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Editor for San Bernardino County 


Editor for Riverside County 

Selected Biography of Actors and Witnesses 

of the Period of Growth 

and Achievement 



Chicago, III. 


Introduction 1 

The Era of the Spaniards 5 

The Reign of the Mexicans 26 

During Mormon Occupation 37 

A Period of Arrested Development -. . . 50 

A Decade of Progress 55 

Public Buildings and Institutions 60 

Agriculture and Horticulture 68 

Irrigation 81 

Transportation 91 

Mines and Mining 102 

tTIAl'TKR .\[ 


The Courts axd I-a\vvi:rs or Sax Rkknardixii Couxtv 118 

Military History 128 

Catastrophies axd Crimes 145 

San Bernardino, the County Seat 153 

Redlands 201 

Colton 223 

Ontario 229 

CiiiNo 238 

Highland 241 

Cucamonga and Other Commuxitiks 248 

The Pioneers 267 



Introduction- 293 

Life Stories 295 

Personal 298 

The Indian and Spanish Occupation 306 

The Padres and the Missions 322 

The Pastoral Era 334 

The American Occupation 341 

From a Pueblo to a Great City 344 

The New California — The Transition 347 

Riverside and Judge North 350 

Southern California Colony 355 


'liiK KiKST Dkcadk uv Kivkksii.k 363 

Founders and Builders 368 

A Great Highway 377 

The Water System 382 

The Domestic Water System 392 

\\'ater Conservation 399 

The Salton Sea 403 

Orange Culture 419 

The Lemon and Other I'ruits 432 

The Fruit Exchange 444 

Raising of Oranges 464 


Public Pakks. . . . , 475 

Street Tree Maxagemext ix Riverside 481 

City of Riverside 490 

Riverside as a City 497 

Climate and Health 505 

Pioneer Celebrations 512 

Schools and Literary Organizations 524 

Citrus Fair 5.v^ 

Riverside County 540 

Communities 547 

Newspapers ' 603 


I'KATiiRNAi. Organ iZATioNs 609 

Business and Other Orcanizations 615 

Churches 621 

Military History 634 

Other Subjects 637 

BiOGRAniicAL 676 


"A Century of Dishonor," I, 315 

A. K. Smiley Public Library, III. 1299 

Adair, A. Aird, II, 720 

Adams, Bon O., II, 770 

Adobes, making of. II, 640, 641. 642 

Agee, Etta, I, 190 

Agricultural Experiment Station, I. 66 

Agriculture, in San Bernardino Countv 
(1858-I86S), I, SI. 55, 68-70 

Agua Mansa, I, 27 

Ahnefeldt, Henry P., 11,839 

Ainsworth-Gentry affair (1859), I. 148 

Alberhill Coal & Clay Company. River- 
side County. I. 461. 462, 463 

Alessandro. I, 314, 316 

Alfalfa (illustration), I, 69 

Alfalfa in San Bernardino County. I, 70 

Alfalfa in San Jacinto Valley, I, 576 

Allen, Byron W., II, 922 

Allen, Edward, III, 1526 

Allen, Legare, I, 271 ; II, 793 

Allen, Norman D., III. 1146 

Allison, Charles L., Ill, 1353 

Allison, Harry L., Ill, 1354 

Allison, Monte D., Ill, 1353 

Alvadado, Francisco, I. 268 

American Beet Sugar Company, I, 240 

American Parm Bureau Federation, I, 455 

American Legion, San Bernardino, I, 139 

American Legion No. 14 of California, 
San Bernardino, I, 140 

American Legion Auxiliary, No. 14, San 
Bernardino, I, 140 

American National Bank of San Bernar- 
dino, I, 161 

American Red Cross, California Chapter, 
San Bernardino, I, 141 

Ames, Ellis, I, 125 

Ames, O., III. 1144 

Ames, J. Judson, I, 175 

Amos, James C, II. 848 

Amos. Madison T., II, 847 

Amos Brothers, II, 847 

Amusements (early) in Riverside, I, 495 

Anaheim, I, 347 

Anderson, John, I, 61 

Anderson, Mark D., Ill, 1183 

Anderson, W. D., III. 1499 

Andreson, John, Jr., II, 900 

Andreson, John, Sr., I, 159. 160; II, 691, 

Andrews, Elizabeth, II, 636 

Andrews, L. L.. I. 456, 551 ; (illustra- 
tion), I, 552; II, 1033 

Andrews, Thomas O., II, 1032 

Angeles National Forest, I. 66 

Anza, Juan Bautista de, I, 8, 91 

Aplin, Alfred M., Ill, 1095 

Aplin, Donald G., Ill, 1097 

Approaches to Redlands (illustration), I, 

Apricot orchard, San Jacinto, September, 
1920; planted March, 1915, (illustra- 
tion) I, 578 

Arlington, Riverside County, I, 550 

Armistice Dav at Mount Rubidoux, I, 

Armstrong, A. G., Ill, 1197 

Armstrong, John S., Ill, 1376 

Arnold. Charles C. II, 952 

Arnold, H. H., I, 598 

Arnold, John W., II, 902 

Arrowhead, I, 260 

Arrowhead Club, San Bernardino, I, 187 

Arrowhead Hot Springs, San Bernardino, 
(illustration), I, 143 

Arrowhead legends, I, 261, 262 

Arrowhead Reservoir and Power Com- 
pany, I, 84 

Artesian basin of the San Bernardino 
Valley, I, 89 

Arth, Fred, III, 1259 

Arth, Peter, Tr., Ill, 1258 

Arth, Peter, Sr., Ill, 1257 

"Asistencia" de San Bernardino, I, 81 

Atherton. I. W„ I, 624 

Atwood, George A., II, 699 

Atwood. Leon A., Ill, 1405 

Atwood, (Mrs.) H. A., I, 317 

Auburndale. (South Riverside), I, 557 

Auto races (1914 and 1916) on Circle 
Boulevard, Corona, I, 558 

Avery, Lewis B., I, 210 

Ayer, Edward, I, 510 

Ayers, Wilbur W., I, 350; II, 1007 

Babel, William, III. 1214 

Baber, James M., Ill, 1085 

Backstrand, John P., II, 994 

Backus, W. H.. III. 1244 

Bagdad-Amboy Mining Districts, I, 109 

Bagdad mine. I. 110 

Bahr. Lulu Claire, I, 115, 172 

Bailey, Ralph D., Ill, 1210 

Baillee, Fred H., Ill, 1447 

Bain, Hugh A.. II, 733 

Baker, R. M.. I, 190 

Baldwin. P. M., I, 565 

Ballou, Alice P., Ill, 1107 

Ballou. Benton, III. 1106 

Bamberger. Ferdinand, II, 995 

Bandini. Juan. I. 26. 268 

Bandini, Don Juan (illustration). I, 310 

Bandini's Donation. I, 27 

Bank of East San Bernardino Valley. I, 

Banks of San Bernardino City, I, 158 
Banning, Riverside County, I, 582 
Barber. R. D., I. 556 
Barlotti, J. A., Ill, 1291 
Barrett, James T., I, 539; II. 760 
Barrows, David Prescott, I, 17 
Barry, E., III. 1222 
Barton, Ben, I, 169; II, 678 


Barton. H. M., I. 157 

Barton. J. \V.. I. 189 

Barton. (Mrs.) J. \V.. I. IW 

Bates. Frank T.. II. 757 

Rattle of Chino. I. 30 

Baylis. John X., I. 65; II. 999 

Beale. Mrs. W. E.. III. 1234 

Bear Valley, I. 273 

Bear \'alley dam. I. 202 

Bear \'allev Land and Water Companv. 

I, 83 
Bear X'allcv Mutual Water Company, 

I, 84 
Beattie, G. W.. I. 115 
Beaudry. P.. I, SO 

Beaumont. Riverside County. I. 581. 582 
Beaumont apples. I. 582 
Beekeeping in Riverside Countv. I. 456 
Beesley. John G.. III. 1178 
Beet Sugar Fsctorv. Chino. I. 240 
Belarde. Don Pablo. II. 679 
Bell. lames A.. III. 1071 
Bell, "Z. T.. I. 80: II. 753 
Belt. Robert C:. III. 1505 
Bemis, Amos, I. 271 
Bemis. Amos W.. II, 687 
Bench and Bar (see Courts and Law- 
Benedict, Frank H.. III. 1221 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 

San Bernardino, I. 187 
B, P. O. E. Club House. Camp Cajon. 

I. 259 ; illustration. I. 258 
Benners. lames W.. II. 1046 
Bennett. C. E., I. SO 
Bennett, Mary A.. I. 171 
Benshoof. Chester W., II, 908 
Benson. Jerome. I, 47 
Benton. Arthur B., Ill, 1400 
Bermuda, Jose, I, 268 
Bernardo Yorba Grant, I, 33 
Bertschinger, Jacob, III, 1113 
Bertschinger, Otto W.. Ill, 1114 
Bethel Congregational Church. Ontario, 

I, 234 
Betterlev, Margaret E.. Ill, 1448 
Bettner, Tames. II. 973 
Bettner. Robert L.. I. 482: II. 974 
Bibliographv. I. 290 
Big Bear Valley. I. 255. 256 
Bigelow. George T.. II. 767 
Biggin. George S.. III. 1273 
Billingslev. William H.. II, 965 
Black, M. L., Ill, 1399 
Blackburn, R. E., I, 232 
Blackmore. Everett C, II, 934 
Blair, George M.. I. 564; II, 1016 
Blakeslee. Samuel E.. IH, 1328 
Blannin. Frederick B.. II, 772 
Bledsoe. Benjamin F.. I. 124. 189 
Bledsoe, Robert E.. I. 125. 271 
Bloomington. I. 250 
Blowers. R. B.. I. 442 
Blue Diamond Plaster Company. Corona. 

I, 559 ; plant near Corona. I. 565 
BIythe. Thomas H.. I. 589. 590, 593 
Blythe. Riverside Countv. I. 593 
Bodenharaer Paul. III. 1280 
Bodenhamer, William J., Ill, 1279 

Hoeck, Charles A.. III. 1472 

Boettgcr. Rudolph H.. III. 1403 

Bonanza King. I. 109 

Bond. Carrie lacobs. I. 2'M 

Boone. C. I.. III. 1106 

Boone. (Mrs.) C. J.. I. 116 

Bora.x Consolidated Limited. I, 105 

Borax industrv in San Bernardino 

County. I. 104 
Borax Lake. I. 104 
Bordwell. M. H.. Ill, 1153 
Boren. A. D.. I. 119. 124 
Bosch. Fred. III. 1440 
Bosworth. Harriet. II. 984 
Bosworth. Robert. II. 983 
Boulder Canvon plan. I. 418 
Bovard. M. M., II, 624 
Bov Scout movement in Riverside 

Countv. II. 628-32 
Bovd. David C. II. 869 
Boyd. James. I. 170. 375. 378. 470. 514, 

521 ; autobiographv. I. 295-305: II. 665 
Bovd. Kate M.. I. 501 : III. U3A 
Bovlan, Emmett A., III. 1179 
Bradlev. Henrv D.. Ill 1088 
Brand. I. S.. I. 255 
Break. Allen. III. 1270 
Briggs, Fred A.. II. 833 
Bright. T. S.. I. 157 
Brimmer. Harry W.. III. 1307 
Brinkmann. Christian C. II, 891 
Brinsmead, Mabel T.. III. 1416 
Brinsmead. Reginald. III. 1414 
Bristol. William M.. I. 256 
Brooke, Henrv C. I. 114. 115. 171. 172 
Brown. Charles M.. Ill, 1517 
Brown, E. G.. I. 355. 375 ; II, 768 
Brown, Frank E., I, 201, 202, S43 
Brown, Tames E., Ill, 1225 
Brown, John, Tr., I, 115, 171, 263, 272, 

523; lil. 1130 
Brown, John, Sr., I, 21, 44. 50. 271, 280; 

III. 1127 
Brown, Joseph, I, 60 
Brown. Lyman \". W., I. 416: II. 769 
Browning. Charles C. I. 211 
Bucklev. L. W.. I. 533 
Bucknell. Charles R.. Ill, 1409 
Building of Citrus Experiment Station. 

Riverside (illustration). I. 536 
Building permits in San Bernardino 

(1913-21). I. 158 
Burdg. Oliver P., II. 940 
Burnham. Ralph F.. III. 1111 
Burrows. William A.. II. 1039 
Burrows. Cora B.. II. 1040 
Burt. B. D.. I. 497. 498: II. 609 
Burt, E. R.. II. 749 
Burt. J. G.. I. 159 
Burtner. James H.. III. 1068 
Business Blocks of Blythe Cotton Com- 
press (illustration), I, 593 
Buster. Bertie M.. II. 777 
Button, Ernest G.. III. 1387 
Button. (Mrs.) X. P.. II. 6.^^ 
Button, W. S.. III. 1231 
Buxton. Marv Louise. Ill, 1526 
Buxton. William, HI. 1525 
Byrne, W. E, I, 125 



Caballeria, John, (Juan), I, 18, 177 

Cabezon (Chief), with His Captains, 
Friends of the White Man (illustra- 
tion), I, 17 

Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, I, 5 

Cahuilla Indians, I, 315 

Cajon Pass, I, 256 

Cajon Pass, Pioneer monument, I, 256, 
257 ; dedication of, 263 

Caldwell, E., I, 464, 465 

Calico district, silver mining center, I, 

Calico Mountains, I, 105, 106 

California Central Co., I, 97 

California Citrograph, Riverside, II, 608 

California Development Company, I, 
404, 405 

California Fruit Exchange, Riverside, 
I, 444-63 

California Portland Cement Companv, 
Colton, I, 225 

California Southern Railroad I, 55, 202 

California Southern Railroad Companv. 
I, 98 

California Southern car shops and depot, 
San Bernardino, I, 153 

California State Bank of San Bernar- 
dino, I, 160 

Calkins, Glenn A.. II, 1018 

Call, A. F., I, 557 

Calvez, Jose de, I, 324 

Camp Cajon, I, 256, 257 

Camp Cody, I, 51 

Campaign of 1860, I, 148 

Campbell, J. B., I, 205, 210 

Campbell, Tohn L., I, 124, 125 

Campbell, M. B., I, 61 

Campbell, Samuel R., I, 122, 125 

Campbell. William J.. Ill, 1316 

Carleton Post of the G. A. R., Corona. 
I, 563 

Carlson, Carl J., II, 628; III. 1410 

Carnegie Library Building, Riverside, I, 

Carnegie Public Librarv, San Bernar- 
dino, I, 156, 174 

Carter, Peter T., II, 907 

Casa Loma, Redlands, I, 207 

Casteel, Charles, III, 1495 

Casteel, Sophia, III, 1495 

Cattic, J. W,. I. 157 

Cell, Charles W.. Ill, 1227 

Centennial Celebration of San Bernar- 
dino, I, 193 

Central Pacific Companv, I, 94 

Chaffee, Cora M., Ill, 1249 

Chaffee, Denver, III, 1248 

Chaffey, George, I, 405 

Chaffey, William, I, 237 

Chaflfev, W. B., I, 405 

Chaffey Brothers, I. 229, 248, 249 

Chaffev College, Ontario, I, 229, 230, 235, 
236 ■ 

Chaffey Library, Ontario. I, 236 

Chaffev Union High School, Ontario, 1. 

235 " 

Chaffev Union High School District, I, 

236 ■ 

Chamber of Commerce, Big Bear Valley, 

Chamber of Commerce Tree Planting 

Committee, Riverside, I, 482 
Chamblin, T. H. B., father of Riverside 

Fruit Exchange (illustration), I, 445, 

446, 498; sketch of, I, 448-51 
Chapman, T. C, I, 126 
Charles, Glaser, I, 46 
Chase, Ethan A., I. 414, 482, 487, 538 
Chase, Frank, I, 473 
Chemawa Park, Riverside, I, 479 
Chemehuevi (Paiutes) (Indians), 1, 12 
Cherrycroft, Yucaipa. I, 253 
Chicago Citrus Fair of 1886, I, 77 
Chicago Colony, Redlands, I, 202 
Children's Home, Riverside, II, 656 
Chino, I, 238-240 
Chino Beet Sugar Factory, I, 238 
Chino High School District, I, 239 
Chino Rancho, I, 238 
Chino Valley Champion, I, 238 
Christ Church (Episcopal), Ontario. I, 

Christian Church of San Bernardino, I, 

Church of Christ, Ontario. I, 234 
Church of Christ Scientist, Riverside, 

II, 626 
Churches: of San Bernardino, I. 176; 

of Redlands, I, 212; of Colton, I, 227; 

of Ontario, I. 233; of Chino. I, 239; of 

Riverside, II, 621 
Citizens' Bank, Ontario, I, 231 
Citizens' National Bank, Riverside, II, 

Citizens' Water Company, Riverside, I, 

383, 384, 385 
Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, I, 

487, 537-39 
Citrus Fair (1900), Riverside. I. 533-39 
Citrus Fairs at Riverside, II. 664-67 
Citrus Fairs Association, Riverside, I, 

Citrus Fruit Association, Ontario, I, 233 
Citrus Fruit Industry in San Bernardino 

County, I, 71, 74 
Citrus Fruit Industry of Colton, I, 225 
Citrus Fruit Industry of Corona, I, 561 
City Home League. Riverside, II, 657 
City Park, Corona (illustration). I, 557 
Civil war: Record of San Bernardino 

Countv in, I, 128-130 
Clancv, William B.. II, 718 
Clark; Albert H., I, 123, 125 
Clark, Charles B.. II, 816 
Clark, Frank. II. 647 
Clark. Hannah J.. II. 816 
Clark, Hewlett, I, 125 
Clark, Hiram, III, 1331 
Clark, Laura E., Ill, 1333 
Clark. Myron A.. Ill, 1350 
Clark, Walter D., II, 989 
Clark, W. J., I, 115 
Clark, W. S.. I. 171 
Clarke. E, P.. II, 840 
Clay Industry in Riverside County. I, 461 
Clayson, Walter S., I, 562 
Clayton, Dudley G., HI, 1109 

Clift, Robert, I, 44 

Climate and Health in Riverside region, 
I, 505-11 

Cline, William C, III, 1286 

Clyde, R. T., Ill, 1413 

Coachella, Riverside County. I. 586 

Coachella Vallev, Riverside County. I. 

Coahuillas (Indians). I. 12. 16, 18 

Coahuilla Legend, I. 261 

Coahuilla (Cabezon) Valley, I. 18 

Cockshutt, J. G., I. 201 

Cole, Arthur E., III. 1268 

Cole, James A., Ill, 1266 

Collins, Albert N., III. 1287 

Collins. Andrew P., Ill, 1287 

Collins, A. Harvey, I. 209 

Colorado Delta Lands. I. 404 

Colton, D. R., I, 223 

Colton, (Mrs.) D. R.. I. 226 

Colton. I, 223-22S ; incorporated as a 
city (1887), I, 225; churches. I. 227 

Colton Advocate. I, 224 

Colton Avenue (La Cadena Drive). Riv- 
erside, I. 377 

Colton Fruit Exchange, I, 226 

Colton Land & Water Company, I, 224, 
225, 226 

Colton School District. I. 226 

Colton Woman's Club, I. 227 

Company G. Seventh Infantry ( Rcdlands 
Guard), San Bernardino. I. 139 

Company K. Seventh Infantry (Water- 
man Rifles). San Bernardino. I. 138 

Company L, Forty-third Infantry. United 
States Volunteers in the Philippines. 
I. 13b-138 

Congregational Church of Highland. I. 

Conn. W. A.. I. 50 

Conneally. Nicholas. I. 177 

Conrad, F. W., I, 172 

Conser, Frank M.. I. 601 

Contemporary Club. Redlands. I. 211 

Conway, E., I, 498 

Conway, Francis J., Ill, 1363 

Cook, Marion L., Ill, 1107 

Cook, Philip St. George, I. 38 

Cooley. George. II. 688 

Cooley, George M.. I. 263; III. 1297 

Coopwood. Bethel, I, 122 

Copeland, J. Eugene. III. 1089 

Copley, Fred, II, 894 

Copley, William. II, 894 

Corbett, Jasper Newton. I. 263 ; .sketch 
of, I, 281 

Corkhill, Ada L,. II. 636 

Corkhill, William, I, 565 

Corletcn, H., I, 209 

Corlett, Dean C, II, 927 

Cornelius, Allen, III, 1167 

Cornelius, Sarah M., Ill, 1167 

Cornman, William Raymond, I, 131 

Cornman (W. R.) Post, G. A. R., San 
Bernardino, I. 131 

Cornwcll, Joseph W., II, 944 

Corona. Riverside County: location, I. 
551; founding of. I. 553; incorporated 
as a city (1896), I, 555; increased water 

supply, I, 556; banks, I, 561; building 

and loan association, I. 561 ; churches, 

I, 561; its city government, I, 562; 

lodges, I, 563; newspapers, I, 563; 

packing houses, I. 564; schools. I, 565 
Corona Chamber of Commerce. I. 562 
Corona Country Club. I, 562 
Corona Courier, I, 563 
Corona Hospital, I, 560 
Corona National Bank, I, 556 
Corona Public Library. I. 565 
Corona Securities Corporation. I. 563 
Corona's Five Generations. I. 560 
Corrcja. Emma A., II. 938 
Correja. John, II, 937 
Corrington. Frank F.. II. 853 
Cortner, F. Arthur. III. 1264 
Cortner. George P., Ill, 1264 
Cortner. Guy. III. 1264 
Costa, Rose, I, 316 
Country Club of Redlands. I. 210 
County Court House, looking down E 

Street. San Bernardino (illustration), 

I. 61 
County Judges of San Bernardino 

County, I, 124 
County Orphans' Home, I, 62 
County Roads, San Bernardino, I, 62 
Court House, Riverside (illustration), I, 

Court Houses of San Bernardino County, 

I, 44, 46, 60 
Courtney, Harry E.. III. 1072 
Courts and lawyers of San Bernardino 

County. I. 118-127 
Cover. Thomas W.. II. 651 
Covert. John W.. HI. 1084 
Cowgill. Alva B.. III. 1217 
Cox, Aaron A.. II. 846 
Cox. Rosa D., II. 847 
Cox. Silas C. I. 263. 271; III. 1398 
Coy. Louis M.. II. 798 
Cov. Sam P.. III. 1436 
Crafton. I. 220 

Crafton School District, I. 220 
Crafts. M. H.. I. 179, 212, 220, 221 
Craig, Hugh H.. II. 717 
Craig, Scipio, I, 56, 216 
Grain, Clarence S.. III. 1441 
Cram, Andrew 1., Ill, 1.S45 
Cram, William H., III. 1484 
Crandall, B. R., I. 173 
Crandall (Dr.) B. Stover. I. 172 
Crandall. Mary A.. II. 696 
Cranston. E. j.. HI. 1426 
Craw, Charles M.. III. 1115 
Craw. George A.. I. 221 
Crawford. D. A.. III. 1306 
Cree, Harry C, II, 834 
Cresmer, John H., II, 1041 
Crim, Arthur P., Ill, 1339 
Criminal acts in San Bernardino County, 

I, 150 
Cromer, Thomas I.. HI. 1147 
Crnnk. Charles L..' II. 1036 
Cross on Rubidoux Mountain, with 

Riverside Valley in the distance (illus- 
tration). I. 330 
Crossley. Theodore. II. 791 


Cucamonga, I, 248 

Cucamonga Citrus Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, I, 248 

Cucamonga Fruit Land Company, I, 248 

Cucamonga Homestead Association, I, 

Cucamonga Homestead Tract, I, 249 

Cucamonga Indians, I, 28 

Cucamonga Land Company, I, 248 

Cucamonga Rancho, L 229 

Cucamonga Vineyard Company, 1, 248 

Cucamonga Water Company, L 248 

Culross, William B., IH, 1158 

Cumming, A., I, 48 

Cummins, Arthur B., H, 957 

Cunningham, George D., H, 850 

Cunningham, Susan E., H, 851 

Cunnison, James, III, 1313 

Curtis, Harriet, I, 190 

Curtis, Israel C, I, 180; II, 700 

Curtis, Jesse W., I, 124, 125 ; II, 70S 

Curtis, Lucy M., II, 702 

Curtis, Newell B., Ill, 1433 

Curtis, William, III, 1430 

Curtis, W. J., I, 125 ; II, 703 

Cutler, Jonathan P., Ill, 1408 

Cutler, Lewis T., Ill, 1408 

Cutler, John E., Ill, 1471 

Cutter, J. E., I. 514 

Cutting, Elmer, III, 1502 

Cuttle, Francis, I, 399, 400 

Daily Enterprise, Riverside, II, 606 

Daley, Charles J., II, 904 

Daley, Edward, II, 687 

Daley, Frank B., I, 125; II. 906 

Daniels, Joseph F., I, 529. 532 

Darling, Mary E., II, 668 

Date palm experiment station near Indio, 

Riverside County, I, 585, 588 
Date palms (illustration ). I. 230 
Dates of Coachella Valley, Riverside 

County, I, 585, 587 
Davenport, Noel, II, 680 
Davenport, Terry V., II, 933 
Davis, Allen J., Ill, 1110 
Davis, D. W., I, 171 
Davis, E. J., II, 609; sketch of, 11. 613 
Davis, Jennie E., Ill, 1421 
Davis, John W., Ill, 1419 
Davis, Percy R., I, 172, 173 
Davison, John M., II. 634 
Davison, J. Morgan. II. 796 
Day, John W.. III. 1389 
Day. Lavinia, III. 1390 
Dean, Janet W.. III. 1378 
Dean, Walter M., Ill, 1377 
Deep Creek reservoir, I, 87 
Demick, H. S., II, 921 
Denman, A. C, Jr., I, 164 
Dennis, George W., II, 928 
Derby, A. B.. I, 498 
Devore Heights, I, 255 
Devore, John A., I, 255 
Dewhurst, H. T.. I, 124, 125 
DeWitt. Alonzo. III. 1324 
Dexter. Charles M.. father of Fairmount 

Park. Riverside. I. 475 
Dickey. Clarence D., II, 746 

Dickey, Thomas, I, 169 

Dickson, Hugh L., Ill, 1403 

Difani, Andrew, II, 945 

Difani, Leonard J., II, 946 

Dimock, Milton E., I, 172; III, 1416 

Diss, J. Wallace F., I. 139 

District attornevs of San Bernardino 

County, I, 125 
District judges of San Bernardino 

County, I, 124 
Dodge, Harold A., II, 675 
Dolch, Edward, III, 1456 
Domecq, Christina, III, 1323 
Domecq. John P.. III. 1323 
Domecq. P. J., Ill, 1324 
Donald. Davis, III, 1263 
Dovle, Edward M., II, 964 
Drake, Francis. I, 309, 310, 311 
Drake's Bay, I, 310 
Draper, James B.. III. 1296 
Draper, Joshua C, III, 1199 
Draper, Mabel M., Ill, 1200 
Drew, A. L., I, 159, 160 
Drew, Frederick A. C, III, 1114 
Drew, H. L., I, 61, 159 
Drouths in San Bernardino County. I, 

146, 147 
Drummond, Bruce, I. 588 
Duckworth. T. W.. I. 125 
Dudley. Silas A.. III. 1184 
Duel between Piercy and Showalter, I, 

Duere, George H., I, 528 
Dunbar, Harold N., II, 743 
Dundas. Charles A., II, 888 
Dunham, Charles H., Ill, 1159 
Dunlap. J. C, I, 229 

Early San Bernardino County officials 

(illustration), I, 119 
Early vegetables of the Coachella Valley, 

I, 586, 588 
Earp, N. P., I, 271 
Earthquakes of San Bernardino County. 

I, 147 
East Highlands, I, 244 
East Side Literary Society, Riverside, I, 

Eaton, Benjamin S., I, 249 
Eden Hot Springs, Riverside County. I, 

Edgar. William F.. I. 33 
Edmiston, Joseph L., III. 1464 
Edmiston. Lloyd H., Ill, 1112 
Edwards, James S.. Ill, 1394 
Eikelman, John G.. II, 855 
Kikelman. Viola J.. II, 855 
El Cajon de Muscupiabe Grant, I, 31 
Eldridge, John D., II, 951 
Electric Light & Power Company, Red- 
lands, I, 207 
Electric service from San Bernardino to 

Riverside, I, 196 
Electric street car service instituted at 

San Bernardino, I. 155 
Elks, Riverside, II, 610 
Ellis. Arthur N., III. 1515 
Ellis. John H.. III. 1232 
Ellis. (Mrs.) W. H., I. 572 


Kl Monte Mission. I, 323 

El Rincon Grant, I, 33 

Elsinore, Riverside County, I. 579 

Emerson, C. L., II. 632 

English, Robert W., Ill, 1116 

Ensley, Elizabeth B., Ill, 1172 

Ensley, John P., Ill, 1171 

Enterprise Company, Riverside, II, 607 

Erwin, James, III, 1438 

Estudillo, Miguel, II, 740 

Etiwanda, I. 248 

Etiwanda Water Company, I, 248, 249 

Evans, Lyman, II, 909 

Evans, P. T., I, 512 

Evans, Samuel C, I, 478, 516; II, 708 

Evans, Samuel C, Sr., I, 289, 300, 361, 

389, 477, 512, 514; II, 603, 709 
Evans. William C, II, 635 
Evans Athletic Club, Riverside. I, 478 
Evening Transcript, San Bernardino, I, 

Evens, Theodore L., Ill, 1479 
Evergreen Cemetery, Riverside, II, 642 
Evergreen Lodge No. 259, F. & A. M., 

Riverside, II, 609 
Exchange Lemon Products Company, 

Corona, I, 441 
Experiment Station lands. Riverside 

County, I, 394 

Fairmount Park, Riverside. I, 475-77 
Farlow, Wright C, III, 1379 
Farmers Exchange Bank, San Bernar- 
dino, I, 159 
Felix, Vincente, I, 345 
Fentress. Thomas E., Ill, 1193 
Ferguson (Mrs.) Esther B.. I. 191 
Ferris, Benjamin H.. Ill, 1058 
Ferris, Sylvanus H., Ill, 1057 
Filkins, Charles W.. II, 984 
Filkins, Edna, II, 986 
Finkelberg. Ivan L., II, 879 
First airship over San Bernardino, I, 200 
First artesian well in the San Bernar- 
dino Valley, I, 89 
First bank in San Bernardino Countv, 

I, 158 
First bank of Highland. I, 243 
First Baptist Church of Ontario, I, 234 
First Baptist Church, Redlands. I, 213 
First Baptist Church, Riverside, II, 625 
First Baptist Church, San Bernardmo, 

I. 180 
First Battalion. Seventh California In- 
fantry, U. S., San Bernardino. I, 134 
First beekeeper in the Temescal Valley, 

I, 300 

First Catholic Church in San Bernardino 

County, I, 177 
First church in Riverside (illustration), 

II, 622 

First Church of Christ. Scientist San 

Bernardino, I, 184 
First citrus experiment station near 

Rubidoux. I, 538 
First citrus fair in the world. I. 77 
First citrus fair. Riverside, II, 609 
First citrus fair at .San Bernardino, I, 


First city library, I, 155 

First Congregational Church, Redlands, 

I, 212 

First Congregational Church. Riverside, 

II, 623 

First Congregational Church, San Ber- 
nardino, I, 179 

First gas works, San Bernardino, I, 56 

First gold mining in San Bernardino 
Mountains (1860), I, 103 

First hydraulic mining in San Bernar- 
dino County, I, 103 

First irrigation projects in San Bernar- 
dino County, I, 81 

First judge of San Bernardino Countv, 
I, 119 

First Memorial Dav at San Bernardino, 
I. 131 

First Methodist Episcopal Church, On- 
tario, I, 234 

First Methodist Episcopal Church, River- 
side, II, 624 

First mills in San Bernardino County, 
I, 52 

First National Bank. Corona. I, 556, 559 

First National Bank of Corona, II, 1012 

First National Bank. Redlands, I, 206, 

First National Bank of Rialto, III, 1278 

First National Bank of San Bernardino, 

I, 155. 159 

First National Bank, Grammar School, 
Public Library, Main Street. San Ja- 
cinto (illustration), I, 574 

First newspaper of Riverside, I, 494 

First orange trees in San Bernardino 
County, I. 73 

First Presbvterian Church, Ontario, I, 

First Presbyterian Church, Riverside, 

II, 625 

First prohibition citv in state (River- 
side), I, 498 

First protective association, San Bernar- 
dino, I, 167 

First union Sunday school, San Ber- 
nardino, I, 178 

First water to reach Riverside bv canal 
(1871), I, 516 

First white man hanged in San Bernar- 
dino Countv. I. 151 

Fish. Ella M., Ill, 1439 

Fisher, Henry. I, 164 

Fishing along "101 Mile Drive." I. 85 

Fishing in the Salton Sea, I. 405 

Fisk, John P., III. 1354 

Fiske. Wilbur A., Ill, 1330 

Fitzgerald, T. T.. Ill, 1156 

Flack. John, 1 1. 884 

Fleming, (Mrs.) lames. I. 187 

Flint. 1. N., I, 172 

Floods of 1862, 1884, 1886-87 in San 
Bernardino Countv. I. 146. 147 

Folkins. Mary M.. HI. 1201 

Fontana, I. 250 

Fontana Development Ccmipanv. I. 250 

Ford. H. H.. I. 219 

Ford. Oscar, 111. 1194 

Fording. T. I., I. 125 


Forest ranger, I, 66 

Fort Benson, 1, 47 

Fort Moore, I, 38 

Fort San Bernardino, I, 40-42 

Fort San Bernardino, erected 1851 (illus- 
tration), I, 40 1 

Foster, Hollis J., Ill, 11S2- 

Foster, Isabel L., Ill, 1152 

Fouike, Morris E., Ill, 1209 

Fourth of July (1842), first celebration 
in county. I, 46 

Fowler, John W.. Ill, 1321 

Fox, Abram S.. Ill, 1160 

Fox, John. I. 171 

Fox. W. R.. I 223 

Franklin. (Mrs.) S. H.. I. 116 

Fraser, William G., II, 615, 714 

Fraternal Order of Eagles, III, 1207 

Fraternities of Ontario. I. 235 

Freeman, Florine B.. II. 968 

Freeman, Fred H., II, 966 

Freeman, George R., I, 565; II, 769 

Freeman, J. A., I, 115 

French, Fred W., III. 1158 

French. George A., Ill, 1062 

Frink, Marcus L., Ill, 1098 

From Nursery to Packing House (3 
illustrations), I, 76 

Front View Sherman Institute (illustra- 
tion), I, 600 

Frost, George, I, 533 

Frost protection, I, 471 

Fruit exchange, I, 450 

Fruit Growers' Supply Company, River- 
side, I, 448, 449 

Frye, Alexis E., I, 172 

Funk, Cecil N., Ill, 1164 

Gabbert, John R., II, 669; III, 1238 

Gage, Arthur T., Ill, 1219 

Gage, Jane G., II, 861 

Gage. Matthew, I, 393, 410-13, 543; II, 

Gage Canal. Riverside County. I, 409, 413 
Gaines, Charles E., Ill, 1481 
Garcelon. G. W., I, 75, 428, 432 ; sketch 

of, I, 433, 436 
Garces, Father, I, 8 
Garcia, J. S., I, 229 
Gardner, Frank M., Ill, 1145 
Garey, Thomas A., I, 435, 437 
Garland. Maud M.. Ill, 1252 
Garland. Richard H., Ill, 1251 
Garner, Guy S.. Ill, 1356 
Garner, John, II, 677 
Garner, Richard T.. Ill, 1136 
Garner. (Mrs.) Robert F., I, 141. 188. 

Garner, Walter T., Ill, 1136 
Garretson, A. S.. I, 552 
Gaylord, John G.. Jr., Ill, 1171 
Gaylord, John G.. Sr., Ill, 1169 
Gentry, J. Dale, II, 809 
Gerber, Raymond C. III. 1Z20 
Gibbs, Roy S.. II, 8.% 
Gibson, James A., 1, 124 
Gilbert. Edwin J.. III. 1061 
Gill, Joseph B., I, 156. 159, 160; III. l.%5 
Gill, Nelson G., I, 170 

Gilliland, Jennie E, S., Ill, 1374 
Gilliland, R. Emerson, III, 1372 
Gilman Relief Hot Springs, near San 

Jacinto, I, 575 
Gilmor, David Todd, I, 142 
Gird, Richard, I, 66, 238, 240 
Glass, Perle T., II, 1006 
Glatz, Albert, I, 168 169 
Glenwood Mission Inn,- Riverside, II, 

668-75, 824 
Globe Flour Mills, Colton, I, 226 
Goodcell, Henry, Jr., I, 115, 171; II, 802 
Goodcell, Henry, Sr.. II, 686 
Goodcell, Rex B.. I. 124. 125. 156; II. 803 
Goodrich. Minnie D., Ill, 1153 
Government Indian School. I. 572 
Grand Army of the Republic, I, 130 
Grant, K. P.. I, 60 
Granttham, Jesse L.. III. 1078 
Grape fruit (Pomelo). I. 440 
Grapevine mining district. I. 110 
Grass Valley dam. I. 87 
Green, Harvey, I, 171 
Gregory, G. L. I. 139 
Greves.' James P.. 1. 352, 355, 359; 

sketch of, I, 368 (illustration), I, 368 
Grotzinger, Ferdinand, III, 1453 
Grout, Harry F., II, 995 
Grow, Walter F.. Ill, 1337 
Grow, (Mrs.) W. F., I. 246 
Guachama ranchita. I, 9 
Guernsey. Henry A.. II, 800 
Guerro, Pablo de la. I. 124 
Guinn, J. M., I, 290 
Gutherie, James A., I, 167 
Gwinnup, John L., II, 819 

Hackney, Stephen D.. III. 1189 

Hadaller, John A., II, 838 

Hadden, Reetta V.. I, 64, 80; HI, 1280 

Hadden, Thomas, III, 1281 

Haitsch, Michael, II, 1002 

Hale, J. G., I, 209 

Hale, Millard G.. II. 884 

Hale, Napoleon B., II, 883 

Hall, Agnes O., II, 961 

Hall, Fred L.. II. 975 

Hall. Priestley. I. 482; II, 960 

Halsted, Arthur H., II. 885 

Ham. Edgar T., II. 856 

Ham. James G., Ill, 1404 

Hambleton, J. F., I, 163 

Hamilton, Charles S., Ill, 1441 

Hamilton, H., I, 176 

Hampton. Robert L.. HI, 1182 

Hampton, Samuel B., Ill, 1181 

Hancock. George M.. II, 795 

Hancock, Henry, I, 230 

Hancock. Uncle Joseph. II. 684 

Handy, B. B.. I. 498 

Handy. Benjamin W., II, 627, 873 

Hanford, loan F... II. 917 

Hanford. 'John J. (Pop), I, 157, 195; 

II, 914 
Hanford, William I., II. 917 
Hanford Iron Works. II, 917 
Hanna, lohn B.. II. 976 
Hanna, John F.. III. 1075 
Harbison, R, C. I. 176 


Hardman, J. C, II, 642 

Harford. Caleb N., Ill, 1274 

Harger, K D, II, 991 

Hargraves, (Mrs.) Jennie, I. 133 

Harlem Hot Springs, I, 247 

Harrington, James, II, 855 

Harris, Frederick T., II, 978 

Harris, Herman, III, 1054 

Harris, Horace E., Ill, 1059 

Harris, Lester B., II, 1027 

Harris, O. W. Ill, 1446 

Harris, William O., II, 1037 

Harris, W. A., I, 125 

Hart, Sherman E.. Ill, 1186 

Hart, William A., II, 831 

Hartley, William, III, 1132 

Hartshorn tract. Riverside County, I, 365 

Harwood, Alfred P., II, 988 

Haskell, C. C, I, 174 

Hasty, Jennieveva, I, 133 

Haven, George D., Ill, 1392 

Hawes, Norman S., Ill, 1204 

Hawley, W. N., I, 60 

Hayden, Irwin, II, 616 

Hayes, Benjamin, I, 124 

Haynes, H. B., I, 498 

Hays, Horace M., II, 811 

Haywood, Benjamin S., II, 721 

Hayt, Charles P.. II, 864 

Hayt, Katherine, II, 10Z2 

Hayt, William A., I, 481, 488: II, 1019 

Heald, Franklin H., Ill, 1380 

"Heart of Ramonaland," Hemet, I, 316 

H€garty, John M., Ill, 1487 

Hemet, Riverside County, I, 547 

Hemet Dam, largest piece of solid 

masonry in Southwest (illustration), 

I, 398 
Hemet Valley, east from Park Hill 

(illustration), I, 546 
Henderson, David G.. Ill, 1122 
Henderson, John A., I, 157; II. 863 
Henrietta Hebrew Society, I, 184 
Herdeg, George A., Ill, 1498 
Hermosa (loamosa), I, 249 
Hermosa Water Company, I, 249 
Herrick, George F.. Ill, 1460 
Herrick. Stephen H.. I, 482: III, 1049 
Herrick, S. Leonard. II, 615, 765 
Herring. V. J.. I. 44. 46. 112. 115 
Hertel. Elmer L.. III. 1255 
Hertel, Herman R.. III. 1254 
Hewitt, John J., I, 465. 466 
Hewitt. (Mrs.) John J.. II. 643 
Hewitt. (Mrs.) M. E.. II, 667 
Hibbard. Hiram C. III. 1077 
Highland, I, 241-247 
Highland Chamber of Commerce. I, 245 
Highland Citrus Belt, I, 244 
Highland Domestic Water Company, I, 

Highland Library Club, I. 243 
Highland Lodge No. 211, Knights of 

P>thia.s, I, 244 
Highland Methodist Episcopal Church, 

I, 247 
Highland postofRce, I. 243 
Highland School District, I. 243 
Hilkc. Celia M.. I, 174 

Hill, Louis R., Ill, 1482 

Hillcrest Hospital, Hemet, I, 548 

Hinckley, Frank, I, 160 

"History of San Bernardino Valley," 

by Father Juan Caballeria, I, 5, 7 
Hoag, Georgie J., Ill, 1347 
Hoag, Isaac N., Ill, 1347 
Hodge, Raymond E., Ill, 1311 
Holbrook. George W.. II, 808 
Holcomb, Grant, III, 1250 
Holcomb. William F., I, 103, 150, 271, 

272, 277 
Holcomb, W. L. (Bill), I, 20, 25 
Holcomb Valley, I, 103 
Holeman, Isaac A., Ill, 1051 
Holmes, Addison H., II, 925 
Holmes, B. G., Ill, 1496 
Holmes, Ben L., I, 99; III, 832 
Holmes, E. W., I, 290, 482, 528 
Holmes, Margaret J., II, 926 
Holmes, Will H., Ill, 1388 
Holt, L. M., I, 56, 58, 71, 386, 436; II, 

605, 665 
Holyrood Hotel, I, 361 
Home Gas and Lighting Company, II, 

Hook, Albert W., II, 822 
Hook, Joseph F., II. 821 
Hooper, W. S., I, 164 
Hoover, J. C, II, 1023 
Hopkins, R. R., I, 44 
Hornbeck, Harry C, III, 1162 
Hornbeck, Robert, II, 694 
Horticultural Club, Riverside, I, 451 
Holticulture in San Bernardino County, 

I, 68-70 
Horticulturist, I. 437 
Horton, John M., Ill, 1173 
Hostetler, Henry A., Ill, 1396 
Hotel Temescal, Corona, I, 553 
Hough, Elmo, II, 1026 
Howe, Clifford A., II, 943 
Howe, Everett B.. II, 1000 
Howe & Merrill, II, 942 
Hubbard, A. G.. Ill, 1063 
Hudson, Helen, I. 568 
Huls, William M., II, 874 
Humphries, Charles P., Ill, 1198 
Hunsaker, Ella, II, 876 
Hunsaker, Lewis C, II, 875 
Hunt, Jefferson. I. 38, 43, 44; sketch of, 

I, 48 
Hunter, Jesse, I, 38 
Huntington Park, Riverside. I. 478 
Huston, Clifford M., II, 1207 

Ice manufacture. Riverside, II, 663 
Idyllwild, Riverside County, I, 595, 596 
Independent Episcopal Parish of St. 

John's. San Bernardino. I. 182 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. San 

Bernardino. I. 185 
Indian boy. type of, representing Ales- 

sandro (illustration), I. 317 
Indian girl, type of, representing Ramona 

in her younger days. I, 314 
Indian Pueblos. I, 327 
Indio, Riverside County, I, 588 


Industries in San Bernardino County, 

I, 70 
Ingersoll's Century Annals of San Ber- 
nardino County (1904), 1,7 
Ingham, W. R., I, 241 
Insane asylum, Highlands, I, 60 
Intensive agriculture, Riverside pioneer 

in, I, 519 
loamosa, I, 249 
Irish. George S., I, 588. 589 
Irrigation in the Highland District. I, 

Irrigation in Palo Verde Vallev, I. 591. 

Irrigation of Southern California Colony 

lands, I. 360. 361. 367 
Irving. William. I. 412. 482; II. 861 
Irving. William G.. 11. 862 
Isaacs. John, I, 96. 174. 176 
Italian Vineyard Company (The), III, 

Ivanpah, center of silver mining. I. 105 

Tackson. Alden A. M.. I. 121 

'Tackson, Helen Hunt, I, 16. 314; death 

of, I, 315 
Jacobs-Bond, Carrie, I. 291 
Jacobs, Lewis, I. 159 
Jameson. T. C. I, 561, 565 
Jameson. W. H.. I. 557; III, 1310 
Tansen, Cornelius, I. 268 
Jaquet, Edward J., Ill, 1289 
Jarvis, John T., II, 715 
Jeken, Fred J., I, 66 
Jenkins. Lyman M.. II. 761 
Jensen, Don Cornelius, II, 677 
Jewish Synagogue, San Bernardino, I. 

Johns. Chester T., III. 1450 
Johnson. Charles E. (Riverside). II. 788 
Johnson, Charles E. (San Bernardino). 

Ill, 1282 
Johnson. George H.. I. 140 
Johnson. J. Herbert. Ill, 1524 
lohnson. William A.. II. 615. 724 
Johnson. W. B., II, 722 
Johnstone Herbert W.. I. 243 
Tones. Newman. II. 813 
Jordan. James H., II. 932 
lov. George L.. I. 552 
Judah. Theodore D.. I, 94 
Judicial districts of San Bernardino 

County (1853-83). I. 120 
Judson. E. G., I. 201 
Junior Red Cross, San Bernardino, I. 142 
Jurupa. I, 358 
Jurupa Grant, I, 26-28 
Jurupa Rancho, I, 27 

Kearnev. Arthur, I. 176 

Kell. Fred B.. III. 1.335 

Keller. Francis D.. II. 1043 

Kelley. Loyal C, II. 983 

Kellcy, Stephen J. I. 170 

Kellogg. J. H.. treatise on orunnes, I, 

Kelsey. O. K.. I, 455 
Kendall. Albert G., I, 159. 162; II. 785 
Kendall, Roy H., Ill, 1469 

Kendall, Royal H., Ill, 1468 
Kennedy. Orlis I.. II. 1044 
Ketcheson, Thomas E., Ill, 1137 
Kier, James, I, 60 
King, John E., II, 1017 
Kingsbury, C. A.. I. 209 
Kinney. Abbot. I. 315 
Kious; F. F.. I, 201 
Kirchhoffer. Richard A., II, 858 
Kirk, T. H„ I. 172 
Kirkpatrick. Jacob D.. III. 1099 
Kirkpatrick, William T.. II, 730 
Klusman, George A.. Ill, 1261 
Klusman, Henry G.. III. 1141 
Klusman, John H., Ill, 1138 
Knapp. Ellwin H. S.. II, 1005 
Knickerbocker. William E., Ill, 1504 
Knight. Gus. Sr.. I. 255 
Knight. Gus, III, 1150 
Knights of Columbus. Riverside. II. OlO 
Knights of Pythias, Riverside. II, 610 
Knights of Pythias and Pythian Sisters. 

San Bernardino, I. 187 
Knopsnyder. I. M., I, 227 
Kohl. Peter, I. 164 
Kroonen. Leo, III, 1187 
Kyes, H. P., I, 392, 513 

Labor question, II. 637 

Lackey, Thomas H.. Ill, 1327 

La Fiesta de San Bernardino. I. 155 

Lafourcade, John B.. Ill, 1202 

Lake Elsinore, I. 579 

Langford. J. D.. III. 1051 

Largest planted walnut tree in the state 

Riverside (illustration), I. 483 
Lash. E. M., III. 1278 
Lashlee. Claude H.. II, 844 
La Sierra Water Company, I, 416 
Lawler. Jennie B.. II, 740 
Lawler. John T.. II. 738 
Lawton, Maj. Gen. H. W., Redlands, 

killed in Philippines, I, 136 
Lawyers (early) of San Bernardino 

County. I. 121 
League of the Southwest. I. 416 
Lee. Robert E.. II. 783 
Lee, Rupert. I. 112 
Lemon culture. I. 432. 434 
Lemon Growers' Exchange. Ontario. I. 

Leonard. Frank A.. II. 748 
Leonard, Willis E.. III. 1490 
Leuven, Anson Van, I. 73 
Levering. N. L., I. 160 
Lewis. Alfred M., II, 692 
Lewis, Clinton H., II, 784 
Lewis, David W.. II, 735 
Lewis. Dio, I, 507 
Lillard. Redmond A.. II, 854 

ime, the. I, 440 

indenberg, Cliristinc. Ill, 1248 

indenberg, William, III. 1247 

indlev. William H.. III. 1079 

inville. Cora B., III. 1101 

inville. H. H., Ill, 1100 

ipplncott, John F., III. 1090 

ittlc Bear Lake Postofficc (illuslra- 

tinn), I, 82 


Little Bear Valley dam, I, 86 

Little Bear Vallev reservoir, L 87 

Loehr. William, Sr., IH. 1334 

Log Cabin, Lugo Park, San Bernardino 
(illustration), L 197 

Loma Linda, Redlands, L 219 

Lombra, Friend L, IH, 1201 

Long, W. H„ L 131 

Long (W. H.) Post, G. A. R., San Ber- 
nardino, L 131 

Longmire, George H., lU. 1463 

Longmire, Mary E., IH, 1260 

Longmire, Rufus E., IIL 1260 

Lorbeer, Thomas L., IL 1014 

Lord, George, L 270, 271 ; IL 698 

Lord, Pressburv W., lU, 1206 

Loring, C. M., I, 481 

Loring Opera House, L 495 

Los Angeles pueblo, L 344-346 

Loubet, Jean P., IIL 1193 

Love, Ashbel G.. IL 729 

Lugo, Antonia Maria, I, 31. 268 

Lugo, lose C, I, 268 

Lugo, jose M., I, 268 

Lugo, Vicente, I, 268 

Lugo Park (see Pioneer Park) 

Lugonia, I, 221 

Lugonia School District, I. 222 

Lugonia Water Company, I, 222 

Luisanos (Indians), I, 313 

Lunt, H. L., I, 172 

Lutz, Robert J., II, 818 

Lyda, Helen E., Ill, 1360 

Lyman, Amasa M., I, 27. 38. 46 

Lyman, Harrv L., II, 1027 

Lyman. Lorenzo S., I, 46. 186: III, 1360 

Lynn, Harvey A., II, 1024 

Lytle, Andrew, I, 38, 44. 50 

Lytle Creek, I, 39 

Lytle Creek Water Company, I, 32 

MacGillivray, George B., III. 1386 
MacGillivrav, R. W., 11, 843 
Mack, Royal H., I, 80, 156 
Mackey, William J.. II, 956 
Magnolia Avenue. Riverside. I, 377 
Maine, Mortimer P., II, 1094 
Maloney, A. S., II, 971 
Manning, Alfred W., II, 929 
Manuel's Village, I. 18 
March Field, Riverside County, I, 596 
March Field, Army Air Service Pilot's 

School, I. 596-99 
Martin. Ernest, L 170; II. 928 
Martin, H. B.. I, 176 
Martin, Jack. I, 103 
Mascart, Montague. III. 1513 
Mascart, Ruby F. E.. III. 1513 
Mason. Myron S.. II. 876 
Masonic Order. San Bernardino. I. 185 
Masonic Temple. San Bernardino, I. 185 ; 

Riverside. II, 609 
Mathews, Charles W., II, 996 
Mathews, Margaret W., lit. 1313 
Mathews, Samuel G., Ill, 1312 
Matteson, Hiram C, III. 1161 
May. E. H., I, 556 
Mav Dav in San Bernardino. I. 196 
Mayhew'. Jesse F.. Ill, 1126 

McAbee, W. S., I, 160 
McAllister, Henry C. III. 1213 
McCarty. Alva R., Ill, 1384 
McCook, R. D., I, 161 
McDavitt, Arthur W., II, 788 
McDonald, T. C, III, 1500 
McDougall. James, III, 1064 
McEwen, Gertie, I, 565 
McFarland, C. L., I, 477; II, 901 
McFarlane, Robert. II. 750 
McGroartv. John S., I, 166, 290 
McGuire. Katherinc, death of, I. 559 
Mcintosh. John, III, 1393 
Mcintosh, W. P., III. 1370 
Mclver, Peter G., Ill, 1519 
McKinlev, Willoughby, III, 1318 
McKinney, A. F., I. 115 
McLennen. Kenneth. I, 67 
McLeod. D. W., I, 300 
McMahill, William, II, 1022 
McNabb, S. B. W., II, 758 
McNabb. S. W., I, 157, 191, 192 
McNair, James S., Ill, 1434 
McNealy. W. T., I, 124 
McPherron, A. S., I, 115 
Mead, Albert S., II. 919 
Mead. Charles E., Ill, 1192 
Meadowbrook Park, San Bernardino, I, 

Mecham, Charles L., I, 105; II. 949 
Mecham, G. F., I, 109 
Mee. James W., Ill, 1499 
Meeks, Susan, III, 1375 
Merchants' Carnival Week (April 14-21, 

1900), I, 533-39 
Meredith, Florisa, III, 1125 
Meriwether, Joseph D.. Ill, 1178 
Merrihew, A. B., I, 165 
Merrill. G. Gurdon. II, 943 
Merrill, Jere H., Ill, 1191 
Merrill, Tohn R.. Ill, 1493 
Merrill. Samuel. I, 152; III. 1189 
Mertz. (Mrs.) L. A.. I. 116 
Meserve, F. P.. I, 214 
Metcalf. Tohn R., Ill, 1101 
Miller. C"C.. I. 592; III. 1242 
Miller. Frank A.. I. 290. 329. 395. 533: 

II. 640, 669, 670, 671, 673. 823 
Miller, (Mrs.) Frank A., II, 673 
Miller, Georee, I, 263. 271. 280 
Miller, Harrv H., III. 1320 
Miller. Laura M.. III. 1276 
Millikcn. Daniel B.. III. 1492 
Milliken. Kate. Ill, 1493 
Millikcn. Peter. II. 611 
Mills, D. H. W., I, 141 
Mills. Henrv W.. II, 979 
Mills. T. W;. I. 67 
Mills. William J.. II. 992 
Mining in San Bernardino Countv (1863- 

^7i^. I, 53 
Mintzer, William H.. I, 223 
Mission Indians. I. 317. 319. .W6 
Mission Publishing Company. Riverside. 

IT. 607 
Missions- downfall of the. I. 16; of 

Riverside County. I. 2i22 
Mitchell. Archie D.. III. 1191 



Mitchell, David G., II. 898 

.\(ogcaii. Margaret M.. I. 115 

Mojave Riv. r, I, 8, 253 

Mojaves (Indians). I. 12. 18. 

Monaglian. Frank, I. 252 

Mdiicado. Rivera v, I, M4, 345 

Monks. Thomas. Ill, 1175 

Monroe, Herman H., II, 763 

Montgomery, J. F.. Ill, 1200 

Moon, C. M., I, 253 

Moore. Lavifrence L., Ill, 1275 

Moore. William C, II, 961 

Moore, William N., Ill, 1275 

More, Matthew M., Ill, 1369 

Moreno, head of the Perris Vallev, I, 

Moreno Water Company, I, 573 

Morgan, Bert L., Ill, 1086 

Mormon Battalion, I, 38 

Mormon Council House, San Bernar- 
dino, I, 60 

Mormon pioneers of San Bernardino 
County. I. 268 

Mormons, recall of the, I. 48 

Morongo Indian reservation, I, 318 

Morrison. F. P.. Ill, 1253 

^lorrison, Murray, I, 124 

Morse, E. C, murder of, I, 151 

Mort, Elizabeth, III, 1317 

Mort, Joseph, III, 1317 

Morton, Allan B., I, 209 

Morton. Oakley K.. II, 931 

Morton, R. B., I, 201 

Mosher, L. E„ I, 223 

Motor Harbor, San Bernardino, I, 194 

Motor lines, I, 96 

Moulton, Ernest S., Ill, 1055 

Moulton, Julia F., Ill, 1056 

Mountain Indians, I, 318 

Mountain roads, I, 62 

Mount San Bernardino, I, 1 ; (illustra- 
tion), I, 57 

Mueller, Fred J., Ill, 1186 

Municipal Auditorium, San Bernardino, 

I, 156 

Municipal boundaries enlarged (San Ber- 
nardino). I, 155 

Municipal Memorial Hall, San Bernar- 
dino, I, 192 

Munro. Peter, III, 1429 

Munroe, H. H., I, 290 

Murphy, Michael A., I, 61 ; II, 804 

Murray, L. A., I, 156 

Murrietta, Riverside County, I. 580 

Muscat grape (raisin), I. 51, 442 

Myers, Datus E., Ill, 1155 

Myers, Ida L., Ill, 1155 

Nafzgar, Lee, II, 966 

National Bank of Riverside, II, 615 

National Guard of California, Riverside, 

II. 634 

National Ice & Cold Storage Company, 

Riverside, II, 663 
National Old Trails Highway, I, 256 
National Orange Show, San Bernardino, 

I. 78-80 
Native Daughters of the Golden West, 

San Bernardino, I, 187 

Native Sons of the Golden West. San 

Bernardino. I. 186 
.Vavel orange. I. ,>8.\ 425, 522, 562 
Nebelung, R. E., I, 453, 455 
Needle's Eye (The), I, 252 
Needles, I, 252 

Needles Chamber of Commerce, I, 252 
Needles' Nugget, I, 252 
Nelson, Anna, III, 1397 
Nelson, Arthur H., Ill, 1509 
Nelson, Erick G., Ill, 1397 
Nelson, Joseph A.. HI, 1523 
New Albion, I, 310, 311 
New California, I, 324 
New Chino School District, I, 239 
New Liverpool Salt Company, I, 409 
New Orleans Exposition, I, 77 
New Southern California, I, 347 
Newcombe, Charles L., II, 1024 
Newcombe, O. W., I. 169 
Newman, G. O., I, 498 
Newspapers of San Bernardino, I, 175; 

of Redlands, I, 216; of Corona, I, 

563; of Riverside, II, 603 
Newton, Ryland A., II, 1014 
Noble, (Mrs.) C. C, I, 115 
Noble, John. HI. 1284 
Nobles, John C, HI, 1295 
Nobles, Sarah, III, 1295 
Noland, W. W.. I. 498 
Norris, J. B., I, 171 
North, J. W., I, 348, 352, 353, 355, .358, 

360, 519, 521; (illustration), I, 351; 

last years of. I, 367 
North Ontario Methodist Episcopal 

Church, I, 234 
Norther of 1887, I, 147 
Norton, Gaylord B., II, 746 
Norton, Harriet E., II, 748 
Norton, N. H., II, 1032 
Noyes, W. T.. I. 243 
Nye, Frank C, II, 897 

Oakey, John L., I, 160 

Oberschmidt, George J.. II, 817 

Oberschmidt, Iva M., II, 817 

Odd Fellows, Riverside, II. 609 

Odd Fellows Temple, San Bernardino, I, 

Odell, John B., HI, 1229 
Oehl, Ernest, II. 1046 
Oehl, Tulius, II, 1046 
Oehl Packing Companv. II, 1046 
Ohlhausen, Charles A., II, 936 
Oil as railroad fuel, I, 99 
Oil in Corona District, I, 559 
"Old Fig Tree John," I, 318 
Old Mission Vineyard, I, 199 
Old San Bernardino County documents, 

I, 198, 199 
Old San Bernardino pavilion burned, I, 

Olives in the Elsinore District, I, 580 
Olivewood Cemetery. Riverside, II, 643 
"101 Mile Drive" (illustration). I, 63 
"Only a EHtch and a Future," (Mrs.) S. 

