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A HISTORY OF 

THE ROYAL DUBLIN 

SOCIETY 



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JOHNA.SEAVERNS 



TUFTS UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 




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Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 

Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at 

Tufts University 

200 Wesiboro Road .^ 

North Grafton, MA 01 536 *&*. 



A HISTORY OF 
THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 




THE OLD GATEWAY, LEINSTER HOUSE, 

AS IT APPEARED IN 1885 

[From a photograph by Mr. A. McGoogan) 



A HISTORY OF 

THE ROYAL DUBLIN 

SOCIETY 



BY 



HENRY F. BERRY, i.s.o., litt.d 

BARRISTER-AT-LAW 



"Hoc anno (1731) ad omandam agriculturam Societas 
coaluit Dublini, quae hebdomatim suas adnotationes edidit, 
et prima est societatum quae ad agricolendi artem colendam 
i0a/7ieruut."—ALBRECHT VON Hai.LER. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

FOURTH AVENUE & 30th STREET, NEW YORK 

BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS 

i9 J 5 



M\)vlx (Bbbuxa Baton Wilautt 

Bom at &t Anne's, Clontatf, 1 November 18^0 
©fell at St. guru's, Slontarf, 20 Januarg 1915 



Lord Ardilaun, at whose instance this book 
was written, did not live to see its completion, 
as he passed away a few days before its issue 
from the press. The considerations which led 
him to design the publication of a history of 
the Dublin Society are mentioned in the preface, 
and during the last year of his life, notwith- 
standing much weakness, the work was con- 
stantly in his thoughts, and its progress was 
watched by him with solicitude. His portrait 
will be found opposite p. 287, where it was 
placed at his desire instead of being made the 
frontispiece as the author had intended. 



3^\ 

S 



PREFACE 

To the patriotism and munificence of Lord Ardilaun 
the publication of this History of the Royal Dublin 
Society is due. During his long connection with the 
Society he had gained an intimate knowledge of the 
leading part that for many generations it had taken in 
the development of the resources of Ireland ; and he 
believed that it would be of service to his country that 
an account of the Society's operations and of the men 
who had directed them, should be compiled. 

I have to thank Lord Ardilaun for much help and 
many valuable suggestions during the preparation of the 
work, and I regret that it did not appear before his 
resignation of the office of President, which he held for 
the lengthened period of sixteen years. The season of 
its publication, however, is not altogether inappropriate, 
as it synchronises with the centenary of the Society's 
possession and occupation of Leinster House. 1 

In publishing this History, Lord Ardilaun has 
carried out a suggestion made considerably more than 
a century ago by Arthur Young. Writing in 1780, 
that eminent agriculturist expressed the opinion that 
Ireland deserved great credit for having given birth to 
a society which had been the precursor of all similar 

1 On the 14th of December, 1814, the purchase of that mansion 
was completed, and on the 1st of June, 181 5, the first meeting of the 
Society within its walls was held. 



vi THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 

societies then existing in Europe 1 He added that a 
history of its transactions would be a work extremely 
useful to Ireland, as in every part of that country he 
had found traces of the Society's influence, exercised 
by means of instruction. The origin of the Society 
was attributed by Young to a single individual, Dr. 
Samuel Madden, whom he pronounced to be one 
of the most patriotic men that any country had 
produced. 

The present members of the Society, as well as the 
general public, may have certain ideas as to the utility 
and importance of its work in the past, without any 
definite conception of the varied and comprehensive 
character of the very thorough methods adopted in 
the course of their labours by the long line of 
distinguished men who joined in carrying out the 
Society's objects. It is well that now, at the close of 
nearly two centuries, through the public spirit of Lord 
Ardilaun, the details can be systematised, and some 
account in historical shape be given of its endeavours, 
so that the innumerable obligations under which our 
country stands to generations of Irishmen who have 
worked for the common good under its auspices may 
be recognised. 

The multitude of interests which from time to 

time occupied the attention of the Society is striking, 

and while many great undertakings were carried out, 

nothing appeared too small or insignificant for the 

1 Young meant that it was the precursor of all existing agri- 
cultural societies — not the very first of its class. The Scottish 
Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture, which had 
similar objects in view, was founded in June 1723, lasting to 1745. 



PREFACE vii 

members to interest themselves in, provided it tended 
to any practical result for the benefit of the com- 
munity. From agricultural machinery and the great 
fishing industry ; from science and the fine arts down 
to rag-picking and rat-catching, nothing seemed to 
come amiss. All who came forward with plans or 
inventions, of even the humblest character, had a patient 
hearing, and if possible, a helping hand extended. 
How many a promising art student was stimulated 
to further effort, and afforded the means of completing 
his education ! What numbers of impoverished country 
tenants were enabled to live more comfortably, and 
enjoy improved conditions through the Society's en- 
lightened efforts ! In Dublin alone, not to speak of 
country districts, thousands of artisans and skilled 
workmen have been indebted to its schools and 
teachers for their means of livelihood. It were need- 
less to point out the improvement in the breed of 
cattle and horses effected by the Society's operations, 
or to recount the measures taken to promote the 
fisheries round our coasts. 

In the long period during which the Dublin Society 
has laboured, many important changes in social and 
economic conditions have taken place, and a perusal 
of this volume will make it plain that for years it 
performed many functions which at length the Govern- 
ment of the country was compelled to discharge. The 
Art Schools, the Museum, Botanic Garden, and the 
Veterinary Department, which represent branches of 
work to which the Society's energies were devoted in 
the past, are all now placed under State control. The 



viii THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 

Society itself, released from their direction, has found, 
and continues to find, fresh interests, on which its 
beneficent labours may be expended, under the guidance 
of men who, like their predecessors, at much self- 
sacrifice, unite in a common effort for the benefit of 
their fellow countrymen. 

Mr. R. J. Moss, Registrar of the Society, and 
his very courteous staff have been most helpful during 
the progress of the work. It is plain that no one so 
effectively as Mr. Moss could have written the history 
of the Society during the last thirty-five years, and 
dealt with the scientific aspect of its work, on which, 
as well from his own high attainments as from the 
traditions he has inherited, he speaks with exceptional 
authority. Mr. Moss most kindly contributes Chap- 
ters xvin and xix, which form a valuable addition 
to the work. To Dr. F. Elrington Ball my obliga- 
tions are very great, as he not only read the proofs, 
but placed his experience and extensive knowledge 
of Ireland in the eighteenth century at my disposal. 
To Mr. Walter G. Strickland, of the National 
Gallery, my best thanks are due for help in the 
chapter on the Drawing Schools, in which his 
Dictionary of Irish Artists is frequently cited. Sir 
Frederick W. Moore, Director of the Botanic Garden, 
took a kind interest in the chapter on his Department, 
and afforded much valuable information. Mr. T. W. 
Lyster obligingly read the portion of the work devoted 
to the Library, and his competent staff, true to their 
traditions, were ever ready to meet any demands on 
their technical knowledge. The Council of the Royal 



PREFACE ix 

Irish Academy was good enough to permit the portrait 
of Dr. Richard Kirwan to be photographed for the 
work, and thanks are due to the Very Rev. the Dean 
of Christ Church for allowing the Prior monument 
in the south-west porch of the Cathedral to be photo- 
graphed. Thanks are also due to Count Plunkett, 
Director of the National Museum, for lending the 
block which illustrates the Statue Gallery, School of 
Art. Mr. A. Redding, of the National Museum, 
was entrusted with the task of photographing the 
various portraits and views reproduced in the volume, 
which he has admirably fulfilled ; and Mr. A. 
McGoogan's successful restoration of a view of the 
old gateway of Leinster House must not pass un- 
noticed. {Frontispiece.) 

The original Minute Books of the Society now 
remaining of record, which have been used in the 
compilation of this volume, are as follows : — 

25 June 1731 — 1 Nov. 1733 

15 Nov. 1733 — 12 Nov. 1741 

19 Nov. 1741 — 10 July 1746 
3 May 1750 — 24 Nov. 1757 

20 Feb. 1752 — 24 Apr. 1755 (rough) 
9 Mar. 1758 — 13 Aug. 1761 

6 Mar. 1766 — 26 Nov. 1767 

3 Dec. 1767 — 6 July 1769 
13 July 1769 — 24 Jan. 1771 
31 Jan. 1771 — 9 Apr. 1772 

16 Apr. 1772 — 14 Oct. 1773 

21 Oct. 1773 — 29 June 1775 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 

They do not appear to have been preserved after this 
date. From the 15th of March, 1764, the minutes 
were printed. 

The Dictionary of National Biography has been 
largely used in the numerous biographical notices 
throughout the volume, and the splendid collection of 
pamphlets formed by the late Mr. Charles Haliday, 
now in the Royal Irish Academy, afforded valuable 
information on many questions in which the Dublin 
Society was from time to time interested. 

Albrecht von Haller (1 707-1 777), whose allusion 
to the Society and its work appears in the quotation in 
the title-page, was a Swiss anatomist and physiologist, 
who obtained a European reputation. King George II 
conferred on him the chair of medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Gottingen, and in 1743 the Royal Society 
elected him one of its Fellows. 

H. F. BERRY. 

Dublin, 

15th Dece7nber, 19 14. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 



P*GE 



I. Origin of the Society i 

II. Constitution and Progress of the Society . 14 

III. The "Weekly Observations" and General 

History of the Society, (i 736-1 750) . 34 

IV. Dr. Madden's and the Society's Premium 

Systems. (1739-1790) . . . 52 

V. The Society's Charter and its Further 

Progress. (1750-1767) .... 75 

VI. Homes of the Society 88 

VII. The Drawing Schools 108 

VIII. Experiments in Agriculture, and General 

Proceedings. (1764-1780) . . . 136 

IX. The Schools of Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

(1786-1836) i54 

X. The Library; and The Statistical Surveys 

of Counties . . . . • .170 

XI. The Botanic Garden 186 

XII. The Hibernian Silk and Woollen Ware- 
houses . 198 

XIII. Finances of the Society : Membership and 

By-laws. (1 761-1836) .... 209 
XIV. General History of the Society. (1781-1815) 217 



xii THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 

CHAP. PAGE 

XV. General History of the Society — continued. 

(1815-1836) 234 

XVI. Select Committee on the Society : its Re- 
port and the New Constitution. (1836- 

1838) 258 

XVII. General History of the Society — continued. 

(1836-1877) 269 

XVIII. General History of the Society, 1878 to 

the Present 295 

XIX. Survey of the Scientific Work of the 

Society 355 

[Chapters xvm and xix have been contributed 
by Mr. R. J. Moss, Registrar of the Royal 
Dublin Society.] 



APPENDIXES 

I. The Society's Officials, 1731-1914 . . . 379 
II. Premiums Offered by the Dublin Society, 

1766 386 

III. List of Works of Art in Leinster House . 422 

Corrigenda . . . . . . . . 426 

Index 427 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FACING PAGE 

9 



Leinster House, Old Gateway, as it appeared 

in 1885 Frontispiece 

{Photograph by Mr. A. McGoogan) 

Thomas Prior 

[Marble Bust by /. Van Nost : Leinster House) 

William Maple 

{Marble Bust by Patrick Cunningham : Leinster House) 

Philip, Earl of Chesterfield 

{From a Mezzotint by J. Brooks) 

Samuel Madden, d.d 

{From a Mezzotint by Charles Spooner) 

Prior Monument, Christ Church, Dublin 

{J. Van Nost) 

Society's Escritoire, 1753 .... 
Society's House, Grafton Street 

{Gentleman' s Magazine, 1786) 

President's Chair, 1767 .... 
Society's House, Hawkins Street, West Front 

(Hibernian Magazine, 1801) 

Leinster House, West Front, 1792 . 

{After a drawing by fames Ma I ton) 

Leinster House, Conversation Room 
Leinster House, Council Room .... 
Leinster House, Mantelpiece, Reception Room 
Leinster House, Reception Room 



10 
46 

52 
81 

88 
89 

90 
96 

98 

101 
103 
104 
106 



xiv THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



Medal awarded to George Petrie in the 

School 

Medal of the Farming Society 

Statue Gallery, School of Art, 1866 

{Photograph by Mr. H. Bantry White, M.A.) 

Silver Cake Basket, 1772 

[Premium awarded for reclaiming bog) 

General Charles Vallancey .... 

[Oil painting by Solomon Williams: Leinster House) 

Dr. Richard Kirwan, f.r.s. .... 

(Oil painting (painter unknown) : Royal Irish Academy) 

Dr. R. Kirwan's "Burning Glass" (Leinster House) 
Sir Charles L. Giesecke .... 

(Oil painting by Sir Henry Raeburn : Leinster House) 

Medal awarded to Mr. Lewis Roberts, 1765 
Medal presented to Sir C L. Giesecke, 18 17 

( William S. Mossop) 

Sir Richard Griffith, Bart. 

(Marble Bust by Sir Thomas Farrell : Leinster House) 

Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, Plan, 1800 . 
Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, Addison's Walk 
Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, View in 
Thomas Pleasants . , . 

(Oil painting by Solomon Williams: Leinster House) 

Isaac Weld ....... 

(Oil painting by Martin Cregan, P.R.H.A.: Leinster House) 

Industrial Exhibition Building, 1853 (Leinster Lawn) 
Exterior 

Industrial Exhibition Building, 1853, Interior 
Dr. George Johnstone Stoney, f.r.s. 

(Photograph by W. Whiteley, Ltd., London) 

Arthur, Lord Ardilaun, President 1897-1913 . 

(Photograph by Walter Davey & Sons, Harrogate) 



FACING PAGE 

Art 



119 

128 

145 
148 

156 
158 

163 
166 

169 

IS6 
188 

196 
236 

246 

281 

282 

285 

287 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

FACING PAGE 

The Society's Mace 288 

[Presented by Lord Ardilaufi, 1903) 

Ballsbridge Premises, Front Entrance . . 31 1 

Laurence, Earl of Rosse, President 1 887-1 892 . 315 

[Photograph by Lafayette, London) 

Mervyn, Viscount Powerscourt, President 1892-1897 325 

(Photograph by Lafayette, Dublin) 

Thomas Kane, Baron Rathdonnell, President 19 13 332 

(Photograph by Lafayette, Ltd., Dublin) 

Charles Uniacke Townshend, Vice-President 1893- 

i9°7 344 

(Oil painting by William Orpen, Dublin : Leinster House) 

Ballsbridge Premises, Jumping Enclosure . . 350 
Ballsbridge Premises, Grand Stand, Horse Show, 

i9!3 35 2 

(Photograph by Chancellor, Dublin) 

The Boyle Medal 376 

( Design ed by Alan Wyon ) 



A History of 
The Royal Dublin Society 

CHAPTER I 

ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY 

Although the Royal Society of London was not 
founded until the year 1660, it is a well ascertained 
fact that long prior to that date a number of scientific 
men were wont to meet together in London for the 
discussion of subjects interesting to them. The Oxford 
Philosophical Society, which commenced its career in 
165 1 — a continuation or offset of one that occasionally 
met in Gresham College, London, and numbered among 
its members Sir William Petty — largely influenced the 
beginning, and helped to mould the early form, of the 
Royal Society. The troubled state of the country pre- 
vented regular meetings of the philosophers at Gresham 
College ; but they still held to their purpose, and 
Evelyn's design and plan for a Scientific College, pro- 
pounded in 1659 in a letter to the Hon. Robert Boyle, 
is believed to have also had no small part in furthering 
the foundation of the Royal Society, when, on the Re- 
storation, the affairs of the kingdom were once more 
placed on surer ground. Sir William Petty, in addi- 
tion, formulated a scheme for a Scientific Academy, and, 

A 



2 A HISTORY OF 

as a result of these and other influences, the Royal 
Society sprang into being in November 1660. 

In the same way, the Dublin Society was heralded 
by one or two associations formed in Dublin by learned 
men interested in scientific pursuits and experiments. 
Though at no time distinctly scientific, being founded 
for practical purposes, which only took in science so far 
as it applied to them, the Dublin Society was moulded 
and fostered by men influenced by those of a prior 
generation, who had formed clubs for philosophic pur- 
suits. In 1684, the Dublin Philosophical Society was 
founded by William Molyneux, agreeably (as he says) 
to the design of the Royal Society of London. Pro- 
fessor S. P. Johnston, 1 says that " it might in justice 
be called the embryonic form of one of the most 
prominent of Irish institutions — the Royal Dublin 
Society." William Molyneux was son of Samuel 
Molyneux, by Margaret Dowdall, his wife, and brother 
of Sir Thomas Molyneux, bart. He was born in 
1656, and died in 1698. William Molyneux was ap- 
pointed in 1684 Surveyor of Works in Ireland, and in 
the next year he was sent by Government to survey 
important fortresses in the Low Countries. He was 
elected m.p. for the University of Dublin in 1692, 
and was distinguished as a philosopher and astronomer. 
His most celebrated work, the Case of Ireland being 
bound by Acts of Parliament in England stated, was 
published in 1698. Sir William Petty 2 was the first 
president of the Philosophical Society — Molyneux him- 
self being constituted secretary. The society at first 

1 Note contributed to a lecture on Marsh's Library in Dr. G. T. 
Stokes' Worthies of the Irish Church. 

2 Famous for his survey of estates forfeited after the rebellion 
of 1 64 1, known as the Down Survey. Thomas, first Earl of Kerry, 
married Petty's daughter, Anne, and they were ancestors of the 
Lansdowne family. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 3 

consisted of about twenty members, and meetings for 
the discussion of mathematics, physics, literature, 
history, and medical science were held in a coffee-house 
on Cork Hill. Dr. St. George Ashe, afterwards 
provost ' of Trinity College, Dublin and Bishop of 
Derry, one of Swift's circle, contributed ; and Dr. 
Robert Huntingdon, then Provost, 1 invited the infant 
Society to meet at his abode. Copies of the minutes 2 
and communications were transmitted to the Royal 
Society ; they were read at the meetings, and are still 
to be found among its records. Meetings were subse- 
quently held at the Crow's Nest, 3 Crow street, where were 
established a museum, laboratory, and botanic garden. 
In Sir John Gilbert's History of Dublin (vol. ii., p. 
173) will be found a very full account of this society, 
and in appendix ii. of the same volume is a list of the 
papers read before it — " Transactions of the Dublin 
Philosophical Society to 1686 " — classified by the late Sir 
William Wilde, with names of the contributors. Among 
them, Dr. Narcissus Marsh, who held successively three 
archbishoprics, wrote an essay on the doctrine of sounds ; 
Molyneux a paper on the theory and practice of viewing 
pictures in miniature with a telescope ; Dr. St. George 
Ashe discoursed on the evidence of mathematical de- 
monstration ; Dr. Huntingdon wrote on obelisks and 
pillars of Egypt, and other members reported as to 
experiments on dogs, blood, &c. On the outbreak of 
hostilities between King James and William of Orange, 
the society appears to have broken up. 

1 Later Bishop of Raphoe. He was a great Orientalist, and, 
during a ten years' residence in Palestine, acquired a large number 
of Oriental documents, which are now in Oxford and Cambridge. 
(See Life, &c, by Thomas Smith.) 

2 The original Minute Book is now in the British Museum. (Add. 
MSS. 4811.) 

3 Recently occupied by the Cecilia Street Medical School of 
the Catholic University. 



4 A HISTORY OF 

In 1693 a reorganisation of it was brought about 
in Trinity College, which was in active operation up to 
1698. "This evening (26 April) at 6, met at the 
Provost's lodgings, t.c.d., in order to a renewal of 
our Philosophical meeting, when Sir R. Cox read a 
geographical account of Derry," &c. (Marsh's Ms. 
Diary)} 

A third society was in existence about 1706, of 
which Samuel Molyneux, son of William Molyneux, 
was secretary, and it is frequently mentioned in the 
Familiar Letters of Locke and Molyneux. Of this 
society Berkeley was a member. Sir Thomas Molyneux, 
brother of the originator of the first society, was the 
only person who appears to have directly connected 
the Dublin Society with the earlier associations. 

When, after the Revolution, the country had settled 
down to resume its former peace and quiet, the condi- 
tion of agriculture was low in the extreme. The most 
primitive implements were in use, and the crudest 
possible ideas on husbandry prevailed. Tenure of 
holdings was most precarious, and this, combined with 
the poverty and ignorance of the farming classes, pre- 
vented any real progress. Landlords began to find 
that pasturage was their easiest mode of making money, 
and they showed a marked preference for a few 
substantial tenants over a number of smaller ones, who 
could only engage in light tillage. Seeing there was 
no employment for labourers, whole neighbourhoods 
were turned adrift, and begging became a settled occu- 
pation of numbers of the people. These are Mr. 
Lecky's views as to the state of agricultural Ireland at 
the time, and in his Essay on Trade, Arthur Dobbs was 
forced to suggest the erection of workhouses as a remedy 

1 Now in the library which he founded in Dublin. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 5 

for the widespread want and destitution prevalent at 
this juncture. Robert, first Viscount Molesworth, who 
was a close personal friend of William Molyneux, 
and to whom Swift dedicated the fifth of the Draper s 
Letters, was author of a very remarkable pamphlet — 
Some Considerations for Promoting Agriculture and 
Employing the Poor (1723) — which Mr. Lecky observes 1 
" exposed with a skilful and unsparing hand the gross 
defects of Irish agricultural economy, and at the same 
time proposed a series of remedies, which, if they had 
been carried out, might have made Ireland a happy and 
prosperous country." Among the Haliday collection 
of pamphlets in the Royal Irish Academy's Library are 
a number of essays and papers dealing with Irish trade, 
manufactures, and husbandry in the first half of the 
eighteenth century, which will well repay perusal by 
those making such subjects a special study. They 
show that in the south of Ireland farms were being 
largely consolidated and lesser tenants were being 
turned out, while the north groaned under the burden 
of excessive rents, and everywhere discontent became 
rife. 

At the time of the accession of King George the 
Second to the throne, there was much cultivated society 
in Dublin, and throughout Ireland there were many 
thoughtful men, anxious to improve the condition of 
their country, and to raise the status of the agri- 
cultural population, on which its prosperity so largely 
depended. As a result of these conditions, a small 
band of patriotic reformers, actuated by the purest 
and noblest motives, felt that a time had arrived at 
which they might unite in an effort to promote and 
improve the system of husbandry, the manufactures, 

1 Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, i. 302. 



6 A HISTORY OF 

and useful arts of the country. To them was due the 
foundation of the Dublin Society. 

Though the Society soon began to assemble in a 
committee room of the Parliament House, its first 
meeting was held in the rooms of the Philosophical 
Society in Trinity College on the 25th of June 173 1, 
and the following is a transcript of the minutes of 
that date : — 

Dublin, 2$thjune, 1731 
Present 

Judge Ward. Dr. Stephens. 

Sir Th. Molyneux. Dr. Magnaten. 

Th. Upton, Esq. Dr. [John] Madden. 

John Pratt, Esq. Dr. Lehunte. 

Rich. Warburton, Esq. Mr. Walton. 

Rev. Dr. Whitecomb. Mr. Prior. 

Arthur Dobs, Esq. W. Maple. 

Several gentlemen having agreed to meet in the 
Philosophical Rooms in Trin. Col., Dub., in order to 
promote Improvements of all kinds, and Dr. Stephens 
being desired, took the Chair. 

It was proposed and unanimously agreed unto, 
to form a Society, by the name of the Dublin Society, 
for improving Husbandry, Manufactures, and other 
useful arts. 

It was proposed and resolved, that all the present, 
and all such who should become members of the 
Society, shall subscribe their names to a Paper, con- 
taining their agreement to form a Society for the 
purposes aforesaid. 

Ordered that a Committee ot all the members 
present do meet next Thursd., in the Philosophical 
Rooms in Trin. Col., Dub., to consider of a Plan 
or Rules for the Government of the Society, any 
three thereof to be a Quorum, and that notice be sent 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 7 

to the members in Town, the day before the time for 
meeting. The Society adjourned to this day fort- 
night. 

The names of those who thus stood round the 
cradle of the infant Society must ever be held in 
honour in this country, and, though all were men of 
note, the names of at least eight stand out prominently 
as having, from the start and for years after, laboured 
assiduously and unselfishly in promoting the ends it 
had in view. Primarily, they set themselves to educate 
those concerned in the first principles of successful 
farming, and in endeavouring to promote industries 
which might afford employment. As our story pro- 
ceeds and unfolds itself, the warmest admiration must 
be felt for them as men who seemed so much in 
advance of their age, and who aimed at making Ireland 
not only self-supplying, but also a great exporting 
country. 

Michael Ward, of Castle Ward, co. Down, m.p. for 
the county of Down 171 5 ; Justice of the King's Bench 
1727— 1759. He was father of the first Viscount Bangor. 

Sir Thomas Molyneux, brother of William Molyneux, 
was born in Dublin in 166 1, and studied for the medical 
profession at Leyden. He was a friend of Robert Boyle 
and Sir William Petty, and in London became acquainted 
with Sir Isaac Newton, John Evelyn, and Dryden ; he also 
met Locke. Molyneux was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, and in 1702 became President of the Irish College 
of Physicians. In 1730 he was created a Baronet, and died 
in Dublin in 1 733. A monument to his memory was 
erected in Armagh Cathedral. Molyneux printed Notes on 
the Giant's Causeway, which was the first work that main- 
tained it to be a natural formation. He published the 
earliest account of the Sea Mouse, and in 1696, the first 
scientific report on the Irish Elk {Cervus megaceros) in a 



A HISTORY OF 

" Discourse concerning the large horns frequently found 
underground in Ireland." He also wrote an essay on 
Giants, a letter on the Lyre of Greeks and Romans, and a 
discourse on Danish Forts. There is in Trinity College a 
portrait of Sir Thomas by Kneller. 

The Rev. Dr. John Whitecombe was born in Cork, and 
became tutor to Lord George Sackville, son of the Duke of 
Dorset, to whom he was chaplain. He obtained a Fellow- 
ship in Trinity College, Dublin, in 1720, being subsequently 
appointed Bishop of Clonfert in 1 735, Bishop of Down 
and Connor, and in 1 752 Archbishop of Cashel. He died 
there in 1 75 3, and is buried in the old cathedral. 

Arthur Dobbs, born at Girvan, n.b. (where his parents 
took refuge during the Irish troubles), in 1689. He was 
Engineer in chief and Surveyor-general in Ireland, and 
M.P. for Carrickfergus in the Parliament of 1727— 1760. 
His essay on the Trade and Imports of Ireland, published by 
A. Rhames, Dublin, 1729, was designed "to give a true 
state of the Kingdom that may set us thinking what may be 
done for the good and improvement of one's country, and 
to rectify mistakes many have fallen into, by reason of a 
prevailing opinion that the trade and prosperity of Ireland 
are detrimental to their [i.e. England's] wealth and commerce, 
and that we are their rivals in trade." He advocated an im- 
proved system of land tenure, considering it a grievance that 
the Irish tenant had no fixed property in his land, and that 
he was thereby deprived of any incentive to improvement. 
The essay contains much information as to the condition of 
Irish trade and of the Irish people at the time. This treatise 
was followed by Thoughts on Government in General in 1 73 1, 
which is among the Haliday Pamphlets. Dobbs took a very 
active part in promoting the search for a North-West 
passage to India and China, and a point of land in Hudson's 
Bay was named Cape Dobbs. He published an Account of 
the Countries adjoining Hudson s Bay, 1 748, and he was also 
instrumental in carrying through an Act of Parliament for 
enclosing waste land and planting trees. In 1 754, Dobbs 
was appointed Governor of North Carolina, and he died at 
the seat of his government in 1 765. 




THOMAS PRIOR 
[Marble Bust by J. Van Nost) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 9 

William Stephens, doctor in physic, was physician to 
the Royal Hospital, Dublin, where he resided, being also 
physician to Mercer's and Steevens' Hospitals. He was a 
member of a very old county Wexford family, that owned 
property in that county and in the county of Kilkenny. Dr. 
Stephens became lecturer in Chemistry in Trinity College 
in 1733, and was President of the College of Physicians in 
that year and again in 1742. He published Botanical 
Elements for the use of the Botany School in the University of 
Dublin, and died in 1760. 

Francis Le Hunte, m.d., succeeded his brother Richard 
Le Hunte in the family estates in co. Wexford, and, on 
retiring from practice as a medical man, went to reside at 
Brennanstown, co. Dublin. His extensive charities, bene- 
volence, and great affability rendered him justly beloved. 
He died December I, 1750. Mozeen, an actor, in an "In- 
vitation to Dr. Le Hunte " {Miscellaneous Essays), says his 
abode was the home of every virtue and delight. (See History 
of Dublin, F. E. Ball, i. 106, and Swanzy's French and Nixon 
Families, p. 27.) 

Thomas Prior, born in 1682, at Rathdowney, Queen's 
co., was educated at Kilkenny School, where he had as 
school-fellow the illustrious George Berkeley, with whom 
he formed a lifelong friendship. After graduating in 
Trinity College in 1 703, Prior began to promote all kinds 
of industrial work in Ireland. His List of Irish Absentees 
appeared in 1729, and was intended as a rebuke to the 
large number of his fellow-countrymen and women who, 
while drawing enormous revenues from their properties, 
systematically resided out of Ireland. In 1741 he printed a 
Proposal as to the Price of Corn. Lord Chesterfield, during the 
period of his viceroyalty, had many opportunities of meeting 
Prior, and formed a very high opinion of him. He acted as 
Secretary to the Society from 1 731 to 175 1. Thomas 
Prior closed a career of exceptional usefulness on the 21st of 
October 175 1, and a monument to his memory was erected 
in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, by the Dublin Society 
(see p. 80). The Society is also in possession of a marble 
bust of him by Van Nost, executed in 175 1 by its order. 



io A HISTORY OF 

William Maple, a distinguished chemist, and operator in 
chemistry to the University of Dublin, was keeper of the 
Parliament House, and it was through his influence that the 
newly formed Society was enabled to meet in one of the 
committee rooms, until suitable premises were found. In 
1723 he had been selected to give evidence before the 
House of Commons as to the composition of the metal in 
Wood's halfpence. In 1727 the Irish Parliament presented 
Maple with ^200 for discovering a method of tanning 
leather by the root of the Tormentilla erecta or Septfoil, and 
in 1729 he published a pamphlet entitled A Method of 
Tanning without Bark. Maple acted as curator and 
registrar to the Dublin Society until his death, which took 
place in 1762, at an advanced age. In his will he speaks of 
his modest fortune as the result " of a painful life of labour," 
and he bequeathed the greater part of it to a niece, Frances 
Potter. There is a bust of Maple, by Cunningham, in 
Leinster House. 

At a meeting held on the 1st of July 173 1, it was 
agreed that the word "Sciences" should be added after 
"Arts " in the title of the Society. Soon after, Anthony 
Sheppard, jun., was appointed its first treasurer, a post 
which he held until his death in 1737. A sumof 301. 
was to be paid on admission to membership, and 30J. 
was to be the amount of the annual subscription. 

Among the earliest admissions a strong clerical 
element was noticeable, and the following five digni- 
taries of the Irish Church joined the Society in September 
I 73 I : (0 Theophilus Bolton, archbishop of Cashel, one 
of Swift's correspondents. He was a leader in politics, 
opposed to Primate Boulter, and favourable to the 
Irish as distinguished from the English interest. The 
Archbishop was an improver of land, by draining bogs 
which were large and useless, and turning them into 
pasture and tillage. He placed the city of Cashel 
under great obligation by instituting a water supply 
at his own expense. Great rejoicings took place at its 




WILLIAM MAPLE 
[Marble Bust by Patrick Cunningham) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY n 

inauguration, and the new canal was named the " River 
Bolton." (Pue's Occurrences, 16th December 1732.) 
(ii) Welbore Ellis, bishop of Meath, who had pre- 
viously held the See of Kildare. (iii) Josiah Hort, 
bishop of Kilmore, who subsequently became Arch- 
bishop of Tuam. (iv) Edward Synge, bishop of Clon- 
fert. (v) Robert Clayton, bishop of Killala, 1730, 
who published a number of works. His Essay on 
Spirit, 175 1, and some later pamphlets, were so Arian 
in their tendencies, that an Ecclesiastical Commission 
was appointed to bring the Bishop to trial, but he 
died in 1758, before any proceedings were had under 
it. Clayton was appointed to the Bishopric of Clogher 
in 1745, and he and Mrs. Clayton are frequently 
mentioned in the Correspondence of Mrs. Delany, 
who describes the splendid entertainments at their 
house in Stephen's Green. 

Aaron Rhames was appointed as first printer to 
the Society, and the earliest work dealt with was 
Jethro Tull's Horse Hoeing Husbandry, which was 
ordered to be printed, or rather reprinted. This 
appears to be a clear case of piracy, as the work had 
only just appeared in England. The Irish edition 
printed by Rhames is among the Haliday Pamphlets, 
Royal Irish Academy, and the title-page describes the 
work as on the new Horse Houghing Husbandry, 
" wherein is shown a method of introducing a sort of 
vineyard culture into corn fields, in order to increase 
their product and diminish expense by the use of 
instruments lately invented." This was the drill 
husbandry practised in Lombardy ; machines drilled 
the seed in rows, and cleaved and hoed the intervals. 

Jethro Tull, the author of the work, was born in 
Berkshire in 1674, graduated at Oxford, and was called to 
the Bar at Gray's Inn in 1 699, as he had intended entering 



12 A HISTORY OF 

on a political career. He, however, began farming near 
Wallingford, where he invented and perfected his " drill." 
For some years Tull was compelled to travel for his health, 
and on his return in 1 7 14 he carried out many improve- 
ments noted while abroad, but his views and experiments met 
with much opposition. His famous book was an Essay on the 
Principles of Tillage and Vegetation. In 1 733 and 1753, 
French translations of it appeared, and Voltaire was said to 
have been a disciple of Tull, practising husbandry at Ferney 
on the new system. Tull's invention was the contriving 
of an engine which would plant more surely than could be 
done by hand, and he is said to have invented the four- 
wheeled post-chaise. His death took place in 1 741. 

A treatise on " A new method of draining marshy 
and boggy lands " was presented in writing by 
Mr. Prior, which, on being read, was ordered to be 
registered, and this treatise is copied in full in the 
original minute book. A paper on Hampshire Methods 
in the Culture of Hops ', by Captain Cobbe, and a disserta- 
tion on Dyeing by Dr. William Stephens, were also 
read, and are to be found in the minute book. 

The meeting of the 28th of October 173 1 was held 
in the Lords' committee room at the Parliament House, 
where many subsequent ones were conducted. Dr. 
Stephens brought forward an account of the design 
and method of proceeding of the Society, of which 
2000 copies were ordered to be printed, distributed 
among the members, and also sent into the country. 

As showing the anxious desire of the Society, even 
in its early infancy, for full enquiry and enlightenment 
on every point that might tend to improvement, which 
has been so characteristic of it in its subsequent career, 
there is a record of Lord Barrymore having been re- 
quested to direct his agent in Cheshire to send over a 
bushel of each species of marl found in that county : 
also of Mr. Prior handing in a set of queries on 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 13 

madder 1 which were to be sent to Holland, with a view 
to eliciting information. Dutch methods seem to 
have been highly appreciated, and among the earliest 
volumes acquired by the Society as a nucleus for its 
library were works by Dutch writers on agriculture 
and husbandry. 

On the 4th of December 173 1, the first election of 
officers was held, when Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 
Duke of Dorset, lord lieutenant, was named as presi- 
dent of the Society ; the Primate (Hugh Boulter), vice- 
president ; Anthony Sheppard, treasurer ; Dr. Stephens, 
secretary for home affairs ; Thomas Prior, secretary for 
foreign affairs ; William Maple, curator and registrar. 
Subsequently, on being waited on at the Castle by a 
deputation to thank him for the honour done the 
Society by his consenting to become President, the 
Duke of Dorset signed his name in that capacity in 
the subscription book. Hugh Boulter, primate, who 
was chosen vice-president, held the See of Armagh 
from 1724 to 1742. He was born in London, and 
soon after entering on public life, his great talents 
made him a conspicuous figure both in Church and 
State. He lies buried in Westminster Abbey, where 
there is a monument to his memory. At this election 
Dr. John Van Lewen was admitted a member, and he 
appears to have been the first member of the Society 
admitted by ballot. He was son of a Dutch physician, 
and practised as an accoucheur, dying in Moles- 
worth street in 1736. Van Lewen was father of 
Letitia Van Lewen, Swift's favourite, who married the 
Rev. Matthew Pilkington. 

1 Madder was grown in large quantities in Flanders, on which 
account cloth, made in England, was still sent over there to be 
dyed. Until the introduction of the coal-tar colours, more than a 
century later, madder was the principal source of all red dyes. (See 
Hist. Roy. Soc. A7'ts, p. 15.) 



A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER II 

CONSTITUTION AND PROGRESS OF THE SOCIETY 

On the 18th of December 173 1, twenty-six members 
being present, rules for forming the Society and direct- 
ing the method of procedure were approved. They 
are as follows : 

1. That the election of members, after 100 shall 
have subscribed, shall be by Ballot. 

2. That a President, Vice-President, two Secretaries, 
a Treasurer, a Curator and Register be chosen out of 
their members. 

3. That a Standing Committee, annually elected, 
of twenty-one members, be appointed to meet an hour 
before the members of the Society, to order all matters 
relating to the economy of the Society, five whereof 
shall make a quorum, and all members that come to 
have voices. 

4. That all the officers of the Society shall be chosen 
by Ballot on the second Thursday in November, yearly, 
and as often as any vacancy shall happen. 

5. That in case the President and Vice-President 
shall be both absent from any meeting, the members 
then present, being seven in number, may appoint one 
of their number to be chairman for that time, with the 
same power as the President or Vice-President would 
have had, were they present. 

6. That the President, Vice-President, or Chairman 
shall regulate debates, state and put questions, call for 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 15 

Reports and Accounts, and see to the execution of the 
Statutes. 

7. That the business of the Secretaries, one for 
home affairs, and one for correspondence, shall be to 
note down in writing the orders and material passages 
of the meetings, take care of the Books and Papers of 
the Society, direct the Register in making entries in the 
Register and Journal Books, draw up all such letters 
as shall be ordered to be written in the name of the 
Society, and which shall be approved of at one of the 
meetings, and give notice of members and officers to be 
elected. 

8. That the Treasurer shall receive all the Society's 
money, and pay sums under forty shillings by order of 
the Standing Committee, and all sums exceeding forty 
shillings by order of the Society. That all bills for 
charges of experiments shall be signed by the persons 
appointed to attend the making them, and that the 
accounts of the Treasurer shall be audited by the 
Standing Committee four times in a year, and once in 
a year by the Society. 

9. When experiments shall be ordered to be made 
in Dublin at the charge of the Society, the Curator 
shall prepare the instruments and materials ; and one 
or more members shall be appointed to be assistants of 
these experiments, who, together with the Curator, are 
to attend the making thereof, and shall in due time 
report the same in writing to the Society. 

10. When experiments are to be made in the 
country, proper instructions shall be sent to correspon- 
dents for making those experiments with care and 
exactness. 

1 1 . A Register shall be kept of all experiments 
made by order of the Society, and communicated from 
their correspondents, and observations made of their 



1 6 A HISTORY OF 

agreement or disagreement with experiments of the 
like nature made in other places. 

12. That whatever Statute or Standing Order shall 
be proposed to be made or repealed, the making or 
repealing thereof shall be twice voted, and at two 
several meetings. 

13. That the Society hold a correspondence with 
other Societies and private persons. 

14. That all the works, journals, and transactions 
which shall for the future be published by other 
Societies and private persons, which shall contain any 
useful improvement or discovery in Nature or Art, be 
purchased, by the order of and at the charge of the 
Society. 

15. That the Ordinary Meetings of the Society be 
held once a fortnight, at such time and place as the 
Society shall appoint, where none shall be present but 
the members, without the leave of the Society. 

16. That a Committee of Arts shall sit once a 
fortnight in such weeks wherein the Society do not 
meet, to which Committee all members may come at 
pleasure, and may admit artists, tradesmen, and husband- 
men, to assist and inform the members, in such Arts 
and improvements as shall be thought useful, and fit 
to be encouraged and propagated in this kingdom. 

17. That it be the business of the Committee of 
Arts, particularly to enquire into the state of Husbandry 
and the several mechanic Arts in this kingdom, to 
find out wherein they fall short of the Arts of other 
countries, to consider what foreign improvements may 
be introduced here, or new inventions set on foot, 
by what means and at what expense this may be done. 

18. That models of the instruments of every Art 
be procured, more especially of such instruments 
which are made use of in other countries, and not 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 17 

known here, and of such complicated engines, whose 
use and formation cannot easily be discovered by the 
figure thereof. 

19. That every member of this Society, at his 
admission, be desired to choose some particular subject, 
either in Natural History, or in Husbandry, Agri- 
culture, or Gardening, or some species of Manufacture, 
or other branch of improvement, and make it his 
business, by reading what had been printed on that 
subject, by conversing with them who made it their 
profession, or by making his own experiments, to 
make himself master thereof, and to report in writing, 
the best account they can get by experiment or 
enquiry relating thereunto. 

20. To the end that all members may be fully 
informed of all particulars relating to any Art or 
Manufacture which shall be proposed to be improved, 
proper queries shall be drawn up, and transmitted to 
such persons and places, who shall be thought most 
likely to give the best account thereof, and that all 
answers to such questions, when well considered and 
approved of, be printed for the use of the public, in 
order that the skill, manner of work, and the instru- 
ments made use of in other countries, or in some 
parts of this kingdom only, may be transferred and 
set up in other places, where they are not known, 
or improved in such manner as they are capable of. 

On the 20th of January, 1732, two additional 
rules were added : — 

2 1 . When any Officers are to be elected : — let 
there be got ready as many balls as there are members 
present, three whereof shall be of a different colour 
from the rest ; put them all into a box or cup, and 
shake them. Let the box be put on some height, and 
every member take out one. They that take out the 

B 



1 8 A HISTORY OF 

three coloured balls are to agree in the nomination 
of candidates for offices vacant or expiring. These 
candidates are to be voted for by ballot, by the rest 
of the present members, and if any should not have 
two-thirds of the voices present, let there be a new 
drawing for nominees, in order to choose new candi- 
dates to be balloted for, and so proceed until the 
respective vacancy of Officers are filled. 

22. That no Statute or Rule of this Society be 
made or repealed from the first of May till the first 
of November in any year. 

The nineteenth of these Rules, namely, that as to 
each member choosing some particular subject either 
in husbandry or manufacture, and making himself 
master of it, was of great importance, and was loyally 
carried out, many Essays on various subjects being con- 
tributed to the proceedings. 

The bill due to Rhames for printing now amounted 
to j£i2, ioj. 3^/. Richard Gunne of Capel street was 
employed as stationer to the Society. 

The next year opened with experiments as to 
methods of cleansing corn, and clover grass seed, and 
reference to a committee to draw up short instructions, 
by way of question and answer, for the use of charity 
schools. The Society also interested itself in distri- 
buting copies of Slater's Culture of Flax, received from 
the Linen Board, and in the growing of saffron. 

At this time there existed great cider plantations 
at Castle Hyde, at Mr. Crotty's and Mr. Hill's, near 
Fermoy, and at Curryglass. Colonel Barry of Rath- 
cormack, and the owner of Waterpark, co. Waterford, 
cultivated apples extensively, while near Lismore were 
many noted orchards. From its inception, the Dublin 
Society interested itself in cider and its manufacture, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 19 

and succeeding pages will show how earnestly it strove 
to develop this branch of industry, as the climate and 
soil of the south of Ireland seemed most favourable 
for raising good cider apples. 

Another step taken was to have a catalogue drawn 
up of all books of husbandry and mechanic arts, in 
English, French, Greek, and Latin ; also to ascertain 
what books in foreign languages gave the best account 
of same, as practised in France, Flanders, Holland, 
Germany, Poland, and Italy. A very practical sug- 
gestion was also made and carried out, namely, that 
letters should be sent to correspondents in the country 
to engage them to form local societies in the principal 
towns and cities, for the promotion of husbandry and 
agriculture, which might establish communications 
with the Dublin Society. A set of Maps of Ireland, 
published by Grierson, was ordered to be purchased. 
There is a reference to these maps in Dean Swift's 
correspondence, in a letter of 25th December 1734, 
from the Rev. Thomas Sheridan to Swift. 1 

On the 3rd of February 1732, a letter from Mr. 
William Colles, of Kilkenny, was read, which informed 
the Society that close to that city was a quarry of excellent 
black marble, in which, together with some mills on 
the river, he had secured an interest. He had tried ex- 
periments, and, as a result, he had now ten saws moved 
by water power, working night and day, which sawed 
the marble truly. An engine ground the marble with 
sand, to fit it for polishing, and Mr. Colles added 
that he employed thirty hands in turning out chimney 
pieces, tables, mortars, tombstones, &c. He had also 
brought to perfection the boring of marble pipes, 
which served to convey water underground and from 
the tops of houses. The firm had executed an order 

1 Correspondence, ed. by F. E. Ball, v. 121. 



2o A HISTORY OF 

for a set of these at Mr. Sterne Tighe's in Usher's 
quay, Dublin. Enterprise such as this, and the success 
that crowned Mr. Colles' efforts, were welcomed by 
the Society, and every encouragement was given to 
any persons who might be willing to extend the industry 
in Irish marble. 

The following members were invited to formulate 
queries on the several subjects assigned to them : — 
The Bishop of Down (Dr. Francis Hutchinson), 
"Bogs; Rev. Dr. Kearney, Manures; H. Boyd, Coals ; 
William Hoey, Lead and Copper ; Rev. Dr. Jackson, 
Ploughing and Harrowing. Dr. Hutchinson was a 
native of Derby, and on his election to the see of 
Down he settled in Lisburn. During his episcopate 
a clergyman was first appointed to minister to the 
inhabitants of Rathlin Island, numbering about 500, 
and a Raghlin Church Catechism, with Irish and 
English in parallel columns, was printed for their use. 
Why the Bishop should have been asked to take up 
the subject of Bogs is not clear, but as he had written 
on employment of the poor, and published a statement 
of the case of the Island of Rathlin, he may have had 
special knowledge. In passing, it may be remarked 
that two other bishops of the Irish Church dealt with the 
subject of bogs. Archbishop King wrote a discourse 
concerning the " Bogs and Loughs of Ireland," and 
Ware says that Theophilus Bolton, archbishop of 
Cashel, was an improver of land by draining large and 
useless bogs, and turning them into pasture and tillage. 

Though the Society was only a short time in exist- 
ence, the matter of its applying for a Royal Charter 
was taken up in February 1732, and a copy of the 
Royal Society's Charter was ordered to be procured as 
a precedent. 

Dr. Stephens read before the Society an account of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 21 

the Roman inscriptions lately found in Graham's Dyke 
in the west of Scotland, a subject which does not appear 
to have come quite within the scope of the proceedings. 
A paper of more interest to Ireland was one dealing 
with Colonel Prittie's silver mines in the county of Tip- 
perary, which had been leased to an English company. 
The account of them was copied into the minute book. 

When the summer recess approached, Dr. Stephens 
was directed to summon the Society to meet at Anne's 
coffee house on any extraordinary occasion. Later 
in the year, Dr. Stephens presented the Society with a 
manuscript of Sir William Petty as to making woollen 
cloth, and an account of Bees 1 was read before it. 

In the winter, a number of new ploughs, for which 
one John Nummys had a patent, were imported, and 
the members were invited to attend a special trial of 
them in the Phoenix Park. 

On the 9th of November 1732 appears a systematic 
account of the ballot held for election of officers. The 
Standing Committee of twenty-one being present, three 
gilded balls and eighteen others were put into a dish, 
and, being placed on high, were drawn, the gilded ones by 
Alderman Kane, Captain Cobbe, and Mr. Dobbs, who, 
retiring into another room, after some time returned, 
and proposed the Lord-Lieutenant as president, the 
Primate as vice-president, Anthony Sheppard treasurer, 
Rev. Dr. Whetcombe, secretary for domestic affairs, 
Mr. Prior secretary for foreign affairs, and Mr. William 
Maple curator and registrar, all of whom were separ- 
ately balloted for and elected. 

The implements, models, cider and flax mills, the 
property of the Society, had by this time accumulated 

1 Instructions for Managing Bees, drawn up and published by 
order of the Dublin Society, is among the Haliday Pamphlets, 1733, 
cxi. 5. 



22 A HISTORY OF 

to such an extent, that application was made to the 
Lords Justices for accommodation in one or two of the 
vaults under the Parliament House, where they might 
be viewed by agriculturists, &c. This is the earliest 
instance recorded, in Great Britain or Ireland, of the 
formation of an Agricultural Museum. The exhibition 
was opened on the 22nd of February 1733. 

In the early part of the year 1733, a report on 
collieries at Ballycastle, 1 and on some minerals from 
the volcano in Kerry, 2 engaged the attention of the 
members. The question of Hop culture 3 also came 
before them, and a sum of £5 was voted to Mr. 
Hatfield for a journey to the Hop country in England, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the best mode of 
managing hops, with a view to his giving instructions 
on his return. As possibly a result of these inquiries, 
hops from Farnham were planted in 1739 in the 
Society's field. The encouragement of tillage was a 
subject of such anxious care to the Society, that the 
Secretary was directed to open communications with 
the Society formed in North Britain, to ascertain 
its views and mode of proceeding. Attention was 
also being directed to paper manufacture, earthen, 
iron, and glass ware, salt, hemp, and dyeing stuffs. 
The earliest notice of anything connecting the Society 
with the fishing industry occurs on the 1st of November 

1 Haliday Pamphlets, cxi. No. 3. Ballycastle Collieries set in their 
proper light, with answers to several objections against the benefits 
that may arise to the Kingdom thereby. (Geo. Faulkner, I733-) 

2 Smith, in his History of Kerry (p. 220), in mentioning the castles 
of Lick and Dune, near Ballybunion, speaks of what was termed a 
Volcano, which burst out on the high cliffs between these castles, 
some fourteen years previously. He considered it an accidental 
burning of combustible matter on the external surface of the cliff, in 
the composition of which were pyrite, sulphur, and iron ore. 

a There is a pamphlet entitled, Instructions for Planting and 
Managing Hops, issued by the Dublin Society, among the Haliday 
Collection (1733, cxi. No. 4). 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 23 

1733, when a paper on the destruction of fisheries by 
trawling was read. It may be remarked here that in 
February 1738 the Bishop of Down presented the Society 
with a new Treatise on Fisheries. 

In Pue's Occurrences of the 24th of February 1733, 
the Society made its first appearance in the public press, 
with a notice as to its intention of publishing from 
time to time instructions in Husbandry. As char- 
acteristic of the methods pursued, and showing the 
care and thought voluntarily bestowed on the affairs 
of the Society by its working members, it will be of 
interest to reproduce the article : — 

"The Dublin Society, intending to publish instructions 
in several branches of Husbandry, desire gentlemen and 
farmers in the country will be pleased to communicate to 
the Society any useful improvement they know or practice 
in any part of Husbandry, by letter directed to Anthony 
Sheppard, jun., Esq. in Dublin. And whereas it has been 
found upon frequent trials, that the new invented plow, 
lately brought from England, plows lay and stubble ground 
very well with half the number of cattle required for the 
common plow, when it is managed by a plowman who 
knows the right way of using it, but has sometimes not 
answered expectation from want of skill in the person who 
held it. This is to give notice that if gentlemen who have 
got the new plow, will send their plowmen to Dublin, and 
direct them to Mr. Thomas Prior, at Mr. Gunn's, book- 
seller in Caple St., care shall be taken to have them 
instructed gratis^ in two or three days at most, the right 
way of using the said plow, by persons well skilled, who 
live near Dublin." 

Following up this practice, a further article, (on 
this occasion), as to the culture of flax, appeared on 
the 10th of April in the same year. 

"The Dublin Society has ordered the following account 
of extraordinary produce of flax seed to be published, in 



24 A HISTORY OF 

order to let people see what increase of profit they may 
expect, if they sow their flax seed thin, and manage their 
ground and flax in the proper manner. Philip Ward, living 
within two small miles of Belturbet, co. Cavan, sowed last 
May two bushels and half a peck of flax seed on one 
plantation acre, and had a return of 22 bushels clean good 
seed, and above 2 bushels light seed. He sowed it as corn 
is usually sown. 

" The Society is fully satisfied of the truth of this relation, 
and recommend those about to sow, to sow flax seed thin — 
about 2 J bushels to a plantation acre ; plow the land well ; 
harrow fine before sowing ; seed to be very clean ; destroy 
all weeds ; not to pull the flax until the seed turns brown, 
and stack it after. 



" The Society desire gentlemen in the country will be 
pleased to communicate to them (directing to Anthony 
Sheppard, jun., Esq.) what success or improvements they 
meet in this or any other part of Husbandry." 

Rhames published in 1734 a list of the Members 
of the Society for 1733, 1 which is as follows. It 
shows the state of the membership at the end of the 
third year of its existence. Some of the members 
to whose names numbers have been affixed, will be 
found subsequently specially noticed. 

Lionel, Duke of Dorset, L.L., Lord Boyne. 

Presideiit. Henry Boyle, Speaker h.c. (i). 

Hugh, Archbishop of Armagh, Rt. Hon. Francis Burton. 

Primate, Vice-President. Hon. Humphry Butler. 

Lord Viscount Allen. Hon. Thomas Butler. 

Hon. John Allen. John Baldwin. 

Robert Allen, Secretary to the James Barry. 

Commissio7iers. Arundel Best. 

Stephen Allen, M.D. Nathaniel Bland, LL.D. 

Rev. Mr. Allynet, F.T.C.D. David Bindon. 

Benedict Arthur. Francis Bindon (2). 

William Aston. Thomas Bolton, M.D. 



Haliday Pamphlets, 1734, cxvi. No. 15. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



25 



Edward Bond. 

Hugh Boyde. 

Rev. Dr. Bradford. 

Henry Brook (3). 

John Brown, Westport. 

John Brown, Dublin. 

James Bryan. 

John Bourk. 

Thomas Burgh (4). 

James Brennan, m.d. 

Richard Buckworth. 

Joseph Bury. 

William Bury. 

Colonel James Butler, co. Tip- 
perary. 

Theophilus, Archbishop of 
Cashel. 

Earl of Cavan. 

John, Bishop of Clogher. 

Lord Castledurrow. 

Rt. Hon. Thomas Carter, Master 
of the Rolls [1731-1754]. 

Rt. Hon. Marmaduke Cog- 
hill. 

Rt. Hon. William Conolly. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Crofton, 
Bart. 

Hon. Thomas Coote. 

Rev. Caleb Cartwright. 

David Chaigneau. 

John Coldbeck. 

Samuel Card. 

Nathaniel Clements. 

Captain William Cobbe. 

John Coddington. 

James Coghill, ll.d. 

Rev. Francis Corbet. 

Thomas Corker. 

Mr. Coughlan. 

Rev. Dean Cottrel. 

Sir Richard Cox, Bart. (5). 

John Cramer. 

Baldwin Crow. 

Sir Maurice Crosby, Bart. 

Michael Cuffe. 

John, Archbishop of Dublin. 

Francis, Bishop of Down and 
Connor. 

Henry, Bishop of Dromore. 

Robert Dallway. 



Rev. Richard Daniel, Dean of 

Down. 
John Darner. 
Joseph Darner. 
Ephraim Dawson. 
Rev. Dr. Delany (6). 
Edward Dering. 
John Despard. 
John Digby. 
Arthur Dillon. 
Arthur Dobbs. 
Rev. Richard Dobbs. 
William Dobbs. 
Sir Compton Domvill, Bart. 
Rev. Dean Anthony Dopping. 
Rev. Robert Downs. 
Robert, Bishop of Elphin. 
Richard Edgworth. 
Dr. John Elwood. 
Eyre Evans. 
Benjamin Everard. 
Colonel John Eyre. 
John Fitzgerald. 
Alderman Humphry French (7). 
John Folliot. 
Sir William Fowns, Bart. 
Rev. William French. 
Arthur French. 
Lord Viscount Gormanstown. 
Rt. Hon. William Graham. 
Luke Gardiner. 
Rev. Dr. Claudius Gilbert. 
Rev. Mr. Gibson, F.T.C.D. 
Mr. Goodwin. 
Sir Arthur Gore, Bart. 
Arthur Gore of Mayo. 
Arthur Gore of Tenelick. 
William Gore. 
Rev. John Graham. 
Godfrey Green. 
Thomas Green. 
Earl of Halifax. 
Hon. Henry Hamilton. 
Charles Hamilton. 
Alexander Hamilton. 
William Handcock. 
Wentworth Harman. 
William Harrison. 
Joseph Harrison. 
William Hawkins. 



26 



A HISTORY OF 



Arthur Hill. 

William Hoey. 

George Holmes. 

Toby Hall. 

Rev. Mr. Hutchinson, Dean of 

Dromore. 
Earl of Inchiquin. 
Rev. Dr. Wm. Jackson. 
Rev. Daniel Jackson. 
Rev. John Jebb. 
Earl of Kerry. 
Charles, Bishop of Kildare. 
Robert, Bishop of Killala. 
Josiah, Bishop of Kilmore. 
Lord Kingsland. 
Sir Henry King, Bart. 
Alderman Nathaniel Kane. 
Rev. Dr. John Kearney. 
Patrick Kelly. 
William Kennedy. 
Counsellor Ker. 
Charles King. 
Dennis King. 
Rev. Mr. King, F.T.C.D. 
Edward Knatchbull. 
Thomas Knox. 
Colonel S. L. Legonier. 
Francis Lehunte, M.D. 
Thomas Lehunte. 
Rev. George Lesley. 
Sir Richard Levinge, Bart. 
Nicholas Loftus. 
Francis Lucas. 
Peter Ludlow. 
Colley Lyons. 
Thomas Lyndsay. 
Arthur, Bishop of Meath. 
Viscount Mount Cashell. 
Viscount Molesworth. 
Chief Baron Marlay [1730-1741, 

C.J.K.B. 1741-1751]. 
Alderman John Macarroll. 
Alexander Macnaghten, M.D. 
Rev. Dr. Madden. 
Thomas Madden, M.D. 
Edward Madden. 
Robert Magill. 
James McManus. 
William Maple, Registe?: 
Isaac Manley. 



Robert Marshall. 

William Maynard. 

Captain John Maule. 

George Mathew. 

John Maxwell. 

Alderman Edward Mead. 

Robert Meredith. 

Rev. Dean Meredith. 

Thomas Medlicot. 

Sir Richard Mead, Bart. 

Rev. Edward Molloy. 

Sir Daniel Molineaux, Bart. 

William Monsell. 

Charles Monk. 

Charles Moore. 

Stephen Moore. 

Mark Anthony Morgan. 

Viscount Nettervill. 

James Lenox Napper. 

Richard Nedham. 

William Newenham. 

Christopher Nicholson. 

David Nixon. 

Earl of Orrery (8). 

Rev. J. Obins, F.T.C.D. 

Henry O'Hara. 

Colonel Robert Oliver. 

Lord Percivall. 

Rt. Hon. Benjamin Parry. 

Lt. -General Pearce. 

Sir Thomas Prendergast, Bart. 

Rev. Stackpole Perry. 

Robert Percival. 

Rev. Dean Percival. 

Ambrose Philips (9). 

David Power. 

John Pratt. 

Colonel Henry Prittie. 

Nar. Charles Proby. 

Thomas Prior, Secretary. 

Nicholas, Bishop of Raphoe. 

Abel Ram. 

Robert Rochfort. 

John Rochfort. 

Robert Roberts. 

Christopher Rogers. 

Robert Ross. 

Henry Rose. 

Colonel Richbell. 

Hercules Rowley. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



27 



William Rowley. 

H. L. Rowley. 

George Rye. 

Lord Southwell. 

Hon. Hayes St. Leger. 

Rev. Dr. St. George. 

Robert Sandford. 

Rev. Dr. Sheridan (10). 

Anthony Sheppard, junr., 
Treasurer. 

Henry Singleton, Prime Ser- 
jeant. 

William Smith, Headborough, 
co. Waterford. 

Alderman James Somervill. 

William Sprigg. 

Colonel Richard St. George. 

John Stothard. 

John Stratford. 

Colonel Edward Stratford. 

William Stephens, M.D., Secre- 
tary. 

Walter Stephens. 

Rev. Dr. Charles Stewart. 

Rev. Dr. Archibald Stewart. 

Alexander Stewart. 

Christopher Swift. 

Rt. Hon. Richard Tighe. 

Rt. Hon. James Tynte. 

Edward Taylor. 

Rev. Dean Robert Taylor. 



William Taylor. 

Thomas Taylor. 

Berkley Taylor. 

Thomas Tennison. 

Colonel Frederick Trench. 

Frederick Trench, B.L. 

Thomas Trotter, LL.D. 

John Vandeleur. 

George Vaughan. 

John Vernon. 

Christopher Usher. 

Lord Windham, Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland [1726-1736]. 

Hon. Baron Wainwright. 

Hon. Justice Ward. 

James Wallace. 

Jacob Walton. 

Richard Warburton, Garry- 
hinch. 

Richard Warburton, Donny- 
carny. 

Richard Westby. 

Warner Westenra. 

William Westby. 

Rev. Dr. John Whetcombe. 

James Whitshed. 

Colonel Samuel Whitshed. 

Godfrey Wills. 

Richard Wingfield. 

Benjamin Woodward. 

Rev. Dr. John Wynne. 



In all 267 members. 

1. Henry Boyle, who was born in 1682, was m.p. for co. 
Cork. In 1733 he was made a Privy Councillor, and Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, and finally Speaker of the Irish House 
of Commons, which post Boyle resigned in 1756, when he 
was created Earl of Shannon. Lord Burlington and Cork 
(whose daughter was his second wife) entrusted to him the 
management of his estates in Ireland, the value of which 
became enhanced, and Boyle promoted extensive improve- 
ments in the district. He died in 1764. 

2. Francis Bindon, of Cloony, co. Clare, portrait painter, 
a man of high social position. He painted several portraits of 
Dean Swift, the best known being one executed in 1735 for 



28 A HISTORY OF 

Lord Howth, which is now at Howth Castle ; and another 
executed in 1738, for the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's, 
now at the Deanery. A bust portrait of the Dean, in the 
National Gallery, Dublin, has been ascribed to Bindon. He 
also painted Provost Baldwin, Primate Hugh Boulter, and 
Archbishop Cobbe. In addition, Bindon practised as an 
architect : his chief architectural works were mansions for 
Lord Milltown, Lord Bessborough, and Sir William Fownes. 
He died in 1765. 

3. Henry Brooke, who is well known as the writer of 
the Fool of Quality, and the tragedy of Gustavus Vasa, had 
more substantial claims to membership of the Society. To 
aid in obtaining Parliamentary grants for Inland Navigation, 
he published the Interests of Ireland. In 1760 he became 
secretary to an association in Dublin for registering pro- 
posals of national utility. Brooke was the first conductor of 
the Freeman's Journal, which was established in 1763. He 
was born in 1703, and died in 1783. 

4. Thomas Burgh (or Bourgh), overseer of Fortifications 
and Buildings 1700-1730. He published in 1J24. J Method 
to determine Areas. Burgh was asked to prepare plans for the 
new Parliament House in Dublin, but Sir Edward Pearce, 
who succeeded him, appears in all official documents as its 
designer. 

5. Sir Richard Cox, second baronet, succeeded his 
grandfather, Sir Richard Cox (lord chancellor), who died 
3 May 1733. He established a linen manufactory at 
Dunmanway, and was writer of the letter that appeared in 
1749, addressed to Thomas Prior, " showing from experience 
a sure method to establish the Linen Manufacture, and the 
beneficial effects it will immediately produce," the author- 
ship of which has been attributed to his grandfather. 

6. Patrick Delany, born at Athy about the year 1685, 
became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1709. When Dean 
Swift came to reside in Dublin, Delany became one of his 
most intimate friends, and they held the same views in 
politics. Swift said of him that he was " the most eminent 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 29 

preacher we have." He was successively Rector of St. 
John's, Dublin, Chancellor of Christ Church, and Chancellor 
of St. Patrick's, finally being appointed in 1744 to the 
Deanery of Down. Delany published a vindication of Swift 
and his circle, in reply to Lord Orrery's insinuations, which 
is said to contain the only extant account of the great Dean 
by one who had been acquainted with him when his 
intellect was in its fullest vigour. Delany was author of 
Revelation examined with candour, a performance on which he 
was said to set a high value, and of a Life of David, King of 
Israel, and his Reflections on Polygamy excited much criticism. 
Delany married, as his second wife, Mary Granville, Mrs. 
Pendarves, whose well-known Correspondence gives such 
charming glimpses of their happy domestic life and sur- 
roundings at Delville, Glasnevin, and of society in Dublin 
between 1 740 and 1770. The Dean of Down died at Bath 
in 1768, and lies buried at Glasnevin. 

7. Humphry French, born in 1680, was m.p. for Dublin 
1733-6, and Lord Mayor 1732-3, being well known in his 
day as the " good Lord Mayor." He reformed a number of 
abuses, and when candidate for the representation of the 
city, Dean Swift exerted his powerful influence on his 
behalf, always appearing to regard French with strong 
feelings of admiration. One of the Dean's poems — a 
paraphrase of the 19th Ode of the Fourth Book of Horace — 
addressed to Humphry French, concludes as follows : 

" This the sovereign man complete ; 
Hero : patriot : glorious : free : 
Rich and wise : and good and great : 
Generous Humphry, thou art he ! " 

He died in October 1736. Swift fully intended to have 
written his biography, and in a letter to Geo. Faulkner, the 
printer, begged him to procure particulars of his life, more 
especially from Mr. Maple (curator and registrar of the 
Dublin Society), who, Swift added, was French's "most 
intimate friend, who knew him best, and could give the 
most just character of himself and his actions. I will, 
though I am oppressed with age and infirmities, stir up all 



3 o A HISTORY OF 

the little spirit I can raise to give the public an account of 
that great patriot : and propose him as an example to all 
future magistrates, in order to recommend his virtues to 
this most miserable kingdom." 

8. John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery, and 5th Earl of 
Cork, born 1707 ; a friend of Swift, Pope, and Johnson. 
His Remarks on the Life and Writings of Jonathan Swifts 1 75 1, 
was the first attempt made at any account of the Dean, who 
left Orrery a portrait and some silver plate. Though they 
had been friends, the work showed malice, and it is thought 
that some contemptuous remarks of Swift were repeated 
to the Earl. He died in 1762. 

9. Ambrose Philips, born in 1675, was a Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and a member of Addison and 
Steele's circle. His poetical Pastorals and tragedy of The 
Distressed Mother are well known. On his friend, Hugh 
Boulter, becoming Primate of Ireland in 1 724, he brought 
Philips over with him as secretary, and he was elected m.p. 
for Armagh. In 1733 he was appointed Judge of the Irish 
Court of Prerogative, and died in 1749. 

10. Thomas Sheridan, born in 1687, was a schoolmaster, 
and a friend of Dean Swift from the time of his arrival in 
Dublin as Dean of St. Patrick's. At Quilca, co. Cavan, 
Sheridan's place, Swift planned the Drapier's Letters, and 
wrote portion of Gulliver's Travels. Sheridan was generally 
believed to be one of the greatest scholars in the kingdom, 
and he published editions of some of the works of Persius, 
Juvenal, and Sophocles. Sheridan died at Rathfarnham in 

1738- 

It is noteworthy that Dean Swift, who was so 
deeply interested in everything that concerned the pro- 
sperity and advancement of Ireland, did not become 
a member of the Society, though many of its prominent 
members were well known to him, some of them indeed 
being intimate personal friends. Dr. Elrington Ball, an 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 31 

unrivalled authority where anything concerning Swift 
is concerned, points out that the Dean held Anthony 
Sheppard, jun., the treasurer, and his father, in con- 
tempt * ; and from Swift's well-known habit of mind, 
especially at a period when he had begun to fail, he 
may possibly have contracted dislikes also to others 
connected with the Society. Berkeley, too, who, as 
will be seen, helped it later on by his writings and 
encouragement, never formally joined its ranks. 

The list includes the names of twelve members of 
the episcopal bench, and thirty-four clergymen (in- 
cluding deans), some of whom were subsequently 
elevated to the episcopate ; of sixteen peers and several 
sons of peers, five members of the judicial bench, in- 
cluding the Lord Chancellor and the Master of the 
Rolls. The Speaker of the House of Commons was 
also a member, and the remaining names are those of 
baronets, retired army officers, country gentlemen, 
barristers, medical men, Fellows of Trinity College, 
and men holding high positions in the world of com- 
merce. Thus all that was best in Dublin society, and 
in the Ireland of the day generally, united in a common 
and patriotic effort to improve the status of their 
country, and we shall soon see how marked an im- 
provement the labours of the Society effected in many 
different directions. 

During the year 1734, the Society appears to have 
brought itself in touch with Holland and with Dutch 
methods. Mr. Robert Ross, of Rostrevor, a member, 
was in Holland, when he was requested to purchase 
Jacob Leupold's Laws of Mechanics, and the five 
volumes of Dutch Laws, which he brought back with 

1 Swift's Correspondence, vol. vi. 6. In a letter to Thomas Sheridan, 
9th April 1737, he says: "The old hunks Shepherd has buried his 
only son^ a young hunks come to age." 



32 A HISTORY OF 

him. These will be found in the catalogue of books 
belonging to the Society reproduced at pp. 170-2. A 
Mr. Teddyman was employed to translate the Dutch 
mill book. A number of madder sets were also 
ordered from Holland, and a model of a Dutch mill 
for fining flax was to be made. With a view to 
encouraging the import of good grass and garden 
seeds, the Society offered to lend ^150 on good 
security, this being the first occasion on which the 
system of loan and bounties, so characteristic of its 
later working, began to be tried. 

A committee was appointed to draw up heads of 
a treatise on the present state of the coin in Ireland, 
and the inconvenience resulting to trade from the want 
of small coin. 

Sir William Parsons sent up from Birr what he 
called a " terrier," an instrument for pulling up small 
trees by their roots ; promising that a scoop spade for 
throwing up with ease and expedition strong roots 
of wild parsnips and other weeds would follow. Sir 
William had already favoured the Society with a plan 
and account of his biangular harrow. Thus, we see that 
nearly two centuries ago, the noble house of Rosse had 
already given evidence of the inventive genius which 
has made the name of Parsons famous, and also had 
exhibited that anxiety for the success of Irish methods 
of husbandry and agriculture which has been evinced 
in a marked degree by successive generations. 

George Berkeley, the illustrious Bishop of Cloyne, 
was an intimate friend of both Prior and Madden, and 
he sought to help them in their efforts to stimulate the 
industries of the country by the publication of his 
Querist, which appeared anonymously in the year 1735. 
The volume was edited by Dr. Madden, and Mr. 
Lecky remarks that very pregnant hints on industrial 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 33 

development are to be found in it, while it anticipates 
many of the conclusions of Adam Smith. 

Under date of November 11, 1736, at the annual 
election of officers, the Rev. Gabriel Jacques Maturin, 
who had joined the Society in 1734, was elected secre- 
tary in the room of Dr. Stephens. He was born at 
Utrecht, son of Pierre, and grandson of Gabriel Maturin, 
a Huguenot, who fled to Holland, from the persecution 
of Louis XIV, and thence came to Dublin, where his 
son was educated. Maturin became Dean of Kildare 
in 1737, and on November 29, 1745, was installed Dean 
of St Patrick's in succession to Swift. Maturin died in 
the following year. 



34 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER III 

THE "WEEKLY OBSERVATIONS" AND GENERAL 
HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. (1736-1750) 

An important step was taken, on the 2nd of December 
1736, when the Society decided on publishing weekly 
in the Dublin News Letter, a paper on some useful sub- 
ject, which soon became known as the Dublin Society's 
" Weekly Observations." The Society arranged to take 
500 copies at half a guinea per week. The papers were 
communicated to other journals, as they appear in 
Pue's Occurrences and in Faulkner's Dublin Journal. 
On the nth of December the following statement 
appeared in the former : 

" Whereas the Dublin Society do intend to begin 
in January to publish their observations on Husbandry 
and other useful arts, which are to be inserted by their 
order in this paper weekly, that they may at the 
cheapest rate fall into more hands, and that their in- 
structions to Husbandmen and others may become 
more useful by being more universal : By this method 
the public will be furnished with the best pieces on 
agriculture &c, at a trifling expense, and by getting 
them in small portions, they will insensibly be led into 
a knowledge which otherwise, by the expense, want of 
time or proper books, they would be ignorant of. 
Such gentlemen as live in the country and are not 
already supplied with this paper, and who are willing 
to encourage so useful a work, are desired to send 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 3 $ 

notice thereof by the beginning of January next, and 
they shall constantly be supplied with the same ; also 
with the best collection of news, both foreign and 
domestic." 

The Society printed a further statement on the 8th 
of January 1737 : — "The gentlemen who by a volun- 
tary association formed themselves into a Society pretty 
well known at present by the name of the Dublin 
Society, having already given the public some general 
account of the design that first brought them together, 
and which they ever since have unweariedly pursued : 
it will be sufficient for the purpose of this Paper, to 
inform the reader of the particular reasons which have 
now engaged them to give their instructions a new 
form, and to endeavour the farther improvement of 
husbandry and other useful arts by observations." It 
goes on to say " that separate Papers, where the 
several errors and deficiencies in our present manage- 
ment will be considered singly and therefore more dis- 
tinctly, seem to tally exactly with our wants, and 
afford the likeliest prospect of success. To these ad- 
vantages must be added those which will accrue from 
the easier distribution of them. Pamphlets fall into 
few hands, but these shorter essays will reach every 
reader in the kingdom. Gentlemen of fortune, con- 
versant with books, cannot be at a loss for directions. 
They can peruse the discoveries of Science and make 
experiments. The poorer sort, husbandman and manu- 
facturer, are the proper objects of instruction. The 
object of the Society is to direct the industry of common 
artists, to bring practical and useful knowledge from 
libraries and closets to public view. This they hope 
will be understood as an invitation to all who truly 
love their country, to communicate to the Society 
experiments or observations — any loose hints, and 



36 A HISTORY OF 

whatever else may contribute to the perfection of 
these papers.' ' 

There is a minute of the 20th of January 1737, 
to the effect that a copy of every paper printed by 
the Society is to be written in a book to be pro- 
vided for that purpose. It may be as well here to 
group together the various papers which appeared 
under the auspices of the Society from this time down 
to April 1740, when, on the starting of Dr. Madden's 
premium system, they ceased to be issued. 

One of the earliest numbers has a list of commodi- 
ties imported yearly, which on an average in money 
value amounted to ^507,270. This calculation was 
made in order to direct public attention to those 
articles which would be most likely to remunerate 
producers. The succeeding numbers were as follows : 

15th Jan. 1737. An Essay on the natural ad- 
vantages of Ireland and the non-use of them. Every- 
thing is imported, and, in no way trusting to our 
own growth, we are dependent on foreign countries. 
Half the wealth yearly drained out of this kingdom 
might, with proper management, be kept in our own 
hands. 

5th Feb. An Essay advocating the promotion of 
spinning. Also one on the benefits to be derived from 
owners living on their estates, and promoting husbandry 
and manufactures. 

1 2th Feb. Irish beef, hides, tallow, and butter 
will always be wanted in the southern parts of Europe, 
and will always find a market. Wool is another 
valuable commodity. More of the necessaries of life 
might be procured by our encouraging tillage. 

1 9th Feb. A letter from a correspondent : — Facility 
of export, certainty of demand, and cheapness of 
materials give a preference to some manufactures, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 37 

and consequently advantage to those countries which 
are most generally engaged in them. Of this kind is 
linen, the staple manufacture of Ireland. Wool is the 
genuine English staple. Every lover of his country 
should be engaged to promote the linen trade. 

26th Feb. Instructions as to linen, choice of soil 
for flax. 

Subsequent letters dealt with the dressing and till- 
ing of the ground, choice and quality of seed for 
flax, and as to its stacking. In April appeared 
letters on flooding in places bordering the sea or on 
rivers ; high tides ; trenching and embanking ; and on 
flooding of low flat lands. In May, the raising of 
hops in bogs claimed attention ; then came road- 
making, and the manufacture of cider. In October, 
appeared a letter on the importance of letting land 
to husbandmen, and tenements to manufacturers, 
showing that a landed manufacturer suffers as a bad 
farmer. In November, the subject of flax-dressing 
was returned to, and throughout January and February 
1738, breaking, scutching, cleansing, fining, and hack- 
ling were dealt with, some of the machines used being 
figured. Next came malt and brewing, and on the 28th 
of October a series of articles on tillage was begun. They 
bore on the culture of rye grass and clover, on hay and 
seed, and one letter sought to remove certain prejudices 
against tillage. In January 1739, the linen manu- 
facture was again brought forward. It was declared 
not to be flourishing in this country, and it was said 
that different measures would have to be pursued 
to keep it alive. 

Richard Reilly, Cork hill, printer to the Society, 
announced an edition of the Weekly Observations? at 

1 See Dublin Society 's Weekly Observations, 17 '36- 1737 : Dublin, 
1763 (in the National Library). 



3 8 A HISTORY OF 

is. ^\d. ; also pictures of the machines recommended, 
neatly engraved on copper. 

In January 1737, Lord Trimlest own communicated 
an account of his new three-coulter plough, which 
ploughed the earth very finely. He also sent up the 
plough for trial, with his own ploughman, when it was 
tried in the Phoenix park, and approved. This practice 
of making trial in the Park of agricultural implements 
and machinery connected with scientific husbandry and 
inventions was subsequently frequently adopted. Some- 
times members interested went down to the country 
to view trials, and there is a record of Mr. Prior 
and Mr. Dobbs having gone to Leixlip in December 
1738, to see at work a drain plough, which is fully 
described. They recommended that a similar plough 
should be procured for the Society. 

Mr. Arbuckle was thanked in October 1737, 
for a poem, addressed to the Dublin Society. He 
was asked to print it, and the Society agreed to take 
20c copies. This recalls Abraham Cowley's Ode 
to the Royal Society, on the granting of the Royal 
Charter in 1662. The letters of " Hibernicus " 
(Francis Hutcheson), were edited in 1725, and the 
edition was dedicated to Richard, Viscount Molesworth, 
by James Arbuckle, a Scotchman who held a post in 
the Quit Rent Office, Dublin. His will was proved 
in the Diocesan Court of Dublin in 1744. A poem, 
entitled Snuff, by Arbuckle, was published in 17 19 
in Edinburgh. 

There is in the King's Inns Library, Dublin, a 
copy of his verses addressed to the Dublin Society 
with the following title page : — 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 39 

A POEM 

INSCRIBED TO THE DUBLIN SOCIETY 



Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini ; 

Hanc Remus, et f rater. Sifortis Etmria crevit , 

Scilicet et rerum /acta est pule herrima Roma. 

Virgil. 



By Mr. ARBUCKLE 



Dublin. Printed by R. Reilly for George Ewing at the 
Angel and Bible in Dame St. mdccxxxvii. 



The verses are as follows : — 

When Rome was rising into Pouur and Fame, 
And all the wondering World reverd her Name, 
Her generous sons, the Boast of Human Race, 
Thought Pleasure criminal, and Ease Disgrace. 
The highest joy a Roman Soul could move, 
Was to defend their Country, or improve. 

Equally pleased, in Intervals of War, 

To hold the Plough, as grace the Victor Car, 

They deemed their work with Conquest but begun, 

Arid tilVd the Provinces their Arms had won. 

Rightly they estimated Things, and knew, 

To cultivate was more than to subdue. 



40 A HISTORY OF 

Thus Quinctius, with three victories yet wartn, 
Retreats in Triumph to his humble Farm. 
And thus stern Cato, on his spade reclind, 
Conversed with Nature, and improved his mind. 
For, in that age of uncorrupted Hearts, 
The rural shades were Nurseries of Arts, 
And bred, though now it scarce will gain Belief, 
The Senator, the Patriot, and the Chief 
The Praise to these sublime Examples due, 
Descends, at last, Hibernians sons, to Tou, 
Who, in an age of sickening Virtue, strive 
The antient Arts and Spirit to revive ; 
Those Arts by Nature's God inspired, in aid 
Ev'n of the wondrous Works Himself had made, 
With impious Arms while other Nations claim 
Empires not theirs, and purchase unjust Fame. 

Or else compeWd by Force, with force oppose 
The fell Invader, and the Hosts of Foes ; 
Or anxious watch those fluctuating Things, 
The Views and Passions of ambitious Kings. 
And, as contending Powers by Turns prevail, 
Adjust the Balance, or incline the Scale ; 
Be thine, Hibernia, thine the happier Toil, 
To turn the Glebe, t* enrich the laboured soil ; 
To rouse with Art the vegetable Powers, 
And catch the virtues of the vernal Showers ; 
With skilful Hands to help our Parent Earth 
To give her comely offspring, Plenty, Birth, 
And to the neighbouring Realms make thine become 
What once was Egypt to imperial Rome. 

Happy the Patriots, who with generous Zeal 

Devote their Labours to the Public Weal. 

To them th 9 industrious Hand shall yearly raise 

Successive Harvests of immortal Praise. 

Avaunt Ambition ! Let thy sons no more 

Boast their vain Triumphs stamped on shining Ore. 

Know thou, and all the World's great Troublers know, 

That 'tis but Earth's vile dross subsides below. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 41 

From her fair Bosom those true Riches spring, 

That Happiness, or Fame to mortals bring. 

By these are nourished, and from these have Birth 

The living Statues of the Gods, on Earth. 

And Heaven th y Inscription gives — and thus we read ; 

" To bless Mankind is to be bless'd indeed" 

Hail Industry ! Parent of Joy and Health, 

Great source of Commerce, Splendour, Pow'r, and Wealth. 

At thy approach, the Graces, newly born, 

Revisit Earth, and Plenty fills her Horn ; 

Through Virtues 1 Banks her stream fair Freedom pours ; 

And gay Delight points to the smiling Hours. 

Amidst them sparkling Mirth asserts a Place, 

And all the beauteous Family of Peace. 

Around in pairs, the blooming Virgins flock : 

One brings the Flax, and one adjusts the Rock. 

Heaven guides the Spindle, as it downward tends; 

And on the Thread a Nation's fate depends. 

Begin, ye Nymphs, your glorious Task begin, 

The Happiness of Crowds unborn to spin. 

To future Times so shall Hibernia tell, 

In virtue how her daughters did excel. 

How their soft Hands confessed the wond'rous Pow'r 

From rotten weeds to deck the Nuptial Bow f r ; 

To grace the Warrior's Tent ; the Board of Kings ; 

And add to Britain s Naval Thunder wings ; 

Nay more, transmit to each succeeding age 

The works of Boyle, and Milton's sacred Page. 

Fir'd with the Prospect, the glad Realm prepares 
To these pursuits to bend her future Cares, 
But first she bids, like a repentant son, 
Her old companions from her sight be gone ; 
Once tempting Sirens, but whom now she knows 
Sad authors of her Follies, and her Woes ; 
A hi? ring Brood, that long disgraced her Door, 
The ground encumbered, and consumed her store. 
Fond Superstition, who perversely pays 
Heaven back its gifts, instead of manly Praise, 
Leads on, but slowly leads, the lazy Train, 
Averse to Toil, yet grasping still at gain. 



42 A HISTORY OF 

There yawning Sloth into a corner steals. 
With Poverty, her daughter, at her Heels. 
Fantastic Pride, of high extraction, fain 
Would be excused, and sues, but sues in vain. 
The same the Doom of Luxury and Waste, 
Who fly from Care, but to Destruction haste. 
Envy and Discontent, and sudden Spleen 
Move off the last, and close the wretched Scene. 

Thus if th y endeavours of the good and wise 
Can ought avail to make a Nation rise^ 
Soon shall Hibernia see her broken state, 
Repair d by Arts and Industry, grow great. 

A little later, on an occasion when Dr. Francis 
Hutchinson, bishop of Down, was in the chair, he is 
noted as having recommended to the Society the " care 
of the English tongue." It will be remembered that 
soon after its foundation, the Royal Society appointed a 
committee to consider the improvement of the English 
tongue. The Bishop wrote an English Grammar, and 
dwelt on the many advantages of a good language to 
any nation. He may have had in mind a project like 
Swift's for the improvement of the English tongue 
(Prose Works, xi. 5). As shown by his work on 
Ancient Historians, he also took a great interest in the 
Irish language and history, and published a Church 
Catechism in Irish. An Excellent New Ballad (at- 
tributed to Swift), printed for T. Harkin, opposite 
Crane lane, 1725-6, a copy of which is in Trinity 
College Library, has the following allusion to his 
work in these fields : 

I'll tell you a story, a story most merry, 
Of a B[ishop] from Ed[munds] 1 but not Canterbery, 
Who for his great parts, and the books he has written, 
Outdoes all the Bpshops] ere sent us from Britain. 

1 In 1692 Hutchinson had been appointed perpetual curate of St. 
James', Bury St. Edmunds. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 43 

When first he came over to bless this poor Nation, 
And found us a people without education, 
Full sore did it grieve him, and therefore did he, 
Resolve to reform us, and that speedily. 

And 'cause we can't read, nor yet understand, 
The Language that's spoken in old England, 
First taught a Catechize wrote in our own, 
In an easy new method, before never known. 

In February 1738, the Society had the satisfaction 
of learning that by the aid of its screw pump, Mr. 
Barclay, " the Quaker," had cleared of all water a ship 
stranded on the North Bull, by which means, the 
vessel, which would otherwise have been lost, was 
saved. 

In October, Mr. Prior informed the members that 
Mr. Arthur Dobbs had discovered by experiment that 
the polygon stones of the Giant's Causeway, when put 
into a smith's forge, ran into glass, and that he had 
brought to town some stones on which Mr. Maple 
was to make further experiments, by mixing other 
ingredients with them. 

Mr. Steel produced a model of a machine with 
horizontal sails, which turned with any wind, with 
application to a corn mill and also to a ship, to make 
it move against wind and tide. He was asked to buy 
a small Norway yawl, to make trial by means of his 
sails and paddles. 

In October 1739, the Society took in hand its own 
better regulation. Several members had withdrawn, 
and neglected or refused to pay their annual sub- 
scriptions, whereby the Society suffered in income. 
The deficiency had become so great that the funds 
were unequal to making useful experiments, procuring 
the best implements, &c. It had become necessary to 



44 A HISTORY OF 

fix a set day for arrears, and those who did not dis- 
charge their liabilities by the ist of March 1740 were 
to be considered as no longer members. Meantime, 
private notices were to be sent, and public ones pub- 
lished in the papers. After the ist of March, a list 
composed only of members who had paid up to date 
was to be printed. A notice from the Society appeared 
in Pue's Occurrences of November 8, 1740, to the 
effect that the number of members was not to exceed 
100; no person to be looked on as a member who 
did not attend on the following Thursday at the 
Parliament House, to pay arrears, if due. The first 
Thursday in the months of November, December, 
and March were to be the fixed days for election of 
members. In November came on the question of the 
better division of the business, and assigning to members 
the share in it that might be agreeable to each worker. 
Besides the standing committee of 21, it was decided 
that several committees were to be appointed, each for a 
particular purpose, and twenty or thirty members dis- 
posed to discharge the duties of the various committees 
were thought to be a sufficient number to serve on them. 
Four, consisting of seven members each, were suggested. 
1, Correspondence — on which Lord Abercorn,the Bishop 
of Kiidare, Dean Maturin, Mr. Ross, Mr. Prior, 
Dr. Weld, and Dr. Wynne were elected. 2, Experi- 
ments — Bishop of Clonfert, Sir Thomas Prendergast, 
Mr. Prior, Dean Maturin, Mr. Maple, Rev. Mr. 
Percival. 3, Publication — Bishop of Kilmore, Mr. 
Robert Ross, Mr. Prior, Dean Maturin, Archdeacon 
Theophilus Brocas, Dean Hutchinson, Dr. Weld. 4, 
Accounts — Dr. Wynne, Arthur Dobbs, Mr. Fox, Dean 
Dopping, Bishop of Kiidare, Bishop of Clonfert, Mr. 
Cramer. The Rev. Dr. Isaac Weld (mentioned above), 
minister of a Baptist congregation in Eustace street, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 45 

who was recently elected, was son of the Rev. Nathaniel 
Weld, a friend of Sir Isaac Newton, which accounts for 
his son, grandson, and great-grandson being named 
Isaac. He resided at Harold's Cross, Dublin, and 
married Anne, daughter of Jonathan Darby, dying 
in 1775. 

A short time before Weld's election, Robert Jocelyn, 
attorney-general, had become a member of the Society. 
He was son of Thomas Jocelyn, and grandson of Sir 
Robert Jocelyn, bart., of Hertfordshire. Jocelyn was 
called to the Irish Bar in 1706, and became m.p. for 
Granard in 1725. He was appointed Lord Chancellor 
in 1739, soon being created Baron Newport, and 
in 1755, Viscount Jocelyn. His lordship died in 
London in 1756, aged 68. He had literary and 
antiquarian tastes, and took the keenest interest in 
everything Irish. Jocelyn's son and successor was 
created Earl of Roden. Viscount Jocelyn, in 1747, 
during his term of office as Lord Chancellor, was 
elected president of the Physico-Historical Society, and 
Smith, the historian of Kerry, mentions his noble 
collection of manuscripts relating to Ireland. About 
1 74 1 he took a lease of Mount Merrion, near Dublin, 
and, whenever possible, it was his delight to retire 
thither, wandering over the property, and entertaining 
his friends. 1 

Early in 1744, a society, which in certain of its 
objects was somewhat akin to the Dublin Society, was 
formed, and met for the first time, on the 14th of April 
in that year, in the Lords' committee room of the 
Parliament House. It was known as the Physico- 
Historical Society, formed to promote enquiries into 
the ancient and present state of the counties of Ireland. 
The minute book, the last date in which is the 22nd 

1 History of County Dublin^ F. E. Ball, ii. p. 86. 



46 A HISTORY OF 

of March 1752, is preserved in the Royal Irish Academy. 
Lord Southwell was its first president, and the member- 
ship included James Ware, Thomas Prior, Walter 
Harris, The Bishops of Dromore, Cork, and Clonfert, 
Dr. John Rutty, Dr. John Lyon, 1 James Simon, 2 Lord 
Strangford, and Richard Pococke, most of whom were 
members of the Dublin Society. In 1747, the Lord 
Chancellor (Robert Jocelyn, lord Newport) was 
elected president, and in the following year Martin 
Folkes, president of the Royal Society, became a 
member. The first business was to collect materials 
for a History of the City and of the County of Dublin, 
and Walter Harris undertook the former. Dr. Samuel 
Madden offered ^10 towards paying itinerant persons 
to travel and collect observations on the various counties. 
The Histories of Fermanagh and Monaghan were 
offered to Madden, and the Rev. Philip Skelton. Dr. 
Charles Smith undertook Waterford, and Dr. Rutty, 
Dublin county. James Simon's ^Account of Irish Coins, 
as also Smith's Cork, were published under the auspices 
of the Society; and in 1752, Smith was engaged on 
his History of Kerry for the same Society. On the 14th 
of February 1754, a note appears in the minutes of the 
Dublin Society that Smith's Kerry was to be read by 
a committee, with a view to its publication by the 
Society, under whose auspices the work subsequently 
appeared. 

At the election of officers held on the 14th of 
November 1745, Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield, 

1 He had charge of Swift in his last illness, and was a witness to 
the Dean's will. Lyon was librarian of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
compiled a catalogue of the MSS. He was also secretary to Swift's 
Hospital. 

2 For a short time, in 1748, he acted as secretary. Between 175 1 
and 1756 he appears to have been secretary to the Incorporated 
Society. James Simon was a wine merchant in Fleet street, and is 
well known as author of the valuable work on Irish Coins. 







PHILIP, EARL OF CHESTERFIELD 
{From a Mezzotint by J. Brooks) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 47 

was elected president. In Chesterfield the Society had a 
true and appreciative friend, who did all in his power 
to further its useful work, and who fully acknowledged 
the benefits conferred on Ireland by its beneficent and 
disinterested labours. He was born in 1694, and, from 
the time of his entry on public life, he was known as a 
brilliant politician, wit, and letter-writer. Although only 
a short time Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to his good 
government may be attributed the fact that the country 
was peaceful during the rebellion in Scotland. He 
aided all efforts for promoting its prosperity, and 
undertook public works at a time when distress was 
prevalent. Early in 1746, the Society applied to the 
Government for a grant to help it in carrying out 
its various projects, when His Excellency wrote to 
the Duke of Newcastle in these terms : 

" The Dublin Society is really a very useful estab- 
lishment. It consists of many considerable people, and 
has been kept up hitherto by voluntary subscriptions. 
They give premiums for the improvement of lands, 
for plantations, for manufactures. They furnish many 
materials for those improvements in the poorer and 
less cultivated parts of this kingdom, and have 
certainly done a great deal of good. The bounty they 
apply for to His Majesty is five hundred pounds a 
year, which, in my humble opinion, would be properly 
bestowed." * 

On the 3rd of April appears a minute to the effect that 
His Excellency had showed Mr. Prior a King's letter or 
warrant for ^500 a year, during pleasure, for the benefit 
of the Society. It was not, however, until the 8th of 
May that the Letter was officially communicated. By it, 
which bore date the 26th of March 1 746, the Society was 
placed on the Civil Establishment of Ireland, for that 

1 Chesterfield's Letters, ed. by John Bradshaw, 1892, ii. 795 



48 A HISTORY OF 

annual sum, " to be disposed of by them in such manner 
and for the like uses and purposes as their own voluntary 
subscriptions are applied." Lord Chesterfield, in a letter 
written on the 6th of May 1747, to Mr. Prior, 1 pays 
the Society the following well-deserved compliment : — 
" They have done more good to Ireland, with regard 
to arts and industry, than all the laws that could have 
been formed ; for, unfortunately, there is a perverse- 
ness in our natures which prompts us to resist autho- 
rity, though otherwise inclined enough to do the thing, 
if left to our choice. Invitation, example, and fashion, 
with some premiums attending them, are, I am con- 
vinced, the only methods of bringing people in Ireland 
to do what they ought do ; and that is the plan of 
your Society." 

The Lord Lieutenant's warrant was dated 4th 
April, 1746, and payment was to commence on the 
preceding Lady Day. Official fees cost the Society 
£19, 6s. \\\L 

In 1769, as a mark of gratitude to Lord Chester- 
field, who had been influential in obtaining the Society's 
charter, and also the grant of ^500 a year, to aid its 
designs, it was proposed to place his bust in white 
marble in the meeting room. Van Nost, the sculptor, 
was entrusted with the commission, and was paid $$ 
guineas for his work. The bust now stands in the 
reception room in Leinster House. Lord Chesterfield 
wrote a very handsome acknowledgment of the honour 
the Society had done him. 

In June 1746, William Telfier of Glasgow produced 
a machine for measuring the true run of a ship at sea, 
and a committee recommended that it should be made 
trial of in the river along the North Wall, at high water 
on the 2 5th of June. 1760 yards were measured on the 

1 Chesterfield's Letters, ed. by John Bradshaw, 1892, ii. 817. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 49 

quay, and the Ballast Office boat made an expedition 
with the machine fixed to the rudder, the index being 
set at the last degree of the circle 50 degrees. At the 
end of a mile, the index had moved 16 degrees. The 
machine was contrived so that the index went round 
50 degrees while the ship moved a league. The com- 
mittee tested going with and against the tide ; with 
the tide, the boat sailed a mile, while the index moved 
1 5 degrees ; against it, the index moved 1 8 degrees in 
a mile, so that there were more revolutions of the wheel 
in going against the tide, and fewer in going with it. 
A further trial of the machine was made in July, when 
the committee decided that, for want of trials at sea, 
they could form no judgment of its use when the 
weather was stormy. Telfier was advised to bring it to 
the Admiralty in England, where proper experiments 
could be made, and the Secretary was directed to draw 
up a certificate of the success of the trial here, Telfier's 
instrument appearing to answer better than the log-line. 
It might be supposed that a Glasgow man could have 
had similar trials on the Clyde ; and it must be taken 
as a special tribute to the position now occupied by the 
Dublin Society that a Scotchman was anxious to bring 
out his invention under its auspices. 

The volume containing the minutes between the 
1 oth of July 1746 and the 3rd of May 1750 is un- 
fortunately not now forthcoming. 1 As it, probably, 
contained a record of the negotiations which led up to 
the granting of the charter, the story of that important 
event in the history of the Society has necessarily to be 
omitted here. (See p. 75.) 

The newspapers of the day have to be fallen back 
on for supplying a few details as to the ordinary work 
of the Society. The practice was once more adopted 

1 This volume has been missing for nearly a century. 

D 



5 o A HISTORY OF 

of printing useful suggestions in the form of letters. 
" How to make Bread without barm ; also for pre- 
serving a large stock of the barm," was the title of 
one which appeared in 1746. 

During the year 1749, occurs the first mention of 
John Nost or Van Nost, who afterwards developed so 
remarkable a genius for sculpture. To show his skill 
in modelling, he presented to the Society a bust in 
clay, from which he was asked to carve a bust in 
Italian statuary marble. Van Nost, who had come from 
London, where he was born, was then residing in 
Jervis street, where he exhibited models in plaster. 
He executed for the Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick 
a statue of William, lord Blakeney, the defender of 
Minorca, which once stood in Sackville street, but is no 
longer among the public statues of Dublin. Van Nost 
also executed the equestrian statue of King George II, 
now in St. Stephen's Green. He died in 1780. 

On 2 1st March 1749, the Society published the 
following notice — " The Dublin Society takes this 
opportunity to inform the public that they have en- 
gaged Mr. John Cam (a Quaker), well skilled in 
English husbandry, and making ploughs and carts in 
the best manner, to attend gentlemen and farmers in 
the country, as an itinerant husbandman, to advise 
them in the right way of ploughing and managing 
their land for the growth of corn,. He will carry with 
him some ploughs of his own making, &x. Said Cam 
will set out from Dublin on Monday 27th, and will go 
to Navan, and so proceed to the rest of co. Meath, 
and the counties of Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, &c, 
where he may meet growers of corn, and instruct 
them in the right way of tillage, and thereby save 
labour, expense, and time. . . . " A letter of recom- 
mendation will be given him from the Society to 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 51 

gentlemen of the country, and they are desired to give 
him a fair opportunity of showing his skill." 

The Society also printed recipes for sheep-rot, and 
recommended The Country Gentleman and Shepherds 
Sure Guide, by William Ellis, Gaddesden, Hertford- 
shire, then being printed by George Faulkner. 

From its start, the Society ever evinced a warm 
interest in the question of employment for the people, 
and on the 29th of July 1749 was printed on its 
behalf a list of commodities imported into Ireland, 
consisting of such kinds as might be raised or manu- 
factured in the country, as rated at the Custom House, 
taken at an average for the three years 1744-46. It 
was designed to show how much might be done at 
home which would afford employment. 

Another notice appeared on the 9th of December, 
which advocated a method of feeding calves with a 
mixture of hay water and a little milk, whereby four 
or five calves might be reared in one season with the 
milk of one cow only; and on the 8th of May 1750 
the Society communicated to the public a letter on a 
method of transplanting rape. 



52 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER IV 

DR. MADDEN'S AND THE SOCIETY'S PREMIUM 
SYSTEMS. (1739-1790) 

A great stimulus and impetus were now about to 
be given to the working of the Society, through the 
public spirit and generosity of one of its leading spirits. 
Samuel Madden, d.d., son of John Madden, m.d., 
was born in Dublin in 1686. His mother, Mary 
Molyneux, was sister of William and Sir Thomas 
Molyneux. He succeeded to the family estates in 
Fermanagh in 1703, and resided at Manor Water- 
house in that county. Madden was ordained, and 
became rector of Galloon, and subsequently of Drum- 
mully, which was a family living; and in 1729 the 
well-known Philip Skelton became his curate, and 
tutor to Dr. Madden's children. 

On the 1 2th of April 1733, Dr. Madden became 
a member of the Society. In 1730 he had propounded 
a scheme for the encouragement of learning by a 
system of premiums, contributing largely himself. 
This was adopted by the University, and the details 
are fully explained in a Proposal for the General En- 
couragement of Learning in Dublin College, 173 1 . His 
Reflections and Resolutions proper for the Gentlemen of 
Ireland as to their conduct for the service of their country 
was printed in Dublin in 1738. This work was re- 
printed in 1 8 1 6 by Thomas Pleasants, but without the 
original preface, the existence of which was denied by 
the editor. The backward condition of the country 




7JZ). 



SAMUEL MADDEN, D.D. 
{From a Mezzotint by Charles Spooner) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 53 

was ascribed to the extravagance and idleness of the 
people, and a recommendation was made that the farm- 
ing population should be taught by instructors who 
should travel through the country. He advocated a 
system of premiums (earning for himself the sobriquet 
of " Premium " Madden), which he brought under the 
notice of the Dublin Society, and in 1739 printed a 
Letter to the Dublin Society on the improving their 
Fund : and the Manufactures, Tillage, i$c. in Ireland} 
Dr. Johnson, who is said to have helped him in his 
poem entitled " Boulter's Monument," declared that 
Madden's was a name that Ireland ought to honour. 
He also appears to have been on friendly terms with 
Swift, and he was a member of the Physico-Historical 
Society, under whose auspices he undertook, but did 
not finish, a history of the County of Fermanagh. 
Largely through Dr. Madden's influence, the Charter 
of the Dublin Society was granted. He died on the 
31st of December 1765. The Royal Dublin Society 
is in possession of a white marble bust, by Van Nost, 
of one who did so much to foster and encourage its 
beginnings. 

Madden, finding at the end of seven or eight years, 
that the funds of the Society were totally inadequate 
to the projects it had in view, and to carrying out the 
ends for which the Society had been formed, penned his 
momentous Letter to the Dublin Society on the improv- 
ing their Fund, which was published anonymously 
in 1739. In it, he considered the necessity of the 
fund being augmented, and the best means for con- 
tributing to that end ; then, on this being accomplished, 
the nature of the methods to be adopted ; lastly, the 
special purposes to which the increased fund should 
be applied. Madden advocated the application to 

1 Haliday Pamphlets, 1739, cxliv. 3. 



54 A HISTORY OF 

persons of fortune for contributions, and also the pro- 
curing of a charter of incorporation for the Society, 
with statutes which would regulate its proceedings, on 
the model of the Royal Society. He urged the en- 
couragement of certain manufactures, the importing of 
which caused the country very serious loss. Thus, 
the loss on earthenware was £5000 y ear ly; hardware 
and cutlery, £10,000; saltpetre and gunpowder, 
£4000; threadbone lace, £8000; paper, £4000; 
sugar, £6500 ; salt, £25,000 ; corn, in time of dearth, 
£100,000. Madden further proposed that the Society 
should " take and improve a reasonable number of 
acres in different soils and places near Dublin, as an 
experimental farm for all points of husbandry," and 
he specially pointed out the advantages to be derived 
from encouraging the fine arts. The Letter concluded 
with an offer of £130 a year for two years — £30 to 
be devoted to experiments in agriculture and garden- 
ing ; £50 to the best annual invention in any of the 
liberal or manual arts; £25 for the best picture, and 
£25 for the best statue produced in Ireland. The 
voting on these several premiums was to be by ballot, 
by a majority of two-thirds of the members present. 
He further undertook that the writer would continue 
his subscription until other larger contributions could 
be raised, and would pay it for life when £500 was 
procured, " provided the Society apply his little fund 
to the views they are directed to with their usual 
activity and prudence." Copies of the minutes of the 
next few months, dealing with the inauguration of the 
Premium Fund, which soon amounted to £500 a year, 
will explain the course pursued by the Society in ad- 
ministering it. 

