, ii. 385; 
takes up painting, ii. 385; visit to 
Stuart, ii. 385; moves to Philadelphia, 
ii. 386; Sully quoted on, ii. 386; 
portrait of Freeman, ii. 387 note; of 
Commodore Gale, ii. 387 note; in- 
cidental references, i. 330, 359 

Eliot, Dr. John, i. 29 

Eliott, Gen. George Augustus, i. 119 

Ellicott, Andrew, ii. 12 

Elliot, Andrew, i. 295 

Elliot, General, see Eliott 

Ellis, George B., engraver, iii. 298 

Elouis, Jean P. H., painter, iii. 298 

Ely, A., engraver, iii. 293, 299 

Emerson, Rev. William, book-plate of, 
iii. 294 

Emmes, Thomas, engraver, portrait of 
Increase Mather, i. 174 note; iii. 299 

Emmons, Mary, iii. 299 

Emmons, Nathaniel, painter, i. 110 note, 
iii. 299 



Encyclopedia Americana, quoted on 

Copley, i. 119-120; on Peale, i. 158 
England, Bishop, portrait of, iii. 260 
Englemann, C. F., engraver, iii. 299 
Engraving, rise of, i. 170-171; method, i. 

171-172; wood engraving, ii. 126-134; 

Chinese engraving, ii. 126-127 
Ensworth, i. 308-309 
Erskine, Thomas, i. 147 
Evans, John, painter, iii. 299 
Evans, patron of W. E. West, iii. 39 
Everdell, engraver, iii. 300 
Evers, John, ii. 198, iii. 87 
Exilious, J. G., landscape painter and 

engraver, iii. 19 and note 
Fairchild, Louis, painter and engraver, 

iii. 300 
Fairman, Gideon, engraver, i. 318, ii. 

177-179; portrait of, ii. 276; iii. 296, 

300, 326 

Fairman, Richard, engraver, iii. 300 
Faneuil, Peter, portrait by Sargent, ii. 

196 and note; by J. Smibert, ii. 196 note 
Farmer, Jasper, portrait of, iii. 272 
Farmer, John, surveyor and engraver, iii. 

300 

Faust, Johann, ii. 128, 132 
Fay, iii. 224 
Feke, Robert, i. 30 
Felton, Robert, die-sinker, iii. 300 
Ferguson, Duncan, painter, iii. 265 
Ferguson, John, ii. 167 
Ferrers, Lord, letter to Copley on "The 

Arrest of the Five Members of the 

Commons by Charles the First," i. 139- 

140 

Fessenden, Thomas Green, i. 320 
Feters, W. T., engraver, iii. 300 
Field, Robert, miniature painter, i. 319; 

portraits of Mrs. Allen, ii. 119; Mrs. 

Thornton, ii. 119; Washington, ii. 119 
Field, gives Cole commission for painting, 

iii. 154 
Fielding, Mantle, on Maverick, i. 187 

note; catalogue of Edwin's work, ii. 

204 note 

Fielding, N., iii. 87 
Finlay, Colonel, i. 333 
Finley, Samuel, portrait of, iii. 94; iii. 88 
Finn, Henry J., miniature painter, iii. 300 
Fisher, Alvin, birth, iii. 32; connection 

with Penniman, iii. 27, 32; painter of 

rural scenes and portraits, iii. 32-33; 

trip to Europe, iii. 33; exhibition, iii. 33 
Fisher, John, engraver, iii. 300 



INDEX 



391 



Fitch, John, inventor, iii. 300 

Fitzhugh, Col. William, portrait of, iii. 
308 

Flagg, George W., portrait of Mr. Bab- 
cock, iii. 260; of Bishop England, iii. 
260; residence in Boston, iii. 260; 
success, iii. 261 

Flagg, Henry C., iii. 259 

Flagg, Josiah, engraver, iii. 300 

Flandin, member of committee on union 
of Amer. Acad. and Nat. Acad., iii. 
122; iii. 278 

Flavel, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 335 

Florimont, Austin, painter, iii. 300 

Flower, i. 39 

Folwell, Samuel, miniature painter, iii. 
300 

Foote, Solomon, i. 363 

Forbes, General John, i. 41 

Fordyce, Dr. George, i. 205 

Forham, H. L., iii. 300 

Forrest, Edwin, medal of, iii. 251; por- 
trait of, iii. 301, 337 

Forrest, Ion B., engraver, iii. 301 

Foster, John, printer and engraver, i. 174 
note, iii. 301 

Fothergill, Dr., John, i. 204, 205 

Fouche, Joseph, i. 88 

Fougere, Jean Jacques, iii. 209 note 

Fowle, Zachariah, iii. 337 

Fox, Charles James, i. 88, 90 

Fox, Gilbert, engraver, ii. 174-175; bust 
of Kotzebue, ii. 175; portrait of, ii. 276 

Foy, John, ii. 8 

Francis, John W., quoted on Jarvis, ii. 
227; on Red Jacket's pose for Weir, iii. 
193 note; on Wilson, ii. 343-353; por- 
trait of, iii. 4; incidental references, i. 
191, 273, 365, 369, ii. 214 

Francis, Mrs., gift to Edwin, ii. 204 

Franklin, Benjamin, portraits of, i. 95, 
110 note, 165 note; bust of, iii. 37; 
letter to Washington, i. 384 note; to 
Mrs. Wright, i. 151-153; incidental 
references, i. 115, 153 note, 156 note, 
173, 185, 292, 300, 370, 371, 384 

Franklin Institute, confers medal on 
Rembrandt Peale, ii. 188 

Franklin, William T., i. 151, 370 

Fraser, Charles, miniature painter, ii. 293- 
295; quoted on West, i. 68; Benbridge, 
i. 166; Theus, i. 31; Stuart, i. 203, 212, 
214-215, 216-217, 218-220, 222, 223, 
224, 225; Malbone, ii. 140, 142, 143; 
director South Carolina Academy of 



Fine Arts, iii. 58; incidental references, 
i. 45, 202, 235, 286, 287, 329, ii. 150, 
237, 301 

Frazee, John, birth, iii. 35; childhood, iii. 
35-36; apprentice to brick layer, iii. 
35-36; takes up stone-cutting, iii. 36; 
modelling, iii. 37; busts of Franklin, 
iii. 37; John Wells, iii. 37; Chief Justice 
Marshall, iii. 38; Daniel Webster, iii. 
38; Dr. Bowditch, iii. 38; N. Prime, 
iii. 38; John Jay, iii. 38 note; Judge 
Story, iii. 38 note; Judge Prescott, iii. 
38 note; Thomas H. Perkins, iii. 38 
note; John Lowell, iii. 38 note; portrait 
of, iii. 62 

Frazer, Oliver, painter, iii. 301 
Frazier, painter, i. 150, 156 
Frederick, John L., engraver, iii. 301 
Frederick III of Prussia, portrait of, iii. 320 
Freeman, James, painter, iii. 264 
Freeman, Rev. James, portrait of, iii. 305 
Freeman, Sarah, marries Christian Rem- 

ick, iii. 330 

Freeman, T. B., portrait of, ii. 387 note; 
incidental references, i. 381 note, ii. 
201, 203-204, iii. 301, 309, 322 
Freeman, W. H., engraver, iii. 301 
Freeman, Mrs., i. 204, 210 
Fresnoy, Charles Alphonse, see Dufresnoy 
Frommel, introduces Perkins' stereotype 

steel plates into Germany, iii. 327 
Frothingham, James, birth, ii. 364; early 
attempts at painting, ii. 365; receives 
instruction from Whiting, ii. 366; from 
Stuart, ii. 367-368; portrait of Foster, 
ii. 367; Stuart refuses to sit to him, ( i. 254 
Fulton, Robert, birth, i. 273; portrait 
painter, i. 273; portrait of, i. 273; pupil 
of West, i. 273; owns pictures by West, 
i. 273, 285; picture of Louis XVI, i. 273; 
portrait of Barlow, i. 284; in Paris, i. 
274; experiments with torpedoes, i. 274; 
with submarine, i. 275-279; steamboat, 
i. 279; letter to Barlow, i. 279-280; 
"Torpedo War, or Submarine Ex- 
plosions," i. 280; marriage, i. 283; 
death, i. 283; incidental references, i. 
227, ii. 106, 232, 357 
Furnass, John M ., engraver and painter, 

iii. 301 

Fiirst, Moritz, die sinker, ii. 374 
Fuseli, John Henry, jealousy of West, i. 
86-87, 89; incidental references, i. 5, 
85. 210, 243-244, ii. 142, 256, 290, 291, 
306-308, iii. 4, 12, 13, 92, 185 



392 



INDEX 



Gadsby, John, iii. 245 

Gains, painter, iii. 302 

Gainsborough, Thomas, i. 56, 216, 223, 
256, ii. 256, 305 

Gale, Commodore, portrait of, ii. 387 
note 

Gale, Dr., i. 364 

Gallagher, Rev. Simon Flex, receives 
"Crucifixion" from Cogdell, ii. 372 

Gallagher, portrait and sign painter, ii. 
211, 212, 213, 284 

Galland, John, engraver, iii. 302 

Gallatin, Albert, portrait of, ii. 159; bust 
of, iii. 31 note; i. 322 

Galludet, Edward, engraver, iii. 302 

Galludet, Elisha, engraver, iii. 302 

Gait, John, quoted on West, i. 33, 41- 
43, 44, 48, 49, 51, 67, 83, 84; untrust- 
worthy biographer of West, i. 33 

Gano, Rev. Stephen, portrait of, iii. 322 

Gansevoort, i. 353 

Garden, Francis, engraver, iii. 302 

Garrick, David, portraits of, i. 377 

Gates, Horatio, portrait of, iii. 297; in- 
cidental references, ii. 17, 18 and note, 
19, 20, 24, 173 

Gauk, James, engraver, iii. 302 

Gavin, H., engraver, iii. 302 

Gaw, R. M., engraver, iii. 302 

George III, patronage of West, i. 61, 62, 
63, 66, 67, 68-70, 74, 78-81, 83-85; of 
Vertue, i. 9; of Mrs. Wright, i. 154; 
portrait of, i. 212; incidental references, 
ii. 29-31, 360, iii. 125 

George IV, suggests putting West's pic- 
tures in the lumber room, i. 61, 72-73; 
dismisses West from court, i. 87; iii. 131 

Gerard, Frangois, ii. 183, 184 note 

Gerbier. Sir Balthasar, i. 266 

Gerry, Elbridge, ii. 173 

Getz, Peter, die-sinker, iii. 302 

Gibbes, William, portrait of, iii. 341 

Gibbs, Mr., portrait of, i. 252 

Gibson, Thomas, painter, iii. 302 

Gilbert, George, wood engraver, ii. 384 

Giles, Colonel, portrait of, i. 230 

Gill, Mrs., ii. 359, 360 

Gillingham, Edward, engraver, iii. 303 

Gilman, J. W., engraver, iii. 303 

Gilmor, Robert, collection of pictures 
owned by, iii. 272-275; quoted on the 
Steer collection of Rubens pictures, iii. 
271; incidental references, i. 150, 233, 
349, 379, ii. 24, 177, 292, 397, iii. 152, 
154, 220 



Gimber, Stephen H., engraver, iii. 303 
Gimbrede, Thomas, teacher of drawing 

at West Point, iii. 20; death of, i. 368 
Giotto, miniature painter, i. 266 
Girard, Stephen, ii. 276 
Girometti, Signore, iii. 132 
Gladding, K. C., engraver, iii. 303 
Glenn, Matthew, portrait of, i. 329; of 

daughter of, i. 329 
Gloucester, Duke of, i. 80 
Glover, DeWitt C., engraver, iii. 303 
Glover, Miss, iii. 132 
Glover, member of committee on union 

of American Academy and National 

Academy, iii. 121 
Gobrecht, Christian, die sinker, iii. 251, 

303 
Godefroi, Maximilian, architect, iii. 173, 

313 

Godfrey, Thomas, associate of West, i. 40 
Godwin, Abraham, engraver, i. 186 
Goldsmith's Company, presents box from 

Wallace oak to Buchan, ii. 84 
Goldthwait, Benjamin, portrait of, iii. 305 
Gondolfi, Monro, engraver, iii. 85-86, 253 
Goodacre, W., iii. 303 
Gooding, William C., painter, iii. 303 
Goodman, Charles, engraver, iii. 303 
Goodrich, Prof. Chauncey A., letter on 

J. Smibert, i. 26-27; i. 17 note 
Goodridge, Sarah, painter, iii. 303 
Gordon, Alexander, iii. 303; self portrait, 

iii. 304 

Gordon, Thomas, i. 164 note 
Gore, Christopher, ii. 42; portrait of, ii. 

49 

Gould, aids Waldo, ii. 356 
Grafton, Duke of, i. 22 
Graham, George, engraver, iii. 304 
Graham, Baron, portrait of, i. 141 
Granet, Francois Marius, "Capuchin 

Chapel," ii. 274 
Grant, Alexander, portrait of, i. 218-219; 

family group by Stuart, i. 202 
Grant, Lord Archibald, patron of Archi- 
bald Robertson, ii. 79 
Grant, J., painter, iii. 304 
"Graphic Company, the," ii. 173 
Green, Charles W., loan to Waldo, ii. 357 
Green, Elizabeth Clark, i. 119 
Green, John, portrait of, i. 31 
Green, Lucy, marries Audubon, iii. 209 

note 
Green, William, in "The Defence of 

Gibraltar." i. 136 



INDEX 



393 



Greene, pays compliment to Allston, iii. 
97 

Greenleaf, O. C., i. 248 

Greenough, Henry, letter to Dunlap on 
Horatio Greenough, iii. 214-221 

Greenough, Horatio, birth, iii. 215; early 
attempts at carving, iii. 215-216; 
studies, iii. 216-219; friendship with 
Allston, iii. 218; with Weir, iii. 221; 
ill health, iii. 222; encouraged by 
Cooper, iii. 223-224; receives commis- 
sion for Washington statue, iii. 224; 
letter to Dunlap, iii. 224-227; on 
Durand, iii. 64; bust of J. Q. Adams, 
iii. 219; John Marshall, iii. 219; 
Lafayette, iii. 220, 227-230; J. F. 
Cooper, iii. 220; portrait of, iii. 245, 
incidental references, i. 357, iii. 172; 189 

Greenough, John, painter, iii. 304 

Greenwood, Ethan A., painter, iii. 304 

Greenwood, John, painter and engraver, 
iii. 304, 324; buys Sully's Washington, 
ii. 273 

Gregory, engraver, iii. 305 

Grice, Hawkes le, iii. 132 

Gridley, Enoch G., engraver, iii. 305 

Grimes, John, painter, iii. 305 

Griscom, J., i. 347 

Groomrich, landscape painter, ii. 176-177; 
i. 321 

Grosvenor, Lord, purchases the "Death 
of Wolfe," i. 66-67; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 42, 43 

Grunewald, Gustavus, painter, iii. 305 

Guiccioli, Countess, portrait of, iii. 40, 41 

Guido, ii. 278, iii. 79 

Gullager, Christian, painter, iii. 305 

Guy, Francis, landscape painter, ii. 292 

G., L., engraver, iii. 303 

Hackett, James, invites Dunlap to Utica, 
i. 345, 346; portrait of, i. 357 

Hadfield, George, architect, ii. 8, 12, iii. 
305 

"Hail Columbia," ii. 175 note 

Haines, William, engraver, iii. 305 

Halbert, A., engraver, iii. 305 

Halket, Sir Peter, commands expedition 
against the Indians, i. 42 

Hall, Anne, early attempts at art, iii. 160; 
pupil of S. King, iii. 161; of Alexander 
Robertson, iii. 161; miniature painter, 
iii. 161-162; portrait of Samuel Ward, 
Jr., iii. 162; of Mrs. Jay and child, 
iii. 162; incidental references, ii. 78, 
113, 343. 



Hall, Charles H., supplies his sister Anne 
with drawing materials, iii. 160; inci- 
dental references, iii. 235, 277 

Hall, Rev. David, iii. 160 

Hall, Dr. Jonathan, iii. 160 

Hall, Prescott, iii. 235 

Hallam, Lewis, actor, ii. 138 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, i. 347 

Hamilton, Dr. Alexander, i. 30 note 

Hamilton, Gen. Alexander, bust of, ii. 91; 
portrait of, iii. 304; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 188, ii. 192 

Hamilton, Andrew, portrait of, ii. 121. 
note 

Hamilton, James, actor, portrait of, ii. 
247, 248, iii. 337 

Hamilton, Governor James, loans West 
pictures, i. 44; money, i. 53, 54; meets 
West in England, i. 56; portrait of, by 
West, i. 56; by Pratt, i. 113, 114; 
Weaver, ii. 197; incidental references, 
i. 112, 118 

Hamilton, Lord Spencer, i. 64 

Hamilton, William, artist, iii. 305 

Hamilton, Duke of, patron of Harding, 
iii. 70 

Hamilton collection of pictures, iii. 270 

I la ml in, William, engraver, iii. 305 

Hamm, Phineas E., engraver, iii. 306 

Hampden, John, i. 33, 78 

Hancock, John, on committee of safety, 
i. 177, 178; warned by Revere, i. 180; 
portrait of, iii. 308 

Hancock, N., miniature painter, iii. 306 

Handcock, Miss, i. 26, 27 

Handy, Robert, iii. 115 

Hanks, Jervis F., portrait and sign 
painter, iii. 241 

Hardin, Martin D., portrait of, iii. 198 
note 

Harding, Abigail, ii. 387 

Harding, Chester, birth, iii. 65; sign 
painter, iii. 65; portrait painter in 
Kentucky, iii. 66, 67; visits Philadel- 
phia, iii. 67; in St. Louis, iii. 67; Wash- 
ington, iii. 67; Boston, iii. 67, 68; 
Northampton (Mass.), iii- 68; London, 
iii. 69-71; apathy, iii. 69; prot6g6 of 
Sussex, Hamilton and Coke, iii. 70; 
exhibits at Somerset House, iii. 71; 
return to Boston, iii. 71; death, iii. 72 
note; portrait of, iii. 290; incidental 
references, ii. 387, iii. 64 

Harding, J. L., painter, iii. 306 

Harland, Thomas, engraver, iii. 306 



394 



INDEX 



Harper, Joseph, ii. 138 
Harris, John, engraver, iii. 286 
Harris, J. T., painter, iii. 306 
Harris, Samuel, engraver, iii. 306 
Harrison, Charles P., engraver, iii. 306 
Harrison, Joseph, owns first copy of 

Rembrandt Peak's Washington, ii. 189 

note 

Harrison, J. P., engraver, iii. 306 
Harrison, Peter, architect, iii. 306 
Harrison, Mrs. Peter, portrait of, iii. 306 
Harrison, Richard, engraver, iii. 306 
Harrison, Richard G., engraver, iii. 307 
Harrison, Samuel, engraver, iii. 307 
Harrison, William, engraver, iii. 307 
Harrison, William, Jr., engraver, iii. 307 
Harrison, William F., engraver, iii. 307 
Harrison, William Henry, portrait of, iii. 