Waterman, I. 374 


Ontario, I, 229-2J7 : incorpuialcd as a 
city, I, 231 ; schools and cinirclics of, 
1, 233 

Ontario-Cucamonga Fruit Exchange, 1, 

Ontario Fruit Exchange. 1, 233 

Ontario High School District, 1. 235 

Ontario Land & Improvement Company, 
I, 231 

Ontario School District, I. 230 

Opium growing at Riverside (1871), II, 

Orange culture, I, 419-31, 464-74 

Orange grove near the foothills (illus- 
tration), I, 73 

Orange Cirovvers' Association, Redlands, 
1, 207 

Orange packing, I, 468 

Orchard Heights, Riverside County. I, 

Orchard Scene, Picking Apples (illustra- 
tion), I. 571 

Ornamental street trees. Riverside. 1, 484 

Oro Grande mining district, I. Ill 

Oster, Frank B., I, 189 

Oster. Frank F., I, 124, 125. 195 

Otis, George E.. I. 124, 126 

Our Bazoo, Needles, I, 252 

Owen. Colin C. II, 754 

Owen, Frank H., III. 1501 

Owens River project, I. 416. 417 

Oxnard, Henry T.. I. 240 

Pachappa Orange Growers' Association, 

I, 446 
Pacific Balloon Companv. Riverside, II, 

Pacific Electric Company. I, 165 
Pacific Light & Power' Company. Los 

.Angeles, I, 164 
Padres of Riverside County. I. 322 
Paine. Charles R., I, 115, 171. 221 
Paine. (Mrs.) Frances Travilli. I. 246 
Paine. Margaret. Ill, 1381 
Paine's .Academy and Business Institute, 

San Bernardino, I. 171 
Paiutes (Indians). I, 12 
Palm Springs, Riverside Countv. I. 583 
Palmer, Arthur, II, 843 
Palmer, H. A.. I. 61 
Palo Verde Valley, camels of. I. 589 
Palo Verde Valley. Riverside Countv. T, 

Pann, C. F., II, 634 
Panorama of Mission Inn and Puhlic 

Library. Riverside (illustration), II, 

Paris, A. B., I, 125 
Parish, S. B.. I. 584 
Parker, George D.. I. 474; II. 810 
Parks. Heber C. I, 515 
Parsons. Frank W., II, 871 
Patten, H., I, 209 
Patton, John H., II. 1304 
PauLson. Hans H., II. 799 
Payton. William B., Ill, 1070 
Peacock, J. C, I, 169 
Peg Leg (lo.'it) Mine. TT, 648 

Pellissier. Antoine, II, 948 

Pcnn. George W., Hi. 14.V) 

Pcnielow, \V. J., 1, 556 

Peoples Trust & Savinj;s liank, River- 
side, II, 615 

Percival, J. Oliver, III, I2i«, 

Perez, Eulalio, I, 31 

Perkins, Harry, I, 79 

Perris, Arthur E., Ill, 1213 

Perris. Frederick T., I, 96, 99. 569- HI 

Perris. I, 569, 570, 571, 572 

Perris Industrial School, 1, 16 

Perris Valley, I, 568-72 

Perris Valley Leader, I, 571 

Persons, Luther M., Ill, 1381 

Peters, Helga S., HI, 1281 

Peters, Nelson C, III. 1092 

Peters. William L., Ill, 1081 

Pet.sch, Adolph. I. 249 

Philips, Kirk, I, 64 

Phillips, Charles H.. I. 23') 

Phy, John M., Ill, 1165 

Phy, Lydia J., Ill, 1166 

Pickett. William. I. 122 

Pierce. Mildred B.. III. 1370 

Pierce. R. B.. I. 113. 115 

Pine, Beatrice, III. 1074 

Pine. Dudlev, III, 1118 

Pine, Edward H.. HI, 1142 

Pine. Samuel. Jr.. HI. 1074 

Pine. Samuel C. Sr.. HI. 1073 

Pioneer celebrations at Riverside. I, 

Pioneer Monument (illustration). I. 265 

Pioneer Monument Builders (illustra- 
tion). I. 264 

Pioneer Park. San Bernardino I 191 

Pioneers reunion at San Bernardino. I, 

Pitts, Charles E.. HI. 1272 

Plasman, William, HI. 1168 

Pleasants, J, E.. I. 456 

Polkinghorn. William H.. H. 836 

Pollock, James R., HI. 1176 

Polytechnic High School. San Bernar- 
dino. I, 172; (illustration). I 173 

Pond. Cassius C, II, 893 

Poppett, Herbert, HI, 1246 

Porciuncula (Los Angeles) River I 344 

Porphyry. I. 564 

Porter. Horace. II. 616. 618 710 

Porter. Orin. IH, 1177 

Porter. Sarah M. G.. HI 1177 

Porter. W. R., L 170 

Portola. Gasper de. I 3'4 

Post. Ezra L. HI. 1184 

Post. Morton E.. HI. 1405 

Powell. G. Harold. I. 453. 487 

Powell. Percy A,. II. 963 

Powell. William I., II. 91.> 

Pratt. L. G.. I. 96 

Presbyterian Church of East San Ber- 
nardino \'alley. I. 212 

Presbvterian Church of San Bernardino 
I. 181 • 


Prcscott. Frank C, I, 135, 136, 137, 139 

Prescott, G. W., I, 99 

Present Day Club, Riverside, I, 526 

Press, I, 4^7 

Preston, Edward W., II, 981 

Prior, Clarence E., Ill, 1305 

Prior, George W., II, 914 

Prize essay on Riverside, I, 501 

Probation officer, II, 654 

Prohibition adopted in Riverside (1888), 
I, 498 

Prohibition in Riverside, II, 632, 633 

Prospect House, Redlands, I, 202 

Provensal, Peter, II, 1026 

Providence Mountains ; rich silver dis- 
trict, I, 109 

Public education in San Bernardino 
County, I, 112; San Bernardino city 
schools, I, 170; schools at Redlands, I, 
209; schools of Riverside, I, 524-25; 
schools of Corona, I, 565 

Public Hall Association, Riverside, II, 

Public Library and City Hal!, Corona 
(illustration), I, 566 

Public (Carnegie) Library, Riverside, I. 

Public parks of Riverside, I, 475-80 

Puente Oil Company, Chino, I, 239 

Puis. Henry A., II, 1034 

Quality Milk Company, 11, 1002 

Rader, Gertrude Spier, I, 116 

Ragsdale, W. L., I, 115 

Railroad Engineers Reception (1904), 
San Bernardino, I, 194 

Railroad rate war (1886-87), I, 100 

Railroads, I, 54, 55, 94-99, 492, 563 

Rains, John, I, 29 

Rainstorm (1916) at Corona, I, 558 

Raisins, I, 442 

Raising of Oranges, I, 464 

Ralphs, John C, II, 706 

Ramona, I, 314 

Ramona Hospital, II, 981 

Ranch, I. S., I, 255 

Rancho de San Bernardino, I, 43 

Rancho San Bernardino, deed to 
(1853), I, 197 

Rancho San Tacinto Sobrante, I, 33 

Randall, W. H., I, 526 

Rasor, E. A., I, 162 

Rathbun, Dan, II, 782 

Rathbun. Sarah A., II. 781 

Razon, Coahuilla chief, I, 16 

Redans, Frank E., II, 1011 

Redington, Paul G., I, 66, 598 

Redlands, I, 201, 203, 205-209; fratern- 
ities and societies., I, 210; news- 
papers, I, 216 

Redlands Chamber of Commerce, I, 

Redlands Board of Trade. T, 216 

Redlands Citrograph, I, 203 

Redlands Daily Facts, I, 216 

Redlands Gas Company, I, 208 

Redland Heights Water Company, I, 

Redlands, Lugonia & Crafton Domes- 
tic Water Company, I, 203, 205 

Redlands Medical Society, I, 211 

Redlands National Bank, I, 219 

Redlands Opera House, I, 208 

Redlands Orchestra, I, 211 

Redlands Postoffice, I, 210 

Redlands Public Library Association, 
I, 207 

Redlands Review, I, 216 

Redlands Water Company, I, 201 

Reece, William, III, 1180 

Reed, D. C, I. 209 

Reed, Frederick M., II, 1028 

Reed, Henry, I, 249 

Reed, Howard S., Ill, 1462 

Reed, John H., I, 453, 481, 485, 486, 
505, 538; II, 1028 

Reed, William H. II, 807 

Reeder, J. C, III, 1293 

Refrigerating car service, I, 75 

Reid, Edward D., II, 1048 

Reid, E. W., Ill, 1140 

Reid, Mary J., Ill, 1141 

Relief Hot Springs, Riverside County, 

Reminiscences of Riverside, I, 499 

Renfro, Frederick M., I, 80, 156; III, 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints, San Bernardino, 
I, 182 

Rex, Clyde P., I, 596 

Reyes, Don Ygnacio, II, 682 

Reynolds, George N., II, 693 

Rialto, I, 249, 250 

Rialto Canal, I, 249 

Rich, Charles C, I, 37, 38, 46 

Rich, Joseph E., II, 755 

Richardson, F. W., I, 126, 174 

Richardson, Jerome L., II, 974 

Richardson, N. A., I, 171, 172 

Richenberger, Louis, III, 1291 

Rickard, E. O., I, 415 

Ricker, William B., II, 762 

Riis, Jacob, I, 329 

Riley, John A.. I, 62 

"Rim of the World" road, I, 64 

Rimell, Phil G., II, 866 

Rimpau, Adolph, I, 552 

Riparian rights, I, 366 

Ripley, Riverside County, I, 594 

Riverside town: founding of, I, 360 
first decade of, I, 363-367; early im- 
provements of, I, 377; its water sys- 
tem, I, 382-91 ; incorporated as a city, 
I, 384; domestic water system, I, 392 
97; street tree management in, I 
481-89; tree wardenship created, I 
482; adopts municipal control of 
street trees, I, 483; as a city, I, 490- 
504; incorporated (1883), I, 498 
early history of, I, 502; fiftieth an 
niversary of its founding, I, 518 
schools and literary organizations, I 
524; fraternal organizations of, II 
609; in the World's war, II, 634 

Riverside in 1883 (illustration), I, 438 

Riverside and Judge North, I, 350-354 


Riverside Canal, I, 411 

Riverside Canal Companv, 1, 382, 383, 

Riverside Canning Company, I, 444 
Riverside Cemeteries, II, 642 
Riverside Chamber of Commerce, II, 

615, 616 
Riverside Colony (1873), I, 359 
Riverside County, creation of (1893), I, 

155; the padres and the missions, I, 

322; the pastoral era. 1, 334. j4o; 

in 1870, I, 348; later history, I, 

540-45; creation of (1893), I, 544; 

communities in, I, 547-602; descrip- 
tion of, I, 551-68 
Riverside County Clays, I, 459 
Riverside County Farm Bureau, I, 453- 

Riverside County Hospital, II, 658 
Riverside County Pioneer Society, I, 

Riverside Fruit Company, I, 75 
Riverside Highland Water Company, 

I, 414, 415 
Riverside Horticultural Club, I, 472 
Riverside Improvement Company, I, 

395, 396 
Riverside Land & Irrigating Company, 

I, Zll, 3S3, 384, 477, 502 
Riverside Library Service School, I, 

Riverside Lodge No. 282, I. O. O. F., 

Riverside Military Band, II, 645-48 
Riverside Municipal Electric Light & 

Power System, II, 616 
Riverside Municipal Water System, II, 

618, 619, 620 
Riverside News, I, 365; II, 603 
Riverside Orange Growers' Protective 

Association, I, 446 
Riverside Portland Cement Plant, II, 

Riverside Postoflfice (illustration), I, 

Riverside Press, I, 437; II, 604, 605, 

Riverside Public Library (illustration), 

I, 530 
Riverside Public Library Association, 

I, 528 
Riverside Rifles, II, 634 
Riverside Trust Company, Limited, I, 

Riverside Water Company, I, 386-89, 

Riverside Weekly News, I, 494 
Riverside Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, II, 627 
Rivino Water Company, I, 416 
Roach, Phil A., I, 592 
Roads in Riverside District, II, 638 
Robbins, Ellison, I. S3, 113, 115, 171, 

Roberts, Archie M., Ill, 1479 
Roberts, Berry, III, 1507 
Roberts, Berry L., Ill, 1507 
Roberts, Catherine J., Ill, 1J91 
Roberts, Edward D., I, 159; III, 1358 

Roberts, (Mrs.) E. D., I, 227 

Roberts, George L., II, 664 

Roberts, J. W., I, 159; III, 1516 

Roberts, R. J., I, 271 

Roberts, Walter A., II, 779 

Roberts, William M., II, 111 

Robinson, L. V., Ill, 1430 

Rockhold, Benjamin F., II, 968 

Roddick, David H., I, 245; III, 1245 

Roddick, William H., Ill, 1346 

Roe, James H., I, 367, 440; II, 604, 664 

Rocn, Otto S., Ill, 1179 

Rogers, Samuel, III, 1437 

Rogers Sam K., HI, 1437 

Rolfe, Horace C. 1, 123, 124; II, 678 

Rollins, Curtis S., I, 139 

Rollins-Noble Camp, No. IS, United 
Spanish War Veterans, San Ber- 
nardino, I, 139 

Rose, (Dr.) T. H., I. 172 

Rosenthal, E., I, 393, 394, 395 

Rosseau, J. A., I, 115 

Rouse, C. A., I, 162 

Rouse, Gaylor, II, 720 

Rouse, Mary E., II, 877 

Rowell, C. W. C, I, 125 

Rowell, George B., Ill, 1309 

Rowland, John, I, 268 

Rubidoux. Louis, I, 28, 268, 319, 527; 
sketch of; original Southern Califor- 
nia colonizer, I, 319-321 

Rubidoux, Peter T., II, 997 

Rubidoux Mountain, Riverside County, 
I, 329-331 

Rudisill, (Mrs.) E. E., I, 378 

Rudisill, Henry J., I, 377, 379, 381, 38S, 
395, 488, 494 

Rudisill, (Mrs.) Henry J., I, 3«1 

Ruedy, Charles, III, 1134 

Ruggles, A. B., I, 216 

Ruskauflf, Anthony, II, 938 

Russell, James E., II, 812 

Russell, Robert W., Ill, 1440 

Saboba Indian Reservation, I, 576 
Saboba Indians, I, 318 
St. Catherine's .Academy. San Ber- 
nardino, I, 171 
St. Clair, A. A., I, 171 
St. Francis de Sales Catholic Church, 

Riverside, II, 625 
St. Paul's Methodist Church, South, 

San Bernardino, I, 177 
Salt Lake Route Railroad, I, 100 
Salton Sea, I, 403-18 
Salton Sea mullet, I, 407 
San Antonio Electric Light & Power 

Company, I, 231 
San Antonio Water Company, I, 229, 

San Bernardino, 1852 (illustration), I, 

San Bernardino, town of, I, 46; city of, 

I, S3, 54; advancement of in 1878-90. 

I, 55: biggest boom (1885-90), I, 56- 

59; from 1885 to 1921, I, 153-200; 

municipal government, I, 157, 158; 

fire department, I, 167; newspapers, 

I, 175, 176; churches, I, 176 



San Bernardino: Natural and geologi- 
cal features, 1, 1; early cxolon.- 
and missionaries, I, S-13; Indians of 
San Bernardino Valley, I, 10-13; 
Mission Indians, I, 13; In- 
dians under Mexican and American 
rule, I, IS; Indian ceremonies and 
superstitions, I, 18; Indian raids and 
depredations, 1. 20-25; the rtign oi 
the Mexicans, I, 26-36; social life 
and customs, I, 33; during Mormon 
occupation, I, 37; founding of, I, 43; 
first county election in, I, 44; period 
of arrested development (1858-75), I, 
50-54; decade of progress (1880-90), 
I, 55-59; public buildings and insti- 
tutions, I, 60; roads, I, 62; agricul- 
ture and horticulture of, I, 68-70; 
irrigation, I, 81-90; transportation in, 
I, 91-101; mines and mining, I, 102; 
schools of, I, 115; superintendents 
of schools (1853-1921), I, 115; first 
officers of, I, 280 

San Bernardino Academy and Business 
College, I, 171 

San Bernardino Advertiser, I, 176 

San Bernardino Aerie No. 506, Frater- 
nal Order of Eagles, III, 1207 

San Bernardino Argiis, I, 53, 176 

San Bernardino Basin, I, 2 

San Bernardino Board of Trade, I, 156 

San Bernardino Collegiate School, I, 

San Bernardino County Free Library, 
I, 117 

San Bernardino County Hospital, I, 

San Bernardino County Medical So- 
ciety, I, 188 

San Bernardino County Parent-Teach- 
ers' Association, I, 115 

San Bernardino County Savings Bank, 
I, 159 

San Bernardino County Welfare Com- 
mission, I, 191 

San Bernardino Courier, I, 176 

San Bernardino Daily Sun, I, 176 

San Bernardino Forest Reserve, I, 65 

San Bernardino Free Press, I, 176 

San Bernardino Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, I, 163 

San Bernardino Gazette, I, 176 

San Bernardino Grant, I, 31 

San Bernardino Guardian, I, S3, 176 

San Bernardino Herald, I, 53, 175 

San Bernardino Horticultural Commis- 
sion, I, n 

San Bernardino Implement Company, 
III, 1242 

San Bernardino Law Library, I, 125 

San Bernardino Library Association, I, 

San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. 
O. E., II, 752 

San Bernardino Mission Charge (M. 
E.), I, 178 

San Bernardino Mormon Colony, I, 
38, 39 

San Bernardino National Bank, I, 159 

San Bernardino Patriot. I, 53 
San Bernardino Postoffice, I, 169 
San Bernardino Public Library, I, 173 
San Bernardino Rancho, I, 10, VJ , 39 
San Bernardino Society of California 

Pioneers, I. 269-72 
San Bernardino Soldiers, deceased, I, 

San Bernardino Temperance Associa- 
tion, I, 53 
San Bernardino Times, I, 176 
San Bernardino Times-Index, I, 176 
San Bernardino Union High School 

District, I, 173 
San Bernardino Valley, I, 1; named, 

I, 9 
San Bernardino Valley Bank, I, 160 
San Bernardino Valley Index, I, 176 
San Bernardino Valley Traction Line, 

I, 156. 164, 208, 243 
San Bernardino Water System, I, 161 
San Bernardino Woman's Club, I, 187 
San Bernardino & Highland Electric 

Railway Company, I, 165 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles 

bound, I, 165, 166 
San Carlos Borromeo Mission, I, 7 
San Diego de Alcala Mission, I, 7, 324 
San Gabriel Mission, I, 13, 323, 327, 

San Gorgonio Pass, I, 581 
San Gorgonio Ranch, I, Z2 
San Jacinto City, I, 575 
San Jacinto Land Company, Limited, 

I, 567 
San Jacinto Valley, I. 575-79 
San Jacinto Valley (illustration), I, 577 
San Jacinto Nuevoy Potrero Grant, I, 

San Jacinto Viejo Grant, I, 33 
San Jose Scale, I, 469 
San Timoteo (Zanyon and Sunset 

Drive, near Redlands (illustration), 

I. 215 
Sanborn, Elizabeth L., Ill, 1304 
Sanborn, Ruth S., Ill, 1345 
Sansevaine, I, 250 
Santa Ana Del Chino Grant, I, 30 
Santa Ana River, as source of water 

supply, I, 543 
Santa Fe System, I, 96-99 
Satterwhite, John W., I, 125, 367 
Saunders, William, I, 427 
Saunders, William (illustration), who 

brought first navel orange tree to 

America, I, 421 
Savage, Philip M., H, 744 
Savage, William W., II. 1038 
Savings Bank of Redlands, I, 206, 219 
Savings Bank of San Bernardino, I, 

Sayward, W. T., I, 367, Zll , 378 
Scale pest, I, 469 
Scanland, J. M., I, 344 
Scenes at Camp Cajon (illustration), 

I, 257 
Scenes in_ Meadowbrook Park. San 

Bernardino's Motor Harbor (illus- 
tration), I, 195 


Schaefer, Glenn A., LI, 814 

Schneider. Joseph, II, 986 

Schoenthal. Meyer L., Ill, 1411 

School for Forest Rangers, March 
Field. I. 598 

Schools (sec Public Education), I, 112 

Schools of San Bernardino County, 1, 
115; Redlands District, I, 202; of 
Ontario, I, 233 

Schrader. Theodore F., Ill, 1384 

Scott, William L., II, 958 

Seager. George H., II, 835 

Searles. John W., I, 104 

Scccombe, William C, III, 1215 

Secularization of the Missions (1834), 
I, 335 

Security Savings Bank, Riverside, II, 

Seely, David, sketch of, I, 278, 280 

Seely. David (illustration), I, 279 

Seifkin. E.. 1. 159 

Semi-Tropic Land & Water Company, 
Rialto. I, 32, 249, 250 

Sepulveda. Diego, I, 268 

Serra, Junipero, I, 6, 7, 324, 325. 326 

Serrano Leandro, I, 268 

Scrranos (Indians), I, 12, 18 

Severance, M. S., I, 60 

Sexton, Daniel, I, 10, 47. 268; II, 683 

Shamel. A. D., I, 487 

Sharpe. E. C, II, 617 

^haw. Mark B.. II. 954 

Shaw. Martin R.. II, 941 

Shay. Thomas, III, 1336 

Shay. Walter A., I. 241; II, 849 

--'hearing. Walter. Ill, 1143 

Shelden. R. Bird. II, 972 

Sheldon. Otis. III. 1455 

Shepardson, William S.. II, 1033 

Sheppard, Frank T.. I. 563 

Sherlock. George K.. Jr.. II, 857 

Sherman, James Schoolcraft. I, 599 

Sherman (Indian) Institute, I, 16, 318, 

Sherman, Riverside County, I, 599 

Sherrard, Lincoln. Ill, 1483 

Sherwood, H. G., I, 44, 280 

Shiels. Charles M.. II. 981 

Sholander, Carrie S.. Ill, 1133 

Sholander, Nels J„ III, 1133 

Shorb. J. de Barth. II, 665 

Short-staple cotton in Palo Verde Val- 
ley. I, 594 

Shoup, Paul, I, 165, 166 

Shrimp. J. Wesley. II. 647; III. 1197 

Shugart. K. D.. I. 355. 369. 375 (illus- 
tration), I, 370 

Sierra Madre Mountains. I, 1 

Silk Center Association, I, 355 

Silver. Lowery. I, 105 

Silver King Mining Company, I. 106. 

Silver mining in San Bernardino Coun- 
ty, I, 105 

Simms. John A., II, 642 

Simonds. Paul E., II, 918 

Singer, Frank T., I, 131 

Skelley, Edgar R. II, 892 

Skidmore, J. H., I, 171 

Skinner, C. A., I, 115 

Skinner, F. C, III, 1466 

Slater, Henry B., Ill, 1065 

Slaughter, FenJon M., Ill, 1123 

Sloan, H. L. I, 211 

Sloat, Orin P., II, 750 

Slovcr, Cristobal, I, 268; II, 681 

Slover Mountain Colony Association, 
I, 223 

Slygh, Ernest W., Ill, 1383 

Smiley, Albert K., Ill, 1342 

Smiley, Alfred H., Ill, 1342 

Smiley, Daniel, III, 1344 

Smiley Brothers, 1. 21 J: III. 1341 

Smiley Heights, I, 217, 220 

Smiley (A. K.) Public Library, Red- 
lands, I, 214, 217; III, 1299 

Smith, Arthur D„ III, 1450 

Smith, C. A., I, 201 

Smith, Charles F., Ill, 1458 

Smith, D. N., I. 143, 260 

Smith, George W., Ill, 1363 

Smith, Jedediah, I, 91 

Smith, John B., II, 787 

Smith, Joseph, I, 37 

Smith, J. C, I. 160 

Smith, J. Gordon, III, 1478 

Smith, J. H., I, 159 

Smith, S. H.. I, 253 

Smith. Wilmot T., I. 159: 111, 1423 

Smithson, Bart, I, 271 

Snidecor, F. E., II, 1012 

Snidecor, George E., I, 561 

Snowstorm in Riverside, II, 643 

Soboba Lithia Hot Springs, Riverside 
County, I, 549 

Soboba Lithia Springs, near San Ja- 
cinto, I, 576 

Society of California Pioneers of New 
England, I, 271 

Soldiers and Sailors' Monument. San 
Bernardino (illustration), I. 129 

Soldiers and Sailors' Monument, San 
Bernardino, I, 132 

Sontatr. Hueo. III. 1053 

South Riverside (see Corona) 

South Riverside Bee, I, 554, 563 

South Riverside Land & Water Com- 
pany, I, 554 

Southern California Colony. 1. 355-'>I 

Southern (California Colony Associa- 
tion, I, 82, 382, 389, 410 

Southern California Horticultural So- 
ciety. I. 303. 437; II, 664 

Southern California Power Company 
Redlands, I, 207 

Southern California State Hospttal, 
Patton, I. 60 

Southern Pacific Company, I, 94, 96, 
202, 223 

Southern Pacific Hotel. Ontario. T 

Southern Pacific Railroad. I. 54, 55, 

Southwestern Portland Cement Com 
pany. III, 1429 

Spangler. Preston A., Ill, 1159 

Sparks, Q. S., I, 121, 171 

Spence, E. F., I, 61 


Spinet Club, I, 211 

Sprccher, L. M., I, 125 

Squires, J. P., I, 206 

Stage Coach, I, 92 

Stage service, I, 92, 93 

Stalcjcr, Arnold J., 11, 887 

Staldcr, Frederick W., II, 890 

Stalder, Sydney G., II, 891 

Stanley, Grace C, I, 115; III, 1040 

Stanter, C. E., I, 252 

Starke, F. G., I, 169 

State Board of Horticiflture, I, 458 

State Federation of Woman's Clubs, I, 

State Fruit Growers' Convention 

(1887), Riverside, I, 470 
State text-book lavi^, I, 114 
Stearns, Abel, I, 268 
Stearns Rancho, I, 33 
Stebler, Fred, II, 901 
Stephen, WiUiam, sketch of, I, 272 
Stephens, George, Sr., I, 169 
Stephens, William E., II, 913 
Stephenson, Homer, II, 895 
Stephenson, J. W., I, 174 
Stevenson, O. M., I, 168 
Stewart, Alexander, 11, 815 
Stewart, Fred L., II, 1023 
Stewart, James, II, 815 
Stewart, Samuel A., II, 1023 
Stewart, (Mrs.) S. U., I, 116 
Stewart, William B., Ill, 1314 
Stewart Hotel, San Bernardino, I, 153, 

Stillman, J. D. B., I, 222 
Stillwell, Carl W., Ill, 1465 
Stocker, Sarah, III, 1451 
Stockton, K. L., I, 172 
Stockwell, Vernon E., Ill, 1476 
Stoddard, Sheldon, I, 263, 271; sketch 

of, I, 277 
Stolz, Mary A., Ill, 1521 
Stone, Benjamin, II, 828 
Stoner, David F., Ill, 1325 
Stoner, Mary A., Ill, 1325 
Stout, William, I, 44, 125, 171 
Street and ornamental palms, I, 584 
Stromee, Leo A., I. 140; II, 852 
Strong, David C, II, 872 
Strong, Margaret L., Ill, 1284 
Sturges, David B., I, 115, 171, 173 
Stutt, Frank, III, 1488 
Stutt Brothers, III, 1488 
Suess, J. J., Ill, 1264 
Sumner, Edwin V., I, 128 
Sunset Packing House. Corona, I, 555 
Superior Judges of San Bernardino 

County, I, 124 
Surr, Howard, II. 845 
Surrine, Samuel, I, 125 
Suter, John, I, 110 
Suverkrup, John, II. 780 
Swedenborgian Church, Riverside, II. 

Sweeney, M. J., I, 219 
Swing, Ralph E., I, 163, 194; III, 1243 
Sylvester, C. W., I, 481, 488 

Taber, Grace, I, S6S 

Tahquitz Lodge, Riverside County, I, 

Talmadgc, I'rank L., Ill, 1444 
Talmadgc, William S., Ill, 1444 
Talmagc. William, I, 255, 256 
Talmage Brothers, Big Bear, I, 256 
Tapia. Tuburcio, I, 28, 268 
Taylor, Charles E., I, 209 
Taylor, R. B., I, 552, 560 
Taylor, William A., I, 487 
Taylor. William F., II, 696 
Taylor, William O., Ill, 1439 
Taylor, W. F., I, 526 
Tebo, William J., Ill, 1"068 
Teflft, Albert N., II, 987 
Telegraph, I, 54 
Telephone service at San Bernardino, 

I, 56 
Temecula, Riverside County, I, 580 
Temes'cal Valley, clays of, I, 461 
Terman, Louis M., I, 172 
Terracina Hotel, Redlands, I, 206 
Tetley, Frank A., II, Hi 
Thermal, Riverside County, 1, 586 
Third Street from D, looking east, San 

Bernardino, in 1880 ( ihustratiun ). 

I. 154 
Thomas, C. L., I, 271 
Thomas, Daniel M., I, 44, 119. 124, 169 
Thomas, George W., Ill, 1426 
Thomas, H. H., Ill, 1393 
Thomas, W. S., I, 172 
Thompson, F. F., I, 565 
Thorns, Charles F., Ill, 1433 
Thoms, F. Claude, III, 1434 
Tibbet, Jonathan, II, 880 
Tibbets, Eliza (illustration), I, 428 
Tibbets, L. C, I, 426; sketch of, I, 429 
Tibbets. (Mrs.) L. C. I. 428, 522 
Tilton, (Mrs.) George F., I, 142 
Tin Mining in Corona District, I, 567 
Tisdale. William M., I, 88, 213 
Tittle, J. H., I, 168 
Todd, Robert A., Ill, 1516 
Toomay. John B., Ill, 1157 
Torrens System in San Bernardino 

County, III, 1093 
Town of Highland, I, 242 
Towne, Dwight. Ill, 1513 
Towne, Frank M., Ill, 1512 
Toy Balloon Industry, Riverside, II. 

Trade and Commerce in San Bernar- 
dino County (1862-73), I, 52, 53 
Transcontinental Traffic Association, 

I, 58 
Transportation, I, 54, 55, 91-101 
Treloar, Albert L., Ill, 1240 
Trevino, Donanciano, II, 947 
Trinity Episcopal Church, Redlands, I, 

Tropic and Semi-Tropic Gardens 

(illustration), I, 251 
Troth. Frank D., II, 765 
Trouble in Bear and Hoicomb Valleys, 

I, 149 
Trujillo, Albert D., Ill, 1292 
Trujillo, Frank T., II, 933 
Trujillo, Lorenzo, I, 268 


Turvcy, (Mrs.) S. S., I, 117 

Two pioneers — James Boyd and his 
Eucalyptus tree, the seed of which 
was planted by him in 1872 (illus- 
tration), I, 514 

Twogood, A. J., I, 75, 355, 371. 375, 
498, 515, 528: II, 634 

Twogood, D. C, I, 375 

Twogood, Nelson H., II, 868 

Tyler, U. U., I, 92 

Union Bank of Redlands, I, 206 

Union Pacific Company, I, 95 

Union Savings Bank of Redlands, I, 

United States Public Health Service 

Hospital, Arrowhead, I, 143 
Universalis! Church, Riverside, II, 625 
University Club, Redlands, I, 210 
University of Redlands, I, 219 
University of Redlands (illustration), 

I, 218 

Up in the clouds along "101 Mile 

Drive" (illustration), I, 64 
Upland (North Ontario), I, 250 
Upland Citrus Association. Ontario, I, 

Upland Library Association, I, 252 
Urquhart, John H., Ill, 1228 

Valdez, Jose M., I, 268 

Valencia orange, I, 430, 562 

Valley Echo, Riverside, II, 606 

Vanderbilt mining district, I, 110 

Van Fleet, Effie, III, 1383 

Van Leuven, Elizabeth F., Ill, 1103 

Van Leuven, Orson, I, 201 

Van Luven, Donald E„ III. 1242 

Van Luven, Earl F., Ill, 1241 

Van Luven, Jed S., III. 1242 

Van Pelt, Warren W., II, 790 

Van Wig, Martin, III, 1491 

Vernon, Thomas K., Ill, 1139 

Vestal, W. L., I, 187 

Victor Valley, I, 252, 253 

Victorville, I, 252, 253 

View of "Rockledge" and the Valley, 

Riverside (illustration), I, 506 
Vignes, Louis, I. 268 
Virginia Dale mining district, I, 110 
Viscaino, Sebastian, I, 311, 312 
Vivienda Water Company, I, 414, 415 
Vredenburgh, Levi, III, 1511 
Vredenburgh, Violet E., Ill, 1511 

Wade, K. H., I, 99 

Wagner, F. A., I, 209 

Waite, Charles E... II, 728 

Waite, Lyman C, I, 371, 375, 515, 523; 

II, 725 

Waite, Sidney P., I, 263, 284 
Wallace, Mary E., Ill, 1422 
Walline, Austin, III, 1309 
Walline, Peter E., Ill, 1308 
Warner, Lizzie M., Ill, 1350 
Warner Ranch Indians, I, 324 
Washington Navel Orange, I, 12, 425, 

Water Companies of San Bernardino 

County, I. 82 
Water Conservation along Sant.i .\na 

River. I. .399-402 
Water Conservation Association, I, 

399, 401, 402 
Water rights, decisions affecting, I, 87 
Waterman, R. W., I, 138 
Waters, Byron, I, 159; III, 1118 
Waters, Caroline S., I, 117 
Waters, Cyrus F., Ill, 1341 
Waters, Frederick S., Ill, 1340 
Waters, James W., II, 676 
Watje, Winnie, III, 1268 
W'aysidc Press. Riverside. II. ()0f^ 
\\'eather conditions of Riverside, I, 508 
Weaver, Powell ("Pauline"), I, 32, 268 
Webb, John R., II, 635 
Webber, Charles A., II, 910 
Webber, Sophia O., II, 911 
Webster, Dwight W., Ill, 1319 
Webster, R. L., II, 615 
Wednesday Morning Club, Riverside, 

II, 668 
Weegar, E. A., Ill, 1500 
Wegener, W. F., I, 209 
Wegnori, Henry F., II, 878 
Weir, Richard, II, 690 
Wells, Frank H.. II, 842 
Welty, John, I, 23 
West, Roland D., Ill, 1285 
West Highlands, I, 244 
Westbrook, Henry A., II, W 
Westminster Presbyterian Church, I, 

Wheat, James F., Ill, 1108 
Wheeler. Daniel A., II, 758 
Wherrell, J. E., I, 455 
Whiffin, Maxwell R., II, 731 
Whitaker, I. W., I, 237 
White, A. S.. I, 378, 381, 395, 481, 488, 

494, 528 
White, Belle, III, 1386 
White, B. F., I, 498 
White, Michael, I, 268 
White, Miguel. I, 31 
White, S. A.. Ill, 1385 
White, William E., II, 830 
White, Albert S., Park. Riverside, I, 

361, 477, 489 
White scale, I, 470. 471 
Whitewater River. I, 409 
Whittemore, B, F.. I, 269 
Widney, R. M., I, 124 
Wier. Richard. I, 263 
Wight, Glen D.. II, 1006 
Wilbur, G. B., I, 96 
Wilkins, J. lay. II, 1002 
Willard, S. S., I, 565 
Williams. A. 1., III. 114') 
Williams, Edwin F., Ill, 1469 
Williams, Isaac, I, 30, 31, 39, 268, 280 
Williams, Mack W. H., Ill, 1442 
Williams. William G., Ill, 1376 
Williamson, Edward L.. Ill, 1225 
Williamson, Richard H.. II. 783 
Willis, Henry M., I. 123, 124, 195 
Wilson, Benito D., I, 16 
Wilson, Benjamin D.. I, 27, 52, 268 


Wilson, Frank P., II. 713 

Wilson, G. Stanley, III, 1352 

Wilson, Joseph, III, 1390 

Wilson. Warren, I, 176 

Winder. A. Heber, II, 970 

Wixom. David H., I, 167; III, 1474 

Wixom. G. H., I, 157 

Wolf, Ramona, I, 315 

Woman's Club, Highlands, I, 245 

Woman's Club, Riverside, II, 667 

Woman's Improvement Club, Corona, 

I, 568 
Woman's Non-Partisan Political Con- 
vention (1892), San Bernardino, I, 
Woman's Parliament, I, 188 
Woman's Parliament of Southern Cali- 
fornia. Redlands, I, 208 
Woman's Relief Corps, W. R. Corn- 
man Post, No. 9, San Bernardino, I, 
Wood, T. J.. II, 614 
Woodill. Alfred L., Ill, 1223 
Woodward. De La M., I, 271; II. 689 
Woodward, Harry, II, 645, 647 
Workman, William, I, 268 
World's War, Riverside in, II, 634 
Worthing, Sadie W., Ill, 1256 

Worthing, Sumner A., Ill, 1256 
Worthley, F. A.. II, 617 
Wozencraft. William R., I, 171, 408 
Wright, S. L.. I, 522 
Wright Irrigation District Law (1887), 
I, 83 

Yorba, Antonio, I, 268 

Yorba. Bernardo, I, 268 

Yorba, Teodosio, I, 268 

Yorba. Tomas. I. 268 

Yost. Charles. III. 1485 

Young. Brigham. I, 37, 48 

Young Men's Christian Association, 
Redlands, I, 213; San Bernardino, I, 

Young People's Community Club. 
Highland, I, 246 

Young Woman's Christian Associa- 
tion, San Bernardino. I. 190 

Y. W. C. A. Hospitality Center, I, 190 

Yucaipa Valley. I. 253 

Yucaipa Valley. Upper End (illustra- 
tion). I. 254 

"Zeph" (by Helen Hunt Jackson), I, 

Zimmerman, Henry P., II, 903 




The history of San Bernardino County is one of absorbing interest, 
made so by the circumstances attending its settlement and the romantic 
and picturesque features which have marked practically every- step of its 
development. Its solitary missions still breathe the spirit of the venture- 
some zealots who were their founders ; survivors of the Indian tribes 
remain to recall to the mind the period when this race ruled the state ; 
evidences of the Mormon occupation still abound, and among the older 
residents are many who remember the days of the pioneers and who have 
passed through a period of development that has been as wonderful as 
that which has transformed any county in the state, or any state in the 

It was a happy inspiration that caused San Bernardino to be considered 
"Imperial County." It is doubtful if any other county in the state 
possesses such a wide variety of valuable mineral resources ; an extensive 
timber area is found on the mountains, and the mountain streams furnish 
power, not only for San Bernardino, but for adjacent counties ; irrigation 
water for the great and fertile San Bernardino Valley, extending through 
four counties, is secured from the great storage basin and the Santa Ana 
River; the mountain passes furnish a gateway between the Pacific Coast 
and points to the east ; in the matter of citrus products the county is one 
of the foremost in the state ; and even the deserts and barren mountain 
ranges contribute to the prosperity and prestige of the county, being the 
location of mines that have placed San Bernardino in the front rank of 
mining counties. Likewise the county is "Imperial" in its size and in the 
spirit and character of its people. 

Lying in the southeastern part of the state, San Bernardino County 
is bounded on the north by Inyo County, on the west by Kern and Los 
Angeles Counties, on the south by Riverside County and on the east by 
Nevada and Arizona. The area of the county is 20,235 square miles, of 
which about 575 square miles are devoted to agriculture, 700 acres are dry 
lakes, mountain ranges occupy 8,000, and deserts cover 10,960 square 
miles. The population of the county in 1921 was about 25,000. The 
desert surface extends from the Sierra Madre mountains in the southwest 
corner of the county to its northern boundary and eastward to Nevada 
and the Colorado River, and is broken by numerous miniature mountain 
ranges and isolated peaks, by oases where springs are to be found by the 
thirsty traveler and by dry lakes, while its only river, the Mojave, rising 
in the mountains, flows in a northeasterly course until swallowed up by 
the desert sands. The arroyo, or river bed, is traceable for nearly 100 
miles and at points the water rises to the surface in considerable volume. 

The Sierra Madre range of mountains, whose crest line ranges from 
6,000 to 7,000 feet above the level of the sea, with peaks rising to 9,000, 
10,000 and 11,000 feet, are rough, irregular and steep, and their southern 
crest and ravines contain much timber. The Cajon is the one complete 
pass through the northwestern range. The culminating peak. Mount 
San Bernardino, rises to a height of 10,680 feet, and between it and 
Greyback, of the San Jacinto range, lies the San Gorgonio Pass. Mount 
Greyback, or San Gorgonio, is 11,485 feet, the highest point in Southern 

The San Bernardino Valley, the largest and best watered valley in 
•Southern California, lies between the Sierra Madre Range on the north, 

Vol. I— 1 


the San Jacinto Ranj^e on the south and the Coast Range on the southwest. 
The San Bernardino basin, in the upper end of the valley, is open only 
to the west, and in that direction is still overlooked by the somewhat 
abrupt rising edge of the Cucamonga Plains. It is hemmed in to the north 
by the most precipitous portion of the very abrupt Sierra Madre, over- 
shadowed on the east by the towering peaks of San Bernardino and 
Greyback, and closed in on the south by a high range of hills, extending 
southwesterly from the foot of the San Bernardino Mountains to the 
Coast Range. The valley is filled with a great alluvial deposit of a com- 
paratively recent geological placing. The valley is entered at the extreme 
northwest end by the Cajon Pass ; at the southeast corner, from San 
Gorgonio Pass, by the San Timoteo Canon, and at its extreme end on the 
east by the Santa Ana River, which crosses it and emerges at the south- 
west corner. About twenty square miles of its area of about 100 square 
miles are within the known limits of an artesian water-producing basin, 
which occupies its lowest lands, just above the outlet on the course of 
the Santa Ana River. 

In San Bernardino County there are to be found geological indica- 
tions of numerous periods and ages, of glacial and volcanic action, with 
the attendant submergences and upliftings, and of various other move- 
ments demonstrating the working out of nature's plans. Through the 
county are also to be found indications that there existed a somewhat 
superior race of people in this section prior to the coming of the Indians, 
but the known history of man in this region begins with the coming of the 
.Spanish priests and soldiers, in 1774, who found the territory occupied 
by Indians, who were still far below the pueblo dwellers of Arizona and 
New Mexico, although not so degraded physically, mentally or morally 
as many of their neighboring tribes. Since the coming of Anza and his 
expedition, in 1774. marvelous changes have occurred and much history 
has been written. The most material advancement has come within the 
past half century or three-quarters, and what the future will bring, while 
a matter of conjecture, will undoubtedly be a continuance of the progress 
that has brought San Bernardino to a position which has fully justified 
its appellation of the "Imperial County." 

Who is to be the gifted writer that will give to the world a word 
picture of our beautiful valley as it now is revealed to us? Who will be 
the historian that will cause to be preserved the marvelous chronicles of 
the past? And where is the prophet who will unfold its magnificent 
future? Take our valley as it now is familiar to us — so like, they say, to 
"Palestine in general contour" — and compare it to the valley as it was 
fifty years, or more correctly speaking, seventy-two years ago, when civil- 
ization, on the wings of faith came bounding over those northern slopes 
with hope in its arms, and note what capital and labor — a combination 
of forces hard to excel — have done. 

To the north, to the south, to the east, to the west, the same old, 
majestic mountains with their everlasting pinnacles pointing heavenward 
— presenting a certain rugged, defiant beauty all their own, with the broad 
Pacific just over to the west. 

The same poppy fields as of old, that make the earth smile as a mother : 
the same lofty pine and hardy oak, and delicately tinted rose petals. 

Above and over all, the same old, blue sky, the same sunbeams, the 
same old stars shining subimely as they have been doing since the Divine 
command set forth their purpose, — "Let there be light." 

Yet, at every bend in the road, we read a new story: every touch of 
the hand a new revelation — new wealth, new glories ; every sweep of the 
vision a new inspiration. 


The possibilities of our unmatched valley have given birth to a new 
picture — a picture from the brush in the hand of the intelligent toiler. 
In this new picture we see the great irrigating system, various in its 
devices, that has made possible broad acres of grain, orchards, groves of 
citrus fruit, vineyards, gardens and flowers — a new picture in an old 
setting — a setting the pioneers discovered. 

Dotted here and there are schoolhouses — modern in appointments, 
churches telling the "old, old story," and industrial agencies by the hun- 
dreds — yea, by the thousands. 

We see opportunities for the man of small means ; greater ventures 
for those of larger fortunes ; we see sites for the little homes, and those 
for the palace ; and we see both homes and palace. 

Paved streets and highways have taken the place of ruts, shrubs and 
the boulders. 

Parallehng the beautiful, smooth roadways, are threads of steel rails, 
over the same ground once travelled by the ox-team, the burro, and 
pioneer with his little load of earthly possessions and additional burdens 
of fears and hardships. 

We see business opportunities asking for bids on investments ; we see 
labor turning capital into increased comforts and joys; we see laughing 
children, free to roam in healing sunshine — amid surroundings, that, but 
a few short years ago, sheltered the child of another race. We see 
remnants of a band of men, who were masters of all they surveyed, — 
watching the inroads of civilized ways of life — they, themselves slipping 
farther and farther back into the shadows. 

We see over on yonder lonely hilltop a spot where in 1810 a little 
band of brown robed holy men halted long enough to set up a cross, and 
give to the valley, at their feet, the name of "San Bernardino," and to 
hallow the occasion with a prayer and a baptismal. 

"The prophetic soul of the wide world, dreaming on things to come." 

Forty-one years later we see the first caravan of pioneers stopping 
by a stream in Cajon Pass, thirty miles to the north of the hallowed place 
of the cross and kneel on the greensward and utter words of praise and 

We see a great, broad, productive valley, 200 miles across, where 
intelligence has directed the toil of man to an accomplished purpose. 

We turn from valley towards the mountain chain, that lovingly hems 
the valley round about. 

In the days when civilization was making its first advance, progressive 
man, bent on conquest of the wilds, to the music of the tread of the ox 
and the horse hewed narrow paths, that broadened into safe highways 
to the tune of the auto, leading on to still quicker methods — the plane 
and the wireless. 

The mystery of the secrets of the hilltops was revealed, and their 
recesses have become the great playground of the southland. 

The years have rolled on, bringing the fulfillment of things prayed 
for, hoped for and worked for. 

This wonderful valley has been consecrated with prayers and lofty 
aspirations, there have been tears and heartbreaks— then came the glad- 
some things. 

On history's pages we will spread the chronicles of the past, as 
against the time of the coming of the genius of the morrow, who will 
weave the tissues into a story to match those two masterpieces of his- 
torical fiction, "Ramona," and the "Mission Play." 

John Brown, Jr. 

History of San Bernardino County 


Early Explorers and Missionaries. Like numerous other regions 
of the United States, San Bernardino County must go directly back to 
the days of the Spanish explorers and missionaries for its earliest known 
history. The church and the state were practically indissolubly united, 
and the history of the missions and missionaries is the history of that 
period when California was occupied by the Spaniards. Many years 
before the vessel of the first hardy explorer touched the western coast 
of North America, wonderful tales had reached the ears of the Spaniards 
regarding an island lying afar off in unknown seas, called California. 
These stories, highly colored and greatly exaggerated as to facts, aroused 
the cupidity of the early explorers, and the colonization of Baja-California 
was begun as early as 1530. The bishoprics of New Spain were estab- 
lished and organized in Mexico as early as 1534, and from that time 
forward the church was ceaseless in its efforts to convert the natives. 
The first man to tread the deserts of Arizona and enter what is now 
New Mexico was Fray Marco, "the lying priest," as he is called by Coro- 
nado, after being induced through the priest's glowing accounts of the 
country to make the same expedition. 

Passing over the history of the Spanish conquest and settlements in 
North America, that of California begins with the expedition under 
command of Admiral Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, who,. June 27, 1542, 
sailed from Navidad, his object being to discover "a shorter route, in a 
westerly direction, from New Spain, or Mexico, between the North and 
the South Sea."^ 

The admiral's two vessels, the Victoria and the San Salvador, entered 
the unexplored waters of the then called Mar del Sur, and September 28 
reached a harbor which the explorer named San Miguel, now San Diego 
Bay. About October 10, this venturesome party anchored in a small bay, 
now believed to be San Pedro, and November 17 discovered the Bay of 
Monterey. The voyage was continued until 44 degrees latitude had been 
reached, when the commander decided to return to the Santa Barbara 
Islands for the winter, because of the inclement weather and the unsafe 
condition of his vessels. He was not given the opportunity of continuing 
his voyages, as he died on the island of San Miguel, January 3, 1543, as 
the result of injuries and exposure. 

Sixty years elapsed before Spain made any attempt to proceed with 
the work so ably commenced by Cabrillo, but May 1, 1603, under the 
command of Admiral Don Sebastien Viscaino, a fleet of three vessels, 
the San Diego, Santo Tomas and Los Tres Reyes, sailed from Acapulco, 
and November 10 anchored in the bay where Cabrillo first landed, and 
which Viscaino named San Diego de Alcala. "Accompanying this expedi- 
tion," says Father Juan Caballeria, in his "History of San Bernardino 
Valley," "was a party of learned scientists sent purposely from Madrid 
to take part in the explorations. They were the first to make maps of 
the coas.t and of the islands lying oflf the coast of California A knowledge 

History of San Bernardino Valley, by Father Juan Caballeria. 



of the progress of this expedition may be gained by following the Roman 
Calendar of Saints. These pious fathers not only made the maps, but 
named each place visited by the expedition with the name of the saint 
whose anniversary occurred on the day of their arrival at the place. Cali- 
fornia owes a debt of gratitude to these devout padres for the beautiful 
names bestowed upon many of her now popular pleasure resorts and 
islands, these names having been retained to this day." 

While the maps, records and descriptions of the coast, climate and 
general condition of California were accepted as authority, this expedi- 
tion, which reached 42 degrees latitude, did nothing further of value. 
Viscaino solicited the opportunity of returning to California, desiring to 
make a permanent settlement in the country, but no provision was made 
for that, purpose. 

Father Kino, a Jesuit monk, had the distinction of being the first to 
decide that lower California was a peninsula and not an island as had 
formerly been the belief. After establishing a number of missions along 
the Sonora coast and making many explorations of the gulf coast, he 
conceived the idea of carrying a chain of missions around the gulf and 
along the Pacific Coast. Although he labored without cessation to carry 
out this project, for many years he could gain no aid either from the 
government or from his own brotherhood. All attempts to colonize lower 
California had been unsuccessful on account of the savage character of 
the inhabitants, and finally the government decided to turn the peninsula 
over to the Jesuits. So unattractive a labor did not appeal to the Superior 
of the order in Mexico, but Father Kino and a colleague. Father Sal- 
vatierra, determined that the gospel should be carried here, established, 
almost entirely unaided, missions among the savages. 

It was in 1767 that the government of Spain finally came to the con- 
clusion that a determined effort must be made in the way of colonizing 
upper California. Alarmed by the possibility of Russia securing domina- 
tion, Carlos III, then king of Spain, issued a royal mandate commanding 
Jose de Galvez, viceroy of New Spain, to make preparation for the 
immediate occupation of the country. They were to establish military 
stations at San Diego and Monterey, and the object of the expedition was 
two-fold: the occupation and colonization of the country by Spain, and 
the conversion to Christianity of the native inhabitants. This latter 
undertaking was placed in the hands of the Brotherhood of the Order of 
Franciscans, and Fray Junipero Serra, a Franciscan monk of brilliant 
gifts and high rank, was made president of the missions to be established. 
It was largely through his zeal and energy that the task of colonizing this 
large territory and of civilizing, to an extent at least, a great number of 
savages, was accomplished. 

The expedition was first planned to consist of four divisions, two to 
go by land and two by sea, and January 9, 1769, the San Carlos sailed from 
La Paz. The San Jose was subsequently fitted out and set sail June 16, 
but was probably lost at sea, as it was never again heard from. The first 
land division, under command of Rivera y Moncada, captain of "soldados 
de cuera," was composed of soldiers, muleteers and neophytes of the 
Lower California Missions, who took with them cattle, horses, mules and 
sheep, as well as a supply of garden seeds. The second land division 
was commanded by Caspar de Portala, a captain of dragoons, who had 
been appointed governor of Alta, California, and who, at Vellicata, was 
joined by Fray Junipero Serra. Many unexpected difficulties arose. In 
addition to the ship that was lost, many of the sailors on the other vessels 
died. The Indians, who were first curious, later became indifferent and 
finally hostile and attacked the Spanish before the completion of the 


buildings at San Diego. However, a start had been made, and July 16, 
1769. the mission San Diego de Alcala was founded, a day selected as 
most appropriate, it being commemorative of the Triumph of the Most 
Holy Cross over the Crescent in 1212, and also the feast day of our Lady 
of Mount Carmel. This really was the beginning of the missionary work 
in California. 

A few days later an expedition was sent to discover the harbor of 
Monterey, but failed to recognize the place and returned to San Diego. 
A second expedition was more fortunate and the desired harbor located. 
In a letter to his lifelong friend, Father Francis Palou, Father Junipero 
Serra said : "On the great feast of Pentecost, June 3, close by the same 
shore, and under the same oak tree where the fathers of Viscaino's expedi- 
tion had celebrated, we built an altar, and the bell having been rung, and 
the hymn Veni Creator intoned, we erected and consecrated a large cross, 
nnd unfurled the royal standard, after which I sang the first mass which 
is known to have been sung at this point since 1603. I preached during 
the mass, and at its conclusion we sang the 'Salve Regina.' Our celebra- 
tion terminated with the singing of the Te Deum ; after which the officers 
took possession of the land in the name of the King of Spain. During 
the celebration a salute of many cannons was fired from the ship. To 
God alone be honor and glory."- Thus was founded, June 3, 1770, the 
second of the missions of California, the Mission of San Carlos Bar- 
romeo, and at the same time the occupation of California by Spain was 
considered complete. 

The men who planted the cross on the western continent, v/ho were 
selected to Christianize Alta-Califomia, were heroic in their devotion to 
duty and sacrifice of self, and no hardship was too great and no personal 
discomfort ever considered or permitted to stand in the way of the work 
to which their lives were consecrated. They may have erred at times 
through a mistaken sense of duty, but their mistakes were rather those 
of the time in which they lived, and were brought about by conditions 
from which they themselves suffered. Among the religious orders of the 
time, the Franciscans held high place, and among their members were 
men of high ecclesiastical and political standing, in whom Spain reposed 
the fullest confidence. Among these able men none was more greatly 
respected and beloved than Father Junipero Serra. This first Apostle of 
Christianity to Alta-California, was born in the village of Petra, in the 
island of Mallorica, November 24, 1713, and at the age of 17 years donned 
the habit and took the vows of the Franciscan Brotherhood. When the 
call came for him to become president in charge of the mission of Alta- 
California, he was miles away in the country, and, owing to a badly ulcer- 
ated leg, was not able to start until March 28, 1769, eighteen days behind 
the expedition, under the command of Governor Portola. whom he over- 
took at the frontier. His energy, zeal and untiring devotion to the faith 
were evidenced on this journey, when traveling so aggravated the 
swelling of his leg that he could proceed only with great suffering. But 
although he was repeatedly urged to abandon the journey, he insisted on 
completing the trip, stating that he "had put his faith in God and if He 
willed that he should die among savages he was content." Says Inger- 
solP : "At first all supplies for the missionaries had to be brought from 
Mexico, and the Indians could only be induced to listen to the gospel 
through the gift of 'baubles' and food. But Father Serra lived to estab- 
lish nine missions between San Francisco and San Diego harbors ; he bap- 

2 History of San Bernardino Valley, by Father Juan Caballeria. 
^ IngersoU's Century Annals of San Bernardino County, 1904. 


tized and confirmed with his own hands between 5,000 and 6,000 
'gentiles' ; he saw his missions gather great numbers of neophytes about 
them, erect large and substantial churches, cultivate flourishing fields and 
orchards, and become not only self-supporting, but wealthy. Pueblos, or 
towns, sprang up in the vicinity of the missions, Spanish settlers came 
into the country and California became an important province of New- 
Spain. All of this was not accomplished without unwearied vigilance 
on the part of the president of the missions. Frail of body, worn with 
constant fastings, self-afflicted tortures and an incurable disease, he 
traveled constantly between the establishments, administering affairs, 
preaching, admonishing and keeping close watch upon every feature of 
the mission life. Again and again he made the toilsome journey to 
Mexico, sometimes on foot, or riding a mule, sometimes pitching for 
weeks in one of the dreary little ships of the day. He met and overcame 
opposition from the government, from his superiors, from his subordi- 
nates, while he constantly endured terrible spiritual conflicts of his own. 
Surely Junipero Serra is worthy to rank with the saints he so faithfully 

Juan Bautista de Anza. captain of the Presidio of Tubac, was com- 
missioned in 1773 to open a road between Sonora in Mexico and Mon- 
terey in California, and, acting under instructions, gathered together a 
party of thirty-four men, 140 horses and sixty-five cattle, and two priests. 
Fathers Garces and Diaz, accompanied the party. At the Colorado 
River, which was crossed at Yuma, three of the soldiers and some of 
the stock were left, and the remainder, following very closely the pres- 
ent route of the Southern Pacific Railwav. reached El Puerto de San 
Carlos^ March 14, 1774. On the 18th they passed through El Valle 
de San Jose"' ; on the 20th they reached Rio Sta Ana'', which they 
crossed on a bridge of boughs, and on the 21st encamped at Arroyo de 
Osos or Alisos'. They formed the first body of Europeans to look 
upon the beautiful valley of San Bernardino. Not long thereafter Anza 
returned to Sonora by the same route and in 1775, when he again came 
to California, he was accompanied by a large number of soldiers and 
colonists, who were intended to settle San Francisco, and also had 355 
cattle and 695 horses and mules. 

To Father Garces, who belongs the honor of first exploring a con- 
siderable part of San Bernardino County, as well as first entering the 
Tulare country: goes the credit for blazing the historical Santa Fe trail 
in 1776. Father Garces, who had been left by .\nza to visit among the 
Indians of the Colorado with a view toward establishing missions in that 
vicinity, went up the Colorado River to a point near Needles, in 1775. 
He then struck across the desert, accompanied only by two or three 
Indians, and camped on the site of Camp Cody, whence he explored 
the Mojave River, of which he was the di.scoverer. Bancroft states that 
he entered the Bernardino Valley by the way of Cajon Pass, 
but Elliott Coues, who went over the ground carefully and followed the 
daily itinerary, states that his journey was by way of Holcomb and Bear 
valleys, which he reached by following up the watercourse from the 
Mojave. and then came down into the valley through the Santa Ana 
Canon. He reached the valley March 21, 1776, foimd a rancheria of 
Gauchamas Indians, and was greeted "joyfully" by them. 

The sea route from Mexico having proven impracticable, the over- 
land route from Mexico by way of the Colorado River and San Ber- 
nardino Valley was generally favored, but the revolt of the Colorado 

' San Gorgonio Pass. ■ San Bernardino Valley. " Santa Ana River. ' Cucamonga. 