" 1739, Dec. 13 — Dr. Samuel Madden's generous 
proposal to enlarge the plan and fund of the Society 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 55 

was this day laid before the Board by Mr. Prior ; 
ordered that the same be considered at the next Board. 
Dec. 20 — The Secretaries reported, that Rev. Dr. 
Madden having settled ^130 per annum during his 
life, and having obtained a subscription of near £500 
per annum for the encouragement of sundry arts, ex- 
periments, and several manufactures not yet brought to 
perfection in this kingdom : Ordered that a Committee 
be appointed to consider what manufactures are fit or 
necessary to be encouraged with regard to the said 
funds : Resolved, that the persons present be of the said 
Committee, and that all members have voices. Feb. 
14, 1740 — Present, Bishop of Dromore, Bishop of 
Clonfert (in the chair), Arthur Dobbs, Dr. Weld, 
Colley Lyons, Archdeacon Brocas, Dean Copping, Mr. 
Prior. This day the Board agreed to publish an ad- 
vertisement proposing premiums to be given to such 
persons who shall make improvements in any useful 
arts or manufacture, and mentioning Dr. Samuel 
Madden's proposal for encouraging new inventions in 
architecture, and painting, and statuary in this kingdom. 
Rev. Dr. Madden, having now reported that the sub- 
scriptions obtained by him for promoting arts and 
manufactures do amount to near ^900 per annum, 
including his own, and as he is going to the country, 
he desires to leave the subscription roll with the Society : 
Ordered that Dr. Madden be desired to leave the said 
subscription roll with the Secretary, Mr. Prior, for the 
use of the Board. May 8, 1740 — Ordered that the 
advertisement hereunto annexed be published in the 
newspapers : — " The Dublin Society, in order to pro- 
mote such useful arts and manufactures as have not 
hitherto been introduced, or are not yet brought to per- 
fection in this kingdom, give notice that they intend to 
encourage, by premiums, annual contributions, or other 



S 6 A HISTORY OF 

methods, any persons who are well skilled in such arts 
and manufactures, and will carry them on in the best 
and most skilful manner. To carry on this design, 
they desire that gentlemen and others who are con- 
versant with husbandry, trade or manufactures, and 
wish well to their country, will favour them with their 
company and advice, that they may be better enabled 
to judge what improvements are proper to be en- 
couraged, what encouragements are convenient, and in 
what manner they may be best applied for the benefit 
of the public. A Committee for that purpose will 
attend at the Parliament House every Thursday at one 
o'clock." May 29, 1740 — Ordered that an advertise- 
ment be printed proposing rewards to be given to 
such persons who shall produce in Dublin next winter, 
the best hops, flax-seed, flax, cider, earthenware, thread, 
malt liquor, lace, in their several kinds, according as 
they are set down in a paper agreed to. June 1 9th — 
Ordered : that the advertisements to be printed, for 
giving rewards, be revised and altered by Dean Maturin, 
Mr. Ross, Mr. Prior, and when the same is prepared 
that it be printed, taking notice therein of many other 
articles which the Society design to give rewards for 
the next year. Nov. 20 — Ordered : that Dean 
Maturin, Mr. Ross, Mr. Prior, Dr. Weld, Dr. Wynne, 
be a Committee to take into consideration the collect- 
ing of the subscriptions to Dr. Madden's scheme, and 
the premiums that may be proper to be given this year, 
and that they meet on Wednesday next at Mr. Prior's 
house, at 3 o'clock. Ordered : that the several schemes 
of such as expect encouragement, for their improve- 
ments or inventions, be laid before them." 

At a meeting held on the 15 th of January 1741, 
claimants attended, and exhibited specimens of their 
handiwork, which were the earliest the Society had to 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 57 

decide on. They included Spanish leather made with 
birch bark, lamp-black, blue and white earthenware, 
spinning cotton, twilled stockings, Bologna crape, 
engines for scutching flax, and a new instrument for 
surveying land with expedition. The paintings in- 
cluded four in water-colours of the Giant's Causeway, 
by Susanna Drury (engraved in 1744), landscapes by 
Rosse, Tudor, and Kiverly, and a cattle piece, by 
Ashton. Among the sculptures were a chimneypiece, 
with boys ; stud of horses in a frame ; and Hercules 
slaying a lion (in clay). It was determined that none of 
the statuary or sculpture deserved a premium, but a 
prize of ^25 was voted to Miss Drury for her views of 
the Causeway. None of the inventions were allowed 
premiums, some not being considered inventions at all, 
and the remainder not being of any importance. 

In February, a premium was granted to Henry 
MacClery, of Waringstown, for flowered damask napkins 
made by him in a loom, and in May a sum of ^50 
was voted to him. A sum of £25 was given to Michael 
Beans for twilled ribbed stockings, which included £ 1 8 
given him for a frame. Both these men entered into 
an engagement to carry on the manufacture for seven 
years, and to instruct weavers and stocking-weavers 
recommended by the Society. 

In June 1741, the premium list stood as follows: 

Henry MacClery, damask linen, £jo. (He had 
produced a piece of damask with Lord Howth's 
arms, worked by a boy instructed by him.) 

John Roche, Usher street, buttons, buckles, &c, 

£so. 

Benj. Whitton, Carlow, scythes and shears, £20. 
Alexander Atkinson, instruments for spinning, 

weaving, and cutting fustians, £16. 
Mr. Gent, Kilkenny, fining flax, £25. 



58 A HISTORY OF 

Charles Monaghan and Denis Davis, improving 

ploughs, £5. 
Eliz. Roberts and Mary Thornbald, bone lace, ^10. 
Robert Baker, imitation Brussels lace, ^10. 

Premiums were ordered to be announced for wheat, 
barley, hops, (Irish growth), cider, breaking up ground, 
sowing land with wheat, sowing with barley, sowing 
with turnips, for manuring the greatest quantity of land 
with marl ; with lime, with limestone, gravel and sand ; 
the largest quantity of wheat off one acre ; greatest 
number of fruit trees raised in nurseries ; timber trees 
in 'ditto ; and for planting the greatest quantity of 
timber in groves or hedge rows. Watson was to print 
in his Almanac the premiums to be offered for 174 1-2. 

Several members of the Society and a number of 
brewers attended at the market house, Thomas street, 
on the 2 1 st of December, to adjudicate on hops, when 
twenty-two candidates presented themselves. The first 
premium was awarded to Humphrey Jones of Mullin- 
abro, co. Kilkenny ; and the second to Edward Bolton, 
Brazil, co. Dublin. The next in order of merit were 
Anthony Atkinson, King's co. ; Mr. Lee, Wexford ; 
and Samuel Ealy, Ross, co. Wexford. Matthew 
Yelverton of Portland, co. Tipperary, won ^10, for 
having sowed the greatest quantity of land with 
turnips. On the 19th of September 1741, £10 pre- 
mium was won by Isaiah Yeates, Booterstown, co. 
Dublin, for the best barrel of wheat produced at the 
market house. To mark the importance attached to 
such competitions, the Lord Mayor was present, and 
three bakers, specially requested, attended and assisted 
in the examination of the wheat. 2200 barrels of it 
were sold on that day, and it was observed that all 
the corn at the market looked better and cleaner than 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 59 

it generally looked. From this, it is evident that the 
methods employed by the Society in instruction &c, 
had begun to bear fruit. It may be observed that 
notices as to Dr. Madden's premiums appeared distinct 
from those issued on behalf of the Society. 

On the 5 th of December 1741, a letter to a 
member of the Dublin Society on the manner of scoring 
and crimping cod and other large fish, as practised in 
Holland and England, appeared in Pue's Occurrences. 

When Dr. Madden's premiums for inventions were 
adjudicated on in February 1742, Francis Place won 
^30 for an engine for beetling linen cloth ; and John 
Mooney, King's county, ^20, for a surveying instru- 
ment. In sculpture, Mr. Houghton was awarded ^15 
for his story of Orpheus^ and Mr. Ranalow £10 for 
another piece. 

A notice as to premiums for wheat, hops, breaking 
up of ground, cider, and planting trees, which were to 
be decided by competition, appeared in Pue's Occur- 
rences of the 2nd of March 1742 ; claims, affidavits, 
&c, were to be sent to Robert Ross, Stafford street, 
treasurer ; Dean Maturin, Grafton street, or Thomas 
Prior, Bolton street, secretaries. It was also announced 
that the Society would publish the names of subscribers 
to the premium fund, " so that the public might be 
particularly informed to whom they are obliged." 
A list of subscribers appeared, and the net produce of 
the fund for premiums amounted to ^593, i$s. 6d. 

On the 25th of March, the following premiums 
were distributed — for sowing the greatest quantity of 
land, Denis McMahon, Clonina, near Ennis; for the 
best pound of thread for lace, the Misses Maclean, 
Markethill, co. Armagh, £6 ; Edward Kershaw, 
Dublin, got ^10 for fustian; and Richard Hogarth, 
Chamber street, Dublin, £5 for a Turkey carpet. 



60 A HISTORY OF 

On the 17th of June, the premiums for timber 
trees in nurseries were announced, when it was as- 
certained that the following persons had planted — 

John Magrath, Ross, co. Wexford . 490,600 timber trees 

Oliver Anketell, Anketell's grove . 61,750 „ 

Mrs. Mary Norton, Arbour hill . 28,000 elms 

Charles Shelly, Rathcoffey . . 27,838 timber trees 

Archibald Noble, co. Fermanagh . 25,920 „ 

Pole Cosby, Stradbally . . . 13,835 „ 

Mary Norton . . . .15,138 fruit trees 

A letter appeared in Pue's Occurrences on the 
14th of December as to the crop of wheat, for which 
Mr. Yelverton got a premium. On application of the 
secretaries, he supplied all details, and his crop was 
believed to have exceeded every other crop heard of in 
the kingdom, 1 being 618 stone 11^ lbs., the produce of 
one acre. 

At the end of this year, 1742, the number of 
members of the Society stood at 98, exclusive of the 
Dukes of Devonshire and Dorset, honorary members, 
and on the 6th of January 1743, the number of 100 
was reached. 

The year 1743 opened with a very gratifying 
tribute to the work of the Society, and to the estima- 
tion in which its labours were held, even by a section of 
society which might not be expected to be in sympathy 
with its aims and objects. At a meeting of the 
Charitable Musical Society, held at the Bull's Head, 
Fishamble street, Alderman Walker and others were 
deputed to attend and inform the Dublin Society that 

1 Arthur Young (Tour, ii. 230), mentions this famous crop, which 
he says had been written of in all the books on Husbandry in Europe, 
but nobody believed in it. Young explains that Yelverton himself 
was deceived ; for, having selected and marked out an acre in a 
thirty-acre field, his labourers, aware of his intention, secretly put into 
it many stocks from adjacent parts of the field. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 61 

that body had resolved to place the profit of their 
fund, with the profits of a play, at the disposal of 
the Society, for the encouragement of husbandry 
and agriculture. The Society accepted the trust with 
hearty thanks. In pursuance of the resolution of the 
Musical Society, it was announced that on the 22nd of 
February Love makes a Man, or the Fop's Fortune would 
be produced at the Theatre Royal, Aungier street. 

During this year ^50 were granted to Maurice 
Uniacke, Woodhouse, co. Waterford, for the greatest 
number of timber trees (152,640) planted. Thomas 
Bacon was appointed printer to the Society in the room 
of Reilly, deceased. 

On the 2 1 st of April 1743 were adjudicated Dr. 
Madden's premiums for sculpture, &c, when Mr. 
Houghton won £25 for his "St. Paul preaching at 
Athens." The other piece presented was a repre- 
sentation of the Deluge by John Matthews, Temple 
Bar. A prize of ^10 was awarded to Mr. Van 
Beaver, World's End, 1 for his " Feast of Bacchus," 
and £10 to Mr. Joseph Tudor for a painting. 

Great attention was paid to draining and reclaiming 
bog, and John Baggot, Nurney, co. Kildare, won £30 
for the former process, and Joseph Fuller, Grangemore, 
co. Westmeath, £20 for the latter. 

In 1744, George Thwaites and Wm. Brereton 
took first and second places respectively as brewers 
who made use of the largest quantity of Irish hops in 
the year 1743. 

Dr. Madden's premiums for lace, &c, were granted 
as follows : Anne Casey, " Black Horse," Plunket 
street, £10 for bone lace ; Elizabeth Roberts, Lazer's 
hill, £5. Anne Page, Castle street, £10 for best 

1 World's End lane was subsequently called Mabbot street, and 
from 1876 Montgomery street. 



62 A HISTORY OF 

imitation Brussels lace ; Mrs. Baker and Miss Ray- 
mond obtained second prize, £5. Catherine Plunket, 
" Horse Shoe," Thomas street, for best edging, £5 ; 
Mary Casey, £2 ; Catherine Ricks (or Riggs), " Crown 
and Glove," George's lane, £2 ; Esther Haycock, Or- 
mond quay, £10 for best piece of embroidery; David 
Davis, Marlborough street, £10 for best piece of black 
velvet; John Daly, Crooked Staff, 1 £10 for dyeing 
black cloth; Thomas Dun, Chamber street, £10 for 
dyeing scarlet cloth. Messrs. Wilson, Sharp & co., 
were awarded £2$ for making the greatest quantity 
of salt fit for curing fish. This firm made 450 tons 
at Belfast on the 5th of May 1744. A notice appeared 
in Pue's Occurrences that salt made at Glenarm had 
been inspected by the Bakers' and Coopers' Com- 
panies, and that it was found to be stronger and 
cleaner than French salt. 

The next industry that occupied the attention of 
the Society was that of brewing, and on the 21st of 
March 1745, a party of members and experts met at 
the Custom House coffee-house, for ale tasting. A sum 
of £6 was awarded to Thos. Byrne, sign of "Brow of 
the Hill," Sycamore alley, for the best barrel of ale 
made of Irish malt — in this case it was of Wicklow 
barley ; £4. to Laurence Casey. For ale brewed with 
English malt, Daniel O'Brien, New street, was granted 
£6 ; Thomas Gladwell got £4.. 

An offer of £5 each was made by Mr. John Darner, 
Shroneen, co. Tipperary, to two masters of ships who 
would bring from Newfoundland a barrel of cones of 
black spruce, with the branches and cones on ; and £5 
each to two masters who would bring from Norway 
two barrels of cones of red deal. These were to be at 
the disposal of the Dublin Society. 

1 Now Ardee street, in the Coombe. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 63 

Premiums now began to be offered for such articles 
of domestic consumption as blackberry, currant, elder- 
berry, and gooseberry wine. 

Dr. Madden by no means restricted his bounty in 
the manner indicated in his original plan, and he is 
found offering £20 for the best stallion imported in 
1744, which was won by Thomas Place, Barrack street. 
The horse cost £S1^ l S s - £ 12 were awarded to Edward 
Sims for bulls and heifers. 

In the various objects of the bounty of the Society, 
nothing that might tend to the welfare of the com- 
munity appears to have been forgotten, and the housing 
question was even then acute. In May 1745, plans for 
building houses with two to eight rooms on a floor 
were examined, with the assistance of Mr. Castle, the 
eminent architect, when the prize was awarded to 
George Ensor, clerk in a surveyor's office. 

Hats were the subject of further competition, and 
Thomas Champion, of Meath street, won £6 ; second 
place was given to Mr. Parvisol, Skinner's row, and 
third to Mr. Boyton. Even the killing of rats was not 
deemed beneath the notice of the Society, and Michael 
Nedley was awarded a prize for having killed 1300. 
On 30th May 1745, the city of Kilkenny was given 
£10 for having cleared itself of beggars by affording 
employment to the poor. About 100 of the poor 
were supplied with work, they being usefully employed 
in cleansing the streets. It is refreshing to read of a 
community which in the middle of the eighteenth 
century had such enlightened views on employment, 
and on keeping a town clean. 

Nearly five pages of the minute book are occu- 
pied with particulars as to the premiums agreed on 
for the current year. They include prizes for sowing 
land, reclaiming, manuring, planting trees, grass, broad 



64 A HISTORY OF 

cloth, hops, saffron, madder, fustian, brewing ale, cider, 
worsted, salt, beaver hats, drawing. Dr. Madden's 
premiums include awards for damask, velvet, lace, 
silkwork, stallions, bulls, heifers, tapestry, fish, paint- 
ings, and sculpture. 

Several children under fifteen years of age attended 
in March 1746 to compete for premiums in drawing, 
when Jane Tudor won £5 for her work in black and 
white, after Raphael and Titian. Soon after, first 
prize for best buff was awarded to Mr. Fombally, 1 and 
second to Mr. Gibal. It will be observed how fre- 
quently names of Huguenot traders and artisans in 
Dublin occur in the proceedings of the Society. 

A new and strange subject next attracted the 
attention of the Society — namely the collection of 
rags in the city. It was computed that about 
5000 lbs. weight of rags were gathered weekly in the 
city and county, to supply the paper mills near Dublin, 
which employed a large number of hands. The 
greatest quantity was sold to Thomas Slater, Temple- 
ogue mills, to Robert Randal of Newbridge, and 
to Michael McDaniel (or McDonnell) of Tallaght. 
In 1747, on the adjudication of premiums for the 
best writing and printing paper, the above named 
firms took rank in the order mentioned. In 175 1, 
the competition for bounties for rag gathering was 
adjudicated on by certain papermakers, when there 
were 182 claimants, and rags to the amount of ^2086 
were purchased, on which the Society distributed a 
sum of j£34, 1 5-*. &d. An announcement was made 
that the paper manufacturers were now sufficiently 
supplied with material, and that they purposed to im- 
prove further in the quality of paper made by them. 

1 A corruption of the name Fonvielle, that of a Huguenot family, 
from which Fumbally's lane, off New street, was named. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 6 S 

In 1748, in the adjudications on Tapestry, John 
Van Beaver, (for his historical piece, " Meleager and 
the Boar "), John Paulet, and Daniel Reyly took 
places. 

During the years 1749 and 1750, premiums for 
planting trees were won by Colonel Hugh Maguire, 
Tempo, and Oliver Anketell, Anketell's Grove ; for 
cider trees, Martin Kennedy, Oranmore, co. Galway, and 
Edward Dally, Brohall, King's co. ; for draining bogs, 
Phillip Reilly, Derraugh, co. Longford : for making 
bog profitable, Rev. Thomas Hemsworth, Abbeyville, 
co. Tipperary; for reclaiming coarse mountain land, 
John Smith, Violetstown, co. Westmeath, and William 
Mulhall, Ireland's Grove, Queen's co, ; for using 
most oxen in ploughing, John Keating, Shanballyduff. 
For building the most complete mills for making 
white paper, &c, Joseph Sexton, Limerick, got ^40 
premium; Michael McDonnell, Tallaght, £2$ ; Daniel 
Blow, Belfast, £20 ; William Slater, Rathfarnham, 
£15; for green glassware, Rupert Barber, £20. 
^10 were granted to Messrs. Perry & Malone for 
specimens of printing with letters of their own 
making. 

In January 1750, John Paterson, Pill lane, scale- 
maker, produced before the Society an artificial tree 
made of iron, furnished with fruit and branches, to 
hold candles, which was designed for a dessert table ; 
for his ingenuity in devising and carrying out this 
work the Society gave him a premium. 

A sum of £6 was granted to Robert Horan, co. 
Limerick, for best cider, made from Kachagea apples, 
and ^4 to Dr. Hearn, for cider made from golden 
pippins. John Sturdy, Capel St., described as a painter, 
obtained a prize of four guineas for enamelled watch- 
plates, Rupert Barber, who had erected at Lazer's. 

E 



66 A HISTORY OF 

hill 1 a glasshouse for making vials and green glass- 
ware, laid some specimens before the Society, when he 
obtained a grant of ^20 for his encouragement, such 
ware having hitherto been altogether imported from 
abroad. 2 

In 175 1, the Madden premium of ^10 for 
tapestry — a flower piece, a Neptune, and a Trophy — 
was awarded to Richard Paulet. 

For most fish caught, cured, and made marketable, 
John Lyne, Ardgroom, co. Cork, and John Flynn, 
Dungarvan, obtained ^15 and ^10 respectively. At 
this time there is a note in the minute book that Dublin 
was supplied with fat mutton from Tipperary chiefly, 
the reason being that as so much land near the city 
was sowed with turnips, there was no room for grazing. 

Richard Mathewson, of Ballsbridge mills, obtained 
two guineas as the first manufacturer in this kingdom 
of the blue paper called " sugar loaf." 

£12 each were granted to Henry Wrixon, Glenfield, 
co. Cork, and Wills Crofts, Churchtown, co. Cork, 
for manuring most land with lime ; and Arthur Max- 
well, Castlehill, co. Down, got a prize for manuring 
land with sea shells or sand. 

On the Art side, William Thompson, who served 
under Mr. Bindon, painter, produced a Madonna, with 
twenty figures, from an Italian print, which was highly 
approved. 

Dr. Madden's premium of ^50 to the author who 
should write and print the best written book in the year 
1750 was awarded to Rev. Samuel Pullein, for two pieces 

1 Now Townsend st. A hospital for pilgrims going to the shrine 
of St. James, the patron of lepers, or lazars, is said to have been 
founded here. 

2 Rupert Barber was a son of Swift's friend, Mrs. Barber ; he 
was a portrait painter and author of a volume of poems, and is fre- 
quently mentioned by Mrs. Delany. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 67 

translated from the Latin of Vida — Game of Chess, 1 
and Silkworm. This was adjudicated on by the Provost 
and Senior Fellows of Trinity College. A pamphlet by 
Pullein, Hints for promotion of Silkworm Cultivation, 
is among the Haliday collection, 1750, ccxxxiii. 9. 

A sum of £12 was awarded to Joseph Miller, 
James* St., Dublin, for tanning hides with tormentil 2 
roots, and some good boots made from the skins were 
produced. It was recommended to gentlemen resid- 
ing in places where tormentil abounded, to encourage 
the poor people around to gather the roots, for which 
they would be paid by Miller and others at the rate of 
3 j. 6d. per cwt., cut, dry and clean. 

For best imitation Brussels or Mechlin lace, ^8 were 
voted to Mrs. Mihil, Peter street, " whose work ex- 
ceeded any ever produced before." Mrs. Eliza de 
Glatigny produced a piece of lace made on catgut, 
equal to Mechlin, an art in which she gave instruction. 

The premiums for paper were adjudicated on by 
booksellers specially requested to attend for the purpose, 
when Sexton of Limerick and Slator of Dublin, as on 
a previous occasion, gained them. 

The premiums for collecting linen rags continued 
to be distributed, and in 1752 a sum of ^10 was re- 
ported as having been expended in Limerick, and ^10 
in Belfast. Philip Troye won a prize for Tapestry, 
and Richard Paulet one for a figure of FalstafF, in the 
same material. Children were also being taught to 

1 Scacchia ludus written by Marcus Hieron. Vida, translated into 
English verse. This, and Vida's two books on Silkworms, trans- 
lated into English verse, with the original Latin on the opposite 
page, and a few observations on Vida's Precepts, were advertised in 
the newspapers of the day. Vida, an excellent Latin poet, flourished 
in the time of Leo the Tenth. 

2 From tormentum, pain, as said to be useful in allaying the 
toothache. Order Rosacea, which is often included under Potentilla. 
It is common in heathy or waste places in Europe. 



68 A HISTORY OF 

spin worsted the " long way of the staple/' when 294 
girl pupils attended, fifty women being employed as 
teachers. 

The year 1753 was remarkable for a paucity of 
claimants in some of the branches in which premiums 
were offered. Osiers, willows, and apple trees failed to 
find competitors, while no claims were sent in for Dr. 
Madden' s premiums for mares, and for ^20 offered 
for importing a jackass from Spain or Portugal. 
Edward Walsh, Dolphin's Barn, Anthony Grayson, 
Mark's alley, and Francis Ozier, Dame street, were 
prizemen in flowered velvet and silks ; and Henry 
Delamain, of the Strand, in earthenware. Nicholas 
Planchard, a French refugee, won two guineas for best 
dyed pressed black cloth. Matthew Querk, Kilkenny, 
took ^10 for the best eight pairs of blankets, and .£12 
were awarded to Rev. George Ormsby, Bellvoir, co. 
Sligo, for draining bog. In 1754, the premium for 
sowing most land with acorns or other timber seeds 
was won by Lewis Roberts, Old Conna Hill (now 
represented by Captain J. Lewis Riall, a vice-president, 
no less active in promoting the interests of the Royal 
Dublin Society, and the objects for which it was 
founded), and by William Tighe ; those for osiers and 
willows by Henry Waring, Waringsford, co. Down, 
who planted 73,820; and by David Oldis, Bally- 
lanagan, co. Tipperary, who planted 53,169. The 
prizes for best cider were awarded to Lancelot Crosbie, 
co. Kerry, and Samuel Raymond, Ballylongford, co. 
Kerry. Premiums were offered for planting most 
timber trees in woods or clumps, when Lord Kenmare 
came first with 70,500 planted at Killarney and Kil- 
beheny; the Rev. R. N. Gifford, Woodstock, co. 
Galway, obtained a premium for 857 apple trees. 

The list of premiums for the year 1766 occupies 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 69 

26 pages in manuscript in the minute book, and it is 
thought well to reproduce it as showing the immense 
number of objects that came under the Society's care, 
and the varied interests represented. (Appendix No. II.) 

At this time, ^50 were offered for a Natural History 
of any County, and a prize was to be awarded to any 
practical farmer who would write a Farmer's Monthly 
Calendar. Dr. Rutty's Natural History of County 
Dublin obtained the £50 premium. 

A memorial was presented to the Society by 
Nicholas William Brady, 1 gold and silver thread manu- 
facturer, setting forth that in 1757 he had been brought 
over from London by Robert Calderwood, since de- 
ceased, after whose death the manufacture came to a 
stand-still, and his workmen were in distress. Brady 
had himself certain machinery, and he begged the 
Society to help in establishing him in trade, but the 
request was refused. Another memorial came from 
Edmond Blood, bell founder, who asserted that he was 
the only qualified one in the kingdom. He had cast 
bells weighing from 6 to 70 lbs., and so had been the 
means of preventing their being imported. 

James Hamilton's new and easy method for sea 
fishing near the shore, which had been exhibited and 
worked at the Rotunda Gardens, was much com- 
mended, and a sum of £40 was granted to him for 
making a machine. 

In July 1772, 4000 copies of Sleaters Newspaper, 
with lists of the Society's premiums, were purchased 
for distribution throughout the kingdom. 

The deep-sea fisheries again claimed attention, and 
a sum of £40 was awarded to Patrick Gumley, master 
of the " John " of Skerries, who, with seven sailors, 

1 Grandfather of Sir Maziere Brady, bart., lord chancellor of 
Ireland. 



70 A HISTORY OF 

tried fishing off the north-west coast. The voyage 
lasted from 30th April to 3rd July 1773, during which 
period 1392 ling and 82 cod were caught. Similar 
prizes were given to other Skerries men, who appear 
often to have been pioneers in developing the untried 
fishing ground of the north-west coast. During the 
years 1776 and 1777, premiums for curing fish on this 
coast were awarded. In 1774, a resolution was passed 
to defend all fishermen prosecuted with vexatious law 
suits, for watching and drawing their seins (or nets) 
ashore, provided complaints were properly laid before 
the Society. In July 178 1, a sum of ^200 was rate- 
ably divided among a large number of claimants, for 
consuming, in the cure of fish on the north-west coast, 
home-made imported salt, at 10s. per ton, on the 
amount of salt. At the same time, Gardiner Boggs 
and Andrew Moore, received premiums for 694 and 
100 barrels of herrings respectively, taken on the 
north-west coast, and exported to foreign parts. Next 
year, Boggs was able to show that the larger number 
(860) for which he had claimed had been actually sold 
in the island of Antigua, when allowance for the whole 
was made him. Moore having later on proved that 
the 178 barrels for which he had originally claimed 
were actually sold in Jamaica, he having received sales 
account from Bell and La Touche, his factors there, 
full allowance was also made to him. Fifteen guineas 
were also paid to Thomas Gregg, being a premium 
on 210 barrels of herrings, which had been taken on 
the north-west coast, and cured with bay or other 
foreign salt. These had been exported to the island 
of St. Kitts, in the ship Elinor, which was captured by 
an American privateer, and Gregg concluded that the 
cargo was disposed of in foreign parts. In 1782, ^50 
were paid to Messrs. Chambers, Hope, and Glen, of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 71 

Londonderry, for having similarly exported herrings 
which were sold in the island of Jamaica. 

The work of the Society in the north-west of Ire- 
land closely resembled that of the present day carried 
out by the Congested Districts Board. In 1783, ,£100 
were advanced to Alexander Young, inspector of fisheries 
in the Killybegs district, towards erecting perches and 
affixing buoys in Ballyweel Harbour, and for building 
quays at which to land the fish. It was suggested that 
Lord Conyngham's bequest should be utilised for this 
purpose. In the previous year, £100 had been be- 
queathed by him to the Society, which it was deter- 
mined should be appropriated to the extension of the 
Killybegs fishery. Under the direction of the Right 
Hon. William Conyngham, a committee was appointed 
to take into consideration the present state of the 
Fisheries and Fishery Laws of Ireland. In 1784, 
premiums were offered for the destruction of seals on 
the north-west coast, at the rate of is. for each, when 
a sum of ^39, 4-f. was divided between Messrs. John 
Barrett and co., James Scanlon and co., and Messrs. 
Davit and O'Cannon, for 392 seals destroyed. In 
1799, Dr. Lanigan, the Society's librarian, was em- 
ployed in making such translations from the French 
of works on Fisheries as might be directed by General 
Vallancey and Dr. R. Kirwan. 

In May 1774, there is a note as to the existence of 
an old by-law, which provided that anyone possessing 
^500 a year in landed property or ^10,000 personal 
estate, should be precluded from receiving money 
premiums : their claims were to be recognised by means 
of medals. 

At this period, the Society was devoting much 
attention to small and poor renters of land, and offer- 
ing small prizes with a view to encouraging them in 



-j2 A HISTORY OF 

their efforts. No less than 42 pages, ] of the minute 
book for July and August are occupied with lists of 
such renters in the various counties, when a sum of 
^960 was distributed among them. Arthur Young 
says that this design was meritorious, but that abuses 
and deceptions were numerous. 

Captain Francis Blake of Galway informed the 
Society that he had discovered that sea wrack or weed 
might be made into good kelp, without drying and 
saving. A great quantity was thrown up on the shore 
at Galway, which he burnt while wet, a process that 
enhanced the value and reduced the price. He prayed 
aid towards erecting a furnace, but the Society was 
unable to help him, as the Linen Board was the autho- 
rity to which application should have been made. 

The premium of ^200 for establishing a new 
brewery in the province of Ulster in 1780 was granted 
to Edward and Nicholas Peers, Lisburn, who brewed 
115 barrels of ale. 

In 178 1, premiums to the amount of ^250 were 
awarded to Robert Brooke, the Hon. Baron Hamilton, 
and others, for cotton, velvets, velveteens, fustians, 
&c. ; and William Allen, of Coleraine, was granted 
£60 for having tanned hides on Dr. MacBride's 
method (see p. 144). Allen's memorial contained 
full information as to his experiments. 

Premiums were offered in 1782 for white cottons, 
Marseilles quilting, and corded dimity, when Messrs. 
J. G. Kennedy and William Nicholson, skilled in such 
manufactures, assisted the Society in determining them. 
Samuel Lapham, William Summers, William Browne, 
and Messrs. Joy, McCabe, and McCraken were awarded 
prizes. A gold medal was voted to Richard Reynell, 
Reynella, co. Westmeath, for having planted a very 
large number of cedars of Lebanon, Newfoundland 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 73 

spruce fir and two-thorned acacia. A foreign firm, 
(Beaune and co. of Brussels, who manufactured super- 
fine cloth at Amersfort, in Utrecht), made overtures 
to the Society, sending over samples and proposing, 
if encouraged, to come over to Ireland and exercise 
their art for the benefit of the kingdom. Nothing 
appears to have been done ; in the \ matter. David 
Bosquet, probably a Huguenot, laid before the Society 
samples of sheet lead and' copper' rolled by him at his 
mills on the Dodder, and the Society agreed that he 
was worthy of every encouragement. 

A premium was granted in 1785 to Messrs. Chamney 
and co., for bringing to Dublin, by the Grand Canal, 
a boat loaded with twenty tons of potatoes for sale 
they being of the growth of the year 1784. 

In 1786, premiums for planting trees were awarded, 
among others, to Francis Madden, for 240,000 ; George 
Cottingham, for 121,000; and to Robert Power, for 
102,000. A very large number of premiums, in sums 
varying from £1 to ^18, were awarded to claimants 
who had planted beans within four miles of Dublin. 
To show the increase in acreage and trees, the following 
particulars are given in one of the Society's publications. 
In 1784, plantations on only 90 acres were claimed 
for, when the premiums amounted to ^468. In 1788, 
the acreage had risen to 9664, and the amount of 
money distributed was ^4876. Between the years 1766 
and 1806, premiums for planting amounted to ^18,460, 
and (exclusive of 60 nurseries) the number of trees 
planted, for which premiums were granted, was 
55,137,000. A sum of ^6000 was also paid for 
such trees as poplars, quicks, sallows, willows, and 
Scotch firs. 

In February 1787, the Society took a new depar- 
ture in instructing the' Committee of Agriculture to 



74 A HISTORY OF 

consider the propriety of offering premiums for planting 
and enclosing old Danish forts, mounds, raths, motes, 
and churchyards. It was recommended ; and is. per 
perch, running measure, was the rate fixed on. Twenty 
shillings per acre were to be awarded for every acre 
planted with 2000 forest trees, and ^ioo were to be 
expended in this class. When claims were adjudicated 
on, those of Messrs. Richard Warburton, Andrew 
Walsh, John Augustus levers, and William Spaight 
were allowed. They had each enclosed between twenty 
and thirty perches of old forts, and Mr. Warburton 
had planted his enclosure with forest trees. In 1790, 
sums varying from £2 to £19 were awarded to sixteen 
persons in the counties of Antrim, Cavan, Carlow, 
Clare, Galway, Kilkenny, Meath, Tyrone, Wexford, 
and Wicklow, for enclosing and planting, &c. Lord 
Dillon headed the list with three acres planted, and 
131 perches enclosed. 

A premium of £44, 12s. 6d. was awarded to 
Messrs. Richard Williams & co., of Dublin, being at 
the rate of ten per cent, on the value of plate glass 
(^446, 4_r. $d.) manufactured and sold by them, 
which was superior to similar glass imported. A sum 
°f LSS-> I s - ^d. was rateably divided between the same 
firm and Thomas Chebsey & co. for flint glass 
manufactured and sold by them. William Penrose 
won ^50 for glass made in Waterford ; and John 
Smilie and co. and Benjamin Edwards a similar sum 
for glass made in Belfast. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 75 



CHAPTER V 

THE SOCIETY'S CHARTER, AND ITS FURTHER 
PROGRESS. (1750-1767) 

So far back as the year 1739, Dr. Madden had advo- 
cated the procuring of a Royal Charter by the Society ; 
the matter was not, however, taken up in earnest until 
1748, when, on the 15th of September, we find Lord 
Chesterfield, 1 who was always a firm friend, writing to 
him in terms that indicated his fear lest incorporation 
might possibly be injurious to its best interests. " The 
Dublin Society," he said, " has hitherto gone on ex- 
tremely well, and done infinite good ; why ? Because 
that, not being a permanent incorporated Society, and 
having no employments to dispose of, and depending 
only for their existence on their own good behaviour, 
it was not a theatre for jobbers to show their skill 
upon ; but, when once established by Charter, the very 
advantages which are expected from, and which, I 
believe, will attend that Charter, I fear may prove fatal. 
It may then become an object of party, and parliamen- 
tary views (for you know how low they stoop) ; in 
which case it will become subservient to the worst, 
instead of the best designs. Remember the Linen 
Board, where the paltry dividend of a little flax seed 
was become the seed of jobs, which indeed produced 
one hundredfold. However, I submit my fears to 
your hopes ; and will do all that I can to promote 
that Charter, which you, who, I am sure, have con- 

1 Letters, ed. John Bradshaw, 1892, ii. 887. 



7 6 



A HISTORY OF 



sidered it in every light, seem so desirous of." In a 
subsequent letter, 1 Chesterfield informed Madden that 
he saw reason to promote the scheme, adding that the 
draft of the Charter shown to him seemed " to have all 
the provisions in it that human prudence can make 
against human iniquity." On the 2nd of April 1750, 
the Charter 2 incorporating " the Dublin Society for 
promoting Husbandry and other useful Arts in Ire- 
land " was granted ; and on the 3rd of May, in the 
Parliament House, the first election of members under 
the new constitution was held. 



List of Members Named in the Charter 3 



William, Earl of Harrington, 
Lord Lieutenant, Pi-esident. 

William, Duke of Devonshire. 

Lionel Cranfield, Duke of 
Dorset. 

Philip Dormer, Earl of Chester- 
field. 

George, Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate, Vice-President. 

Robert, Lord Newport, Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Charles, Archbishop of Dublin 7 
Vice-President. 

James, Earl of Kildare, Vice- 
President. 

John, Earl of Grandison, Vice- 
President. 

Wills, Viscount Hillsborough. 

Humphrey, Viscount Lanes- 
borough, Vice-President. 

Robert, Bishop of Clogher. 

Charles, Lord Tullamore. 

Richard, Lord Mornington. 



Henry Boyle, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. 

Sir Arthur Gore, Vice-President. 

Sir Thomas Taylor, Vice-Presi- 
dent. 

Hercules Langford Rowley. 

John Maxwell. 

Thomas Butler. 

Thomas Tennison. 

Robert Downes, JYeast/rer. 

Thomas Prior, Secretary. 

Arthur Jones Nevill. 

John Putland. 

Thomas Waite. 

Alexander McAuley. 

William Maple, Registrar. 

Samuel Hutchinson, Dean of 
Dromore. 

Richard Pococke, Archdeacon 
of Dublin (1). 

John Kearney, D.D. 

John Wynne, D.D., Secretary. 



1 Letters, ii. 897. 

2 On the 2 1st of January 1836, Mr. William Watson, Temple- 
street, sent to the Society the original warrant of King George II, to- 
the then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, for granting the Charter, which: 
he had lately found among some of his family papers. It is now iru 
the National Library. 

3 Haliday Pamphlets, ccxxix. 2. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



77 



Members elected since the date of the Charter, 
most of whom were members of the late voluntary 
Society. 



William, Earl of Blessington. 

Charles, Lord Boyle. 

William Bristow. 

Thomas Adderly. 

Oliver Anketell. 

Henry Brownrigg. 

John Bury. 

William Bury. 

John Blumfield. 

Arthur, Archbishop of Cashel. 

John, Bishop of Clonfert. 

Jemmett, Bishop of Cork. 

Rt. Hon. William Conolly. 

Sir Samuel Cooke, Bart. 

Sir Richard Cox, Bart. 

Robert Callaghan. 

Colombine Lee Carre. 

Shapland Carew. 

Michael Chamberlain. 

Richard Castles (2). 

Rev. Charles Coote. 

William, Bishop of Derry. 

Capt. Theophilus Desbrisay (3). 

William Henry Dawson. 

Arthur Dobbs. 

Anthony Dopping. 

William Deane. 

Michael Dally. 

John Dawson. 

Alderman James Dunn. 

George Evans. 

William Forward. 

Dr. John Ferral. 

Lord Gormanstown. 

Joseph Gascoygne. 

John Grogan. 

Barth. William Gilbert. 

Charles Hamilton. 

Rev. Sir Philip Hoby, Bart. 

Ralph Howard. 

Rev. Daniel Jackson. 

Colonel Nicholas Loftus. 

Robert Longfield. 

Rev. Dr. George Leslie. 



James Digges La Touche (4). 
Richard Levinge. 
Dr. Thomas Lloyd. 
Viscount Massereene. 
Bishop of Meath. 
Hon. Baron Mountney. 
Sir Capel Molyneux, Bart. 
Sir Charles Moore, Bart. 
Charles Monck. 
Henry Monck. 
John Macarrell. 
James McManus. 
Hervey Morres. 
Aland Mason. 
Marc Anthony Morgan. 
Dr. Barthw. Mosse (5). 
John Magill. 
Edward Nicholson. 
David Nixon. 
Edward Noy. 
Earl of Orrery. 
Rev. Dr. Obins. 
Colonel Joshua Paul. 
Rev. Keene Percival. 
Lord Rawdon. 

Brigr.-General Edward Rich- 
bell. 
John Rochfort. 
Robert Roberts. 
Lewis Roberts. 
Robert Ross. 
Viscount Strangford. 
Colonel Robert Sandford. 
James Smith. 
Enoch Sterne. 
James Stopford. 
John Stratford. 

William Stewart, of Killymoon. 
Richard Supple. 
William Tighe. 
Rev. Holt Truell. 
George Vaughan. 
John Wade. 
Rev. John Wynne, junr. 



7 8 A HISTORY OF 

Several of these members have been already noticed, 
and many of them are so well known as to require no 
remark in this narrative. A few, however, deserve 
especial mention, as having been regular attendants at 
the meetings of the Society, and as working on various 
committees. 

(i) Richard Pococke (who was at this time Arch- 
deacon of Dublin) was a native of Hampshire. He was 
chaplain to Lord Chesterfield, and Bishop of Ossory 1756 
to 1765, when he was translated to Meath, a see which he 
held for a very short time, dying almost immediately after 
his translation. Pococke was a great traveller, and pub- 
lished an account of his Travels in the East. His Tour in 
Ireland in 1 752 was edited by the late Rev. Professor G. 
T. Stokes. He collected fossils, stones, minerals, &c, and 
bequeathed his collection, as well as one of coins and medals, 
to the British Museum. Pococke was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. 

(2) Richard Castles, or Castle x (as he himself wished to 
be called), whose real name was de Richardi, as appears 
by his will, was a native of Saxony, and an architect by 
profession, who settled in Ireland under the patronage of 
Sir Gustavus Hume, bart., and was the first to introduce 
here the Palladian style. He is said to have arrived in the 
country about 1727, and his principal works include the 
Printing House and Dining Hall, Trinity College; Leinster 
House, Kildare street, and Tyrone House, Marlborough 
street, all dating between 1734 and 1 745, as well as several 
other mansions in Dublin. He designed Powerscourt 
House, co. Wicklow ; Ballyhaise, co. Cavan (one of the 
most remarkable of his works) ; Hazlewood, and Summer- 
hill, " which in his own day was considered his master- 
piece." In conjunction with Bindon, Castle erected Lord 
Aldborough's mansion at Belan, co. Kildare, and Russ- 
borough, co. Wicklow, for Lord Milltown. He published 

1 " Richard Castle, Architect," by T. U. SzdWer, Journal R. S. A. /., 
xli. 241. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 79 

an Essay towards supplying the City of Dublin zvith Water. 
Castle died at Carton in 175 1, and is buried at Maynooth. 

(3) Theophile Desbrisay, " Captain of Halberdiers of 
Ireland," b. 1693, married Madelaine, daughter of Colonel 
Jacques Daubussarques, a Huguenot resident of Portarling- 
ton. Desbrisay, who was agent for Huguenot regiments, 
had a military office in Cork hill, and in 1746 resided in 
Frapper lane. 1 He, who died in 1772, and his wife, were 
buried in the French Nonconformist cemetery in Stephen's 
Green. 

(4) James Digges La Touche (son of David Digges La 
Touche, banker, of Dublin), sided with Charles Lucas, 
when that patriot started his campaign against the Board of 
Aldermen. They became opponents, however, when La 
Touche and he both decided to contest the representation 
of Dublin in 1745, and Lucas afterwards accused him of 
trying to injure certain branches of Irish trade. La Touche 
published Papers concerning the late Disputes between the 
Commons and Aldermen of Dublin, 1 746 ; and Collections of 
Cases, &c, and Proceedings in Parliament relating to Insolvent 
Debtors, Customs and Excises, Admiralty Courts, and the valu- 
able liberties of the citizens, 1757. 

(5) Bartholomew Mosse was born at Maryborough in 
1 7 12. In the year 1745 he founded a Hospital for 
lying-in women in George's lane, which was the first of 
its kind in the British Islands. The foundation stone of 
the Rotunda Lying-in Hospital, designed by Castle, was 
laid in 175 1, and that institution, conducted by Dr. Mosse, 
was opened in 1 757. Mosse died in 1759. A memoir of 
him will be found in the Dublin Journal of Medical Science, 
vol. ii. 

A little later, a seal for the use of the Society was 
ordered to be prepared, the design to be Minerva with 
a cornucopia ; motto, Nostri plena laboris? On the 8 th 

1 Now Beresford street (N. King street). 

2 Virgil's sEneid, I. 460. 



8o A HISTORY OF 

of November 1750, the annual election of officers 
took place, when William, Earl of Harrington, lord 
lieutenant, became president ; George, Archbishop of 
Armagh ; Charles, Archbishop of Dublin ; James, 
Earl of Kildare ; John, Earl of Grandison ; Hum- 
phrey, Viscount Lanesborough ; Sir Arthur Gore ; 
and Sir Thomas Taylor — vice-presidents ; Robert 
Downes, treasurer; Dr. John Wynne and Thomas 
Prior, secretaries ; William Maple, registrar ; and 
William Hawker, clerk. The most remarkable name 
in this list is that of Primate George Stone, who 
had been Vice-President for some years previously, 
As pointed out by Mr. Litton Falkiner, 1 the office at 
this period was much more political than ecclesiastical, 
and Stone's appointment was due to his known aptitude 
for the management of affairs. He was an able states- 
man and parliamentarian, and as such his connection 
with the Dublin Society was of great importance to 
its interests. 

On the 21st October 175 1, the Society sustained a 
severe loss in the death of Thomas Prior, who for 
twenty years had laboured incessantly in its behalf, 
and who had acted as Secretary from its commence- 
ment. The newspapers stated that he died after a 
tedious and severe illness, and on the 25 th of October, 
" the corpse of that great and good man " was de- 
posited in the church of Rathdowney, Queen's county. 
Faulkner's Dublin Journal contained a most apprecia- 
tive notice of his useful and beneficent life and labours. 
At the meeting held on the 31st of October, the 
Bishop of Meath (Henry Maule), moved that a monu- 
ment be raised to the memory of Mr. Prior, and 
subscriptions were to be invited. The commission was 

1 Essays Relating to Ireland (Archbishop Stone), ed. E. Dowden, 
1909. 






PRIOR MONUMENT, CHRIST CHURCH, DUBLIN 
(/. Van A"ost) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 81 

entrusted to Van Nost, but it was not until the 15th 
of January 1756, that the monument neared comple- 
tion, and the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church 
Cathedral, in which it was proposed to erect it, were 
asked to assign it a suitable position. It was put up in 
the nave, where it remained for more than a century. 
In 1870, on the restoration of the Cathedral by Mr. 
Henry Roe, the monument was removed to the crypt. 
The Council of the Royal Dublin Society, deeming it 
undesirable that a memorial of so much interest should 
remain in obscurity, sought permission to have it re- 
stored to the body of the church. This was granted, 
and in 1890 the expenditure of a sum of £60 was 
authorised by the Society for its restoration, and removal 
to the south porch, where the monument is still placed. 
The Society's minute book shows that Van Nost was 
paid 150 guineas for the monument, and 30 guineas 
for its erection. Berkeley, who penned the elegant 
inscription l on the monument, styled his friend 
" Societatis Dubliniensis, auctor, institutor, curator." 
On a scroll in the hand of one of the figures are 
the following words — " This monument was erected 
to Thomas Prior, Esq., at the charge of several 
persons, who contributed to honour the memory of 
that worthy patriot, to whom his veracity, actions and 
unwearied endeavours in the service of his country 
have raised a monument more lasting than marble." 
The following is the inscription to Prior's memory in 
Rathdowney Church : — 2 

Sacred to the memory of Thomas Prior, Esq., 
who spent a long life in unwearied endeavours to 

1 hiscriptions, &*c, Christ Church Cathedral, Rev. John Finlayson, 
1878. 

2 "Preservation Memorials of the Dead," Journal, 191 1, vol. viii., 
No. 4, p. 425. 

F 



82 A HISTORY OF 

promote the welfare of his native country. Every 
manufacture, every branch of Husbandry will declare 
this truth. Every useful Institution will lament its 
Friend and Benefactor. He died alas ! too soon for 
Ireland. October the 21st, 175 1, aged 70. 

In June 1752, the Society was called on to take 
into consideration a Bill exhibited against it by Charles, 
archbishop of Dublin, and Richard Levinge, surviving 
executors of the will of Sir Richard Levinge, bart., 
deceased, which had been filed in Chancery on the 1st 
of April. Sir Richard had bequeathed to them ^2000 
on trust to lay it out at interest, and pay the accruing 
profits for a period of twenty-one years to the trea- 
surer for the time being of the Dublin Society, to be 
disposed of yearly in premiums, as the Society should 
think proper, for the encouragement of husbandry 
in Ireland. At the expiration of that term, or if 
the Dublin Society should, for three years together, 
cease to act, or discontinue its proceedings, then the 
principal sum was to go to the younger children of 
testator's nephew. He appointed the Archbishop of 
Dublin, Richard Levinge, and Thomas Prior, executors. 
The testator died in 1747, and from that date, until 
his own death in 175 1, Prior managed everything. It 
was ordered, under a decree of the Lord Chancellor of 
the 4th of July 1758, that the £2000 should be paid 
into the hands of Thomas Stopford, one of the Masters 
in Chancery, to be by him laid out at interest, to the 
uses in the will of Sir Richard Levinge. On the 8 th 
of July 1756, the money had been mortgaged to the 
Viscountess Allen. The testator, Sir R. Levinge, 2nd 
baronet, was son of Sir Richard, 1st baronet, and he 
married Isabella, daughter of Sir Arthur Rawdon, bart. 

Among those who had joined the Society within 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 83 

the previous three or four years were Dr. Isaac Mann 
and George Faulkner. The former, who was born in 
Norwich in 17 10, came over to Ireland as tutor to the 
son of Robert Jocelyn, afterwards Lord Newport and 
Lord Chancellor, to whom he was chaplain. Mann 
was incumbent of St. Matthew's, Ringsend, and Arch- 
deacon of Dublin, and in 1772 he was appointed 
Bishop of Cork. 

Faulkner, born in Dublin in 1699, who became a 
printer and publisher of note, was satirised by Foote, 
as " Peter Paragraph." He was Swift's printer, and 
on one occasion underwent imprisonment in Newgate 
for publishing a pamphlet by Bishop Hort. He was 
vain and fussy, and delighted in offering splendid 
entertainments to talented authors and men of rank. 
During his vice-royalty, Lord Chesterfield became on 
intimate terms with Faulkner, professing high esteem 
for the printer, whose work was in every way credit- 
able to the character of the Dublin printing of the day. 
Faulkner died in 1775. A bust of Dean Swift, which 
he had intended should be placed in a niche in front of 
his house in Essex street, was presented by his nephew 
and successor in the business to St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
where it is placed near Swift's monument. For many 
interesting particulars with regard to Faulkner and his 
circle, the reader is referred to Gilbert's History of 
Dublin, vol. ii. p. 30. 

Certain rules, which were approved in November 
1756, were laid down for the better government of 
the Dublin Society. Among them was one to the effect 
that no instrument or printed book, its property, was 
to be lent to anyone without order. From the 1st of 
November in that year, the annual subscription was to 
be two guineas, and each person was to pay an admis- 
sion fee of two guineas ; twenty guineas to be the com- 



84 A HISTORY OF 

position for life membership. In the ballot, two nega- 
tives in seven were to exclude, and so on in proportion. 

A curious entry occurs about this time, namely, 
that a crown would be paid at the Prerogative Office 
for each separate intimation of a legacy being left to 
the Society. It was not, however, until the year 1772 
that a legacy was bequeathed (see p. 149). 

In April 1759, Thomas Butler, of Balmoola, co. 
Wicklow, miner and smelter, produced Lapis calami- 
naris x discovered and raised by him at Rosses, co. Sligo, 
and also some brass wrought by him : on the affidavits 
produced in support of his claim, the Society voted 
him ^15. Some mention is made of the Society's 
Osiery in Wexford, but no further particulars appear. 

The Interest of Ireland, a volume written by Henry 
Brooke, was proposed as deserving the premium offered 
for the best work on Agriculture. It was ordered to 
be read, and was recommended. 

In November 1760, John Putland, treasurer, the 
Rev. Dr. Wynne, secretary, and William Maple, regis- 
trar, were asked to accept gold medals, " in grateful 
acknowledgment of the advantages the Society had 
received from their kind and assiduous attention to 
its useful purposes." 

A sum of ;£ioo was lent to Anthony Crouset, of 
Cork, on security, for the cultivation of white mulberry 
trees, and for carrying on the manufacture of raw silk. 

When King George the Second, the sovereign 
under whom the Society had been originally founded, 
and who had granted the charter, died in October 
1760, and King George the Third ascended the 
throne, the Society presented to His Majesty an 
address which will be found copied into the minute 
book. Anthony Foster (1), Dr. Constantine Barbor 

1 Calamine stone is an ore of the metal zinc. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 85 

(2), Simon Luttrell of Luttrellstown (3), Sir Robert 
Deane, bart. (4), and the Bishop of Waterford (Dr. 
Richard Chevenix, Lord Chesterfield's friend) had now 
become members. The two last-named were constant 
in their attendance, and frequently presided at the 
meetings. 

1. Anthony Foster, chief baron, from whom the magni- 
ficent avenue opening off Stillorgan road, Dublin, is named, 
built the mansion known as Merville, which stands in the 
angle formed by the main road and the avenue. The 
Chief Baron was a friend of Mrs. Delany, and formed one 
of the brilliant circle in which she moved. " He was one 
of the first persons of position in Ireland to interest himself 
in a practical manner in the improvement of agriculture and 
the development of Irish industries." * Arthur Young 
visited him at Collon, co. Louth, where his operations " as 
a prince of improvers " exceeded anything Young could 
have imagined. He helped in amending the laws as to the 
linen manufacture. Foster had been m.p. for Dunleer, 
and afterwards for the county of Louth, and was father of 
the last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. 

2. Dr. Constantine Barbor, sch. Trin. Coll. Dub. 1732, 
was King's Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in 
1749, and in 1754 President of the College of Physicians, 
an office to which he was again elected in 1764 and I7°9« 
He also became physician to the Blue Coat Hospital, in 
succession to Dr. Richard Weld, on the death of the latter 
in 1755. Barbor died in 1783. In a poem descriptive of 
the Medical Faculty in Dublin published by John Gilborne, 
m.d., in 1755, the following lines are devoted to him : — 

" Wise Barbor can prolong the days of youth, 
By maxims founded on undoubted Truth : 
With pharmaceutic art he plainly shows 
How to prepare, preserve, compound and chuse 
Drugs and materials medical, that will 
All indications curative fulfil." 

1 History of Co. Dublin, F. E. Ball, ii. 78. 



86 A HISTORY OF 

3. Simon Luttrell was created Baron Irnham and Earl 
of Carhampton, and became father-in-law of Henry, Duke 
of Cumberland, George the Third's brother. He was m.p. 
for various English constituencies, and on one occasion he 
was returned to Parliament with no less than three of his 
sons. At one time he resided a great deal at Luttrellstown, 
which was visited, during his tour in Ireland in 1776, by- 
Arthur Young, who enters fully into the system of cultiva- 
tion pursued by Lord Carhampton. 1 

4. Sir Robert Deane, bart., a privy councillor, was 
father of the first Lord Muskerry. He had a charming 
seat at Dromore, near Mallow, co. Cork, and owned con- 
siderable property. He subsequently became a Vice- 
President of the Society. 

There is a note that on the 29th of January 1761 
John Tickell was balloted for, but not chosen, which 
appears to be the first instance in the history of the 
Society of a candidate being rejected. He was son of 
Thomas Tickell of Glasnevin. 

The minute books between the 13th of August 
176 1 and the 6th of March 1766 are not forthcoming, 
but the gap is partially supplied by the printed volumes 
of Proceedings , which commence on the 15th of March 
1764. These, while evidently transcripts of the ori- 
ginal minute books, do not, for a considerable time, 
give the names of members attending the meetings. 
The newspapers of the period help to supply further 
particulars. 

In the year 1761, the first parliamentary grant was 
made to the Dublin Society by the Irish House of 
Commons, and amounted to the sum of ^12,000. It 
was given " to promote and encourage agriculture, arts, 
and manufactures." In 1763, 1765, and 1769,^10,000 
were granted, and each year there was a most careful 

1 History of Co. Dublin, F. E. Ball, iv. 17-19. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 87 

calculation and allotment of the amounts to be set 
apart for particular branches of the Society's work. 

A sum of ^500 was allocated in 1765, for dis- 
tribution in sums of ^5 each, to discharged soldiers 
and sailors, who had served the King outside Great 
Britain and Ireland, and who took farms of 5 acres 
to 20 acres in extent, on leases for lives, in Munster, 
Leinster, and Connaught. Candidates for these pre- 
miums should have been for one entire year settled on 
the farms. 



88 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER VI 

HOMES OF THE SOCIETY 

As will have been seen, the earliest meetings of the 
Society were held in the Philosophical Society's rooms 
in Trinity College, and in the Parliament House, while 
one meeting is noted as having been held on the 19th 
of April 1739, at the Society's "ground," and a few 
subsequent meetings, up to the 8th of June, took place 
in its " House." These premises in Mecklenburgh 
street, which were taken for the purposes of a Botanic 
Garden, were abandoned by 1740 (see p. 186). 
Though a table, chairs, cloth, &c. appear to have been 
ordered for fitting up the rooms, the Society in a short 
time resumed its meetings in the Parliament House. 
Finding this increasingly inconvenient, especially in 
view of the numerous properties and accessories which 
were beginning to accumulate, a committee was ap- 
pointed to look for suitable premises, and in December 
1756, a report was made that such had been found in 
Shaw's court, off Dame street, now partly included 
in the site of the Commercial Buildings. The neces- 
sary legal arrangements having been concluded, the 
Society met for the last time in the Parliament House 
on the 3rd of February 1757, and the first meeting in 
its new home was held on the 10th of February, the Earl 
of Lanesborough, vice-president, occupying the chair, 
and twelve members being present. Part of the busi- 
ness transacted at this meeting had reference to a 
method communicated by Mr. Bermingham, of Ros- 




SOCIETY'S ESCRITOIRE, 1753 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 89 

common, for preventing labourers from imposing on 
their employers, into which method a committee was 
appointed to enquire. Special oilcloth and stair-carpet- 
ing were ordered for the new house, and a map of 
Ireland was to be hung in the Board-room. The 
Society was already in possession of an escritoire, as a 
minute of the 15th of February 1753, ordered that 
one to be used for keeping books and papers should 
be purchased ; and the words " This belongs to the 
Dublin Society " were to be inlaid in large letters in 
front. This venerable piece of furniture, which must 
have disappeared a great number of years ago, was 
recovered some time since, being purchased by the 
Society for a sum of £ 1 1 from a LifFey street dealer ; 
and it is now placed in the Council room. The date 
" 1753 " appears after the words ordered to be inlaid. 
For the first time, on the 25th of January 1759, the 
minutes of the previous meeting were signed by the 
chairman, Humphrey, 1st Earl of Lanesborough, a 
zealous supporter of the Society, and one of the most 
regular attendants at its meetings. 

By the year 176 1, the Society's house in Shaw's 
court was found to be inconvenient, and, as the tenure 
by which it was held was unsatisfactory, it was resolved 
to look for more suitable premises or for building 
ground. Sir William Yorke's house in William street 
was favourably reported on, but the Bishop of Derry 
stepped in and purchased it before the Society could 
take steps in the matter. Sir Capel Molyneux's man- 
sion in Peter street, Lord Antrim's house in Dawson 
street, and ground on which the old Theatre in 
Aungier street stood, were inspected. Finally, a plot 
of ground on the west side of Grafton street, adjoin- 
ing the house of the Navigation Board, was decided on 
as suitable, and on the 23rd of January 1766, Mr. 



9 o A HISTORY OF 

Myers * was ordered to prepare plans and estimates. 
A consideration of £1600 was paid, and the rent 
was ^32, 5/. During October and November 1767, 
the meetings were held in the great room over the 
gateway in Trinity College, and later, in the Parlia- 
ment House. On the 3rd of December 1767, the 
Society met for the first time in its new premises. 

The Gentleman's Magazine for 1786 (vol. Jan. -June, 
p. 217) contains the following notice of the place: — 

" This [is a] view (see opposite page) of a house erected 
in Dublin for the use of the Dublin Society and the Com- 
pany for carrying on the Inland Navigation from our city 
to the river Shannon, commonly called the Grand Canal 
Company. . . . This edifice stands upon the ground 
formerly occupied by the late Earl of Mornington in 
Grafton street, opposite the house of the Provost of Trinity 
College. The building [on the left] is that which apper- 
tains to the Dublin Society, whose room upon the second 
floor from the street is about 40 feet long, and 20 wide, 
and near 20 feet high ; fitted up all round with three sets 
of mahogany glasses rising one above the other ; a hand- 
some gilt and ornamented chair for the presiding member ; 2 
decorated with an elegant fretted stucco ceiling, and ac- 
commodated with two fireplaces, with chimneypieces of 
Irish marble. On each side of these fireplaces is a large 
white marble bust of one of the original promoters 3 of 
the Society, which was instituted for the encouragement 
of agriculture and useful arts, and whereof the President 
and Vice-President of the London Society for Encourage- 
ment of Arts are standing honorary members. Over the 

1 Christopher Myers was architect of Trinity College Chapel, and 
a man eminent in his profession. He was father of Lieut. -Col. Myers, 
a distinguished officer, who was created a baronet, and died at Myers- 
ville, now Wynberg, in 1789. 

2 This chair, which is still in use, was designed by James Mannin, 
master of the school for ornamental drawing, and carved in 1767, 
by Richard Cranfield. {Diet. Irish Artists, W. G. Strickland, i. 219.) 

3 These were Prior and Madden. The busts were executed in 
1 75 1 by John Van Nost. 




PRESIDENT'S CHAIR, 1767 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 91 

meeting room is a library and repository for mechanical 
models, save those relative to husbandry, which are de- 
posited in another place belonging to the Society. 

"The rest of the building consists of the necessary offices 
and the apartments of the Assistant Secretary. Behind 
the house are the Society's drawing schools, where children 
of indigent persons are educated in the arts of drawing, 
in architecture, ornament, and the human figure. 

" The other building [on the right] appertained to the 
Canal Company, but now belongs to the newly established 
Royal Irish Society [The Royal Irish Academy], and is 
similar in design to the Dublin Society's House ; but the 
meeting room is not finished with equal elegance, although 
of the same dimensions." 

^2200 were paid in the first instance to Myers, 
and a sum of £27 Sy l ^ s - 2 ^- additional was voted 
for the new academies for drawing. Another room 
(for casts from the antique and busts), to adjoin the 
schools and to be over a stable which was to be 
built in the rear (the gateway and passage leading to 
which still exist), was to be provided. On the site of 
the house itself have since been erected the houses now 
known as Nos. 1 1 2 and 1 1 3 Grafton street. In the 
early part of 1 7 8 1 , a warehouse in Poolbeg street, with 
its appurtenances, which belonged to the Trustees of 
the Linen Manufacture, was lent to the Society (on 
condition of the ground rent being paid), as a temporary 
repository for implements of husbandry brought from 
England, for which a sum of ^273, ijs. 2d. was paid, 
it being the intention of the Society to supply them to 
the public. The Linen Trustees' interest in the pre- 
mises was subsequently vested in the Dublin Society by 
the Act 21 and 22 Geo. Ill, c. 35, and in connection 
with this, the Right Hon. John Foster reported that 
he had engaged (as he had been requested), Thomas 
Dawson, an English farmer, to come over, at a salary 



92 A HISTORY OF 

of £70 a year, to instruct such as might desire to im- 
prove the mode of agriculture in the kingdom. Public 
notices were printed in Faulkner s Journal and Saunders* s 
News-Letter, that persons anxious for instruction should 
apply to the Assistant Secretary of the Society, who 
would arrange the times for Dawson's attendance — 12s. 
per week to be paid for each week of his engagement, 
together with his expenses. 

It became necessary to extend the Poolbeg street 
concerns, and a favourable opportunity presented itself 
when Mr. Edward Laurence, in consideration of a 
sum of £800, sold his interest in some ground and 
houses adjoining, for which rent was paid to Mr. 
William Morris. In 1786, a further extension became 
desirable, and a portion of ground opening into 
Hawkins street, with another portion opening into 
Poolbeg street, which had buildings erected on it, was 
taken from Mr. Thomas Acton. A fine of £885 was 
paid, and a small terminable rent incurred, while a 
sum of £2700 was expended on the new buildings and 
the works which were being carried out there. Soon it 
was found that the work of the Factory would be 
furthered by the addition of a house and piece of 
ground on the north side of Poolbeg street in posses- 
sion of Mr. William Chapman, of which the Society 
decided to take a lease, paying ,£250 for his interest. 
In January 1788, the new premises being in a forward 
state, Mr. Peter de Gree was directed to execute an 
emblematical painting for the Society's meeting room 
in Hawkins street, which, when finished, was highly 
approved. This painting is in monochrome, and still 
hangs on the Society's walls in Leinster House. 

It now appeared that the purpose for which the 
Factory in Poolbeg street and Hawkins street was 
originally intended had been answered by the exten- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 93 

sive sale of implements of husbandry, so the Society 
resolved to give up the Factory business, and the build- 
ings erected for it were to be devoted to the following 
purposes : — As a repository for every implement of 
husbandry, and for the reception of the Society's books 
on husbandry, natural history, and mechanics ; also 
for specimens of minerals, fossils, &c. Next, as a 
place for receiving such implements of husbandry and 
machines as any craftsman might send for sale, which 
were to be sold for the owners by the superintendent. 
Mr. John Brien, registrar and collector, was to reside 
on the premises, to regulate delivery of goods ; to keep 
the books, &c, and to see that the apartments were 
in order, for which he was to have a salary of ^30 a 
year, with allowances. A room was fitted up for a 
model maker, who was to repair and keep in order 
the models, and who was also to make new ones when 
directed. In 1784, the premises in Poolbeg street 
had been insured for ^2000, and the Grafton street 
house, furniture, &c, together with the drawing 
schools in the rear, for ^2500. 

It now became the practice, instead of bestowing 
money premiums, to deliver implements of husbandry 
from the Factory in Poolbeg street to prize winners, 
in value up to the amount awarded them. When the 
repository became ready for the reception of imple- 
ments, a form of advertisement for the newspapers was 
drawn up. The institution was intended not only to 
facilitate sales of useful machines, but also to give 
ingenious workmen an opportunity of making them- 
selves known, and to bring into competition the 
various productions of agricultural artisans in the 
kingdom. In 1795, Sir John Sinclair, on behalf of 
the Board of Agriculture, London, offered to have 
anyone deputed by the Dublin Society instructed gratis 



94 A HISTORY OF 

by the celebrated Mr. Elkington in the art of draining 
land. The committee did not, however, then send 
anyone, in view of the likelihood of Elkingtcn's 
coming here himself, which he afterwards did. 

In March 1796, the Society notified its intention of 
giving up the Grafton street premises, and advertise- 
ments for proposals for their purchase were to be in- 
serted in the daily papers. The offer of James Blacker, 
Parliament street, and Ambrose Moore, Dame street, 
to purchase them for ^3000 fine and payment of the 
ground rent was accepted. From the nth of August 
in that year the Society met at the repository, Hawkins 
street, whither also the drawing schools were moved. 
The two chimneypieces which stood in the meeting 
room in Grafton street were taken down and put up 
in the new premises. They were not found among 
the debris after the fire at the Theatre Royal, which 
at a later period occupied the Hawkins street site. 

In 1800, at an extraordinary meeting of the Society, 
the Wide Street Commissioners were requested to 
complete the purchase of all the ground and houses 
on the east side of Hawkins street, and in Poolbeg 
street, lately valued, as the Society proposed to become 
tenants of these, together with the premises in their 
possession held under the Bishop of Raphoe. It was 
proposed to assign the leases to the Commissioners, 
the Society taking one lease of the whole in perpetuity, 
at a rent of ^391, ys. 6d. The Society also requested 
a valuation of ground on the south side of their 
holdings at the rear of Townsend street. All this was 
effected, and the Society had then at its command, 
for carrying out its objects, extensive premises in a 
very central part of the city, while still further accom- 
modation was found in the Fleet Market (Hawkins 
street), where in 1802 premises were purchased. From 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 95 

a report of the Committee of Economy, dated nth of 
August 1803, it appeared that works unfinished in 
Hawkins Street would cost ^571, is. $d. In the class 
of works not begun, but estimated for to Parliament, 
the drawing school estimate amounted to £1667, and 
that for the gallery to £1145, 10/. 

The Building Committee advertised in 1 8 1 3 for 
tenders for the erection of a library, board-room, &c, 
and for a proper entrance at the south front of the 
Hawkins street house. The master of the architectural 
school prepared a ground plan and elevation, and ^2000 
were reserved for these works, while in the next year 
another sum of ^2000 was reserved for the same pur- 
pose. At the same time, a sum of over ^1100 was 
voted for completing the exhibition room. Soon, 
however, the Kildare street premises came into the 
market, and were purchased by the Society, which met 
in Hawkins street for the last time on the 25 th of 
May 1 8 15. 

The theatre and connected buildings fronting Pool- 
beg street were at this time held under a renewable 
lease from Margaret Hawkins, representative of William 
Hawkins, at a rent of ten guineas a year, and the 
remainder of the premises under a renewable lease made 
to the Society by the Wide Street Commissioners, at a 
rent of ^600 a year, which was then vested in Trinity 
College. The Society for the Suppression of Mendicity 
had occupied portion of the premises for a time, for the 
purposes of that institution, paying ^300 a year rent, 
and mendicants were accommodated there. In 18 19, 
the Guild of Merchants agreed to purchase the labora- 
tory lot for £900, but afterwards declined to carry 
out its agreement. It was decided that the proceeds 
of any sale of the Hawkins street premises should be 
devoted to completing the buildings and necessary 



96 A HISTORY OF 

accommodation in Kildare street, but, as will be seen, 
nothing was derived from their disposal. In August 
1820, Henry Harris, lessee of the Theatre Royal, 
made a proposal. Considering the expense he would 
be put to in converting the place into a theatre, he 
found that he could not afford to pay any purchase 
money, but was willing to take an assignment at a rent 
of £610 a year, to which the premises were subject. 
This offer was accepted, and the Society freed itself 
from further liability with regard to a place that was 
ill contrived, and which, from damp, was not suited 
for the purposes of the Society, which expended a vast 
sum in trying to make the premises meet all require- 
ments. On the disposal of the place to Harris, a 
bill was filed in Chancery on the 18th of August 
1820, by the Society of Irish Artists against the 
Dublin Society and Henry Harris, for an injunction, 
restraining them, as the exhibition room was in use for 
exhibiting their works. The plaintiffs in the suit were 
Thomas C. Thompson, Charles Robinson, T. J. Mul- 
vany, William B. Taylor, Joseph Peacock, John Banim, 
and William Mossop, but it does not appear to have 
come to anything. 

Some account of the Hawkins street premises at 
the time of their being given up has been preserved, 1 
from which it appears that the front and sides of the 
completed buildings of the Society included a quad- 
rangular area, 97 feet in length. The facade to 
Hawkins street was of hewn granite, with a centre 
and two wings, each of two stories, with Doric pilasters, 
without bases, and the centre ended in an attic story 
above the entablature. The door was of the Doric 
order, and in a niche above was a figure of Minerva, 
with a cornucopia ; on the shield at her feet was an 

1 Whitelaw and Walsh's History of Dublin, ii. 957. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 97 

Irish harp, with the motto, Nostri plena laboris. 1 In 
the interior was a broad room, 39 by 25 feet, lofty, 
well-lighted, and richly ornamented, with a square 
lantern. There were two spacious apartments for the 
Leskean museum and the gallery for Irish speci- 
mens. Then a noble and well-proportioned gallery, 
90 by 30 feet, well lighted by three elegant lanterns, 
round which were disposed the Society's busts and 
statues, the group of Laocoon ending the vista. Off 
this were the drawing schools. The library occupied 
three rooms. The exhibition room was lofty and 
spacious, the light being so disposed from the roof 
as to display the paintings to the best effect, and, next 
to the Louvre, it was considered the finest of its kind 
in Europe. In the rear of the quadrangular court 
were the chemical laboratory and the lecture-room, 
around which was a gallery with seating accommodation 
for eight hundred people. 

It had been suggested that a new front might be 
erected on the south side of the building, to corre- 
spond with Trinity College, as the origin of a fine 
square, into which eight streets would lead, and in the 
centre of which might be erected the Wellington 
trophy. 2 The Society's house would then not only 
have been near the most central but also the most 
ornamental part of the metropolis. It was said that 
a sum of over ^60,000 had been expended on the 
Hawkins street buildings, and the account concludes 

1 When the Theatre Royal was burned, almost the only part 
left standing was the stone facade, which had been erected by the 
Dublin Society. The figure of Minerva (or Hibernia), by E. Smyth, 
which occupied a niche over the entrance, was removed, and placed 
on the old gateway of Leinster House. It is now in the colonnade, 
outside the door of the theatre. 

2 There was some idea of erecting the trophy in commemoration 
of Wellington's victories in the open space where the Crampton 
memorial now stands 



9 8 A HISTORY OF 

as follows : — " This large edifice is now abandoned, its 
collections removed to an inconvenient distance, and 
crowded into ill-adapted rooms. The Society, having 
expended vast sums to render one house unfit for 
any other purpose, have purchased another which no 
money will render suitable — a splendid edifice well 
calculated for the mansion house of the Lord Mayor, 
but ill-adapted indeed for the residence of science and 
philosophy." 

LEINSTER HOUSE 

In ancient times portion of Kildare street and Kil- 
dare place, together with part of St. Stephen's Green, 
formed what was known as the Mensons' or Mynchens' 
fields, which were the property of the Nunnery of St. 
Mary del Hogges, founded for elderly nuns of the 
better classes, known as Mynchens. 1 The district, at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, was called 
the Molesworth fields, having been acquired by that 
family, to which belonged Robert, John, and Richard, 
first, second, and third Viscounts Molesworth ; the 
first distinguished by his writings in defence of liberty, 
the second as a successful ambassador, and the third 
as a warrior who served in all the campaigns in 
Flanders. An Act of Parliament, passed in 1725, en- 
abled the Molesworth family to make leases of certain 
portions unbuilt on, including the site of Kildare 
House — the present Leinster House. 

Soon after succeeding to the title in 1744, James 
FitzGerald, twentieth Earl of Kildare, decided on 
erecting a town house on this part of the Molesworth 
fields, which he had purchased from the third Lord 
Molesworth for ^1000. He commissioned Richard 

1 Minch, a nun. The nunnery at Littlemore is still called the 
Minchery. 




g J 

H 1 



Sib 









THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



99 



Castle, the eminent architect, to furnish plans, and the 
foundation stone of Lord Kildare's new mansion was 
laid in 1745, inscribed as follows : — 

Domum 

CUJUS HIC LAPIS FUNDAMEN 

IN AGRO MOLESWORTHIANA 

EXTRUI CURAVIT 

JACOBUS 

COMES KILDARIAE VICESIMUS 

ANNO DOMINI MDCCXXXXV 

HINC DISCAS, 

QUICUNQUE TEMPORUM INFORTUNIO 

IN RUINAS TAM MAGNIFICAE DOMUS 

INCIDERIS, 

QUANTUS ILLE FUIT, QUI EXTRUXIT 

QUAMQUE CADUCA SINT OMNIA 

CUM TALIA TALIUM VIRORUM 

MONUMENTA 

CASIBUS SUPERESSE NON VALEANT 



RICHARDO CASTELLO, ARCH. 1 

The site of his new house was supposed to lie far 
from the fashionable quarter of Dublin, but to one 
who suggested this to him, Kildare replied that the 
fashion would follow in whatever direction he led. 
Time amply justified his prophecy, as within a few 
years the immediate neighbourhood began to be ex- 
tensively built over. Lord Kildare married, in 1746, 
Lady Emily Lennox, sister of the then Duke of 
Richmond, a celebrated beauty, by whom he had seven- 

1 The house, of which this stone is the foundation, James, twentieth 
Earl of Kildare, caused to be erected in the Molesworth field, in the 
year of our Lord 1745. Hence learn, when in some unhappy time 
you chance on the ruins of so magnificent a house, how great was 
he who erected it, and how perishable are all things, when such 
monuments of such men cannot survive adversity. Richard Castle, 
architect. 



ioo A HISTORY OF 

teen children, of whom the fifth son was Lord Edward 
FitzGerald, the noble-hearted and ill-fated enthusiast 
who sacrificed his life for his patriotic principles. 
Lord Kildare was a resident nobleman, and spent his 
time between Dublin, where he took his full share in 
the House of Lords' debates and work, and his country 
seat of Carton, which he greatly improved and enlarged. 
He took an independent tone in opposing Ministers 
on the Money Bill in 1753, and acquired great popu- 
larity on the occasion by his public-spirited conduct. 
In 1 76 1, Kildare obtained a step in the peerage by 
being created Marquis of Kildare, and in 1766 he 
became Duke of Leinster, by which name what was 
originally called Kildare House has since been known. 
The Duke died in 1773, at the comparatively early age 
of fifty-one, and lies buried in Christ Church Cathedral. 

A narrow lane connected St. Stephen's Green with 
the present Nassau street ; this was called Coote 
street, a name which was changed to Kildare street on 
Kildare House being erected, when the lane was also 
widened. The house was approached through a grand 
gateway of rustic masonry, leading to a spacious court. 

Though the account of Leinster House, written 
by James Malton in 1794, has been given at length 
by Gilbert in his History of Dublin (iii. 282), and by 
Mr. T. U. Sadleir, in his article on the mansion, in 
the Records of the Georgian Society (iv. 57), to which 
this chapter owes much, it seems quite impossible 
to omit it here, so comprehensive and descriptive is 
the account, although it be not written in classic 
English : — 

" Leinster House, the town residence of His Grace 
the Duke of Leinster, is the most stately private 
edifice in the city. Pleasantly situated at the south- 
east extremity of the town, commanding prospects few 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 101 

places can exhibit, and possessing advantages few city 
fabrics can obtain by extent of ground both in front 
and rear ; in front, laid out in a spacious courtyard ; 
the ground in the rear made a beautiful lawn, with a 
handsome shrubbery on each side screening the ad- 
jacent houses from view ; enjoying in the tumult of a 
noisy metropolis all the retirement of the country. A 
dwarf wall which divides the lawn from the street 
extends almost the entire side of a handsome square, 
called Merrion square. The form of the building is a 
rectangle, 140 feet long by 70 feet deep, with a cir- 
cular bow in the middle of the north end, rising two 
stories. Adjoining the west front, which is the 
principal, are short Doric colonnades communicating 
to the offices, making on the whole an extent of 210 
feet, the width of the courtyard. The court is sur- 
rounded by a high stone wall ornamented with rusti- 
cated piers, which, after proceeding parallel with the 
ends of the building as far as a gateway on the western 
side and another opposite it, the court being uniform, 
it takes a circular sweep from one gate to the other, but 
broken in the middle by a large and handsome gateway 
directly fronting the house, communicating to the 
street, and exhibits there a plain but not inelegant 
rusticated front. The house, or rather the gateway 
of the courtyard, is in Kildare street — so named from 
one of the titles of His Grace, who is Marquis of 
Kildare — and is the termination of a broad, genteel 
street called Molesworth street. The garden front 
has not much architectural embellishment : it is plain 
but pleasing, with a broad area before it the whole 
length of the front, in order to obtain light to offices 
in an under story, but which received none to the 
west, to the courtyard. From the middle of the 
front, on a level with the ground floor, a handsome 



102 A HISTORY OF 

double flight of steps extends across the area to the 
lawn. The greater part of the building is of native 
stone (quarried at Ardbraccan, in the county of Meath), 
but the west front, and all the ornamental parts 
throughout, are of Portland. South of the building 
are commodious offices and stables. The inside of 
this mansion in every respect corresponds with the 
grandeur of its external appearance. The hall is lofty, 
rising two stories, ornamented with three-quarter 
columns of the Doric Order, and an enriched entab- 
lature ; the ceiling is adorned with stucco ornaments 
on coloured grounds; and the whole is embellished 
with many rich and tasty ornaments. To the right of 
the hall are the family apartments ; the whole con- 
venient, beautifully ornamented, and elegantly fur- 
nished. Overlooking the lawn is the great dining 
parlour, 1 and adjoining it, at the north end, is an 
elegant long room, 2 the whole depth of the house, 
24 feet wide, called the supper room, adorned with 
sixteen fluted Ionic columns supporting a rich ceiling. 
Over the supper room is the picture gallery, 3 of the 
same dimensions, containing many fint paintings by 
the first masters, with other ornaments chosen and dis- 
played with great elegance. The ceiling is arched and 
highly enriched, and painted with designs by Mr. 
Wyatt. The most distinguished pictures are — a 
Student drawing from a bust, by Rembrandt ; 4 " The 
Rape of Europa," by Claude Lorraine ; the " Triumph 
of Amphitrite," by Luca Giordano ; two capital 
pictures by Rubens, and two wives by Van Dyck ; 
dogs killing a stag; a. fine picture of St. Catherine; a 
landscape, by Barret ; with many others. 

1 Now the council-room. 2 Now the conversation-room. 

3 For a number of years used as the Society's library. Now the 
reception-room. 

4 This is a mistake : the picture is not one of Rembrandt's. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 103 

" In the bow, in the middle of one side, is a fine 
marble statue ; an Adonis, executed by Poncet [now 
in the National Gallery of Ireland]; a fine bust of 
Niobe, and of Apollo, placed one on each side. In 
the windows of the bow are some specimens of 
modern stained glass by Jervis [Thomas Jarvis]. 

" Several of the apartments on this floor are en- 
riched with superb gildings, and elegantly furnished 
with white damask. From the windows of the attic 
story to the east are most delightful prospects over 
the Bay of Dublin, which, for three miles, is divided 
by that great work, the South Wall, with a beautiful 
lighthouse at the termination. The sea, for a con- 
siderable extent bounds the horizon, and every vessel 
coming in and going out of the bay must pass in dis- 
tinct view. To the left is seen the beautiful pro- 
montory of Howth, the charming low grounds of 
Marino, and Sheds of Clontarf; to the right the 
pleasing village and seats of the Black Rock, the re- 
mote grounds and hills of Dalkey, and the Sugar 
Loaves, backed by the extensive mountains of Wicklow 
which most picturesquely close the view. The finish- 
ing of the picture gallery, and making several improve- 
ments at the north end of the house, were reserved to 
display the taste of the present possessor, William 
Robert, Duke of Leinster, whose excellent judgment 
therein is eminently conspicuous, as well as in many 
other instances, at His Grace's country residence, at 
Carton, near Dublin ; and all evince his patriotism 
and refined enjoyment of a domestic life." 

It has been stated that Leinster House served as 
a model for the White House at Washington, the 
official residence of the President of the United States. 1 

1 It was designed by James Hoban, an Irish architect, who 
settled at Charleston, U.S.A. See Ceiitury Magazine, 1884, p. 803. 



io 4 A HISTORY OF 

One of the finest features in the interior is the hall, 
which is unusually lofty and well proportioned, and 
forms a stately entrance to what was the largest and 
most magnificent of the town houses of our Irish 
nobility. The ceiling is beautifully decorated, and 
the first floor is reached from an inner hall by a flight 
of white stone stairs which branch into two divisions 
from a landing. The mantelpieces in the dining- 
room and drawing-rooms were removed to Carton. 
Those that remain are beautiful, the mantelpiece and 
the grate in the small hall leading to the lawn entrance 
being considered specially worthy of notice. The 
registrar's office, formerly the study, has a splendid 
mantelpiece, and is a well proportioned, highly orna- 
mented apartment. 

It was concerning the acquisition of this palace, that, 
on the 14th of November 1 8 14, a committee of the Royal 
Dublin Society sat to deliberate. It consisted of the 
Right Hon. John Claudius Beresford, Jeremiah D'Olier, 
P. Digges La Touche, John L. Foster, Henry Arabin, 
Nicholas P. Leader, John Pomeroy, and Richard 
Verschoyle ; who found that the premises would be 
disposed of for £10,000, and a yearly rent of £600, 
or they would be sold rent free for £20,000. It was 
thought at this time that part of the ground might 
advantageously be let for building, and that the Society 
would obtain a good price for the concerns in Hawkins 
street. The former suggestion was never carried out, 
and in the latter expectation the Society was grievously 
disappointed. An agreement was entered into with 
Augustus Frederick, fourth Duke of Leinster, for the 
sale of his interest for £10,000, with £600 yearly 
rent, which was ratified by the Society on the 14th 
of December 18 14, it having previously been submitted 
to the Government. On the 19th of January 18 15, it 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 105 

appeared that ^5000 had been paid to the Duke, and 
possession had been delivered to Mr. Wilson on behalf 
of the Society. The premises and ground on which 
stood that part of Kildare street and Leinster street 
that led from Leinster House to the house of Mr. 
Hamilton Rowan in Leinster street, were held under 
a fee farm lease from the Molesworth family, subject 
to £150 a year. Some of the ground which had been 
built on was held under leases from the Duke, which 
produced £64 a year above the head rent, and it was 
thought advantageous to purchase this profit rent from 
his Grace for a sum of ^1000. 

A select committee, of which Francis Johnston, 
Alderman Thorp, and Mr. Gandon were members, 
was appointed to decide on necessary alterations in 
the house, and Mr. Baker, master of the architectural 
school, was engaged to superintend repairs and altera- 
tions. The premises were insured up to ^20,000. 
The committee recommended that the picture gallery 
should be used as the library, and that six rooms on 
the first floor should be assigned to the department of 
natural history. On the ground floor, the ball-room 
was to be the bust-room ; the dining-room the board- 
room ; and other rooms were assigned for newspapers, 
the secretary's office, as well as committee and house- 
keeper's rooms. It was finally arranged, however, 
that on the ground floor, No. 1 in a certain plan 
was to be the board-room ; 2, conversation-room ; 
3, ante-room ; 4, secretary's office and committee 
room ; 5, housekeeper's room ; 6 and 7, model 
rooms. On the first floor, the gallery was to be the 
library, and rooms nos. 2 to 7, museums. Up to 
^600 was to be spent on the house and concerns, and 
enquiries were set on foot as to the best mode of 
erecting a laboratory and theatre, with apparatus rooms 



106 A HISTORY OF 

for the professors. A gallery for busts, with school 
and modelling rooms adjacent, and a gallery for ex- 
hibition of pictures, were also necessary. It was sug- 
gested that the out-building called the kitchen might 
be converted into a laboratory and theatre, and that the 
other buildings might be placed adjacent, with entrances 
from the house, and outside entrances for the public 
by the colonnade. The lawn in the rear was unoccupied, 
and Lord Fitzwilliam leased it to the Society at ^300 
a year. The Merrion square boundary of the lawn 
was a sunk fence, and in 1834-5, £200 were expended 
in lowering the parapet wall and erecting an iron 
railing, which protected the fence from being a re- 
ceptacle for nuisances. 

The last meeting of the Society in Hawkins street 
was held on the 25th of May 18 15, though the com- 
mittees still continued to meet there ; and it met for 
the first time in Leinster House on the 1st of June 
1 8 15, Lord Frankfort de Montmorency in the chair, 
and a large number of members attending. A marble 
bust of himself was offered to the Right Hon. J. C. 
Beresford, lord mayor, for his successful exertions in 
the removal of the Society from Hawkins street to 
Kildare street, but his lordship declined the honour. 

A sum of X4000 was to be set apart to complete 
the necessary accommodation in Leinster House, and 
a further sum of ^2000 was voted. 

Having now a proper site on which to erect it, 
and in consideration of King George the Second having 
granted to the Society its charter, the Corporation, in 
November 18 15, was requested to consent to the 
removal of the statue of that monarch from St. 
Stephen's Green to Kildare street, but the Commis- 
sioners of the Green declined to acquiesce in the 
proposal. 



£2536 


16 


7 


524 


6 





3040 


8 


4 


104 


13 





£62o6 


3 


11 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 107 

Up to the 30th of May 1 8 1 6, the following amounts 
were expended on the house and new buildings : 

Repairs 
Furniture 
New buildings 
Superintendent 



In 1 8 19, a resolution was passed that all sums re- 
ceived on the admission of members were to be invested 
in Government stock, so as to create a fund for fining 
down the rent due to the Duke of Leinster, which was 
finally extinguished long before the premises became 
Crown property. In July 1835, ^1200 were allocated 
out of this admission fee fund towards the construc- 
tion of an exhibition room. Representations were 
made to the Chancellor of the Exchequer as to the 
success of the exhibition of manufactures held on 
the Society's premises during the last two years, and 
the want of proper accommodation both in reference 
to the convenience of the public, and the satisfactory 
placing of exhibits. It was hoped that the Govern- 
ment might grant a similar sum, an expectation which 
does not appear to have been realised. 



io8 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER VII 

THE DRAWING SCHOOLS 

The precise period at which the original drawing 
school of the Society was opened is not now known, 
as the volume of minutes in which it would have 
been recorded is not forthcoming, but it may pro- 
bably be assigned to the years 1742-46. 

Mr. Prior laid before Lord Chesterfield, in 1746, 
a report on the Society's work in the field of fine 
arts, and submitted a plan for an academy. 

On the 1 2th of March 1748, the Society communi- 
cated to the press a statement, that on the competition 
for the Madden premium of ^15 for the best drawing 
by boys or girls under sixteen years of age, eighteen 
candidates attended, who produced drawings, which 
were hung, numbered, round two large rooms in the 
Parliament House. The boys were directed to sit 
round two tables, on which were placed busts, which 
they were directed to draw before the Society ; this 
task they readily performed in an hour's time. Most 
of the drawings were excellent, and the candidates 
placed in the first rank got two guineas, and those 
in the second one guinea. On the 5th of November, 
a similar plan was adopted, when the newspapers re- 
ported that " as this day's entertainment had all the 
appearance of a foreign academy for drawing, it is 
hoped it will lay the foundation of establishing such an 
academy among ourselves." 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 109 

Eight boys who obtained premiums for drawing 
in 1747 were pupils of Mr. Robert West's academy, 
in George's lane. In 1749, it was announced that the 
Madden premiums for drawing were secured princi- 
pally by his pupils. The Society had already arranged 
for his instructing a certain number under its auspices, 
eventually taking over the school itself. West, who 
was born in Waterford, had studied under Boucher and 
Vanloo on the continent. On the 27 th of May, on ad- 
judication of the Madden premiums, twenty-eight boys 
presented themselves and produced specimens. They 
had been employed for two months in drawing from 
the round copies of bustoes, group figures, as well 
as subjects from the life, " a lusty naked man " being 
placed on the middle of a large table, when the boys 
were placed on seats all round so as to draw the 
figure in different attitudes. £16 were distributed in 
sums varying from is, 6d. to one guinea. " They 
improve every day in their skill, and it is hoped 
that several good geniuses for drawing will in time 
appear, much to the credit of this little academy, 
who perform so well beyond all expectations." On 
the adjudication in February 1750, thirty candidates 
appeared, when the boys were directed to draw " the 
face of a remarkable man, Hugh Roberts, which most 
of them did off-hand very well." 

From the year 1750, a good deal of attention was 
paid to the drawing school, as it will have been seen 
that the Society was determined to cultivate this art 
among the young people of the city to the utmost 
of its power. In May of that year, there is a note that 
Van Nost, the sculptor, had taken as apprentice 
Patrick Cunningham, who received his earliest in- 
struction under the auspices of the Society, for which 
he subsequently executed several commissions. Such 



no A HISTORY OF 

is the first notice of this Irish sculptor who attained 
to considerable eminence in his art. Before November 
1750, the Society had provided an academy for draw- 
ing in Shaw's court, which laid the foundation of 
a School of Art that reflected much honour on it, and 
which produced so many artists who attained dis- 
tinction in sculpture, portrait and landscape painting. 

In 1752, the following distinguished artists are 
found adjudicating on the competitions, in which they 
showed much interest — Bindon, Lee, Drury, and Van 
Nost. On this occasion James Forester took first 
place, and in the following year, John Dixon was first, 
when Patrick Cunningham was also among the com- 
petitors. Pue's Occurrences of the 7th of August 1753 
remarked that the art of drawing had within a few 
years (by the encouragement of the Dublin Society) 
made great progress in the city, " so that we may hope 
to see most of the great men who have been orna- 
ments of their country immortalised in the works of 
our young artists." Pue's Occurrences, on the 26th of 
January 1754, called attention to its work in this direc- 
tion, and speaks of " that patriot body, the Dublin 
Society, whose labours were attended with even more 
than the wished-for success, which is every day apparent 
in their academy for drawing founded in Shaw's court, 
Dame street, under the direction and care of that 
ingenious gentleman and useful member of society, 
Mr. West." Again, in February, attention was called 
to a great variety of handsome drawings which were 
produced to the Dublin Society by boys under sixteen, 
among which was a beautiful head of the Duchess of 
Cleveland in crayons. They also produced several 
modellings in clay, one of which was a bust of George, 
Prince of Wales, by Mr. Van Nost's sister ; and a 
whole-length figure from life, in plaster of Paris, of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY in 

Master Cox, son to the Archbishop of Cashel, by one 
of Mr. Van Nost's apprentices ; " from which it is 
evident how great a progress the Polite Arts are 
making in this Kingdom, to the immortal honour 
of that patriot body, the Dublin Society, who have 
been their chief encouragers." 

Agreements were concluded with persons who 
consented to act as models for the boys, and the 
Madden premium for 1754 (£15) was bestowed on 
Patrick Cunningham for a group in white marble, of 
boys playing with a basket of flowers. Cranfield, of 
Cope street, won the Madden prize of 1755, f° r two 
basso relievos — a Sleeping Beauty and a small landscape 
with beasts. In 1756, Mr. Mannin agreed, for £25 a 
year, to teach the art of drawing foliage, &c, for two 
years, to two boys who were to be recommended by 
the Society. 

When the Society entered on their new premises 
in Shaw's court (p. 88), in 1757, four rooms were 
assigned to Mr. West, and one room to Mr. Mannin 
(a Frenchman), the drawing masters, and the stable at 
the back was fitted up in October 1758, so that the 
boys might use it as a drawing academy. It was also 
used for keeping the collection of plaster busts and 
casts which was being formed by the Society. Lord 
Duncannon, who was abroad, had interested himself in 
procuring some of them that were required. A sum, 
not to exceed ^20, was to be allowed for a living 
model, who was to sit twice a week for a year. At this 
period, Robert West had charge of the figure drawing. 
Thomas Ivory, who was responsible for the design of 
the Blue Coat Hospital, Dublin, 1 taught architectural 

1 His designs for it were of exceptional excellence, both from an 
artistic and technical point of view, but it was found too costly to 
carry them fully out. They are now in the British Museum. Another 



ii2 A HISTORY OF 

drawing : and the pupils were instructed in ornament 
by James Mannin. The Recollections of John O'Keefe, 
the dramatist, who studied in the school, contains a 
vivid picture of the drawing academy. He says that it 
was frequently visited by members of the Society, the 
Lord Lieutenant, and some of the nobility. In his 
day, the students' text-book was the Preceptor, by 
Robert Dodsley, published in 1748. 

Joseph Fenn, described as Professor in Nantes 
University, brought before the Society in 1764 a plan 
of instruction for the schools, which was approved by 
it four years later. It will be found embodied in his 
work entitled Instructions given in the Drawing School 
established by the Dublin Society . . . 1768. Mr. 
W. G. Strickland, in his Dictionary of Irish Artists, 
ii. 583, gives an interesting account of the Fenn 
episode, and remarks that his ambitious and varied 
programme seems never to have been carried out, 
or even attempted. 

Joseph Wilton, sculptor, of Charing Cross, London, 
wrote in June 1757, that several cases of busts, &c, 
which had cost £219, 15/., had been packed and 
put on board vessels for transit to the Society. 
John Crawley, one of Van Nost's apprentices, and 
a Madden prizeman, petitioned to be sent abroad, 
and ^80 were agreed to be paid by instalments to 
Dr. Pococke, the bishop of Ossory, with a view to 
Crawley's receiving instruction on the continent. In 
May 1 76 1, Matthew William Peters, another pupil, 
asked for ^30, to be expended on his being sent to 
Italy, for his improvement in the art of painting. 

fine work of Ivory, was Newcomen House, opposite the Upper Castle 
gate, now used as offices by the Corporation of Dublin. Ivory had 
been master of the architectural drawing school from 1759, and died 
in 1786. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 113 

Peters returned to Dublin in 1766. Patrick Cunning- 
ham was paid for moulding and casting figures of 
a Roman Slave, a Venus, and a Dolphin, and in 1760, 
ten guineas for a statue of King George. To enable 
him to carry on business as a statuary, £20 were 
granted to him, on bond. The following advertise- 
ment appeared in Faulkner's Journal, at the time of 
his setting up business in July 1758 : "Patrick Cun- 
ningham, apprentice to Van Nost, by agreement with 
the Dublin Society, opens a yard and shop for statuary 
in William street. As he is the first native that has 
been bred to that business, he humbly hopes for the 
favour of the public." The year after, he was granted 
£30 by the Society to purchase at Van Nost's auction 
such moulds and models as might be useful in his 
business. 

Late in 1767, or very early in 1768, the Society 
having moved to their new premises in Grafton street, 
the drawing schools were accommodated in the back 
of the house, the gateway and entrance to which still 
remain (see p. 91). Here they were situated until 
1796, when the Society moved to Poolbeg street. 

In the early part of the year 1767, the question of 
the continuance of the school for figure drawing was 
raised, and, on a full discussion of the matter, the 
opinion of the following artists was invited — Messrs. 
Bertrand, Carver, Collins, Ennis, Fisher, Hunter, 
Reiley and Sheehan, as also Richard Cranfield, carver, 
Simon Vierpyle, 1 carver in statuary, James Madden, 
seal cutter, Nathaniel Murray, engraver, and James 

1 Vierpyle was probably of Dutch origin. He was brought over 
from Italy by Lord Charlemont for work at his mansion of Marino, 
Clontarf, specially for the Casino there. He copied in terra cotta 
a large number of busts of Roman Emperors, &c, at the Capitol and 
in the Vatican, which in 1868 were presented by the last Earl of 
Charlemont to the Royal Irish Academy. 

H 



1 1 4 A HISTORY OF 

Wilder, landscape painter. At a very large meeting 
held on the 5th of March, the motion as to its being 
suppressed was negatived. £$ were voted in payment 
for the following books ordered for the use of the 
scholars attending Mr. Thomas Ivory's classes in the 
architectural school — Gibb's Architecture ; Loudon's 
Art of Building ; Hopper' s Architecture ; Halfpenny's 
Builder s Assistant ; Price's British Carpenter ; Jesuits 
Perspective. 

On the 7th of May, the Madden premiums were 
awarded as follows — 10 guineas to George Mullins for 
the best original landscape in oils ; 5 guineas to James 
Mannin for the next best; and 10 guineas to Mary 
Hunter, for the best original full-length portrait in 
oils, life size. A silver medal was granted to the Rev. 
Mr. Campbell, author of a pamphlet entitled Essay on 
Perfecting the Fine Arts in Great Britain and Ireland, 
which was inscribed to the Dublin Society. In March 
1769, Van Nost represented that a poor country boy 
named William Graham, aged sixteen years, who was 
his apprentice, displayed great genius in sculpture and 
the fine arts, when ^10 were granted for his mainten- 
ance and clothing. In 1770, Graham exhibited a bas- 
relief in marble, but nothing is known of his subse- 
quent career. 

In November 1780, the Duke of Leinster laid 
before the Society a certificate signed by the following 
artists, namely : Hugh D. Hamilton, Richard Cran- 
field, William Ashford, Charles Robertson, and Walter 
Robertson, adjudging silver medals to the undernamed 
boys, whose works were of great merit : — landscape — 
1, William Hartwell ; 2, John Mannin; 3, John 
Lacam ; ornament — 1, Chr. Connor; 2, William Dartis; 
3, William Gumley. Premiums for figure drawing 
were awarded to — 1, Peter Hoey ; 2, Henry Stoker 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 115 

(from the round) ; 3, Matthew Hunter (from the 
flat) ; ornament drawing — William Hartwell ; land- 
scape — Robert Connor ; ornament — John McCready. 
Drawing in architecture — Robert Connor, plans and 
elevations ; Hoban, stairs, roof, &c. ; William Guinness, 
practical geometry. With regard to these and many 
other pupils mentioned in this chapter, it must not 
be supposed that all became artists, as a large number 
of them, on leaving the schools, entered on business 
careers or became artisans. Colonel Burton, Mr. Cald- 
well, Alexander Montgomery, Captain Burgh, the 
Bishop of Killaloe, Mr. Braughall, Morgan Crofton, 
Messrs. Ford, Wallis, Trant, Ladaveze, and Major 
Waring were appointed members of a committee to 
superintend the Society's drawing schools for one 
year. 

In 1 7 8 1 , Frederick Prussia Plowman, who had been 
educated in the Society's drawing schools, laid before 
it several copies of paintings executed by him under 
the inspection of Sir Joshua Reynolds, which were 
highly approved. The Society subscribed two guineas 
for a cast of the statue of Hercules, to be executed by 
James Hoskins, Westminster, for the use of the schools. 

In November 1782, the silver medals in the art 
schools were awarded as follows : — Matthew Hunter, 
portraits from nature ; John Mulvany, drawings from 
the round ; John O'Keely, drawings from the flat ; 
Martin Shee and John Mulvany were specially recom- 
mended for landscape drawings. John Babington was 
declared entitled to a medal for ornament drawing ; 
Henry Seguin won that for plans and elevations. In 
1783, Martin Shee won the medal for portrait painting. 
In November 1786, the progress of the drawing 
schools appears to have given much satisfaction to the 
superintending committee. Several drawings from 



n6 A HISTORY OF 

life, executed by Martin Shee, portrait painter, who 
resided in Dame street, and who had received his art 
education in the schools, under Robert L. West, were 
laid before the Society, when a silver palette, with suit- 
able inscription, was presented to him, in testimony of 
its approbation. Shee, afterwards Sir Martin Archer 
Shee, and President of the Royal Academy, was born 
in Dublin. In 1788, he went to London, where he 
had a number of sitters drawn from the best classes, 
and, being a man of considerable culture, he had access 
to the most cultivated society in the capital. Shee 
published some poems, and to his work as painter and 
poet, Byron alludes in English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers — 

" And here let Shee and Genius find a place 
Whose pen and pencil yield an equal grace." 

Shee's Life was written by his son. 

A figure taken from a book entitled The Sorrows 
of Werter, finished in the new stipple engraving, exe- 
cuted by Henry Seguin. who had received his art 
education in the Society's school, was laid before it, 
and greatly commended. In May 1785, this artist 
requested that the Society should subscribe to a work 
in preparation, entitled The School of Fencing, which 
was to contain fifty folio copperplates, the engravings 
to be executed by him. To encourage so promising 
an artist, and to excite emulation in the schools, his 
request was acceded to, but the work does not seem 
to have been published. Soon after, a sum of £j, y. 
was paid to Michael Angelo Pergolesi for publications 
of ornamental designs in the Etruscan and grotesque 
style, for the use of the schools. 

The architectural school sustained a great loss in 
December 1786 by the death of Thomas Ivory, who 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 117 

had for so many years successfully conducted it. 
Henry Aaron Baker was appointed to succeed him. 

As it is of interest to learn the titles of text-books 
in use at this time, it may be noted that the following 
were ordered to be purchased for the architectural 
drawing school, viz. Gibb's Rules of Architecture, 
Sir William Chambers' Treatise on Architecture, Pal- 
ladio's Works, Richardson's Ceilings and Chimney- 
Pieces. Two marble figures, a Venus de Medici and a 
Dancing Faun, were presented by Joseph Henry, Esqr. 
At this time, the Society was in possession of the 
following statues and busts — The Listener, Boxers, 
Venus aux belles Jesses, Alexander s Head, Apollo of 
Belvedere, Antinous, Flora, Laocoons Head, River God's 
Head, Commodus, and Ariadne, which were removed to 
a more commodious apartment to give students a 
better opportunity of copying them. 

When Mr. de Gree * died in 1789, Mr. Beranger 
exhibited several of his drawings, which in Mr. West's 
opinion were likely to be of great use in the schools, 
and they were purchased for five guineas. In 
November 1790, David La Touche, Esqr., presented 
an excellent cast of the Laocoon, from the original 
work at Rome, which was placed in the repository, 
Hawkins street. In 1791, William Ashford's collec- 
tion of statues, models, casts, &c. was sold to the 
Society for £91. 