337 

Hart, Charles Henry, letter from Rem- 
brandt Peale, ii. 189 note; i. 150 note 
Hartwell, Alonzo, engraver, iii. 132; 

incidental references, ii. 136, iii. 19, 24 
Harwood, John E., actor, joke on Sully, 

ii. 247 

Hatch, George W., engraver, iii. 257, 307 
Hatch, Mr., portrait of, iii. 201 
Hathaway, J., miniature painter, iii. 307 
Haviland, John, artist, iii. 45 note, 307 
Hay, William H., engraver, iii. 307 
Hays, Henry, engraver, iii. 307 
Hazlehurst, Mary, second wife of Latrobe, 

ii. 231, 232 

Hazlett, John, painter, iii. 307 
Hazlitt, William, quoted on West, i. 82, 85 
Head, J., iii. 3 
Healey, G. P. A., iii. 301 
Heard, W., i. 324, 344 
Heath, Charles, engraving of "The 

Death of Major Pierson," i. 135, 136; 

engraving of Stuart's Washington, i. 

232, 239-241; partner of Fairman, ii. 

178; of Perkins, iii. 327; incidental 

references, ii. 156, iii. 85 
Heath, Miss, marries George Cooke, iii. 

133 
Heathfield, Lord, in "The Defence of 

Gibraltar," i. 136 
Henderson, John, as lago, by Stuart, i. 

228 

Henri, Pierre, miniature painter, iii. 20 
Henry, John, engraver, ii. 318, iii. 307 
Henry, Rev. Matthew, portrait of, iii. 319 
Henry, Patrick, portrait of, iii. 336 
Henry, gunsmith, i. 40, 46, 47 



Hentz, N. M., engraver, iii. 307 
"Heraldic Journal," on John Coles, iii. 291 
Herbert, Lawrence, engraver, iii. 307 
Herring, James, birth, iii. 73; removal to 
America, iii. 73; colors mezzotints and 
maps, iii. 74; becomes portrait painter, 
iii. 74; establishes circulating library, 
iii. 75; publication of "National Por- 
trait Gallery," iii. 75, 76; member of 
committee on union of American 
Academy and National Academy of 
Design, iii. 122; refuted by Dunlap, iii. 
63, 64; biography of Trumbull, ii. 13- 
20, 23, 25, 26, 30-32, 36, 38-43, 48, 74, 
76; incidental references, i. 226, iii. 266 
Hesselius, Gustave, i. 150; altar piece for 
St. Barnabas' Church, i. 150 note; 
teacher of Peale, i. 156, 157 
Hesselius, John, painter, iii. 307 
Hewes, George R. T., portrait of, iii. 291 
Hewitt, J., music engraver, iii. 308 
Hewitt, engraver, iii. 308 
Heyliger, Col. John, portrait of, iii. 297 
Heyliger, Mrs. John, portrait of, iii. 297 
Heywood, Rev. Mr., portrait of, iii. 303 
Hicks, Elias, i. 188 
Hiffdig, i. 25 

Highmore, Joseph, painter, iii. 824 
Hilhouse, James, iii. 95, 278 
Hill, James, engraver, iii. 308 
Hill, John, engraver, iii. 308 
Hill, J. W., painter, iii. 308 
Hill, Pamelia E., miniature painter, iii. 308 
Hill, Samuel, engraver, iii. 308 
Hiller, Joseph, engraver, iii. 308 
Killer, Joseph, Jr., engraver, iii. 308 
Milliard, Nicholas, miniature painter, i. 

266 

Hilson, Thomas, actor and painter, iii. 309 
Hilton, William, iii. 7, 91 
Hilyer, William, painter, iii. 309 
Hingston, engraver, iii. 309 
Hinman, D. C., engraver, iii. 309 
Hoban, James, architect, ii. 12, 375, iii 

309 

Hobart, Enoch, i. Ill 
Hobbes, J. R., "Picture Collectors Man- 
ual" quoted, i. 167 note 
Hobbima, Minard, ii. 280 
Hoffman, James, possesses pictures by 

Lawrence, Phillips, Newton, iii. 272 
Hoffman, Peter, ii. 396, 897 
Hogarth, William, "Marriage a la mode," 
ii. 261; incidental references, i. 56, 57, 
101, 171, ii. 362, iii. 79, 80 



INDEX 



395 



Hogg, John, portrait of, ii. 213 
Hoit, Albert G., painter, iii. 309 
Holbein, Hans, ii. 129 
Holland, John Joseph, arrival in America, 
ii. 197; rebuilds New York Theatre, ii. 
198; portrait of, i. 328; incidental refer- 
ences, ii. 361, iii. 72, 87, 173 
Holland, Sir Nathaniel Dance, praises 
Stuart, i. 215; gives palette to Stuart, i. 
224-225 

Hollis, Thomas, portrait of, iii. 324 
Holmes, Admiral, tries to trap Van Ness, 

i. 99, 100 

Holyland, C. I., engraver, iii. 309 
Holyoke, Dr. Edward, portrait of, iii. 284, 

324 

Hone, Philip, collection of pictures 

owned by, iii. 276-277; incidental 

references, ii. 162, iii. 78, 149, 279 

Honyman, Rev. James, portrait of, iii. 302 

Hood, Admiral Samuel, portrait of, i. 192, 

301 

Hoogland, William, engraver, iii. 309, 326 
Hooker, William, engraver, iii. 309 
Hooper, Rev. William, portrait of, iii. 324 
Hope, Thomas W., painter, iii. 309 
Hopkins, Daniel, engraver, iii. 309 
Hopkins, Samuel M., gives letter to 
Dunlap, i. 345; incidental references, i. 
360, ii. 374 
Hopkinson, Francis, associate of West, i. 

40; portrait of, i. 378; i. 379 
Hopkinson, Joseph, Anecdote of Stuart, 
i. 221, 243; refuses to allow Stuart's 
"Washington" to be copied, i. 234; 
orders picture from Stuart, i. 238; letter 
on Pine, i. 377, 378; share in formation 
of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 
ii. 106; incidental references, i. 173, 359, 
ii. 107, 109, 175 note, 184 note, iii. 4, 19 
Hopner, John, i. 148, 154, 223, 370, ii. 

142, 257 
Hopner, Mrs. John, quoted on Stuart, i. 

223; i. 370 

Hoppner, John, see Hopner 
Horton, engraver, iii. 309 
Hosack, Dr. David, note to Dunlap, i. 
368, 369; to Sully, ii. 268 note; to Rush, 
ii. 268 note; director American Academy 
of Fine Arts, ii. 105, iii. 49, 50, 51 ; gives 
land for American Academy building, 
iii. 119; urges that American Academy 
and National Academy unite, iii. 121; 
member of committee on union, iii. 121, 
122; collection of pictures, iii. 275; 



quoted on Ceracchi, ii. 92 r 93; incidental 
references, i. 366, ii. 164, 197, iii. 48, 
126, 127, 256, 279 

Houdon, Jean Antoine, birth, i. 382; 
education, i. 382, 383; in America, i. 
383-385; "St. Bruno," i. 383; Mor- 
pheus, i. 383; bust of Washington, i. 
383-385; Diana, i. 385; Voltaire, i. 386; 
la Frileuse, i. 386; Gluck, i. 386; Frank- 
lin, i. 386; Rousseau, i. 386; D'Alem- 
bert, i. 386; Buffon, i. 386; Gerbier, i. 
386; Sacchini, i. 386; Barthelemy, i. 
386; Mirabeau, i. 386 
Houlton, J., engraver, iii. 309 
House, Col. James, painter, ii. 282 
Houston, H. H., engraver, iii. 309, 336 
Hovey, Otis, copies paintings, ii. 874 
Howe, Captain, i. 300 
Howe, Joshua, engraving of, i. 173 
Howe, General William, i. 64 
Howe, Z., engraver, iii. 309 
Howes, S. P., miniature painter, iii. 310 
Hoyt, gives Cole commission for paint- 
ing, iii. 154 
Hubard, William James, portrait painter, 

iii. 257 
Hudson, Dr. Seth, engraving of, i. 172, 

173 

Hughes, Robert B., sculptor, iii. 310 
Hughes, T. S., prize poem by, ii. 325 
Hugo, Thomas, quoted on Anderson's 

work, ii. 135 note 

Hulet, William, dancing master, i. 301 
Hull, Commodore, portrait of, iii. 304 
Hume, David, quoted on war between 
England and Holland, 1669-1674, i. 
100 

Humphreys, Col. David, i. 319, ii. 144 
Humphreys, William, engraver, iii. 310 
Hunter, William, portrait of, ii. 345 
Huntington, Eleazer, engraver, iii. 310, 

ii. 173 

Huntington, Samuel, portrait of, iii. 297 
Kurd, Elizabeth, i. 174 note 
Hurd, Jacob, i. 174 note 
Kurd, Nathaniel, engraver, i. 172-174; 
engraving of Sewall, i. 172; Hudson and 
Howe, i. 172, 173; portrait of, i. 173 
Hutchins, portrait painter, ii. 295 
Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas, portrait of, 

iii. 338 

Hutt, John, engraver, iii. 310 
Hutton, George, and Isaac, jewellers, ii. 

178 
Hutton, J., engraver, iii. 310 



396 



INDEX 



Illman, Thomas, engraver, iii. 310, ii. 41 
note 

Imbert, Anthony, lithographer, iii. 310, 
267 note 

Inchiquin, Lord, i. 137 

Ingham, Charles Cromwell, birth, iii. 41; 
childish love of beauty, iii. 42; studies 
under Gumming, iii. 43; "Death of 
Cleopatra," iii. 43; settles in New York, 
iii. 43; style, iii. 44; oil paintings, iii. 44; 
member National Academy of Design, 
iii. 44; death, iii. 44 note; designs medal 
of Edwin Forrest, iii. 251 note 

Inman, Henry, infancy, iii. 135; pupil 
of Jarvis, ii. 219, iii. 136; miniature and 
oil painter, iii. 137; vice-pres. National 
Academy of Design, iii. 137; death, iii. 
138 note; teacher of Cummings, iii. 198; 
portrait by Cummings, iii. 201; inci- 
dental references, i. 344, ii. Ill note, 
281, iii. 265, 294 

Inskeep, John, iii. 2, 3, 4 

Irving, Peter, i. 318, 324, iii. 105 

Irving, Washington, portrait of, ii. 160; 
engraving of, iii. 164; quoted on G. S. 
Newton, iii. 80-82, 83; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 325, ii. 292, 334, iii. 8 note, 
13, 41, 84 

Irwin, Mr. and Mrs., i. 341 

Izard, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph, portraits of, 
i. 124 

Jackson, Andrew, portrait of, iii. 297, 
318, 339; incidental references, i. 349, 
ii. 10 

Jackson, Copenhagen, portrait of, i. 250 

Jackson, Mrs. C., portrait of, i. 250 

Jackson, John, i. 58 

Jackson, John B., engraver, ii. 133 

Jackson, correspondent of Allen, i, 47, 53 

Jackson, engraver, iii, 310 

Jacobs, Lucas, i. 170 

James, painter, iii. 311 

James, portrait by Smibert, i. 26, 27 

Jamieson, cameo artist, iii. 311 

Jarvis, John Wesley, birth, ii. 208; rescues 
orphan, ii. 209, 210; apprentice to 
Savage, i. 381, 382, ii. 212; student of 
Edwin, ii. 212; of Malbone, ii. 213; 
glass profiles, ii. 213-214; marriages, ii. 
214, 216, 218; studies, ii. 214-215; 
partnership with Wood, ii. 213-214; 
fails to appreciate Stuart, ii. 215; un- 
tidiness, ii. 216, 218, 222; popularity, 
ii. 217; New York studio, ii. 219; de- 
cline, ii. 220; portraits of military 



heroes, ii. 220-221; anecdotes of, ii. 
222-227; cholera drawing, ii. 227, 228; 
criticizes Dunlap's "Christ Rejected," 
i. 344; pupil of Savage, i. 381, 382, iii. 28; 
calls on Stuart, i. 249; omission of 
dinner-table anecdotes by Jarvis, ii. 
228 note; portrait of John Hogg, ii. 213; 
Benjamin Moore, ii. 218; John Ran- 
dolph, ii. 219; incidental references, ii. 
50, 55, 103, 246, 271, iii. 49, 74, 87, 136 

Jay, John, portrait of, i. 230, ii. 50, iii. 
297; bust of, ii. 91, iii. 38 note; inciden- 
tal references, ii. 39, 41 

Jay, Mrs. John, miniature of Mrs. Jay 
and child, iii. 162 

Jay, William, director South Carolina 
Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 58 

Jefferson, Joseph, Leslie's drawing of, iii. 2 

Jefferson, Thomas, portraits of, ii. 38, 
275; bust of, ii. 91; patron of Robert 
Mills, ii. 375, 379, 380; incidental 
references, i. 155, 280, 322, 384, ii. 9, 
37, 231, 232, 233, 351, 371, 399, iii. 103 

Jenckes, Joseph, inventor, iii. 311 

Jenks, Rev. William, portrait of, iii. 333 

Jennings, Edmund, i. 157 note 

Jennings, Richard, engraved head of 
Kurd, i. 174, 184, 185 and note, i. 172 
note 

Jennys, Richard, Jr., see Jennings, 
Richard 

Jennings, Samuel, ii. 124, 125 

Jewett, William, birth, iii. 21; coach 
painter, iii. 22; connection with Waldo, 
ii. 358, iii. 22-24; studies in New York, 
iii. 23 

Jocelyn, Nathaniel, engraver and painter, 
iii. 110; incidental references, ii. 173, 
iii. 117, 164 

Jocelyn, Simeon S., engraver, iii. 311, 320 

Jocelyn, Smith, iii. 117 

Johnson, David G., engraver, iii. 311 

Johnson, Henrietta, painter, iii. 311 

Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, portrait of, iii. 311 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, calls on^West, i. 
216, 220 

Johnson, Samuel, portrait of, i. 238, 379 

Johnston, D. C., caricaturist, birth, iii. 
Ill; childish behaviour, iii. 112; pupil 
of F. Kearny, iii. 113; publisher, iii. 113; 
actor, iii. 114-116; engraver, iii. 117; 
death, iii. Ill note; iii. 326 

Johnston, John, painter, iii. 311, 312 

Johnston, Thomas, engraver, i. 174 note, 
iii. 311, 304 



INDEX 



397 



Johnston, William, painter, iii. 312 
"Jollif Galley," ship, brought Francis 

Dewing to America, iii. 294, 295 
Jones, Isaac C., i. 31 note 
Jones, John Paul, bust of, ii. 91 
Jones, William R., engraver, iii. 21 
Josi, Christian, see Jossi 
Jossi, Christian, master of D. Edwin, ii. 

199 

Jouett, John, iii. 101 note 
Jouett, Matthew Harris, portrait painter, 

iii. 100, 101, 167, 301, 305 
Jouett, Sallie Robards, iii. 101 note 
Junot, Madame, quoted on Ceracchi's 

plot against Bonaparte, ii. 93-97 
Justice, Joseph, engraver, iii. 312 
Kalm, P., ii. 336 note 
Kaufman, Angelica, ii. 240, 256 
Kearny, Francis, engraver, ii. 362-364, i. 