Indians and the destruction, in 1781, of the two missions that had been 
established on the river, with the massacre of fifty persons, including 
Padre Garces and his fellow priests, caused travel over this "camino 
real" to fall into disrepute. After a time, however, travel was resumed, 
and as it was increased it was decided to establish another station on the 
route between San Gabriel and the Colorado River. This led to the 
establishment of Politana. On May 20, 1810, a party of missionaries, 
soldiers and Indian neophytes of the San Gabriel Mission arrived into 
the San Bernardino Valley, which they so named in honor of San Ber- 
nardino of Sienna, whose feast day it was according to the Roman 
Calendar of Saints. The Guachama Indians had here a prosperous 
rancheria and others were scattered throughout the valley, each bearing 
a name significant of the place where it v.-as situated. Mary of these 
names were retained by settlers of a later day and applied to ranchos 
granted by the Government.* The settlement, or rancheria of mission 
Indians, after being established was placed in charge of a trustworthy 
Indian, Hipolito, from whom it took its name of Politana. The little 
mission flourished exceedingly until 1812, which was known as "el ano 
de los temblores" (the year of earthquakes), when the Indians, forget- 
ting in their fear all of the teachings of the good fathers, reverted to 
their savage superstitions, fell upon the mission, destroyed. the buildings 
and massacred most of the mission Indians and converts. Later the 
buildings were rebuilt and were occupied for many years, but nothing 
now remains of Politana, or "Rancheria," as it was more popularly 
known, nor of the old burial place of the Christian Indians of San 
Bernardino Valley, which was situated on what is now the left side of 
the electric railway as it turns north from Colton on Mount Vernon 

In 1821, or thereabouts, the padres of San Gabriel were asked by 
the Guachama ranchita of Indians to assist in establishing farming and 
stockraising in their valley, and in 1822 a priest was sent out, who erected 
an adobe chapel, probably on or near the site of the present ruins of 
the old San Bernardino Mission. Subsequently was constructed what is 
known as Mill Creek zanza, which, in continual use ever since, is one 
of the most interesting and picturesque bits of scenery in the county, 
being fringed by willows and alders and resembling a natural water 
course. In 1831 the desert Indians raided the mission, destroyed the 
buildings and stole and scattered most of the stock, but the church 
was rebuilt in 1834 in a more substantial manner, and a granary was 
erected, the remains of which were found on the old Curtis place for 
many years after the advent of the Americans, but were finally leveled. 
The walnut grove just opposite the Anson Van Leuven place was the 
site of a large burial ground. It was in the same year that there com- 
menced to be much dissatisfaction and uneasiness among the mission 
Indians all through Southern California." This finally culminated in 
the revolt of the Indians in the vicinity of San Bernardino, stirred up 
by Hijar's colonists, a party from Mexico, and a battle was fought 
between a party of troops from San Gabriel and a body of 200 Indians. 
A later party was sent to try to pacify the Indians, but Father Estanaga 

" Many of these names are quite interesting, for instance : San Bernardino — 
Guachama — "A place of plenty to eat"; Cucamonga — Cucamungabit — "Sand place"; 
Riverside — Jurumpa — "Water place" ; San Timoteo (Redlands) — Tolocabit — "Place 
of the big head" ; Homoa — Homhoabit — "Hilly place" ; Yucaipa — Yucaipa — "Wet 
lands"; and Muscupiabe — Muscupiabit — "Pinon place." 

• Hittell. 


was taken prisoner, robbed and held for ransom. Still a third party of 
troops was sent, but these themselves revolted, robbed the church of 
its vestments and ornaments and took to the mountains. No further 
attempts to ho'd San Bernardino were made, and for some years the 
country was left almost to the undisputed possession of the natives. The 
decree secularizing the missions was already being carried into effeci. 
the church was fast losing ground, and a number of the Indians went 
back to their old savage state, although others seem to have remained at 
the old mission and continued in their agricultural activities. According 
to Daniel Sexton, when he first came into the county in 1842, a number 
of Indians were still engaged in the work of irrigation and cultivation 
in the vicinity of Old San Bernardino. In the same year, when the San 
Bernardino rancho was granted to the Lugos, one of the brothers seems 
to have lived in the locality of the mission, perhaps in the building itself, 
and when the Mormons arrived, Bishop Tenny occupied the old structure. 
The following description was given by Lieutenant Blake, who passed 
through in November, 1852: "We soon reached the ruins of the old 
church or rancho, located on slightly elevated ground and overlooking 
the whole valley towards the east. It is surrounded by a broad area of 
excellent farming land and a row old old trees (cottonwood row") set 
thickly together extends in a straight line for three-fourths of a mile 
along the acequia. The building is made of adobes, but is now in ruins. 
A part of it, however, is now occupied as a farm house and granary." 

The Indians of San Bernardino Valley. Wide and varied are 
the descriptions and conceptions of the Indians of California given by 
the writers among the early explorers prior to the invasion of the interior 
country. One of the earliest of these writers. Father \'enegas, says : 
"Even in the least frequented corners of the globe there is not a nation 
so stupid, of such contracted ideas, and weak both in body and mind, 
as the unhappy Californians. Their characteristics are stupidity and 
insensibility, want of knowledge and reflection, inconstancy, impetuosity, 
and blindness to appetite; an excessive sloth and abhorrence of fatigue 
of every kind, however trifling: in fine, a most wretched want of every- 
thing which constitutes the real man and renders him rational, inven- 
tive, tractable, and useful to himself and society." Surely a scathing 
arraignment, and utterly at variance with the description of Viscaino, 
who visited the coast in 1603, although Viscaino's report may be taken 
with the proverbial grain of salt, inasmuch as he probably had the ulte- 
rior motive of impressing his roj'al patron with the importance of his 
discovery. He wrote as follows : "The country is thickly settled with 
people whom I found to be of gentle disposition, peaceable and docile, 
and who can be brought readily within the fold of the holy gospel and 
into subjection to the crown of your majesty. Their food consists of 
seed which they have in abundance and variety, and of the flesh of game, 
such as deer larger than cows, and of bear and of neat cattle and of 
bisons and of many other animals. The people are of good stature and 
of fair complexion, the women somewhat lesser in size than the men, 
and of pleasing countenance. The clothing of the people of the coast 
lands consists of the skin of the otter, abounding here, which they tan 
and dress better than it is done in Castile : they possess also in great 
quantity flax, like that of Castile, hemp and cotton, from which they 
make fishing lines and nets for rabbits. They have vessels, very well 
made, in which they go to sea with great dexterity, even in stormy 


Whichever of these two descriptions is the more accurate, the fact 
remains that, however unknowingly, the Indians proved a mighty factor 
in the development of the country, and that without their assistance 
civilization and settlement would have been held back for many years. 
For while theirs were not the directing minds, they furnished the 
manual labor so necessary in the progress of any new countrj'. Perhaps 
one of the most accurate word pictures in describing the early Indians 
is found in the diary of Father Crespi, a member of the overland expe- 
dition of Caspar de Portala, in 1769. At various places in his diary, 
Father Crespi makes mention of the Indians, in fact this decidedly inter- 
esting and valuable little volume is prolific in notes and descriptions of 
the natives, some excerpts from which are as follows : "They came 
without weapons, but with a gentleness that has no name, bringing as 
gifts to us their poor seeds, and we in turn gave them ribbons and gew- 
gaws. * * * J made the gentiles say the acts of Faith, Hope and 
Charity, which, without understanding one word, they repeated after 
nie with such tenderness and fervor that it found, in my heart, at least, 
an echo. * * * Fifty Indians, with their captain, invited us by signs 
which we understood perfectly to come and live with them ; that they 
would build us houses and give us grain and the meat of antelopes and 
hares. They insisted on their ofifer, telling us that all the land in sight, 
and it was much, was theirs and they would divide it with us. * * * 
Toward evening we received the visits of the chiefs of each town, one 
after the other, who came in all their finery of paint and overloaded with 
feather ornaments, holding in their hands split reeds, the motion and the 
noise of which they used as a measure to their chants and dances, and 
this they did so well and so uniform that the effect was harmonious. 
The dances lasted all evening and we had hard work sending our 
guests home. We dismissed the gentiles, begging them by signs not to 
come back and trouble us during the night. But it was in vain; as soon 
as night had set in they returned, blowing horns, whose infernal noise 
was enough to tear our ears in pieces." * * * "These natives (about 
San Diego) are of good figure, well built and agile. They go naked 
without more clothing than a girdle. Their quivers, which they bind 
between the girdle and the body, and of wild cat, coyote, wolf, or buck 
skins, and their bows are of two varas (66 inches) long. Besides 
these, they have a species of war club, whose form is that of a short 
and curved cutlass, which they fling edgewise and it cleaves the air with 
much violence. They hurl it a greater distance than a stone ; without 
it they never go forth in the fields ; and if they see a viper they throw 
the club at it and commonly sever it half from half. According to later 
experience, they are of haughty temper, daring, covetous, great jesters 
and braggarts ; although of little valor, they make great boasts and hold 
the most vigorous the most valiant." Thus Constanzo, the civil engineer 
of the same party, evidencing the truth that men's opinions, even under 
precisely the same conditions, will vary. 

Father Caballeria, before quoted, remarks: "But it cannot be denied 
that the native Indians were low in the scale of humanity. They were 
wholly unlike the Eastern Indians. They lacked the social organization 
of the Pueblos. There were no powerful tribes among them like the 
Sioux of the North and the Apache of the Southwest. Their settlements 
or rancherias were independent of each other. Each rancheria had a 
name of its own, and a different language was spoken, the inhabitants 
of one rancheria many times being unable to understand the language 
of another. * * * Their dwellings were circular in form. They 
were built from poles stuck in the earth and bending over at the top 


to form the roof. This was covered with brush, tules and mud, leaving 
at the top an aperture to allow the smoke to escape. They were similar 
in construction and appearance to the Navajo 'tehogane' of the present 
day. The early Indians did not cultivate the soil. They subsisted upon 
wild roots, herbs, nuts, field mice, worms, lizards, grasshoppers and 
other insects, birds fish, geese, ducks and small game. The flesh foods 
were consumed raw or only slightly cooked. They were very fond of 
acorns which, during their season, were gathered in large quantities. 
These were often prepared by grinding in mortars or on stone slabs 
similar to the Mexican 'metate.' They were sometimes placed in woven 
baskets of reeds and boiled in water heated with hot stones, then kneaded 
into a dough and baked on hot stones in front of a fire. A small, round 
seed, called 'chia,' was also used. This was prepared by drying and 
making into a flour called 'atole.' Their subsistence was often very pre- 
carious and their habits somewhat migratory, going from place to place 
in search of their food supply, which varied with the season of the year. 
In personal appearance the California Indians were not prepossessing. 
There was little physical beauty among them. They were undersized, 
broad-nosed, with high cheek bones, wide mouths and coarse black hair. 
Their personal habits were uncleanly. Their clothing extremely scanty; 
that of the men 'in naturalibus,' but the women partially covered them- 
selves with skirts of woven grass reaching from the waist to the knees. 
They were fond of ornaments of various kinds and decorated their faces 
and bodies with paint, often in a most grotesque manner. Upon the 
comin? of the Americans they were classed without distinction under the 
term 'Digger.' " 

Of the tribes located in what is now San Bernardino County, one of 
the principal ones were the Coahuillas. "masters" or "ruling people." 
These people, who lived in the mountain ridges and vallevs east of San 
Bernardino Mountains and in the San Jacinto Range, and along the eastern 
border of these mountains, had little commerce with the Spanish and 
definite history of them does not commence until a later period. In the 
vicinity of the San Bernardino \'alley lived the Serranos'". a more 
peaceable and weaker tribe than either the Coahuillas or the desert people. 
The Gauchamas, of San Bernardino Valley, and probably the Cucamon- 
gas, belonged to this division. The Chemehuevi, or Paiutes, belonging to 
the great Shoshone tribe, were locted east of the mountains : the Pana- 
mints to the North ; and the Mojaves, the most populous tribe of the 
Yumas. and formerly the most warlike, first in the valley of the Colo- 
rado, but mainly in the eastern part between Black Rock and Needles. 

Of the Chemehuevi, Father Garces had the following to sav : "The 
garb of these Indians is Apache mocassins, shirt of antelope skin, white 
head dress like a cap with a bunch of those feathers which certain birds 
have in their crest. These Indians gave me the impression of being the 
most swift-footed that I have seen yet — they sow grain — they keep friend- 
ship with the Apaches — they have a language distinct from all the nations 
of the river — they are friends of the Jamadabs.'' They also make 
coritas.'- They conducted themselves with me most beautifully. By 
no means were they thievish or molestful, but rather quite contrary." 
Of the Mojaves, Father Garces says: "I can say with entire truth that 
these Indians have great advantages over the Yumas and the rest of the 
nations of the Colorado; they are less molestful and none are thieves; 
they seem valiant and nowhere have I been better served. * * * 

>" "Mountain Indians.' 
" Mojave. >- Baskets 


The female sex is the most comely on the river, the male very healthy 
and robust. They say that they are very strong ; and so I found them 
to be especially in enduring hunger and thirst. There came to visit me 
about twenty hundred souls. Their language is different, but through 
constant communication they understand well enough the Yuma. They 
talk rapidly and with great arrogance. I have not heard any Indian 
who talked more or with less embarrassment than their captain general." 
As an example of the work performed by the padres among the Indians, 
as well as a specimen of the language of the Guachamas of San Ber- 
nardino Valley, the Lord's Prayer in Indian is herewith quoted :" "Dios 
Janna penyanash Tucupac santificado ut cha et en pennacash toco jahi 
cocan najanis Tubuc aix. Guacha pan meta tamepic penaixjan chem- 
yanaix ut cha panajanucan quihi elecui suyu Amen." Having no word 
in Indian to express God, the Spanish "Dios" is used. The same applies 
to the word pan (bread). The staple article of food among the Indians 
was acorns. Not Wishing to ask for acoras the Spanish word is 
substituted to give the idea of the article asked for. 

The Mission Indians. The mission of San Gabriel, variously 
known as El Mission del Glorisimo Principe San Gabriel, San Gabriel 
Arcangel and San Gabriel de los Temblores", was formally dedicated 
September 8, 1771. being the fourth in order of the cordon of missions 
planned for Alta-California. According to Reid, the site chosen was a 
complete forest of oak with considerable undergrowth, near which were 
a lagoon and a spring. Padres Cambon and Somero were sent out from 
San Diego with fourteen soldiers and four muleteers, but owing prin- 
cipally to the brutality of the soldiers with the natives, the growth of 
the mission was slow, and after a few years the rude buildings that com- 
posed the first mission were deserted and a new site chosen. By 1776, 
however, considerable progress had been made, and Father Font, who 
accompanied Anza on his second expedition from Sonora, has left a 
graphic description of what he saw at San Gabriel, which, because of its 
picture of the life of Indians at all the missions, is worthy of presen- 
tation -y^ 

"After breakfast I went with Padre Sanchez to see the spring of 
water whence they bring the aqua for this mission by means of which 
are conferred the greatest conveniences ; for, besides being sufficient and 
passing in front of the house of the padres and of the little huts of the 
Christian Indians who compose this new mission, who will be some fifty 
souls of recent converts, this aqua renders all the flats of the imme- 
diate site apt for sowing, so that the fields are close to the pueblo; and 
it is a mission that has such good adaptabilities to crops and is of such 
good pasture for cattle and horses, that no better could be desired. The 
cows that it has are very fat and give rich milk, with which they make 
many cheeses and very good butter ; there is a litter of pigs and a small 
flock of sheep, of which, on our coming, they killed four or five mut- 
tons that they had. and I do not remind myself of having eaten mutton 
more fat or beautiful ; and they also have some chickens. It has enough 
of wood and other logs for building. * * * At present the whole 
building is reduced to one very large hovel, all in one piece with three 
divisions, and this serves as the habitation of the padres, granary, and 
everything else ; somewhat apart from this there is another square hovel 
which serves as church ; and near this is another which is the guard- 

" History of San Bernardino Valley, by Father Juan Caballeria. " San Gabriel 
the Earthquakes. ^'^ On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, by Elliott Coues. 


house, or quarters of the soldiers of the escort, who are eight : and close 
by some little huts of tule which are the little houses of the Indians, 
between which and the house of the padres runs the aqua. In the 
spring of water grow herbs which appear to be lettuces and some roots 
like parsnips ; and near the old site of the mission, which is southward 
from this one about a league, grow great abundance of water cresses, 
of which I ate enough ; and, finally is the land, as Padre Paterna says, 
like the Land of Promise, though indeed the padres have suffered in 
it many needlinesses and travails, because beginnings are always difficult 
and more so in those lands where there was nothing. * * * Yj^g 
converted Indians of this mission seem tame and of middling good heart : 
they are of medium stature and the women somewhat smaller, round 
faced, flat nosed and rather ugly ; their custom is gentiledom, for the 
men go entirely naked and the women wear some kind of deerskin with 
which they cover themselves, and also some small coat of skins of otter 
or hare ; though the padres try to make the converts dress as well as 
they can. The method which the padres observe in the reduction is not 
to force anybody to make himself Christian, and they only admit those 
who voluntarily offer themselves and this they do in this fashion. As 
these Indians are accustomed to live in the hills and plains like beasts, 
so if they wish to be Christians they must not take to the woods, but 
they must live in the mission and if they leave the rancheria, they will 
be gone in search of and punished. Whereupon the padres begin to 
catechise the gentiles who voluntarily come, showing them how to make 
the sign of the cross and the rest that is necessary, and if the Indians 
persevere in the catechism for two or three months, with the same mind, 
being instructed therein, they pass on to baptism. The discipline of every 
day is this : In the morning at sunrise mass is said regularly * * * 
and the padre recites with all the Christian doctrines, which is finished 
by singing the Alabado, which is sung in all the missions in one way 
and in the same tone, and the padres sing it even though they may not 
have good voices, inasmuch as uniformity is best. Then they go to 
breakfast on mush, which is made for all, and before partaking of it 
they cross themselves and sing the Bendito ; then they go to work at 
whatever can be done, the padres inclining them and applying them to 
work by setting an example themselves ; at noon they eat their soup 
(Pozole), which is made for all alike: then they work another stint 
and at sunset they return to recite doctrines and end by singing the 
Alabado. * * * j{ a,iy Indian wishes to go to the woods to see his 
relatives, or to gather acorns, he is given permission for a specified num- 
ber of days, and regularly they do not fail to return and sometimes they 
come with a gentle relative who stays to catechism, either through the 
example of others, or attracted by the soup which suits them better 
than their herbs and eatables of the woods, and thus these Indians are 
wont to be gathered in by the mouth. ♦ * * The doctrine which is 
recited at the mission is the brief of Padre Castani. with total uniformity, 
without being able to add a single thing or vary it by a word, and this 
is recited in Castilian, even though the padre may understand the Indian 
tongue. * * * Jn the missions it is arranged that the grown-up girls 
sleep apart in some place of retirement and in the mission of San Luis 
Obispo I saw that a married soldier acted as mayor-domo and his wife 
took care of the girls * * * a,ifj she by day kept them with her. 
teaching them to sew and other things, and at night locked them in a 
room where she kept them safe from every insult, and for this they 
were called nuns, which seemed to be a very good thing. Finally the 


method which the padres employ in these missions seemed to me. very 
good, and that which is done in one is done in all." 

For twenty years from 1806 Father Zalvidea was the padre at San 
Gabriel, the affairs of which he ruled with such energy and discipline 
as to warrant the title of "clerical Napoleon" which was applied to him 
by Professor Gunn in his history of Los Angeles County. At one time 
the mission controlled 1,500,000 acres of land, extending from the ocean 
to the San Bernardino Mountains, and among its twenty-four ranches 
were those of Chino. Cucamonga. San Bernardino, San Gorgonio and 
San Jacinto. Its largest population was 1,701, a figure attained in 1817, 
and in 1830 it had over 40,000 head of stock, including cattle, horses, 
mules, sheep and goats. Two years later the breaking up the missions 
began, and in less than ten years, so rapid was the destruction, the 
population and wealth of San Gabriel had disappeared, its lands were 
held by grantees of the Mexican Government, the mission itself had 
fallen into ruins through neglect and its various stations were deserted. 

The Indians Under Mexican Rule. The downfall of the missions 
really commenced in 1823. when Mexico assumed power in California, 
and when the Secularization Act was passed. It was estimated that 
in 1833 no less than 30.000 Indians were connected with the various 
missions ; ten years later the majority of these had been dispersed. A 
few, to be sure, remained on lands that they had developed and culti- 
vated under the guidance of the Fathers, and some few -more settled 
wherever they could find unoccupied land with water ; but for the most 
part those who remained in the locality of the pueblos lapsed again in 
their morals and were easilv made the slaves and instruments of the 
greedy and unscrupulous whites. During the Spanish regime, it had 
always been the intention of the Government to furnish the natives with 
lands and allow them a share of the profits accruing through their labors. 
This policy, had the laws of the Mexican Government been observed, 
would have been followed out, but the disruption of the mission svstem 
was succeeded by a period of greed and criminal avarice which left the 
Indians with nothing save the opportunity to live upon and work the 
lands held by the Mexicans under land grants. While the Indians car- 
ried on all the work on the great stock ranges, they had no rights to 
land or property. 

Under American Rule. There seems to be sufficient cause for 
criticism of the manner in which the rights of the original squatters, 
the Indians, have been disregarded under the rule of the United States. 
It is true that when the Government took possession of the territory 
of California it found the titles in a chaotic state that seemed incapable 
of being straightened out to the satisfaction of all. So that there is 
some excuse for the confusion that followed. There are few mitigating 
circumstances, however, to excuse the fact that the rights of the Indians, 
the original owners, have been entirely overlooked. In the endless liti- 
gations between squatters, grant owners and the Government the just dues 
of the Indians have been a non-existent quantity, simply because in their 
ignorance they were unable to cope with the schemes of the white men, 
and that they had no legal title, a])proved by the Government of Mexico, 
or by the United States. "Possession and occupation and bona fide 
improvements," says Ingersoll, "counted for nothing in the case of the 
Indian, and when a white man wanted the land whole villages were 
evicted and their houses, orchards and other improvements 'appropri- 
ated.' " 


Just what effect this had in driving the Indians from the lands which 
were really theirs is shown in the following figures : Benito D. Wilson, 
who had been appointed Indian agent, reported in 1852 the presence of 
about 15,000 Indians; the United States census report of 1860 placed 
the number of Indians in San Bernardino County at 3,028; in 1880 the 
census showed the Serranos 381, the Coahuillas 675, and the entire num- 
ber in Southern California 2.907. In her report of 1884, Helen Hunt 
Jackson says : "This estimate falls considerably short of the real num- 
bers, as there are no doubt in hiding, so to speak, in remote and inac- 
cessible spots, many individuals, families, or even villages ; some on 
reservations set apart for them by executive order some on Government 
land not reserved, and some upon lands included within the boundaries 
of confirmed Mexican grants. Considerable numbers of these Indians 
are also to be found on the outskirts of the white settlements, as at San 
Bernardino, Riverside and Redlands, and the colonies of the San Gabriel 
Valley, where they live like gypsies in brush huts, here today, gone 
tomorrow, eking out a miserable existence by a day's work, the wages 
of which are too often spent for whiskey." 

It is to be stated in extenuation of the policy of the Government that 
in later years there has been an attempt made to right the wrongs of the 
Indians and to save those left from extinction. Education has been a 
feature, and several good schools have been conducted for a number of 
years, these including the Perris Industrial School, erected in 1892. and 
Sherman Institute, at Riverside, opened in 1902. 

In 1852 the Government began setting aside reservations for the 
Indians, and work in this direction has been carried forward steadily, 
but many of the Indians, after a trial, have left the reservations, finding 
it impossible to make a living on the lands allotted them. The various 
outcasts of the tribes and villages, worthless, shiftless, lazy beings, should 
not be taken as representative of the Southern California Indian. As 
early as 1852. in his report, B. D. Wilson stated : "These Indians have 
built all of the houses in the country, planted all the fields and vineyards. 
Under the missions they were masons, carpenters, plasterers, soapmakers. 
tanners, shoemakers, blacksmiths, millers, bakers, cooks, brickmakers. 
carters and cartmakers. weavers and spinners, saddlers, shepherds, agri- 
culturists, horticulturists, vineros, vaqueros — in a word, they filled all 
of the laborious occupations of civilization." That the Mojave proved 
an acceptable employe was evidenced by Doctor Booth, who. in his report 
of 1902, said : "Much of the hard labor done on the railroad is per- 
formed by these Indians and more industrious or more faithful workers 
were never in the employ of a corporation. They lay and line up track. 
heave coal, wipe engines, etc., better than the ordinary white man." 

The Coahuillas. The first chief of the Coahuillas. a tribe always 
closely connected with the history of the San Bernardino \^alley. was 
known as Razon.'" He was a man of peace and industry, who endeav- 
ored to instill in his people a liking for farming and a desire to live like 
their white brothers. Juan Antonio, his successor, was a man of a dif- 
ferent type, being more inclined toward the military. For his services 
in leading the Indians in the fight with Irving's band, in 1851, he was 
rewarded by the county supervisors, to the extent of $100 worth of 
cloth and supplies. He demanded the most absolute obedience from his 
people and during the Mexican war received the title of "General" from 
General Kearney, after which he never appeared before the white people 
without some military insignia upon his person. He died of smallpox 
""'White Man." 



in 1863 and was followed by Cabezon, who was well known in San 
Bernardino and was respected as a law-abiding, peace-loving man, who 
on several occasions prevented differences culminating into trouble 
between his people and their white neighbors. He died in 1886, prior 
to which he had to undergo the humiliation of appealing to the county 
supervisors for aid, so poverty-stricken had his people become. The 
Coahuilla Indians, having never come under mission influence, retained 
their old, savage superstitions and habits until they came into direct 
contact with the Americans, and even as late as 1885 a trial for witch- 
craft took place in the City of San Bernardino among the members of 
this tribe. 


Of the Coahuilla Indians of more recent times, David Prescott Bar- 
rows, who made an exhaustive study of this tribe, had the following 
tribute to report :^' "I am certain that from any point of view the Coa- 
huillo Indians are splendid types of men and women. Physically they 
are handsome, often large of size, many being six feet or over, with 
splendid shaggy heads and faces of much command and dignity. Their 
desert home has given them great jjowers of endurance and enormous 
toleration of hunger and thirst. With rare exceptions, and those always 
young men who have frequented the settlements, they are absolutely 
honest and trustworthy. Unlike the Mojaves and Cocapahs, they know 
neither beggary nor prostitution. Their homes and persons are orderly 
and clean. The tine pools and springs of warm mineral waters through- 
out their habitat are most gratefully prized possessions. Probably not 
less than two centuries ago the ancestors of these Indians entered the 
great range of territory still occupied by their descendants. They came 
from the deserts north of the San Bernardino Range and the stock from 
which they came belong to a desert people, but the Colorado valleys and 
surrounding mountains raised new difficulties and presented new oppor- 

'" Etlino-Botaiiy of tlio Coahuilla Indians of Southern California, by David 
Prescott Barrows. 


tunities. Their adaptations to these conditions, their utilization of what- 
ever there was to be secured, raised their standard of culture until, as 
it seems to me, it will compare favorably with that of any Indians in 
the western United States, save the Pueblo builders. After having 
explored with some completeness the various portions of their country 
and realized the difficulties attending life in certain portions, and the 
call upon courage and endurance that the desert always makes, the 
knowledge gained by this people, the culture they attained, seem to me 
to be a remarkable triumph for men of a low and barbarous inheritance. 
Their splendid wells, unique perhaps among the Indian tribes of America, 
their laborious though rude irrigation of the maize, their settled com- 
munity life, with its well-built houses and basket granaries, their effective 
pottery, their exquisite basketry, their complete and successful exploita- 
tion of all the plant resources throughout hundreds of square miles of 
mountains and plains — these are not insignificant nor contemptible steps 
toward civilized life." 

The Coahuillas now occupy several villages in the northwestern 
portion of the Colorado desert, enclosed by the San Bernardino Range and 
the San Jacinto Mountains, known as the Coahuilla or Cabezon Valley. 

Of the Mojave Indians, Doctor Booth, of Needles, speaks as follows : 
"Whether deserved or not, all Indians have the reputation of being 
thievish and lazy. Not so with the IMojaves. They are honest and indus- 
trious. Should one of them find property of any kind lying upon the 
ground he would consider it abandoned and its ownership relinquished, 
r.nd therefore might take it ; but one's coat, or hat, or utensil of work, if 
hung upon a tree, or carefully cached, would never be molested. The 
younger members of the tribe, or nearly all of them, can read, write and 
converse in English. The boys are particularly expert in writing, and 
their chirography is, as a rule, better than that of the whites, while the 
girls have learned to run sewing machines, to cut and make their own 
clothing and to ape their white sisters generally, except in the matter 
of wearing shoes. No squaw has ever been seen yet who could v.-alk while 
shod with more grace than a crab. At the Fort Mojave School there 
are now'- about 150 pupils, all bright and studious, all fairly fond of the 
discipline maintained. Maj. John J. McKoin, an experienced Indian 
teacher and a gentleman of many accomplishments and rare executive 
ability, is the superintendent, and is assisted by a capable corps. Pupils 
turned out of this school are educated, but with the education is too 
frequently imbibed the triflingness of the white man, and the thrifty 
educated Indian is an exception to the rule." 

The Serrano tribe, as a tribe, has practically disappeared. For some 
years there was maintained a little reservation in the foothills above 
Redlands, the San Manuel Reservation, popularly known as "Manuel's 
Village," situated about one mile north of the State Insane Asyhun at 
Highland. In 1904 there were about seventy-five Indians belonging to 
this reservation, all that remained of the descendants of the original 
owners of the valley. 

Ceremonies and Superstitions. In the matter of the ceremonies 
and superstitions of the Indians of the San Bernardino Valley, Father 
Juan Caballeria, in his History of San Bernardino Valley, said : "Among 
the principal dances were those known as the Hawk-Feast, the Dance of 
Peace, the Dance of Plenty, the Dance of Victory, and the Dance of 
Deprecation. Another of their peculiar ceremonial dances was desig- 

i» In 1904. 


nated by the padres as 'tatamar ninas' or 'roasting young girls.' This cus- 
tom filled the padres with great horror and they made every eflfort to induce 
the Indians to abandon the practice. The ceremony of 'tatema' took place 
upon the first evidence of maturity. A hole was dug in the ground and 
filled with stones previously heated in the fire until very hot. Over this 
was spread a covering of leaves and branches and the girl laid upon it 
and then nearly covered with heated earth. The result was a profuse per- 
spiration which was kept up for twenty-four hours and sometimes longer. 
At intervals the girl was taken out, bathed and again imbedded in the 
earth. During the whole time constant dancing and chanting was kept 
UD by young girls, attended by hideously painted old women who had 
charge of the ceremonies. At the close, a great feast was prepared in 
which all joined and which lasted several days and nights. The girl was 
then considered ready for marriage, which usually took place soon after. 

"The Dance of Deprecation took place when a member of the tribe 
fell sick with some unusual disease. The disease was always attributed 
to the influence of an evil spirit. The whole tribe would assemble, each 
person bringing a food offering, and all the gifts were placed in a basket. 
The da-ncing would then begin. Significant words were chanted by the 
women, children and old men, while the younger men kept up the dance 
in the ordinary way, beating time with arrows. After a while the sorcerer 
would arise and present the offering to the supposed offended spirit. In 
making the offering he moved from left to right, mumbling mysterious 
words. During the time the sorcerer was engaged the people observed 
complete silence. At the close of the cermony the dance broke up. The 
offerings would be cooked and left until the following day. This act was 
believed to appease the evil spirit, whose baneful influence would then 
be removed and the sick person allowed to recover in the usual way. 

"The Indians looked upon their medicine men as being endowed with 
superior knowledge and skill in the art of healing. The medicine men 
practiced their art through mystical incantations and also used various 
herbs, balsams and healing leaves to effect their cures. When a person 
was taken sick the medicine men were always called. They approached 
the patient with an air of solemn mystery, and after diagnosing the case 
and locating the pain proceeded to work a cure. The principal point was 
to first impress the patient, and those around him, with their importance, 
and in order to do this incantations, passes, contortions and gesticulations 
were made by the medicine men, after which it would sometimes be 
announced that the disease was due to some extraneous matter, where- 
upon one of the medicine men would apply his lips to the affected part 
and soon produce the alleged cause of the disease. This cause was usually 
a stick, stone, thorn, flint or piece of bone. The patient often experi- 
enced immediate relief and a marvelous cure followed. There is no 
doubt but some wonderful cures were effected in this way. Modern 
materia medica admits the potency of the imagination as a factor in both 
the cause and cure of diseases. 

"The Indians of San Bernardino Valley were fully aware of the 
medicinal properties of the hot springs in the vicinity of the vallev. They 
regarded these springs with much veneration and believed them to be a 
cure for many diseases. The springs were also visited frequently by 
Indians from a distance. 

"The 'temescal' or sweat-house was another mode of curing diseases 
among the Indians, and it was also used by Indians in good health. These 
sweat-houses were built by first excavating the earth to some depths for 
r. foundation, then building above it a hut and covering the exterior with 
mud until it resembled a huge mound. A hole was left at the bottom 


barely sufficient to allow a person to crawl in and out of the hut. Light 
and air were almost entirely excluded. In the center a great fire would 
be built, around which the Indians would sit or lie stretched upon the 
ground. Here they would stay until nearly suffocated and in a profuse 
l)erspiration, when they would climb out. make a wild dash to the nearest 
stream of cold water and plunge into it. In many instances this heroic 
treatment was very successful, but in some sicknesses, like smallpox, it 
was quite likely to prove fatal. "The Indians of San Bernardino Valley 
burned their dead. Their method of cremating was similar to that 
employed by the desert Indians of a later date. As soon as death occurred, 
material was collected and a funeral pyre built. Around this the family 
of the deceased and members of the rancheria gathered, the body was 
brought forth and placed on the pile and the fire would be lighted by 
one of the sorcerers. All clothing, utensils and other articles used by the 
deceased were burned with the body. Oftentimes the house where the 
deceased had lived and the domestic animals belonging to him were burned 
in the same way. The women were especially demonstrative on these 
occasions ; their mournful wails and lamentations, continuing for several 
days and nights, could be heard a long distance away. 

"The early Indians did not eat the flesh of large game. This came 
from a superstitious belief that the bodies of the larger animals con- 
tained the souls of departed ancestors. This same superstitious belief 
was held among the Mission Indians even after they had learned to use 
some of the larger domestic animals for food, and they could seldom 
be induced to eat pork. If a wiUI animal devoured a dead body it was 
believed the soul of the deceased was then compelled to take up its habi- 
tation in the body of the animal. This belief was not that of palingenesis 
as held by ancient races, but rather an idea arising among themselves 
without theory or rational reason to give for the belief." 

Indian Raids and Depredations in San Bernardino County — as 
Written by One of the Active Participants — Bill Holcomb. 

(Note: — This truthful history of Indian raids in our country is 
earnestly recommended by my advisory board, for its accuracy and 
reliability of an exciting period in San Bernardino County, and wish you 
would return it to me to preserve in the archives of the Pioneer Society 
as its secretary, as I have no copy of it. You can place it where it 
properly belongs in chapters. San Bernardino or Pioneers.^ohn 
Brown, Jr.). 

San Bernardino, Calif. 
To the Pioneer Society. San Bernardino, Sisters and Brothers : 

In reference to a communication froiu Hon. R. J. Waters of Los 
Angeles, directed to Hon. H. M. Barton and Hon. Byron Waters of this 
city, desiring information from them concerning the raid* and depreda- 
tions committed by the marauding Indians from distant tribes ; and our 
skirmishes with them in and about the San Bernardino IMountains ; and 
as neither of these gentlemen was present at any of our skirmishes with 
them, they have courteously asked me to give as much of the desired 
information as I am in possession of: 

In obedience, therefore, to the request of these gentlemen, and with 
the hope of furnishing the public with some unwritten events of interest, 
at least to some of our citizens, I will endeavor to comply with their 

In order to give an idea of the many troubles, trials, dangers, deaths 
and losses caused by those roving bands of Indians, and also with a view 


o{ bringing some of those events to the minds of our citizens, I will, if 
my readers will pardon the digression, go back to the latter part of 1865 — 
40 years ago — and recite a few incidents and occurrences as they 
happened from that time on. 

San Bernardino County has always been troubled by Indian depreda- 
tions and has suffered great losses, both in property and lives of citizens ; 
therefore, in recounting these events, in order to remind the old citizens 
of the truthfulness of this narrative, I will, if not too tedious for perusal, 
give the names of several persons now living and some dead who took 
part in those skirmishes. 

The first incident I will refer to took place the latter part of 1865 — 
40 years ago — in the Cajon Canon at the upper Toll-gate, then owned 
by that brave old Rocky Mountain hunter and trapper, John Brown, Sr., 
now deceased, he having just removed his family to the city for safety, 
as much fresh Indian signs thereabouts warned him of their dangers — 
leaving the Toll-gate in charge of one Dr. David Noble Smith, deceased, 
who subsequently started the first infirmary at what was then called the 
"Ace of Spades," now known as the Arrow Head, Hot Springs, and a 
hired man by the name of Larken Reeder. 

The Indians had secreted themselves on the bluff, overlooking the 
Toll-gate house, and just about sundown as Smith and Reeder were both 
busy just outside, the Indians fired upon them, wounding Smith quite 
severely, but luckily both succeeded in getting back in the house and 
closing the door. 

Much excitement prevailed and much fear felt for the safety of all 
residents of Cajon Canon as the Indians' still loitered about there, though 
keeping well out of sight. 

A few days after this occurrence I was on my way to Holcomb Valley 
with my family, and when at the Toll-gate met that brave, hardy old 
pioneer. Jack Martin, Yank Shadrick and Dock Hemmenway, and after 
.1 short consultation with them, on the situation, and seeing the danger 
that threatened the residents in that vicinity, we at once determined to 
pursue the Indians and drive them away, if nothing more. So leaving 
my family at the Tollhouse, I jointed the three others before mentioned, 
and soon we were on the Indians' fresh trail. 

We did not expect to be gone more than one night, so we took but 
a small stock of provisions, but as we followed them along, their trail 
seemed to grow fresher and fresher ; and so we pursued them day after 
day, camping on their trail up through the Lytle Creek and Cucamonga 
Mountains, down to Rock Creek, over to Elizabeth Lake and on to 
Tehachapi, where we lost the trail and abandoned further pursuit. We 
then returned to the Toll-gate, where we separated and I joined my 
fsmily again after having been out sixteen days. So closed this campaign 
of exposure, fatigue, hunger and thirst. 

This was supposed to be a band of Owens River Indians from whom 
we captured a shot pouch, powder horn, some ammunition, a pair of 
bullet molds and some pieces of clothing. 

The next raid made by the Indians some months after that, was 
when a band of them crossed the desert from the northeast, invading the 
mountains, passing through, stealing stock, plundering and destroying 
property, and killing a Mexican named Nestor Espinosa at his home at 
the foot of the mountain a few miles northeast of here. 

On pursuing this band of Indians a Mexican was overcome by 
exhaustion and died at the top of the mountain, when the party abandoned 
pursuit and returned with the dead body. 


The Indians made their escape, liaving gotten away with many 
valuable animals, among which were some fine mules belonging to Sam 
Pine, father of our present Supervisor Pine. One of those mules was 
killed, part dried, and part eaten, down near the mouth of Willow Canon. 
Along about the first of the year, 1866, another band of Indians, 
supposed to be of the Pah-Ute and Chimahueva tribes, crossed the desert 
and invaded the mountains, stealing and plundering, and causing much 
alarm to the residents in that vicinity, especially to the stockmen, the 
sawmill and the unprotected families. 

At this time I resided with my family in Little Bear Valley, the present 
site of the great reservoir now being constructed by the Arrow Head 
Company ; Indian tracks could be seen every day in that vicinity. I was 
somewhat alarmed, but kept my fears hid from my family. 

But one day I had to go to the city, a distance of about 15 miles, 
leaving a man by the name of Bill Kane, with my family, making the trip 
afoot. While in the city next day I noticed something of a commotion 
among the citizens, and soon learned that it was caused by the arrival of 
the dead bodies of three of our best known citizens who were killed by 
the Indians on what was then called the Dunlap Ranch (now owned by 
J. A. Cole) on the 25th day of March, 1866. Their names were, Pratt 
Whiteside, Edwin Parish and Nephi Bemis. They were gathering up 
their stock a little below the houses when they were ambushed and killed. 

This sad news almost terrified me, as I was greatly alarmed for the 
safety of my family, and without delay I started back afoot, making all 
possible speed, and arriving home at dark, where, to my great joy, I found 
my family all safe, and staggered into the house almost exhausted with 
fatigue and fright. 

As soon as possible I removed my family to a place of safety in the 
town and returned again to the mountains to work. 

About this time another man from Salt Lake was killed by the Indians 
near the same ranch by the name of Woolley. 

After the killing the stockmen abandoned the ranch, and the Indians 
took possession, killing and driving of? stock, and burning up the old 
cabins on the ranch, and so the stockowners lost nearly all their stock. 

The objective point of the Indians now seemed to be the sawmill, 
situated a little westward from Little Bear Valley (now the site of the 
great reservoir). 

The sawmill was then owned and operated by Messrs. Frank Tal- 
madge, William Caley, Jonathan Richardson and Garland P. Thomas. 

Soon after the killing of Woolley, the Indians came in close to the 
sawmill, and skulked around there, committing depredations now and 
then ; and one day, in broad daylight, they came in, and w^hile the occu- 
pants were out at work, robbed and plundered Bill Kane's house, taking 
his gun, setting his house on fire, and stood guard over it till it burned 
down, and when Bill Kane and George Lish came in for dinner, the 
Indians were still there in full possession and defiant. 

At that time there was a man by the name of A. J. Curry (afterward 
sheriff of our county) and a lad named George Miller, now a highly 
respected rancher in Highland, camped and working in Curry Canon 
close to Bear Valley, and myself, camped and working alone at the same 

We knew nothing of the burning of the house till late in the evening, 
when Mr. Curry, myself and another man followed the Indians till night 
set in, but saw nothing of them. 

This bold action on the part of the Indians greatly alarmed the mill- 
men, as well as all other residents in that vicinity. So the next day a 


party from the mill, consisting of Frank Talmadge, Jonathan Richardson, 
George Armstrong and Bill Kane went down a little below Bear Valley, 
near Holcomb Flats, to look for Indian signs, and here they suddenly 
came upon a party of Indians, who quickly opened fire on them. Bill 
Kane's horse was shot with an arrow and threw his rider to the ground, 
his gun flew out of his reach, and just at that time a big Indian rushed 
upon poor, helpless Kane, and with bow bent to its utmost strength, was 
just about to let fly, when at that critical moment brave, cool-headed 
Frank Talmadge pulled trigger and the Indian fell dead almost at Kane's 
feet. Considerable skirmishing followed, but the Indians were soon out 
of sight and the party returned to the mill. 

The next day after this skirmish, a party from the mill, consisting of 
Frank Talmadge, A. J. Curry, John Welty, Bill Kane, Henry Law, 
George Lish, George Armstrong and Dewitt started out from the mill 
to reconnoiter, and intending to revisit their battlefield of the day before. 
So after appointing Talmadge as their captain, or leader, they started 
out, but instead of following the road, Talmadge led them up the hillside, 
as luck would have it. When only a short distance on their way, they 
suddenly met and encountered a party of Indians of unknown numbers, 
evidently on their way to attack the mill, and at once fight began. The 
ground was uneven and well timbered, which, of course, gave the Indians 
great advantage, and well they knew how to take it. But notwithstanding 
all that advantage, this brave party stood their ground, and after much 
dangerous skirmishing, succeeded in driving the Indians back, but could 
not then tell whether they had actually retreated or whether their dis- 
appearance was only a ruse; but later it was ascertained they had gone, 
leaving one dead on the ground and several wounded, as was shown by 
trails of blood leading from the battleground. But it was learned later 
that two of them died not far away and three of them died some time 
after, over near the Point of Rocks. 

In this engagement John Welty was quite severely wounded and Kane 
slightly wounded about his leg. And now having lost sight of the Indians, 
and not knowing their strength, this party returned to the mill and pre- 
pared to protect their families and property, expecting an attack at any 
time. An escort was at once sent over to Grass Valley to bring in the 
family of Welty and others, and at the same time a courier was sent 
to San Bernardino for reinforcements. 

When this alarming news reached San Bernardino quite a number 
volunteered, and prepared to rush to their rescue, and without delay took 
up such firearms as they were in possession of and their own ammuni- 
tion, and Dr. Ben Bartin, David Seeley, George Lord, Sr., and some of 
the merchants generously contributed a supply of provisions for the 
party ; and being thus equipped, the party started at once in two 
divisions : one going with teams and provisions, around through the 
Cajon Canon, the other party going direct by way of the mill through 
the mountains, it having been arranged to rendezvous at Brown's Ranch 
on the Mojave River. The latter company struck the Indians' trail near 
the mill and followed it on through the mountains and joined the other 
party at Brown's Ranch, as agreed on. 

Here a few scouts were sent out to reconnoiter, and succeeded in 
locating the Indians in those rough, rocky and barren hills just north 
of a dry lake a few miles west of Rabbit Springs. A council was held 
and a midnight move was at once planned and agreed on with a view 
of surprising the Indians and attacking them on both sides at once, one 
party with teams and provisions to go in from the dry lake to the north, 
the other party to come in from the opposite direction with a view of 
making a simultaneous attack. 


On this night some reinforcements arrived, but as they were tired and 
sleepy, and as the night was intensely cold, and ad istance of more than 
twelve miles to go, all of them returned home that same morning. 

The party which had halted at the dry lake, leaving a guard over 
their teams and outfit, started up in to the hills in a northerly direction. 
And just at daylight our party, consisting of Jack Martin. W. H. 
St. John, M. F. Thomas, Jonathan Richardson. John McGur, Ed, Sam 
and Harrison Bemis, Noisy Tom. myself, and two young lads by name 
of George Miller, sixteen years old, and Dave Wixom. nineteen years, 
though yomig (both alive now, 1922, and the only survivors), these two 
lads proved to be both brave and efficient, always ready and willing to 
perform any duty or face any danger, started up from opposite directions 
over the rough rocks and boulders we went, and when about half way 
up, we heard several shots straight ahead, and believing it to be an 
attack, we hastened up to help them. When we approached near where 
we heard the firing, suddenly an Indian raised up from behind a rock, 
drew his bow and quick, almost as thought, sent an arrow with great 
force into the breast of brave Jonathan Richardson, who staggered and 
almost fell into the arms of young George Miller, close by me. Placing 
the desperately wounded man behind a rock, we at once scaled a flat 
topped bluff where we met a shower of arrows, but luckily none of us 
were hurt. Part of our party had gone around the bluflf, and coming 
in from opposite direction we had nearly liemmed them in. Just under 
that blufT was a little water seeping out, perhaps never seen before by 
any white man. and there was their camp : and coming upon them as 
we did, we were masters of the situation and captured five of them 
who surrendered at once, but most of the Indians escaped. 

Taking our prisoners and our wounded man we made our way to 
Dry Lake where we found the other party waiting our arrival, and entirely 
ignorant of our engagement with the Indians. And here we learned 
that they had been up near the Indian camp, and seeing no Indians, 
some of them had very imprudently fired a few shots at random and 
returned to Dry Lake. Those shots were what we had heard and mistaken 
for an attack on the Indians. This firing gave the alarm to the Indians 
and enabled most of them to escape, to our great regret. Here we held 
a short consultation and all decided to return to Brown's Ranch, where 
1 was detailed to convey our wounded man back home without delay 
for medical assistance. And so leaving our prisoners under gaurd, and 
the rest of the company, we at once set out and reached San Bernardino 
in safety, where medical assistance was obtained and the wounded man 
carefully attended to. And thus ended my furllier connection with that 
expedition. Several more of the party left at about the same time, includ- 
ing M. F. Thomas, Birdwell, Jake Buckhannan and Sam Button. The 
party left, as I remember them, consisted of \V. H. St. John, Jack Martin, 
three of the brave Bemis boys. Noisy Tom, Preacher Stout, his son, and 
his son-in-law, Griffith, teamster J. B. Smithson. George Miller, Dave 

I afterwards learned from good authority that this party pursued 
the Indians we had driven out and escaped from us and fled to the 
mountains several miles southeast of there, that a few of them showed 
themselves to the party, and entered into a parley with them ; but the 
Indians were shy and suspicious and would not come down near them : 
and while thus engaged in parleying with them, the prisoners made a dash 
for their liberty. This rash act on the part of the prisoners cost them 
their lives then and there. 


While still pursuing the Indians, Preacher Stout, his son, and his 
son-in-law, Griffith, rashly left the party and much against their consent, 
and with more courage, perhaps, than prudence, rode off toward the 
mountains. They rode up into the rocky hills two or three miles, and 
while looking for tracks, all at once the Indians raised from ambush 
and fired upon them, wounding Griffith quite severely and slightly wound- 
ing one of the horses at the same time. This sudden movement of the 
Indians frightened the horses and instinctively they whirled about and 
carried their riders rapidly away, Griffith having dropped his gun when 
wounded and it fell into their hands. 

The rest of the party hearing the firing rushed to their assistance 
and met them returning, having escaped, as it were, by miracle. So the 
party all got together again. 

About this time another party headed by one John Searls and J. B. 
Burkhart (afterwards sheriff of our county) came in from opposite 
directions and coming up on this remnant of the band just at daylight, 
surprised them and killed every one of them (eight in all). 

And thus ended that eventful expedition, the party returning to 
their respective homes after thirty-two days of hardships and exposure, 
encountering on their way home snowstorms, cold winds, sleet and hail, 
fatigue and hunger. They returned by way of Cajon Canon and at 
the toll-gate they were welcomed by that old Rocky Mountain hero, 
John Brown, Sr., who at once prepared a dinner for all who would par- 
take of his hospitality. And so the party all arrived home, having the 
proud satisfaction of having well performed their duty, as their reward 
for their servces. 

From the close of that campaign we have had no further trouble of 
any kind with Indians up to the present day, and consequently San 
Bernardino has become a place of safety and our mountains a great and 
famous summer resort. 

And now in conclusion I must beg pardon for my inability to do the 
subject justice, but if this narrative proves to be of any interest, either 
to individuals or the public in general, or if I have given any informa- 
tion to the public worthy of note, then will my highest hopes be con- 
summated and my efforts amply rewarded. W. F. Holcomb. 


The Revolution of 1821 was the immediate cause of the downfall of 
Spanish domination in North America, and in the following year Cali- 
fornia became a territory under the newly-formed Mexican Republic, 
continuing under the jurisdiction thereof until passing into the control 
of the United States in 1847. During the period of the Spani'^h era, 
the best part of the land had been acquired by the missions, and this, in 
turn, had produced the greater part of the wealth of the country. The 
few settlers outside of the pueblos and missions to whom large Land 
grants had been made were scattered over a wide territory. The devel- 
opment of even such important pueblos as San Francisco. .San Diego, 
Los Angeles and Monterey, had been tardy, and their inhabitants, con- 
sisting largely of colonists who had come to the country because of the 
inducements held out by the government, and soldiers, who having com- 
pleted their service remained in the country and in many cases married 
native women, were not calculated to make constructive citizens. For 
the most part they did little save cultivate their suertes^ in a halfhearted 
way and produce a few head of livestock. 

Such was the situation when Mexico began its iniquitous system of 
land grants which was later to cause so much trouble. During the 
era of Spanish possession, no regular grants had been made in San Ber- 
nardino County, although a grant known as "Santiago de Santa Ana," 
containing 60,000 acres in the Santa Ana Canon, made to Antonio Yorha 
in 1801, may have extended slightly within the bounds of the county, the 
main body, however, lying in what is now Orange County. About 1817 
a grant was made to a son-in-law of Yorba, one Leandro Serrano, in the 
Temescal Valley, but after long litigation this was decided by the courts 
to be but a "permit for grazing purposes" and was not sustained. For 
some time after coming into domination, the Mexican Government 
abstained from making any land grants, probably because at first it was a 
difficult matter to find anyone desiring to accept such gifts unless there 
be some exceptional advantage attached fhereto. 

JuRUPA Grant. It was not until 1838, therefore, that the first 
Mexican land grant in San Bernardino County was made, this being 
seven leagues of land known as the Jurupa- Grant, made to Tuan Ban- 
dini, one of the most capable and prominent of the Spanish i^ioneers. 
He was a Peruvian by nativity and almost immediately after his arrival 
at San Diego in 1821, by reason of his superior intellect and natural 
gifts, received an appointment as a member of the territorial assembly. 
Of Bandini, a contemporary writer has said:'' "He was a man of fair 
education and abilities, of generous impulses, of jovial temperament: 
famous for his gentlemanly manners, of good courage in the midst of 
discouragements and always well liked and respected ; indeed, his record 
as a citizen is excellent. He also performed honestly and efficiently the 
duties of his various official positions. He was an eloquent speaker 
and fluent writer." Immediately upon securing his grant. Senor Bandini 
began stocking his rancho. upon which he built a ranch house, in which 
he and his family resided for a time. 

1 Lots. 

2 An Indian word meaning "friendship" or "peace." 



The unexpected and too often successful sorties of the Indians of 
the desert, who were in the custom of dashing in through the passes, 
running off a band of stock and getting back to their desert fastnesses 
while the ranch owners could only hurl maledictions in their wake, had 
caused a somewhat peculiar custom. This was that the Lugos, to pro- 
tect their stock had induced a few New Mexican families to settle in the 
vicinity of Politana by giving them a half a league of land* in exchange 
for which these settlers agreed to help discourage the raids of the Indians 
and to act as vaquerDs. 

These colonists were offered better location and more property 
about 1843, by Senor Bandini, if they would agree to move across the 
Santa Ana River and settle on the Jurupa Rancho. This was eventually 
agreed upon by the colonists' leader, one Lorenzo Trujillo, and accord- 
ingly five families moved to a location several miles south of Politana and 
established a new settlement which was known as Bandini's Donation or 
La Placita de Trujillo.^ Others soon came in, and, as they were on the 
flat where they could irrigate their lands, they soon had not only grain 
fields, but orchards and vineyards. The little band of colonists com- 
menced the erection of an adobe church, but during the heavy rains of 
1852 it was washed down before it could be completed. 

In about the same year the community was augmented by the arival of 
another band of colonists from New Mexico, who located on the river 
something more than a mile northeast of the former settlement. This 
became known as the Agua Mansa^ and its people made improvements, 
cultivated the land, cared for stock and aided in the vigilant protection 
maintained against the sallies of the desert natives. In time a prosperous 
settlement grew up, and the residents of the two colonies eventually 
decided to rebuild the church that had been swept away. Miguel Busta- 
mente, who had been one of the early residents of Agus Mansa, gave the 
following description of the erection of the church : "The colonists 
appointed a committee to select a site that would be safe from flood, and 
after going up and down the river they decided upon the hill of San 
Salvador. Then all of the colonists went to work — some with their hands 
and some with money — and made the new church. They made the 
adobes and the cement. Joaquin Molla. who had twelve or fourteen voke 
of oxen, hauled the timber from Aliso's mill". We paid from $35 to $40 
per thousand for the lumber. It took a year to build the new church. 
Father Amable held the first mass in it." All that now exists of this little 
church, which for many years was the only Catholic Church in San 
Bernardino County, is the bell, made from metal collected in the vicinity 
and cast at Agua Mansa, which hangs in the Catholic Church at Coltoii. 
This little church and the residence of Cornelius Jansen withstood the 
great flood of 1862 which, with the exception of these two structures, 
washed away both the prosperous little settlements of colonists and buried 
the fields and vineyards in sand. Later a new village was built up around 
the church and was long one of the best-known settlements of the county. 

A part of the Jurupa Rancho was sold by Senor Bandini in 1843 to a 
new arrival in California, Benjamin D. Wilson, a Tennessean by birth, 
who had spent a number of years hunting and trapping in New Mexico, 
and who had come with the Workman party to San Bernardino County 
in 1841. That Wilson was a man of courage and determination is evi- 
denced in an anecdote still related about him, in which it is told that 
in the fall of 1844, after having been seriously wounded by a grizzly 

* About 2,200 acres. <> The Little Town of Trujillos. « Gentle Water. 
'' Probably the mill of Vignes & Sexton, in Mill Creek Canon. 


bear that had slain one of his cattle, he made a quick recovery and did 
not rest until he had put an end to said bear after a pitched battle. 
Mr. Wilson was in charge of an expedition which in the fall of 1845, 
while in pursuit of a band of marauding Indians, found a lake in the 
mountains at which the grizzlies were so numerous that twenty-two men 
lassoed eleven bears, and on the return of the party, at the same camp, the 
feat was repeated, making twenty-two bears killed in the locality. Later 
Mr. Wilson disposed of his interests in the Jurupa Rancho and located 
near Los Angeles, where he died in 1878, after having served a term as 
state senator, acted as Indian agent, and taken an active part in all political 
affairs, as well as playing a prominent part in the development of the 

The grant was purchased from Senor Eandini and Mr. Wilson by 
Isaac Williams and Colonel Johnson, who in 1847 sold a part of it to 
Louis Robidoux, a Frenchman of means who had come from New 
Mexico, but who was born at St. Louis, Missouri, a son of one of the 
pioneer merchants of that city. One of his brothers, Joseph, was the 
founder of the City of St. Joseph, Missouri. Louis Robidoux became 
wealthy and prominent, showed his progressiveness by building fences, 
putting in a large acreage of grain and in other ways, and built a grist 
mill, which had a turbine wheel and two sets of stones, the only grist mill 
in Southern California at that time, 1846-7. The grain was washed and 
dried in the sun and was shoveled into the hopper with a rawhide scoop. 
Mr. Robidoux, a man of genial and kindly disposition, served as Juez de 
Paz, and was one of the first board of supervisors of the county. His 
death occurred in 1867. 

The Cuc.\monga Trouble- The Cucamonga Indians, who, as before 
noted, lived among the Cucamonga hills and on the mesa below and had 
never come into direct contact with the mission influence, formed a 
rancheria of quiet and industrious people, who cultivated their fields and 
raised their stock and who had occupied this locality when the Spanish 
first came into California. The facts relating to their extinction as a 
tribe is but another commentary upon the methods invariably used by 
those who have sought power and property as the white race has swept 
irresistibly onward toward its chosen goal. Under a grant of 1839, issued 
bj' Governor Alvarado, this land came into the possession of a rich and 
powerful citizen of Los .Vngeles, Tiburcio Tapia, of whom Robinson 
says : "We stopped at the house of Don Tiburcio Tapia, the Alcalde 
Constitutional'' of the town, who was once a common soldier, but who, 
by honest and industrious labor, has amassed so much of this world's 
goods as to make him one of the wealthiest inhabitants of the place. His 
strict integrity gave him credit to any amount," so that he was the 
principal merchant and the only native one in el Pueblo de Los Angeles." 

Upon his arrival, Don Tiburcio employed the guiless natives in the 
building of a house which was practically a fortress, located on one of 
the highest hills of the grant, and in setting out vineyards and orchards 
and caring for the cattle and other livestock. As the stock increased and 
the settlement developed, a number of Mexicans were brought in and the 
Indians were banished from their fields and made to take refuge in the 
hills and canons. Their crops failing them, the natives took the only 
means of securing food that they knew, this being the seizing of beef 
cattle, fattened upon their own ranges. The employment of a guard by 
Don Tiburcio failed to put an end to the depredations, and eventuallv he 

' Constitutional Judge. ' The trading ve.'i.'iels Robinson represented. 


sent his ranchmen out in force. Meeting the Indians, a fierce engagement 
ensued, in which the Indians, beaten oiif, were hunted down and destroyed, 
and from that time forward had no existence as a separate rancheria. 

Of the red hill and the estate of Cucamonga, there are numerous 
highly-colored and dramatic tales. One of these is as follows, according 
to IngersoU : "Don Tiburcio amassed a large amount of property and 
especially of gold coin — something unusual in those days ; when rumors 
of American occupation began to disturb the country, he feared that 
this might not be safe in Los Angeles, so transferred it to his ranch home. 
But even here he became uneasy and one night, so the story goes, he 
packed it into an iron-bound chest, loaded it on his cart and taking a 
blindfolded Indian with him, went ofif into the hills. He returned without 
the chest, and shortly afterward died suddenly. When his daughter came, 
some years later, to live in the old house, she was constantly troubled 
by a mysterious light moving and stopping at one particular spot on the 
wall of the room once occupied by her father. At last her husband, 
determined to satisfy her of the idleness of her imagination, dug into the 
clay wall. To his own discomfiture he found a small skin purse, and in 
the purse a sheet of parchment containing some tracing and writing 
and a Spanish coin. This was supposed to be the kev to the hidden 
treasure, but it was already so faded as to be not decipherable (though 
why the parchment should have faded in so short a time is not explained). 
The Indian held the word he had given to his old master as inviolable, 
only intimating that the box was buried at the foot of an oak tree. 
Credulous searching parties have, since the death of Senor Tapia, down 
to the present day, dug at the roots of oak trees, or places where they 
suppose oak trees sometime to have stood, all through that section, but 
so far as known, no treasure has ever been discovered." 