The Society having in the year 1796 removed to 
premises in Poolbeg street, the drawing schools were 
established there, and schools for the living figure 
having been prepared, the Dublin artists were invited 
to choose a committee, to act as directors, each to take 
charge of the Living academy for four weeks. The 

1 Peter de Gree, a native of Antwerp, who came to Dublin about 
1 78 1, and painted pictures for Mr. La Touche. 



n8 A HISTORY OF 

following were chosen — Hunter, Ashford, Chinnery, 
Cuming, Robinson, Waldron, O'Neil, Smyth, and West. 
In 1800, Henry Brocas became master of the ornament 
school in the room of William Waldron. 

On the 1st of May 1800, it was arranged that the 
figure school was to be continued on its then footing, 
but that the other two schools were to be consolidated, 
under the name of the engraving and ornament draw- 
ing school, under one master, and that Messrs. Waldron 
and Baker were to be pensioned. The committee of 
fine arts, in consequence of a letter from Mr. Chin- 
nery, secretary to the Society of Artists, recommended 
that, instead of premiums, the sum intended for them 
should be expended in purchasing the works of Irish 
artists that possessed merit, which might remain in their 
exhibition room, as the property of the Society, for 
the benefit and emulation of young students. One 
hundred guineas were to be allotted for the purpose. 
In accordance with this recommendation, Attention, by 
George Chinnery, a landscape by Wm. Ashford, 1 and 
a Portrait of a Student, by Wm. Cuming, were pur- 
chased at the Exhibition of Irish Artists, held in the 
Parliament House in July 1801. The committee 
regretted being unable to buy Ashford's fine picture 
of a Land Storm, at ninety guineas. It was resolved 
that, on the recommendation of governors of the re- 
spective institutions, the boys of the Blue Coat Hospital 
and the Hibernian Marine School 2 were to be in- 
structed in the schools. 

1 Ashford was born in Birmingham in 1746. He came to Ireland 
in 1764, and practised landscape painting. Ashford was patronised 
by Lord Fitzwilliam, and made many paintings and drawings of 
Mount Merrion, five of which are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge. 

2 For children of decayed seamen ; at that time located on Sir 
John Rogerson's quay. 





MEDAL AWARDED TO GEORGE PETRIE IN THE ART SCHOOL 



/f 



V^ 



\ 




MEDAL OF THE FARMING SOCIETY 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 119 

George Petrie took a first-class premium for a group 
of figures in the year 1805, and a couple of years after 
this, while still a student, he asked that a landscape 
painted by him should be hung in the Society's ex- 
hibition room. The former is the first mention in the 
minutes of this distinguished artist, archaeologist, and 
man of letters. George, son of James Petrie, artist, 
was born in Dublin in 1789. He painted landscapes in 
Kerry, Wicklow, and other parts of Ireland, and illus- 
trated Cromwell's Excursions in Ireland. In addition to 
his artistic talent, Petrie was a cultivated man of letters, 
learned in Irish antiquities and ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, and a musician. From 1833 t0 ^46, ne was 
employed on the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. His 
Essay on the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill 
gained him the gold medal of the Royal Irish 
Academy, which also bestowed a similar distinction 
on him for his Essay on the Origin and Uses of the 
Round Towers of Ireland, which was published in 1845 
as the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. Petrie's 
Ancient Music of Ireland appeared in 1855. This 
talented man died in 1866, and a very charming and 
appreciative memoir of him was written by his friend, 
Dr. William Stokes, which contains a list of works 
illustrated by Petrie. 

The Beggar Woman and Child, by George Gratton, 
who was educated in the schools, was purchased in 
1807, for 100 guineas, in recognition of the artist's 
distinguished merit, and to enable him to go to London. 
He was to have the picture framed, and had per- 
mission to have it exhibited in London. This picture 
now hangs on the wall near the door of the conver- 
sation-room, at the foot of the staircase in Leinster 
House. 

Martin Cregan obtained a medal for drawing from 



120 A HISTORY OF 

the round ; l and, to enable him to go to London, fifty 
guineas were paid to Robert L. West 2 for a portrait 
of the Right Hon. John Foster, a vice-president. A 
little prior to this, Andrew R. Twigg, a late student of 
the Society's schools, presented a full-length portrait of 
General Vallancey, for which the General sat to him. 
It was offered " as a first fruits of his academic studies, 
in the hope that it may be deemed worthy of a place 
in the new board-room." Fifty guineas were voted 
to Twigg, that he might journey to London to study 
the works of eminent artists. 

On June 20, 1805, a letter was read from Caleb 
Whitefoord, chairman of a committee of subscribers 
(who were members of the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, London), 
to a fund being raised for James Barry, artist, " who 
has enriched this island by his productions ; and whose 
works would have done honour to the most polished and 
enlightened ages of antiquity." Barry was represented as 
having had long and painful struggles with adversity and 
privation, while his independence of character concealed 
the fact. The members of the Dublin Society were 
invited to subscribe towards providing an honourable 
ease for the remainder of his days, and an annuity of 
;£i2o per annum was secured to him. Barry was born 

1 Martin Cregan, born in 1788, practised painting both in Dublin 
and London. He was a foundation member of the Royal Hibernian 
Academy, and for years its President. Cregan died in 1870. The 
National Gallery, Dublin, possesses a copy made by him of Reynolds' 
" Master Crewe." 

2 Son of Francis R. West. On his father's death in 1809, he 
succeeded him as master of the school, a post which he held until 
1845. In that year he was granted a pension by the Treasury, and 
he died in 1849. His memorial stated that he had thirty-five years' 
service, and that his grandfather, father, and himself had served the 
Society during a period of ninety-five years. R. L. West painted 
portraits and historical subjects, and in 1808 exhibited in the Royal 
Academy a subject from Gray's Elegy. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 121 

in Cork in 1741, and studied in the Dublin school 
under West. He first attracted notice in 1763, when 
he came to Dublin, by his " Conversion by St. Patrick 
of the King of Cashel," which procured him the 
patronage of Edmund Burke, who introduced him to 
Reynolds; and in 1764 he went to London. Barry 
also painted " Adam and Eve " (now in the collection 
of the Royal Society of Arts) ; " Cymbeline " (in the 
collection of the Royal Dublin Society) ; "Jupiter and 
Juno," and " Lear and Cordelia." Between the years 
1777 and 1782, Barry decorated with a series of paint- 
ings, illustrative of human culture, the great room of 
the Society of Arts, for which he received 250 guineas 
and a gold medal. 1 He had a quarrelsome temper, 
and was unhappy in his dealings with those around 
him. Barry died in 1806, and lies buried in the crypt 
of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

The plans for drawing schools, which were to be 
erected in the new premises in Poolbeg street at a cost 
of £1871, had been approved in April 1806, and the 
building was to be proceeded with without delay. 

In May 1808, on behalf of Faithful Christopher 
Pack, a number of artists signed a statement to the 
effect that the art of painting as practised by Titian 
and the Bassanos 2 had been lost for 200 years, and that 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Pack's master, after numberless 
experiments, had failed to discover it. Pack now 
claimed to have done so, and he copied a Venetian 
picture said to be by Titian. The artists believed the 

1 See an account of these pictures, by Barry, published in 1783. 
In the History of the Royal Society of Arts, by Sir H. T. Wood, 1913, 
pp. 70-9, will be found a very full account of them. 

2 Tiziano Vecelli, commonly called Titian — the greatest painter of 
the Venetian school. The North Italian family of Da Ponte, known 
as the Bassani, from Bassano, the city in which they lived, were 
among the famous painters of the sixteenth century. 



122 A HISTORY OF 

method to be the same as that practised by the Vene- 
tian school, and as Pack was now old and feeble, they 
thought that " by having command of his invaluable 
art, the Irish school will more than vie with those of 
other nations. " It will be of interest to add the names 
of the artists who signed this statement. They were 
— Hugh Hamilton, Wm. Ashford, John Comerford, 
Robert L. West, William Cuming, Jonathan Fisher, 
Henry Graham, Samuel Burton, Charles Robertson, 
William Woodburn, Andrew R. Twigg, Graves Cham- 
ney Archer, George Meade, James Petrie, George 
Petrie, Samuel Woodhouse, John C. Hone, William 
Chalmers. 1 

A large number of pages of the printed Proceedings 
of the year 1809 are occupied with a report and 
recommendations of the committee of fine arts (of 
which James Gandon was a member) on the drawing 
schools. As the resolutions and recommendations are 
of interest and importance in view of the future de- 
velopment of the schools, it may be well to summarise 
them briefly : — 

1. It was necessary to have able masters and good 
models, as a number of young artisans and manu- 
facturers attend. The Society is tolerably rich in 
casts from the antique, and at small expense the 
ornament and architectural schools may be supplied. 
2. The number of scholars is considerable and in- 
creasing. 3. Boys are irregular in attendance, and 
remiss in application, displaying a want of energy. 
4. The number on the foundation in each school 
should be limited to forty. 5. They should be allowed 
on the foundation for three years only. 6. Regular lists 

1 Mr. Strickland remarks that notwithstanding the encomiums 
of the artists, the Dublin Society did not appear to have been much 
impressed with Pack's discoveries. {Diet. Irish Artists.) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 123 

and accounts should be kept. 7. The premium system 
to be remodelled. 8. Money premiums to be given 
up. Instead, books on geometry, &c, and portfolios, 
with the stamp of the Society and inscription, to be 
substituted. 9. Artists of repute might be appointed 
professors or visitors. 10. Good drawings for sale are 
wanted. 11. Catalogue of paintings and drawings to 
be made out. 12. Really good pictures by ancient 
masters to be purchased ; £200 to be spent on furnish- 
ing the ornament and architectural schools with good 
drawings and engravings. 13. In future, all models 
to be provided at the Society's expense. 14. The 
Committee to use the funds most advantageously for 
the benefit of the schools. 15. The masters' salaries 
to be increased. 16. The new figure master to be 
the best possible, and advertised for in England, if 
necessary. 17. As the figure school is for the higher 
branches of art, none to be admitted to it without a 
probationary drawing. 18. This school must be raised 
to importance, and made capable of attaining the 
highest walks. 19. A living figure to be ready to sit 
nearly all the year round. 20. Lectures on the theory 
and practice of painting, and the anatomy of bone and 
muscle, to come later. 21. A school of engraving to 
be constituted later. 22. Instructions in modelling 
and sculpture to be given. 23. A school for females 
to be a subject for future consideration. 24. Boys 
under 13 not to be admitted to the architectural school. 
25. Pupils in the architectural school to be instructed 
in the principles of practical geometry, and how to draw 
by scale. 266. A higher school of architecture might 
be instituted, wherein perspective might be fully 
taught, and private pupils admitted on payment. 27. 
The same might be made to apply to the other two 
schools. 28. A room for the continual exhibition of 



i2 4 A HISTORY OF 

pictures, &c, for sale, to be provided. It was added 
that £700 a year might be approved of for salaries 
and expenses. English candidates for the post of 
master of the figure school were to be permitted to draw 
from the figure of Antinous in the Royal Academy. 

In December 1809, George Gratton's works, Race 
of Hippomenes and Atalanta, and Antinous were pur- 
chased by the Society for 100 guineas. In 181 1, 
Solomon Williams, portrait painter, was allowed the 
use of the drawing school for the purpose of painting 
a picture on a very large scale. 1 

With a view to establishing a school for modelling 
and sculpture, Edward Smyth, sculptor, was employed 
on a probationary term of six months, and later he was 
appointed master of the school, at a salary of 50 guineas 
a year. He, however, died before the end of 18 12, 
when his son, John Smyth, took up the work, and in 
November 18 13, he was placed, as to salary, on a 
footing with the other masters. 

In 1 8 13, ,£100 were spent in completing the 
pedestals in the statue gallery, the walls were coloured, 
and the long gallery was finished. The Society of 
Artists was allowed the use of the school-room three 
days in the week, from 7 to 9 o'clock a.m., for the 
study of the human figure. On the 9th of February 
1 8 15, the roof of the drawing school was found to 
have been injured by the late great storm. 

Certain resolutions were drawn up in November 
1 8 13, for reference to the Committee of Fine Arts for 
report. The masters' salaries were to be advanced, 
and a number of professional artists (which included 
the names of Comerford, Gandon, Gratton, Kirk, 

1 During this year, Williams exhibited portraits of the Duke of 
Cumberland and Dr. Troy ; also an altarpiece, " Taking down from 
the Cross." It was probably for the painting of the last-named work 
that he obtained permission to use the school. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 125 

Mossop, Mulvany, and Williams), with the four draw- 
ing masters, were to be invited to assist in selecting 
works of art and old paintings for the gallery. Proper 
apartments were to be provided for the life school. 
A gallery of marbles and casts, drawings and etchings, 
was to be formed, and a fund was to be appropriated 
yearly for the acquisition of " Old Masters." Govern- 
ment was to be requested on public days to guard 
the main entrance, and commissioned officers were 
to be admitted to the landscape and perspective 
schools, with a view to qualifying as civil and military 
engineers. 

The committee reported against most of the re- 
solutions, as having been drawn up without accurate 
knowledge, while many of them had been acted on as 
rules for years. The resolutions implied that the 
schools were intended solely for forming artists and 
painters, whereas they were for those employed in arts, 
science, and manufactures. The regulations which had 
been already drawn up were arrived at, the committee 
said, on mature advice and deliberation with artists, the 
Royal Academy, and the British Institution. The 9th 
resolution would abrogate the gratuitous instruction, 
which already occupied most serious attention ; many 
youths of promise might be kept away, and it would 
create invidious distinctions. 

In 18 15, the Hibernian Society of Artists and 
other Dublin artists, presented a memorial to the 
Society, and on the report of the committee ap- 
pointed to consider it, a general committee from among 
the artists was nominated to manage the annual 
exhibition. 

The use of the exhibition room in Hawkins street 
was granted in 1 815- 16- 17- 19, for united exhibitions 
of artists' works. 



i 2 6 A HISTORY OF 

The committee included Kirk (i), Mossop (2), 
and George Petrie. 

1. Thomas Kirk was born at Newry in 1777. He 
early settled in Dublin, and worked chiefly on busts and 
relief on mantelpieces. Kirk executed the colossal statue of 
Nelson for the column in Sackville street, and a statue of 
King George the Fourth for the Linen Hall, which now 
stands on the staircase landing in Leinster House. Many 
of his busts adorn the College of Surgeons, Leinster House, 
and the library of Trinity College. 

2. William Mossop, whose real name was Browne, 
assumed that of his mother's second husband. He was 
born in 1751, dying in Jan. 1805. Mossop acquired a great 
reputation as a medallist, and engraved some of the finest 
medals and coins of the pre-Union period. A list of his 
works (which includes a medal of the Dublin Society, 1800), 
will be found in Gilbert's History of Dublin, vol. ii., 
appendix vii. His son, William Stephen Mossop, also 
achieved distinction in this art, and a list of his medals will 
be found in appendix viii. of the same volume. 

In the year 1 8 1 8 Bartholomew Watkins l took first 
premium in the landscape school. 

During the years 1 8 13—18 19 (inclusive), it was 
found that 314 boys had received instruction in the 
figure school, which, founded in 1759, had then existed 
for sixty years. It was a means of improvement for 
engravers in wood and copper, for herald painters, en- 
gravers in cameo and intaglio, die sinkers, and sculptors. 

Five hundred and five pupils were admitted to the 
school of ornament during the same period of seven 
years ; and the course of instruction pursued in it was 
of incalculable benefit to sculptors in stone, wood, 
metal, to glass workers, chasers, silversmiths, calico 
printers, pattern-drawers, paper-stainers, embroiderers, 

1 Uncle of B. Colles Watkins, the artist. Starting as an artist, 
Bartholomew Watkins became later a picture cleaner and dealer. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 127 

jewellers, fancy workers, damask, carpet, and silk 
weavers, stucco men, cabinetmakers, upholsterers, and 
carpenters. The training of boys and girls in the 
arts connected with industry was a chief object of the 
Society, which took a leading part in promoting 
technical education. 

In the architectural school, from 30 to 25 pupils 
attended each year. During the time of Mr. Henry 
A. Baker, who had served as master for a period of 
thirty-three years, there was not a working tradesman or 
mechanic in the building line in Dublin and the chief 
towns in Ireland, who, during his apprenticeship, had 
not received instruction in it. Even the rapid improve- 
ment noticeable in shop fronts and the ornamental parts 
of private houses during the period were attributed to 
the skill acquired by artisans educated in the school. 

From 1 8 1 3 to 181 9, pupils to the number of 139 
were admitted to the modelling school, which had 
already produced Behnes, 1 the sculptor, of London. 

From June 18 17 to November 18 19, 3982 persons 
visited the casts from the Elgin Marbles, which had 
been purchased in 18 16 for £210. 

Mr. Thomas Pleasants, a warm friend of the 
Society, who died on the 1st of March 18 18, be- 
queathed to the Society a number of valuable paint- 
ings (see p. 236). 

In February 1823, a plan was devised for altering 
the stable and coachhouses at Leinster House, which, 
at a cost of £1500, would have given a new bust 
gallery and drawing schools. In addition, £500 would 
have been necessary so as to adapt the new premises 

1 William Behnes, sculptor, was a member of a Hanoverian family 
that settled in Dublin for a time ; he distinguished himself in the schools 
here, and, between 1820 and 1840, his reputation stood very high. 
He executed busts of celebrities, among them, Lyndhurst, Clarkson, 
and Macready, and his statuette of Lady Godiva was much admired. 



128 A HISTORY OF 

for the reception of the students. The plan, however, 
was not adopted. 

In 1823, some specimens of sculpture by John 
Hogan, Cork, " a very young artist," were purchased 
for ^25, as an encouragement; they included legs, 
arms, &c, which are now in the National Museum. 
In 1829, a gold medal was voted to Hogan for his 
Dead Christ, then being exhibited in the Royal Irish 
Institution, College street. Hogan was born in 
Tallow in 1800, but his family soon settling in Cork, 
he worked at an anatomy school in that city. In 
1824 he went to Rome, where he remained until 1849, 
and his Drunken Faun, executed there, was admired 
by Thorwaldsen. Among his most celebrated statues 
are those of Bishop Brinkley at Cloyne ; of Daniel 
O'Connell and Thomas Drummond, in the City Hall, 
Dublin, and of Thomas Osborne Davis, in Mount 
Jerome Cemetery. Hogan died in 1858. 

In May 1823, a sum of ^1000, together with the 
amount of the legacy bequeathed to the Society by 
Major-General White, 1 was voted, to be expended in 
erecting drawing schools and a gallery for casts from 
the antique. 

A year later, Mr. Henry Hamilton, who was then 
in Rome, procured and presented to the schools a 
mould from the Apollo Belvedere. 

About this time, two pupils of the modelling school 
— Constantine Panormo and John Gallagher — began 
to distinguish themselves, and to exhibit signs of ex- 
ceptional talent. At the end of 1823, it was arranged 
that they were to be sent to London as pupils to 
Mr. Behnes, for two years, at ^60 a year each. He 
wrote to the Society " on behalf of these two young 

1 By his will, proved in the Prerogative Court in 1822, Major- 
General Sir Henry White, K.C.B., bequeathed .£500 to the Society. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 129 

geniuses of Dublin," whose group of St. Michael and 
the Fallen Angel, and a bust from life, respectively, 
had been awarded silver medals. In July 1825, 
Behnes announced that Panormo had been awarded 
a large silver medal by the Sociey of Arts, for his 
model of the Fallen Giant. Soon after, it was re- 
solved to give both pupils a third year under Behnes, 
for the purpose of acquiring the art of carving in 
marble, preparatory to their being sent to Rome for a 
final course of study. In 1827, two original group 
designs by Panormo and Gallagher 1 were sent over 
to the Society, as well as two marble busts from the 
antique — their first essays in the art of sculpture. 
Both students were sent to Rome for two years, at a 
charge of ^100 a year each while there, and ^60 
travelling expenses. Their early works in clay and 
marble are still preserved by the Society. The new 
buildings were completed in March 1827, and the 
committee of fine arts was authorised to move the 
schools into them. 

In April 1829, James Christopher Timbrell, a pupil, 
presented a print, entitled The Scotch Fisher, being his 
first lithographic production. On one occasion, when 
presenting the gold medals at the Royal Academy, Sir 
Martin Archer Shee complimented Henry Timbrell, 
sculptor, a former pupil, and brother of J.C. Timbrell, far 
beyond any of the other competitors, for his sculpture. 

A menagerie was opened in Great Brunswick street, 
in April 1830, when the most competent pupils 
were sent to it, to make models or drawings from 
the life of the celebrated lion, "Wallace." At the 
close of this year, the exhibition of pupils' drawings 
was visited by Their Excellencies, the Duke and 

1 One of these is a group of Adam and Eve over AbeVs Body — the 
other, Theseus Slaying a Ce?itaur. 



i 3 o A HISTORY OF 

Duchess of Northumberland, who also spent some 
time in one of the schools, which was then in full 
work. In 1832, a similar visit was paid by the 
Marquis of Anglesey and the Ladies Paget. 

On the 9th of June 1836, was announced the death 
of Henry Aaron Baker, who for a period of forty-nine 
years had guided the architectural school. 

In the silver trade, the modelling school was 
found especially useful. A splendid piece of plate 
was executed by Tear, who had been brought up in 
the schools, for Lord Combermere, when commander 
of the forces (to the order of Messrs. Law). This 
was taken to London for exhibition. Another piece 
of plate, executed by Percy, also of the schools, (to 
the order of West & Son), was a gift to Lord Manners, 
lord chancellor, from the Bar. 

The following is a list of some noted artists and 
sculptors who received their education in the Society's 
schools, up to the year 1836, taken from the report 
of the select committee on the Royal Dublin Society 
made in that year. 

Historical and Portrait Painters 

Henry Tresham, R.A. (1). Robt. L. West. 

Matthew Wm. Peters, R.A. George Gratton. 

James Barry, R.A. Charles C. Ingham. 

Jacob Ennis. Thomas Foster. 
Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A. 

Portrait Painters 

Hugh D. Hamilton (2). Thomas C. Thompson. 

Somerville Pope (after- Andrew R. Twigg. 

wards Pope-Stevens). Richard Rothwell. 
William Cuming. 

Landscape Painters 

William Ashford. George Barret, R.A. (3). 

Thomas Roberts. Henry Brooke. 

T. Sautelle Roberts. Robert Carver. 

Thomas Pope-Stevens. John Killaly (civil engineer). 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 131 



Figure and Landscape Painters 

Thos. James Mulvany (4). Wm. B. Sarsfield Taylor. 

John George Mulvany. John Moreau. 

Marine Painter 
Joseph F. Ellis. 

Miniature Painters 

John Comerford. Edward Jones. 

Thomas Robinson. Buck (? Frederick). 

Wm. J. Cooke. Andrew Dunn. 

Sculptors 

John Hickey. Constantine Panormo. 

Edward Smyth. John Gallagher. 

John Smyth. Thomas Kirk. 
William Behnes. 

Many names eminent in Irish art are not included 
in this list, and it is doubtful if some of those 
mentioned were educated in the schools. Several of 
them have already been noticed in these pages, and, in 
addition, the following are worthy of some mention. 

1. Henry Tresham, one of our most eminent Irish 
painters, who was born in Dublin in 1749, received his art 
education in the Dublin schools under Ennis and Robert 
West. He accompanied his patron, Lord Cawdor, to Rome, 
and remained on the continent for fourteen years. His 
work was modelled on the Roman school, and he chiefly 
painted subjects from scriptural, English, and Roman 
history. Tresham died in 18 14. 

2. Hugh Douglas Hamilton was born in Dublin in 
1739, anc ^ studied in the schools under Robert West and 
James Mannin. He excelled in crayon drawing. His 
portrait of the Right Hon. John Foster, last Speaker of 
the Irish House of Commons, is in possession of the 
Corporation of Dublin, and that of " Dean Kirwan preach- 
ing" is now in England. Hamilton died in Dublin in 



132 



A HISTORY OF 



1808. (For a very full account of him and his works, both 
in oils and crayons, see an article by Mr. W. G. Strickland 
in the annual volume of the Walpole Society, 1812-1813.) 

3. George Barret, who was born in Dublin in 1728, 
and died in 1784, studied here under West. He painted 
many landscapes for Lord Powerscourt, and the Dukes of 
Buccleuch and Portland possess many examples of his work. 
The Society's collection includes some specimens. 

4. Thomas James Mulvany and his brother, John 
George Mulvany, were among the first fourteen Academi- 
cians elected to the Royal Hibernian Academy on its 
foundation in 1823. George F. Mulvany, son of the first 
named, was the first Director of the National Gallery of 
Ireland. 

On the 31st of May 1838, John Papworth of 
Dublin, a.r.h.a., was appointed master of the school 
of architecture, and Henry Brocas, master of the 
school of landscape and ornament. In 1840, Con- 
stantine Panormo succeeded John Smyth as master 
of the school of modelling. He was son of 
Edward Smyth, former master, and is well known 
as having executed the figures on the General Post 
Office, Dublin. 

Earl de Grey, lord lieutenant, presided at the dis- 
tribution of prizes to the pupils in the drawing school 
in December 1842, on which occasion Mr. Isaac Weld, 
honorary secretary, delivered a long speech, in which 
he detailed the history of the Society, dealing especi- 
ally with the drawing and modelling schools, and 
noticing the many distinguished artists and sculptors 
who had received their early training in them. These 
meetings became annual, and one of the secretaries or 
vice-presidents generally discoursed on the schools. 
Their orations are marked by eloquence and scholarship, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 133 

some of them dealing with ancient art, and others 
with the continental schools ; they contain a vast fund 
of information, and the series of addresses, as con- 
tained in the Proceedings, is well worth perusal. In 
1843, when Earl de Grey again presided, Mr. Lundy 
E. Foot spoke learnedly and eloquently on the low 
state of the fine arts in Ireland 150 years previously, 
illustrating his remarks ; and he then proceeded to 
establish the Society's claim to have been the nursing 
mother of a great deal of the Irish talent since em- 
ployed in their cultivation. On another occasion, Mr. 
Henry McManus delivered an address on the origin 
and utility of schools of design. 

The Royal Irish Art Union presented to the Society 
the original cast of The Youth at the Stream, by J. H. 
Foley, a former student, a work that had acquired for 
him a considerable reputation at the national competi- 
tion held in 1844 in Westminster Hall. 

John Henry Foley was born in Dublin in 18 1 8, and at the 
age of thirteen entered the Society's drawing schools, gaining 
first prizes in them. He went to London in 1834, becom- 
ing a student of the Royal Academy, and in 1839 exhibited 
The Death of Abel and Innocence^ sculptures which at once 
attracted attention. Foley executed the statue of Hampden, 
now in the entrance corridor of the House of Commons. 
His great equestrian statues of Lord Canning, Lord Hardinge, 
and Sir James Outram are much admired, and the figures of 
Burke and Goldsmith, which stand outside Trinity College, 
Dublin, show that Foley's was a master hand. He also 
executed the statue of Father Mathew now in Cork, Lord 
Gough's equestrian statue in the Phcenix Park, Dublin, and 
those of Grattan, Faraday, and Reynolds. Foley bequeathed 
his models to the Royal Dublin Society. He died in 1874. 

In 1 849 the Government determined to establish a 
school of design. A representative of the Board of 



i 3 4 A HISTORY OF 

Trade attended in May of that year, and on his 
reporting that the schools were suitable, it was resolved 
that the new gallery, once the drawing schools, should 
be appropriated to the purposes of the Government, 
as the school of design was to be in connection with 
the Society. The drawing schools were to be the 
basis for this school, which was specially intended for 
artisans, and was to be open five evenings in the week, 
under the superintendence of a head master, to be 
appointed by the Board of Trade. The masters were 
to be appointed by the fine arts committee, in which 
was vested the general government of the school. 
The drawing and modelling schools were to be con- 
solidated into one department as " The Government 
School of Design in connection with the Royal Dublin 
Society." It was opened on the ist of October 1849, 
Mr. Henry McManus being appointed head master, with 
the masters of the four schools as assistants. Three 
hundred and six pupils attended at the opening. 

In June 1852, Panormo died, and J. R. Kirk, 
a.r.h.a., succeeded him as master of the modelling 
school. 

In February i860, Messrs. Charles E. Bagot and 
Charles Leech, executors of Captain George Archibald 
Taylor, of Mespil parade, Dublin, submitted a plan 
for endowment of prizes for the encouragement of art 
students in Ireland, in conformity with the terms of 
his will. The Master in Chancery sanctioned the 
Society taking charge of the trust, believing it to be 
eminently suitable for the purpose, and Captain 
Taylor's executors were thanked for selecting the 
Society as the medium for carrying the trusts into 
execution. In connection with this, an annual Exhi- 
bition of pupils' works sent in for competition was 
inaugurated, the judges being Catterson Smith, re- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 135 

presenting the Royal Hibernian Academy, Sir George 
Hodson the National Gallery, and R. J. Macrory the 
Society. Thirteen works were sent in, when William 
McEvoy was awarded £7 for the best landscape in 
oils ; Annie C. White a similar sum for the best archi- 
tectural drawing — Interior of St. Paul's ; Mary Alment 
and Henry Crowley obtaining lesser prizes for their 
landscapes. The administration of this trust still 
remains in the hands of the Society, and in recent 
years many artists of repute were, in their student 
days, winners of Taylor art scholarships or prizes. 

From 1749 to 1849, when fees were first paid, all 
students were admitted free to the schools. From 
1854, when the grant was withdrawn, and the func- 
tions of the Board of Trade devolved on the Science 
and Art Department, all schools of art were to be 
self-supporting. 

The Society's control over the schools ceased in 
1878, when, with other sections under its superin- 
tendence, they were placed under the Science and Art 
Department. 



136 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER VIII 

EXPERIMENTS IN AGRICULTURE, AND GENERAL 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. (1764-1780) 

Notwithstanding the premium system, and the 
efforts of the Dublin Society through its members in 
various parts of the country, agriculture and hus- 
bandry in Ireland were in a declining condition about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Faulkner's Dublin 
Journal of the 17th of October 1752, spoke of the 
great neglect of tillage, and complained that our best 
lands were being devoted to the grazing and feeding 
of stock, for the supply of our enemies and rivals in 
trade, whilst the poor inhabitants were obliged to go 
abroad for work. It was remarkable that in times of 
scarcity, " the sourest and most fusty corn and flour 
were imported from Europe, and even from our Ameri- 
can colonies." On the 18th of June 1754, the same 
Journal apologised for leaving out many advertise- 
ments, so that the list of premiums to be awarded in 
the ensuing year might be printed, averring that, as 
the generosity, care, and diligence of the Dublin Society 
contributed more to the welfare of the nation than all 
other Societies whatever, the people at large would 
derive more benefit from such a course being taken. 
Two columns very closely printed, containing lists of 
premiums, follow. 

The Society, taking all circumstances into con- 
sideration, decided on appointing a man skilled in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 137 

agriculture to carry out experiments, and instruct 
others in the art of husbandry. The name of John 
Wynn Baker appears for the first time in the Pro- 
ceedings in the year 1764. He did a great deal for 
the Society on its agricultural side, and obtained no 
small reputation for the thoroughness with which he 
performed his duties, being frequently mentioned in 
complimentary terms during his tenure of office. 
Baker was an Englishman and a member of the 
Agricultural Society of the Hundred of Salford, 
Lancashire. The missing minute book would no 
doubt give a full explanation of his initial position, 
but when first mentioned he had leave to resign as an 
honorary member; he was, however, requested to 
attend the meetings when convenient ; and a sum of 
£100 was voted for his expenses in the cultivation 
of cabbages, turnips, &c, and for his remuneration. 
In his Experiments in Agriculture, 1765 (Haliday 
Pamphlets), Baker says that in 1762 he addressed 
an anonymous pamphlet — Hints on Husbandry — to 
the Dublin Society. " Encouraged by people who 
knew me to be the author, I, in 1763, took my present 
farm (Loughlinstown, near Celbridge). In 1764, I 
printed a short epitome of my plan. The Dublin 
Society, always attentive to what appears to be to the 
advantage of the public, adopted it, and gave me en- 
couragement." Next year he was reported to have 
made experiments in agriculture with great skill and 
accuracy, and to have discharged the trust reposed in 
him to the satisfaction of the Society. He was then 
voted £200, and 500 copies of his special report were 
printed. 

Soon after, Baker conceived a plan for educating 
youths in husbandry, which, to a small extent, was 
afterwards carried out. They were to be apprenticed 



138 A HISTORY OF 

to farmers of repute in various counties ; but at first, 
Baker was to take upon him the instruction of five 
boys, for whom ^I2a year for their food and clothing 
were to be paid. Two of them were to be instructed 
in the manufacture of agricultural implements. Baker's 
pupils were to be selected from inmates of the Found- 
ling Hospital, 1 and 1500 copies of his scheme were 
printed. Yet another year elapsed, when it was 
resolved that his experiments were to be extended, 
and, with this object in view, a further grant of £200 
was made to him. The implements of husbandry 
manufactured by him at Loughlinstown (which was 
afterwards renamed Wynnsfleld), where the school of 
agriculture was situated, were sold, and he was allowed 
a premium on the amount. At the end of 1768 the 
value of implements disposed of during the year 
amounted to ^501, $s. At this period, agricultural 
implements were few, and of a most inferior kind, 
mainly consisting of the plough, harrow, flail, sickle, 
reaping hook, and scythes : " the quarter of a century 
immediately following 1760, is memorable in our agri- 
cultural annals for the introduction of various impor- 
tant improvements." Many subsequent grants of 
^100 were made to Baker for his encouragement, and 
in payment of necessary expenses. In December 1769, 
at a very crowded meeting of the Society, a sum of 
^300 was proposed as a fixed yearly salary for carry- 
ing out his experiments, and for affording instruction 
and advice to persons applying to him ; he was also 
to have 10 per cent, on sales of implements, the 

1 The first stone of this building was laid in 1704. It stood at 
the west end of James' St., on a site granted by the city (now occu- 
pied by South Dublin Union Workhouse), and was originally intended 
for aged and infirm poor. Under Act of Parliament, it became in 
1730 a Foundling Hospital and Workhouse, where children were 
taught trades. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 139 

total amount of this source of profit not to exceed 
£200 in any year. 

Baker was author of Hints for Improvement oj 
Agriculture by Experiments, which was much approved, 
and the Society specially requested him to experiment 
on the culture of rape as food for cattle, &x. He 
also compiled an abridgment of Arthur Young's two 
works, Six Months Tour through the Northern Counties 
of England, and Six Months Tour through the Southern 
Counties of England, 3000 copies of which were ordered 
to be printed at an expense not exceeding ^70. Baker 
wrote a treatise entitled Practical Agriculture epitomised 
and adapted to the Tenantry of Ireland, with considera- 
tions on the Dublin Society s list of Premiums for 
Husbandry} In 177 1 , £300 were given him to estab- 
lish a regular factory for implements, to build offices, 
&c. Next year, as the beneficial nature of his work 
became more apparent, Baker was asked to make a 
tour through the provinces, with a view to his finding 
out what improvements might be made in agricul- 
tural systems, and reporting. Baker died on the 22 nd 
of August 1775, and it does not appear that the Society 
appointed any successor to carry on the special work 
in which he was engaged. From his will, which was 
proved by his daughter, Sarah Baker, on the 4th of Sep- 
tember 1775, ne seems to have had another farm, in the 
county of Meath. Possibly, this account of Baker's 
work and connection with the Society has been given at 
too great length, but it seems fitting that prominence 
should be afforded to the enlightened policy of the 
Society ; and the story of John Wynn Baker shows in 

1 Among the Haliday Pamphlets (1765, cccxxiii. 3) will be found 
this work, and also his Experiments, Plan for Instructing Youth in 
Husbandry , Description of Instruments of Husbandry, and Considera- 
tions on the Exportation of Corn. 



i 4 o A HISTORY OF 

a remarkable manner what care and discrimination 
were evinced in carrying out its plans for the encourage- 
ment of more scientific methods in agriculture. 

Arthur Young (Tour, i. 20) speaks of visiting 
Baker's farm, and it is only right to say that he con- 
sidered, with all Baker's exertions, he had not answered 
the expectations formed about him. Young says that 
he needed capital for getting the farm into order, and 
that he ought not to have been employed in making 
experiments. What the Society really wanted was a farm 
cultivated as experience in England and elsewhere had 
shown that it should be. As an example for Irish 
farmers, the land should have been in a mountainous 
tract, with some bog and tolerable soil. Arthur Young, 
frequently mentioned in this chapter, was born at 
Bradford in 1741, and is one of the highest autho- 
rities on the social and agricultural condition of Ireland 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century. He 
managed Lord Kingsborough's estates in Cork for 
some time, and the famous Tour in Ireland, published 
in 1780, reviews the general condition of the country, 
dealing with farming, wages, rent, public works, &c. 
Young died in 1820. 

In the sister country of England, though agricul- 
ture was not included in the original scheme of the 
Society of Arts (founded in 1754), for some fifty 
years from the year 1758, it occupied probably the 
first place in the premium lists of that Society. In- 
deed, that institution became the most important 
agricultural society in the kingdom. 

On the 6th of March 1766, the Dublin Society con- 
firmed the amendment of the by-laws, which had been 
agreed to at a general meeting in November 1765. 
They were 45 in number, and included provision for 
the election of officers ; prescribed duties of presidents, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 14 1 

vice-presidents or chairman, treasurer, secretaries, 
registrar ; laid down rules as to the drawing masters, 
the order of proceedings of the Society, election of 
members, and granting of premiums and rewards. 

A report on loans was subsequently made, when 
it appeared that various persons were indebted to the 
Society in the sum of £2060, Ss. gd. 9 and that bad 
debts amounted to £344. The committee came to 
the conclusion that loans of money should not in 
future be granted. 

William Sleater, printer and publisher of the 
Public Gazetteer, proposed to print all the Society's 
publications, including lists of premiums, for ^10 a 
year, provided the Society would not make use of 
any other newspaper. The offer was accepted, and 
Faulkner of the Journal and Dyton of the Gazette 
were notified not to insert in future any of the Society's 
publications without further directions. 

The labours and methods of the Society must have 
made a deep impression on men of note in exalted 
stations, for in December 1766, Baron Mountney, 1 
when going as judge of assize in the ensuing cir- 
cuits, offered to bring with him copies of the premium 
list, for distribution through the country. In April 
1768, Redmond Morres, k.c., 2 who had been 
appointed to sit as judge in the last circuit, informed 
the Society that he had, pursuant to their request, 
viewed the manufacture of bone lace at Castlebar, 
where he found it carried on with great spirit and 
industry. 

1 Richard Mountney, baron of the Exchequer, a distinguished 
scholar. He married in 1759 the Dowager Countess of Mount 
Alexander. 

2 M.P. for Thomastown, and for Dublin (1773-1776); father of 
the first Viscount Frankfort de Montmorency. He was a vice- 
president of the Society. 



1 42 A HISTORY OF 

Among those who had recently joined the ranks of 
the Society were Dr. Thomas Leland (i), Gorges Edmond 
Howard (2), and Hely Hutchinson (3). Rev. C. Chais, 
minister of the Walloon Church at the Hague, Mr. 
Vavesseur, secretary to the Royal Society for Agri- 
culture at Rouen, and the Lady Arabella Denny (4) had 
been elected honorary members. 

1. Thomas Leland, d.d., born in Dublin in 1 722, was 
a pupil of Dr. Sheridan. He became a Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1746, in which for twenty years he filled 
the professorship of oratory. Leland has been spoken of as 
"the eloquent divine of whom Parr and Johnson speak 
with enthusiasm, and who carried on a controversy with the 
redoubtable Warburton." 1 He was author of editions and 
translations of Demosthenes, of a Life of Philip of Mace don, and 
of a well-known History of Ireland. His sermon " Love of 
our Country " is in the Haliday collection (1782, ccccxlv. 5). 
Leland died in Dublin in August 1785. 

2. Gorges Edmond Howard, a poet, and dramatic, legal, 
and political writer, was also educated by Sheridan. He 
was an attorney by profession, and his History of the Irish 
Exchequer did for Ireland what Madox's History of the Ex- 
chequer did for England. Howard also wrote on Chancery, 
and on the Revenue and Trade of Ireland. His miscel- 
laneous works were published in three volumes in Dublin 
in 1782. He appears to have been registrar to the com- 
missioners for making a proper street and approach to the 
Castle about 1760. Howard died in 1786. 

3. The Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson was at one 
time prime serjeant at law, and subsequently became 
provost of Trinity College and Secretary of State. He 
was also m.p. for the city of Cork. Hely Hutchinson 
never obtained Fellowship, but was admitted Provost under 
letters patent of King George III. He was a master of 
oratory, and his success at the Bar was remarkable, while 

1 Trinity College, Dublin, by W. Macneile Dixon. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 143 

he enjoyed a considerable reputation as a statesman. He 
erected at Palmerston the fine mansion which is now in- 
corporated in the buildings of the Stewart Institute. 
Hutchinson's wife was created Baroness Donoughmore, 
with remainder to their eldest son, who was afterwards 
created an Earl. Hutchinson's appointment to the provost- 
ship created bitter hostility, and he was attacked in Pran- 
ceriana^ a series of scurrilous letters and verses. Hutchinson 
was tyrannical in his methods, and was frequently in dispute 
with other members of the College, who resented his high- 
handed proceedings. He successfully managed the College 
estates, and built the Examination Hall, one of the finest 
to be found in any College. The Provost died in 1 794. 

4. The Lady Arabella Denny 2 was born in 1707, the 
second daughter of Thomas Fitzmaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry, 
by Anne, only daughter of Sir William Petty. At the age 
of twenty she married Arthur Denny, m.p. for Kerry, and 
was left a widow in 1 742, from which time she devoted 
herself to works of benevolence and charity, making Dublin 
and its neighbourhood her residence. Though limited in 
means, Lady Arabella took charge of infants in workhouses, 
of sick nurses, &c, and looked after many institutions. She 
devoted much time and energy to checking the abuses of 
the Foundling Hospital ; but the Magdalen Asylum in 
Leeson street, which was opened in 1767 in a house belong- 
ing to Sir William Cooper, was the object of her unceasing 
and special care. Lady Arabella helped the Dublin Society 
in every way in her power, and was often mentioned in the 
minutes. She lived for years at Peafield cliff, now known 
as Lisaniskea, Blackrock, and died there on the 18th of 
March 1792. Her name is frequently mentioned in the Life 
of Lady Huntingdon and in Mrs. Delany's Correspondence. 

In March 1768, Richard Woodward, dean of 
Clogher, was specially thanked for his public-spirited 

1 " Prancero" was a nickname bestowed on the Provost, in allusion 
to a riding school which he projected in Trinity College, Dublin. 

2 Account of the Magdaleti Chapel ', Dublin, its Foundress, &>c, 
by A. Peter, 1907. 



i 4 4 A HISTORY OF 

and ingenious pamphlet, An Argument in Sup-port of 
the Right of the Poor in the Kingdom of Ireland to a 
Rational Provision, and at the same time 2000 copies 
of the Scheme for establishing County Poorhouses in 
Ireland, published in 1766, were ordered to be re- 
printed. 

Dr. David MacBride 1 had been bringing to perfec- 
tion a new mode of tanning, much easier and cheaper 
than the old system. There are many notices in the 
minute books of Dr. MacBride's method, for which 
the Society voted him a silver medal, and he was 
elected an honorary member. Subsequently, great 
satisfaction was expressed at a Mr. Laban's success in 
carrying it out. MacBride's New Method of Tanning 
is in the Haliday collection (1769, cccxlvi. 8). 

In June 1768, a sum of ^250 was voted for the 
erection of a Pharmacopoeia Pauperum, for dispensing 
medicine to the poor of Ireland, according to a plan of 
John Wade, chemist. 

The Society arranged that the money voted by 
Parliament was to be assigned in the following pro- 
portions to the various industries : 



Silk 


£3800 


Gold and silver 


thread, 




Wool . 


2500 


&c. . 




£50 


Leather 


100 


Stamping linens, 


&c. 


300 


Iron and Steel 


570 


Mixed goods . 




300 


Copper and brass 


100 


Oil of vitriol . 




lOO 


Paper . 


150 


Saltpetre 




iOO 


Glass 


200 


Phar. Pauperum 




250 


Earthenware 


150 









In 1769, a prize was offered for the best plan of a 
county gaol, to cost from £1000 to £3000, in which 

1 Born at Ballymoney, co. Antrim, 1726 ; died in Dublin, 1778 ; a 
distinguished physician, who published many important medical 
works. 




SILVER CAKE BASKET, AWARDED AS A PREMIUM, 1772 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 145 

were to be suitable apartments for the gaoler and his 
family. The building was to be one for the detention 
of criminals and debtors of both sexes, and was to con- 
tain two condemned cells ; it was to include a house 
of correction, and a yard in which prisoners might take 
the air. 

A sum of £100 was granted to the Rev. Benjamin 
Domvile, 1 to be laid out in the purchase of a new mill, 
and implements for making thread, to enable Mrs. Eliz. 
Madden (widow of the Rev. John Madden), to extend 
the manufacture of thread which she had established at 
Dungiven, co. Derry. It was thought that encourage- 
ment extended to her would lessen the importation of 
foreign thread, which amounted to a considerable 
quantity each year. 

Gold medals were presented to Wentworth Thewles, 
and to Robert French, of Monivea, for reclaiming bog ; 2 
to John Darley for ditching ; and to the Rev. Charles 
Coote, dean of Kilmacduagh, for land sown with turnips 
in drills — for feeding cattle in the Queen's county ; 
and a silver medal was awarded to John Longfield, of 
Longueville, for extensive plantation. A piece of plate, 
in the form of a pierced silver cake- basket, of Dublin 
manufacture (hall mark 1772, John Locker), was pre- 
sented by the Society to Lancelot Sandes for reclaiming 
bog in the Queen's county in 1769. He was awarded 
a premium of £25, and the basket, with suitable in- 
scription, was perhaps given in lieu of the money. In 
the year 1 9 1 2 there was a risk of this being sold outside 

1 Rev. Benjamin Harrington, dean of Armagh, inherited the estate 
of his uncle, Sir Compton Domvile, at Loughlinstown, co. Dublin, on 
the latters decease in 1768, when he assumed the name of Domvile 
and retired from the deanery. Ball's Hist. Co. Dublin, i. 93. 

2 Mr. French sent an account of his reclamation of bog in a 
letter to the Society which is printed in full in Arthur Young's 
Journal, i. 369. 

K 



146 A HISTORY OF 

Ireland, and the Council of the Royal Dublin Society 
contributed ^30 towards its purchase for the National 
museum. (Report of Mr. Dudley Westropp, Museum 
Bulletin, Sept. 191 2, p. 8.) 

On the 1st of March 1770, certain by-laws as to 
subscriptions and arrears were passed. The Society's 
collector laid before it an account of the subscriptions, 
which in March 1769 amounted to £228, 12s. gd. 

In 1772, Colonel William Burton presented to the 
Society a chart of the Shannon from the sea to 
Limerick, executed by John Cowan. It was proposed 
that £2$ should be given to Cowan, when he should 
have succeeded in taking a survey and chart of the 
river above Killaloe, towards its source, so far as the 
Society might think him deserving of it. 

In May 1772, the Dublin Society took quite a new 
departure, when it was suggested that a select standing 
committee should be appointed to enquire into the 
ancient state of the arts, literature, and other antiqui- 
ties of this kingdom ; and to examine the several un- 
published manuscript tracts in possession of the Society, 
and all other tracts on those subjects, of which the com- 
mittee could obtain perusal. The committee included 
the president, vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer ; Lord 
Charlemont, Lord Moira, the Bishop of Derry, the 
Speaker, Dean Woodward, Dr. Ireland, Major Val- 
lancey, the Marquis of Kildare, and Lord Dartrey. 
Dr. Ireland and Major Vallancey were appointed 
secretaries. The Society authorised the Chevalier 
Thomas O'Gorman to apply to the college of the Lom- 
bards in Paris, and to other learned bodies, for copies of 
any ancient manuscripts, records, &c, illustrative of the 
history and antiquities of Ireland. At the time, Charles 
O'Neill was principal, and Lawrence Kelly prefect, of 
the Irish community of the college. At a meeting 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 147 

held there on the nth of March 1773, under the pre- 
sidency of Arthur Richard Dillon, archbishop of Nar- 
bonne, to which all Irish gentlemen resident in Paris 
were invited, a select committee was appointed, which 
resulted in the establishment of a branch in Paris. The 
Book of Leacan, which was believed to have been lost 
during a season of turbulence, while in possession of 
Dublin University, or to have been brought away by an 
Irish clergyman, who had prevailed on the librarian to 
lend it to him, and who was suddenly obliged to fly to 
France, was stated to be the only important manu- 
script in their possession, and the college undertook 
that a copy of it should be made. Sir John Gilbert, 
in his History of Dublin (iii. 235), states that, in Sep- 
tember 1787, the Book of Leacan was sent through the 
Abbe Kearney, of Paris, to the Royal Irish Academy, of 
which institution it still " forms one of the chief literary 
treasures," and for which it was edited in facsimile by 
Dr. Atkinson. It was also hoped to open correspond- 
ence with colleges, religious houses, and libraries 
throughout France. In his History of Dublin, Gilbert 
states that this antiquarian committee of the Dublin 
Society generally met in Trinity College library, and 
that they assembled for the last time on the 24th of 
February 1774. It does not appear to have accomplished 
anything of practical value during its short existence. 

The first mention of Major (afterwards General) 
Charles Vallancey, of the French family de la Vallence, 
who was born in England about the year 172 1, has been 
made above. He must have become a member of the 
Society between 1761 and 1764, during the period when 
the minute books are missing, as there is no mention 
of his admission in those now extant. He was in the 
corps of Royal Engineers, and first came to Ireland in 
1 76 1, to assist in a military survey, from which time 



148 A HISTORY OF 

he adopted this country as his home. The history, 
philology, and antiquities of the country greatly in- 
terested him. The General published Collectanea de 
Rebus Hibernicis between 1770 and 1784; Essay on 
the Irish Language, 1772; Grammar (Irish), 1773; 
Vindication of the Ancient Kingdom of Ireland, 1786 ; 
Ancient History oj Ireland proved, from Sanscrit books, 
1797. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1784. It must be admitted that, in the light of 
modern research, most of the theories promulgated by 
Vallancey are baseless, and, though a man of learning, 
he allowed himself to be led to many false conclusions, 
and often wrote in a silly and extravagant strain. As 
far back as 176 1, a new piece of artillery invented by 
Vallancey, which it was thought would be of great 
service in field and garrison, was tried in the Phoenix 
Park. A newspaper of the day, in commenting on 
the trial, remarked " that the Military are already 
obliged to this gentleman for his Essay on Fortification, 
and the public for his treatise on the Inland Navigation 
of the Ancients and Moderns." During the rebellion, 
he furnished the Government with plans for the defence 
of Dublin. 

Vallancey will always be remembered by the series 
of Barony Maps which he copied in 17 90-1, in Paris, 
for the British Government. The originals had 
been compiled from the Down Survey barony maps 
between 1660 and 1678, and were in course of transit, 
in 17 10, from Dublin, to Sir Wm. Petty 's son and 
heir in London, when the vessel in which they were 
being brought was seized by a French privateer cruising 
in the Channel. The maps were immediately carried 
to Paris, and deposited in the Bibliotheque du Roi, 
where they have ever since remained. Vallancey's 
copies are in the Public Record Office of Ireland. In 




GENERAL CHARLES VALLANCEY 
[From an oil painting by Solomon Williams) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 149 

February 18 12, when very old and feeble, Vallancey 
resigned his custody of the Society's nummarium, and 
presented to it any coins or medals which were his own 
property, when a cordial vote of thanks was passed to 
him for his successful endeavours at all times to pro- 
mote its interests. In the course of his fifty years' 
connection with the Society, he must have devoted an 
immense amount of time and attention to its affairs. 
Mr. Isaac Weld, secretary, in giving evidence before the 
Select Committee of 1836, said that General Vallancey 
" was always on the spot, and was a sort of dictator in 
the Society/' He was a member of most of the 
committees, working indefatigably on each, and no new 
movement appears to have originated, as to which his 
advice was not sought and his co-operation invited. 
General Vallancey died on the 8th of August 18 12. 
There is a portrait of him by Chinnery, in the Royal 
Irish Academy, and another by Solomon Williams in 
Leinster House. 

In 1772, the Society had the pleasant experience 
of receiving a legacy under a will. Henry Jesse, of 
Jessefield, county Tipperary, bequeathed to it ^300 
for the " encouragement of agriculture." Mr. Jesse's 
will, dated 1769, was proved on the 3rd of May 1770, 
by John Scott, barrister, the executor. 

During the ensuing year, a select committee of 
commerce was appointed, which issued a circular 
addressed to the gentlemen and clergy of Ireland, 
with 26 queries for reply. The committee subse- 
quently made a special report on the tanning trade. 

About this time, the amount of arrears due in 
subscriptions was becoming very serious, and on the 13th 
of June 1782, on the motion of the Earl of Aldborough, 
it was resolved that a circular letter be sent to members 
in arrear, stating that in consequence of the great 



150 A HISTORY OF 

deficiency in the funds, the Society would be unable 
to continue the premium system. They were to be 
informed that on payment of 20 guineas all further 
claims would be discharged, and they were to be con- 
sidered as life members. In case of non-payment, 
their names were to be inserted in the Dublin and 
London papers, when they would no longer be con- 
sidered members of the Society. In April 1792, the 
collector was directed to inform every member in 
arrear, of certain clauses in an Act of Parliament 
passed in the last session (32 George III, ch. 14, sees. 
5 and 6), with a request to discharge the arrears. By 
this Act, arrears might be sued for by civil bill, pro- 
vided that if they did not exceed sixteen guineas, and 
one-fourth were discharged by a certain day, such 
payment should be deemed in full satisfaction. Should 
any defaulter pay twenty guineas, he might be 
deemed a life member. Any money so paid was 
to be applied towards the purchase of a cabinet of 
mineralogy, of models for the drawing schools, and for 
the establishment of a Botanic Garden. In November 
1793, Mr. Henry Tisdall, attorney, having taken all 
necessary steps towards getting in arrears, but without 
success, was directed to prepare a case for counsel, to 
advise that further steps should be taken, pursuant to 
the Act of Parliament. Having obtained Mr. Cald- 
beck's opinion, he was authorised to commence pro- 
secutions against defaulters. Mr. Caldbeck, who was 
a member, returned his fee, begging that " his services 
might be accepted as a small mark of that gratitude 
which every Irishman owed to the Society." By July 
1795, a bill of ^493 had been incurred to Mr. Tisdall 
for the recovery of arrears. They amounted, on the 
1st of November 1794, to £3957, Js. 3^. 

For some time, the attendance of members at the 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 151 

meetings had been very small, on some occasions only 
two being present. Frequent complaints were also 
made of the vice-presidents being constantly absent, 
important business, which could only be transacted 
when one of them was in the chair, having to be held 
over, and the meetings proving abortive. From the 
time that the Society proceeded to take active steps 
as to arrears of subscriptions, a period of decline 
seemed to set in. Ballots had to be postponed, and, in 
addition, applications for membership fell off consider- 
ably, while many members retired from the Society. 
A great improvement in every respect began to mani- 
fest itself from the year 1800 onwards, when the 
attendance became more satisfactory, and applications 
for admission to the Society more numerous. 

On the 9th of December 1773, Mr. Agmondisham 
Vesey moved that, as a mark of the Society's sense of Mr. 
Secretary Blaquiere's great attachment to its endeavours, 
a gold medal, with suitable inscription, should be pre- 
sented to him. On the vote, this motion was rejected 
— the necessary two-thirds majority not having been 
obtained. On the 27th of January 1774, Mr. Blaquiere 
was elected an honorary member, and in 1780, on pay- 
ment of twenty guineas, he became a life member. 

John Blaquiere, born in 1732, was son of a French 
emigrant who settled in London. He acted as secretary 
of legation in France under Lord Harcourt, 177 1-2, 
and when Harcourt became lord lieutenant of Ireland 
in the latter year, Blaquiere went with him as chief 
secretary. From time to time, he represented in the 
Irish Parliament, Old Leighlin, Carlingford, Charleville, 
and Newtownards. He was created a baronet in 1784, 
and Baron De Blaquiere in 1 800. Many of the principal 
improvements in Dublin in his time were carried out 
under his fostering care, and he may be said to have 



152 A HISTORY OF 

enjoyed a larger share of popular regard than generally 
falls to the lot of chief secretaries. Among other 
things, Blaquiere was in favour of a tax on absentee 
landlords. He died at Bray in 1812. 

On the 1 2th of June 1777, Messrs. Taylor and 
Skinner asked the Society to grant them 200 guineas 
towards publishing a large map which was to be con- 
structed by connecting the several roads appearing in 
the work l published by them, into a continuous map, 
on a scale of three miles to an inch. After some 
consideration, their request was acceded to. Messrs. 
Robert Pool and John C. Cash, who had both been 
educated in the Society's drawing schools, laid before 
it their plans of public buildings in Dublin, when it 
was decided that they had great merit, and deserved 
patronage. They subsequently sent in a memorial 
praying for assistance in their projected work, Eblana 
Depicta, afterwards published as " Views of the most 
remarkable buildings in Dublin," 1780. 

For some years, Mr. Morgan Crofton had been 
frequently employed on committees, and appears to have 
been much engaged in the Society's work. Mr. Abraham 
Wilkinson 2 was another member whose name is con- 
stantly met with in the Proceedings, and who was also 
very active in carrying out the Society's objects. The 
vice-presidents, too, especially Mr. John Leigh and 
Mr. Sydenham Singleton, were most regular in their 
attendance. 

At the close of the year 1779, it was found that 
arrears to the amount of ^4615, 19/. 6d., were due 
by the members up to the previous year. A by-law 
was passed in November 1780 that the collector was to 

1 Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed, 1777. 

2 Of Bushy Park, co. Dublin. His daughter and heiress, Maria 
Wilkinson, married Sir Robert Shaw, 1st bart. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 153 

attend in the room on those ballot days on which any 
sum of money was to be voted, or on which an election 
of officers was to take place, so that it might be 
certified who were incapacitated from voting by reason 
of their being in arrear. Any such persons were to 
leave the room, or pay the amount due. 

The Society at this time was engaged in forward- 
ing the interests of the cotton manufacture. A sum 
of ^35 was paid to Robert Brooke, which had been 
expended by him in bringing over artisans from England 
for carrying it on; which sum, with £53, 6s. granted 
to him on the 7 th of September for bringing over 
thirteen persons, was for twenty persons out of thirty- 
nine voted for. Subsequent payments were made for 
the full number. The Hon. Baron Hamilton also 
presented a memorial, stating that he had established 
a cotton manufacture at Balbriggan, and asking aid for 
bringing over six persons from England, skilled in 
this branch of industry, which was agreed to. 



54 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER IX 

THE SCHOOLS OF CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY 

(1786-1836) 

A Scotchman named Donald Stewart was in 1786 
employed by the committee of agriculture in making 
searches for fossils and minerals, along the banks of the 
Grand Canal and in the county of Wicklow, for which 
he was paid a guinea a week while at work. 1 After a 
time, he reported in writing on his searches, the reports 
being referred to a special committee, in whose opinion 
his observations on surveys of the counties of Wick- 
low and Wexford were valuable. In March 1787, 
Stewart was directed to go to the northern parts of the 
kingdom, for the purpose of sending to Dublin a suffi- 
cient quantity of Fuller's earth from pits which he had 
discovered, so that its qualities might be tested by 
Dublin manufacturers. He sent up above 3 cwt., 
which was divided between Messrs. Rickey, Parker, and 
Rankin, woollen manufacturers. In March 1788, he 
again reported on the counties of Wicklow, W'exford, 
and Waterford, and he was directed to make a tour 
through the county of Clare, under the orders of Sir 
Lucius O'Brien, bart. 

In 1789, the committee of agriculture reported 
that the different clays raised from a pit on the estate 
of His Excellency the Marquis of Buckingham, in the 
county of Clare, might be of great use, but it was 

1 A report on mines and minerals in the county of Dublin will be 
found in the Statistical Survey of that county (1800). 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 155 

necessary that larger quantities should be sent up for 
investigation. This clay had been discovered by 
Donald Stewart. In 1791, Stewart announced that he 
had found in the county of Waterford a very valuable 
clay fit for glasshouse pots. 

When making a tour through the county Longford 
in 1794, he found several valuable quarries of flags, 
slates, and fine variegated marble, on the estates of Lord 
Oxmantown and Mr. Shuldham, near Ballymahon. 
During this year, Stewart was directed to make a de- 
scriptive catalogue of the minerals, fossils, clays, &c, dis- 
covered by him, and deposited with the Society, and to 
label the collection. In 1 799, he proceeded to Banbridge 
to search for coal, and he had to experiment for mines 
on the estates of Morley Saunders and F. W. Greene 
in the county of Wicklow. On one occasion, he laid 
before the Society samples of marble raised from the 
quarries of the Marquis of Hertford, in the county 
of Antrim, which was said to be of excellent quality and 
to bear a fine polish. He was also paid for quarrying 
and drawing away specimens of various pillars and 
marbles from the Giant's Causeway, &c, to Port Ballen- 
trae, for the Society. In November 1797, Stewart was 
directed to go to the island of Rathlin, to examine if it 
yielded any stratum of Terrass, General Vallancey 
having informed the Society that some of that sub- 
stance, equal to any imported from Holland, had been 
found there. Soon after, Mr. Joseph Allen informed 
the Society that he had found immense quantities of 
7 err ass and Terra Pozzuolana 1 at Larne. When 
Stewart had completed a good deal of his work, Dr. 
Percival was invited to advise as to the arrangement 

1 Terrass and Pozzuolana are soft ferruginous tufas, that possess 
the property of consolidating when mixed with a portion of lime, and 
employed as cement. 



156 A HISTORY OF 

of the minerals, fossils, &c, at the repository, in con- 
junction with him. Stewart died in 181 1. 

Early in 1792 a committee was appointed to treat 
for the purchase of a celebrated cabinet of mineralogy 
called the Leskean cabinet, then for sale, and a sum 
of ^1200 was voted for it, but in all it cost the 
Society about £i2$o. 1 On the 8th of November, Dr. 
Richard Kirwan, who had negotiated in the matter 
of this cabinet, reported that it was then lodged 
in the Hawkins street house, with a collection of 
shells which he had procured. There were also 
lodged there an herbarium, and a botanical collection. 
Nathaniel Gottfried Leske, professor of natural his- 
tory at Marburg, one of Werner's most distinguished 
pupils, had arranged this cabinet museum, 1782-7, 
and on his death it was enlarged, revised, and described 
by Karsten, 2 who ranked next to him among German 
mineralogists. On the Society's behalf, Dr. Kirwan 
subjected it to a rigorous examination, when he 
rectified any errors. The cabinet contributed greatly 
to the diffusion of more exact knowledge on the 
subject of mineralogy in Ireland, and Dr. Kirwan 
refers to it in his work, Elements 0} Mineralogy. 

The collection was divided into five separate 
parts : — 

1. External character of minerals. 

2. Classification of minerals. 

3. Earth's internal structure (or geological). 

4. Mineralogical geography. 

5. Economical mineralogy. 

1 Under the Act, 32 George III, c. 14 (1792), it was provided that 
all subscription money in arrear recoverable by civil bill should be 
applied (among other things), towards the purchase of a cabinet of 
minerals. 

2 Description of Minerals in the Leskean Museum, by D. Ludwig 
Gustavus Karsten, translated by George Mitchell, is among the 
Haliday pamphlets (1798, dccxli. 1). It occupies 667 pages, includ- 
ing an index. 




Dr. RICHARD KIRWAN, f.r.s. 
(Royal Irish Academy} 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 157 

The Leskean cabinet consisted in all of 7331 
specimens, and was pronounced one of the most 
perfect monuments of mineralogical ability extant. 
William Higgins was appointed professor of chemistry 
and mineralogy to the Dublin Society in June 1795, 
when the cabinet was placed under his care. It was de- 
posited in a spacious apartment, open to students, and 
special rules regulating admission were printed. The 
chemical laboratory was established, and Higgins was 
instructed to make experiments. 

In 1 8 15, on the report of Giesecke, professor of 
mineralogy, and Thomas Weaver, an authority on the 
same science, German manuscripts and drawings, con- 
cerning mineralogy, geology, and mining, the property 
of the late Dr. Mitchell, were purchased for £100. 
They had originally been collected with a view to 
the formation of a mining board, long a project of 
Dr. Richard Kirwan. 

During the next year it was considered important 
to establish communication between the Society's 
museum and the Imperial museum, Vienna, and 
Giesecke was directed to send Baron Schreiber, the 
director, in accordance with his expressed desire, speci- 
mens of the meteoric stone which fell in Tipperary 
(see p. 228), and to thank him for specimens of some 
that fell in Moravia and Bohemia. In 1829, the 
committee of chemistry recommended that the Leskean 
cabinet should be restored and completed in all its 
parts, and a more suitable apartment provided for it, 
where the whole cabinet might be open for inspection 
by the public. 

In April 1794, it had been found necessary to pro- 
vide fitting rooms on the north side of the Poolbeg 
street premises for the due arrangement of this 
valuable collection, together with accommodation for 



158 A HISTORY OF 

the drawing schools, and ^800 were expended on the 
additional buildings. When Dr. Kirwan had com- 
pleted his examination and arrangement of the museum, 
a medal of Irish gold, with a suitable inscription, was 
presented to him. In 1802, he was asked to sit to 
Hugh D. Hamilton for his portrait, which was to be 
hung in the museum, in acknowledgment of " his 
eminent services and indefatigable labours in chemistry, 
mineralogy, &c." Fourteen years after, 120 guineas 
were paid to Miss Harriet Hamilton for finishing the 
portrait commenced by her father, who only com- 
pleted the painting of the head. This portrait now 
hangs in the reception room in Leinster House. The 
Royal Irish Academy is in possession of another and 
much better portrait. Richard Kirwan, chemist and 
natural philosopher, was born in 1733, son of Martin 
Kirwan of Cregg, co. Galway. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and corresponded with all the savants of 
Europe. His Elements of Mineralogy was the first 
systematic treatise on the subject published in the king- 
dom, and his papers on Chemical ^Affinity obtained for 
him the Copley Medal of the Royal Society. Kirwan 
became a Doctor of Laws of Dublin University in 
1794, and was elected President of the Royal Irish 
Academy in 1799, a post which he held until his 
death, which took place on the 1st of January 18 12. 
He was buried in St. George's, Temple street. The 
Society purchased for ^10 Kirwan's "burning glass," 
which is still in its possession. The glass is illustrated 
on the opposite page. 

Between 1795 an< ^ 1800, a sum of almost ^2500 was 
expended on different buildings and works at the re- 
pository, and when in the latter year the museum was 
opened, many persons sent donations of shells, specimens 
preserved in spirits, beetles, &c. The Royal Irish 




DR. R. KIRWAN'S "BURNING GLASS" 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 159 

Academy presented a collection of volcanic specimens 
and hard woods, to be annexed to the Leskean cabinet. 
In 1809, it was reported that a complete and scientific 
survey of mineral productions was necessary, and 
Richard Griffith, jun., was recommended as eminently 
qualified for the undertaking. ^300 were allocated 
in 1 8 16, to complete the systematic part of the collec- 
tion, so as to include specimens of all known species 
of simple minerals. The collection was then deficient 
by 129 species and substances. Major Birch, r.a., in 
18 17, presented to the museum many articles, among 
them Roman remains and marbles from Cateja, An- 
dalusia ; from Malta, two long swords used by the 
Knights, and part of the coat of mail of the Grand 
Master Wignacourt, 16 1 5 ; from Egypt, a sarcophagus 
and phallus, and idols from the Great Pyramid ; from 
Agrigentum, porcelain vases ; also an antique Irish 
vessel from a bog in the county Roscommon, and a 
number of minerals. Mr. Gregory, of Coole, sent 
specimens of marble found in a quarry on his estate. 

For some time the Society had been in a transition 
stage. The old order was more or less passing, and a 
new set of circumstances and new conditions were 
being developed. With the advent of the Farming 
Society, as to which more will be said in another 
chapter, the Dublin Society abandoned the premium 
system, which had so much, and for so long a period, 
occupied its attention. It was felt that the time had 
come when the formation of schools of science, in 
which qualified professors might lecture, were, under 
altered conditions in the country, and in accordance 
with the example and precedent set in such matters in 
England and Scotland, more likely to further the 
purposes for which the Society had originally been 
founded. Accordingly, on the establishment of the 



160 A HISTORY OF 

Botanic Garden, Dr. Wade had been appointed pro- 
fessor and lecturer. A sum of ^50 and a gold medal 
were offered for answering at a public examination in 
Botany, and in the subject of vegetables connected 
with the feeding of cattle ; and subsidiary prizes at an 
examination as to hay, grasses, &c. These prizes were 
to be confined exclusively to farmers, their sons, ap- 
prentices, and working men. At the same time it was 
resolved to establish a veterinary school in the Hawkins 
street premises, for the purpose of helping to preserve 
the health of cattle, by the study of the diseases peculiar 
to them. In this department, Mr. Peall and Mr. 
Watts, both Englishmen, were appointed respectively 
professor and lecturer, and assistant and practitioner. 
A forge, dissecting-room, and museum were provided. 
Boxes for invalid horses were also erected, to be 
used for clinical lectures and cures by operation. In 
addition to horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, &c, poultry 
were after a time to be included. Pending the erection 
of suitable buildings, Mr. Peall was allowed to 
engage temporary premises for his operations. He 
died in 1825, and the veterinary department was then 
given up. 

In the year 1800, a committee was appointed 
to report on the plan of the London Institution for 
diffusing knowledge, which reported that the Dublin 
Society had taken the lead of it and all other like 
institutions in Europe in everything except philo- 
sophical lectures. Accordingly, a suitable room was 
furnished in the new repository, and James Lynch, of 
Capel street, optician, was appointed professor and 
lecturer in hydraulics, mechanics, experimental philo- 
sophy, &c. He delivered three public courses of twenty- 
five to thirty lectures each, in the year, and was paid 
twenty-five guineas for each course. The committee 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 161 

furnished a general syllabus of the subjects on which 
he lectured. The museum was open, and Mr. William 
Higgins, who had been appointed professor and lec- 
turer in mineralogy, conducted his lectures in that 
department. 

Between May 1800 and March 1804, tne Society 
expended no less a sum than ^17,841 on buildings at 
the repository. In 1800, the committee of chemistry 
and mineralogy offered a premium of £200 for the 
best geological and mineralogical survey of the county 
of Dublin. 

The Society was of opinion that it might be ad- 
vantageous to bring over from England distinguished 
lecturers, and in 18 10, the Royal Society was asked 
to allow Professor Humphry Davy to deliver a course 
of lectures on electro-chemical subjects, which he 
did; 500 guineas were paid to him, and 337 persons 
attended his first lecture. Next year, he gave another 
set of lectures on chemical philosophy, and repeated 
the course in geological science that he had read before 
the Royal Institution. Professor Davy was also asked 
to superintend the construction of a voltaic battery 
of large plates. At the conclusion of the lectures, the 
committee of chemistry reported that the total amount 
received for admission tickets was ^1101, 15/. id., 
all expenses amounting to ^327, 15/. id., which 
left a credit balance of £773, 6s. nd. Out of this, a 
sum of ^750 was sent to Davy, with thanks for having 
" materially increased the spirit of philosophical research 
in Ireland." In a reply, dated the 9th of December 
1 8 1 1 , Davy said that he was proud of the Society's 
opinion that his lectures would be useful to the Irish 
public ; and added that as long as he lived, he would 
remember with gratitude the attention, candour, and 
indulgence of his audience. 

L 



1 62 A HISTORY OF 

In 1 8 12, it was decided to appoint a professor 
of chemistry, and a professor of mineralogy and 
geology ; the latter to have a salary of ^300 a year. 
Mr. Jameson, professor of mineralogy in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, was appointed to the post. 
Greater care was now to be taken in the arrange- 
ment of the museum, and the professor, it was 
thought, would find himself in a more favourable 
position for making geological surveys and reports. 
A time-table for lectures was also permanently fixed. 

A mining engineer, competent to examine mines 
and open collieries, was also to be appointed. He 
was to have a knowledge of levelling and surveying, 
and to be prepared to visit England and Scotland, to 
bring over models of improved machinery. Richard 
Griffith, jun., was appointed to that position in May 
1 812, at a salary of £300 a year for three months 
spent in actual survey under the Society, and three 
months in preparing reports, maps, sections, &c, 
and in delivering a course of lectures. .£500 was 
allocated for mining purposes, which would leave 
^200 for contingent expenses. It was arranged that 
he was to put himself in touch with proprietors 
of mines and their agents in Ireland, so as to lay 
the foundation of a minute mineralogical survey. 
He was also to make himself master of the position 
of the several coalfields and beds of coal, as well 
as to describe machinery, and the plan of work- 
ing mines, and to suggest improvements. He was 
expected to furnish accurate maps, specifying objects 
of mineralogical interest in the country, and explana- 
tory sections of stratification, and was also to deliver 
public courses of lectures on the geology of Ireland, 
and the application of machinery to mines. As a 
result of his appointment, Griffith was first invited to 




Sir CHARLES L. GIESECKE 
{From an oil painting by Sir Henry Raebum) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 163 

the Queen's county and to Kilkenny : Mr. Gorges of 
Kilbrew, and Mr. West of Clontarf, also asked him to 
view their properties, but on Kilbrew he reported un- 
favourably. He reported on the coal districts of 
Kilkenny, Queen's county and Carlow, and stated that 
he was making a geological map of Ireland. In 18 14, 
Griffith visited Newcastle-on-Tyne, " a centre of ad- 
mirable management in coal-mining, machinery, &c." ; 
here his attention was much attracted by a newly 
constructed steam carriage, in use for drawing loaded 
waggons along railways to the exclusion of horses ! 
He thought that most important results would flow 
from it. 

After a short time, the professorship of mineralogy 
was declared vacant, and four candidates were selected 
— Robert Bakewell, an author and lecturer in London, 
Charles Lewis Giesecke, Dr. James Miller, a Scotch- 
man, and Thomas Weaver, who, having been a pupil 
of Werner at a mining school in Freiberg, Saxony, 
had conducted mining operations at Cronebane, Glen- 
dalough, and Luganure. Giesecke was elected by a 
majority of 46 over Weaver, and on the 27th of 
January 18 14, "he was introduced by the vice- 
president in the chair to the Dublin Society." 

Karl Ludwig Metzler, who afterwards assumed the 
name of Giesecke, was born in 1761, in Augsburg, and 
is believed to have been educated at Gottingen, under 
Blumenbach, though it is doubtful whether there be 
not confusion in this particular between him and one 
of his brothers. The youth and early manhood of 
this extraordinary man were spent amid scenes and 
occupations far removed from those of his maturer 
years. He had a passion for the stage, especially for 
music and the opera, and for a time he was an actor, 
bringing out at Vienna a translation of Hamlet, a 



164 A HISTORY OF 

character in which he himself appeared. In 1786, 
Giesecke is found editing an actor's newspaper in 
Regensberg, and from 1 79 1 to 1799, he wrote a 
number of librettos and operas. He was a friend of 
Schiller, Klopstock, and Goethe, with whom he corre- 
sponded, and it is not improbable that he was the 
original of With elm Meister. He was also associated 
with Mozart, and there is no doubt he had a large 
share in writing the libretto of the Magic Flute ; indeed, 
in a work on German opera, it is recorded that he 
stated himself as responsible for the whole of it, except 
the parts of Papageno and Papagena, which may be 
attributed to Schikaneder, a musician and manager 
of operatic companies, who was also associated with 
Mozart. During the middle and at the close of the 
eighteenth century, Freemasonry flourished in Vienna, 
where Mozart arrived in 178 1, and both he and 
Giesecke were members of the order. Mozart com- 
posed a great deal of Masonic music, but by far his 
most important composition in this line was the 
opera of the Magic Flute, which was written in 1791. 
It is understood to contain sympathetic allusions to 
Freemasonry, and, under cover of a representation of 
Egyptian mysteries, to have been intended as a glori- 
fication of the order in Austria. 

Giesecke began in 1794 the serious study of 
mineralogy, a science towards which he had always 
had a particular inclination. He subsequently travelled 
a good deal, and for a time entered the Austrian 
service, finally settling in Copenhagen, where he con- 
ducted a school of mineralogy and became a dealer 
in minerals. In 1806, the King of Denmark sent 
him to Greenland to study mineralogy and. to make 
charts, &c. In that country Giesecke underwent great 
privations, and, returning in 18 13, he found his way 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 165 

to Edinburgh. Particulars of his discoveries with 
regard to the old Norwegian colonists who some 
900 years previously had settled on the east coast of 
Greenland, were afterwards published in the Transac- 
tions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xiv. ; and one 
of his charts of the west coast of Greenland was in 
the museum of the Royal Dublin Society. Before 
leaving Greenland, Giesecke shipped for Copenhagen 
a quantity of valuable minerals, which were captured 
by a French privateer. Being recaptured by an English 
frigate, the collection was brought to Leith, where it 
was purchased by Mr. Allan, a banker of Edinburgh. 
Giesecke went thither in pursuit of his collection, and 
became a warm friend of Allan, who introduced him 
to Sir George Mackenzie, whose friendship he also 
gained. Soon after, Giesecke became a candidate for 
the professorship of mineralogy in the Dublin Society, 
to which, as we have seen, he was appointed. 

The school became famous, and Mr. Isaac Weld, 
one of the secretaries, in 1 83 1, spoke of its head as 
" one whose superlative attainments in the science were 
acknowledged from one end of Europe to the other." 
The collection of minerals in the museum numbered 
30,000 specimens, including gieseckite. 1 At the time 
of his appointment, Giesecke was unable to lecture in 
English, but undertook to devote himself to its study, 
which he did with such success that in a short time 
he spoke the language with ease. He was soon able 
to report the arrangement of the Leskean museum, 
and of his own Greenland collection, which he pre- 
sented to the Society. On 22nd May 18 17, a gold 
medal, with inscription, was presented to Sir Charles 
Giesecke, at a meeting of the Society, when the 

1 Gieseckite is a hydrous silicate of aluminium and potassium of the 
mica group, named after Giesecke, who brought it from Greenland. 



1 66 A HISTORY OF 

chairman made a complimentary speech. The medal 
cost ^17, 9-f. 9^d. y and was executed by William 
Mossop, jun. Giesecke was absent from this country 
on special leave, from July 18 17 to the end of the 
summer of 18 19, when the cause of his prolonged 
absence was fully explained in a report of the com- 
mittee of mineralogy. Having been originally em- 
ployed by the Danish government in Greenland, he 
was compelled to go over to Copenhagen to close the 
business relations in reference to his commission to that 
country. Serious illness overtook him, and his life 
was despaired of. On recovery, he had to visit his 
native Augsburg, to settle private affairs before taking 
up his permanent residence in Ireland. After that, he 
journeyed to Vienna, to present specimens obtained in 
Greenland for the Austrian government. Giesecke 
further explained in his report that he had been 
working at his Lectures on the Natural History of 
Greenland, which he hoped might reflect credit on the 
Society whose professor he had become. 

In August 1825, Giesecke undertook a mineralogical 
tour in Galway, Mayo, and the island of Achill, and, in 
1826, through Donegal. One hundred and fifty 
guineas were voted to him for the latter tour, and his 
reports on both are printed in the Proceedings. In 
1828, he went through Derry, Antrim, Tyrone, and 
Down, and in the Proceedings, vol. lxvii. app. i., will be 
found a report on the scientific results of this journey. 
Sir Charles Giesecke, k.d. (as he was generally called 
from 1 8 16, when he was made a knight of the Danish 
order of the Dannebrog), died very suddenly on the 
5th of March 1833. The museum was closed for a 
fortnight as a mark of respect to his memory. The 
Society, at the meeting subsequent to his death, ex- 
pressed its high sense of his long-tried talents as a 





MEDAL AWARDED TO MR. LEWIS ROBERTS, 1765 




MEDAL PRESENTED TO Sir C. L. GIESECKE, 1817 
( William S. Mo s sop) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 167 

scientific professor, and of his amiable manners and 
character as a gentleman. Sir Charles Giesecke was 
very popular in Dublin, and a tablet to his memory, 
which stands on the staircase wall of St. George's 
Church, states that " he was beloved as a friend and 
sought as a companion by all who knew him." His 
portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn — the gift in 18 17 of 
his friend, Sir George Mackenzie, bart., to the Society 
— hangs in the reception room, Leinster House. 
There are two small autograph albums of Giesecke's 
in the National Museum, Dublin, which began to be 
filled by his friends (many of them eminent scientific 
men) in 178 1, and their contributions extend to about 
the year 1829. The first volume is inscribed "Faut- 
oribus amicisque sacrum." They contain original 
sentiments and verses, with quotations in Latin, 
French, German, English, and even Hebrew ; sketches 
in pencil and water-colours, and silhouette portraits. 
One volume was presented to the museum by the 
Misses Hutton, whose father was Giesecke's executor, 
and the other came from the collection of the late 
Mr. Thomas H. Longfield. Very full particulars of 
Giesecke's career will be found in an article in the 
Dublin University Magazine ', 1834; in Mozart's 
Operas, by Edward J. Dent (1913); in an article by 
Professor K. J. V. Steenstrup, on Giesecke's minera- 
logical journal kept in Greenland, together with a 
biographical notice of Giesecke, which appeared in 
the Meddelelsen om Gronland, Copenhagen, 19 10; and 
in a paper on " Mozart and some of his Masonic 
Friends," by H. Bradley, in the Ars Quatuor Corona- 
torum, vol. xxvi. 241. 

Dr. Scouler, professor of natural history in the 
University of Glasgow, succeeded him as professor 
of mineralogy here. Other candidates for the post 



1 68 A HISTORY OF 

included Dr. Whitley Stokes, lecturer in natural his- 
tory, Trinity College, Dublin, and G. B. Somerly, of 
London. 

To return to the labours of the mining engineer. 
In 1 8 14, he reported on the Leinster coalfields, which 
he had found to number eight beds. The Grand 
Canal Company and the owners of the beds had 
recently made over two hundred trials for coal, at a 
cost of thousands of pounds, in districts where, on a 
mere inspection of the map and sections, it was clear 
that no coal could be found. Griffith next laid before 
the Society his geological and mining survey of Con- 
naught, and then directed his attention to the Ulster 
coal district, where, between Emyvale in Monaghan 
and Pettigo in Fermanagh he made a minute survey, 
but found only thin beds of coal. In 1827, he was 
engaged on a general geological survey of Ireland, 
with a view to the publication of a memoir and map 
of each county, following the Ordnance Survey. He 
examined from Slieve Gallen in Derry, south to Ennis- 
killen and Clogher, where were found some thin beds 
of coal ; and he also reported on the metallic mines of 
Leinster. He hoped soon to report on Munster, and 
had found Audley, near Crookhaven, and Ross Island, 
Killarney, among the most promising places in the 
British Empire. Soon after, Griffith informed the 
Society that there was no part of Ireland, in the 
geological examination of which he had not made con- 
siderable progress. " The chief public object of my 
life is to complete an accurate map, geological and 
descriptive, of Ireland." Griffith resigned his post 
on being appointed a Commissioner of valuation of 
lands in Ireland, but stated that he intended to 
continue his researches towards the completion of the 
geological map. 



g* 



w 



^^'"•tHAfrO (;)Hf FIT 






Sir RICHARD GRIFFITH, Bart. 
(Marble Bust by Sir Thomas Fan-ell) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 169 

Sir Richard John Griffith, who was created a 
baronet in 1858, was born in 1784, and, having 
served a short time in the army, commenced to learn 
practical mining in Cornwall. He was always in- 
terested in agriculture, and in the subject of land 
valuation, with which his name will ever be associated 
in Ireland. He studied for some time in Edinburgh, 
and on returning to this country in 1808, made a 
survey of the coalfields of Leinster. Griffith then 
became engineer to the Commission on Irish Bogs, 
which published valuable reports, and in 18 12 was 
appointed mining engineer and professor of geology 
to the Dublin Society. He also succeeded Dr. Richard 
Kirwan as government inspector of mines in Ireland. 
Between 1822 and 1830, it is said that, under his 
superintendence, some 250 miles of road were con- 
structed or improved in the wildest and most inacces- 
sible parts of the country. In 1827, Griffith was 
appointed Commissioner of Valuation in Ireland, under 
the Act 7th George IV, a post which he held until 
1868. From 1850 to 1864, he acted as chairman of 
the Board of Public Works. So great was the con- 
fidence reposed in this remarkable man, that there was 
hardly a work of public importance undertaken in 
this country, from about 1830 until his retirement 
into private life, on which he was not asked to give 
his opinion. His magnum opus — the Geological Map 
of Ireland — which took its final form in 1855, will 
always remain a monument of his industry and ability. 
Sir Richard Griffith published a number of scientific 
works, and all the reports made by him during his 
official connection with the Society will be found in 
the printed Proceedings. A marble bust of him stands 
in the reception-room in Leinster House. 



170 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER X 

THE LIBRARY ; AND THE STATISTICAL SURVEYS 
OF COUNTIES 

One of the rules for the government of the Society, 
approved in December 173 1, laid down that all the 
works, journals, and transactions which should be 
published by other Societies and by private persons, and 
which might contain any useful improvement or dis- 
covery in nature or art, were to be purchased. Thus, 
at the earliest possible period, was the formation of a 
Library provided for, and this rule governed the 
purchase of books for more than a century. 

The earliest catalogue of the library was very 
technically drawn up about 1735-6. The books 
included in it were in English, French, Greek, German, 
Low Dutch, Latin, and Spanish, and treat of Agriculture, 
Arithmetic, Bridges, Civil Law, Flax, Farm Build- 
ings, Hemp, Husbandry, Hydraulics, Hydrotechnics, 
Machinery, Metallurgy, Mills, Police, Rural Economy, 
Statistics, and Silk Worms. (Preface to catalogue, 
suppl. 1850, by Edward R. P. Colles, librarian.) The 
library, then comprising thirty-seven volumes, increased 
during the ensuing sixty years to 2105, and the follow- 
ing are the titles of the books as they appeared in the 
original catalogue : 

Folios. 

Theatrum Machinarum Generale, by Leopold [Leupold], 
in High Dutch. Leipzig, 1724. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 171 

Theatrum Machinarum Hydraulicarum, by do., in High 

Dutch. 1724. 
Theatrum Machinarum Hydraulicarum, by do. in do. 

Tome first. Tome second. 1724. 
Theatrum Pontificiale, by do. in do. 1726. 
Theatrum Staticum, pars prima, by do. in do. 1726. 
Theatrum Arithmetico Geometricum, by do. in do. 1726. 
Theatrum Machinarium, by do. 1725. 
Traite de la Police de France, par Mr. De la Mare. Am- 
sterdam, 1729. Tome premier. Tome second. 
The Dutch Placaats or Laws, in five volumes : 

Volume 1st, by Cau, to the year 1 658. 

Vol. 2nd, by Cau, to the year 1664. 

Vol. 3rd, by Simon Van Leeuwen, to the year 1683. 

Vol. 4th, by Jacobus Sibelius, to the year 1700. 

Vol. 5th, by Paulus Scheltus, to the year 1720. 

Tables or titles of all the Placaats. 
Georgius Agricola de Re Metallica. Basileae, 1657. 
Theatrum Machinarum Universale, or the Great Dutch 

Mill Book, with Cults, by Van Zyland Schenk. Amster. 

J 734. 
The Great Dutch Mill Book, part 1st, 1734; part 2nd, 
1736, by Natrus, Polly, Vuuren, and Punt. 

Quartos. 

Machines et inventions approuvees par L'Academy Royale 

des Sciences. 1735, a Paris. Tome premier. Tome 

second. Tome troisieme. Tome quatrieme. Tome 

cinquieme. Tome sixieme. 
Oeconomie Generale de la Campagne, ou nouvelle Maison 

Rustich. Par Louis Liger, a Paris. 1708. Tome premier. 

Tome second. 
Govierno Politico de Agricultura, por Lope de Deca. En 

Madrid, 1618. 
Rei Agrariae auctores legesque Variae, per Goesium. 

Amstelodami, 1674. 
Tusser's Husbandry. 

Octavos. 

Geoponicorum sive de Re Rustica. Libri Viginti. Basso 
collectore, Grasce et Latine. Cantabrigiae, 1704. 



172 A HISTORY OF 

Varronis Opera omnia cum Notis. Dordrecht, 1619. 
Jethro TulPs Horse Hoeing Husbandry. Dublin, 1733. 
The Practice of Farming and Husbandry, by W. Ellis. 

Dublin, 1735. 
Tull's Horse Hoeing Husbandry. The first part. Dublin, 

I73I- 

Slator's Instructions for Cultivating and Raising Flax and 

Hemp. Dublin, 1724. 
Instructions for Planting white Mulberryes for Silk Worms. 

Paris, 1665. 

When the library was being formed, Dr. Tennison, 
bishop of Ossory, presented a number of books. 

In 1755, the Society purchased, for a sum of £500, 
the collection of manuscripts made by Walter Harris, 
the editor of Ware, who died in Henry street, Dublin, 
in July 176 1 ; and an obituary notice, in mentioning the 
purchase, added, that " from it some excellent history 
may be compiled." Archbishop King had cherished 
the idea of writing a Church History of Ireland, and 
his Collectanea were added to and used by Harris. 
They were also made much use of by Archdall, in 
compiling his Monasticon. The collection consists of 
seventeen volumes folio. Eleven of them contain 
deeds, patents, letters (Irish History, 1 170-1690). 
The twelfth deals with convents, monasteries, and Irish 
ecclesiastical affairs. Another volume contains transla- 
tions from Stearne's collection, among them extracts 
from the Annals of Innisj alien. The contents of the 
remaining volumes are of a miscellaneous character. 
In August 176 1, Lord Clanbrassil applied by letter to 
Dr. Mann, requesting that Harris' collection of manu- 
scripts should be sent to Dr. Warner x in England. The 

1 Ferdinando Warner, LL.D., rector of St. Michael's, Queenhithe, 
a man of great ability and wide learning. He wrote a History of 
Ireland, of which the first volume only — to 1171 — was published. 
While gathering materials for an ecclesiastical history, he came to 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 173 

application was refused, on the ground that sending 
the documents beyond sea would be inconsistent with 
the trust reposed in the Society by the House of 
Commons, which had enabled it to purchase them. 
These manuscripts were transferred to the National 
Library of Ireland, when the Society's library was 
taken over by the Government. 

In March 1780, £36, 14.S. \\d. were paid for fifty- 
five volumes of the Encyclopedia, and Albert Von 
Haller's Bibliotheca Botanic a (1771), purchased for 
the library at Dr. MacBride's auction. From about 
the year 1780, the library received a good deal of 
attention. A number of valuable books were pur- 
chased, both on the continent and at home, and 
several members, qualified by their literary tastes and 
attainments, helped by their experience and advice in 
forming a remarkable collection of works. In May, 
178 1, a sum of £238, iij\ 6d. was paid to Payne, of 
Pall Mall, for the purchase of books acquired at the 
sale of the late Mr. Beauclerk's collection in London. 
An additional sum was required for the completion 
of the set of the Flora Danica, 1 and of the Encyclo- 
fiedie. A little later, Mr. Conyngham, who has 
previously been mentioned as taking a deep interest 
in the library, when in Portugal, was requested to 
purchase some scarce volumes to the amount of 
^200. Four guineas were paid for two volumes of 
Iconology, or a Collection oj Emblematical Figures, 
" a scarce and valuable work," published in London. 

Dublin, where he consulted manuscripts in Trinity College, Marsh's 
Library, and the Record Tower, Dublin Castle. Warner's History 
of the Rebellion, a?id Civil War in Ireland, which appeared in 1767, 
is a very accurate work. 

1 This magnificent work — /cones Plantarum Flora Danicoe, by 
George Christian Oeder, and others— was issued from time to time 
between 1761 and 1883. 



174 A HISTORY OF 

In 1784, Mr. Conyngham laid before the Society 
a catalogue of several books in Dutch and other 
foreign languages, which he had purchased abroad 
for the Society, they being scarce and valuable. The 
secretary was authorised to employ Mr. Gabriel 
Beranger, in translating the titles and indexes. 

Beranger, whose family were French Huguenots, 
was born at Rotterdam in 1729. Coming to Dublin in 
1750, he sold prints and kept an artists' warehouse in 
South Great George's street. He died at his residence 
in St. Stephen's Green in 18 17, aged eighty-eight years, 
and was buried in the French cemetery, Peter street. 
Beranger's special patrons were Colonel Burton Con- 
yngham and General Vallancey, who obtained for him 
the post of ledger clerk in the Exchequer Office. 
Beranger made a number of sketches of antiquities for 
Vallancey's Collectanea, and a series of these sketches 
now in the Royal Irish Academy shows the appearance 
of many buildings that no longer exist. He will always 
hold a high place in the history of Irish art, " as his 
accurate and beautiful work preserves with admirable 
fidelity the distinctive features of many Irish architec- 
tural remains." Sir William Wilde wrote a memoir 
of Beranger, 1 with a full account of his labours in the 
cause of Irish art, literature, and antiquities, between 
the years 1760 and 1780. A large number of sketches, 
elevations, landscapes, written descriptions of ruins, and 
manuscript accounts of his various tours from 1773 to 
1780 came into Sir William's possession, from which 
material he was able to compile his very interesting 
memoir. 

In 1787, Colonel Hamilton was paid a sum of 
fifty guineas for translating the indexes of thirty-two 
volumes of the Transactions of the Haarlem and Flush- 

1 Journal R.S.A.I., vols, xi., xii., and xiv. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 175 

ing societies ; and later, the Rev. Denis Taaffe x trans- 
lated several tracts from Dutch and German authors, 
and made a catalogue of Dutch and German books 
belonging to the Society. R. E. Mercier compiled, in 
1797, a catalogue of the library, and in 1806, the 
catalogue was ordered to be printed. 

In 1795, General Vallancey recommended the 
appointment of the Rev. Dr. John Lanigan, whom 
he had known in Italy, for employment in the 
library, a recommendation that was endorsed by 
Lord Donoughmore. He became librarian in 1808, 
and during his tenure of that office he performed 
his duties with marked efficiency. Dr. Lanigan 
translated a number of works for the Society, and 
corrected the proof sheets of the Statistical Surveys. 
This remarkable man was born in Cashel in 1758, 
and being intended for the priesthood, he was sent at 
an early age to the Irish College, Rome. He was sub- 
sequently appointed professor of Hebrew and Divinity 
at Pavia, returning to Ireland in 1794. During the 
previous year had appeared the first part of his In- 
stitutiones Biblicce, which caused him to be looked on 
as a Jansenist, and Dr. Lanigan found it difficult to 
procure an ecclesiastical appointment in this country. 
He was, however, made professor of Sacred Scripture 
and Hebrew in Maynooth College, a post which he 
speedily resigned on being asked to subscribe a special 
formula. It was at this time that Dr. Lanigan's valuable 
services were placed at the disposal of the Society. He 
began to suffer from brain disease in 18 13, and in 
1 8 1 5 resigned the librarianship, retaining for a time his 

1 Born in the county Louth in 1743. He was author of a History 
of Ireland, and wrote several pamphlets on Ireland and the Roman 
Catholic Church. Rev. Denis Taaffe was one of the founders of the 
Gaelic Society in 1808, and he died in Dublin in 1813. 



176 A HISTORY OF 

position as corrector of the press. He died at Finglas in 
1828. Dr. Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of Ireland 
is a well-known work. On his retirement, Dr. Samuel 
Litton, Dr. Ryan, Mr. Newenham, Mr. Berwick, Dr. 
Johnson, and Mr. Cramer became candidates for the 
vacant post, when Dr. Litton was elected by 154 votes 
in a house of 237 members. Between 18 17 and 1824, 
the new librarian compiled a catalogue of the library. 

In 1 8 1 1 , a committee, consisting of the seven vice- 
presidents, the two secretaries, Henry Hamilton, Isaac 
Weld, John Boardman, Edward Houghton, Samuel 
Guinness, Henry Adair, and the Rev. J. C. Seymour, 
was appointed to inspect the books, and consider the 
library regulations. It was arranged that from the 25th 
of March to the 29th of September the library was to be 
open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. and from 6 p.m. to sunset; 
for the remainder of the year, from 9 a.m. to sunset. 
(In 1836, it was ordered to be open from 1 1 a.m. until 
5 p.m.) A special catalogue of such works as might 
be lent to members was to be prepared, and the 
Society's professors were to be permitted to borrow 
books, and bring them to the lecture rooms during lec- 
tures. An assistant to the librarian was necessary. The 
power of selection of books was to rest with the library 
committee, which was to be elected annually by ballot. 
The library room was considered totally inadequate, 
and, soon after, the architect was directed to furnish 
plans for a new library. The committee reported that 
its members were engaged in cataloguing the coins and 
medals. Two hundred pounds per annum was after- 
wards fixed as the librarian's salary, for six hours a day, 
in managing and cataloguing the library, and super- 
intending the Society's publications. Mr. McDonnell 
was appointed assistant librarian at a salary of £100 
a year. By November 18 12, the new sub-librarian, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 177 

under Dr. Lanigan's superintendence, had compiled 
a general alphabetical catalogue of all the books. The 
nummarium, which was under the direction of the 
librarian, was found to contain 23 gold coins, 14 gilt; 
427 silver, 88 Roman, 2 Cufic ; copper coins (Roman), 
274 ; Moorish, 4 ; ditto, various, 253 ; of mixed metal, 
124: 1 brass ring: 19 Egyptian coins : medals (lead), 
24. The collection was directed to be deposited in the 
library, and the librarian was to arrange the coins and 
medals, supplying a catalogue. 

It was arranged in March 18 12 that there was to 
be a select standing committee in charge of the library 
and nummarium, when the Hon. George Knox, Rev. 
Henry Moore, Henry Adair, Robert B. Bryan, Richard 
Fox, Henry Arabin, Archibald St. George, Isaac M. 
D'Olier, Hugh Hamill, Isaac Weld, Nicholas P. Leader, 
Wm. Farren, and Thomas Wallace were nominated to 
serve on it. 

Marsh's Library being considered as situated in 
a remote and inconvenient place, it was referred to 
the library committee to look into the Act which 
established it, and to confer with the trustees of that 
library as to the best means of making it accessible. 
Nothing further, however, appears to have been done, 
though in the year 18 14, when the Society contem- 
plated building a library, they thought the trustees 
might approve of obtaining an Act of Parliament, 
authorising the removal of their collection, in which 
case the Society would have granted them ground for 
a suitable building. 

Mr. Thomas Pleasants presented to the Society 
books valued at ,£191, 9/., — including Hakluyfs 
Voyages (5 vols.), £34, 2s. 6d. (only 75 printed); 
Fabian's Chronicles ; Monstrelet's Chronicles — trans- 
lated by T. Johnes (12 vols.), £9, 8/. 6d.; Burney's 

M 



1 78 A HISTORY OF 

History of Music (4 vols.), ^9, is. ; Locke s Works, 
(10 vols.), £9, is. ; Playfair's System of Chronology, 
£2, 1 6s. lod. ; W. Roy's Antiquities of Scotland (Mili- 
tary Antiquities of the Romans in Britain), £§, 13^. 9^. 
In consideration of this and other valuable gifts to the 
Society, and of his having expended j£ 10,000 in the 
erection of a stove tenter house, 1 as also £6000 for 
a hospital for sick poor in the liberties of Dublin, 
Mr. Pleasants was elected an honorary member. 

A sum of ^500 per annum was reported as avail- 
able in 1 8 16 for the purchase of books, newspapers, and 
periodicals. On the nth of December 18 17, a cata- 
logue of the library was ready for delivery, and fifty 
guineas were voted to Dr. Litton on its completion. 
In 1820, Dr. Litton was paid the compliment of being 
elected an honorary member, and on the occasion of 
his taking his seat as such he was specially addressed by 
the vice-president from the chair. 

Frederick Cradock, whose father had been libra- 
rian at Marsh's Library, was elected librarian in the 
room of Dr. Litton, on the latter's appointment in 
1826 to the professorship of Botany. In that year the 
collection consisted of 8300 volumes, and £60 were 
paid to the sub-librarian for an index to sixty-one 
volumes of the printed Proceedings. Another catalogue 
(raisonne) was completed in 1829, in four folio volumes, 
for which a sum of £100 was paid to the librarian. On 
the death of Cradock in 1833, John Patton was elected 
librarian, two of the other candidates for the post 
being John Anster 2 and Robert Travers. In 1855, 

1 See p. 206 11. 

2 Anster was born in Charleville in 1793. He became Regius 
Professor of Civil Law in Dublin University, early published some 
poems, and was the first to render Goethe's Faust into English verse. 
His version of portion of the poem appeared in Blackwood in 1820. 
The first part was completed in 1835, and the entire by 1864. Anster 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 179 

on the resignation of Patton, Edward R. P. Colles 
became librarian. He was succeeded in 1876, by 
William Archer, f.r.s., who from 1877 to 1895, was 
librarian of the National Library. On Mr. Archer's 
retirement in the latter year, Mr. Thomas W. 
Lyster, m.a., the present librarian, was appointed. 

A most important addition was made to the Lib- 
rary in the year 1863, by Dr. Jasper Joly's gift to it 
of some 23,000 volumes, together with an exten- 
sive collection of Irish and Scotch song music. The 
deed of gift, which was subject to certain conditions, 
was dated 8th April 1863, and, in acknowledgment of 
his splendid donation, Dr. Joly was elected an honorary 
member of the Society. His portrait, by Catterson 
Smith, hangs in the library, Leinster House. The 
chief interest in the Joly collection lies in the large 
number of volumes which deal with Irish history 
and topography. A considerable portion is taken up 
with the story and campaign of Napoleon, while 
numerous works illustrate the history of the French 
Revolution, and French literature and works on the 
age of Louis the Fourteenth are well represented. 
Among the rare and curious volumes in the Joly 
collection are the following — Orationes of St. Brigid 
of Sweden (which is probably unique) ; Lyra seu 
Anacephalceosis Hibernica, by Thomas Carve, a Tip- 
perary man, chaplain to the Irish troops in the 
Thirty Years' War. His works are very scarce, and 
only three copies of the first edition of the Lyra are 
known, one being the volume in this collection. The 
Itinerarium of Carve (1640-6), giving an account of 
the Thirty Years' War, is also there ; Analecta Sacra 

was a frequent contributor to the Dubfai University Magazine. This 
man of wide culture, wit, and high social qualities, as well as a true 
poet, died in 1867. 



180 A HISTORY OF 

of David Rothe, Roman Catholic Bishop of Ossory, ed. 
1 6 17-19; a complete copy (rarely met with) of the 
Acta Sanctorum of John Colgan (Louvain, 1645-7). 
The Joly collection also contains a number of illus- 
trated works — Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 ; Herwologia 
Anglic a, Lond. 1620, the first book of English por- 
traits; Iconograpbie des contemporains, Paris, 1832; 
three Voyages of Captain Cook ; and a set of plates 
illustrating the coronations of Napoleon and King 
George IV. 1 

In this collection are to be found, in addition, 
about twenty volumes of manuscripts nearly all re- 
lating to Irish affairs. Among them will be found 
a transcript of Keating's History of Ireland, made 
in 1722 by Eugene O'Rahilly ; a copy of the Down 
Survey of the county of Tipperary ; materials for a 
statistical survey of Tipperary, 1833 (the volume 
of this series for Tipperary was not printed ; see 
pp. 183-4); records of the French consulate in Alex- 
andria (a fragment, 1687-1694), found in Alexandria 
when the British captured the city in 1807; Life of 
Sir Richard Cox by Walter Harris ; Report of the 
Commissioners on Bogs, and reports of surveyors em- 
ployed by the Royal Dublin Society in making their 
survey of bogs, bound in twelve volumes. One large 
volume contains a number of unpublished plans and 
sections. Translations from Buchoz's Dictionnaire 
Veterinaire, made by the Rev. Dr. Lanigan ; Instruc- 
tions for Shepherds, a translation made by Dr. Lanigan 
in 1 800-1 ; and four volumes on mineralogy by Sir 
Charles Giesecke. 2 

The Thorpe collection of Irish Historical Tracts, 

1 For these particulars I am indebted to The National Library of 
Ireland, by Guthrie Vine (Library Association Record, 1902). 