187, iii. 113,326 
Kearny, Captain, i. 47 
Keenan, William, engraver, iii. 312 
Keith, Lady William, portrait of, i. 15 
Keith, Gov. William, portrait of, i. 15 
Kellogg, Jarvis G., engraver, iii. 312 
Kelly, Thomas, engraver, iii. 312 
Kelly, portrait of, i. 46 
Kemble, Gouverneur, exhibits pictures 

from Spain, i. 366; iii. 275, 278 
Kemble, John, portrait of, iii. 336 
Kemp, John, invites Archibald Robert- 
son to America, ii. 81 
Kennedy, James, engraver, iii. 312 
Kennedy, S., iii. 312 
Kensett, Thomas, engraver, iii. 312, 329 
Kent, James, entertains Dunlap, i. 318; 

quoted, ii. 19, 20; i. 347 
Kent, Moss, i. 366 
Kenyon, Lord, i. 82, 148 
Kidder, James, engraver, iii. 312 
Kilbrunn, Lawrence, portrait of William 
Beekman, i. 191; Mrs. Beekman, i. 191 
Kimball, Dr. Horace, iii. 313 
Kimberly, Denison, painter and engraver, 

iii. 312 
King, Charles, Leslie's group of children, 

painted for, iii. 4; i. 347, 369 
King, Charles B., birth, iii. 27; pupil of 
Savage, i. 382, iii. 28; of S. King, ii. 78 
note; of George Cooke, iii. 30; industry, 
iii. 28; character, iii. 29; mechanical 
ingenuity, iii. 29-30; association with 
Sully, ii. 255, iii. 28; with Waldo, ii. 
357; incidental references, i. 348, ii. 391, 
iii. 4, 133, 244 



King, Dr. David, portrait of, ii. 78 note 

King, F. G., iii. 132 

King, G. B., engraver, iii. 313 

King, Samuel, portraits of Ezra Stiles, ii. 
78 note; Gardiner Thurston, ii. 78 note; 
David King, ii. 78 note; Edward Tay- 
lor, ii. 78 note; Mrs. Richard Derby, ii. 
78 note; teacher of Anne Hall, iii. 161 

King, Dr., surgeon to Allston, ii. 315 and 
note; portrait of, ii. 316 

Kirby, John Joshua, i. 65, 66 

Kirshaw, i. 103 

Knapp, Samuel L., ii. 151, 152 

Kneass, William, engraver, iii. 4, 313 

Knight, Charles, miniature painter, iii. 313 

Knight, Gov. Nehemiah, portrait of, iii. 
343 

Knox, Gen. Henry, engraving of, i. 381 
note; i. 187, 188 

Kotzebue, August F. F. von, bust of, ii. 
175 

Krimmel, John Lewis, birth, ii. 398; emi- 
gration to America, ii. 392; portrait 
painter, ii. 392; "Pepper-pot Woman," 
ii. 392; "Blind-man's-buff," ii. 392; 
"Cut Finger," ii. 393; exhibition, ii. 
393; drawing teacher, ii. 393; visit to 
Germany, ii. 393; accurate eye, ii. 394; 
fails to secure commissions, ii. 394; 
death by drowning, ii. 395; character, 
ii. 395; incidental references, ii. 124, iii. 
166 

Kugler, Dr.. ii. 189 

Lafayette, Marquis de, visit to South 
Carolina, ii. 379; portrait by Morse, 
iii. 96; bust by Greenough, iii. 220, 
227-230; iii. 149 

Lafayette, George Washington, ii. 402 

Laing, William, i. 237, ii. 77 

Lakeman, N., painter, iii. 313 

Lalanne, Miss Mary E., miniature 
painter, iii. 813 

Lamb, Anthony, engraver, iii. 313 

Lamb, John, silversmith, iii. SIS 

Lambdin, J. R., painter, iii. 251-252; 
quoted on Paul, ii. 103; Beck, ii. 382; 
W. E. West, iii. 39; Jouett, iii. 100 

Lambert, ii. 177 

Lane, painter, iii. 91 

Lang, George S., engraver, iii. 313 

Langendyk, Dirk, picture of the battle 
of La Hogue, i. 69, 98, 101 

Langzettel, George H., i. 17 note 

Lansdowne, Lord, owns Stuart's "Wash- 
ington." i. 232, 239 



398 



INDEX 



Larkin, Deacon, i. 178 

Larned, Rev. Sylvester, friend of Metcalf, 
ii. 389 

Larrabee, Capt. John, portrait of, iii. 282 

Lathrop, Mrs. Hannah, portrait of, i. 
169 note 

Lathrop, Dr. Joshua, portrait of, i. 169 
note 

Lathrop, Mrs. Mercy, portrait of, i. 169 
note 

Lathrop, Rufus, portrait of, i. 169 note 

Lathrop, Dr., portrait of, iii. 334 

Latour, Major, iii. 313 

Latrobe, Rev. Benjamin, ii. 230 

Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, education, ii. 
230; marriage, ii. 230; emigration to 
America, ii. 230; second marriage, ii. 
231; Capitol architect, ii. 8, 9, 12, 231- 
233; architectural style, ii. 233; de- 
livers oration, ii. 107; letter to William 
Jones on his unpopularity, ii. 398-399; 
to Thomas Jefferson on the destruction 
of the Capitol by the British, ii. 399- 
401; letter on visit with Washington, 
ii. 401-403; death, ii. 233; incidental 
references, ii. 376, iii. 313 

Launitz, Robert E., iii. 314 

Laurens, Henry, criticises West's "Death 
of Wolfe," i. 68; portrait of, iii. 297 

Lavigne, engraver, iii. 314 

Law, John, engravings for his "Encyclo- 
pedia," ii. 363 

Lawrence, Charles B., painter, pupil of 
R. Peale and Stuart, iii. 19-20 

Lawrence, Effingham, introduces Dunlap 
to West, i. 302, 72; i. 308 

Lawrence, Isaac, iii. 95 

Lawrence, Capt. James, i. 279 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, portrait of West, 
i. 76, 341, 346, iii. 126; incidental 
references, i. 61, 141, 240, ii. 141, 256, 
257, 264 note, 281, iii. 7, 8 note, 97, 103, 
152, 164 

Lawrence, William, bricklayer, iii. 35, 36 

Lawrence, William, portrait of, iii. 41 

Lawson, Alexander, engraver, ii. 122-124, 
203; partnership with Barralet, ii. 171; 
encourages Wilson to draw, ii. 339; en- 
graver for Wilson's ornithology, ii. 341 ; 
quoted on Audubon, iii. 203-205; inci- 
dental references, i. 389, ii. 121, 156, 
175, 394 

Lawson, Thomas B., engraver, iii. 314 

Leach, Samuel, engraver, iii. 314 

Lear, Tobias, ii. 402, 403 



Leddel, Joseph, Jr., engraver, iii. 314 

Lee, G. W., iii. 132 

Lee, Gen. Henry, ii. 77 

Lee, John, wood-engraver, ii. 130 

Lehman, painter, iii. 314 

Leiber, Dr. Francis, i. 119, 158 

Lemet, L., engraver, iii. 314 

Leney, William S., engraver and partner 
of Rollinson, ii. 382-383; incidental 
references, i. 189, 333, ii. 363 

L'Enfant, Peter Charles, architect of 
Federal Hall, N. Y., ii. 10-11; city 
of Washington, ii. 11-12 

Le Noir, Chevalier Alexander, iii. 98 

Lenox, chief carpenter of Capitol, ii. 8, 12 

Lenthall, ii. 8 

Lepelletier, engraver, iii. 314 

Leslie, Charles Robert, birth, iii. 1; en- 
couraged to draw by his father, iii. 2, 
3; by Bradford, iii. 3; list of patrons, 
iii. 3-4; aided by Sully, iii. 4; studies in 
London, iii. 4, 5; copies Guido's head 
of Christ for McMurtrie, iii. 7; mem- 
ber of Royal Academy, iii. 7; marriage, 
iii, 7; appointed teacher of drawing at 
West Point, iii. 8; patronized by Lord 
Egremont, iii, 8; visit to Paris, iii. 9; 
estimate, iii. 11-13; return to London, 
iii. 14; death, iii. 14 note; portrait of 
West's granddaughter, ii. 291; J. W. 
Francis, iii. 4; Dunlop, iii. 4; J. Q. 
Adams, iii. 6; Mrs. J. Q. Adams, iii. 6; 
Sir Walter Scott, iii. 7; paintings, 
"Death of Rutland," i. 329; "Saul and 
the Witch of Endor,"iii. 5; "Murder of 
Clifford," iii. 6; "Anne Page and Master 
Slender," iii. 7; "Mayday in the time 
of Queen Elizabeth," iii. 7; "Sir Roger 
de Coverley going to Church," iii. 7, 
12; "Sancho Panza and the Duchess," 
iii. 8, 13; quoted on Mather Brown, i. 
270; Copley, i. 144, 145-146; Peale, i. 
158; Stuart, i. 242; B. West, i. 50, 57, 
60, 61, 76, 81, 95, ii. 287-289; R. West, 
ii. 290-291; W. E. West, iii. 39, 41; 
Gilbert S. Newton, iii. 78-80; Augustus 
Earl, iii. 106; incidental references, i. 
294-295, 368, ii. 51, 265, 277, 318, 324, 
325, iii. 28, 78, 81, 83, 84, 88, 89, 92, 
97, 98, 104, 110, 151, 153, 164, 196 

Leslie, Robert, father of Charles R., iii. 1; 
fondness for drawing, iii. 1-2; death, 
iii. 3 

Leslie, Miss Anne, artist, iii. 196 

Lesueur, Alexander C., engraver, iii. 314 



INDEX 



399 



Lettsom, Dr. John C., portrait of, i. 205 

Lewis, David, painter, iii. 314 

Lewis, J., engraver, iii. 314 

Lewis, J. O., iii. 314 

Lewis, J. S., iii. 4 

Lewis, W., painter, iii. 315 

Lewis, Yardley, painter, iii. 315 

Lewis, Dr., sits for Sully, ii. 266 

Lewis, of Wyanoke, i. 336, 337, 340 

Lewis, biographer of West, quoted, i. 37 

Lieber, Francis, see Leiber 

Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, portrait of, ii. 40 

Lincoln, James S., painter, iii. 315 

Linn, John Blair, Barralet's engravings 

for poems of, ii. 124, 171 
Literary Magazine, The, ii. 340 
Livingston, Edward, ii. 105, 159, iii. 126 
Livingston. Harriet, marries Fulton, i. 283 
Livingston, Robert R., treasurer New 

York Academy of Fine Arts, ii. 105; 

president American Academy of Arts, 

ii. 105, iii. 48; incidental references, 

i. 274, 277, ii. 159, iii. 126 
Lockwood, James, i. 182 
London Globe, quoted on Morse, iii. 91 
Londonderry, Lord, iii. 220 
Long, Robert C., architect, iii. 315 
Longacre, James Barton, visit to Stuart, 

i. 193; "National Portrait Gallery," 

iii. 64, 75, 76, 318, 322, 334, 341-343; 

encouraged by J. F. Watson, iii. 214; 

engraver to U. S. Mint, iii. 214 note; 

incidental references, ii. 108, 110, 170- 

171 
Longworth, David, publisher, i. 238, ii. 

174, 175 
Lonsdale, iii. 99 

Lord, pictures for, by Cole, iii. 155 
Lothrop, J. H., of Ontario, i. 346, 354 
Loudon, John C., iii. 256 
Louis XIV, i. 99 
Love, G., engraver, iii. 315 
Love, i. 322; Mrs., miniature of, i. 322 
Lovell, John, portrait of, i. 29 
Lovett, Mrs. John, portrait of, iii. 306 
Lovett, Robert, seal engraver, iii. 315 
Lovett, William, miniature painter, iii. 315 
Lowe, Thomas, as Captain Macheath, by 

Pine, i. 375 note 

Lowell, John, bust of, iii. 38 note 
Lowell, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 299 
Lowell, John Hancock's clerk ; i. 180 
Lownes, Caleb, engraver, iii. 315 
Lowrey, Margaret, wife of Peter Pelham, 

iii. 323 



Lowry, Wilson, i. 171 

Ludlow, John C., i. 188 

"Lunch, The," club, i. 347 

Lupton, Mrs. modeller, iii. 315 

Lyman, C., gives Cole commission for 

painting, iii. 154 
Lyndhurst, Lord, refuses information 

about Copley, i. 117, 118; collects 

Copley's pictures, i. 144; wins lawsuit 

for father, i. 146; portrait of, iii. 322; 

incidental references, i. 136, 271, ii. 

287 

Lynn Iron Works, iii. 311 
Lyon, Patrick, portrait of, iii. 168; notes 

on same, iii. 169-170 
Maas, Jacob, engraver, iii. 315 
McClure, William, portrait of, ii. 159; 

ii. 160, 161 

McComb, John, iii. 51 
M'Coun, William S., i. 369 
M'Coun, William T., i. 328, 362, 369 
McGibbon, James, painter, iii. 317 
M'Gilvary, portrait of, i. 332 
Mclntire, Samuel, architect, iii. 317 
Mack, miniature painter, iii. 315 
McKay, painter, iii. 317 
McKean, Thomas, portrait of, i. 243 
McKoy, iii. 235, 238 
McLane, Louis, iii. 224 
M'Lean, Dr. Hugh, iii. 85 
McLean, Dr., i. 365, 369 
McMasters, Gilbert, D.D., portrait of, 

iii. 319 
McMurtrie, James, quoted on Benbridge, 

i. 166; sells Allston's "Dead Man," ii. 

318, 319; letter from Allston, ii. 328- 
329, 330; Leslie's copy of Guide's head 
of Christ, made for, iii. 7 

M'Norton, school-master, i. 292 
Madison, James, portrait by Joseph 

Wright, i. 373; by Vanderlyn, ii. 163; 

by Durand, iii. 63; by Chapman, iii. 

245; incidental references, i. 384, 385, 

ii. 10 
Madison, Mrs. James, bust of, iii. 31; i. 

322 

Magenis, H., painter, iii. 315 
Main, William, engraver, iii. 253 
Major, J. P., engraver, iii. 315 
Malbone, Edward G., scene painter, ii. 

138-139; friendship with Allston, ii. 

140, 299, 302, 306; portrait painter, ii. 

139-145; letter to Fraser, ii. 141-142; 

praised by West, ii. 142; aids Dunlap, i. 

319, ii. 144; illness, ii. 144; death, ii. 



400 



INDEX 



Malbone, Edward G. Continued. 
145; "The Hours," ii. 142; copy of 
"The Birth of Shakespeare," ii. 148 
note; letter by Mrs. Whitehorne on 
Malbone, ii. 145-152; " Analectic Maga- 
zine" quoted on, ii. 153-155; incidental 
references, ii. 78 note, 99, 213, 229, 343 
Malcolm, James P., engraver, i. 387-390; 

i. 165 

Malone, Edmund, i. 132, 137, 138, 140 
Manchester, Duchess of, portrait of, i. 113 
Manly, John, engraver, iii. 316 
Manly, portrait painter, i. 168 
Mann, Archdeacon, portrait of, i. 112 
Mansfield, Lord, portrait of, i. 138 
Mapes, J. J., miniature painter, iii. 316 
Maras, M., portrait painter to the Sultan, 

ii. 283 

Marchant, B., engraver, iii. 316 
Marchant, Edward D., painter, iii. 262 
Marchant, G. W., engraver, iii. 316 
Mare, John, painter, iii. 316 
Marinelli, scene painter, ii. 197 
Mark, Louis, iii. 132 
Marsac, Harvey, engraver, iii. 316 
Marsh, William R., engraver, iii. 316 
Marshall, John, quoted (Kent and Mar- 
shall), ii. 19, 20; bust by Frazee, iii. 38; 
by Greenough, iii. 219 
Marshall, actor, ii. 257 
Marshall, engraver, iii. 316 
Marsiglia, G., portrait painter, iii. 73 
Marston, J. B., painter, iii. 316 
Marten, engraver, ii. 176 
Martin, D., engraver, iii. 316 
Martin, E., engraver, iii. 316 
Martin, John, ii. 324, 325 
Martin, J. B., engraver, iii. 316 
Martin, crayon artist, ii. 176, 213 
" Marty rology," ii. 129 
Mason, Abraham John, wood engraver, 
iii. 255-256; quoted on wood engraving, 
ii. 126-134; on Anderson, ii. 135-136 
Mason, D. H., architect, iii. 316 
Mason, George, painter, iii. 316 
Mason, Mrs. James B., employs Alex- 
ander, iii. 238 

Mason, Jonathan, Jr., portrait of, iii. 317 
Mason, William, engraver, ii. 136, 176, 

383-384 

Mason, William G., engraver, iii. 317 
Mason, first patron of F. Alexander, iii. 238 
Mason, General, iii. 133 
Massachusetts Historical Society, i. 172 
note, 176 



Massachusetts Magazine, iii. 308 
Masson, Francis, botanist, ii. 351 
Masters, Katherine, iii. 289 
Mather, Rev. Cotton, engraving of, i. 

185 note; portrait of, iii. 324 
Mather, Increase, portrait of, i. 174 note, 

iii. 299 

Mather, Richard, portrait of, iii. 301 
Matthews, West's acquaintance, i. 53 
Mauvais, A., painter, iii. 317 
Maverick, Andrew, i. 187 note- 
Maverick, Emily, engraver, iii. 317 
Maverick, Maria A., engraver, iii. 317 
Maverick, Peter, engraver, ii. 363, 370, 

iii. 61 
Maverick, Peter Rushton, engraver, i. 

187, ii. 202, 363, iii. 197 
Maverick, Samuel, engraver, i. 353, iii. 317 
Maxon, Charles, engraver, iii. 317 
May, Col. John, portrait of, iii. 305 
Mayhew, Rev. Jonathan, i. 172 note, 185 

note 

Mayr, Christian, painter, iii. 269 
Maywood, Robert C., actor, portrait of, 

iii. 337 

Mazyck, Isaac, portrait of, iii. 341 
Meade, Richard, collection of pictures, 

iii. 275; incidental references, i. 366, ii. 