Later there was drama and tragedy of a more definitely-known quality 
to attach to the Cucamonga estate, which, in 1857, came into the hands 
of John Rains, an enterprising and progressive young American, through 
his marriage with Maria Merced, the daughter of Isaac Williams of the 
Chino Rancho. Mr. Rains abandoned the old fortress on the hill and 
built a modern home which became the social center of the community. 
He greatly increased the vineyard and added to the improvements, and 
the winery, shops and stage station furnished employment for numerous 
men. Thus Cucamonga became the point of importance between San 
Bernardino and Los Angeles and its wines won merited distinction all 
over California. At this time John Rains occupied a prominent place in 
business and political circles, and in 1860 he was a delegate with John 
Bidwell to the democratic national convention, at Charleston. His tragic 
death occurred in 1862, when, while driving to Los Angeles, he was 
dragged from his wagon, shot and beaten to death, and his body hid 
in a cactus jjatch. For this crime Manuel Ceredel was arrested, and 
when he was taken ill with small-pox and expected to die, confessed to 
his own participation in the deed and disclosed particulars of a con- 
spiracy and incriminated a number of others. Ceredel, however, recov- 
ered and was sentenced to ten years in the State prison. This did not 
satisfy the people, who took the prisoner away from the sheriflf on the 
Steamboat Cricket, en route for San Quentin, and hanged him to the yard- 
arm. An aftermath of this tragedy occurred February 5, 1864, when 
Santiago Sanches was hanged for the murder of Manuel Gonzales. While 
admitting his guilt, he declared that his execution was due to the spite of 
Americans who believed that he had a hand in the murder of Rains. In 
June of the same year, while riding near Cucamonga Station, with a 
companion, Jose Ramon Carrillo was shot to death from ambush, and 


it was contended that this was still another echo of the Rains murder, 
in that Carrillo had been suspected of participation in that deed, although 
he had been twice exonerated by the authorities. 

The Santa Ana Del Chino Grant. In the year 1841 there was 
granted to Don Antonio Maria Lugo a fine tract of land known as the 
Rancho Santa Ana del Chino, famous for its splendid water supply and 
fertile soil, and two years later this tract was purchased by Lugo's 
son-in-law, Col. Isaac Williams, who likewise secured an additional 
grant, making a property of some 35,000 acres in all. Colonel Williams, 
a Pennsylvanian, was a man of progressive spirit, and by importing a 
large number of sheep from New Mexico, building a grist mill and setting 
out orchards, made this ranch one of the most valuable in the valley. 
The rancho served as a stopping-place on the overland route between 
Yuma and the gold fields of the North, and when the gold rush began 
all Americans who passed that way were heartily welcomed by the tall, 
handsome, genial and courtly "Colonel," who, while a shrewd business 
man, was the soul of generosity and kindness when fellow human beings 
were in need. The old frontiersmen found him a friend in need ; many 
were the miners whom he grubstaked, and on numerous occasions he sent 
out relief parties to meet immigrant trains reported in need of succor. 
In later years Chino became a station on the Butterfield stage route. 

The Battle of Chino. What has become known in the history of 
this region as the Battle of Chino, occurred in September, 1846, when 
the rancho house was attacked and besieged by a body of Californians 
under the leadership of Barelas. who was also the guiding spirit of the 
revolt that resulted in the evacuation of Los Angeles by Gillespie. The 
ever-increasing influx of Americans had been watched with growing 
uneasiness by the native-born Californians. who were of Mexican sympa- 
thies and who were fully aware that the shrewd newcomers were fully 
aware of the advantages which would accrue from the territory being 
adopted by the L^nited States Government. Friction and unpleasant 
feeling were inevitable under the circumstances, but open hostilities did 
not commence until September, 1846, when Cervol \^arela (or Barelas) 
attacked the Americans under Lieut. A. H. Gillespie, of the U. S. Marines, 
who had been left in charge as military commandant at Los Angeles 
by Commodore Stockton. Gillespie thereupon ordered D. B. WiLon, 
owner of the Jurupa Rancho, to come to his aid with the twenty men 
who were stationed at Jurupa for the purpose of protecting the inhabitants 
on the San Bernardino Frontier from Indian raids, but Wilson, nearly 
out of powder, stopped at the Chino Rancho, only to find Colonel Williams 
also in the same condition as to ammunition. Notwithstanding this state 
of afifairs, when a wounded scout reported the approach of the attacking 
Californians, Williams and Wilson decided to stand a siege. The Cali- 
fornians, also short of arms and ammunition, were under the leadership of 
Varela, Diego Sepulveda and Ramon Carillo, and numbered fifty men, 
being later augmented by twenty men from the San Bernardino Rancho 
under the leadership of Jose del Carmen Lugo. An attack was made 
on the rancho, September 27, the Californians, on horseback, making a 
fierce onslaught, firing as they approached the house. Frightened at the 
firing of their owners and the response of the Americans, which came 
from numerous loop-holes, the horses of the attacking party, in attempt- 
ing to leap the ditcli, threw several of their riders, and one man. Carlo.s 
Ballestros, was killed. Safe under the shelter of the walls, the Cali- 
fornians set fire to the asphaltum roof of the ranch house, and the 


Americans, thus trapped, decided upon a truce. Evenutally the Amer- 
icans surrendered, and although threats were made against their hves 
because of the death of Ballestros, they were taken to Los Angeles, 
where the more prominent members of the party were held by Flores 
until January, 1847. It is related, says Father Caballeria, that these men 
were promised their liberty on condition that they agreed not to bear 
arms or use their influence in behalf of the United States, but to their 
credit they refused to secure freedom on such terms. Among those 
captured at the battle of Chino were : D. B. Wilson, Isaac Williams, 
David W. Alexander, John Rowland, Louis Robidoux, Joseph Perdue, 
William Skene, Isaac Callaghan. Evan Callaghan, Michael ^^'hite, Matt 
Harbin and George Walters. Some time following the annexation of 
California by the United States, Colonel Williams put in a claim for 
damages done to his estate, and was reimbursed to the extent of $80,000. 
After his release, he returned to the Chino Rancho, where he resided until 
his death, September 13, 1856. He was laid to rest in the old Catholic 
Cemetery on Buena Vista Street, Los Angeles, California. 

The San Bernardino Grant. In 1842, the sons of Antonio Maria 
Lugo, Jose Maria, Jose del Carmen and Vicente, and Diego Sepulvcda, 
came into possession of a property of nine square leagues, or 37,700 acres 
of land, known as Rancho de San Bernardino, under grant of Governor 
Alvarado. This grant comprised the greater part of the San Bernardino 
Valley and gave to this region its name. It is stated"" that Antonio 
Maria Lugo, one of the most prominent of the native Calif ornians, had 
so much stock on his large grant, San Antonio, near Los Angeles, that he 
did not know what to do with it all and accordingly secured the San 
Bernardino grant for his sons and stocked it with cattle from his other 
property. There Jose Maria Lugo erected a dwelling, known as HomoUa, 
about two miles south of the city and about twenty acres were put under 
cultivation. Jose del Carmen Lugo resided at the old San Bernardino 
Mission and probably occupied the old mission building as his home ; 
while Vicente Lugo lived at Politana. Diego Sepulveda lived in Yucaipe 
Valley in an old adobe dwelling which had been built by Jose Bermudas, 
who had come from Los Angeles about 1836. In September, 1851, the 
San Sernardino Rancho was sold to the Mormons, and the Lugos, who 
had taken part in many of the incidents which went to make up the 
history of this period, returned to Los Angeles and vicinity, taking most 
of their stock. 

El Cajon de Muscupiabe Grant. A grant which caused much 
litigation in the courts for many years was that of El Caion de Mus- 
cupiabe, which was made in 1843 to Michael White, Miguel White or 
Miguel Blanco, as he was variously known, with the condition that he 
occupy the land in question, consisting of one league, and prevent the 
Indians from coming through the Cajon Pass to the coast country. White, 
an Englishman, had come to the California Coast about 1817 and engaged 
in the coasting trade with the Sandwich Islands until 1828, in which 
year he took up his residence at Santa Barbara. He located at Los 
Angeles in 1830, where he was married a year later, and first secured a 
grant to a valuable tract of land near San Gabriel Mission, of which his 
mother-in-law, the famous Eulalie Perez, was so long matron in charge ; 
and later to the Muscupiabe grant. For thirteen years \\niite occupied 
this latter grant, but in 1856 sold a half interest to Isabel Granger and 

lOH. D. Barr 


Charles Crittenden, and the other half was sold in 1857 to Henry Han- 
cock, a surveyor, who subsequently obtained the balance of the tract. 
The boundaries of this grant, like all other Mexican grants, were indef- 
inite, and White, who, although ofifered as much land as he chose to take 
in the Cajon Pass, had desired only one league at first, took the precaution 
of having his grant changed from one of quantity to one of boundaries. 
In 1867, Hancock, who then owned the grant, and who was deputy United 
States surveyor, surveyed and located the grant of El Cajon de Mus- 
cupiabe, which now included nearly eight leagues of land, and the grant 
thus surveyed was confirmed, and a patent issued by the Government in 
1872. However, this patent was only given after a re-survey, inasmuch 
as there was much dissatisfaction among the people of the locality, and 
the question of its validity was so strongly agitated that in 1886 suit 
was commenced by the United States attorney to set aside the patent. 
This, however, was denied and the original patent fully confirmed, 
although other suits have been instituted from time to time. While the 
title has remained unshaken and the ])urchasers who received their title 
through the Hancock survey are secure in their rights, there has been 
considerable other litigation, this having to do with the water rights con- 
nected with the grant. In 1877 a suit was begun by the settlers located 
within the boundaries of the grant against the large number of settiers 
in the valley below who were using water from I,ytle Creek, the grant 
occupants claiming the entire flow from this stream. The grant owners 
won their suit by decision of the Supreme Court in 1879, a decision which 
had an important bearing upon later irrigation litigation, in that the 
supremacy of riparian rights against appropriation was established and 
that it decided that "the statute of limitations" is impotent when the land 
title is in question and held in abeyance by the United States Government. 
This decision caused the organization of the Lytle Creek Water Company, 
with a capital stock of $75,000, the stockholders including nearly all of 
the water users. Of this company, an authority^' says: "Its purpose 
was to unify the interest of appropriators on the stream and to fight the 
grant owners. These latter had the law on their side, but the settlers 
had the water and were holding and using it. An injunction was granted 
in favor of the grant owners but was never enforced. The conflict was 
a long and bitter one. In the meantime the grant owners and others 
operating with them, quietly bought up the stock of the Lytle Creek Water 
Company, until enough to control it was secured and then sold out these 
rights to the Semi-Tropic Land & Water Company, with the riparian 
lands, which seems to have quieted the conflict. This practically ended the 
litigation concerning Muscupiabe grant.'" 

The S.\n Gorc.omo R..\.\ch. The last of the Mexican governors, 
Rio Pico, gave a grant of three leagues in the San Gorgonio Pass to 
Powell, or "Pauline" ^^'caver, one of the earliest American settlers in the 
San Bernardino Valley, a pioneer, scout, trapper and Indian fighter. 
who had settled here probably as early as 1846. This grant, which was 
given him for services rendered the Californians, was never confirmed 
by the United States. Weaver frequently served as scout for the L^nited 
States Army and was the man who met Colonel Cook and the Mormon 
Battalion at the Colorado River and guided them across the desert to 
San Diego. The following excerpts from the journal of Lieutenant 
Blake gives an interesting picture of the ranch house of San Gorgonio as it 
appeared in November, 1852: "November 12, 1852. .After procuring 

'■' Irrigation in Southern California. 


several thousand pounds of barley (at Old San Bernardino Mission) we 
again traveled eastward. We encamped in a wide, grassy valley, with- 
out trees, within sight of a solitary house on a slight eminence, known 
as 'Young Weaver's.' November 13. Leaving the camp near the house 
of Mr. Weaver, Jr., we ascended the valley of a stream which has cut 
its way downwards below the general level of the slope. The ascent 
continued very gradual, at length a short hill brought us to the edge of a 
broad and gently sloping plain, upon which an adobe house is built. 
This, although partly in ruins, was occupied by Mr. Weaver, an experi- 
enced mountaineer. He is the claimant of a large rancho at this place. 
The presence of fruit trees and other evidences of cultivation showed that 
the rancho had been in use for many years and it is said that the inhabi- 
tants have been driven away several times by Indians. The situation 
of this rancho and of the house is such as one would least expect, being 
at the summit of the pass." San Gorgonio Rancho was sold in 1859 to 
Dr. William F. Edgar, a United States Army surgeon, who owned it for 
many years, the management thereof being placed in the hands of his 
brother, F. M. Edgar, a well-known citizen of San Bernardino. 

Additional Grants. Endless litigation was caused by the giving, in 
1846, by Governor Pico of a grant to Senora don Maria del Rosario 
Estudillo de Aguirre of a tract of land known as Rancho San Jacinto 
Sobrante, which had been considered worthless and therefore left out 
of two other grants, but which was afterward surveyed to include the 
Temescal tin mines. The other grants, lying on either side, were San 
Jacinto Nuevoy Potrero. 48,861 acres, which was confirmed in 1872 to 
T. W. Sutherland, guardian of the minor children of Miguel Pedrodeno, 
lying in the extreme southern end of the county and running into San 
Diego County : and San Jacinto Viejo, in the northern part of San Diego 
County and the southern part of San Bernardino County. 

El Rincon, a grant of one league, lying below Jurupa, in the Santa Ana 
Valley, was granted to Don Bernardo Yorba. Of this grant, B. D. 
Wilson says: "While Anaheim was still unconceived of, Santa Ana at 
Teodosio Yorba's gave the earliest grapes in the county and up the river 
at Don Bernardo Yorba's, El Rincon presented a settlement of Cali- 
fornians, contented and happy. Their loss was great when the head and 
front of everything useful, or elegant among them, Don Bernardo, died. 
He died November 20, 1858, a very large number of children and grand- 
children surviving him. His estate, in part, consisted of 7,000 head of 
cattle, valued at $84,000. and his landed propertv was valued at $30,625, 
May 1, 1859." 

Bernardo Yorba was also granted Rancho La Sierra, a property con- 
taining 17,774 acres, which lay between Jurupa and El Rincon, and which 
was confirmed to Vicente Sepulveda in 1872. It was sold in 1876 to 
Abel Stearns, and thereafter was known as the Stearns Rancho. 

Social Life and Customs. While the social life and customs of the 
Mexicans in San Bernardino County were fundamentally Spanish in 
character, they were necessarily different in that the pioneers in this coun- 
try had to meet existing conditions and to shape their lives according 
to their new environment. The proportion of Mexican families in this 
region over Americans and those of other races was, of course, large, 
but not so large as has been generally understood. As the Mexicans were 
almost wholly dependent upon themselves and those of their nationality, 
it was naturally evident that they must be intimately acquainted with each 
other. When a fiesta was decided upon, the men invariably traveled on 

VoL 1—3 


horsL-l)ack, wliilc the other members of the family made use of the oxen- 
drawn carreta. the only kind of wheeled vehicle in the country, a rude 
conveyance constructed entirely of wood, with two wooden wheels, a 
wooden axle and a wooden rack, manufactured mainly with an axe, an 
adze and coyundas.'- During the journey the men of the party would 
occasionally engage in a dart on a coleada of cows or steers." When 
evening arrived the party stopped at the home of an acquaintance, where 
they were always heartily welcomed and well-entertained, eating at the 
same table and sleeping beneath one roof, and to offer to pay the hospitable 
host for this kind of entertainment was equivalent to an insult. 

Among the Mexicans, while intercourse between the families, whether 
near neighbors or not, was much the same all over the region, strict 
supervision was kept over the young people, who arrived at manhood 
and womanhood with the innocence of childhood combined with the health 
of ripening maturity. At social and religious gatherings and in mixed 
company, it was the invariable custom to keep the young people segre- 
gated, the young ladies being seated by themselves and the young gentle- 
men understanding that they were to approach the voung ladies only 
when social right and privilege warranted. In their love affairs, the 
young people seldom went against the wishes of their parents. The 
young man would first notify his parents of his choice of a bride, and 
if they considered it a worthy one. he would write a courteous letter 
to the parents of the young lady, which would be delivered by the father 
of the prospective bridegroom to the father of the prospective bride, 
following which, eight days later, the latter parent would deliver his replv 
in person. The whole family of the young man's father would then 
visit the family of the young lady, taking with them the donas," and a 
sumptuous meal would be succeeded bv all arrangements for the coming 
ceremony. This, sometimes held at a church and sometimes at the house 
of the bride or groom, would be largely attended, guests frequently com- 
ing from a distance of one hundred miles. The fiesta which followed, 
and which consisted of singing, music, dancing, and often a horse race, 
bull fight or a toreada, lasted from three to eight days. 

A deep religious feeling permeated the early Mexican residents of 
this part of California and three religious holidays were especially 
observed, i. e.. Corpus Christi, San Juan and Xoche Buena. The first, 
according to the established rules of the church, comes on Thursdav. 
sometimes in May and sometimes in June. San Juan day was celebrated 
on June 24 each year, and after high mass the day was devoted to some 
manner of sports. Noche Buena, or Christmas, was especially important, 
and three masses were held during the first twelve hours of the day, with 
appropriate and impressive ceremonies. The people had many religious 
observances aside from those mentioned. 

Naturally a social people, the Mexicans were greatly fond of sport, 
and several of tlieir pastimes were typically their own. Pelia de gallos, or 
cock fights, were greatly popular, and some person in nearly every hamlet 
or rancho was the possessor of fighting cocks, who were prepared for 
combat by a special trainer who had to have a comprehensive knowledge 
of his business if he hoped for success. Another popular sport with 
which fowls were associated was Corrida de gallos. In this, one or more 
roosters would be furnished, always by a person named Juan or Juana, 
and the fowl was buried alive in the ground with only the head pro- 

'- Hide straps. '■• A "coleada" consisted in running at lull speed, grasping a cow 
l)y its tail and throwing it to the ground. 

" Gifts, consisting of jewelry and niimey, which were given to the i)arents of 
the bride-elect. 



truding. The men, riding horse-back at full speed, would lean from their 
saddles and attempt to pull the rooster from the ground by grasping 
him by the head, and the successful one would thereupon be pursued 
by the whole party, who would attempt to get his prize away from him. 
He was justified in striking his opponents with the unfortunate bird, and 
it was a direct infringement of the rules for any of the contestants to 
show anger. Some persons have confused the bull fight and the capateada 
or toreada, whereas they were entirely different exhibitions. The former 
was a fight between a bull and a bear, which would be turned loose in 
an amphitheater composed of a place walled in by large adobes with seats 
built on top of the wall. The bull, no matter how ferocious, was almost 
invariably killed, but the bear frequently died of his injuries also. In 
"torear," "toreada'"" or "capateada," a wild bull would be turned loose 
in the corral, or amphitheater, and the men, experts of their kind, on 
well-trained horses, v.-ould tantalize the animal until it attacked, and then 
give an exhibition of how easy it was to avoid its maddened rushes. 
Among the sports, however, horse racing was the most popular and the 
most widely indulged in. While huge sums of money were frequently 
wagered, these wagers were made man against man and horse against 
horse, and the modern bookkeeper was not known, a disinterested party, 
with no wager on the race of his own, being chosen as stakeholder. 
The Mexicans had two methods of starting their races, one known as 
Santiago parado and the other as Santiago andando. The first method 
was a "standing" start, the other a start from a walk or short trot, with 
the real race begun at the starter's word "Santiago!" 

A feature of the cattle ranges, which was a necessary part of the 
yearly business, was the rodeo, or round-up. In those days the country 
was one wide range, with no fences marking boundary lines, and it was 
natural that the cattle become mixed, whether they belonged to owners 
who had thousands of head or to the smaller stockmen with their 
"bunches" of forty to fifty. The rodeos were held during branding, 
marking and gelding time. Early in the morning of the day appointed, the 
men, in small parties, from all around the objective point, would drive the 
stock to the rodeo, and if there were found any cattle which did not 
belong to the owner of the ranch, same would be turned over to its 
proper possessor. The stock was then driven to a corral, where a few 
expert "Lazadores" (men who throw the riata) would lasso the animals, 
throw them to the ground and hold them while they were branded and 

While this was not a farming community, the settlers raised suffi- 
cient produce for their own consumption, and corn, wheat, barley, 
potatoes, lentils, chic peas, sweet peas, haba, vegetables and garden prod- 
ucts for seasoning were cultivated, among the latter being included green 
peppers, onions, garlic, tomatoes, coriander, majoram and saflfron. The 
making of wine was common and understood by many, and Mission 
grapes were abundant. 

It is an exploded idea that the early Mexicans did not know how to 
cook. While they had no stoves, this discrepancy was not allowed to 
interfere with the preparation of their meals, their fireplaces of mud and 
stones serving them perfectly. Bread was baked on "hornos" (ovens), 
built of bricks and mud, while tortillas were baked on large pieces of 
iron called "comales." In addition to tortillas, the dishes of the people 
consisted of tamales, enchilades, puchero, estofado, albondigas and 
colache. Of these latter dishes, Father Caballeria says: "To make 
puchero select pieces of meat were placed to boil until it made froth, 
when that was thrown out. Then to the meat and broth were added green 


corn, string beans, garlic, onions, cabbage, squash, carrots and a few of 
the spicy weeds, and all boiled until the vegetables were well cooked. 
To prepare estofado, some pieces of meat with lard were placed on the 
fire and after a time dry grapes were added and again placed on the 
fire for a short time. Albondigas were made from the sirloin of the 
beef. The meat was well ground on a metate, or otherwise ; to it were 
added onions, black pepper, coriander and a species of mint known as 
yerba buena. All these were made into a dough or paste, and from this 
little balls were shaped and cooked in boiling water. Colache was a com- 
mon dish, wholesome and easily cooked. Some lard was thoroughly 
heated, and in that squash cut up fine, green corn, also cut up, some 
cheese and meat, all being cooked together." 

The early Mexicans held their word inviolate, and verbal agreements 
in business transactions were the rule rather than the exception. Written 
documents were little known ; but that they sufficed for these people is 
evidence of their native virtue. Naturally, such agreements did not hold 
good in the eyes of the law in later years, and the constant litigation 
which came up in the courts, despoiling many of the rightful owners 
of their property, did much to alter the character of the people. Of the 
people of this period. Father Caballeria says: "In honor, honesty and 
true manliness the men of that day will stand comparison with the men of 
any nation ; the women were marvels of love, purity and devotion unsur- 
passed by those of any nation or clime. The time was one of primitive 
simplicity, hospitality and social equality. The people as a whole v.ere 
happy and contented." 



An important period in the history of San Bernardino County was 
that between September, 1851, when Elders Charles C. Rich and Amasa 
Lyman purchased the San Bernardino Rancho, and the winter of 1857-58 
when the Mormons of this region were recalled to Zion to participate in 
the war which was then impending between the disciples of Joseph 
Smith and the United States Government. This Mormon period, as it 
may be called, was one of intense interest, fraught with incidents which 
had their direct bearing upon the development of the region and crowded 
with occurrences that have their place in history. 

Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormons, was bom at Sharon, 
Windsor County, Vermont, December 23, 1805, his parents being poor 
farming people who, about 1815, moved to Palmyra, New York. Later 
they went to Manchester, in the same state. According to his own story 
regarding his earlier years, Joseph worked hard on his father's farm, 
but the "oldest settlers" reported that the family had an aversion to hard 
toil of any kind and seemed inclined to lead thriftless lives, spending 
much time in digging for possible hidden treasure. About 1820, Joseph 
claimed to be a constant witness of supernatural visions and to be gifted 
with superhuman sight. He declared that he received, in 1828, a divine 
revelation inscribed in mysterious hieroglyphics on golden plates, which 
were delivered to him by an angel, and that the "Book of Mormon," 
which he published in 1830, was translated therefrom. The translation 
was dictated to him, he said, while he sat behind a curtain as if in the 
society of mysterious spiritual companions. He gathered a number of 
converts, and as "prophet" went with them first to Kirtland, Ohio, and 
afterwards to Independence, Missouri. In 1838 Governor Boggs, of 
Missouri, issued an exterminating order against the Latter Day Saints, 
as they then had become known, and they were driven out of that state, 
going to Illinois, where, by 1840, near Commerce, Hancock County, 
they had founded the City of Nauvoo, over which Smith had extraor- 
dinary civil and military authority. In 1844 a discontented member of 
the church issued a newspaper at Nauvoo assailing the prophet and 
threatening to expose various immoralities and misdeeds. The city 
council of Nauvoo passed an ordinance declaring the printing office a 
nuisance and it was destroyed by the officers of the law. Smith was 
blamed for this and an order issued for his arrest, but before civil war 
actually broke out, the governor of the state induced Smith to surrender 
and go to Carthage. On June 27, 1844, a mob attacked the jail, over- 
powered the guards, killed Smith and his brother Hiram, and wounded 
others of the prophet's party. 

Brigham Young. Smith was succeeded by Brighain Young, 'vho 
early in 1846, left Nauvoo with others, and in the spring of 1847 a com- 
pany of 143 started through the wilderness, with the possible intention 
of reaching the Pacific Coast, then under Mexican government. On 
July 24, 1847, this company arrived at the Valley of Salt Lake, which 
Young declared was the promised land. The new leader was ambitious 
to occupy a large territory, and to establish a port on the Pacific Coast 
where converts from foreign countries might land. One party of Mor- 
" 37 


tnoiis had already reached CaHfoniia by way of Cape Horn and were 
settled at San Francisco, and the Mormon Battalion arrived at the 
coast in 1847. 

The Mormon Battaltox. When war was declared with Mexico, 
the followers of the Church of the Latter Day Saints offered the United 
States the services of a company to aid in the defeat of Mexico. In 
answer to this proposition. Congress authorized the recruiting of a 
Mormon company, in which 500 Mormons were enrolled, ostensibly 
as "Iowa volunteers," and among the officers of this body were Jesse 
Hunter. Andrew Lytle and Jefferson Hunt, all of whom were later to 
become prominent in the afTairs of .San Bernardino. Acting under 
instructions to proceed to California by way of Santa Fc and take posses- 
sion of the territory for the United States, the company, under command 
of Lieut. -Col. Philip St. George Cook, marched through Santa Fe and 
on to San Diego, in the meantime experiencing many losses and untold 
hardships. Their sacrifices were made for nothing, as when they arrived 
the conquest of California was practicallv complete, and after a short 
stay at San Diego, members of the battalion were sent to perform gar- 
rison duty at San Luis Rey and San Diego. Colonel Cook arrived with 
his men at Los Angeles, March 23, 1847, and shortly afterward they 
were set to work building Fort Moore, located on the hill above the 
Plaza. The command was mustered out of the service July 15th, but 
one company re-enlisted for six months and was assigned to garrison 
duty at San Diego. A number of the discharged Mormons stopped in 
the gold fields on their way to Utah by the northern route, and several 
of them took considerable gold with them when they at last started for 
Salt Lake City, to rejoin their families and brethren whom they had left 
at Fort Leavenworth. 

According to D. Tyler, the following men were enlisted in the Mor- 
mon Battalion, who afterward became citizens of Sain Bernardino, 
although not all of them came through to California with the battalion, 
a number having been invalided and sent back before the troops set forth 
on the march from Santa Fe: Company .A, Capt. Jefferson Hunt, First 
Corporal Gilbert Hunt, and privates Robert Egbert and Lafayette Shep- 
herd ; Company B, Third Lieutenant Robert Clift and privates W. E. 
Beckstead, Abner Blackburn and James Clift ; Company D, privates 
Lucas Hoagland and Montgomery Button ; and Company E, Second 
Lieutenant Andrew Lytle, Third Sergeant Ebenezer Hanks and privates 
Luther Glazier and Albert Tanner. 

San Bernardino Colony. At the suggestion of Brigham Young, in 
March, 1851, a company was organized to go to California and form the 
nucleus of a settlement in the Cajon Pass, select locations on the line of 
a proposed mail route and gather about them other members of their 
denomination. Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich were placed in 
charge of this expedition, which, it was originally proposed, should 
consist of about twenty persons. The enthusiasm of the Mormons knew 
no bounds, however, and when the party was ready to start it was found 
that more than five hundred had made preparations for the journey, 
much to the dismay and grief of Young, who, in a manuscript copy, 
says: "I was sick at the sight of so many of the saints running to Cali- 
fornia, chiefly after the gods of this world, and I was unable to address 
them."' The ostensible object of the expedition was the cultivation of 

Bancroft from Mss. history of Young. 


olives, grapes, sugar cane and cottuii, and the establishment of an outfittini;; 
])ost for the people from the Sandwich Islands and Europe arriving on 
the Pacific Coast on their journey to Utah; but it is to be feared that 
many of the Faithful were influenced in their journey by the tales of 
gold brought back by the discharged members of the Mormon Battalion. 
There were three divisions in the party of migrating Mormons : one, 
under Lyman, led by Captain Seeley, wliich reached the Pass June 11 
and camped in S}'caniore Grove ; one under the leadership of Rich, 
piloted by Captain Hunt, and the third imder Captain Lytle, who was 
the captain in charge, these latter two companies arriving at the Pass 
June 20th and camping on the other side of the Cajon Canon." They 
remained in these camps while the leaders prospected the surrounding 
country, visiting Chino and other ranches and eventually deciding upon 
the purchase of San Bernardino grant.'' Prior to the completion of the 
grant's purchase some of the more ambitious of the party began to select 
sites and make improvements, but the danger of attacks by the Indians, 
wliich was imminent at that time, caused them to reconsider and to build 
their houses within the walls of a stout stockade. The colonists had at 
first thought of locating their city on the foothills to the east of Cajon 
Canon, hence the name City Creek, but in September decided on the pres- 
ent location of the City of San Bernardino owing to the abundance of 
feed found there for their stock. 

The Colony Is Organized. On February 27, 1852, the deed record- 
ing the sale of .San Bernardino Rancho, for the ^uni of $77,000 "in hand 
paid." was recorded in which the property is described as bounded on 
the east by "Sierra de Yucaipe," on the west by ".\rroyo de Cajon" and 
the "Serrito Solo," on the south by the "Lomeras" and on the north by 
"El Faldo de Sierras."* By this time the Mormons had begun to plant 
their crops, a large area between the Santa Ana River and San Ber- 
nardino was fenced, and each settler put in as much land as he cared 
to operate and paid for his propoJ^tion of the fencing. Prosperity was 
the immediate portion of the settlers, for their first crop, in the spring 
of 1852, was one in which some of the grain was so rank that it could not 
be cut at all. Their wheat sold at $4 per bushel and flour, ground at 
Puente, at $32 per barrel at Los .Angeles, and their livestock brought good 
prices, so that the tithes of one-tenth of all their earnings, paid to the 
church authorities and doubtless used in payment for the rancho. reached 
a considerable sum. When the land survey was completed the prop- 
erty was sold to the colonists, who were allowed to take as much as they 
desired, the cost being from $11 to $16 per acre, according to location, 
and probablv some was higher. The property was mortgaged by the 
Elders of the Church in 1854, for the sum of $35,000, with interest at 
3 per cent a month, San Franciscans financing the transaction. In the 
same year, states Sheldon Stoddard, parties were sent out over the state 
among the miners, many of whom were Mormons, and considerable land 
was sold to them, ]Dossibly $10,000 being accumulated in this way in 
assisting to pay for the ranch. New settlers continued to arrive, includ- 
ing a party from .\ustralia in 1853, lands sold readily, and the financial 
affairs of the colony were so capably managed that by the time of the 

2 Lytle Creek derived its name from the fact that Capt. .'Kndrew Lytle camped 
on this stream. 

•■'These pioneers came with the intention of purchasing the Chino Ranch from 
Col. Isaac Williams, who would not sell, hut referred them to the Lugo Family, who 
wanted to sell. 

< Brow of the Mountains. 



exodus, when the colonists were recalled to Salt Lake City, the property 
was practically clear of indebtedness. 

Fort San Bernardino. While there is no record to be found of any 
attack ever made upon Fort San Bernardino, this was the most elaborate 
fortification ever attempted in Southern California ; and, in its very 
being, perhaps, doubtless served its purpose, inasmuch as the Indians, 



after its erection, made no attempt to raid the valley. During the years 
of 1850, 1851 and 1852, it had become the custom of certain of the 
desert Indians, notably the Pahutes and Chemehuevis, to make frequent 
raids through the San Bernardino Mountains into the coast valleys. 
During these raids, which increased with alarming frequency, the Indians 
drove off stock and in other ways disturbed the equanimity of the settlers, 
and matters came to a head in the fall of 1851, when there were constant 
rumors of a general uprising among the braves. However true these 


rumors, unusual preparations were made by the authorities, who sta- 
tioned a troop of United States Vokinteers on the coast, advised the 
few troops at Chino Rancho to be in readiness and authorized Gen. J. H. 
Bean to organize a vohtnteers company which went out against the 
Indians. These preparations did not fully satisfy the Mormons, who 
had their own views of preparedness, and their apprehensions led to the 
building of a stockade along the same plans as those used in the build- 
ing of the Salt Lake stockade soon after the Saints had reached that 
point. As was their custom, the colonists went about this work with 
thoroughness. The fort, as described by Hon. H. C. Rolfe. was a palisade 
enclosure or stockade on the east side and the two ends, made by splitting 
the trunks of cottonwoods and large willow trees in halves, roughly 
facing them on the split side, straightening the edges so that they would 
fit closely as they stood upright, side by side. These stakes were set some 
three feet into the ground and stood about twelve feet high, with the 
split sides facing in. This formed the outside stockade and was in the 
form of a parallelogram about 300 feet in width by 700 feet in length. 
Small one-story houses of logs and of adobes were built inside in long 
rows parallel with the stockade, leaving some sixteen or eighteen feet 
clear space between each. The west side of the enclosure was made up 
of houses which had been built in various places before the necessity of 
fortification was realized and which were moved and placed with their 
outside walls adjoining, so as to form a tight wall. Or. where this could 
not to be done, separate barricading walls of logs laid up in blockhouse 
fashion were constructed so as to complete the stockade. There was no 
stockade outside of these houses. The fort crossed the present corners 
of C and Third streets, and the southwest corner stood close upon the 
spot where now stands the city gas works. The northwest corner stood 
where the Fourth Street schoolhouse now stands, and the main entrance 
was eastward and stood in the center of what is now Third Street, imme- 
diately in front of the Bradford House, better known as Starke's Hotel. 
Water was secured from a ditch tapping Garner's Springs or Lytle Creek, 
obtained by digging wells twelve or fifteen feet deep. Somewhat more 
and had this water supply been cut oiT. water could have been easily 
than a hundred families occupied the fort and there were at least one 
hundred and fifty able-bodied men capable of performing good service in 
repelling an attack. 

After living for a year or more in this fort and coming to the con- 
clusion that danger, if any had existed, had passed, the colonists began 
again to make improvements on their holdings and to accomplish things 
for the advancement of the community. The fort was dismantled piece- 
meal and its logs used for other purposes. It was about this time that 
Bishop Tenney located in the old Mission buildings and several other 
families settled in the same locality, these constructing the Tenney irri- 
gation ditch and also utilizing the water of Mill Creek zanja. In 1854 
fifty-two one-acre tracts were laid off on the north side of Lytle Creek, 
and an irrigation ditch was constructed to water these, which were 
cultivated as gardens by the Saints who lived in town. The foundation 
of later water system was laid during these years, for other ditches 
were built, and a certain system perfected. In the matter of other 
improvements, the Mormons were no less progressive. One of their 
most constructive acts was the building of a road up West Twin Creek 
Canon, now known as Waterman Canon, a highway sixteen miles 
long, so that the mountain timber might be reached. That the work 
under the direction of Captain Hunt was well done was evidenced by 
the fact that it was used for many years for hauling logs and timber 


down the niountaiiis. I'lic cuinplctioii (jf tins road led lo llu' establish- 
ment of three sawmills and these supplied lumber not only for the 
houses of the Mormons, but for the settlers of Los Angeles and other 
communities. In 1852 a large grist mill was erected on the site of the 
present electric power house. This was described by Lieut. W' . P. Blake 
as being "a large flour mill, 25 by 40 feet, with two sets of buhr stones 
and a raceway one mile in length * * * ; a store house of adobe. 
.^0 by 70, was nearly full of sacks of grain waiting to be ground. A large 
quantity of good flour is made here and sent to Los Angeles, or to San 
Pedro for shipment." 

Occupants of Fort San Bernardino, erected in 1851, located bv num- 
ber on the plat as far as records are obtainable : Aldridge, D. L., No. 28 ; 
.Kndrews, Simeon, No. 24 ; Blackburn, Abner, No. 27 ; Blackburn. Tom ; 
Brown, John. Sr., No. 63; Bybee, Alfred; Burk, Charles; Button, M. E., 
No. 50; Castell, Jacob, No. 70; Crisman, Charles; Crosby, William 
(Bishop), Nos. Z7, 38, 39, 40; Crandel, Charles; Cox, A. J. (kept restau- 
rant). No. 40; Cox. William J.; Collins, .Albert W. ; Cook, John; Cum- 
mings, Albert, No. 67; Canter, Orlando; Davidson, J. J.; Dalev, Edward. 
No. 66; DeLinn, .Andrew P., No. li; Daxon, David; Egbert, Robert; 
Fabun Clark (wagon shop), R. ; Flake, Mrs. (widow William), No. 36; 
Garner. Louis (residence), No. 53; Glazer, Louis (Stone), No. 54; 
Grundy, Isaac; Gunard. Benjamin F.. No. 51; Hakes. W. V.. No. 2; 
Harris, John, Sr., No. 30; Harris. Moses (had two sons, Silas and John) ; 
Hoogland Lucas (later Addison Pratt) No. 58; Hofflin, Samuel, No. 48; 
Hopkins, Richard R. (kept store). No. 36; Holladay, John; Hunt, Capt. 
JefTerson (two sons. Gilbert and Alarshall), No. 61 ; Hunter, Capt. Jesse, 
No. 62 ; Hvde, William ; Hyde, Joseph ; Jones, David ; Kartchner, Wm. 
D. ; Lee, Rupert J., Nos. 25, 26; Lytle, Capt. .Andrew; Mathews, Joseph, 

No. 4; Mills. William; Mathews." WiHiam, No. 5; Miner ^ (kept 

store). No. 74; McElvaine, Jerry; McGee, Henry; Ray ; Rich. 

Carlos: Sherwood, H. G., No. 65; Spanks, Q. S. ; Stoddard, 
No. 35; Rollins Henry (residence). No. 68; Rollins, Henry, 
No. 69; Rowan. Mrs. (Lizzie Flake, colored); Seelv, David, 
No. 22; Shepard. Lafayette, No. 1; Shepard, Samuel: Shepard, 
Carlos ; Sherwood. H. G.. No. 65 ; Spanks, Q. S. : Stoddard, 
Sheldon, No. 64; Stuart. John. No. 32; Sullivan, Archie; 
Swarthout. Truman ; Stout, William ; Smith, "Bill" ; Summee, Gilbert 
(blacksmith); Stewart, James; Taft, Daniel M.; Tanner, Albert, Nos. 
72. 73; Tanner. Joseph, No. 72; Tanner, Freeman (brothers-in-law of 
Amasa Lyman). No. TS: Tanner, Sydney, No. 60: Tanner. Mrs. 
(mother). No. 71; Tenney, Nathan C. ( ; Thomas, Daniel AL 
(Judge) ; Thorp, Theodore; Tyler, W. W. ; Turley, Theodore; \\'hitney. 

, No. 42; meeting house and school. No. 2; office of Lyman Rich. 

P; tithing-house and store. No. 00; Lyman, Amasa (apostle). .A. B. C. 

The above are names of adults ; most of them had families. 

The following persons did not see fit to live inside the "Old l""ort." 
'i'hcy made a camp on East Seventh .Street, now occupied by the old 
cemetery : Hiram Blackwell, Joshua Casteel, Francis Clark. George 
Hanks, John Hughes. Alonzo Jones, John Phelps, Bartlett Smithson and 
fnmilv. David Holladay, Norman Taylor, Elmer Taylor, "Old Man" 
Taylor. Mat. Welsh. 

.At this remote age. it has been found quite impossible to give all the 
names of the occupants of Fort San Bernardino, and their exact location 
in the fort. There may be some mistakes in names and location, but the 
list has been prepared with great care and after painstaking investigation, 
and is believed to be quite accurate. 


The Founding of San Bernardino Coi;xtv. The territory now- 
included in San Bernardino County was still a portion of Los Angeles 
County in 1851 when the colonists of Latter Day Saints purchased the 
San Bernardino ranch property. The county seat was at Los Angeles, 
sixty miles from San Bernardino and the houndaries extended eastward 
to the Colorado River. Thus, while the settlement of San Bernardino 
was thriving and growing, its people were handicapped bv the distance 
necessary to travel to the county seat, where all official business had to be * 
transacted, and it was to obviate this inconvenience that Capt. Jefferson 
Hunt, who in 1853 had been elected one of two members to represent 
Los Angeles County in the State Legislature, was instructed to present 
a petition to that body asking for a division of Los Angeles County, the 

Jefferson Hunt 

newly created county to take its name from the Rancho de San Ber- 
nardino. In complying with this request, the legislature, in session at 
Benecia, April 26, 1853, passed "An Act for dividing the County of 
Los Angeles and making a new county therefrom to be called San Ber- 
nardino County." Section I of this act set the boundaries of this county 
as follows : "The County of Los Angeles is hereby divided as follows : 
Beginning at a point where a due south line, drawn from the highest peak 
of the Sierra de Santiago ; thence, running along the summit of said 
Sierra to the Santa Ana River between the ranch of Sierra and the 
residence of Bernardo Yorba ; thence across the Santa Ana River, along 
the summit of the range of hills that lie beyond the Coyotes and Chino 
(leaving the ranches of Ontiveras and Ybana to the west of this line") ; 
to the southeast corner of the ranch of San Jose ; thence along the eastern 
boundaries of said ranch and of San Antonio, and the western and north- 


ern boundaries of Ciicanionga ; thence up said ravine to its source in the 
Coast Range : thence due north to the northern boundary of Los Angeles 
County ; thence northeast to the state line ; thence along the state line 
to the northern boundary line of San Diego County; thence westerly 
along the northern boundary of San Diego, to the place of beginning." 
Section 5 designated Isaac Williams, David Seely. John Brown and 
H. G. Sherwood as a board of commissioners to make all arrangements 
for the first election. April 26. 1853. may therefore be considered the 
birthday of San Bernardino County. 

On April 2. 1857, a subsequent Act was passed, slightly changing the 
boundaries given above. This was as follows : "Beginning at a point 
on the boundary line of Los Angeles County, where a due south line 
drawn from the highest peak of the Sierra de Santiago intersects the 
northern boundary of San Diego County ; thence running along the 
summit of said Sierra to the Santa Ana River, between the ranch of 
Sierra and the residence of Bernardo Yorba ; thence across the Santa 
Ana River, along the summit of the range of hills that lie between the 
Coyotes and Chino (leaving the ranches of Ontiveras and Ybana to the 
west of the line), to the southwest corner of the ranch of San Jose; 
thence along the eastern boundaries of said ranch, and of San Antonio, 
and the western and northern boundaries of Cucamonga Ranch, to the 
ravine of Cucamonga ; thence up said ravine to its source in the Coast 
Range: thence due north to the northern boundary of Los Angeles 
County : thence northeast to the state line ; thence along the state line 
to the northern boundary line of San Diego County ; thence westerly, 
along the northern boundary line of San Diego County, to the place of 
beginning." Thus was brought into existence the largest county in the 
State of California and one of the largest ever created in the United 
States. Its 23,472 square miles gave it an area about one-half the size 
of the State of New York, and it averaged 200 miles from east to west 
and 150 miles north and south. \\'hile an inland county, with no sea 
coast, and its principal water course being the Colorado River on the 
east, its position between Nevada and Arizona and the Pacific Coast, 
with the fact that the two great overland routes to the coast converged 
in the San Bernardino Valley, gave it recognized commercial advantages. 

The First County Elections. The first election in San Bernardino 
County was held in January. 1853, in accordance with the Enabling Act. 
At this election, at which 200 votes were cast, the following officials 
were placed in office: Hon. Jefferson Hunt, already a member of the 
General Assembly representing Los Angeles County, representative from 
San Bernardino County: D. M. Thomas, county judge: Robert Clift, 
sheriiT: R. R. Hopkins, county clerk: V. J. Herring, county assessor; 
William Stout, district attorney; and H. G. Sherwood, county surveyor; 
John Brown and Andrew Lytle, justices of the peace who. with the 
county judge, constituted the court of sessions. With one or two excep- 
tions, these officials were re-elected at the first regular election, held in 
the following fall, and served, almost without change, until the withdrawal 
of the Mormons. It is a matter of record that they left the county entirely 
free from indebtedness ; in fact, when they gave up their duties they 
left a small balance in the treasury, something out of the ordinary experi- 
ence of a new county. For several years the Mormon Council House 
served as the courthouse during the first several years of the existence 
of the county, which structure was doubtless the first public building 
erected in San Bernardino County. It was built by Messrs. Lyman and 
Rich, to be used as the general offices of the Mormon interests, both 


religious and secular, and was a two-story adobe building, 16 by 24 feet, 
with one room above and one below, located at what was then the south- 
east corner of Third and Grafton streets. The building stood until 
1867, when it was demolished to make way for a brick block. In the 
meantime, in 1862, the business of San Bernardino County had been 
transferred to the then modern residence of Charles Glaser, which was 
used until 1875. when a courthouse was built on the same site. The 
county officers for the year 1922 are as follows : County clerk, Harry L. 
Allison ; sheriff, W. A. Shay ; tax collector, C. D. Van Wie ; treasurer, 
M. W. H. Williams; recorder, Frank W. Nutter: auditor. S. G. Berger; 
assessor, A. E. Allen ; district attorney, T. W. Duckworth ; coroner and 
public administrator, J- B. Hanna; superintendent of schools. Grace C. 
Stanley; surveyor, E. T. Ham. Superior court judges: J- W. Curtis, 
Rex B. Goodcell. Supervisors : C. S. Grain, C. E. Grier, G. S. Biggin, 
M. P. Cheney, A. G. Kendall. 

The Town of San Bernardino. The townsite of the City of San 
Bernardino was laid out in 1853. and was a miniature Salt Lake City, 
being planned along Babylonian lines, being one mile square, laid out 
in blocks containing eight acres, with wide streets running at right 
angles, each one bordered by a zanja."' From south to north the streets 
bore the names of First to Tenth, 'and from east to west they were: 
Kirtland. Camel. Grafton. Utah, .Salt Lake, California, Independence. 
Nauvoo and Far West. In the center of the town, bounded by Fifth, 
Sixth. California and Salt Lake streets, was a public park, one block 
square. The same man who had made the original survey of Salt Lake 
City, H. G. Sherwood, made the survey of San Bernardino. A special 
act incorporating the City of San Bernardino was passed by the legis- 
lature, April 13. 1854. and the same body, by another special act, author- 
ized the city to appropriate the waters of the Twin Creeks for municipal 
and domestic purposes. The waters of the creeks were brought into the 
town in 1855, but it was soon found that the plan was not a feasible 
one. and several years later the project was abandoned. 

The primary educational institution of the city was a tent pavilion 
which was located in the old Mormon Fort, while the first official report 
regarding schools was made in 1853. when V. T- Herring, the superintend- 
ent of common schools, showed that $300 had been spent for library and 
apparatus and $291.50 for building or renting and furnishing schoolhouse. 
The building used was probably rented. In November, 1855, a com- 
mittee consisting of the trustees of District No. 1 and the county super- 
intendent selected six lots for school purposes, a deed for which was 
made in the following vear by Lyman. Rich and Hanks. Two adobe 
rooms, known as the Washington and Jefferson buildings, were erected 
on one of these lots and were occupied as school buildings until the erec- 
tion of the brick school structure on Fourth Street, in 1874. 

Another early building of San Bernardino was the two-story adobe 
house erected by Amasa Lyman as a home for his family, which included 
five wives, each wife, with her children, having a separate apartment. 
The third of these wives, Priscilla Turley, was the mother of the first 
white child born after the colonists reached San Bernardino \'alley. 
Lorenzo Snow Lyman. Another house built to accommodate plural 
wives was that of Charles C. Rich, who had three wives, the structure 
having been located at the corner of E and First streets. 

The First Independence D.w Celebration. The honor of first 
raising the American flag over the soil of San Bernardino County is 

Irrigation ditch. 


claimed by Daniel Sexton, who states that while cutting timber in the 
San Gorgonio Pass for Colonel Williams, in 1842. in answer to a query 
by the Indians regarding the Americans' feast days, he made an Amer- 
ican flag and celebrated the Fourth of July. 1842. The first authentic 
celebration of Independence Day in the county occurred in 1853. when 
John Brown. Sr., went to Fort Tejon to secure a flag and was presented 
with a large bunting emblem by L. A. Bishop. On his return this was 
secured to a liberty pole brought from the mountains, speeches were 
made from a raised platform, and a twelve-pounder, brought from Los 
Angeles, was fired. 

Prior to this time a number of "gentile" settlers had come into the 
valley, attracted by the fertility of the land and the apparent prosperity of 
the settlers. Not understanding the sincere religious convictions and zeal 
of the Mormons, these settlers, many of whom were of the rougher ele- 
ment, resented the dominance of the church over the city and its insti- 
tutions, and trouble began to brew. Independence Day, 1854, was cele- 
brated merely by the reading in the church of an address delivered the 
previous Fourth of July at Salt Lake City, which had appeared in the 
Desert News and which had been delivered at Salt Lake by an unnat- 
uralized Englishman. While eulogizing the founders of the republic, it 
stated that in later years the principles of the Government were not 
being lived up to. etc. This naturally intensified the ill feeling already 
existing. By 1856, the Independents, in opposition to the church party, 
decided upon a Fourth of July celebration, to be open to all, but the 
church party immediately announced a separate celebration. The rivalry 
was intense, the various moves of each organization being followed by 
more advanced preparations by the other faction. It seemed that trouble 
might occur on the big day, but as it was, a good-natured competitive 
spirit dominated the occasion and at the close of the day the members 
of each party returned to their homes well satisfied with their accom- 
plishments. By the following year, however, the feeling of opposition 
was stronger and there was little affiliation between the participants in 
the two aff'airs, the independents holding their celebration at Fort Benson. 

Fort Benson was named after its founder, one Jerome Benson, a 
former Mormon who had left the church, who in 1854 came to San Ber- 
nardino and located on a piece of land three miles southeast of the city, 
which later became known as the Ambrose Hunt place. Fearing his 
opposition, the Mormon elders did not care to sell land to Benson, who 
believed that he had located on Government land, inasmuch as the grant 
had not been definitely surveyed at that time. When it was found, later, 
that he was on the grant, he was ordered to vacate by the owners, and 
upon his refusal to do so the sheriff^ was called upon to eject him. Benson 
thereupon called upon his friends among the Independents, and these 
assisted him in throwing up earthworks about his house, also arming 
themselves for resistance. From San Bernardino was brought over a 
cannon, which had been obtained for the previous year's celebration 
of Independence Day, and which, it is said, according to Prof. J. M. 
Quinn, was one of four which were brought to California from Mexico 
in 1818 for defense against privateersmen. As the Fort Benson party, 
while having powder, had no ball, the cannon was loaded with small 
rocks. It cannot be found that a real fight occurred at the place, but 
some of the old settlers have stated that the sheriff's party made its 
appearance, only to retreat after one discharge of the cannon. Benson 
was accordinglv left in possession of the land, to which he was later able 
to give a clear title. 


In a community divided by two factions with such widely divergent 
views, it was but natural that there should be much hard feeling and 
many conflicts of varying seriousness. One of these clashes, which 
aroused much indignation at the time, culminated in an attack upon 
William McDonald, an Independent, by Marion Perkins, of the church 
party, and the subsequent stabbing and death of Perkins, an act for 
which McDonald was not indicted. 

The Recall of the Mormons. For some years prior to 1857 there 
had been disputes of constantly increasing frequency between Brigham 
Young's State of Deseret and the United States authorities, and these 
culminated in that year when A. Gumming was sent to Utah as gov- 
ernor of the territory in place of Brigham Young. The expedition of 
2,500 troops met with difficulties on account of the late season and 
opposition on the part of the Mormons to having an army sent against 
them in time of ])eace as they claimed that they had committed no hostile 
act against the United States Government. In belief that an armed 
conflict was imminent, Brigham Young issued a call to the Mormons 
who were scattered over the country in various colonies to return to 
Salt Lake Gity, and this was generally answered by the Mormons of 
San Bernardino County, many of whom, in their haste to answer the 
president's manifesto, disposed of their entire earthly possessions at unbe- 
lievable sacrifices, seeking onlv to gain the wherewithal with which they 
might make the long journey. Some of the settlers, being Josephites and 
not in sympathy with Young's policy or the practice of polygamy, 
remained in the valley, and the remainder of the church property was 
placed in the hands of Ebenezer Hanks, who had previously purchased 
a one-third interest in the grant, and who later sold the property to 
Richard G. Allen, F. F. Tucker, W. A. Conn and Bethel Coopwood. 

Thus the Mormon Church ceased to be a controlling or even important 
factor in the life of San Bernardino County, although the influence and 
example of the early Saints continued to be felt for some years after 
their exodus. Their industry was proverbial and their well-directed 
community etiforts had resulted in the founding and development of a 
prosperous community, and the establishing of the fact that agriculture 
and small farms were practicable and profitable. For the most part, the 
San Bernardino Mormons did not believe in polygamy, although some 
practiced it as a matter of duty to the church. They were of peaceful 
disposition, most sincere and earnest in their religious convictions, and 
their residence in the county, while comparatively short, forms an impor- 
tant part of its history. 

The Father of San Bernardino Couxtv. Xo history of the Mor- 
mon period of this region would be complete that did not make men- 
tion of Gapt. Jefiferson Hunt, the pioneer of the settlement of the Faith- 
ful, who has also been termed the Father of San Bernardino County. 
He was an officer of the Mormon Battalion, later was one of the guides 
of the Mormon colonists, took a prominent part in the building of the 
fort, being the leader of the military organization, and under his direc- 
tion was constructed the road to the timber region through the Twin 
Creek Canon. In 1852 he was chosen a member of the State Assembly, 
and it was he who presented the bill the passage of which created the 
County of San Bernardino, and represented this county until his depart- 
ure from the state in 1857. In 1855 he was commissioned a brigadier- 
general in the state militia. Of him, Ingersoll states : "Captain Hunt 
was a man of strong character, deeply pious by nature. He believed with 


all his heart in the divine revelation of the Mormon doctrines, although 
he found many of them a sore trial to his faith. Energetic, clear-sighted 
and indomitable in will, he was especially fitted for the leadership which 
he always acquired, in whatever position he was placed. Generous to 
a fault, his home was always open to his less fortunate brethren, and 
he gave a helping hand to many a needy man — saint and gentile alike — 
for he was above petty distinctions. He deserved a large place in the 
memory of the citizens of San Bernardino, for he filled a large place 
in the early and vital events of the history of the town and of the 

After his return to Salt Lake in 1858. Captain Hunt took up a mail 
contract from that city to Humboldt, also secured land in Utah and later 
had a large ranch in Idaho. He founded in 1860 Huntsville, a flourishing 
agricultural community near Ogden, Utah, and died at Oxford, Idaho, 
in the spring of 1866. 

One of the interesting and at the same time tragic incidents of Captain 
Hunt's career, a career lacking in none of the elements of romance, was 
that concerned with the Death Valley party. Death Valley is a narrow 
valley between the Panamint and Funeral mountains, in California, and 
is traversed by the Amargosa River, which is usually a dry channel. The 
level of the valley is covered with salt, supposed to have been brought 
by the torrents from the surrounding desert and left on the evaporation 
of the water. It is considered to be the hottest and dryest place in the 
United States, and a temperature of 122 degrees Fahrenheit has been 
observed. This was the setting for the tragedy that overtook a party of 
goldseekers of the Mormon faith who reached Utah Valley late in the 
summer of 1849. It was too late for them to go to California by the 
northern route, and as it was feared that the Mormon settlers could not 
furnish sufficient supplies for so large a party during the winter, it was 
finally agreed to make the trip by the southern route. Captain Hunt 
offering to act as guide. The party consisted of seven sections, or 100 
wagons, and commenced the journey September 30. 1849. After a 
period of good travel the trail became lost, and with it went the party's 
confidence in the leader. Therefore, when the party came up with 
another train, under the leadership of a Captain Smith. Hunt's follow- 
ers were ready to listen to Smith and to accept as authentic a map in 
his possession. A meeting was called and the majority were in favor 
of following the Smith route, but when the point was reached where 
the trail divided, seven wagons continued to follow Hunt. After two or 
three days the Smith party reached a point where it seemed impossible 
for the wagons to go any further, and accordinglv about sixty or seventy 
wagons turned back and started after Hunt. The greater part of this 
party reached Southern California in safety. The remainder of the 
Smith party soon divided up into small groups and each made its way 
as best it could, taking its own course. At least thirteen of the party, 
after suffering untold torture of hunger, thirst and heat, perished in 
this barren desert, which since that time has been known as "Death 


Up to the time of the exodus of the members of the Mormon colotiy, 
in 1857 and 1858, the history of San Bernardino County had been one 
of progrress alon^ various lines of indu-^trv. The withdrawal of these 
people had its immediate effect and the subsequent breaking out of the 
war between the States likewise exacted its toll. The result was that 
the period between 1858 and 1875. while not exactly one of stagnation, 
was one of arrested development. The syndicate which had purchased 
the unsold San Bernardino Rancho lands disposed of them to \V. A. 
Conn, who rented and sold them to settlers, but these newcomers, as a 
rule, did not have the energy or general ability of the Mormons. 

During this period military history of a more or less important char- 
acter was being made. Eor tjie purpose of punishing the Indians of the 
San Gorgonio Pass for their depredations, a volunteer company was 
formed in 1855 under the leadership of Capt. Andrew I.ytle. and for 
a time a corps of men were encamped at the \\'eaver Ranch under Ord. 
Serg. H. C. Rolfe. In 1861 a companv of infantry was formed under 
the command of Capt. C. E. Bennett, and in 1862 and for several years 
thereafter a body of California Volunteers was kept in the vicinity of 
San Bernardino. 

\Miile no regularly organized troops left San Bernardino for the 
struggle between the North and the South, manv of the citizens left the 
community for the scene of hostilities, some to don the Blue and others 
the Gray, and among those who remained party feeling ran high. A 
large population had been brought into the vicinity of the Bear and 
Holcomb mining regions, and. there being a strong secession element, 
as well as an even stronger lawless element, there were constant conflicts 
both at the mines and at San Bernardino. In 1861. in support of the 
Government, John Brown, Sr.. organized a Union League, of which 
"I'ncle" George Lord was president, among the first members being 
\\illiam Heap, Moses Martin, Joseph Sawyer, Abner Blackburn. J- D. 
Potter. J. W. ^^'i!son and Charles G. Hill. In spite of constant inter- 
ference and a number of attempts to di.sorganize it. the league gained 
strength constantly, and by 1863 had the satisfaction of seeing the county 
go rejiublican by eighty-three votes, the first time it had ever given a 
majority to that i)arty. .\n incident of this political controversy was 
the fight over the election of Piercy and Conn for assemblymen. Piercy 
took the seat in spite of allegations of chicanery, and subsequently met 
death in a duel with .Showalter over the question of Secession and Union- 
ism. During the war between the States it was reported at one time that 
a band of filibusters, recruited in \'isalia for the Confederate .\rmy, 
was to raid San Bernardino, but this party proceeded (|uietly through on 
their way to Texas, and it is doubtful if they ever had any intention of 
molesting the citizens of this community. 