2 From Report of the Librarian, National Library, 1900. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 181 

which was purchased in October 1840, is also to be 
found in the library. Thomas Thorpe, born in 1791, 
was a bookseller in Piccadilly, and later at 13 Henrietta 
street, Covent Garden, from 1839 to his death in 
1 85 1. Thorpe was celebrated for his extensive deal- 
ings in old books and manuscripts, and his carefully 
compiled catalogues were highly esteemed. The col- 
lection of tracts comprises ten volumes small quarto, 
1629-1758 ; and two volumes, folio, 1641-1737. 
Each volume contains a printed list of contents, 
and a list will be found in the supplemental cata- 
logue of the Society's library, published in 1850, pp. 
45-65. 

The Society was possessed of 2 1 8 volumes of old 
pamphlets, extending in date from 1634 to 1843, a 
detailed list of which appeared in the library catalogue, 
1731-1859, p. 153. In it is also printed an alpha- 
betical index to the first 80 volumes. 

In 1838, Miss Tew, of Kingstown, delivered to 
the Society the library of her late brother, Rev. William 
Tew, ofBallysax, consisting of 180 volumes of divinity 
and classics, which he had bequeathed to it. 

The report of the Commission of 1836 first de- 
finitely laid down that, as the library was supported by 
funds voted by Government, it ought to be open to 
all persons properly introduced. As in the case of 
the British Museum Library, the institution was to be 
looked on as the National Library. In 1849, more 
than 8000 readers attended. In 1878, about 27,000 
were returned as using it, while in 1899, the number 
had reached a total of more than 155,000. The 
present National Library of Ireland is generally con- 
sidered one of the finest, as it certainly is one of the 
most frequented, in the world. The average attend- 
ance is over 700 daily. £500 a year were allowed for 



1 82 A HISTORY OF 

expenses of the old library between 1816 and 1849 ; 
in 1862, it cost £930. 

Under the agreement of March the 5th 1877, made 
between the Government and the Society, when its 
collection of books became the nucleus of the National 
Library of Ireland, the librarian of the British Museum 
was to be invited to give his opinion as to any books 
which it might not be necessary to transfer. Any such 
volumes were to remain in possession of the Society, and 
these became the nucleus of the very important library 
which the Royal Dublin Society has formed during 
the last thirty-five years. It now numbers between 
40,000 and 50,000 volumes. Members of the Society 
elected prior to the 1st of January 1878 have the 
privilege of borrowing books from the National 
Library. 

In 1 8 8 1 the Society became possessed of a large 
number of volumes, almost altogether on theological 
and controversial subjects, bequeathed by the Rev. 
Aiken Irvine, of Coleraine. In 1889, it was enriched 
by what is known as the "Tighe Bequest," being 222 
volumes of classics, especially of rare editions of 
Horace, from the collection of the late Robert Tighe, 
esq., of Fitzwilliam square. In March 1905, Miss 
Anne Winter bequeathed to the library the books 
belonging to her brother, Mr. John Winter, consisting 
of a number of volumes of general literature. 

STATISTICAL SURVEYS OF COUNTIES 

In the year 1801, the Society undertook the com- 
pilation of Statistical Surveys of the various counties 
of Ireland, arranging that each contributor should 
receive ^80 for his work, and these surveys continued 
to appear up to 1832, when, at the time of Isaac 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 183 



Weld's Roscommon being published, eight counties still 
remained to be dealt with. The first set included 
Hely Dutton's Observations on Mr. ^Archers Statis- 
tical Survey of Dublin. " The volumes give a general 
view of each county, and form comprehensive guide- 
books to the whole." x Weld's Roscommon, which gives 
an account of the social and archaeological curiosities 
of the county, and Tighe's Kilkenny are considered 
the best of the series. 

By July, 1829, the following had appeared : — 



Queen s. 

Sir C. Coote. 
King's. 

Same. 
Wicklow. 

R. Fraser. 
Monaghan. 

Sir C. Coote. 
Dublin. 

J. Archer and H. Dutton. 
Leitrim. 

J. McParlan. 
Down and Ardglass. 

Rev. J. Dubourdieu. 
Cavan. 

Sir C. Coote. 
Mayo. 

J. McParlan. 
Kilkenny. 

W. Tighe. 
Sligo. 

J. McParlan. 



Donegal. 

Same. 
Meath. 

R. Thompson. 
Derry. 

Rev. G. W. Sampson. 
Galway. 

H. Dutton. 
Tyrone. 

J. McEvoy. 
Armagh. 

Sir C. Coote. 
Wexford. 

R. Fraser. 
Kildare. 

J. J. Rawson., 
Clare. 

H. Dutton. 
Cork. 

Rev. H. Townsend. 
Antrim. 

Rev. J. Dubourdieu. 



The counties for which surveys were not published 
were Carlow, Fermanagh, Kerry, Limerick, Longford, 
Louth, Roscommon, Tipperary, Waterford, and West- 

1 Worthies of the Irish Church (Stokes), p. 341. 



1 84 A HISTORY OF 

rneath. Of these, Roscommon was completed by 
December 1831. In the National Library is a volume 
of manuscript materials for the survey of the county 
of Tipperary, compiled about 1833, which had been 
entrusted to W. S. Mason. 

Many of these volumes were defective, and would 
have required considerable amendment, but only those 
for the counties of Dublin and Cork were publicly 
attacked, the former, on the ground of its being a 
mere skeleton, and not a real survey of the county ; 
the latter on the ground of religious intolerance. 
Lieutenant Joseph Archer's account of Dublin is stated 
to be an agricultural survey, but in the year after the 
publication of the volume, Hely Dutton's Observations, 
framed on similar lines, appeared. It forms a second 
volume for the county of Dublin, and affords much 
fuller details. In a short address to the reader, the 
Dublin Society hoped that the example afforded by 
the compiler would create emulation, and that others 
might be found who would make similar remarks on 
the surveys of other counties. 

The Rev. H. Townsend's account of the county 
of Cork was also challenged, and in the Haliday collec- 
tion (181 1, dcccclxxxix. 3, 4, 5) is a Letter to the 
Dublin Society from the most Rev. Dr. Coppinger, 
Bishop of Cloyne ; occasioned by observations and mis- 
statements by Townsend. There is also a copy of the 
same letter, with supplement, &c, which was answered 
by Observations on Dr. Coppingers Letter to the Dublin 
Society, by the Rev. Horace Townsend. Dr. Cop- 
pinger accused him of representing the Roman Catholic 
clergy as bigoted and opposed to improvement, keeping 
their flocks in ignorance, and " preying on the vitals 
of the poor." If not expressed in actual words, it 
was certainly implied, he asserted, in passages concern- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 185 

ing schools at Mitchelstown, Clonakilty and Glanworth. 
Mr. Townsend replied that he had stated facts which, 
as facts, Dr. Coppinger did not deny, and to the " over- 
weening authority assumed by the Church of Rome " 
he attributed the occurrences referred to by him. The 
conductors of the Mitchelstown charities disclaimed 
all knowledge of what was indicated in their case by 
Dr. Coppinger, and Townsend sought to controvert 
the Bishop's charges in the other instances. 



1 86 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XI 

THE BOTANIC GARDEN 

A record of the earliest effort in connection with 
what afterwards became so celebrated all the world 
over, and which still retains its proud pre-eminence — 
the Society's Botanic Garden — appears in a minute of 
September 1732, which referred to a committee " to 
look out a piece of ground, about an acre, proper 
for a nursery." It was not until October 1733, tnat 
a plot of ground near Sir John Eccles' house was 
viewed. Another, on the Strand going to Ballybough 
Bridge, which belonged to a Rev. Mr. Hopkins, was 
subsequently taken. This was to be held rent free for 
three years, and at the end of that term, £6 per acre 
were to be paid for it ; the place seems to have been 
known as the Society's Garden at Summer Hill. The 
members showed deep interest in the experiment, one 
of them — Mr. Ross — sending from Rostrevor, on a 
certain occasion, 500 poles for hops which were to be 
grown in the garden. 

In March 1737, four acres near Martin's lane 
(later Mecklenburgh street, afterwards Tyrone and 
now Waterford street) and Marlborough street were 
taken, to be used for experiments. Soon after, a 
house was found near at hand, which was used for 
keeping implements and laying up flax. In 1738, an 
inventory of cider fruit trees on the ground was fur- 
nished. By April 1740, however, the gardeners are 



, 



REFERENCES TO THE MAP OF THE 
BOTANIC GARDEN. 



.1 Survey^ 

./Z e Botanic Gaht»f.n„; -^ 

V )j£/.AJS»BVLH {^) 



-Houfe, porter's lodge, and walled garden. 

2 Arboretum, 

•j — Fruicetora. 

CATTLE GARDEN 
4 _Sheep herbage, wholefome. 

, do. injurious. 



6_Goat 



do. , wholefome. 

- do. injurious. 

8 Horn cattle herbage, wholefome. 

injurious. 

wholefome. 



'J— 
io — Horfcs 



do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 



injurious. 

wholefome. 

injurious. 



l l — 
< 2— Sw 

'3— 

14 — Grades. 

15 — do. 

1 G — Grafs plot. 

1 - — C.iiii.i! e fweepi and horfe faftening place. 
18— Grafs plot. 

19 — Herbaceous grounds, 
pi 

2 1 — Shrubbery. 

22 — do. 

23 — Medi 

24 — Hibernian gardi n. 

25 — Cryptogamick divifion 

26 — Efculent garden. 

2 7— Creepers and < I 

2 X — Dyers garden. 

zg — Gra\el pit and plantation. 

30 — Hay Garden. 

31— Bottom meadow. 

32— Old gravel pit and walk-. 

33— Nurfery. 

34— Plantation (kreen. 

•5— A field paftuie. 




PLAN OF THE BOTANIC GARDEN 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 187 

found to have been dismissed, and the garden house 
given up. The soil having been found unsuitable 
for the Society's purposes, the field itself was subse- 
quently disposed of. 

It was not until fifty years later that the project 
was again taken up, when, under the Act 30 George 
III, c. 28, which granted ^5000 to the Dublin Society, 
it was provided that ^300 of that sum were to be 
employed towards the provision and maintenance of a 
Botanic Garden. A similar amount was specifically 
voted for the same purpose in each Act in favour 
of the Society down to 33 George III. On the 22nd 
of July 1790, the Society took into consideration the 
best method of applying the ^300 appropriated in 
the last session of Parliament for a Botanic Garden, 
but it was not until almost a year later that Doctors 
Robert Percival, Walter Wade, and Edward Hill were 
invited to attend a conference, when, as a result of 
their deliberations with the Society, it was resolved that 
the University of Dublin and the College of Physicians 
should be communicated with, requesting their co- 
operation and advice. Both bodies were anxious to assist, 
and appointed representatives to meet in conference those 
elected by the Society, who were Sir William Gleadowe 
Newcomen, Andrew Caldwell, and Patrick Bride. 
Various sites near Dublin were examined, and in 1795, 
premises at Glasnevin, held by Major Thomas Tickell 
under a toties quoties lease from the Dean and Chapter 
of Christ Church, 1 were finally selected. The site 
consisted of sixteen acres, then in the occupation of 
John Kiernan, under a lease of which five and a half 
years were unexpired, at a yearly rent of ^130. 

1 Archbishop Laurence O'Toole in 1 178 granted Glasnevin to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, which had one of its granges 
there. 



1 88 A HISTORY OF 

Tickell required ^200 per annum on the determination 
of Kiernan's lease, his interest in which the latter 
agreed to sell for jCSoo, giving instant possession. In 
1804, Major Tickell assigned to the Society all his 
interest in the ground for a sum of ^1800. Not 
alone the beauty of the site, but the historical interest 
of the neighbourhood, must have told in favour of 
its selection. Delville, the home of Delany, the friend 
of Swift and Stella, was close by, and Parnell the 
poet resided in Glasnevin. 

The name of Tickell at once recalls that of Addi- 
son, and the connection of the two is generally supposed 
to have made the site of the Botanic Garden classic 
ground, as the former had a residence there which it 
was believed had been frequently visited by Addison. 
Mr. Herbert Wood, assistant keeper of the records, 
in a charming and instructive paper, Addison s Connection 
with Ireland^ shows how erroneous is this supposition, 
for, though the house in which the curator of the 
Botanic Garden now resides was once inhabited by 
Thomas Tickell, he did not occupy it for some years 
after the death of Addison, which occurred in 17 19. 
A shady path in the garden has long been named 
" Addison's Walk," but it may have been so called by 
Tickell in memory of his friend, who never himself 
paced the walk. Dr. Elrington Ball 2 places the matter 
beyond dispute. He shows that Tickell had been under 
secretary to Addison while he was Secretary of State, 
and as such must have been known to Lord Carteret, 
who appointed him Under Secretary in Ireland. In a 
letter to Bishop Nicholson, Bishop Downes mentions 
" that Tickell landed in Ireland on 1 st June (1724), and 
refers to his being entirely unacquainted with that 

1 Journal R.S. A. I. t xxxiv. 133. 

2 Correspondence of Siuift, iii. 198 n. 




ADDISON'S WALK, BOTANIC GARDEN 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 189 

country." * The letter which Dr. Ball annotates is 
one from Swift to Tickell, dated nth July 1723, 
in which he speaks of him as a " last comer and 
lodger/' They had just become acquainted, and 
Tickell had a high claim to the Dean's regard as the 
friend and biographer of Addison. 

Thomas Tickell was born in 1686 in Cumberland, 
and in 17 10 was elected Fellow of Queen's College, 
Oxford. From the time of his arrival in Ireland in 
1724, he made it his permanent residence, and, in 
1726, married Clotilda, daughter of Sir Maurice 
Eustace, of Harristown. He died in 1740, and some 
of his descendants were resident in Dublin up to a 
recent period. Major Thomas Tickell, who sold his 
interest in the ground in Glasnevin to the Dublin 
Society, was Tickell's grandson. Tickell held a high 
place among the minor poets, and contributed to the 
Spectator. Dr. Johnson, in the Lives of the British 
Poets, says of his Elegy on the Death of Addison, that 
" no more sublime or elegant funeral poem is to be 
found in the whole compass of English literature." 
In it occur the oft-quoted lines : — 

u There taught us how to live, and (oh ! too high 
The price for knowledge) taught us how to die." 

The ground at Glasnevin was ready by April 1796, 
when a committee was appointed to manage the place. 
Dr. Walter Wade, author of Flora Dublinensis, was 
invited to undertake the arrangement of the new plants, 
and to act as professor and lecturer in botany, so far 
as such might tend to promote agriculture, arts, and 
manufactures. Later, Wade lectured on botany in 
connection with diet, medicine, agriculture, and rural 

1 Nicholson's Letters^ ii. 574. 



i 9 o A HISTORY OF 

economy ; also on meadow, pasture, and artificial grasses. 
Nurserymen and others began to present valuable and 
curious plants, and donations came from England, in- 
cluding one sent by the professor of botany at Bath, 
which included roots of all British mints. John 
Underwood, a Scotchman, who came over under the 
patronage of Mr. Foster (Lord Oriel), was appointed 
head-gardener, and a furnished apartment was provided 
for him. In November 1798, £371 were paid to 
Messrs. Lee and Kennedy, of London, for valuable 
plants. The expense attending the Society's new 
undertaking was considerable, for in the period between 
February 1796 and March 1797, a sum of ^1779 was 
expended in various ways. In 1799, £S°° were voted 
for a greenhouse, for the preservation of a number of 
plants, and during the year 1800 the treasurer was 
further drawn on to the amount of ^2500. The 
head-gardener was sent to England to purchase plants, 
which cost the Society ^550, and, in addition, various 
small sums were disbursed from time to time for 
works, wages, &c, which reached another £s°°- By 
the committee's report, made in December 1800, it 
appeared that Mr. Parke, who superintended the build- 
ings at the Garden, and at the new repository in 
Hawkins street, had received ^7100, and had made 
payments to the amount of ,£7076, 14.J. lod. His 
remuneration as superintendent amounted to ^700. 
Between the years 1800 and 1804, a sum of ^9476, 
ys. \d. was expended on Glasnevin alone, as appears 
by the accounts. In 1798 and 1799, Parliament voted 
£1300 for the Garden, and in 1800, £1500 were voted 
for its support, and for payment of the professor of 
Botany. 

By the month of May 1800, the Garden was in so 
forward a state, that proper persons to attend on visitors 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 191 

and those anxious to examine the plants were appointed ; 
separate catalogues of each class of garden were pre- 
pared, and a conservatory and stove were ordered. A 
Flora Rustica Hibernica was projected, and the pro- 
fessor of Botany was directed to forward to the draw- 
ing schools specimens of plants useful or injurious to 
husbandry, with a view to the pupils copying them for 
illustration of his work. John White, under-gardener, 
was sent in 1803 on a botanical enquiry through 
Carlingford and the Mourne Mountains. 

In 1 801-2, catalogues of the hothouse plants, and 
of the arboretum and herbarium, compiled by Under- 
wood, were published, which showed that the collections, 
even then, were very rich. The hothouses and con- 
servatories, designed by E. Parke, stood on the site now 
occupied by the walk leading from the present entrance 
gate to the octagon house. 

The Society thought it advisable to have a lease 
directly from the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, 
without an intervening one, and ^1250 were paid to 
the representative of the Rev. Travers Hume, assignee 
of George Putland, for the interest in the chapter 
lease to that family. In 1807, ^265 were paid to 
Mr. Duffin, of the Linen hall, for a mill 1 and con- 
cerns adjoining the Society's ground, which it was 
thought advisable to acquire ; and a plot of ground 
belonging to the Grand Canal Company was leased 
at £25 a year. The Dean and Chapter of Christ 
Church assigned Duffin's term, and renewed a lease 
in which the Society agreed to leave him the mill, 
house and garden, situate between the public road 
to Glasnevin and the waste gate of the mill dam, for 
thirteen years, at a yearly rent of £$o. In 18 12, they 

1 The watermill in Glasnevin was granted in 1539 to the treasurer 
of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity. 



1 92 A HISTORY OF 

took a renewal of the lease of the mill site and garden, 
retaining the plot of ground on the north of the mill 
race, which they held jointly with the mill site. The 
wall of the premises was thrown down, and rebuilt 
on range with the Society's wall ; by which the road 
was widened eight or nine feet. The mill and house 
being in a ruinous state, the latter was removed, but 
the mill was repaired, as it was thought it might be 
useful for trials and experiments in dressing hemp and 
making cement for masonry. In any case, it was felt 
that the Society must necessarily have full command 
over the river Tolka, which bounds the Garden on the 
north. Later on, dangerous accidents were said to have 
occurred from insecure and improper passages to the 
islands in the river Tolka, and the matter was re- 
ferred to a committee. In 1817, special attention was 
directed to the ruinous and disgraceful state of the 
mill at Glasnevin, which cost the Society in purchase, 
fines, and rent, £1184, iij-. nd. A flush weir was 
made at an expense of £13, and the mill and two 
acres adjoining were let to Mr. John Hill, of 
Eden quay, at £70 a year, he to expend ^500. 
This tenant was afterwards proceeded against for wilful 
waste and non-payment of rent. Breaches were made 
in the wall, and in May 1823, a great flood caused 
breaches in the garden bank and weir. Obstructing 
matter had afterwards to be removed from the bed of 
the river when the water was low, and a wall to protect 
the bank was erected. In 1805, the gates of the 
Glasnevin turnpike were removed to the bridge over 
the river, as their then position was a hindrance to 
many attending the Garden. 

The Rev. Thomas Hincks, in 18 10, presented a 
Flora of the county Cork, and sent up rare plants for 
the hothouse. Soon after, an experiment was tried in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



J 93 



apprenticing young lads of seventeen — six were given 
a trial in 1812 — who were to receive 9/. weekly, and 
at the end of twelve months a sum of five guineas, 
provided that they obtained a proper certificate from 
the head-gardener, who acted as their master. He was 
to receive ^5 for each apprentice, and the profits from 
sale of the catalogue, as his remuneration for instruct- 
ing them. The school for young gardeners is still 
maintained. It may be observed that, in the year 
1783, premiums had been offered by the Society to 
nurserymen for taking apprentices who were to be 
instructed in the art of grafting, rearing, and planting 
trees, when Robert Power, of Gal way, was granted ^20 
for two apprentices taken by him. 

Mr. Thomas Pleasants, whose liberality has been 
noted in connection with his bequests of pictures, &c, 
to the Society, in 18 15 presented ^600 for the Botanic 
Garden, and the amount was applied in erecting a 
suitable entrance and porter's lodge, which were much 
needed, and which would serve as a lasting memorial of 
his munificence. Subsequent expenses brought the total 
sum expended by him up to ^700. About this time, 
the committee of botany made a calculation of averages, 
and came to the conclusion that the expense to be 
incurred in the improvement and support of the 
Garden should not exceed ^1500 a year. 

In 1 8 17-18 1 8, the range of hothouses was moved 
to a new site, being that of the present large palm- 
house. 

The Norfolk Island pine now began to display 
symptoms of a sickly condition, its health and beauty 
became much impaired, and its recovery seemed 
doubtful. The injury was found to have arisen from 
the building — the octagon house — which was ordered 
to be erected round it, not having been put up in time, 

N 



i 9 4 A HISTORY OF 

when a severe frost attacked the plant, which was un- 
fortunately killed. The head-gardener was blamed for 
not having taken steps to protect it, and was about being 
dismissed, but the Society, taking a more lenient view, 
only censured and fined him. In July 1825 was an- 
nounced the death of Dr. Wade, first professor of Botany, 
who from 18 17 had taken up the duties of professor of 
Agriculture. Dr. Samuel Litton succeeded him, and 
on his death, in 1846, Dr. Harvey, the botanist and 
traveller, was appointed professor. Whitelaw and 
Walsh's History of Dublin, published in 1 8 1 8 (ii. p. 
1283), contains a very full description of the Garden 
and its contents at that time. 

By 1830, the houses were becoming decayed, and 
it was found that what was known as the cattle garden 
was useless, while the Irish garden was unnecessary, the 
plants in it being in the general arrangement. The 
professor of Botany made a report, in which he stated 
that just the same arrangement existed then as had 
obtained in the year 1800. One portion was a Hortus 
Hibernicus, which contained the native plants of Ireland ; 
the other portion was an illustration of the natural 
arrangement of Jussieu. In the first division — No. 1, 
the systematic, was rich in trees and shrubs. 2, The 
cattle garden was laid out according to the views of 
Linnaeus, and was useful for agricultural experiments. 

3, The hay garden, according to the plan of the Duke 
of Bedford's hortus gramineus, was laid out in plots 
of 9 ft. by 4 ft., with grasses used in Irish agriculture. 

4, The esculent garden. 5, The dyer's garden. 
6, Saxatile plants. 7, Creepers and climbers. 8, Bog 
and water plants. 9, Marine (only what grew naturally 
on shores). 10, Variegations of plants. There was 
also a hortus medicus. The hothouses and conserva- 
tories were reported on as being very imperfect, and 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 195 

there was a great lack of walled enclosures, privet 
hedges &c. Too little attention was said to be 
paid to florists' plants, and the fruit-bearing trees 
needed protection. An extension of the arboretum 
was considered necessary, and greater attention to the 
principle of pruning was recommended. A proper 
nursery and botanical museum, with library attached, 
were much required. The recommendations of the 
professor were carried out. 

In the year 1833, the head and under gardeners, 
who had served since the establishment of the Garden, 
had become unequal to the duties of their respective 
posts, from age and infirmity. The former died in 
August of that year. On a ballot for the post of head- 
gardener, Mr. Ninian Niven, of the Chief Secretary's 
gardens, Phoenix park, and Mr. David Moore, of the 
College Botanic Garden, were candidates, and the 
former was elected. After his appointment, Niven 
went over by invitation to Arley Hall, Staffordshire, 
when the Earl of Mountnorris gave him 600 species of 
plants for the garden. He also visited Wentworth 
Fitzwilliam, Chatsworth, and the Botanic Garden, 
Sheffield, from each of which the Dublin Garden was 
liberally supplied. For the year ending 1st January 
1835, the number of visitors to the Garden was 
71 10, and for that ending 1st January 1836, 11,477; 
which showed a very considerable increase. Mr. 
Niven initiated extensive alterations and improve- 
ments ; the hothouses were repaired and stocked, the 
plan of the garden changed, and the various depart- 
ments brought up to date. On resigning his post in 
1838, Mr. Niven informed the Society that during 
his tenure of office fresh advances had been made 
in the rearrangement of the hardy herbaceous plants 
(according to Linnaeus) ; about one half of the classes 



196 A HISTORY OF 

up to Polyandria had been gone over and added to ; 
and he alluded to the fact of his having published a 
Visitor s Companion to the Botanic Garden. A new 
species of Verbena, from South America, had been raised 
from seed collected by Mr. John Tweedie of Buenos 
Ayres. The stock of what proved to be a very lovely 
plant raised in it (save one plant) was disposed of for 
50 guineas, for the benefit of the Garden. 

On the 8th of November 1838, Mr. David Moore, 
who afterwards became a Ph. Doc, was elected curator in 
the room of Mr. N. Niven. The title of his post was 
afterwards changed to that of Director. In 1878, in 
recognition of his scientific eminence, Dr. Moore was 
elected an honorary member of the Royal Dublin Society. 
Dr. Moore, a most distinguished botanist, laboured 
assiduously in the interests of the charge committed 
to him, and, on his death in 1879, left the Garden 
in a high state of efficiency. His son, Sir Frederick W. 
Moore, the present head of the department (who 
was knighted in 191 1), succeeded him. Under Dr. 
Moore's regime, all the old houses, except the octa- 
gon, were removed, and the fine range of wrought- 
iron conservatories was built in 1843, at a cost of over 
£5000, of which sum .£4000 were contributed by 
Government, the balance being paid by the Royal 
Dublin Society. Part of this balance was raised by 
private subscription among the members, and part was 
taken from the Society's reserve fund. The designs of 
these houses were furnished by Mr. Ferguson, master 
of architectural drawing in the School of Art, and by 
Mr. Frederick Darley. The first palmhouse, com- 
pleted in 1862, was from a design of Mr. James H. 
Owen, architect of the Board of Works. This, being 
injured by the gales of 1833, was removed, and a 
splendid new one was erected in the next year. The 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 197 

Orchid house was built in 1854, and the Victoria 
house, for the accommodation of the Victoria regia 
water-lily, was erected in 1855 by the Royal Dublin 
Society. 

On the 6th of August 1 849, Queen Victoria and 
the Prince Consort visited the Botanic Garden. (See 
p. 279.) 

A considerable amount of friction occurred between 
the Government and the Society in 1861, on the ques- 
tion of opening the Garden on Sundays, a step which 
the Society resisted, and the grant of £6000 for the 
year was made conditional on the policy of the Govern- 
ment being carried out. In the end the Society had to 
give way, and on the Sundays, from the 1 8 th of August to 
the end of September, 78,000 persons visited the place. 
The attendance for the year amounted to 133,780, 
and, notwithstanding the numbers, the Council of the 
Society paid a high tribute to the orderly and decorous 
behaviour of the visitors. The grounds then com- 
prised about 43 acres, and their upkeep cost £1340. 

The Society's connection with the Garden ceased in 
1878, when it was placed under the control of the 
Science and Art Department. 

Since that period, it has been largely added to, nine 
acres having been taken in on the north side for an 
arboretum, and seven acres for nursery ground, on the 
south side, nearer the city. As regards specialities, the 
garden has a world-wide reputation for possessing the 
most complete collection of sfecies of orchids in exist- 
ence. It is also well known for its collection of 
hardy herbaceous plants and Cycadacece, material for 
study being constantly supplied from its collections to 
the continent of Europe and to America. 

The herbarium and museum have been transferred 
to the National Museum, Kildare Street. 



98 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XII 

THE HIBERNIAN SILK AND WOOLLEN 
WAREHOUSES 

The guild or corporation of Weavers in Dublin (in 
conjunction with others interested in the silk trade), 
presented a petition to Parliament, in 1753, stating 
that, as a result of the extensive importation of 
foreign silks, the trade was declining, and the silk 
weavers were being ruined. With a view to the revival 
of the trade, Parliament voted money to the Dublin 
Society, which decided on establishing a silk warehouse 
in which the parliamentary funds were to be expended 
in giving premiums on silks made in Ireland, the great 
object being to have everything of the kind that could be 
made in Ireland manufactured there. The warehouse 
was to be strictly a retail one, and the Society in 1766 
passed a special resolution that no part of the sum of 
^3200 allotted should be given for a wholesale trade 
in it. In 1764, Alderman Benjamin Geale, Messrs. 
Robert Jaffray, Travers Hartley, Thomas Hickey, and 
Edmund Reilly were appointed by the Society to act 
with a committee of the Weavers' company, and their 
deliberations resulted in a house being taken in Parlia- 
ment street for the sale of silk, on the amounts of 
which manufacturers were paid a percentage. It was 
formally opened in February 1765, when a large 
number of ladies attended the ceremony, and made 
purchases. In 1767, the master, wardens, and seventy- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 199 

three brethren of the Weavers' company, as well as 
the Shearmen and Dyers of the city, presented ad- 
dresses of thanks to the Society for their attention to 
the trade, and erection of a silk warehouse. The 
dyers were specially grateful for the translation of The 
zArt of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Stuffs, made by M. 
Helott, member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, 
which was done at the expense of the Society. 

The value of stock in the Warehouse in 1769 was 
£13,897, i8j. yd. The Society was of opinion that 
the silk manufacture might be greatly stimulated if 
patronesses were placed at the head of it, and fifteen 
ladies were chosen yearly. Lady Townsend became 
president, and among the earliest names as patronesses 
appeared those of the Duchess of Leinster, Lady 
Louisa Conolly, Lady Drogheda, Lady Shannon, Lady 
Clanwilliam, and Lady Arabella Denny. 

Lord Arran, Thomas Le Hunte, Redmond Morres, 
Dean Brocas, 1 and Dean Barrington 2 were directors of 
the warehouse on behalf of the Society. Sir John 
Gilbert says that popular toasts among the weavers 
were — " The Silk Manufacture of Ireland, and pros- 
perity to the Irish Silk Warehouse" and "The 
Duchess of Leinster, and the Patronesses of the Irish 
Silk Warehouse ; may their patriotic example induce 
the ladies of Ireland to wear their own manufactures. " 
For some time prior to 1780, a return of the sales 
and of the value of goods in the silk warehouse 
for each week was printed in the Proceedings. In 
December 1782, the value of goods in the warehouse 
amounted to £12,986, i8j. lod. Unemployment 
among the silk weavers was so rife in Dublin and its 
liberties, that in 1784 they petitioned the Society for 

1 Theophilus Brocas, Dean of Killala, then resident in Dublin. 

2 See p. 145. 



200 A HISTORY OF 

aid, owing to their distress ; but, from the state of its 
funds, it was found impossible to do more than was 
being done. 

Parliament had passed an Act during the session 
of 1780, which placed the regulation of the wages of 
journeymen silk weavers in Dublin, and a certain dis- 
tance round it, in the hands of the Society, which was 
also empowered to settle the prices of work. The silk 
manufacture continued under the superintendence of 
the Society until it was found that the trade had not 
increased, and that the money spent on the warehouse 
might be more satisfactorily employed. Parliament 
enacted that from the 25th March 1786, none of the 
Society's funds were to be applied to or expended in 
support of any house for selling by wholesale or retail 
any silk manufacture whatsoever. At this period 
11,000 persons were engaged in the trade in Dublin. 

When the Society's connection with the warehouse 
ceased, the manufacturers took the burden of it on 
themselves, at an expense of about ^400 a year ; but 
by 1795, the trade was in a most declining state, which 
was attributed to change of fashion and preference for 
cottons. The manufacturers thought the direct pa- 
tronage of the Society would be invaluable, and would 
afford employment, and the committee appointed to 
investigate the matter reported that it appeared to be 
essential to the preservation of the manufacture that 
the Society should resume the responsibility for work- 
ing it. Some steps must have been taken of which 
there is no note in the minute book, as a committee is 
found negotiating between the masters and journeymen 
silk weavers. A book of orders for the regulation of 
the silk manufacture, agreed to by the Society on the 
3rd of March 1796, appeared, and public notice was to 
be given of the agreement. In 1808 (at which period 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 201 

there were about 1500 silk weavers in the city), the 
masters and working silk manufacturers of Dublin, 
considering that it had been empowered to regulate 
wages, presented a memorial to the Society. They 
prayed that, as employment for males had been de- 
creasing, females should be excluded ; save in the case 
of a wife or daughter, who might help in the loom. 
The broad-silk weavers and master silk manufacturers 
sent in a contrary petition, and the Society, as their 
unanimous opinion, ruled that females should not be 
excluded from any branch of the silk manufacture. 

The operative silk winders of Dublin claimed an 
advance in their wages in 18 13, as to which the 
committee of trade and manufactures were asked to 
examine and report. The committee expressed the 
opinion that the Society was always most anxious to 
help those who sought its aid — " who, without it, 
might be driven to the mischievous and dangerous 
expedient of stubborn combination"; and impressed 
on the workers the necessity of keeping wages within 
reasonable bounds, so as to avoid the danger of foreign 
competition and injury to trade. A scale of wages 
was annexed to the report. For some time, manu- 
facturers of fine silk had experienced inconvenience 
from delay in getting silks wound. In 18 18, com- 
plaints were again being made, and a committee was 
appointed to examine the Acts of Parliament regu- 
lating the silk manufacture in Dublin, and report 
whether alterations were necessary. The silk winders 
had sent in a memorial stating that the masters had 
refused to comply with the Society's order fixing the 
rate of wages, and the committee recommended that 
the Act 19 and 20 George III should be amended by 
inserting " mistresses " in the penal clause of the first 
section, and that the Act should be extended to the 



202 A HISTORY OF 

regulation of the wages of journeywomen as well as of 
journeymen. A deputation on the subject was to 
attend the Chief Secretary. This Act expired in the 
year 1831, and the Society considered it inexpedient 
to interfere with respect to the rate of any new wages 
Parliament might establish. 

A committee was appointed in 18 16, to enquire 
into the state of the title to the silk warehouse in 
Parliament street, when it was found that the Society 
had no interest in it. A lease in trust, which was de- 
posited with the Society, had been taken by Joseph 
Webster and Richard Brett. When by Act of Parlia- 
ment, in 1786, the Society's patronage over the silk 
weavers came to an end, the lease, with declaration of 
trust (as to the house) from Webster and Brett to 
the corporation of Weavers, had been delivered to 
them. 

What has been written has reference only to the 
silk manufacture in connection with the Dublin Society ; 
but, in addition, it may be well to make a few remarks 
on the general aspect of the question, showing how it 
presented itself to outsiders. The silk trade in Ireland 
had been protected by paying a less duty on organised 
silk than the London merchants paid, but that ceased 
in 1 82 1, when the duties were equalised. The silk was 
sent to the warehouse directly by the weavers, and all 
transactions were for ready cash, but the expense the 
Society was put to was greatly in excess of the revenue 
for encouraging arts, manufactures, &c. It was intended 
to take the weavers out of the hands of mercers and 
drapers, and let the silk manufacture come to market 
without any intervening profit. The mercer and draper 
were thus deprived of a good deal of their trade, which 
in reality taxed them severely. What they sold then 
must necessarily have been at a higher rate, and it was 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 203 

not easy to understand why master manufacturers had 
to be taxed to encourage a manufacture. When goods 
are dearer the consumption is less, so that consumption 
on credit was lessened, that the ready-money purchaser 
might get his goods at a cheaper rate. Many thinking- 
persons saw that if the manner in which the Dublin 
Society acted in this matter of the silk warehouse was 
justified, then all the trade should be diverted thither, 
in which case no place would be left for mercers or 
drapers. Great jealousies became rife in the trade, and 
Arthur Young expressed the view that if a manufac- 
ture were of such sickly growth as to need all this 
nursing, it was not worth consideration. What in 
reality was brought about, was a great increase in the 
importation and consumption of foreign silks, a result 
the very opposite of what the Society had intended. 
One serious disadvantage operated against the mercers 
which compelled them to defend their own interests. 
When they were supplied with a good selling pattern, 
and entrusted it to be made, as soon as the manufac- 
turer executed (say) ten pieces for them, he made prob- 
ably thirty for himself, which he retailed to the ware- 
house at a less rate than he charged wholesale to the 
mercers. When the directors made a rule that no 
mercers were to be permitted to buy goods in the 
warehouse for retail, the latter were compelled to import 
foreign silks. The mercers should have been allowed 
to purchase for ready-money, at a reduction, in the 
warehouse, and the retail trade in shops should have 
been put on an equal footing with it ; premiums should 
have been withdrawn, and the House opened for 
manufacturers who might not be able to dispose of 
their pieces by wholesale. 1 

1 Considerations on the Silk Trade in Ireland, addressed to the 
Dublin Society ; Haliday Pamphlets, 1778, ccccii. 2. 



2o 4 A HISTORY OF 

In November 1772, a resolution as to the necessity 
for the establishment of a warehouse in Dublin for the 
sale of woollen goods for home consumption was come 
to, and the vice-presidents, with Messrs. Ford, Vallancey, 
Andrews, and Lodge Morres were named directors. 
The warehouse, placed by Parliament under the 
management of the Society, was opened in Castle 
street in 1773, and at the end of the year 1780, the 
value of goods in it was stated to be ^10,674, \s. id., 
and in 1782,^13,311, 17 s. 3^. To encourage woollen 
and worsted manufacture in the west of Ireland, ^60 
were voted to Arthur Greene, of Ennis, clothier, dyer, 
and presser, as an aid towards erecting proper apparatus 
for dyeing and finishing. A bounty of £60 was also 
voted to David Clark, late of Manchester, for having 
established in this kingdom the making of carding 
machines and spinning-jennies for cotton. Lady 
Arabella Denny laid before the Society specimens of 
twenty-four different kinds of woollen and worsted 
manufactures, such as were best adapted to the Portu- 
guese market, with particulars which might lead to 
the introduction of those branches of manufacture. 
In 1784, on the consideration of the appropriation of 
,£400 voted for the woollen warehouse, and as to any 
necessary alterations in the mode of conducting it, a 
memorial was received from the manufacturers who sold 
their goods through it, praying the Society to continue the 
mode of sale as before. A pamphlet, entitled Remarks 
on a Pamphlet printed in the year 1779, containing 
Thoughts on the Inexpediency of continuing the Irish 
Woollen Warehouse as a Retail Shop, 1 with some other 
papers of a like nature, was presented. An amend- 

1 For the pamphlet as to Inexpediency, see Haliday Pamphlets, 
1779, ccccxi. 10. It contains powerful arguments against the system, 
and is well worth perusal. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 205 

ment was moved that the words " as a wholesale 
warehouse only " be inserted, but on the further re- 
presentation of some clothiers, who thought that any 
alteration would materially injure the woollen manu- 
facture of Ireland, the amendment was negatived. In 
August 1784, another memorial was presented by the 
same manufacturers, who, being ready to end all con- 
troversies, stated themselves willing to relinquish retail 
sales for a term of two years. The Society agreed to 
this proposition, and instructed the directors to adopt 
such regulations as would make it a wholesale ware- 
house only. In June 1786, the Society resolved to 
open it again as a retail warehouse. 

Robert Kemp, of Cork, clothier, stated that he 
had established several spinning-jennies, and had im- 
ported a carding machine at great expense. He had 
also gone into some of the clothing counties of 
England, to make himself acquainted with the mode 
of business carried on there, and brought over, at a 
large salary, a person fully qualified to conduct the 
machinery. Having incurred various expenses up to 
^400, he asked for aid. Certificates of woollen drapers 
in Cork, in furtherance of his claims, having been read, 
and the matter enquired into by a committee, a sum 
of ^100 was granted to Kemp. 

During inclement seasons, the working poor in the 
liberties of Dublin, who were bred to the woollen manu- 
facture, suffered great privations and destitution when, 
by reason of the wet, they could not have their wool, 
wraps, and cloths dried. In 1809, they memorialised 
the Society to take steps to provide means for having 
this done. Another petition on behalf of the same 
class of the poor was presented by the Lord Mayor 
and a number of eminent citizens, praying the Society 
to represent to Parliament the necessity for a grant to 



206 A HISTORY OF 

build a stove tenter house in the Liberties, which it was 
estimated would cost about ^3500, when Mr. Thomas 
Pleasants, whose liberality was unbounded, offered a 
sum of j£ 1 0,000 for the erection of the tenter house. 1 

The arguments urged against the woollen ware- 
house seem materially the same as those used in opposi- 
tion to the silk warehouse, but in this case it was 
thought that a radical mistake had been made from 
the time of the introduction of the woollen manufacture 
into the kingdom, in establishing it in the capital city. 
Industry and frugality among the artisan class do not 
prevail to any extent in a large city, where its members 
estimate the value of their labours by the excessive prices 
that have to be paid for necessaries. Time, too, was 
more wasted, and much of it spent in amusement. 
Moreover, the system of apprenticeship necessary in 
the city was not suitable in the case of this industry in 
the country, and only augmented the dearness of labour. 
Great expense also attended the obtaining and preparing 
the raw material. The industry was essentially one for 
small communities scattered through the country, as in 
England, and the working people connected with it 
should be judiciously distributed, as the conditions of 
their labour would then be entirely favourable, and the 

1 In the process of the woollen manufacture, certain stages were 
reached at which the materials had to be sized and dried, which was 
accomplished by suspending them on tenters (hooks for stretching 
cloth on a frame), in the open air. The Irish climate was too un- 
certain for this being regularly or satisfactorily carried out, and during 
rainy seasons work had frequently to be given up for lengthened 
periods, which entailed on the weaving population a great deal of 
suffering and privation. In 181 5, Pleasants, finding that no help was 
being afforded either by the government or the municipality, though 
much had been written and said on the subject, and sympathising, 
as he did, with the weavers in their trials, erected at his own expense, 
on an open space in Brown street, at the back of Weavers' square, a 
large tenter house, fitted with proper stoves, furnaces, and appliances, 
in which work could be carried on at all seasons. The building was 
said to have cost ,£12,964. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 207 

community at large would benefit. These are general 
principles ; but with regard to the particular instance of 
the Dublin Society having established a retail ware- 
house, that body had in reality created a monopoly in 
the heart of a commercial city, with a result that in 
the end a larger quantity of goods was imported. As 
interest is ever the ruling principle in commerce, the 
drapers, finding this shop open for retail, whither all 
the ready-money went, and that the credit part of the 
business fell to them, increased their imports. In all 
European countries in which the woollen trade was 
carried on, the retail business was conducted by shop- 
keepers only, as necessary middlemen. The manu- 
facturer sold his cloth, and was done with it ; but the 
draper had a character for goods to maintain, and as 
the system inaugurated by the Dublin Society helped 
to ruin him, he, in self-defence, took the action that 
he found beneficial to his interests, which was quite 
opposed to the policy of the Society. Hence, after a 
precarious existence, the woollen warehouse was finally 
abandoned. 

In connection with the work of the Society in the 
silk and woollen warehouses, it may be of interest to 
note what was being done in the matter of worsted in 
some parts of the country. In 1787, Sir John Parnell, 
bart., laid before it an account of the progress made in 
establishing a school in Maryborough for spinning 
worsted warps, when he was thanked for his exertions 
in promoting the woollen manufacture and market in 
the Queen's county. Twenty-five wheels were directed 
to be provided at the Society's expense for such girls in 
Maryborough as should appear to deserve rewards. It 
was resolved to open a second school there, to be con- 
ducted under a mistress, as the first. In 1790, a 
spinning school was opened in Cork. With a view to 



208 A HISTORY OF 

improving the art of worsted weaving, premiums were 
offered for machines called Billies, of not less than 
thirty spindles, which prepared the cardings of wool 
into slabs ready for spinning on the jenny ; with further 
premiums for skeins, &c, worked on such. One 
hundred pounds were to be applied in premiums on 
the value of scribbling cards, or of cards to be affixed 
on cotton-carding machines. 

The principal hosiers of Dublin having represented 
that their trade would probably benefit by encourage- 
ment being extended to the construction of gig frames, 
and teaching working hosiers the mode of using them, 
six guineas were paid to a person who instructed two 
master framesmiths in the method of making gig 
frames of the most approved construction. 

In vol. Hi. of the Proceedings of the Society, app. b 
(1816), is a sketch of the origin and progress of the 
merino factory, Kilkenny, by Thomas Nowlan. A 
report was made on this factory, in 18 19, from 
which it appeared that its superfine cloth of native 
wool had obtained the chief premium of the Farming 
Society. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 209 



CHAPTER XIII 

FINANCES OF THE SOCIETY, MEMBERSHIP, AND 
BY-LAWS. (1761-1836) 

Finances 

Some grants of public money in aid of the Society 
have already been noticed, but it was not until the 
year 176 1 that regular parliamentary grants were 
made. In that year a sum of ^12,000 was voted 
(1 Geo. Ill, c. 1) — ^2000 to enable the Society to 
continue the premiums in agriculture and manufac- 
tures, and ^10,000 for distribution among petitioners 
for premiums. Under 3 Geo. Ill, c. 1, ^2000 were 
voted for agriculture, and j£8ooo for manufactures, 
and similar amounts under 5 Geo. III. By 7 Geo. 
Ill, ^3000 were given for agriculture and for com- 
pletion of the Grafton street house, and £7000 for 
manufactures. From 1772, the regular sum voted in 
any year was ;£ 10,000, and this continued to 1783. 
From that period to 1792, ^5000 were granted, in- 
creased in that year to £5500. In the year 1800, the 
last of the Irish Parliament, the Society's grant amounted 
to ^15,000. In June, 1784, a requisition was received 
from the Commissioners of Imprest Accounts, under 
the Act 24 Geo. Ill, passed for the due accounting of 
all money granted for public works, and for ordering 
a regular account of moneys, entrusted to (among 

o 



210 A HISTORY OF 

others) the Dublin Society, requiring the Society to 
furnish such particulars. It appeared to the com- 
mittee appointed to consider the requisition that the 
Society was not obliged to submit any accounts prior 
to the ist of June 1784, and that it would be sufficient 
to lodge a statement of debts due and of funds unex- 
pended. 

In March 1789, a special committee was appointed 
to report on the state of the Society's funds, and how 
far they might be adequate to discharge premiums. It 
reported that on account of the large payments made 
within recent years, by reason of the increased number 
of claimants, and the great expenses incurred in the 
enlargement of the repository for implements in 
Hawkins street, the Society could only afford to offer 
^4500 for encouragement of planting and agriculture, 
and ^1500 for manufactures and fine arts. In June, 
the outstanding orders liable to be demanded at any 
time were found to amount to nearly ^4000, which 
would have to remain undischarged until the parlia- 
mentary bounty of last session was paid over by the 
Treasury. The expenditure on account of agriculture 
and planting exceeded the appropriated fund by more 
than £iyoo. 

On the 30th of January 1800, the following pro- 
posal, in substance, was agreed to, for submission to Par- 
liament, which was to stand as part of the Society's 
petition to it in that session : — Anxious to carry their 
great plan for the benefit of the country into execu- 
tion, and hoping for a liberal bounty from Parliament, 
the Society propose to surround the Botanic Garden 
with a wall ; to erect sheds where farmers may have 
ocular demonstrations ; to rebuild the drawing schools ; 
to erect at the repository a gallery for exhibition of 
works of Irish artists ; and, above all, to establish a 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 211 

public Veterinary school, with sheds, &c, for diseased 
cattle, wherein methods of cure may be tried. The 
Society resolved that books on this art in foreign 
languages should be translated into English, and con- 
densed and arranged under special heads for refer- 
ence ; General Vallancey, Dr. Richard Kirwan, and 
Arthur McGwire were to form a committee for the 
purpose. 

The Imperial Parliament, in 1801, made the Society 
a yearly grant of £5500; and in a petition to Parlia- 
ment a sum of £27,141 was prayed for — £15,898 to 
complete the buildings, and £3000 to finish the 
statistical surveys of counties, partly completed. A 
sum of £3772 was stated to be due to tradesmen 
on account of buildings; £2610 were required to 
finish the repository in Hawkins street, and £1667 
to rebuild the drawing schools, now in a ruinous 
state. The petition went on to show that the Society 
had been encouraged by the liberality of the Irish 
Parliament in its last session, to enlarge their plans 
for the encouragement of agriculture and manufac- 
tures. It expressed the entire confidence of the Society 
in the liberality of the Imperial Parliament, and its 
desire to carry into effect the national improvements 
adopted by the late Parliament of Ireland. An im- 
mediate grant of £11,277, as absolutely necessary, 
was prayed. 

In 1803, £5500 were granted for support of the 
Society, and £4500 for additional buildings. In May 
of that year it was resolved, owing to the want of 
funds, that no money was to be henceforth expended 
except in fulfilling engagements, and no new work was 
to be undertaken without a special report from the 
committee of economy. The statistical surveys were 
also to be discontinued. In August the economy 



212 



A HISTORY OF 



committee made a report, which showed the then 
financial responsibilities of the Society to be as follows : 



ANNUAL EXPENSES 



General Establishment, permanent 

Premiums, agricultural, permanent 

Premiums, agricultural, temporary 

Miscellaneous, permanent 

Fine Arts, permanent 

Fine Arts, temporary 

Philosophy, permanent . 

Veterinary, permanent . 

Veterinary, temporary 

Mineralogy and Chemistry, permanent 

Botany, permanent 

Apiarist (none now employed) 



£ *. 
1582 9 

1362 o 

452 4 
667 o 

431 19 
20 o 
191 8 
155 o 
132 17 

643 14 
1700 6 



14 6 



7427 15 
Debts now due, and that will become due this 

year 10,683 16 

Works unfinished in Hawkins Street . . . 571 1 
Works not begun, but estimated for to Parliament — 

£ s. d. 

Hawkins Street Drawing School 1667 o o 

Gallery 1145 10 o 

Veterinary Buildings . . . 4048 o o 



6860 
2984 
1280 



Botanic Garden, surrounding wall .... 

Printing, &c, Statistical Surveys, @ £§0 

Due to Commissioners of Wide Streets, payable 

March 1805 1526 



6 3 



The committee made a second report which stated 
that there were no adequate means to discharge the 
demands within the year, and that strict economy 
would be necessary. A schedule was added, which 
showed the means to be applied to payments that were 
to be made in 1803 and 1804, according to which, if 
the Society found itself able to agree with the com- 
mittee in postponements and restraints, there would 
remain only a sum of £1288, 6s. \d. due at Christmas 
1804. The distressed state of the funds had arisen 
from absolute necessity and unexpected events. In 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 213 

1804 Parliament, as before, gave the Society ,£5500 
for establishment charges, and £4500 for new buildings. 
By the end of the year arrears of subscriptions had 
been reduced to a sum of £2828. 

The report of the committee of accounts, presented 
in May 18 16, is selected as showing particulars which 
demonstrate the financial position of the Society after 
its acquisition of Leinster House. 

I. Debts and engagements, including Establish- 
ment expenses, for the year ending March 
181 7 (showing what are now payable), £ s. d. 

amounted to 4614 12 4 

II. Debts due by the Society, incurred by under- 
takings previous to March 1816, and not 
applied to expenditure of the year ending 
March 1817 43 66 l 6 

III. Unavoidable estimated expenses of year ending 

25th March 1817 8076 16 8 

IV. Debts due, and requiring payment, included 

in estimated expenditure for year to 25th 

March 1817 248 10 10 

Against this, £119, 2s. ^d. stood in bank; and 
there were also the Hawkins street premises, which 
were valued at £10,000; and the yearly subscriptions 
of members. (Full accounts for the year ending 
March 18 17 will be found in Proceedings, vol. lii. 
p. 217.) In August 1 83 1, when the estimates for 
the ensuing year were being prepared, it was found 
that the grant to the Society was to be reduced to 
£5500. The Imperial Parliament had granted £10,000 
a year for twenty years from the date of the Union ; 
then it was made £7000, and now it was again being 
reduced. In the Proceedings for 1831, p. 290, is a 
report on this matter. In Proceedings, vol. lxvii., 
appendix v., will be found a petition to the House 
of Commons on the threatened reduction. 

In 1832-3, the Society's estimate for its needs was 



2i 4 A HISTORY OF 

^7016, 7s. $d.> which was reduced by the Government 

to £S3°3> 9 s - lld -> viz - : 

£ s. d. 

Botanic Department 1076 12 o 

Chemistry and Mineralogy 509 2 o 

Natural Philosophy, and Museum .... 269 2 o 

Drawing Schools, &c 481 16 o 

Library . . . 710 o o 

Establishment 537 12 o 

Miscellaneous . 1719 5 n 

5303 9 11 

The free balance unexpended, amounting to ^2714, 
was to be applied in reduction of the rent of Leinster 
House. 



Membership and By-laws 

In June 1801, by-law No. 37, relating to the 
admission and subscription of members, was amended 
by expunging " five " and inserting " ten " in the 
amount of the admission fine. An addition was made 
that every annual subscriber was to sign a bond in 
^50 for payment of his subscription. It was further 
altered in November by inserting " three " instead of 
" two " in the amount of annual subscriptions for mem- 
bers elected after the 1st of November 1801 ; so that in 
future members were to pay ten guineas on admission, 
and two guineas yearly subscription. From 1802, the 
vice-presidents were to be considered members of every 
committee. In 181 1 another amendment was made, 
by which it was provided that every new member was 
to pay a sum of thirty guineas on admission, and there 
were to be no more yearly subscribers. The whole 
sum was to be paid by the day fixed for ballot, and the 
admission of anyone not paying was to be void. Every 
candidate, whether honorary or ordinary, was to be 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 215 

publicly proposed, and no election was to be valid unless 
thirty members were present. The election, as well as 
the proposal of honorary members, was to be regulated 
in the same manner as in the case of ordinary members. 
On the 5th of March 18 12, a by-law was confirmed, 
that annual members should be deemed life members on 
a further payment of fifteen guineas, and on such pay- 
ment they were to be discharged of all arrears. In 
November 1 8 1 2 it was resolved to add a new by-law 
to those already in force, namely : That no order for 
payment or appropriation of money was to be made 
without a previous reference on the subject-matter 
thereof to the committee of economy, and their report 
being obtained. 

Later, it appeared that the seventieth by-law was 
founded on a misapprehension of the true interpreta- 
tion of a clause in the charter, which was to be inter- 
preted that the Society had power at any general 
meeting to confirm such by-laws as had been proposed 
and agreed to at any previous stated general meeting. 

On the 25th of May 1 8 1 5, the 42nd, 43rd, and 46th 
by-laws were amended by the word "thirty" being 
expunged, and the word " fifty " substituted ; so that 
for the future intending members had to pay a sum of 
fifty guineas, and no annual subscription had to be met 
by them. This was found not to work, and in 1 82 1, the 
fee of thirty guineas was again resumed. On the 28th 
of November 1 8 16, several new by-laws were confirmed 
(Proceedings , vol. liii. p. 46). Among the principal, 
one of the by-laws arranged that each of the six com- 
mittees was to consist of not more than fifteen members. 
No one was to be a member of more than two of the 
five first committees on the list (which excluded that 
of Economy). The committees were to be elected by 
ballot yearly, and each committee was to keep a rough 



216 A HISTORY OF 

book of its proceedings, which were afterwards to be 
entered in a fair book to be laid before the Society. 

The 14th by-law was also amended by the substi 
tution of the word " fifteen " for " eighteen," which 
caused the committee of fine arts to consist of fifteen 
members, exclusive of the vice-presidents and secre- 
taries. 

From 1825, balloting for admission of members was 
arranged to be carried out by means of white and 
black beans, which were to be dropped into a box 
placed beside the President. A special committee 
appointed to consider the matter in 1830, recom- 
mended that yearly subscribers, who were to pay five 
guineas on admission and three guineas yearly in 
advance, should be elected. 

In 1832, it was resolved that the by-laws were to be 
classed under heads. There were to be eight standing 
committees, viz.: — 1, Botany; 2, Chemistry and 
Mineralogy ; 3, Natural Philosophy ; 4, Museum, 
and Natural History; 5, Fine Arts; 6, Library; 7, 
Economy; 8, House — which were to consist of nine 
members each, besides the seven vice-presidents and 
the two secretaries. Twenty guineas were now to be 
paid on admission, and not thirty. A new class of 
annual subscribers, to be called " Associate Annual 
Subscribers " (who would not be corporate members 
or have any power of voting), was to be elected, on 
the recommendation in writing of five, members, one 
of whom was to be a vice-president. They were to have 
access to the library, the lectures, exhibitions, botanic 
garden, museum, galleries, lawn, &c, and were to pay 
three guineas a year, in advance. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 217 



CHAPTER XIV 

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY 
(1781-1815) 

Having now had separately under review, in the last 
five or six chapters, the various departments into which 
the Society's activities had branched out, namely, the 
drawing schools, the botanic garden, the schools of 
agriculture and chemistry, and the library, it becomes 
necessary to take a survey of its general work during 
the later portion of the eighteenth and the earlier part 
of the nineteenth centuries. As if to show how 
widespread was the Society's influence, the period to 
be considered opens with a communication from the 
West India Islands. A letter, dated Barbadoes, 14th 
July 1 7 8 1 , was received from Joshua Steele, an honor- 
ary member, announcing that several gentlemen in 
that island had formed themselves into a Society for 
discovering the useful qualities of native productions, 
animal, vegetable, and fossil. Mr. Steele had been 
chosen president, and the Barbadoes Society offered 
help, begging to be admitted to correspondence with 
the Dublin Society. The request was granted, and 
it was agreed that the president of the foreign Society 
for the time being was to be considered an honorary 
member. During successive years, reports were re- 
ceived from Mr. Steele, which contained acounts of 
its proceedings, and described the different natural 
productions of the island. 



2i 8 A HISTORY OF 

On the 15th of May 1783, Abraham Wilkinson 
was elected Secretary in the room of Michael Dally, 
deceased. 

Two years later Sir William Gleadowe Newcomen * 
was elected treasurer of the Society in the room of 
Mr. Thomas St. George, deceased. At this period, 
the meetings appear to have been very badly attended, 
sometimes only five or six members being present, 
and a vice-president rarely occupying the chair. 

The Society had before it on many occasions the 
case of John Grahl, a native of Saxony, who claimed 
some recognition of a process by which cut glass was 
gilt, so as to resemble burnished gold ; and at length, 
in 1785, he was granted 35 guineas. Mr. Grahl was 
noted as having communicated to the committee all 
the secrets he possessed in this art. Richard Hand 
was granted 15 guineas, but declined to furnish the 
recipe for making copal varnish, a necessary ingredient 
in his mode of gilding ; which, however, he subse- 
quently disclosed. 

The net sum of ^2425, out of moneys granted 
by Parliament during the session of 1785, was appro- 
priated as follows : — 



Irish Woollen Warehouse 
Irish Silk Warehouse 
Encouragement of Silk Manufacture 
Finishing Woollen Goods . 
Importation of Oak Bark . 
Encouragement of the Dyeing Business 
Drawing Schools .... 



£400 
Aoo 

£400 

/200 

£600 

£l75 
£250 



Lord Charlemont having laid before the Society an 
account of a piece of mechanism whereby, it was 

1 Newcomen's bank, originally in Mary's Abbey, was removed 
in 1781 to a new edifice in Castle street, planned by Thomas Ivory. 
It is now used as offices by the corporation. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 219 

alleged, perpetual motion might be discovered, the 
secretary was directed to lay it before the Royal Irish 
Academy, with a request for its opinion. The 
Academy did not think the principle new, nor did 
it look on the machine as being likely to be useful 
in mechanics. 

Mr. Richard Vincent, secretary, died in 1788, and 
Captain Thomas Burgh was elected in his room. In 
June 1792, Burgh was elected a vice-president in the 
room of John Wallis, resigned. 

Within eight years prior to this date, Abbe 
Raynal (1), Brussels, John Howard, Abbe Commerell, 
and the Rev. Dr. Daniel Augustus Beaufort (2) had 
been elected honorary members. 

1. Guillaume Francois Raynal, born in 17 13, was for 
some time a Jesuit, but, having been excluded from the 
Order, he devoted himself to literature and society. His 
Philosophical and Political History of European Settlements in 
the Two Indies, published in Amsterdam in 1770, was 
written in collaboration with several others, and the work 
was translated into some European languages. It was full 
of " philosophic declamation " (as Voltaire said), which, per- 
haps, accounted for its popularity with a certain section of 
the public. Horace Walpole declared that it " told one 
everything in the world." Hatred and contempt for re- 
ligion, and passion for justice and freedom, were the key- 
notes of this remarkable book, which many ascribed to 
Diderot. It was ordered to be publicly burned, and the 
author arrested ; but he escaped, and was subsequently 
allowed to return to Paris. Raynal died in 1796. See 
Diderot and the Encyclopedists (John Morley, ii. 222). 
Among the Haliday Pamphlets (1782, ccccxxxiii. 3) is a 
Letter to Abbe Raynal, Author of the Work on the Revolution 
in North America, by Thomas Paine. 

2. Daniel A. Beaufort, son of a French refugee minister, 
was born at East Barnet in 1739. He held the rectory of 



220 A HISTORY OF 

Navan from 1765 to 181 8. Beaufort took an active part 
in the foundation of the Royal Irish Academy, and his map 
of Ireland, 1792, with a memoir of the civil and ecclesiasti- 
cal state of the country, was a valuable contribution to 
geography. 

In 1794, a sum of twenty guineas was paid to 
Richard Hand for the Society's "Arms" in stained 
glass, for the centre of the window purchased from 
him in 1793 for a sum of 120 guineas. The Society 
never had a grant of arms, and this must have been 
the device of Minerva (later called Hibernia) with a 
cornucopia, adopted by the Society. 

A sum of ^400 was divided in 1795 among a 
number of persons for having enclosed not less than 
ten acres with sufficient fences, and planting with forest 
trees not less than 2000 plants to each acre. The 
prizemen included Lord Belmore, Lord Mountjoy, 
Lord Riverston, Major Le Hunte, Richard Aldworth, 
and Walter Kavanagh. Premiums were also distri- 
buted for preserving bees through the winters of 1793 
and 1794. 

In May 1796, new medals were ordered to be 
struck for the Society, and the pupils in the drawing 
schools were asked to send in designs, the reverse to 
have several devices, each appropriated to some one 
object for which that body granted premiums. Among 
the works of William Mossop, senior, appears the 
medal of the Dublin Society, 1800, "given as a 
premium for the various national objects encouraged 
by the Society." 

The office of registrar was abolished in the year 
1798, and the emoluments applied to the payment of 
persons to superintend the collections of scientific 
books at the Botanic Garden and the Repository. 
The late registrar and collector had given the Society 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 221 

trouble. The solicitor was also a source of annoyance, 
and a threat as to legal proceedings against him had to 
be made. 

In August 1799, ^40 were paid to George Fitz- 
gerald for a sinecal circumferenter, 1 for land survey- 
ing. The instrument was referred to the Royal Irish 
Academy for examination, and Dr. Elrington and Dr. 
Brinkley were of opinion that ingenuity had been 
shown in its construction, and that it would answer its 
purpose more satisfactorily than the instrument in use. 

About the same time the Rev. Andrew Callage 
presented specimens " of a curious fossil called asbestos" 
which he obtained from Corsica. A bust of the late 
Right Hon. William Conyngham was procured from 
Edward Smyth, statuary, and soon afterwards, Sir 
John Sinclair, president of the English Board of 
Agriculture, sent to the Society a statistical account 
of Kilronan parish, co. Roscommon, written by Mr. 
Conyngham, which he had presented to the Board 
in 1773. This gentleman had been William Burton, 
son of the Right Hon. Francis Burton, of Buncraggy, 
co. Clare, m.p., and Mary, daughter of Henry Conyng- 
ham, m.p. He assumed the name of Conyngham 
on succeeding to the family estates on the death of 
his uncle, Henry, Earl Conyngham. Mr. Conyngham 
was m.p. successively for Ennis and Killybegs, teller 
of the exchequer in Ireland and a privy councillor, 
and he died, unmarried, 31st May 1796. He took an 
unwearied interest in the objects of the Society, and is 
frequently mentioned in the minutes, more especially 
in connection with the library and fine arts depart- 
ments. Conyngham travelled much on the continent, 
and on such occasions he took the opportunity of 

1 An instrument used by surveyors for taking angles. A sinecal 
circumferenter was one that read the sines of the angles. 



222 A HISTORY OF 

purchasing scarce and valuable books and works of 
art for the Society's collections. 

For almost half a century Farming Societies had 
been established in various parts of the country, all 
more or less in correspondence with the Dublin Society, 
and looking up to it for help and guidance. In the 
year 1755, a resolution as to their formation had been 
passed, and societies were founded in the counties of 
Antrim, Kildare, and Louth, as well as in other places. 
In 1784, an advertisement was ordered to be inserted in 
the Dublin Journal and Evening Post, that the Dublin 
Society desired the farming societies in the various 
counties to convey such information on the subject of 
agriculture as might be considered useful. Later are 
mentioned societies in Mayo, Roscommon, and Ferman- 
agh, and in 1799 one was established in the county Clare, 
for agriculture, manufactures, fisheries, and for breeding 
cattle. Early in 1800 was started, by the Marquis of 
Sligo and the Right Hon. John Foster, a General Farming 
Society, which elected the vice-presidents of the Dublin 
Society and the members of its committee of agri- 
culture as honorary members. This new body agreed 
to be called the Farming Society, " under the patronage 
of the Dublin Society," and its committee of fifteen 
members had permission to meet in the repository in 
Hawkins street until accommodation was provided else- 
where. It received a State grant of ^5000 per annum, 
and concerned itself almost entirely with the practical side 
of agriculture to the exclusion of the theoretical, which 
so much occupied the attention of the Dublin Society. 
The Farming Society sought to improve the breed of 
cattle, and cattle shows were held under its auspices. 
In imitation of the Dublin Society's old plan, it revived 
the practice of sending an itinerant instructor to country 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 223 

districts, and in connection with it was a factory for 
the sale of implements of husbandry. This society 
was brought out more or less under General Vallancey's 
auspices, and from the time of its formation the Dublin 
Society ceased to give encouragement to agriculture in 
the way that it had formerly done, and the prize system 
was more or less abandoned. The Farming Society 
lasted not quite thirty years, disappearing in 1828, when 
the Dublin Society resumed its labours in that branch. 
In the Proceedings, vol. xxxvi., will be found a pro- 
spectus of premiums offered by the new society, the 
secretary of which was Charles Mills. Under it, a 
show of neat cattle and sheep was held at Ballinasloe 
in October 1800, and one at Smithfield, Dublin, in 
November of the same year. Reports on these shows 
appear in Proceedings ', vol. xxxvii. On the 7th of May 
1 801, j£200 were paid to this new body by the Dublin 
Society. 

In 18 18, the Committee of Botany recommended 
to the Society the recently founded Horticultural 
Society, and in 1822, a Farming Society for North 
Kerry was founded at Listowel, which requested aid 
from the Dublin Society. 

The Rev. Wm. Hickey, Bannow Glebe, Taghmon, 
sent to the Society, in February 1823, an account of 
an agricultural school which, in conjunction with Mr. 
Boyse, he had established in his own parish. The 
latter gave forty acres for experiments, and £700 were 
laid out in starting the school. It accommodated 
nineteen youths, and two masters instructed them in 
the theory and practice of husbandry. Chemistry, 
botany, and mechanics were also taught, and it was 
hoped they might yet have a greenhouse and botanic 
garden. In 1 824, Mr. Hickey and Mr. Boyse were pre- 
sented with the Society's gold medal, in acknowledgment 



2 2 4 A HISTORY OF 

of their successful labours, and the former was granted 
a pension from the Royal Literary Fund. Hickey had 
early been impressed by the poor condition of Irish 
farms, and began to study improved methods for such 
of them as consisted of a few acres. In 1817, he pub- 
lished The State of the Poor in Ireland. His first 
work on farming — Hints to Small Farmers — was pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of " Martin Doyle," under 
which name he continued to print a large number of 
pamphlets on cattle, planting, gardening, roads, &c. 
He also conducted the Irish Farmer s and Gardener s 
Magazine. 

In May 1801, Philip, Earl of Hardwicke, was 
elected President in the room of the Marquis Corn- 
wallis, resigned. A new seal was ordered from Mr. 
Mossop, who also received a commission for a figure of 
" Hibernia," to be affixed to a wand carried by the 
Society's hall-porter. A large steel-press seal, with the 
figure of "Hibernia" (the Society's "arms") executed 
by John Milton, was sent from London, for which he 
was paid £31, 10s. 

Two special communications on the culture of 
potatoes from the shoots, received from R. Griffith and 
George Grierson, were highly commended, and their 
plans recommended for general adoption. The Rev. 
Dr. Maunsell was voted a medal in Irish gold for his 
services to the same art of potato culture. 1 

During the previous eight or nine years, Dr. Walter 
Wade ; Sir John Sinclair, bart., president of the Board 
of Agriculture, London ; Mr. Secretary Pelham ; and 
Benjamin, Count von Rumford, of Bavaria; the Duke of 
Argyle, president of the Highland Society, and William 
McDonald, its secretary ; the Duke of Norfolk, pre- 
sident of the London Society of Arts, and Charles 
1 See his Essay, Haliday Pamphlets, 1802, mcccxxxiii. 6. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 225 

Taylor, its secretary, had been elected honorary mem- 
bers. Count von Rumford was voted a gold medal, 
with suitable inscription, for his attention to the Society 
during his late residence in Ireland. 

Sir Benjamin Thompson (Count von Rumford) was 
born in Massachusetts in 1753. He attended Harvard 
University lectures, and became a schoolmaster at Rumford 
(subsequently called Concord) in New Hampshire. He 
married a lady of independent fortune, and soon sailed for 
England, where he arrived in 1775. Being of a scientific 
turn, he experimented in gunpowder, and in 1779 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He went to 
Bavaria, where the Duke Maximilian became his patron, 
and in 1795 he was created Count von Rumford of Bavaria. 
King George the Third also knighted him. In 1796 
Count Rumford came to Ireland with Lord Pelham, where 
he introduced many improvements into workhouses and 
hospitals. He was particularly interested in the cooking of 
food, the proper warming of houses, and in domestic 
economy generally. The Dublin Society and its working 
had great attractions for the Count, who spent a good deal 
of time in Poolbeg street, and " Count Rumford's kitchens " 
are mentioned in the minutes. He was so much pleased 
with the lecture theatre, and the prospect of instruction 
opened up by it, that on returning to London he projected 
the Royal Institution, Albemarle street, an additional proof 
that the Dublin Society may be considered as the prototype 
of numerous societies for the diffusion of knowledge. Count 
Rumford's collected works appeared in 1796 as Essays, Politi- 
cal, Economical, and Philosophical. He died in 18 14. 

In 1802, Thomas Lysaght, junior, was appointed 
solicitor to the Society in Mr. Tisdall's place, and a list 
of members present at each meeting began to be printed, 
this not having been done since the series of printed 
Proceedings was commenced. 

In the same year the Right Hon. John Foster was 
asked to sit for his portrait by Hamilton, which was to 

p 



226 A HISTORY OF 

be hung in the board-room in acknowledgment of his 
exertions in the study of agriculture, botany, mineralogy, 
and the veterinary art. Foster was born in 1740, and 
early devoted himself to a political career. He was mem- 
ber of Parliament for Dunleer in 1768, became Chancellor 
of the Exchequer in 1785, being elected Speaker of the 
House of Commons in August 1785. Bitterly opposed 
to the Union, he exerted his utmost endeavours to 
prevent that measure being carried, and declined to 
surrender the mace of the House, saying that " until 
the body that entrusted it to his keeping demanded 
it, he would preserve it for them." It is still held 
by his descendants in the Massereene family. After 
the Union, Foster represented Louth in the Imperial 
Parliament, and accepted the post of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer for Ireland. In 1 821, he was created Baron 
Oriel, and died on the 23rd of August 1828, aged 
eighty-seven. Foster was indefatigable in his labours 
on behalf of the Dublin Society, of which he was a 
vice-president for many years. He was most diligent 
in his attendance on committees, and took an especial 
interest in the department of mineralogy and botany, 
and in the foundation of a school for the cultivation of 
the veterinary art. The Society was in possession of a 
portrait of Foster which hung in the board-room, but 
in 1 8 1 3 it was ordered to be replaced by one painted by 
Sir William Beechey. 

Early in 1803 Abraham Wilkinson, secretary, died, 
and the Rev. Dr. Thomas Smyth was elected to the 
vacant post. 

A letter from the Rev. Thomas Hincks 1 was re- 

1 Thomas Dix Hincks, born in Dublin in 1767, was a Presbyterian 
divine, ordained in 1790 for Cork, where he conducted a school. He 
projected the Royal Cork Institution, of which he became an officer, 
and in which he lectured on Chemistry and Natural Philosophy. 
Hincks also edited the Munster Agricultural Magazine. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 227 

ceived, which stated that an attempt had been made 
to establish in Cork lectures in natural philosophy, 
chemistry, and mineralogy. He had procured from 
London many specimens of foreign minerals, and 
requested assistance in his endeavours. The Society 
allowed him to have some duplicate fossils, and he was 
to have copies of the Transactions, with lists of Irish 
minerals. 

In the same year Adam Seybert, secretary to the 
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, requested 
that it might be allowed to correspond with the 
Dublin Society, which was approved, with exchange 
of publications. 

Premiums were given, in 1803, to John Tem- 
pleton, Belfast, and Dr. Scott, Marlborough street, for 
discovering plants — natives of Ireland — not previously 
described by any botanist. Premiums were also awarded 
for discovery of a new species of rose in the counties of 
Down and Kerry. 

In 1807, Captain Theodore Wilson was appointed 
housekeeper ; and Sir Thomas G. Newcomen, treasurer, 
in the room of Sir William G. Newcomen, deceased. 
On 14th January 1808, at a meeting at which 235 
members were present, a report of the committee of 
economy (David La Touche, v. p., chairman, General 
Vallancey, Arthur McGwire, the Rev. Dr. Smyth, 
Edward Houghton, Lundy Foot and Jeremiah D'Olier), 
was considered, when new rules, &c, were made, bearing 
on the offices of assistant secretary, registrar and collec- 
tor, assistant librarian and housekeeper. The office of 
assistant secretary was separated from that of registrar, 
and £300 a year was fixed on as the salary attaching 
to it. The registrar and collector was in future to act 
as accountant. The Rev. Dr. Lyster having just 
died, Bucknall McCarthy, b.l., was appointed to the 



228 A HISTORY OF 

vacant post of assistant secretary; Thomas Lysaght, 
registrar and collector ; and Dr. John Lanigan, assistant 
librarian and translator, at a salary of £ 150 a year. 

In February 1 810, so as to give additional solemnity 
to the formal introduction of members, it was resolved 
that on a new member taking his place, the name in 
writing was to be delivered to the chairman, who would 
desire him to be presented to the chair by a member. 
The chairman would then announce the new member, 
who was to be seated at his right hand. Count de 
Salis was the first member who was formally introduced 
and took his seat in this way. On 7 th March 181 1, 
John Comerford, Dame street, miniature painter, who 
had been proposed as an ordinary member, and taken 
down, to be proposed as an honorary member, was 
rejected as such. He had been proposed by Lord 
Frankfort, vice-president. 

At the end of vol. xlvii. of the printed Proceedings 
will be found an analysis, by Professor William Higgins, 
of the meteoric stone which fell on the property of 
Maurice Crosbie Moore, of Mooresfort, co. Tipperary, 
in August 1 8 10. 

The Proceedings of the Society having become 
voluminous, and it being difficult to refer to particulars, 
Mr. Wilson was directed to compile a general index 
to the first fifty volumes, which was completed in July 
1 8 14. Seven hundred and fifty copies were printed, 
and Mr. Wilson was paid one hundred guineas for 
his labours. 

About 1 8 12, and for some time previously, Mr. 
Jeremiah D'Olier was a constant attendant, and fre- 
quently occupied the chair. The Rev. Dr. Beaufort, 
Dr. Harty, Richard Griffith, Dr. Wade, Sir Robert 
Langrishe, Major Sirr, Alderman Exshaw, Dr. T. H. 
Orpen, and Messrs. Samuel Guinness, Austin Cooper, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 229 

Humphrey Minchin, P. Le Hunte, and Luke White 
were also remarkable for the number of meetings 
which they attended, and for their close attention to 
the business of the Society. 

In November 18 12, Robert Shaw was elected a 
vice-president in the room of General Vallancey, and 
in December 18 12, William Hogan, junior, York 
street, " a student of Trinity College/' was elected a 
member of the Society, this being the only instance, up 
to this period, of the admission of anyone so described. 
At the same time, Peter Brophy, who was proposed by 
John Boardman and seconded by the Rev. Dr. Hand- 
cock, was rejected. 

Professor Von Feinagle was permitted, in February 
1 8 13, to deliver before the Society two lectures ex- 
plaining his system, and its applicability to all branches 
of education and science. Gregor Von Feinagle, born 
in Baden in 1785, became a public lecturer in a new 
system of mnemonics and methodics, for which he 
was much ridiculed on the continent, both in the 
press and on the stage. He came to this country in 
181 1, and soon after superintended a school in 
Mountjoy square, Dublin, which was conducted on 
his principles. The New Art of Memory, edited by 
J. Millard, appeared in 18 12. Von Feinagle died in 
1 8 19 in Dublin, and there is a bust of him in the 
reception-room, Leinster House. 

Richard Lovell Edgeworth (father of Maria Edge- 
worth), who appears to have been a mechanical genius, 
conducted in 18 15, in the yard of Leinster House, 
public experiments as to an invention of his with 
regard to wheeled carriages. 1 The committee to 
which the matter was referred was of opinion that 
the apparatus invented by Edgeworth was adequate to 
1 Memoirs, vol. ii. 



230 A HISTORY OF 

the purpose intended, and that the affixing of springs 
to carriages, which was part of his scheme, greatly 
facilitated their draft. He was elected an honorary 
member of the Society on the 29th of June 18 15. 
As early as the years 1767 and 1769 R. L. Edgeworth 
had obtained medals of the Royal Society of Arts for 
inventions. 1 

During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, 
a number of remarkable names appear among those 
admitted to honorary membership of the Society, while 
some of the newly admitted ordinary members were 
conspicuous in various ways. In may be appropriate 
to close this chapter with some mention of them. 
Citizen Goldberg, The Hague, minister of Political 
Economy to the Batavian Republic ; Citizen Coquebert 
de Moubray, commissary of the French Embassy ; 
Prince Barintrinsky, chamberlain to the Emperor of 
Russia ; Humphry Davy ; Thomas William Coke, 1 
(Holkham Hall, Norfolk) ; the Earl of Sheffield ; the 
Archdukes John and Lewis, of Austria ; the Right 
Hon. Nicholas Vansittart, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer ; the Grand Duke Michael of Russia ; Sir 
Benjamin Bloomfield (2) ; Sir Michael Seymour, bart., 
k.c.b. ; The Princes Nicholas and Paul Esterhazy, 
Count Joseph Esterhazy, Prince Victor Metternich, 
and Chevalier de Floretti were elected as " foreigners 
of high scientific attainments, and for repeated acts 
of attention to the Society " ; the Right Hon. George 
Canning was also elected. 

Among those who became members of the Society 
during the same period were the Lord Chief Justice of 
Ireland (afterwards Lord Downes) (3), the Rev. Charles 
Elrington, f.t.c.d. (4), Sir William Betham (5), Lord 
Kilmaine, who was a regular attendant, and frequently 
1 History of the Society \ 247, &c. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



231 



occupied the chair, the Earl of Charlemont, the Earl 
of Pembroke, James Gandon (6) a member of com- 
mittees, and a very regular attendant, Lord Cloncurry 
(7), Mr. Benjamin Lee Guinness (8), and Dr. John 
Anster. 

1. "Coke of Norfolk," the son of Robert Wenman, 
was born in 1752 ; on succeeding to the estates of his 
maternal uncle, Thomas, Earl of Leicester, he assumed the 
name of Coke. He was elected member of Parliament for 
Norfolk in 1776, a seat which he held almost continuously 
up to 1833. Coke was created Earl of Leicester in 1837. 
When he became owner of the estates they were unen- 
closed, and the system of cultivation on them was wretched. 
On taking up farming, he collected round him a number of 
practical men, who advised with him, and within the years 
1 778-1 787, the land had so much improved that he might 
be said to have converted West Norfolk into a wheat-grow- 
ing country. He became a noted breeder of stock, and is 
believed to have raised his rental from a little over £2000 
to £20,000 a year. Over £100,000 were laid out in farm- 
houses and buildings. Coke's portrait, by Gainsborough, in 
his broad-brimmed hat, shooting jacket and long boots, in 
which costume he is said to have presented an address to 
King George the Third, is well known. Lord Leicester 
died in 1842. 

2. Sir Benjamin Bloomfield was born in 1768, and, 
entering the army, became a lieutenant-general and a.d.c 
to King George the Fourth, whose private secretary he was 
for some time up to the year 1822, when he was sent as 
minister plenipotentiary to Stockholm. In 1825 Bloom- 
field was created Baron Bloomfield. In 1884 Georgina, 
Lady Bloomfield, published a memoir of Lord Bloomfield, 
her husband's father, who had died in 1846. He was 
owner of estates near Newport, co. Tipperary. 

3. William Downes was born at Donnybrook, near 
Dublin, in 1752. He became member of Parliament for 
Donegal, and in 1792 was appointed a Justice of the King's 



232 A HISTORY OF 

Bench, being promoted to the Chief Justiceship eleven 
years later. He was created Baron Downes in 1822, and 
died in 1826. There is a very fine portrait of Lord 
Downes by Hugh D. Hamilton ; and one painted in his 
robes as Chief Justice, by Martin Cregan, has been engraved 
and published. 

4. The Rev. Charles R. Elrington, regius professor of 
Divinity in the University of Dublin, was born in Dublin 
in 1787, and was a son of Thomas Elrington, bishop of 
Ferns. He was successively rector of St. Mark's, Dublin, 
chancellor of Ferns, and rector of Armagh. Elrington 
effected great improvements in the Divinity School, managed 
the Church Education Society, and helped the Board of 
National Education. In 1847 ne commenced his edition 
of the collected works of Archbishop Ussher in seventeen 
volumes ; the two last, which he did not live to finish, were 
completed by Dr. Reeves, afterwards Bishop of Down. 
Dr. Elrington printed many theological works and pam- 
phlets on education. 

5. Sir William Betham, born at Stradbrooke in Suffolk 
in 1779, came to Dublin in 1805, and, having been for 
a time Deputy Ulster and Deputy Keeper of Records in the 
Record Tower, Dublin Castle, he became Ulster King of 
Arms in 1820. Betham compiled a number of indexes and 
repertories, and, in 1830, appeared his Dignities, Feudal and 
Parliamentary, and in 1834, Origin and History of the Con- 
stitution of England, and of the Early Parliaments of Ireland. 
He was secretary of the Royal Irish Academy, and that 
body purchased a large collection of Irish manuscripts 
which he had acquired. 

6. James Gandon, architect, was born in London in 
1743, his grandfather having been a Huguenot refugee. 
Gandon came to Dublin in 1781 to superintend the con- 
struction of new docks, and he planned the Custom House, 
which was finished in 179 1. He designed the east portico 
and circular screen wall of the Parliament House, as well as 
the west screen and the portico in Foster place. His works 
also included the Four Courts, and the King's Inns build- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 233 

ings, Henrietta street, and he was responsible for designs for 
many private residences. James Gandon died in 1 823, and 
a memoir of him from the pen of Thomas J. Mulvany 
appeared in 1846. 

7. Valentine Browne Lawless, second Baron Cloncurry, 
was born in 1773, and when quite young became imbued 
with Nationalist principles. He entered on the field of 
politics with enthusiasm, and was sworn as a United Irish- 
man in 1795. His Thoughts on the Projected Union appeared 
in 1797, and several pamphlets on the same subject from 
his pen subsequently appeared. Lawless was arrested on 
suspicion in London in 1798, but was discharged on bail. 
He was again arrested in 1799, and committed to the 
Tower, appearing to have been an active agent in the 
United Irish conspiracy. When released in 1801, he 
travelled for a time on the continent, and, returning to his 
native country four years later, he settled on his property 
at Lyons, co. Kildare, taking a deep interest in agriculture 
and improved systems of farming. Lord Cloncurry helped 
in founding the Kildare Farming Society in 18 14, and 
warmly advocated and supported the reclamation of bogs 
and wastes. He was created an English peer in 183 1, and 
in 1849 published his Recollections. 

8. Mr. Benjamin Lee Guinness was born in 1798, and 
on his father's death became sole partner in the firm of 
A. Guinness, Son & co. He possessed great powers of 
organisation, and quickly developed a splendid export trade. 
Mr. Guinness was elected first Lord Mayor of Dublin under 
the reformed corporation, and nobly upheld the ancient 
traditions of the Mansion House. He was elected member 
of Parliament for the city of Dublin, and between the 
years i860 and 1865 restored the venerable cathedral of 
St. Patrick at a cost of about .£150,000. In 1867 Mr. 
Guinness was created a baronet, and had a special grant of 
supporters to his arms. Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness died 
in 1868, and a bronze statue by Foley, erected to his 
memory, stands on the south side of the exterior of the 
cathedral. 



234 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XV 

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY {continued) 
(1815-1836) 

For some years prior to the Society's removal to 
Leinster House, the printed Proceedings were much 
fuller than formerly, and a greater volume of business 
seems to have been transacted at the meetings. The 
members began to take fresh interest in agriculture, the 
Society's chief original object, which they had more 
or less neglected since the foundation of the Farming 
Society. Numerous other subjects had attracted atten- 
tion during the Hawkins street regime, but now when 
it was found that the Farming Society's operations 
were not as satisfactory as had been hoped, and its 
financial position and membership not flourishing, the 
subject of husbandry was again taken up. Possibly 
the Society's hand was forced, as extreme depression in 
that industry prevailed. Early in 18 16, it was referred 
to a special committee to enquire into the embarrassed 
situation of the agricultural interest of Ireland, so as to 
enable the Society to submit to the Government infor- 
mation which might distinguish causes of continued 
depression from merely temporary ones. They wished 
to be able to contrast the demands necessary for the 
supply of the home market at present with periods 
anterior to the late war ; also to look into the state of 
the British market, and the probable operation of the 
Corn Laws on this country, so as to ascertain, if 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



235 



possible, a proportion between rent and the produce of 
the soil. 

The committee was asked to report on such 
measures as might seem likely to relieve the distresses 
of the agricultural interest of Ireland. The committee 
found that since the Corn Act had diverted foreign 
grain from the home market, continental nations made 
great efforts to supply the United Kingdom with dairy 
produce, which then experienced alarming depression. 
The dairy produce of not less than half a million acres 
had been imported into the United Kingdom during 
the previous year, and the home market would soon 
be glutted with the cheese and butter of foreign nations, 
unless prohibited by Parliament. Fresh dried, salted 
provisions from abroad were recommended to be ex- 
cluded, unless admitted, as live stock was in times of 
scarcity, by the King's proclamation. They considered 
the restriction of imports of provisions and dairy pro- 
duce from abroad necessary for Great Britain and 
Ireland. It was recommended that prizes should be 
offered for the best essays on the subjects of the en- 
quiry — 100 guineas for the first, 50 for the second, and 
20 for the third. 

In 1 8 17, Mr. Sadleir the aeronaut, asked leave to 
ascend from the premises in Kildare street, but his 
request was refused. He was, however, allowed the 
use of the exhibition room in Hawkins street to 
exhibit his balloon. 1 

In the same year Thomas Archdeacon, esq., pre- 
sented to the Society a bust of Alexander Pope by 
Roubiliac. 

1 An ascent had previously been made from the lawn of Leinster 
House. On 19th July 1785, the first Irish aeronaut, Richard Crosbie, 
son of Sir Paul Crosbie, made an ascent. He was rescued in the 
channel, and brought to Dunleary, the vessel towing- the balloon 
behind. Gilbert's History of Dublin^ iii. 279. 



236 A HISTORY OF 

The Right Hon. David La Touche having died, 
Mr. Peter Digges La Touche was elected a vice- 
president in his room. Mr. Digges La Touche was a 
very frequent attendant, serving on committees, and 
taking his full share in the work of the Society. 

Mr. Thomas Pleasants, already alluded to as a 
benefactor of the Society, by his will, bequeathed to it 
certain pictures, prints, &c, which were delivered to 
the Society in April 1818, and deposited in the upper 
part of Leinster House, when the fine arts com- 
mittee undertook to distribute them throughout it. 
Pleasants' will, a very long and remarkable document, 
is characteristic of this most benevolent but eccentric 
man. He desired to be buried in the same grave with 
his wife, expressing a wish " that on my being put into 
my coffin, her slippers may be laid crossways on my 
Breast, next my Heart, for I have, since her most 
sincerely lamented death, constantly had them under 
my pillow, kissed them, and pressed them to my Heart 
every night going to bed, and the same in the morning 
rising." He named, among the pictures bequeathed 
by him, the " Visitation of the Shepherds," " The 
Dream," and "Narcissus," "Joseph and Mary," two 
landscapes by Barret, two grand battle pieces, two 
smaller battle pieces, " Magdalen in a wilderness," 
"St. Paul Preaching," Dutch pieces, dead game, fruit 
pieces, " Holy Family," " Peg Woffington, by Sir 
Joshua" 1 (print), "Summer" and "Winter" ("two 
fine Lutherbergs "), " The Oracle," a head of Captain 
Coram, by Hogarth, and two excellent Garricks ; also 
portraits of Swift, Malone, Sparks, Woodward, Ryder, 
and Surgeon Daunt ; in crayons, Counsellor Wolfe (a 
proof given to Pleasants by Wolfe's nephew, Lord 
Kilwarden), statue of Handel, Rubens, bust of Gay, 

1 Reynolds did not paint Peg Woffington. 




THOMAS PLEASANTS 
(From an oil painting by Solomon Williams) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 237 

&c, Ogilby's History of China, Ogilby's Virgil, and a 
curious and valuable book, Relation of a Journey 
beginning a.d. 16 10, printed in London, 1637. The 
pictures were bequeathed subject to a proviso that 
none of them were ever to be lent to the Artists' 
Gallery, nor was anyone at any time to be allowed to 
copy them. On this condition being violated they 
were to be surrendered, sold by auction, and the pro- 
ceeds added to the residue. The will is undated, and 
Pleasants made a codicil, dated in 18 17 at Booterstown 
House, his interest in which he left to his brother 
William. Both were proved on the 16th March 18 18, 
by Joshua Pasley, Abbey street, wine merchant. 

Thomas Pleasants, who was born in Cariow in 
1728, had an extensive knowledge of classical literature, 
and was interested in general literature and the fine 
arts. He was a man of unbounded generosity and 
philanthropy, as will be seen by gifts of his already 
noticed. He defrayed the expense of reprinting Dr. 
Samuel Madden's Reflections and Resolutions proper for 
the Gentlemen of Ireland (1728). Pleasants died on 
the 1st of March 18 18, at his house in Camden street, 
now the Pleasants asylum for orphan girls, which 
was founded by him. In 1820, Mr. Solomon Williams 
presented to the Society his portrait of Pleasants, which 
now hangs over the mantelpiece in the registrar's office. 

The lectures delivered at this time by the professors 
under the auspices of the Society appear to have 
been well attended, and the theatre was frequently 
crowded. The Museum and the Elgin Marbles cast- 
rooms were closed during the lectures, so as to enable 
the porters to attend at the different doors. Not 
more than 400 tickets were issued for each, and none 
but members and officers of the Society were admitted 
to the members' seats. It is amusing to record that on 



2 3 8 A HISTORY OF 

one occasion Lady Rossmore was allowed to choose a 
seat at the lectures, and the assistant secretary was 
directed " to convey to her ladyship this resolution." 

In 1 8 1 9, Dr. Anthony Meyler delivered a course 
of lectures on ventilation, and was invited to deliver 
another on meteorology, when the committee of 
chemistry and natural philosophy intervened, alleging 
that it was not politic to interfere with the Society's 
professors, who were fully qualified, and should be 
invited to deliver any special lectures. Dr. Meyler 
then wrote declining to lecture. 

Dr. Dionysius Lardner delivered a course of lectures 
in 1826 on the steam-engine, which were afterwards 
published, and a gold medal was voted to him, to 
mark the Society's appreciation of them. A couple 
of years later a committee appointed to report on the 
best means of making the Society's lectures as useful 
as possible to the working classes, recommended a 
series of popular courses to be delivered in the evening. 

Lardner was born in Dublin in 1793, anc ^ m 1827 
was elected to the chair of natural philosophy and 
astronomy in the University of London, when he 
commenced his Cabinet Cyclopedia. He went on a 
lecturing tour in the United States, by which he realised 
a very large sum of money, and in 1845 settled in 
Paris. Lardner wrote on railways, the steam-engine, 
natural philosophy, heat, optics, &c, and, though 
not a great original thinker, he was a man of much 
talent, who made the sciences popular, as no one 
before him had done. 

In 1 8 19, a question arose as to the publication of 
the 'Transactions, which, having appeared from 1800 
to 1 8 10, had been discontinued, and as to the necessity 
for reviving their appearance. The volumes consisted 
of papers of minor importance ; extracts from writers 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



239 



in German, Dutch, and French ; communications from 
(as a rule) non-members, and of valuable papers by 
the Society's professors. The contents included treatises 
on cider making, brewing, road making, embankments, 
planting and draining, on wheat, flax, the rearing of 
sheep, &c. The library committee, which was asked 
to report, gave the following reasons for thinking that 
the publication of the Transactions had become un- 
necessary. The literary institutions of the city had 
now placed within the reach of all works from which 
extracts were made in the Transactions. Foreign 
languages were more studied in Ireland, and most of 
the valuable works of recent foreign writers were trans- 
lated and published in periodical journals. Authors 
of original papers on agriculture and the practical arts 
preferred weekly and monthly journals, so that the 
Society had received a lesser supply of scientific com- 
munications. The Royal Irish Academy at this time 
found some difficulty in procuring materials for half 
a volume yearly, and even papers in the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of London had not increased in 
number. Since the discontinuance of the Transactions, 
many essays and larger treatises had been communicated 
to the Society which were recorded either in the weekly 
minutes, or published separately, under the Society's 
sanction. As instances, might be mentioned Mr. Higgins 
on the Atomic Theory ; Dr. Wade on Oaks, Salices, 
and Grasses ; Griffith on the Leinster Coal District, &c. 
The publication, too, of the surveys of Irish counties, 
in utility and extent, well supplied the want of them. 

The office of registrar becoming vacant, Captain 
Theodore Wilson, who had held the post of house- 
keeper since 1808, was appointed to fill the united 
offices, at a salary of ^200 a year. Mr. John Litton 
was elected law agent. 



2 4 o A HISTORY OF 

In December 1819, a report was made on the 
general state of the Society, which will be found in 
Proceedings (vol. lvi. p. 58). A short resume of it 
may be useful here, as giving a summary of the 
Society's activities from its foundation : — 

It is found difficult to collect the annual subscrip- 
tions. Life subscriptions, which had been increased 
from ten to thirty guineas, were lately raised to fifty 
guineas. When the Society first started, attention was 
devoted to agriculture, first by the publication of 
papers and tracts, then by premiums for planting, the 
introduction of proper implements, and importation 
of cattle ; next by manufacturing implements at a 
cheaper rate ; and lastly by improved methods of 
horticulture and the cultivation of trees, plants, and 
grasses. After this, trial was made of gratuitous in- 
formation supplied by lectures and schools. Six pro- 
fessors were appointed, and a theatre capable of accom- 
modating 500 persons was equipped. The botanic 
garden, the drawing schools, library, and museum were 
all in full working order. The Act 19 and 20 George 
III imposed on the Society the superintendence of 
the silk manufacture, and the regulation of the opera- 
tive silk weavers' wages, which imposed a great deal of 
work on the Society. An exhibition room for works 
of art was also opened. On the whole, the affairs of 
the Society might be said to have been conducted with 
as much skill, propriety, and economy as the nature 
of the institution would admit. From 1801, the 
parliamentary grant amounted to ;£ 10,000. The 
labours imposed on the Society by numerous Acts of 
the Irish legislature caused its original designs to be 
extended from husbandry and the useful arts to litera- 
ture, sciences, fine arts, manufactures, horticulture, 
trade and commerce. The expenses of the six pro- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 241 

fessors and their apparatus, the four fine art schools, 
the Botanic Garden, the purchase of Leinster House, 
the exhibition room, museum, library, laboratories, the 
cabinet of mineralogy, and the various bounties and 
premiums, were all defrayed out of the members' sub- 
scriptions and the yearly grant of j£ 10,000. This 
report was transmitted to the Right Hon. William 
Grant, Secretary for Ireland, with a special letter from 
the secretaries of the Society. 

In 1820, the Right Hon. George Knox was elected 
a vice-president, and on the 3rd of February in that year 
the regular meeting was not held, in consequence of 
the death of King George the Third. In June, when 
conveying the new monarch's acknowledgment of the 
address on his accession, Lord Sidmouth intimated that 
His Majesty would be pleased to become Patron of 
the Society, and, on the 29th of June 1820, it assumed 
the title of the Royal Dublin Society. 

The Society nominated a permanent committee of 
twenty-one members, to enquire into the expense and 
practicability of reclaiming the bogs and waste lands of 
Ireland, which reported that every description of bog 
was capable of reclamation, and of being converted into 
profitable land, which would repay outlay. 

King George the Fourth visited Ireland in August 
1 82 1, and on the 24th of that month he went to 
Leinster House, where a fete cbampetre and dejeuner 
were given in his honour on the lawn, on which had 
been erected a large marquee, fitted up with great 
taste. Within the tent, under a scarlet canopy, was 
a richly decorated table, above which were " g. r. iv " 
and the royal arms. For the entertainment of the 
company invited to meet His Majesty were provided 
about fifty tents, ranged round in semicircular form, 
and in double rows. Three harpers in the garb of 

Q 



242 A HISTORY OF 

ancient minstrels were close to the King's tent, and 
a platform for dancers stood near. The crowds that 
flocked to the ground all wore a blue ribbon, with 
" R. d. s." in gold letters. 

The King arrived at 12.30 p.m., and was received 
in the courtyard with military honours, 150 members 
of the Society forming line. The Lord Lieutenant 
met His Majesty, while near at hand were Lord Oriel, 
Lord Meath, Lord Frankfort, Sir R. Shaw, Mr. Leslie 
Foster, Right Hon. George Knox, Serjeant Joy, and 
others. In attendance on the King were the Duke of 
Montrose, the Marquis of Graham, and Sir R. Bloom- 
field. His Majesty inspected with great interest the 
various noble apartments of Leinster House, the library, 
model room, and museum, expressing much admiration 
at all he saw. He then moved to the lawn, where 
he was received with unbounded enthusiasm, after- 
wards retiring to the marquee, where he conversed with 
Lord and Lady Manners, and others. It was remarked 
that on this occasion the dresses worn were chiefly of 
Irish manufacture. 

A large surplus resulted from this entertainment, 
and it was resolved to expend it in procuring a statue 
of the King, which Behnes offered to execute gratis, if 
the Society provided the marble. This was done at 
a cost of ^400, and, strange to say, the statue, which 
was never quite finished by the sculptor, remained in 
his studio in London, under one pretence or another, 
for a period of twenty-four years, until his affairs were 
being administered in bankruptcy. The Society ob- 
tained it from the assignees in May 1845, and an 
arrangement was made with Mr. Panormo to complete 
the work for a sum of ^100. In October, the com- 
pleted statue was placed in the hall of Leinster House, 
where it still remains. There is another statue of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 243 

the King, elsewhere noticed, in close proximity to it 
(p. 126). 

In March 1822, a special committee reported on 
the Statistical Surveys, and on Mr. Fraser's book on 
Fisheries. The committee was of opinion that great 
results would accrue from the action of the Board of 
Fisheries in undertaking surveys, plans, and estimates 
of harbours at fishing stations round the coast. A 
statistical survey of the coast, with harbour charts, 
was very necessary, and Mr. Fraser should be asked 
to undertake it, so as to point out to the Government 
the best means of improving the coast. It further 
reported that there was a great deficiency of harbours, 
which was injurious both to fishermen and trade. 

In the year 1822 — a very troubled one in Ireland — 
considerable distress existed in the south and west, 
which the Society was most anxious to relieve, and it 
was in contemplation to appropriate the admission fees 
during the year to this object. An amendment, how- 
ever, was carried, that premiums up to ^500 should 
be offered to those who within three months afforded 
most extensive employment to the poor in the southern 
and western counties, which was subsequently negatived. 
The mining engineer was appointed by the Lord 
Lieutenant to lay out roads in the coal districts, so as 
to give employment in the distress then prevalent. 

As a means of affording permanent employment, 
the Society turned its attention to the culture of 
hemp. Home-grown hemp was recommended as 
helping for sails, cordage, and netting, and it was said 
that there would be a never-failing home market for 
fish. It was calculated that every vessel of 30 tons 
would require on board 10,000 square yards of netting, 
made from hemp. 

Then the subject of timber was taken up, and the 



244 A HISTORY OF 

necessity for a home-grown supply was insisted on, so 
as to furnish employment, and render the country 
independent of foreign supplies. In Ireland were to 
be found 1,255,000 acres of shallow mountain bog, 
suited for the plantation of forest trees. The want of 
a supply of naval timber was felt during the wars of 
Bonaparte. In Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Russia, 
the forests were gradually destroyed in the manufac- 
ture of tar, in iron and copper works, &c, and the 
American forests were also being devastated. 

The committee of agriculture submitted other 
means of employment and subsistence. The cultiva- 
tion of the soil by alternate operations of the plough 
and spade, as in Flanders, was recommended. In that 
country one-seventh of the arable land was trenched 
every year, and this winter work effected the renovation 
of the whole surface under tillage every seven years. 
The labouring classes would thus be compelled to give 
up the use of potatoes, and substitute corn. 

The manufacture of window glass claimed atten- 
tion, and it was believed that a properly conducted 
establishment would be successful. The price of coal 
alone was thought to militate against it, as very large 
quantities would be necessary. The saving in freight 
from England, which in so bulky a material amounted 
to a good deal, would, however, it was expected, com- 
pensate. 

In 1824, the Rev. Joseph Cotter, obtained the 
Society's silver medal for his royal patent basso- 
hibernicon, or hibernian bass horn, and tenor horn : 
Kramer, master of the King's private band, members 
of some cavalry bands, and some distinguished musical 
professors, bore testimony to the ingenuity of the 
invention, which it was thought would form a great 
addition to bands of music. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 245 

Surgeon John Hart reported on a specimen of the 
Cervus giganteus, or fossil elk, the bones of which had 
been found on the property of the Ven. William R. 
Maunsell, archdeacon of Limerick, which had been 
presented to the Society, and brought up to Dublin 
by canal boat. This specimen is still preserved in the 
natural history portion of the museum. 

On the 1 2th of May 1825, the Society learned that 
Mr. George Le Touche had bequeathed to it his col- 
lection of Etruscan vases ; this collection, with some 
water-colour drawings, formed the nucleus of the art 
collections now in the National Museum. 

In 1826, Dr. Higgins having died, Edmond Davy, 1 
who had been attached to the Royal Cork Institution, 
was elected professor of chemistry, and Dr. Samuel 
Litton, professor of botany, in the room of Dr. 
Wade. 

Mr. Thomas Walker, in April 1826, presented to 
the Society three letters in the handwriting of Dean 
Swift. These are not now in the Society's keeping, 
nor are they in the National Library. Sir Walter 
Scott, in his Life of Swift , p. 72, prints a fragment of 
a letter with a lampoon on the Rev. William Tisdall 
(his rival in the case of Stella). Scott's Life was 
published in 18 14, and it states that the original 
fragment was then preserved in the museum of the 
Dublin Society, Hawkins street. (See also Dr. F. E. 
Ball's Correspondence of Swift, iv. 479.) 