40, 90 

Meadows, R. M., engraver, iii. 318 
Meance, miniature painter, iii. 318 
Mease, Dr. James, acquaintance of Audu- 

bon's, iii. 207 

Medairy & Bannerman, engravers, iii. 318 
Medical and Philosophical Register, ii. 206 
Medland, Thomas, engraver, ii. 174 
Meer, John, painter and engraver, iii. 318 
Memes, i. 82 
"Memoirs of the Historical Society of 

Pennsylvania," letter of West in, i. 40 
Meng, John, iii. 318 
Mengs, Anton Rafael, advice to West, i. 

52; teacher of Benbridge, i. 165; inci- 
dental references, i. 5, 51, 52, 53. 117, 

166 

Mercer, Charles Fenton, ii. 9 
Mercer, General Hugh. i. 15 
Mercer, miniature painter, iii. 318 
Metcalf, Eliab, farm laborer, ii. 387; cold 

on lungs, ii. 387; visit to Guadaloupe, 

ii. 387; adopts miniature painting, ii. 

388; studies under J. R. Smith, ii. 388; 

marriage, ii. 388; in Louisiana, ii. 389; 

in Havana, ii. 389; cholera, ii. 390; 

death, ii. 390 



INDEX 



401 



Metcalf, James, father of Eliab, ii. 387 
Methodist Magazine, Paradise's paint- 
ings for, ii. 354 

Metropolitan Art Museum, i. 114 note 
Metropolitan, The, on Turner, iii. 158 
Meyer, Henry H., painter and engraver, 

iii. 318 

Meyrick, Richard, engraver, iii. 318 
Michaux, Andre, botanist, ii. 350 
Middlecott, Richard, portrait of, iii. 287 
Middleton, Dr. Peter, book-plate of, iii. 

314 
Middleton, Thomas, painter and etcher, 

iii. 318 

Mifflin, J. H., painter, iii. 318 
Milbourne, scene-painter, iii. 318 
Miles, Edward, miniature painter, ii. 285, 

iii. 251 

Miller, George M., busts of C. W. Peale, 
Bishop White, Commodore Bainbridge, 
Mrs. Jerome Bonaparte, iii. 31; 
Washington, Albert Gallatin, Mrs. 
Madison, iii. 31 note 
Miller, Gen. James, ii. 193 
Milligan, Samuel, miniature by John 

Robinson, iii. 173 note 
Mills, E. H., encourages Harding to open 

studio in Northampton, Mass., iii. 68 
Mills, Robert, education, ii. 375; protege 
of Jefferson, ii. 375; designs church in 
Charleston, ii. 376; pupil of B. Latrobe, 
ii. 376; architectural work in Phila- 
delphia, ii. 376-377; secretary of Society 
of Artists, ii. 377; Richmond Court 
House, ii. 377; Burlington County 
prison, ii. 378; Baltimore Washington 
monument, ii. 378; other Baltimore 
works, ii. 378; publication of work on 
internal improvements of Maryland, ii. 
378; State architect for South Carolina, 
ii. 378-379; publication of work on de- 
sirability of canal from Columbia to 
Charleston, ii. 379; "The Atlas of the 
State of South Carolina," ii. 379; Bun- 
ker Hill monument, ii. 380; improves 
acoustic properties of House of Repre- 
sentatives, ii. 380-381 
Miniature painting, history of, i. 265-267 
Minot, George R., portrait of, iii. 305 
Mitchel, Major, i. 179 
Mitchell, E., engraver, iii. 318 
Mitchell, Harvey, painter, iii. 319 
Mitchill, Dr. Samuel Latham, Dunlap's 
visit to Blenheim House with, i. 312; 
member literary society, i. 316; of 



Congress, i. 321; portrait of, i. 191; 
incidental references, i. 331, ii. 348 
Moffat, John, i. 27 
Moffat, J., engraver, iii. 319 
Moffat, Thomas, establishes snuff mill, i. 

195, 196, 197 

Molineux, engraver, iii. 319 
Monachise, N., painter, iii. 319 
Monkton, J., i. 103 
Monro, Henry, iii. 91 
Monroe, James, portrait of, ii. 163; ii. 10, 

159 
Monroe, Thomas B., portrait of, iii. 198 

note 

Montgomery, Gen. Richard, ii. 19 
Montgomery, Robert, engraver, iii. 319 
Monthly Recorder, The, i. 49 
Mooney, E., painter, iii. 319 
Moore, Bishop Benjamin, portrait by 

Jarvis, ii. 218; ii. 77 
Moore, Elizabeth, marries Pratt, i. Ill 
Moore, Isaac W., engraver, iii. 319 
Moore, Bishop Richard C., i. 340 
Moore, Thomas, lithographer, iii. 319, 326 
Moore, Thomas, poet, quoted on W. E. 

West, iii. 40 

Moorhead, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 324 
Moors, Thomas W. C., ii. 207 
Moreau, General, portrait of, ii. 172 
Morgan, John I., iii. 265 
Morghen, Raphael, iii. 253 
Morin, J. F., engraver, iii. 319 
Morris, George P., i. 369, iii. 278, 279 
Morris, Gouverneur, poses for Houdon, i. 

385; portrait of, iii. 297 
Morris, Dr. Jonathan, i. 39 
Morris, Robert, i. 372, 377, ii. 11 
Mors, Nathaniel, engraver, i. 174 note, iii. 

319 

Morse, Rev. Ebenezer, portrait of, iii. 305 
Morse, Dr. Eliakim, portrait of, iii. 305 
Morse, George H., engraver, iii. 319 
Morse, Hazen, engraver, iii. 319 
Morse, Rev. Jedediah, iii. 88 
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, birth, iii. 
88; goes to England with Allston, ii. 
315, iii. 88; friend of Leslie, iii. 4, 88; 
pupil of West, iii. 89; model of the dying 
Hercules, iii. 90, 91; painting of "The 4 
Dying Hercules," iii. 91; "The Judg- 
ment of Jupiter," iii. 92; return to 
America, iii. 93; lack of orders for 
historical paintings, iii. 93; portrait 
painting, iii. 94; painting of the House 
of Representatives, iii. 95; marriage, 



402 



INDEX 



Morse, Samuel Finley Breese Cord, 
ill. 95; portrait of Lafayette, iii. 96; 
family bereavements, iii. 96; forms 
association of artists, iii. 53, 96; lectures 
before N. Y. Athenaeum, iii. 97; second 
European trip, iii. 97-99; president 
National Academy of Design, iii. 57; 
picture of the Louvre, iii. 98; theory of 
color, iii. 99 note; meeting with Collard, 
iii. 99; director South Carolina Acad- 
emy Fine Arts, iii. 58; professor of 
fine arts at N. Y. University, iii. 100; 
death, iii. 100 note; oil painting by, i. 
329; member committee on union of 
American Academy and National 
Academy, iii. 121; remarks on Trum- 
bull's address to the American Acad- 
emy on the subject of union, published 
in the Joint Report, iii. 128-131; 
quoted on West, i. 74; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 116, 349, ii. 318, 332, iii. 104, 
105, 106, 171, 242, 245, 247, 261 note, 
266 

Mortimer, John Hamilton, painter, i. 
375, 376 

Morton, John L., painter, iii. 257 

Mott, Dr. Valentine, i. 365, ii. 164 

Mould, J. B., engraver, iii. 319 

Moulthrop, Reuben, painter and model- 
ler, iii. 319 

Moultrie, Gen. William, bust of, ii. 372, 
iii. 334 

Mount, H. S., painter, iii. 210, 263 

Mount, Shephard A., painter, iii. 210 

"Mt. Vernon," ship, iii. 292 

Mount, William Sidney, painter, iii. 263- 
264; portrait of Bishop Onderdonk, iii. 
263 

Moynet, Anne, iii. 209 note 

Mugford, William, artist, iii. 320 

Muirson, Anne, i. 316 

Mulgrave, Lord, i. 58, 221 

Muller, H., painter, iii. 320 

Mulliken, Jonathan, clock-maker and 
engraver, iii. 320 

Munger, George, miniature painter, iii. 45 

Munson, Dr. Aeneas, portrait of, i. 185 
note 

Munson, Lucius, artist, iii. 34 

Munson, Samuel B., engraver, iii. 320 

Murillo, ii. 278, 280 

Murphy, engraver, iii. 320 

Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., ii. 285, 
iii. 296, 327 

Murray, George, engraver, ii. 285; inci- 



dental references, ii. Ill note, 170, iii. 4 
(see also Murray, Draper, Fairman & 
Co.) 

Murray, John, engraver, iii. 320 
Murray, Rev. John, portrait of, iii. 334 
Murray, John R., portrait of, i. 230; inci- 
dental references, ii. 106, 162, 164, iii. 
48, 50, 51, 126 

Myers, Jeremiah, miniature painter, i. 267 
M., J., engraver, iii. 320 
National Academy of Design, events 
leading to formation of, iii. 53-57; for- 
mation, iii. 57; success, iii. 57-58; ad- 
dress delivered to in 1831, referring to 
West, i. 78; committee on union with 
American Academy, iii. 121; failure to 
unite, iii. 122; Joint Report of the Com- 
mittees, iii. 123-125; TrumbuU's ad- 
dress on the Joint Report, iii. 125-128; 
Morse's remarks on TrumbulTs ad- 
dress, iii. 128-131; donations to, iii. 132; 
incidental references, i. 352, 363, ii. 167, 
iii. 18, 44, 46, 63, 73, 87, 110, 256, 263, 
266 
National Portrait Gallery, iii. 64, 75, 76, 

318, 322, 334, 341-343 
Neagle, James, engraver, iii. 320 
Neagle, John, painter, birth and child- 
hood, iii. 165; apprentice to Wilson, iii. 
165-166; pupil of Otis, iii. 166; of 
Ancora, iii. 282; meeting with Sully, 
iii. 166; early struggles as an artist, iii. 
167-168; portrait of Patrick Lyon, iii. 
168-170; Burn, iii. 168 note; Washing- 
ton, iii. 168; Dr. Chapman, iii. 170; 
Commodore Barren, iii. 170; Rev. Mr. 
Pilmore, iii. 170; Robert Walsh, iii. 171; 
Stuart, i. 254; meeting with Alls ton, 
iii. 170; visit to Stuart, i. 193; anecdotes 
of Stuart, i. 215-216, 233, 239, 253-256; 
quoted on Pratt, i. 115-116; Krimmill, 
ii. 394; Jouett, iii. 100; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 248, ii. 108, 110, 122, 204, iii. 
288, 320 

Neagle, John B., engraver, iii. 320 
Nease, die-sinker, iii. 820 
Nelson, portrait painter, iii. 45, 65, 66 
Nesmith, J. H., engraver, iii. 321 
Newcomb, D., engraver, iii. 321 
Newcombe, G. W., miniature painter, iii. 

254 
New England Bank Note Company, iii. 

319 

New England Magazine, quoted on Kurd, 
i. 172-173; on Revere, i. 180-181 



INDEX 



403 



New England Museum, iii. 304 
Newsam, Albert, draughtsman, iii. 267, 289 
Newton, Amy, portrait of, i. 169 note 
Newton, Gilbert Stuart, birth, iii. 77; 
friendship with Leslie, iii. 78; coolness 
between Newton and G. Stuart, iii. 78; 
in Europe, iii. 78-79; estimate of his 
work, by Leslie, iii. 79; by W. Irving, 
iii. 82, 83; disclaims American citizen- 
ship, iii. 82; friendship with Irving and 
Leslie, iii. 84; contrariness, iii. 83; por- 
trait painting, iii. 84; humorous works, 
iii. 84; marriage, iii. 85; death, iii. 85 
note; pupil of Stuart, i. 196, 250; inci- 
dental references, iii. 10, 13, 14, 97, 110, 
151, 164 

Newton, Thomas, portrait of, i. 169 note 
Newton, Dr., i. 59 
New York Academy of the Fine Arts, The, 

ii. 105 
New York American, letter from J. F. 

Cooper, iii. 223-224 
New York Rotunda, ii. 166-169 
New York Times, praises Trumbull as 

Capitol painter, ii. 65-66 
Nichol, Sir John, ii. 42 
Nicholson, J. D., engraver, iii. 321 
Noah, Mordecai M., quoted on M. Pratt, 

i. 115 

Nolen, Michael, portrait of, ii. 118 note 
Nollekins, Joseph, ii. 89 
Norden, Frederick L., ii. 1 
Norfolk, Duke of, patron of Vertue, i. 9 
Norfolk, Duke of, confers medal on 

Morse, iii. 91 

Norman, John, engraver, iii. 321 
Northampton, Earl of, portrait of, i. 141 
Northcote, James, portrait of, iii. 195; 

incidental references, i. 85, iii. 91, 256 
Northumberland, Duke of, sits for Stuart, 

i. 223; portrait by Pine, i. 376 
Norton, Mrs. Caroline E. S., portrait of, 

iii. 322 

Noyes, Josiah, engraver, iii. 821 
Nutting, Benjamin F., painter, iii. 321 
Nye, E., painter, iii. 321 
O'Brian, Miss, marries Inman, iii. 137 
O'Bryan, Miss, portrait of, iii. 201 
Oddie, W. M., landscape painter, iii. 252 
Ogden, Aaron, portrait of, iii. 62 
Ogilvie, John, portrait by Copley, i. 121; 

engraving by Dawkins, i. 185; ii. 85 
O'Hara, Miss, miniature painter, iii. 321 
Okey, Samuel, engraver, iii. 321 
Oliver, Andrew, portrait of, iii. 299 



Oliver, Francis J., i. 323, 324, 344 
Oliver, Isaac, miniature painter, i. 266 
Onderdonk, Bishop, portrait of, iii. 263 
Opie, John, i. 5, 85, 96, 148, ii. 256, 263 

note 
Ord, George, source for article on Wilson, 

ii. 336; ii. 352 

Ormsby, Waterman L., engraver, iii. 321 
Onnsted, William, portrait of, ii. 241 
Osborn, John, jeweller, iii. 250 
Osborn, M., engraver, iii. 321 
Osgood, Charles, painter, iii. 321 
Osgood, Samuel S., painter, iii. 322 
Otis, Bass, portrait painter, ii. 383; inci- 
dental references, iii. 149, 165, 166 
Otis, Joseph, ii. 383 note 
Otis, Suzanna Orr, ii. 383 note 
Owen, William, painter, ii. 256, 264 note 
Oxford, Earl of, i. 9 

Paff, Michael, patron of Weir, iii. 182; 
collection of pictures, iii. 275, 278; gift 
to National Academy of Design, iii. 132 
Page, William, painter, iii. 266 
Paine, Dr. Martyn, i. 331, 347 
Paine, Thomas, head by Jarvis, ii.~215; 

i. 187 note 

Palenque, Mexico, i. 4, iii. 98 
Palmer, J., engraver, iii. 322 
Paoli, Pascal, portrait of, i. 164 note 
Papillon, Jean Baptiste, ii. 129 
Papillon, John, ii. 129 
Paradise, John, painter, ii. 354, iii. 31, 322 
Paradise, John W., engraver, iii. 322 
Parissien, Otto, silversmith, i. 190 
Parissien, son, miniature painter, i. 190 
Parissien, grandson, painter and money- 
broker, i. 190-191, iii. 265 
Parker, Charles H., engraver, iii. 822 
Parker, George, engraver, iii. 322 
Parker, J., i. 234, iii. 172, 322 
Parker, Thomas H., miniature painter, iii. 

322 

Parkman, Dr. George, iii. 212, 218, 226 
Parkyns, George I., painter and engraver, 

iii. 322 

Partridge, Joseph, painter, iii. 322 
Pasquin, Anthony, see Williams, John 
Patronage of fine arts in England, i. 7-10 
Patterson, C. M.. iii. 132 
Patterson, Prof. Robert M., iii. S 
Patterson, possesses family group by 

Pine, i. 379 

Pattison, Prof., iii. 256 
Paul, Jeremiah, portrait painter, ii. 102- 
103, 211, iii. 251 



404 



INDEX 



Paxton, Charles, portrait of, iii. 293 
Payne, John Howard, i. 324, ii. 318 
Payne, Dr. Martyn, see Paine 
Peabody, M. M., engraver, iii. 322 
Peacock, painter, iii. 322 
Peale, Anna C., painter, iii. 322 
Peale, Bev. Charles, i. 156 note 
Peale, Charles Willson, birth, i. 156; pupil 
of Copley, i. 120, 157; of West, i. 73, 
157-158; in London, i. 157-158; versatil- 
ity, i. 158, 160, 162; death, i. 162; esti- 
mate of, i. 163-164; children, ii. 180- 
181 ; portrait of self, i. 156; Washington, 
i. 158 note, 159, 242; Stuart, i. 254; 
bust of, iii. 31; incidental references, i. 
110 note, 114, 115, 120, 150, 156, 166, 
242, 273, 379, ii. 104, 180, 181, iii. 166, 
283, 298 

Peale, James, miniature painter, i. 159, 
268-269; miniature of Washington, i. 
268 note; iii. 322, 323 
Peale, James, Jr., marine painter, iii. 31 
Peale, Maria, painter, iii. 323 
Peale, Raphael, ii. 180 note, 181 
Peale, Rembrandt, birth, ii. 180; early 
attempts at drawing, ii. 181 ; in Europe, 
ii. 181, 182, 183, 186, 188; advertise- 
ment, ii. 182; accused of copying the 
"Roman Daughter," ii. 183; Peak's 
defence, ii. 184 note; establishes Balti- 
more Museum, ii. 184; copies Italian 
masters, ii. 186; experiments with gas, 
ii. 189; death, ii. 189 note; letter to 
Hart, ii. 189 note; portrait of self, ii. 
181; Washington, i. 254, 349, ii. 181, 
186-187, 188 note, 189 note; Napoleon, 
ii. 184 note; lithograph of Byron, ii. 188 
note; paintings, "A mother attracting 
her infant from a precipice," i. 336; 
"Roman Daughter," ii. 183, 184 note; 
"The Ascent of Elijah," ii. 184; "Court 
of Death," ii. 184-185; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 150, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 
163, 330, 342, 348, ii. Ill note, iii. 133, 
325 

Peale, Rubens, i. 350 
Peale, Sarah M., painter, iii. 323 
Peale, Titian, draughtsman, iii. 25 
Pearson, Sarah, i. 34, 37, 43 
Pease, Joseph I., engraver, iii. 323 
Peasley, A. M., engraver, iii. 323 
Peckham, Robert, painter, iii. 323 
Peckham, Rosa P., painter, iii. 323 
Pekenino, Michele, engraver, iii. 133, 322 
Pelham, Elizabeth, iii. 306 



Pelham, Henry, portrait of, i. 121, 176 

note, iii. 323 

Pelham, Martha, iii. 323 
Pelham, Peter, i. 118 note, 174 note, 185 

note, iii. 323 
Peller, James, companion of William 

Penn, i. 388 
Pelton, Oliver, engraver, ii. 176 note, iii. 