^^"hile the declaring of i)eace between the Xorth and the ."^uutli and 
the expulsion of a large part of the lawless clement from the mining dis- 
trict brought greater peace to the law-abiding residents, the Indians con- 
tinued to be troublesome, and numerous citizens met their deaths at the 
hands of .scattered bands of the hostiles. who were ever alert to run oflf 
stock or to attack small parties of settlers. The Slate Range Quartz 
Mill and twelve buildings connected with the propertv of P. Beaudry 


of Los Angeles, were burned by the Indians in 1866, and to punish them 
for this and similar acts a party of volunteers was made up in 1867. 
Typical of the troubles of the times is the following article from a local 
newspaper of February, 1867:' "For several years past our citizens 
have been greatly annoyed by roving bands of Indians who come into 
the valley and steal all the horses and cattle they find unguarded. Nor 
do they hesitate to attack stockmen and travelers, if an opportunity 
offers. Already Messrs. Parish, Bemus and Whiteside and a dozen others 
have fallen victims to their bloodthirstiness within the past four years. 
Growing bolder by impunity, on the 29th of January they attacked the 
sawmill of Mr. James, upon the mountain, a few miles east of this place, 
having previously robbed the house of Mr. Cain, carrying ofif five horses 
and burned down the house. The party at the mill, consisting of Messrs. 
Armstrong, Richardson, Cain and Tahnadge, sallied out to meet them. 
A brisk fight followed, when the party, finding that most of the Indians 
had guns, and fearful of being overpowered, retreated to the mill. The 
next morning the party having been reinforced went out and were 
attacked again, the fight lasting for more than an hour. Two of the 
white men were wounded and two Indians killed and three wounded. 
A party was made up to pursue these Indians, and after following them 
found the Indians encamped on the desert at Rabbit Springs. The com- 
pany made an attack, the men having to climb up the steep mountains 
and over the rocks on all fours and the skirmishing lasted until dark. 
The skirmishing lasted for two days longer when the whites were com- 
pelled to withdraw because supplies were exhausted. Four Indians 
were killed and two of the white party wounded." The Mojave region 
came under the protection of Camp Cody, which was established as a 
regular military post in 1868, on the road between Wilmington and 
Northern Arizona territory, and about 100 troops under Colonel Ayers 
remained here until about 1870. 

The Resumption of Agriculture. During the period between 1858 
and 1865 the general class of newcomers to San Bernardino County, as 
before noted, did not measure up to the standards set by the Mormons, 
particularly as agriculturists. Among them there were, however, some 
men of industry and intelligent ideas, who took advantage of the oppor- 
tunities presented for advancement, so that agriculture began to show 
evidences of once again aspiring to its proper place. In 1859 Doctor 
Barton, who had purchased the Old Mission property of 640 acres for 
the ridiculously small sum of $500. set out 60,000 vines, and during 
the same yearH. M. Willis set out a large vineyard at Old San Ber- 
nardino and H. M. Carpenter put out his vineyard in the foothill district 
that later became known as Craftonville. It was likewise during this 
period that the first orange trees in the county were set out, and the 
United States census for 1860 reported that there were 8,219 acres in 
the county under cultivation, the value of the livestock being placed at 
$141,661, and the value of the county according to the assessment rolls 
being $417,228. 

The raisin or Muscat grape made its appearance about 1870 and the 
first Muscat raisins in the county were made by George Lord and placed 
on the market. By this year it had been demonstrated to the satisfaction 
of all that the orange would do well, and the industry was established 
upon a sound basis. In 1869 an organization known as the "Silk Cul- 
ture Company" began purchasing lands on the plains beyond the Santa 

The Guardian. 


Ana, putting out lands and selling orchards, and from this small begin- 
ning has grown the present City of Riverside. During the year 1872 
the county produced 300,000 pounds of wool, 250,000 bushels of grain. 
300,000 pounds of potatoes, 3,500 tons of hay. and manufactured some- 
thing like 200,000 gallons of wine and brandy, and the county assessment 
of 1873 put the entire valuation of the county at $1,339,377. 

The Development of Trade and Commerce. The constructive 
work of John Brown, Sr., which resulted in the completion of the toll 
road through the Cajon Pass and the ferry across the Colorado River at 
Fort Mojave. in 1862. served to open up and give impetus to trade and 
commerce between Southern California and the States of Utah and 
Arizona. During the '60s a large amount of freighting to the mines of 
the desert and to Utah and Arizona was carried on. regular stage com- 
munications were maintained with Arizona, and grain, hay and flour 
produced in the valley, goods from San Pedro and mail and express 
matter brought from San Francisco and overland by the Butterfield 
Stage Company were distributed at San Bernardino, while by the year 
186<5 several stage companies were competing for business and giving 
regular service to diiTerent points in Arizona. In 1867 connections were 
made with Montana, and as early as 1869 mention is made in the local 
newspaper of a shipment of fruit made by Mr. Jacoby to Arizona. 

During the early days of the county the mountains of San Bernardino 
were heavily timbered and furnished quite an industry. Probably the 
first sawmill in the county was located in the Mill Creek Canon, mentioned 
in the report of B. D. Wilson in 1852. and in 1854 the county records 
annotate the sale of the mill of Louis \'ignes and Daniel Sexton to 
Julian (Col. Isaac) Williams, for $1,000. In 1859 the heirs of Mr. Wil- 
liams disposed of the "Chino Mill" to Len Nappy for $5,000. After 
building a road into the mountains, in 1852. the following sawmills were 
erected: in Seely Flat, one by A. J. Cox, the other by David Seely : in 
James' Flat by Captain Hunt; and in Huston Flat by D. F. Huston. 
"Crisman's steam sawmill" was one of the early enterprises of its kind, 
in which Capt. Jei^erson Hunt acquired a half-interest in 1854 by the 
payment of $6,000. Later it was found necessary to erect mills higher 
in the mountams as the timber disappeared from the lower flats, and 
timber hauled from the San Bernardino Mountains to Los Angeles 
brought $40 per thousand, while the cost of freighting was $15 per 
thousand. A report made to the State Board of Agriculture in 1873 
stated that at that time there were four sawmills in the countv which 
produced 3,000,000 feet of lumber and 500,000 shingles. 

As was natural, the first grist mills of San Bernardino County, located 
at Chino and Jurupa, the latter known as Robidoux's Mill, were prim- 
itive in construction and awkward in action. The large flour mill built 
by the Mormons was for many years the leading one in Southern Cali- 
fornia and furnished flour not only for the immediate surrounding ter- 
ritory, but for points in Arizona and elsewhere. In 1859 was built on 
the Santa Ana what was first known as Meek's Mill and later as Math- 
ew's Mill, and in the early days a grist mill was also located at Rincon. 
According to a report made to the State Board of Agriculture in 1873 
the three mills ground out 7,350 barrels of flour in that year. 

The manufacture of chairs, tables and sets of drawers was com- 
menced at Old San Bernardino in 1859 by the Cram Brothers, who made 
use of the Mill Creek Zanja, into which was put a "breast" water wheel, 
while the timber growing along the creek, principally elder and willow, 
was used in manufacturing the product. The furniture, while primitive 


in style and character, met with a good sale in this community and the 
surrounding settlements, and its workmanship was such that it stood 
the test of many years of usage. Another manufacturing interest was 
that of coffins, made bv William McDonald during the '60s and 70s. 
Also in the early '70s, W. S. Tittle began the manufacture of wagons, 
and was succeeded by Tittle & Brodhurst, the new firm developing one 
of the largest enterprises of its kind in the State and selling its product 
all over Southern California and as far east as Arizona. Rogers & 
Kier, in the latter '60s, conducted a harness manufacturing business and 
did a lively trade to various distant points. 

It was estimated that during the period from 1863 to 1873, $115,000 
in bullion was shipped from San Bernardino by Wells Fargo, a sum 
which was doubtless but a small part of the entire amount produced by 
the mines of the county. The Ivanpah district was opened up around 
1860, producing quite a bit of silver; the Holcomb and Bear valleys were 
largely exploited during the '60s and work continued in these districts 
well into the '70s ; hydraulic mining was carried on in T.ytle Creek Canon ; 
the Twenty-nine Palm and Panamint districts came into prominence dur- 
ing the '70s, and about 1870 the borax mines of the Armagosa district 
were located and began to yield richly. The marble ledges near Colton 
were also uncovered although not worked to any considerable extent, 
and it was likewise known that a rich tin mine existed at Temescal. 

During this period of the county's history, and especially during the 
'70s, a number of new schooihouses were built, and the cause of edu- 
cation made considerable advancement. The six school districts that 
had been in existence in 1858 had increased to nine by 1861, and in 1862 
County Superintendent Ellison Robbins called the first educational con- 
vention ever held in the county. 

Development of S.^n Bern.ardino. The City of San Bernardino, 
which had been incorporated in 1854. was disincorporated March 6, 1863 
but was again incorporated as a town in 1869. In 1858 there were but 
three stores at San Bernardino ; by 1866 this number had been increased 
to from eighteen to twenty, in addition to which there were two good 
hotels, a saddler's, a livery stable and a pharmacist's. The first brick 
block in the city is said to have been erected by J- H. Stewart, in 1867. 
at the corner of Third and D streets, and following that structure brick 
buildings began to take the place of adobe buildings generally. Richard 
Ralphs and Henry Goodsell were the first brickmakers in San Ber- 

The little frontier town did not lack in social activities. One of the 
early organizations of this kind was the San Bernardino Dramatic Asso- 
ciation, founded in 1859, in which year there was also organized the 
San Bernardino Tem.perance Association. It was at this period that the 
San Bernardino Library Association also came into existence. Public 
and private May Day picnics. Fourth of July celebrations and balls and 
parties were all popular with the early residents. 

The San Bernardino "Herald" seems to have been the pioneer jour- 
nalistic enterprise, making its first appearance June 16, 1860, under the 
editorial management of J. Judson Ames, who was succeeded in 1861 
by J. S. Waite About the same time appeared the San Bernardino 
"Patriot," which, however, discontinued publication in the spring of 1862. 
In February, 1867, appeared the first issue of the "Guardian," under the 
editorial direction of H. Hamilton, who was succeeded by E. A. Nisbet. 
Will D. Gould brought forth the "Argus" in 1873. In the early '60s, when 
the first telegraphic communication was established at Los Angeles, 


efforts were made to procure connection of this kind with that city, but 
were unsuccessful. 

In addition to the two-story brick school building erected in 1874, 
several private schools were maintained, Capt. J. P. C. Allsop having a 
school of this kind on Fifth Street, between Grafton and Canal, from 
1862 until 1867, Mrs. E. A. Nisbet also conducting a school of this kind, 
and Prof. C. R. Paine opening his academy and business college in 1867. 
A Union Sunday School had been started about 1858 and continued in 
existence for many years. A Congregational church, organized in the 
early '60s, was followed not long afterward by a Methodist church, 
and in addition to the Latter Day Saints church, at the corner of Second 
and Utah streets, a Catholic church was organized about 1865. This 
latter was destroyed by fire but was replaced in 1871 by a new church, 
then one of the finest in the country. 

The year 1871 was made notable by the erection of a nutnber of 
brick business structures, considered very modern at that time. These 
included the furniture and coffin store of William McDonald: Meyer- 
stein's General Store, a building at the corner of Fourth and Utah streets, 
built by Judge Boren, and the Masonic Hall, an ornate, two-story brick 
edifice on Utah Street, with imitation stone front, the first Masonic Hall 
built for the especial purpose in this part of the state, at the laying of 
the cornerstone of which elaborate ceremonies were conducted. 

Transportation facilities at San Bernardino in 1866 included two 
diiTerent stage companies operating lines to Los Angeles, while the Ban- 
ning Company was running a weekly stage from Wilmington to Yuma 
via San Bernardino and the U. S. Mail Company sent weekly stages to 
LaPaz, A. T. In 1867 a weekly stage was started between San Diego 
and San Bernardino, via Temecula and San Luis Ray, and was main- 
tained for several years. However, the people were not satisfied with 
transportation conditions. It is true that there were many who were 
satisfied, apparently, with matters as they stood ; but there were others 
who were willing and ready to agitate the question of railroads. Numer- 
ous projects were brought up and fell through, and it was not until the 
Southern Pacific Railroad was brought as far as Spadra, twenty-five 
miles east of Los Angeles, that there was any real hope of the city being 
placed in connection with the outside world by means of a railroad. The 
citizens at that time made an earnest and almost successful effort to 
secure the line for their city, and when Colton was awarded the honor 
it was a great disappointment. 

One beneficial effect of the coming of railroads to this locality, how- 
ever, was that they brought also with them the telegraph. In 1873, when 
the wires had reached Anaheim, the citizens raised the necessary bonus 
of $2,500, demanded by the Western Union Company, the line was com- 
pleted September 18, of that year, and the first message was sent out 
by De La Montaigne Woodward, and who, as president of the board of 
town trustees, dictated the first message, which was sent to A. E. Hor- 
ton. founder of San Diego. 

The coming of the telegraph and the iron horse to San Bernardino 
County marked the date of a new era of development and the birth of 
a spirit of progressiveness and constructiveness. 

A Dl'XADl': Ol' ['ROCKIlSS 

It had been predicted and fully expected that the coming of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad would mean instant and unprecedented pros- 
perity in San Bernardino County. As is often the case, however, the 
most optiniislic were not the best informed or those possessed of the 
highest judgment. \\'hile the railroad for all practical purposes elim- 
inated all trade and freighting business with Arizona, and cut into the 
business formerly handlcrl by the stage lines, there was still the necessity 
for much stage travel and jiost routes in all directions. Incidentally a 
stage made regular trips between San Rernardino and Lugonia and Red- 
lands until the completion, in 1888, of the railroad to those points, and 
for many years a stage line was kept up between the county seat and 
Colton and Riverside and did a fair amount of business. 

At first the railroad took over practically all the business in the way 
of freighting that it could handle, but the merchants of San Bernardino, 
after some figuring, found that goods could be shipped to Anaheim Land- 
ing by steamer and hauled from that point by mule team cheaper than 
they could be brought to Colton by the railroad, and the patronage thus 
given the "mule line" eventually caused the Southern Pacific to reduce 
its freight rates. In 1882 the California Southern Railroad reached 
Colton. and in 1883 the first train entered San Bernardino. Two years 
later the branch to Waterman was put through and San Bernardino 
thus secured a second transcontinental route. 

The great increase in population which had been predicted was handi- 
capped by the high railroad fares, and the number of new settlers fell 
far below expectations. But if the growth was not phenomenal, still 
it was steady and healthy, and in 1880 the county had a population of 
7,786. In assessed valuation the countv increased from $1,339,337. in 
1870, to $3,159,456, in 1880. and $11,189,842. in 1885. 

Growth of Farming and Fruit Growing. During this epoch there 
began the great horticultural awakening in the San Bernardino Valley. 
According to statistics compiled by the State Board of Agriculture, in 
1873 there were 7,111 orange trees in the county. In 1879 the value of 
the fruit products of the county was given as $56,612, a figure that 
had increased to $106,457 by 1881, in which the number of orange trees 
was placed at 15,435. That the era of orange planting had been ushered 
in was shown in the fact that out of 1.018,537 fruit trees reported in 
1885, 214,513 were orange trees. During this time Colton grew in size 
and population, the colony of Etwinda was established and the work of 
development begun under progressive methods ; Chaf¥ey Brothers pur- 
chased the land and laid out the model colony of Ontario with a large 
acreage of groves, orchards and vineyards, and Richard Gird made 
extensive improvements on his Chino Rancho. especially along the line 
of improved cattle. 

Further Advancement of San Bernardino. Incidents that at the 
time of their happening are often looked upon as calamities frequently 
turn out as blessings in disguise. During the years 1878 and 1879 the 
City of San Bernardino suffered from several large and disastrous con- 
flagrations. The buildings burned in these fires, however, were for the 


most part composed of frame, and the fires served to call the attention 
of the people to the menace of structures built of such inflammable mate- 
rial. Thus, in rebuilding with brick buildings, the fire danger was 
greatly lessened and the city took on a better architectural appearance. 
Various new buildings and industries began to make their appear- 
ance. The most complete amusement enterprise on the Pacific Coast, 
outside of San Francisco, was established at San Bernardino in 1883, 
in the erection of the theater by Messrs. Waters and Brinkmeyer. In 
1882 a telephone service was established between the Transcontinental 
Hotel at Colton and Starke's hostelry at San Bernardino, and Riverside 
and Redlands were also reached by this line, which was under the man- 
agement of R. T. Blow. In 1873 the first franchise for gas works was 
let to William Farrell & Company, who purchased a lot opposite Starke's 
Garden and erected a plant. However the quality of the gas furnished 
not proving satisfactory, the plant was soon shut down. A franchise was 
secured by the National Gas Company of New York City, in 1881, and 
this concern put in an extensive plant, by which the city was first lighted 
November 2, 1881. In speaking of this achievement, a local newspaper* 
stated editorially : "Gas under the new dispensation is a brilliant success 
as was abundantly made manifest last evening. The brilliancy of light 
from many places of business and residences was equal to an illumina- 
tion. It is a light soft, pure, clear and brilliant. Its power and ditifusive 
qualities, united with its other good merits, make it a marvel among the 
successes of artificial illumination. The exhibition of its elifects last eve- 
ning was highly gratifying to the throngs on our public streets, to our 
citizens in their residences, to our guests at the hotels, and to those 
enjoying the charms of the dance or the delights of social intercourse." 
"And after all that," remarks a contemporary writer,- "it is only a year 
or two before the "Times" is kicking vigorously about the poor gas and 
without doubt protesting every bill of $5 per thousand." 

Boom Times and Expansion. From earliest times San Bernardino 
has been fortunate in having the services of men of progressiveness and 
public spirit who have been ready to lend their disinterested abilities to 
the furtherance of the city's interests. In the parlance of the early days, 
such a man was referred to as a "boomer." This term came into some 
disrepute in later days through the sudden failure of a number of "boom" 
towns, and as a result the appellation given to the local enthusiast in these 
days is that of "booster." 

However, in the days of San Bernardino's biggest boom, the period 
from 1885 to 1890, no stigma attached to the name of boomer, and one 
of the greatest and most persistent of these, as well as one of the most 
effective, was L. M. Holt, who, as editor of the "Southern California 
Horticulturist," the "Riverside Press" and "Horticulturist," the "Orange 
Belt," the "Times-Index" and other papers.did excellent service in attract- 
ing new settlers and informing the general public as to what could be done 
in making use of the natural resources of this region. Largely through his 
initiative the Citrus Fair at Chicago, in 1886. was held and called atten- 
tion to thousands of people to the "golden era" in California. Closely 
following Air. Holt as a boomer was Scipio Craig, editor of the Colton 
"Semi-Tropic" and the "Redlands Citrograph." Mr. Craig, for years 
wrote and worked without cessation in behalf of the advantages of 
this locality and no man has done more to advance the country's home 

■ The "Times." " Ingersoll. 


The big boom period was precipitated by the railroad rate war of 
1886, wliich followed the dissohnion of tiie Transcontinental Traffic 
Association. This war, in which both freight and passenger rates were 
slashed with the utmost prodigality, caused a big influx of settlers. Of 
course, all those who visited the slate as op](ortunists taking advantage 
of the lowered rates did not remain, but all had the opportunity of seeing 
what water, soil and climate, utilized by intelligent industry, had accom- 
plished for various sections, and the boom which began in the 'spring of 
1886 was a natural result. It was likewise, as Ingersoll points out, a 
remarkable example of the contagious excitement which sometimes sweeps 
through a community and deprives men of their reason and good .sense. 
Pioneer, "tenderfoot," ])romoter and farmer alike lost their heads and 
apparently believed that the possession of California soil, with the 
remotest possibility of water, was a sure road to fortune. The craze 
followed the regularly established lines for such occasions. The opening 
of the boom was characterized by the rapid changes in ownership of 
orchards, ranches, lots and farms, each change being marked by an 
increase in price. This naturally bred a craze for buying for investment 
and speculation, followed by the .syndicate-colonization movement. 

Among the additions and suburbs in and about San Bernardino oflfered 
for sale were : Fairbanks', Everts', Owen's and Christy's additions ; 
Urbita, St. Elmo, Daley and the Hart tract, and outside of the citv some 
of the settlements originated during the boom period were Rcdlands, 
Lugonia, Beaumont, South Riverside, East Riverside. Rialto. the Barton 
tract. Banning, .\llessandro, Terracina and Auburndale. A fair example 
of one of the features of the early stages of the boom is found in a 
"Grand Excursion and Auction Sale of Real Estate," February 24, 1886, 
at which free drives, free lunch, free fruit and a continuous band concert 
were among the inducements. 

The boom hotel was a feature, likewise, and every town had its struc- 
ture of this kind, amusingly out of all proportion to its surroundings, as 
to size, grounds, fittings and otherwise. A few, a very few, of these 
hotels remain as hostelries, exciting the wonderment of the tourists; 
others were torn down for their lumber ; still others were converted into 
schools, and a large percentage passed away in flames. Every possible 
advertising scheme was used, and no extravagance of language w^as too 
great for the purposes of the professional promoter. One specnnen of 
newspaper advertising will serve to illustrate this. It appeared in a local 
newspaper^: "Boom! Of All the Booming Booms in the Booming City 
of S. B., the Boomiest Boom Is the Boom of the Hart Tract — the Garden- 
spot of Beautiful Base Line. Fourteen prizes aggregating $16,000. 
First thirty lots will be sold for $750 each ; the remaining forty lots, $850 
each. Buy early and make $100." 

Just to what extent the boom period had an effect on the assessment 
rolls of the count v is shown bv the following figures : 1880, $3.680,745 ; 
1885. $11,189,842'; 1886, $13,309,750; and 1887, $23,000,000. The popu- 
lation jumped from 7.786 in 1880 to 25.497 in 1890. The citv of San 
Bernardino alone increased from 1,675 in 1880 to 4.012 in 1890. 

It is frequently stated that boom times are detrimental to a city and 
that in the long run the unnatural conditions of such a period are paid 
for and more in the years that follow during which the commimity is 
"getting back to normalcy." However, it cannot be said that San Ber- 
nardino County's boom did not have its beneficial features. A local 
writer summed the matter up as follows* : "It is true that during the 

3 The "Times." ■• L. M. Holt in the "Orange Belt." 


boom years of 1886 and 1887, there was a considerable amount of wild 
speculation that had little or no foundation. Acre property was cut into 
town lots where no town lots ought to be. Dry land was sold at high 
figures regardless of prospective irrigation, or whether or not the land 
would be productive. The question of production was never di.scussed. 
The only argument used for the time being that the property could be 
bought today for $2,000 and sold next week for $3,000, or in a few weeks 
for $5,000. And yet during this wild speculative craze there were estab- 
lished many .solid improvements that have since been turned to good use 
in building up the country and making it attractive to eastern people who 
are seeking homes in our midst. * * * fhe boom was not an evil in 
all respects. During that period of intense speculative excitement there 
were many foolish things done and many men lost money. But as a whole 
there was more money made than lost and the country as a whole forged 
to the front in a manner that could not be equalled under any other cir- 
cumstances in less than several decades." 

In support of the foregoing, it may be interesting to note several 
improvements which had their inception at the time of the boom, and 
v.'hich, if not the direct result, thereof, were hastened by the increase in 
wealth and population which the boom caused. Bear Vallev reservoir 
and water system, the most important in the county, was carried to com- 
pletion and a large acreage put under irrigation and put out in fruit as 
a result. The Gage Canal at Riverside was finished in 1888 ; the River- 
side water system was greatly increased ; the South Riverside water 
system was constructed, a number of smaller water companies were 
organized and began active development of water and orchards, and the 
acreage of orange trees multiplied very rapidly. Numerous large and 
handsome public buildings, residences and business structures were 
erected in advance of their need, but which were later found available. 
The transportation companies kept pace with the advancement, many 
branch lines being built and improvements in service and rolling stock 
being made. The boom was certainly responsible for great material 
improvements which would not have appeared for years in the natural 
course of events. 

Advancement from 1890 to 1921. The depression which invariably 
follows a boom period had its natural effect upon the industries and 
advancement of San Bernardino County, but it was not of lasting dura- 
tion. The county recovered from its setback, gradually but surely, and 
the end of 1921 finds its industries thriving, its resources being developed 
in a progressive, healthy and natural way, its people prosperous and con- 
tented and its outlook for the future one of a highly encouraging 

The account of this advancement naturally falls into divisions taken up 
in following chapters covering the development of irrigation, large 
increase in citrus fruits, development of mineral resources, water power, 
electricity and large industries, etc.: 


San Bernardino County's first public building was the Mormon 
Council House, which, as heretofore noted, was used as the County Court 
Plouse for some years, but the first building erected by the county was a 
jail, which was built in 1858. It was about this time that the one-story 
brick residence erected by Q. S. Sparks on the corner of Fifth and E 
streets was rented by the county, and its business was transacted therein 
until 1862. The supervisors then bought the residence of Charles Glasier, 
which stood on the site occupied by the present Court House, and which 
was used until the building of the "old" Court House in 1874. This was 
a two-story frame building, costing $25,000, which was at the time one of 
the best structures of its kind in the state, and which was erected on the 
lot already owned by the county, although petitions were made for a new 
location closer to the public square. 

The "old" courthouse answered the purposes of the people until 
1887, when the supervisors submitted a proposition to vote bonds to the 
amount of $125,000 for building a County Jail and rebuilding the County 
Court House. The amount of the bonds and the site chosen met with 
strong opposition, and the supervisors then proposed a bond issue of 
$75,000, for the erection of a Hall of Records, and when this was voted 
down, the officials levied a tax of $40,000 to build the last-named struc- 
ture. It was the opposition to this plan that started the talk in regard 
to a possible change of county seat and of county division. The super- 
visors carried through their work, however, and the year 1891 saw the 
completion of a modern fireproof, earthquake proof building of Colton 
marble and Mentone sandstone, in which were placed the county records. 

The board of supervisors, consisting of William H. Randall. J. N. 
Victor, J. C. Turner and I. W. Lord, continued to wage a fight for an 
appropriation of sufficient amount to erect a suitable court house and jail 
and after bond propositions were twice voted down, they took the drastic 
action of levying direct taxes and letting out bids. This subsequently 
brought forth charges that the sums expended were extravagant and 
unnecessary, but the work went on apace, and in 1898 the county saw 
the completion of the finest edifice in the county (with the exception of 
the Southern California State Hospital) and one of the most complete 
and convenient courthouses in California. The design of the building. 
which is built of Mentone sandstone, with trimmings of Colton marble 
and Sespe sandstone, stone floors, iron stairways and spacious hallways 
and rooms, is dignified and attractive. 

Southern California State Hospital at Patton. Among the 
institutions of California, there are few which are more thorough, modern 
and built on a larger scale than the Insane Asylum at Highlands. The 
only state institutions in the southern section of the state prior to 1890 
were the Reform School at W'hittier and the Normal School at Los 
Angeles, but during the session of the State Legislature, in 1889, a bill 
was passed providing for the construction of an Insane Asylum in one 
of the five southern counties, a representative from each of which formed 
the board of commissioners, as follows : Joseph Brown, San Bernardino ; 
M. S. Severance, Los Angeles ; W. N. Hawley, Santa Barbara : K. P. 
Grant, Ventura; and James Kier, San Jacinto. After examining 



numerous propositions the commission finally decided to purchase 360 
acres of the Daley Tract, at Highlands, with 60 inches of water from 
the North Fork Ditch, for $114,000. The appropriation of $350,000 
jirovided for by the bill called for the purchase of the site and the erection 
of the main building and north and west wings, in addition to which the 
hill provided for the appointment by the Governor of a board of five 
trustees, all to be Southern California men. three to be appointed for two 
years and two for four years, and thereafter all appointments to be for 
a term of four years. Another provision of the bill was that it author- 
ized the board to select an architect to prepare the plans of the building, 
and also appoint another competent architect to act as superintendent of 

Gov. R. W. Waterman showed good judgment in the selection of the 
hoard of trustees, which was composed of H. A. Palmer, H. L. Drew, 
E. F. Spence, John Anderson and M. A. Murphy. The wisdom of their 

County Court House. Looking Down E Street, San 

selection was shown in their first act of employing Messrs. Curlett & 
Eisen of Los Angeles and San Francisco to draw the plans and specifica- 
tions, and the appointment of T. H. Gofif, of San Bernardino, as super- 
intendent of construction. Peter Crichton, of San Francisco, was the 
lowest responsible bidder in the erection of the structure. The corner- 
stone of the building was laid December 15. 1890, with appropriate cere- 
monies, and the first building was completed in 1893, fully equipped with 
electric plant, complete water and sewer system and all modern con- 
veniences. Opened August 1 of that year, it had as its first wards 100 
patients brought from the northern part of the state, and Dr. M. B. 
Campbell acted as the first superintendent, holding that office until Sep- 
tember, 1904. In 1902 an appropriation was made to complete another 
wing of the building and this was finished in 1903 at a cost of $250,000. 
By 1904 the buildings accommodated more than 800 inmates, the monthly 
payroll of the institution was $4,100. and the annual expenditures were 
placed at $138,000. A completely equipped farm, extensive orchards and 
grounds, are largely cared for by the imnates who are thus healthfully 
and usefully employed. 


The site for this asylum is one of the most beautiful in the state, and 
the buildings and grounds are wonderful pieces of finished workmanship, 
and reflect credit upon the state in its care of the unfortunates under 
its care. 

Dr. John A. Riley is superintendent of the institution with most able 
assistants. At the close of 1921 there were 2,425 patients in the insti- 

The County Orphans' Home. The San Bernardino County 
Orphans' Home was founded in 1893, when the -Vssociated Charities of 
San Bernardino City, consisting of Mrs. Robert F. Garner, president; 
Mrs. Laura P. Bidgood, secretary and treasurer; Mrs. Olive Bvrne, vice 
president, and Mrs. F. M. Johnson, Lewis Jacobs, S. F. Zombro and 
H. Goodcell, trustees, secured the lease of the Hart place, at the corner 
of C Street and Base Line one of the ojdest and most beautiful locations 
in the city comprising an acre of ground set with fruit trees of many 
kinds and with an abundance of shade and room for playgrounds. After 
some necessary alterations the institution was opened with about twenty 
children as wards, most of them being transferred from the Orphans' 
Home at Los Angeles. The building was enlarged and refitted in 1896, 
.nnd in 1899 was chartered and incorporated by the state, after which it 
drew necessary funds from the state for the support of all orphans, as 
well as their education and training. In 1901 the county supervisors 
erected a sick ward for the use of the Home. About 1915 the county 
assumed control of property and orphans, boarding them in private 

County Roads. Very little work was ever done on the early roads of 
the county, which generally followed the contours of the country, and 
which could boast of no bridges. The Mormon road up Watermqn Canon 
was the first constructed road, and in 1861 the first toll road in the countj' 
was built by John Brown, Sr., H. M. Willis and G. L. Tucker, who were 
given a franchise for the construction of a toll road through the Cajon 
Pass, which was accordingly built, and in 1862 John Brown started a 
ferry across the Colorado River at Fort Mojave. Later the Dalev Road 
was built. For twenty years, the life of the franchise, this toll road 
was kept open and in good condition and much heavy traffic went over it. 
The drowning of a citizen bv the name of Tibbits. to the south of Colton, 
between Riverside and San Bernardino, caused the county officials to take 
notice of ]5etitions that had been made frequently, and in 1877 the first 
bridge was put across the Santa Ana River. 

For many years there was a demand for a free mountain road. The 
citizens wished a road which would give them free access to the mag- 
nificent scenery and the wonderful air and water of the great mountain 
range. Although many projects were discussed no definite action was 
taken until 190,^. when the passage of a new act by the Legislature enabled 
counties to build roads out of the general funds. San Bernardino County 
at once took action and started the work of building roads that has been 
carried on without interruption to the present. Likewise the county was 
one of the first lo develop a system of oiling its roads and hardening its 
roadbed, ])ionecrs in this work being J. B. Glover and Theo. F. White, 
the former of Redlands and the latter of Chino. 

Mountain Roads. Late in December, 1902, a petition to empower 
the county supervisors to legally commence spending money on a mountain 
roadway, was drafted by City Attorney C. C. Haskell, to be presented to 


the Legislature, and in February of 1903, word was received that the 
proposition was meeting with favor in Sacramento, with every assurance 
that the bill would pass. 

Early in March came the news that the bill empowering the county 
supervisors to construct, as well as purchase roads into the mountains 
had been signed by Governor Pardee. 

A meeting was held at Urbita Springs to jubilee over the final success, 
when City Attorney C. C. Haskell and Assemblyman Maj. F. E. Prescott 
told the "story,'' giving special praise to the press of the valley in having 
the bill passed. The first step in the accomplishment of free roads into 
the mountains was gladly received by the public. 

Then rose the momentous question, "Shall the supervisors build in 
Cold Water Canyon, East Twin Creek or purchase the Arrowhead toll 
road?" On January I. 1905, one of the wishes expressed by all, as the 
New Year's "best gift," was that there might come to them a free road 
into the mountains, before another New Year. 

Scene on "101 Mile Drive 

In 1905 the toll road in Waterman Canyon was bought, ♦iben com- 
menced the buying of branch roads, building spurs, approaches, switch- 
backs, cutting down hillsides, which took long months that exterded into 
the years before a completed roadway was had. 

One day the highway from San Bernardino, through Waterman 
Canyon, back and forth on the switchback, along the crest, sometimes 
reaching an altitude of over 8,000 feet, passing by lakes, resorts, streams, 
through forests of pines, down another switchback into Santa .'Vna and 
Mill Creek Canyon — a second Grand Canyon — through beautiful Red- 
lands and to the starting point, — 101 miles of mountain roadway, free 
of toll, a gift to the people. 

With the completed liighway, commenced a new epoch for San Ber- 
nardino Valley, the impetus to business became apparent new channels 
of trade were opened, and old ones cnlar.ged. 

The secrets of the mystery of those untrodden heights were revealed, 
the panoramic picture of the valley — ^as seen from the heights brought to 
the dwellers of the lower land a vision of stil! greater accomplishment — 
the new epoch was well started. Much discussion was had as to the 
advisability of allowing the "auto" on the new highway. Resolutions 
were passed in numerous assemblies and sent to the supervisors, asking 


them to forbid autoists the use of the road ; personal interviews were held 
with the members of this august body of lawmakers, some for, some 
against. Life friendships counted as naught, in the heated controversy. 

Finally autos were allowed on the road, certain hours, on certain days 
of the week, that was gradually increased to the abandonment of the 
"horse" on the road altogether. Progress demanded its toll. For years 
and years man in the valley had been dreaming of possibilities lying 
buried in the mountains, now these dreams were to come true, for with 
good mountain roads, the auto in its various degrees of usefulness became 
the greatest factor for progress. 

The late Kirk Philipps was the pioneer in auto trafiSc, closely followed 
by Max and Perry Green and the Shay brothers ; now any one who drives 
an auto in the valley goes also into the mountain. There came a day 
when this climax of engineering skill — this 101 miles of highway, must 
receive a name. In June, 1914, the supervisors made a call for a name 
and 300 answers were received. 

Up in the Clouds Along "101 Mile Drive" 

After much consideration on the part of the board, they decided upon : 
"San Bernardino Mountain Crest Highway." It was a long and cumber- 
some name, and was always being abbreviated. 

Dr. John N. Baylis, whose beautiful resort, "Pinecrest," in the moun- 
tains, is famous throughout the state — and one of those dreamers — 
thought to try out the name "Rim of the World" on the public and see 
how it would take, and to this end secured ready and hearty co-operation 
of Mr. Max Green, manager of a stage line to the mountains. 

Both of these men used the name on all possible occasions, first, 
jokingly, then more boldly, finally the oddity of the name, meeting with 
favor bv the public, was accepted and adopted, and received official 

Rim of the World ^Monument Dedic.\tion^ The crest of San Ber- 
nardino Mountains on the north of the valley, is topped by a great high- 
way, winding in, about and over the rugged peaks ; all along the entire 
length of this splendid road is evidence of engineering skill and builders' 
triumphs, and bears silent but eloquent testimony of victories won by 
man over nature — one of the links in the great chain of progress made by 
him in the last few decades. 

By Reetta V. Hadden. 


When the roadway was finished and in its completed state, ready for 
use, a number of enthusiasts decided in favor of erecting a suitable monu- 
ment to commemorate the event, and selected a wide open ledge on the 
southern slope of Strawberry Peak, at an altitude of 6,150 feet, where 
the panoramic view is of exceptional splendor and magnitude and chose a 
little level space, whereon was built a simple rock pile, with a bronze 
tablet embedded in cement, on one side bearing a message to the traveler 
as he passes by. In bold letters may be read : "This is the Rim of the 
World, a roadway, 101 miles in length along the crest of the San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, revealing nature's secrets in the heart of the hills." 

It was on July 18, 1915, that this group of men left the hospitable 
home of Dr. Baylis, at Pinecrest, and wended its way to the chosen spot, 
whereon was to be enacted a little ceremony that was to find a place on 
history's pages ; recording the culmination of over half a century of 
"hewing the way," to bring about a completed mountain highway, one 
of the most scenic in the world. This roadway was to receive its name 
— a name suggested by Dr. John N. Baylis, of San Bernardino. 

The members of the party felt the force of the spell that the time and 
place was casting upon them — a fulfillment of the longings of a people — 
and with bared heads listened to the eloquent dedicatory address by that 
master poet of the Southland, John Steven McGroarty, when he pro- 
nounced the name, "I baptize thee 'Rim of the World,' tell thy story to 
the children of the earth as they pass this way." 

When the name was pronounced, that is to go down time's way, a bird 
sang in the shadows of the monument, an answering encore to the South- 
land's singer of beautiful thoughts, John McGroarty. Thus was the high- 
way receiving its baptismal name by both man and bird. 

During the six years following that memorable July morning in 1915, 
hundreds of thousands of nature lovers have passed the spot, seeking 
the echo as it resounds from peak to peak — a tonic — a sedative — a 

The San Bernardino Forest Reserve. The act creating the San 
Bernardino Forest Reserve was signed by President Benjamin Harrison, 
February 25, 1893, who had also set aside the .San Gabriel, the other 
principal forest reservation in Southern California, San Jacinto, having 
been set aside by President Cleveland. The San Bernardino reserve con- 
sists of 737,280 acres, 249,000 acres being classed as timber land and 
90,000 acres as "first-class." Of this, 35,000 acres of the best timber land 
is located in the Santa Ana Basin. Prior to the formation of the reserve, 
the best of the timber lands had been appropriated by lumber companies 
and settlers, and are therefore not controlled by the Government. The 
timber for the most part is yellow pine, although there are also fir, cedar, 
pinon and juniper, and in the forest growth is found mountain mahogany, 
live oak, mountain alder, ash, cottonwood, sycamore, black willow, yucca 
and black oak. About 35,000 acres of this area is drained by Bear Valley, 
while the Arrowhead system drains about 100,000 acres more. The patrol 
system was established in 1898, and in the neighborhood of fifteen rangers 
are employed in the San Bernardino reserve, it being their duty to patrol 
their districts, guard against fires, prevent trespass of all kinds, measure 
timber, cut trails and to use every eflfort to protect and preserve the forest 
water sheds. Some effective work has been done in late years in retimber- 
ing burned districts and introducing new species which are suited to the 

The life of the ranger — the man whose duty it is to look after that 
part of the range in his charge — is no bed of roses, as viewed from the 
standpoint of the man in the city. 


He knows every nook and corner ; the deepest recesses of the darkest 
canyons, the windings of every stream, the trails, hunting grounds, and 
the dangerous places. They are familiar to him — that is part of his 

The man who seeks the post of forest ranger must be physically 
strong, he must be able to build trails, cabins, pack and ride and deal 
tactfully with all classes of people. He becomes a "watcher" over the des- 
tinies of the people of the valleys that the mountains may continue to 
bold the waters for them. 

\Ym. B. Greely, at Washington, D. C, is the head of the Forest 
Service. Groups of forests are divided into districts. All of California 
falls into District 5, with Paul G. Reddington as district forester. Each 
forest is administered by a supervisor and his stafT of rangers. Under the 
last arrangement and in force in 1921, the Angeles National Forest 
extends from the Santa Clara Watershed Divide, near San Fernando 
to the Whitewater River, east of Banning. 

The San Bernardino, or east half of the forest, is composed of 600,000 
acres, administered by Deputy Forest Supervisor Fred J. Jeken, with 
headquarters in San Bernardino, assisted by ten permanent rangers. Each 
ranger has charge of a district and attends to all the administrative work 
in his district, which consists of timber sales, grazing, special use and 
land adjustment. L. H. Anderson has charge of Bear Valley district and 
during the summer months two guards, one at Converse and one at Santa 
Ana, control H. F. Burbank, Cajon district. J- H. Hayden, Lytle Creek, 
has a guard at Alta Loma. G. H. Moore, Devil Canyon district, and has 
a guard at Del Rosa, and one at City Creek. J. H. Sanborn, Mill Creek 
district. B. W. Switzer, Little Bear Valley district, and has a guard at 
Fredalba, and one at Coxey Ranch. R. M. Tuttle, Skyland district. 
C. A. Morris has charge of the Banning district and has a summer guard 
at Oak Glen. J- H. B. Allen, clerk in the San Bernardino office. 

All rangers and guards ride their respective beats under a patrol 
schedule, which enables the deputy forest supervisor to know just where 
they are at any hour of the day, so that in case a fire is reported at the 
San Bernardino office, he can get in touch with the ranger in whose 
district the fire is. The ranger goes to the fire and notifies headquarters 
how many men he needs and what tools to send up and supplies, and 
reports often. If the fire is a large one, the deputy district supervisor 
goes up and directs the fire fighting. 

The rangers on either side of the one where the fire is are supposed 
to go as soon as they see smoke and help take charge of a crew of fire 

The ranger packs wet blankets, his brush knife and six-shooter, and 
as little clothes as possible. He has the power to intercept any one he 
meets and press him into service of fire fighting under penalty of arrest 
and heavy fine for refusal to serve. 

The Agricultur.\l Experimental St.xtion. One of the most 
important institutions of its kind in the state and one which compares 
favorably with those to be found anywhere, is the Southern California 
Agricultural Experitnental Station, the only one in Southern California, 
and, because of the variety of soil and conditions, one which is fairly 
typical of the entire state. It was established in 1891, through the efforts 
of Richard Gird, who donated thirty acres of light and loamy soil on the 
northern boundaries of the Chino Rancho, together with the necessary 
water facilities, and ten acres of damp land lying one mile west of the 
sugar factory at Chino. Impetus was given the movement by the citizens 


of Pomona, who raised a fund of $4,000, which was used for implements, 
buildings, equipment, teams, etc., and the station was established under 
the auspices of the California State University being at first under the 
charge of Kenneth McLennen. At first the experiments were devoted 
principally to fruit — deciduous, citrus, olives and small fruits. Many 
varieties were set and a study made of their adaptability to this section 
and of their diseases and drawbacks. In 1893 J. W. Mills took charge 
of the station, a position which he filled for a number of years. About 
1895 the station began paying more attention to experiments in green 
manuring for fertilizing purposes and to suitable growths for semi-alkali 
lands. The Government keeps a number of experts in the field all over 
the world, and the plants, seeds and information collected by these men forwarded from Washington to the various stations, keeping in mind 
their presumed adaptability to the conditions of each station. Large sums 
cf money have been appropriated for the use of this station, where some 
very valuable experiments have been made. 



While the San Gabriel Mission in the San Bernardino X'alley was 
utilized chiefly as a stock range and as a means of protection from the 
hostile Indians of the locality, it likewise has the distinction of being the 
point where agriculture commenced its history in the county. The fact 
that the mission was used as an outfitting station, as well as a resting- 
place, for the travelers making the journey over the Colorado route 
between the missions and Mexico makes it highly probable that there 
was a large quantity of wheat raised, and this is borne out in well- 
authenticated reports of grain fields and storerooms filled with grain. 
Although the Mormons on their arrival found nothing but a few old 
grape roots, it is probable that orchards, gardens and vineyards were 
cultivated, for Mill Creek zanja was constructed about 1820, and could 
have been used for no other purpose. That the Indians were agricul- 
turists in their way is shown in the report of Daniel Sexton, who stated 
that in 1842 these dwellers were raising crops of beans, potatoes and 
corn around the old mission. The grants of Rincon, Chino and Cuca- 
monga had a few vines and fruit trees during the '40s, while along the 
Santa Ana River bottom numbers of Xew ^Mexicans, locating on the San 
Bernardino and Jurupa grants, cultivated and improved fields and 
orchards. At that time, however, the country could not be called an 
agricultural one. as cattle, horses and sheep were the chief product of 
the region and continued to be so until well into the '60s. 

The Mormons must be given credit for the real introduction of agri- 
culture into San Bernardino County. \\'hen they came here, in 1851. 
they at once sowed a large tract of their new purchase to grain, sur- 
rounding the land by a ditch and pole fence and working the land in 
common for several years. \Mien the Mormons answered the recall 
their successors in ownership continued to follow the Saints' policy of 
selling the land to actual settlers on favorable terms ; and thus, when 
the State as a whole was practically devoted to the raising of livestock, 
San Bernardino County boasted numerous small farmers who raised 
vegetables and grain without irrigation, or who utilized, when necessary, 
the many natural streams. 

San Bernardino County was credited bv the State .Agricultural 
Report for 1856 with 30,000 bushels of wheat and 15,000 bushels of 
barlev, and the value of the fruit products of the countv is placed at 
$2,450. The census of 1870 reports 10,360 bushels of wheat, 51,906 
bushels of barley, and 1,808 tons of hay, 48,720 gallons of wine, and 
fruit products to the value of $5,2.^5. Even at that date stock was tiie 
chief resource of the county, being valued at $151,530. 

Horticulture, as a recognized business, started with the settlement of 
Riverside in 1870-71. At the start, deciduous fruits, wine and raisin 
grapes were the chief products, but by 1873 the planting of orange trees 
had attained a good start, and statistics gathered by the state during 
that year showed 7,111 orange trees. 268 lemon trees and about 25.000 
other fruit trees in the county. The years between 1870 and 1880 
showed a marked advancement in both agriculture and horticulture, and 
by 1880 the supremacy of the livestock business had come to an end. 
In 1880, according to the report, 53.461 acres were under cultivation, 



nearly eight times the acreage of 1870. The value of all farm products 
was given as $430,407, while livestock amounted to only $397,806. 

The decade between 1880 and 1890 was one of phenomenal expansion 
and development. A feature of this period was the discovery, through 
experience, of the fact that all land is not suitable for the growing of 
oranges and grapes. Hundreds of acres of these two fruits were set 
out on lands and in localities totally unsuited to them, only to be rooted 
out later and used for fuel. Raisin growing was a popular form of 
horticulture at this time and reached its highest point of development 
in 1890, but thereafter suffered a decrease in popularity, many of the 
vineyards being replaced by alfalfa, citrus fruits and other crops. 

During a long period large freight shipments of hay, grain and flour 
had been made annually to the mines in the eastern part of the county, 
as well as to .Arizona and Utah, and other interior points, and early in 


the '80s the shipments of fruits began to add to the revenue of the 
county. About 1882 the first shipments of oranges were made to the 
East, and by 1886 Riverside sent out over .500 carloads, which had been 
doubled by 1888. Nevertheless, while fruit growing had become so 
important a factor, grain growing retained its place over a large area 
of the valley. In this connection, a local newspaper," in May, 1888, had 
the following comment to make : "As a general proposition, the more 
trees and vines are set out in any section, the less grain will be grown 
there. All over the State the wheat field is being encroached upon by 
the orchard and vineyard. San Bernardino, however, is an exception to 
this rule. Though thousands of acres are now devoted to fruit growing, 
and although more orchards and vineyards will be set out this year than 
ever before, it is also a fact that the area seeded to grain is the largest 
ever known in the county. All over the valley, from one end to the 
other, the plow and seeder have been at work, and an immense area of 

' The San Bernardino Tii 


virgin soil has for the first time felt the plow and will unquestionably 
produce a large crop." 

The Agricultural Statistics for 1900.= The agricultural statis- 
tics for 1900, given in the U. S. Census, were as follows : 

Number of farms 2,350 

Total value of domestic animals $642,280.00 

Number of cattle 13.000 

Number of horses 6,500 

Number of sheep 12,000 

Number of poultry 54,000 

Value of poultry .' 27,313.00 

Swarms of bees 5.602 

Value of bees 16,959,00 

Pounds of honey, 1899 123,450 

Acres of alfalfa 6,347 

Tons of alfalfa 29,637 

Acres grain cut for hav 18,112 

Tons of hay '. 12,074 

Acres in potatoes 406 

Bushels of potatoes 55,000 

Acres in vegetables 312 

Value of vegetables raised 31,134.00 

Value of deciduous fruit products 150,482.00 

Value of grapes, wine and raisins 90,573.00 

Value of sub-tropical fruits 1,393,728.00 

Boxes of oranges 1 ,244,021 


Alfalfa. It is a fact not generally known that San Bernardino 
County has the distinction of being the first section of the country in 
which alfalfa was successfully grown. One of the oldest grasses known, 
it was introduced into the United States as early as 1835, and perhaps 
earlier, but attempts at is cultivation in New York and other Eastern 
states proved unsuccessful and for a time it was thought that it was 
not suited to the soil of this country. It was a party of Mormons from 
Australia who introduced the plant to San Bernardino in the winter of 
1852-53. Perhaps several of this party possessed alfalfa seed, but it is 
of record that one of them, John Metcalf, sowed a small crop on his 
property, now the site of Mount Vernon Avenue, near First Street, and 
irrigated it from Lytle Creek. The success attained by Mr. Metcalf 
encouraged others to cultivate this product, the seed for which first sold 
at $1.00 per pound and was widely distributed from San Bernardino to 
other points in Southern California. San Bernardino furnished the first 
supply of seed for Los Angeles, whence it was taken to Salt Lake, and 
thus the alfalfa industry, one of the most important of the State of Utah, 
had its beginning. San Bernardino County's alfalfa crop in 1900 had 
become one of the county's most important resources, more than 6,000 
acres being seeded to this plant. 

The Wine, Canning and Dried Fruit Industry. The wine indus- 
try, once an important factor in the resources of San Bernardino County. 

2 These total values, given in the U. S. Census, do not include the value of many 
agricultural products. 


is now a dead letter. The first winery bijiU in the county was that at 
Cucamonga, erected during the '50s, which for many years remained as 
a landmark ; and. so far as is known, the winery on the Barton Ranch 
was the second one of any importance in the county. The product of this 
establishment in 1873 was 30,000 gallons, and, operated for years by 
the Vache Freres, its wines were widely known and considered of excellent 
character. It later became known as the Brookside winery. To utilize 
the product of his extensive vineyard of assorted grapes, in 1885 Doctor 
Stillman built a winery on his ranch at Lugonia ; and two years later 
F. M. Slaughter erected a winery at Rincon. Numerous smaller estab- 
lishments and individuals bottled wines in the early days, and it is 
probable that a winery was located in this section during the Mexican 

The canning industry dates back to 1880, when a San Jose company 
established the first cannery of the county at Colton, and in 1882 a can- 
nery was built at Riverside which produced an average of 8,000 cans 
per day for the season. ' San Bernardino was given a cannery in 1887, 
and a fruit evaporator was established at Ontario, which was followed 
by a cannery. A combination of all the canneries in the State, and a 
decrease in the production of deciduous fruits, caused the closing of San 
Bernardino County's canneries. 

During the latter '70s a fruit dryer was put into operation at River- 
side, but transportation difficulties and the growth of other industries 
caused this enterprise to decrease and it became only one of indifferent 

The Citrus Fruit Industry. One of the most important, as well 
as one of the most interesting features of the history of San Bernardino 
County attaches to the birth, growth and development of the citrus fruit 
industry. From a none too sanguine start of a few scattered seedling trees 
in 1876 to thousands of acres of carefully cultivated orchards containing 
several million trees in 1922, the production of oranges has been one of 
the great developments of a business nature. From the best authorities 
available, it is supposed that the first orange orchard in California was 
set out at San Gabriel in 1804, the trees having been brought from the 
lower California missions, although Vancouver reports having seen 
oranges, with other fruits, at Mission San Buenaventura in 1792. A few 
trees, presumably from the San Gabriel stock, were set out by Louis 
Vignes in 1834, at his home place, now a part of the city of Los Angeles, 
in 1834, and in 1841 William W'olfskill put out two acres of trees, prob- 
ably the first orange orchard established for other than personal con- 
sumption. His success led him in 1858, to set out the famous 'Wolfskill" 
orchard, which for many years was the largest in the State. This orchard 
was removed about 1885, owing both to the appearance of the white 
scale and the growth of the city. From this orchard, in 1877, was 
shipped the first carload of oranges ever sent out from California, and 
in 1878 the first packing house in the State was erected. In that year 
Eugene Germain purchased the crop, paying therefor $25,000 on the trees, 
and packed and shipped it to San Francisco, whence it was sent to other 
coast points. 

According to L. M. Holt, an authority on the subject, all orchards 
in 1873 were composed of seedling trees. About that time certain 
nurserymen began to introduce budded varieties from England, South 
America, Australia, China and Japan, but of the more than 100 varieties 
thus introduced only a few were retained as having any special value 
as compared with the seedlings. The first variety of importance to prove 


of value was the Mediterranean Sweet, imported from Europe, which 
was extensivel}' cultivated, and, being a late orange, took the market 
during the early summer months. Other varieties known to the nursery- 
men of that date were the Paper-rind St. Michael and large St. Michael 
and the Malta Blood. In regard to the Navel orange. Mr. Holt savs : 
"In 1876-77 the first Navel orange was fruited in Southern California — 
the fruit coming from an orchard at Orange. In 1879 the first Citrus 
Fair held at Riverside under the auspices of the Southern California 
Horticultural .Society developed the fact that there were two varieties 
of navels grown in this country, and they have proved to be of much more 
value than the others. The one came from trees imported from Aus- 
tralia and the other from trees sent from the Agricultural Department 
at Washington to L. C. Tibbetts of Riverside. Hence the varieties were 
named Australian Navels and Washington Navels to distinguish them. 
The latter was afterward called the Riverside Navel and still later the 
Riverside Washington Navel." 

While the resemblance between the Washington and .\ustralian Navel 
stock was so close that even an expert could not tell them apart, the 
Australian Navel fruit proved to be of so inferior a grade that nursery- 
men were asked to guarantee their stock as Washington Navels and 
compelled by the courts to replace Australian stock when an error was 
made. Because of this a number of nurserymen who could not guar- 
antee their stock were compelled to go out of the business. 

A prophecy made in 1890 by Mr. Holt, which has been borne out by 
experience, was to the following effect: "It is a question with some good 
growers yet, whether there is more profit in any of the varieties — even 
the Riverside Washington Navel, than there is in the seeding, because of 
the fact that the seedling trees grow so nnich larger and therefore produce 
more fruit to the acre. If the markets were always to remain as they 
are today, then there would be good reason to stand by the seedling, 
but as prices become lower with increased production, it is believed that 
the seedling will become less profitable at a time when the navel v.-ill 
still bring a price that will pay largely." 

The Washington Navel Orange. . In the past there has been much 
discussion as to whom may be given the credit for introducing the "seed- 
less" orange. Some hold to the opinion that L. C. Tibbetts, of Califor- 
nia, has that distinction, but others hold differently. Prof. H. E. Van 
Deman, a well-known horticultural authority, says : "The recent state- 
ment in The Rural New Yorker and some other papers that Mr. L. C. 
Tibbetts, of California, 'gave the seedless orange to the world' is not 
entirely correct. It is evident that the variety known as Washington 
Navel, or more properly the Bahia, is meant. The latter is the true name, 
as it was and should have been given by Mr. William Saunders, of 
Washington, D. C. It is to him that the world is indebted for this 
orange more than to any one else, although Mr. and Mrs. Tibbetts too 
were instrumental in bringing it prominently before the public in Cali- 
fornia." The Hon. E. W. Holmes, writing in the Los Angeles Express, 
says in part : "The young trees sent from Mr. Saunders at Washing- 
ton to Mrs. Tibbetts were planted and cared for by Josiah Cover and 
Samuel McCoy (who occupied irrigated lands near the grain ranch with- 
out water rights occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Tibbetts), and it was due to 
this care that they lived and became the progenitors of the millions of 
navel trees now bearing in Southern California. Tom Cover obtained 
buds, and, I believe, sold the first trees which went to other districts and 


the trees had fruited and he had conckided they would prove superior 
to anything we had." 

San Bernardino County's First Orange Trees. The first bearing 
orange trees in San Bernardino County were three specimens set out by 
Anson Van Leuven in 1857 on his farm at Old San Bernardino, for- 
merly known as Cottonwood River. These were among six trees which 
he had secured from San Gabriel. About 1862 Mr. Van Leuven set out 
four acres of three-year-old nursery stock, brought from Los Angeles. 
He stated that at the seventh year from planting the yield was one and 
one-half boxes per tree, and eight years from planting, two boxes per 
tree. In 1865 L. R. Van Leuven planted fifty three-year-old seedlings. 
and in 1873 planted 100 seedlings of the same age, from which, the sixth 
year from planting, the yield was one-fourth box per tree. 

In 1874 the San Bernardino Guardian reported in a news item that 
Lewis Cram was engaged in setting out 1,500 orange trees. Mr. Cram 
made the following statement : "At the time I located on my place in the 
East San Bernardino ^'a^ley orange culture was hardly thought of. No 
attempts had then been made to start in the business with any hope of 
making it a success, and we early settlers had not at that time the slightest 
inkling of the great changes that were to take place in this valley as soon 
as it was known that oranges could be grown here with profit. At the 
time I set out my grove, in 1869, I had an opportunity of purchasing 
500 young trees, or enough to plant five acres of land, but I decided to 
take only enough to set out L>4 acres, thinking as an experiment it would 
be as well to start with a few trees. This orchard is now over twenty 
years old and it is believed that there is not a finer grove in California, 
either in productiveness or in size and appearance of trees. The trees 
have never failed to bear since coming into bearing, but have increased 
from year to year until in 1887 I realized $1,757 from the 1% acres." 


About 1870 the Crafts orchard at Crafton was set out, and in 1874 
Colonel Tolles planted the seeds of his Lugonia orchard, using the seeds 
of rotten Tahiti oranges brought from San Francisco. The first orchards 
at Colton were put out about 1875 by W. R. Fox and Rev. James Cam- 
eron, who planted nursery stock; and E. J. Waite set the first orchard in 
Redlands in the spring of 1882. W. P. Russell put out an orchard of 
six acres at Riverside, in 1872, and the old "Hewitson" grove was set 
out the year previous. 

Marketing the Product. The orange produced in California had 
an immediate market, but proper methods of marketing the fruit were 
of somewhat slow and deliberate development. Anson Van Leuven's 
first bearing trees were a great curiosity to the people, who drove miles 
to view them and willingly paid 75 cents per dozen for the privilege of 
picking them from the trees with their own hands. In 1879, in a report 
to the State Agricultural Board, I. N. Hoag states : "A gentleman in 
Old San Bernardino has an orange grove of eighty-three trees to the 
acre and the average sales have been 2,000 oranges to the tree, sold at 
3 cents apiece — $60 per tree, or $4,980 per acre." An interesting letter 
from an old resident appeared in the Riverside Press and Horticulturist 
of 1882: "Nearly ten years since the few of us who then resided in 
Riverside journeyed often over the bad roads of the canyon to Old 
San Bernardino to see Captain Pishon and Anson Van Leuven, and get 
an impetus from seeing 1,000 to 3,000 oranges on thirteen-year-old trees, 
worth upon the tree from 50 to 60 cents per dozen, and which ])rice we 
cheerfully paid, for had we not young trees that would in a few years 
bring us in from $40 to $80 each? Our purchased fruit we would keep 
to look at and see the gold and silver in the dim distance." The writer 
goes on to say that in 1882 it cost from $1.15 to $1.40 per box to pack 
and ship oranges to San Francisco. "My oranges have sold in San 
Francisco this year at from $2 to $4 per box ; at about the same time 
in Denver, the same class of fruit — seedling oranges — sold for $7.83 per 
box containing 165 oranges to the box. A gentleman who shipped to 
Denver with me received from his Riverside Navels about $8.22 per 
box of 137. It costs about $4.20 to pay freight and commission on a box 
of lemons to Denver and $3.50 on a box of oranges." 