Colonel Stannus, c.b., who had served in Persia, 
presented several casts from the ruins of Persepolis, 
which he had visited ; also a stone with an ancient 
Persian inscription, the key to which had been dis- 
covered by M. Sylvester de Lacy, a French Orientalist. 

1 A picture of Davy, enlarged by photography, is in the reception- 
room, Leinster House. 



246 A HISTORY OF 

A list of the casts is supplied in appendix to Pro- 
ceedings ', 1828. 

On the 4th of December 1828, Mr. Isaac Weld was 
elected honorary secretary to the Society. He was born 
in Dublin in 1774, and received the name of Isaac after 
his grandfather. The latter was so named from Isaac 
Newton, who was a friend of the Rev. Nathaniel Weld, 
his father. Having travelled in the United States and 
Canada, Weld, in 1795-97, published his Travels. He 
became a member of the Society in 1800, and in 1849 
was elected one of its vice-presidents. He undertook 
the Statistical Survey of Roscommon, and in 1807, 
published illustrations of the Scenery of Killarney. 
Being keenly interested in Irish industries, Weld was 
the first to suggest the triennial exhibitions of manu- 
factures, afterwards conducted under the auspices of 
the Society. In later life Weld travelled a good deal 
in Italy, and became a friend of Canova. He died at 
Bray in 1856, and in the following year the members 
of the Royal Dublin Society erected a monument to 
his memory in Mount Jerome cemetery. 

For two or three years previously the attendance at 
the meetings was small, and the minutes of the pro- 
ceedings are very brief. 

Government now directed special attention to the 
estimates, and a committee of the House of Commons 
made a report, which included certain recommenda- 
tions. The committee thought the private funds of 
the Society should be increased. The lectures ought 
not to be gratuitous, and £200 a year, at least, ought 
to be produced from those on chemistry, mineralogy, 
and natural philosophy ; otherwise the estimate for 
each must necessarily be reduced. Only absolutely 
suitable books should, they said, be purchased for the 
library. Admission by ballot to a Society mainly sup- 




ISAAC WELD 
(From an oil paititi?ig by Martin Cregan, P.R.H.A.) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 247 

ported by the public purse was considered objection- 
able. In addition to the sum fixed, an annual sub- 
scription, they thought, might be arranged. On this, 
the Society communicated with the Government, 
stating that the suggestions of the committee conveyed 
to them would be adopted as far as practicable. In 
answering some of the points, the Society showed that 
the lectures were principally attended by young people 
and students, who could not afford to pay. As a 
matter of fact, the experiment of charging for admission 
to the lectures had been tried, but, being a total failure, 
they were again made gratuitous. According to the 
charter, in cases of admission, the Society was bound 
to proceed by election. In thirty years only four 
persons had been rejected, and since 1800, 739 had 
been admitted. It was very difficult to collect annual 
subscriptions, and other societies were falling into decay 
from the same cause. A theatre to seat 500 persons 
had before that time been erected, the drawing schools 
were most successful, and the museum, which was in 
reality the National Museum of Ireland, was visited 
by 30,000 persons during the year. 

Lord Downshire wrote to the Society on the 9th of 
March 1830, recalling the fact that, in the year 1800, 
the agricultural department had been handed over to the 
newly established Farming Society, which had under- 
taken the duties until 1828, when its Parliamentary 
grant was withdrawn and that Society came to an end. 
He pointed out how seriously the want of an efficient 
society for the improvement of agriculture was felt in 
the province of Leinster, and thought it would be well 
worthy of consideration whether the Society might not 
again take up this subject, especially as Leinster House 
and the premises around afforded every accommoda- 



248 A HISTORY OF 

tion. As a result of Lord Downshire's appeal, the 
chief agricultural work of the Society took its present 
form. A new special committee, named the " Com- 
mittee of Agriculture and Planting," was formed, and 
circulars were addressed to the secretaries of agricul- 
tural societies in Ireland, inviting co-operation. It was 
decided to hold a show of live stock in the yard, 
Kildare street, which was held on the 26th and 27th of 
April, as well as one for horses, which was held on the 
28th of April 1830. Prizes of only £5 were offered 
for horses, and £2 f° r draught stallions of any breed, 
and similar amounts for Spanish asses. The show was 
said to have been most creditable in point of number and 
excellence of the cattle exhibited. The prizes amounted 
to ^100; expenses were under ^50, and receipts for 
admission totalled £41, so that the actual outlay on 
the undertaking was only £110. The spring cattle 
show has been continued yearly, and is now one of the 
leading cattle shows of the United Kingdom. 

On the 4th of November 1830, the Society passed 
a vote of condolence with King William the Fourth, on 
the death of his predecessor, and of congratulation on 
his own accession to the throne. 

It was decided to erect a bust, by Sievier, of the 
Marquis of Anglesey, who had just resigned the office 
of Lord Lieutenant. This bust now stands in the 
reception-room, and portion of the inscription, on a 
small marble tablet placed over it, runs as follows : 

PAUCIBUS E MILLIBUS HIBERNIS 

ADMIRANTIBUS HANC 

EFFIGIEM MARMOREAM 

IN TESTIMONIUM GRATI ANIMI 

PONENDAM CURAVERUNT. 

His successor, the Duke of Northumberland, and 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 249 

the Duchess, were elected honorary members, and his 
Grace was asked to sit for his bust in London, to an 
Irish artist, who had been educated in the schools. A 
farewell address was presented to them, on the termina- 
tion of the Duke's term of office, for their patronage 
and attention in sometimes visiting the establishment. 

The death of Dr. John Beatty, one of the secre- 
taries, was announced on the 30th of June 1 83 1 . 

At the end of the year a special committee reported 
that under existing circumstances some modification of 
the mode of admission of members had become neces- 
sary, and early in 1832 Mr. Isaac Weld, secretary, was 
entrusted with a special mission to the Treasury, as 
to the general affairs and financial condition of the 
Society, when he was asked to take with him a copy 
of his Observations on the Royal Dublin Society, and 
its existing Institutions (1831); of which 500 copies 
had been printed. 1 

In 1836 a letter was received, asking the Society 
to appoint a deputation to confer with the Chief 
Secretary, Lord Morpeth, as to certain modifications in 
its constitution, in the transaction of its business, and 
in the apportionment of its income. By order of the 
Lord Lieutenant, propositions were laid before the 
Society, which will be found at large in Proceedings, 
vol. xxii. p. 108. Shortly, the chief points were as 
follows: — 1, Admission to the Society to be by a 
majority of the members, the mode of voting to be 
left to that body. 2, A composition sum of £20 to 
be paid on entrance, and £2 annual subscription. 
3, Annual subscribers to be admitted as then, under 
by-law No. 12, with an annual payment of £2, 
instead of three guineas. 4, The governing body to 
be a Council of twenty-three, chosen yearly from among 
1 Haliday Collection, 1831, mdxi. 13. 



250 A HISTORY OF 

the members. 5, Five to be vice-presidents, chosen 
yearly. Ten members of the Council to retire yearly, 
and not to be re-eligible for a year. 7, Lists of the 
committees to be prepared by the Council, and sub- 
mitted to the members at a general meeting. 8, 
Officers to be proposed by the Council, and nominated 
by the Society. 9, The accounts to be audited and 
published yearly. 11, Committees to make annual 
reports. 15, Purchases of books, &c, to be limited to 
publications suited to a literary and scientific institu- 
tion ; no newspapers to be taken in the house. The 
above named points included all that was then in issue 
between the Government and the Society, which finally 
led up to the Special Commission of 1836, and the 
enquiries made under it. Great jealousy prevailed 
among the members at any interference by the Govern- 
ment with the private regulations, which they con- 
ceived the Society had full power to make under its 
charter. 

In connection with these propositions, the Dublin 
Evening Mail of the 24th of February 1836, contained 
an attack on the Lord Lieutenant, in the shape of a letter 
from Dr. Anthony Meyler, which attempted to involve 
the Society — an attempt which it altogether disavowed. 
In its reply, the Society said that His Excellency's pro- 
positions had only been considered, and amendments 
had been merely proposed. The Society agreed that 
election was to be by ballot, and fees were to remain as 
at present. A Council as a governing body it could 
not agree to, and accordingly propositions Nos. 5, 6, 7, 
8, 12, and part of 3, could not be entertained. In 
reply, His Excellency regretted that the Society had 
given him so little help, and said that the Government 
would now find it necessary to take into consideration 
the question of the renewal of the annual grant. On 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 251 

this the Society felt called on to explain that in their 
negotiation they were not influenced by political feel- 
ings. This accusation had been made against them in 
consequence of the Most Rev. Dr. Murray, Roman 
Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, having been rejected 
as a candidate for admission. He was proposed by 
John R. Corballis, ll.d., and seconded by the Rev. Dr. 
Sandes, s.f.t.c.d., and there was a very large attend- 
ance on the occasion, when it was evident that, for 
purely political reasons, an organised opposition to the 
Archbishop's election had been set on foot. A short 
time before, His Grace had written a public political 
letter, on which a threat of excluding him from the 
Society having been made, some members connected with 
the Castle party, which was then opposed to the Society's 
regulations, openly stated that if this took place the 
Government grant would be withheld. This effort to 
prevent a number of independent men from exercising 
their discretion created a great deal of feeling, and 
undoubtedly contributed largely to Dr. Murray's re- 
jection, which created a very great sensation in Dublin, 
His Grace being personally popular with all classes. 
Dr. Murray wrote the Society a very dignified letter, 
which was ordered to be entered on the minutes. 

Mr. Naper, v. p., and Mr. Hamilton were believed 
to have conducted private and confidential communi- 
cations with the Lord Lieutenant, and, through want 
of experience, and ignorance of the constitution of the 
Society, both being very new members, they were 
thought to have influenced His Excellency unfavour- 
ably. They acted without authority from the Society, 
and, while acquitting them of anything but the best 
motives, a great majority of the members thought that 
the hostile attitude of the Government was due in a 
great measure to their ill-timed interference. Mr. 



252 A HISTORY OF 

Naper made a special statement to the committee, and 
contradicted the utterances of some of the witnesses. 
These circumstances precipitated the outcome of the 
differences between Government and the Society, for 
on the 31st of March 1836, a Select Committee of 
the House of Commons to enquire into its management 
was appointed. 

Before closing this chapter, and entering on the 
history of the Society under the new conditions which 
resulted from the report of the committee, there are 
a few matters of interest which must not be omitted. 

In 1832, John D' Alton, author of the History oj 
the County oj Dublin > made a communication as to 
Irish manuscripts supposed to be preserved in Copen- 
hagen. He stated that no original documents from 
the time of the Danes or Ostmen who invaded this 
country, were to be found anywhere in Denmark. Many 
interesting comments on Ireland and its inhabitants, 
relating to migrations of the Irish in the ninth century 
to Iceland, where they introduced Christianity, were, 
however, to be found dispersed in old Scandinavian 
works. Professor Magnussen, keeper of the records, 
had offered to collect all such passages and to supply 
Latin translations. He reported that there were old 
manuscripts at Copenhagen, dealing with the cycle of 
King Arthur, and giving accounts of his court ; and 
said that the King of Denmark in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign was believed to have written informing her of the 
existence of Irish manuscripts in his library, and offering 
facilities for copying them. 

About this period, the committee of agriculture 
and planting offered premiums for — 1, The best essay 
on the consolidation of farms, and maintaining in 
Ireland the mixed system of plough and spade industry. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 253 

2, For the best account of the state of husbandry in 
Connaught, in the districts afflicted with famine in 
1 83 1, and for suggestions as to practical means of 
improvement. 3, For best proposal for laying down 
ground to permanent pasture. 4, For schemes for 
allotting to the greatest number of cottages a quantity 
of land not less than one acre, Irish. 6, For the best 
account of actual experience of the quantity of land 
required to support a labourer's family with vegetables 
and potatoes, and to enable him to keep a pig and 
cow all the year. 7, For best method of fattening 
cattle. 8, For rearing poultry; and 9, converting peat 
into fuel. The Society's gold medal for erection of 
the greatest number of cottages and allocation of land 
to them was won by Lieutenant-Colonel Close, of 
Drumbanagher ; and a prize essay by Mr. W. Blacker 
on the management of landed property in Ireland is 
printed as an appendix to Proceedings, vol. lxx. 

In 1833 a committee was appointed to report on a 
proposed establishment, under the Society's auspices, 
of a yearly exhibition of specimens of the manufac- 
tures and products of Ireland, and it was also pro- 
posed to form a General Agricultural Association of 
Ireland. 

The committee of agriculture, in 1835, reported 
that since the Royal Dublin Society had shown an in- 
clination to resume her part in agriculture and hus- 
bandry, five times as many members had been enrolled. 
They now particularly v/ished to collect information 
as to the mode of agriculture pursued by the peasantry 
and the best means of improving it, to urge local 
societies to communicate with them, to establish 
museums of seeds, models, and machinery, and to 
elect a professor of agriculture to deliver lectures. 



254 A HISTORY OF 

In 1836, premiums were offered for plans and 
estimates for farmhouses and cottages, when fifteen 
guineas were awarded to W. D. Butler, architect, 73 
St. Stephen's Green, and ten guineas to Ninian Niven, 
curator, Botanic Garden. 

A committee was appointed to invite the British 
Association to meet in 1835 in Dublin. The invita- 
tion was accepted, and the Association met here on the 
10th of August in that year, under the presidency of 
Dr. Bartholomew Lloyd, provost of Trinity College, 
the retiring president being Sir Thomas Brisbane. 
Trinity College was the meeting place of the Associa- 
tion, and Captain Sir John Ross and Sir John Franklin, 
Arctic explorers, attended this meeting. During its 
session the geological and geographical sections occupied 
the theatre and secretaries' office, in Leinster House, 
while those of zoology and botany were accommodated 
in the board and conversation rooms. The Royal 
Dublin Society gave a dejeuner at the Botanic Garden, 
which was attended by 1300 guests. Sir Thomas 
Brisbane expressed the opinion that the Association's 
meeting in Dublin was by far the most brilliant of 
any as yet held, and the city was highly complimented 
on all the arrangements made for its reception. 

From about this period, the principal scientific 
work of the Society began to take its present form. 
Evening meetings for the advancement of science and 
diffusion of useful knowledge by discussion began to 
be held monthly, in which members of the Royal 
Irish Academy, the Zoological, Geological, Arbori- 
cultural and Horticultural Societies were invited to 
take part. The first meeting was held on the 26th of 
January 1836, Baron Foster occupying the chair; Pro- 
fessor Davy lectured, and Dr. Coulter exhibited the 
cone of the Pinus Coulteri and Pinus Lambertii. Mr. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 255 

Clibborn exhibited a table of electricity on the bifur- 
cate mode, and Dr. Kane spoke on the interference of 
sonorous waves. Dr. (afterwards Sir) Robert J. Kane 
had been elected professor of natural philosophy in 
1834, a post which he held until 1847. He was born 
in Dublin in 1809, an d became a physician, founding 
in 1832 the Dublin Journal of Medical Science. Kane 
published, in 1841, Elements of Chemistry, theoretical 
and f radical. He also edited the Philosophical Maga- 
zine, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1849, in which year he was appointed President of 
Queen's College, Cork. Kane paid great attention to 
Irish industries, and wrote on the industrial resources 
of the country. When the Museum of Irish Industry 
was founded in St. Stephen's Green, he became its 
director. Sir Robert Kane obtained the gold medal 
of the Royal Irish Academy for his researches in 
chemistry, and in 1877 he was elected its president. 
A portrait of him hangs in the Academy House. 

During the last few years had been elected as 
honorary members, Sir Robert Seppings, bart., com- 
missioner of the navy, for his great scientific improve- 
ments in building ships of war and other vessels ; Sir 
Martin Archer Shee, who, in his reply to the com- 
munication announcing his election, stated that, having 
been a student of the schools, he would ever revere 
the names of Morgan Crofton, Thomas Braughall (1), 
and Burton Conyngham, who exerted themselves with 
zeal and patriotism in the cause of art ; William 
Rowan Hamilton (2), professor of astronomy, and 
Sir Frederick Madden, librarian of the British Museum, 
were also elected honorary members. Among the 
ordinary members admitted occur the names of Charles 
Haliday (3), and the Rev. James Henthorn Todd, 
f.t.c.d (4), 



256 A HISTORY OF 

1. In the reception-room, Leinster House, is a small 
portrait of Thomas Braughall, by Comerford, the label on 
which states that he was an active member of the Society 
for many years, and an honorary secretary from 1792 
to 1798. Among the Haliday Pamphlets (1803), mcccxxxviii. 
3, is an elegy inscribed to the memory of Thomas 
Braughall. 

2. Sir William Rowan Hamilton was born in Dublin in 
1805, and in 1827 became Royal Astronomer for Ireland. 
He was not only a great mathematician and metaphysician, 
but also a poet. Hamilton twice obtained the gold medal 
of the Royal Society — on the first occasion for his great 
optical discovery as to systems of rays, which disclosed a 
new science of optics, involving as it did the discovery of 
two laws of light ; on the second occasion for his theory of 
a general method of dynamics. His very important work, 
Lectures on Quaternions appeared in 1853. In 1837 Hamil- 
ton was elected President of the Royal Irish Academy. 
From early youth he was distinguished as a linguist, and he 
wrote many poems and sonnets. Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
and Southey were numbered among his personal friends. 
Sir William died in 1865, and the Rev. Robert P. Graves 
published a memoir of him, in two volumes. 

3. Charles Haliday, merchant, born in Dublin in 1789, 
was a member of the corporation for improving the harbour 
of Dublin, and superintending the lighthouses on the Irish 
coast. Haliday published a number of pamphlets on social 
questions. He was a deeply-read antiquarian, and, after his 
death, Mr. J. P. Prendergast edited his Scandinavian Kingdom 
of Dublin, which was the substance of two learned com- 
munications made by Haliday to the Royal Irish Academy. 
He died in 1866, and after his death Mrs. Haliday pre- 
sented to the Academy her husband's splendid collection of 
pamphlets and tracts relating to Ireland, together with 
his portrait. The tracts extend from the year 1578 to 
1859, and the pamphlets from 1682 to 1859, t ^ ie f° rmer 
being comprised in 543 boxes, and the latter in 2209 
volumes. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 257 

4. James Henthorn Todd, senior fellow of Trinity 
College, and regius professor of Hebrew in the University 
of Dublin, was born in 1805. His life was devoted to the 
improvement of the condition of the Irish Church, and the 
promotion of learning among its clergy, and he founded 
St. Columba's College, Rathfarnham. As librarian of 
Trinity College, Dr. Todd arranged its rich collection of 
Irish manuscripts, and brought the library to a high state 
of efficiency. He founded the Irish Archaeological Society, 
for which he edited the Irish version of the Historia 
Britonum of Nennius, and (in conjunction with Dr. Reeves) 
the Martyrology of Donegal ; also the Liber Hymnorum, or 
book of hymns of the ancient Irish Church. His edition 
of Wars of the Gaedhil with the Gaill y in the Rolls Series, 
appeared in 1867. Dr. Todd was elected President of the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1856, and his portrait is in the 
Academy's collection. After his death in 1869, a "Todd 
Lectureship," to be attached to the Academy, was founded 
in his memory, a post which has been held by several dis- 
tinguished Irish scholars. 



2 5 8 A HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XVI 

SELECT COMMITTEE ON THE SOCIETY, ITS 

REPORT, AND THE NEW CONSTITUTION 

(1836-1838) 

It was ordered by the House of Commons on the 
23rd of March 1836, that a select committee be ap- 
pointed to enquire into the administration of the 
Royal Dublin Society, with a view to a wider extension 
of the advantages of the annual parliamentary grant 
to that Institution, when the following members were 
appointed on it : 

Mr. William Smith O'Brien Mr. More O'Ferrall. 

(who took the chair). Mr. Anthony Lefroy. 

Lord Viscount Acheson. Mr. George Evans. 

Lord Francis Egerton. Mr. Vesey. 

Mr. Sharman Crawford. Mr. Bellew. 

Mr. Dunbar. Mr. William Stuart. 

Mr. Wyse. Lord Viscount Sandon. 

Mr. Jephson. Mr. Robert Stewart. 

Lord Acheson, Lord Sandon, and Mr. Bellew were 
discharged from attendance, and Captain Jones, Mr. 
Dillwyn, and Mr. Serjeant Jackson were added to 
the committee. It sat from the 20th of April to the 
10th of June 1836, and the following witnesses were 
examined : Isaac Weld, honorary secretary, Robert 
Hutton, Charles William Hamilton, Richard Griffith, 
William Harty, m.d., Samuel Litton, m.d., professor 
of botany, and Captain Joseph E. Portlock. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 259 

Mr. Weld described the origin, objects, and con- 
stitution of the Society, detailed the history of the 
premium system, and the Society's dealings v/ith manu- 
facturers, and with persons engaged in agriculture ; 
also its dealings with regard to employment of the 
poor, reclamation of bogs, planting, fisheries, the fine 
arts, the Leskean museum, and the Botanic Garden. 
His evidence also dealt with the library, the statis- 
tical surveys of counties, and the J rafts actions of the 
Society, and he reviewed the lectures and scientific 
meetings. 

Mr. Hutton was particularly examined as to the 
working of the committees, and as to membership, and 
the exclusion of the Most Rev. Dr. Murray, which he 
conceived to have been brought about by party com- 
bination, and as an expression of political feeling ; also 
as to the parliamentary grant, the officers of the Society, 
and the lectures. 

Mr. C. W. Hamilton gave evidence as to the agri- 
cultural side of the Society. He also spoke of the 
violence of party feeling in it at the time, and explained 
that such umbrage was taken at the interference of 
Government, that a majority of the members would 
certainly oppose the changes indicated. 

Mr. Griffith was examined as to the management 
of the Society, committees, &c, and specially as to 
the value of the lectures. He said that men like Sir 
Humphry Davy were invited to lecture on the ground 
that they might explain their own discoveries. 

Dr. Harty gave evidence as to the special objects 
of the Society from its foundation, and as to the 
high standing of large numbers of the members ; also 
as to its various professors, and he added some interest- 
ing remarks on Arthur Young, and his visit to Ireland 
in 1776-7. 



2 6o A HISTORY OF 

Dr. Litton spoke as to the Botanic Garden, the 
lectures, &c. ; and Captain Portlock, who had been 
connected with the Geological Survey of Ireland, 
gave his views as to the museum. 

Each witness gave general evidence on the special 
points which the committee tried to elucidate, and 
much of it is of extreme interest. Finally a report 
was agreed to, which was ordered to be printed on the 
14th July 1836. The following resolutions were 
also come to : 

1. That this committee is not in a situation to 
pronounce any opinion upon the legal question, how 
far the property of the Royal Dublin Society, partly 
acquired by former parliamentary grants, and partly 
out of the funds arising from private subscriptions, 
be of the nature of public property, but they are of 
opinion that it is expedient that, in reference to future 
parliamentary grants, it should be fully understood 
that the members composing that Society are to be con- 
sidered as trustees, administering a public fund, and 
not as entitled to an absolute right of proprietorship 
in the property acquired by means of such parlia- 
mentary grants ; and, in reference to the existing pro- 
perty, that a clear and distinct guarantee should be given 
by the Society that the public should be entitled to the 
full and entire use of that property as at present enjoyed. 

2. That it is expedient that the admission of all 
respectable individuals to a participation in the advan- 
tages arising from the parliamentary grant to the 
Royal Dublin Society is most desirable, and in order 
to guard against the capricious exercise of the power of 
rejection, it is advisable that its by-laws should be 
reconsidered, and " that hereafter no individual be 
excluded, notwithstanding one-third of the members 
present may have voted for his rejection unless at least 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 261 

forty members shall have voted against his admission " ; 
and as regards the admission fee, that it be left optional 
whether the candidate shall pay a life composition of 
twenty guineas, or a fee of five guineas and two guineas 
annual subscription, and that persons admitted on 
these terms shall cease to be members, if at any time 
their annual subscriptions shall be one year in arrear, 
unless the party so in arrear shall make a declaration 
in writing to the Council that he has been absent from 
the kingdom during the period for which the arrear 
has been incurred. 

That associate subscribers should be admitted to 
the Society for the term of one year, upon the recom- 
mendation of two members of the Council, or payment 
of two guineas, which payment must be made at the 
time of admission. 

3. That the management of the ordinary business 
of the Society should be confided to a Council, but 
that it may be competent for thirty members to call a 
general meeting of the Society, when any subject of 
importance requires consideration, upon giving a notice 
by advertisement at least fourteen days previous to the 
day of meeting, of the time at which it will be held, 
and of the subjects to be entertained. 

That no such meeting shall be called between the 
1st of August and the 1st of November, and that 
there shall be no adjournment of such meeting without 
a new notice. 

That the Council should be formed by the union 
of the following committees, each of which should 
consist of three members, elected by the Society ; one 
member of each committee to go out annually ; and 
that the Council should be empowered to associate 
with each committee not more than three members of 
the Council : — 



262 A HISTORY OF 

i . Committee of Fine Arts. 

2. Committee of Natural Philosophy and its applica- 

tion to the Useful Arts. 

3. Committee of Chemistry and its application to 

the Useful Arts. 

4. Committee of Mineralogy and Geology, and 

its application to the Useful Arts. 

5. Committee of Botany and Natural History. 

6. Committee of Agriculture. 

7. Committee of Statistics. 

8. Committee of Accounts and Domestic Arrange- 

ments. 

That at an early period in each year an estimate 
should be presented for sanction to a general meeting 
of the Society, of the expenditure which will be re- 
quired in each department of the Society's operations, 
and that no deviation from that estimate should take 
place to an extent greater than ^50, in the province 
of any one committee, without the sanction of the 
Society at large, except upon any extraordinary occasion, 
when the consent of the Treasury shall be required. 

That it should be the duty of each committee to 
report to the Council upon all matters relating to the 
department over which it presides ; and that all recom- 
mendations emanating from the committees should be 
subject to the final sanction of the whole Council. 

4. That the Dublin Society should be considered 
as the great central association for the diffusion through- 
out Ireland of a knowledge of practical science, and 
of all improvements in agriculture, horticulture, and 
the arts ; and that it should place itself in communi- 
cation with all local societies, founded with a view to 
similar objects, affording to them assistance, encourage- 
ment, and information, and receiving from them in 
return periodical reports of their proceedings. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 263 

5. That the Dublin Society should be enabled, 
upon application, to send down qualified persons to 
give lectures in the provincial towns, whenever the 
travelling expenses of the lecturer, and a reasonable 
proportion of his remuneration shall be locally sub- 
scribed by the parties making the application. 

6. That the Botanic Garden should be made as 
much as possible a school for young gardeners seeking 
instruction in horticulture. 

7. That the museum, the Botanic Garden, and 
the Lawn should be open to the public for study or 
enjoyment, under regulations to be framed by the 
Council. 

8. That books should not be lent out of the 
library, and that, for the convenience of persons desir- 
ous to consult the books in the library, a reading- 
room should be appointed, to which persons not 
belonging to the Society should have access by special 
permission of the Council. 

9. That the public should be gratuitously admitted 
to at least one of the courses of lectures, given 
by each professor, during the year ; and that such 
gratuitous course should be given in the evening, in 
order to encourage the attendance of persons engaged 
during the day in industrious occupation. 

10. That each committee should periodically 
publish reports of its proceedings, and that the Council 
should, by selection from the papers read at the evening 
scientific meetings, or by the compilation of such other 
interesting and useful information as they may think it 
desirable to communicate to the public, cause to be 
printed, from time to time, publications which should 
be accessible to the public by purchase. 

1 1 . That newspapers and political periodicals should 
no longer be taken into the Society's rooms, whether 



264 A HISTORY OF 

procured by special private subscription, or paid for out 
of the general funds of the Society. 

12. That measures should be taken for securing 
increased activity and efficiency in the management of 
all the schools, and that they should be made instru- 
mental rather in giving instruction in the useful and 
the mechanical departments of the arts, than in those 
which are purely ornamental. 

13. That in order to form a National Museum 
adequate to the public wants, it is necessary to provide 
larger accommodation for the exhibition of objects than 
the present rooms of the Dublin Society are capable of 
affording, and that such increased accommodation can 
with advantage be provided by an extension of the 
buildings of the Society's present house. 

On the 3rd of November 1 846, the special committee 
of the Society reported on the foregoing resolutions, and, 
as to the first, submitted that it ought not to surrender 
its property, but should abide by the charter. With 
respect to the annual grant, the committee stated that 
it was administered as stated in the estimate, approved 
by the Treasury, and absorbed in the expenditure of 
the year. 

As to No. 2, it agreed that the by-laws should be 
altered, so as to give effect to the recommendations. 

As to No. 3, the Society was willing to adopt it, 
so far as to confide the ordinary business of the Society 
to a Council, provided the powers of such Council 
were strictly defined and limited, so as not to exclude 
the direct control over its proceedings on the part of 
the Society at large. Committees of management 
should be appointed under the following heads : — 

1. Botany and Horticulture. 

2. Chemistry, with its application to the useful 

arts. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 265 

3. Natural Philosophy and Mechanics. 

4. Natural History, Geology, Mineralogy, and 

charge of the Museum. 

5. Fine Arts. 

6. Library. 

7. Agriculture and Husbandry. 

8. Manufactures. 

9. Statistics. 

The committees should be chosen annually by 
ballot ; each committee to choose its own chairman, 
who, with one other member fit to be elected by each 
committee respectively, should be members of the 
Council. The Council to consist of the seven vice- 
presidents, the two honorary secretaries, the chairman, 
and one other member of each committee, and of nine 
members to be elected by ballot, by and from the 
Society at large. Monthly meetings to be held in 
addition to the stated general meetings directed by 
the charter, for special purposes. 

No. 4. The Society wished to act most fully on 
this recommendation. 

No. 5. This suggestion was recommended when- 
ever local institutions took the necessary steps. 

No. 6. This should be fully adopted ; and in part 
it had been anticipated by the Society. 

No. 7. The museum and Botanic Garden have 
been open to the public, subject to regulations. It 
should be left to the Council to adopt further 
rules. 

No. 8. Lending out scientific books to members 
should not be continued, except as the library com- 
mittee deem proper. It would not be expedient to 
discontinue it in all cases, and the Society should 
procure such a reading-room as is described in the 
resolution. 



266 A HISTORY OF 

No. 9. It has always been the practice to admit 
the public to the lectures gratuitously, and the evening 
courses should be again tried, in deference to the 
committee's wish. 

No. 10. This resolution was recommended. 

No. 1 1 . The committee thought that the exclusion 
of newspapers would hardly be reconcilable with the 
desire for information as to every branch of science, 
arts, manufactures, and agriculture. The reduction 
of the stamp duties encouraged the reading of papers, 
and it would seem inconsistent to deprive members 
of this advantage. The committee found that it 
could not recommend a discontinuance of the practice, 
but thought that perhaps newspapers should not be 
purchased out of public money. 

No. 12. This resolution was recommended. 

No. 13. The Society would gladly co-operate in 
attaining the objects mentioned in this recommenda- 
tion, but, in order to carry them out, a consider- 
able extension of its pecuniary means would be 
necessary. 

The entire of this report of the committee was 
adopted by the Society, and copies were sent to the 
Treasury and the Chief Secretary. A special committee 
to prepare by-laws in accordance with the new situation 
was also appointed. A Treasury minute required a 
specific admission from the Society with regard to the 
right of ownership mentioned in the first resolution, and 
in reply, the Society declared that it did not claim the 
right of disposing of its property for the advantage of 
members, or for objects foreign to those for which it 
was incorporated. The Society admitted that the pro- 
perty was held as a public trust, for the public benefit, 
with a view to the objects for which the charter had 
been obtained. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 267 

In volume lxxiv. of the Proceedings, appendix ii., 
pp. 9-36, will be found by-laws of the Society, as 
they stood, on the confirmation of those agreed to 
on the 9th, 16th, and 23rd of November 1837, at the 
stated General Meeting in March 1838. 

Under them the management of the business of 
the Society was to be confided to a Council, the 
powers of such Council to be strictly, as hereafter, 
limited and defined, and subject to the direct control 
over the proceedings upon the part of the Society at 
large. It was to consist of the seven vice-presidents, 
two honorary secretaries, the chairman and one other 
member of each committee, and nine members who 
were to be elected by ballot. This Council was to 
meet weekly, and to keep minutes of its proceed- 
ings. Under a by-law of November 1838, its meet- 
ings were to be open to members of the Society, 
but they were to be without power of speaking or 
voting. 

The following were the first members who were 
elected on the 26th of April 1838 by the committees, 
to serve on the Council : 

Agriculture and Husbandry . { ^JS^""*""* 

Botany and Horticulture . • { S^ ""' ^'"^ 

r i „ •_ f „, f Dr. Meyler, Chairman. 

Chemistry » w - 1i; ' wlInne 



I William Will 



ans. 



Fine Arts { George Cash, Chairman. 

V Daniel McKay. 
T ;k-,„, / E. R- P- Colles, Chairman. 

Llbrary I Richard Hemphill. 

Manufactures { Sir Edward Stanley, Cft«> 

I B. B. Johnston, 



man. 



man. 



Natural History and Museum { {£' ^f^ Y ' Chai? 

Natural Philosophy and Me- / Henry Adair, Chairman. 

chanics I. Edward Clibborn. 

c tot ; ct ;„ c / Sir William Betham, Chairman. 

btatlstlCS I William Smith. 



268 A HISTORY OF 

The following nine members were elected by ballot 
to serve on the Council : 

Henry Carey. John Hughes. 

William Smith. Edward Tierney. 

R. M. Peile. Villiers B. Fowler. 

J. H. Orpen, M.D. Ambrose Smith. 
Wm. Harty, M.D. 

The Council presented its first report to the Society 
on the 8th of November 1838, which stated that the 
Council was engaged in carrying into effect the object 
of the Treasury communication as to delivery of 
lectures in provincial tov/ns by the professors. Pro- 
fessor Davy lectured in Portarlington and Wicklow, 
and Dr. Kane in Galway, the former on chemistry, 
and the latter on natural philosophy. The Council 
had the satisfaction of reporting to the Society that 
its establishment was in a vigorous and active state. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 269 



CHAPTER XVII 

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY {continued) 
(1836-1877) 

The evening scientific meetings continued to be held, 
and at the first of the series in November 1836, Baron 
Foster occupying the chair, Dr. Scouler exhibited 
specimens of lignites and silicified woods from the 
neighbourhood of Lough Neagh, on which he made 
observations. Dr. Kane exhibited a modification of 
Faraday's electro-magnetic apparatus, invented by Pro- 
fessor Callan of Maynooth. At the meeting in May 
1837, Mr. Clibborn read a long paper on the theory 
and practical results of the banking system in America, 
which is printed in full in the Proceedings, vol. lxxiii. 
appendix viii. In December 1837, Dr. Kane presented 
specimens of books printed in raised letters, for the use 
of the blind, and explained the merits of each system ; 
and in 1838, Mr. Grubb read a paper on the com- 
parative and defining powers of different telescopes, 
and the disappearance of stars, when great magnifying 
power is used. Dr. Kane explained the electro- 
magnetic telegraph used in Munich, and Mr. Colles 
read a paper on street architecture. Later, Dr. Scouler 
discoursed on the dolomites, or beds of magnesian 
limestone, found in some parts of Ireland, and Mr. 
Rigby read a paper on the rifling of gun barrels. In 
January 1839, when the Lord Lieutenant was present, 
Professor Davy gave an account of two new gaseous 



270 A HISTORY OF 

compounds of carbon and hydrogen ; while Sir 
William Betham addressed the audience on the ad- 
vantages to be derived from the study of antiquities, 
and Dr. Wilde made some observations on fisheries. 
These meetings were the precursors of the scientific 
meetings which have since become so important a 
feature in the Society. 

In 1838, Philip Crampton (1), surgeon-general, in 
recognition of the talent displayed in his lectures on the 
importance of the study of zoology, and Isaac Butt (2), 
professor of political economy in Trinity College, for 
his lecture on the importance of the study of zoology 
in connection with civilisation, were elected honorary 
members. 

1. Philip Crampton was born in Dublin in 1777, and in 
1798 became Surgeon to the Meath Hospital, where he estab- 
lished a great reputation as a skilful operator, ready and full 
of resource. He was appointed surgeon-general to the Forces 
in Ireland, and at a later period, surgeon in ordinary to the 
Queen, and in 1839 a baronetcy was conferred on him. 
Crampton was much interested in zoology, and may be con- 
sidered one of the founders of the Zoological Gardens in 
Dublin. A paper of his on the " Eyes of Birds being accom- 
modated to different distances," obtained his election to 
fellowship of the Royal Society. Sir Philip Crampton died 
in 1858. 



2. Isaac Butt was born in the county Donegal in 181 3. 
Having been called to the Bar, he founded the Dublin Univer- 
sity Magazine, of which he was editor, 1 834-1 841. Butt held 
the post of professor of political economy in the University 
of Dublin from 1 836-1 841, and always took a prominent 
part in politics, being the recognised champion of the Con- 
servative party. He defended Smith O'Brien in the State 
trials of 1848, and in 1852 became m.p. for Harwich, after- 
wards representing Youghal from 1 852-1 865, both in the 
Conservative interest. The Fenian prisoners were defended 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 271 

by him, and, soon after, Butt changed his politics, being 
elected m.p. for Limerick in 1871, as a Home Ruler. He 
published works on the Irish Corporation Bill, on Zoology and 
Civilisation, Transfer of Land, National Education, Deep 
Sea Fisheries, and Irish Federation. Butt died in 1879. 

On the 7th of June 1838, the Society adjourned as 
a mark of respect to the memory of the Right Hon. 
Henry Joy, chief baron of the Exchequer, a vice- 
president, whose death was that day announced. 
Miss Joy, the chief baron's sister, presented to the 
Society his collection of minerals, which had been 
arranged by Sir Charles Giesecke, and was very valu- 
able. 

The Spring cattle show, held in April 1838, was 
the most successful hitherto held — " all the space 
the extensive cattle yard afforded being fully occu- 
pied," and the quality of the stock being the universal 
theme of admiration. 

The exhibition of manufactures held in May also 
showed a great improvement in many branches, the 
number of visitors amounting to 20,000, and much 
greater space having to be allotted to exhibitors than 
was the case at the exhibition of 1835. The com- 
mittee of the exhibition resolved to grant but one 
gold medal, which was awarded to Mr. Grubb, for 
his transit instrument, the first of the kind ever 
manufactured in Ireland. On each day that the 
exhibition remained open, Dr. Kane lectured to a 
crowded auditory in the theatre, on some branch of 
art or manufacture. 

Great injury was done to the stable offices at 
Leinster House by the great storm of January 1839, 
and a considerable part of the boundary wall of the 
Botanic Garden, between the entrance gate and Glas- 
nevin bridge, was blown down. 



272 A HISTORY OF 

Henry Cotton, dean of Lismore and archdeacon of 
Cashel, was admitted a member of the Society. Cotton 
was born in Buckinghamshire in 1789, and for a time 
held the post of sub-librarian of the Bodleian library. 
In 1823, he came to Ireland as chaplain to his father- 
in-law, Dr. Lawrence, archbishop of Cashel. His Fasti 
Ecclesiae Hiberniae, in five volumes, which appeared 
between 1848 and i860, is a most valuable compila- 
tion, that must have cost him much labour. That 
work did for Ireland what Le Neve's had done for 
England, and Cotton's short memoirs of the various 
dignitaries of the church have proved very useful. 
Cotton also published a List of Editions of the Bible 
f rinted between 1505 and 1820, and Obsolete Words 
in our Version of the Bible. Archdeacon Cotton died 
in 1879. 

The Council reported in May, that additional build- 
ings for the departments of agriculture, manufac- 
tures, and natural history had become absolutely 
necessary. It was proposed to alter the long range of 
buildings in the cattle yard by raising the walls, and 
lighting them from the roof, which would give a suite 
of rooms 220 feet in length. A number of additional 
sheds for cattle were also contemplated. Considering 
all the alterations that were peremptorily demanded, 
the Council agreed that ^4000 would be necessary, 
and that sum was voted. Steps were also taken for 
planting the lawn, screening off the statue gallery, and 
concealing the stables by a plantation. The parapet 
wall was also removed, and the unsightly ditch next 
Merrion square filled up. The balustrade and entrance 
from Merrion square were supplied at that time. 

In July 1 841, R. Butler Bryan died, and Mr. 
Lundy E. Foot, barrister, was elected as secretary in his 
room. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 273 

The first six months of the year 1841 formed a 
very anxious time for the Society, for, having settled 
down under its new conditions, and having, as was 
supposed, complied with most, if not quite all, of the 
recommendations of the Select Committee of the House 
of Commons, the members were suddenly confronted 
with a letter from the Chief Secretary, dated the 17th 
of December 1840, conveying the Lord Lieutenant's 
opinion that the recommendations had been but im- 
perfectly carried out. A long correspondence ensued, 
and the points to which special attention was called 
were the continuance of the newsroom, and the prin- 
ciple of an annual subscription not having been 
adopted. Certain propositions were enclosed, the 
adoption of which would prevent future collision 
between the Executive and the Society. The Society 
was to consist of two sections, having the house, 
library, theatre, museums, &c, in common, the one 
to promote chemistry, geology, mineralogy, &c, 
and the other section agriculture, botany, arts, and 
manufactures. The members of each section were to 
be elected as hitherto, but, instead of £21 payment, the 
admission fee was to be £i 9 with an annual subscrip- 
tion of £i, or a life composition of £10. A number 
of other propositions were submitted, but the above 
named, and one, that no newspaper or newsroom was 
to be permitted, were the principal. There was an 
implied threat that the parliamentary grant might be 
withdrawn, should the Society not see its way to 
compliance. As a matter of fact, the Society never 
considered these two recommendations of the Select 
Committee as of such paramount importance, and never 
thought the report so mandatory as to exclude all 
exercise of judgment on its part in matters of detail. 
The Government had not offered any opinion on the 

s 



274 A HISTORY OF 

changes of the system, save by a Treasury letter for 
issue of the balance of the grant then due. No ob- 
jections having been since raised, and the grants being 
continued, the Society naturally inferred that the 
Government acquiesced in the newspapers being re- 
tained. The Lord Lieutenant admitted that he had 
been mistaken as to the admission of annual subscribers, 
as the Society had adopted the principle in the precise 
terms recommended by the committee. He con- 
sidered it essential that the newsroom should not be 
continued, and that an annual subscription equivalent 
to the life composition should be fixed. 

With regard to the new proposals, the Society 
thought that the existence of two societies, separately 
elected, and holding property in common, was anoma- 
lous and contained elements of discord, and a number of 
arguments were urged against them. His Excellency, 
finding his scheme rejected, regretted that he could 
no longer recommend the continuance of the Society's 
grant. The next step was the issue, on the 2 9th of March 
1 841, of a commission to the Duke of Leinster, Lord 
Rosse, Lord Adare, and Messrs. J. F. Burgoyne, W. R. 
Hamilton, Humphrey Lloyd, Thomas A. Larcom, and 
J. McCullagh, empowering them to enquire and report 
in what form, and under what regulations, the parlia- 
mentary grant of £5300, voted to the Dublin Society, 
might be most effectually used for the advancement 
of science and diffusion of useful knowledge, for the 
benefit of the Irish nation ; particularly, whether it 
would be desirable to form an entirely new Institution, 
or to assist any societies now established in Dublin for 
the furtherance of science and art. The commis- 
sioners reported that the grant should be for the 
support of one Society only, and as His Excellency 
had abandoned his intention of having the Society's 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 275 

grant withdrawn, if proper arrangements were made, 
they suggested points for consideration, which were 
generally as follows : 

That there should be a court of Visitors, consisting 
of the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, and the 
Provost. 

That the Society should embrace sections for — 
1, Physical Science; 2, Geology and Mineralogy; 3, 
Botany and Horticulture ; 4, Zoology ; 5, Agriculture. 
That the General Council should consist of thirty-one 
members, namely, the president, seven vice-presidents, 
the two secretaries, and six others, elected by the Society, 
as well as fifteen members of the Society deputed from 
the sectional councils. That members of the Society 
should pay an admission fee of two guineas, and an 
annual subscription of two guineas ; composition fee 
to be twenty guineas. That a member of one section 
should pay half these sums. That the school of 
mechanical drawing should be continued under the 
Society, and that the schools of fine arts should be 
transferred to the Royal Hibernian Academy. 

Though, on the whole, these propositions were 
favourably received by the Society, certain modifications 
were asked for; and, on the 16th of June 1841, His 
Excellency stated that he found with pleasure that the 
Society appeared disposed to accede to them. They 
formed, with the original condition as to the abolition 
of the newsroom, the extent of what the Government 
desired to see carried out. 

On the nth of November 1841, the Council sub- 
mitted to the members resolutions embodying the 
principles on which the Society might meet the ex- 
pressed wishes of the Irish Government, which provided 
for discontinuance of the newsroom and newspapers. 
The Society was to embrace the following sections : 



276 A HISTORY OF 

1, Husbandry and Agriculture; 2, Chemistry; 3, 
Natural Philosophy and Mechanics ; 4, Botany and 
Horticulture; 5, Natural History (Zoology, Geology, 
and Mineralogy); 6, Fine Arts; 7, Manufactures, 
&c. ; election of associate members of sections, without 
ballot, as associate members were then admitted, with 
certain regulations as to the sections ; and a General 
Council consisting of thirty-three members, namely — 
the president, seven vice-presidents, the two secretaries, 
nine members elected from the Society, and fourteen 
deputed from the sections. On the 26th of May 1842, 
amended by-laws as to associate members of sections 
were passed. 

The Rev. Thomas Romney Robinson, d.d., pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Armagh, was elected an 
honorary member. This great astronomer and mathe- 
matical physicist was born in Dublin in 1792, the son 
of Thomas Robinson, portrait painter. He became 
a fellow of Trinity College in 18 14, and in 1823 was 
appointed to the College living of Enniskillen. From 
the time of his election to the post of astronomer at 
Armagh Observatory, Robinson resided there, when he 
published his Armagh Observations and his great work, 
Places of 5345 Stars observed at Armagh , which ap- 
peared between 1828 and 1854. The medal of the 
Royal Society was awarded to Dr. Robinson, and he 
was well known as inventor of the cup-anemometer, 
which he first described at the British Association 
Meeting of 1846. Robinson contributed many papers 
and articles to the Transactions and Proceedings of the 
Royal Irish Academy. He died in 1882, and there 
is a portrait of him in the Academy House. 

At the end of vol. lxxviii. Proceedings, appeared, 
for the first time, minutes of the Council, com- 
mencing on the 19th of August 1841, which continued 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 277 

to be regularly printed in the succeeding volumes of 
the Proceedings. 

In March 1843, a large silver medal, with certi- 
ficate, was presented to Mr. James Fagan, for his 
exertions in establishing a dockyard at Kingstown, and 
building a new ship, the Duchess of Leinster, as it was 
so important to Dublin and the country generally to 
encourage shipbuilding. 

During the cattle show in April 1843, the eminent 
agriculturist, Mr. Smith of Deanston, lectured on 
draining land, and on subsoil ploughing, and the com- 
mittee of agriculture offered premiums for essays on 
subsoil ploughing, on thorough draining, and on the 
effects of altitude on vegetation, &c. The first show 
of farm produce was held in 1844, in connection 
with the reopening of the agricultural museum, 
which had been largely improved. 

Albert, the Prince Consort, became a Vice-Patron 
of the Society in 1845, and showed great interest in 
the exhibition of stock. 

In the winter of that year, potato disease occupied 
the attention of the Council, and Professor Davy was 
authorised to suspend his lectures, and devote all his 
energies to conducting experiments with a view to 
the preservation of that crop. A gold medal and 
^20 were offered for the best essay on the disease. 

The lectures in provincial towns were by this time 
well established, and Dr. Kane, Professor Davy, and 
Mr. Oldham delivered lectures on natural philosophy, 
chemistry, and geology, in Clonmel, Coleraine, Kil- 
larney, Galway, and Waterford, Ballinasloe, Newry, 
Limerick, Armagh, Mallow, Dungannon, &c. ^40 
were assigned to each town out of the sum voted 
by Parliament for that service. 

In 1846, some friends of Alexander Nimmo, 



278 A HISTORY OF 

government engineer for the western district of 
Ireland, subscribed for a bust, in memory of him ; 
this was offered to the Society, and it now stands in 
the reception-room. The bust was executed by John 
Jones, at one time a student in the schools. 

Sir Robert Kane resigned the professorship of 
Natural Philosophy in November 1 847, and Dr. William 
Barker was elected in his room. Dr. W. H. Harvey 
became professor of Botany in place of Dr. Litton, 
and Dr. Charles Croker King became honorary pro- 
fessor of Anatomy in connection with the fine arts, 
in the room of Dr. Woodroofe. 

Owing to troubles connected with Smith O'Brien's 
rising in 1848, troops were quartered for several 
months on the Society's premises. From the 3rd of 
April, cavalry and infantry occupied the cattle yard, 
the buildings in it, and other portions of the premises, 
while the officers used the conversation and board 
rooms. 

In 1849, William Stokes, m.d. (i), George Petrie, 
ll.d. (see p. 1 19), and Charles Bianconi (2) were elected 
members, and on the 7th of November 1850, the latter 
was elected an honorary member. 

1. William Stokes, son of Whitley Stokes, regius professor 
of Medicine in the University of Dublin, was born in 1804. 
In 1825, he published a work on the Use of the Stethoscope, 
which was the earliest treatise on that subject that appeared 
in these countries. He also wrote on the curability of 
phthisis, and in 1834 became editor of the Dublin Journal of 
Medical Science. Dr. Stokes was afterwards elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, and he became regius professor of 
Medicine in the University, and physician to the Queen in 
Ireland. He was regarded as one of the greatest physicians 
of his time, and his works have been translated into French, 
German, and Italian. Stokes was a warm friend of George 
Petrie, and published a memoir of him in 1866. A portrait 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 279 

of Stokes by Sir Frederick Burton has been engraved, and a 
statue by Foley stands in the hall of the College of Physicians. 
He died in 1878, and is buried at St. Fintan's, Howth. 

2. Charles Bianconi was born near Como, in Lombardy, 
in 1786, and at the age of sixteen came to Dublin as a vendor 
of prints. From thence he went to Carrick-on-Suir, where he 
engaged in business as a carver and gilder, finally settling 
in Clonmel. Here he commenced his system of Irish cars, 
and in 181 5 ran a two-wheeled car to Cahir. So successful 
were Bianconi's cars that, at the end of thirty years, he was 
working 3266 miles of road. Bianconi was a great friend of 
O'Connell, whose nephew, Morgan J. O'Connell, married 
Bianconi's daughter. Mrs. M. J. O'Connell wrote a 
biography of her father, who realised a large fortune, which 
was principally invested in land, including the estate of 
Longfield, near Clonmel, which Bianconi, who died in 1875, 
made his home. 

In August 1849, Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
and the Prince Consort, accompanied by some of their 
children, visited Ireland for the first time. On the 
6th of that month, the Queen and Prince visited the 
Botanic Garden, the former, with Lady Clarendon, 
arriving in a carriage, while Prince Albert and Lord 
Clarendon rode. This early visit, the first to any 
public institution, had not been expected, and there 
was not time for much preparation. The Duke of 
Leinster, Mr. Lundy Foot and Dr. Harrison, the 
secretaries, Sir Thomas Staples, Mr. H. Wybrants, 
Mr. F. Darley, architect of the new conservatories, 
Dr. Collins, and some other members met the Royal 
party, when Mr. Moore, the curator, was introduced 
to the Queen by the Duke of Leinster. These gentle- 
men accompanied the Royal party round the grounds, 
in which a large number of ladies and gentlemen had 
assembled to greet Her Majesty. 

An address from the Society was presented to the 



280 A HISTORY OF 

Queen at the levee, by Lords Kildare and Clancarty, 
and Mr. Isaac Weld. Prince Albert visited Leinster 
House on the 9th of August, when an address was 
presented to him in the board-room, which was read 
by Mr. Foot. 

An exhibition of stock and farming produce was 
being held at the time, and, after the presentation of 
the Society's address, the Prince paid the show a visit. 
The Duke of Leinster, the Marquis of Kildare, the Earl 
of Clancarty, Lord Massereene, Sir William Betham, 
Lord Hawarden, and Dr. Harrison were in attendance. 

On the occasion of the Queen's visit to Dublin, 
the gate entrance to Leinster House was splendidly 
illuminated, the Society being the first of all the public 
institutions to do honour to Her Majesty in this form. 

The number of visitors attending the Spring 
and Winter cattle shows during the year 1849, was 
16,748 ; the museum of natural history, 42,197 ; the 
Botanic Garden, 30,324. 

During the summerof 1 850, the seventh triennial ex- 
hibition of manufactures was held. This was formerly 
confined to Irish products, but now competitors from 
Great Britain were admitted. The exhibition — the first 
at which machinery in motion was exhibited — was most 
successful, and was visited by 30,000 persons, the re- 
ceipts amounting to ^1234, 16s. 2d. 

On the 1 3th of November 1 851, Commander Francis 
Leopold McClintock, r.n. (i), was elected an honorary 
member, and Mr. William Dargan (2), a life member. 

1. Sir F. L. McClintock was born at Dundalk in 18 19, 
entering the navy in 183 1. In 1848, he served in the 
Enterprise under Captain Sir James C. Ross, during a 
voyage to the Arctic regions; and in 1850 he served 
on a similar voyage of discovery, on board the Assistance. 
McClintock acquired a great reputation as an Arctic 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 281 

explorer, and he commanded the Intrepid when a large 
expedition set out in 1852 for the Polar regions, where 
he made many remarkable sledge journeys into the in- 
terior. Lady Franklin, not feeling certainty as to the fate 
of her distinguished husband, Sir John Franklin, purchased 
the yacht Fox y and gave McClintock command, with a 
commission to search for him or any trace of his expedition, 
when he found absolute proof of Sir John's death, and of 
the fate of the party. In 1859, he published an account of 
the search expedition in his Voyage of the Fox in the Arctic 
Seas. McClintock was promoted to the rank of Admiral, 
and saw further service in the Danish war of 1864, and in 
the Mediterranean ; in 1879 he was appointed Commander- 
in-Chief on the North American and West Indian Stations. 
He lived to 1907, and a bust of him has a place in the 
reception-room of Leinster House. 

2. William Dargan, the great Irish railway projector, 
was born in Carlow in 1799. He was first employed in a 
surveyor's office, and subsequently worked under Telford in 
1820, when the Holyhead railroad was being constructed. 
In 1834, the Dublin and Kingstown line (the first in 
Ireland), which was made by him, was opened. The Ulster 
Canal, said to be a " triumph of constructive ability," the 
Dublin and Drogheda, the Great Southern and Western, 
and the Midland Great Western, railways were all con- 
structed by him. Dargan planned and carried out the great 
Dublin Exhibition of 1853, his advances on behalf of which 
are believed to have amounted to £100,000, and by which 
he lost fully £20,000. When Queen Victoria came to visit 
it, she honoured Mr. and Mrs. Dargan by calling on them 
at Mount Anville, when she offered to bestow a baronetcy 
on him, which he declined. Dargan died in 1867. A 
bronze statue of him was erected on Leinster lawn, close 
to the National Gallery. 

On the 24th of June 1852, the Council received a 
letter from Mr. Dargan, who, understanding that the 
triennial exhibition of manufactures would be held in 
1853, wished to give it a character of more than usual 



282 A HISTORY OF 

prominence. He proposed to place a sum of ,£20,000 
in the hands of an executive committee, on condition 
that a suitable building should be erected on the lawn, 
the exhibition to be opened not later than June 1853. 
Mr. Dargan was to nominate the chairman, deputy 
chairman, and secretary of the committee, and when 
the exhibition was closed, the building was to become 
his property. There were also certain conditions with 
regard to contingent profits, &c, and, on full considera- 
tion, the Society accepted the proposals made by him. 

The undertaking was to be known as " The Great 
Industrial Exhibition, 1853, in connection with the 
Royal Dublin Society," and the Society nominated 
Mr. L. E. Foot, secretary, Mr. Walter Sweetman, 
and Mr. Charles G. Fairfield, to act with Sir W. 
McDonnell, Mr. George Roe, and the Hon. George 
Handcock, nominated by Mr. Dargan, who were to be 
the executive committee. It may be remarked that 
following the Great Exhibition of 1851, held in Hyde 
Park, a similar one had been held in Cork in 1852, 
which may have stimulated Mr. Dargan in his desire 
to inaugurate a like undertaking in Dublin. He ad- 
vanced various other sums amounting in all, it is said, 
to £100,000. 

The exhibition was opened on Thursday, the 12th 
May 1853, in a splendid structure of iron and glass, 
which had been erected on Leinster lawn, from a 
design of Sir John Benson. The Lord Lieutenant per- 
formed the opening ceremony, at which addresses were 
presented by the chairman, and by the Lord Mayor 
and Corporation. A great banquet was held at the 
Mansion House in the evening, in celebration of the 
event. 

Her Majesty the Queen, accompanied by the Prince 
Consort, the Prince of Wales, and Prince Alfred, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 283 

visited the exhibition on Tuesday, the 30th of August, 
when she sat in a state chair used at her coronation, 
which had been lent by Lord Conyngham. The Right 
Hon. Robert H. Kinahan, lord mayor, Mr. Dargan, 
Mr. George Roe, and Sir Edward McDonnell received 
the Royal party, who were accompanied by the Earl of 
St. Germains, the lord lieutenant, and the Countess of 
St. Germains. In the afternoon Her Majesty drove out 
to Mount Anville, Dundrum, to pay Mr. and Mrs. 
Dargan a visit. The Queen also paid visits to the 
exhibition on the 31st of August and the 1st and 2nd 
of September, examining different departments on each 
occasion. During her third visit, Mr. Richard Griffith 
gave Her Majesty an account of the Irish granites and 
marbles exhibited by the Royal Dublin Society. 

In 1852, Dr. W. E. Steele was appointed assistant 
secretary. On the 27th of October 1853, the sudden 
death of Sir William Betham, vice-president, was an- 
nounced, and in November of the same year, Mr. Henry 
Conner White was elected registrar, in the room of 
P. T. Wilson, who had been in the Society's service 
in that capacity for a great number of years. 

When the estimates for 1854 were under considera- 
tion, a Committee of the Privy Council, being anxious 
to extend to Ireland the full benefits of industrial 
instruction, proposed that the museum should be 
devoted only to objects that might be necessary for 
natural history, and for a museum of agriculture. 
The Society was to be relieved of the educational staff 
in order that its members might be available for the 
museum of Irish industry, and for lectures in pro- 
vincial towns, which would place them under the 
Science and Art Department, and save the Society a 
sum of £1772 yearly. The general vote was still to 



284 A HISTORY OF 

stand at £6000, independent of supplementary votes 
for building purposes, which would have left a sum of 
about ^1500 for exhibitions, &c. 

The Society remonstrated against the proposal to 
deprive it of the superintendence of the educational 
staff, the apparent object of which was to support the 
museum of Irish industry out of public funds, at the 
expense and to the injury of the Royal Dublin Society. 
It was thought that the appointment by the Board of 
Trade of professors with divided duties, would render 
neutral the benefits experienced from professors attached 
to the Society. A deputation went to London, which 
learned that the Government would not, on two points, 
recede from the position which it had taken up — viz. 
1, the maintenance of the museum of Irish industry 
as a separate Government institution ; 2, the determi- 
nation not to support a double staff of teachers. 
Eventually the Society agreed to accept the proposals, 
as they were explained in a report of the department, 
and in a letter of Mr. G. A. Hamilton. The greater 
number of their functions was not to be disturbed, 
namely such as concerned: — 1, Accounts; 2, Manu- 
factures; 3, Agriculture; 4, Fine Arts; 5, Botanic 
Garden ; 6, Library ; 7, Agricultural Chemistry ; 8, 
Natural History. The museum was to be largely 
increased, and the educational staff, though under the 
Board of Trade, was still to pertain to the Society. 
About £1000 a year additional was to be available, 
and the Zoological Garden was to be brought into 
connection with it, while the School of Art would be 
entirely under its control. 

In August 1854, the Government nominated the 
Chief Secretary for Ireland (or in his absence the 
Under Secretary), the Right Hon. Maziere Brady, 
lord chancellor, Mr. Richard Griffith, and Sir Robert 




DR. GEORGE JOHNSTONE STONEY, f.R.s., Vice-President, 1881-1911 
{From photograph by W. Whiteley, Ltd., London) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 285 

Kane ; and the Society named Lord Talbot de Malahide, 
the Right Hon. Francis Blackburne, Mr. F. J. Sidney, 
and Mr. William Fry, as a joint committee for manage- 
ment of the museum of Irish industry, the Society's 
lectures, and the lectures in provincial towns, which 
marked an important change in the functions and 
ancient practice of the Society. This system continued 
until the year 1865. 

Alterations were made in the by-laws, and annual 
members henceforth might become life members on 
payment of fifteen guineas. In 1856, the by-laws 
were further amended, and the Council was in future 
to consist of the seven vice-presidents, the two secre- 
taries, the chairman, and one other member of each 
standing committee, and of nine members to be elected 
from the Society. 

John Francis Waller, ll.d., was elected secretary 
in 1855, in the room of Dr. Harrison, and Mr. 
E. R. P. Colles, librarian, in place of Mr. Patten, 
resigned. In 1856, Mr. Weld, vice-president, who had 
been a member of the Society for fifty-five years, and in 
1857, Mr. Henry Kemmis, another vice-president, died. 
Mr. Foot was elected a vice-president, and in this 
year Mr. George Johnstone Stoney became a member- 
of the Society. 

Dr. Stoney's is one of the greatest names connected with 
the Society, for which, during the period that he held office 
in it, he laboured with unwearying devotion. He conducted 
with the Government negotiations of a most intricate char- 
acter, prior to the museum, the Botanic Garden, the lib- 
rary and art schools being taken over ; and the charter and 
statutes of 1 88 1 were his work. Stoney was born in the King's 
county in 1826, and in 1848 was appointed astronomical 
assistant to Lord Rosse at Parsonstown, where he made 
many observations, and communicated with learned societies, 
one of his notable papers being on "Shadow Bands in 



286 A HISTORY OF 

Eclipses." Stoney held the post of professor of natural 
philosophy in Queen's College, Galway, and was secretary 
to the Queen's University in Ireland from 1857 to its dis- 
solution in 1882. He paid much attention to physical 
optics, to molecular physics, and the kinetic theory of 
gases, and wrote works on the Physical Constitution of Sun 
and Stars, and on the Atmosphere of Planets and Satellites. 
For twenty years, during a period when its affairs demanded 
close and unremitting attention, Dr. Stoney acted as secre- 
tary to the Society, becoming a vice-president in 1893, and 
he contributed largely to the Transactions. He won the first 
Boyle Medal in 1899. Owing to his connection with the 
Society, Government frequently consulted him on questions 
affecting agriculture, fisheries, railways, &c. He was a con- 
sistent advocate of the higher education of women, and in- 
augurated the recitals of chamber music, now so marked 
a feature in the Society's yearly programme. Dr. Stoney 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1861, be- 
coming a vice-president in 1898. He died in 191 1, and 
his portrait by Sir Thomas A. Jones, presented to the Society 
by old students of the Queen's University, hangs in the 
reception-room, Leinster House. 

The first stone of the Natural History building 
was laid on the 7th of April 1856, by the Earl of 
Carlisle, lord lieutenant. 

The British Association again met in Dublin in 
1857, when the meetings of its council and of the 
general committee of the Association were held in the 
board-room, Leinster House, while the new museum 
and the Botanic Garden were devoted to other purposes 
in connection with the meeting. The opening meeting 
was held in the round room of the Rotunda, on the 
26th of August. On Dr. Daubeny resigning the chair 
to Dr. Lloyd on the evening of the 27 th, the Royal 
Dublin Society gave a conversazione, at which over 
1500 guests were present, and the new museum build- 
ing formed a prominent point of attraction. On the 



, * 




"./I,,- r A J n/li I OY'rn.. (rt l,„r.. Irrrl. (rJilann. 
fj'rc.iulrnt iV'jy- 1<JI ', 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 287 

29th of August a great fete was given in the Botanic 
Garden, at which 4000 persons were present. During 
the meeting Mr. Markham, in the geographical section, 
read an account of the search for Sir John Franklin, 
by McClintock's expedition ; and on the evening of 
the 31st of August, Dr. Livingstone, the African 
traveller, lectured on Africa in the new museum. 

During the previous year, on the 13th of November 
1856, the Council, with the sanction of the Society, 
issued for the first time the Quarterly Journal of the 
Royal Dublin Society. In 1861 this undertaking was 
found to be too expensive, and the Journal ceased to 
be published. 

Steps were then being taken for appropriating por- 
tion of the lawn as a site for a National Art Gallery, and 
early in 1858-, the designs for it were approved. At 
this time it was proposed to make it also a place of 
deposit for the contents of Archbishop Marsh's library. 

In February 1858, the Society resolved to institute 
annual examinations in the elementary branches of 
education, with a view to granting certificates of merit 
to deserving candidates for appointments in banks, 
commercial, and manufacturing establishments, &c. 
The Rev. Joseph Carson, f.t.c.d., Dr. Ingram, f.t.c.d., 
Messrs. Foot, Steele, and Neilson Hancock were ap- 
pointed a board of examiners, and in each volume of 
the Proceedings after this date will be found copies of 
the examination papers, and lists of successful candi- 
dates. 

On the 4th of January i860, Mr. Arthur Edward 
Guinness and his brother, Mr. Benjamin Lee Guinness, 
jun., were elected members of the Society. The 
former, now Lord Ardilaun, was president of the 
Society for sixteen years, succeeding Lord Powerscourt 
on the 2nd " of December 1897, and retiring on the 



288 A HISTORY OF 

13th of November 191 3. Lord Ardilaun, who is a 
graduate of Dublin University, always evinced the 
deepest interest in the work and objects of the Society, 
and, while one of the representatives in Parliament 
of the city of Dublin, frequently accompanied de- 
putations of the Society to ministers, urging their 
claims. To Lord Ardilaun the Society is indebted for 
a splendid silver mace, which was first laid on the table 
on the 1 2th of November 1903, when a cordial vote 
of thanks was tendered to him for his generous gift. 
The mace was manufactured by Messrs. West and son, 
of Dublin, after the design of one presented in 1746 by 
the then Earl of Kildare to the corporation of Athy. 
On the dissolution of that corporation in 1841, the mace 
was presented to John Butler, who had been sovereign 
of the borough in 1833 and 1841, and it was pur- 
chased from his son by the Duke of Leinster. The 
associations connecting the Society with that family 
made it fitting that a copy of the mace should be used 
in Leinster House. A detailed description of the ori- 
ginal, which was regarded as one of the finest specimens 
of Irish work of the period, will be found in Maces, 
Swords, and other Insignia of Office of Irish Corpora- 
tions, by Mr. J. Ribton Garstin, d.l., reprinted from 
the Journal of the Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland, 
volume i. no. 2. 

In 1 86 1, a Fine Arts Exhibition was held, which 
was open for 136 days and 66 nights; 190,000 visitors 
(including the Prince Consort and the Prince of 
Wales) attended it, and the profit resulting from the 
undertaking amounted to ^1400. The purpose of 
the exhibition was to bring together the best works, 
with a view of illustrating the history of modern art, 
and showing its progress in the country. In carrying 
out the enterprise, the Royal Dublin Society and the 




o 4: 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 289 

committee of management did the country a great 
service. 

A deputation went to London in this year, to 
confer with the Science and Art Department as to 
the terms of a supplementary charter. It was 
agreed that the Council was to consist of thirty-three 
members — the president, the seven vice-presidents, the 
two honorary secretaries, fifteen councillors, and one 
representative of not more than eight standing com- 
mittees. The fifteen councillors were to hold office 
for three years, and the secretaries for two years, 
five councillors and one secretary going out of office 
each year. The Council was to have the general 
management of the Society, with power to enact by- 
laws. 

The new charter was issued on the 27th of December 
1865, and among other things, the Society was privi- 
leged by it to have a mace. Its principal object was 
to confer on the Society authority to elect a Council 
and standing committees, a power which it did not 
previously possess ; also to grant that the general 
management and control over the affairs of the Society, 
and over its paid officers and servants, including the 
power of appointing and dismissing them, as well as 
that of regulating their duties and emoluments, should 
be vested exclusively in the Council. Under this charter 
there were to be standing committees for the purposes 
of: — 1, Agriculture and the Museum ; 2, the Library; 
3, Fine Arts; 4, Botany and the Botanic Garden; 5, 
Natural History, and the Museum ; 6, Manufactures 
and Practical Science. Each committee was to consist 
of eleven members, save that of Agriculture, which 
was to number twenty-one. There were also special 
regulations as to members who were to represent the 

T 



290 A HISTORY OF 

Society on the first Council, which was to consist of 
thirty-three members. 

By his will, which was proved on the 16th of 
August 1864, Mr. William Smith O'Brien bequeathed 
to the Irish nation two pictures, one the " Limerick 
Piper," by Haverty, and the other a remarkable head 
in oils. He desired them to be exhibited in the exhibi- 
tion gallery of the Royal Dublin Society, " to which 
body I make this bequest." In the next year Mr. 
Joseph Burke, j.p., of 17 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin, 
bequeathed to the Society his collection of Incumbered 
Estates and Landed Estates Court Rentals, in number 
between 3000 and 4000, arranged in dictionary order, 
which the testator valued at ^1000. The Society was 
to have the collection bound. 

The first horse show under the auspices of the 
Society was held on the 29th of July 1868. Shows had 
been held in 1864 and 1866 in the Society's premises, 
but they were under the auspices of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society. The show held in 1868 was a great 
success, the Agricultural and Shelbourne halls, and 
even the Clare lane premises being fitted up with 
stalls for the animals, which numbered 380. The 
courtyard was transformed into a huge circus ring, 
for the jumping, while a raised gallery around accom- 
modated the spectators. Lord St. Lawrence, Mr. R. 
C. Wade, and Captain C. Colthurst Vesey acted as 
stewards, with Mr. Andrew Corrigan as superintendent. 

The Prince Consort's statue on the lawn was 
unveiled by the Duke of Edinburgh on the 6th of 
June 1872. 

On Lord Spencer's retirement from the viceroyalty 
in 1874, the Council suggested that it would be more 
in accordance with the terms of the charter if, in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 291 

future, the Lord Lieutenant held the office of vice- 
patron, and that the presidents should be chosen from 
among the members. The Society acquiesced in the 
Council's views, and, on the 5th of March 1874, the 
Duke of Abercorn, lord lieutenant, was elected to the 
former office, and the Marquis of Kildare, afterwards 
Duke of Leinster, became president. 

On the 8th of April 1875, Mr - Richard Jackson 
Moss, f.c.s., was appointed keeper of the minerals 
and analyst, in the room of Dr. J. Emerson Reynolds, 
elected professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Dublin. On the 7th March 1878, Mr. Moss was 
promoted to be registrar of the Society in the room 
of Dr. Steele, appointed general director of the Science 
and Art Museum. 

From the year 1872, and indeed still earlier, negotia- 
tions had been going on in reference to the establish- 
ment of a Science and Art Museum, and the grouping 
together in a convenient locality, of it, of a national 
library, a museum of natural history, one of Irish 
antiquities, a national gallery, and a school of art. 
It was also proposed to transfer the Royal Irish 
Academy to the central site. In the meantime, the 
Society had acquired by purchase from Captain Arch- 
dall, for the sum of ^1000, No. 1 Kildare place, 
and the Shelbourne yard. 

In 1876 a letter was received from Lord Sandon, 
then Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on 
Education, intimating that the Government had formed 
a scheme for the purpose of augmenting and extending 
the facilities for Science and Art Instruction in Ireland, 
and inviting the co-operation of the Royal Dublin 
Society. The scheme, based mainly upon the recom- 
mendations of the Commission of 1868, contemplated 



292 A HISTORY OF 

the transfer to the State of most of the Society's lands 
and collections, and the surrender by the Society of 
control over its Science and Art institutions and library. 
The Government proposed to introduce in Parliament 
a bill to effect the necessary changes. 

A deputation consisting of J. F. Waller, ll.d., vice- 
president, Sir Arthur Guinness, bart., m.p., Samuel 
Frederick Adair and Charles Uniacke Townshend, pro- 
ceeded to London and had interviews with Lord 
Sandon and other members of the Government with 
the view of arranging details. The interchange of 
views which took place was followed by correspondence 
and further deputations to London, and eventually a 
" Memorandum of Provisions supplementary to those 
contained in Lord Sandon's letter " was agreed to on 
March the 5th, 1877. 

This document may be summarised as follows : — 

1. The Society was to have sufficient accommoda- 
tion in Leinster House for its functions in science and 
agriculture. 

2. A sum of j£ 1 0,000 was granted as compensation 
for rights, &c, and this sum was to be invested. 

3. The librarian of the British Museum was to 
be asked to give his opinion as to any books not 
necessary for the National Library, and such were 
to be re-transferred to the Society. 

4. The Society was to provide its own staff and 
printing. 

5. The lecture hall, laboratory, &c, were to be 
reserved to the Society. 

6. The passage through Leinster lawn and the 
courtyard was to be reserved to members. 

7. The collections in the Botanic Garden and 
Natural History Museum were to be available for the 
illustration of papers. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 293 

8. Members elected before the 1st of January 1878, 
were to have the privilege of borrowing books from 
the National Library. 

9. The Government was to permit agricultural 
shows to be held in Kildare street, or to provide for 
their transfer to some other convenient place. 

10. Should such transfer take place, account should 
be taken of any loss sustained by reason of the removal 
of the shows from the city to the suburbs. 

1 1 . Vested interests of officers paid from public 
funds were to be preserved. 

12. The Society was to be relieved from all 
expense connected with the School of Art. 

13. The library and collections of the Society, 
which were to be conveyed to Government, were to be 
placed in the National Library and Museum, and re- 
tained in Ireland. 

14. The Society undertook to concur in any bill 
vesting the library and collections in the Government. 

1 5 . The Government would be prepared to recom- 
mend the grant of a new charter, if necessary. 

The Dublin Science and Art Museum Act, entitled: 
"An Act to authorise the Commissioners of Public 
Works in Ireland to acquire from the Royal Dublin 
Society and others lands for the erection of a Science 
and Art Museum in Dublin, and to establish a National 
Library in Dublin ; and for other purposes " — received 
the Royal assent on August the 14th, 1877. It was 
contemplated that the Agreement of March the 5th, 
1877, should be ratified as soon as possible after the 
Act had passed, under a clause which had been included 
in the Act for this purpose. The negotiations which 
took place before this ratification was accomplished are 
referred to in the next chapter. They involved delay 
which at a critical period proved most embarrassing to 



294 A HISTORY OF 

the Society. In the course of these negotiations 
another agreement was entered into with the Govern- 
ment in 1879, the terms of which were shortly as 
follows : 

1. In consideration of a sum of £25,000, the 
Government was to be discharged from all claims 
under clauses 9 and 10 of the agreement of the 5th 
of March 1877. 

2. The Royal Dublin Society was to retain the 
right to office accommodation for its functions in agri- 
culture, provided that if amalgamated with any other 
society, such amalgamation was not to entitle the other 
society to any right of occupation in Leinster House. 

3. The rooms indicated on a certain plan to be 
those appropriated to the Society. 

4. The Society to have the use, but not the exclu- 
sive use, of the entrance hall and passages. 

5. Appropriation of the rooms was to be liable 
to revision by the Committee of the Council on 
Education, when the new Science and Art Museum 
was built. 

6. The agricultural shows were to be removed 
from Kildare street, within a year from the payment 
of the first instalment of £10,000. 

7. All strictly scientific Proceedings and Transac- 
tions of the Society were to be printed in as good a 
style as those of the Royal Society, and 1000 copies 
were to be furnished to the Society free of ex- 
pense. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 295 



CHAPTER XVIII 

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY, 1878 
TO THE PRESENT 

{Contributed by Mr. R. J. Moss, Registrar) 

The Act of 1877 and Agreement — The Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of Ireland and Amalgamation — 
Accommodation in Leinster House. 

When the Dublin Science and Art Museum Act, 
1877, received the Royal assent, the old order passed 
away and a new era in the Society's history opened. 

In March 1877, some months before the Act 
passed, the terms upon which the Society was willing 
to assent to the measure were agreed to (see p. 292). 
The first of those related to the future accommodation 
of the Society in Leinster House ; it was to be such as 
in the judgment of the Government would be sufficient 
for the functions in Science and in Agriculture still re- 
maining to the Society. The Society was to be free of 
rent and taxes, and the conditions of occupation were to 
be the same as those accorded to the learned societies in 
Burlington House. The sum of ,£10,000 was to be 
paid to the Society for its proprietary rights in the 
property to be transferred, and this sum was to be 
invested with the approval of the Government, and 
made subject to the trusts of the Society's charters or 
any alteration of them. The agricultural shows were 
to be allowed to continue in Kildare street, or a site 
was to be provided elsewhere by grant or by providing 



296 A HISTORY OF 

land and buildings. There were other important 
considerations which need not be referred to here. 

When the draft bill was submitted to the Society, 
it was found that provisions to which the Society 
attached great importance were not included in it, 
notably those relating to accommodation in Leinster 
House, and to the shows. The Government was 
asked to rectify the omission, but this it declined to 
do, pointing out that the better plan would be to leave 
these details to be dealt with under the clause in the 
bill that enabled the Society and the Government to 
enter into agreements, which would have the same 
force as if they had been included in the bill. The 
Society consented to this course, on receiving an 
assurance that these considerations would be embodied 
in agreements to be entered into as soon as possible 
after the bill had become law. 

In the forecast of the intentions of the Govern- 
ment conveyed in Lord Sandon's letter of February 
the 9th, 1876, it was proposed that the Royal Irish 
Academy should be transferred to Leinster House, 
" where ample space may be found for both the Royal 
Dublin Society and the Royal Irish Academy, with 
well adapted and dignified rooms for their meetings, 
and for the library of the latter Society." 

Shortly after this letter was written, the Science 
and Art Department suggested that many difficulties 
would be removed if an amalgamation could be 
effected between the Royal Dublin Society and the 
Royal Irish Academy. At the same time it was 
indicated that if the Royal Dublin Society could effect 
an amalgamation with the Royal Agricultural Society 
of Ireland, the Government would provide for the 
agricultural shows in the Phoenix Park. 

The creation of a body analogous to the Royal 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 297 

Societies of London and Edinburgh was desired by 
many of the scientific men of Dublin, 1 most of whom 
were members of both the Royal Dublin Society and 
the Royal Irish Academy, and the moment for a 
decisive step seemed opportune, but the Royal Irish 
Academy at once declined to entertain the project. 
The Royal Agricultural Society, on the other hand, 
was quite ready to agree to the proposed amalgamation, 
as matters had, in fact, reached a stage when it seemed 
no longer possible to carry on its work on the old 
lines. In October 1877, a joint committee of the two 
societies reported in favour of amalgamation and the 
formation of a new body to be called the Royal 
Agricultural Association of Ireland. 

The Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland was 
originally established in the year 1841 under the title 
of the "Agricultural Improvement Society." From 
the very first it received the support and assistance of 
the Royal Dublin Society, for at a meeting of the 
latter Society held on March the 25th, 1841, it was 
resolved — " That this Society is ready and willing to 
give such aid and co-operation as its means and 
premises afford to the new Agricultural Improvement 
Society, should the same be required." 

The objects of the new Society were (1) To hold 
a show each year in one of the provinces, taking them 
if possible in rotation; (2) to promote the formation 
of local or district agricultural societies, and assist 
them in advancing farming and cattle-breeding; (3) to 
establish an agricultural museum ; (4) to disseminate 
practical and useful knowledge connected with agri- 
culture by means of publications, and establish an 
agricultural library in Dublin; (5) to establish an 

1 Report on the scientific prospects of the Royal Dublin Society, 
Proceedifigs, cxiii. p. 44. 



298 A HISTORY OF 

agricultural college for the education of the farming 
classes. Improvement in the dwellings and domestic 
conditions of the farming and labouring classes was 
undertaken at a later stage. 

The Society was incorporated by Royal Charter, 
under the title of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
Ireland, on June the 28th, i860. The early publica- 
tions of the Society contain detached reports of drainage 
and reclamation schemes carried out by successful 
competitors for the Society's gold medals. Schemes 
for improving the dwellings of the people, with plans 
for farm homesteads and labourers' cottages, and 
estimates of the cost of erecting them, also occupy 
a considerable space. The reports of local farming 
societies show that the efforts of the Society in establish- 
ing and assisting these bodies were not unsuccessful. 
In the year 1877 there were on the list twenty-one 
local societies, which received grants varying from 
LZ to £39> amounting in all to ^296, in addition to 
which certain medals were offered for local competition. 
Though the financial support given to the farming 
societies was small, it had the desired effect of stimu- 
lating interest and encouraging local effort. 

It is, however, by its provincial shows that the 
Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland will be best 
remembered. These were modelled after the shows 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of England and the 
Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, of 
which two societies shows are still the leading features. 
The provincial shows were on the whole an undoubted 
success, and they had a marked effect in improving 
the breeds of stock, and introducing new agricultural 
methods. These shows were held without inter- 
mission from 1842 to 1866, when rinderpest prevented 
the holding of a cattle show ; instead of it, a horse 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 299 

show was held, by permission of the Royal Dublin 
Society, in the Kildare street premises. Next year 
a general agricultural show was held in St. Stephen's 
Green, Dublin ; this was followed by another un- 
broken series of provincial shows up to the year 1880. 
In the year 1881, and in the two succeeding years the 
disturbed state of the country prevented the Society 
from holding shows in the provinces. A show was 
held in Kilkenny in 1884, and one at Londonderry in 
1885. An attempt was made to organise a show for 
the year 1886, when Armagh was the only town that 
could be induced to entertain the proposal ; but as it 
was found impracticable to raise the necessary local 
guarantee fund of ^500, the project was abandoned. 

One of the modes in which the Royal Agricultural 
Society of Ireland aided agriculture in the provinces 
was by granting subsidies to local societies to assist 
them in holding their shows. This work was con- 
tinued by the Royal Dublin Society, and gradually 
expanded, until the expenditure, which in the year 
1888 amounted to £16 y 10s. for one society, ten years 
later reached the aggregate of ^491, in grants to 
twenty-five societies of sums varying from £10 to 
£4.0. The system was continued until 1900, when 
the Council, in its report, pointed out that the 
Agricultural and Technical Instruction (Ireland) Act 
enabled local farming societies to obtain aid from the 
funds of the newly established Department, and from 
local rates, far in excess of the grants which the 
Society had been giving from its private resources. 
The grants were accordingly discontinued. 

Nine years had elapsed since the terms of amalga- 
mation had been drawn up. The original idea was 
to form a new association devoted to agriculture ex- 
clusively ; the members of the two societies were to 



3 oo A HISTORY OF 

coalesce, and half the annual subscription of members 
of the Royal Dublin Society was to go to the new 
agricultural body. The first Council of fifty members 
was to be elected, half by the one society and half by 
the other. The capital of the Royal Agricultural 
Society and that of the Agricultural Department of 
the Royal Dublin Society were to form the capital of 
the new body. These provisions were dependent 
upon Government undertaking to extend to the new 
Royal Agricultural Association all the advantages to 
agriculture contained in Lord Sandon's letter of the 
9th of February 1876, and the agreement of the 
Government with the Royal Dublin Society of the 
5th of March 1877. 

The Government withheld its assent to this con- 
dition, and after six months' delay proposed to hand the 
Society £20,000 (subsequently increased to £25,000), 
in discharge of the undertaking to provide for the 
removal of the shows from Kildare street, and for 
office accommodation for agriculture in Leinster 
House. 

The Society declined to relinquish its right to 
office accommodation for agriculture in Leinster 
House, but agreed to accept the sum offered for the 
removal of the shows, provided the site already 
selected at Ballsbridge for future shows were also 
given by the Government, rent and taxes free. 

It would be tedious to follow the correspondence 
and negotiations which ensued. The Science and 
Art Department desired to remove all agricultural 
work from Leinster House ; while the Society desired 
to maintain the continuity of its future operations in 
agriculture with the historical associations of the 
past. 

The scheme of amalgamation with the Royal 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 301 

Agricultural Society of Ireland, already referred to, 
contemplated the formation of a new body which 
would be quite distinct from the Royal Dublin 
Society ; and very naturally the Government declined 
to regard this new body as entitled to accommodation 
in Leinster House. To remove this difficulty the 
proposed bifurcation of the Royal Dublin Society was 
abandoned, and it was agreed that the Society should 
admit the members of the Royal Agricultural Society, 
and take over its property. This change in policy 
was facilitated by the fact that since amalgamation 
had been originally proposed, the agricultural work of 
the Royal Dublin Society had rapidly developed, while 
the prospects of the Royal Agricultural Society had 
gone from bad to worse. 

While the negotiations were proceeding, it became 
evident that there was a wide diversity of opinion as 
to what accommodation the Society would require in 
Leinster House for its future work. This and the 
friction that arose on other points induced the Society 
to press for an immediate ratification of the agree- 
ment with the Government of March the 5th, 1877, 
under the provisions of the Dublin Science and Art 
Museum Act, which enabled the Society and the 
Government to make agreements in furtherance of 
the Act, that would have the same effect as if the 
agreements had been embodied in it. 

The formal agreement under the Act was not 
signed until March the 1st, 1881, though the main 
points at issue had been settled in an interview with 
some members of the Government at the Privy Council 
Office, Westminster, in May 1879. 

A report of the settlement was laid before the 
Society on June the 5th, 1879, in which the Council 
said : 



302 A HISTORY OF 

"Through the kind intervention of Sir Arthur 
Guinness, to whom the Council feel that the Society is 
under a deep obligation, an interview was brought about 
between My Lords of the Committee of Council on Edu- 
cation, and a deputation from the Council of this Society, 
at which Sir Michael Hicks Beach and Mr. Smith, two of 
the members of the Government who had contracted the 
original agreement, were fortunately present. At this inter- 
view the deputation were able to satisfy the Government 
that the statement of the original agreement made by the 
delegates in their report to the Council of the 8th of May 
1879 was correct, and that the Society had throughout 
only sought a fulfilment of the agreement entered into in 
1877. This resulted in the Government consenting to 
limit their offer of .£25,000 to clauses 9 and 10, with such 
an explanation of clause 1 as removed a difficulty felt by 
the Government, without in effect limiting the rights of 
the Society under that clause." 

The report concludes by quoting the terms of the 
agreement drawn up and signed by Lord George 
Hamilton on the part of the Government, and by 
Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the part of the Royal 
Dublin Society. 

The Council considered that by this agreement the 
Society gained what it had claimed from the first, and 
that a position had been secured which would leave the 
Society " independent of all Government control, and 
in a state of efficiency for the discharge of all its 
functions." 

Though the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland 
and the Royal Dublin Society had agreed to amalgamate 
in October 1877, it was not until March 22nd, 1880, 
that the formal articles of agreement were executed. 
The Royal Dublin Society had already invested ,£35,000 
in its agricultural premises at Ballsbridge ; the shows 
there had been established on a secure basis, and the 
most hopeful views were entertained as to the future. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 303 

It was under these circumstances that the Royal 
Agricultural Society decided to surrender its charter 
under the provisions of the Dublin Science and Art 
Museum Act, 1877, and to transfer its members and 
its property to the Royal Dublin Society. The property 
consisted of Government stock valued at £7,094, iy.6d.; 
cash amounting to £247, is. id. ; and five challenge 
cups valued at £280. 

In 1888, the new library building was approaching 
completion, and the Society asked the Government to 
reconsider the allotment of rooms in Leinster House. 
After a long delay Government made a proposal which 
the Society considered wholly inadequate. Repeated 
efforts to arrive at a settlement with the officers of the 
Science and Art Department proved abortive. The 
Society determined to ignore them, and to appeal 
directly to the Government. Personal interviews took 
place with the lord lieutenant, the Earl of Zetland ; 
the president of the council, Lord Cranbrook; the chief 
secretary, Mr. A. J. Balfour ; and the vice-president of 
the council, Sir William Hart-Dyke. Finding that 
there was a risk of the decision of the Government being 
deferred until Parliament rose, a memorial signed by 
1 2 16 members was forwarded to the prime minister, 
Lord Salisbury. A full statement of the whole case 
was prepared, and the Society was about to forward it 
to every member of both houses of Parliament when a 
proposal was received from the Government. This 
was in the form of a Treasury minute dated July 
the 30th, 1890, and, as it conceded nearly everything 
the Society had claimed, it was at once accepted. 

Thus ended a controversy which had lasted with 
little intermission for twenty-three years. It was a 
bitter conflict at times, and personal friendships of 
long standing were strained to the breaking point. 



3o 4 A HISTORY OF 

The Society's final triumph was due to the justice of 
its cause and the dogged determination of one man — 
George Johnstone Stoney. 



The Second Supplemental Charter and Statutes 

Under the original charter of April the 2nd, in the 
23rd year of Geo. II (1750), the general management 
of the business of the Society was vested in the 
corporation, any seven of whom constituted a 
quorum. 

In 1836 a select committee of the House of 
Commons recommended, among other things, " That 
the management of the ordinary business of the 
Society should be confided to a Council." The Society 
assented, and the following by-law was adopted : " The 
management of the business of the Society shall be 
confided to a Council, whose powers are strictly, as 
hereafter, defined and limited, and subject to direct 
control over its proceedings, upon the part of the 
Society at large." 

Some years later the authority of this Council was 
disputed, when an officer of the Society maintained that 
the Council had not the power to dismiss him, and 
other difficulties of a similar kind arose. In 1862, a 
Commission appointed by the Treasury expressed the 
opinion that full powers ought to be vested in an 
Executive Council acting on behalf of the Society. 
The Commission held that the Government could not 
properly entrust the administration of public funds to 
the existing Council, whose decisions were liable to be 
reversed by a popular vote. 

The principles to be embodied in a supplemental 
charter, in furtherance of the views of the Commission, 
were agreed to at a conference in South Kensington in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 305 

1863, but in deference to the wishes of some Irish 
members of Parliament further action was postponed. 
When the consideration of the draft charter was re- 
sumed two years later, the attention of the Council 
was called to the fact that the draft contained a para- 
graph excluding the privileges of members from the 
control of the Council. The Council urged the 
Society to forego this exemption, but by 33 votes to 
21 a general meeting carried an amendment declining 
to do so. The Science and Art Department there- 
upon refused to recommend the Treasury to sanction 
certain increased grants which the Society had applied 
for, until the paragraph in question was omitted. A 
special meeting was held, at which the Lord Justice 
of Appeal presided, and 148 other members were 
present, and it was agreed to omit the provision 
exempting the privileges of members from the control 
of the Council. With this difficulty removed, the 
terms of the supplemental charter were soon agreed to, 
and it was enrolled on the 14th of June 1866. 

This charter directs that the general management 
and control over the affairs of the Society (excepting 
so far as might affect the constitution of the Society) 
should be vested in and exercised by the Council ex- 
clusively. This important change was effected for the 
purpose of increasing the Society's efficiency in the 
administration of public funds. The Science and Art 
Museum Act of 1877 relieved the Society of this 
work, but left the Council with its power unaltered, 
and in possession of unrestricted authority such as few 
representative bodies of a similar kind enjoy. 

In the negotiation which preceded the passing of 
the Act of 1877 it became evident that a new charter 
adapted to the altered circumstances of the Society 
would be necessary. At the request of the Society, 



306 A HISTORY OF 

provision was made in the Act for the surrender of the 
existing charter, and the granting of a new one. 

The intention of the Society to apply for a charter 
which would place it in a position to promote science, 
and to carry on the other branches of its work with 
greater efficiency, had been openly expressed. The 
Royal Irish Academy took alarm, and in a letter to 
the secretary of the Treasury, dated May the 22nd 
1877, protested against the Society embarking in the 
cultivation of abstract science, contending that the 
existing charters restricted the Society to science in 
relation to its industrial or economic application. 
The Society drew up a " Statement of Facts," in 
which it was shown that of 200 printed papers in the 
previous twenty years, 98 dealt with pure science, 70 
with applied science, and 32 with non-scientific subjects. 
The Society held that the severance of applied from 
pure science, which the Academy advocated, had long 
ceased to be practicable, and had not been observed by 
the Academy itself. To emphasise this point, the 
recent address of Dr. Andrews as President of the 
British Association was quoted. He said : " It is 
with the greater confidence, therefore, that I have 
ventured to suggest that no partition wall should 
anywhere be raised between pure and applied science." 
The Lords of the Committee of Council on Education 
expressed their belief that the strictures contained in 
the letter of the Academy were fully met by the 
Society's reply, " and therefore that it could not be 
said that the former Society had any claim to a 
monopoly as against the Royal Dublin Society in the 
cultivation of abstract science." 

It was not until January the 18th, 1883, that the 
Council was in a position to submit the draft of 
the second supplemental charter to the Society for 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 307 

approval. A division was taken at the meeting held 
on that day, and 103 votes were recorded in favour of 
the draft, 82 being cast against it. The Act required 
a majority of three-fifths of those voting, and as the 
majority was eight votes short of that number, the 
motion was accordingly declared lost. The Council 
made some amendments to meet objections which 
had been raised, and issued an appeal to the Society 
with the notice convening another meeting for April 
the 5th. On this occasion the draft was adopted by 
326 to 54 votes, a majority considerably exceeding 
that required by statute. 

In May 1883 the Royal Irish Academy forwarded 
a memorial to the Lord Lieutenant, in which the 
conviction was expressed that " the grant of a charter 
extending the functions of the Royal Dublin Society 
to the field of science generally, as the draft in question 
purports to do, ought not to be recommended by 
Your Excellency to Her Most Gracious Majesty." 
In support of this opinion the Academy stated that 
" the number of investigators in abstract science in 
Ireland is not sufficient for the support of more than 
one body chartered for science generally." It was 
anticipated that scientific men in Ireland, rather than 
disoblige either Society by favouring its rival, would 
probably send their papers to neutral societies out of 
Ireland. The memorialists added that " although they 
have not been invited by the Royal Dublin Society 
to concur in any of the provisions of the draft in 
question, they would be well pleased to see the Society 
placed in a position legally to fulfil here such functions 
as are performed by the Society of Arts in London, or 
the Royal Scottish Society of Arts in Edinburgh." 

The Society, in a lengthy reply dated July the 9th, 
1883, stated that the draft charter "simply provides 



3 o8 A HISTORY OF 

for the continuance, under improved conditions, of 
the work which the Society is at present carrying on 
under its existing charters." It was pointed out that 
"the functions performed by the Society of Arts of 
London, and the Royal Scottish Society of Arts of 
Edinburgh, to which the Council of the Academy wish 
the Royal Dublin Society to be reduced, represent only 
a small part of the work in which the Royal Dublin 
Society has been hitherto engaged." 

The draft recited the fact that the Society was also 
known as the Royal Society of Dublin, and it con- 
tained a clause empowering the Society to confer the 
title of Fellow. The Lord Lieutenant expressed his 
unwillingness to recommend a charter including this 
recital and provision. The negotiations which followed 
occupied two years. In January 1886, the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Ireland decided to " become 
merged in the Royal Dublin Society." This step 
necessitated the addition of certain clauses to the draft 
charter, and it v/as decided at the same time to omit 
the portions to which the Lord Lieutenant had taken 
exception. The second supplemental charter in its 
amended form was granted, and it was enrolled on 
May the 20th, 1888. 

The second supplemental charter confirms the 
amalgamation agreement with the Royal Agricultural 
Society of Ireland and dissolves that body. It directs 
that the Royal Dublin Society shall continue to be 
incorporated " for the advancement of agriculture 
and other branches of industry, and for the advance- 
ment of Science and Art"; thus leaving the Society 
an unrestricted field in all branches of its work. 
Details relating to meetings of the corporation, the 
honorary officers, the constitution and mode of election 
of the council and of the committees, are embodied in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 309 

statutes appended to the charter. Those statutes, 
which may be repealed or altered by royal warrant 
on petition of the Society (a procedure much simpler 
than the alteration of a royal charter), confer great 
elasticity upon the Society's arrangements, enabling it 
to regulate by by-law many details which were rigidly 
prescribed in the earlier charters. 

The Dublin Society was in its eighteenth year 
when it was first incorporated by royal charter. At 
that time the total number of members was only 
thirty-one, and the management of the Society's 
business, then comparatively limited, was naturally 
entrusted to the members at large. When the number 
of members grew larger, a central governing body was 
found to be necessary; there were 1146 members at 
the time of the first supplemental charter, and the 
number had increased to i486 when the second supple- 
mental charter was granted. Thus, as the number of 
members increased, the control over the Society's 
afFairs became centralised. The one thing needful at 
the time of the second supplemental charter was to 
ensure that the management of the various branches of 
the Society's work, so widely different in character, 
should be entrusted to persons possessing the necessary 
qualifications, and that those persons should be left 
a fairly free hand within their own sphere. This the 
second supplemental charter did, and at the same time 
it greatly increased the power of the Society to adapt 
itself to its ever altering environment. 

This charter was practically the work of two 
members — Geo. Johnstone Stoney, f.r.s., then a vice- 
president, and Geo. Francis FitzGerald, f.t.c.d., who 
was then an honorary secretary. 

The charter rendered it necessary to revise the by- 
laws completely, and on February the 6th, 1889, the 



310 A HISTORY OF 

Council submitted the proposed new by-laws to the 
Society for approval. They included provision for 
the election of a class of honorary officers to be called 
Fellows, and provided that the first Fellows should be 
those already Fellows of the Royal Society. This 
proposal was not favourably received, and the Council 
was obliged to withdraw it. Professor FitzGerald 
thereupon resigned the office of honorary secretary. 
In his letter of resignation he described the rejected 
by-laws as " the only serious attempt that has been 
proposed to encourage scientific members to work for 
the Society." A few weeks later a code of by-laws, 
with the provision relating to Fellows omitted, was 
submitted to the Society and approved. In recent 
years a few amendments have been made from time to 
time, as experience suggested. 

In 1892, on petition of the Society, the statutes 
were amended by royal warrant. In their original 
form the statutes provided that the number of the 
whole Council, exclusive of the president, should not 
exceed forty-five. The amendment limited the 
number of elected members to a maximum of thirty- 
six, and did not place any limit to the number of the 
whole Council. The other members of the Council 
are the honorary officers as ex officio members. The 
Society has the power by by-law to include any 
number of ex officio members in the Council, and to 
determine their titles, tenure, duties and mode of 
election. 

While the protracted negotiations concerning the 
issue of the new charter were in progress, some changes 
of far-reaching importance were made in the by-laws. 
On the 30th of June, 1887, the Society decided that 
members might be either men or women, and that 
"he" in the by-laws should be interpreted as either 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 311 

"he" or "she." It was also decided to admit ladies 
as Associates, with limited privileges ; this has proved 
a great boon, and in a few years more than twelve 
hundred names have been enrolled. 

Ballsbridge Premises 

When the negotiations that preceded the passing 
of the Science and Art Museum Act, 1877, were in 
progress, the Government informed the Society that 
it would be prepared to provide for the removal of 
the agricultural shows from Kildare street to the 
Phoenix Park ; this suggestion, was, however, never 
seriously entertained. In 1871 the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society of Ireland held a show on grounds 
at Ballsbridge, which the Earl of Pembroke kindly 
lent for the occasion. The Prince of Wales, then 
President of the Royal Agricultural Society of 
Ireland, was present, and the Council of the Society, 
in reporting upon the show, stated that it was " by far 
the most important and successful " the Society had 
held since its formation. Again in 1878 the same 
Society held a show on the same site. This show the 
Council regarded as " second only in excellence to the 
show of 1 87 1." It was natural that a site with such 
a favourable record should be considered suitable as a 
permanent home for the shows of the Royal Dublin 
Society. Accordingly in 1879 the Society leased from 
the Earl of Pembroke fifteen acres of land for a term 
of 500 years, at a yearly rent of ,£180. Plans for 
the new agricultural halls, prepared by Mr. George 
Wilkinson, were adopted, and the work of erection 
and laying out the grounds was at once commenced. 
In the report laid before the Society on June the 3rd, 
1880, the Council stated that a contract for the 



312 A HISTORY OF 

erection of what is now known as the central hall and 
offices for the sum of £11,690 had been concluded. 
A much larger building had been suggested, but it was 
decided " not to include anything that the lengthened 
experience of the Committee of Agriculture had not 
shown to be requisite,'* so as to keep within the 
limits of the sum of £25,000 received from the 
Government as compensation for the removal of 
the shows from Kildare street. Later in the year a 
further contract was concluded for the removal of 
the agricultural hall from Kildare street, and its re- 
erection at Ballsbridge, at a cost of £3259. This is 
the building now known as the south hall. It was 
originally erected in Kildare street at a cost of about 
£5000, most of which was subscribed by the members 
and by the public, His Royal Highness the Prince 
Consort subscribing £50. The hall was used for the 
first time at the spring cattle show held in 1858. The 
gallery which formed part of the hall in Kildare street 
is now the gallery of the central hall, Ballsbridge. 

The first show held in the new premises at Balls- 
bridge was the spring show of April 19-22, 1881. 
The receipts of this show amounted to £1705, as 
compared with £1132 at the last show in Kildare 
street. A horse show followed in the autumn of the 
same year, it being held on August 30th and 31st and 
September 1st and 2nd. At this show the entries 
numbered 589. There was an attendance of 15,736 
persons, and the receipts exceeded the expenditure by 
£816. The corresponding figures at the last show 
in Kildare street were — entries, 600; credit balance, 
£500. The attendance, unfortunately, is not on 
record; that for a three-day show held in 1879 was 
9698 ; there was no show in 1878. The last four-day 
horse show in Kildare street at which the attendance 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 313 

is recorded was in 1877, when the total number of 
visitors was 10,844. 

It had already become evident that more ground 
would be required, and it was decided to take the 
remainder of the triangular area enclosed by Merrion, 
Simmonscourt, and Anglesea roads. The additional 
twelve acres Lord Pembroke very liberally granted on 
lease at the same rate as the first holding. The 
Society subsequently purchased the fee simple of the 
entire holding on very favourable terms. Building 
now proceeded rapidly, and every available interval 
between the shows was utilised to add a new hall, 
or to carry out the improvements which experience 
suggested. It is interesting to examine the plans 
published in the catalogues of successive shows of 
this period, and to observe the progressive growth 
of the buildings. In a report of December 1891, 
the Council pointed out that there was room in 
the permanent buildings for the stabling of 1350 
horses. 

The construction of what is known as the loop 
line, which connected the Kingstown railway with the 
other railways having termini in Dublin, afforded the 
Society the opportunity of placing the show grounds 
in immediate communication by rail with the Irish 
railway system generally. With this view the 
Society purchased from Lord Pembroke eleven acres 
of ground lying between Merrion road and the rail- 
way, and constructed the branch line and sidings 
which have proved such a convenience to exhibitors 
and to the public. The Society bore the entire cost 
of this work, including an expenditure of .£500 on 
the property of the railway company, in making the 
necessary connections. The first train passed over the 
line on April the 7th, 1893. 



3 H A HISTORY OF 

On the morning of August the 19th, 1905, when 
preparations for the horse show, which was to have 
opened in three days, were being completed, a fire 
broke out in the building known as the Paddock 
Hall. In less than one hour from the time the fire 
was detected, the three halls adjoining the veterinary 
paddock were completely gutted, and a great deal of 
woodwork which had been erected in the paddock 
was destroyed. While the fire was in progress, steps 
were taken to provide horse-boxes and stalls for the 
coming show in other parts of the premises, and the 
show was held without any serious inconvenience to 
exhibitors or the public. Most of the damage was 
covered by insurance, and new buildings of an im- 
proved type were at once erected on the site of the 
old ones. 

The Society learned a valuable lesson from this 
disaster. For many years it had been the practice to 
erect temporary timber stalls for each horse show. 
These had many advantages, and when they were 
cleared away the floor space was left unobstructed. 
They were, however, extremely combustible, especi- 
ally when furnished with straw bedding. By way of 
experiment, concrete stalls were erected in the Anglesea 
and Simmonscourt halls in the year 1906, and the 
result was deemed so satisfactory that shortly after- 
wards stalls of this type were erected wherever 
practicable. 