325 

Pendleton, Edmund, i. 45 
Pendleton, John, iii. Ill note, 319, 325, 

326 
Pendleton, William S., iii. Ill note, 319, 

325 

Penn, Gov. John, i. 31 note, 112 
Penn, John, of Stoke, i. 61 
Penn, William, i. 31 note, 40, 61, 101, 271, 

388 
Penniman, John R., ornamental painter, 

teacher of Alvin Fisher, iii. 27 and 

note, 32; "The Last Supper," iii. 27 

note; ii. 367, iii. 325 
Pennington, E., iii. 4 
Pennington, present of paints to young 

West, i. 38; i. 39 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 

formation of, ii. 106; attitude toward 

artists, ii. 108-110; purchase of Allston's 

"Dead Man," ii. 319; gives financial 

aid to Leslie, iii. 4; incidental references, 

i. 161, 232 note, 238, 359, ii. 100, 183 

note, 253, 391, 394, iii. 87 
Pennsylvania Hospital, i. 94, ii. 184 note 
Pennsylvania Magazine, iii. 281, 339 
Pepperrell, Sir William, portrait of, iii. 324 
Percy Anecdotes, The, quoted on West, 

i. 57 

Perkins, E.'G., engraver, iii. 326 
Perkins, Jacob, inventor, partner of Fair- 
man, ii. 178; originator of engraving on 

steel, iii. 319, 326, 344, 345 
Perkins, Joseph, engraver, iii. 327 
Perkins, Thomas H., portrait of, i. 245; 

employer of Sargent, ii. 190; bust of, 

iii. 38 note 
Perot, James, silversmith and engraver, 

iii. 327 

Persico, miniature painter, iii. 327 
Peters, Judge Richard, i. 299 
Pether, William, engraver, iii. 304 
Petticolas, Edward F., painter, iii. 102- 

103; incidental references, i. 340, iii. 

165 

Petticolas, Phillip S., iii. 102 note, 327 
Philharmonic Society, ii. 167 



INDEX 



405 



Phillips, John, portrait of, iii. 336 

Phipps, General, portrait of, i. 221 

Physick, Dr. Phillip S., i. 110 

Picard, William, friend of Metcalf, ii. 390 

Picart, B., engraver, iii. 327 

Pickman, Benjamin, portrait of, iii. 304 

Pierce-Johonnot-Nichols house, iii. 317 

Pierpont, Benjamin, Jr., engraver, iii. 327 

Pigalle, M., etcher, ii. 199, iii. 327 

Piggot, Robert, engraver, iii. 328 

Pilbro, engraver, ii. 41 note 

Pilkington's "Dictionary of Painters," i. 
5, 36 

Pilmore, Rev. Joseph, portrait of, iii. 170 

Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, portrait 
of, iii. 250 

Pine, John, engraver, i. 375 

Pine, Robert Edge, historical painter, i. 
375; receives prizes for pictures, i. 376; 
comes to America, i. 376; death, i. 378, 
380 and note; disparaged by Peale, iii. 
298; "Captain Macheath and Polly," 
i. 375 note; "Surrender of Calais," i. 
376, 377; "Canute on the seashore," i. 
376; Medea, i. 377; Prospero and Mir- 
anda, i. 377; the "Formidable," i. 380; 
portrait of George II, i. 376; Duke of 
Northumberland, i. 376; Garrick, i. 377; 
Francis Hopkinson, i. 378; Johnson, i. 
378; Carroll family, i. 379; ii. 36 

Pine, Simon, death, i. 376 

Pine Tree Shilling, dies made by Joseph 
Jenckes, iii. 311 

Pinkney, William, ii. 42, 45 

Pintard, John, iii. 51 

Planteau, Madam, painter, iii. 328 

Platt, H., iii. 328 

Plocher, Jacob J., engraver, iii. 328 

Plumb, painter, iii. 328 

Pocock, ii. 1 

Poinsett, Joel R., iii. 58 

Polk, Charles P., painter, iii. 328 

Pollard, Benjamin, i. 323, 324, 344 

Pollock family, portraits of, i. 230 

Polyanthos, The, iii. 306, 335 

Pope, Alexander, quoted on Berkeley, i. 
21 

Porter, J. S., miniature painter, iii. 328 

Porter, J. T., engraver, iii. 328 

Portfolio, The, letter by West on Sully, ii. 
260; ii. 340 

Portland, Duke of, portrait of, i. 113 

Post, Dr. Wright, i. 304, 315, ii. 387 

Poupard, James, engraver, iii. 328 

Powel, Charles S., i. 319 



Powel, Samuel, i. 112 

Powell, Charles S., see Powel 

Powell, Mrs. Eliza, iii. 3 

Powell, John Hare, ii. 258 

Pratt, Henry Cheeves, painter, iii. 171 

Pratt, Matthew, birth, i. 110; marriage, 
i. Ill; student of West, i. 112; sign 
painter, i. 113-114, 115; death, i. 114; 
estimate of, i. 115-116; "The London 
School of Artists," i. 113, 114 and note; 
portrait of Franklin, i. 110 note; Rev. 
Dr. Mann, i. 112; Duke of Portland, i. 
113; Duchess *of Manchester, i. 113; 
Governor Hamilton, i. 113, 114; Gov- 
ernor Golden, i. 114; incidental refer- 
ences, ii. 103, 211, 212 

Pratt, Thomas, i. 116 

Prescot, (Prescott), Dr. Samuel, i. 178-179 

Prescott, Col. William, ii. 23 

Prescott, Judge William, bust of, iii. 38 
note 

Prevost, John B., ii. 105 

Prevost, secretary to Monroe, ii. 159 

Prime, N., bust of, iii. 38 

Prince, Rev. Thomas, portrait of, iii. 324 

Pringle, J., painter, iii. 328 

Probasco, Jane, iii. 37 

Provost, (Provoost), Bishop Samuel, por- 
trait of, i. 272 

Prud'homme, John Francis Eugene, en- 
graver, iii. 174, 305 

Pulling, John, i. 175 note 

Purington, J., miniature painter, iii. 328 

Pursell, Henry, engraver, iii. 328 

Pye, John, engraver, iii. 11 

Quidor, painter, iii. 87 

Quincy, Josiah, i. 319 

Quincy, Quatremere de, quoted on Hou- 
don, i. 383, 384 

Radcliff, Jacob, ii. 166 

Radcliffe, C., engraver, iii. 329 

Raeburn, Sir Henry, ii. 79, 113, 114, 279 

Ralph, W., engraver, iii. 329 

Ramage, John, miniature painter, i. 267- 
268; miniature of Washington, i. 268 
note; i. 296 

Ramsay, Allan, i. 25, 32 

Rand, John G., painter, iii. 329 

Randolph, John, i. 168, ii. 219 

Rauschner, John C., modeller in wax, iii. 
329 

Rawdon, Clark & Co., iii. 290 

Rawdon, Freeman, engraver and designer, 
iii. 269 

Rawdon. Ralph, engraver, iii. 290. 329 



406 



INDEX 



Rawdon, Wright, Hatch & Co., iii. 258, 269 

Rawle, William, ii. 255 

Reading, Benjamin, engraver, iii. 297 

Reak, Charles, iii. 321 

Recorder, The, established, i. 323; failure, 
i. 324; quoted on Leslie, iii. 5-6 

Redheffer, scheme for perpetual motion, i. 
281-283 

Red Jacket, Weir's portrait of, iii. 192-193 

Redwood, Abraham, i. 200 

Reed, Abner, engraver, ii. 176, 383 

Reed, Colonel Joseph, i. 112, 264; por- 
trait of, iii. 297 

Reed, Luman, patron of George Flagg, 
iii. 261 note; Cole's painting for, iii. 157, 
158, 159; collection of pictures, iii. 278, 
279 

Reich, John, die-sinker, iii. 329 

Reiche, F., engraver, iii. 329 

Reid, Joseph, i. 40 

Reinagle, Hugh, pupil of Holland, ii. 198, 
iii. 72; scene painter, iii. 72; iii. 173 

Reinagle, Ramsay, ii. 263 note 

Remick, Christian, iii. 329 

Renwick, James, i. 347, iii. 51, 277 

Retter, sign-painter, ii. 103 

Retzch, Frederick A. M., artist, iii. 330 

Revere, Paul, goldsmith, i. 174, 181; en- 
graves paper money, i. 176; letter on 
the Lexington ride, i. 176-180; me- 
chanical bent, i. 176, 181; lieutenant- 
colonel, i. 181; president of Massachu- 
setts Charitable Mechanic Association, 
i. 181; engravings by, Dr. Mayhew, i. 
175; repeal of the Stamp Act, i. 175; 
"A Warm Place Hell !", i. 175; "A 
View of part of the Town of Boston in 
New England and Brittish Ships of 
War Landing their Troops, 1768," i. 
176 note; "A View of the Town of 
Boston with Several Ships of War in 
the Harbour," i. 176 note; "The Bloody 
Massacre," i. 176, iii. 320; "The 
Rescinders," i. 172 note 

Rexey, Virgil, iii. 272 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, portrait of, i. 219; 
bust of, ii. 88; incidental references, i. 5, 
44, 56, 61, 67, 69, 74, 77, 96, 104, 126, 
166, 219, 220, 223, 255, 258, ii. 80-81, 
256, 263 note, 281, 304, 305, iii. 79, 80 

Reynolds, Thomas, seal engraver, iii. 330 

Rhind, Charles, ii. 115, 284 

Richardson, Caroline Schetky.see Schetky 

Richardson, Jonathan, i. 30, 39; quoted, 
iii. 280 



Richardson, S., engraver, iii. 330 
Richardson, T. M., marries Caroline 

Schetky, iii. 333 
Richardson, painter, iii. 265 
Richmond, Duke of, i. 9 
Rider, Alexander, painter, ii. 392, 393, 

394, iii. 330 

Riley, music-engraver, iii. 330 
Ringold, ii. 401 

Rittenhouse, David, i. 110 note; mezzo- 
tint of, i. 381 note 
Roberdeau, Maj. Isaac, ii. 12 

Roberts, B., painter, iii. 331 

Roberts, John, engraver, ii. 115-117, 
134 

Robertson, Alexander, forms academy for 
painting in New York, ii. 112; secretary 
of American Academy of Fine Arts, i. 
330, ii. 113, iii. 51; donations to Na- 
tional Academy of Design, iii. 132; 
teacher of Alexander, iii. 235; incidental 
references, ii. 77, 79, 363, iii. 161 

Robertson, Andrew, ii. 79, 112, 113, 
143 

Robertson, Archibald, forms drawing 
school in Edinburgh, ii. 79-80; meets 
West, ii. 80; Reynolds, ii. 80; invited to 
America, ii. 81; presents Washington 
with box from Lord Buchan, ii. 82-83, 
84; portrait of Washington, ii. 85; Mrs. 
Washington, ii. 85; director of the 
American Academy, ii. 87, iii. 50, 127; 
donations to the National Academy of 
Design, iii. 132 

Robertson, Walter, goes to America with 
Stuart, i. 229; portrait of Washington, 
ii. 118; Mrs. Washington, ii. 118; 
Michael Nolen, ii. 118 note; ii. 98 

Robertson, William, ii. 79 note, 112 note 

Robertson, W., script engraver, iii. 381 

Robinson, Faith, mother of Trumbull, ii. 
14 

Robinson, John, miniature painter, iii. 
173, i. 342 

Robinson, W., etcher, iii. 331 

Robinson, engraver, iii. 331 

Robinson, introduces West to society in 
Rome, i. 48; portrait of, i. 51 

Roche, engraver, iii. 331 

Rockey, A. B., painter, iii. 331 

Rockingham, Lord, i. 59 

Rogers, Benjamin W., iii. 50, 121 

Rogers, Commodore, i. 279 

Rogers, Henry, iii. 152 

Rogers, John Y., iii. 15, 17 



INDEX 



407 



Rogers, Nathaniel, birth, iii. 15; family, 
iii. 15; carpenter's apprentice, iii. 15; 
accident, iii. 15; given box of colors by 
Rose, iii. 16; begins miniature painting, 
iii. 16; employed by Wood, iii. 17; mar- 
riage, iii. 17; Ul health, iii. 17; member of 
National Academy of Design, iii. 18; 
death, iii. 18 note 

Rogers, Samuel, iii. 41, 151, 152 

Rogers, Rev. William, instructor of Leslie, 
iii. 3 

Rollinson, Charles, engraver, iii. 331 

Rollinson, William, engraver, i. 187-189; 
engraving of Washington, i. 188; Alex- 
ander Hamilton, i. 188; portrait by 
Agate, i. 189; ii. 382, iii. 242 

Rolph, John A., artist, iii. 331 

Roman Catholic Society of Boston, ii. 196 

Romans, Bernard, iii. 331 

Rooke, Sir George, in "Battle of La 
Hogue," i. 98, 99, 101 

Roosevelt, James, ii. 289 

Rosa, Salvator, iii. 156 

Roscoe, i. 86, ii. 7 

Rose, Samuel H., iii. 16 

Ross, Mrs., of Lancaster, Pa., portrait of, 
i. 32 

Rowand, William, painter, iii. 331 

Royal Academy, Foundation of, i. 65, 91; 
incidental references, i. 5, 74, 89, 226, 
iii. 91, 131 

Royal American Magazine, i. 176 note, 
iii. 287 

Rubens, pictures by, in America, iii. 271; 
ii. 264 note, 278 

Ruggles, E., Jr., engraver, iii. 331 

Ruggles, Timothy, caricature of, i. 175 

Rumford, Count, see Thompson, Benja- 
min 

Runciman, Alexander, ii. 79 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, ii. 212; portrait of, 
ii. 268 and note 

Rush, William, modeller, model of head 
of Joseph Wright, i. 373; bust of Lin- 
naeus, i. 374; William Bartram, i. 374; 
H. Muhlenberg, i. 374; Exhortation, i. 
374; Praise, i. 374; Cherubim, i. 374; 
Water Nymph, i. 374; marriage, iii. 
343; i. 160, ii. 104 

Russell, M. B., miniature painter, iii. 331 

Rutherford, friend of West, i. 47, 53 

Rutland, Duke of, i. 219, 226 

Rutledge, Edward, portrait of, ii. 40 

Rutledge, John, ii. 357 

Rutter, sign painter, ii. 211, 212 



Ruysdael, i. 170, iii. 156 

Ruyter, Admiral De, burned ships in 

^ Thames, i. 70, 98, 99, 101 

Sacheverell, John, engraver, iii. 332 

Sage, Miss, marries Benbridge, i. 165 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, ii. 21, 22 

St. Memin, Charles B. J. F. de, iii. 314, 

332, 339 

St. Vincent, Lord, sits for Stuart, i. 223 
Salmon, Robert W., marine painter, iii. 

332 

Sands, J., music engraver, iii. 332 
Sanford, Isaac, engraver, iii. 332 
Sargent, Henry, youth, ii. 189-191; late 
development of artistic ability, ii. 190- 
191; in London, ii. 191-192; military 
life, ii. 192-193; member legislature, ii. 
193; letter to Dunlap, ii. 193; to Stuart, 
i. 257; friendship with Stuart, ii. 193; 
honorary degrees, ii. 196; portrait of 
Faneuil, ii. 196 note; quoted on Copley, 
i. 143-144; on Jennings, ii. 124; on G. S. 
Newton, iii. 77-78; on Stuart, iii. 254; 
copy of "Youth rescued from a Shark," 
ii. 191; "The Landing of the Pilgrims," 
ii. 193, 194-195; "Christ entering Jeru- 
salem," ii. 195; "Dinner Party," ii. 195, 
196 note; "The Christ Crucified," iii. 
196; "The Tea Party," ii. 196 and note; 
"The Tailor's News," ii. 196; "Starved 
Apothecary," ii. 196 
Sargent, Margaret, marriage to Samuel 

Dunlap, i. 288 

Sargent, Mrs., portrait of, i. 144 
Sartain, John, engraver, iii. 332 
Saulnier, H. E., script engraver, iii. 333 
Savage, Edward, painter and engraver, i. 
380-382; employer of Edwin, i. 381, ii. 
202; teacher of E. A. Greenwood, iii. 
304; master of Jarvis, ii. 212; "The 
Washington Family," i. 172 note, 381 
note, 382; portrait of Washington, i. 381 
note; "Liberty," i. 381 note; engraving 
of General Knox, i. 381 note; Washing- 
ton, i. 381 note; David Rittenhouse, i. 
381 note, ii. 184, 391 
Savage, Lydia Craige, i. 381 note 
Savage, Samuel Phillips, iii. 312 
Savage, Seth, i. 381 note 
Savory, engraver, iii. 333 
Saxton, Joseph, iii. 333 
Scacki, Francisco, engraver, iii. 333 
Scaife, Elizabeth, marries Lawson, ii. 122 

note 
Scarborough, friend of Dunlap, i. 323 



408 



INDEX 



Scarlett, Samuel, landscape painter, iii. 87 
Schetky, Caroline, painter, iii. 333 
Schoen, Martin, engraver, i. 170 
Schoener, painter, iii. 333 
School for the Fine Arts, ii. 104 
Schoyer, Raphael, engraver, iii. 333 
Schuyler, Gen. Philip, ii. 18 and note, 19- 

20, 23, 24 

Schwartz, C., engraver, iii. 333 
Scoles, John, engraver, ii. 176 note, 363, 

iii. 333 

Scolley, John, i. 122 
Scot, Robert, watchmaker and engraver, 

iii. 333 

Scot, painter, iii. 334 
Scott, John R., portrait of, iii. 337 
Scott, Joseph T., map engraver, iii. 334 
Scott, Sir Walter, engraving of, iii. 164; 

iii. 239 

Scriven, Edward, engraver, iii. 334 
Soudder, naturalist, ii. 347, 348 
Seabury, Bishop Samuel, portrait of, i. 