"I find by a careful examination of prices for the years 1877-78," 
writes Thomas A. Garey in the Semi-Tropic Californian, "that the price 
for Los Angeles oranges averages $22.50 per thousand." ^^'hile the 
freight rates were practically prohibitive at the time, as early as 1879 
fifteen cars of oranges were sent from Los Angeles to Salt Lake. One 
of the earliest shipments to the east that can be authenticated was that 
made by F. B. Everest, who purchased for $40 per thousand on the tree 
the crop of Washington Navel oranges of Cover & McCoy, in December, 
1881. These were presumably shipped to the larger cities of the East 
and placed on the market. 

Packing methods of the early days of the industry were somewhat 
primitive as viewed in the light of later-day customs. The fruit was 
shipped packed loosely in barrels or boxes, and sent by steamer to San 
Francisco and coast points, and by wagon to Arizona and New Mexico. 
By 1880, however, some advancement had been made, as some attention 
was being paid to sorting and packing by the more progressive growers, 
and a uniform box had been adopted. Owing to the increase in orange 
production, as well as to the approach of another transcontinental line, 
in December, 1881, the Southern Pacific cut its rate on carload lots of 
onanges from $650 to $350 per car to Chicago, at the same time setting 


a rate of $300 from Los Angeles to Kansas City, $335 to St. Louis, and 
$10.00 per ton on carload lots from Los Angeles to San Francisco — 300 
boxes to a car. So far as the records show, the first carload shipment 
made out of San Bernardino County was that of G. W. Garcelon and 
A. J. Twogood, who, according to the Riverside Press of April 24, 1882, 
"are getting ready to ship a carload of oranges and lemons to Denver." 

What is believed to have been the first step toward the organization 
of growers and the recognition of orange selling as an industry' in San 
Bernardino County was a meeting of some fifty orange growers called 
at Riverside, in December. 1884. At this meeting a discussion was held 
as to the advisability of selling fruit on commission and it was unani- 
mously agreed that "this is the best method that can be adopted." About 
1885 the Orange Growers' Protective Union of Los Angeles was organ- 
ized, this including Los Angeles and Riverside. The California Fruit 
Growers' Union had its inception at San Francisco during the winter 
of 1885-86. 

Beginning with 1882 packing houses began to come into being and 
to bid for business. Among the first of these was the Riverside Fruit 
Company, which, in December, 1882, announced that it was ready to 
handle oranges on commission, to box and pack the fruit and to ship 
in carload lots. At the same time the E. C. Packard Company invited 
business, and in 1884 the Germain Company and Griffin & Skelley built 
packing houses and offered inducements. The first organization of pack- 
ers was held at Riverside, December 28, 1887, and adopted rules as to 
the conduct of their business. 

It was about 1889 that the matter of the adoption of trade marks and 
labels began to be discussed. Prior to this the matter of systematic 
grading had been taken into consideration and in 1884-85 Charles R. 
Paine, of Crafton, made a grader for his own use .following a description 
furnished him by a Florida friend. The Jones grader, manufactured at 
Philadelphia, was used at Riverside in 1886, and in 1887 J. W. Keeney 
patented a grader which proved successful. In the meantime the trans- 
portation of oranges to Eastern points had become an important feature 
of the railroad problem, and the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific began 
a contest in the way of furnishing facilities. The ventilated car was 
introduced in 1887 and orange trains were run as specials, and in March, 
1888, a car of oranges, starting from Riverside on the 13th, reached 
New York City on the 25th. the shortest time on record at that date. 
The refrigerating car service made its appearance in 1889, and the reg- 
ular system of inspection and icing contributed materially to the efficiency 
of the service. 

The Situation at This Time. Like every other industry of any 
importance, that of growing and marketing oranges has had to pass 
through successive stages of development. The men connected with this 
great institution, if it may be so called, have had to learn their lessons 
through experience, and experience is an expensive teacher. For the 
greater part the orange industry in California has been singularly free 
from devastating blights of insect pests or weather and crop failures 
have been comparatively few and far between. But it has at all times 
been necessary to keep a close watch upon conditions and to fight for 
a standardization of prices to keep the market at a normal tone. At 
present the situation seems to be well in hand and the industry on the 
whole is a prosperous one. 

Fairs and Expositions. Great encouragement and impetus have 
been given the orange industry by fairs, exhibits and expositions. The 

:r, House (3 Views) 


first citrus fair, so-called, held in the world, was staged at Riverside in 
February, 1879, and its success led to another exhibit of its kind in 
February, 1880, and a third in March 1881. In 1882 a special pavilion 
was built for the occasion by the people of Riverside, and the fifth annual 
fair, in 1883, was held in conjunction with the semi-annual State Con- 
vention of Fruit Growers. The fairs continued to be held annually at 
Riverside, with the exception of several at Colton, until 1891, in which 
year San Bernardino held its first citrus fair in its new pavilion. Colton 
had the fairs in 1892 and 1893, the latter being a state fair at which 
a handsome pavilion was dedicated, and since that year the expositions 
have been variously distributed. San Bernardino County has always 
made a splendid showing at these exhibits and has had its full share of 
prize-winning entries. 

At the New Orleans Exposition of 1884-85 San Bernardino County 
won the following premiums : Gold medal for the best twenty varieties 
of oranges grown in California; gold medal for the same grown in the 
United States : gold medal for the same grown in the world ; silver 
medal (highest prize) for the best display of lemons, from any part 
of the world. These prizes were won in competition with oranges and 
lemons from various districts in California, from Sonora and other Mex- 
ican states, from Louisiana, Florida, the West Indies and various places 
along the Mediterranean. The Chicago Citrus Fair of 1886 was another 
event which drew attention to the fruit and the possibilities of fruit cul- 
ture in Southern California. During the five weeks of this exposition 
it was estimated that it was attended by at least 75,000 people from all 
parts of the Northwest. The San Bernardino Times of March 3, 1886, 
says : "At about noon today the train carrying the citrus exhibit from 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties for the Chicago fair pulled 
out, amid loud hurrahs from those who were at the depot and along 
the line of the track. The train was a long one and was made up of 
citrus fruits from Southern California. It took three large engines to 
haul it, or at least three were hooked on. At the head of the long train 
of cars were five decorated cars from San Bernardino, Riverside and 
Los Angeles. The San Bernardino car was handsomely trimmed with 
evergreens, while about two dozen American flags floated to the breeze 
from the top and sides of the car. On each side, near the top, 'San 
Bernardino' was painted in colors, and underneath on both sides of the 
car door, 'Semi-Tropic Fruit and Mineral Exhibits.' It was decidedly 
the most handsome looking car on the train. On the Riverside car was 
the legend, 'Riverside Fruits for Chicago Citrus Fair, 1886' in large 
letters with evergreen decorations. The cars from Los Angeles County 
were also decorated and gave the destination and import of the cars and 
their contents. No doubt this freight train will create more excitement 
along its line of travvel than any that ever before crossed the continent. 
It is expected the exhibit will arrive in Chicago about the 15th." 

The San Bernardino Horticultural Co.m mission. In 1888 there 
was formed a body which has been a great factor in the development of 
fruit growing in San Bernardino County, namely the San Bernardino 
Horticultural Exposition. In their eft'orts to protect the most important 
wealth-producing interests of the county, the commission at first met 
with much opposition, as is generally the case with a movement of this 
nature. This opposition, however, has lessened year by year, and the 
benefits of the intelligent and well-directed labors of the commission in 
their constant warfare against pests of all kinds are now generally rec- 
ognized by the fruit growers, who are glad to lend their co-operation to 


the work of the board. At the outset the commission consisted of three 
members, who divided the county into districts, each supervising a district 
and making separate reports to the secretary. A radical change was 
made in 1896, when S. A. Pease, of Ontario, was appointed sole com- 
missioner by the supervisors. This led to litigation in the courts as to 
the authority of the supervisors to abolish the other ofiices, which was 
eventually decided by the appointment of two other commissioners, with 
Mr. Pease as chairman. Under his leadership, the old sj'stem was abol- 
ished and local inspectors were appointed to send in monthly reports. 
He also began the collection and classification of entomological specimens 
for the benefit of the inspectors and others interested in fruit pests and 
their remedies, and this collection now comprises not only the destructive 
and beneficial insects and parasites native to San Bernardino County, 
but also includes many specimens from different sections of the United 
States and Mexico. 

More than a hundred years ago one man owned all the great N'ailey 
of Romance — the Valley of San Bernardino. When he was not much more 
than a boy he served in battle for Spain, and in return for his services 
to the king he was given a concession of many leagues of Land of the 
Valley, from mountain to sea. The early history of California of the 
South — nearly any part of it — reads like a fairy tale. It is a story of 
fighting and of faith. The faith and the fighting still remain — faith in 
God and in the valley ; in the land and in the future. 

The spirit of the ground has called strong and loud for opportunities 
to give forth a full measure of the resources hidden in its soil. Agri- 
culture and horticulture are the agents. 

Is it any wonder great industries have sprung up and vast orchards, 
vineyards and vegetable gardens now flourish, where but a short time 
ago sheep roamed at will and the cacti and the sagebrush were rulers 
of the soil? 

In the early days when the first carload of oranges was shipped to 
an Eastern market the natives said the shipper was crazy. When finally 
the annual output amounted to 5,000 cars the people said : "What shall 
be done with this vast amount ?" 

Today the fighting and the faith have developed industries which 
ship annually, from the products of the tree, the vine, and the ground 
more than 125,000 carloads. The total crop values in the countv for 
1920 exceeded $30,000,000. 

It is almost a pity that those brown-garbed missionaries who brought 
the early orange seeds to these shores and planted them about their new- 
found missions could not return to see these once wild lands converted 
into leagues of highly profitable orchards, amid which the homes of 
happy and contented people nestled — the orchards and the fields. 

National Orange Show. Within a generation or two we have 
witnessed a remarkable and wholly new development in almost all the 
great interests which share in our economic growth. There has been a 
concentration of effort, a co-operation on the part of all those who are 
engaged in any particular line of production or distribution. This has 
not only been made necessary by the intensity of commercial rivalry, 
but because, with more tolerant appreciation of each individual's depend- 
ence, has come an appreciation of the fact that out of the common fund 
of experience the real lessons of success are to be learned. 

The National Orange Show acquired immediate recognition from 
this fact. The class of men who were engaged in the citrus industrv 
were and are of a very high order of intelligence. It required courage 


and vision for those early producers of California to eniljark in an 
unknown venture. All its lessons were to be learned. .\s they worked 
out their problems, they found large gain in the sympathetic and intel- 
ligent help of their fellows. And finding helpfulness in the suggestions 
which came to them as individuals, it is not surprising that they wel- 
comed and acclaimed the establishment of an annual national exhibition 
of their industry, in which luminous conception they recognized a great 
medium for the exploitation of the magnitude of the citrus interests and 
the establishment of standards which would prove both an incentive and 
a reward to their best efforts. 

The idea originated with Mr. Harry Perkins. Its presentation to 
the Chamber of Commerce of San Bernardino gave it instant recogni- 
tion. With large public spirit and enthusiasm the project was welcomed 
by the people of the city, and in March, 1911. the first show was held. 
In retrospect that first show was not a great one. From the date of tlie 
first exposition it has grown — from 3,000 admissions to a 150.000 of 
the one held in 1921. Each year it grew, not slowly as was once the 
wont of institutions, but as befitted the age of rapid development. Its 
evolution was made to appeal not only to those actually engaged in the 
growing and marketing of the citrus fruit, but to the general public 
who, as the ultimate consumer, must be entertained and amused. 

So that in addition to the feature displays where with wonderful 
artistry the fruits are combined in intricate and pleasing design, and 
the "tray" displays where the choicest fruits are shown in competition 
on their merits, a score of other classes have been established, depart- 
ments maintained and divisions created which exploit every phase of 
the industry. The development of citrus by-products and their uses in 
our domestic economy followed naturally. 

The National Orange Show was launched with the announced pur- 
pose of being an asset to California citrus fruit industry, and through 
the years of its existence and wonderful development that principle and 
that purpose has ever remained foremost in mind. Men engaged in 
the citrus industry throughout California take a pride and an interest in 
the National Orange Show. They come great distances to display their 
fruit in the hope of carrying away some of the many coveted prizes. 
To win the National Orange Show "orange sweepstakes" is the greatest 
honor; to win the "lemon sweepstakes" is the second greatest honor. 

In the first show in 1911 there were 100 boxes of fruit on display; 
in the year 1921 there were thousands. The exposition of 1921 was an 
ultimate in the vision of those who sponsored the original show, and 
most of them have lived to realize it. No element of pecuniary profit 
for the promoters enters into the Orange Show. The men who give 
abundantly of their time and acumen are the leaders in the business life 
of San Bernardino. For the good of a great interest they sacrifice gen- 
erously. That the work constitutes a state, and even national, asset, is 
proven by the great growth of the exposition, by its wide appeal to all 
districts of the State, by the fact that its awards are eagerly sought, and 
by the generous and sympathetic co-operation of producers and factors 

A new president is elected annually and each emulates his predecessor 
in an effort to make "his" show exceed in beauty and fullness those that 
have gone before, and well may it be said that in this endeavor no presi- 
dent yet failed in accomplishment. There are no salaried officers except 
the general manager and secretary, who devotes the whole of his time 
throughout the year to the exposition. 


This position has been filled by Harry Perkins, who ser^-ed four years. 
Frederick M. Renfro, who acted in that capacity for seven years, and 
Royal H. Mack, who was elected to the position July 1, 1921, Mr. Renfro 
leaving to accept exposition work in another citv. 

The present (1921-22) officers are: Z. T. Bell, president; J. B. Gill, 
vice president; J. H. Wilson, treasurer; R. H. Mack, secretary and gen- 
eral manager. Past presidents: First, \\'. W. Bryson ; second, C. M. 
Grow; third, John Anderson. Jr.; fourth, A. G. Kendall; fifth, S. W. 
McNabb; sixth, J. H. Wilson; seventh, M. C. McKinney ; eighth, Ben 
Campton, Joseph Ingersoll ; ninth. W. M. Parker: tenth, R. E. Swing; 
eleventh. Joseph E. Rich. 

The following list of persons have served as directors and heads of 
departments since its organization, in addition to the past presidents : 
J. D. Gentry, E. D. Roberts (died in office). L. A. Murray, J. H. Boyd 
(died in office), Herman Harris. H. C. McAlister. J. W. Curtis, B. L. 
Holmes, Joseph Strawser, W. W. Swing, C. E. Lerov. G. M. Haven, 
R. E. Kelly, M. R. Grofthold, E. H. Sharp, C. L. Cronk, W. S. Shep- 
herdson, Rex B. Goodcell, O. F. Heilborn, W. T. Smith, E. D. McCook. 
O. P. Sloat, L. A. Strome, Edward \\'all (died in office), W. O. Harris. 
J. Walter Roberts (died in office). F. E. Peachy, R. C. Harbi.son. H. M. 
Hays, F. W. Chandler, Mrs. Reetta V. Hadden. 

The first show was held on the northwest corner of Fourth and E 
streets; the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth on the southwest corner 
of E and Second ; the seventh, on First and G streets : the eighth, ninth 
and tenth back again to E and Second streets ; since then the show has 
been held at Urbita Springs Park, on the south of the city. Every show 
has had some distinguishing feature that has given it prominence. 

At the first show Gov. Hiram Johnson touched the electric button 
at Sacramento that sent a blaze of pyrotechnic fire across the sky, and 
over the main entrance the colored lights flashed the name, "National 
Orange Show," just at the close of President Bryson's opening address. 
Mayor S. W. AIcNabb was to have given the address, but illness pre- 
vented. Two distinguished visitors visited the show that year ; one was 
Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks, and his son, Frederick Fairbanks. 
Highland walked off with tlie first honors of the first Orange Show. A 
total of fifteen prizes of the thirty-five given went to the Gold Buckle 
Association, East Highland. 

The third show followed closely on a "big freeze," and gloom had 
marked the citrus industry with a spirit of depression. During the fifth 
show a discussion arose over one of the exhibitor's features, that of the 
Pacific Electric, and its "diving girls." President McNabb introduced 
a new department, and appointed Mrs. R. V. Hadden to take charge of 
the by-products. The seventh show became an armament of battle, 
nearly every feature spoke loudly of war ; the eighth, the great question 
was whether to have a show or not ; the ninth the "Dove of Peace" domi- 
1 ,ited every feature. 


The irrigable section of San Bernardino County consists of the area 
of 325,640 acres lying in San Bernardino Valley, which, while containing 
less than one-fortieth of the acreage of the county as it was at the time 
cf its creation, is, however, the largest and most productive valley in 
Southern California. It is not a misstatement to make to say that from 
its soil springs greater agricultural wealth to the acre than any other 
known section of the world. 

To understand this intense fertility it may be well to secure an idea 
of the topography of the region. At the eastern apex of the valley the 
San Bernardino Mountains converge in the peaks, each of which is more 
than 11,000 feet above sea level — the San Bernardino and Graybaek. The 
San Bernardino Range stretches along the north, with the Cucamonga 
Hills, the Coast Range lies to the east, and the valley on the south is 
bounded by the San Jacinto Range. Rising in the highest San Bernardinos 
and entering the valley at its extreme eastern point, the Santa Ana River 
flows, south of the valley's center, throughout its entire length, and then 
breaks through the Coast Range to the Coast Plains beyond. The 
drainage of the surrounding mountains pours into the valley from all 
sides through numerous water courses, the most important of these being 
the Plunge, San Antonio, City, Twin, Lytle, Cajon Pass and Devil's 
Canon creeks, on the north; and the Temescal, Mill and San Timoteo 
creeks, on the south. A number of these streams, after flowing through 
the valley but a short distance, sink beneath the surface to feed the 
artesian belts and the subterranean stream of the Santa Ana. This river 
is the most valuable stream in Southern California for the purpose of 
irrigation. Among the features which contribute to its importance are 
its low banks, its extensive water shed and its many tributaries, both 
above and below the surface. It furnishes the main supply for several 
large water systems and companies, and the greater part of the power 
for the Edison Electric System of Los .Angeles, which operated the first 
long-distance electric power transmission system ever installed, came from 
this stream. 

Development of Irrigation. Irrigation was introduced into Cali- 
fornia and San Bernardino Valley by the first European settlers, the 
Spanish priests, who, coming from a country where irrigation was in 
general use, established the "Asistencia" de San Bernardino, and utilized 
the waters of ]\Iill Creek by building the zanja which has been in use 
ever since its completion in 1822. During the '40s the New Mexican 
settlers who located along the Santa Ana, below the present city of San 
Bernardino, dug and diverted various ditches to irrigate their vineyards, 
orchards and bean plots, and some of these, almost primitive in their 
simplicity, are still in use, others having become parts of the Riverside 
and Jurupa water systems. White the Mormons on their arrival made 
no concerted efforts at irrigation, they realized the benefits thereof and 
by the use of open ditches brought a considerable area of land under 
irrigation, instances being a 50-acre tract, on Lvtle Creek, laid out in one- 
acre tracts, and a common-property vineyard at Old San Bernardino, 
which was irrigated from the old zanja, the benefits of which they at 
once appreciated. Soon after their arrival, in June, 1851, the Mormons 


dug an open ditch carrying about 40 inches of water from Lytle Creek 
into the stockade, and in 1853 carried through the work of building the 
Davis Mill ditch, taken from the junction of City and Warm creeks, 
which carried some 1,500 inches of water and was used to operate the 
grist mill. Other early ditches were the Tenney, originally taken from 
the Santa Ana near the head of the valley in 1855, and used to irrigate 
two or three sections of grain land near Old San Bernardino ; and the 
Lord and Hale and Perdue ditches, taken from Lytle Creek in 1854 and 
1855. These, with others taken out about the same time, furnished the 
original water rights upon which many of the later rights were based. 

When the Mormons departed the new settlers continued to use these 
ditches, as well as to dig new ones, these including the Meeks and Daley, 
from Warm Creek, carrying 600 inches, in 1858-9 ; the Timber, near the 
head of the Santa Ana on the south side ; the Cram- Van Lueven, the 
Waterman and the Berry Brothers. The original system as to the division 
of the water, mutually agreed upon, was subject to the direction of water 
masters, appointed by the Board of Water Commissioners, the latter of 

LiTTLi-. ili;.\K Laki-: I'iist(iffui; 

whom were elected by the people under a special act of Legislature apply- 
ing to San Bernardino County alone, approved February 18, 1864. 

Later, as was naturally the outcome, the higher valuation of land and 
water caused the formation of regularly organized and incorporated water 
companies. "One of the first incorporated water companies,"' says L. M. 
Holt, "was formed at Riverside, growing out of the Southern California 
Colony Association, formed in 1870. It was a land and water company 
combined. It was a close corporation and was organized to make money 
for its stockholders by selling water for irrigation purposes after all of 
its land had been sold. It fixed the price of water at first at a low figure, 
intending to advance the rates as the settlement grew. In those days there 
was practically no limit to what a company might charge for water." 
Other companies came rapidly into being, among these : the Sunnyside 
Ditch Association, in 1877, out of which grew the Lugonia Water Com- 
pany, organized in 1883 ; the Colton Land and Water Company, about 
1877 : the Cucamonga Homestead Company, in 1877, whose rights were 
later a part of the Cucamonga Water Company's supply, that company 
coming into existence in 1887; the Lytle Creek \\'ater Company, incor- 
porated in October, 1881, later forming a part of the Semi-Tropic Land 
and Water Company, formed in 1887; the Redlands Water Company, 


formed in October, 1881 ; the San Antonio Water Company, in October, 
1882 ; the Bear Valley Reservoir Company, incorporated in October, 
1883 ; and the North Fork Water Company, incorporated in 1885. This 
last-named grew out of water rights which had been used ?ince the 
Mormon period, the water being derived from the North Fork ditch, the 
Cram-Van Leuven ditch and other claims. 

The Bear Valley Fiasco. Just how inadequate were the laws 
enacted to deal with the irrigation problems of the day — and this includes 
the notorious Wright Irrigation District Law, enacted by the Legislature 
in 1887 — is shown in the Bear Valley Reservoir and Bear Valley Irriga- 
tion Company fiasco. In 1880 the possibilities of Bear Valley as a storage 
reservoir were brought to public attention, when a topographical survey 
was made under the direction of the state engineer, and the valley was 
reported as one of the best sites for a storage reservoir in Southern Cali- 
fornia. When, in 1883, the founders of the new colony of Redlands were 
looking about for an increased water supply for their lands, F. E. Brown, 
in company with Hiram Barton, who was familiar with the ground, made 
ah examination of Bear Valley, and both became satisfied that the only 
practical solution to the water problem before them was the impounding 
of the waters which annually ran to waste in these mountains. They 
were also convinced that a storage reservoir could be constructed and 
that the channel of the Santa Ana River might be utilized for the flow 
which could be diverted at any elevation desired, such usage not inter- 
fering with water rights already in force and covering the flow of the 
river. A company was formed and incorporated, October 2, 1883, with 
a capital stock of $360,000, a temporary dam was first placed in the canon, 
and work on the permanent dam was commenced June 17, 1884, and 
completed in November of the same year. The original cost of the dam 
was about $75,000, and the land for the reservoir site was obtained by 
purchase, 3,800 acres from Los Angeles parties and 700 acres from the 
Southern Pacific Railroad Company and the Government, the approxi- 
mate cost being $30,000. 

With the growth of Redlands and the planting of more orchards, the 
demand for water increased, and the directors of the Bear Valley Land 
and Water Company issued what were known as "Class A" certificates, 
which entitled the holder to receive a continuous flow of one-seventh of 
an inch of water to the acre of land to which the said certificates might 
apply, under certain conditions. Later operations of the company served 
to involve the concern in a mass of litigation which, up to the year 1904, 
had not been straightened out. Deciding to increase the capacity of the 
dam by building it higher and by putting in other subsidiary dams, on 
December 30, 1890, the Bear Valley Land and \\'ater Company executed 
a deed of all its property to a new company, the Bear Valley Irrigation 
Company, which assumed all the obligations of the old organization. 
Various auxiliary corporations were formed, irrigation districts were 
formed, bonds were issued, and what were known as "Class B" certificates 
made their appearance. Development work was pushed vigorously and 
the Alessandro pipe line was constructed and water turned into it. This 
was the high tide of the Bear Valley history, but complications arose, and 
the beginning of the end came when, in December, 1893, the Alessandro 
Irrigation District began suit in Riverside County against the Bear Valley 
Company. A receiver was appointed and investigations were begun 
which led the other creditors to take court action. Eventually the prop- 
erty was sold at receiver's sale, the price paid being $38O,O0O, but the 
property was still subject to incumbrances which were then (1894) 


computed to be approximately $1,000,000. Later Arthur Young, the pur- 
chaser, conveyed the property to the New Bear Valley Irrigation Com- 
pany, a corporation organized under the laws of Arizona Further court 
action followed, and the close of the year 1898 found the case still tied 
up in legislative red tape from which it seemed that it could not he extri- 
cated. In a report rendered in October. 1898. the following statement 
occurs: "It appears that for upwards of four years the (Bear Valley) 
plant has been involved in a complicated, expensive and tedious litiga- 
tion in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Ninth Circuit, which 
litigation is still pending, and from all that appears will be likely to remain 
unconcluded for years to come." Ingersoll, writing in 1904, says: "The 
present status is 'about the same as )t was in 1898. While some of the 
suits and contentions have been disposed of, the entire property is covered 
by liens held by the Savings and Trust Company, of Cleveland. Ohio, 
to secure the payment of bonds and receivers' certificates, now aggregating 
something over $1,000,000.' Various incidental questions are involved in 
the suit, it being sought for one thing to determine the legal status of 
the water certificates and the so-called deeded water and foreclose all 
rights thereunder ; the holders, some hundreds in number, being made 
defendants. At present the newly-formed Bear Valley Mutual Water 
Company of Redlands, made up of the water users from the Bear Valley 
.system, are negotiating with the Savings and Trust Companv for the 
purchase of the property. Should this be done the legal questions 
involved would be much simplified and the large area now supplied from 
the reservoir would be assured of a sufficient and cheap supply of water." 

The Arrowhead Reservoir and Power Company. The Arrowhead 
Reservoir Company, organized in 1891, was the predecessor of the present 
Arrowhead Reservoir and Power Company. Its principal stockholders 
were Cincinnati capitalists, and it was, from its first planning, a 
stupendous afifair. As the first step, a main reservoir was to be con- 
structed in the Little Bear Valley which would impound the natural 
drainage of Little Bear Creek, a tributary of Deep Creek. An inlet 
tunnel was to be made from this reservoir eastward to Deep Creek and 
then extended to Crab and Holcomb creeks to collect all drainage above 
the tunnel and carry it into the reservoir. This has been partly con- 
structed. Diversion dams and regulating reservoirs were to be located 
at Deep, Crab and Holcomb creeks and the flow of the smaller streams 
was to enter the tunnel through shafts. All of this work would be in 
the Deep Creek watershed. Another reservoir was to be constructed 
in Grass Valley, west of the main reservoir and on a tributary of the 
West Fork of the IMojave River, and this supplemental basin was to be 
connected with the main basin by a tunnel. Two other reservoirs were 
to be located in mountain flats, the sites for which were later abandoned. 
Water was to be taken from the main reservoir by an outlet tunnel 
through the San Bernardino Range of Mountains and delivered for the 
irrigation of lands south of the mountains. The company had no lands 
for sale and made no contracts for the delivery of water. 

A masonry dam, to form the main reservoir, was begim on Little Bear 
Creek, but by the time the foundation was constructed it was found 
that suitable rock in sufficient quantity to construct a masonry dam was 
not to be had near the site, and this caused a suspension of construction 
which was prolonged for a number of years. Data on the amount of 

' In October. 1892. the companv had given a trust deed of its property to the 
Savings and Trust Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, to .secure a loan of $300,000. 


water for storage had been meagre and the supply overestimated. In 
1892 a series of precipitation and run-off measurements was commenced 
throughout the watershed which was continued for thirteen years before 
the work of construction was resumed. Also, until 1895, the development 
of power had not been considered in connection with the project. About 
that time, when it became known that long transmission of electrical 
power was practicable, it was planned to utilize the energy of the water 
in its descent on the southern slope of the mountains. 

In 1905 the property was transferred to a new corporation, the 
Arrowhead Reservoir and Power Company, capitalized at $6,500,000, 
with non-assessable stock, of which $500,000 was 5 per cent preferred and 
the remainder common stock. Shares representing about $600,000, par 
value, were issued and placed in the hands of a trustee, no payments 
having been made on these shares. Some of the other stockholders have 
taken notes of the company for other obligations, but the company has 
no indebtedness outside of the stockholders, according to its officials. 

Recently a new company has purchased from the Arrowhead Reser- 
voir Company, all of its interests and is expending a large amount of 

Fishing Along "101 Mile Drive" 

money in making Little Bear Valley Reservoir, now known as Arrowhead 
Lake, one of the finest resorts on the famous 101 mile "Rim of the 
World" scenic highway. 

The type of dam for Arrowhead site was changed to a semi-hydraulic 
fill with concrete core. The plan of the outlet works was also modified. 
The Burcham ranch, now called Rancho Las Flores, containing 5,240 
acres and including the Forks Reservoir site on the West Fork of the 
Alojave River near the Forks, was acquired, as were two dam sites 
farther up stream on the West Fork and known as the \\^est Fork sites 
Nos. 2 and 3. It was proposed to convey the water in Little Bear Valley 
Reservoir to the Forks Reservoir, using the intervening drop for power 
development. The water would be combined in the Forks Reservoir 
with that received from the natural drainage of the West Fork. This 
lower reservoir was then to be drained by a tunnel through the mountain 
range to the south side, where another power drop would be located and 
below which water would, as under the former plan, be delivered for irri- 
gation in the San Bernardino Valley. 

About 1909 some of the owners of riparian lands on the Mojave 
River, including the Hesperia Land and Water Company, filed suits to 
prevent the Arrowhead Reservoir and Power Company from diverting 
the water from the watershed, but the cases have not been brought to 


trial. In 1912 application was made to the California Railroad Commis- 
sion for permission to issue $4,000,000 in bonds, when riparian land 
owners again opposed the plans of the company by protesting against the 
granting of the application, and the apphcation was denied, without 
prejudice, for the stated reason that the company's title to water was 
uncertain until the cases were decided by the courts. The record of the 
hearings conducted by the commission on the application shows the 
following : 

Valuation put on property at time of reorganization $1,191,000 

Spent by new company since reorganization 923,204 

Principal owed by new company 793,796 

Interest owed by new company 126,589 

Total $3,034,589 

About this time the company, or a trustee of some of the stockholders, 
began to purchase riparian lands on the Mojave River, mainly for the 
purpose of quieting opposition from adverse water right claimants, and 
1,000 acres just below the Forks, and 3,200 acres, together with most of 
the older and more useful ditches, between Victorville and Barstow, were 
acquired. This property included the \^'estwater lands below Victor- 
ville. It had been the intention to purchase more riparian lands, but 
owing to the decision of the State Supreme Court about this time to the 
efifect that flood waters of a stream could not be legally diverted from the 
natural drainage basin, ^ a radical change in plan was adopted which made 
this no longer necessary. It was now decided to use the water for the 
development of power and irrigation on the north side instead of the 
south side of the mountains. In 1914 an oflfer, which was not accepted, 
was made to the City of San Diego to sell the water from the system 
the diversion from the watershed for domestic use not being illegal. 

In addition to the agricultural lands below the Forks, the company 
holds about 12,000 acres in the mountains, mainly in the Little Bear 
Valley, Grass Valley and Forks Reservoir basins. The company claims 
riparian rights pertaining to the extensive lands above and below the 
Forks, also appropriation rights on all the streams above the Little Bear 
Valley Reservoir inlet dating from 1890, and on the West Fork and Deep 
Creek dating from 1905. The company claims that the measurements 
show that enough water can be stored to enable the delivery of 40 second- 
feet continuously from the Little Bear Valley Reservoir, or 100 second- 
feet continuously from this reservoir and the Forks Reservoir combined. 

The Little Bear Valley dam is now built to a height of 160 feet above 
stream bed and is 80 per cent completed. It is to have a maximum height 
of 200 feet above stream bed and 220 feet above bedrock, a length on 
top of 830 feet and a top width of 20 feet. The fill will contain 1,562.- 
329 cubic yards of earth and the core will contain 27,999 cubic yards of 
concrete. The original slopes were 2'/^ to 1, inside, and 2 to 1 outside, but 
an addition is now being made to the lower fill to change the outside 
slope to 3 to 1. The core wall is 20 feet thick at the base and tapers to 
3 feet thick at the top, and that part above a thickness of four feet is 
reinforced. In the winter of 1909 cracks occurred in the top of the 
core wall which had then been built up 38 feet above the earth fill. The 
cracking was believed to be due to the etTect of temperature on the 
exposed portion of the concrete, and these cracks were repaired. The 
spillway is over the natural rim of the basin and is 5 feet deep, 100 feet 
wide, and is to be lined with concrete. The Deep Creek inlet tunnel is 

= Miller & Lux vs. Madera Canal and Irrigation Company, 155 Cal. 60. 


under construction, it being driven and partly lined from the reservoir 
to a point beyond Shake Creek, a length of nearly two miles, at this 
time. The completed tunnel will be over 14,316 feet long, while the 
tunnel froin Deep Creek to Crab Creek is to have a length of 5,000 feet 
and the Holcomb Creek extension is to add 12,100 feet. The Deep 
Creek reservoir is to have a capacity of 2,000 acre-feet and is to act 
as a regulator to the inlet tunnel. The tunnel has a capacity of 600 to 
1,000 second-feet, depending upon the head above the intake. The Hol- 
comb Creek dam is to be 70 feet high, giving a capacity of 1,000 acre- 
feet to the basin above the tunnel. 

The tunnel connecting Grass X'alley. 4,172 feet in length, is driven 
and lined, but the Grass Valley dam has not been constructed. As 
proposed, the dam is to be 90 feet high, which would give a storage 
capacity of 7,632 acre-feet. \\'ater is now diverted from Grass Valley 
by ditch to and through the connecting tunnel into the main reservoir. 

The outlet tunnel of the main reservoir, 5,102 feet in length, is con- 
structed and lined, and through it water can now be discharged into 
Guernsey Creek, a tributary of Deep Creek, above the intake of the 
Appleton Land, Water & Power Company's canal. The gate tower is a 
reinforced concrete structure, 185 feet high, located in the reservoir basin 
at the upper end of the outlet. Beside the gate valves in this tower, 
additional valves are placed in a shaft 220 feet deep, extending down 
to the outlet in the rock rim of the reservoir. The maximum head on 
the outlet will be 185 feet, and the capacity of the completed reservoir 
below the floor of the spillway will be 60,179 acre-feet, when the area 
of the water surface will be 883 acres. About 35,000 acre-feet is the 
amount now stored in the reservoir with the dam partially completed. 

The fall from Little Bear Valley reservoir to the Forks is 2,000 feet, 
a drop sufficient to develop about 7,000 horse-power with 40 second-feet 
of water. The Forks reservoir site is in a position to receive, naturally, 
the entire flow of the West Fork, as well as the water from the Little 
Bear Valley reservoir through the proposed power conduit and the flood 
water from the lower part of Deep Creek, provided about one mile of 
inlet ditch or tunnel be constructed from that stream. A dam 150 feet 
high across the West Fork would give a capacity of 102,000 acre-feet 
and a reservoir area of 2,000 acres. In addition to the main dam a saddle 
in the rim of the basin on the north side would have to be raised with an 
embankment to give this capacity. This valuable property passed into 
the possession of a syndicate of Los Angeles capitalists, in the fall of 1921, 
and a very large sum of money is being expended in its further improve- 
ment. The new owners have changed the name of "Little Bear Lake," 
to "Arrowhead Lake." 

Decisions Affecting Water Rights. As far back as the advent of 
white settlers in the county, disputes began to arise over water rights. 
These have continued to the present time, and some very important deci- 
sions have been handed down by the courts in cases originating in San 
Bernardino localities. In creating the special Board of Water Com- 
missioners, the members of the legislature thought that they had solved 
a somewhat troublesome problem, but even this body, empowered to 
settle conflicting claims and have a general oversight of water questions, 
the use of ditches, construction, etc., could not prevent lawsuits. The 
first suit of this nature in the county was that of the North Fork ditch 
owners versus the Cram-Van Leuven ditches in 1861, which was even- 
tually settled out of court through an agreement. The appropriation of 
Mill Creek waters by settlers in the vicinity of Crafton caused a long and 


bitterly fought battle between the individual holders at Crafton and 
those at Old San Bernardino. A case that was locally prominent because 
of the length and comprehensiveness of the testimony, as well as the 
decisions rendered, was the Cave versus Crafts suit, brought in 1875, 
which was disposed of in the lower court, where it was found, in 1876, 
that although Craft had been using water at times when he was not 
entitled to it, still he had certain rights and that certain other defend- 
ants had rights by adverse use. This decision settled the fact that waters 
were not inseparably appurtenant to any land, but that certain persons 
had definite privileges. Crafts again appears in a case called in 1883-84, 
Byrne versus Crafts, in which Mill Creek waters are again brought into 
discussion. At that time it was claimed that the waters had been used 
on the Rancho San Bernardino since 1820 and were exclusively an 
appurtenance to the lands of said grant. In deciding this case, however, 
it was found that none of the waters at the time of the grant were ever 
or at all incident or appurtenant to the ranch lands, or to any portion of 
them, except to that portion known as Cottonwood Row. The former 
decision was sustained and it was furthermore found that the owner of a 
water-right in the ditch could do what he chose with the water during 
the hours the flow was allotted to him, provided he did not deprive the 
holders of other hour-rights of the full flow of the stream during the 
period of their turn ; and, moreover, that the waste waters of the ditch 
were not and could not be any specified quantity, but only such waters 
as irrigators from time to time did not use. 

One of the most interesting, as well as important, cases to be brought 
before the courts of California was that of Pope versus Kinman, in 
1877, which aiTected Lytle Creek water rights. Suit was brought by 
A. J. Pope, one of the owners of the Muscupiabe grant, against 
W. N. Kinman and others of the water appropriators, asserting that 
the waters were due to the Muscupiabe grant lands which were riparian 
to the stream, and that use of them on lands not bordering on it was 
without legal authority. "The defense of appropriation under the laws 
of the State and of Mexico was set up, and it was urged that, the waters 
having been used over five years, the right to continue their use had 
been established under the statute of limitations.' In December of 
1878 the case was decided in the Superior Court of San Bernardino 
County in favor of the principal defendants and substantially in accord- 
ance with their answer. It was appealed to the Supreme Court which 
rendered a decision in December, 1879, in effect reversing the lower 
court and declaring, first, the supremacy of the doctrine of riparian rights 
as against appropriations, and second, that the 'statute of limitations' 
does not run in favor of an appropriator of water a claimant of 
land whose title is held in abeyance by the United States authorities."" 

The Riverside water companies engaged in almost endless litiga- 
tion during the early days, but this matter was settled when the land 
owners incorporated the City of Riverside and organized a water com- 
pany which secured control of the conflicting interests. 

That there was bound to be trouble regarding underground water 
rights was predicted by W. M. Tisdale, of Redlands, who, in 1902, 
stated: "Many intricate, confusing, perplexing and harrassing questions 
are likely to arise over the question of ownership of underground waters. 
Many questions have already come before the courts and many hundreds 
of thousands of dollars have been spent in getting decisions which are 
themselves confusing. The laws regarding surface waters have been in 



the courts ever since the adoption of the present constitution in 1879. 
Millions of dollars have been spent already, and the dockets of the 
courts are clogged with water cases. And the end seems far distant. 
What will be the outcome when litigation over underground waters 
fairly sets in, no man knoweth. At present any one who feels inclined 
to dig for water on his own land, will dig. And he will have not the 
slightest regard for his neighbor above him. Sometimes, possibly, the 
courts may step in and prevent the man on the low ground from robbing 
his neighbor on the ground above him, but that time seems to be in the 
dim and far distant future." A verification of this prediction came 
November 7, 1902, when the Supreme Court rendered its decision in the 
Katz vs Walkinshaw case, a decision which established an entirely 
new rule respecting the ownership of underground waters and which 
decided that no person could deprive the owner of water-bearing lands 
of the use thereof by digging wells upon adjoining lands and draining 
the water away. Katz was the owner of water-bearing lands within the 
city limits of San Bernardino and brought suit asking an injunction 
prohibiting Walkinshaw from digging wells upon adjacent land deep 
enough to drain away his water. The case was non-suited in the lower 
court but this decision was overruled in the Supreme Court and the above 
precedent established. The decision was reaffirmed in December, 1903, 
and although arguments against the decision were made by many of the 
leading lawyers of the southern part of the state, it was impossible to 
secure a reverse or modification. 

Artesian Well. The first artesian well in the San Bernardino 
Valley was put down in 1868 by H. M. Willis on his place at Old San 
Bernardino. When he did not succeed in obtaining water, the well-drilling 
tools were removed to the City of San Bernardino, where a successful 
attempt was made, and later water was also located on the Willis place. 
One of the first wells in .San Bernardino City proper was the Wolf well 
on the south side of Third Street, between E and F streets. By 1881, 
so active had been the settlers in obtaining water in this way, it was esti- 
mated that there were from 400 to 425 artesian wells in the valley, the 
most easterly being at the Old Mission, while the deepest well, 410 
feet, was located on Judge Willis' place. Originally the wells were from 
two to eight inches in diameter (although, generally of the smaller size) 
and supplied water without pumping for domestic and garden usage. 
However, the need for water becoming pressing, the wells were bored 
deeper and made larger, pumping plants were installed in numerous 
places, and many of the wells were sent to depths of 900 and 1.000 feet, 
and many deeper than that. In 1879 there was formed the Riverside 
Improvement Company, its object being to supply the City of Riverside 
with domestic water. Its chief source of supply was the artesian well 
basin of the San Bernardino Valley, where, along the Santa Ana River 
and Warm Creek, the company purchased 74^ acres of land and con- 
structed a pipe line to carry the water to Riverside. 

Regarding the artesian basin of the San Bernardino \'alley, a writer 
in a Southern California newspaper* had the following to say in the early 
1900's : "The San Bernardino Valley, whose floor is formed of an open 
gravel, constitutes a great reservoir or tank, which yields a uniform flow 
to the various wells which tap it. This great reservoir is filled by winter 
precipitation and by seepage water. Some idea of its size may be 
gained from the following figures: The entire valley comprises some 

' The Citrograph. 


563 square miles ; the flat area above Colton, presumably all formed by 
gravels eroded from the mountains, contains 132 square miles. On a 
conservative estimate, 100 square miles of this is of tjravei to great 
depths, approximating 1,000 feet — numerous wells have been sunk to 
900 feet with no indications of bed rock. Supposing this gravel bed to 
have a depth of 300 feet, the total water storage capacity, estimated at 
one-third of the mass, would be 6,400,000 acre feet, or eight times the 
storage capacity of the famous Assuan Dam of Egypt. Enormous as this 
seems, it is believed to be greater, rather than less, than the amount 
stated. The importance of this reservoir and the limits of its capacity 
are only beginning to be understood. So far it has not been accurately 
determined whether the present rate of withdrawal is permanently lower- 
ing the water plane or whether years of abundant rain will restore it 
to its fullest capacity. With the running surface water fully utilized, 
it can be seen that an increase in the available supply must of necessity 
come from this reservoir, and careful studies will have to be made to 
arrive at a just and definite conclusion as to the amount which may be 
drawn therefrom. From experiments in other places, it has been fairly 
well settled that the greater the drain on an underground reservoir, 
the greater the capacity. Capacity does not mean flov.-, however. Cycles 
of dry years have proved that all wells cannot be depended upon. Some 
have failed altogether, others have had decreased flow, and in several 
cases the sinking of a new well has resulted in a substantial diminution 
in the supply of the older ones. To the problem that arises from thi^ 
there is no definite legal solution. How much one well may be responsible 
for the failure of others is too hard to determine, and the motions and 
courses of underground waters too little understood to allow of a 
legal adjudication of rights, and the only possible remedy lies in one of 
two very simple and similar ways : One is to have enough water for 
all wells, and the other is to have only enough wells to properly tap 
the water supply. It can be said, however, that wells in the central and 
deeper portions of the valley have no difficulty whatever, and only those 
shallower ones around the edges of the underground basins will fail 
when the water plane is lowered through successive demands upon it " 


The history of transportation in Southern California, and partic- 
ularly in San Bernardino County, has not been, perhaps, greatly differ- 
ent than that of other communities. In its development it has passed 
through the successive eras of travel by horse and foot, by horse-drawn 
carriage and stage-coach, by rail and electric lines, and finally by auto- 
mobile — with the aeroplane looming as a possible factor in the not too 
far distant future. The history of this region, as to its transportation, 
however, presents some interesting features, inasmuch as there have 
always been great difficulties to surmount. The contours of the country, 
the difficulties of finding passages between the mountain ranges, the 
broad stretches of desert country, the hostile inhabitants and the con- 
ditions pertaining to the country generally, all played their part in making 
its conquest a hazardous and onerous undertaking, and the pioneers in all 
forms of transportation, each in their successive period of development, 
were forced to be men of far more than ordinary abilities and of sturdy 
traits and indomitable character. 

The pioneer of transportation in the San Bernardino Valley may be 
said to be Juan Bautista de Anza, the first white traveler through this 
region, who, in 1774, was sent to explore an overland route between 
Sonora, Mexico, and the Mission of Monterey. On this journey he 
was accompanied by some twenty-five or thirty men and a large number 
of horses and cattle. Striking the Colorado River at the junction of 
the Gila, he crossed at that point and made his way across the desert 
to the Puerto de San Carlos,' and then through El 'N'alle de San Jose.' 
Anza and his party went back over this route after making explorations 
of a few weeks, and two years later brought 177 people, including soldiers 
and colonists, with a herd of 590 animals, over the same route. The 
passage of such a goodly company made a broad and distinct trail through 
the valley, and this overland route from Mexico was much used in the 
years that followed, for, while it was long and attended by numerous 
hazards, it was less to be feared than a trip by water in one of the 
undependable little vessels built in haphazard fashion on the west coast 
of Mexico, which were never sure of reaching their destination. 

The honor of being the first American to traverse the valley belongs 
undoubtedly to Jedediah Smith who, also, as far as is known, was the 
first person to enter the valley through the Cajon Pass. Smith came in 
from Utah, in 1824. The Warkman party came to California from New 
Mexico by way of the Virgin River and Cajon Pass, in 1831, and during 
the '30s and '4bs quite a bit of traffic between California and New Mexico 
was carried on, this coming chiefly by the same route, the New Mexican 
colonists coming to this state as a result of such trading. Thus it is 
to be seen that the San Bernardino Valley was a highway for travel 
and trade from the first settlement of the state. 

During the "days of old, the days of gold, the days of '49." many of 
the travelers who were rushing to the fields in search of the precious 
metal entered the state by one of these southern routes and thus passed 
through the county. These were the days of the emigrant wagon and 

» San Gorgonio Pass. 
* San Bernardino Valley. 


"prairie schooner," trains of pack mules driven by trappers and pros- 
pectors, and little parties of two or three, on horsebock and afoot. A reg- 
ularly appointed wagon train was forced to travel in a carefully arranged 
order while traveling over the plains, and it was their endeavor to keep 
strictly to this routine across the deserts or mountains, although some- 
times it was found necessary to divide the party when water and feed 
proved insufficient. The constant menace of hostile Indians had to be 
contended with, swollen streams had to be forded, difficult mountain 
passes negotiated and feed and water or the possible lack of same was 
a problem not to be lightly cast aside. In the face of these difficulties, 
out of the third of a million emigrants who reached California by the 
overland routes (according to the figures of some authorities'), the loss 
of life was comparatively infinitesimal. 

The Stage Coach and the Mule Freighter. Much glamour 
attaches to the old-time stage-coach, in the early days a "mud" wagon or 
buckboard, which made its appearance about the time of the coming of 
the Mormons and the settlement of San Bernardino. At the same time 
appeared the paraphernalia of the mule freighter. Naturally, not long 
after their settlement the colonists desired to establish mail connections 
with the outside world, but it is reported that the first mail service between 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles wa,s somewhat irregular, something at 
which not to wonder. One of the first mail carriers was U. U. Tyler, 
who drove oxen and made occasional trips, and of whom the following 
is related: "On one of his trips he left Los Angeles with the mail, 
driving a yoke of steers attached to the running gear of a wagon, and at 
El Monte met several passengers who were awaiting the 'stage' to San 
Bernardino." It is not to be thought that they were entranced with 
the idea of making the journey on the wagon reach, but it was either 
that or wait indefinitely for other transportation, and they therefore 
took the trip and negotiated the distance successfully, albeit not com- 
fortably. Rockefeller, another early mail carrier, took mail and pas- 
sengers in a mud wagon, drawn by two horses, and made weekly trips 
to Los Angeles from San Bernardino, the trip each way consuming 
two days. Between these two points John Miller also conducted a stage 
in 1854. Captain Hunt, in 1852, secured a mail contract for three years, 
between Los Angeles and Salt Lake, by way of San Bernardino, ancl 
the trip was made on horseback, the two men carrying the mail often 
being accompanied by others who wished to make the journey. Gilbert 
Hunt, Ed Hope, Dan Taft, Dan Ruthbun and Sheldon Stoddard were 
among the riders on this route, and the last-named made the round trip 
between San Bernardino and Salt Lake no less than twelve times in 1853. 

The following advertisement, which appeared in 1858, makes it evi- 
dent that a regular bi-weekly stage service had been established between 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles : "Regular line carrying L-nited States 
Mail. Leaves Los Angeles Monday and Thursday of each week, at 
7 a. m. : San Bernardino Wednesdays and Saturdays, 7 a. m. All appli- 
cations at Bella LTnion, or Jacob's Hotel, corner Third and E streets. 
No person will be allowed to enter the stage without his fare is pre- 
paid. Fare each way, $8.00." That profiteering was not unknown even 
in those early days is shown in the tactics of one of the early stage 
drivers, who waited until he reached El Monte and then demanded 
payment of the full fare. As few people cared to be stranded at El Monte 
his demands were usually granted. Along about 1859 or 1860 a rival 
line was put into operation, and the subsequent contest for patronage 
caused the fare between the two points to be dropped to $6.00. Prior 


to this, in 1858, the Butterfield stage line, between St. Louis and San 
Francisco, was established, and by this route the overland mail time 
between New York and San Francisco was greatly reduced. Two mails 
a week were carried by this route, and the time on the first trip between 
the cities of St. Louis and San Francisco was 24 days, 20 hours, 25 
minutes. The quickest time on record was made by this line in twenty- 
one days. The Butterfield route was abandoned shortly after the out- 
break of the Civil war, when the Indians became troublesome after the 
withdrawal of the United States troops from California, Arizona and 
New Mexico. While the overland passenger travel was almost brought to 
a standstill, the "pony express," famed in song and story, shortened the 
time for mail between St. Joe and San Francisco, while the telegraph 
lines put through in 1861-62 made the matter of acquiring "news" an 
easy one. 

A four-horse coach began making trips between Los Angeles and 
San Bernardino in 1863. this under the ownership of A. P. Andrews, 
and in 1864 a mail route was put in operation from Los Angeles to 
Prescott, A. T., via San Bernardino, the contract being let to James 
Grant, who was a well-known mail contractor for a long period. On 
this route the mail was at first carried by riders, but these were later 
succeeded by a Concord coach between Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
and a mud wagon from the latter city to Prescott. The Banning Com- 
pany put on a "fast and reliable" mail coach in 1866. This started from 
Wilmington weekly, and after passing through Los Angeles, El Monte, 
Mud Springs,, Cucamonga and San Bernardino, continued on by wav of 
Warner's to Yuma, the trip being made in seventy-two hours, which 
was considered something of a feat in those days. The San Bernardino 
Guardian, during 1867, printed advertisements of the Overland Mail 
Company, W. N. Ballard, superintendent ; the LT. S. Mail Line, Tom- 
linson & Company, proprietors ; the Overland Stage Coast Line, W. E. 
Lovett & Company, proprietors ; and Banning & Company. 

With the arrival of the Mormons quite a trade was established between 
San Bernardino and points in Utah and Arizona, hay, flour and stock 
being the principal. commodities sent from this locality. Through the 
'50s and into the early '60s, freight was taken from Southern California 
to the points mentioned, as well as to Nevada and into Montana and 
even Idaho, and the greater part of this business passed through the 
San Bernardino Valley and Cajon Pass. Thus there came into existence 
the important industry of freighting. Those who engaged in this business 
had to possess, necessarily, some little capital, as the heavy, specially- 
constructed wagons cost quite a sum. and strong, well-broken mules, 
to the number of eight, ten and twelve, and sometimes eighteen or twenty, 
were required as motive ]X)wer. The wagons often carried thousands 
of dollars worth of merchandise, and the freighters had to be men of 
physical and mental strength, capable of overcoming the obstacles caused 
by marauding L^tes and Apaches, intense heat and bitter cold, thirst and 
hunger, the alkali dust and the blinding glare of the desert sun. One of 
the most progressive of the freighting companies was that of Meyerstein 
Brothers, who, in 1873-74, had a contract for hauling all supplies to the 
then booming Panamint district. This concern transported something 
like 200 tons of freight per month. San Bernardino at this time had 
one of its greatest sources of revenue in the freighting business, as it 
was the base of supplies for the desert country and the mines throughout 
the county, while from this locality were also exported wheat, flour and 
lumber to the coast district, San Bernardino's mule line competing suc- 
cessfully for some years with the Southern Pacific Company. 


The Coming of the Railroads. The advent of the railroads saw the 
end of the stage coaches and of the freighting business. These held on 
tenaciously in some districts, local stages being in general operation 
until well' into the '80s, while a few lines were still in existence as late 
as the start of the twentieth century, but the iron horse put a quietus on 
the stage business as a really profitable or important industry. From the 
very nature of things it was early evident that at some time a transcon- 
tinental railroad line would be put through from the lower Mississippi 
River to the Pacific Coast, and naturally there was much lively specula- 
tion as to what course it would take. San Diego, possessing a harbor, 
felt confident that it would be the recipient of the honor, while San 
Bernardino was equally confident, because of its great gateways of San 
Gorgonio and Cajon. As early as 1867 the Memphis & El Paso road 
was incorporated and work was commenced at the eastern end of the 
line, but the enterprise died an early death. A line from San Diego 
to the Gila River got no further than the survey. Surveys and con- 
cessions were made for an international line to run in a direct course 
from San Diego eastward, partly on Mexican territory, but the scheme 
petered out. Tom Scott, of early Southern California financial fame, 
organized the Texas & Pacific road, which was expected to solve the 
railway problem of this part of the state, and San Diego made large 
grants of land and harbor front to this corporation, but after ten miles 
of railroad bed had been graded the financial panic of 1873 put an 
end to the work. 

Dozens of local roads were built on paper and never got beyond that 
stage. One of these was a narow-gauge road between San Bernardino 
and San Diego, which was surveyed and seemed at one time to be an 
assured fact. But in spite of the fact that leading citizens made resolu- 
tions and agreements, all of these early propositions fell through. The 
San Bernardino Guardian of October 2. 1868, printed a glowing account 
of the incorporation, September 23, 1868, of the Pacific & San Bernardino 
Railroad Company, with a capital stock of $2,000,000. but this road, like 
the others failed to materialize. In 1874 the Los Angeles & Independence 
Railway was organized and San Bernardino was invited to co-operate. 
The citizens of this city, however, feeling perhaps overconfident that 
any line passing through the vallev could not skip the city, did not 
show sufficient enterprise, and the railway never reached the valley. 

The Southern Pacific- In 1859 a railroad convention was called at 
San Francisco, and one of the delegates thereto was Theodore D. Judah, 
a young engineer who had come out of the East in 1856 to build the 
first railroad in California, a line from Folsom to Sacramento. Mr. Judah, 
in presenting the information that he had gathered and the plans that 
he had drawn, made such an impression upon the convention that he 
was delegated to act as accredited agent at \\'ashington, and largely 
through his zeal and his confidence in the feasibility of the route he had 
selected, Messrs. Huntington. Crocker, Stanford and Hopkins became 
interested, the result being the organization, in 1861, of the Central 
Pacific Company. Some opposition was encountered, but much of this 
was eliminated by the withdrawal of the Southern members of Congress 
at the outbreak of the Civil war. Judah was sent to Washington to work 
in the interests of the company, and as a result, in 1862, Congress passed 
an "Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from 
the Missouri River to the Pacific ocean and to secure to the govern- 
ment the use of the same for postal, military and other purposes." For 
the carrying out of the construction of this road, between Sacramento 


and the eastern boundary of California, the government gave 2,000,000 
acres of land and $6,000,000 in bonds ; the state gave $105,000 a year for 
twenty years; Sacramento gave $300,000 in stock, and Placer took 
$250,000 in stock. After ground was broken at Sacramento in 1863 the 
work was advanced with surprising rapidity. The Union Pacific Com- 
pany was also organized and work was begun at the eastern terminus on 
the Missouri. To these two roads the government granted bonds to 
the extent of more than $55,000,000, Congress gave them over 26,000,- 
000 acres of land, important concessions and subsidies were granted by 
the states and cities through which the roads passed, and under this 
encouragement the work went on with ever-increasing rapidity. On 
May 10, 1869, the last spike was driven when the two roads met near 
Ogden, and the long talked of transcontinental line, becoming an assured 
fact, united the Atlantic and Pacific. 

In 1865 the Central Pacific Company had organized a line known as 
the Southern Pacific Company, the intention being to build a southern 
route, and in 1866 the Atlantic & Pacific Company was organized and 
authorized to build a road from Springfield, Missouri, to the Pacific 
Coast, but this latter was granted no bonds, although given grants of 
lands. Other lines about this time were the Memphis, El Paso & Pacific, 
and, in 1871, the Texas Pacific, both of which began construction from 
their eastern termini. 

Of these roads the Southern Pacific was to prove by far the most 
important. By 1872 it had constructed a line as far south as Tehachapi. 
Los Angeles, determined to secure the line at any cost, voted a subsidy 
of over $600,000, and the road, to secure same, at once built twenty-five 
miles of road from the north of that city to San Fernando and twenty- 
five miles east to Spadra, completed in April, 1874. The work paused 
there, and doubts were expressed whether the road would ever go any 
further, some believing that San Bernardino would be the ultimate 
terminus. In November, 1873, a meeting of San Bernardino's citizens 
was held and a committee was appointed to induce the company to come 
into the valley, but no definite results followed. In October. 1874, 
Southern magnates met the citizens of San Bernardino at a largely 
attended mass meeting, at which it was asked that the city's business men 
purchase $100,000 worth of bonds. It was developed, however, that the 
railroad would not promise to build through the town, but "as near 
to it as possible." At a later meeting of citizens it was decided "that if 
the railway company comes through the town, we, the committee, will 
propose to the county to buy the bonds ; if it does not come through the 
town we will not raise one cent." As no definite promise could be 
extracted from the railroad no bonds were subscribed for. Eventually 
the depot, roundhouse, etc., were constructed on 640 acres of land, 
of a 2,000 acre tract owned by the Slover Mountain Association, lying 
southwest of San Bernardino, directly in line between Spadra and' the 
San Gorgonio Pass. The railroad reached Colton July 30. 1875. and 
the Southern Pacific Company, which had become somewhat embittered 
over San Bernardino's failure to subscribe for the bonds, built a large 
hotel, put in other improvements, and threw its entire influence into the 
building up of the new town. For a time this was keenly felt by San 
Bernardino, the business of which city was practically at a standstill, 
while Colton grew rapidly and flourished amazingly. 