It would be tedious to follow the development 
of the premises in recent years : suffice it to say that 
at the close of the year 1913, the total expenditure 
on the land and buildings, charged to capital, was 
£96,477. This expenditure is not represented by the 
premises as they now appear ; part of the money was 
spent on structures which have long since disappeared, 







J^OTixLo*n. . pvh.o-to^j'nxfr 



, 



jL^culi rcn cc . a rl of (A^r.)Jr , 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 315 

and have been replaced by more substantial and more 
commodious structures, better adapted to the Society's 
present requirements. 



Horse and Cattle Breeding — The Probate Duties 
Grant 

Early in 1887, the Government was asked to give 
the Society financial assistance in promoting improve- 
ment in the breeding of cattle and horses. Mr. Arthur 
J. Balfour, then chief secretary, induced the House of 
Commons to vote the sum of ^5000 in aid of the 
scheme. Subsequently this sum became payable an- 
nually to the Society under the Probate Duties (Scot- 
land and Ireland) Act, 1888. This grant enabled the 
Society to offer premiums of ^10 to ^15, to aid farmers 
in the purchase of pure-bred bulls selected by competent 
judges. Premiums of ^200 each were also offered for 
thoroughbred stallions. These premiums and those 
in aid of the purchase of bulls were subject to certain 
conditions of service. Both schemes were subject to 
the approval of the Lord Lieutenant. The arrange- 
ment placed the Society in a unique position, as it 
became the only body in the United Kingdom adminis- 
tering Government funds for improving horse and 
cattle breeding. The first allotment of bull premiums 
took place at the spring cattle show of 1888, when 
28 bulls were allotted to Leinster, 21 to Ulster, 9 to 
Munster, and 4 to Connaught. The Committee of 
Agriculture, in its report of the show, specially noted 
the fact that while the Ulster farmers competed keenly 
to secure premium bulls, farmers of the south and 
west of Ireland displayed comparatively little activity. 
After a few years the farmers of Munster and Con- 
naught realised the advantages of the scheme, and the 



316 A HISTORY OF 

premium bulls were more evenly distributed. To aid 
in administering the horse-breeding scheme, committees 
were formed in Strabane, Antrim, Portadown, Lisnaskea, 
Ballymote, Ballinrobe, Longford, Kells, Edenderry, 
Banagher, Loughrea, Templemore, Tullow, Rathkeale, 
Cappoquin and Dunmanway. Subsequently the horse- 
breeding scheme was changed, and, instead of giving 
premiums to stallions, a register of stallions was estab- 
lished, and the sum of ^3200 was allotted to the 
counties, in sums varying from ^80 to ^140 each, to 
be distributed amongst the owners of approved mares 
in the form of nominations to thoroughbred stallions 
on the Society's register. To carry out this scheme a 
committee was appointed in each county. With slight 
variation, this system continued in force until the 
establishment, in 1899, of the department of Agricul- 
ture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. The new 
department was entrusted with the administration of 
all public funds devoted to the advancement of agri- 
culture in Ireland, with the sole exception of the Royal 
Dublin Society's grant of ^5000 a year. One of the 
first acts of the department was to adopt schemes for 
improving horse and cattle breeding practically identical 
with those which the Society had been carrying out for 
the preceding thirteen years. Early in the year 1902, 
a committee, which the Council had appointed to con- 
sider the new position that had arisen, recommended 
that the Society should be relieved of the administra- 
tion of the fund on the grounds that : ( 1 ) It involved 
a great deal of work the cost of which was borne by 
the Society's private funds; (2) that friction with the 
department was inevitable so long as both bodies con- 
tinued to work on nearly identical lines; (3) and 
finally, that the Society was not independent so long as 
it continued to administer public funds. This latter 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 317 

consideration had influenced the Society from the be- 
ginning, for it was not without serious apprehension on 
the part of some of the members, who had fought so 
hard to secure complete freedom from Government 
control, that the administration of the grant was 
originally undertaken. Acting on this recommenda- 
tion, the Council arranged with the Government for a 
transfer of the administration to the department. This 
was effected by the Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion (Ireland) (No. 2) Act of 1902. As a considera- 
tion for the transfer, the Society asked for a grant in 
aid of providing a suitable hall at Ballsbridge for the 
Art Industries Exhibition held annually in conjunc- 
tion with the horse show, and in compliance with this 
request the sum of ^5000 was paid to the Society. 

Exhibitions of Manufactures 

Reference has been made at pp. 253 and 271 to the 
exhibitions of manufactures first projected in the year 
1833. Exhibitions were held in 1834 and 1835, an0 ^ 
after the latter year, these exhibitions became triennial. 
They were at first confined to Irish manufactures, but 
in 1850 the products of other countries were admitted ; 
the exhibition of that year was in fact the first step in the 
United Kingdom in the direction of international exhibi- 
tions which afterwards assumed such large proportions. 
The series culminated in the International Exhibition of 
1853 ; the exhibitions which followed this great effort 
were on a much smaller scale. In 1858, advantage was 
taken of the newly-erected Natural History Museum to 
hold an Art Exhibition. Stimulated by the success of 
this new departure, a larger exhibition of fine arts and 
art manufactures was held in 1 861, in the Agricultural 
Hall which had just been erected in Kildare street. 



3 i8 A HISTORY OF 

In 1864 the exhibition was exclusively Irish so far as 
manufactures were concerned, but it included a section 
for home and foreign machinery. This was the last of 
the series of triennial exhibitions. The Dublin Exhi- 
bition Palace and Winter Garden Company erected 
the buildings at Earlsfort terrace in which an inter- 
national exhibition was held in 1865, but the venture 
proved disappointing as a financial speculation. For 
various reasons the Society made no attempt to revive 
the exhibitions, one being the fact that the horse show 
had come into existence, and that it occupied the 
premises at an inconvenient time. 

A committee appointed by the Council on May the 
7th, 1885, to consider the advisability of holding an 
international exhibition on the Society's premises at 
Ballsbridge, reported in favour of the project, and 
recommended that the exhibition should be held in 
the year 1887. It was proposed to open a guarantee 
fund and subscription list, the control and manage- 
ment of the exhibition to remain in the hands of the 
Council, in accordance with the charter. Six months 
later, the Registrar reported the results of his visit to 
exhibitions in London and Antwerp, and the committee, 
on reconsideration, decided " that the present state of 
the country is not such as to warrant the Society in 
embarking in an enterprise of such magnitude and 
importance. " Acting on this opinion, the idea was 
abandoned. 

It was then proposed to see what could be done 
to assist Irish industries by holding an exhibition in 
London, and it was suggested that the building then 
occupied by the Indo-Colonial Exhibition might be 
obtained. Enquiries were made, and it was soon found 
that the Society would have to undertake financial 
responsibilities so large that they seemed out of pro- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 319 

portion to the results that might be achieved. Atten- 
tion was next directed to making more use of the 
spring cattle shows for the promotion of local industries, 
and this proposal was under discussion when it was 
suggested that the Centenary Exhibition about to be 
held in Manchester would afford a good opportunity 
for bringing Irish manufactures under public notice. 
This suggestion was warmly supported, and the Man- 
chester committee at once fell in with the idea. A 
guarantee fund was started, the Society heading the 
list with a contribution of ^500. Deputations were 
sent to Belfast and Cork, and the co-operation of the 
respective Chambers of Commerce was secured. On 
the recommendation of the Cork committee, it was 
decided to offer space to exhibitors free of charge. 
Applications were received for 40,000 superficial feet, 
the space available being barely 27,000 feet. This made 
the difficulty of allotment very great. It is not sur- 
prising that the executive committee, of which Mr. 
Thomas Pirn, jun., acted as chairman, reported that 
they had held forty-three meetings in thirteen weeks. 
The exhibition was a decided success. The executive 
committee, in its final report, said that it " was pleased 
to be able to state that the objects aimed at by the 
Society in inaugurating an Irish exhibition in England 
have to a large extent been attained. A substantial 
benefit has been conferred upon our home manufactures, 
and upon a number of small industries which were 
much in need of encouragement and support." 

The business transacted in the section by some of 
the Irish exhibitors was large, and in some cases they 
were induced to open branch establishments in England, 
or to appoint local agents to develop the connection 
which the Irish section was the means of procuring for 
them. These results are most encouraging, and it is 



3 2o A HISTORY OF 

hoped that Irish manufacturers will remember that the 
markets of England are open to them, and that a 
British and foreign trade is better worth cultivating 
than one depending upon the very limited demands of 
our own small population. 

The Society had organised an exhibit of the in- 
dustries of Dublin at the Paris Exhibition of 1855, but 
the Irish section at the Manchester Exhibition was the 
first general display of the products of the industries 
of Ireland ever shown as a distinct section at any 
exhibition held out of Ireland. 



The Art Industries Exhibition 

In the year 1888, the Council approved a scheme 
for holding an exhibition of lace during the annual 
horse show, and voted a sum of ^50 to be awarded in 
prizes. Next year the amount was increased to £75, 
when seventy exhibits, value X376, were submitted 
for competition. 

In 1890 the scope of the exhibition was enlarged, 
sections for embroidery and for designs were added, 
and for the first time wood carving was included. 
The exhibition continued to progress until the space 
allotted to it became inconveniently overcrowded, and 
it became evident that increased space must be pro- 
vided. The present art industries hall was erected 
in 1903-4 at a cost of ^7000, part of which was 
provided by the grant paid to the Society by the Govern- 
ment on the surrender of the administration of the 
probate duties grant. 

On August the 23rd, 1904, the seventeenth art 
industries exhibition was formally opened in the new 
hall by the Earl of Dudley, then lord lieutenant, when 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 321 

an address was presented to His Excellency by Lord 
Ardilaun, president of the Society. 

At the exhibitions held in recent years, the 
number of entries is usually about 1000, and the 
amount offered in prizes is generally about ^300. 
The exhibition no longer enjoys the monopoly of 
former years; its success has induced others to promote 
similar exhibitions, and in some cases exhibitors, finding 
that the horse show offers a unique opportunity for 
the sale of work, now take stalls each year on their 
own account. As a means of promoting some im- 
portant branches of applied art, and as a stimulus to 
home industries, the exhibition continues to fulfil a 
most useful function. 



Improvement in Tillage in Small Holdings: 
Swinford District 

During the autumn of the year 1890, it became 
evident that the failure of the potato crop would lead 
to widespread distress throughout the poorer districts 
in the west of Ireland. At the first meeting of the 
Council in the session which commenced in November 
1890, Mr. Thomas Pirn, junior, called attention to 
the fact that the Royal Dublin Society was now 
practically the Agricultural Society of Ireland, and 
suggested the appointment of a committee of the 
Council to act in conjunction with the committee of 
agriculture, to consider what might be done " to 
improve the nature and quality of the potato plant in 
the west of Ireland in places where the root has 
repeatedly failed." The proposal was agreed to, and 
the sum of ^400 was voted to defray the expenses of 
the first year's operations. A committee was appointed, 
and its labours led to important results. It was soon 

x 



322 A HISTORY OF 

realised that improvement in potato culture could be 
dealt with only as part of the larger question of 
farming generally. It was decided to offer induce- 
ments to farmers in a selected district to adopt better 
methods of cultivation. For this purpose it was re- 
solved to secure the services of a practical agriculturist, 
known to be versed in the best methods of tillage 
farming — " a man acquainted with the circumstances 
and habits of the small farmers, and who would be 
likely to command their confidence and respect." It 
was arranged that this instructor should lay down a 
plan upon which a certain number of example holdings 
were to be cropped, that he should see that his instruc- 
tions were carried out, and, by visiting neighbouring 
farmers, endeavour to stimulate their interest in the 
work, and enforce upon their attention such lessons 
as might be conveyed by ocular demonstration on the 
example holdings. Mr. D. O'Dowd, formerly National 
School teacher at Dooncastle, co. Mayo, was appointed 
to the office of practical instructor. The district of 
Swinford, co. Mayo, was selected for the Society's 
operations, and an advisory committee consisting of 
influential persons resident in the district was appointed. 
As an inducement to farmers to take an interest in 
the scheme, prizes were offered for the best worked 
holdings. At the first competition, the report states, 
"no fewer than 134 small farmers entered for these 
prizes. Considerable rivalry was aroused, and unusual 
efforts were made by some to keep down weeds and 
promote the growth of crops." 

The descriptions of prize holdings which are 
appended to reports of the Council for the years 1891 
to 1894 are interesting records of the condition of 
farming in the district at the time, and show the 
results of the first systematic efforts at improvement. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



3 2 3 



In August 1 891, the Act for the improvement of 
the congested districts in Ireland received the royal 
assent, and large sums of public money became avail- 
able for carrying out such work as the Society had 
initiated, and carried on at its own expense. The few 
years during which the Society's scheme was in opera- 
tion sufficed to show the utility of the method adopted, 
and the possibility of effecting a vast improvement 
with comparatively little expenditure. 

Potato Culture 

While the effort was being made to improve agri- 
culture in the Swinford district by means of itinerant 
instruction and example holdings, experiments were 
carried on in Ireland generally with the view of im- 
proving the potato crop. In the years 189 1-2-3, 
experiments on different varieties of potato were tried 
in nearly every county in Ireland, and the results were 
published in detail. The general conclusion was that, 
in addition to the Champion, other main crop varieties 
were well suited for cultivation in Ireland. 

In 1893, the experiments were mainly directed to 
testing the efficiency of spraying with copper prepara- 
tions. It was in June 1891 that the Society first 
decided to put spraying to practical test in the Swinford 
district. The first report which refers to the use of 
copper sulphate preparation in the form of powder was 
discouraging, as it states that no " beneficial influence 
could be traced to the powder." Experiments carried 
out on the Society's own ground at Ballsbridge 
proved abortive, as no disease appeared. The experi- 
ments conducted in 1893 showed conclusively the 
value of spraying, the increased profit being estimated 
at from 22s. to 48s. per acre. In 1894, experiments 



324 



A HISTORY OF 



in spraying were extended, and spraying machines were 
sent to thirty-four farmers, who subsequently sent 
interesting reports on the results obtained. The value 
of the treatment was becoming widely recognised. In 
1895, the Society distributed 202 spraying machines, 
and over five tons of copper sulphate. Eighty-five per 
cent, of the reports received were favourable to the 
treatment. It was no longer necessary for the Society 
to continue the work ; the great value of spraying as a 
means of combating the attack of phytophthora infestans, 
and of prolonging the period of growth of the potato 
plant, had been fully established. 

Farm Prizes 

In 1890, prizes were offered for the best cultivated 
farms in the province of Leinster, and twelve farms 
were entered for competition. In 1892, prizes were 
offered for farms in the province of Munster, but only 
five farmers entered. In 1893, tne province of Ulster 
was selected, and fourteen farmers entered their farms 
for competition. In 1894, a competition was again 
held in the province of Leinster, and twelve farmers 
entered. In 1895, Connaught was selected, but only 
four farmers submitted their farms for examination. 
In 1896, a second competition in Munster took place, 
ten farms being entered. In 1897, Ulster was again 
selected ; the number of farms entered was twelve, but 
only three out of the nine prizes offered were awarded 
by the judges. The disappointing results of the past 
three years induced the committee of agriculture to 
discontinue the competitions. The reports on these 
competitions, which were published each year, are 
interesting records of the state of farming during the 
transition period that followed the early Irish Land 
Acts. 







'(/l&r-i'ii n, , Cvt'jcr// it I fJcircr.jcrnri, 
(/rr.j i 'den I l8(?<2 - l8jj 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 325 

The Lecture Theatre 

Clause five of the " Memorandum of Provisions" 
agreed to by the Government and the Society in 
March 1877, as a preliminary to the passing of the 
Science and Art Museum Act, provided that : — " The 
Lecture Hall, Laboratory, and the necessary offices 
were to be reserved to the Society, or an equivalent 
provided." 

The old buildings referred to were of humble 
origin. In May 18 15, a few weeks before the Society 
moved from Hawkins street to Leinster House, a 
committee reported " that the outbuilding called the 
kitchen (at Leinster House) could be appropriated, 
with the necessary alterations, to the purposes of a 
laboratory and theatre, with the apartments for the 
professors' apparatus." The alterations were com- 
pleted shortly afterwards, and for 78 years the trans- 
formed kitchen served the purposes of a laboratory and 
lecture theatre. In 1836, Mr. Isaac Weld, in giving 
evidence before a select committee of the House of 
Commons, said, in answer to a question about the 
theatre and laboratory: — "There is a small range of 
furnaces and sand baths in the theatre for the purpose 
of exhibiting some chemical processes ; there is adjoin- 
ing to it a large laboratory besides ; and also another 
room for the finer apparatus, and for nicer experiments 
which Mr. Davy may be particularly engaged in him- 
self, secluded and kept apart for himself, that he may 
not be interrupted." He also said that the laboratory 
was a good one, " the chemical apparatus extensive, 
some of it fine. The galvanic battery is of a very 
superior description." 

The lapse of half a century brought about great 
changes ; ideas about the requirements of a theatre had 



326 A HISTORY OF 

totally altered, and the public had become more exact- 
ing in their demands. In a memorandum submitted 
to the Lord Lieutenant in January 1892, it is stated that 
as regards facilities for entrance and exit, and arrange- 
ments for heating and ventilation, " the Society's 
theatre is singularly deficient, and the building is now 
in a dilapidated state." It was with some difficulty 
that the Society induced the Government to recognise 
the necessity for providing new buildings. Deputations 
waited upon the Lord Lieutenant and the Chief Secretary 
in Dublin, and upon the Financial Secretary to the 
Treasury in London, and at length they succeeded in 
getting something done. Plans were prepared by the 
firm of Sir Thomas Deane & Son, and it was found 
that the cost of the theatre and laboratory, &c, would 
be at least ;£ 10,000. The Government asked the 
Society to pay half the cost. Recognising that the 
new buildings would be more than the equivalent 
which the Government was under an obligation to 
provide, the Society agreed to pay a fixed sum of 
^5000. The old buildings were handed over to the 
contractor, and in the autumn of 1893 the work of 
demolition was commenced. 

Before the new building had proceeded very far, 
and fortunately before it was too late, it was found 
that due consideration had not been given to the 
question of ventilation. The subject was discussed at 
scientific meetings held on December the 19th, 1894, 
and January the 16th, 1895, and, though no formal 
resolutions were adopted, it was agreed that the fresh air 
should enter the upper part of the theatre, and that the 
foul air should be removed from the lower part. The 
volume of air required for an audience of 600 persons 
was estimated at 600,000 cubic feet per hour. The 
velocity of the air at the inlets was not to exceed 2 feet 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 327 

per second, at a distance of 6 feet from any person, or 
5 feet per second at any other place. A temperature 
of 6o° F. should be guaranteed, the outer air being at 
3 2° F., and provision should be made for moistening 
the air when necessary. These requirements necessi- 
tated the construction of a number of air shafts in the 
walls of the building, and proper openings for the fans 
to be used for propelling the air. 

The new theatre was opened by a conversazione on 
March the 10th, 1897. In addition to the sum of 
£5000 paid to the Board of Works towards the cost 
of the building, the Society spent £2430, mainly on 
the equipment for heating, lighting and ventilation. 
The theatre seats 700 persons, but on several 
occasions room has been found for an audience of 
1000. Fresh air is taken in at an opening 35 feet 
above the ground, and forced into the building by an 
electrically driven fan 5 feet in diameter. The air 
enters the theatre at twenty-seven openings in the ceil- 
ing and walls ; these openings have an effective area of 
92 square feet. The air is removed through openings 
of about the same area, chiefly under the seats, and is 
expelled from the building by another electrically driven 
fan. It has been found by actual measurement that 
the fans are capable of sending 800,000 cubic feet of 
air, about 27 tons weight, through the theatre in one 
hour. It is rarely necessary to use more than half 
this quantity of air. By means of steam-heated pipes, 
the air, before it enters the theatre, can be warmed 
when necessary. Daylight can be excluded by means 
of a false ceiling which descends below the level of the 
windows of the lantern in the roof. The Society is 
indebted to Sir Howard Grubb, f.r.s., for the design 
for this device. The screen for lantern projections, 
which has an area of 340 square feet, is capable of 



328 A HISTORY OF 

being raised, disclosing a stage room, communicating 
directly with a roadway, so that large or heavy objects 
can be brought straight into the theatre without 
trouble. The floor between this room and the lec- 
turer's table can be raised to the level of the table, 
thus providing a raised platform, which is used for 
musical recitals. Mr. Samuel Geoghegan, c.e., was 
good enough to furnish plans for the platform and 
screen. 

Electrical energy for lighting, and for driving the 
ventilating fans, is supplied from an installation in the 
basement, including a 30 h.p. steam-engine. The 
waste steam is used for heating. 

The organ with which the theatre is furnished 
was constructed by Messrs. Henry Willis & Sons, 
London. It contains four complete manuals from 
CC to A — 58 notes, and two octaves and a half of 
concave and radiating pedals — 30 notes. There are 
thirty-four speaking stops, with 1946 pipes and eight 
accessories. The first public performance took place 
on April the 20th, 1899, when Mr. R. G. Sinclair, 
organist of Hereford Cathedral, gave a recital. 

The chemical laboratory adjoins the theatre, and 
consists of a principal room equipped with working 
benches, and extensive fume chambers, which admit of 
all kinds of operations being carried on without any 
risk of the air of the room being overheated or con- 
taminated. There is a second room furnished with 
various types of air pumps, which is used mainly for 
work involving the handling of gases. A third room 
is furnished with balances, microscopes, spectroscopes, 
and other optical apparatus. On the story above these 
are a large glass-roofed room and a dark room for 
photographic work. 

An installation for the liquefaction of air and of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 329 

hydrogen was presented to the Society by Mr. William 
Purser Geoghegan and Mr. Samuel Geoghegan ; it is a 
valuable acquisition for the purposes of research, as 
well as for lecture illustration. 

A recent addition to the laboratory is an outfit for 
dealing with radium emanation under the supervision 
of the Radium Institute referred to at p. 377. This 
includes provision for the storage of the radium, 
mercury air pumps for removing the emanation, 
apparatus for purifying the gas with the aid of liquid 
air, and apparatus for sealing it in minute capillary 
tubes for therapeutic purposes. 

Musical Recitals 

In a report laid before the Society on March the 
4th, 1 886, the Council reported that " Since the transfer 
to the Government of the Art School, which the Royal 
Dublin Society maintained for upwards of 130 years, 
the Council have had under their consideration to 
what other work, for the promotion of Art, the 
Society could most usefully apply itself. After much 
consideration the Council have directed, as a tentative 
measure, that weekly recitals from the works of some 
of the best composers of instrumental music shall be 
performed in the Society's theatre during the rest of 
the present season : such as, if continued in future 
years, will enable music as an art to be systematically 
brought before the public as effectually as painting and 
sculpture now are in our public galleries. In taking 
this step, the Council have had the advice of musicians, 
both professional and amateur, who have expressed 
their opinion that, by undertaking this work, the 
Royal Dublin Society will do important service to the 
cause of Art." 

Three months later, the Chamber Music Committee 



33o A HISTORY OF 

submitted its first report, in which it is said that " the 
extraordinary success which has attended the Society's 
first efforts in this direction is most encouraging, and 
an augury of the important service to Art which con- 
tinued efforts in this direction are likely to effect." 
Chamber music was selected as the class of composition 
in which the great composers embodied many of their 
best thoughts, and as few performers were required, it 
seemed the most promising field for the Society's 
efforts. The co-operation of the Instrumental Music 
Club was sought, and arrangements were made to 
direct the attention of the audience to points of special 
interest in each composition. At the course of re- 
citals which began in October 1886, analytical notes 
on the music performed, prepared by Sir Robert Stewart, 
were given gratuitously to the holders of tickets. Two 
years later this plan was given up, and those attending 
the recitals were offered facilities for obtaining scores 
of the pieces performed in a cheap and convenient 
form. In 1898, the analytical notes were resumed; 
they were prepared by Professor Ebenezer Prout and 
sold at a nominal price. Next year the notes were 
continued by Mr. J. S. Shedlock. In recent years these 
educational features have been allowed to lapse, largely 
because the recitals have had the effect they were 
intended to produce, and Dublin audiences are no 
longer unacquainted with the masterpieces of the great 
composers of chamber music. With this change has 
come a more critical taste, and instead of relying 
solely, as at first, upon local talent, the services of the 
most distinguished artists in this country and abroad 
are now drawn upon to ensure the best results in the 
promotion of this branch of art. 

The organ with which the lecture theatre is 
provided is described at p. 328. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 331 

Butter-making 

During the closing years of the Royal Agricultural 
Society of Ireland, a complete revolution took place in 
the system of land tenure in this country. While this 
change was being effected, an important branch of 
agricultural industry underwent a total transformation 
all over the world. German fiscal policy had obliged 
the farmers of neighbouring states to seek a new outlet 
for their produce, and the open British market was an 
easy prey. The farmers of the United Kingdom soon 
discovered that the superior technical education of 
their neighbours in Denmark and other countries had 
made them formidable rivals, with serious consequences 
to the British butter-making industry. 

In 1876, the first of a series of dairy shows was 
held in London, and on that occasion Professor J. P. 
Sheldon proposed the formation of the British Dairy 
Farmers Association. Two years later the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Ireland deputed the Rev. 
Canon Bagot and Mr. James Robertson to visit several 
of the northern states of Europe and inspect the 
various systems of dairy farming carried out in those 
countries. They were accompanied by the secretary, 
Mr. Dawson Milward, whose very interesting and in- 
structive report was published by the Society. 1 

The Royal Dublin Society joined the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society in an effort to improve Irish dairy 
industries. A joint dairy show was held in 1879, at 
which continental systems of butter-making were shown 
at work. Similar shows were subsequently held by the 
Royal Dublin Society alone. The Royal Agricultural 
Society instituted a travelling educational dairy which 

1 Report on the Butter Manufacture of Denmark and other 
Countries, 1879. 



332 A HISTORY OF 

toured the provinces and brought instruction to the 
farmers' doors. A description of this dairy is to be 
found in the Spring show catalogue, 1 88 1. 

In 1883, the Royal Dublin Society induced the 
Commissioners of National Education to establish a 
dairy school at the Albert Farm, Glasnevin, and 
voted a sum of £50 to be offered in prizes. The 
railway companies were also induced to co-operate by 
granting free passes to pupils. The Royal Dublin 
Society subsequently raised the vote to ^100, and 
voted ^50 to the Munster Dairy School, Cork. 
These votes were continued for many years. In 1885, 
Mr. J. C. Lovell, the well-known London butter mer- 
chant, who had acted as a judge at one of the Society's 
dairy shows, recognising the importance of the work 
which it was doing, gave a donation of £100 in aid 
of dairy industries. 

Meantime a momentous change in dairy methods 
was in progress. For some years attempts had been 
made to devise a machine that would separate cream 
from milk by centrifugal force. The problem was at 
last solved by Lafeldt, a German civil engineer, in 
Schoningen, Brunswick. Mr. Milward, in the report 
above referred to, mentions a visit to the works of 
the Centrifuge Company at Hamburg, where he saw 
the Lafeldt separator at work, and recognised the 
importance of the invention for butter-making in fac- 
tories. At the same works he saw the Laval separator, 
and remarks that if it is to work at 6000 revolutions 
a minute, he would rather not place it in the hands of 
his dairymaid. The centrifugal cream separator under- 
went rapid development, and revolutionised butter- 
making in the same way that the Arkwright spinning 
frame and Cartwright power loom had revolutionised 
the textile industries in the latter part of the eighteenth 




:J J /-c.jic/c/i t i r )ij 






O n n ( 



■>ll 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 333 

century. Recognising the value of this important 
invention, the Society offered space, free of charge, 
at the Spring cattle show of 1888 for the exhibition of 
hand separators in operation. 

The fact that milk production is widely distributed, 
the dairy cattle being owned by numerous farmers 
who could not individually undertake butter-making 
on a large scale, rendered some system of combina- 
tion necessary. The conditions were peculiarly favour- 
able to the co-operative system, which was soon taken 
up extensively in Denmark. In Ireland, Mr. (after- 
wards Sir Horace) Plunket, and his colleagues of the 
Agricultural Organisation Society, laboured assidu- 
ously, and with marked success, in introducing co- 
operation in butter-making, and in agriculture generally. 
The Royal Dublin Society was approached on the 
subject in 1891, but the committee of agriculture 
recommended that the Society should not advocate 
one system of trading over another, while they fully 
recognised the importance of the movement, and ad- 
vised that the Society should rather devote attention 
to promoting technical instruction in dairying. 

The new methods of butter-making, once intro- 
duced, needed no artificial stimulus. The market 
demanded a uniform and cleanly-made article, of high 
quality ; and this the mechanical method alone could 
supply on a large scale. The method in the ordinary 
course of trade competition soon captured the market. 



Fisheries — Marine Laboratory 

From the first year of its existence, the Society had 
made efforts to promote the fishing industry, and the 
subject was often discussed at the evening meetings of 
a comparatively recent period, but it was not until our 



334 A HISTORY OF 

own time that an attempt was made to deal with the 
fisheries on scientific lines. 

At the opening meeting of the session, 1883-4, 
the attention of the Council was called to the important 
work being done in other countries at stations estab- 
lished for the investigation of marine zoology, and the 
beneficial effect of the knowledge thus acquired on the 
fisheries of the country. A committee was appointed 
to consider whether the Society could not usefully 
employ itself in this direction. The committee, learn- 
ing that the Rev. William Spotswood Green, of Carri- 
galine, co. Cork, had made a special study of fishery 
problems on the south-west coast of Ireland, asked 
his advice. A report from him was submitted to 
the Society on June the 2nd, 1887. Mr. Green was 
asked to extend his enquiries, and he submitted a 
second report, which was laid before the Society on 
March the 1st, 1888. This report dealt with the 
more important fish, and their relative abundance on 
the south coast ; the local and distant markets, the 
fluctuation of prices, with the question of transport ; 
and suggestions were made as to the best means of 
improving the industry. It was pointed out that there 
is a large consumption of cured fish in Ireland, practi- 
cally all of which comes from Norway, Scotland, and 
Newfoundland. If proper steps were taken, avoiding 
the errors of the past, this industry might be developed 
in Ireland. Next year Mr. Green visited America, and 
at the request of the committee he furnished a report 
on American Fisheries, which was submitted to the 
Society on March the 7th, 1889. 

In November 1889, a correspondence took place 
with Mr. J. H. Tuke, of Bancroft, Hitchin, in which 
he suggested that a complete survey of the fishing 
grounds from the coast of Kerry to Donegal should 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 335 

be made, and that Government assistance should be 
sought, as the expense would be considerable. It was 
ascertained that the work would cost about ^1200 
per annum, and would probably occupy two years. 
Mr. Arthur J. Balfour, then chief secretary, was 
approached ; he evinced deep interest in the work, 
and urged the importance of directing attention to the 
distribution of the fish supply on the west coast, and 
as to how far the fisheries could be relied upon for the 
support of a large fishing population. Finding that 
Mr. Balfour was prepared to recommend the Govern- 
ment to pay half the cost of the work, the Council 
voted the sum of £600 for the current year, and the 
survey was at once commenced. For the purposes of 
the survey the Fingal, a steam yacht of 158 tons, was 
chartered and suitably equipped. 

Before the plans for the survey were completed, a 
vacancy occurred in the inspectorship of Irish fisheries, 
through the death of Major Hayes, and Mr. Green 
was appointed to the office. Mr. Green was still 
willing to act for the Society, and to this arrangement 
the Government readily consented. Professor A. C. 
Haddon, who had just returned from Torres Straits, 
acted as naturalist, and Mr. T. H. Poole undertook 
topographical work. Mr. Green's very interesting re- 
port, with a narrative of the cruise of the Fingal^ is 
included in the report of the Council laid before the 
Society on June the 4th, 1891. 

The steam yacht Fingal was not available for the 
season of 1 891, but a suitable substitute was found in 
the s.s. Harlequin^ a ship of 139 tons tonnage, which 
was accordingly engaged. Mr. Green again took 
command of the survey, Mr. Ernest W. L. Holt 
acted as zoologist ; Mr. G. Beamish took charge of 
physical observations, and Mr. D. H. Lane acted as 



336 A HISTORY OF 

general assistant. Mr. Green's report on the work 
accomplished forms an appendix to the report of the 
Council laid before the Society on December the 5th, 
1 89 1. This valuable contribution to the subject of 
west coast fisheries extends to 307 pages, the greater 
part of which is occupied by Mr. Holt's report on the 
results of the fishing operations of the cruise. Full 
particulars are given of the fish captured, their size 
and weight, their condition as to maturity, and the 
contents of their stomachs. There is a list of stations, 
with soundings, temperature, and specific gravity 
records. The report concludes with a discussion of 
the scientific results and their bearing on economic 
questions. The results were also published in a series 
of papers by Mr. Holt, which appeared in vols. iv. 
and v. of the Transactions, and vol. vii. of the 
Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. The 
value of this piece of work has been widely recognised, 
and it has been extensively quoted in almost every 
recent work on marine food fishes, both British and 
foreign. 

The creation of the Congested Districts Board in 
1 891 transferred the responsibility for work of this 
character to the shoulders of a Government depart- 
ment. Mr. Green was a member of the board, which 
renewed the charter with the Fingal, and continued the 
work which the Society had initiated, at least in its 
more economic bearings. 

In 1897 the Council was asked to consider the 
advisability of undertaking a further investigation of 
the life-history of food fishes. The economic import- 
ance of the scientific work of the surveys of 1890 and 
1 891 was beginning to be realised, and there was 
every hope of further scientific work producing similar 
results. The Government again promised assistance, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 337 

and the sum of ^1400 was placed at the Society's 
service, on the understanding that in the course of five 
years, at least an equal sum should be provided from 
the Society's own funds. Steps were immediately taken 
to equip a laboratory, and for this purpose the Saturn, 
a brigantine of about 220 tons, was purchased and 
properly fitted. Mr. E. W. L. Holt was appointed 
marine naturalist to the Society, Mr. Charles Green 
and Mr. A. F. Townshend consenting to act as 
assistants. Subsequently fishing boats were purchased 
and provided with nets, to enable the staff to conduct 
operations at sea. 

Brief reports of the work carried out appeared in 
the annual reports of the Council for the years 1898, 
1899, and 1900. Before the expiration of the five, 
years, a new Government department had been created 
by the passing of the Agriculture and Technical In- 
struction Act, 1899. There were now two Govern- 
ment departments engaged in dealing with different 
aspects of the fisheries question, and it seemed unneces- 
sary for the Society to devote any part of its private 
funds to doing work provided for by the State. An 
arrangement was made with the Department of Agri- 
culture and Technical Instruction for the joint manage- 
ment of the marine laboratory for the unexpired term 
of the five years, and subsequently the Department 
became solely responsible for the work. 

The Veterinary College 

None of the many projects in which the Society 
has engaged took so long to mature as the establish- 
ment of a veterinary college. The greater part of the 
nineteenth century passed in abortive efforts before 
success was attained. 

The first attempt to raise veterinary medicine to 

Y 



33 8 A HISTORY OF 

the position of a science was made in France in 1761, 
when a veterinary college was established at Lyons. 
Thirty years later the London College was founded, 
and Mr. St. Bel, who had studied at Lyons, was the first 
professor. In 1793, Mr. Coleman, who had already 
acquired a reputation as a surgeon, succeeded him. 

In the year 1800, the attention of the Dublin 
Society was called to the progress that other countries, 
especially France, were making in veterinary science. 
It was decided that the books on the subject in foreign 
languages which belonged to the Society should be 
translated into English ; that the transactions of foreign 
academies should be searched for articles on veterinary 
subjects, and extracts made from English books on 
farming and husbandry, all the information to be con- 
densed into one work, and properly indexed. This 
decision was only partially carried out. Articles which 
appeared in the Transactions about this time were no 
doubt published in furtherance of this decision. 

The Society was empowered by Act of Parliament 
to acquire ground for a veterinary establishment, and 
the houses numbered nine to fourteen in Townshend 
street were taken for the purpose. Acting on the 
recommendation of Mr. Coleman, Mr. Thomas Peall 
was appointed in November 1 800, " professor and 
lecturer," and Mr. Watts " assistant professor and 
practitioner." The general character and scope of the 
lectures which Mr. Peall was to deliver are set out in 
the minutes. In addition to dealing with " the consti- 
tution, nourishment, diseases, cures and treatment of 
horses, cattle, and other animals," the various breeds 
now in repute in Great Britain, particularly " of sheep 
and neat cattle," were to be " accurately described and 
compared, their several excellences pointed out, their 
shapes marked, and the nature of the soil or food 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 339 

most advantageous for each." Dr. Wade, professor of 
botany, was also to lecture " on the nature of the 
several grasses and native plants of Ireland so far as 
they ought to be the object of the farmers' attention 
or knowledge, in respect of each species of animal, and 
in what degree they are calculated to give him strength, 
or fat, or value, or otherwise." The scope of the 
lectures therefore embraced rural economy as well as 
veterinary science, such as it was understood a century 
ago. The fees to be paid by pupils, and the fees to 
be paid to professors for professional services, were 
published in Transactions^ vol. ii. part 1, p. 39. The 
sum of ^100, ys. was paid to Dr. John Percival of 
London for " a veterinary museum for the use of the 
Society's veterinary lectures." 

Mr. Peall seems to have occupied a rather inde- 
pendent position. In 1807, he informed the Society 
that he had been appointed veterinary surgeon to the 
Royal Artillery, and expressed his intention to deliver 
his annual course of lectures at the Society's Repository. 
About this time an effort was made by Government 
to reduce expenditure in every possible way, and the 
veterinary establishment was one of the victims of this 
wave of economy. There was a feeling that Mr. Peall 
had been badly treated, and that the expectations he 
had been led to entertain had not been realised. No 
doubt it was for this reason that we find the Society, in 
1 8 13, voting the sum of twenty-five guineas for a copy 
of Mr. Peall's book, Practical Observations on the diseases 
of the Horse. He continued to deliver brief courses of 
lectures annually until a short time before his death, 
which took place in May, 1825. In June of the same 
year a committee submitted a scheme for a Veterinary 
Institution " differing in several essential respects from 
that which had been agreed to by the Society in 1800." 



340 A HISTORY OF 

Mr. Coleman wrote to Lord Oriel, then senior vice- 
president, giving his opinion as to what should be 
done. Incidentally he observes that " Dublin has now 
(1825) three veterinary practitioners." The regula- 
tions of the London Veterinary College which accom- 
panied Mr. Coleman's letter, were printed in "Proceedings 
vol. 61, pp. 210-16. These proposals were not, how- 
ever, carried out. 

Six years later (1831), the "Committee of Agri- 
culture and of the House " recommended that a 
Veterinary Professor be appointed at a salary of ^200 
a year, on condition that he should deliver certain class 
lectures, as well as public lectures, and maintain at 
his own cost, and for his own profit, a hospital for 
invalid horses and other live stock. The committee 
desired to impress on the Society " the importance of 
great caution in the election of a professor." The 
Society adopted this report, and resolved " that the 
Society are of opinion that the veterinary professor- 
ship should be revived in connection with a Veterinary 
School." Again, no definite action was taken, and two 
years later it was proposed that the Society's veterinary 
anatomical preparations should be offered in exchange 
to the College of Surgeons. This suggestion was not 
adopted, and eventually a place was found for the 
specimens, which probably formed part of the collection 
subsequently known as the "Agricultural Museum." 
This museum was part of the property transferred to 
the Crown by the Science and Art Museum Act, 1877. 
In 1886, specimens relating to veterinary science were, 
with the Society's concurrence, transferred on loan to 
the Albert Institution, Glasnevin. 

When the question of appointing a successor to 
Dr. Davy was under consideration in 1858, it was 
proposed that part of the anticipated savings should be 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 341 

appropriated to the salary of a professor of veterinary 
surgery ; this, however, was not done. 

In 1864, the attention of the Board of National 
Education was called to the recommendations of the 
select committee of the House of Commons on scien- 
tific institutions in Dublin, relative to the establishment 
of an Agricultural and Veterinary School in connection 
with the Society. The reply of the Commissioners 
was referred to a special committee, which reported to 
the Council early in 1865. The report briefly sketches 
the work of the Society early in the century, mentions 
the veterinary museum as " in good order and avail- 
able," suggests that it is useless to communicate with 
the Commissioners, and expresses the belief that the 
Council will willingly undertake any duties in this 
connection that Parliament may see fit to throw upon 
the Society. 

In 1866, an influential committee was asked to 
consider the possibility of founding a veterinary 
school. The next year this committee submitted an 
important report, which was the first attempt made to 
deal with the question exhaustively and in a business- 
like manner. A curriculum was drawn up, and it was 
estimated that the annual cost of the staff of the 
institution would be j£6oo, but the committee pointed 
out that the Society had no funds for this purpose. 
The committee was asked to furnish an estimate of 
other expenses. In 1868, a memorial to the Treasury 
in favour of the establishment of a veterinary school 
was ordered to lie for signature during the Horse 
Show of that year, but the minutes do not show 
whether this memorial was ever forwarded. About 
this time the formation of an Association of Veterinary 
Surgeons in Dublin was projected, and the Society lent 
offices for the meetings of the promoters. 



342 



A HISTORY OF 



The next move was not made until 1883, when, 
in conformity with a resolution of the Society, a com- 
mittee was appointed to report to the Council as to the 
most effectual means of founding an Irish college or 
school of veterinary surgery and medicine, with in- 
dependent powers of examining and of conferring 
diplomas. The committee proceeded on the lines of 
its predecessor of 1866, by preparing a curriculum, 
and estimating the probable income and expenditure. 
They showed that a deficit of about £800 a year 
might be expected, while at least £5000 would have 
to be spent on buildings. It was shown that the Royal 
Veterinary College of London possessed by charter the 
sole power of granting veterinary diplomas in the 
United Kingdom, and that to attain the desired object 
a body with independent power would have to be 
incorporated in Ireland. The committee expressed the 
opinion that a veterinary establishment, managed as a 
perfectly independent body on a commercial basis, like 
the Scottish institutions, would pay its way and be self 
supporting. This would mean competition with 
veterinary surgeons in Dublin, which of course the 
Society could not undertake. The committee con- 
cluded that the best thing the Society could do was 
to assist a veterinary college (if one were started) by 
grants in aid, such as were given to the veterinary 
colleges of England and Scotland by the leading 
agricultural society of each country. The report of 
the committee was adopted by the Society in February 
1884, and, though nothing further was done at the 
time, the report formed the basis of the final step 
taken ten years later. In 1894, the project was again 
revived ; to get over the financial difficulty a com- 
mittee of the Council recommended that a guarantee 
fund should be raised, and that the Society should, in 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 343 

addition, contribute ^200 a year for five years. A 
Parliamentary grant of .£15,000 was promised, and on 
the strength of this promise an appeal was made to 
the public. The guarantee fund, including donations 
(which some contributors preferred to give), eventually 
reached the sum of £2253. A charter of incorpora- 
tion was applied for, and, after negotiations in relation 
to some details, the charter was granted, and it was 
enrolled on May the 29th, 1895. Under this charter 
the governing body of the Royal Veterinary College of 
Ireland consisted of twelve persons nominated by the 
Crown, twelve persons nominated by the Council of 
the Royal Dublin Society, four persons nominated by 
the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, 
and four persons to be elected by subscribers. 

In 1906, this charter was annulled, and a new 
charter issued, increasing the number of the Society's 
nominees to fifteen, and giving to the Department of 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, 
which had been created since the first charter was issued, 
the power to nominate thirteen persons. The power 
of the Crown to nominate twelve persons was retained, 
but the Commissioners of National Education ceased 
to have the power of nomination. 

In 19 1 3, the Board of Governors decided to sur- 
render their charter, and to transfer the government 
of the college to the Department of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction for Ireland. Under the proposed 
new charter the functions of the former Board of 
Governors will become advisory in character. The 
Council of the Royal Dublin Society concurred in the 
proposed change, believing that it would be greatly to 
the advantage of the country. 



344 A HISTORY OF 

Agricultural Shows and the Horse Show 

The last spring cattle show held in Kildare street 
in April 1880 was the fiftieth of a series of shows held 
annually without intermission, beginning in the year 
1 83 1. There were still earlier cattle shows, but they 
were not held on the Society's premises, nor were they 
under the direct management of the Society ; they were 
held by the Farming Society, a body founded in 1800, 
which carried on its operations " under the patronage of 
the Dublin Society " ; it received a subsidy of ^200 a 
year from the Society's funds, and held its meetings on 
the Society's premises. The shows were held at Smith- 
field, Dublin, in the months of April and November, and 
at Ballinasloe in the month of October. A report on 
one of these shows held on November the 20th, 1800, 
which shows the extraordinary care that was taken in 
awarding the prizes, is published in the Transactions of 
the Dublin Society, vol. ii. pp. 353-364. In some 
classes, the animals were weighed, and after slaughter, 
detailed weighings and measurements of the various 
cuts were made. In the case of two three-year-old 
wethers, there are eleven measurements and seven 
weighings given, and in the case of two heifers there 
are the weighings of ten different parts of each animal. 
So completely did the Farming Society withdraw agri- 
cultural interests from the parent body, that we find it 
stated in evidence before the Parliamentary Commission 
of 1836, that the Society had " lost its original character, 
and become more an institution for the encouragement 
of Arts and Sciences." 

The spring cattle show of 1 83 1 was the Society's 
response to the appeal that had been made by the 
Marquis of Downshire, who had urged the Society to 
resume its agricultural work. The show opened on 
Tuesday, April the 26th, 1831. The first two days 




CHARLES UNIACKE TOWNSHEND, Vice-President, 1893-1907 
(From an oil painting by William Orpen) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 345 

were devoted to cattle, and the third day to horses. 
The breeds included in the classes for cattle (bulls, 
cows, heifers and oxen) were Durham, Holderness, 
Ayrshire, Devon, and any other breed. There were 
only two breeds of sheep recognised — Leicestershire 
and South Down. The only class of horse in the list 
is " draught stallion." There was also a class for 
Spanish asses as sires. The prizes varied from a silver 
medal, or £$ to £3, and no entry fee was charged. One 
of the rules was that " The oxen must not have been 
fed on distillery wash or grains, and when all other 
circumstances admit of it a preference must be given 
to the lot which has been fattened upon the most 
wholesome and least expensive food." The show was 
a great success. The number and excellence of the 
cattle far exceeded the expectations of the committee, 
who expressed themselves as "sanguine enough to think" 
that the exhibition " has laid the foundation of much 
useful improvement." 

In the prize list for 1832, the classes for cattle 
embrace the longhorned breed, the shorthorned breed, 
Herefords, and any other breed, and a section was 
introduced " for promoting the breed of poultry in 
favour of the cottager." No money prizes were offered 
except for poultry. A new section also appears for "imple- 
ments of husbandry." Lectures on agricultural chemistry 
and botany were to form a feature of the show. 

In 1834 there was a sweepstake of two sovereigns 
in each fat cattle class, the names of the subscribers to 
which were — J. L. W. Naper, Robert Holmes, Robert 
La Touche, and George Garnett. This arrangement 
was not repeated at subsequent shows. 

In 1837 the committee suggested that, "under 
existing circumstances, and the extraordinary scarcity and 
high prices of provender," no show should be held ; 



346 A HISTORY OF 

but a few weeks later this recommendation was with- 
drawn, and the show was held. 

In 1838 there was a great increase in the number 
of cattle, and a great improvement in their quality. 
On September the 1 8th, an autumn show of breeding 
stock and a public sale by auction were held. 

In 1839 money prizes were resumed. In the 
following year, through lack of funds, it was decided 
to abandon the autumn show, and to concentrate 
attention upon one good show, with money prizes. 

Owing to the epidemic among cattle in the year 
1 84 1, the abandonment of the spring show was con- 
templated, but finally the show was held, and it turned 
out a very successful exhibition. 

At the show of 1844, Professor Dick of Edinburgh 
lectured on the diseases of cattle, and Professor (after- 
wards Sir Robert) Kane, on the relation of science to 
agriculture. 

In 1845, in addition to the spring show held in 
April, there was an exhibition of farm produce in 
November ; and from this date a winter show in some 
form or other was held for many years. 

In reporting on the spring show of 1848, the judges 
said that the shorthorns were particularly good, and 
they anticipated that English breeders would soon be 
purchasers in Ireland. " Irish breeders have fully 
earned this mark of distinction by a steady perseverance 
in supplying themselves with stock from the most dis- 
tinguished herds in Great Britain, irrespective of cost." 
The show in 1850 was visited by a great storm, and 
all the cattle sheds in Leinster Lawn were blown down. 
Following the example of the Industrial Exhibition 
of 1 85 1, a book for members to sign at the entrance 
was instituted for the first time ; this practice continues 
to the present day. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 347 

At the show of 1852 an entry fee of 25. 6d. was 
charged on each head of cattle entered by a non- 
member; this was done with the view of "excluding 
cattle of an inferior class." 

In the report of the show of 1855, it is pointed out 
that there were 290 shorthorns, whereas the number 
at the Lincoln show of the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England was in, and at the Berwick-on-Tweed 
show of the Highland and Agricultural Society the 
number was 223. 

Mr. Henry Smith of Dease Abbey, Yorkshire, in 
reporting on the show of 1856, says: — "The county 
of Durham has been called the land of shorthorns ; 
Ireland is that country now. I say, as an Englishman, 
and an English shorthorn breeder, that Englishmen 
must look to themselves, for, unless they improve in a 
very short time, Ireland will beat them. . . . The 
progress that has been made in the country in the 
breeding of shorthorns is something most extra- 
ordinary." Other reports of this period are even more 
laudatory, but enough has been said to afford some 
idea of the stimulus that was given to cattle breeding by 
the Spring show, in the first quarter of the century. 

The erection of the Agricultural Hall (now the 
south hall at Ballsbridge) in Kildare street in 1858, 
was the first important step in the direction of perma- 
nent buildings for the shows. It was a necessity at 
the time, because the erection of the Natural History 
Museum and the National Gallery had greatly en- 
croached upon the space available for agricultural 
exhibitions. In 1862, it was ordered that the Lawn 
should no longer be used for shows, and space had to 
be found elsewhere on the site now occupied by the 
Science and Art Museum. 

During the last twenty years of the Kildare street 



348 A HISTORY OF 

spring shows there was no great change in the number 
of cattle entered each year, and the shows seem to 
have reached their full development. So far as pre- 
mises were concerned, there was no room for further 
extension. Nevertheless, we find the Council report- 
ing in 1876, when the removal of the shows to another 
site was contemplated, that " the success of the annual 
shows depends greatly upon their being held within 
the city. Should they be removed to the suburbs, it is 
apprehended that they would be less numerously at- 
tended, and the receipts suffer serious diminution." 
This apprehension was not unfounded ; the earlier spring 
shows at Ballsbridge were not well attended, but a way 
of making them more attractive was soon discovered, and 
the last show held there (19 13) was attended by 24,358 
persons, more than twice the best Kildare street record, 
which was in 1875, when 12,034 persons attended. 

It is, however, in the entries of breeding stock that 
the progress of the Ballsbridge shows has been most 
marked. The best record in Kildare street was 308 
animals in 1872. Three shows were held at Balls- 
bridge before this number was exceeded, and then 
rapid progress was made ; the Kildare street record 
was more than doubled at the Ballsbridge show of 
1896, and more than trebled six years later. At the 
Ballsbridge show of 1908, the entries of breeding 
stock reached the record number of 105 1. 

In 1908, after an interval of seventy years, the 
auction sales were revived. The number of animals 
entered for sale was 463, and of these 173 were sold. 
Five years later, the number entered for sale had in- 
creased to 654, and the number sold to 549. 

In 1904, to meet the demand for an early market, 
a show and sale of pure-bred bulls was instituted, 
and February the 10th was fixed upon as the date of 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 349 

the show. The number of entries at this show was 
183, and at the corresponding shows held in the suc- 
ceeding nine years the average number has been 164. 

Since the year 1896, Winter shows have been held 
at Ballsbridge in the month of December. These shows 
had their origin in the exhibition of farm produce 
which commenced in 1845, anc ^ tne Y were ne ^ * n tne 
Agricultural Museum, Kildare street. In 1858 the 
Agricultural Hall, then newly erected in Kildare street, 
enabled the committee to add sections for fat stock 
and poultry. In this form the shows continued up to 
1879, with the exception of the year 1871, when the 
cattle sections were omitted in consequence of foot 
and mouth disease. The winter shows were not re- 
sumed at Ballsbridge until 1890. The attendance at 
the show was discouraging; in 1891 the expenditure 
exceeded the receipts by £533, and the shows were 
discontinued for several years. Since the shows were 
resumed in 1896, the expenditure on them has exceeded 
the receipts by £7418, an annual loss of .£412, which, 
however, the Society considers justified mainly in the 
interests of the fat stock and poultry industries. 

The Society is indebted to a number of gentlemen 
interested in promoting improvement in malting barley, 
and known as the Barley Committee, who, for some 
years contributed annually two or three hundred 
pounds to be awarded in prizes varying from £2 to 
£5, which were allocated to counties according to a fixed 
scheme. At the show of 19 13, there were 288 entries 
for these prizes. 

No enterprise in which the Society ever engaged 
has attracted so much public notice as the annual event 
now known all over the world as the Dublin Horse 
Show, which opens at Ballsbridge with unerring regu- 
larity on the Tuesday preceding the last Friday in the 



350 A HISTORY OF 

month of August in each year. 1 As a show of horses, 
especially hunters, the exhibition is unrivalled, and in 
the society world the horse show has acquired an 
assured position among the leading social events of the 
United Kingdom. The first Dublin Horse Show was 
organised by a committee appointed by the Royal 
Agricultural Society of Ireland, on the suggestion of 
the late Lord Howth, then Lord St. Lawrence. It 
was held on April the 15th, 1864, on the Kildare street 
premises of the Royal Dublin Society, which were lent 
for the occasion. There were 370 entries, and the 
animals were judged in an enclosure in the courtyard 
of Leinster House. The second show was held in 
September 1866, under somewhat similar conditions, 
the Kildare street premises being again lent to the horse 
show committee by the Royal Dublin Society. The 
number of entries at this show was 303. 

In August 1867, the committee of agriculture of 
the Royal Dublin Society recommended the Council to 
hold an annual horse show, and a special committee 
was appointed to carry out the recommendation. A 
subscription list was opened, and contributions to the 
amount of ^793 were received, including £100 from 
the Royal Dublin Society. The show was held in the 
Kildare street premises on July 28th, 1868, and two 
following days. The number of horses entered was 
366, and the number of persons who visited the show 
was 6029. The following resolution appears in the 
minutes of the horse show committee of June the 
25th, 1868 : — 

Proposed by Lord St. Lawrence, and seconded by 
R. C. Wade — " That this committee, judging from 

1 The war with Germany (1914) interrupted this regularity. It 
was not possible to hold the show, as the military authorities occupied 
the premises at Ballsbridge for remount purposes. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 351 

the precedent afforded by the interest created at the 
Islington horse show, of seeing hunters exhibit their 
fencing powers, have come to the conclusion that it 
would prove expedient to offer prizes for jumping, 
especially as such a course will be attended with little 
or no pecuniary risk, and will add considerably to the 
attraction of the horse show." This was the beginning 
of the jumping competitions, and the first of the series 
took place on the afternoon of June the 28th in the 
Kildare street courtyard. A correspondent in the 
Irish Farmers' Gazette, referring to the stone wall 
jump, says — "the wall was five feet ten inches, in 
cold blood, off wet sawdust, in a crowded courtyard." 

The general arrangements of the show of 1868 
differed very little from those of recent shows. The 
entries closed about a month before the show opened, 
and, in addition to the entrance fee, exhibitors were 
required to lodge a deposit of £2 on each horse. At 
the adjudication there was a preliminary selection of 
horses to be examined by veterinary surgeons before 
the prizes were finally awarded. The horses were 
classified very much as they are at present. 

The difficulty of conducting the business of the 
show in the limited area available was very great, 
especially in the earlier shows, when the members 
claimed the right to enter the judging ring. At a 
meeting of the Society in 1873, specially convened 
for the purpose, this practice was ordered to be 
stopped ; a resolution was passed empowering the 
horse show committee " to clear and keep the ring and 
jumping and exercising grounds free of all persons 
whomsoever, whether members of the Society or 
others," whenever the committee thought fit. 

The financial results of the first show were considered 
quite satisfactory, when a balance of ^162 remained 



352 A HISTORY OF 

out of the ^793 which had been subscribed. The 
subscriptions in aid of the second show also amounted 
to ^793, but the attendance rose to 10,529 persons, 
and the show closed with a credit balance of £923 ; 
from this time no further appeal was made to the 
public for funds. In 1873, the horse show funds 
were regarded as quite distinct from the other funds 
of the Society, and were transferred to trustees consist- 
ing of two members of the committee, with the regis- 
trar and treasurer. A year later we find the horse 
show committee in a position to vote ^300 to the 
general funds of the Society in aid of the purchase of 
premises. In 1879, the balance of ^1488, standing 
to the credit of the horse shows, was transferred to 
the general funds of the Society. 

The entries at the Kildare street shows reached the 
maximum in 1874, when they numbered 636, and the 
attendance rose to its highest point in 1875, when 
21,857 persons passed the turnstiles during the four 
days of the show. 

There were two breaks in the series of horse 
shows held by the Society in Kildare street — one in 
1 87 1 and the other in 1878, when shows of the Royal 
Agricultural Society were held at Ballsbridge ; on each 
of these occasions the Society's horse show was not held. 

The entries at the first show held in the Society's 
new premises at Ballsbridge in 1881 were 589, and 
there were 15,736 visitors. These numbers had been 
surpassed many times at Kildare street, and they reflect 
the opinion, then widely entertained, that the people 
of Dublin would find Ballsbridge too much out of 
the way in comparison with the very accessible Kildare 
street site. By 1884 this feeling had passed away ; the 
entries then numbered 806, and the attendance reached 
26,558. The Duke of Edinburgh was present at this 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 353 

show ; for the first time seats on the grand stand were 
reserved, and were eagerly booked. Next year the 
stand was greatly enlarged and placed in a better posi- 
tion. The next record in entries and attendances was 
on the occasion of the visit of the Duke and Duchess 
of York in 1897, when the entries numbered 143 1 
and the visitors 66,167. 

At the show of 1899, a sale of horses by auction 
was held on the Society's premises to the north of 
Merrion road ; and similar sales have taken place 
annually since that date. At first, these sales were 
limited to horses regularly entered for competition at 
the horse show, but afterwards they included horses 
not entered for the show. In 1907, for example, 
there were 499 horses offered by auction, and of these 
only $6 were entered for the show. The sales are 
every year increasing in importance, and already they 
have acquired a high reputation among the breeders 
and buyers of thoroughbred horses. 

The Library 

Under the Science and Art Museum Act of 1877 
the greater part of the library was transferred to the 
Crown, and became the National Library of Ireland. 
The agreement entered into between the Government 
and the Society placed the National Library under the 
superintendence of a Council of twelve trustees, eight 
of whom are appointed by the Society and four by the 
Government. The officers of the Library are appointed 
by the Council of trustees, and the Society has the 
power by by-law to determine the mode of election 
and tenure of office of its representatives on the 
Council of trustees. Under the existing by-laws the 
Society's eight members retire annually, and are eligible 

z 



354 A HISTORY OF 

for re-election. The Society thus retains a substantial 
voice in the management of this important institution. 
The National Library remained in Leinster House until 
1 8 9 1 , when it was transferred to the handsome new build- 
ing it now occupies, in close proximity to its old quarters. 

The part of the library which remained in the 
Society's possession after the Act of 1877 consisted of 
scientific serials, the transactions and publications ot 
other learned societies, and certain early editions, and 
duplicates of modern works. Many of these books 
had been presented to the Society in exchange for its 
own publications, a system which is still continued on 
an extended scale. By agreement with the Govern- 
ment the Society has undertaken to afford full and 
free access to the public at all reasonable times to the 
scientific serials and publications of learned societies 
reserved to the Society by the Act. 

The books retained by the Society formed the 
nucleus of the present library, which now occupies 
nearly as much room in Leinster House as the 
National Library did when it was transferred to the 
Crown. The difficulty of finding room for this library 
is one of the problems which the Society must face in 
the near future. In the past twenty years the Society 
has spent £7253 in purchasing books, which is at the 
rate of £362 per annum, and the number of volumes 
purchased annually is about 600. In addition to this, 
several hundred volumes are received in exchange. A 
general catalogue of the library up to June 1895 was 
published in a single volume in 1896, and additional 
volumes have since been published at intervals of five 
years. A card catalogue which is kept posted up to 
date is accessible to the members and associates, to 
whom lists of accessions are sent from time to time 
during each session. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 355 



CHAPTER XIX 

SURVEY OF THE SCIENTIFIC WORK OF THE 
SOCIETY 

{Contributed by Mr. R. J. Moss, Registrar) 

The ground acquired in 1733 was intended " to 
be employed by the Society as a nursery for raising 
several sorts of trees, plants, roots, &c, which do 
not at present grow in this kingdom, but are imported 
from abroad, and when raised in such nursery may be 
dispersed to be propagated in this country." At that 
time botany as a science was only beginning to take 
form ; Linnaeus had not yet published his Sy sterna 
Nature. It was not until 1790 that the Society took 
steps to establish a regular Botanic Garden, and in 
1796 it commenced its educational work in science 
by appointing Dr. Wade " professor and lecturer in 
Botany." The foundation of the Natural History 
Museum was laid in 1792 by the purchase of the 
Leskean collection of minerals. In 1795 Mr. William 
Higgins was placed in charge of this collection, and 
it was ordered : cc that from Mr. Higgins' extensive 
skill in chymistry, he be directed from time to time to 
make such experiments on dyeing materials and other 
articles, wherein chymistry may assist the arts, as may 
occur ; and that, for that purpose, a small chymical 
apparatus should be procured and erected in the 



356 A HISTORY OF 

repository, under the direction of Mr. Higgins." 
Thus was established the Society's chemical labora- 
tory, probably the first of the kind in the United 
Kingdom. That practical instruction in chemistry 
was given in the laboratory is evident from advertise- 
ments which appear in Saunders's News Letter, and 
in the Hibernian Journal of 1797 and later years. 
Systematic courses of lectures in chemistry and natural 
philosophy were instituted in the year 1800, and 
soon became an important feature in the Society's 
work in Dublin, and in the provinces, to which 
they ultimately extended. For many years these 
lectures, delivered by the Society's professional staff 
and others appointed to assist them, were the only 
means open to the Irish public of obtaining instruction 
in science. 

In 1845 tne Government decided to create in 
Ireland an institution similar to the Museum of 
Practical Geology, London ; the institution eventually 
took the form of the " Museum of Irish Industry 
and Government School of Science applied to Mining 
and the Arts," with premises in St. Stephen's Green. 
To avoid duplication of professorships, some of the 
lectures were delivered in the Society's theatre, Kildare 
street, and some in the Museum of Irish Industry, 
St. Stephen's Green ; while the regular class lectures 
were delivered at the latter institution only. Eventu- 
ally the scope of the Museum of Irish Industry was 
enlarged, and it became the Royal College of Science 
for Ireland. Thus the systematic teaching of science 
gradually passed out of the Society's hands, though its 
lectures still survive in a popular form in the courses 
of afternoon lectures and in the Christmas lectures for 
juveniles which are delivered every session. 

The services of the scientific staff had not been 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 357 

confined to lecturing. In 1802 the Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Revenue requested that Mr. Higgins, 
professor of chemistry, should be sent to London " as 
a person of skill and ability to assist in ascertaining an 
hydrometer which shall hereafter be made use of to 
judge the strength of spirits subject to excise or import 
duty." Occasionally questions arose on which expert 
information was required, and the members of the 
scientific staff were often asked to report on such 
points. At the request of the Society, Mr. Higgins 
reported on the ashes of different weeds and of potato 
tops. Mr , afterwards Sir Richard, Griffith, who held 
the office of mining engineer to the Society, gave his 
detailed opinion as to the utility of chemical analysis 
of rocks and soils. 

In 1822 a committee was appointed to enquire into 
" the possibility of introducing potato starch as a sub- 
stitute for the root in substance." This led to an 
extensive experimental investigation which was carried 
out in the chemical laboratory under the supervision of 
the scientific staff. The reports are interesting in con- 
nection with the efforts made at this time to find some 
way of relieving the distress which arose from failures 
in the potato crop. The committee finally concluded 
that " it would be illusive to hold out potato starch as 
a practical relief upon the present emergency." 

The Botanic Garden staff was frequently asked 
for advice, and experiments were made there on the 
cultivation of various grasses and fodder crops. The 
Society obtained 10 lbs. of Swede turnip seed in the 
year 1801 for the use of the committee of agriculture ; 
half a pound was sown in the Botanic Garden, and the 
seed was saved for further use ; thus this important 
fodder crop was introduced into Ireland. Dr. Walter 
Wade and his successors in the professorship of botany 



35* A HISTORY OF 

frequently brought before the Society the results of 
experimental work carried out in the garden, and these 
reports were laid before the ordinary business meetings 
of the Society. 

Sir Charles Giesecke was constantly engaged in 
mineralogical excursions, and his reports are of frequent 
occurrence in the minutes. Mr. Griffith submitted a 
great many interesting reports in his quest for coal and 
other minerals of industrial value. Edmund Davy, 
who succeeded Higgins as professor of chemistry in 
1826, brought many reports and other communications 
on work done in the Society's laboratory before these 
meetings. The first of these, " On a species of tallow 
recently found in a bog near Ballinasloe," was the 
earliest attempt at a scientific examination of the sub- 
stance so frequently found in Ireland in peat bogs, and 
known as bog butter. This paper appears as an 
appendix to the minutes of the meeting of December 
the 14th, 1826 ; but as it is not indexed, it has com- 
pletely escaped notice. Another report by Davy of 
permanent interest is his " Account of some experi- 
ments made on different varieties of bituminous coal 
imported into Dublin, with a view to ascertain their 
comparative value for domestic and other uses." This 
appears as an appendix to the minutes of June the 12th, 
1828, but there is no reference to it in the index to 
the volume for that year. In 1833 the Corporation 
of Tallow Chandlers and Soap Boilers of Dublin sought 
Davy's assistance in " investigating the causes of the 
present ruinous state of the Irish soap manufacture." 
In his report Davy pointed out that the mode of levy- 
ing the duty on soap by measurement instead of by 
weight caused the Irish article to be at a disadvantage. 
This report was ordered to be forwarded to the 
Treasury. Next year the Commissioners of Public 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 359 

Works sought Davy's assistance in devising some 
method of preventing the rusting of iron in the sea 
water of Kingstown Harbour. 

The Transactions of the Dublin Society published 
from the year 1800 to 18 10 contain very little of 
permanent value. Most of the articles relate to agri- 
culture and veterinary subjects ; potato cultivation is 
frequently dealt with, and there are papers on dyeing, 
bleaching, tanning, malting, kelp-making, peat, inland 
and sea fisheries. A few papers contain original matter 
of scientific interest, such as Higgins on the use of 
sulphuret of lime as a substitute for potash in bleach- 
ing ; Kirwan on a method of estimating the richness 
of milk and the strength of alcoholic liquids. The 
method is based on the rate of evaporation compared 
with water under similar conditions, and on specific 
gravity. Kirwan also outlined a plan for the manage- 
ment of the mines of Ireland. His paper entitled 
" What are the manures most advantageously applic- 
able to the various sorts of soils, and what are the 
causes of their beneficial effect in each particular 
instance," is of great interest in the history of agricul- 
tural chemistry. The paper was published in 1802, 
before Sir Humphry Davy had begun to lecture on 
agricultural chemistry, two years before De Saussure's 
work was published, and more than thirty years before 
Liebig's time. There are several papers by Wade on 
the rare plants of Ireland, on Buddlea globosa^ Holco 
odorata^ and other botanical subjects. Among papers of 
historical interest are those on the Wicklow gold mines. 

Several of the volumes contain returns of meteoro- 
logical observations taken at the Botanic Garden, Glas- 
nevin ; there are also catalogues of plants in the garden, 
programmes of lectures, lists of premiums, and other 
particulars of the Society's work. When the Transac- 



360 A HISTORY OF 

tlons ceased to appear there was no medium of publi- 
cation for some years except the minutes of the business 
meetings, which were regularly printed. 

In 1836 an important innovation took place, and 
for the first time, instead of bringing scientific papers 
before the ordinary meetings, special meetings for read- 
ing and discussing such communications were held ; 
these meetings were called the " Evening Scientific 
Meetings." At the first meeting, held on the 26th of 
January, Professor Davy gave an account of an appa- 
rently new gas, produced by the action of water on a 
substance obtained by heating tartrate of potash in a 
retort, and exhibited some experiments with the gas. 
This was the gas now known as acetylene, the dis- 
covery of which was one of considerable scientific 
importance ; the gas is now extensively employed, and 
it is prepared by a method very similar to that which 
Davy used in the Society's laboratory, except that 
calcium carbide is used instead of potassium carbide. 
The manufacture of calcium carbide for the preparation 
of acetylene has become an important industry. Ex- 
actly eighteen months later, Davy submitted to the 
Royal Irish Academy a paper on this discovery, which 
was published in vol. xviii. of the Transactions of the 
Academy. He determined the composition of the gas 
and called it bicarburet of hydrogen. In 1859, the 
gas was rediscovered by the French chemist Berthelot, 
and, curiously enough, it is to Berthelot that the credit 
of the discovery is commonly attributed in chemical 
text-books, notwithstanding Davy's twenty-three years 
of priority. It is alleged that Davy did not establish 
the actual composition of the gas, but anyone who 
takes the trouble to read his paper will see that this is 
a mistake. The minutes of the evening meetings 
appear regularly in the Proceedings down to 1839. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 361 

The chief contributors during that period were Davy 
on chemical subjects ; Scouler, on raised beaches, on 
the dolomites, on lignites and the silicified woods of 
Lough Neagh ; Grubb on improvements in optical 
instruments ; Kane on physical subjects. The only 
papers printed in extenso were not on scientific subjects, 
such as Mr. Clibborn's on Banking, and Mr. Coulter's 
reply to it. The evening meetings continued to be held, 
but they gradually became less scientific in character. 
In 1843, by-laws were adopted which enabled persons 
to join a section of the Society, with restricted privileges; 
and meetings called " Sectional Evening Meetings " 
were held. The manuscript minutes of those meetings, 
which are very full and contain a good deal of informa- 
tion of historical interest, have fortunately been pre- 
served. Some of the papers were printed in extenso 
and appear as appendices in the Society's Proceedings. 
For example, Mr Antisell's "Analysis of the important 
soils of Ireland " — the earliest record of work of this 
kind in the country — appears in vol. lxxx. (1843-4) ; 
Mr. McCalla's paper on Irish algae appears in vol. 
lxxxii. (1845-6). In the same volume will be found 
a paper by Mr. William K. Sullivan, in which the 
"Wasteful management of manure heaps" is scientifi- 
cally treated. In vol. lxxxiii. (1846-7) the following 
papers appear : — " The effects of meteorological con- 
ditions on potato disease," by Edward J. Cooper ; " The 
Irish fisheries as an industrial resource," by J. C. 
Deane ; " Irish flora and fauna," by Mr. McCalla. In 
the same volume are printed two scientific papers 
which were read at agricultural evening meetings, viz. 
Dr. John Aldridge " On the comparative nutritive 
and pecuniary values of various kinds of cooked food," 
and Sir Robert Kane " On the composition and 
characters of certain soils and waters belonging to the 



362 A HISTORY OF 

flax districts of Belgium, and on the chemical com- 
position of the ashes of the flax plant." In vol. lxxxiv. 
appears a paper by William Hogan, entitled, "A report 
of the result of experiments made in 1847 on M. 
Zander's method of propagating potatoes from seed.' , 
The reports of the proceedings at the meetings held 
from November the 28th, 1848, to June the 7th, 1855, 
are printed in a volume entitled Reports of Scientific 
Meetings^ published in 1855. This is a rare volume ; 
very few copies seem to have been issued, and there is 
only one in the Society's possession. A short notice 
of the contents, so far as they seem to be of perman- 
ent interest, will not be out of place. Irish Fisheries 
and allied industries are dealt with by Professor Allman, 
Mr. William Andrews, Mr. J. Knight Boswell, and 
Dr. William Barker. The manufacture of beet sugar 
in Ireland formed the subject of communications by 
Mr. Samuel Copland and Mr. John Sproule. Mr. 
Copland also read a paper " On the history and cultiva- 
tion of tobacco with reference to the question of its 
profitable cultivation in Ireland." Professor Edmund 
Davy contributed papers on the manufacture of sul- 
phuric acid, on some applications of peat and peat 
charcoal, on cabbage as food for the horse, and on the 
detection and preparation of salts of manganese. Dr. 
E. W. Davy read papers on new explosive powders 
and gun-cotton, on native phosphate of lime, on a new 
test for nitric acid, on a new method for producing 
nitro-prussiates, on ozone, on a new test for strychnine, 
on the quantitative analysis of urea, on the determina- 
tion of nitrogen in guano, and on the decomposition of 
calp. 

Dr. William Barker's communications dealt with 
black rain, the preparation of charcoal for electrical 
purposes, and portable fuel for Arctic voyages. Pro- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 363 

fessor M. H. Harvey read papers on recently discovered 
plants new to Ireland, and on various substances used 
in the manufacture of paper. There are communica- 
tions on Arctic fossils by Professor Scouler, Mr. Jukes 
and Professor Samuel Haughton ; and botanical notes 
by Mr. David Moore and Mr. Isaac Weld. The 
registering barometer described by Mr. George Yeates 
in 1 85 1 was evidently the precursor of the automatic 
mercurial barograph constructed by Messrs. Yeates & 
Son, which has been in the hall of Leinster House for 
many years. Mr. W. K. Sullivan read a paper on the 
amount of sugar in Irish-grown roots. This is now of 
interest, as it shows that sixty-four years ago the fact 
was established (to use the author's words) — " that 
the climate of Ireland is remarkably adapted for the 
growth of bulbous roots of a superior quality, whether 
for the manufacture of sugar or for feeding purposes." 
There is another paper by Mr. Sullivan and M. 
Alphonse Gages on the comparative value of large and 
small roots, one of the conclusions arrived at being — 
" that the system of encouraging the growth of monster 
roots which has hitherto prevailed, and of which we 
have such examples at the Society's Show, is erroneous." 
Notwithstanding this exposure, and the fact that no 
farmer would dream of growing such roots for profit, 
the system still survives. In 1849, Mr. Henry 
Hutchins read a paper " On aerial travelling," and 
exhibited to the meeting drawings of the method pro- 
posed by him for giving direction to aerial locomotive 
machines. Unfortunately this paper was not printed, 
and there is nothing to show what Mr. Hutchins' pro- 
posal was. At that time, Henson's flying machine was 
six years old, but the first attempt to make a dirigible 
balloon is attributable to Henri GifFard, of injector fame. 
There are in the volume some papers of purely social 



364 A HISTORY OF 

or economic interest, such as the Earl of Devon's 
paper " On the social condition of the people of 
Ireland," which is printed in full ; Mr. Cheyne 
Brady's paper " On the practicability of improving the 
dwellings of the labouring classes," given in abstract ; 
and Dr. George Ellis's, " On emigration as affecting the 
West of Ireland," printed in full. 

The necessity for wider and more systematic publi- 
cation of the Society's work was now fully recognised. 
In the annual report to the President of the Board 
of Trade, dated December the 31st, 1856, the Council 
said, that " within the past session the Council, with 
the sanction of the Society, issued for the first time 
the Journal of the Royal Dublin Society, three numbers 
of which have now been published. The Council 
consider the publication of this periodical to be of 
great importance to the institution, inasmuch as in its 
pages will be found a public record of its proceeding, 
as regards the advancement of those arts and sciences 
for the promotion of which the Society was incorpo- 
rated. As the record of the scientific and educational 
departments, it will be found to awaken a degree of 
interest therein which cannot fail to aid rheir extension, 
while from its being the medium of publication of 
those communications on the natural and applied 
sciences made to the Society from time to time, the 
reputation of the institution will be enhanced. The 
Council, impressed with these convictions, have urged 
upon the Society the advisability of its working out 
this project with energy, especially sanctioning a liberal 
use of illustrations, by lithography and other means, 
of the papers that may from time to time be published 
in its pages." 

The Journal continued to appear until the year 
1876, when it was replaced by the publications devoted 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 365 

solely to the Society's scientific work. The Journal 
was more widely distributed, and it was sent in ex- 
change to some of the leading scientific societies. 
Seven volumes were published ; the principal papers 
in vol. i. are McClintock's " Reminiscences of Arctic 
Ice-Travel in search of Sir John Franklin," with 
illustrations of the fossils found in the course of the 
expedition ; Edmund Davy, on a simple electro- 
chemical method of detecting arsenic ; Mr. Carte, on 
the climate and zoology of the Crimea ; Dr. J. R. 
Kinahan on the habits and distribution of marine 
Crustacea on the eastern shores of Port Philip, Australia, 
with descriptions of undescribed species and genera. 
The same author contributed a paper on Crustacea 
collected in Peru, the high seas, and South Australia, 
and described some new species. The Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Haughton contributed an important paper on the tides 
and tidal currents of the Irish Sea and English 
Channel, considered with reference to the safe naviga- 
tion of those seas by outward and homeward bound 
ships. The volume also includes an appreciative 
memoir of Edmund Davy, who succeeded Mr. Higgins 
as professor of chemistry to the Royal Dublin Society 
in 1826, and held that office until his death in 1857. 
There is also a memoir of Mr. Isaac Weld, a vice- 
president of the Society, by Mr. L. E. Foot. Mr. 
Weld for many years exercised a controlling influence 
over the Society's work, and the writer claims that it 
was Mr. Weld who suggested the Society's triennial 
exhibitions of manufactures which culminated in the 
great International Exhibition of 1853. 

Vol. ii. contains a paper by Mr. Patrick Buchan 
on the iron ores of the Connaught coalfield, and notes 
by the Rev. Professor Haughton on a mineralogical 
excursion from Cairo into Arabia Petraea. The same 



366 A HISTORY OF 

author contributed a mineralogical description of rocks 
from Nagpur, Central India, and described some new 
Orthocerata from Cork and Clonmel, and Cyclostigma, a 
new genus of fossil plants, from Kiltorcan, co. Kil- 
kenny. Mr. Edward Brenan gave an account of the 
discovery of mammoth and other fossil remains at 
Shandon, co. Waterford, and Dr. Robert McDonnell 
contributed a paper on the habits and anatomy of 
Lepidosiren annectens. 

The principal papers in vol. iii. are those by 
Professor E. W. Davy on ferrocyanide of potassium 
as an analytical agent ; further contributions by Dr. 
Haughton on the tidal currents of the Irish Sea, and 
a paper on the fossils brought from the Arctic regions 
by Captain McClintock. Dr. David Walker contri- 
buted notes on the zoology of the Arctic expedition 
under McClintock. Mr. Thomas Grubb described 
a new table microscope, and Mr. John Dowling wrote 
on the comparative value of the different feeding-stuffs 
for horses. Dr. Henry Lawson suggested the forma- 
tion of a new class of Annuloida, to include Trematoda, 
Planaritf) and Hirudinei, and Mr. William Andrews 
wrote on the cod and ling fisheries of Ireland. The 
volume includes a catalogue of the minerals collected 
by Sir Charles Giesecke between Cape Farewell and 
Baffin's Bay in the Arctic regions. Mr. Charles W. 
Hamilton's paper on the condition of the Irish agri- 
cultural labourer in 1859 is historically interesting; 
the tabulated abstracts of the answers to the Society's 
agricultural queries, and the lists of labourers' families 
which accompany the paper contain much curious 
information. 

The following papers in vol. iv. are of permanent 
interest : — A. Leith Adams on the fossiliferous caves 
of Malta ; Dr. Henry Lawson on the anatomy, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 367 

histology, and physiology of Limax rnaximus ; Mr. 
Andrews on the salmon fisheries of Ireland, and on 
the sea fisheries and trawling ; Mr. Scott on the 
mineral localities of Donegal ; Mr. Carte and Mr. 
Baily on a new species of Plesiosaurus, which they 
named P. Cramptoni — the specimen described is still one 
of the treasures of the Natural History Museum ; 
on the chemistry of the feeding of animals for the 
production of meat and manure, by Mr. afterwards 
Sir John Burnet Lawes, bart.; Mr. H. O'Hara on 
the Irish coalfields and peat ; Dr. Edmund W. Davy 
on " Flax, the practicability of extending its cultivation 
in Ireland, and the proper management of the crop." 
Dr. Evory Kennedy's paper on the "Neglect of sanitary 
arrangements in the homes and houses of the rich and 
poor in town and country" makes one wonder how 
our immediate predecessors managed to survive in 
such unhealthy surroundings. Dr. Emerson Reynolds 
contributed to this and succeeding volumes several 
papers on chemical subjects, and on spectroscopy. 

Vol. v. contains a paper by Mr. Hoare, and several 
by W. Andrews, on Irish fisheries ; the latter author 
also contributed papers on deep-sea soundings, the 
ichthyology of the south and west coasts of Ireland, 
and on the pines and other timber trees of New 
Zealand. An account of a submarine earthquake is 
given by Dr. J. M. Barry, and Dr. Oswald Heer 
described the miocene flora of North Greenland ; the 
specimens described formed part of the collection pre- 
sented to the Society by Captain Colomb and Sir 
Leopold McClintock. Dr. Mapother's paper on 
" Labourers' dwellings and the efforts made to im- 
prove them " is of considerable interest. The oft- 
recurring subject of the manufacture of beet sugar 
in Ireland is dealt with by Mr. Baruchson. A paper 



368 A HISTORY OF 

by Mr. James Hayes, though in no sense scientific, 
is of great interest from an economic point of view ; 
it was read in 1870, and is entitled "Suggestions for 
the organization of co-operative farming associations 
in Ireland." The author points out the necessity 
for a better division of labour, especially in the manu- 
facture of butter and other dairy products ; shows how 
well fitted these and other agricultural industries are 
for the application of co-operative methods ; and 
suggests a scheme for developing the principle. The 
contribution is entitled to a prominent place in the 
history of the co-operative movement in Ireland. 

In vols. vi. and vii. there are very few scientific 
papers, containing actual contributions to knowledge, 
which have not been published elsewhere. It had 
become more and more the practice of authors to send 
contributions to scientific societies in London, or to 
the Philosophical Magazine^ and thus to secure wider 
publicity in the scientific world. The principal papers 
of industrial and economic interest were contributed 
by Mr. J. R. Wigham, who wrote on the application 
of gas to lighthouse illumination ; by Mr. Hardman 
on coal-mining in the county of Tyrone, and by Mr. 
Andrews on the sea-coast fisheries of Ireland. The 
concluding volume of the series consists mainly of 
abstracts of lectures on public health, a subject of 
perennial interest. The Journal contains many very 
interesting reports and memoirs by Mr. David Moore, 
the curator of the Botanic Garden, by Dr. William 
Carte, the curator of the Natural History Museum, 
and by Mr. A. G. More and Mr. William F. Kerby, 
his assistants. Each of the volumes contains, in 
addition to the original communications above referred 
to, reports on various branches of the Society's work, 
and especially of the School of Art. There is appended 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 369 

to each volume a meteorological journal, which in- 
cludes the barometric and thermometric readings, the 
rainfall and other meteorological records taken at the 
Society's Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, every day from 
January the 1st, 1856, to December the 31st, 1876. 
The Science and Art Museum Act of 1877 profoundly 
influenced the Society's scientific work. 

It was fortunate that at this time the Council 
included men who had themselves been actively en- 
gaged in research, and who quite realised the manner 
in which the interests of science might best be pro- 
moted by such a complex body as the Royal Dublin 
Society. The new charter placed the Society in a 
better position for promoting science than it had 
previously occupied. For a few years after the 
passing of the Act the scientific work was carried on 
in two sections, one for physical and experimental 
science, and one for natural science. The second 
supplemental charter of 1888 gave each of the three 
branches of the Society's work, science, art, and agricul- 
ture, equal representation on the governing body, and 
the by-laws under this charter provided for three corre- 
sponding standing committees. There was thus a single 
committee dealing with science in all its branches. 

In accordance with the agreement made with the 
Government, the cost of printing the Society's scientific 
publications was defrayed by the Government for five 
years from the date of the passing of the Act. Since 
that time the cost of printing has been borne by the 
Society's private funds, and the income arising out of 
the sum of £10,000, the first payment to the Society 
under the Act, has always been regarded as specially 
allocated to this branch of work. 

The new series of scientific publications commenced 
in 1877, and consisted of Scientific Transactions, in quarto 

2 A 



370 A HISTORY OF 

form, and Scientific Proceedings, in octavo. In 1909 it was 
decided to adopt an intermediate size of page as more 
convenient, and since that date the Society has issued 
but one scientific publication entitled the Scientific 
Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. This is sent in 
exchange to all the important scientific societies in the 
world ; the number on the exchange list at present is 
474, so that wide publicity is ensured for every paper 
printed in the Proceedings. Papers of a purely economic 
character are still published in octavo form in the Economic 
Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, which is also 
widely distributed in exchange for the publications of 
other societies. These recent scientific publications 
are easily accessible to those who desire to consult 
them, so that it will be unnecessary to summarise 
their contents here. 

Votes in Aid of Research 

Votes in aid of scientific research are of compara- 
tively recent origin, though it had been the practice 
for a long time to afford aid in experimental investi- 
gations, especially by providing apparatus for use in 
the Society's own laboratories. 

Since 1890 the following grants in aid of research 
have been made by the Science Committee with the 
sanction of the Council : — Dr. John Joly, on the 
constant of gravitation, £20 ; Mr. H. H. Dixon, the 
locomotion of anthropoda, £10 ; Mr. Calderwood, 
investigation of fishes obtained in the survey of 1894, 
£50 ; Professor Sollas, the bog slide in Kerry, ^30 ; 
and apparatus for anthropological investigations in 
Borneo, £50 ; Professor Preston, research in the 
magnetic field, £50 ; Professor C. J. Joly, solar 
eclipse expedition, £ijo ; Dr. Adeney, measurement 
of spark spectra, £20 ; and on the streaming pheno- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 371 

mena of dissolved gases in water, £50 ; Mr. C. S. 
Wright, the radio-activity of Antarctic water, £15 ; 
the Clare Island Survey, under the auspices of the 
Royal Irish Academy, £100 ; Professor T. Johnson, 
the Kiltorcan fossils, £6, 15*. 

In addition to the above, the Society granted a 
sum of £10 per annum for three years in aid of the 
publication of annual tables of constants and numerical 
data, chemical, physical, and technological, under the 
commission appointed by the seventh International 
Congress of Applied Chemistry. 

Science Training in Schools 

In 1899 the Committee of Science and its indus- 
trial applications submitted a report to the Council, in 
which they reviewed the condition of science teaching 
in the Irish Intermediate Schools, and pointed out 
that the position indicated a complete abandonment of 
science teaching in the near future. The report con- 
tains statistics, showing the total number of boys 
presented for examination in all subjects, contrasted 
with the number presented in science subjects. In 
1887, for example, the total in all subjects was 4613, 
and of those 41 13 presented themselves for examina- 
tion in natural philosophy and chemistry. Ten years 
later the total number presenting themselves for exa- 
mination had risen to 6661, while only 905 out of 
that number entered for examination in the science 
subjects referred to. It was pointed out that this 
great falling off took place, notwithstanding the fact that 
in the same period the amount paid to the owners 
of schools in the form of result fees had risen from 
£10,000 to upwards of £50,000 per annum. Owing 
to the almost complete absence of any attempt to teach 
science practically in the Dublin schools, the Society 



372 A HISTORY OF 

in 1890 introduced short systematic courses of lectures 
on science subjects, suitable for boys and girls. The 
lectures were still continued when the report was 
drawn up. The committee emphasised the necessity 
for practical work in science teaching, and it was stated 
that more especially to promote this kind of study, 
the Department of Science and Art gave grants in aid 
to schools which fulfilled the requirements of their 
inspectors. The report shows that the amount of 
these grants was diminishing at an alarming rate. In 
fact, it did not pay to teach science, and the committee 
urged that science should be made to rank equally 
with literary subjects in its power of earning result 
fees for the schools, and exhibitions and prizes for the 
pupils. 

The Council sent the report to the Lord Lieutenant 
with a covering letter urging that " education, to be 
efficient and to fit the future men and women of the 
country for the discharge of their duties, must be 
practical, and deal more with things and less with words 
than it has done in the past. Science is the basis of 
such teaching, and it is certainly a singular fact that 
whilst science is every day receiving more attention in 
other countries, it is rapidly passing out of the curri- 
culum of Irish intermediate schools." 

The Society subsequently learned that shortly after 
the Science Committee had adopted their report, the 
Lord Lieutenant had appointed a commission " to 
inquire into the system of Intermediate Education in 
Ireland under the Act of 1878, its practical working, 
as to the desirability of reforms, and as to the necessity 
of further legislation. " The Act of 1899, creating 
the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion, placed science teaching in Ireland in a much 
more favourable position than it had previously occu- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 373 

pied, and the teaching of science and other practical 
subjects in Irish schools is no longer neglected. 

Prior to the Act of 1899 there were only six 
secondary schools in Ireland with laboratories for the 
teaching of experimental science. In the financial year 
1 901-2, 154 schools possessed the necessary equip- 
ment ; these schools were giving practical instruction 
in science to 6615 pupils, and receiving grants in aid 
amounting to £7577. The latest return (19 12-13) 
shows that the practical teaching of science was being 
carried on in 274 schools, with 12,772 pupils, receiving 
grants in aid amounting to £21,129. 



The Boyle Medal 

In June 1895 the Committee of Science and its 
industrial applications, on the suggestion of Professor 
D. J. Cunningham, f.r.s. (then one of the honorary 
secretaries), recommended the Council to institute two 
gold medals, " to be awarded from time to time with a 
view of encouraging worth in the different branches of 
science. 7 ' The proposal eventually took the form of 
a single medal, to which the name of Robert Boyle 
was attached. The reasons which influenced the 
Society in selecting the name of Boyle cannot be better 
expressed than in the words of Professor John Joly, 
f.r.s., who had succeeded Professor Cunningham as 
secretary when the medal was first awarded. Speaking 
at the evening scientific meeting of March the 22nd, 
1899, Professor Joly said : 

"In former years it is on record that the Royal 
Dublin Society occasionally presented medals to men 
distinguished in science. But the Society never at 
any time possessed a medal specially instituted for the 
purpose — a medal dedicated to the memory of a great 



374 A HISTORY OF 

Irishman and destined to mark the Society's apprecia- 
tion of the scientific work of those happily still living 
amongst us. The awarding of such a medal is a recent 
addition to the functions of this Society. The value 
of such an institution is unquestionable ; it is to the 
Society a power of speech, a means of expressing her 
measured opinion that the work of the recipient is 
worthy of the highest honour. 

" But not only is this old Society thus enabled to 
speak her thoughts and to place them upon record, 
but as the roll of the Boyle medallists lengthens with 
the passage of time, will not this roll be an honourable 
record for her ? The greatest Irishmen will, as we 
hope, have their names inscribed upon it, and be 
numbered among those who have honoured her by 
accepting her honours. 

" It was not without due consideration that the 
life-work of the Hon. Robert Boyle was chosen as 
that which might be most fitly commemorated by this 
medal. That Boyle did more for science than any 
other of the great Irishmen who have passed away is 
not too much to maintain. His name is not indeed 
associated with any profound discovery ; the celebrated 
law by which it is known to every educated man might 
have been achieved by a lesser mind. Boyle stands 
before the world as the great pioneer in the applica- 
tion of the experimental method. By its aid he shed 
light on many dark places in science. Many valuable 
methods and facts have their origin in Boyle's labours. 
His wide intellect made its influence felt over the 
entire range of the science of the seventeenth century. 

" Boyle first distinguished between a mixture and a 
chemical compound. He defined the elements, in 
a manner strangely prophetic of the most modern 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 375 

speculations of our own times, as all compounds of one 
universal matter, to the various modes of movement 
and grouping of which the constitution of the entire 
visible part of the universe was to be ascribed. He 
showed more clearly than his predecessors that air was 
necessary to combustion and respiration. He prepared 
phosphorus and hydrogen, although he failed to recog- 
nise the independent nature of the last. He first used 
vegetable colour tests for alkalinity and acidity, and 
introduced the use of chemical reagents into investiga- 
tion. He believed heat to be a brisk molecular motion 
and not a material substance, thus forestalling in part 
ideas which only assumed full sway in this present 
century. He first suggested the freezing and boiling 
points of water as fixed points on the thermometer. 

" Boyle also studied light (which he endeavoured to 
weigh), as well as sound (the propagation of which by 
the atmosphere he is said to have first demonstrated) ; 
also electricity, magnetism, and hydrostatics. He in- 
vented what is practically the modern air-pump, and 
by its aid made many new experiments. His discovery 
of the elastic law of gases in 1 662, fourteen years before 
Mariotte confirmed it, is known to all, and doubtless 
inspired Hook to make his celebrated investigation into 
the elastic law of metals." 

"The fitness of attaching Boyle's name to our 
medal resides not alone in his universality, but in the 
fact that he it was who chiefly introduced the scientific 
society into our civilisation. Lastly he was an Irishman. 
The Oxford Junior Scientific Club has celebrated him by 
founding Boyle Lectures. To these the greatest living 
thinkers have already contributed. If the Royal 
Society has omitted to commemorate him with a 
medal, it is fitting that we should make good the omis- 
sion, and claim what is our own. 



376 A HISTORY OF 

The medal was executed by Mr. Alan Wyon, the 
well-known medallist, and bears on the obverse a pro- 
file of Boyle taken from the bust in the possession of 
Trinity College, Dublin, with the following inscrip- 
tion, which the late Professor Tyrrell was good enough 
to supply : — In Honorem Roberti Boyle et Augmentum 
Scientiarum. Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas. On 
the reverse is a modification of the figure of Minerva 
which was adopted as the seal of the Society, with 
the inscription : — Regalis Societas Dublinensis condita A.S. 

MDCCXXXI. 

The medal has been awarded four times, and on 
each occasion the report of the committee, setting forth 
the grounds upon which the award was made, was pub- 
lished in the Society's Scientific Proceedings. 

Dr. George Johnstone Stoney, f.r.s., was selected in 
1899 as the first recipient of the medal, in recognition 
of his many important contributions to science, especi- 
ally in molecular physics and the kinetic theory of gases, 
and of his great personal influence on scientific advance 
in Ireland. 

A year later the medal was awarded to Professor 
Thomas Preston, f.r.s., chiefly for the important 
advances he had made in our knowledge of the 
phenomena of radiation in a magnetic field, and the 
publication of his well-known text-books, The Theory of 
Light, The Theory of Heat, and Spherical Trigonometry. 

In 191 1, Professor John Joly, f.r.s., was selected 
as the third recipient of the medal. In their report 
recommending the award, the committee " direct 
attention to the wide range of subjects covered by Dr. 
Joly's researches, as well as the general excellence of 
his work. His researches deal with various branches 
of physics, geology, mineralogy, botany, and biological 
theory ; and in several of these widely different subjects 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 377 

he has enriched our laboratories with accurate instru- 
ments of research." The list of Dr. Joly's contribu- 
tions to science appended to the report extends, 
between 1883 and 1910, to eighty-one publications, 
many of which appeared in the Society's Transactions and 
Proceedings, 

The most recent occasion on which the medal was 
awarded was in 19 12, when it was conferred on Sir 
Howard Grubb, f.r.s. His contributions to the 
scientific publications of the Society covered a period 
of forty-two years. Most of these took the form of 
communications on improvements in the construc- 
tion and mounting of telescopes and other optical 
instruments. It was, however, more especially for the 
skill and ingenuity exercised in the actual construction 
of the instruments that Sir Howard Grubb's name 
was selected. His achievements include the great 
Melbourne telescope, the first large reflector mounted 
equatorially ; the Vienna refractor, then the largest 
refractor in existence ; the Greenwich refractor, and 
many other optical instruments, including a new form 
of gun-sight, and the submarine periscope. 

Radium Institute 

At the suggestion of Professor John Joly, f.r.s., 
in February, 19 14, the Science Committee recom- 
mended the Council to establish a Radium Institute, 
and to contribute a sum of £1000 towards a fund 
for the purchase of radium, in addition to the sixty 
milligrammes of radium bromide which the Society 
had purchased ten years ago. This the Council agreed 
to do. To carry out the object in view, a large sum 
of money was required, and Lord Iveagh at once 
undertook to contribute ^1000, Sir John Purser 



378 A HISTORY OF 

Griffith very generously subscribing another £1000. 
Other subscriptions were received in response to an 
appeal made to the members, and in a short time the 
Radium Committee was in a position to conclude a 
contract for 200 milligrammes of radium bromide, 
which has since been delivered to the Society. In 
the meantime the small quantity in the Society's 
possession has been in constant use. The emanation 
it produces is pumped off at certain intervals, in 
the Society's laboratory, purified by means of liquid 
air, and transferred to minute glass tubes which are 
handed over to the surgeon for therapeutic use. 
Already new methods in the manipulation and appli- 
cation of the emanation have been devised, and the 
results obtained in its therapeutic application are most 
encouraging. Though the quantity of radium in the 
Society's possession is still very small, it will admit 
of a more extended use of this remarkable substance, 
which has proved to be one of the most potent agents 
that science has placed in the hands of man for the 
relief of human suffering. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 379 



APPENDIX I 

THE SOCIETY'S OFFICIALS 

1731-1914 



Presidents 

Lionel, Duke of Dorset . 

William, Duke of Devonshire 

Philip, Earl of Chesterfield 

William, Earl of Harrington 

Lionel, Duke of Dorset 

William, Marquis of Hartington, afterwards Duke 

of Devonshire . 
John, Duke of Bedford 
George, Earl of Halifax . 
Hugh, Earl of Northumberland 
Francis, Earl of Hertford . 
George William, Earl of Bristol 
George, Viscount Townshend 
Simon, Earl Harcourt 
John, Earl of Buckinghamshire 
Frederick, Earl of Carlisle 
George, Earl Temple 
Robert, Earl of Northington 
Charles, Duke of Rutland 
George, Marquis of Buckingham 
John, Earl of Westmoreland 
John, Earl Camden . 
Charles, Marquis Cornwallis 
Philip, Earl of Hardwicke 
John, Duke of Bedford 
Charles, Duke of Richmond 
Charles, Viscount, afterwards Earl Whitworth 
Charles, Earl Talbot .... 



I73I- 
1737- 
1745- 
1746- 
1751- 

1755- 

1757- 
1761- 

1763- 
1765- 
1766- 
1767- 
1772- 
1777- 
1780- 
1782- 

1783- 
1784- 

1787- 
1790- 

1795- 
1798- 
1801- 
1806- 
1807- 
1813- 
1817- 



737 
745 
746 

75i 

755 

757 
761 

7 6 3 
765 
766 
767 

772 

777 
780 

782 

7*3 
784 
787 
789 

795 
798 
801 
806 
807 

813 
817 

821 



3 8o 



A HISTORY OF 



Richard, Marquis Wellesley .... 1 822-1 828 
Henry William, Marquis of Anglesey . . 1 828-1 829 
Hugh, Duke of Northumberland . . . 1 829-1 830 
Henry William, Marquis of Anglesey . . 1 831-1833 
Richard, Marquis Wellesley .... 1 833-1 835 
Constantine, Earl of Mulgrave, afterwards Mar- 
quis of Normanby 1835-1839 

Hugh, Viscount Ebrington .... 1 839-1 841 

Thomas P., Earl de Grey . .... 1841-1844 

William, Lord Heytesbury .... 1 844-1 846 

John, Earl of Bessborough .... 1846— 1847 

George, Earl of Clarendon .... 1 847-1 852 

Archibald William, Earl of Eglinton and Winton 

(February-December) 1852 

Edward, Earl of St. Germans .... 1853— 1855 

George W. F., Earl of Carlisle .... 1855-1858 

Archibald William, Earl of Eglinton and Winton 1 858-1 859 

George W. F., Earl of Carlisle . . . . 1 859-1 864 

John, Lord Wodehouse, afterwards Earl of 

Kimberley ...... 1864— 1866 

James, Marquis, afterwards Duke of Abercorn . 1 866-1 868 

John Poyntz, Earl Spencer .... 1 868-1 874 

Charles William, Duke of Leinster . . . 1 874-1 887 

Laurence, Earl of Rosse ..... 1887-1892 

Mervyn, Viscount Powerscourt . . . 1 892-1 897 

Arthur Edward, Baron Ardilaun . . . 1 897-1913 

Thomas Kane, Baron Rathdonnell . . . x 9i3 

Vice-Presidents. 



Hugh Boulter, Primate .... 

John Hoadley, Primate .... 

George Stone, Primate .... 

Charles Cobbe, Archbishop of Dublin 
James, Earl of Kildare, afterwards Duke of 
Leinster ...... 

John, Earl of Grandison .... 

Humphrey, Viscount Lanesborough . 

Sir Arthur Gore, afterwards Earl of Arran 

Sir Thomas Taylor, Bart., m.p. 

* Probably elected before 1750, but the minutes between 1746 
1750 are not now extant. 



1731-1742 

1742-1747 

1747-1765 

♦1750-1765 



*I750-I773 

*i75o-i766 
*i75o-i768 
♦1750-1773 

♦1750-1757 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 381 

1757-1758 
1758-1776 
1758-1772 
1764-1787 
1764-1770 
1764-1767 

1765-1794 

i7 6 5-i773 
1767-1770 
1770-1803 
1772-1783 

1773-1782 
1774-1804 

1774-1775 

1775-1828 

1776-1822 
1783-1801 

1783-1792 
1785-1799 
1792-1810 
1799-1812 
1801-1817 
1803-1822 

1 804-1 809 

1809-1811 
1810-1813 
1812-1836 
1812-1849 
1813-1842 
1816-1820 
1820-1827 

1822-1833 
1822-1838 
1827-1831 



Robert Clayton, Bishop of Clogher . 
Redmond Morres, m.p. .... 

William Bury ...... 

Rt. Hon. John Ponsonby, Speaker h.c. 
Sir Robert Deane, Bart. .... 

Isaac Mann, Archdeacon of Dublin . 
Richard Robinson, afterwards Baron Rokeby 
Primate ...... 

Thomas Le Hunte ..... 

Theophilus Brocas, Dean of Killala . 
John Leigh ...... 

Sydenham Singleton .... 

Richard Woodward, Dean of Clogher 

William, Duke of Leinster 

Anthony, Earl of Meath .... 

Rt. Hon. John Foster, Speaker h.c. ; afterwards 
Lord Oriel ..... 

Lodge Morres, afterwards Viscount Frankfort dt 
Montmorency ..... 

Morgan Crofton ..... 

John Wallis 

Edmond Sexten Pery, afterwards Viscount Pery 

Thomas Burgh ..... 

General Charles Vallancey 

Rt. Hon. David La Touche 

Charles William, Earl of Charleville . 

Charles Agar, Archbishop of Dublin, afterwards 
Earl of Normanton .... 

Rev. Dr. George Hall, provost of t.c.d., after 
wards Bishop of Dromore . 

Rev. Dr. Thomas Smyth .... 

John Chambre, Earl of Meath . 

Robert Shaw, afterwards Sir Robert Shaw, Bart 

John Leslie Foster, M.P., Baron of the Excheque 

Peter Digges La Touche .... 

Rt. Hon. George Knox .... 

The Rev. the Hon. John Pomeroy, afterwards 
Viscount Harberton .... 

Henry Joy, Chief Baron of the Exchequer 

John Henry North, m.p 



3 82 



A HISTORY OF 



John Boyd 

Arthur, Marquis of Downshire . 

James L. Naper, d.l 

Jos. D. Jackson, serjeant at law, afterwards Justice 

of the Common Pleas 
Henry Kemmis, q.c, Assistant Barrister . 
Sir William Betham, Ulster King of Arms 
William Thomas, Earl of Clancarty . 
John, Marquis of Ormonde, k.p. 
Charles William, Marquis of Kildare, afterwards 

Duke of Leinster .... 
George A. Hamilton, m.p. 

Isaac Weld 

James, Lord Talbot de Malahide 

Rt. Hon. Francis Blackburne, lord chancellor 

Lundy Edward Foot .... 

Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, d.d., provost t.c.d. 

Hon. George Handcock .... 

Sir Richard Griffith, Bart. 

Robert, Lord Clonbrock 

George Woods Maunsell, d.l. . 

Sir George Hodson, Bart. .... 

John Francis Waller, ll.d. 

Laurence, Earl of Rosse, k.p., f.r.s. . 

George Johnstone Stoney, d.sc. f.r.s., 

Mervyn, Viscount Powerscourt 

George A. Rochfort Boyd, d.l. 

Arthur Edward, Baron Ardilaun, d.l. 

George Stephens, Viscount Gough, d.l. 

James L. Naper, d.l 

Charles Kelly, Q.c. (County Court Judge) . 

Charles Uniacke Townshend . 

Sir Howard Grubb, f.r.s. .... 

James, Duke of Abercorn, k.g. 

Rt. Hon. William H. Ford Cogan, d.l. 

Samuel Ussher Roberts .... 

Sir Thomas Pierce Butler, Bart. 

Charles Stewart, Marquis of Londonderry, k.g 

Professor D. J. Cunningham, f.r.s. . 

John E. H., Baron de Robeck, d.l. . 



1828-1836 
1831-1845 
1 833-1843 

1836-1858 
1836-1857 
1838-1853 
1842-1872 
1 843-1 847 

1845-1874 
1847-1871 
1849-1856 
1853-1883 
1856-1867 
1857-1863 
1868-1881 
1 863-1 868 
1868-1878 
1868-1893 
1871-1887 
1872-1887 
1874-1887 
1878-1887 
1881-1911 
1883-1892 

1887 
1887-1897 
1887-1895 
1887-1901 
1887-1905 
1 893-1 907 

i 8 93 
i 8 93-i9i3 
1891-1894 

1 894-1 900 
1894-1909 

1895 
1897-1906 
1 898—1 904 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 383 



Hon. Mr. Justice Walter Boyd 
Thomas Kane, Baron Rathdonnell . 
Charles Owen, The O'Conor Don, h.m.l, 
Edward Cecil, Viscount Iveagh, k.p. 
Sir James Creed Meredith, ll.d. 
Sir Charles A. Cameron, c.b., m.d. 
Rt. Hon. Frederick Wrench 
Captain J. Lewis Riall, d.l. 
Professor John Joly, d.sc, f.r.s. 
Anthony Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury 
Charles Mervyn Doyne, d.l. 

Honorary Secretaries 

William Stephens, m.d. 
Thomas Prior . 
Rev. Dr. Whitcombe 
Rev. Gabriel Maturin 
Rev. Dr. John Wynne 
William Maple 
John FitzPatrick 
Colombine Lee Carre 
Thomas St. George 
Holt Waring . 
Michael Dally 
Abraham Wilkinson 
Richard Vincent 
Thomas Burgh 
Thomas Braughall 
Arthur McGwire 
Rev. Thomas Smyth 
John Leslie Foster 
Jeremiah D'Olier 
Henry Joy 
John Boyd 
John Beatty, m.d. 
Isaac Weld 

C. Stewart Hawthorne 
Robert Butler Bryan 
Lundy Edward Foot 
Robert Harrison, m.d. 



1900 
1 902-1 91 3 
1 904-1 906 

1905 
1 906-1912 

1906 

1907 

1909 

1912 

1913 
1914 



I73I-I736 
1731-1751 

1732-1733 

1736- 

1750-1758 

1751-1762 

1764-1765 

1764-1771 

1765-1771 

1771-1785 

1772-1784 

1783-1803 

1784-1789 

1788-1792 

1792-1798 

1798-1808 

1803-1810 

1808-1813 

1810-1817 

1813-1822 

1817-1828 

1822-1831 

1828-1849 

1831-1834 

1834-1841 

1841-1857 

1 849-1 85 8 



3*4 



A HISTORY OF 



John Francis Waller, ll.d 1855-1861 

Hon. George Handcock ..... 1 858-1 861 

Richard, Lord Dunlo, afterwards Earl of Clancarty 1 861-1866 

George Woods Maunsell, d.l 1861-1871 

Laurence Waldron, d.l 1867-187 5 

George Johnstone Stoney, f.r.s. . . . 1871-1881 

Charles Kelly, Q.c. (County Court Judge) . . 1 875-1 887 

George F. FitzGerald, f.t.c.d 1 881-1889 

Charles Uniacke Townshend .... 1 887-1 893 

Sir Howard Grubb, f.r.s. . .... 1889-1893 

Hon. Mr. Justice Walter Boyd . . . 1 893-1 900 

Professor Daniel J. Cunningham, f.r.s. . . 1894-1897 

Professor John Joly, d.sc, f.r.s. . . . 1 897-1 909 

Robert Romney Kane (County Court Judge) . 1900-1901 

Thomas Cooke Trench ..... 1 901-1903 

Captain J. Lewis Riall, d.l. .... 1 903-1 909 

Richard G. Carden, d.l. ..... 1909 

Sir Joseph McGrath 1909 

Assistant Secretaries 

Rev. Dr. Peter Chaigneau .... 1 762-1 774 

Rev. Dr. Thomas Lyster 17 74-1 808 

Bucknall McCarthy 1 808-1 829 

Edward Hardman 1 829-1 850 

William Vicars Griffith 1850-1852 

William Edward Steele, M.B 1852-1877 

(In 1878, Dr. Steele was transferred to the Science 
and Art Department.) 

Registrars 
William Maple 
Patrick Brien . 
Rev. Dr. Peter Chaigneau, 
Thomas Lysaght 
Captain P. Theodore Wilson 
Henry Connor White 

(In 1878, Mr. White was transferred to the Science 
and Art Department.) 

Registrar of the Royal Dublin Society 

Richard Jackson Moss, F.I.C., f.c.s. . . . 18; 



1731-1762 
1765-1798 
1798-1808 
1808-1819 
1819-1853 

1853-1877 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 385 



Anthony Sheppard, jun., m.p. . 


I73I-I737 


Robert Ross ...... 


1737-1743 


Robert Downes ..... 


1 743-1 754 


John Putland ...... 


1754-1772 


Thomas St. George ..... 


1772-1785 


Sir William Gleadowe Newcomen, bart. . 


1785-1807 


Sir Thomas Gleadowe Newcomen, bart. . 


1 807-1 814 


(From 1 8 14, the Bank of Ireland has acted as 


Treasurer to the Society.) 





2 B 



3 86 



A HISTORY OF 



APPENDIX II 

(Seep. 68-9.) 



PREMIUMS OFFERED BY THE DUBLIN SOCIETY 
IN THE YEAR 1766 

The following premiums were published in the Society's last list 
of premiums, and are now repeated as they are hereafter to be 
adjudged. 



Bog 

For effectually reclaimingthegreatest 
quantity of bog (not less than 60 acres) 
so that in the year 1766 it shall be 
under tillage, a gold medal 

To the renter of land who shall re- 
claim effectually the greatest quantity 
of bog (not less than 30 acres) so that 
in the year 1766 it shall be under 
tillage 

For the next greatest quantity, not 
less than 25 acres .... 

For the next greatest quantity, not 
less than 20 acres .... 

For the next greatest quantity, not 
less than 15 acres .... 

For the next greatest quantity, not 
less than 10 acres .... 

Every claimant is to lay before the 
Society the nature of the bottom of 
his bog, and the several methods he 
shall have taken to reclaim it. 

Mountain 

To the renter of land who shall bring 
in, improve and effectually manure, to 



£ s. d. To be adjudged 



1767 

Jan. 15 th 



5o 



35 



2 5 



18 



12 



15th 
15th 
15th 
15th 
15th 



2 


IO 


o 


1767 

Jan. 15 th 


5 


o 


o 


„ 15th 


7 


IO 


o 


„ 15th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 387 

the satisfaction of the Society, the £ s . d. To be adjudged 
greatest quantity (not less than 15 
acres) of dry mountain, so that in the 
year 1766 it shall be under tillage 

For the next quantity, not less than 
10 acres ...... 

For the next quantity, not less than 
5 acres 

The above premiums for reclaiming 
dry mountain are offered for each of 
the provinces respectively. 

Wheat 

To the person who shall sow the 
greatest quantity of land (not less than 
10 acres) with wheat in the year 1766, 
and before the 12th of October, the 1766 

seed to be covered with the harrow . 20 o o Oct. 23rd 

To the person who shall in the year 
1767 reap the greatest quantity of 
wheat by the acre from no less than 
10 acres of land, and from the smallest 1768 

quantity of seed . . . . 20 o o May 5th 

The above premiums for the en- 
couragement of the culture of wheat 
are offered for each of the provinces 
respectively. 

To the renter of land who shall sow 
the greatest quantity of land (not less 
than 10 acres) with wheat in the year 
1766, and before the first day of 1766 

October . . . . . . 50 o o Oct. 23rd 

Every claimant must give the Society 
an account of the nature of his soil, 
the number of ploughings given, 
and the manner of manuring and 
sowing. 

Parsnips 

To the renter of land who shall sow 
the greatest quantity of land (not less 
than two acres) with parsnips, to be 
made use of only in feeding cattle, 



388 A HISTORY OF 

giving an account of the soil, culture, £ s . d. To be adjudged 

produce, and their effect on cattle fed 1766 

with them . . . . 10 o o Oct. 30th 

For the second quantity, not less 

than one acre . . . . . 500,, 30th 

Turnips 

To the renter of land, not already 
encouraged, who shall in the year 
1766, sow the greatest quantity of 
land (not less than five acres) with 
turnips . . . . . . 10 o o „ 30th 

For the second quantity, not less 
than four acres . . . .700,, 30th 

For sowing the greatest quantity of 
land (not less than two acres) with 
turnips in drills, horse-hoeing the 
intervals . . . . . .600,, 30th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
one acre . . . . . .300,, 30th 

These premiums to encourage the 
culture of turnips are offered for each 
of the provinces respectively. 

Burnet 

For sowing or planting the greatest 
quantity of land (not less than three 
acres) with burnet, giving an account 
of the soil, culture, produce, and its 
effect on cattle fed with it . . . 12 o o Nov. 20th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
two acres . . . . . .800,, 20th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
one acre 400,, 20th 

Lucern 

For sowing or planting the greatest 
quantity of land (not less than one 
acre) with Lucern, giving an account 
of the soil, culture, produce, and its 1766 

effect on cattle fed with it . . .500 Nov. 20th 

Clover Seed 

To the person not already en- 
couraged who shall in the year 1766 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 389 

save the greatest quantity (not less £ s . d. To be adjudged 
than 1 2 cwt.) of clean and sound clover 
seed, the growth of land of his own 1767 

holding . . . . . 15 o o Jan. 29th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
8 cwt 700,, 29th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

4 cwt. . . . . . .500,, 29th 

White Clover Seed 

To the person not already en- 
couraged who shall in the year 1766, 
save the greatest quantity (not less 
than 2 cwt.) of clean and sound white 
or Dutch clover seed, the growth of 
land of his own holding . . 10 o o ,, 29th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
1 cwt 500,, 29th 

Trefoyle Seed 

To the person not already en- 
couraged who shall in the year 1766, 
save the greatest quantity (not less 
than 10 cwt.) of clean and sound 
Trefoyle seed, cleared of the hull, and 
the growth of land of his own holding. 10 o o Feb. 5th 

For the next quantity not less than 

5 cwt 5 o o ,, 5th 

St. Foin Seed 

To the person who shall save in the 
year 1766, the greatest quantity (not 
less than three barrels) of clean and 
sound St. Foin seed, the growth of 
land of his own holding . . . 10 o o „ 5th 

Hops 

For producing in the year 1767, the 
greatest quantity (not less than 8 cwt.) 
of good merchantable Hops of the 
growth of that year, a sample of 1 
cwt. to be produced to the Society . 50 o o Nov. 12th 



390 A HISTORY OF 

Liquorice 

For raising in the year 1766, the £ s . d. To be adjudged 
greatest quantity (not less than 1 2 cwt.) 1 76 1 

of Liquorice 12 o o Feb. 5th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
8 cwt. . . . . . .800 „ 5th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

4 cwt 500 ,, 5th 

Mustard 

To the person who shall produce 
the best and greatest quantity (not less 1 766 

than 10 barrels) of Red Mustard seed 800 Nov. 27th 

For the second quantity, not less 
than 4 barrels 400,, 27th 

Millet 

To the person who shall raise the 
greatest quantity (not less than 1 cwt.) 
of Millet 10 o o „ 27th 

Rape Seed 

For raising and saving the greatest 
quantity of Rape seed from boggy, 
rushy, or mountainous ground, not 
less than 20 acres cultivated for this 

purpose, shall entitle any claimant to [1767] 

the first premium of . . . . 34 2 6 Jan. 22nd 

For the second quantity, not less 
than 15 acres 22 15 o „ 22nd 

For the next quantity, not less than 
10 acres 17 1 3 „ 22nd 

An account of the methods taken 
to cultivate the ground and to raise 
the Rape to be laid before the Society. 

Weld 

To the person not already en- 
couraged, who shall cultivate and save 
the greatest quantity of weld or bony- 1766 

moore, not less than 10 cwt. . .600 Nov. 20th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

5 cwt. . . . 4 . .400,, 20th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 391 

WOAD 

To the renter of land, not already £ s . d. To be adjudged 
encouraged, who shall grow and pre- 
pare for the dyer, the greatest quantity 1766 
of woad, not less than 1 cwt. . .600 Nov. 20th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
70 lbs. weight 400,, 20th 

Honey and Wax 

To the person who shall have the 
greatest quantity of honey and wax, 
not less than 6 cwt., including the 
hive and bees ..... 

For the next quantity, not less than 
5 cwt 

For the next quantity, not less than 
4 cwt 

For the next quantity, not less than 

3 cwt 

For the next quantity, not less than 
2 cwt 

The hives are to be weighed in the 
gross, the bees being alive (which is 
known by experience not in the least 
to prejudice them) in the presence of 
the minister or curate of the parish, 
or any Justice of Peace in the neigh- 
bourhood, or any other person of a 
reputable character, known to a mem- 
ber of the Society, and by a person 
appointed by the proprietor of the 
bees. 

A certificate of such weight and the 
number of hives must be signed by 
such minister, or curate, or Justice of 
Peace, or reputable person. 

The person weighing the hives is to 
make an affidavit of their number and 
gross weight, that they are of the usual 
size and thickness, and that to the 
best of his knowledge, no fraud has 
been practised to increase their weight. 

The proprietor of the bees is also 



30 





Oct. 9th 


25 





„ 9th 


20 





„ 9th 


15 





„ 9th 


10 





„ 9th 



39 2 A HISTORY OF 

to make an affidavit that the number 
of old hives, so weighed, attested, and 
certified, have been all his property 
for six months before, that all the new 
hives so weighed, attested, and certi- 
fied, are swarms from the old hives, 
and that to the best of his knowledge, 
none of those hives were above six 
Irish miles from his dwelling-house 
when weighed and certified, or for six 
months before. 

These certificates and affidavits are 
to be produced by the claimants of 
the premiums, as the condition upon 
which only they can receive them. 

N.B. — The weighing of bees is by 
no means difficult; it is to be done 
after sunset, in the following manner : 
a linen cloth is slipped between the 
hive and the stool, and knotted at the 
top of the hive, which is then lifted 
up by the knot, and put into the scale ; 
after weighing the hive is again put on 
the stool, and the cloth slipped from 
under it. 

It is found by experience that bees 
will thrive at least as well in boxes as 
in hives, and it is recommended that 
they be as well made use of as hives. 
Whereas the usual method of ob- 
taining honey from stocks of bees, is 
by destroying the bees ; and whereas, 
it is found by experience that the honey 
may be obtained, and the bees pre- 
served at the same time, by which large 
quantities of both honey and wax are 
collected, the Society will therefore 
give- 
To the person who shall collect the 
greatest quantity of honey or wax from 
stocks of bees of his own property 
within the year 1766, without destroy- 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



393 



ing the bees, and shall leave a sufficient £ s . d. To be adjudged 
quantity of honey for their winter 1766 

sustenance 10 o o Oct. 9th 

For the next quantity . . .700 „ 9th 

Food for Bees 

To the person who shall invent the 
best and cheapest food for bees in 
the winter season, without sugar or 
honey 500 ,, 9th 

Bee Hives 

To the person who shall make the 
best and greatest number of bee hives, 
not less than 80 . . . .300 ,, 9th 

For the second number, not less 
than 40 . . . . . .200 „ 9th 

The premiums for bee hives are 
promised for each of the provinces 
respectively. 

Employing Children 

To the person (not already encour- 
aged by any other Society) who shall 
have employed from the first day of 
September 1765 to the first day of 
September 1766, in any manufacture, 
the greatest number of children (not 
less than 40, and not exceeding the 
age of 13 years) with a particular ac- 
count of their work, upon the affidavit 
of the person employing them, and the 
certificate of two neighbouring Justices 
of the Peace, and the minister or 
curate of the parish, if in the country ; 
and in towns, of the clergyman and 
principal residing magistrate . .1200 „ 9th 

For employing the next greatest 
number, not less than 30 . . .800 ,, 9th 

Tanning 

The sum of ,£100 will be given in 
premiums, at the rate of five shillings 
for every Irish hide or skin which shall 



394 A HISTORY OF 

be completely tanned with bog myrtle £ Sm a. To be adjudged 
only, provided the number of hides or 
skins so tanned shall not exceed 400, 
and if it should, then the said sum of 
;£ioo shall be distributed in propor- 
tion to the number of such hides or 1766 

skins 100 o o Nov. 6th 

The sum of ^50 will be given in 
premiums at the rate of five shillings 
for every Irish hide or skin which shall 
be completely tanned with oak dust 
only, provided the number of hides 
or skins so tanned shall not exceed 
200, and if it should, then the sum of 
^■50 shall be distributed in proportion 1766 

to the number of such hides or skins 50 o o Nov. 6th 

Saltpetre 

To the person who shall produce 
the greatest quantity (not less than 
10 lbs.) of saltpetre made and pre- 1767 

pared in this kingdom . . . 10 o o Jan. 22nd 

For the second quantity, not less 
than 5 lbs 500,, 22nd 

Turbot Fishery 

To the person who shall promote 
and establish a Turbot fishery on any 
of the coasts of this kingdom, so that 
there shall be sold from said fishery in 
the year 1766, 2000 at the least of 
well-cured merchantable turbot . . 30 o o Mar. 12th 

Stock Fishery 

To the person who shall promote 
and establish a Stock fishery on any 
of the coasts of this kingdom, so that 
there be sold from said fishery, in the 
year 1766, 10 cwt. at least of well- 
cured merchantable stock fish . . 20 o o „ 12th 

Flounder Fishery 

To the person who shall promote 
and establish a Flounder fishery on 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



395 



any of the coasts of this kingdom, so £ s . d. To be adjudged 
as there shall be sold from said fishery 
in the year 1766 5 cwt. at least of 1767 

well-cured merchantable flounders . n 7 6 Mar. 12th 

Note. — That the curing of flounders 
must be after the Dutch method, by 
very little salt, and the fish dried in 
the air in the summer. 

Cod and Heak Fishery 

To the person who shall promote 
and establish a Cod and Heak fishery 
on any of the coasts of this kingdom, 
so as there shall be sold from said 
fishery in the year 1766 10 cwt., at 
the least, of well-cured merchantable 
cod or heak 22150,, 12th 

Ling or Haddock Fishery 

To the person who shall promote 
and establish a Ling or Haddock 
fishery, on any of the coasts of this 
kingdom, so as there shall be sold from 
said fishery in the year 1766 10 cwt., 
at least, of well-cured merchantable 
ling or haddock . . . .2215 c,, 12th 

Herrings 

To the owner of any fishing-boat 
or wherry, not less than 26 feet in the 
keel, who shall in the year 1766, be- 
tween the 1 st day of May and the 
1st day of September, on the east 
coast of this kingdom, between the 
Lough of Carlingford and the Hill of 
Howth, with such boat in any one 
night, first take any quantity of her- 
rings not less than three mease, which 
shall be sold fresh and sound in [!766] 

Dublin market n 7 6 Oct. 16th 

To the owner of any fishing-boat 
or wherry not less than 26 feet in the 
keel, who shall in the year 1766, 



396 A HISTORY OF 

between the first day of May and the £ s . d. To be adjudged 

first day of September, on the east 

coast of this kingdom, between the 

Hill of Howth and the Head of 

Wicklow, with such boat, in any one 

night, first take any quantity of 

herrings, not less than three mease, 

which shall be sold fresh and sound 1766 

in Dublin market . . . . n 7 6 Oct. 16th 

To the owner of any fishing-boat 
or wherry to be built hereafter not 
less than 26 feet in the keel, who shall 
in the year 1766, between the first day 
of May and the 1st of September, on 
the east coast of this kingdom, between 
the Lough of Carlingford and the Hill 
of Howth, with such boat in any one 
night, first take any quantity of herrings 
not less than three mease, which shall 
be sold fresh and sound in Dublin 
market . . . . . . 11 7 6 „ 16th 

To the owner of any fishing-boat 
or wherry to be built hereafter, not 
less than 26 feet in the keel, who shall 
in the year 1766, between the istday of 
May and the 1st day of September, on 
the east coast of this kingdom, between 
the Hill of Howth and the Head of 
Wicklow, with such boat, in any one 
night, first take any quantity of herrings 
not less than three mease, to be sold 
fresh and sound in Dublin market 11 7 6 „ 16th 

Natural History 

To the person who shall, any time 
within five years, produce a Natural 
History (such as will be approved of 
by the Society) of any County in this 
kingdom ; for each of the provinces 
respectively 50 o o 

Writing on Husbandry 

To any practising farmer who shall 
write a farmer's monthly Kalendar, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 397 

after the manner of Miller's Gardener's £ s . d. To be adjudged 
Kalendar, setting forth what is to be 
done each month in relating to tillage, 1766 

pasture, and meadow grounds . . 22 15 o Oct. 23rd 



August 7th, 1766 

PREMIUMS OFFERED THIS YEAR FOR 
AGRICULTURE, PLANTING, &c. 

Bog 

For effectually reclaiming the greatest 
quantity of Bog (not less than 30 acres), 
so that in the year 1767 it shall be in 1768 

tillage or meadow . . . . 50 o o Jan. 14th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
25 acres 35 o o ,, 14th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
20 acres . . . . . . 25 o o ,, 14th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
15 acres 18 o o ,, 14th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
10 acres . . . . . .1200,, 14th 

Every claimant is to lay before the 
Society the quality of the bog before 
reclaiming, the several methods he 
shall have taken to reclaim the same, 
and the depth and breadth of the 
drains he shall have made. No person 
shall be entitled to any of the above 
premiums, unless the depth of the bog 
before reclaiming shall have been at 
least four feet from the surface to the 
bottom of the bog, nor shall any person 
receive more than one premium for 
the same ground ; everything else alike, 
renters of land shall have the pre- 
ference. 

The above premiums for reclaiming 
bog were first published in July 1765, 
and it was then notified that they 
would be continued for five years from 



398 A HISTORY OF 

that time, so that they will be given £ s . d. To be adjudged 
for reclaimed bog which shall be in 
tillage or meadow in the year 1768, 
1769, or 1770. 

For every renter of land, not hold- 
ing above 20 acres, who shall effectu- 
ally reclaim one acre of red unprofitable 
bog, so that in the year 1769 it shall 
be under tillage or meadow, the Society 
will give a premium of Fifty shillings. 
The sum of Fifty pounds will be ap- 
propriated in these premiums to each 
province, and if more than 20 claim- 
ants, entitled to the said premium, 
should appear for any one province, 
then the sum of ^50 will be divided 1769 

among such claimants . . . 200 o o Dec. 7th 

The like premiums will be continued 
for bog which shall be brought into 
meadow or tillage in the year 1770. 

For making the greatest number of 
perches in drains through unprofitable 
bog (not less than 4000 perches), to be 1767 

at least 5 ft. wide and 3 ft. deep . 16 00 Nov. 19th 

For the next number, not less than 
3000 . . . . . . 12 o o „ 19th 

For the next number, not less than 
2000 8 o o ,, 19th 

For the next number, not less than 
1000 400,, 19th 

The like premiums for cutting such 
drains through unprofitable bog, will 
be continued for another year, and 
adjudged in November 1768. 

Mountain 

To the person or persons who shall 
bring in, improve, and effectually 
manure, to the satisfaction of the 
Society, the greatest quantity of dry 
mountain (not less than 15 acres), so 
that in the year 1768 it shall be in 1768 

tillage . . . . . . 22 10 o Jan. 14th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 399 

For the next quantity, not less than £ s . d. To be adjudged 
10 acres 15 o o Jan. 14th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
5 acres 7 10 o ,, 14th 

Every claimant must lay before the 
Society the nature of his mountain 
land before reclaiming, and the several 
methods he shall have taken to re- 
claim it. 

The like premiums will be con- 
tinued for mountain land which shall 
be effectually reclaimed and in tillage 
in the year 1769 or 1770. 

Wheat 

To the person who shall, in the 
year 1767, reap the greatest quantity 
of wheat by the acre, and from no less 
than 10 acres of ground, to be sown 
before the 1st of November 1766, 
with no more than 12 stone of seed to 
the acre, half of the seed to be sown 
and covered with the plough, and then 
the other half to be sown on the same 
ground and covered with the harrow 15 o o April 7th 

To the person who shall, in the year 
1767, reap the greatest quantity of 
wheat by the acre, and from no less 
than 5 acres of ground, to be sown 
before the first of November 1766, 
with no more than 1 2 stone of seed to 
the acre, half of the seed to be sown 
and covered with the plough, and then 
the other half to be sown on the same 
ground and covered with the harrow. 7100 ,, 7th 

To the person who shall, in the year 
1767, reap the greatest quantity of 
wheat by the acre, from no less than 
10 acres of ground sown with 10 stone 
of seed, and no more, to the acre, and 
which shall be covered only with the 
harrow 15 o o „ 7th 

To the person who shall reap the 



400 A HISTORY OF 

greatest quantity of wheat from the £ s . d. To be adjudged 
same ground for three years suc- 
cessively, beginning in the year 1767, 
the ground to be sown in drills, horse- 
hoeing the intervals, and no less than 1769 
one acre 30 o o Dec. 14th 

No person shall be entitled to any 
of the above premiums for the culture 
of wheat, who shall not, on or before 
the first day of January 1767, by letter 
to the Society's Assistant Secretary to 
inform him that he intends to be a 
claimant of one or more of the pre- 
miums offered, and also of the manner 
in which he shall have prepared his 
ground. 

To the renter of land who in the 
year 1767 shall sow the greatest quan- 
tity of land with wheat (not less than 
10 acres) and before the 1 st of October 500 Oct. 22 nd 

For the next quantity, not less than 
8 acres . . . . . .400,, 22nd 

For the next quantity, not less than 
6 acres 300,, 22nd 

Turnips 

For sowing in the year 1767 the 
greatest quantity of land (not less than 
two acres) with turnips in drills, horse- 
hoeing the intervals . . . .600,, 29th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
one acre . . . . . .300,, 29th 

An account of the soil and produce 
to be laid before the Society. 

Parsnips 

For sowing in the year 1767 the 
greatest quantity of land (not less than 
two acres) with parsnips, to be made 
use of only in feeding cattle or swine, 
giving an account of the soil, culture, 
produce, and their effect on cattle fed 1768 

with them 10 o o Feb. 25th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 40 1 

For the next quantity, not less than £ s . d. To be adjudged 
one acre 500 Feb. 25th 

It has been found by experience 
that swine will thrive remarkably well 
by being fed upon parsnips. 

Carrots 

For sowing in the year 1767 the 
greatest quantity of land (not less than 
two acres) with carrots, to be made use 
of only in feeding cattle, giving an 
account of the soil, culture, produce, 
and their effect on cattle fed with them 10 o o ,, 25th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
one acre 500 „ 25th 

See a pamphlet lately published by 
the Society in London on the culture 
of carrots and their use in feeding 
cattle. 

Burnet 

For sowing or planting in the year 
1767 the greatest quantity of land (not 
• less than 3 acres) with Burnet, giving 
an account of the soil, culture, pro- 
duce, and its effect on cattle fed with it 15 o o ,, 25th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
two acres . . . . . .1000 ,, 25th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
one acre 500 „ 25th 

Lucerne 

For sowing or planting in the year 
1767 the greatest quantity of land 
(not less than one acre) with Lucerne, 
giving an account of the soil, culture, 
produce, and its effects on cattle fed 1767 

with it . . . . .500 Nov. 5th 

The like premium will be given for 
sowing parsnips, carrots, burnet and 
lucerne in the year 1768. 

Clover Seed 

To the person not already encour- 
aged who shall in the year 1767 save 

2 c 



402 A HISTORY OF 

the greatest quantity (not less than 12 £ s . d. To be adjudged 
cwt.) of clean and sound clover seed, 1768 

the growth ofland of his own holding 15 o o Feb. 1 8th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

8 cwt 700 „ 1 8th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

4 cwt 500 „ 1 8th 

White Clover Seed 

To the person, not already encour- 
aged, who shall in the year 1767, save 
the greatest quantity (not less than 2 
cwt.) of clean and sound white or 
Dutch clover seed, the growth of land 
of his own holding . . . . 10 o o ,, 18th 

For the next quantity, not less than 
1 cwt 500 „ 18th 

Trefoyl Seed 

To the person, not already encour- 
aged, who shall in the year 1767, save 
the greatest quantity (not less than 10 
cwt.) of clean and sound Trefoyle seed, 
the growth of land of his own holding 10 o o ,, 18th 

For the next quantity, not less than 

5 cwt 500 ,, 1 8th 

The samples of Trefoyle seed pro- 
duced must be cleared of the hull. 

The like premiums will be given for 
saving the aforesaid grass seeds in the 
year 1768. 

Hops 

For producing in the year 1768 the 
greatest quantity (not less than 8 cwt.) 
of good merchantable hops, of the 
growth of that year, a sample of 1 cwt. 
to be produced to the Society . . 50 o o Nov. 3rd 

This encouragement for hops was 
first published in the year 1765, and 
it was then notified that it would be 
continued for five years from 1767; 
the like premiums will therefore be 
given for hops produced in the year 
1769, 1770, 1771 and 1772. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



403 



HOP POLES £ s. d. To be adjudged 

To the person possessed of hop 
yards, who shall plant out with any 
kind of timber trees any piece of en- 
closed ground, for the purpose of 
raising hop poles, no less than a rood 
being allowed for each acre of hop 
yard, the sum of £60 will be given in 
premiums, at the rate of £3 f° r eacn 
rood so planted, no one person being 1767 

to receive a higher premium than £1 2 60 o o April 1 6th 

To be continued for five years from 
1767. 

No person can be entitled to any 
premium who shall not give security 
for preserving his plantation for seven 
years. 

Planting and Cutting Sallows 

To the person who shall in the year 
1770 cut the greatest quantity of sal- 
lows fit for basket-makers use from 
not less than 1 acre of land to be 
planted before the 25th March 1767, 
leaving not less than 2000 standing for 
hoops, hop poles, and timber . . 10 o o 

To the person who shall cut the 
second greatest quantity . . .600 

To the person who shall cut the 
third greatest quantity . . .400 

To the person who shall cut the 
greatest quantity of hoops in the year 
1772 from those sallows which were 
left standing after the former cutting, 
leaving not less than 500 standing on 
an acre . . . . . . 10 o o 

To the person who shall cut the 
second greatest quantity . . .600 

To the person who shall cut the 
third greatest quantity . . .400 

To the person who shall in the year 
1775 cut the greatest quantity of hop 
poles or hoops from those sallows left 



4 o 4 A HISTORY OF 

after the two former cuttings, leaving £ s . a. To be adjudged 
what he shall think proper for timber 10 o o April 16th 

To the person who shall cut the 
second greatest quantity . . .600 

To the person who shall cut the 
third greatest quantity . . .400 

No person shall be entitled to any 
of the aforesaid premiums for sallows 
who shall not send an account of his 
plantation to the Society's Assistant 
Secretary before the first day of April 
1767, specifying the land on which, 
and the county, barony, and parish in 
which such plantation is made, and 
the person for whom it is made ; and 
whoever shall be proprietor of such 
plantation at the respective times of 
cutting shall be entitled to be a 
claimant of the premiums offered, tho' 
he did not make the plantation him- 
self, but is possessed by descent, pur- 
chase, or otherwise : such proprietor 
shall be entitled to be a claimant of 
the premiums for the second or third 
cutting, tho' he shall not have obtained 
one for the first. 

Planting Weymouth Pines 

To the person who shall plant the 
greatest number of Weymouth pines 
(not less than 500) under five years 
old, between the 1st September 1766 
and the 1st April 1767, not nearer to 
each other than 15 feet, a gold medal ... „ 16th 

Larix 

To the person who shall plant the 
greatest number of Larix (not less than 
1000) under five years old, between 
1st September 1766 and 1st April 1767, 
not nearer to each other than 15 feet, 
a gold medal ,, 16th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 405 

OAKS £ s . d. To be adjudged 

To the person who shall plant 
between the 1st of October 1766 and 
the 1st of April 1767 the greatest 
number of oaks (not less than 1000) 
under five years old, not nearer to 
each other than 15 feet, and shall en- 
gage to cut them down close to the 
ground within 12 months after plant- 
ing, a gold medal April 1 6th 

Scotch Fir 

To the person who shall plant 
between the 1st of September 1766 
and the 1st of April 1767, the greatest 
number of Scotch firs (not less than 
5000) under five years old, and not 
nearer to each other than 10 feet, in 
coarse mountain land, a gold medal . ... ,, 23rd 

Beech 

To the person who shall plant the 
greatest number of Beech (not less 
than 2000) under five years old, be- 
tween the 1 st of October 1766 and 
the 1st of April 1767, not nearer to 
each other than 15 feet, a gold medal ... „ 23rd 

Sycamore or Ash 

To the person who shall plant the 
greatest number (not less than 5000) 
of Sycamore, Ash, or Norway Maple, 
under five years old, between the 1st 
of October 1766 and the 1st of Apiil 
1767, not nearer to each other than 
10 feet, and shall engage to cut them 
down close to the ground within 12 
months after planting, a gold medal . ... ,, 23rd 

Planting bog with sallows 

To the person who shall plant the 
greatest quantity of bog (not less than 



4 o6 A HISTORY OF 

five acres) with apple, black timber, or £ s . d. To be adjudged 

chesnut sallow sets, not nearer to each 

other than 10 inches, a gold medal . ... April 23rd 

All the above plantations must be 
well fenced in, and secured from 
cattle. 

The above premiums for planting, 
are offered for each of the provinces 
respectively. 

Nurseries 

That improvers in all parts of the 
kingdom may be the better and more 
conveniently supplied with trees, the 
Society will pay for every person in 
each of the several counties of Ireland 
who shall first keep a well enclosed 
nursery of forest trees (the trees in 
each nursery being of two years growth) 
a yearly rent of thirty shillings per acre 
for three years, for the ground so 
occupied in a Nursery ; the whole of 
the yearly rent promised for any 
Nursery not exceeding ^7, \os. od. . 240 o c 

N.B.— Five of the Grand Jury of 
the Spring Assizes where this en- 
couragement shall be claimed are to 
certify concerning the condition of the 
Nursery, and the quantity of ground 
occupied therein. 

The Society will pay the above rent 
on the conditions mentioned, the first 
Thursday in every month of May. 

Ditching 

For making the greatest number of 
perches in ditching (not less than 200 
perches) between the 1st day of 
October 1766 and the 1st day of 
April 1767, six feet wide and five feet 
deep perpendicular, to be as narrow as 
possible at bottom, and well quicked 
with White Thorn or Crab Quicks, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 407 



with English Elms planted quickways £ s . d. To be adjudged 

on the same bed with the Quicks, or a 

little above it, in the face of the ditch, 

and distant from each other not more 

than two perches, with one or two 

forest trees of any kind, except Ash 

between the Elms, a gold medal . ... April 9th 

For the second number of perches, 
a silver medal „ 9th 

For the third number of perches, 
a silver medal „ 9th 

To the lessee paying rent, who shall 
make the greatest number of perches 
in ditching as above, not less than 200 12 o o ,, 9th 

To the second number, not less than 
150 . . . . . . .600,, 9th 

To the third number, not less than 
100 . . . . . . .400,, 9th 

The above premiums for ditching, 
are promised for each of the provinces 
respectively. 



Liquorice 

For raising in the year 1767 the 
greatest quantity (not less than 12 
cwt.) of good sound liquorice . 

For the next quantity, not less than 
8 cwt. • 

For the next quantity, not less than 
4 cwt. ...... 

This encouragement for liquorice 
was first published in the year 1764, 
and it was then notified that it would 
be given for liquorice raised in 1766, 
1767 and 1768. 



12 o o Nov. 26th 



26th 



26th 



Rape Seed 

For raising and saving in the year 
1768 the greatest quantity of Rape 
seed, from boggy, rushy, or mountain- 
ous ground, not less than 20 acres 
being cultivated for this purpose 



34 



1769 
Jan. 19th 



4 o8 A HISTORY OF 

For the second quantity, not less £ s . d. To be adjudged 
than 15 acres 22 15 o Jan. 19th 

For the third quantity, not less than 
10 acres . . . . . .1713,, 19th 

An account of the soil and culture 
to be laid before the Society. 

Weld 

To the person not already en- 
couraged who shall cultivate and save 

the greatest quantity of weld or bony- 1 767 

moore, not less than 10 cwt. . .600 Jan. 3rd 

For the next quantity, not less than 
5 cwt 4 o „ 3rd 

WOAD 

To the person not already en- 
couraged who shall cultivate and pre- 
pare for the dyer the greatest quantity 
of woad, not less than 1 cwt. . .600 Dec. 3rd 

For the next quantity, not less than 
70 lb. weight . . . . .400,, 3rd 

Acorns 

For sowing and well securing in the 
year 1766, 1767, or 1768 the greatest 
quantity of land (not less than one 1769 

acre) with acorns, a gold medal . ... Jan. 19th 

To the person who shall have the 
greatest number (not less than 160 on 
every acre) of oaks in a thriving con- 
dition on land, for the sowing of which 
with acorns he has claimed the above 
premium, and in the 7th year after the 
premium has been claimed . . 20 o o 

For the next number as above . 15 o o 

For the next number . . .1000 

Saffron 

For raising and saving in the year 
1767 the greatest quantity (not less 
than 2 lb. weight) of good merchant- 1767 

able saffron , 1200 Dec. 1 oth 



o 


Oct. 


I 5 th 


o 


J' 


15th 


o 


»> 


15th 





JJ 


15th 


o 


5? 


15th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 409 

For the second quantity, not less £ s . d. To be adjudged 
than 1 lb. weight . . . .600 Dec. 10th 

Honey and Wax 

To the person who shall have the 
greatest quantity of honey and wax, 
not less than 6 cwt. including the hive 
and bees 30 

For the next quantity, not less than 
5 cwt 25 

For the next quantity, not less than 
4 cwt 20 

For the next quantity, not less than 
3 cwt 15 

For the next quantity, not less than 
2 cwt 10 

The hives are to be weighed in the 
gross, the bees being alive, (which is 
known by experience not in the least 
to prejudice them) in the presence of 
the minister or curate of the parish, 
or any Justice of Peace in the neigh- 
bourhood, or any other person of a 
reputable character, known to a mem- 
ber of the Society, and by a person 
appointed by the proprietor of the 
bees. 

A certificate of such weight, and 
the number of hives, must be signed 
by such minister or curate or Justice 
of Peace, or reputable person. 

The person weighing the hives is to 
make an affidavit of their number and 
gross weight, that they are of the usual 
size and thickness, and that to the 
best of his knowledge no fraud has 
been practised to increase their weight. 

The proprietor of the bees is also 
to make an affidavit that the number 
of old hives so weighed, attested, and 
certified, have been all his property for 
six months before, that all the new 
hives so weighed, attested, and certi- 



4 i o A HISTORY OF 

fied, are swarms from the old hives, £ s . d. To be adjudged 

and that to the best of his knowledge, 

none of those hives were above six 

Irish miles from his dwelling house 

when weighed and certified, or for six 

months before. 

These certificates and affidavits are 
to be produced by the claimants of 
the premiums, as the condition upon 
which alone they can receive them. 

Whereas the usual method of ob- 
taining the honey from stocks of bees is 
by destroying the bees ; and whereas 
it is found by experience that the 
honey may be obtained and the bees 
preserved at the same time, by which 
larger quantities of both honey and 
wax are collected : The Society will 
therefore give 

To the person who shall collect the 
greatest quantity of honey and wax 
from stocks of bees of his own property, 
within the year 1767, without destroy- 
ing the bees, and shall leave a suffi- 
cient quantity of honey for their winter 
sustenance . . . . . 10 o o Oct. 15th 

For the next quantity . . .700,, 15th 

Bee hives 

To the person who shall make the 
best and greatest number of bee hives, 
not less than 80 . . . .300,, 15th 

For the second number, not less 
than 40 . . . . .200,, 15th 

The premiums for bee hives are 
promised for each of the provinces 
respectively. 

Discharged Soldiers 

The sum of ^200 will be given in 
premiums of ^5 to every discharged 
soldier or sailor not already encour- 
aged, who hath served His Majesty 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 411 

out of Great Britain or Ireland, and £ s . d. To be adjudged 
who between the 1st of November 
1766, and the 1st of November 1767, 
shall take a lease of lives, of not less 
than five, or more than twenty acres, 
in the province of Leinster, Munster, 
or Connaught, producing his discharge, 
together with a certificate of his parish 
minister, or two neighbouring Justices 
of the Peace, of his having been in 
possession of his said farm one year, 
and also of his industry and the prob- 
ability of his continuing on his said 
farm; provided the number of such 
soldiers or sailors shall not exceed 
forty, and if it should, then the sum 
of ,£200 shall be divided according 
to the number of such soldiers or 
sailors 200 o o Nov. 19th 

Breeding Mares 

To the person or persons who shall 
first import into this kingdom, before 
the 1st day of February 1767, strong 
able mares, from 4 to 6 years old, and 
from 14I to 15 hands high, fit for the 
plough and other country work, and 
in foal, a premium of five pounds will 
be given for every such mare, the 
number not exceeding twenty . . 100 o o Feb. 12 th 

MANUFACTURES 

Iron made with Coak 

For making the greatest quantity 
(not less than two tons) of tough bar 
iron, with coak only or Irish coal 
charred, the iron being equal in good- 1767 

ness to that made with wood charcoal 50 o o Oct. 22nd 

A sample of at least 1 cwt. must be 
produced to the Society, and satisfac- 
tory proof will be required of the 
quantity manufactured. 



4 i2 A HISTORY OF 

STEEL REEDS £ s . d. To be adjudged 

In making silk weavers' steel reeds, 
as good and perfectly made as any 
imported, a premium of twenty shillings 
will be given for every such reed, pro- 
vided the number shall not exceed 60, 
and if it should, then the sum of .£60 
will be divided proportionably to the 
number of reeds made by each 
claimant 60 o o Oct. 8th 

The sum of £40 will be given in 
like manner for silk weavers' steel 
reeds which shall be made as above, 
between the 1st of October 1767, and 
the 1 st of October 1768 . . . 40 o o ,, 6th 

No person shall be entitled to any 
premium for making steel reeds, who 
shall not engage to the Society to take 
an apprentice, and also that he will 
continue to carry on in this kingdom 
the making of steel reeds for silk 
weavers for seven years. 

And for ascertaining the number 
and goodness of steel reeds, for which 
the above premiums will be given, the 
Corporation of Weavers of the city of 
Dublin, or such committee as they 
shall appoint, shall examine the same, 
and certify to the Society the number 
of them, and that they are of equal 
goodness with those imported. 

Steel wool combs 

For making three pitched steel wool- 
combs of equal goodness with those 
imported,a premium of twenty shillings 
will be given for each pair, provided 
the number of pairs shall not exceed 
30, and if it should, then the sum of 
^30 will be divided in proportion to 
the number of pairs made by each 
claimant 30 o o „ 8th 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 413 



Stockings 

For manufacturing knitted ribbed 
stockings, such as are now imported, 
and sold from 4s. 6d. to 6.9. per pair, 
to weigh 5 lbs. per dozen, to measure 
24 inches from the heel to the top of 
the leg, and 10 inches from the toe to 
the heel, and to be made of soft 
worsted of 3 threads, spun on the 
small wheel, one shilling will be given 
as a premium for every pair of such 
stockings, provided the number of 
pairs shall not exceed 300, and if it 
should, then the sum of ^15 will be 
divided proportionably to the number 
of pairs so manufactured by each 
claimant ...... 



d. To be adjudged 



15 o o March 19 



Silken gloves 

For manufacturing the greatest 
number of pairs (not less than 100 
pairs) of silken gloves or mitts . . 10 o 

For the next number of pairs, not 
less than 50 5 o 



11 26 
,, 26 



Bone lace 

For the encouragement of the manu- 
facture of bone lace by children in the 
work-house of the city of Dublin, 30 
guineas will be given to the most 
deserving, in such proportions and in 
such manner as the Rt. Honble Lady 
Arabella Denny shall judge will most 
conduce to the improvement of that 
manufacture in the said work-house . 

To any manufacturers of bone lace, 
except of the city work-house, a sum 
not exceeding 30 guineas will be given, 
as the Society shall judge the claim- 
ant's merit, and in proportion to the 
value of bone lace which each shall 
have manufactured .... 



34 2 6 April 30 



34 



30 



4H A HISTORY OF 

THREAD LACE KNIT WITH NEEDLES £ s . d. To be adjudged 

For manufacturing thread lace, to 
be knit with needles, the sum of 15 
guineas will be given in proportion to 
the respective merit of the claimants, 
no less than 4 yards of such lace in 
length, and 2 J inches in breadth, shall 
entitle any person to a premium : re- 
gard will be had to the fineness and 
clearness of the work, and the beauty 
of the pattern 1 7 1 3 April 30 

Felt hats 

For manufacturing the best Felt 
hats of lambs' wool only, new claim- 
ants to produce at least 200, and old 1768 
claimants to produce 400 . . . 15 o o Jan. 21 

Pearl barley 

To the person not already en- 
couraged, who shall make the greatest 
quantity (not less than 5 cwt.) of 1767 

French or Pearl barley . . . 10 o o Feb. 19 

Employing children 

To the person not already en- 
couraged by this or any other Society, 
who from the 1st day of December 
1 766 to the 1st day of December 1767, 
shall employ in any manufacture, the 
greatest number of children, (not less 
than 40, and not exceeding the age of 
13 years) upon the affidavit of the 
person employing them, setting forth 
their number and the work they shall 
have done, together with a certificate 
to the same purpose, of two neighbour- 
ing Justices of the Peace, and the 
minister or curate of the parish, if in 
the country ; and in towns, of the 
clergyman and principal residing 
magistrate . . . . . 12 o o Dec. 10 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 415 



For employing the next greatest 
number, not less than 30 . 



s. d. To be adjudged 

o o Dec. 10 



Smalt 

To the person who shall produce 
the greatest quantity (not less than 
1 cwt.) of Smalt, made in Ireland, and 
of Irish materials, equal in goodness 
to any imported, and giving security to 
continue the work . . . . 50 o 

Salt petre 

To the person who shall produce 
the greatest quantity (not less than 
10 lbs.) of salt petre, made and pre- 
pared in this kingdom . . .100 

For the second quantity, not less 
than 5 lbs. 50 



i? 



» *7 
» 17 



FINE ARTS AND MECHANICS 



Painting 

For the best original landscape 
painted in oil colours, on a canvas of 
4 feet 2 inches in length, by 3 feet 
4 inches in height .... 

For the best original full length 
portrait painted as large as the life 

Pattern drawing 

For the best invention in pattern 
drawing, either in foliage or flowers, by 
boys or girls under the age of 18 years, 
each claimant to produce six full 
patterns proper for paper hangings, 
carpets, damasks, or some other 
article in one of the several manu- 
factures 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 



11 76 
11 7 6 



1767 
May 7 

» 7 



4 








5 5 


14 


3 








5? 


14 


2 








55 


14 


1 








55 


14 



£ 


5. 


d. T 


o be adjudged 


6 


O 


o 


May 21 


4 


o 


o 


„ 21 


3 


o 


o 


„ 21 


2 





o 


„ 21 


4 





o 


„ 21 


3 


o 


o 


„ 2 1 


2 


o 


o 


„ 21 


I 


o 


o 


„ 21 



416 A HISTORY OF 

Figure drawing 

For the best drawings of human 
figures and heads by boys under the 
age of 18 years, each claimant to pro- 
duce 2 full figures and 2 heads . 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

For the best drawings of human 
figures or heads by girls under the age 
of 18 years, each claimant to produce 
two full figures and two heads . 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

All boys or girls who have received 
the first premium for drawing are ex- 
cluded from any for the future 

Architect drawing 

For the best drawing of the plans, 
elevations and section of an house in 
the Corinthian Order, and not less 
than 120 feet in front, by boys under 
the age of 18 years .... 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 

For the best drawing of an arched 
door in the Doric Order, and also of 
a window in the Corinthian Order, 
with whole and half pilasters fluted . 

For the next best .... 

For the next best .... 



Models 

For the best model in wood of an 
house of no less than 50 feet in front 
with first and second stories, to be 
made by a scale of not more than 
five-eights of an inch to a foot . . n 7 6 ,,28 

For the second best . . .5139 » 28 



6 


16 


6 


>> 


28 


4 


11 





55 


28 


3 


8 


3 


55 


28 


2 


5 


6 


55 


28 


1 


14 


ii 


55 


28 


1 


2 


9 


55 


28 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 417 

MEDAL £ s. d. To be adjudged 

For a Copper Medal of the size of 
an English Crown piece, which shall 
be best executed in point of workman- 
ship and boldness of relief, the subject 
to be King William passing the Boyne ; 
the medal and dye to become the pro- 
perty of the Society . . . . 22 15 o May 21 

Print 

For the best engraved print or 
Metzontinto from an original design . 5 13 9 » 21 

Machine for draining land 

For a plough or machine of the 
simplest construction, which shall with 
the least force, cut a new drain of at 
least one foot in depth perpendicular, 
one foot eight inches wide at the top, 
and ten inches wide at the bottom, 
both sides of the drain to be equally 
sloping, and the earth to be equally 
thrown out on both sides . . . 28 8 9 Oct. 22 

Certificates of the machine having 
performed the work in the manner 
aforesaid, must be delivered in, to- 
gether with a model of the machine, 
which model is to become the property 
of the Society. 

Wheel carriage 

For the best wheel carriage, for the 
use of the farmer or manufacturer, 
which shall be adjudged by a com- 
mittee to be appointed by the Society, 
as most effectually constructed, and 
on the simplest principles, for removing 
the greatest weight with the smallest 
power and in the shortest time, from 
any one given point to another on a 
hilly road n 7 6 Feb. 26 

A model to be produced and to be- 

2 d 



4 i 8 A HISTORY OF 

come the property of the Society, if £ s. d. To be adjudged 
the contrivance shall have sufficient 
merit to obtain the premium. 



FISHERIES 

TURBOT 

For curing Turbots on any of the 
coasts of this kingdom, so as there 
shall be sold in the year 1767, 2000 
at the least of well-cured merchantable 1 768 

Turbot . . . . . . 50 o o Mar. 10 

For the next quantity, not less than 
1000 . . . . . 30 o o „ 10 

Whiteings 

For curing Whiteings on any of the 
coasts of this kingdom, after the man- 
ner practised at Tinmouth in Devon- 
shire, ,£20 per cent, will be given on 
the value of Whiteings so cured and 
sold, provided the same shall not ex- 
ceed ^500, and if it should, then the 
sum of ^100 will be divided in pro- 
portion to the value of Whiteings so 
cured and sold by each claimant . 100 o o ,, 10 

The method of curing Whiteings at 
Tinmouth is by slitting open and 
washing them with sea water, then 
drying them in the sun, and now and 
then sprinkling them with sea water 
whilst they are drying. 

Herring Fishery 

To the owner of any Fishing Boat or 
Wherry, not less than 2 6 feet in the keel, 
who shall in the year 1767, between 
the 1st day of May and the 1st day of 
August, on the east coast of this king- 
dom, between the Lough of Carling- 
ford and the Hill of Howth, with such 
boat in any one night, first take any 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 419 

quantity of herrings, not less than three £ s . d. To be adjudged 
mease, which shall be sold fresh and 1767 

sound in Dublin market . . .1176 Oct. 29th 

To the owner of any Fishing Boat 
or Wherry, not less than 26 feet in the 
keel, who shall in the year 1767, be- 
tween the 1 st day of May and the 1st 
day of August, on the east coast of 
this kingdom, between the Hill of 
Howth and the Head of Wicklow, 
with such boat in any one night, first 
take any quantity of herrings, not less 
than 3 mease, which shall be sold fresh 
and sound in Dublin market . . n 7 6 ,, 29th 

To the owner of any Fishing Boat or 
Wherry to be built hereafter, not less 
than 26 feet in the keel, who shall in 
the year 1767, between the 1st day of 
May and the 1st day of August, on 
the east coast of this kingdom, be- 
tween the Lough of Carlingford and 
the Hill of Howth, with such boat in 
any one night, first take any quantity 
of herrings, not less than three mease, 
which shall be sold fresh and sound 
in Dublin market . . . . n 7 6 ,, 29th 

To the owner of any Fishing Boat 
or Wherry to be built hereafter, not 
less than 26 feet in the keel, who shall 
in the year 1767, between the 1st day 
of May and the 1st day of August, on 
the east coast of this kingdom, be- 
tween the Hill of Howth and the 
Head of Wicklow, with such boat, in 
any one night, first take any quantity 
of herrings, not less than three mease 
to be sold fresh and sound in Dublin 
market . . . . . . 11 7 6 ,, 29th 



DISCOVERIES 
Black Lead 

To the person who shall discover a 



4 2o A HISTORY OF 

£ s. d. To be adjudged 

mine of blacklead, and produce a 1766 

sample of at least 10 lbs. . . . 40 o o Dec. 4th 

Fire clay 

To the person who shall discover 
within 20 miles of a seaport or navig- 
able river, a fire clay such as the 
Stourbridge clay, and fit for the use 
of glass houses, producing a sample 
of a ton weight, and giving security to 
supply glass houses and all other 
works with a sufficient quantity . . 50 o o ,, nth 

Fuller's Earth 

To the person who shall produce 
the best Fuller's earth (not less than 
5 cwt.) discovered in this kingdom . 10 o o ,, 18th 

All matters for which the Society 
offer premiums must be begun after 
the publication of such premiums, un- 
less there be a particular exception in 
the publication. 

The Society reserve to themselves a 
power of giving in all cases such part 
only of any premium as the perform- 
mance shall be adjudged to deserve, 
or in case of want of merit, no part. 

A candidate for a premium or a 
person applying for a bounty, being 
detected in any disingenuous methods 
to impose upon the Society, shall for- 
feit all such premium or bounty, and 
be incapable of obtaining any for the 
future. 

The Society being desirous of avoid- 
ing as much as possible the multipli- 
cation of oaths in the disposal of their 
premiums, request that the nobility, 
magistrates, gentry and clergy in their 
several districts will give their atten- 
tion, when applied to for certificates 
of the merit of any candidate for a 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 421 

premium, to examine the pretensions 
of such person, that the Society may 
not be under the necessity of tender- 
ing an affidavit to him, which they ap- 
prehend has sometimes occasioned 
the misapplication of their fund, and 
the guilt of perjury. 

All claimants of premiums are re- 
quested to send in their claims at 
latest on the day before such premiums 
are to be adjudged, directed to the 
Rev. Mr. Peter Chaigneau, at the 
Society's House, in Shaw's Court, 
Dame Street. 

By order of the Society. 



422 



A HISTORY OF 



APPENDIX III 



LIST OF WORKS OF ART IN LEINSTER HOUSE 
Portraits in Oils 



Thomas Braughall 

Right Hon. John Foster (Lord 

Oriel), last Speaker of the Irish 

House of Commons 
Richard Kirwan, f.r.s. 
Sir Charles Giesecke 
General Vallancey 
Thomas Pleasants 
Isaac Weld . 
Jasper R. Joly, ll.d. 
Mervyn, Viscount Powerscourt 
George Johnstone Stoney, f.r.s 
Charles Uniacke Townshend 



John Comerford. 

Sir William Beechey. 

Hugh D. Hamilton, 
Sir Henry Raeburn. 
Solomon Williams. 
Solomon Williams. 
Martin Cregan, p.r.h.a. 
S. Catterson Smith, r.h.a. 
Sarah Purser. 
Sir T. A. Jones ; p.r.h.a. 
William Orpen, r.h.a. 



John Lord Bowes lord chancellor! Ahxander p 

{coloured crayons) ... J 
George Daunt, surgeon {coloured^ Akxander Pop ^ 

crayons) . . . • J 



Beggar Woman and Child 

Two Landscapes 

A Seaport 

Two Landscapes 

Two Landscapes 

Fruit Piece . 



George Gratton. 

William Ashford, p.r.h.a. 

Van Bredall. 

George Barret, r.a. 

Unknown. 
f Michelangelo Pace (called Di 
\ Campid glio). 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



423 



Wolf caught in a Trap 

Landscape . 

Cymbeline . 

Lady Lyster . 

St. Paul Preaching 

St. Paul released from Prison 

Departure of King George iv 

Kingstown 
Polyphemus . 
Narcissus 

Two Battle Scenes 

Dead Game . 

Dead Game {three pictures) 

Boors {two pictures) 

Magdalene in the Wilderness 

Holy Family 

Holy Family 

Peg Woffington {unsigned) 



. M. F. Quadal. 

f Jan Frans Van Bloemen 
" ( (called Orizonte). 
. James Barry ; r. a. 
. James Northcote, r.a. 

Nicholas Pons sin. 
■ J. G. Cuyp. 

\ T. C Thompson, r.h.a. 

Poussin. 

Francois Boucher. 
' f Jacques Court ois {le Bour- 
•\ guinon). 

William Goiu Ferguson. 

Unknown. 
. Egbert Van Heemskerk. 
. P. Francesco Mo la. 
. He?idrik Van Balen. 

Unknown. 
. John Lewis. 



(Copy or replica of a portrait of 1753, now in England. It differs 
from the original in colour of hat and mantle This portrait has been 
ascribed to Reynolds and Latham. See Strickland's Dictionary of Irish 
Artists. ) 



Miss O'Brien .... 

Portrait of a Lady, time of James 1 
Portrait of a Gentleman, time of) 

James 1 {two pictures) . .J 

Portrait of a Lady 
Portrait of Mr. Bowdon 
A Lady reading {portrait of Miss\ 

Vigne, the artist 3 s sister-in-latv) .) 

St. Mark 

Jacob's Dream .... 
Two Battle Pieces 



Adoration of the Shepherds . 



Unknown. 
Unknown. 

Unknown. 

Sir Peter Lely. 
William Cuming, r.h.a. 

George Chinnery. 

Salomon Koninck. 
Jakob Jordaens. 
Jan Van Hughtenburgh. 

Erasmus Quellin or Quel- 
linus. 



Science and Agriculture (Ceres and] 

Triptolemus) monochro?ne (see p. ~ Peter de Gree. 

92) J 

A painted table top {design for ceil-\ 

ing of St. Patrick's Hall, Dublin \ Vincent Waldre. 

Castle.) I 



4 2 4 



A HISTORY OF 



Two engravings (by Vivares) of the Giant's Causeway from 

drawings by Susanna Drury, for which she was awarded ^25 

prize in 1740 (see p. 57). 
Twelve Engravings of Irish scenery ^ 

(six of Killarney and six of Car- j- 

lingford Lough) 



Jonathan Fisher, 1772. 



King George the Fourth (marble) William Behnes (completed 
statue). . . . . ./ by C. Panormo). 

King George the Fourth (marble j n 
statue) J 

Erected by the Linen Merchants of Ireland to commemorate His 
Majesty's visit to the Linen Hall, Dublin, 23 August, 182 1. Afterwards 
presented to the Society. 



Busts in Marble 



Thomas Prior .... 
Samuel Madden, d.d. . 
William Maple .... 
Philip, Earl of Chesterfield . 
Professor Gregory Von Feinagle . 
Henry, Marquis of Anglesey, lord\ 

lieutenant ./ 

Thomas Philip, Earl de Grey, lord\ 

lieutenant . . . . ./ 
Alexander Nimmo, c.e. 
Sir Richard Griffith, Bart. 
Sir F. Leopold McClintock, admiral 
Right Hon. Francis Blackburne,^ 

lord chancellor . . . ./ 



John Van Nost. 
John Va?t Nost. 

Patrick Cunningham. 
Jolui Van Nost. 

Thomas Kirk. 

R. W. Sievier. 

Terence Far r ell, r.h.a. 

John Ed. Jones. 

Sir Thomas Farrell, p. r.h.a, 

Joseph R. Kirk, r.h.a. 

Shakspere Wood. 



Discobolus (marble) . . . M. Kessels (Rome, 1820). 

(Bequeathed by Mrs. Anne Putland, 1856) 

Bust — Flora (marble) . . . Attributed to J. Gallagher. 
Bust — Mercury (marble) 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 425 

Cave Scene. Drunken Banditti,! T/wmas ^ 

(bas relief in marble) . . .) 

Venus and Cupid (bas relief in) Thomas Kirk . 

marble) . . . . .J 

Amazon (bronze) .... After Kiss. 
Girl playing at Tali (bronze after the antique at Berlin). 

Figure of Hibernia . . . Edward Smyth. 



Busts in Plaster 



Daniel O'Connell 

William, Duke of Cumberland 

Frederick, Duke of York 

Edmund Burke 

Henry Grattan 

Dean Swift (two busts) 

Lord Byron (two busts) 

Sir Walter Scott 

Humphrey Lloyd, d.d. 

Arch. Hamilton Rowan 

Cardinal Manning 

John Hanning Speke 

Earl of Clarendon, lord lieutenant 

George Tierney 

Oliver Goldsmith 

Lord Plunket, lord chancellor 

George Canning 

Hon. Robert Boyle 

Archbishop Ussher 

Earl of Eglinton, lord lieutenant 

John Philpot Curran 

George, Prince of Wales 

Duke of Wellington 

Sir Edward Stanley 

Bust (unknown) . 

Edmund Burke (statuette) 

Oliver Goldsmith (statuette) 

Two Statuettes (unknown) 



C. Panormo. 
M'Donald. 



William Be/ines. 
Chr. Moore. 



C. Panormo. 

Joh?i H. Foley. 
John H. Foley. 



CORRIGENDA 

Page 245, line 9, for ' Le Touche' read 1 La Touche.' 

,, 248, line 10, and page 344, line 5 from end, for ' 1830' read 

'1831.' 
„ 363, line i, for ' M. H. Harvey ' read ' W. H. Harvey.' 



INDEX 



Abercorn, James, ist Duke of, 291, 380 

Abercorn, James, 2nd Duke of, 382 

Academy, Royal Irish, house in Grafton 
Street (1767), 91 

Acetylene gas, Professor Davy's dis- 
covery, 360 

Acorns : premiums for sowing and 
securing, 68, 408 

Acton, Thomas, 92 

Adair, Henry, 176, 177, 267 

Adair, Samuel F., 292 

Adams, A. Leith, on the fossiliferous 
caves of Malta, 366 

Adare, Lord, 274 

Addison [Joseph], 188, 189 ; connec- 
tion with Ireland, 188 

"Addison's Walk," Botanic Garden, 
188 

Adeney, Dr., 370 

Admission of members, mode of, 216, 
246, 247, 249, 260-1 ; House of 
Commons Select Committee on, 260 

Admission to membership : fee, io, 83, 
214, 216, 249, 261, 273. 

See also under Subscriptions 

Aeronautics, 235 and n. ; a paper on, 
363 

Agricultural Association of Ireland, 
formation of proposed, 253 

Agricultural chemistry : Dr Kirwan's 
paper on the applicability of manures 
to soils, 359 

Agricultural chemistry, lectures in, at 
the cattle show, 345 

Agricultural evening meetings, 361 

Agricultural Hall (Ballsbridge), 311-12, 

3*7. 347. 349 
Agricultural implements, premiums for, 

57, 58 
Agricultural Improvement Society, 297. 

And see Royal Agricultural Society 

of Ireland 
Agricultural labourer (Irish), paper on 

condition of, 366 
Agricultural Museum, 277, 340, 349 ; 

earliest instance of formation of and 

exhibition (1733), 22 



Agricultural Organisation Society, 333 

Agricultural School at Taghmon, the, 
223 

Agricultural Shows, 295, 311, 344 et 
seq. ; Government suggestion for re- 
moval of, to Phoenix Park, 311 

Agricultural Society of Ireland. See 
Royal 

Agricultural Society of Scotland, 298, 
347 

Agricultural Society of the Hundred of 
Salford, 137 

Agriculture: the chief original object 
of the Society, 234 ; Society's work 
for, 92, x^6etseq., 141,240,247-8,253, 
2 77, 344 ; encouragement to, ceases 
on formation of the Farming Society, 
223; revived interest of members in, 
234 253 ; inquiry into condition of, 
in Ireland, 234, 235, 244; Society 
receives legacy for the encouragement 
of, 149 ; premiums offered for essays 
and schemes in, 252-3. And see 
Baker, John Wynn 

Agriculture, prize for the best work on 
(in 1759), 84 

Agriculture and husbandry in Ireland 
in the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, 136, 138 ; implements of, in 
the middle of the eighteenth century, 
138 

Agriculture and Technical Instruction 
(Ireland) Act (1902), 299, 317 

Agriculture and Technical Instruction 
Department, 337 

Agriculture, English Board of, 93, 
221 

Agriculture, Flemish mode of, recom- 
mended, 244 

Agriculture, Irish Department of, 
316-17, 372 

See also under Committee of Agri- 
culture 

Albert Institution, Glasnevin, 340 

Alcoholic liquids, estimation of strength 
of, Dr. Kirwan's paper on, 359 

Aldborough, Earl of, 78, 149 



427 



428 



A HISTORY OF 



Aldridge, Dr. John, on the compara- 
tive nutritive and pecuniary values of 
cooked food, 361 

Aldworth, Richard, 220 

Ale brewing, premiums for, 62, 64 

Algae, Irish, paper on, 361 

Allan, Air. (banker), 165 

Allen, Joseph, 155 

Allen, Viscountess, mortgagee of Sir R. 
Levinge's bequest to the Society, 82 

Allen, William (of Coleraine), premium 
for tanned hides, 72 

Allman, Professor, cited, 362 

Alment, Mary (Taylor prize), 135 

American Philosophical Society in cor- 
respondence with Dublin Society, 227 

Andrews, Mr., 204 

Andrews, William, papers contributed 
to Scientific Reports by, 362, 366, 
367. 368 

Anglesey, Henry W., Marquis of, 130, 
380 ; bust of, by Sievier, 248 

Anketell, Oliver, premiums for plant- 
ing trees, 60, 65 

Anne's Coffee House, occasional meet- 
ings of the Society in, 21 

Annuloida, paper on, 366 

Anster, Dr. John, 178 and «. 2 , 231 

Antiquarian Committee formed (1772), 
146-7 

Antisell's, [T.], "Analysis of the im- 
portant soils of Ireland," 361 

Antrim County, farming society in, 
222 

Antrim County, marble quarries in, 155 

Arabin, Henry, 104, 177 

Arbuckle, James, 38 ; poem by, 
addressed to the Dublin Society, 38 
et seq. ; edits Letters of " Hiber- 
nicus " (1725), 38 

Archdall, Captain, 291 

Archdall's Monasticon, 172 

Archdeacon, Thomas, 235 

Archer, Graves Chamney, 122 

Archer, Lieut. Joseph, Account of 
Dublin (Statistical Surveys), 184 

Archer, William, librarian (afterwards 
of the National Library), 179 

Architect drawing : premiums for, 416 

Architectural drawing : school for, 
116, 122, 123, 127, 130, 132; pur- 
chases of books for, 114, 117 ; 
awards to pupils in, 115 ; number of 
pupils attending, 127 

" Arctic ice- travel in search of Sir John 
Franklin," 365 

Arctic regions, catalogue of minerals 
collected in the, 366 

Arctic. See Fossils 



Ardilaun, Lord, President of the Society, 
v, 287, 321, 380, 382 ; mace presented 
by, 288. See also under Guinness 
Argyle, Duke of, 224 
Armagh, Dean of, 145 n. 1 
" Arms " of the Dublin Society, 220, 224 
Arran, Lord, 199, 380 
Arsenic, method of detecting, paper 

on, 365 
Art Exhibition, 317 
Art of Dyeing Wool and Woollen Stuffs , 

199 
Art Industries Exhibition, 317, 320-1 
Art Industries Hall, 320 
Art pupils sent to study on the Con- 
tinent, 112 
Art scholarships. See Taylor 
Artisan class in a large city, character- 
istics of, 206 
Artists, Exhibition of Irish, 118, 125 
Artists, sculptors, &c. : list of noted, 
who received instruction in the 
schools (to 1836), 130 
Artists, Society of Irish, 96, 118, 124, 

125 
Arts, Committee of, 16 
Asbestos, specimens of, presented, 221 
Ashe, Dr. St. George, 3 
Ashford, William, 118 and n. 1 , 122; 
his collection of statues, &c. pur- 
chased by the Society, 117 
Asses. See Spanish Asses 
Assistant Secretaries of the Royal 

Dublin Society, list of the, 384 
Associate Annual Subscribers, 216, 

261 
Associates, admission of ladies as, 311 
Atkinson, Alexander, premiums for 
instruments for spinning, &c. fus- 
tians, 57 
Atkinson, Anthony, premium for hops, 

58 
Atkinson, Dr., 147 

Attendance at meetings, 150-1, 218, 246 
Austria : Archdukes John and Lewis 

of: honorary members, 230 
Autumn cattle show, 344, 346 

Babington, John, medal for drawing, 

US 

Bacon, Thomas, 61 

Baggot, John, premium for draining 
bog, 61 

Bagot, Rev. Canon, 331 

Bagot, Charles E., 134 

Baily, [W. H.], paper contributed to 
the Journal, 367 

Baker, Henry Aaron, master Architec- 
tural School, 105, 117, 118, 127, 130 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 429 



Baker, John Wynn, his work for the 
Society, 137, 140; works on agri- 
culture by, 137, 139 ; plan of, for 
educating youths in husbandry, 137- 
138 ; salary and grants to, 138, 139 ; 
death, 139 ; will, 139 ; Arthur Young's 
remarks on, 140 

Baker, Mrs., premium for lace, 62 

Baker, Robert, premium for lace, 58 

Baker, Sarah, 139 

Bakewell, Robert, 163 

Balbriggan, cotton manufacture at, 153 

Balfour, Right Hon. A. J., 303, 315, 

335 
Bill, F. Elrington, Correspondence of 

Swift, cited, 30-1, 188, 189, 245 ; 

History of County Dublin, cited, 45 

n., 86, 145 n. 1, quoted, 85 
Ballinasloe cattle show, 344 
Ballsbridge, 302, 311 et seq., 317, 318, 

350 n. ; south hall, 312, 347 
Ballsbridge cattle shows, 311, 312, 348, 

349 , . 1 

Ballycastle collieries, 22 and n. 1 

Ballyweel Harbour, grant for erecting 
quay to land fish, 71 

Bangor, 1st Viscount, 7 

Banim, John, 96 

Banking, papers on, read at the Even- 
ing Scientific Meetings, 361 

Barbadoes Natural History Society, in 
correspondence with R.D.S., 217 

Barber, Rupert, premium for green 
glassware, 65-6, 66 n. 2 

Barber, Mrs. (Swift's friend), 66 n. 2 

Barbor, Dr. Constantine, 85 

Barclay, Mr., his invention of a screw 
pump, 43 

Barintrinsky, Prince : honorary mem- 
ber, 230 

Barker, Dr. William , professor of Natu- 
ral Philosophy, 278, 362 ; contribu- 
tions to the Evening Scientific Meet- 
ings, 362 

Barley, premiums for sowing, 58 

Barley Committee, the, 349 ; prizes 
offered by, 349 

Barometer, registering (Yeates), 363 

Barret, George, artist, 130, 132 

Barrett, John, & Co., premium for de- 
stroying seals on north-west coast, 
7i 

Barrington, Rev. Benjamin (Dean of 
Armagh), 145 and n. 1 , 199 

Barry, James, artist, 120-1 ; Society 
subscribe to fund for his benefit, 120 ; 
his "Cymbeline" in possession of 
the Society, 121 

Barry, Dr. J. M., 367 



Barrymore, Lord, 12 

Baruchson's, [A.], paper on the manu- 
facture of beet sugar in Ireland, 367 

Bassani family, 121 n 2 

Beamish, G., 335 

Beans, Michael, premium for twilled 
stockings, 57 

Beans, premiums awarded for plant- 
ing, 73 

Beatty, Dr. John, Hon. Sec, 249, 383 

Beatty, Dr. W., 267 

Beauclerk, Mr., books of, purchased, 

i73 
Beaufort, Rev. Dr. D. A., 219, 220, 

228 
Beaune & Co., of Brussels, offer to 

establish cloth manufacture, 73 
Bee hives, premiums for, 393, 410 
Bees, Instructions for Managing Bees, 

21 and n. 1 
Bees, premiums awarded for honey and 

wax, 391, 409 
Bees, preservation of, 220, 392, 410 
Bees, weighing of, 392 
Bees' winter food, premium for inven- 
tion of, offered, 393 
Beet sugar manufacture in Ireland, 362, 

367 
Behnes, William, sculptor (a student 

at modelling school), 127 and n., 

128, 129, 242 
Belfast, glass manufacture in, 74 
Bell and La Touche, factors in Jamaica, 

69 
Bell casting in Dublin, 69 
Belmore, Lord, 220 
Benson, Sir John, 282 
Beranger, Gabriel, 117; translates 

foreign works, 174 ; Memoir of, by 

Sir William Wilde, 174 
Beresford, Rt. Hon. John Claudius, 

Lord Mayor, 104, 106 
Berkeley, George (Bishop of Cloyne), 4, 

9, 31, 32, 81 ; his Querist, 32 
Bermingham, Mr. (of Roscommon), 88 
Berthelot, cited, 360 
Bertrand, Mr., 113 
Berwick, Mr., 176 
Betham, Sir William, 230, 232, 270, 

280, 283, 382 
Bianconi, Charles, 278, 279 
Bibliotheca Botanica (A. Von Haller), 

purchased for the Library, 173 
Billies, for worsted weaving, premiums 

for, 208 
Bindon, Francis, portrait painter, &c. , 

27, 66, 78, no 
Birch, Major, presents Roman remains, 

swords, &c. , 159 



43° 



A HISTORY OF 



Blackburne, Rt. Hon. Francis, 285, 

382 
Blacker, James, 94 
Blacker, W. , prize essay, 253 
Black lead, premium offered for dis- 
covery of, 419 
Blake, Captain Francis, seeks aid in 

making kelp from seaweed, &c. , 72 
Blakeney, Wm., Lord, statue of, 50 
Blankets, premium awarded for, 68 
Blaquiere, John (Baron De Blaquiere), 

151-2 
Bleaching, 359 ; sulphuret of lime as a 

substitute for potash in, 359 
Blind, books for the, 269 
Blood, Edmond, bell founder, memo- 
rialises the Society, 69 
Bloomfield, Sir Benjamin, 230, 231 
Blow, Daniel, premium for erecting 

paper mill, 65 
Blue Coat Hospital, in ; boys to be 
instructed in the drawing schools, 118 
Bliimenbach, 163 
Board of National Education, 341 
Board of National Education Com- 
missioners, 343 
Board of Trade, Society's annual 

report to (1856), quoted, 364 
Boardman, John, 176, 229 
Bog butter, scientific examination of, 

358 
Bog draining and reclamation, 12, 20, 
61, 65, 68, 145 and n. 2 , 169, 241, 386, 
397 
Bog slide in Kerry, 370 
Boggs, Gardiner, premiums for her- 
rings, 70 
Bogs, Irish, Commission on, 169; MS. 

reports on, made for R.D.S., 180 
Bolton, Edward, premium for hops, 58 
Bolton, Theophilus (Archbishop of 

Cashel), io, 20 
Bone lace, 58, 61, 141, 413 
Bosquet, David, manufactures sheet 

lead and copper, 73 

Boswell, J. Knight, 362 

Botanic Garden, premises in Mecklen- 

burgh St. taken for a (1739), 88, 186 ; 

premises at Summer Hill, 186 

Botanic Garden, Glasnevin, the, 186 

et seq. ; establishment of, 186-7, 

263, 35 S ; part of boundary wall 

blown down, 271 ; professor and 

lecturer appointed, 159-60, 355 ; 

recommendations of the professor, 

1830 . . . 194-5 '< expense of, 

190 ; experiment with apprentices, 

192-3 ; fully described, 1818 . . . 

194; number of visitors to (1835-6), 



195 ; in 1861 . . . 197 ; friction 
between the Government and the 
Society as to Sunday opening of, 
197 ; extent of, in 1861 . . . 
197; Society's connection with, 
ceases, 197 ; progress since, 197 
Catalogues (class), 191 
Conservatories, 196 
Fete, 287 
Gardens, different classes of, 194; 

Hortus Hiberniczts , 194 
Herbarium, 197 
Hothouses, 191, 192, 193, 196 
Meteorological observations, 359, 

369 
Museum, 197 
Norfolk Island pine, 193 
Orchid house, 197 
Palm house, 193, 196 
Staff, work of the, 357 
Victoria House, 197 
Botanical papers in the Society's 

Transactions, 359 
Botany lectures at cattle show, 345 
Botany premiums, 160 ; for discovery 

of new Irish plants, 227 
Boulter, Hugh, Primate, 10, 13, 28, 

30. 380 
Boyd, H. , 20 

Boyle, Henry, Earl of Shannon, 27 
Boyle, John, 5th Earl of Orrery, 29, 

30 
Boyle Medal, the (scientific), 373 et 

seq. 
Boyle, the Hon. Robert, 373; the 
scientific work of, 374-5 ; the Boyle 
Lectures, 375 ; mentioned, 1,7 
Boyse, Mr., establishes a school of 

agriculture at Taghmon, 223 
Boyton, Mr., premium for hats, 63 
Bradshaw, John, edition of Chester- 
field's Letters, quoted, 47, 48, 75, 76 
Brady, Cheyne, paper on the improve- 
ment of labouring class dwellings, 
364 
Brady, Nicholas William, gold thread 
manufacturer, memorialises the 
Society, 69 
Brady, Sir Maziere (Bart.), 69 n. 1 , 284 
Braughall, Thomas, Hon. Sec, 115, 

255, 256, 383 
Bread : How to make, without barm : 

a letter, 50 
Breaking-up ground, premiums for, 58, 

59 

Breeding stock entries at Ballsbridge 
cattle shows, 348 

Brenan, Edward, paper on fossil re- 
mains in co. Waterford, 366 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



43 1 



Brereton, Win., brewer, premium for 
using Irish hops, 61 

Brett, Richard, 202 

Brewery, in Ulster, premium awarded 
for a, 72 

Brewing, articles on, 37; premiums 
for, 61, 62, 64 

Bride, Patrick, 187 

Brien, John, collector, &c. , 93 

Brinkley, Bishop, statue of, 128 

Brinkley, Dr., 221 

Brisbane, Sir Thomas, 254 

British Association, meetings in Dublin, 
254, 286 

British Dairy Farmers' Association, 331 

British Museum Library, 181 

Broad cloth, premiums for, 63-4 

Brocas, Henry, Master of the Orna- 
ment School, 118, 132 

Brocas, Theophilus, Dean of Killala, 
199 and n., 381 

Brooke, Henry, 28 ; the Interest of Ire- 
land by, 84 

Brooke, Robert, premiums for cotton, 
velvets, &c, 72, 153 

Brophy, Peter, 229 

Browne, William, 126. See Mossop 

Browne, William, premium for cottons, 
&c, 72 

Bryan, Robert B., Hon. Sec, 177, 272, 

383 
Buchan, Patrick, paper on the iron 

ores of the Connaught coalfield, 365 
Buckingham, Marquis of, 154, 379 
Buckles, premiums for, 57 
Building. See Gaol, Houses 
Bulbous roots : on the growth of, in 

Ireland, 363; comparative value of 

large and small roots, 363 
Bulls, &c. , premiums for, 63 
Burgh, Captain Thomas, Hon. Sec. 

and Vice-President, 115, 219, 381, 

383 
Burgh (or Bourgh), Thomas, 25, 28 
Burke, Edmund, 121 
Burke, Joseph, bequest to the Society, 

290 
Burlington and Cork, Lord, 27 
Burnet, premiums for cultivation of, 

388, 401 
Burton, Sir Frederick, 279 
Burton, Samuel, 122 
Burton, Colonel William (afterwards 

the Right Hon. Wm. Conyngham), 

115, 146, 221-2 
Burton, Right Hon. Francis, 221 
Busts in marble and plaster, in Leinster 

House, 424, 425 
Busts, purchase of, by the Society, 42 



Butler, John, 288 

Butler, John Thomas, discovers lapis 
calaminaris in Sligo, 84 

Butler, W. D., premium for plans, 254 

Butt, Isaac, 270 

Butter-making, 331 ; serious conse- 
quences of foreign rivalry, 331 ; co- 
operation in, 332 

Buttons : premiums for, 57 

By-laws of the Society, 1766 . . . 140-1, 
285, 310 ; 1837 . . . 267 ; as to sub- 
scriptions and arrears, 146, 152, 214 ; 
as to committees, 215, 216 ; to enable 
persons to join a section of the 
Society, 276, 361. See also Fellows 

Byrne, Thomas, premium for ale, 62 

Byron, English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers , quoted, 116 

Cabbage as food for the horse, 362 
Cake-basket in silver, presented for 

reclaiming bog, 145-6 
Calamine stone, an award for produc- 
ing, 84 and n. 1 
Caldbeck, Mr., 150 
Calderwood, Mr. , 370 
Calderwood, Robert, gold thread 

manufacturer, 69 
Caldwell, Andrew, 115, 187 
Callage, Rev. Andrew, 221 
Callan, Professor, 269 
Calves, on a method of feeding, 51 
Cam, John, engaged as itinerant 

adviser in husbandry, 50 
Campbell, Rev. Mr. , awarded a silver 

medal for an Essay on Perfecting the 

Fine Arts, &c, 114 
Canning, Rt. Hon. George: honorary 

member, 230 
Carhampton, Lord. See Luttrell, Simon 
Carlisle, George W. F., Earl of, 286, 

380 
Carpet : premium awarded for a, 59 
Carrots : cultivation of, premium 

offered for, 401 
Carson, Rev. Joseph, 287 
Carte, Dr. William : papers contri- 
buted to the Journal by, 365, 367, 

368 
Carteret, Lord, 188 
Carve, Thomas, his scarce works (cir. 

1640-6) in the Joly collection, 179 
Carver, Mr., (artist), 113 
Casey, Anne, premium for lace, 61 
Casey, Laurence, premium for ale, 62 
Casey, Mary, premium for edging, 62 
Cash, John C. (a former pupil), and 

his plans of public buildings in 

Dublin, 152 



43 2 



A HISTORY OF 



Castle (or Castles), Richard (architect), 

63, 78 and n. 1 , 79, 99 
Castlebar, lace manufacture at, 141 
Cattle, breeding of, premiums for, 315 ; 

Government assistance to Society for, 

315 ; the Spring Show as a stimulus 

to, 347 
Cattle: premiums for, 63, 64; pre- 
miums for essay on fattening, 253 
Cattle : sale of, by auction, 346 
Cattle shows, 223, 248, 271, 280, 344 

et seq. ; number of visitors to, in 

1849. . . 280. See Spring, Autumn, 

Winter ; also Breeding Stock entries 

at 
Cawdor, Lord, 131 
Cedars of Lebanon, medal awarded for 

planting, 72 
Century Magazine, cited, 103 n. 
Ceres and Triptolemus, emblematic 

painting by de Gree (1788) in Society's 

possession, 92, 423 
Chaigneau, Rev. Dr. Peter, 384, 421 
Chair of the President (1767), still in 

use, 90 
Chais, Rev. C, 142 
Chalmers, William, 122 
Chamber Music Committee, the, 329- 

33o . . 

Chambers, Hope and Glen, recipients 
of a premium for exporting herrings, 
70-1 

Chamney & Co., carry potatoes by 
Grand Canal, 73 

Champion, Thomas, premium for hats, 

63 

Chapman, William, 92 

Charitable Musical Society, profits of a 
play at Society's disposal, for en- 
couragement of husbandry, &c, 60-1 

Charlemont, Lord, 113, 146, 218, 231 

Charter, application for, contemplated 
(1732), 20 

Charter of the Society (1750), 53, 75 
et seq., 84, 106, 304, 309; original 
warrant for, presented to the Society, 
76 «. 2 

Charter, supplemental (1866), 289, 304 
et seq. , 369 

Charter, second supplemental (1888) 
and statutes, 304, 308, 369 

Chebsey, Thomas & Co. : premium 
for glass manufacture, 74 

Chemical laboratory established, 157, 
355-6 ; practical instruction in chemis- 
try given, 356; description of the labo- 
ratory, 328 ; apparatus for liquefaction 
of air and of hydrogen in, 328-9; 
radium emanation outfit in, 329 



Chemistry and natural philosophy, 

lectures in, 160-1, 227, 356 
Chemistry, papers on, referred to, 367 
Chesterfield, Philip Stanhope, Earl of, 

9, 46-8, 83, 379 ; on Dublin Society's 

charter, 75-6 ; Letters of, quoted, 47, 

48 ; bust of, 48 ; otherwise mentioned, 

78, 85, 108 
Chevenix, Dr. Richard (Bishop of 

Waterford), 85 
Children, employment of: premiums 

offered to employers, 393, 414 
Chinnery, George, painter, 149 ; picture 

by, purchased, 118 
Christ Church Cathedral : Dean and 

Chapter of, lease Glasnevin grounds, 

&c, 81, 187, 191 
Cider and its manufacture : Society's 

interest in, 18-19, 37 ; premiums for, 

5°. 5 8 > 59. °4. 5. 68 
Cider trees, inventory of, at Summer- 
Hill ground, 186 
Circumferenter (sinecal), 221 and n. 
Clanbrassil, Lord, 172 
Clancarty, William T., Earl of, 280, 

382 
Clanwilliam, Lady, 199 
Clare, county, Farming Society in, 222 
Clare, county, mineralogical survey in, 

iS4 
Clare Island Survey, 371 
Clarendon, George, Earl of, 279, 380 
Clarendon, Lady, 279 
Clark, David, bounty for carding 

machines, &c, 204 
Clays, discovered, 154-5 
Clayton, Robert (Bishop of Killala), 

11, 38! 
Clayton, Mrs., 11 
Clibborn, Edward, 255, 267 ; paper on 

Banking by, 269, 361 
Cloncurry, Lord, 231, 233 
Clonfert, Bishop of, 46 
Close, Lieut.-Col., gold medal for 

essay, 253 
Cloth, premium for black, 68 
Clover seed : premiums for, 388, 389, 

401, 402 
Coal, bituminous : experiments on, 

358 
Coal, search for, 155 ; districts : survey 

of, by Richard Griffith, jun., 162, 

163, 168 
Coalfields, papers on, 367, 368 
Cobbe, Captain, 12, 21 
Cobbe, Charles (Archbishop of Dublin), 

28, 80, 82, 380 
Cod and heak fishery: premiums for, 

395 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 433 



Coin, an inquiry into the state of, in 
Ireland (1734), 32 

Coins and medals, catalogue of, 176,177 

Coke, Thomas William (of Norfolk), 
afterwards Earl of Leicester, 231, 232 

Coleman, Mr., 338, 340 

Colgan's Acta Sa?ictorum, a complete 
copy in the Joly collection, 180 

College of Physicians, Dublin, 187 

Colles, Edward R. P., Society's 
librarian, 170, 179, 267, 269, 285 

Colles, William (of Kilkenny), 19-20 

Collieries at Ballycastle, 22 and n. 1 

Collins (artist), 113 

Collins, Dr., 279 

Colomb, Captain, 367 

Combermere, Lord, 130 

Comerford, John, artist, 122, 124, 256; 
rejected as a member, 228 

Commerce, Select Committee of, ap- 
pointed, 149 

Commerell, Abbe, 219 

Commissioners of Public Works, cited, 

359 
Committee of Agriculture, 73-4, 315 
Committee of Agriculture and Planting 

formed, 248 ; premiums offered by, 

252-3 

Committee of Arts, 16 

Committee of Economy, 95 

Committee of Fine Arts, 122 et seq., 
216 

Committee (Select), House of Commons, 
to inquire into the Society (1836), 
252, 2$8 etseq., 325 ; its Resolutions, 
260 ; Reports of the Society's Com- 
mittee on the Resolutions, 264 

Committees, by-laws as to, 215, 216 

Committees of management, 264-5, 267 
See also Standing committees 

Cones. See Spruce and Deal 

Congested Districts Board, Ireland 
(1891), 323, 336 

Connaught : premium for essay on 
improvement of husbandry in, 253 

Connolly, Lady Louisa, 199 

Connor, Chr. , medal for ornament 
drawing, 114 

Connor, Robert, premiums for drawing, 
ii5 

Constants and numerical data, chemi- 
cal, &c, grant in aid for tables of, 
37i 

Constitution of the Society, 14 et seq., 
249, 27S. 276, 304-5 

Conyngham, Burton, 255 

Conyngham, Lord, bequest by (1782), 
7i 

Conyngham, Lord (1853), 283 



Conyngham, Rt. Hon. Wm. (name 

assumed by Col. William Burton), 

71, 173, 174, 221-2. See also -under 

Burton 
Cooper, Austin, 228 
Cooper, Edward J., paper on potato 

disease, 361 
Cooper, Sir William, 143 
Co-operative farming associations : 

suggestions for the organization of, 

in Ireland, 368 
Coote, Rev. Charles, gold medal for 

sowing turnips, 145 
Coote, Sir Charles, 183 
Copal varnish, grant for making, 218 
Copland, Samuel, 362 
Copley Medal of the Royal Society 

conferred on Dr. Richard Kirwan, 

158 
Copper, sheet lead and, manufacture, 

73 

Coppinger, Rev. Dr. (R.C. Bishop of 
Cloyne), challenges Townsend's Sur- 
vey of Co. Cork, 184-5 

Coquebert de Moubray, Citizen : 
honorary member, 230 

Corballis, James, 267 

Corballis, John R., 251 

Cork, Bishop of, 46 

Cork, county: Townsend's Survey of, 
challenged on religious grounds, 

184-5 

Cork Institution. See Royal 

Cork, school for teaching worsted spin- 
ning at, 207 ; lectures in chemistry, 
&c. , at, 227 

Corn Laws : Society's inquiry into oper- 
ation of, 234-5 

Cornwallis, Marquis, President, 224, 

379 

Corporation of Tallow Chandlers and 
Soap Boilers of Dublin, and the 
condition of Irish soap manufac- 
ture, 358 

Corrigan, Andrew, 290 

Cosby, Pole, premium for planting 
trees, 60 

Cottages and allocation of land to 
them, prize essay, 253 

Cottages, plans, &c. , of, premiums for, 

254 
Cotter, Rev. Joseph, silver medal for 

his bass and tenor horn, 244 
Cottingham, George, premium for 

planting trees, 73 
Cotton, Archdeacon Henry, 272 
Cotton, cottons : premiums for, 72 
Cotton manufacture, Society's interest 

for, 153, 204 

2 E 



434 



A HISTORY OF 



Coulter, Dr., 254, 361 

Council of the Society, 261, 265, 285, 
289 ; resolutions of the Select Com- 
mittee as to, 261-2 ; Society's 
views and decision as to, 264, 265, 
267 ; members to be admitted to 
meetings of, 267 ; first members of, 
267-8 ; first report of the, 268 ; min- 
utes of meetings first printed, 276 

Cowan, John, 146 

Cowley, Abraham, cited, 38 

Cox, Master, plaster figure of, n 1 

Cox, Sir Richard, 4, 28 

Cradock, Frederick, librarian, 178 

Cramer, Mr., 176 

Crampton, Sir Philip, Bart., 270; 
memorial to, 97 

Cranfield, Richard, carver, 90 n 2 , in, 

113. 114 
Crawley, John, sent to study art on the 

Continent, 112 
Cream separator, centrifugal, 332 
Cregan, Martin, artist, 119, 120, and 

Crimea, climate, &c. , paper on, 365 
Crofton, Morgan, 115, 152, 255, 381 
Crofts, Wills, premium for manuring 

with lime, 66 
Cromwell's Excursions in Ireland, 119 
Crooked Staff (now Ardee Street), 

Dublin, 62 and, n. 
Crosbie, Lancelot, premium for cider, 68 
Crosbie, Richard, aeronaut, 235 n. 
Crosbie, Sir Paul, 235 n. 
Crouset, Anthony, loan for cultivation 

of mulberry trees, 84 
Crowley, Henry : Taylor prize, 135 
Crustacea, papers on, by Dr. J. R. 

Kinahan, 365 
Cuming, William, 122; portrait by, 

purchased, 118 
Cunningham, Professor D. J., 373, 382, 

384 
Cunningham, Patrick, sculptor, 109, 

no, in, 113 
Cyclostigma, paper on, 366 

Dairy Farmers' Association (British), 

33i 

Dairy industries, efforts to improve, ; 

33i 
Dairy methods, change in, 332 ; travel- 
ling educational dairy, 331-2 ; centri- 
fugal cream separator, 332 
Dairy produce, co-operation in, 333 
Dairy produce, foreign : committee's 

recommendations as to (1816), 235 
Dairy school at Glasnevin, 332 
Dairy school (Munster) at Cork, 332 



Dairy shows, 331 

Dally, Edward, premium for planting 

cider trees, 65 
Dally, Michael, Hon. Sec, 218, 383 
D'Alton, John, 252 

Daly, John, premium for dyeing cloth, 62 
Damask linen, premiums for, 57, 64 
Darner, John, offers prizes for spruce 

and deal cones, 62 
Danish forts and raths, premiums for 

planting trees in, 73-4 
Da Ponte family, 121 n 2 
Dargan, Wm,, 280, 281, 282, 283 
Darley, Frederick, architect of con- 
servatories, Glasnevin, 196, 279 
Darley, John, gold medal for ditching, 

I4S 

Dartis, William, medal for ornament 
drawing, 114 

Dartrey, Lord, 146 

Daubeny, Dr., 286 

Daubussarques, Col. Jacques, 79 

Daubussarques, Madeleine, 79 

Davies, David, premium for velvet, 62 

Davis, Denis, premium for improving 
ploughs, 58 

Davis, Thomas Osborne, Hogan's 
statue of, 128 

Davit and O'Cannon, premium for de- 
stroying seals on north-west coast, 71 

Davy, Edmund, professor, of chem- 
istry, 245, 358 ; reports to the 
Society on work done, 358-9 ; ex- 
amination of bog butter, 358 ; of 
bituminous coal, 358 ; investigation 
of Irish soap manufacture, 358 ; con- 
tributions to the Evening Scientific 
Meetings, 254, 269, 360-2 passim; 
determines the composition of acety- 
lene gas, 360; on a simple method 
of detecting arsenic, 365 ; Memoir 
of, contributed to the Journal, 365 ; 
mentioned, 268, 277, 325, 340 

Davy, Dr. Edmund W. , papers contri- 
buted to the Evening Scientific 
Meetings, 362 ; paper on Ferro-cya- 
nide of potassium, 366; paper on 
Flax, contributed to the Journal, 367 

Davy, Sir Humphry, lectures on chem- 
istry, 161, 259; becomes honorary 
member of the Society, 230 ; men- 
tioned, 359 

Davy, Sir Thomas, and Son, 326 

Dawson, Thomas, an English farmer, 
instructs in agriculture, 91-2 

Deal, red, premium offered for cones 
of, 62 

Deane, J. C. , on Irish fisheries, 361 

Deane, Sir Robert, Bt., 8q, 86, 381 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 435 



Deane, Sir Thcmas, and Son, 326 

De Blaquiere, Baron, 151-2 

de Floretti, Chevalier : honorary mem- 
ber, 230 

de Glatigny, Mrs. Eliza, premium for 
lace, 67 

de Gree, Peter, 117 and n. ; his em- 
blematical painting for Hawkins St, 
house (1788), still in Society's posses- 
sion, 92, 423 

de Grey, Thomas P. , Earl, 132, 133, 380 

Delamain, Henry, premium for earthen- 
ware, 68 

de Lacy, Sylvester, 245 

Delany, Patrick (Dean of Down), 28-9, 
188 

Delany, Mrs., formerly Pendarves and 
Granville, 29, 85 ; Correspondence of, 
cited, n, 29, 66 n. 2 , 143 

Delville, Glasnevin, 188 

Denny, Lady Arabella, 142, 143, 199, 
204 

Denny, Arthur, 143 

Dent, E. J. , Mozart's Operas, cited, 167 

Department of Agriculture and Techni- 
cal Instruction for Ireland, 316-17, 
372 

Derry, Bishop of, 89, 146 

de Salis, Count, first member formally 
introduced, 228 

De Saussure, work on agricultural 
chemistry, cited, 359 

Desbrisay, Captain Theophile, 79 

Design, School of. See School 

Devon, Earl of : paper on the social con- 
dition of the people of Ireland, 364 

Dick, Professor, 346 

Dillon, Arthur Richard (Archbishop of 
Narbonne), 147 

Dillon, Lord, premium for planting 
and enclosing, 74 

Dimity, corded : premiums for, 72 

Ditching, premiums and awards for, 
145, 406-7 

Dixon, H. H., 370 

Dixon, John, premium for drawing, no 

Dixon, W. Macneile, his Trinity 
College, Dublin, cited, 142 n. 1 

Dobbs, Arthur, 6, 8, 21, 38, 43; essay 
on Trade and imports of Ireland, 
cited, 4, 8 

Dodder, sheet lead and copper mills 
on the, 73 

Dodsley, Robert, his Preceptor, used 
in the drawing schools, 112 

D'Olier, Isaac M., 177, 267 

D'Olier, Jeremiah, 104, 228, 383 

Domestic consumption, articles of: 
premiums for, 63 



Domvile, Rev. Benjamin, 145 and n. 1 
Domvile, Sir Compton, 145 n. 1 
Donegal, a paper on the mineral 

localities of, 367 
Donoughmore, Baroness, 143 
Donoughmore, Lord, 143, 175 
Dorset, Duke of, (Lionel C. Sackville), 

8, 13. 379 

Dowling, John, 366 

Downes, Bishop, 188 

Downes, Lord, 230, 231 

Downes, Robert, 80, 385 

Down Survey — barony maps, 148 

Downshire, Arthur, Marquis of, 247, 
248, 344, 382 
1 Drawing, premiums for, 64, 108-9, no, 
in, 114-15, 119, 416 

Drawing schools, the : probable period 
of opening, 108 ; the competitions 
for the Madden premiums, 108-9, 
no, in, 114, 115; distinguished 
artists adjudicating in the competi- 
tions, no, 114; Mr. Robert West's 
academy taken over, 109 ; instruction 
in drawing given at the academy in 
Shaw's Court, 110-11 ; progress in 
the art of drawing in Dublin due to 
encouragement by the Society, 110- 
iii, 133; agreements with models, 
in ; the masters, 111-12 ; collection 
of statues and busts in, in, 112, 117 ; 
the Recollections of John O'Keefe, 
112 ; the student's text-book, 112 ; 
Joseph Fenn's plan of instructions 
for, 112 ; encouragements to pupils, 
112-13, 115, 116, 119-20 ; the Grafton 
Street premises, 113 ; question of con- 
tinuance of the school for figure draw- 
ing, 113-14 ; the superintending com- 
mittee, 115; progress of the schools, 
115-17; removal to Poolbeg Street, 
117; the Living academy, 117-18, 
125 ; purchase of works of art for, 117, 
118, 129 ; the new premises in Poolbeg 
Street, 121, 124; report and recom- 
mendations of the committee of fine 
arts (1809) on, 122 etseq. ; resolutions 
referred to the Committee of Fine 
Arts (Nov. 1813). . . 124-5; number 
of pupils receiving instruction during 
1813-1819 . . . 126; the benefits of 
the schools in training boys and girls, 
126-7, 130 ; money voted for erecting 
schools (1823) . . . 128 ; exhibition 
of pupils' drawings, 130-1 ; a list of 
noted artists who had received in- 
struction in the Society's schools, 
130-2 ; the annual distribution of 
prizes and address, 132-3 ; consoli- 



43 6 



A HISTORY OF 



dation of the drawing and modelling 
schools as the Government school of 
design, 134; free admission until 
1849 • ■ • I 35 ! f ees fi rst paid, 135 ; 
Society's control over drawing schools 
ceases in 1878 . . . 135; mentioned, 
152, 158, 247 
Drogheda, Lady, 199 
Dromore, Bishop of, 46 
Drummond, Thomas, Hogan's statue 

of, 128 
Drury [P.] (artist), no 
Drury, Susanna, 57, 424 
Dublin City — 
Anne's Coffee House, 21 
Antrim, Lord, his house in 1761, 89 
Ballsbridge. See under B. 
" Black Horse," Plunket St., 61 
Blue Coat Hospital, in, 118 
" Brow of the Hill," Sycamore Alley, 

62 
Christ Church Cathedral. See 

under C. 
Coote St. , 100 
Crooked Staff (now Ardee St.), 62 

and n. 
" Crown and Glove," George's Lane, 

62 
Crow's Nest, Crow St., 3 and n. 
Custom House Coffee House, 62 
Dyers' Company, 199 
Foundling Hospital, 138 and n., 143 
Hibernian Marine School, 118 
" Horse Shoe," Thomas St., 62 
Lazers' Hill, 65, 66 n. 
Lying-in Hospital, 79 
Magdalen Asylum, Leeson St., 143 
Merchants' Guild, 95 
Molesworth (formerly Mynchens') 

fields, 98 
Molesworth Street, 101 
Newcomen House, 112 n., 2t8 n. 
Newcomen's Bank, 218 u. 
Phoenix Park, 21, 38 
Pleasants' Asylum, 237 
Shearmen, Company of, 199 
Swift's Hospital, 46 n. 
Tallow Chandlers, &c. , Company, 

Theatre Royal, 96, 97 
Tolka River, 192 
Trinity College, 78, 95, 254 
Tyrone House, 78 
University of Dublin, 187 
Weavers' Company, 198 
Wide Street Commissioners, 94, 95 
Zoological Gardens, 270 
Dublin County, statistical survey, 
154 n., 183-4 



Dublin Evening Mail, 250 

Dublin Evening Post, 222 

Dublin Exhibition and Winter Garden 
Company, 318 

Dublin Horse Show, 349 et sea. ; jump- 
ing competitions, 351 ; general 
arrangements, 351 ; the judging ring, 
351 ; financial results, 351-2 ; entries 
and attendance, 352-3 ; early experi- 
ence at Ballsbridge premises, 352 ; 
sale of horses by auction at, 353 

Dublin industries, exhibition of, at 
Paris Exhibition 1855 • • • 3 2 ° 

Dublin Journal, Q.2.1 

Dublin Journal of Medical Science , 255, 
278 

Dublin News Letter, the, 34 

Dublin Philosophical Society, precursor 
of the Dublin Society, 2-4 ; Trans- 
actions of the, 3 

Dublin, premium for plans of public 
buildings in, 152 

Dublin Science and Art Museum Act, 

2 93. 2 95' 301 
Dublin Society, the connection of, with 
earlier associations, 2-4 ; foundation 
of, 6 ; title and object of, 6, 7, 10, 35, 
90 ; minutes of first meeting, 6 ; 
strong clerical element among earlier 
members, 10-n, 31; the account of 
the design and method of proceeding, 
12 ; characteristics of the Society's 
methods, 12, 23 ; appreciation of 
Dutch methods by, 13, 31 ; consti- 
tution of the Society, 14 et sea. , 249, 
275, 276, 304-5; election of officers, 
13, 17-18, 21, 80; progress and work 
of the Society, 18 et sea., 49-51; 
subjects assigned to members, 20, 44 ; 
application for a Royal Charter con- 
sidered, 20; formation of an agri- 
cultural museum by, 22 ; first appear- 
ance of, in the public press, 23 ; list 
of the members in 1733 ... 24 etseq. ; 
the loan and bounties system, 32, 141 ; 
the " Weekly Observations " : papers 
on useful subjects issued by the 
Society, 34 et seq. ; observations on 
Husbandry, 34, 35 ; papers on im- 
ported commodities, 36, 51 ; and the 
non-use of the natural advantages of 
Ireland, 36; subscriptions andarrears: 
rules for the better regulation of the 
Society, 43-4, 83-4 ; appointment oi 
new committees, 44; the Society 
placed on the Civil Establishment of 
Ireland, 47-8 ; engagement of an 
itinerant husbandman, 50 ; interest in 
the question of employment for the 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 437 



people, 51 ; inauguration of the 
system of premiums, 52 et seq. ; Dr. 
Madden's Letter to the Dublin Society 
on the improving their fund, 53 ; re- 
semblance of Society's work to that of 
the present-day Congested Districts' 
Board, 71 ; the Royal Charter, 20, 53, 
75-6, 84, 106, 304, 309 ; meeting places 
of the Society, 12, 88 et seq. [and see 
under names of places, houses, &C.) ; 
meeting place : extraordinary meet- 
ings, 21 ; experiments in agriculture 
by, 136 et seq. ; impression made by 
the Society's methods, 141 ; the anti- 
quarian committee, 146-7; period of 
transition in, 159; abandonment of 
the premium system, 159 ; connection 
with the silk and woollen industries, 
ig8etseq.; finances of the Society, 209 
et seq. ; survey of the general work 
of, during the late eighteenth and 
early nineteenth centuries, 217 et seq. ; 
widespread influence of, 217 ; as pro- 
totype of societies for the diffusion of 
knowledge, 222 ; summary of the 
Society's activities from its founda- 
tion, 240 et seq. ; assumes title of the 
Royal Dublin Society, 241 ; relief of 
distress in Ireland by, in 1822 . . . 243 ; 
House of Commons Committee's re- 
port on the estimates of, 246-7 ; 
points in issue with the Government : 
a deputation to confer as to modifica- 
tions in theconstitutionof the Society, 
249-50, 251 ; the Lord Lieutenant's 
proposals, 249-50 ; Select Committee 
of the House of Commons : inquiry 
into the administration of the Society, 
250, 252, 258 et seq., 273, 325, 344; 
resolutions of the committee, 260 et 
seq. ; attitude of the Society, 264-6 ; 
the new by-laws, 267 ; management 
confided to a Council, 267-8, 276; 
differences with Government as to 
Select Committee's recommenda- 
tions, 273 et seq. ; amended by-laws, 
276 ; superintendence of the educa- 
tional staff transferred, 283-4 ; the 
supplementary charter, 289 ; the 
"Memorandum of Provisions," 292 
et seq. ; the Second Supplemental 
Charter and Statutes, 304 ; action to 
secure freedom from Government con- 
trol, 316-17; as the Agricultural 
Society of Ireland, 321 ; view as to 
co-operative trading, 333 ; resump- 
tion of agricultural work by, 344 
See also references under names of 
Subjects 



Dublin University Magazine, 167, 

178 n. 2 , 270 
Duchess of Leinster, ship built at 

Kingstown, 277 
Dudley, Earl of, 320 
Duffin, Mr., his mill, &c. at Glasnevin, 

purchased, 191 
Dun, Thomas, premium for dyeing 

cloth, 62 
Duncannon, Lord, procures casts, &c, 

for drawing school, in 
Dutch methods in agriculture, hus- 
bandry, &c, Society's appreciation 

of, 13, 31 
Dutch works translated for the Society, 

174-5 
Dutton, Hely, Observations on Survey 

co. Dublin, 183, 184 
Dyeing, 12, 13 n. 1 , 22, 204, 359 1 

premiums for, 62 
Dyers of Dublin, the, address of thanks 

to the Society, 199 
Dyton's Gazette, 141 

Ealy, Samuel, premium for hops, 58 
Earthenware, premium for, 68 
Earthquake, submarine, paper on, 367 
Eblana Depicta, by Pool and Cash, 

i5 2 

Eccles, Sir John, 186 

Economic Proceedings of the Royal 
Dublin Society, 370 

Edgeworth, Maria, 229 

Edgevvorth, Richard Lovell, his inven- 
tion as to wheeled carriages, 229-30 

Edinburgh, Duke of, 290, 352-3 

Education (Elementary). See Exami- 
nations 

Edwards, Benjamin, premium for glass 
manufacture, 74 

Elgin marbles, casts from, 127; cast 
room, 237 

Elk, fossil, from Limerick, presented, 

2 45 . ... 