272 

Seager, Miss, miniature painter, iii. 334 
Seager, Mrs., miniature painter, iii. 334 
Sealey, Alfred, engraver, iii. 328 
Seaver, Sarah, marries Savage, i. 381 note 
Selby, Mehitable, marries William Burgis, 

iii. 286 

Selby, Thomas, iii. 286 
Sellen, Lydia, marries Latrobe, ii. 230 
Senefelder Lithographic Co., iii. 282 
Seton, William M., ii. 105 
Sewall, Rev. Joseph, engraving of, i. 172; 

portrait of, iii. 324 

Sewall, Judge Samuel, portrait of, iii. 299 
Seymour, Joseph H., engraver, iii. 334 
Seymour, S., engraver, iii. 257 
Shallus, Frederick, engraver, iii. 334 
Sharp, William, engraver, portrait of 

Bishop Seabury, i. 272, ii. 37, iii. 11 
Sharpe, Rev. Mr., portrait of, iii. 308 
Sharpies, Felix, ii. 206 
Sharpies, James, pastel artist, ii. 204-207; 

pastel of Washington, ii. 206 note 
Sharpies, James, Jr., portrait of Elihu E. 

Smith, ii. 206 
Shaw, Joshua, landscape painter, i. 330, 

iii. 101-102 

Shaw, William S., iii. 217 
Shee, Sir Martin Archer, quoted on 

writers on arts, i. 5-6; on West, i. 90, 

104-109; incidental references, i. 141, 

ii. 257, 263 note, iii. 96, 131 
Sheffield, Isaac, painter, iii. 334 



Sheldon, Dr. John, i. 304 
Shelley, Samuel, see Shelly 
Shelly, Samuel, miniature painter, ii. 142 
Sherburne, Henry, portrait of, i. 168 note 
Sherburne, John, i. 167-168 note 
Sherwin, John K., engraver, i. 273 
Shewell, Elizabeth, marries West in Lon- 
don, i. 59, 111-112, ii. 288; death, i. 96 
Shields, William, iii. 58 
Shipman, Charles, engraver, iii. 334 
Shippen, Judge Edward, engraving of, by 

Edwin, i. 242 

Shirley, Gov. William, portrait of, iii. 324 
Shoemaker, Samuel, portrait of, i. 30 note; 

i. 39 
Shumway, Henry C., miniature painter, 

iii. 262 

Sidmouth, Lord, portrait of, i. 141 
Simcoe, John Graves, protects Penn's 

tree, i. 40 

Simmone, T., engraver, iii. 334 
Simmons, Charles, iii. 58 
Simmons, Joseph, engraver, iii. 334 
Simond, Louis, art critic, ii. 283 
Simpson, portrait of, i. 373 
Sinclair, Sir John, i. 274 
Sinclair, ii. 18 note, 20 
Singleton, Mary, i. 120 
Sketch Club, i. 360 

Sketches of Public Characters, quoted on 
Sargent's "Landing of the Pilgrims," 
ii. 194-195 
Small, John, in Trumbull's "Battle of 

Bunker Hill," ii. 34 
Small, William, architect, iii. 334 
Smibert, John, birth, i. 24; residence in 
Italy, i. 24, 28; in Boston, i. 25; relations 
with Berkeley, i. 18, 23, 24, 34; collec- 
tion of pictures, iii. 270; influence on 
Copley, i. 17, 117; Trumbull, i. 17, ii. 15; 
Allston, i. 17-18, ii. 300; portrait of 
Berkeley and family, i. 17, 25, 27; of 
Faneuil, ii. 196 note; copy of Van Dyck's 
head of Cardinal Bentevoglio, i. 18, 32, 
118, ii. 300; iii. 306, 324 
Smibert, Nathaniel, life, i. 28-29; por- 
trait of John Lovell, i. 29; friend to 
Copley, i. 118 

Smillie, James, engraver, iii. 269, 335 
Smillie, William C., engraver, iii. 335 
Smith, Anker, teaches Murray engraving, 

ii. 285 

Smith, A., painter, iii. 335 
Smith, Dr. Elihu H., portrait of, i. 317. ii. 
206 



INDEX 



409 



Smith, George G., engraver, iii. 335 
Smith, G., script engraver, iii. 335 
Smith, Ira, of Orwell, Vt., i. 364 
Smith, Dr. John Augustine, ii. 214 
Smith, John Raphael, engraver, i. 210, ii. 

307 
Smith, John R., antagonism to Vanderlyn. 

ii. 163-164; drawing teacher, iii. 25; 

designer of Cooke's monument, iii. 25; 

keeper of American Academy of Fine 

Arts, iii. 49; shabby treatment of 

Alexander, iii. 235; teacher of Eliab 

Metcalf, ii. 388; of De Rose, iii. 163; 

of Cummings, iii. 198; of Tyler, iii. 242; 

of Carlin, iii. 288; of De Veaux, iii. 294 
Smith, Maria Catherine, portrait of, iii. 335 
Smith, "Old Mr.," painter and picture 

dealer, i. 168 

Smith, Peter De Wint, iii. 36 
Smith, Robert, owner of family group by 

Pine, i. 379 

Smith, Robert, architect, iii. 335 
Smith, R. K., engraver, iii. 335 
Smith, Capt. Thomas, painter, iii. 335 
Smith, Col. William, i. 168, ii. 105 
Smith, Rev. William, sends West to Phila- 
delphia, i. 40; directs West's studies, i. 

41, 43; West's portrait of, i. 44; gets 

permission for West to accompany 

Allen to Europe, i. 46; meets West in 

England, i. 56; i. 59 
Smith, William D., engraver, iii. 335 
Smither, James, engraver, i. 184, 382 
Smither, James, Jr., engraver, iii. 335 
Smybert, John, see Smibert 
Smybert, Nathaniel, see Smibert 
Smyth, Andrew, i. 304 
Snyder, H. W., engraver, iii. 335 
Snyder, Gov. Simon, portrait of, ii. 386 
Society of Artists of the United States, 

formation, ii. 107; dissolution, ii. 108; 

ii. 342, 377 
Society of Arts, confers medal on Morse, 

iii. 91; on Perkins, iii. 327 
Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge, 

iii. 256 

Solms, Count de, i. 372 
Somerby, J. E., engraver, iii. 335 
Soper, R. F., engraver, iii. 335 
South Carolina Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 

58 

Sparks, Jared, ii. 19 
Sparrow, T., engraver, iii. 335 
Spear, Martha, marries John Johnston. 

iii. 311 



Spencer, Asa, engraver, iii. 335 
Spencer, Frederick R., portrait painter, 

iii. 243 

Spencer, Ichabod S., iii. 243 
Spencer, Gen. Joseph, ii. 16 
Spencer, Lieutenant, i. 309 
Spencer, W. H., engraver, iii. 335 
Stael, Madame de, ii. 45 
Stalker, E., engraver, iii. 336 
Stanhope, Lord, i. 273 
Stauffer, D. McN., quoted on Leney, ii. 

382 note 

Steel, James W., engraver, iii. 174 
Steeper, John, engraver, iii. 336 
Steer collection of pictures, iii. 271 
Stein, portrait painter, iii. 27; loans Cole 

a book on painting, iii. 140 
Steuben, Baron, portrait of, iii. 297 
Stevens, William W., portrait of, iii. 323 
Stevenson, mayor of Albany, i. 353 
Steward, J., painter, iii. 336 
Stewart, Dugald, ii. 7 
Stewart, Joseph, portrait painter, ii. 295 
Stiles, Rv. Ezra, quoted on J. Smibert, i. 

28; miniature of, ii. 78 note; portrait of, 

iii. 320 

Stiles, Samuel, engraver, iii. 336 
Stillman, G. K., engraver, iii. 320 
Stone, Harriet, marries Leslie, iii. 7 
Stone, Henry, engraver, iii. 336 
Stone, William J., engraver, iii. 336 
Stone, Mrs. W. J., engraver, iii. 336 
Storm, G. F., engraver, iii. 336 
Story, Joseph, bust of, iii. 38 note 
Stothard, Thomas, i. 141, iii. 41, 91 
Stoughton, Rev. Dr. William, marries 

Anna Claypoole Peale, iii. 822 
Stout, Elizabeth, marries Paradise, ii. 354 
Stout, George H., engraver, iii. 336 
Stout, James D., map engraver, iii. 336 
Strange, Sir Robert, instructor of Robert 

Scot, iii. 333 
Strickland, George, architect, iii. 173; ii. 

108 , 

Strickland. William, architect, iii. 173, 268 
Strobia, J. H., patron of R Sully, iii. 194 
Strong, Gov. Caleb, portrait of, iii. 296, 

316, 334 

Strouzer. Sam, R. A., porter, ii. 308 
Stuart, Ann, quoted on her father, i. 226, 

228 

Stuart, Elisabeth Anthony, i. 192 note 
Stuart, Gilbert, father of Gilbert C. 

Stuart, builds snuff mill, i. 195; mar- 
riage, i. 196 



410 



INDEX 



Stuart, Gilbert C., birth, i. 192, 194; 
pupil of C. Alexander, i. 197, 198; 
refused to paint A. Redwood, i. 200; 
musician, i. 200, 203; in England, i. 202- 
228; (friendship with Waterhouse, see 
Waterhouse, Benjamin); meeting with 
West, i. 207; poor correspondent, i. 208; 
received little pay from West, i. 70; stu- 
dent of West, i. 73, 211-217; poverty, i. 
209; anecdote on portrait of George III, 

k i. 212; anecdote about West, i. 213-214; 
praised by Dance, i. 215; begins pro- 
fessional painting, i. 218, 223; gives 
color lesson to Trumbull, i. 219; finan- 
cial success, i. 222, 223; tact, i. 224; 
palette, i. 224-225; wit, i. 226 note; 
pecuniary difficulties, i. 226-228; mar- 
riage, i. 228, 246; in Dublin, i. 227-228; 
returns to America, i. 229; meeting with 
Washington, i. 231; Winstanley's copy 
of Stuart's Washington, i. 234-237; 
Heath's engraving of the Lansdowne 
Washington, i. 239-241; sits for Neagle, 
i. 254; refuses to receive Mather Brown, 
i. 270; friendship with Sargent, ii. 193; 
opposition to art academies, i. 243; on 
color, i. 256; death, i. 246; obituary by 
Allston, i. 260-263; conversationalist, i. 
224, 247; memory, i. 248, 249; fondness 
for wine, i. 243; snuff habit, i. 247, 251, 
253; estimate, i. 252, 260, 261-263; por- 
trait of self, i. 192, 193, 200, 211, 244- 
245; John Adams, i. 196; John Q. 
Adams, i. 196, 245; grandmother, i. 
199; Joseph Anthony, i. 199; Mrs. 
Anthony, i. 199; children, i. 199; Alex- 
ander Grant, family group, i. 202; 
Waterhouse, i. 204; William Curtis, i. 
204; Lettsom, i. 205; George III, i. 212; 
West, i. 214; Alexander Grant, i. 218- 
219; Sir Joshua Reynolds, i. 219; Lord 
St. Vincent, i. 223; Duke of Northum- 
berland, i. 223; Colonel Barre, i. 223; 
Henderson as lago, >i. 228; Pollock 
family, i. 230; Yatcs family, i. 230; 
Sir John Temple, i. 230; John Jav, i. 
230; Matthew Clarkson, i. 230; John R. 
Murray, i. 230; Colonel Giles, i. 230; 
George Washington, i. 230, 231, 232, 
233, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 241; 
Martha Washington, i. 231; Dr. John- 
son, i. 238; Mrs. Bingham, i. 241; 
Boydell, i. 242; Judge McKean, i. 243; 
Mr. Perkins, i. 245; George Fred 
Cookc, i. 247; Copenhagen Jackson and 



wife, i. 250; Mr. Gibbs, i. 252; M'Gil- 
vary, i. 332; General Phipps, i. 221; in- 
cidental references, i. 73, 96, 143, 158, 
167, 202, 269-270, 320, 324, 344, 385, 
ii. 26, 40, 55, 78 note, 98, 103, 158, 256, 
270, 271, 281, 307, 385-386, iii. 67, 68, 
78, 100, 101, 239, 257 note, 303 

Stuart, Jane, i. 235 note, iii. 254 

Stuart, John F. S., "Three Years' Resi- 
dence in America," quoted, ii. 29-30 

Sturdevant, S., engraver, iii. 336 

Sullivan, Gen. John, ii. 20 

Sully, Chester, ii. 236, 242-243 

Sully, Jane Cooper, painter, iii. 336 

Sully, Lawrence, miniature painter, ii. 
236, 239, 240, 241; death, ii. 244; iii. 336 

Sully, Mary Chester, marries Neagle, iii. 
168 

Sully, Robert M., pupil of T. Sully, iii. 
194; in London, iii. 195; portrait of C. 
Beloe, iii. 195; of Northcote, iii. 195; 
criticisms of English artists, iii. 195- 
196; i. 168 

Sully, Thomas, birth, ii. 235; childhood, 
ii. 235-239; friend of Fraser. ii. 237; 
pupil of Belzons, ii. 238; of Lawrence 
Sully, ii. 240; tries oils. ii. 241; supports 
brother's family, ii. 241-244; marriage, 
ii. 245; aided by Cooper, ii. 245; anec- 
dote of the green portrait, ii. 246-248; 
received by Stuart, ii. 250; employed 
by Jarvis, ii. 252, 216; European trip, 
ii. 253-262; notes on English artists, ii. 
256; meeting with West, ii. 257; with 
Hopner, ii. 257; pupil of West, ii. 259, 
262; visits West's birthplace, ii. 263; 
notes on painters, ii. 263 note, 264 note; 
passage to America, ii. 264; declines to 
complete Stuart's picture for N. Y. 
City Council, ii. 271; "Washington 
Crossing the Delaware," i. 328, ii. 272; 
"Capuchin Chapel," i. 340, 346, ii. 274; 
appearance, ii. 276; notes on pictures 
and painting, ii. 277-282; aids Leslie, ii. 
265, iii. 4; quoted on Pratt, i. 114; 
Copley, i. 143; Durand, i. 169; Stuart, 
i. 207, 222, 252; Eckstein, ii. 292; 
Eickholtz, ii. 386; Tilyard, ii. 396; 
Leslie, iii. 7; Charles B. King, iii. 28, 
29; Petticolas, iii. 102-103; Couvaine, 
iii. 107, 108; Inman, iii. 137; Bush, iii. 
198; Audubon, iii. 205; portrait of 
William Ormsted, ii. 241; T. A. Cooper, 
ii. 245; Jas. Hamilton, ii. 247; Mrs. 
Warren, ii. 248; Isaac Davis, ii. 251; 



INDEX 



411 



Sully, Thomas Continued 

Dr. Lewis, ii. 266; Dr. Abercrombie, ii. 

266; Brugere and wife, ii. 267; G. F. 

Cooke, ii. 268; Samuel Coates, ii. 268; 

Dr. Rush, ii. 268; Com. Decatur, ii. 

270; Jefferson, ii. 275; Fox, ii. 276; 

Fairman, ii. 276; Childs, ii. 276; Guy 

Bryan, ii. 279; incidental references, i. 

38, 58, 166, 167, 202, 204, 207, 234, 

246, 328, 330, 342, 362, ii. 50, 55, 99, 

111 note, 114, 183, 184 note, 216, 286, 

294, 318, 319. 385, iii. 2, 28, 39, 109, 

166, 194, 198 note, 251, 257, 294, 301. 

336, 337 

Sully, Thomas W., painter, iii. 337 
Sumner, William H., "History of East 

Boston," i. 187 note 
Sussex, Duke of, patron of Harding, iii. 