With the union of the northern and southern ends of the road, 
September 6, 1876, San Bernardino and Colton were put into direct 
communication with San Francisco. Lack of competition and of local 
business sufficient to pay the expense of keeping the local lines in opera- 


tion caused the freight rates to be excessively high, and the merchants of 
San Bernardino entered into an arrangement with McFadden Brothers, 
of Newport, owners of a steamboat, to run their boat in competition 
with the railroad in carrying freight for this city. The mule train, 
mentioned heretofore, was put into operation between this city and 
Newport, and freight from San Francisco, by this line, was delivered 
more expeditiously and at lower rates than the railroad would give from 
Colton. This brought the Southern Pacific people up with a round turn, 
and through the medium of a lowering of the rates a strong eflfort was 
made to secure San Bernardino's business. The acceptance of the terms 
offered by a majority of the business men put the mule line out of 
commission, but the rates were still high and the service far from 

San Bernardino County finally became connected with the East by 
a direct railway route when, in March. 1881, the connection between 
the Southern Pacific and the Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe. at Deming, 
New Mexico, was eflfected and the first passenger train between San 
Francisco and Kansas City, by the southern route, went over the road. 

In 1886 the motor line between Colton and San Bernardino, built 
by R. W. Button, was completed, and in 1888 was extended to Riverside. 
San Bernardino was connected with Redlands by a motor line in 1888, 
and in 1892 the Southern Pacific Company purchased these lines, thus 
gaining direct entrance to the three cities. Early in the twentieth century, 
the Southern Pacific Company purchased land in the center of San 
Bernardino City and erected a handsome and adequate railway depot, 
thus giving the people of the city the service that they had been denied 
thirty years before. 

The Santa Fe System. An act of Congress, July 7, 1866. approved 
and subsidized a new continental line, starting from .Springfield. Mis- 
souri, thence running by the most direct route to Albuquerque. New 
Mexico, thence to the head waters of the Little Colorado River, and 
then along the thirty-fifth parallel, north latitude, to the Colorado River 
and thence to tidewater. This road immediately entered itno a contest 
with the Atchison, Topeka & .Santa Fe, and in 1879 the latter road com- 
bined with the St. Louis & San Francisco and the Chicago & Alton 
companies, to build a joint line from Albuquerque to the Pacific Coast. 
San Diego, in an effort to secure this line, induced two representatives 
to visit their city, and through them oft'ered to the railroad "6.000 acres 
of land within the city, with a water front of one mile. $15,000 in cash, 
and 1,000 city lots." Messrs. Kimball, of the National Rancho, who had 
invested heavily at San Diego and the vicinity, oft'ered 10,000 acres, 
with another mile of water front: and Tom Scott, of the defunct Texas 
& Pacific, agreed to deed to the new road 4.500 acres of the land pre- 
viously granted him. 

When San Bernardino citizens heard of this olTer they were imme- 
diately aroused, and October 20, 1879, a meeting was held at the court- 
hou-e, at which it was unanimously decided that every eflfort should be 
made to secure the new line A delegation consisting of Fred Perris, 
then county surveyor, and John Isaacs, then editor of the San Bernardino 
Times, made their way to San Diego and after numerous discourage- 
ments succeeded in meeting Messrs. G. B. Wilbur and L. G. Pratt, the 
representatives of the road, whom they interested to the extent that they 
secured an appointment for a later dater at San Bernardino. Inasmuch 
as this promise was the real turning-point for San Bernardino, and that 
it marked the date of the beginning of railroad history of the city. 


the following editorial which appeared in the San Bernardino Times of 
November 30, 1879, is of interest : "We have spent several days with 
the gentlemen now among us representing the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railway, and we are forced to the conclusion that their visit 
here is not a mere dodge, but that they mean business and are in earnest 
in their efforts to learn the feasibility of a road to our coast, the best 
route to be taken by it. the present and possible resources of the country 
through which they would pass, and other points bearing upon their 
line as a paying investment. They are here as an investigating com- 
mittee, and upon their report future action will be taken by their com- 
pany, and it is for the purpose of making an intelligent report that they 
are staying among us so long and making so studious an examination 
of the counties of Southern California." 

Eventually the route by the way of Cajon Pass was decided upon 
and by May, 1881, the graders, who had started work at the San Diego 
terminus, were at work in Temecula Canon. The work hesitated here 
for a time, while Riverside made an effort to bring the road through the 
Temescal Valley, Arlington and Riverside, but at length San Bernardino 
ended its debate as to what it would offer to secure a depot within the city 
limits, and guaranteed right of way and depot grounds, amounting to 
some $20,000 in value. It was thus settled that the road should pass 
through San Bernardino, and thence through the Cajon Pass to join 
the eastern extension which was being pushed through New Mexico and 
Arizona. Amid much rejoicing, the first train whistle rang through San 
Bernardino, September 13, 1883. This was not accomplished, how- 
ever, without a bitter struggle, for the Southern Pacific had presented 
every possible obstacle, legal and material, to the entrance of its rival, 
and for a time it seemed as though serious trouble might arise. The 
road had hardly been completed to San Bernardino when there came the 
flood year of 1883-84, second only in violence to that of 1862. The 
eastern engineers had refused to believe that their carefully planned 
grades and bridges could be harmed by the innocent-appearing little 
stream of the Temecula Canon, and as a result some fifteen miles of track 
was completely destroyed, while many washouts occurred at other points. 
This damage remained unrepaired for a long time. In July, 1884, the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe secured the use of the line from Needles 
to Mojave, which had been completed by the .Southern Pacific in April, 
1883, and also the right to run their trains over the Southern Pacific 
tracks to San Francisco. At the same time it was anounced that the 
Southern California extension would be completed to Waterman' and 
the breaks fully repaired. In November, 1885, this work had been com- 
pleted, and San Bernardino turned out en force to greet its first trans- 
continental train. 

In the meantime the California Central had already commenced the 
construction of the numerous branch lines which were to make it the 
beneficiary of Southern California. A line was surveyed in 1884 between 
San Bernardino and Los Angeles, via Pasadena and the San Gabriel 
Valley, and in 1885 the Riverside, Santa Ana I't Los Angeles Railway was 
incorporated to build the line through the Santa Ana Canon. The "boom"' 
years of 1886-7 saw a wide extension of railway "feeders" in Southern 
California, and at one time there were ten different parties engaged in 
railroad construction in different parts of the county. Here, in 1887, 
there were 484 miles of road in operation, as parts of the Santa Fe 
System. In 1893 the "loop" around the San Bernardino \''alley was 



completed, thus finishing the famous "kite-shaped" track by which pas- 
sengers could travel from Los Angeles through the San Gabriel Valley 
to San Bernardino and thence to Redlands, and. returning by the loop, 
cross the track at San Bernardino and thence to Los Angeles via the 
Santa Ana Valley, or vice versa. The Temecula division of the Southern 
California having been washed out in 1887 and again in 1892. in the 
latter year this route was abandoned, and a branch line was built to 
Fallbrook, in the lower part of the canon. This was constructed so that 
the flood waters washed over, instead of under the bridges, which has 
proved successful. By the acquisition of the San Joaquin Valley road 
and the building of some track, the Santa Fe System in 1901 gained 
an entrance of its own into San Francisco, thus giving that city, for 
the first time, a competing line of road. 

In 1886 the California Southern proposed to the citizens of San 
Bernardino that they donate eighteen acres of land adjoining the twenty 
acres already owned by the company ; whereupon the railroad would 
locate its division headquarters here, with machine shops, depot and 
improvements. The proposition was enthusiastically accepted, but con- 
demnation suits in some cases were necessary to secure the land desired. 
However, the work was at once gotten under way. and the Santa Fe 
shops, as they are known, add to the city's prestige as a railroad center. 

Probably no other city west of the Rocky Mountains receives such 
direct benefits from its railroads as does San Bernardino. Not only 
does it enjoy all of the advantages that generally follow three trans- 
continental lines, but in addition, the benefits which accrue from having 
located there, the largest railroad shops, on the Santa Fe line west of 

The Santa Fe population embraces, perhaps, well on to one-half the 
total working force of San Bernardino ; the employees carried on the 
payroll number approximately 2.500 men and women, amounting to 
$300,000 per month in wages. 

Take an item in another line that will illustrate traffic volume. 
The month of October, 1921, the average number of cars over that road 
were 1,504 per day-^a freight train in and out of the yards every 
thirty minutes. 

After the old Southern California completed a line from San Ber- 
nardino a splendid depot was constructed in June, 1886, and served up 
until November, 1916, when it was burned, along with several hundred 
thousand dollars in other property, including one of the shop buildings — 
the coach construction or rebuilding department. 

The following years. 1917-1918. something over two million dollars 
were expended in new buildings, one million dollars for shop purposes, 
including the acquiring of additional property, and one million dollars 
in station grounds and depot building. A splendid station which now 
is used jointly by the Santa Fe and Union Pacific was completed and 
opened on July 15. 1918. .Since then, improvements have been going on 
continually, and extensions and additional facilities for the shops, and 
additions to the depot. 

September 21. 1921. the LTnion Pacific took control of the Salt Lake 
and merged both lines under the name of Union Pacific. 

There arc approximately 25.000 to 40.000 cars of citrus fruit moved 
out of San Bernardino yearly, all passing through the Santa Fe pre- 
cooling plant. Making the estimate at 40,000, and many years it is 
that and over, with 448 boxes of oranges, or v^92 boxes of lemons to 
the car, and each box weighing 78 pounds, we have the pounds of citrus 
fruit leaving San Bernardino every year. 


Take 1919, for instance, with its 42,443 cars, each car approximately 
43 feet long, there wiU be 1,825.049 feet, 346 miles; a train of cars 
reaching from San Diego far into Arizona. This is only one of the 
outputs of train service over the Santa Fe. San Bernardino has been 
fortunate in "acquiring" men as heads of railroad departments, who 
at once identified themselves with the city ; becoming interested in its 
upbuilding, and whom the city in return would honor. 

Ben L. Holmes came to San Bernardino as agent in November, 1907. 
He is local freight and passenger agent, with entire charge of the 
terminal facilities, as well as from an operating standpoint so far as 
transportation matters are concerned, which includes general supervision 
of the terminal yards. He was not long in identifying himself with 
various institutions which soon felt the strength of his personality and 
general knowledge of aflfairs. He became a strong factor in the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, and was elected a director ; and head of a department 
of the Orange Show, in fact, was one of the first members. Such men 
as these strengthen the ties between the Santa Fe and the city, and 
there are many of them waiting for opportunity to bring them forward. 

F. T. Perris. the construction engineer of the Santa Fe from the 
road's first steps toward building, was always a friend of the city and 
ready to serve for its best interests. When the Civic Society started 
in on beautification of the streets, Mr. Perris went to Santa Ana and 
gathered up palms, roses and shrubs and set out the little park just to the 
east of the Santa Fe Depot, that some day, will receive recognition as 
"Perris Park." He did not wait for someone else to "plant a tree" as 
a monument, he set them out himself. On October 1, 1914, after 
thirty-five years of service, both as chief engineer and as manager of 
the fuel department and oil properties of the Santa Fe coast lines, 
Fred T. Perris, aged seventy-seven, oldest official in point of service on 
the entire system, was retired on pension. 

Mr. Perris was a pioneer of the valley and has been identified with 
the upbuilding of not only San Bernardino, but Southern California. 
Under his direction most of the lines of the Santa Fe were built and he 
drove the first passenger train into this city on the California Southern 
Railroad from Los Angeles on September 13, 1883. Mr. Perris was 
retired with most liberal pension and with letters of appreciation from 
many high up officers, including President E. P. Ripley. A few years ago 
Mr. Perris passed away. 

Oil As Fuel. One of the problems that the railroads were called 
upon to face was the matter of the high cost of fuel. It was necessary 
to bring coal into California from New Mexico, Washington or Van- 
couver, and for this reason transportation rates were kept at a higli 
point. There seemed to be no solution of the matter until the increased 
production of petroleum in Southern California in the early '90s sug- 
gested to K. H. Wade, then general manager, and G. W. Prescott. super- 
intendent of machinery, for the Southern California system, the possibility 
of using crude oil as fuel. While continued experiments gave them faith 
in its economy and utility as compared with fuel it was not until 1895 
that a satisfactory method was perfected so that it could be used in loco- 
motives. Not only was a saving of ten cents a train mile effected, but 
the absence of sparks minimized the danger of fire in the dry country 
traversed by western roads, cinders were done away with and dust and 
smoke were greatly reduced, while the wear and tear on machinery was 
another matter to be considered. With the equipment of the Southern 
Pacific and California Southern roads changed to use oil as fuel, the 


rail companies acquired extensive oil fields of their own. Another use 
for this product was found in the oiling of tracks and roads with crude 
oil, dust being thus almost overcome and the comfort and cleanliness 
of passengers greatly increased. 

The War Over Rates. The so-called "rate war" between the rail- 
roads has been touched upon heretofore, but its importance is deserving of 
further mention. The completion of the branch line between Colton and 
the .Southern Pacific at Barstow, which gave the Atchison, Topeka S: 
Santa Fe line an entrance into Southern California, and California its 
second transcontinental line, was an important event. In January, 1886, 
at a meeting of the Transcontinental Association, a pool of all lines in 
the transcontinental business, held at New York City, it was announced 
that the Atchison System was ready to handle one-half of the business 
to and from Southern California, but its claim of 50 per cent of the 
business was strenuously opposed by the Southern Pacific, which line 
was upheld by the association. This caused the withdraw-al of the 
Atchison, the other lines joined forces against it, and the Santa Fe 
authorized its agents to start cutting rates. Action commenced at once. 
The rates up to this time had been; first class, Chicago, unlimited. $115; 
St. Louis, $112. By February 21st of the same year a rate of $25 between 
the coast and Missouri River points had been reached, and three days 
later tickets between Kansas City and San Francisco were $30 with $5 
rebate, and $24 with $3 rebate. March 6th the Southern Pacific was 
selling tickets at a "flat" rate of $16 between the coast and Missouri, 
$20 to Chicago and $35 to New York. Says Ingersoll : "Down the fare 
continued to drop until it reached a point where it w-as cheaper to travel 
than to stay at home. The climax of the cheap rates was reached in 
Los Angeles, however, when, on March 8, tickets were sold by the 
Southern Pacific at a flat rate of $1 to the Missouri River. This rate was 
only maintained for a few hours and was not met by the Santa Fe, 
which continued to sell at $8, although $5 was previously put on. Of 
course such rates led to a phenomenal travel both ways. California 
was flooded with tourists and the 'boom' was on. The cheap freight 
rates also caused almost a complete blockade of business. Merchants 
ordered large stocks of goods — but the stocks already on hand some- 
times sold at a loss. The 'war' continued, with variations, for some 
months and rates were not settled until toward the close of 1887. The 
rush continued through the winter of 1886-87, trains coming in sections 
and parties of several hundred coming in a body to look over the land 
and to invest. 

"It is hard to estimate the number of people who came into California 
during the rate war, but the population of the state increased from 864,- 
686 in 1880, to 1,208,130 in 1890, a gain of 347,444 in the ten years. 
According to careful estimates based on the school population census, the 
population of the state in 1886 was 1,117.982, and in 1887, 1,170.298, 
a gain of 52,316, a large per cent of whom were doubtless 'boom' 
comers. The greater per cent of the increase in the state was in the 
Southern counties and, as seen, San Bernardino County multiplied more 
than 300 per cent during the ten years and gained the greater part of 
her increased population during the 'boom' years." 

The Salt Lake Route. Men of clear vision in Southern Cali- 
fornia had long foreseen a connecting line of railway between this part 
of the state and the Great Salt Lake Basin, and tentative activities in 
this direction were commenced more than thirty-five years ago. It was 


in 1886 that Capt. C. E. Thom, Judge Ross and other property owners 
of Los Angeles built a narow gauge line between their city and Glendale, 
and about the same time Capt. John Cross came from Arkansas and in 
company with other capitalists constructed a narrow gauge line between 
Los Angeles and Pasadena. The latter, after absorbing the former, 
was known as the Cross road. About 1890 there were expectations that 
the Union Pacific would complete the LTtah Southern into California, 
utilizing some of the franchises already granted to enter San Bernardino, 
and in the same year a new company was organized by St. Louis capital- 
ists, this line purchasing the Cross interests, buying 115 acres of land at 
San Pedro for terminal purposes and constructing a line from that point 
to Los Angeles, known as the Terminal road. It was believed that this 
was meant to be a part of a Salt Lake route, but the rumors proved idle, 
and it was not until Senator W. A. Clark, of Montana, became the 
moving spirit of a new company, in 1900, which purchased the Terminal 
road and portions of the Oregon Short Line Railway, that there was 
any definite move in this direction. Work from that time forward was 
pushed rapidly. Arrangements were made with the Santa Fe and the 
Southern Pacific to give the new line entrance into Colton and San 
Bernardino and trackage to Daggett, from which point the line was built 
to follow the contour of the Mojave River for sixty-five miles, then 
turning across the Colorado Canon and passing through the "Cave coun- 
try." The completion of this line gave Southern California a third trans- 
continental route and opened another large section of San Bernardino's 
desert area, thus bringing into acquisition vast mineral deposits which 
had theretofore been unavailable, while the junction of three great lines 
at Colton and San Bernardino gave added impetus to these towns. 



The mere mention of the mining industry as connected with CaHfornia 
brings at once to the mind of the layman the great gold rush of '49, 
with its attending features of roaring camps, wonderful strikes, dis- 
illusionment and romantic adventure. However, as far as San Ber- 
nardino's mining history is concerned, this county was touched by those 
incidents only insomuch as the valley was used as a gateway for the 
great throngs of inrushing gold-seekers hastening to the gold-fields 
who used this means of gaining their destination, many of whom remained 
in the valley, attracted by its beauty and possibilities, while many more 
returned after they had failed to find the fortunes which they had 
expected to attain so easily in the regions to the north. 

Gold, it is true, has been found in the county, as well as silver, 
copper, borax and other minerals, but while great development work 
has been done, particularly during recent years, the real mineral resources 
of the county have not, even as yet been fully exploited in a systematic 
manner, and fortunes are still hidden in the mountain ranges and in the 
Mojave Desert. But while development work had been slow, as early 
as 1902 San Bernardino County ranked third in the state in the produc- 
tion of mineral wealth, and in 1901 her mineral wealth formed more 
than 11 per cent of her total assets. Many conditions contributed to the 
tardiness of development, these including lack of capital, scarcity of 
fuel and water, the almost insurmountable difficulty (in the earlier days) 
in reaching many of the desert mines and the prohibitive cost of getting 
the ore to smelters or mills. In recent years the matter of fuel has been 
overcome to a large extent by the development of oil and the comparative 
slight cost of its delivery at any railroad point, this encouraging the 
erection of smelters. Naturally, the building of new transportation lines 
throughout the county has had its effect and has eliminated many of 
the obstacles which formerly proved great hindrances. 

By 1902 work had been carried forward to a point where there were 
in the neighborhood of 250 quartz mines bearing gold and silver, the 
greater number opened up, and scattered through about twenty mining 
districts, the most active operations being promoted in the Clark, Van- 
derbilt and New York districts in the nor<theastern part of the county, 
the Oro Grande, Calico and Black Hawk districts in the central portion 
of the county, and the Rand district, located partly in Kern County. 
There were also seventy-seven copper claims, seventeen nitre deposits on 
which claims had been located, fourteen borax mines, eleven locations of 
lime, four granite quarries, three marble quarries, two kaolin claims, and 
locations of cement, cobalt, rubble, turquoise, nickle, asbestos, corun- 
dum and graphite. In addition to these there were known to exist in 
the county, awaiting development, the following minerals, ornamental 
material and gems: tin, zinc, iron, porphyry, mineral paint, sandstone, 
gypsum, potter's clay, fire clay, fuller's earth, bauxite, coal, oil, asbestos, 
mica, apatite, nitre, carbonate of soda, epsom salts, glauber salts, onyx, 
octahedrite, obsidian, agate, azurite and aragonite. San Bernardino 
County leads the world in the production of borax and leads all other 
counties in the state in the production of cement, borac, turquoise and 

History of Mining. San Bernardino's mining history really begins 
with the discovery of gold in Holcomb and Bear valleys in the fall of 


1860. It was also about that time that the prospectors began the devel- 
opment of silver mines at Ivanpah and that placer mining began on 
Lytle Creek. This form of mining was carried on quite extensively 
during the '60s on that creek and in Holcomb and Bear valleys, and 
was likewise attempted in the Yucaipe \^alley, but without any gratifying 
amount of success. Lytle Creek was also the scene of the first hydraulic 
mining done in the county, and this was tried in a small way in the 
mountain districts, but the mines of the county have been almost exclu- 
sively quartz formations and quartz mining, therefore, has been the 
method most in use. During the '70s the gold and silver mines of the 
Ord, Ivanpah and Panamint districts were developed, and later the rich 
silver mines of Providence Mountains and the Calico district were 
opened up. The production of silver during the '80s was very heavy, the 
Providence mines having been the richest silver bearing mines by far 
ever discovered in California. Later the possibilities of the desert were 
discovered and the output of borax steadily grew to be San Bernardino's 
most valuable source of mineral wealth. 

Prospecting for gold in Bear Valley, high in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, began in 1859, and the first "pay dirt" was struck by Jack 
Martin and W. F. Holcomb, two well-known old-timers. The rush 
that always follows such a discovery was on as soon as news of the 
strike leaked out, and within an incredibly short time men from all over 
this section were engaged in feverishly panning dirt in the vallev. Hol- 
comb also had the distinction of locating the first claims in Holcomb 
Vallev, five miles beyond Bear \'^alley, staking out selections in company 
with Ben Ware, May 5, 1860. This valley has been known as Holcomb 
Valley ever since. This brought another rush, and for several years 
the two valleys presented all the appearances of a typical mining camp, 
men coming in from all sections of the country, flourishing settle- 
ments being formed and hotels, stores and other enterprises becoming 

The diggings were shallow and easily worked and large quantities of 
gold were taken out by a number of fortunates, but suddenly the dig- 
gings seemed to be worked out, there was a rapid exodus of miners and 
the locality for a time was practically deserted. There were still those, 
however, who had faith in the locaHty, and about 1870 a forty-stamp 
mill was erected at Gold Mountain in Bear Valley, but its destruction 
by fire soon thereafter left the matter of the presence of ore in paying 
quantities still one of speculation. "Lucky" Baldwin was one of the 
owners of a ten-stamp mill erected in Bear Valley in 1876, but this 
proved a non-paying investment. A further experiment in Holcomb 
Valley was made by Alex Del Mar and an English syndicate, in 1887, and 
considerable money expended, but no great amount of ore was taken 
out, and the difficulty of obtaining water and fuel hindered the work 

Considerable excitement followed the discovery of placer gold in 
Lytle Creek Canon, early in the '60s. The Harpending Company, a 
New York concern, acquired property in this locality, and in 1867, under 
the management of Captain Winder, of San Diego, installed a hydraulic 
outfit including a flume five miles long which carried 600 inches of 
water. The newspapers of the day reported that the company, which 
employed forty men, took out returns as high as $2,000 per week. This 
was the first successful hydraulic mining in Southern California, and 
at the time was the most important mining venture in San Bernardino 
County. The Harpending Company disposed of its interests to Louis 
Abadie, and other Frenchmen, who continued this method of mining. 


The placer mining in this district was also profitable at the time, 
and it was reported that men sometimes picked up $40 per day at this 
method. Placer inining continued to be carried on in Lytic Creek Canon 
to a more or less considerable extent for many years, and as late as 
1890 it was reported that 100 men were working the placers and clearing 
on an average of $4 per day. 

Borax. The history of the borax industry in this county dates 
back to the year 1861, when John \\'. Searles, a well-known pioneer 
and hunter of early days, was prospecting with his brother, Dennis, 
in the Slate Range, in the extreme northern edge of the county, their 
camp overlooking a wide marsh "that gleamed in the hot sun like molten 
silver." The engineer of the party complained that the carbonate of lime 
that was used in working the ores had borax in it, this element inter- 
fering with its proper influence. At the time nothing further was done 
about developing this mineral, but about 1863, when the first authenticated 
discovery of borax v.'as made at Clear Lake, a San Francisco Company 
began exploiting it. The discovery of borax finds in Nevada by F. M. 
Smith and others, in 1872, caused a furore, and when a sample of the 
Nevada borax was brought into California, Searles took the opportunity 
of examining it. He was not slow to realize the opportunities awaiting 
in the Slate Range, to which point he immediately made his way with 
his brother, Dennis, J. D. Creigh and E. \\'. Skilling. where the party 
pre-empted claims of 160 acres each. With the spread of the news other 
prospectors appeared and in a short time the entire marsh was covered 
with men having placer claims of twenty acres each, but the most of 
these were unsuccessful and soon left the district. The Searles Com- 
pany remained, however, and soon began taking out borax, and during 
1873 more than 1,000,000 pounds of borax, valued at nearly $200,000, 
was taken from the marshes of San Bernardino County. The Searles 
Company erected an extensive plant with a capacity of 100 tons per 
month of refined borax, situated in what was known as Searles' Marsh, 
a basin-like depression, or dry lake, ten miles long and five miles wide, 
containing an almost unlimited quantity of the material. The transpor- 
tation of the product brought up a problem hard of solution, for the 
marsh was situated far from railroads or markets, but this was solved 
by specially constructed wagons, carrying immense loads and drawn by 
twelve, eighteen or twenty mules. Stations along the route were estab- 
lished by placing water tanks at various points and cacheing supplies of 
mule feed and provisions. From 1873 to 1881 the principal borax 
production of the state, and of the United States as well, was from 
the borax marshes of San Bernardino County. 

In 1882 borax was discovered in the Calico district by W. T. Coleman 
and F. M. Smith. While they were very rich, they were in a diiTerent 
form from the marshes and not so easily worked, and the property later 
passed into the hands of the Pacific Borax Company, which had its 
reduction works at Alameda. Calico furnished most of the borax mined 
in the county from 1888 to 1893. 

Borax mining on a large scale was commenced in 1898 with the 
commencement of work on the erection of a 100-ton borax plant at 
Borax Lake, but before it was completed it was sold to a syndicate 
organized that year with a capital of $7,000,000, to control all borax 
output. The shipment of borax from that point was facilitated in the 
same year by the completion of the branch railroad from Daggett to 
Calico, and in 1899, when the syndicate secured control of all the Cali- 
fornia works, the different refineries were shut down, and the Borax 


Consolidated Limited began shipping the crude ores, after crushing 
and drying in its plant at Marion, about four miles north of Daggett, 
to its large reduction works at Bayonne, New Jersey. 

IvANPAH. Located in the Clark district, in the northeastern corner 
of San Bernardino County, is Ivanpah. In 1870 the McFarlane brothers 
located the Lizzie Bullock mine, which proved exceedingly rich in silver, 
and for a number of years large quantities of ore were taken from this 
and neighboring mines. Ivanpah was the chief silver producing district 
of the county during the 70s, and it is said that the amount of bullion 
produced amounted to millions of dollars in value. During the '80s 
J. S. Alley and Tom McFarlane located the Alley mines, which were 
profitable for a time, but the ore was mostly in stringers and for many 
years the silver mines have been deserted. In 1872 Mat Palen re-located 
a silver mine, one of the first to be discovered in the county, which had 
been worked at some previous time by unknown miners. A shaft fifty 
feet deep, filled with debris was uncovered, but no traces of machinery or 
tools were found. Mr. Palen opened up a rich prospect, and a stamp mill, 
probably the first one in the county, was erected. Since that time it is 
claimed that stone hammers and evidences of pre-historic occupation 
have been found in the turquoise mines in the same locality. In recent 
years turquoise and copper mines have been worked at Ivanpah, one 
of the former having made considerable shipments for a number of 
years, and several prornising gold claims have been developed. 

Calico. The many colored rocks and hills of the locality gave to 
the Calico district its suggestive and unique name. This community 
first attracted attention in the early '80s, although silver had been dis- 
covered prior to that time, the first location in Calico mountains being 
made by an old-timer, Charley Mecham, then by Lowery Silver. Several 
hundred locations were made about 1880, and in 1881 Hues Thomas, 
Tom Warden and others located the Silver King mine, a prolific pro- 
ducer. In 1884 this mine was the chief producer in exceeding an output 
of $642,000 from the Calico district, and in 1888 the state mineralogist 
reported that the Calico mines were the source whence came the greater 
part of the silver produced in San Bernardino County, which was then 
producing 70 per cent of all the silver mined in California. Calico at 
that time was a full-fledged mining "bonanza," with 170 stamps in 
operation. The Waterloo mine, one of the best in the district and 
yielding an immense amount of ore, employed from 100 to 150 men and 
kept a sixty stamp mill constantly in operation. The operation of this 
mine ceased in 1892, however, owing to the diminished price of silver 
and the low grade of ore, but the Silver King was kept in activity 
several years longer. 

A history of Calico is contained in the following extracts from the 
reminiscences of C. L. Mecham. of San Bernardino : 

"About the year 1869 or 1870 father kept a little store at Camp Cady, 
a government post. This post was in command of Captain Drum. It 
was about 106 miles from San Bernardino by wagon road. Later this post 
was abandoned as a government post and is now used as a cattle ranch. 
Father remained at the garrison about two years and then thinking the 
place he later named 'The Fish Ponds' would be a suitable place for a 
station, he left Camp Cady and moved there. One of the ponds of water 
just north of his house was full of fish of the chub species from whence 
the station derived its name. 


"Father was at this station alone for a number of years. There was 
a great deal of travel over the road as at that time there were no rail- 
roads and all transportation was carried on by horse and mule teams. 

"I will now give a brief history of Calico from the first discovery 
up to two years after. The place was called Calico because the mountain 
around there from a distance resembled colors of calico cloth. While 
we were at the station an old man by the name of Mr. Lee would come 
quite often to our place for provisions. We always kept sufficient amount 
on hand to accommodate the travelers. Mr. Lee would work around 
San Bernardino, doing garden work and after saving a little money 
he would go out to his mine and prospect until his money was all gone 
and then he would return to San Bernardino and repeat the same thing 
over again. He was of the opinion that he was the possessor of a 
quicksilver mine. He would bring some of this ore with him every 
time he came for provisions. 

"Prospectors at this time were always hunting for certain kinds of 
rock and the right kind of formation in order to do their prospecting 
for mineral. This is all right to a certain extent, but this did not work 
out satisfactorily after the discovery of Calico. The old saying is — 
which has proven true — 'Gold and silver are just where you find them.' 

"All we had to do was to keep a supply of hay on hand at the 
station, so naturally during our spare time we had a splendid opportunity 
to become acquainted with the surrounding country and general appear- 
ance of things. We cut the guyette hay and pulled sand grass, both of 
which were close to Mr. Lee's mine and also the Calico Mountains. 
Then we moved into San Bernardino, that is, the family did, where I 
attended school until I became old enough to do a man's work, which 
was only a few years. My brothers and I engaged in the Artesian well 
boring business for a number of years. About the year 1881 the news 
came in to San Bernardino that a man by the name of Mr. Porter and 
another man by the name of Mr. \\'aterman (who in the year 1887 
became lieutenant governor of California) had struck rich silver ore in 
the Lee mine. It caused quite an excitement and soon all the sur- 
rounding country had the mining fever. My older brother Frank, hav- 
ing been at the Lee mine, knew the character of the rock, so he, with 
Tom Warden, Huse Thomas, John King, Ellis Miller and George Yager, 
an uncle of mine formed a prospecting party, locating in the vicinity of 
the Lee mine. The team of horses belonged to Yager, so naturally he 
was responsible for the safe arrival of the party at their desired destina- 
tion, where the fortunes lay only awaiting to be uncovered. After two 
or three days' travel with nothing to mar the pleasure of the trip, only 
to realize that their dreams might come true, they arrived at Barstow, 
not where Barstow town is now, but just north, about a mile, where 
E. Miller had a station, or, in other words, a small ranch. On account 
of Miller being located where he was and being in a position where he 
was able to assist, was the reason why he was made a partner in the 
company. John King did not accompany the party on the trip but 
helped financially. He made the sixth partner to the party which com- 
prised the Silver King Mining Company of Calico. 

"After arriving at Miller's Station and making all necessary arrange- 
ments, they started out with high hopes of success. They began locating 
and prospecting eastward, .\fter making several locations and they 
were about to finish up the trip, brother Frank had a great desire to 
go over in the Calico Mountains, partly on account of information father 


had given him. At the time father was living at the Fish Ponds and 
the Indians stole his horse. He remembered seeing, while chasing the 
Indians, these large red iron capped ledges and he always insisted on 
Frank going over there and investigating. Tom Warden, George Yager 
and Frank started for the Calico Mountains, arriving there April 6, 1881. 

"They discovered a ledge which arose from the hill quite prominently 
and looked good to them. Consequently it must have a big name, so 
they called it 'The Silver King.' I have laways been of the impression 
they had in mind the 'Great Silver King Mine' in Arizona, when naming 
this one. Nevertheless, this mine has proven worthy of the name by 
its richness. 

"After they had monumented this claim and had taken quite a quantity 
of the rock as samples along with them, they went back to camp, arriving 
late in the evening. It was rather a hard trip for one day. After return- 
ing home they had their samples of rock, from their various claims they 
had located, assayed. None assayed very high. Some were worth a 
dollar or two, while others only had a trace of silver in them. The 
Silver King assayed the largest, it was something like $8 a ton in 
silver. This, of course, was not encouraging enough to cause anv 

"About the middle of June the same year (1881) the Silver Mine 
Company sent Huse Thomas and myself out to do some work on all 
their claims and to bring in some more samples of ore. Our time was 
limited so we did only a very little work on each claim. There was to 
be a big ball on the night of the Fourth of July and I was to return 
for it. As I already had an engagement with a young lady for the ball, 
all the mines on the desert could not have kept me away. On reaching 
our starting point where our operation was to begin, we started to 
work, intending to give each claim about an equal amount of work and 
take samples from each. The Silver King being to the extreme east 
end of the other claims, was our last claim to work before our return 
home. We engaged Huranemous Hartman to take us over to the Calico 
Mountains, our baggage amounted to very little, only a pair of blankets 
apiece, a few provisions, a pick, a shovel and a barrel of water. We 
arrived about the 25th or 26th of June and camped in what we afterwards 
called Wall Street, which bordered on Calico town to the west. 

"The next morning after arriving, breakfast being over, we made 
a start to do our prospecting. It being quite warm and Thomas not being 
particularly fond of climbing up the hill, we agreed that he should go to 
the east end of the mine where there was more level ground and made 
it easier walking for Thomas. I decided to climb up on the highest 
point where the ledge stood up more prominent. My intentions were to 
prospect along the ledge eastward toward where Thomas was. When 
I reached the top of the ledge and began using my pick quite freely as 
I went along, examining the rock and forming my opinion as to its 
richness, I came to a big blowout or rather a high cliff which I climbed 
on top. Before I broke a rock I noticed some little lumps on the rocks 
which resembled blisters on a fir tree. Naturally I took out my knife 
and commenced cutting into them. It had the same effect as cutting 
into a lead bullet. I began to get excited and commenced using my pick. 
In breaking the rock up, piece by piece, the mineral showed all through 
it. By this time I was very much excited for I knew I had struck it 
rich. After breaking all the rock I could pack I started down the hill 
to camp with it. I was so excited I began yelling before I reached 


camp. Thomas had reached camp ahead of me and heard me yelling 
and wanted to know if I had been bitten by a snake or had lost my 
mind. I told him 'neither, but that I certainly had struck it rich. Look 
here, pure horn silver!' 'Horn the devil,' said Thomas. 'It can't be 
silver; no such good luck.' "Well, that is just what it is,' I said, 'and 
nothing else.' After convincing him it was silver we decided to go home. 
I always will believe he knew the richness of the ore but did not want to 
confess it to me. 

"The next day we started home happy and contented over our dis- 
covery. On reaching home there were others who felt as good as we did 
on seeing what we had discovered. In fact, the whole town became 
excited in a short time. The result was a rush for Calico. The Silver 
King Company got busy and hired eight or ten men, including myself, 
and, providing us with all necessary mining equipment to work with, 
started us out to Calico. 

"On arriving at Calico we made our camp in Wall Street which I 
mentioned before. It was a deep wash west of the town. We were 
soon at work taking out ore, or, you might say, tearing down the ledge. 
It was easy mining, as there was a great deal of rich ore on the sur- 
face. Consequently we had no shafts to sink or tunnels to run for quite 
a long time. 

"The first carload of ore taken out of the mine we shipped to San 
Francisco. This ore was worth $400 or $500 a ton. After a while 
the Silver King Company made a contract with Markham & John- 
son to mill their ore at Oragranda, where they owned a five-stamp quartz 
mill. This mill was run by water power. The distance being about 
forty miles, it cost the company $20 a ton for hauling the ore and $2.S 
for milling. We had to ship at least eighty-dollar-rock in order that the 
company might get a fair dividend. We shipped a great deal of richer 
ore than that but our object was to send to the mill nothing under 
eighty-dollar-rock. A man by the name of Buckhart had the contract 
for hauling the ore. Mining the ore and getting it to a place where the 
teams could load it on was at first a rather inconvenient task. As we 
could send nothing but high grade ore it was necessary for us to do 
a great deal of sorting. Then to make sure we had the required amount 
for shipment when the teams returned, kept us on the jump. At first 
we sacked the ore and dragged it down the hill on raw-hides, as they 
proved to be more durable than anything else. In a short time the 
company put up a tramway and ore bins, making things more convenient 
for all concerned. Dragging it down the hill by hand on raw-hides and 
then pulling them up hill again for another load was rather uphill busi- 
ness. Everything went quite smoothly, new men came in daily, men of 
all trades and occupations made their appearance and the camp soon 
began to look like a city. Restaurants, stores, assay offices, lodging 
houses and saloons were quite conspicuous. 

"New people were now coming in every day. Buildings were going 
up in all directions, some making their places of abode in caves, others 
in tents, and, in fact, most any place suitable to spread down their 
blankets. It was not very long until we had a postoffice, which was very 
convenient for us all. It was run by a Mr. Soule. After a while there 
were women enough in camp so we were able to get up dancing parties. 
I can truthfully say that we had as many nice and orderly parties in 
camp as I ever attended anywhere. During the two years I stayed at 
Calico but one man was killed, which was a very good record for a 


mining camp in those days. I remember when the railroad was completed 
as far as Daggett and the camp was able to get ice, a young lady took 
advantage of the opportunity and made ice cream from condensed milk 
which she sold, making quite a sum of money. Mr. Earl Ames built the 
first adobe house in Calico, it being used as a saloon. Afterwards he 
built several more adobe houses. When I first went to Calico Johnnie 
Peterson was the only man there and he had only been there a week or 
two, working on a prospect he had located a short time before. Later on 
Peterson was killed in San Bernardino by John Taylor, an old-time friend 
and partner, over some misunderstanding in regard to mining property. 

"Mr. Sam Jones, an old pioneer of California, was foreman of the 
King Mine and held that position the two years I was in Calico. 

"After the Silver King Company had worked the mine for two years 
they sold out to Mr. Johnson and Mr. Markham, who was governor of 
California in 1890, for $60,000. 

"At this time I left the camp and came home to San Bernardino and 
was married. After I left Calico water was piped all over the town and 
there were custom mills put up at Daggett. All the low grade ore which 
we had thrown over the dump, which was many hundreds of tons, was 
taken to the mills and milled with a better profit than the high grade 
ore we had shipped for two years to Oragranda. I don't believe any- 
one knows the amount of silver taken out of the King mine, as it was 
very carelessly managed. 

"My brother, G. F. Mecham, is the only one of the original Silver 
King Mining Company living at this time. The rest have all passed on 
to the other side." 

Providence Mountains. In the Providence Mountain Range, which 
is located in the eastern part of the county, near the Colorado, extends 
northeast and southwest for eighty miles, and reaches an elevation of 
6.350 feet in its highest peak. Mount Ed?ar. was located the richest body 
of silver ever uncovered in California. The principal mine of the group. 
the Bonanza King, was located in the latter 70s. and about 1880 a ten- 
stamp, dry-crushing mill was erected by the Bonanza Consolidated Com- 
pany. In 1881 the official returns from this mine, as reported in the 
newspapers, were $251,604.15, for a run of 115 da}s, and in 1884 the 
superintendent's report contained the following statement: "The Bonanza 
King is better opened up, better worked, and we have obtained better 
results from the ore than any other mine in this great mineral desert. 
Nearly $1,000,000 has been taken from the mine in eighteen months and 
ten days." These mines, like others, however, proved to be veins or the 
ore became too low grade to pay for working after the drop in silver 
came, and for many years no work has been carried on. 

The Bagd.'^d-Ambgy Mining Districts. The history of one of the 
richest mining districts of San Bernardino County, that known as the 
Bagdad-Amboy district, is an interesting one, as given by L. A. Herald in 
1904 ■} "When John Suter five years ago, then in the employ of the Santa 
Fe as roadmaster, invaded the red looking hills that lie eight miles south 
of Ludlow, in. San Bernardino County, for the purpose of discovering 
springs or any source of water, which was urgently needed by that cor- 
poration, he found ledges and croppings of ore that were not of the 
ordinary variety, but proved many feet in width and that prospected 

Ingersoll's History of San Bernardino County. 


in gold in the horn. Even his discovery at that time, owing to the inac- 
cessibility of the country, into which every cupful of water had to be 
carried on the backs of burros, and where provisions cost their weight 
in silver dollars, was nursed with that care that is born of every pros- 
pector who makes a rich find. John Suter located his claims and named 
the leading properties the Bagdad, protecting his lines by taking in a 
group. Today this property is regarded as one of the wonders of the 
mining world, and is surrounded by scores of properties that bear every 
evidence of value. Across the valley, passing an ancient river bed. filled 
deep with the matter eroded from surrounding hills, valuable discoveries 
have been made, and ledges traced ; and hundreds of discovery monu- 
ments have been erected, and evidence, by constant prospecting, seems 
to accumulate that the Bagdad section is so thoroughly mineralized that 
it is properly described as ' poor man's mining camp.' This very fact 
enabled John Suter, the original discoverer, to employ his spare moments 
to use his wages as a railroad man, to sink his shafts and open his 
ledges until capital was induced to step in and create a mine that 
has proved a revelation to mining men. Other mines and other prop- 
erties in the same district with well directed energy soon will be placed 
in the profit column, as the opportunity is not lacking. 

"The Bagdad mine is known as the mine owned by millionaires who 
knew nothing of mining, who were typical tenderfeet, and who took 
a 'flyer' in mines for the ■ fun of the thing, playing on 'velvet' and 
declaring they would not 'go the limit.' The Bagdad mine is also known 
as the one that was under bond to a Los Angeles promoter, who failed 
to sell the property at $1,500,000 thinking that a profit of $400,000 was 
the least he could take, and who at the last stroke of 12 o'clock on the 
day the bond expired discovered that his principals would not give one 
second in an extension of his bond. Pending the sale, development was 
continued, and the camp report goes that a rich discovery prompted the 
owners to quake in fear, thinking the purchasers would materialize with 
their coin. With the contract abrogated, all attempts to renew negotia- 
tions for a sale have been declined, and the Bagdad mine is not on the 

Other Districts. In the Grapevine district, north of Barstow (for- 
merly Waterman), which was opened in the '70s, a prospector named 
Lee, later killed by the Indians, made the first location, a silver mine, 
in the '70s. Later this mine was relocated by Messrs. Waterman and 
Porter, and. the property proving a good producer, a ten-stamp mill was 
erected and a good deal of silver was taken out for a time. A large 
num.ber of other locations were made in the district, but while prospects 
were excellent for a flourishing district, the ore petered out. and little 
work has been done there for some years. 

The Vanderbilt district, located forty-five miles from Fenner on the 
line of the A. cS: P. Railway, in the eastern part of the county, was for- 
merly one of the rich silver-bearing regions. Later the miners in this 
region turned their attention to gold and considerable work was done 
on the gold-bearing claims, a ten-stamp mill and an air compressing plant 
being erected in the district. 

The Virginia Dale district is located in the southern part of the county 
and a large number of claims have been located, a stamp mill erected 
at Dale and much ore taken out. During its earlier year it was greatly 
hindered by reason of its distance from the railroad, its lack of water 
and refractory ores. 


One of the largest and richest districts of San Bernardino County, 
the Oro Grande, Hes just across the San Bernardino Range, and within 
its boundaries has several towns lying on the railroad, among these being 
Hesperia, Victor and Oro Grande. This region is rich in minerals, 
including gold, silver and marble, limestones and gem stones. Gold- 
bearing claims were located in this district in 1880 and the Oro Grande 
Mill and Mining Company was organized to develop them, putting up 
a ten-stamp mill. About 1890 the Embody and the Carbonate (silver) 
mines were located and produced another mining excitement. At Victor, 
in the later '80s, a stamp mill and smelter were erected at Victor to handle 
the ore from the various mines. Lime is burned and shipped in large 
quantities and granite and marble for building purposes are being sent 
out extensively. Marble of a superior grade was discovered in this dis- 
trict about 1886. Smelters are established at Victor and Oro Grande 
and a number of stamp mills are engaged in crushing ore. 


There is no single factor that contributes in greater degree to the 
progress and advancement of a community or a certain section of country 
than that pertaining to pubHc education. In this direction it may be 
said that San Bernardino County has been fortunate, for from an early 
date in its history it has not lacked for good school facilities, and an 
enlightened understanding has governed and directed its educational 

What is supposed to have been the first attempt at systematized 
instruction was a tent school conducted at the foot of the Cajon Pass 
while the newly-arrived Mormons were awaiting action upon the part 
of their leaders in selecting a site for their new homes. The teacher of 
this school was Rupert Lee, who later, by reason of refusing to do his 
share in building the stockade around the Mormon community, earned 
the unenviable title of "Lazy" Lee. During the old Mormon Fort period 
another tent school was conducted, this being taught by William Stout. 
At about the same time Miguel Ochoa gathered a few children together 
in the little New Mexican settlement of La Placita and instructed them 
in the Spanish tongue. 

On November 17, 1853, there appeared the official record of the 
school commissioners of San Bernardino County, Theodore Turley, 
James H. Rollins and David Seeley, and this, the first record on file, 
was as follows: "Whole number of children between four and eighteen 
years of age in Districts No. 1 and 2, 263. Number of boys. 142; girls, 
121. Amount raised by subscription and paid teachers, $1,438,00. Names 
of teachers employed: District No. 1, William Stout, eight months, 
$60.00 per mo. ; William N. Cook, grade No. 2, six months, $60.00 per 
mo.; Q. S. Sparks, three months, $76.00 per mo.; Sarah Pratt, three 
months, ten days, $50.00 per mo. District No. 2, Ellen S. Pratt, four 
months, $35.00 per mo.; Lois Pratt, Assistant ( Primarv grade), one 
month, $27.50; M. S. Mathews, one month, $27.50. 

"Number of pupils taught in first and second districts, 206; daily 
average attendance, 160; amount expended for school library and appar- 
atus, $300; amount expended for renting or building and furnishing 
school house, $291.50. Total amount of all expenditures on account of 
schools. $2,029.50. The whole of the above was raised by subscription. 
The above commissioners excuse themselves by saying that the county 
superintendent of common schools for Los Angeles County was a 
defaulter, therefore their report did not reach headquarters last year, 
etc. y. J. Herring, County Superintendent of Schools." 

After the tenthouse school went out of existence, two adobe rooms 
served as school houses in the town of San Bernardino until the erection 
of the brick school on Fourth Street, between C and D streets, in 1872. 
In 1855 the commissioners reported as follows: "Oct. 1st, Received 
school report of Francis Clark, teacher in District No. 1, 27 pupils, 
school from June 18th to Sept. 8th. The same school conmiissioners as 
in 1853. Nov. 1st, 1855: Went with the board of trustees of the City 
District No. 1, as a committee chosen by the City Council, to select for 
the use of the citv as school lots ; selected as follows : Lot 2, block 5 ; 
lot 8. block 7; lot 6, block 28; lot 2. block 8; lot 7, block 19; lot 4, 
block 64. Reported the same Nov. 3rd, 1855." In 1856 San Bernardino 


paid the sum of $600 for the lots noted above, and on page 19, of the 
first book of records of the county superintendent of schools appeared 
the following: "Received the report of the county clerk for the amount 
of taxable property in this county for the year 1855, $312,778.19. C. A. 
Skinner, County Superintendent." 

A meeting of the school trustees was called by the board of super- 
visors October 1, 1857, for the purpose of electing a county superin- 
tendent and fixing the boundaries of school districts. These latter, from 
1 to 6 inclusive, were duly agreed upon, but at the present time are so 
indefinite, owing to changes, that they cannot be followed accurateiy- 
However, they probably were Mount Vernon, City, Mill, Mission, Warm 
Spring and Jurupa or San Salvador. The county superintendent chosen 
was R. B. Pierce. About 1853 or 1854 an adobe schoolhouse was built 
near the little church of Agua Mansa, elsewhere mentioned, and this 
was replaced in 1864 by a frame building located on two acres of land 
donated by W. A. Conn in the southwest corner of San Bernardino 
Rancho. The teacher in both of these early institutions of learning was 
W. R. Wozencraft. About 1855 there began to be used for a school 
in the Mill district a log room, the walls of which were chinked with 
mud and the building being surrounded by a live willow hedge. This 
structure was succeeded in 1872 by a neat frame schoolhouse, and one 
of its first teachers was Ellison Robbins. This early educator and his 
wife, who after his death became Mrs. E. P. R. Crafts, came to San 
Bernardino in January, 1858, and took charge of the school, Mr. Rob- 
bins teaching one room and his wife the other. These were known as 
the Washington and Jefiferson rooms. 

At the time of the issuance of the report of 1863 there were 1.072 
children given in the census. Four years later there were twelve school 
districts in the county and a total of 1,330 census children, while the 
value of school property in the City district was given as $2,000. Of 
the twelve schoolhouses in the county, five were of adobe. 

Like in all nev/ communities the early schoolhouses were primitive 
in character, design and appurtenances, while many of the earlv teachers 
had little more than the rudiments of an education themselves, and were 
chosen as often for their availability and willingness as for any quali- 
fications they might have possessed for their positions. And this in 
spite of the fact that the State had provided generously for its public 
schools, having made an appropriation for each school district in addition 
to the school fund raised by the county. Under the law of 1860, which 
revised the school law, provision was made for a library fund of $50 
for each district, state examination of instructors was made a require- 
ment, and some attempt at uniformity of methods and text books was 

One of the earlier teachers to whom much credit is due was Ellison 
Robbins. As has been shown, he came to this locality in January, 1858. 
Later, when elected county superintendent of schools, he made every 
effort to elevate the standard of teachers and the efficiency of the schools, 
and in 1862 called the first educational convention ever held in the county, 
which lasted for several days and was successful in many of its aims. 
Mr. Ellison's untimely death, in the spring of 1864, was a distinct loss to 
the county educational system. While it has been said that educational 
matters at this time were crude, it must be taken into consideration that 
in many of the districts at the time the majority of the pupils were 
Mexican and only the Spanish language was used among the people ; that 
in other districts the territories covered leagues of land and the children 
were scattered, with a necessarily small and irregular attendance. 


Another of the early teachers who acconipli'^hed much for the good 
of the county in an educational way was Henry C. Brooke, who began 
teaching in 1867 at Rincon, then one of the largest and most important 
districts in San Bernardino County. He had commenced teaching in 
the state in 1837, was a men^ber of the first teachers' board of examina- 
tion, which met under the revision of the school law in 1860, and after 
aiding in the establishment of the school law of the State continued 
to carry on his work as an educator until 1870, when he was made 
county superintendent of schools. For two years thereafter he also 
acted as principal of the San Bernardino city schools, a position to 
which he had been elected in 1869. After his term as county super- 
intendent expired he served as substitute for almost two years, and 
in 1883 was again elected and held office until 1891, thus acting as 
county superintendent for more than ten years and as principal of 
the city schools for several years. He likewise served on the county 
board continuously from the time of its organization, in 1880, under 
the new constitution, until 1893, and was frequently a member of 
the board of examination under the old State board prior to 1880. 
Mr. Brooke's long connection with the schools of the county gave him 
an intimate knowledge of their needs and conditions and this proved to 
be of great value to him in the duties of the county superintendency. 
He was the prime mover in the erection of the schoolhouse at San Ber- 
nardino in 1872, and it was largely through his efforts that in 1883 
there was built the Central schoolhouse, an action at that time consid- 
ered somewhat remarkable. His was the mind that perfected a practical 
plan for the issuance of bonds by the school districts, and a large major- 
ity of the better school structures of the country were built as a direct 
result of his eff'orts and personal influence. As an example, in the year 
1887 the sum of $110,846.25 was expended for the following buildings, 
all well planned and a credit to the county, and all built or in course 
of construction that year : Ontario, Etiwanda, Agua Mansa, Chino, 
Riverside, Lytle, Redlands, Prospect, Jurupa, Crafton and Fairvew dis- 
tricts. Mr. Brooke was a constant and disinterested worker in behalf 
of the county's .school system and his ambitions were largely realized. 
Of him a local contemporary^ says : "He was an educator of practical 
good sense, rather than of theory, and the county of San Bernardino 
owes a debt of gratitude to him for many years of painstaking work 
that is only increased by the sad ending of his career." 

The State textbook law, under which the State prints its own text- 
books, the object being to do away with the evil effects of the various 
school book lobbies and to assure the children of uniform books at a 
minimum cost, went into effect in 1885. Since that time the State has 
provided an appropriation for each district, in addition to the county 
funds, textbooks are provided for those who need them, and school sup- 
plies of all kinds are provided abundantly. Many of the older districts, 
by reason of the $50 annual fund given them for many years for the 
purchase of books and library apparatus, are supplied with large and 
often well-selected libraries, while the districts that have come into being 
in later years have not neglected this important feature, and the county's 
school districts throughout may now be said to have excellent library 

In fact, in every direction, the school system of the county had 
advanced and progressed and at the present time compares favorably with 
those of any other like territory. The country schools are carefully graded 

1 Ineersoll. 


and their graduates are accredited to the higher schools of learning, and 
the requirements for all teachers have been steadily elevated. An impor- 
tant enactment was that of the high school law, which went into effect in 
1891. The City, or Union High School, is the medium through which 
the pupil of the rural district schools can advance to a collegiate course. 
Prior to 1890 two city high schools, those of Riverside and San Ber- 
nardino, existed in the county, and in 1891 these were augmented by 
the Union High School of Redlands, Lugonia and Crafton. The Colton 
High School was established in 1895, a beautiful and costly building being 
erected, and in 1897 the Richard Gird High School of Chino and the 
Ontario High School were organized. The Needles High Scb.nol came 
into existence in 1902. 

The following table of reports will give some interesting figures : 

1871 1881 1891 1903 1920 

Census children 1633 2,376 7,191 8,313 

Average daily attendance. 756 1,023 3,673 6,990 

Number school districts.. 19 36 71 52 80 

Number schoolhouses ... 19 42 124 86 US 

Number teachers 19 42 132 165 521 

Value school property. .. .$11,404 $44,085 $510,695 $419,116 $3,742,228 

The drop in the figures between the reports of 1891 and 1903 are 
explained by the fact that in 1893 Riverside County took from San Ber- 
nardino County more than 3,000 census children and $200,000 worth of 
school property. 

The San Bernardino County superintendents of schools since 1853 
have been as follows : 

1853-54 V. J. Herring 

1855-56 C. A. Skinner 

1857 R. B. Pierce 

1858 J. A. Freeman 

1859 Ellison Robbins 

1860-61 A. F. McKinney 

1862 Ellison Robbins 

1863 A. F. McKinney 

1864-65 Ellison Robbins 

1866-67 W. L. Ragsdale 

1868-69 W. J. Clark 

1870-71 H. C. Brooke 

1872-73 John Brown, Jr. 

1874-75 H. Goodcell, Jr. 

1876-77 C. R. Paine 

1878-81 J. A. Rosseau 

1881-82 D. B. Sturges 

1883-91 H. C. Brooke 

1891-95 G. W. Beattie 

1895-99 Margaret M. Mogeau 

1899-1901 Lulu Claire Bahr 

1901-15 A. S. McPherron 

1915-21 Mrs. Grace E. Stanley 

Parent-Teachers' Association. The San Bernardino County 
Parent-Teachers Association was organized, and federated with the 
national organization on March 12, 1915, at Ontario^ Mrs. C. C. Noble, 
of Los Angeles, organizer, presiding. There were seven associations rep- 
resented, Chino, Cucamonga, Ontario, Del Rosa, Blooniington, San Ber- 


nardino and South Euclid Center, representing 107 members. Officers 
elected at that meeting were : President, Mrs. L. A. Mertz of Ontario ; 
Mrs. S. V. Stewart, Del Rosa, secretary-. 

In 1915 Mrs. S. U. Stewart became president, and served until the 
district was formed, in December, 1915, with twelve associations. The 
district organization meeting was held in the Technical Building, San 
Bernardino, with Mrs. Hurbert N. Rowell of Berkeley, the state presi- 
dent, organizer, and Mrs. C. C. Noble, Los Angeles, assisting, and Mrs. 
Stewart was ushered into the new district as its head, with due ceremony 
and much enthusiasm. Mrs. Stewart served six years and six months; 
first as county secretary, county president and four years as district presi- 

Each year it grew, and soon became a power, taking in such subjects 
as: Education, Child Labor, Legislation, Good Roads, Patriotism, 
Juvenile Court, Probation, Country Life, Americanization, Scholarship, 
Philanthropy and Recreation. 

Under the auspices of Country Life Department, with Mrs. Gertrude 
Spier Rader, chairman, assisted by Mrs. Stewart, intensive work was done 
through the 800 members gained by 1916, and the Farm School of River- 
side was formed, a big asset for that city, also of Southern California. 
Much work was done towards getting a Detention Home for San Ber- 

During Mrs. Stewart's presidency, in 1916, Redlands' City Federa- 
tion was organized, the first city federation of the Fifth District Federa- 
tion, and through its efYorts wonderful results piled up, in lines of much 
needed help: Philanthropy, care of under-nourished children, school 
attendance officer, and a women representative on the school board, in 
the person of Mrs. N. F. Lewis, and in securing the service of a school 
nurse. Miss Mary L. Saunders, also work among the Mexican children. 
The present head officer is Mrs. C. T- Boone — with an association mem- 
bership of 180. 

Through the active interest of the late Prof. R. B. Stover, Mrs. 
Stewart was enabled to organize a San Bernardino city federation in 
June, 1916, with 12 associations and 275 members, increased during the 
year by four more associations, making a membership of 500. This 
number has now (1921) increased to 1.121 members, out of the district 
membership of 1.511. 

The first president of the federation was Mrs. E. E. Clark, principal 
of Fifth Street School, and secretary. Mrs. George T. Brooks, treasurer, 
Mrs. S. H. Hoskyns. In 1916 the City Federation by an entertainment 
assisted with playground equipment and helped the school board and 
Woman's Club in securing a school visiting nurse. 

In 1917 Mrs. George F. Tilton resigned as president of the Citv Fed- 
eration, and Mrs. F. Hoskyns was elected to fill the place. In May. 1918, 
Mrs. L. N. Taylor was elected president, Mrs. H. M. Cook, .secretary, and 
Mrs. S. H. Franklin, treasurer. During this year equipment for a dental 
clinic at the cost of $200 was put in, and a vigorous campaigii for new 
.school buildings made. 

May, 1919, Mrs. C. Fulton Jones was elected president. This year 
attention was given to scholarships. In 1920 Mrs. Charles Erttal was 
elected president, Mrs. S. S. Turvey, secretary, Mrs. George A. White, 
treasurer. Attention was given to playground equipment and school 

In 1919. on account of press of other duties. Mrs. Stewart resigned 
as president of the district, and Mrs. S. H. Franklin, of San Bernardino, 
was elected, but because of failing health, resigned and was succeeded 


by Mrs. S. S. Turvey, in 1920. During this year the Fifth District was 
enlarged to include Riverside, and associations were organized in Beau- 
mont, Big Bear, Highland, Upland and Bloomington. The district sec- 
retary is Mrs. A. J. Wheeler of Bloomington; financial secretary, Mrs. 
Theodore Boaz of Redlands. 