Elkington, Mr. , instruction in the art 

of draining land by, 93-4 
Ellis, Dr. George: paper, On emigra- 
tion as affecting the West of Ireland, 

364 
Ellis, Welbore (Bishop of Meath), n 
Ellis, William, The Country Gentleman 

and Shepherd's Sure Guide, 51 
Elrington, Rev. Charles, 221, 230, 232 
Elrington, Thomas (Bishop of Ferns), 

232 
Embroidery, premium for, 62; section 

for, added to exhibition, 320 
Emigration (West of Ireland), paper 

on, 364 



43 8 



A HISTORY OF 



Employers and Labourers (Mr. Ber- 
mingham's proposal on relations be- 
tween), 89 

Employment for the people : Society's 
interest in, 51, 63, 64 

Enamelled watchplates, a prize for, 6.15 

Encyclopddie, the, purchased for the 
library, 173 

" English tongue," care of, recom- 
mended to the Society by Bishop of 
Down, 42 

Engraved print, premium offered for, 

417 

Ennis, Jacob, 113, 130, 131 

Ensor, George, premium for plan of 
small houses, 63 

Escritoire, 1753, now in the Society's 
possession, 89 

Esterhazy, Prince Nicholas, 230 

Esterhazy, Prince Paul, 230 

Esterhazy, Count Joseph, 230 (honorary 
members) 

Estimates and expenditure of the 
D.S. : recommendations of House of 
Commons Committee on, 246, 262 

Etruscan vases, collection of, be- 
queathed to the Society, 245 

Eustace, Clotilda, 189 

Eustace, Sir Maurice (of Harristown), 
189 

Evelyn [John], cited, 1 

Evening Scientific Meetings, the, 254, 
269, 360 et seq. ; minutes of, contained 
in the Society's Proceedings, 1836-9, 
360; reports of, 1848-55, 362 

Examinations in elementary education, 
established, 287 

Exhibition, the Great Industrial, 1853, 
in connection with R.D.S. , 281 et 
seq.; H. M. Queen Victoria visits it, 
282 

Exhibition of art industries, 317, 320 ; 
Hall, 320. See Industrial 

Exhibition of fine arts and art manu- 
factures, 317 

Exhibition of Irish artists, 1801, 118, 
125 

Exhibitions of manufactures, 246, 253, 
271, 280, 317 et seq., 365 

Experimental Philosophy, lectures in, 
160 

Experiments, rules as to, 15 

Exshaw, Alderman, 228 

Factory of the Society in Poolbeg 
Street, 91, 92, 93 ; object of the insti- 
tution, 93; sale of implements of 
husbandry at, 93 

Fagan, James, 277 



Fairfield, Chas. G., 282 

Falkiner, C. Litton, Essays Relating to 

Ireland, cited, 80 
Farm prizes, 324 

Farm produce exhibition, 277, 346, 349 
Farmer's Monthly Calendar, prize 

offered for a, 69, 396 
Farmhouses, premiums for plans, &c. , 

254 

farming: Dublin Society's scheme to 
improve, by itinerant instruction and 
example holdings, 322, 323; prize 
holdings at Swinford, co. Mayo, 322 ; 
during period following the Irish 
Land Act, 324 

Farming Association. See Co-operative 

Farming Societies, 222 ; number of, in 
receipt of grants from the Dublin 
Society, 298 ; beneficial effects of the 
Society's efforts for, 298 ; General 
Farming Society, 1800-28 . . . 222-3 

Farming Society, the, 159, 222-3, 2 34> 
247 ; cattle shows held by, 344 ; care 
in awarding the prizes, 344 ; received 
a subsidy from the Dublin Society, 
344. See Antrim, Clare, Fermanagh, 
Kerry, Kildare, Louth, Mayo, Ros- 
common 

Farms, premium for essay on consoli- 
dation of, 252 

Farren, Wm., 177 

Faulkner, George ( ' ' Peter Paragraph ") , 
printer, 83; his bust of Dean Swift 
presented to St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
83 ; mentioned, 22 n. 1 , 29, 51 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, 34, 80, 92, 
113, 136, 141 

Feinagle. See Von Feinagle 

Fellows, by-laws providing for election 
of, proposed, 308, 310 

Felt hats, premiums for, 414 

Fenn, Joseph, Instructions given in the 
Drawing School, D.S., &C, 112 

Ferguson, Mr., designs glasshouses at 
Glasnevin, 196 

Fermanagh Farming Society, 222 

Finances of the Society, 209 et seq. ; 
grants of public money to, 209, 211, 
213 ; Commissioners of Imprest Ac- 
counts requisition for particulars, 
209-10 ; Committee of Inquiry into 
state of Society's funds, 210 ; petition 
to Parliament for assistance, 211; 
financial responsibilities in 1803, 212; 
annual expenses in 1803, 212; 
financial position after the acqusition 
of Leinster House, 213; reduction 
in the grant of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, 213 ; estimates for 1832-3, 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



439 



213-4; House of Commons com- 
mittee's recommendations on Society's 
estimates and funds, 246, 262. And 
see under Parliamentary grants 
Fine Arts, the, premiums for, '41 5 
Fine Arts Exhibition, 288, 317 
Fingal, steam yacht used in the fishing 

survey, 335, 336 
Finlayson, Rev. John, Inscriptions in 

Christ Church Cathedral, cited, 81 
Fire clay, premiums for, 420 
Fish : premiums for catching, curing, 
and exporting, 64, 66, 70, 394 et sea., 
418-19 ; letter as to crimping cod, 
&c, 59 
Fisher, Jonathan, artist, 113, 122 
Fisheries, French works on, translated, 

71 

Fisheries (Irish), as an industrial re- 
source, paper on, 361 ; and allied 
industries, 362 ; a paper on the cod 
and ling fisheries of Ireland, 366 ; on 
the salmon and other fisheries, 367 ; 
on sea coast fisheries, 368 ; a paper 
on the destruction of, by trawling, 
23 ; articles on, published in the 
Transactions, 359 ; necessity for sur- 
veys, harbours, &c. , 243 

Fisheries : Society's efforts to promote 
the fishing industry, 243, 333 et sea. ; 
survey of the fishing grounds, 334-5, 
370 ; report on the west coast fisheries, 
336 ; investigation of the life history 
of food fishes, 336-7. See also under 
Fish, Flounder, and Sea Fisheries 

Fisheries, treatise on, 1738 ... 23 

Fisheries and Fishery Laws, committee 
to consider, 71 

Fishing industry, earliest notice of the 
Society's interest in, 1733 ... 22 

FitzGerald, Geo. Francis, secretary, 

3°9. 3 10 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 100 

Fitzgerald, George, bounty for land 
surveying instrument, 221 

Fitzwilliam, Lord, 106, 118 

Flax: culture of, 18, 23, 24,37; pre- 
miums for, 56 

Flax dressing, 32 ; premiums for, 57 ; 
articles on, 37 

Flax, on the cultivation of, a paper by 
E. W. Davy, 367 

Flax plant, papers by Sir Robert Kane, 
on, 361-2 

Flax seed, premiums for, 56 

Flora Danica, purchased for the Lib- 
rary, 173 and n. 

Flora Rustica Hibernica, projected by 
the Society, 191 



Flounder fishery, premium for promo- 
tion of, 394 

Flynn, John, premium for catching 
fish, 66 

Fodder crops, experiments on cultiva- 
tion of, 357 

Foley, John Henry (sculptor), 133, 
279; original cast of his "Youth at 
the Stream," presented, 133 

Folkes, Martin, 46 

Fombally, Mr., premium for buff, 64 
and n. 

Food, cooked, comparative nutritive 
and pecuniary values of, a paper on, 
361 

Foot, Lundy Edward, Hon. Sec. and 
V.-P. , 133, 272, 279, 280, 282, 285, 
287, 382, 383 ; memoir of Isaac Weld 

by. 365 

Foot, Simon, 267 

Foote, Samuel, cited, 83 

Ford, Mr., 115, 204 

Forester, James, premium for drawing, 
no 

Forts. See Danish 

Fossiliferous caves of Malta, paper on, 
366 

Fossils, Arctic, papers on, 363, 366; 
remains, discovery of, paper on, 366 

Foster, Anthony, Chief Baron, 84, 85 

Foster, John Leslie, Baron of the Ex- 
chequer, 104, 254, 269, 381, 383 

Foster, Rt. Hon. John (Lord Oriel), 
225-6; portraits of, 120, 131, 225, 
226; mentioned, 85, 91, 120, 190, 
222, 340, 381 

Fox, Richard, 177 

Frankfort de Montmorency, Lord, 106, 
141 n. % , 228, 381. See also Morres, 
Lodge 

Franklin, Lady, 281 

Franklin, Sir John, 254, 281, 287 ; 
McClintock's reminiscences of travel 
in search of, 365 

Fraser's book on Fisheries, 243 

Freeman's Journal, 28 

Freemasonry in Vienna, 164 

French Revolution and French litera- 
ture, numerous works on, in Joly 
collection, 179 

French, Humphry, account of, 25, 29- 

30 

French, Robert, gold medal for re- 
claiming bog, 145 and n. 2 

Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick erect 
statue of Lord Blakeney, 50 

Fruit trees raised in nurseries, pre- 
miums for, 58 

Fry, William, 285 



44° 



A HISTORY OF 



Fuller, Joseph, premium for reclaiming 

bog, 61 
Fuller's earth, pits discovered, 154; 

premiums for, 420 
Fustians, production of : premiums for, 

57. 59. 6 4, 72 

Gaelic Society, the, cited, 175 n. 

Gages, Alphonse, 363 

Gallagher, John, sculptor, 128, 129, 
and n. 

Gandon, James, architect, 231, 232-3; 
mentioned, 105, 122, 124 

Gaol, county, prize for plan of a, 144-5 

Gardeners, school for, 193 

Garnett, George, 345 

Garstin, J. Ribton, on Maces, Swords, 
and other hisignia, cited, 288 

Geale, Alderman Benjamin, 198 

General Farming Society. See Farm- 
ing Society 

General Meeting of the Society, resolu- 
tion as to, 261 

Gent, Mr. (Kilkenny), premium for 
fining flax, 57 

Gentleman s Magazine, The, quoted, 
90 

Geoghegan, Samuel, 328, 329 

Geoghegan, William Purser, 329 

Geological map of Ireland (Griffith's), 
169 

George II, King, 84; statue of, on St. 
Stephen's Green, proposed removal 
to Leinster Lawn, 106 

George III, King, address to, on his 
accession, 84 

George IV, King, becomes Patron of 
the Society, 241 ; visit to Ireland and 
to Leinster House, 241-2 ; statues of, 
126, 242, 424 

German works translated for the Society, 

175 

Giant's Causeway, the, 7, 43 ; speci- 
mens from, for the Society, 155; 
paintings (S. Drury) and engravings 
of, 57, 424 
Gibal, Mr. , premium for buff, 64 
Giesecke, Charles Lewis (Karl Ludwig 
Metzler), 163 et sea .; friend of Goethe 
and the supposed original of Wilhelm 
Meister, 164; associated with Mozart, 
164 ; study of mineralogy by, 164 ; 
elected professor of mineralogy in 
the Dublin Society, 163, 165 ; travels 
in Greenland, 165 ; reports of minera- 
logical excursions by, 166, 358 ; cata- 
logue of minerals collected by, in 
the Arctic regions, 366 ; manuscript 
volumes on mineralogy, 180; pre- 



sented with gold medal, 165 ; death 
of, 166 ; tablet to the memory of, 
167; his portrait by Raeburn, 167; 
the autograph albums of, 167 ; bio- 
graphical notes on, 167 ; mentioned, 
157, 180, 271 
Gieseckite, 165 and n. 
Giffard, Henri, dirigible balloon of, 363 
Gifford, Rev. R. N., premium for 

planting trees, 68 
Gilbert, Sir John, History of Dublin, 
cited, 3, 83, 100, 126, 147, 235 n. 1 ; 
quoted, 199 
Gilborne, John, 85 

Gladwell, Thomas, premium for ale, 62 
Glasnevin, Albert Institution, 340 
Glasnevin, Society's Botanic Garden at, 

187 el seq. 
Glasnevin, turnpike gates removed, 192 
Glasnevin watermill, 191 and n., 192. 

See Botanic Garden 
Glass gilding, bounty for, 218 
Glass manufacture, premiums for, 74 
Glassware, premiums for, 65, 66 
Glass (window) manufacture, 244 
Gloves, premiums for manufacture of, 

4*3 

Goethe's Faust, first rendering of, into 
English verse, 178 

Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, 164 

Gold mines of Wicklow, 359 

Goldberg, Citizen : honorary member, 
230 

Gore, Sir Arthur (afterwards Earl of 
Arran), 80, 380 

Gorges, Mr., 163 

Grafton Street house, premises of the 
Society (1767-1796), 89-94, Il 3> de- 
scription of, 90-1 ; chimney-pieces 
in, 90, 94 

Graham, Henry, 122 

Graham, William, art student, 114; 
grant for his maintenance, 114 

Graham's Dyke (Scotland), a paper on 
Roman inscriptions found in, 21 

Grahl, John, bounty for gilding cut 
glass, 218 

Grand Canal Company's ground at 
Glasnevin purchased, 191 

Grandison, John, Earl of, 80, 380 

Grant, Right Hon. William, 241 

Granville, Mary. See Delany, Mrs. 

Grass, premiums for, 63 

Gratton, George (artist), works of, pur- 
chased, 119, 124 

Graves, Rev. Robert P., Memoir of Sir 
W. R. Hamilton, 256 

Grayson, Anthony, premium for velvet 
and silk, 68 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 44 1 



Green, Charles, 337 

Green, Rev. William Spotswood, re- 
ports on fishery problems and survey, 
334, 335, 336 ; appointed inspector of 
Irish fisheries, 335 

Greene, Arthur, (Ennis), bounty voted 
towards dyeing, &c. , 204 

Greene, F. W., 155 

Greenland, paper on miocene flora of, 

3 6 7 . 

Gregg, Thomas, premium for herrings, 
70 

Gregory, Mr. (of Coole), 159 

Gresham College, London (Philoso- 
phical Society), cited, 1 

Grierson, George, 224 

Griffith, Sir John Purser, 378 

Griffith, Sir Richard John, mining 
engineer, sketch of his career, 169 ; 
his duties, 169, 382 ; mineralogical 
survey, 159, 162-3, 168, 358 ; 
geological map of Ireland, 163, 168, 
169 ; bust in Leinster House, 169 ; 
mentioned, 224, 228, 258, 259, 283, 
284, 357 

Grubb, Sir Howard, awarded the Boyle 
Medal, 377 ; contributions to science, 
377; mentioned, 327, 382, 384 

Grubb, Thomas, 269, 271, 361, 366 

Guild of Merchants, Dublin, 95 

Guinness, Sir Arthur Edward, 287, 292, 
302. See Ardilaun, Lord 

Guinness, Benjamin Lee, junior, 287 

Guinness, Sir Benjamin Lee, Bart,, 
231. 283 

Guinness, Samuel, 176, 228 

Guinness, William, premium for geo- 
metry, art school, 115 

Gumley, Patrick, award to, for fishing, 
69-70 

Gumley, William, medal for ornament 
drawing, 114 

Gun-cotton, paper on, 362 

Gunne, Richard, 18 

Haddock fishery, premiums offered 

for, 395 
Haddon, Professor A. C. , 335 
Haliday, Charles, 255, 256 ; collection 

of pamphlets presented to the Royal 

Irish Academy, 256 
Haliday Pamphlets, cited, ix, 5, n, 21 

n.\ 22 nnA and 3 , 24 n. 1 , 53 and n., 

67,76^.3, 137, 139, 142, 144, 156 «. 2 , 

184, 203, 204 n., 224 n. 
Hamilton, C. W. , 258, 259; paper on 

the condition of the Irish agricultural 

labourer, 366 
Hamilton, Colonel, 174 



Hamilton, G. A., 284, 382 
Hamilton, Harriet, artist, 158 
Hamilton, Henry, presents a mould of 
the Apollo Belvedere, 128 ; men- 
tioned, 176 

Hamilton, Hon. Baron, premium for 
cottons, velvet, &c. , 72, 153 

Hamilton, Hugh Douglas, artist, 114, 
122, 130, 131, 158, 225 

Hamilton, James, invents a method of 
sea fishing, 69 

Hamilton, Lord George, 302 

Hamilton, Sir William Rowan, 251, 
255. 256, 274 

Hamill, Hugh, 177 

Hancock, Neilson, 287 

Hand, Richard, bounty for gilding 
glass, 220 

Handcock, Hon. George, 282, 382, 384 

Handcock, Rev. Dr., 229 

Harcourt, Earl, 151, 379 

Hardman, Mr., paper on coal mining 
in Tyrone, 368 

Hardwicke, Philip, Earl of, President, 
224, 379 

Harlequin, s.s., 335 

Harrington, William, Earl of, 80, 379 

Harris, Henry, lessee Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, takes over Society's pre- 
mises in Hawkins Street, 96 

Harris, Walter, 46 ; collection of MSS. 
purchased, 172-3 ; MSS. described, 
172 ; his MS. Life of Sir Richard 
Cox, 180 

Harrison, Dr., 279, 280, 285, 383 

Hart, Surgeon John, 245 

Hartley, Travers, 198 

Hartwell, William, silver medal and 
premium for landscape, &c. , 114, 115 

Harty, Dr., 228, 258, 259, 268 

Harvey, W. H., Professor of Botany, 
194, 278, 363 

Hatfield, Mr., inquiry into hop culture, 
22 

Hats, premiums for, 63, 64, 414 

Haughton, Professor Samuel, 363; 
contributions to the Journal, 365-6 

Hawarden, Lord, 280 

Hawker, William, 80 

Hawkins, Margaret, premises held 
under lease from, 95 

Hawkins, William, 95 

Hawkins Street, premises in, acquired 
(1786), 92; Society meets in (1796- 
1815), 94, 106; further premises in, 
acquired, 94 ; described (1818), 96 ; 
site occupied from 1820 by the 
Theatre Royal, 94, 96 ; mentioned, 
125 



442 



A HISTORY OF 



Haycock, Esther, premium for em- 
broidery, 62 

Hayes, James, on co-operative farming 
associations, 368 

Hayes, Major, 335 

Hearn, Dr., premium for cider, 65 

Heer, Dr. Oswald, 367 

Helott, M., translator of The Art of 
Dyeing Wool, &c, 199 

Hely Hutchinson, Right Hon. John, 
142, 143, and n. 1 

Hemp, culture of, 22, 243 

Hemsworth, Thomas, premium for 
making bog profitable, 65 

Henry, Joseph, presents marble figures, 
117 

Henson's flying machine, 363 

Herring fishery : premiums offered for, 

70. 395~ 6 ' 418-19 
Herrings, Irish, sold in Antigua, 

Jamaica, St. Kitts, 70-1 
Hertford, Marquis of, 155 
Hibernia, figure of. See Minerva 
Hibernian Journal, cited, 356 
Hibernian Marine School, boys of, to 
be instructed in the drawing schools, 
118 and n. 2 
Hibernian silk and woollen warehouses, 

198 et seq. 
Hibernian Society of Artists, memorial 

to the Dublin Society, 125 
Hickey, Thomas, 198 
Hickey, Rev. William ("Martin 
Doyle"), 223-4; work of, for Irish 
agriculture, 223-4 
Hicks-Beach, Sir Michael, 302 
Higgins, William, professor of chemis- 
try and mineralogy, 157, 161, 355, 
357 ; analysis of meteoric stone, 228 ; 
chemical apparatus purchased for 
use of, 355-6 ; paper on the use 
of sulphuret of lime in bleaching, 
359; death of, 245; mentioned, 358, 

365 

Highland and Agricultural Society of 
Scotland, 298, 347 

Hill, Edward, 187 

Hill, John (of Eden quay), 192 

Hincks, Rev. Thomas Dix, 192, 226 
and n., 227 

Hoare, Mr. , paper on Irish fisheries, 367 

Hoban, James, 103 n. ; premium for 
drawing, 115 

Hodson, Sir George, 135, 382 

Hoey, Peter, premium for figure draw- 
ing, 114 

Hoey, William, 20 

Hogan, John, sculptor, 128; list of his 
most celebrated statues, 128 



Hogan, William, junior, 229 

Hogan, William, paper on experiments 

in propagating potatoes from seed, 

362 
Hogarth, Richard, premium for carpet, 

59 

Holmes, Robert, 345 

Holt, Ernest W. L. , 335, 336, 337 

Homes of the Society, 88 et seq. ; 
earliest meeting places, 88, 90; pre- 
mises in Mecklenburgh Street, 88 ; 
Shaw's Court, 88-9 ; Grafton Street, 
89-94, 113 ; Poolbeg Street premises, 
91-4 passim, 113; premises in Haw- 
kins Street, 92, 94, 95-8, 106, 125 ; 
Kildare Street, Leinster House, 78, 
95, 96, 98 et seq., 213, 271, 296, 325. 
See also under names of places, cfc. 

Hone, John C. (artist), 122 

Honey and wax, premiums for, 391, 
409 

Honorary secretaries of the Royal 
Dublin Society, list of the, 383-4 

Hop culture, 12, 22, and n. 3 , 37 ; pre- 
miums for, 56, 58, 59, 64, 389, 402 

Hop poles, premiums for, 403 

Hopkins, Rev. Mr., 186 

Hops, Irish, premium for using, in 
brewing, 61, 64 

Horan, Robert, premium for cider, 65 

Horn, silver medal for bass and tenor, 
244 

Horse and cattle breeding: Govern- 
ment assistance to Society for, 315, 
316, 317; premiums for, 315, 411; 
administration of the horse breeding 
scheme, 316; register of stallions, 
316 

Horse shows, 290, 312, 318, 321, 341, 
345 ; the fire in Paddock Hall : 
concrete stalls erected, 314 ; Dublin 
Horse Show, 349 et seq. 

Horses, feeding stuffs for, papers on, 
362, 366 

Horses (stallions), premiums for, 63, 64 

Hort, Josiah (Bishop of Kilmore), 11, 

83 

Horticultural Society, the, 223 

Hosiery trade, instructors in making 
gig-frames paid, 208 

Hoskins, James, executes a statue for 
art schools, 115 

Houghton, Edward, 176 

Houghton, Mr. (sculptor), premiums 
for sculpture, 59, 61 

Houses, prize for plans for building, 63 

Howard, Gorges Edmond, 142 ; His- 
tory of the Irish Exchequer by, 142 

Howard, John, 219 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



443 



Howth, Lord, 28, 350 

Huguenots in Dublin, &c. , referred to 
in the documents of the Society, 33, 
64. 73, 79', French refugee a prize 
winner, 68 

Hume, Rev. Travers, interest in Glas- 
nevin purchased, 191 

Hume, Sir Gustavus, 78 

Hunter, Mary, premium for portrait in 
oils, 114 

Hunter, Matthew, premium and medal 
for drawing, 115 

Hunter [Robt.J (artist), 113 

Huntingdon, Dr. Robert, ^amiti. 1 

Husbandry: Society's interest in, 18, 
19, 234; early methods exemplified, 
23 ; catalogue of books in, prepared, 
*9 ; Sir William Parsons' inventions, 
32 ; the " Weekly Observations," 34, 
35; factory and repository for imple- 
ments of husbandry, 91, 93; sale of 
implements made by J. W. Baker, 
138 ; show of implements of, 345 

Hutchins, Henry, paper on aerial 
travelling, 363 

Hutchinson, Dr. Francis (Bishop of 
Down), 20, 23 ; his works, 42 and n. 

Hutton, Robert, 167, 258, 259 

Hutton, Misses, 167 

Ichthyology, S. and W. coasts of 
Ireland, paper on, 367 

Icofiology, purchased for the library, 173 

levers, John A., premium for planting 
old Danish fort, 74 

Imports into Ireland and the non-use 
of natural advantages, 36 

Industrial Exhibition, 1853 . . . 282 

Ingram, Dr., F.T.C.D., 287 

Instrumental Music Club, 330 

Intermediate Education in Ireland, in- 
quiry into, 372 

International Congress of Applied 
Chemistry, 371 

International Exhibitions, 317, 318 

Inventions, premiums for, 59, 417 

Ireland, Dr., 146 

Ireland, condition of agriculture in, 
after the Revolution, 4; backward 
condition of the country in 1731, 
52-3 ; inquiry into the embarrassed 
situation of the agricultural interest 
in (1816), 234-5 ; papers on imports 
and the non-use of the natural ad- 
vantages of Ireland, 36 ; paper on 
social condition of people of, 364 ; 
Society's work in north-west of, in 
1783, like that of present Congested 
Districts Board, 71 



Irish Artists, Exhibition of 1801, 118 

Irish Artists, Society of, 118 ; file Bill 
in Chancery against the Society for 
injunction, 96 

Irish Farmer's and Gardener's Maga- 
zine, 224 

Irish Farmers' Gazette, quoted, 351 

Irish Historical Tracts, Thorpe Collec- 
tion purchased, 180-1 

Irish history and topography, works on, 
a special feature of the Joly collec- 
tion, 179 

Irish Intermediate Schools, science 
teaching in, 371, 372, 373 

Irish manufactures exhibitions. See 
Manufactures 

Irish manuscripts : in the Joly collec- 
tion, 180 ; preserved in Copenhagen, 
252 

Iron manufacture, with " coak" or 
Irish coal, premium for, 411 

Iron ores, Connaught coalfield, paper 
on, 365 

Ironwork, decorative, premium for, 65 

Irvine, Rev. Aiken, bequest of books, 
182 

Iveagh, Viscount, 377, 383 

Ivory, Thomas, master of the architec- 
tural school, in and «., 114, 116, 
218 n. 

Jackson, Rev. Dr., 20 

Jaffray, Robert, 198 

Jameson [Robt.], professor of miner- 
alogy, 162 

Jarvis, Thomas, 103 

Jesse, Henry, bequest to Society, 149 

Jocelyn, Robert (Lord Newport), Lord 
Chancellor, 45, 46, 83 

Jocelyn, Sir Robert, Bart., 45 

Jocelyn, Thomas, 45 

Johnson, Dr., 176 

Johnson, Dr. Samuel, cited, 53, 142, 
189 

Johnston, Francis, 105 

Johnston, Professor S. P., quoted, 2 

Johnson, Professor T., 371 

Joly, Professor C. J., 370 

Joly, Dr. Jasper, gift to the Library, 
179 

Joly collection of books, MSS., &c, 
179-80 

Joly, Professor John, 383, 384; grant 
in aid of research to, 370 ; quoted 
on the Boyle Medal, 373-4 ; awarded 
the Boyle Medal, 376 ; list of con- 
tributions to science by, 377; suggests 
establishment of a Radium Institute, 
377 



444 



A HISTORY OF 



Jones, Humphrey, premium for hops, 
58 

Jones, John, sculptor, 278 

Journal, R. S. A. I., cited, 174 

Journal of the Royal Dublin Society 
(1856-1876), 364 et sea. ; object and 
character of, 364 ; principal contents 
of the seven volumes of, 365 et sea. 

Journal, Society for preservation of 
memorials of the Dead, cited, 81 

Joy, Miss, 271 

Joy, Rt. Hon. Henry, chief baron, 271, 

381, 383 
Joy & Co., premium for cottons, &c, 

72 
Jukes, Mr., 363 
Juveniles, Christmas lectures for, 356 

Kane, Alderman, 21 

Kane, Sir Robert J., professor of 
Natural Philosophy, R.D.S., 278; 
career of, 255 ; work and lectures of, 
for the Dublin Society, 268, 269, 271, 
277, 278, 285, 346 ; contributions by, 
to the Evening Scientific Meetings, 
361 ; on the soil and waters of flax 
districts and on the ashes of the flax 
plant, 361-2 

Karsten, D. Ludwig Gustavus, Descrip- 
tions of Minerals in the Leskean 
Museum, 156 and n. 2 

Kavanagh, Walter, 220 

Kearney, Abbe", 147 

Kearney, Rev. Dr., 20 

Keating's History of Ireland, transcript 
of, in the Joly collection, 180 

Keating, John, premium for oxen in 
ploughing, 65 

Kelly, Lawrence, Irish Prefect, College 
of Lombards, Paris, 146 

Kelp from sea wrack : Captain Blake's 
discovery, 72 

Kelp making, 359 

Kemmis, Henry, Vice-President, 285, 
382 

Kemp, Robert (Cork), establishes spin- 
ning jennies, &c. , 205 

Kenmare, Lord, premium for planting 
trees, 68 

Kennedy, Dr. Evory, paper on the 
neglect of sanitary arrangements, 
&c, 367 

Kennedy, J. G. , 72 

Kennedy, Martin, premium forplanting 
cider trees, 65 

Kerby, William F., 368 

Kerry, Thomas, 1st Earl of, 143 

Kerry (North) Farming Society, 223 

Kerry volcano, 22 and. n. 2 



Kershaw, Edward, premium for fustian, 

59 
Kiernan, John, 187, 188 
Kildare Farming Society, 222, 233 
Kildare, James, 20th Earl (Duke of 

Leinster), 80, 98 et sea., 146, 280, 

291, 380; his mansion, Leinster 

House, 99 ; the foundation stone, 99 
Kildare, Marquis of, president, 291 
Kildare Place, No. 1 . . . 291 
Kildare Street premises. See Leinster 

House 
Kilkenny City, enlightened views on 

employment in, 63 
Kilkenny County, Tighe's Survey of, 

183 
Killaloe, Bishop of, 115 
Killybegs fishery, Lord Conyngham's 

bequest devoted to extension of, 71 
Kilmacduagh, dean of, 745 
Kilmaine, Lord, 230 
Kinahan, Rt. Hon. Robert, lord 

mayor, 283 
Kinahan, J. R., papers on Crustacea 

contributed to the Society's Journal, 

365 

Kilronan parish, co. Roscommon, 
Conyngham's statistical account of, 
presented, 221 

King, Archbishop, on the Bogs and 
Loughs of Ireland, cited, 20 ; his Col- 
lectanea, 172 

King, Dr. Charles Croker, professor 
of anatomy, R.D.S., 278 

Kingsborough, Lord, 140 

Kingstown, dockyard and shipbuilding 
at, 277 

Kingstown Harbour, rusting of iron in 
sea water of, 359 

Kirk, J. R. , master of the modelling 
school, 134 

Kirk, Thomas, sculptor, 124, 126 

Kirvvan, Martin, 158 

Kirwan, Dr. Richard, 156, 158 ; pre- 
sented with medal of Irish gold, 158 ; 
Elements of Mineralogy by, 156, 158 ; 
his "burning-glass," 158; method of 
estimating milk and alcohol, paper 
on, by, 359 ; outline plan for the 
management of the mines of Ireland, 
359 ; paper on manures and soils, 359 ; 
mentioned, 71, 169, 211 

Knox, Rt. Hon. George, vice-president, 
177, 241, 381 

Kramer, — , master of the King's private 
band, cited, 244 

Laban, Mr., success in tanning, 144 
Laboratory in 1836 . . . 325 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 445 



Labourers' dwellings, improvement of, 
paper on, 364 ; paper on, contributed 
to the Journal, 367. See Agricultural 
Labourer 

Lacam, John, medal for landscape, 
114 

Lace, exhibition of, 320 

Lace, made on catgut, 67 

Lace, premiums for, 56, 58, 6i, 62, 64, 
67, 413, 414 

Lace, thread for, premium awarded 
for, 59 
See also Bone Lace 

Ladaveze, Mr., 115 

Ladies, admission of, as associates, 

3" 

Lafeldt cream separator, 332 

Landed property, prize essay on 
management of, 253 

Lane, D. H., 335 

Lanesborough, Humphrey, 1st Earl of, 
80, 88, 89, 380 

Langrishe, Sir Robert, 228 

Lanigan, Rev. Dr. John, Society's 
librarian, 71, 175-6, 177, 180, 228; 
Instihitiones Biblicce by, 175 ; Ec- 
clesiastical History of Ireland by, 
176 

Laocoon, cast of, presented, 117 

Lapham, Samuel, premium for cottons, 
&c, 72 

Lapis cala/uinaris discovered in Sligo, 
84 

Lardner, Dr. Dionysius, 238 ; lectures 
for the Society, 238 ; Cabinet Cyclo- 
pedia, 238 

La Touche, David Digges, 79 

La Touche, Rt. Hon. David, vice-pre- 
sident, 117 and »., 236, 381 

La Touche, George, bequest of Etrus- 
can vases, 245 

La Touche, James Digges, 79 

La Touche, Peter Digges, vice-pre- 
sident, 104, 236, 381 

La Touche, Robert, 345 

Laurence, Edward, 92 

Laval cream separator, 332 

Lawes, Sir John Burnet, 367 

Lawless, Valentine B. See Cloncurry, 
Lord 

Lawrence, Dr. , 272 

Lawson, Dr. Henry, 366-7 

Leacan, book of, formerly in Lombards 
College, Paris, now in Royal Irish 
Academy, 147 

Lead and copper (sheet) manufactured, 

T 73 

Leader, Nicholas P., 104, 177 

Lecky, W. E. H., cited, 4, 32-3 ; Ire- 



land in the Eighteenth Century, 
quoted, 5 

Lecture Theatre, 325, 326 ; the new 
buildings, 326 et sea. ; ventilation, 
326, 327, 328; cost, 327; seating 
accommodation, 327 ; false ceiling, 
327 ; the screen for lantern projec- 
tions, 327-8 ; the platform, 328 ; 
the organ, 328 

Lectures on steam-engines, &c. , 237- 
8 

Lectures in provincial towns, 277, 283, 
285 

Lectures in chemistry and natural 
philosophy, 160-1, 246, 356; after- 
noon lectures, 356 ; Christmas lectures 
for juveniles, 356 

Lectures, question of gratuitous ad- 
mission to, 247, 263, 266 

Lee, Mr. (Wexford), premium for 
hops, 58 

Lee [Anth.] (artist), no 

Lee and Kennedy, 190 

Leech, Charles, 134 

Legacy to the Society, 149 

Legacies to the Society, intimation of, 
rewarded, 84 

Le Hunte, Francis, 6, 9 

Le Hunte, P., 229 

Le Hunte, Richard, 9 

Le Hunte, Thomas, 199, 381 

Le Hunte, Major, 220 

Leicester, Thomas Coke, Earl of, 231-2 

Leigh, John, 152, 381 

Leinster, agriculture in, 247 

Leinster coalfields, 168, 169 

Leinster, Duchess of, 199 

Leinster, Augustus Frederick, Duke of, 
104 

Leinster, Charles William, Duke of, 
279, 280, 291, 380, 382 

Leinster, James, 1st Duke of. See 
Kildare, Earl of 

Leinster, William Robert, Duke of, 

103. 114. 3 Sl 
Leinster House, vi, 78, 95-6, 98 et seq. ; 
James Malton's account of, 100-3; 
pictures in, 102, 422-3 ; mantelpieces 
in, 104 ; the registrar's office in, 104 ; 
acquired by the Society, 104, 106, 
107, 213; alterations and rearrange- 
ments, 105, 107; the "kitchen," 
106, 325; the lawn, 106; expendi- 
ture on the house and new buildings, 
107 ; stable and coach houses, 127 ; 
damaged by storm, 271 ; additional 
buildings and alterations for, 272; 
works of art in, 149, 158, 422 et seq.; 
accommodation in, under the 



44-6 



A HISTORY OF 



" Memorandum of Provisions," 292- 
303 passim 

Leland, Dr. Thomas, 142 

Le Neve, cited, 272 

Lennox, Lady Emily, 99 

Lepidosiren annectens, habits, &c. of, 
paper on, 366 

Leske, Nathaniel Gottfried, arranged 
the cabinet called Leskean, 156 

Leskean cabinet of mineralogy, the, 
97, 156, 157, 355 ; restoration of, 
157. 165 

Leupold, Jacob, Laws of Mechanics, 31 

Levinge, Richard, 82 

Levinge, Sir Richard, 2nd Bart., 
bequest to D. S. and Chancery pro- 
ceedings thereon (1735-6), 82 

Library, the, 170 et seq. ; the earliest 
volumes acquired by, 13 ; rule govern- 
ing the purchase of books, 170 ; the 
catalogues of, 170-2, 175, 176, 178 ; 
presentation of books by Dr. Tenni- 
son, 172; purchase of the Harris 
collection of manuscripts, 172-3 ; 
purchases of books, 173-4, 178, 246 ; 
translations from Dutch and German 
works, 174-5 ; appointment of Dr. 
Lanigan as librarian, 175; appoint- 
ment of Dr. Samuel Litton, 176, 
178 ; regulations, 176, 263 ; librarian's 
salary and duties, 176; assistant 
librarian appointed, 176 ; standing 
committee of, 177; presentation to, 
by Mr. Thomas Pleasants, 177-8 ; 
in 1826, 178 ; the Joly collection, 
179-80 ; Thorpe collection of Irish 
Historical Tracts, 180-1 ; pamphlets 
in, 181 ; bequest by the Rev. William 
Tew, 181 ; statistics as to usefulness 
of, 181 ; transferred to the National 
Library of Ireland, 173, 181, 182, 
293, 353 ; the Society's share in the 
management of the National Library, 
353-4 ; part of, reserved to the Dublin 
Society, 182, 354 ; various bequests 
of books to the new library, 181, 
182 ; the " Tighe bequest," 182 ; the 
new library building, 303 ; amount 
spent in purchase of books for the 
new library, 354 ; catalogue of, 

354 
Liebig, cited, 359 
Lighthouse illumination, gas applied 

to, paper by J. R. Wigham, 368 
Limax maximus, paper on, 367 
Linen Board, the, 72, 75 
Linen, damask, premiums for, 57, 64 
Linen manufacture, promotion of, 28, 

37. 59 



Linen Manufacture : Trustees, 91 

Linen rags, premiums for collection of, 
64, 67 

Linnaeus, cited, 355 

Liquorice, premiums for, 390, 407 

Literary work, premiums for, 66-7 

Litton, John, law agent, 239 

Litton, Dr. Samuel, Society's librarian, 
176, 194, 245, 259, 260, 278 ; profes- 
sor of botany, 178, 194 

Live stock show, 248 

Livingstone, Dr., attends British Asso- 
ciation meeting in Dublin (1857), 287 

Lloyd, Dr. Bartholomew, 254 

Lloyd, Rev. Humphrey, 286, 382 

Loan and bounties system, 32, 84, 113, 
141, 204; first instance of, 32 

Locker, John, silversmith, 145 

London Institution for Diffusing Know- 
ledge : its plans to be adopted by 
the Society, 160 

London Veterinary College. See Royal 
Veterinary College of London 

Longfield, John, silver medal for plant- 
ing, 145 

Longfield, Thomas H., 167 

Longford county. See Quarries 

Lough Neagh, silicified woods of: 
Scouler on, 361 

Louth Farming Society, 222 

Lovel, J. C, donation in aid of the 
dairy industries, 332 

Lucas, Charles, 79 

Lucern, premiums for cultivation of, 
388, 401 

Luttrell, Simon, Lord Carhampton, 
85,86 

Lynch, James, lecturer in hydraulics, 
mechanics, &c. , 160 

Lyne, John, premium for catching 
fish, 66 

Lyon, Dr. John, 46 and tiA 

Lysaght, Thomas, collector and soli- 
citor to the Society, 225, 228, 384 

Lyster, Rev. Dr., assistant secretary, 
227, 384 

Lyster, Thomas W. , librarian, National 
Library, 179 

Macbride, David ,72, x/s^andn. , 173 ; 
New Method of Tanning, 144 

McCalla, Mr., paper on Irish algae, 
361 ; on Irish flora and fauna, 361 

McCarthy, Bucknall, assistant secre- 
tary, 227, 384 

McClintock, Sir F. L. , career of, 280-1 ; 
reminiscences of Arctic ice travel in 
search of Sir John Franklin, 365 ; 
mentioned, 287, 366, 367 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 447 



McCready, John, premium for drawing, 

US 

McDaniel (or McDonnell), Michael, 
premium for paper, 64 ; premium 
for erecting paper mill, 65 

McDonald, William, 224 

McDonnell, Sir E., 283 

McDonnell, Michael. See McDaniel 

McDonnell, Dr. Robert, paper contri- 
buted to the Journal, 366 

McDonnell, Sir W., 282 

McDonnell, Mr. , assistant librarian, 176 

Mace of the Society, 288, 289 

McEvoy, William, Taylor prizeman, 

135 

McGwire, Arthur, hon. secretary, 211, 

383 

Mackenzie, Sir George, 165, 167 

Maclean, Misses, premium for lace 
thread, 59 

MacClery, Henry, premium for damask 
linen, 57 

McMahon, Denis, premium for sowing 
land, 59 

McManus, Henry, 133, 134 

Macrory, R. J., 135 

Madden, Francis, premium for planting 
trees, 73 

Madden, Sir Frederick, librarian of the 
British Museum, 255 

Madden, James, seal cutter, 113 

Madden, Dr. John, 6, 52 

Madden, Mrs. Elizabeth, manufactures 
thread in co. Deny, 145 

Madden, Rev. John, 145 

Madden, Mary, ne'e Molyneux, 52 

Madden, Samuel, D.D. ,v, 46, 52; " Pre- 
mium " Madden, 53 ; system of pre- 
miums for the encouragement of 
learning and industries, 32, 36, 46, 
S 2 > 53> 54 et se Q-> 63, 66; premiums 
for drawing by boys or girls, 108, 
109, in, 114; Re/lections and Reso- 
lutions and other works by, 52-3, 
237 ; Letter to the Dubli?i Society on 
improving their Fund (1739), 53 et 
seq. ; urges the encouragement of Irish 
industries, 54 ; work in procuring the 
Society's Royal Charter, 53, 75, 76; 
bust of, by Van Nost, 53, 90 n. 3 

Madder, 13 and n. 1 , 32 ; premiums for, 
64 

Madox's History of the Exchequer 
cited, 142 

Magnussen, Professor, 252 

Magrath, John, premium for planting 
trees, 60 

Maguire, Colonel Hugh, premium for 
planting trees, 65 



Malt liquor, premiums for, 56 

Malta. See Fossiliferous 

Malting, 359 

Malting barley, improvement in, 349 

Malton, James, his description of 
Leinster House quoted, 100-3 

Management of the Society, 261-2, 
264, 265, 267. See also under Council 
and Committees 

Manganese salts, detection and pre- 
paration of, 362 

Mann, Dr. Isaac, Bishop of Cork, 83, 
172, 381 

Manners, Lord, 130 

Mannin, James, master in the drawing 
school, 90 7Z. 2 , in, 112, 114, 131 

Mannin, John, medal for landscape, 
114 

Manufactures, Exhibitions of Irish, 
253, 271, 280, 317 et seq., 365; at 
Manchester, 319, 320 

Manufactures, premiums offered for, 
411 et seq. 

Manure heaps, wasteful management 
of: a paper on, 361 

Manures, applicability of, to soils : Dr. 
Kirwan's paper on, 359 

Manuring, premiums for, 58, 63, 66 

Manuscripts : Harris collection of, pur- 
chased, 172-3; relating to Ireland, 
committee of inquiry appointed, 
146-7 

Map, Taylor and Skinner's large scale 
continuous road map, award for, 152 

Maple, William, registrar, 6, 10, 13,21, 
29, 43, 80, 383, 384; presented with 
gold medal, 84 

Mapother, Dr., paper on " Labourers' 
dwellings," &c. , 367 

Maps of Ireland, by Grierson, 19 

Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed, 
152 and n. 1 

Maps. See Down Survey and Geolo- 
gical 

Marble quarries found, 155 ; black 
marble (Kilkenny), 19; specimens 
from Galway, 159 

Mares, no premium granted for, 
in 1753 ... 68 

Marine laboratory, 337 

Markham, Mr., 287 

Marsh, Dr. Narcissus, Archbishop of 
Dublin, 3; MS. Diary of, cited, 4 
and n.i ; the Library founded by, in 
Dublin, 2 nA, 4 n.i, 177, 178, 287 

Marsh and boglands, draining of, 12 

Maryborough, spinning school at, 207 

Mason, W. S., 184 

Massereene, Lord, 280 



44 8 



A HISTORY OF 



Mathewson, Richard, premium for 
blue " sugar loaf" paper, 66 

Matthews, John, piece of sculpture, 
6i 

Maturin, Rev. Gabriel Jacques, Hon. 
Secretary, 33, 383 

Maule, Henry (Bishop of Meath), 80 

Maunsell, Rev. Dr., gold medal for 
potato culture, 224 and n. 

Maunsell, Ven. William R., 245 

Maxwell, Arthur, premium for manur- 
ing with sea sand, &c. , 66 

Mayo Farming Society, 222 

Meade, George, 122 

Mechanic arts, Society's interest in, 
19 ; premiums for, 417 

Mecklenburg Street, premises in, taken 
for Botanic Garden, 88 ; premises 
and meetings in (1739-40), 88 

Medal, premium offered for a, 417 

Medals, recipients of Society's gold, 72, 
145. 225 

Medals in the museum, catalogue of, 
176, 177 

Medals — not money premiums, to be 
given to those possessing ^500 a 
year, 71 

Medals of the Society : designs for, 220 ; 
Mossop's medal, 220 

Meeting-places of the Society. See 
Homes of the Society 

Members in 1733, list of, 24 et seq. 
number of, at end of 1742, 60 
list of names of, in the Charter, 76 
members of the voluntary society 
elected subsequent to the date of the 
Charter, 77; regulation as to honor- 
ary, 215 ; list of members present at 
meetings first printed, 225; formal 
introduction of new members, 228 ; 
rule as to choice of a subject of in- 
terest by each member, 17, 18, 44 

Membership : election to, by ballot, 14, 
84 ; regulations as to membership 
and arrears of subscriptions, 43 ; 
composition fee for life membership, 
83, 285 ; first instance of rejection of a 
candidate for, 86 ; period of decline 
in, due to steps taken with regard to 
arrears of subscription, 151 See also 
under Admission and Subscriptions 

Membership and by-laws, 214 et seq. 

Memorandum of Provisions, as to 
Leinster House, &c. (1877), 292, 

3 2 5 
Memorials of manufacturers to the 

Society, 69 
Memory, Feinagle's system of, 229 
Mendicity, Society for the Suppression 



of, occupy Society's premises in Pool- 
beg Street, 95 

Mercier, R. E. , catalogues the Library, 
*75 

Merino factory at Kilkenny, 208 

Meteoric (Tipperary) stone, analysis of, 
157, 228 

Meteorological records taken at the 
Botanic Garden, returns of, 359, 369 

Metternich, Prince Victor, honorary 
member, 230 

Metzler, Karl Ludwig. See Giesecke 

Meyler, Dr. Anthony, lecturer on ven- 
tilation, 238, 250 

Microscope, paper on the, 366 

Mihil, Mrs. , premium for lace, 67 

Milk, estimation of richness of, Dr. Kir- 
wan's paper on, 359 

Millard, J., The New Art of Memory, 
229 

Miller, Dr. James, 163 

Miller, Joseph, premium for tanning, 67 

Millet, premiums for, 390 

Mills, Charles, 223 

Milton, John, 224 

Milward, Dawson, 331, 332 ; Report on 
the Butter Manufacture of Denmark 
and other Countries, 1879 ... 331 

Minchin, Humphrey, 229 

Mineralogical Museum, or School, 154 
et seq. , 159, 165 ; the work of Donald 
Stewart, 154-6 ; purchase of the 
Leskean cabinet, 156-7 ; appoint- 
ment of a professor of chemistry and 
mineralogy, 157 ; purchase of manu- 
scripts and drawings concerning 
mineralogy, geology, and mining, 

157 ; communication established with 
the Imperial Museum, Vienna, 157; 
the work of Dr. Richard Kirwan, 

158 ; donation of shells, &c. , 158 ; 
gift of volcanic specimens and hard 
woods, 159 ; premium offered for the 
best geological and mineralogical 
survey of co. Dublin, 161 ; opening 
of the museum, 161 ; a professor of 
mineralogy and geology appointed, 
162 ; appointment of a mining en- 
gineer ; the work of Richard 
Griffith, jun., 162-3, 168-9; election 
of C. L. Giesecke to the professor- 
ship, 163, 165; number of specimens 
of minerals in, 165 

Mineralogical excursion into Arabia 

Petrsea, paper on, 365 
Mineralogical description of rocks in 

Central India, on, 366 
Minerva (or Hibernia), figure of, 97, 

220, 425 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 449 



Mining Board, project for formation of 

a, 157 
Mining engineer appointed, 162 
Minutes of the Society, the, ix ; first 

signed by chairman in 1759, 89; 

missing books of, 49, 86, 108, 137, 

380 n. 
Mitchell. Dr. George, 156 n. 2 , 157 
Modelling, premiums for, no, in 
Modelling school, 123, 124, 127, 132 ; 

usefulness of, to silver trade, 130 ; 

consolidated into the Government 

School of Design, 134 
Models, premium offered for, 416 
Moira, Lord, 146 
Molesworth, family, 98, 105 
Molesworth, John (second Viscount), 98 
Molesworth, Richard (third Viscount), 

98 
Molesworth, Robert (first Viscount), 

S.98 
Molyneux, Sir Capel, his mansion in 

Peter Street, 89 
Molyneux, Mary. See Madden 
Molyneux, Samuel (father), 2 
Molyneux, Samuel (grandson), 4 
Molyneux, Sir Thomas (son), 2, 4, 6, 

7-8, 52 
Molyneux, William (son), founder of 

the Dublin Philosophical Society, 2, 

3. 4. 5- 7. 52 

Monaghan, Charles, premium for im- 
proving ploughs, 58 

Montgomery, Alexander, 115 

Mooney, John, premium for surveying 
instrument, 59 

Moore, Ambrose, 94 

Moore, Andrew, premium for herrings, 
70 

Moore, David, curator of the Botanic 
Garden, 195, 196, 279, 363, 368 

Moore, Sir Frederick W. , curator, 
Botanic Garden, 196 

Moore, Rev. Henry, 177 

Moore, Maurice Crosbie, 228 

More, A. G. , 368 

Morpeth, Lord, Chief Secretary, 249 

Morres, Lodge, 204, 381. See also 
Frankfort de Montmorency 

Morres, Redmond, K.C., when on cir- 
cuit as Judge, viewed lace manufac- 
ture at Castlebar, 141 and «. 2 , 199, 
38 1 

Morris, Mr. William, 92 

Moss, Richard Jackson, Registrar of the 
Society, 291, 295, 384 

Mosse, Bartholomew, 79 

Mossop, William, medallist, 126, 224 ; 
his medal of the D.S. , 220 



Mossop, Stephen, 96, 125, 126, 166 

Motto of the Society, 79 

Mountain land, reclamation of dry, 
65. 386, 398 

Mountjoy, Lord, 220 

Mountney, Baron Richard, when on 
circuit, took premium lists for distri- 
bution, 141 and n. 1 

Mountnorris, Earl of, 195 

Mozart, 164; opera of the Magic 
Flute, Giesecke wrote libretto of, 
104 

Mulberry (white) tree cultivation, 84 

Mulhall, William, premium for re- 
claiming mountain land, 65 

Mullins, George, premium for land- 
scape, 114 

Mulvany, George F., 132 

Mulvany, John George, 115, 131, 132 

Mulvany, Thomas James, 96, 131, 
132 

Munster Agricultural Magazine, 226 

Munster Dairy School, Cork, 332 

Murray, Nathaniel (engraver), 113 

Murray, Most Rev. Dr., R.C. Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, rejected as a 
member on political grounds, 251, 

259 
Museum of Irish Industry, 255, 284-5, 

356 
Music, Chamber, Committee, 329-30 
Musical recitals, 323, 329 et seq. ; ana- 
lytical notes on the music performed, 
330 ; scores of the pieces obtainable 
in cheap form, 330 
Muskerry, Lord, 86 
Mustard seed, premiums for, 390 
Myers, Christopher, 90 and n. 1 , 91 
Myers, Lieut. -Col., 90 n. 1 
Myersville, now Wynberg, 90 n. 1 

Naper, J. L. W., 251, 252, 345, 382 
Napoleon, numerous works on cam- 
paigns of, in the Joly collection, 
179 
National Gallery of Ireland, 287 
National Library of Ireland, 173, 179, 
181, 353, 354; number of readers 
attending, 181 ; relation to the Royal 
Dublin Society, 182, 353-4 
National Museum, 197, 247, 264 ; art 

collections, 245 
Natural History of any (Irish) county, 

premium offered for a, 69, 396 
Natural History Building, 286, 317 
Natural History Museum founded, 355 
Natural philosophy and chemistry, lec- 
tures in, 160-1, 356 
Navigation: Telfier's instrument, 48-9 

2 F 



45° 



A HISTORY OF 



Nedley, Michael, premium for killing 
rats, 63 

Newcomen, Sir Thomas G. , Hon. 
Treasurer, 227, 385 

Newcomen, Sir William G. , Hon. 
Treasurer, 187, 218, 227, 385 

Newcomen House, 112 «., 218 n. 

Newcomen's bank, 218 n. 

Newenham, Mr., 176 

Newport, Lord. See Jocelyn, Robert 

Newton, Isaac, 246 

New Zealand, paper on trees of, 367 

Nicholson, Bishop, Letters cited, 188 

Nicholson, William, 72 

Nimmo, Alexander, bust of, 277-8 

Niven, Ninian, head gardener at Glas- 
nevin, 195, 254; his Visitors Com- 
panion to the Botanic Gardens, 196 

Noble, Archibald, premium for plant- 
ing trees, 60 

Norfolk, Duke of: hon. member, 224 

Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, 129, 
248, 249, 380 

Northumberland, Duchess of, 130, 249 

Norton, Mary, premium for planting 
trees, 60 

Nost, John. See Van Nost 

Nowland, Thomas, 208 

Nummarium, the, 149, 177 

Nummys, John, 21 

Nurseries : enclosures of forest trees, 
premium for, 406 

Nurserymen, premiums to, for taking 
apprentices, 193 

O'Brien, Daniel, premium for ale, 62 

O'Brien, Sir Lucius, 154 

O'Brien, William Smith, 258, 290; 
bequest of pictures by, 298 ; the 
rising of, in 1848, 270; troops quar- 
tered on Society's premises during 
rising of, 278 

O'Connell, Daniel, 276 ; Hogan's 
statue of, 128 

O'Connell, Morgan J., 279 

O'Connell, Morgan J., Mrs., ne'e Bian- 
coni, 279 

O'Dowd, D. , 322 

Oeder, George Christian, 173 n. 

Officials of the Society (1731-1914), list 
of, 379 et seq. ; account of ballot held 
for election of, in 1732, 21 ; annual 
election of, in 1750, 80 ; new rules as 
to, 227 

O'Gorman, Chevalier Thomas, to in- 
quire as to Irish MSS., &c, in Paris, 
146 

O'Hara, H., paper on Irish coalfields 
and peat, 367 



O'Keefe, John, Recollections of {re 

Drawing Academy), cited, 112 
O'Keely, John, medal for drawing, 

US 

Oldham, Mr., 277 

Oldis, David, premium for osiers and 
willows, 68 

O'Neil, — , 118 

O'Neill, Charles, Irisn principal, Col- 
lege of Lombards, Paris, 146 

Optical science : Mr. T. Grubb's con- 
tributions to, 361 ; Sir Howard 
Grubb's contributions to, 377 

Organ in the Lecture Theatre, the, 
3 2 8, 33° 

Organ recital, 328 

Oriel, Baron. See Foster, Right Hon. 
John 

Ormsby, Rev. George, premium for 
draining bog, 68 

Orpen, Dr. T. H., 228 

Orrery, Earl of, 29, 30; Remarks on 
the Life and Writings of Jonathan 
Swift, 29, 30 

Orthocerata, paper on, 366 

Osiers : no premiums granted for plant- 
ing in 1753, 68 ; premiums in 1754, 
68 

Osiery of the Society, in Wexford, 84 

O' Toole, Archbishop Laurence, 187 

Owen, James H., designs palm house, 
G'asnevin, 196 

Oxford Junior Scientific Club, 375 

Oxford Philosophical Society, cited, 1 

Oxmantown, Lord, marble, &c, on his 
estate in Longford, 155 

Ozier, Francis, premium for velvet and 
silk, 68 

Pack, Faithful Christopher, claims to 

have recovered an Italian mode of 

painting, 121 
Page, Anne, premium for lace, 61 
Paintings, premiums and awards for, 

57, 61, 64, 66, 114, 119, 135, 415 
Panormo, Constantine, sculptor: master 

of the modelling school, 128, 129 

andn., 132, 134, 242 
Paper-making mill : premiums for, 65 
Paper manufacture, 22, 363; premiums 

for, 64, 67 ; " sugar loaf" paper, 66 
Papers printed by the Society, a minute 

as to (1737), 36 
Papworth, John, master of architectu- 
ral school, 132 
Paris, College of the Lombards, Irish 

MSS., &c. , in, 146 
Parke, E., superintends buildings at 

Glasnevin, 190-1 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 451 



Parker, — ,uses Fuller's earth in woollen 

manufacture, 154 
Parliament Act regulating wages of 

silk weavers, 200 
Parliament House, the Society meets 

in the, 6, 12, 88, 90 
Parliamentary grants in aid of the 

Dublin Society, 86, 87, 144, 187, 209 

etseq., 218, 240, 258, 260; House of 

Commons select committee, 258 et 

seq. 
Parnell, Sir John, aids in spinning 

worsted, 207 
Parnell (the poet), resided at Glasnevin, 

188 
Parr, [Saml.], cited, 142 
Parsnips, premiums for, 387, 400 
Parsons, Sir William, his " terrier " for 

pulling up small trees, 32 
Parvisol, Mr., premium for hats, 63 
Pasleyjoshua, executor of T. Pleasants' 

will, 237 
Pasture, premium for essay on laying 

down ground for, 253 
Paterson, John, premium for a table 

decoration, 65 
Pattern drawing, premiums for, 415 
Patton, John, Society's librarian, 178, 

179, 285 
Paulet, John, premium for tapestry, 65 
Paulet, Richard, premiums for tapestry, 

66, 67 
Payne (of Pall Mall), 173 
Peacock, Joseph, 96 
Peall, Thomas, lecturer in the veterinary 

establishment, 160, 338, 339 
Pearce, Sir Edward, 28 
Pearl barley, premiums for, 414 
Peat, 359 ; paper on, 367 
Peat, premium for essay on converting 

it into fuel, 253 
Peat and peat charcoal, 362 
Peat bogs — scientific examination of 

bog butter, 358 
Peers, Edward and Nicholas (brewers, 

of Lisburn), premium, 72 
Pelham, Mr. Secretary, 224 
Pembroke, Earl of, 231, 311, 313 
Pendarves, Mrs. See Delany, Mrs. 
Penrose, William, premium for glass 

manufacture, 74 
Percival, Dr. John, 339 
PercivaJ, Dr. Robert, 155, 187 
Percy, — , former pupil, executes pre- 
sentation plate, 130 
Pergolesi, Michael Angelo, Society sub- 
scribes to his volume of Designs in 

Etruscan style, 116 
Perpetual motion machine, 219 



Perry and M alone, premium for printing 

with letters of their own making, 65 
Persepolis ruins, casts from, presented 

to the Society, 245-6 
Peter, A., Account of the Magdalen 

Chapel, Dublin : its Foundress, &*c. , 

cited, 143 n. 2 
Peters, Matthew William, sent to study 

painting in Italy, 112, 130 
Petrie, George, 119, 122, 278 Memoir 

of, by Dr. William Stokes, 119 
Petrie, James, 119, 122 
Petty, Sir William, 1, 2 andn., 7, 21, 

143, 148 
Petty, Anne (daughter), 2 n., 143 
Pharmacopoeia Pauperum, for dispen- 
sing medicine to the poor, erected 

by the Society, 144 
Philips, Ambrose, 30 
Philosophical lectures, 160-1 
Philosophical Magazine, 255, 368 
Philosophical Society's rooms (Trinity 

College), meetings in, 6, 88, 90 
Photographic work, laboratory for, 328 
Physico-Historical Society (1744-1752), 

45-6, 53 ; minute book of, preserved, 

45 ; histories of counties projected by, 

46 
Pilkington, Rev. Matthew, 13 
Pim, Thomas, jun., 319, 321 
Place, Francis, premium for engine for 

beetling linen cloth, 59 
Place, Thomas, premium for a stallion, 

63 
Planchard, Nicholas, premium for 

black cloth, 68 
Planting trees and sallows, premiums 

for, 58, 59, 61, 63, 65, 68, 73, 74, 

403 et seq. 
Plants in enclosures, 74 
Plants, newly discovered in Ireland, 

paper on, 363 
Plate glass, premiums for, 74 
Plate, presentation, executed by former 

pupils of drawing schools, 130 
Pleasants asylum for orphan girls, the, 

2 37 

Pleasants, Thomas, 236, 237 ; bequest 
of pictures and prints, 127, 193, 239 ; 
conditions of bequest, 237; presen- 
tation of books and other gifts to 
Society, 177-8, 237 ; presentation for 
the Botanic Garden, 193; munificent 
provision of a tenter house;by, 178, 206 
and n. ; contributes to erection of 
a hospital, 178; reprints Madden's 
Reflections and Resolutions , 52, 237 ; 
will of, 236, 237 ; portrait of, 237. 

Pleasants, William, 237 



452 



A HISTORY OF 



Plesiosaurus P. Cramptoni, 367 

Plough, Ploughs: drain plough, 38,417 ; 
three-coulter, 38 ; trial of, in Phoenix 
Park, 21, 38; premium awarded for 
improving, 58 

Ploughing, instruction in, 23, 50 

Ploughing, subsoil, premium for essay 
on, 277 

Ploughing with oxen, premiums for, 65 

Plowman, Frederick Prussia, studied 
under Sir Joshua Reynolds, 115 

Plunket, Catherine, premium for edg- 
ing, 62 

Plunket, Sir Horace, 333 

Pococke, Richard (Bishop of Ossory), 
46, 78, 112 

Pomeroy, The Rev. the Hon. John, 
104, 381 

Pool, Robert (a former pupil), and his 
plans of public buildings in Dublin, 
152 

Poolbeg St. premises of the Society, 
1781-1815, 91-6; first used as re- 
positoryfor implements of husbandry, 

9i-3 
Poole, T. H. , 335 
Pope, Alexander, bust of, by Roubiliac, 

23.S 

Portlock, Capt. Joseph E., 258, 260 

Portraits and Works of Art, in Leinster 
House, 422 et seq. 

Portuguese trade, woollen, &c. , 204 

Potato crop, inquiry into failure of, 321 

Potato crop failure (1822), efforts to 
relieve distress, 357 

Potato cultivation, 224, 323, 359 ; in- 
vestigation of disease, 277 ; experi- 
ments in spraying, 323-4 ; effect of 
meteorological conditions on disease, 
a paper on, 361 ; on experiments in 
propagating from seed, a paper, 362 

Potato starch, investigation of, 357 

Potatoes brought to Dublin by canal, 
premium for, 73 

Poultry rearing, premiums for essay on, 
252 

Poultry show, 345 

Power, Robert, premium for planting 
trees, 73 ; premium for taking ap- 
prentices, 193 

Powerscourt, Mervyn, Viscount, Pre- 
sident, 287, 380, 382 

Pozzuolana, discovered at Larne, 155 
and n. 

" Premium," Madden. See Madden, 
Samuel 

Premium system inaugurated, 52 et 
seq. ; the objects for premiums, 58, 
59, 63 {and see undernames of objects) ; 



paucity of claimants in 1753, 68 ; 
premiums offered in the year 1766, 
68-9, 386^ seq. ; by-law as to wealthy 
people : their claims to be recognised 
by medals, 71 ; encouragement to 
poor renters of land, 71-2 ; abuses 
and deceptions, 72 ; beneficial results 
in increasing acreage and trees, 73 ; 
implements of husbandry instead of 
money premiums, 93 ; decline in 
agriculture notwithstanding, 136; 
affected by arrears of subscriptions 
and discontinued, 149-50; general 
directions to candidates, 420-1 

Prendergast, J. P., 256 

President, rules as to the, 14, 290-1 

Presidents of the Royal Dublin Society, 
list of the, 379-80 

Preston, Professor, 370, 376 

Prince Consort, Vice- Patron of the 
Society, 277, 312 ; visits of, to the 
Botanic Garden and Exhibitions, 
197, 279, 280, 288 ; statue of, on 
Leinster Lawn, 290 

Prince of Wales, 288, 311 

Printing and typemaking, premium for, 

65 

Prior, Thomas, Secretary to the Society, 
9, 80-2, 383 ; monument to, 9, 80-1 ; 
marble bust of, by Van Nost, 9, 
90 ?i. z ; mentioned, 6, 12, 13, 21, 23, 
28, 38, 43, 46, 108 

Prittie, Colonel, silver mines of, in co. 
Tipperary, 21 

Probate Duties Grant, the, 315, 320 

Proceedings of the Society, index to, 
178 ; General Index, 228 ; minutes 
of Evening Scientific Meetings and 
Sectional Evening Meetings in, 360, 
361 

Property of the Society : resolution of 
Select Committee as to, 260 ; views 
of the Society, 264 ; declaration by 
the Society as to, 266 

Prout, Professor Ebenezer, 330 

Public buildings in Dublin, premium 
for plans of, 152 

Public Gazetteer, the, 141 

Pue's Occurrences, 11, 23, 34, 44, 59, 
60, 62 

Pullein, Rev. Samuel, premium for 
best written book, 66-7 

Putland, George, interest in Glasnevin, 
191, 192 

Putland, John, Treasurer, 385 ; pre- 
sented with gold medal, 84 

Quarries of flags, slate, and marble, 
co. Longford, 155 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



453 



Quarterly Journal of the Royal Dublin 

Society, 1856-61, 287 
Queen's College, Cork, 255 
Queen Victoria visits the Botanic 

Garden and Exhibition, 197, 279, 

281, 282 
Querk, Matthew, premium for blankets, 

68 
Quilting, premiums for, 72 

Radium Committee, 378 

Radium emanation outfit, 329 

Radium Institute, 377-8 

Raeburn, Sir Henry, 167 

Rags, premiums for collection of, for 

making paper, 64, 67 
Rain, black, paper on, 362 
Ranalow, Mr., premium for sculpture, 

59 
Randal, Robert, premium for paper, 

64 
Rankin, — , uses Fuller's earth in 

woollen manufacture, 154 
Rape seed, premiums for, 390, 407 
Rape transplantation, a method of, 51 
Rathlin Island, 20, 155 ; Raglilin 

Church Catechism, 20 
Raths. See Danish 
Rats, killing of, premiums for, 63 
Rawdon, Sir Arthur, Bart., 82 
Rawdon, Isabella, 82 
Raymond, Miss, premium for lace, 62 
Raymond, Samuel, premium for cider, 

68 
Raynal, Abbe, 219 
Reclaiming land, premiums for, 63, 

65. 386, 398 
Reeves, Dr. (Bishop of Down), 232, 257 
Registrar, the office of, abolished 

(1798), 220; new rules as to (1808), 227 
Registrars of the Royal Dublin Society, 

list of the, 384 
Reiley, [Jas.], (artist), 113 
Reilly, Edmund, 198 
Reilly, Philip, premium for draining 

bogs, 65 
Reilly, Richard, printer to the Society, 

37.6i 
Rentals, Incumbered and Landed 

Estates Court, bequeathed to the 

Society, 290 
Renters (small) of land, premiums for, 

7i 
Reports of Scientific Meetings, 362 
Research, grants in aid of, 370 
Reyly, Daniel, premium for tapestry, 

65 
Reynell, Richard, gold medal for tree 
planting, 72 



Reynolds, Dr. J. Emerson, 291 ; papers 

contributed to the Journal, 367 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 115, 120 «.i, 121, 

236 
Rhames, Aaron, 8, 11, 18, 24 
Riall, Capt. T- Lewis, Vice-President, 

68, 383, 384 
Rickey, — , uses Fuller's earth in 

woollen manufacture, 154 
Rigby, Mr., 269 
Riggs or Ricks, Catherine, premium 

for edging, 62 
Riverston, Lord, 220 
Roberts, Eliz. , premiums for lace, 58, 

61 
Roberts, Hugh, 109 
Roberts, Lewis, premium for sowing 

acorns and timber seeds, 68 
Robertson, Charles, 114, 122 
Robertson, James, 331 
Robertson, Walter, 114 
Robinson, Charles, 96, 118 
Robinson, Rev. Thomas Romney, 276 
Robinson, Thomas, 276 
Roche, John, premium for buckles, &c, 

57 
Roe, George, 282, 283 
Roe, Henry, 80 

Roman inscriptions, a paper on, 21 
Roscommon, Weld's survey of, 183-4 ■" 

Farming Society, 222 
Rose, premiums for new species, 227 
Ross, Capt. Sir James C. , 280 
Ross, Sir John, 254 
Ross, Robert (of Rostrevor), 31, 186, 

385 
Rosse, Laurence, Earl of, 382 
Rosse, William, Earl of, 274, 285 
Rossmore, Lady, 238 
Rothe, David (R.C. Bishop of Ossory), 

his Analecta Sacra in the Joly 

collection, 179-80 
Roubiliac, bust of Alexander Pope by, 

235 

Rowan, Hamilton, 105 

Royal Agricultural Association of 
Ireland, 297 

Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
298. 347 

Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland, 
297 ; objects of, 297 ; incorporated by 
Royal Charter, 298 ; support of local 
farming societies, 298 ; provincial 
shows held by, 298-9, 311 ; mode of 
aiding local societies, 299 ; joint effort 
with the Royal Dublin Society for 
the improvement of Irish dairy 
industries, 331 ; the travelling edu- 
cational dairy of, 331 ; amalgamation 



454 



A HISTORY OF 



with Royal Dublin Society suggested, 
296, 297 ; surrender of charter and 
transfer to Royal Dublin Society, 303, 
308, 321 ; mentioned, 331, 350, 352 
Royal College of Science for Ireland, 

356 

Royal Cork Institution, 226 n., 245 

Royal Hibernian Academy, 132 

Royal Institution, 225. 

Royal Irish Academy : transfer to 
Leinster House proposed, 291, 296; 
amalgamation with the Royal Dublin 
Society suggested, 296, 297 ; protest 
on the subject of abstract science, 
306, 307; Haliday pamphlets in 
Library of, 5 ; the Book of Leacan in, 
147; Transactions of, cited, 165, 
239, 360; mentioned, 91, 113, 149, 
158, 174. 219, 220, 221, 255 

Royal Irish Art Union, 133 

Royal Society of London, 1-2, 3, 38, 
42, 297; Transactions of, cited, 239, 

2 94 , 
Royal Veterinary College of Ireland, 

343 
Royal Veterinary College of London, 

338, 340, 342 
Rules of the Society, 14 et seq., 43-4, 

83-4 
Rumford, Count Von, 224, 225; his 

" kitchens,'' 225 
Rural economy, lectures in, 339 
Russia, Grand Duke Michael of: 

honorary member, 230 
Rutty, Dr. John, Natural History of 

County Dublin obtains a premium, 

46, 69 
Ryan, Dr., 176 

Sadleir, Mr. (aeronaut), 235 
Sadleir, T. U., Records of the Georgian 

Society, quoted, 100 
Saffron growing, 18 ; premiums for, 

64, 408-9 
Sailors, discharged, taking farms, 

premiums for, 87, 410 -n 
Sainfoin seed, premiums for, 389 
St. Bel, Mr., professor, London College 

of Veterinary Medicine, 338 
St. Brigid of Sweden, Orationes of, 

unique copy in the Joly collection, 

179 
St. Columba's College, Rathfarnham, 

257 
St. George, Archibald, 177 
St. George, Thomas, 218, 383, 385 
St. Lawrence, Lord, 290, 350 
Sallows, planting and cutting, pre- 
mium for, 403, 405 



Salmon fisheries, &c, Ireland: paper 

on, 367 
Salt, premiums for, 62, 64 
Salt made at Glenarm, 62 
Saltpetre, premiums for production of, 

394, 415 
Sandes, Rev. Dr., 251 
Sandes, Lancelot, silver cake-basket 

presented to, for reclaiming bog, 145 
Sandon, Lord, 291, 292 
Sanitary arrangements. See Kennedy, 

Dr. Evory 
Saunders, Morley, 155 
Saunders's News-Letter, 92, 356 
Scanlon, James, and Co., premium for 

destroying seals on north-west coast, 

7i 

Schikaneder, cited, 164 

School of Art, no; reports on, 368. 
See under Architectural, Drawing, 
Modelling 

School of Design (Government) in con- 
nection with R.D.S. opened 1849, 

133-4 

Schools, management of, 264 

Schreiber, Baron, 157 

Science and Art Museum, 291 et seq. 

Science and Art Museum Act, 293, 295, 
301 , 303, 305 , 31 1 , 325, 340 ; influence 
of, on the Society's work, 369 

Science lectures for boys and girls, 
372 

Science teaching by the Society, 356; 
gradually passes out of the Society's 
hands, 356 

Science training in schools, 371-3 

Scientific Meetings, Reports of, 362 

Scientific papers discussed at the Even- 
ing Scientific Meetings, 360 

Scientific Proceedings, 370, 376 ; the 
new series, 370; the exchange list, 

37° 

Scientific publications of the Society, 
cost of, 369 

Scientific research, grants in aid of, 370 

Scientific staff: lecturing and other 
work of, 356-7 

Scientific Transactions, 369 

Scientific work of the Society, 254 ; sur- 
vey of , 35Setsef., 369 

Scott, Dr., premium for discovering 
new Irish plants, 227 

Scott, Tohn, 149 

Scott, Sir Walter, Life of Swift, cited, 

245 

Scott, Mr., on the mineral localities of 
Donegal, 367 

Scottish Society of Improvers in Agri- 
culture, \ n. 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



455 



Scouler, Dr., professor of mineralogy, 
167, 269, 363 ; contributions by, to the 
Evening Scientific Meetings, 361 

Sculpture, school of, 124. See Model- 
ling School 

Sculpture and the Fine Arts : premiums 
and awards for, 59, 61, 64, in, 114, 

128 

Sea fisheries : premiums for catching, 

curing, and exporting fish, 69-70, 71 ; 

defence of fishermen by the Society, 

70 
Sea-fishing, award for a machine for, 69 
Seal of the Society, the, 79, 224, 376 
Seals in north-west coast fishing 

grounds, premiums for destruction 

of, 71 
Secondary Schools, science teaching 

in, 373 
Secretaries: rules as to the, 15 ; Hono- 
rary and Assistant, of the Royal 

Dublin Society, list of the, 383-4 
Seguin, Henry, medal for plans, &c. , 

115 ; executes stipple engraving, 116 ; 

Society subscribes to his School of 

Fencing, 116 
Seppings, Sir Robert, Bart. ; hon. 

member, 255 
Sexton, Joseph, premium for building 

paper mill, 65 ; premium for paper, 67 
Seybert, Adam, 227 
Seymour, Sir Michael, 230 
Shannon, Earl of, 27 
Shannon, Lady, 199 
Shannon river, survey and chart of, 

presented, 146 
Shaw, Sir Robert, Vice-President, 

152 «. 2 , 229, 381 
Shaw's Court, Dame Street, Society's 

house in, 1757-67 . . . 88-90 
Shedlock, J. S., 330 
Shee, Sir Martin Archer, P.R.A. , 116, 

129, 255 ; medal for portraits, 115 
Sheehan, — ■ (artist), 113 
Sheep-rot, recipes for, printed by the 

Society, 51 
Sheffield, Earl of, 230 
Sheldon, Professor J. P., 331 
Shelly, Charles, premium for planting 

trees, 60 
Sheppard, Anthony, jun., 10, 13, 21, 23, 

24, 31 and n. , 385 ; sen. , 31 a?id n. 
Sheridan, Dr. Thomas, 30, 31 n., 142 
Shipbuilding, encouragement of, 277 
Shorthorns in cattle show, 346, 347 
Shuldham, Mr., marble on his estate in 

Longford, 155 
Sidmouth, Lord, 211 
Sidney, F. J., 285 



Silk manufacture, in Dublin, 198 et seq. ; 
unemployment among the weavers, 
199 ; superintendence of manufacture 
and regulation of wages by the Dublin 
Society, 200, 240 ; ruling of the 
Society as to female labour, 200 ; 
state of, in Ireland, 200-1 ; number 
of persons engaged in, in Dublin, 
200, 201 ; the question of wages of 
silk winders, 201-2 ; premium for raw 
silk manufacture, 84 

Silk warehouse established for re- 
tail trade, 198-9 ; the patronesses, 
199 ; value of stock and returns of 
sales, 199 ; toasts among the weavers, 
199; Society's connection with, ceases, 
200, 202 ; Society asked to resume 
responsibility, 200; investigation of 
the title to, 202; Considerations on 
the Silk Trade in Ireland, quoted, 
202-3 

Silk weavers' steel reeds, premiums for, 
412 

Silver cake-basket, premium in 1769, 
purchased for National Museum, 
145-6 

Silver mines in Tipperary, 21 

Simon, James, his Account of Irish 
Coins, 46 and n. 2 

Sims, Edward, premiums for bulls, &c. , 

63 
Sinclair, Sir John, president, English 

Beard of Agriculture, 93, 221 ; 

honorary member, 224 
Sinclair, R. G. (organist), 328 
Singleton, Sydenham, 152, 38 t 
Sirr, Major, 228 
Skelton, Rev. Philip, 46, 52 
Skerries fishermen obtain awards, 69, 70 
Slate quarries found, 155 
Slater's Culture of Flax, 18 
Slater (or Slator), Thomas, premiums 

for paper, 64, 67 
Slater, William, premium for erecting 

paper mill, 65 
Stealer's Newspaper, 69, 141 
Sleater, William, 141 
Sligo, Marquis of, 222 
Small Holdings, improvement in tillage 

in, 321 et seq. 
Smalt, premium for manufacture of, 415 
Smilie, John, & Co., premium for glass 

manufacture, 74 
Smith, S. Catterson, R.H.A., 134, 179, 

422 
Smith, Dr. Charles, 45, 46 ; History of 

Cork, 46; History of Kerry, 46, 

cited. 22 ;z. 2 
Smith, Henry, quoted, 347 



45 6 



A HISTORY OF 



Smith, John, premium for reclaiming 
mountain land, 65 

Smith, Mr., of Deanston, lectures on 
draining land, 277 

Smithheld (Dublin) cattle shows, 344 

Smyth, Edward, master of modelling 
school, 97, 118, 124, 132, 221 

Smyth, John, master of modelling 
school, 124, 132 

Smyth, Rev. Dr. Thomas, Hon. Sec, 
226, 381, 383 

Soap manufacture (Irish), investigation 
of the condition of, 358 

Social and economic subjects, papers 
on, 363-4 

Society of Artists, 124, 125 

Society of Arts, England, 120, 121 and 
».i, 140; work of, for agriculture, 
140 

Soils of Ireland, paper on the analysis 
of, 361 

Soldiers, discharged, taking farms, 
premiums for, 87, 409-10 

Sollas, Prof., 370 

Somerly.G. B., 168 

Southwell, Lord, 46 

Spaight, William, 74 

Spanish asses in cattle show, 345 

Spanish asses, no premium granted 
for, in 1753 ... 68 

Spectroscopy, paper on, 367 

Spencer, John P., Earl, 290, 380 

Spinning : an essay advocating promo- 
tion of, 36 

Spinning school, at Cork, 207 

Spring cattle show, 312, 319, 344, 345 ; 
prizes, 345, 346; member visitor's 
book at, 346 ; entry fee on each head 
of cattle, 347; shorthorns in, 346, 
347 ; as a stimulus to cattle breeding, 
347; change of site mooted, 348; 
breeding stock entries, 348 ; auction 
sales revived, 348 

Sproule, John, 362 

Spruce, cones of black, premiums 
offered for, 62 

Stallions, premiums for, 315, 316 

Standing committees, the, 44, 216, 
289, 369 ; authority to elect, conferred 
on Society by the supplementary char- 
ter, 289; of the original Society, 14. 
See also Committees of Management 

Stannus, Col., 245 

Staples, Sir Thomas, 279 

Statistical Surveys of Counties, 154 »., 
182-4, 2ii, 243 

Steam-engine, lectures on the, 238 

Stearne's collection of manuscripts, 172 

Steel, Mr., model of a machine with 
sails, 43 



Steele, Dr. W. E. , assistant secretary, 

283, 287, 291, 384 
Steele, Joshua (Barbadoes), 217 
Steenstrup, Prof. K. J. V., cited, 167 
Stephens, Dr. William, 6, 9, 12, 13, 

20, 21, 33, 383 
Stewart, Donald, mineralogical survey 

by. !54, 155- 156 

Stewart, Sir Robert, 330 

Stock fishery, premium offered for pro- 
motion of, 394 

Stockings, premiums for manufacture 
of, 57. 413 

Stoker, Henry, premium for drawing, 
114 

Stokes, Rev. Professor G. T., 78 

Stokes, Dr. Whitley, 168, 278 

Stokes, Dr. William, 119, 278 

Stokes' Worthies of the Irish Church, 
cited, 183 

Stone, George (Archbishop of Armagh), 
Vice-President, 80, 380 

Stoney, George Johnstone, career of, 
285-6 ; first recipient of the Boyle 
Medal, 286, 376 ; mentioned, 302, 
3°4. 3°9. 376. 382, 384 

Stopford, Thomas, 82 

Strangford, Lord, 46 

Strickland, W. G., cited, 132; Dic- 
tionary of Irish Artists, cited, 90 n. 2 ; 
112, 122 n. 1 , 423 

Sturdy, John, premium for watch plates, 

6 5 
Subscriptions: life, 83, 150, 240, 261, 

285; annual, 10, 83, 214, 216, 240, 

249, 261, 273-4 
Subscriptions and arrears, 43-4, 146, 

149-50, 152, 156 n. 1 ; 213, 247, 261 ; 

by-laws as to, 146, 152-3; arrears 

suable for by civil bill, 150, 156 nA ; 

action for arrears followed by decline 

in membership, 151 
Subsoil ploughing, premium for essays 

on, 277 
Sugar in Irish-grown roots, paper on, 

363. See Beet 
Sullivan, William K., paper on the 

wasteful management of manure 

heaps, 361 ; on the amount of sugar 

in Irish-grown roots, 363 ; on the 

comparative value of large and small 

roots, 363 
Sulphuric acid manufacture, 362 
Summers, William, premium for 

cottons, &c. , 72 
Survey of the general work of the 

Society during late eighteenth and 

early nineteenth centuries, 217 et sea. 
Surveying instruments, awards for, 59, 

221 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



457 



Swede turnip introduced into Ireland, 
357 

Sweepstake at cattle show, 345 

Sweetman, Walter, 282 

Swift, Dean, friendship for Delany, 
28 ; and for Humphry French, 29 ; 
attitude of the Earl of Orrery to, 29, 
30; views of, as to the Sheppards, 
31 and n. 1 ; ballad attributed to, 
42 ; not a member of the Dublin 
Society, 30-1; D rapier's Letters, 5, 
30 ; Gulliver s Travels, 30 ; Corre- 
spondence quoted, 31 n. ; three letters 
of, presented, 245 ; bust of, in St. 
Patrick's Cathedral, 83 ; portraits 
of, and bust by Bindon, 27; men- 
tioned, 13, 42, 46 n. x \ 66 n. 2 ; 83, 
188, 189 

Swift's Hospital, 46 n. y 

Swinford district, experiment in en- 
couragement of tillage in, 22, 36, 37, 
322 

Synge, Edward (Bishop of Clonfert), 



Taaffe, Rev. Denis, translates and 
catalogues Dutch and German works, 
175 and n. 

Taghmon Agricultural School, 223 

Talbot de Malahide, Lord, 284, 382 

Tanning, 359; with tormentil roots, 
10, 67; David Macbride's method, 
72, 144 

Tanning, premiums for, 393 

Tanning trade, report on, by the com- 
mittee of commerce, 149 ; tanned 
hides, premium for, 72 

Tapestry, premiums for, 64, 65, 66, 67 

Taylor Art Scholarships, 134-5 

Taylor, Charles, secretary, London 
Society of Arts, 225 

Taylor, Capt. George Archibald, art 
scholarships founded by, 134-5 

Taylor, Sir Thomas, Vice-President, 
80, 380 

Taylor, William B., 96 

Taylor and Skinner, award for a large 
scale continuous road map, 152 

Tear, — , former pupil, executes pre- 
sentation plate, 130 

Teddyman, Mr., 32 

Telfier, William (of Glasgow), his in- 
vention for measuring true run of a 
ship at sea, 48-9 

Templeton, John, premium for dis- 
covering new Irish plants, 227 

Tennison, Dr. , Bishop of Ossory, pre- 
sentation to the library by, 172 

Tenter-house, built in the Liberties by 
Pleasants, 205-6, 206 n. 



Terrass, 155 and n. 

Tew, Miss (of Kingstown), 181 

Tew, Rev. William (of Ballysax), be- 
quest of books, i8r 

Theatre Royal, Dublin, 96, 97 n. 1 

Thewles, Wentworth, gold medal for 
reclaiming bog, 145 

Thompson, Sir Benjamin (Count von 
Rumford), 224, 225 

Thompson, Thomas C, 96 

Thompson, William, premium for a 
painting, 66 

Thornbald, Mary, premium for lace, 58 

Thorp, Alderman, 105 

Thorpe, Thomas, 181 

Thorpe collection of Irish historical 
tracts purchased, 180-1 

Thorwaldsen, cited, 128 

Thread-making, encouragement to, 56, 

145 
Thwaites, George, brewer, premium 

for using Irish hops, 61 
Tickell, John, his candidature rejected, 

86 
Tickell, Major Thomas, 187-8, 189 
Tickell, Thomas (of Glasnevin), the 

friend of Addison, 86, 188, 189 ; 

Elegy on the death of Addiso?i by, 189 
Tides and currents of the Irish Sea : 

papers on, 365, 366 
Tighe, Robert, bequest of books, 182 
Tighe, Sterne, 20 
Tighe, William, premium for sowing 

acorns and timber seeds, 68 
Tighe, W. , Survey of Co. Kilkenny, 

183 
Tillage : Society's work for encourage- 
ment of, 22, 36, 37, 50, 322; in the 

Swinford district, 321-3 ; premiums 

for, 58, 59, 63 et passim 
Timber seeds, sowing of, premiums for, 

68 
Timber trees, premiums for planting, 

58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 68, 73, 74 
Timbrell, Henry, 129 
Timbrell, James Christopher, sculptor, 

presents his first lithographic pro- 
duction, 129 
Tipperary county Survey, manuscript 

materials for, 180, 184 
Tisdall, Henry, solicitor to the Society, 

150, 225 
Tisdall, Rev. William (Swift's rival), 

245 
Titian, 121 « 2 
Tobacco, question of cultivation of, in 

Ireland, a paper on, 362 
Todd, Rev. James Henthorn, S.F. , 

T.C.D., 255, 257 
Todd Lectureship, 257 



45 8 



A HISTORY OF 



Tolka river, Glasnevin, in Society's 
grounds, 192 

Tormentil, roots use J for tanning, 10, 
67 and n. 2 

Townsend, Rev. Horace, Survey of 
County Cork challenged on religious 
grounds, 184, 185 

Townsend, Lady, 199 

Townshend, A. F. , 337 

Townshend, Charles Uniacke, 292, 
382, 384 

Tra?isactio7is of the Dublin Society : 
question of publication of, considered, 
238 ; character and contents of, 339, 
344. 359 et se 1>; articles on veterinary 
subjects in the, 338 

Transit instrument, gold medal to Mr. 
Grubb for, 271 

Trant, Mr., 115 

Travers, Robert, 178 

Treasurer, rules as to the, 15 

Treasurers to the Royal Dublin Society, 
list of the, 385 

Trees, premiums for planting, 60, 61, 
65, 68, 72, 73, 220, 403 et sea.; neces- 
sity for planting, 244 ; amounts of 
grants for plantations between 1784 
and 1806, 73 

Trefoyle seed, premiums for, 389, 402 

Tresham, Henry, 130, 131 

Trimlestown, Lord, 38 

Trinity College, Dublin, 78, 95, 254; 
a student of, elected a member, 229 

Troye, Philip, premium for tapestry, 67 

Tudor, Jane, premium for drawing, 64 

Tudor, Joseph, premium for a painting, 
61 

Tuke, J. H., 334 

Tull, Jethro, 11, 12; Horse Hoeing 
Husbandry, it, 172; Essay on the 
Principles of Tillage and Vegetation, 
12 

Turbot fishery: premium offered for 
promotion of, 394, 418 

Turnips, premiums for, 58, 145, 388 ; 
large quantities sown, 66 

Tweedie, John, 196 

Twigg, Andrew R., 122 ; presents por- 
trait of General Vallancey, 120 

Tyrone county, paper on coal mining 
in, 368 

Tyrrell, Professor, 376 

Underwood, John, head gardener at 
Glasnevin, 190; catalogues compiled 
by, 191 

Uniacke, Maurice, premium for plant- 
ing trees, 61 

University of Dublin, 187 



Vallancey, General Charles, appre- 
ciation of, 147-9 ; literary works of, 
148, 174; copies of the Barony Maps 
by, 148 ; portraits of, 120, 149 ; men- 
tioned, 71, 146, 155, 174, 175, 204, 
211, 223, 229, 381 

Van Beaver, John, premium for tapes- 
try, 61, 65 

Van Lewen, Dr. John, 13 

Van Lewen, Letitia, 13 

Van Nost, John, sculptor, 50 ; monu- 
ments, &c. by, 48, 53, 81, 90 n. 3 ; 
mentioned, iog-114 passim ; bust by 
his sister, no 

Vansittart, Rt. Hon. Nicholas, 230 

Vases. See Etruscan 

Vavesseur, Mr., 142 

Velvet, velveteens : premiums for, 62, 
64, 68, 72 

Ventilation, lectures on, 238 

Verschoyle, Richard, 104 

Vesey, Agmondisham, 151 

Vesey, Capt. C. Colhurst, 290 

Veterinary College, the, 337 et sea. ; 
veterinary medicine as a science, 
337-8, 340; interest of the Dublin 
Society in, 338 ; the veterinary estab- 
lishment, 160, 338 ; general charac- 
ter and scope of the lectures in, 
338-9 ; fees, 339 ; museum, 339, 340, 
341 ; scheme for a Veterinary Insti- 
tution, 339; the veterinary professor- 
ship, 340, 341 ; foundation of a ve- 
terinary school considered by the 
Society, 211, 341, 342; memorial to 
the Treasury prepared, 341 ; financial 
difficulties : the guarantee fund, 342- 
3 ; Royal Veterinary College of Ire- 
land incorporated by charter, 343; 
changes in the charter, 343 ; the 
government of the college transferred, 

343 

Veterinary Surgeons, Association of, 
in Dublin projected, 341 

Vice-patrons, lords-lieutenants the, 291 

Vice-presidents of the Royal Dublin 
Society, list of the, 380-3 

Vice-presidents, rules as to, 14 ; attend- 
ance of, at Society's meetings, 151,152 

Vida, Marcus Hieron. , translations 
from, 67 and n. 1 

Vienna, Museum of Mineralogy, in 
communication with Society's mu- 
seum, 157 

Vierpyle, Simon, carver in statuary, 
113 and n. 

Vincent, Richard, Hon. Sec, 219,383 

Vine, Guthrie, The National Library 
of Ireland, cited, 180 «. ] 

Voltaire cited, 12 



THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 459 



Von Feinagle, Professor Gregor, lec- 
tures on Mnemonics, &c. , 229 

Von Haller, Albrecht, x; Bibliotheca 
Botanica of, 173 

Von Rumford. See Rumford 

Wade, John (chemist), 144 

Wade, R. C, 290, 350 

Wade, Dr. Walter, professor and 

lecturer in botany, 160, 187, 194, 

355 ; lectures in rural economy by, 

339 ; the Flora Dublinensis of, 189 ; 

papers by, in the Society's Trans- 
actions, 359 ; mentioned, 187, 224, 

228, 245, 357 
Waldron, William, 118 
Walker, Alderman, 60 
Walker, Dr. David, notes on the 

zoology of McClintock's Expedition, 

366 
Walker, Thomas, 245 
Wallace, Thomas, 177 
" Wallace," a lion in a Dublin mena- 
gerie, model for pupils of drawing 

school, 129 
Waller, John Francis, Hon. Sec. and 

V.-P., 285,292, 382,384 
Wallis, John, Vice-President, 115, 219, 

38i 
Walsh, Andrew, premium for planting 

old Danish forts, 74 
Walsh, Edward, premium for velvet 

and silk, 68 
Wand of the hall porter, the, 224 
Warburton, Richard, premium for 

planting old Danish forts, 74 
Warburton, cited, 142 
Ward, Michael, 6, 7 
Ward, Philip, 24 
Ware, [Harris'], cited, 20 
Ware, James, 46 
Waring, Henry, premium for osiers and 

willows, 68 
Waring, Major, 115, 383 
Warner, Rev. Ferdinando, his works, 

&C, 172 and n. 
Watchplates, premium for, 65 
Waterford, glass manufacture in, 74 
Waterford county, mineralogical survey 

in, 154 
Watkins, Bartholomew, premium for 

landscapes, 126 and n. 
Watkins, B. Colles, artist, 126 n. 
Watson, William, presents to the 

Society King's Warrant for the 

charter, 76 ». 
Watson's Almanac, 1741-2 ... 58 
Watts, Mr., assistant professor in the 

veterinary establishment, 160, 338 
Weaver.Thomas, mineralogist, 157, 163 



Weavers, corporation of, petition to 

Parliament, 198 
Weavers, silk, 198, 202 ; petition the 
Society for aid against unemploy- 
ment, 199 
Webster, Joseph, 202 
Weekly Observations, Dublin Society's, 

34 et sea. ; 37 and n. 
Weld, Rev. Dr. Isaac [son], 44-5, 246 
Weld, Isaac [great grandson], Hon. 
Sec. , appreciation of, 246 ; survey of 
county of Roscommon by, 183, 184 ; 
mission to the Treasury, 249 ; evi- 
dence before House of Commons 
Select Committee, 259, 325. Obser- 
vations on the Royal Dublin Society, 
and its existing Institutions (1831), 
by, 249 ; otherwise mentioned, 132, 
149, 165, 176, 177, 258, 280, 285, 363, 
382, 383 ; memoir of, contributed to 
the Journal, 365 
Weld, Rev. Nathaniel [father], 46, 246 
Weld, Dr. Richard, 85 
Weld cultivation, premiums for, 390,408 
Wellington trophy, 97 and n. 2 
Werner, [A. J.J, cited, 156, 163 
West, Francis R. [son], 120 n. % 
West, Robert [father], {master of figure 
drawing), 109 ; drawing academy of, 
in George's Lane, taken over by the 
Dublin Society, 109 ; mentioned, no, 
in, 116, 117, 118, 120 «. 2 , 131, 132 
West, Robert L. [grandson], 120 and 

n. % , 122, 130 
West, Mr. (of Clontarf), 163 
Westropp, Dudley, cited, 146 
Wexford county, mineralogical survey, 

Wheat, special competitions for, 58 ; 

premiums for, 59, 60, and n. , 387, 399 
White, Annie C, Taylor prize, 135 
White, Henry Conner, Registrar of 

the Society, 283, 384 
White House, Washington, stated to 

have been modelled on Leinster 

House, 103 
White, John, Glasnevin, 191 
White, Luke, 229 
White, Major-General Sir Henry, 

bequest, 128 and n. 
Whitecombe-Whetcombe, Rev. Dr. 

John, 6, 8, 21, 383 
Whitefoord, Caleb, 120 
Whiteings, premiums offered for curing, 

418 
Whitelaw and Walsh, History of Dublin 

cited, 96, 194 
Whitton, Benj., premium for scythes, 

&c,S7 

Wicklow, county, gold mines, 359 



460 THE ROYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY 



Wicklow, county, mineralogical survey 

in, 154-5 
Wide Street Commissioners, Dublin, 

lease premises to the Society, 94, 95 
Wigham, J. R., paper on lighthouse 

illumination by, 368 
Wignacourt, Grand Master, Knights of 

Malta, coat of mail of, 159 
Wilde, Dr., afterwards Sir William, 

270 ; cited, 3 ; memoir of Beranger, 

cited, 174 
Wilder, James, 1 13-14 
Wilkinson, Abraham, Hon. Sec, 152 

and n. 2 ; 218, 226, 383 
Wilkinson, George, 311 
Wilkinson, Maria, 1 s2 n. 2 
William IV. (King) ,"248 
Williams, Richard, & Co., premium 

for plate glass manufacture, 74 
Williams, Solomon (painter), 124, 

and n., 125, 149, 237 
Willis, Henry, & Sons, 328 
Willows ; no premiums granted for 

planting in 1753 ... 68 ; premiums in 

1754 ... 68 
Wilson, Sharp & Co., premium for 

salt for curing fish, 62 
Wilson, Captain Theodore, House- 
keeper and Registrar, 105, 227, 228, 

2 39, 283. 3 8 4 

Wilton, Joseph, sculptor, London, 112 

Window glass manufacture, 244 

Wine, blackberry, currant, &c, pre- 
miums for, 63 

Winter, Anne, 182 

Winter, John, bequest of books, 182 

Winter show, 346, 349; fat stock and 
poultry show, 349 

Woad, growth and preparation of, 
premiums for, 391, 408 

Wood, Herbert, Addison's Connection 
with Ireland, cited, 188 

Wood, Sir H. T., History of the Royal 
Society of Arts, cited, 121 n. x 

Wood-carving section (Art Industries 
Exhibition), 320 

Woodburn, William, 122 

Woodhouse, Samuel, 122 

Woodroofe, Dr., 278 

Woodward, Richard (Dean of Clogher), 
Vice-President, 146, 381 ; his pam- 
phlet on Rights of the Poor, 143-4 



Woollen cloth : manuscript by Sir 
Wm. Petty on manufacture of, 21 

Woollen industry : in Dublin, 205, 206 ; 
the tenters, 206 n. ; bounties for 
encouragement of, 204 ; premium for 
steel wool combs, 412 

Woollen Warehouse, 204 et seq. ; argu- 
ments urged against, 204, 206-7 ; 
Portuguese trade, 204; manufacture 
of woollen goods in Cork, 205 ; tenter 
house built, 205-6 

Worsted industry, premiums for, 64, 
204, 208 

Worsted spinning, taught to children, 
67-8; a school at Cork, 207; a 
school at Maryborough, 207 

Wright, C. S., 371 

Wrixon, Henry, premium for manuring 
with lime, 66 

Wyatt, Mr., 102 

Wybrants, H., 279 

Wynne, Rev. Dr. John, 80, 383; pre- 
sented with gold medal, 84 

Wyon, Alan, medallist, 376 

Yeates, George, description of a re- 
gistering barometer, 363 

Yeates & Sons, mercurial barograph, 363 

Yeates, Isaiah, premium for wheat, 58 

Yelverton, Matthew, premium for 
turnips, 58 ; premium for exceptional 
crop of wheat, 60; Arthur Young's 
explanation of it, 60 n. 

York, Duke and Duchess of, visit to 
Dublin Horse Show, 353 

Yorke, Sir William, house of, in 
William St. , 89 

Young, Alexander, 70 

Young, Arthur, 140 ; observations on 
the work and influence of the Dublin 
Society, v ; Tour in Ireland, by, 
140; on Yelverton 's record crop of 
wheat, cited, 60 ?i. ; on Chief Baron 
Anthony Foster, 85 ; Six Months' 
Tour, &c. , edited by J. W. Baker, 
139 ; visit to farm of J. W. Baker, 
140; on silk trade in Ireland cited, 
203 ; otherwise mentioned, 72, 86, 
145 n. 2 , 259 

Zander, M., method of propagating 
potatoes from seed, 362 



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