70 
Svemin, accuses Rembrandt Peale of 

being an impostor, ii. 183, 184 note 
Swain, W., painter, iii. 337 
Swett, work printed by Pendleton litho- 
graphic establishment, iii. 326 
Swift, Jonathan, letter to Carteret on 

Berkeley, i. 22 
Syng, Philip, Jr., i. 110 
Talleyrand, i. 88. ii. 44-46 
Tanner, Benjamin, engraver, ii. 155, 176 

and note, iii. 337 
Tanner, Henry S., engraver, ii. 176 note, 

363, iii. 337 
Tanner, Vallance, Kearny & Co., ii. 121 

note, 176 note, 363 
Tappan, Judge Benjamin, encourages 

Cole, iii. 141; iii. 155 
Taylor, Charlotte, i. 366 
Taylor, Edward, portrait of, ii. 78 note 
Taylor, Tazewell, i. 169 note 
Taylor, Zachary, portrait of, iii. 198 note 
Taylor, miniature painter, miniature of 

Cromwell, i. 149 
Taylor, Mrs., of Halifax, N. S., married 

to Knmage, i. 268 note 
Temple, Sir John, portrait of, i. 230, ii. 

26, 31 

Terril, Isaac, engraver, iii. 337 
Terry, William D., engraver, master of 

James Sullivan Lincoln, iii. 315 
Tew, David, engraver, iii. 337 
Thackara, James, engraver, ii. 122, 123, 

203; quoted on Pratt, i. 114; incidental 

references, i. 382, ii. 281, iii. 148, 337 
Thackara, William W., engraver, iii. 337 
Thackara, engraver, iii. 337 



Thatcher, print publisher, employs Her- 
ring, iii. 74 

Thayer, Mrs. Joel, portrait of, iii. 308 
Theus, Jeremiah, i. 31 
Thomas, Francis, portrait of, iii. 328 
Thomas, Isaiah, printer, iii. 337; portrait 

of, iii. 296, 304 

Thomas, Gen. John, portrait of, iii. 284 
Thompson, Arad, painter, iii. 337 
Thompson, Benjamin (Count Rumford), 

ii. 28-29, 117 note 

Thompson, Cephas G., painter, iii. 337 
Thompson, Charles, portrait of, iii. 297 
Thompson, Judge, ii. 12 
Thompson, of Norfolk, Va., portrait 

painter, ii. 391 
Thompson, engraver, iii. 337 
Thomson, Samuel, portrait of, iii. 328 
Thomson, William, i. 332 
Thornhill, Sir James, iii. 80 
Thornhill, engraver, iii. 338 
Thornton, Dr. William, i. 322, ii. 7, 8, 12 
Thorwaldsen, Alberto, ii. 313, iii. 132, 218 
Throop, Daniel S., engraver, iii. 338 
Throop, J. V. N., engraver, iii. 338 
Throop, O. H., engraver, iii. 24, 132 
Thurston, Gardiner, portrait of, ii. 78 

note 

Thwing, Bathsheba, iii. 312 
Tiebout, Cornelius, engraver, ii. 155-156, 
173; "American battles," ii. 199; ii. 
363 

Tiebout, Mile., miniature painter, iii. 338 
Tilghman, Dr. P., ii. 279 
Tilghman, Tench, i. 159 
Tiller, Robert, engraver, iii. 338 
Tilyard, sign painter, ii. 396; financial 
failure, ii. 396; portrait painter, ii. 397 
Tintoret, ii. 309 

Tisdale, Elkanah, engraver, designer, and 
miniature painter, ii. 173-174; author 
of "Gerrymander," ii. 173; i. 354 
Tisdale, Nathan, schoolmaster, ii. 14 
Titian, ii. 261, 264 note, 277, 278, 309 
Todd, A., engraver, iii. 338 
Tolman, John, painter, iii. 338 
Tomkins, Daniel D., i. 325 
Tomkins, engraver, ii. 382 
Toppan, Charles, engraver, iii. 338 
Torn-ns Rosalba, painter, iii. 338 
Torrey, Charles C., engraver, iii. 338 
Torrey, M. C., painter, iii. 265 
Town, Ithiel, architect, iii. 77; partner- 
ship with Davis, iii. 212; collection of 
prints, iii. 278, ii. 1 



412 



INDEX 



Townsend, John, teacher of painting, iii. 
338 

Trenchard, Edward, engraver, ii. 117; 
engraving of Count Rumford, ii. 117 
note; incidental references, i. 382, ii. 
174, 175 

Trenchard, Hannah, marries Thackara, 
ii. 122 note 

Trenchard, James, engraver, i. 184, 382; 
ii. 122 note 

Trentenova, Signore, iii. 132 

Trott, Benjamin, begins painting, ii. 98; 
exhibits in Pennsylvania Academy, ii. 
100; marriage, ii. 101; portrait of 
Benjamin Wilcox, ii. 100; incidental 
references, i. 242, 256, 329, 354, ii. 115, 
116, 119, 252, 265, 267, iii. 2 

Trott, engraver, iii. 338 

Troy, Edward, painter, iii. 338 

Truman, Edward, painter, iii. 338 

Trumbull, John, birth, ii. 13; infancy, ii. 
14; education, ii. 14-15; Smibert's in- 
fluence on, i. 17, ii. 15; visit to Copley, 
i. 126, ii. 15; enters militia, ii. 16; 
adjutant-general, ii. 18, 24, 25, iii. 63, 
64; residence in London, ii. 26-31, 32- 
38, 41-43, 48-49, 50-55; pupil of West, 
i. 73, 134, ii. 26, 32, 35; under suspicion 
as a spy, ii. 26-31; plan for series of 
national pictures, ii. 36-37; in America, 
ii. 38-41, 49, 55-76; as peace commis- 
sioner, ii. 42-43; European trip, ii. 43- 
48; marriage, ii. 49; bitterness toward 
West, ii. 51-53; paintings for Capitol, 
ii. 56-60; correspondence about second 
series, ii. 66-72; letter to Mr. Wilde, ii. 
61-64; gift to Yale, ii. 74-75; association 
with Stuart, i. 210, 211, 214, 217; 
quoted on Stuart, i. 202, 209, 210, 211; 
commends Sargent, ii. 191; vice-presi- 
dent of American Academy of Fine 
Arts, ii. 105; president of American 
Academy, iii. 48, 49, 50, 52; sells pic- 
tures to Academy, iii. 51; opposition to 
Vanderlyn, ii. 163-165; gives plans for 
building to American Academy, iii. 119; 
destroys possibility of union of Ameri- 
can Academy and National Academy, 
iii. 122; address on the Joint Report, 
iii. 125-128; collection of pictures, iii. 
270; cast of, iii. 288; paintings, "Resig- 
nation of Washington," i. 348; Sur- 
render of Burgoyne, i. 348; Battle of 
Cannae, ii. 15; Brutus condemning 
his sons, ii. 15; "The Battle of Bunk- 



er's Hill," ii. 16, 33-35; copy of "St. 
Jerome," ii. 31; of the "Battle of La 
Hogue," ii. 32; Priam and Hector, ii. 32; 
"The Death of Montgomery," ii. 33, 
35; "The Sortie from Gibraltar," ii. 36, 
37, 49; St. John and the Lamb, ii. 49; 
Madonna au Corset Rouge, ii. 49; 
Infant Saviour and- St. John, ii. 49; 
Holy Family, ii. 49; "Peter the Great 
at Narva," ii. 53; "Knighting of De 
Wilton," ii. 53; "Lamderg and Gel- 
chossa," ii. 53: "The Woman taken in 
Adultery," ii. 54; "Suffer little chil- 
dren to come unto me," ii. 54; "The 
Declaration of Independence," ii. 56- 
57; " The Surrender of Cornwallis," ii. 
57; "The Surrender of Burgoyne," ii. 
59; "The Resignation of Washington," 
ii. 59, 73; catalogue of his pictures, ii. 
75 note and 76 note; portrait of self, ii. 
14 note; Jefferson, ii. 38; signers of the 
Declaration, ii. 38, 39; Washington, ii. 
39, iii. 75; George Clinton, ii. 39; 
Edward Rutledge, ii. 40; Benjamin 
Lincoln, ii. 40; William Washington, ii. 
40; Christopher Gore, ii. 49; King. ii. 49; 
incidental references, i. 17, 73, 76, 120, 
134, 158, 163, 202, 209, 210, 211, 213, 
214, 217, 220, 305, 330, 347, 356, ii. 
109, 142, 197, 246, 252, 283, 286, 327, 
iii. 85, 92, 120, 149, 182 note, 238, 239 
Trumbull, Mrs. John, cast of, iii. 288 
Trumbull, Gov. Jonathan, ii. 13, 16, 32, 

44 

Tucker, William E., engraver, iii. 338 
Tuckerman, Henry T., i. 17 note 
Tully, Christopher, inventor and en- 
graver, iii. 339 

Turner, James, engraver, iii. 339, 174 note 
Turner, J. M. W., i. 141, ii. 312, iii. 91, 

153, 157, 158 

Tuscany, Grand Duke of, i. 28 
Tuthill, A. G. D., painter, ii. 293 
Tuthill, W. H., engraver, iii. 339 
Tuttle, J. W., engraver, iii. 319 
Twaits, joke on Sully, ii. 247 
Twibill, George W., portrait painter, iii. 

265; 138 

Twichel, T., engraver, iii. 339 
Tyler, G. Washington, portrait painter, 

iii. 242 

Tyler, John, portrait of, iii. 337 
Tyler, Judge John, portrait of, iii. 343 
Underwood, Thomas, engraver, iii. 339 
Valdenuit, engraver, iii. 339 



INDEX 



413 



Valentine, Elias, engraver, iii. 339 

Vallance, John, engraver, i. 382, ii. 121, 
123, 203 

Vallee, Jean F., miniature painter, iii. 
339 

Vanderchamp, M., painter, iii. 339 

Vanderlyn, John, birth, ii. 157; acquaint- 
ance with Barrow, ii. 157; with Stuart, 
ii. 158; patronage of Burr, ii. 158-159; 
in Europe, ii. 159-162; Trumbull's 
jealousy of, ii. 163-165; panorama, ii. 
165-168; loss of rotunda, ii. 167-169; 
declines to become director of American 
Academy of Fine Arts, iii. 49; painting 
of the death of Miss McCrea, ii. 160; 
"Marius amid the ruins of Carthage," 
ii. 160; copy of "Antiope," ii. 162; 
"Ariadne," ii. 162; "Danae," ii. 162; 
portrait of Albert Gallatin, ii. 159; 
Adet, ii. 159; Miss Burr, ii. 159; 
Mercer, ii. 159; William McClure, ii. 
159; Madison, ii. 163; Monroe, ii. 163; 
Calhoun, ii. 163; Yates, ii. 163; Clin- 
ton, ii. 163; Jackson, ii. 163; Washing- 
ton, ii. 169; incidental references, i. 
260, ii. 55, 113, 308 

Vanderlyn, Dr. Peter, ii. 157 

Vanderventer, Major, i. 348, 349 

Vandervoort, Miss, marries Joseph 
Wright, i. 372 

Vandine, Elizabeth, iii. 339 

Van Dyck, i. 18, 32, 44, 118, 139, 170, 256 

Van Gaasbeck, Major, ii. 158 

Van Home, John, Dunlap's residence 
with, i. 298; portrait, i. 298; chases a 
pig, i. 299; i. 297, 300 

Van Home. Mrs., portrait, i. 298 

Van Ness, Admiral, i. 99-100 

Van Ness, William P., i. 318 

Van Rensselaer, Gen. Stephen, i. 345, 348, 
356, ii. 105 

Van Schaick, Myndert, iii. 277 

Van Wyke, Pierre, ii. 217 

Varick, Richard, ii. 167, iii. 283 

Vaughan, John, i. 320 

Velasquez, ii. 278, 280 

Verger, Peter C. engraver, iii. 339 

Vernon, Amy, marries S. King, ii. 78 note 

Veronese, Paul, ii. 309 

Verplanck, Daniel Cromeline, portrait of, 
i. 121, 123 note 

Verplanck, Gulian C., quoted on Berke- 
ley, i. 18-21; J. Smibert, i. 23; West, i. 
86; Copley, i. 123, 124; letter to Dun- 
lap, i. 356; collection of pictures, iii. 



277, 279; incidental references, i. 347, 
ii. 217 
Verstille, William, miniature painter, iii. 

340 

Vertue, George, engraver, i. 171; inci- 
dental references, i. 8-9, 11 
Vignier, A., painter, iii. 340 
Villaret, Admiral, i. 277 
Vinal, John, portrait of, iii. 302 
Vincent, Francois A. ii. 159 
Vivares, Francis, engraver, i. 171 
Vologon, Denis A., crayon artist, iii. 30- 

31; teacher of Paradise, iii. 31 
Vose, Miss L. B., portrait of, iii. 308 
Wagner, William, engraver, iii. 340 
Wagner, wine dealer, i. 243 
Waldo & Jewett, instruct Metcalf, ii. 388; 

iii. 238, 253 

Waldo, Samuel L., studies under Stewart, 
ii. 355; aided by Day, ii. 355; in Litch- 
fa'eld, ii. 356; in London, ii. 357; opens 
subscription for Lawrence's portrait of 
West, ii. 358; director American Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts, iii. 51 ; instructs A. B. 
Durand, iii. 61; incidental references, 
i. 77, ii. 295, 358, iii. 22 (see also, 
Waldo & Jewett) 
Walker, Thomas, i. 346 
Walker, Miss, fiancee of Morse, iii. 94 
Wall, W. Allen, portrait painter, iii. 241; 

portrait of N. P. Willis, iii. 241 note 
Wall, William G., landscape painter, iii. 

103, 308 

Wallace, William, ii. 83, 84 
Walpole, Horace, quoted on historical 
paintings, ii. 58; "Anecdotes of Paint- 
ing in England," i. 6; quoted on art in 
England, i. 7; on J. Smibert, i. 24-25; 
on Vertue, i. 8-9; on Woolaston, i. 167 
note; incidental references, i. 6, 11, 266, 
267 

Walpole, Robert, i. 20 
Walsh, Robert, portrait of, iii. 171 
Walsingham, Miss, portrait of, iii. 308 
Walter, Thomas U., architect, iii. 267- 

268 

Walters, John, miniature painter, iii. 340 
Wangenheim, Frederic A. J.De.ii. 336 note 
Ward, C. V., landscape painter, iii. 174 
Ward. Deborah, portrait of, iii. 333 
Ward, J. C., landscape painter, iii. 174 
Ward, Samuel, Jr., portrait of, iii . 162 
Ward, Viscount, portrait of, i. 141 
Ward, "Anaconda, Horse and Indian," 
i. : 



414 



INDEX 



Warner, C. J., engraver, iii. 340 
Warner, George D., engraver, iii. 340 
Warner, William, painter and engraver, 

iii. 340 

Warnicke, John G., engraver, iii. 340 
Warr, John, and John, Jr., engravers, iii. 

340 

Warr, W. W., script engraver, iii. 340 
Warren, Henry, painter, iii. 340 
Warren, Dr. Joseph, on committee of 

safety, i. 177 
Warren, Mrs. William, portrait of, ii. 

248 

Warwell, miniature painter, iii. 340 
Warwick, Lord, i. 7 

Washington, George, quoted on Copley, i. 
132; letter to F. Hopkinson, i. 379-380; 
to B. Franklin, i. 384 note; Lord Bu- 
chan, ii. 86; inauguration, ii. 10, 57; as 
host of Latrobe, ii. 401-403; extract 
from will, ii. 86; portrait, by Benjamin 
Blyth, iii. 283; J. Chorley, iii. 290; S. 
Dodd, iii. 295; Dunlap, i. 300, 301; 
Du Simitiere, iii. 297; J. P. H. Elouis, 
iii. 298; Field, ii. 119; C. Gullager, iii. 
305; J. Hiller, iii. 9; Neagle, iii. 168; C. 
W. Peale, i. 158 note, 159, 242; J. Peale, 
i. 268 note; R. Peale, i. 254, 349, ii. 181, 
186-187, 189 note, 207 note; C. P. Polk, 
iii. 328; Ramage, i. 268 note; Archibald 
Robertson, ii. 85; W. Robertson, ii. 118; 
Savage, i. 381 note; R. Scot, iii. 333; 
Scot, iii. 334; Sharpies, ii. 206 note; 
Stuart, i. 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 
237, 238, 239, 241, ii. 207 note; Sully, 
ii. 272; A. Todd, iii. 338; Trumbull, ii. 
39, 207 note; J. Wright, i. 300, 371-372; 
in "National Portrait Gallery," vol. 12, 
iii. 75, 76; bust by Houdon, i. 383-385; 
Miller, iii. 31 note; statue by Eckstein, 
ii. 292; Greenougn, iii. 224; incidental 
references, i. 33, 155, 187, 188, 230, 231, 
261, 264, 297-300, 372, ii. 9, 11, 17, 19, 
22, 83, 85, 192, 203 

Washington, Martha, portrait by Dun- 
lap, i. 300; J. P. H. Elouis, iii. 298; 
Archibald Robertson, ii. 85; W. 
Robertson, ii. 118; Stuart, i. 232; 
Wright, i. 300, 371 ;ii. 402 
Washington, William, portrait of, ii. 40 
Washington, city of, architecture of, ii. 

8-10, 11-12 

Waterhouse, Dr. Benjamin, quoted on 
Kurd, i. 172-173; Revere, i. 174-176, 
180-181; Stuart, i. 192, 193, 194, 196, 



197, 198, 199, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 
207, 208, 209, 211, 224, 244, 258, 260; 
Allston, ii. 300 note; portrait by Stuart, 
i. 204, 208; incidental references, i. 27, 
167 

Watson, Alexander, nephew of J. Watson, 
i. 13, 14 

Watson, Brooke, in "The Youth rescued 
from a Shark," i. 133, 136, 137, 145 

Watson, John, birth, i. 12; residence in 
Perth Amboy, i. 12; studio, i. 12; 
miserliness, i. 13, 14; illness, i. 13, 14; 
death, i. 14; works, i. 15; site of house, 
i. 15; burial inscription, i. 15; collection 
of pictures, iii. 270 

Watson, John F., i. 31 note, 110, 271, 381 
note, iii. 214 

Watson, S., iii. 268 

Watson, Capt. Thomas, i. 302, 314 

Watts, Rev. Isaac, portrait of, iii. 339 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, portrait of, iii. 
299, 340; incidental references, i. 41, 
ii. 21 

Wayne, Isaac, pays West for drawings, 
i. 36, 39 

Weaver, painter, ii. 197 

Webster, Daniel, bust of, iii. 38; portrait 
of, iii. 314 

Webster, James, publisher, iii. 26 

Webster, Noah, i. 316 

"Weekly Messenger," account of sale of 
West's pictures, i. 103 

Weinedell, C., painter, iii. 341 

Weir, Robert W., childhood, iii. 176-180; 
first meeting with Inman, iii. 180; in 
business life, iii. 180-181; begins paint- 
ing, iii. 182; clever copyist, iii. 184; 
European trip, iii. 184-192; inability of 
Italian artists to secure good color, iii. 
187; teacher of drawing at West Point, 
iii. 192; portrait of Red Jacket, iii. 192, 
193 note; death, iii. 193 note; "Paul at 
Athens," i. 346; incidental references, 
ii. 79, 314, iii. 79 note, 221, 257, 269 

Welch, Thomas B., engraver, iii. 341 

Welling, Mrs., portrait of, i. SO 

Wellmore, E., miniature painter and en- 
graver, iii. 341 

Wells, John, bust of, iii. 37 

Wells, Rachel, wax modeller, iii. 341 

Wellstood, John G., engraver, iii. 341 

Welsh, B. F., engraver, iii. 341 

Welsteed, Rev. William, portrait of, i. 
118 note 

Wentworth, miniature painter, iii. 341 



INDEX 



415 



Wertmuller, Adolph Ulric, "Danae," ii. 
120, purchased by Jarvis, ii. 219, iii. 
136; portrait of Andrew Hamilton, ii. 
212 note; incidental references, ii. 108, 
119-121 

Wesley, John, portrait of, iii. 290; i. 153 
West, Benjamin, ancestors, i. 33-34; 
birth, i. 34; home life, i. 35; early at- 
tempts at drawing, i. 35, 37, 38, 39; 
paid $6 for chalk sketches by Wayne, i. 
36; anecdote showing his ambition, i. 
38; given box paints by Mr. Penning- 
ton, i. 38; money by Dr. Jonathan 
Morris, i. 39; employed by Henry to 
paint the death of Socrates, i. 40; sent 
to Philadelphia by Dr. Smith, i. 40; 
Cunningham's fictitious account of 
West's expedition with Halket, i. 41- 
43; residence in Philadelphia, i. 39, 40- 
41, 43; in New York, i. 44-47; in Italy, 
i. 47-55; in England, i. 56-96; meeting 
with Albani, i. 48, 50; Battpni, i. 52; 
is subject of a poem by an improvisa- 
tore, i. 49-50; illness, i. 53; entertained 
by Rutherford and Jackson, i. 53; 
aided by Allen and Hamilton, i. 53-54; 
marriage, i. 59; patronage, by Dr. 
Drummond, i. 62; George III (see 
George III); skating, i. 64; paints 
"Regulus" for the king, i. 63-66; in- 
troduces modern dress into the "Death 
of Wolfe," i. 66-68; expense of his 
London establishment, i. 70; political 
sympathies, i. 73-74, 81; president of 
the Royal Academy, i. 74-77, 89-91; 
inaugural address, i. 75-76; portrait by 
Lawrence, i. 76; Stuart, i. 214; Delanoy, 
i. 192; rejection of knighthood, i. 78, 
80, 81; desired baronetcy, i. 79, 80, 82; 
liberal in religion, i. 80; family crest, i. 
82; letter to George III on scriptural 
paintings, i. 83; letter to Peale, i. 91- 
93; on behalf of Sully, ii. 260; dismissal 
from court, i. 83-85; visit to Paris, i. 
87-89; meeting with Fox and Baring, 
i. 88; gives, "Christ Healing the Sick ' 
to Penn. Hospital, i. 94-95; death of 
wife, i. 96; death, i. 96; appearance, i. 
96; character, i. 46, 54, 85-96, 96-97, 
103, 105; estimate of, i. 97, 104-109; 
sale of pictures, i. 103; friendship with 
Pratt, i. 111-112; influence on Copley, i. 
134; on Trumbull, i. 134; teacher of 
Peale, i. 157-158; of J. B. White, iii. 
341; of Stuart, i. 73, 211-217; testi- 



mony on Delatre's engraving of "The 
Death of Chatham," i. 148; theory of 
color application, i. 220; receives Dun- 
lap, i. 303; pleads for Trumbull at 
court, ii. 29-31; paintings: "The Trial 
of Susannah," i. 44; copy of "St. 
Jerome," i. 52; "Cimon and Iphigenia," 
i. 54; "Angelica and Medora," i. 54; 
"Pylades and Orestes," i. 57-58; 
"Parting of Hector and Andromache," 
i. 59; "Return of the Prodigal Son," i. 
59; Penn's Treaty, i. 61, 101-102; 
"The Surrender of Calais," i. 61; 
"Death of General Wolfe," i. 62, 66- 
67, 97, 102, 103, 134, ii. 33; "Death of 
Chevalier Bayard," i. 62; "Hamilcar 
Swearing the Infant Hannibal at the 
Altar," i. 62; "Aggripina," i. 62-63; 
"Departure of Regulus," i. 63, 64, 65, 
66; "Death of Epaminondas," i. 68; 
Cyrus liberating the family of the 
King of Armenia, i. 69; "Segestes and 
his daughter brought before Ger- 
manicus," i. 69; scriptural paintings, 
i. 69, 71, 72; "Battle of La Hogue," i. 
69, 97, 98-101, 103; "Lear and Cor- 
delia," i. 71; "Edward the Third em- 
bracing the Black Prince, after the 
Battle of Cressy," i. 61, 72; "The 
Installation of the Order of the Garter," 
i. 61, 72; "The Black Prince receiving 
the King of France and his son prison- 
ers, at Poictiers," i. 61, 72; "St. George 
vanquishing the Dragon," i. 72; 
"Queen Phillipa defeating David of 
Scotland, in the Battle of Neville's 
Cross," i. 72; "Queen Phillipa inter- 
ceding with Edward for the Burgesses 
of Calais, i. 72; "King Edward forcing 
the passage of the Somme," i. 72; 
"King Edward crowning Sir Eustace 
de Ribaumont at Calais," i. 72; 
"Death on the Pale Horse," i. 88, 96, 
97, 103, ii. 291; "Christ Healing the 
Sick," i. 94-95, 329; "The Descent of 
the Holy Ghost on Christ at the Jor- 
dan," i. 95; "The Crucifixion," i. 95; 
"The Ascension," i. 95, 103; "The 
Inspiration of St. Peter," i. 95; "Christ 
Rejected," i. 96, 103, 38, 361, 366, ii. 
291; "The Indian Chief," i. 97; "The 
Triumph of Rooke over James II," i. 
98; "The Death of Lord Nelson," i. 
103; "Moses receiving the Law," i. 72, 
103; "Amor vim-it Omnia," ii. 262; 



416 



INDEX 



West, Benjamin Continued 

portrait of J. Green, i. 31; Smith, i. 44; 
Mrs. Ross, i. 32; Mrs. Bard, i. 45; 
Peter Bard, i. 45; Morris, i. 45; Kelly, 
i. 46; Robinson, i. 51; Hamilton, i. 56; 
of royalty, i. 69; Franklin, i. 95; inci- 
dental references, i. 30 and note, 31 
note, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 122, 
124, 125, 126, 134, 141, 142, 143, 144, 
148, 149. 154, 156, 157, 161, 163, 165. 
169, 191, 192, 199, 202, 206, 207, 209, 
210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 
219, 220, 221, 227, 264, 270, 271, 272, 
273, 285, 286, 296, 302, 303, 305-306, 
309, 370, 388, 389, ii. 32, 33, 37, 51, 52, 
53, 80, 141, 142, 143, 150, 181, 192, 
256, 257, 259, 263 note, 283, 286, 288, 
290, 291, 304, 305, 324, iii. 4, 5, 6, 10, 
89, 90 and note, 92, 93 and note, 98, 
173 

West, Benjamin, Jr., i. 361 

West, David, portrait of, iii. 305 

West, Edward, iii. 39 note 

West, Col. James, i. 33, 77 

West, John, family of, i. 33, 34, 77; emi- 
gration to America, i. 34; advises son 
to go to England, i. 54; accompanies 
Miss Shewell to England, i. 59; pre- 
sented to the king by son, i. 61 

West, Raphael, birth, ii. 287; reason for 
coming to America, ii. 286-287, 289; 
"Orlando and Oliver," ii. 289; return 
to England, ii. 290; incidental refer- 
ences, i. 60, 81, 210, 213, 271, 285, 304, 
305, 309, iii. 90 

West, William E., paints miniatures, iii. 
39; portrait of Byron, iii. 40, 41; of 
the Countess Guiccioli, iii. 41; of 
William Beach Lawrence, iii. 41 

West, Mrs., painter, iii. 341 

West, half-brother of John West, i. 34, 60 

Westall, iii. 45 

Weston, Henry W., engraver, iii. 341 

Wetmore, E., i. 346 

Wharton, Joseph, i. 207 

Wharton, T. H., painter, iii. 341 

Wheelock, Rev. Eleazer, portrait of, iii. 
336 

Whitcomb, Gen. John, ii. 23 

White, Elihu, ii. 357 

White, G. I., engraver, iii. 841 

White, John B., artist and author, iii. 58, 
341 

White, L., painter and engraver, iii. 21 

White, Thomas S., engraver, iii. 342 



White, Bishop William, bust of, iii. 31 
Whitefield, Rev. George, portrait of, i. 

168 note, iii. 283, 302, 341 
Whitehorne, Mrs. H., quoted on Mal- 

bpne, ii. 142, 145-152 
Whitehorne, James, portrait painter, iii. 

240 
Whiting, painter and soldier, instructs 

Frothingham, ii. 366 
Whittier, John G., portrait of, iii. 323 
Wiggins, of Boston, ii. 274 
Wightman, Thomas, engraver, iii. 342 
Wignell, Thomas, actor, ii. 138, 197 
Wilcox, Benjamin, portrait of, ii. 100; 

friend to Sully, ii. 252-254, 259, 265 
Wilde, Richard Henry, ii. 61-64 
Wilkes, Charles, ii. 106, iii. 48, 126 
Wilkie, Sir David, "Blind Fiddler," ii. 

392; incidental references, iii. 7, 12, 131, 

153 
Willard, Asaph, engraver, ii. 173, 176 

note, iii. 342 

Willard, Solomon, architect, iii. 217 
Wille, Johann G., engraver, i. 170 
Williams, Charles Kilbourne, i. 364 
Williams, D. E., i. 77 
Williams, Col. Ephraim, i. 173 note 
Williams, Dr. George, ii. 353 
Williams, Lieut. G. W., iii. 132 
Williams, Henry, painter, iii. 30 and note 
Williams, John ("Anthony Pasquin"), i. 

85 
Williams, Mary, marries Smibert, i. 25 

note 
Williams, Rev. Stephen, portrait of, iii. 

282 

Williams, Timothy, ii. 328 
Williams, William, painter, i. 30, 39 
Williams, William, teaches Dunlap paint- 
ing, i. 296 

Williamson, Dr. Hugh. ii. 92-93 
Williamson, John, i. 335, 336 
Williamson, Thomas, friend of Dunlap, i. 

329, 334, 335, 336, 337, 340, 341 
Willis, N. P., portrait of, iii. 241 
Willson, J., music engraver, iii. 342 
Wilmer, William A., engraver, iii. 342 
Wilmot, picture dealer, i. 362 
Wilson, Adeline, nurses Dunlap, i. 364 
Wilson, Alexander, birth, ii. 336; poetic 

attempts, ii. 337; arrival in America, ii. 

337: teacher, ii. 338; begins drawings, ii. 

339; study and drawings of nature, ii. 

339; publication of ornithology, ii. 341- 

342; death, ii. 342; memorial meeting 



INDEX 



417 



Wilson, Alexander Continued 

for, ii. 343; irritability, ii. 343. 349; 
comparison with Michaux, ii. 350, 351; 
anecdotes, ii. 352-353; incidental refer- 
ences, ii. 124, iii. 4 
Wilson, D. W., engraver, iii. 342 
W'ilson, James, engraver, iii. 342 
Wilson, Richard, painter, i. 56, 71, ii. 305 
Wilson, Thomas, coach painter, iii. 165, 

166 

Winchelsea, Earl of, i. 9 
Winstanley, William, copies Stuart's 

Washington, i. 234-237, ii. 77-78 
Winstanley, painter, i. 164 
Winter, G., painter, iii. 342 
Winthrop, Francis B., ii. 396, iii. 278 
Witt, Admiral Cornelius de, burned ships 

in Thames, i. 70, 99, 101 
Wittingham, Rev. Mr., iii. 242 
Woiseri, J. I. B., engraver, iii. 342 
Wolcott, (Wolcot), Dr. John, i. 85, ii. 290 
Wolfe, General James, i. 43, 102, 288 
Wolgemuth, Michael, ii. 128 
Wollaston, John, Jr., portrait of George 

Whitefield, i. 168 note 
Wood, James, engraver, iii. 58 
Wood, Joseph, miniature painter, ii. 229, 

ii. 213, iii. 17 

Wood, J., engraver, iii. 342 
Woodbury, Rev. Aug., portrait of, iii. 323 
Woodcock, T. S., engraver, iii. 342 
Woodruff, William, engraver, iii. 342 
Woodside, John A., sign painter, iii. 342 
Woodward, Dr., of Castleton, Vt., i. 360, 

364 

Woolaston, John, Sr., i. 167; portrait of 
grandmother of John Randolph, i. 168 
Woollet, William, engraver, i. Ill; en- 
graving of "The Battle of La Hogue," 
i. 70, 98, 101; iii. 11 
Woollej, portrait painter, ii. 196 
Woolnoth, T., engraver, iii. 342 
Woolsey, Benjamin, i. 316 
Woolsey, Elizabeth, marriage with Dun- 
lap, i. 316; i. 334, 335, 346, 365 



Woolsey, William W., i. 323 
Worcester, Bishop of, i. 59 
Worrell, James, painter, iii. 343 
Worship, engraver, iii. 343 
Wrench, Mary, miniature painter, iii. 343 
Wright, Charles Cushing, childhood, iii. 
248-249; in War of 1812, iii. 249; ap- 
prentice to John Osborn, jeweller, iii. 
250; studies engraving, iii. 250; partner- 
ship with A. B. Durand, iii. 250; die 
sinker, iii. 250; die of C. C. Pinckney, 
iii. 250; of Edwin Forrest, iii. 251; iii. 
58 

Wright, Sir James, ii. 273 
Wright, Joseph, of Derby, i. 389 
Wright, Joseph, Jr., painter, birth, i. 370; 
pupil of West, i. 73, 370; residence in 
Paris, i. 154, 370-371; in America, i. 
371-374; bust of, i. 373; portrait of 
George IV, i. 370; Washington, i. 300, 
371, iii. 309; Martha Washington, i. 
300, 371; family group, i. 373; Madison, 
i. 373; Simpson, i. 373; incidental 
references, i. 155, 160, 315 
Wright, Joseph, Sr., i. 151, 370 
Wright, Mrs. Mehetabel, see Wright, 

Mrs. Patience 

Wright, Mrs. Patience, birth, i. 151; mar- 
riage, i. 151; modeller in wax, i. 151, 
153; model of Chatham, i. 153 note, 154; 
letter to Jefferson, i. 155; portrait of 
Franklin, i. 156 note; death, i. 156 and 
note: incidental references, i. 370, 371 
Wyatt, James, architect, i. 83, 84. 89 
Wyatt, Richard, iii. 132 
Wynkoop, Augustus, ii. 164 
Yates, Joseph C., portrait of, ii. 163 
Yates, family of, portraits, i. 230 
Yeager, Joseph, engraver, iii. 343 
Yenni, Swiss artist, iii. 172 
York, Archbishop of, i. 67 
Yorlr, Duke of, i. 270 
Young, J. H., engraver, iii. 343 
Young, Thomas, painter, iii. 343 
Zegher, Christopher, ii. 129 



ERRATA 

VOL. I., p. 34 for Sewett read Shewett; pp. 59, 96 and 111, for Shewallread Shewell; 
p. 85 for Wolcoft read Wolcot; pp. 119 and 158 for Leiber read Lieber; pp. 148, 154, 223 
and 370 for Hopner read Hoppner; p. 153, the note is Dunlap's; p. 187 for Kearney read 
Kearny; p. 272 for Provost read Provoost; p. 178 for Prescot read Prescott; portrait facing 
p. 274 for by himself read by Duche; p. 319 for Powel read Powell; p. 382 for Valeance 
read Vallance. 

VOL. II., p. 1. for J. Totm read 7. Town; p. 105 note for Bogert read Bogart; p. 142 
for Shelly read Shelley; pp. 142 and 257 for Hopner read Hoppner; p. 174 for C/arfc read 
Clarke; p. 290 for Wolcott read Wolcot; p. 313 for Thorwalsden read Thorwaldsen; pp. 
362-364 for Kearney read Kearny. 

VOL. III., p. 70 for Chantry read Chantrey; p. 278 for Governeur Kemble read 
Gouverneur Kemble. 



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