Object of the Parent-Teacher Association is to raise the standards of 
home life, to teach young people how to care for children, so as to assume 
the duties of parenthood, to develop the physical, mental and spiritual 
nature of the child ; to bring into closer relationship the home and the 
school; to develop good citizens. 

During the summer of 1900 and while Miss Lula Claire Bahr was city 
superintendent of schools, a representative of the newly organized Parent- 
Teachers' Association in Los Angeles called upon Mrs. R. V. Hadden, 
who took tlie lady to the office of Miss Bahr. A few teachers were 
invited to the conference and the matter of launching an association in 
San Bernardino was thoroughly gone over, but finally it was decided that 
the time was not yet ripe for its organization here. It was first organized 
in Washington, D. C, in February, 1897, and in Los Angeles, May, 1900. 

County Library. The San Bernardino County Free Library was 
established July 14, 1913, and work started February 1, 1914. Its pur- 
pose is to provide the rural communities, no matter how isolated they may 
be, with library service. Its slogan is, equal, complete and economical 
library service to everyone in the county, thus equalizing educational 

The County Library started with a loan from the State Library of 
1 000 books from its old traveling library circulation. On July 1, 1914, 
twenty branches had been established. 

There are now — December 1, 1921 — 126 branches in the county, about 
equally divided between the desert and the valley. The service extends 
as far as Needles on the east, north as far as Trona on Searles Lake, and 
to Chino, the southernmost point. Branches are maintained in the moun- 
tains during the summer, and are kept open in the winter on a smaller 

At present there is no community in the county that is not receiving 
library service. Of the 126 branches, 64 are elementary school districts 
and three are high schools. Some of these school branches serve the 
community as well. Branches are located wherever a central place for 
the purpose can be found — in a telephone exchange, store, box-car, drug 
store or schoolhouse, etc. 

The headquarters of the library are maintained in the Court House 
in San Bernardino. The library staff at present consists of seven mem- 
bers : The county librarian ; assistant librarian, who is head of the ref- 
erence and shipment department ; a cataloguer ; school assistant ; statistics 
clerk, stenographer and bookkeeper; charging clerk and desk attendant; 
and general assistant in catalogue department. 

The County Library consists of 57,000 volumes, about 6,800 
pamphlets, 5,846 items including maps, globes, pictures, sterographs, and 
music records. It has proved of inestimable benefit to the people of 
the rural districts, and is a big factor in making the rural life of the county 
more attractive. 

Miss Caroline S. Waters has been head of the County Library since 
it« start, and is a thorough master of its requirements, having served as 
city librarian for a number of years before taking up the county work. 


"The Law — Her seat is the bosom of God; her voice the harmony 
of the world ; all things on earth and in heaven unite to do her homage — 
the weak as feeling her protecting care and the strong as not exempt 
from her power." Less poetical but more practical is Blackstone's defi- 
nition of municipal law : "A rule of civil conduct prescribed by the 
Supreme power in a state, commanding what is right and prohibiting what 
is wrong." 

The leaders in this important force in the conduct of human affairs 
are those who occupy judicial positions and those who make up the army 
of legal practitioners. It is to the courts and the lawyers, who are sworn 
officers of the courts in which they practice, that all must look for the 
final and righteous settlement of the just and impartial disposition of 
all charges made against individuals involving life and liberty, and 
disputed matters between members of a community regarding their 
property rights. Possessed of such important responsibilities, it is of the 
greatest importance that bench and bar be composed of learned, clean, 
courageous, conscientious, broad and liberal-minded mem.bers. San Ber- 
nardino County can be pardoned for congratulating itself in this respect, 
for its bench has been occupied by clean and able men, almost without 
exception, and its practitioners at the bar have, in the main, been men 
of integrity, ability and probity. 

During the period of Mexican occupation of San Bernardino County, 
the lawyer found little to occupy his time and talents. While disputes 
were frequent on the ranches among the vaqueros, mayor-domos and 
Indian servants, these were invariably referred for settlement to 
"el patrone," the "ranchero" who owned the property and who exercised 
almost absolute control over his various retainers. Along the Santa Ana 
River, in the villages of Agua Mansa and Trujillos, there lived several 
hundred New Mexican settlers, about the only residents of the county 
aside from those living on the great stock ranches, and these New Mexi- 
cans had their "alcaldes," whose function it was to settle such disputes 
of a civil nature as could not be disposed of by the parish priest, and to 
decree punishment, in a summary way, for all minor offenses. When civil 
disputes arose, says a local writer,^ the parties came before the officer, who 
first collected "dos reales"- which was supposed to pay for the expense 
of stationery, and, when necessary, for the "escribano."' The alcalde 
would then listen attentively to the statements and proof, and if necessary 
would make an inspection of the premises or boundary lines, or of an 
animal on a question of its identity. It is probable that in some cases 
he exercised his power beyond the limits in cases which did not strictly 
belong to the jurisdiction of the inferior courts, but his decisions were 
final and were always accepted by the people as such, for they were 
ignorant of any process of appeal to a higher tribunal, even if any such 
existed. When the Mormons came to San Bernardino County, they, 
likewise, had little resort to the courts, for their differences were gen- 
erally settled in the local church council. 

H. C. Rolfe. 2 Twenty-five cents. => Clerk. 


After the creation of San Bernardino County, in 1853, a different 
order existed, and the regular terms of the district and county courts 
were held whether there was official business for them to transact or not. 

Early Members of the Bench. Daniel IM. Thomas, who was elected 
with the first officers of the county at a special election held under the 
act creating the county in June, 1853, had the distinction of being the 
first county judge of San Bernardino County, and in the following fall, 
at the regular election, was chosen to succeed himself for a full term of 
four years. While he had no training in the law, he was a man of fair 
education and wielded some influence among his people, the Mormons, 
with whom he returned to Salt Lake in 1857. When he resigned the 

E^RL\ S\x Berxardixo Cm 

office he was succeeded by A. D. Boren, a farmer appointed to fill the 
vacancy, and like Judge Thomas a man of fair education but no legal 
training. A somewhat ludicrous occasion was caused in 1861, when, in 
the election proclamations no mention was made of the county judge. 
M. H. Crafts was brought forward by his friends and received a con- 
siderable number of votes, but failed to follow up the election with a 
contest and Judge Boren continued to occupy the office, to which he was 
regularly elected in 1862 and re-elected in 1866. He retired from office 
in January, 1871, after having held the judgeship for a period of four- 
teen years. Judge Boren's successor was Henry M. Willis, who held the 
office for eight years, or until the new state constitution abolished the 
office of county judge. 

The court of sessions for many years was constituted by the county 
judge with two associates, John Brown and Andrew Lytle, chosen from 


among the justices of the peace of the county. The functions of this 
court included the trying of all criminal cases amounting to felony, except 
when the charge was a capital offense punishable by death. It also called 
and impanelled grand juries to inquire into and make presentment of all 
public offenses committed or tryable in the county, of which they might 
have legal evidence, with other duties similar to those of grand juries 
called by our present superior courts. The county judge alone held a 
county court with jurisdiction in all civil cases on appeal from justices of 
the peace and some other original jurisdiction. He also had jurisdiction 
in all probate matters. Later a change in the constitution abolished the 
court of sessions and the original jurisdiction was given to the coimty 
court. The act creating San Bernardino County, whether through over- 
sight or for some other reason, did not fix any salary for the county 
judge, and the salaries of those occupying these positions were paid by 
their own counties, those of all other judges being paid by the State. 
Until the salary for the judge of San Bernardino County was placed by 
the Legislature in 1859, the board of supervisors allowed a salary of 
.■^SOO, a small remuneration for a judge, but probably a fair compensation 
when it is taken into account that the county was sparsely =ettled and 
therefore there was little business to transact, and that the incumbents 
of the judgeship had little or no knowledge of the law. The Legislature 
designated the salary to be $1,000 per year, but at that time San Ber- 
nardino County's treasury was greatly depleted and in 1859 county 
warrants were worth but 30 or 40 per cent of their face value. The 
county had sufficientlv recovered its credit by 1862 so that warrants were 
rt very nearly par. Both Judges Thomas and Boren also served as post- 
masters while acting as judge, as their salary of $500 did not come within 
the designation of "lucrative positions" which forbid the holding of more 
than one office. 

At tjie time of its creation, San Bernardino County was attached to 
the First Judicial District, previously composed of Los Angeles and San 
Diego counties. Each county had its regular term of district court, held 
about three times a year by the. district judge, and this court had jurisdic- 
tion of all civil actions above the county courts and justices of the peace. 
It likewise possessed jurisdiction to try all capital offenses. When the 
county was created, Benjamin Hayes of Los Angeles was district judge, 
having succeeded O. S. Witherby of San Diego, who had received the 
appointment of the Legislature on the formation of the district. 

In 1863 an amendment caused the state to be redistricted and San 
Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties thus were added to the First 
District. At the new election for judges, Pablo de la Guerra, of Santa 
Barbara, was elected for the full term of six years ; but in March, 1868, 
because of the growth in population and the general extension of busi- 
ness in the southern counties, caused by the general "boom," a new 
district, the Seventeenth, was created, consisting of San Diego, San Ber- 
f.ardino and Los Angeles, and IMurrey Morrison, of the City of Los 
Angeles, was given the gubernatorial appointment as judge of *-he new 
district. He was elected to the office at the next judicial election, but died 
in 1871 and R. M. Widney was appointed to complete his unexpired term. 
Again, in February, 1872, a new judicial district was formed, the 
Eighteenth, made up of San Bernardino and San Diego counties, and 
Horace C. Rolfe, of San Bernardino, was appointed by the Governor as 
Judge thereof. In 1873, W. T. McNealy, of San Diego, was elected to 
the office, which he held until 1880, when the new constitution went into 
effect, bv which district courts were abolished. 


Some Early Attorneys of San Bernardino County. The 
attorneys of the first several decades of the life of San Bernardino County 
has passed away. Of those who came to the bar during the '60s, most 
have long since laid down their briefs. Some survive in retirement, 
enjoying the ease and dignity which hves of intellectual activity have 
earned, while fewer still continue to participate in the struggles which the 
competition of younger and more vigorous men make more severe and 
exacting. Alden A. M. Jackson, coming to San Bernardino County from 
San Francisco in 1854, was the first to be considered in the light of a 
qiialified member of the profession of law. He was given the honorary 
title of "Colonel," although he had had no military experience of any 
kind and was strictly a man of peace. He had previously had some 
experience as a court clerk and probably had been a notary public. Says 
Rolfe : "In opening his career as a lawyer at San Bernardino, he posted 
up notices, written — as there was no printing press here then — to the 
effect that he would draw up and prepare in proper and legal form, deeds, 
mortgages, notes or any kind of agreements or other legal documents, or 
attend to any kind of legal business for a reasonable consideration. His 
law library consisted of a book of forms and business directions called 
'The New Clerk's Assistant'. By its aid and some tact in the use of 
antiquated legal phrases he made quite a reputation among the citizens 
of San Bernardino for legal ability. He was quite an adept in effecting 
compromises and settling differences out of court. He did a lively busi- 
ness for a time in divorcing people who came to him with their domestic 
troubles. He would write for them an agreement of separation in the 
usual form and endorse on it, 'Articles of Separation and Bill of Divorce,' 
and have the parties sign and acknowledge it with much formality, in 
the belief that they were regularly divorced with all the due and binding 
force of law. Several parties whom he had thus 'divorced' married again. 
And some of them found themselves in trouble when the legality of the 
new marriages was questioned. For many years he carried on his law 
business without going much into court. On one occasion he appeared 
for a young fellow by the name of Tom Morgan, to defend him on a 
charge of assault and battery in the justice's court. After the defense 
was in, the colonel weakened on the case and began to address the jury 
by admitting, tacitly at least, that his client had violated the law, but 
urging that he was an industrious young man and had had some provoca- 
tion and on account of the hard times ought to be let oft' easy. When Tom 
himself caught on to the drift of his remarks, he interrupted and pro- 
ceeded to make a speech to the jury himself, claiming that he had acted 
in self-defense. The jury took the same view of the case and acquitted 

Another early lawyer of the city was Q. S. Sparks, who had been one 
of the Brannan party which arrived at San Francisco in 1847 and who 
settled at San Bernardino in 1853. He had only a very ordinary common 
school education and no learning as a lawyer, nor was he of a studious 
nature ; but he had gentle manners, a ready flow of language, a natural 
tact and gift of oratory. At the time of his arrival he had several 
thousand dollars, but unfortunate investments soon cleaned out his capital, 
and he began to appear in court for clients, although not at that time 
admitted to the bar as an attorney. By the time the Mormons left this 
locality and the filling of their places by others, Mr. Sparks had acquired 
:> very good standing as a practitioner, especially in the defense of criminal 
cases, and after his admission to the bar in 1858, he continued to make 
steady advancement so that for several years he stood among the leaders 
of the bar of San Bernardino County. He was also in much demand as 


a speaker on public occasions and never failed to acquit himself in such 
addresses with much ability. One of the numerous anecdotes told about 
this pioneer legist is as follows : His client was charged with grand 
larceny in stealing a horse, and Sparks' associate counsel in the case 
endeavored to have a consultation with him in order to agree upon a line 
of defense and to prepare some instructions for the jury. When he found 
that Sparks could not be tided down to such routine business, his associ- 
ate finally asked him what he was intending to rely upon, to which he 
gave answer: "I rely on God Almighty, Q. S. Sparks and the jury." 
He doubtless knew that the facts as well as the law were against his 
client, but, by his tact and oratory so worked upon the jury that he 
secured an acquittal, despite the fact that the accused had been seen steal- 
ing the horse from a pasture at night and had been caught riding the 
animal on the day following. During the latter part of his life Mr. Sparks 
made his home for some years at Los Angeles, but eventually returned 
to San Bernardino, where his death occurred in August, 1891, when he 
was 75 years of age. 

Wiien he came to San Bernardino in 1857, from Los Angeles, Samuel 
R. Campbell had already gained something of a reputation in Texas, 
where he had been a lawyer of considerable prominence, a member of the 
State Senate and an active participant in pulilic afifairs. Almost immedi- 
ately after his arrival he was appointed district attorney of San Ber- 
nardino County by the board of supervisors, to fill a vacancy, and, with 
his excellent education and his great natural abilities, seemed destined for 
a most successful career. However, he had an uncontrolled liking for 
strong drink, and it was probably due to this that he lost his life. In the 
winter of 1862-63 he started from San Bernardino on horseback to visit 
the western part of the county. It was one of the stormy days of that 
winter of rain and flood, and a few days after his horse had returned 
riderless, Campbell's body was found on the plains beyond Slover 

One of the syndicate that purchased the balance of the San Bernardino 
ranch unsold from Lyman and Rich was Bethel Coopwood, who came 
to San Bernardino in 1857 from Los Angeles as a young man of about 
thirty, with a fair education, some legal learning and much energy. He 
had been a lawyer at Los Angeles and continued to carry on his profes- 
sion at San Bernardino in connection with his realty business. In the 
latter connection he probably lost as much as he was able to make in his 
legal practice and in 1861 he disposed of his interests and returned to 
Texas, his native state. While still in practice at San Bernardino he 
stood well up in the ranks of his calling and as he had an excellent 
knowledge of the Spanish language a number of his clients were Mexi- 
cans, of whom there were many here at that time, the greater number of 
them being very well oflf. 

An arrival at San Bernardino of the year 1858 was William Pickett, 
who came from San Francisco, where he had been a pioneer from the 
East. Mr. Pickett, who was possessed of more than the average ability, 
had been brought up to the trade of a printer, but adopted the lawyer's 
vocation, to which he devoted much study, it being a fact that he brought 
to this city from San Francisco the first law library of any consequence 
to arrive at San Bernardino. Suitable office rooms were not to be found 
in great numbers at that time, and Pickett, so the story goes, secured an 
office in a little one-room shack on Third Street. While occupying this 
apartment he gave permission to a newly-elected justice of the peace to 
hold his court in the same room and transact his business there until 
he could secure space of his own. It was not long thereafter that Pickett 


was attorney in a suit before this justice, who made several rulings against 
him in regard to the admission and rejection of testimony. Pickett, be 
it understood, was inclined to be somewhat aggressive in a court which 
did not know how, or did not have courage enough, to keep him within 
bounds, although before a competent court capable of maintaining its 
dignity he knew how and always did keep withm the bounds of decorum. 
1 he rulings in the case mentioned above, however, were more than he 
could stand in his own office, particularly as the case was going against 
him on its own merits, and in his wrath he ordered the court out of his 
office, a demand to which the court meekly submitted. Picking up his 
docket and hat, the magistrate directed the jury to reconvene at another 
pjace, but there was not much re-convening done. Some of the jury 
followed the justice's instructions ; but some tarried by the wayside, some 
went the other way, and that was the last of the case in court. Mr. 
Pickett continued in practice at San Bernardino for about four years, 
then going to Los Angeles and finally to San Francisco. 

Albert H. Clark was another who came to San Bernardino about 
1858. A man of fair ability as a lawyer, he had a good standing in his 
profession during the time that he practiced here, and was elected district 
attorney of San Bernardino County in 1859, but left in 1860. 

A graduate of the State University of North Carolina, Henry M. 
Willis migrated to San Francisco in 1849, with his parents, studied law 
in that city, and entered practice. For a time he served as prosecuting 
attorney in the police court of that city, but in 1856 came to the vicinity 
of the San Bernardino Valley with his mother, then a widow, who had 
considerable property interests in the eastern end. With a younger 
brother, he at first engaged in farming, but occasionally appeared in 
court for clients, and eventually located in the city, opened an office, in 
which he installed his large law library, and began practice in earnest. 
He was a forcible speaker and always accounted a lawyer of more than 
ordinary ability, and for a short time acted in the capacity of district 
attorney, elected to that office in 1861. In 1871 he was elected county 
judge for the term of four years, and re-elected for a second term in 1875. 
In 1879 he returned to the bar and carried on an active practice until the 
Legislature of 1885-86 created a second superior judge in San Bernardino 
County and Judge Willis was appointed to the position by Governor 
Bartlett and served until the expiration of his term in January. 1889. He 
then resumed practice, but his health failed a year or so later and he 
retired from active labor. His death occurred at Oceanside, in the 
autumn of 1895. 

Among the early members of the San Bernardino County bar, one 
who has been a resident of the city for many years is Horace C. Rolfe. 
From 1850 to 1857 he was variously employed in different parts of Cali- 
fornia, did some Indian fighting in the soutliern part of the state and for 
several years worked at mining in Nevada County. In 1858 he com- 
menced the study of law in the office of William Pickett, mentioned above, 
was duly admitted to the bar, and in 1861 was elected district attorney, an 
office to which he was later re-elected for another term of two years. 
Into the "cow counties," as they were then known, there had drifted 
many lawless and some desperate characters, and during the Civil war the 
office of prosecutor was anything but a sinecure. Mr. Rolfe discharged 
his dut,ies in an entirely capable and greatly courageous manner, and many 
of these hard citizens were either driven out of the county or given 
enforced vacations in the state's prison. On his retirement from office 
Mr. Rolfe re-engaged in practice, and upon the creation of the Eighteenth 
Judicial District, composed of San Bernardino and San Diego counties, 


in 1872, was appointed judge of that district by Governor Booth. At the 
ensuing election he was a candidate, but was not elected, and again 
returned to practice. At the special election in June, 1878, for members 
of the state constitutional convention, he was elected joint delegate from 
the same two counties and served as a member of that body through its 
session. In 1879 he was elected judge of the superior court of the county, 
and at the expiration of his term of office retired from the office and 
resumed the practice of his calling. 

One of the earliest as well as one of the most highly respected of the 
pioneer lawyers of the state was Benjamin Hayes, a native of Baltimore, 
Maryland, who served as district judge in 1857-58, when San Bernardino 
County was a part of the district that included all of Southern California. 
He came overland in 1850, when thirty-five years of age, arriving at Los 
Angeles in February, and in 1857 was elected as district judge, an office 
which he filled in all for eleven years. In 1867 he was appointed district 
attorney of San Bernardino County and in 1868 was elected to the State 
Legislature. He died at Los Angeles, August 4, 1877. He was a man of 
wide learning, a student of the Spanish language, and was deeply inter- 
ested in the history of this country. Not the least of his services was 
that which he performed in the preserving of much valuable historical 

Of the numerous other legists of prominence who have added to the 
fame of San Bernardino County, the reviews of many, both of the past 
and present, will be found in the biographical section of this work. They 
form a body of men who have honored their profession as well as being 
honored by it and whose labors and influences have played a prominent 
part in making the history of Southern California. 

Members of the Bench. The following judges have occupied the 
various courts of San Bernardino County since the establishment of the 
county in 1853 : 

(County Judges) 

1853-57 Daniel M. Thomas 

1858-71 A. D. Boren 

1871-79 H. M. Willis 

(District Judges) 

1853-63 Benjamin Haves 

1863-68 Pablo de la Guerro 

1868-71 Murray Morrison 

1871-72 R. M. Widnev 

1872-75 H. C. Rolfe 

1875-79 \V. T. McNealv 

(Superior Judges) 


H C Rolfe 


Tames A. Gibson 

Department One 


H. M. Willis 

Department Two 


John L. Campbell 

Department Two 


George E. Otis 

Department One 


Frank F. Oster 

Department One 


Benjamin F. Bledsoe 

Department Two 


1918 22 

Rex B Goodcell 


T. W. Curtis 


(District Attorneys) 
The district attorneys of San Bernardino County from the time of its 
creation in 1853 have been as follows : 

1853-55 William Stout 

1856-57 Ellis Ames 

1858 Samuel Surrine 

1859 A. H. Clark 

1860-61 S. R. Campbell 

1862-65 H. C. Rolfe 

1866-71 Hewlett Clark 

1872-73 T. W. Satterwhite 

1874-77 "W. J. Curtis 

1878-79 W. A. Harris 

1880-82 C. W. C. Rowell 

1883-85 R. E. Bledsoe 

1886-87 T. L. Campbell 

1888-89 A. B. Paris 

1890-91 T. T. Fording 

1892-96 F. F. Oster 

1897-1900 F. B. Daley 

1901-02 T. W. Curtis 

1903-07 L. M. Sprecher 

1906-08 H. T. Dewhurst 

1909-10 W. E. Byrne 

1911-14 Rex B. Goodcell 

1915-22 T. W. Duckworth 

(Attorneys of San Bernardino County) 

San Bernardino — Chas. L. Allison, D. Wayne Richards. A. S. 
Maloney, Geo. H. Johnson, Frank T. Bates, Henry Goodcell, Daley & 
Byrne. Swing & Wilson, N. C. Peters. Lester G. King, Grant Plolcomb, 
Byron Waters. C. C. Haskell. Jno. Hadaller, Leonard. Surr & Hellj'er. 
Cecil H. Phillips, Jerome Kavanaugh, A. D. Trujillo. T. W. Duckworth, 
M. O. Hert, Jno. L. Campbell, McNabb & Hodge, H. W. Phipps, R. E. 
Bledsoe, E. C. Gridley, Stanley Mussell, Wm. Gutherie. John Brown, Jr. 

Ontario — Pollock & Mitchell, Warmer & Jones. E. H. Jolifife. 

Upland— A. W. Burt. 

Chino— R. C. Homan. A. O. Dillon. 

Needles — Benj. Harrison, C. H. Marks. 

Redlands— Walter J. Hartzell, U. F. Lewis. Halsey W. Allen, Burton 
E. Hales, Earl D. Finch. C. E. Chapman. 

The San Bernardino Law Library. In 1891 the California Legis- 
lature passed an act entitled "An Act to Establish Law Libraries." This 
act provides that on the commencement in, or removal to, the Superior 
Court of any county in the state, of any civil action, proceeding or appeal, 
on filing the first papers therein the party instituting such proceeding, or 
filing for first papers, shall pay to the clerk of the court the sum nf $1, to 
be paid by the clerk to the county treasurer who shall deposit the same 
in the Law Library Fund. This fund is to be used for the purchase of 
books, journals, publications and other personal property, and is to be 
paid out by the county treasurer onlv on orders of the board of Law 
Library trustees. By the terms of this act it is made discretionary with 
the board of supervisors of any county to provide by ordinance for the 
application of provisions of said act to such county. 


On June 2, 1891, the board of supervisors of San Bernardino County- 
unanimously adopted Ordinance No. 34, making said act applicable to 
this county', and on June 25 appointed ex-Judge H. C. Rolfe and W. J. 
Curtis as trustees of said Law Library to act in conjunction with the two 
superior judges, Hon. George E. Otis and Hon. John L. Campbell, and 
the chairman of the board of supervisors. J. N. Victor, who were by 
the terms of said act ex-officio trustees. The first men constittited the 
first board of Law Library trustees of San Bernardino County and held 
their initial meeting July 3, 1891, but apart from a general discussion 
on the purposes and work confronting them, and the appointment of 
Judges Rolfe and Otis as a committee to draft by-laws, and of Mr. Victor 
as a committee to procure a room in the court house for a library, did 
nothing at the first meeting except to elect F. W. Richardson deputy 
county clerk, and acting clerk of the board of supervisors, as permanent 
-secretary of the board for the first year. 

Four days later another meeting was held, at which i\Ir. Victof 
reported that he had secured the storeroom in the Hall of Records as 
a library, and, inasmuch as a storeroom was all that was then required, 
this report and the room were accepted. The next meeting was held 
August 26, 1891, when Judge Otis was elected president of the board 
for the current year. The fourth meeting was held December 30, 1891, 
at which the organization was completed by the adoption of a code of 
by-laws and the election of ]\Ir. Richardson as librarian, in addition to 
his other duties. This organization continued without change until ^lay 
3, 1893, when T. C. Chapman was elected librarian, with the under.stand- 
ing that he was to occupy the library as his law office and to keep the 
library open during the business hours of each day. At this time the 
library was located in the room originally constructed for the use of the 
board of supervisors, above the landing of the stairway of the old court 
house. At this time, also, the library began to assume character, and for 
the first time might be said to be something more than an empty name. 
The board of library trustees had entered recently into a contract with 
the West Publishing Company, of St. Paul, Minnesota, for the, 
on credit of its Reporter System, embracing eight separate sets of reports, 
and covering decisions of courts of last resort all over the United States. 
This contract called for all continuations of these reports, including the 
bound volumes and advance sheets. At this time also the library contained 
the American Decisions, American Reports and some of the American 
State Reports, as well as Morrison's Mining Reports, a set of general 
digests published by the W^est Publishing Company, and a miscellaneous 
collection of textbooks donated principally by Judge Otis, Judge Rolfe 
and Mr. Curtis ; but, when all was said, it was still a crude and rather 
rudimentary library, used only by members of the local bar, and to no 
great extent even by them. In the meantime, the $24 which was being 
paid the librarian, while not a great remuneration, was sufficient to keep 
the library from acquiring any new volumes. 

The financial report of the board of trustees, of January, 1897, 
impressed upon the body the necessity for a radical reform. The term 
of Judge Otis as superior judge having expired with the year 1896, he 
was succeeded by Judge Frank F. Oster, his successor on the bench. At 
a meeting held January 11, 1897, the board was reorganized by the election 
of Judge Oster as president and Mr. Chapman as secretary. At this 
meeting the board of trustees concluded that it was necessary, as an 
economic measure, to do away with the services of a librarian, and from 


that time further those desiring to consult the books were compelled to 
secure admittance through the services of the janitor. At the close of 
the year 1900, the library was moved to a large and commodious room 
situated on the ground floor of the old Court House, in the former 
assessor's office. The board of trustees, through the exercise of rigid 
economy, paid off a large indebtedness and the subscription for several 
current reports, and have likewise added materially to the books. An 
inspection of the shelves will find that there are several thousand volumes, 
consisting for the most part of statutes, reports, digests, textbooks, etc. 
The library is a valuable and comprehensive one, and from small begin- 
nings, has developed into an asset of much value to the members of the 
San Bernardino County Bar. 


The great World's war of recent date which united the manhood of 
every part of the country with the bonds of a common cause completed 
the work of eliminating any feeling that may have existed in California 
as the aftermath of the great civil struggle of the '60s which disrupted 
homes, broke up friendships of a lifetime, set brother against brother and 
caused whole communities to run amuck with the blood lust that only 
war can generate. There are those who would say that California's part 
in the Civil war was one of not the slightest importance : on the contrary, 
conditions were of an alarming nature in this state during a long period 
of doubt, and only prompt action on the part of the loyal residents of the 
commonwealth saved California from the stigma of deserting the Union 
at a time when it was in need of its full strength. 

The state was placed in a peculiar position, for while the loyalty of 
the larger part of the population was not to be denied, the residents were 
composed of immigrants from all portions of the country, who had 
brought into the state the traditions and prejudices of their former com- 
munities. As there were at that time no native-born Californians who 
had attained manhood, there was no class to make up an entity of state 
]5ride and thought free from the influences of former associations. For 
the greater part men were sympathizers of the Federal cause if they had 
come into California from the North ; if they had come from a Southern 
state, they were definitely and positively in favor of the cause of Seces- 
sion, or if they did not declare themselves thus then they were avowedly 
against any attempt by force of arms to coerce the seceding states. 

Such a state of affairs, naturally, caused much uneasiness and a gen- 
eral unsettled condition. So unsettled in fact, that there was strong 
talk indulged in of an independent Pacific Republic. Likewise,.the reports 
received by the administration at Washington, as to what might be Cali- 
fornia's stand upon the great issues of the coming conflict, were greatly 
conflicting, and the authorities of the War Department eventually dis- 
patched from Washington, with all haste and secrecy, Gen. Edwin V. 
Sumner, an old officer of the regular army and of known loyalty, to 
relieve Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who was of Southern birth and 
family connections, from the command of the Military Division of the 
Pacific and the Department of California. In speaking of the relief of 
General Johnston, Ingersoll says : "It is due to the memory of a general 
who afterward became distinguished in the Confederate Army to say 
that no one who knew General Johnston ever entertained grave doubts 
that, whatever his personal feeling or sentiment might have been, he 
would have been true to the flag of the Union so long as he retained his 
commission in the United States Army. His established reputation was 
that of unquestioned ability, and the highest and keenest sense of honor. 
But times were dangerous and those in authority, realizing the wide dis- 
affection among officers of the armv and navy, hardly knew whom to 
trust, and where the shadow of doubt rested, deemed it best to place in 
authority those whose fealty was unquestioned." 

The fact was soon established that California would support the 

Union by the ease with which regiments were recruited and the many 

v.ildlv-enthusiastic meetings which were held in all sections of the state, 

for General Sumner had brought with him full authoritv to raise and 




equip volunteer regiments and to put the commonwealth in a complete state 
of defense. Like all soldiers who take up arms voluntarily, the officers 
and men of the California volunteer regiments were greatly desirous of 
getting into action at the front on the eastern theatre of war, a large 
majority explaining that they had no fear of an outbreak at home and 
that they had enlisted with the expectation and hope of being sent into 
immediate action. That they were sincere in these statements is to be 
seen in the fact that they oifered to pay their own expenses in the way 
of transportation, a noteworthy instance of this kind of patriotism being 
the tender of Corporal Goldthwait, a man of some means, of a check 

Soldiers and S.mlors Moxumext, Sax Ber- 
N.\RDiNO, Dedicated April 15, 1916 

for $5,000. to the colonel of his regiment, the Third California, for such 
expenses. Much to the disappointment of the volunteers, however, the 
War Department came to the conclusion that it was a wise policy to keep 
the Californians nearer home. For one thing, the trip via the Isthmus 
of Panama was too expensive and that across the plains too long, in addi- 
tion to which the activities of the hostile Indians at that time made the 
latter trip impracticable. It was felt, also, that no harm would be done 
if the- Mormons were kept under armed surveillance. Accordingly, Cali- 
fornia troops were distributed in Utah and adjoining territory ; one 
column operated in Arizona, New IMexico and as far east as Northern 
Texas, and the troops got their fill of military life. That these men did 


not come into actual conflict with the forces of the Confederacy is not 
to assert that they did not play an important part in the winning of the 
war. Long, dangerous marches over the burning plains were a part of 
their regular routine ; they endured intense suffering from heat, thirst 
and fatigue ; and they were almost constantly engaged in scouting and in 
actual warfare with the Indians. They fought the Navajos in New 
Mexico, the Apaches in Arizona and the Kiowas and Comanches in 
Texas, and throughout their service they displayed the maximum of 
bravery and fidelity. A part of the California volunteer troops were sta- 
tioned in the locality of San Francisco; for the fortifications of the harbor 
had been deprived of the services of the regular garrison, which had been 
sent to the East to join their respective regiments. In addition to ten 
regiments, one battalion and four companies of volunteer troops, there 
were the California Hundred and Battalion which went to the East and 
became a part of the cavalry forces of the great Army of the Potomac. 
The men making up these commands participated in more than fifty 
engagements with the enemy, beginning at South Ann Bridge in Vir- 
ginia and ending at Appomattox. Also, in various regiments of the 
eastern states, there were numerous individual Californians, and one 
regiment, recruited by Sen. Edward Baker, of Oregon, at Philadelphia, 
was largely composed of old Californians and was known generallv as the 
"First California." Taking these facts into consideration, as well as the 
fact that California contributed millions of dollars to the Union cause 
and vejry largely to the Sanitary Fund, it is not to be denied that this 
State did its full share in the preservation of the Union. 

The Grand Army of the Republic. Fifty-five years have rolled 
away since that notable body of men gathered, April 6, 1866, at Decatur, 
Illinois, and organized the Grand Army of the Republic, with hs motto 
of charity and loyalty and its avowed purpose of teaching patriotism to 
the younger generations. Among the leaders in this movement were 
soldiers who, on many a fierce field of battle, had proved their valor 
and patriotism, and they were well fitted for the task they had under- 
taken. The great organization then formed still continues, although, in 
the course of nature, it yearly grows less and less in membership, but it 
has proved a mighty factor in the lessons it has taught and in the work 
it has done in the upbuilding of solid American citizenship. 

The originator of the Grand Army of the Republic was Dr. Benjamin 
F. Stephenson, a Springfield, Illinois, physician, who had served during 
the war as a surgeon in the Fourteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 
After spending many weeks in studying the situation and outlining 
plans, he made a draft of a ritual which he sent by Capt. John S. Phelps 
to Decatur, where two veterans, Messrs. Cottrin and Prior, owned a 
printing establishment. With their employes, who had also been in the 
service, these men were first sworn to secrecy and the ritual was then 
set up in type in their office and a number of copies printed. These 
Captain Phelps took back to Springfield. In the meantime, comrades 
at Decatur had become so interested that, with the active assistance of 
Capt. F. M. Kanan and Dr. J- W. Roth, names sufficient for the secur- 
ing of a charter were procured, and Doctor Stephenson was prevailed 
upon to go to Decatur, although a post was already being organized at 
Springfield, although not ready for muster. Decatur thus had the honor 
of being the birthplace of this great organization, with Gen. Isaac Pew 
as post commander and Captain Kanan as adjutant, and the title "The 
Grand Army of the Republic" was formally adopted at the organization, 
April 6, 1866. Post No. 2 was organized at Springfield soon thereafter, 


and at a national soldiers' and sailors' convention, held at Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, the following September, prominent citizens were empow- 
ered to organize posts. From that time forward organization was rapid, 
until it became one of the strongest bodies in the Union, possessing and 
exercising a powerful influence for good. 

W. H. Long Post, G. A. R. It was not until the winter of 1883-84 
that any definite action was taken toward the organization of a post of 
the Grand Army of the Republic at San Bernardino. The efforts of 
Capt. Frank T. Singer at first met with indifferent support, but vigorous 
agitation eventually developed the fact that there were many veterans 
in the community and the requisite number of names were obtained. 
This was followed by the obtaining of a charter and April 24, 1884, 
W. H. Long Post, No. 57, G. A. R., Department of California and 
Nevada, was regularly mustered in with a membership of twenty-four. 
The post was named in honor of a close friend of Maj. T. C. Kendall, 
formerly of the Sixth Army Corps, Col. W. H. Long, a wealthy Boston 
merchant, who presented the new organization with a handsome silk 
banner, suitably inscribed. 

When Merhorial Day was observed for the first time at San Ber- 
nardino, May 30, 1884, the people of the city and the surrounding coun- 
try turned out in full force, the Knights of Pythias shared in the cele- 
bration, the public school children, fraternal bodies and civic organiza- 
tions joined in the parade, and the occasion was the greatest thus far in 
the history of the city. Weekly meetings served to swell the membership 
and when the banner arrived from Colonel Long the occasion was cele- 
brated by another gala affair, held in two large store rooms on Third 
Street, which included a banquet and ball. The exploitation of this event 
by the newspapers brought to the attention of the leading officials of 
the Grand Army of the Republic the fact that, contrary to the rules of 
the organization, the post had been named after a man who was still 
alive, and the charter was promptly revoked. * 

W. R. Corn MAN Post, G. A. R. The post, however, was allowed 
to retain its number, and December 5, 1884, it was renamed W. R. Corn- 
man Post, which succeeded to all rights and privileges of its predecessor, 
and was mustered in with forty-two members. The post was named 
in honor of Lieut. William Raymond Cornman, a native of Illinois, born 
at what is now East St. Louis, December 19, 1844. In 1861, while a 
resident of Stillwater, Minnesota, he joined the United States Army 
and saw active Indian fighting in the frontier states. Later he joined 
the First Minnesota Infantry, rose rapidly in the ranks, and at the time 
of his honorable discharge held the rank of second lieutenant. Soon 
thereafter he came westward and after mining in Utah reached San 
Bernardino in 1875. He engaged in the livery business and handled 
wagons, carriages, grain, etc., but his career was cut short August 15, 
1877, when he perished on the Mojave Desert for the want of water. 
Like other posts, the San Bernardino body has in recent years been sadly 
depleted by deaths. Since its organization, 231 names have appeared on 
its rolls, but at the present time there are but 55 members. 

Following is the list of commanders from the organization to the 
present time: 

1884 Frank T. Singer 

1885 T. C. Kendall 

1886. E. C. Sevmour 

1887 E. A. Smith 

1888 C. N. Damron 


1889 Frank T. Singer 

1890 James E. Mack 

1891 Samuel Leffler 

1892 loseph Marchant 

1893 N. G.Gill 

1894 Weslev Thompson 

1895 G. L. Hatterv 

1896 A. Fussel 

1897 Ward E. Clark 

1898 M. P. Sutinger 

1899 Tames la Niece 

1900 T. C. Chapman 

1901 Joel A. Taylor 

1902 E. C. Seymour 

1903 W. L. Vestal 

1904 W. L. Vestal 

1905 T. L. Palmer 

1906 A. M. Brown 

1907 W. C. Clark 

1908 E. Davis 

1909 N. H. Barton (died in office) 

1910 L. B. Walker 

1911 W. H. Weight 

1912 E. C. Seymour 

1913 N. B. Weed 

1914 T. Harding 

1915 L, McHugh 

1916 T. H. Maxwell 

1917 W. D. Hoover 

1918 A. M. Brown 

1919 E. C. Seymour 

1920 E. C. Seymour 

1921 E. C. Seymour 

G. A. R. officers for 1921 : Post Commander, E. C. Seymour ; Senior 
Vice Commander, J. G. Wood : Junior Vice Commander, ^\'. \\'. Dal- 
geish : Adjutant. Edward Davis, served twelve years ; Quartermaster. 
B. Pierson, served eleven years ; Surgeon, S. K. Wilson ; Chaplain, W'. H. 
Weight : Officer of the Day, W. C. Ciark : Officer of Guard, J. Thompson : 
Patriotic Instructor, J. N. Waddell : Sergeant Major. T. E. Moon; 
Quartermaster Sergeant. J. H. Ladd. 

Soldiers and Sailors Monument. On April 15, 1916. the unveil- 
ing and dedication of the soldiers and sailors' monument in Pioneer Park 
was made the occasion for a holiday, in which the ]iatriotic organizations 
of .Southern California participated. 

Rev. Eh McClish, chaplain at the Soldiers' Home at Sawtelle, and 
liimself a veteran, was orator of the day, while Hiram P. Thompson, 
commander of the Department of California and Nevada, and Mayor 
George H. Wixom were speakers. 

The stately monument, which was hewn out of marble by Peter 
Bisson, the Los Angeles sculptor, was imveiled by Master Jesse Wil- 
liam Curtis, Jr., son of Judge J. W. Curtis and his sister Helen, grand- 
children of Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Seymour, the former a past commander 
for California and Nevada. The monument cost $6,100, of which thi 
board of supervisors of the county gave $1,500, and the city trustees, 


who also contributed $1,500; the balance being the donations of schools 
and private individuals and citizens generally — the results of hard work- 
by the members of the G. A. R. and W. R. C. With the latter two 
organizations it was a long cherished dream, now realized. 

Col. E. C. Seymour was master of ceremonies and Mrs. E. C. Sey- 
mour, whose inspiring courage enlisted the co-operation of friends, was 
in charge of decorations. 

The monument, all told, stands about 30 feet high : first the base, 
then a beautiful pedestal, and topping this is the figure of a soldier at 
ease. On eacii of the four sides of the pedestal — a 4-foot polished gray 
marble — is cut an inscription. 
On the west side: 

"To those who established a government of the people, 
by the people, for the people." 
On the south side : 

"To those who carried the flag for freedom and gave us 
the beautiful Southland.'" 
On the north : 

"Those who rallied around the flag and gave freedom to 
Cuba and the Philippines." 
On the east side : 

"To those who sacrificed so much and preserved our Country 
under one flag." 

The Woman's Relief Corps- The Woman's Relief Corps, W. R. 
Cornman Post, No. 9, was organized at San Bernardino, January 9, 
1885. Information concerning its earlier history is not available because 
the records were destroyed in a fire, but the corps from its start has 
worked in thorough accord with the G. A. R., aiding in all social and 
benevolent efforts and paying particular attention to looking after the 
families of old soldiers who have been in need of assistance. One of 
the most important enterprises undertaken by this body was the erection 
of a monument to the soldiers in City Park. The corps had a charter 
membership of fourteen, and its first president was Mrs, Jennie Har- 
grove, its secretary being Mrs. J. J. Whitney. The corps now has a 
membership of 150. Its officers are: Jennieveva Hasty, president; Delia 
Spangler, senior vice president; Mary Walker, junior vice president; 
Eliza Sullinger and Elizabeth Felter, secretary ; Anna Stiles, treasurer : 
and Flora Gowel, chaplain. 

Past Presidents Relief Corps 

1885 lennie Hargraves 

1886 Ada Suhr 

1887 Elizabeth Singer 

1888 losephene Cornman 

1889 Kate Reinohl 

1890 Hattie Dixon 

1891 Ida Sevmour 

1892 Martha M. Kendall 

1893 Mary E. Buddington 

1894 Minnie M. Gill 

1895 Emma Davidson 

1896 Tosephene Cornman Whitnev 

1897 "Marv E. Hatterlv 


1898 Eliza M. Sullinger 

1899 Amelia Wood 

1900 Anna Levings 

1902 Jennie Clark 

1904 Martha M. Seymour 

1906 Mary Y. Hoag'land 

1907 Eliza Dow Kimball 

1908 Orissa Osborn 

1909 Euphama Cobiirn 

1910 Jennie Hmck 

1911 Flora Gowell 

1913 Anna Stiles 

1914 Georgia Armetrout 

1915 Florence Ladd 

1916 Annie Maxwell 

1918 Rose Smith 

1919 Elizabeth Filter 

1920 Forest Pierson 

1921 Jennieveva Hasty 

First Battalion, Seventh California Infantry, U. S. The his- 
tory of the San Bernardino County companies, from the time of the 
formation of Company G of Redlands, is that of the First Battalion 
of the Seventh Infantry, California National Guard, and United States 
Volunteers. When the addition of Company G and the Act of March 9, 
1893, added another major to the personnel of the Ninth Infantry, an 
election was called at San Diego, held June 17, 1893, at which Frank 
C. Prescott was elected major of the Second Battalion, which included 
Companies C of Riverside, D of Pomona, E of San Bernardino, and 
G of Redlands. When the Seventh and Ninth regiments of the National 
Guard were consolidated, these companies remained in the same battalion, 
with San Bernardino's letter changed to K, and Riverside's to M. At 
the Santa Monico camp, in 1897, Company D of Pomona was trans- 
ferred to another battalion and Company B of San Diego placed in 
the battalion, thus giving Captain Dodge of San Diego, the senior officer 
of the regiment in point of length of service, the right of the line 
The reorganization also had the result of the battalion becoming the 
First Battalion, as Major (later Gen.) Frank C. Prescott, who 
re-elected, was the senior major. 

The First Battalion has been called upon for active duty on numer- 
ous occasions. On September 2, 1893, it was ordered to rendezvous 
at tlie armories of the respective companies for duty in suppressing anti- 
Chinese riots, threatened at Redlands, and assembled all night. On 
April 14, 1894, it was order to rendezvous and with Company K to 
proceed to Colton to protect railroad property from the riotous demon- 
strations of the notorious "Coxey's Army." Company K bivouacked one 
night at the City Hall, Colton. On May 5, 1898, the battalion assembled 
at the armories, and acting under orders started for .San Francisco, 
May 6, 1898, camping at the Presidio on the following day and being 
mustered into the United States \'olunteers for service in the Spanish- 
American war. May 9. It remained in camp at the Presidio until the 
25th, when it took station at Fifth Avenue. Camp Merritt. San Fran- 
cisco, and changed station to First Avenue, June 28. On August 24 
it returned to Presidio, and October 13 was furloughed. It rendezvoused 
at Agricultural Park, Los Angeles, November 12, and when mustered 
out, December 2, returned to duty with the National Guard. 


The battalion has been commended repeatedly in orders and has been 
distinguished for instruction, discipline and esprit. Its first tour of 
active duty was characterized by good judgment and efficiency, and 
Regimental Orders No. 14, Headquarters Ninth Regiment. First Brigade, 
N. G. C, San Diego, September 16, 1893, includes the following: 

"The commanding officer desires to commend Maj. Frank C. Prescott 
and the officers and men of Companies C, E and G for the promptness 
with which they responded to the orders of the brigade commander upon 
the occasion of the recent threatened anti-Chinese riots at Redlands, and 
the manner in which they exemplified their readiness to discharge their 
duties under the law. The large percentage of attendance secured upon 
short notice, and the energy and efficiency shown in the discharge of 
duty, justifies the commanding officer's large faith in the fidelity and 
efficiency of his entire command and in its capacity properly to aid the 
civil authorities to meet those emergencies of public disorder the danger 
of whose occurrence justifies the National Guard's existence. 

"Official, "By Order of Colonel Spielman. 

"Ed. F. Brown, Adjutant." 

During the period of the industrial trouble and unrest, the preserva- 
tion of pace was maintained by the battalion without immoderate zeal, 
but which with business-like directness that served to demonstrate to 
the malcontents that the situation was being kept well in hand by the 

While in the service of the United States as the First Battalion of 
the Seventh California Infantry, U. S. V., this organization formed a 
part of the First Brigade, Independent Division of the Eighth Army 
Corps, and was always a part of the Expeditionary Forces. Its officers 
were Frank C. Prescott, major, and Harvey E. Higbev, first lieutenant. 
The tour of duty at the Presidio was one of discipline and instruction, 
and Major Prescott carried out the work to the uttermost limit and 
with splendid ability. The battalion, shortly after its arrival, was engaged 
in drilling in both close and extended order by trumpet signals ; the 
infantry drill regulations were covered ; the shelter tent drill and physica! 
exercise with arms and to music were mastered, and the work cul- 
minated in the exhibition drills given by the diflferent regiments on dif- 
ferent nights at Mechanics' Pavilion. The battalion was assigned the 
difficult duty of giving a battalion drill which should illustrate the school 
of the battalion as far as the floor space would permit, and despite the 
fact that the 400 men made a column the full length of the pavilion, 
the movements of the close order were fully exemplified. An instance 
which gave evidence of the perfection of drill and perfect discipline, and 
one which was noted and favorably commented upon by Major General 
Merriam, the reviewing officer, was that at the order "Arms !" the iron 
butts of nearly 400 rifles struck the floor together without a sound, this 
being in conformation with the infantry drill regulations which prescribe 
that the guns shall be lowered gently to the ground. The efficiency of 
the battalion was recognized by the regular army authorities who ordered 
it for a tour of duty wherein the captains were ordered to fall out and 
regular army lieutenants placed in command of the companies to test 
their proficiency of drill. The San Francisco newspapers reported this 
as follows : 

"First and second lieutenants of the United States Army undergoing 
examination for promotion were examined in drill June 14, Major Pres- 
cott's battalion of the .Seventh California Infantry, U. S. V., being 
brought over from Camp Merritt to the Presidio for the purpose of 


examination. It was a matter of universal comment among the officers 
of the Presidio what a fine body of men the soldiers of the battalion 
were excellently drilled and strong and martial in appearance." 

Upon their return to duty in the National Guard after the muster 
out from the volunteer service, the men showed less bad effects of the 
reaction from regular army life than many organizations. Many of the 
battalion's members re-enlisted in the United States .\rmy, and September 
12. 1899, its conmiander, Major Prescott, accepted a commission in the 
United States Volunteers, with rank from August 17. 1899. and opened 
recruiting offices at Redlands and San Bernardino. He recruited sixteen 
men in the county, who furnished the nucleus of Company L of the 
Forty-third Infantry, United States Volunteers, this organization being 
the contribution of San Bernardino County to the Philippine campaign. 
It saw much hard duty and lost numerous men in action, and its official 
history in the War Office is as follows : Captain Prescott began recruit- 
ing September 22, 1899, at Redlands. and Captain Cooke, September 21, 
1899. at Sacramento, the former arriving at the Presidio of San Fran- 
cisco with fifteen recruits October 14 and the latter arriving with eight 
recruits October 11. These, with forty-two recruits who arrived from 
Sacramento October 5, and assignments from general recruiting stations, 
were consolidated, equipped and instructed by Captain Prescott, and the 
provisional company was mustered in as Company L, Forty-third 
Infantry, United States Volunteers, the muster in roll being dated Novem- 
ber 3, 1899. On November 20, 1899, the company boarded the United 
States chartered transport City of Puebla, sailing the same day for the 
Philippine Islands, with the First Battalion. Forty-fourth Infantry, 
United States Volunteers, and in company with the United States Army 
transport Hancock. Arrival was made at Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 
November 28, where, on November 30, the company, with the First Bat- 
talion, Forty-fourth Infantry, took a march of six miles and witnessed 
a camp of instruction and drill of the National Guard of Hawaii. The 
company sailed from Honolulu, December 3, 1899, and arrived at Manila, 
Uuzon, December 19, where it was learned by the members that the brave 
Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, whose home was at Redlands, had been killed 
in action that day. 

On landing at Manila, December 21, 1899, the company quartered at 
the Exposition Building. Malate. and on the following day marched a 
distance of six miles to El Deposito de las Aguas Potables. ]\Iaraquina 
Crossing, where they camped in tents already erected. On December 23 
the men moved into tents 100 yards distant in front of Headquarters 
First Brigade. First Division. Eighth Army Corps, El Deposito, and 
December 26 marched four miles to a pumping station and ferried across 
the river to Santolan. where they bivouacked for the night. On the follow- 
ing day they marched eight miles to San ]\Iateo. acting as an escort to 
twenty-nine carabo wagons loaded with supplies, and arrived at 10 A. M.. 
having proceeded toward a heavy fire in the hills during the last four 
miles. They were held in reserve and participated in an action in the 
mountains back of town, and then marched back to El Deposito with two 
wounded, arriving at Camp December 28. This was the first engage- 
ment participated in by any part of the Fortv-third Regiment, and the 
men comported themselves coolly and gallantly. On the same day the 
regiment marched five miles to Camp Maraquina, where they took station 
and camped the first night, and December 30 participated in a skirmish 
at the canon .skirting the camp. After patrolling the right bank of the 
San Mateo River. Luzon. IMaraquina. to Novaliches trail, tliey broke 
camp and marched to El Deposito, where they took station, thus joining 


the regiment for the first time, January 1, 1900, the headquarters and 
ten companies of the Forty-third, Col. Arthur Murrey commanding, 
having come from Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, on the United tates Army 
transport Meade, New York via the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Red and 
Indian seas to Manila. 

The company then marched with the regiment and took station at 
Malate Nipa Barracks, IManila, January 14, 1900, and four days later 
embarked on the United States chartered transport Venus, with companies 
I, K and M of the Forty-third, constituting the Third Battalion, Henry 
T. Allen, senior major. They arrived at Sorsogon Bay, Luzon, and 
transferred to the United States Army transport Hancock, to allow use of 
the Venus in landing troops at Legaspi, Luzon, January 22, but later 
returned to the Venus and sailed, for Calbayog, Samar, January 25. 
Arriving at Calbayog, they took the town without casualties, and January 
26 sailed for Catbalogan, Samar, arriving January 27. The men landed 
from small boats and participated in the capture of the town from the 
insurgents and in extinguishing fires which had been started in the church 
and principal buildings. In this engagement the regiment suflFered its 
first fatality in action. Private Logan, of L Company, being killed. The 
men camped on the hill overlooking the town that night, and on the 
following day returned to Catbalogan, being quartered in the former 
barracks of the insurgents and Spanish soldiers at the north extremity of 
the town, near Mercedes Bridge. Early on the morning of January 29 
they marched three miles to Maestranza, Bang-on River, thence to the 
source and south three miles on the southern side of the mountain, in 
pursuit of General Lubkan. They bivouacked at Maestranza Powder 
Works, which they destroyed, and after capturing $18,000 in Filipino and 
Mexican silver money, returned, January 30 to Catbalogan, whence, 
February 5, Lieutenant Burt and a detachment from L Company, 
returned to Maestranza for maps. On February 14, Captain Prescott 
and Lieutenant Burt, with forty men, took a launch for Calbiga, and at 
midnight Captain Prescott and half the force left the launch in row 
boats for the mouth of the Calbiga River, two miles distant, arriving 
at Calbiga on the 15th. On the following day. Captain Prescott and 
eight men marched eight miles to the coal mines in the Camanga Moun- 
tains, and on the 17th marched eight miles to the headwaters of the 
Bucalan River, going thence by barotos to the mouth, along the strait of 
San Sebastian, and thence by barotos with sails, across the bay to Catba- 
logan. On February 26 Captain Prescott was appointed and sworn 
])rovost judge of Catbalogan. On March 13, Captain Prescott, with 
thirty-three men, went to Majayog by barotos, and Lieutenant Conrow, 
with twenty-seven men, went to the same place by Maestranza, returning 
the same day. On March 24, Corp. Dann Perry Butler was wounded 
in the left hand by a bolo, during a night attack on the detachment under 
Lieutenant Andrews, above Jiabong, Samar. From March 24 to April 2, 
Private Lippman Samuels, of L Company, who had complained of fatigue 
and had left the column with Visayan guides and carriers, was lost two 
miles north of the Biga River. 

Boarding a launch, the Lotus, May 21, 1900, Captain Prescott, Lieu- 
tenant Burt and twenty-one men journeyed to the Paseig River, up 
which stream thev proceeded in barotos and by land to Calbiga, 
returning on the same date by barotos to the Paseig River. Ambushed 
while in the barotos. a brick skirmish followed, in which Private Weden, 
of L Company, and a private of M Company were wounded, being 
brought back to Catbalogan May 22. On the following dav. Captain 
Prescott and the same detachment left on the launch Lotus for Islands 


Lamingao, Villa Real, Santa Rita, Tulalora, on Samar, and Tacloban, 
Leyte and Basay, Samar, returning to Catbalogan on the 25th. From June 
4 to July 2, 1900, there was ahnost daily firing on the garrison, and on 
the latter date, under Captain Prescott, the company boarded the launch 
Defender and towed to Dulag, Leyte, where the troops took station, July 
4, the yacht going ashore wrecked. Captain Prescott was placed in com- 
mand at the post at Dulag and Lieutenant Conrow in command of the 
company. Corporal Tarbox died at Alang-Alang, September 16. On 
September 27, the company changed station to Tanauan, with Captain 
Prescott remaining in charge at Dulag, and October 14 this officer started 
for Iloilo to take command as supervisor of internal revenue of the 
Department of the Visavas, on the staff of General Hughes. Leaving 
December 8, Sergeant Loomis, Corporals Gage and \\'alsh. and fourteen 
privates of L, and others from A and K companies, under Lieutenant 
Swann, on an expedition to the San Juanico Straits, on the 14th they 
engaged a band of insurgents near Sabang. Leyte, and the casualties, all 
of L Company, were as follows: Killed, Privates Granville P. Sims and 
Edwin E. Hamilton ; mortally wounded, Privates Harry P. Higgin« and 
Arthur Carr, and moderately wounded. Private Lorenzo D. Taylor. On 
April 30, 1901, Captain Prescott was relieved from the command of the 
internal revenue department, and rejoined his company Mav 20 at 
Tanauan. On May 31 the company boarded the transport Kilpatrick at 
Tacloban, and arrived at Manila May 5, San Francisco June 27, and was 
mustered out July 5, 1901. Major Prescott's activities during this tour 
of duty were varied, covering the whole range of army work, both mili- 
tary and civil. Upon his return he was placed upon the retired list of 
the National Guard witli the rank of major. 

History of Company K, Seventh Infantry. During the early part 
of 1887 there was formed in the City of San Bernardino, an independent 
company of infantry, which was known as the Waterman Rifles, named 
in honor of R. W. Waterman, a prominent citizen of San Bernardino, 
who had been elected lieutenant-governor of CaHfornia in November, 

1886, and who, on the death of Gov. Washington Bartlett, September 12, 

1887, took the gubernatorial chair. In the spring of 1887 the Legisla- 
ture provided for an increase of the National Guard, and the efforts of 
Governor Waterman resulted in the formation of the Waterman Rifles, 
it being his aim that they eventually be mustered into the state service. 
The company was mustered in as Company E. Seventh Infantry, October 
29, 1887, and remained with the original Seventh Infantry until the for- 
mation of the Ninth Infantry, N. G. C. to which Company E was trans- 
ferred with its original letter. Upon the disintegration of the Ninth 
Infantry Regiment, G. O. 17, A. G. O.. December 7. 1895, Company E 
v^-as assigned provisionally to the Second Battalion of Lifantrv of the 
First Brigade, N. G. C, and G. O. 18, A. G. O., two days later,' Decem- 
ber 9, was designated as Company K and transferred to the First Bat- 
talion, Seventh Infantry, N. G. C. Company K rendezvoused at San 
Bernardino, May 5, 1898, and with the rest of the regiment was mustered 
into the Seventh California Infantry, United States Volunteers, Indepen- 
dent Division, Eighth Army Corps, U. S. A., May 9. 1898. at the Presidio 
of San Francisco. This company saw service in the Philippines, where 
several of its members met death, and was always regarded as an excep- 
tionally well-trained body of men. reflecting in their conduct the spirit 
and discipline that have always characterized California troops whether 
in battle or in the performance of the less dangerous but more arduous 
duties necessary of discharge during times of peace. 


History of Company G, Seventh Infantry. What was after- 
ward to be known as Company G, Seventh Infantry, N. G. C, was 
organized as the Redlands Guard, June 10, 1892, at Society Hall, in 
the Feraud Buildin,^, at the corner of Orange and Water streets. Red- 
lands, and June 17th following, the following officers were elected: 
J. Wallace F. Diss, captain ; Frank C. Prescott, first lieutenant, and 
James F. Drake, second lieutenant. A weekly drilling night, Thursdays, 
was chosen, and with the provision of uniform the company began to take 
on some semblance of a mihtary organization. One of the stores in the 
brick building on the later site of the Casa Lotna was used as an armory, 
and in August, 1892, the company went to Camp Butler, Long Beach, 
under command of Lieutenant Prescott, Captain Diss being present as a 
guest of the National Guard. Here Adjutant General Allen entertained 
a plan whereby state Springfield rifles were stored with and used by 
the company. On June 3, 1893, the independent company, as Company G, 
was mustered into the Ninth Infantry, N. G. C, with the following 
officers : J. Wallace F. Diss, captain ; Frank C. Prescott, first lieutenant ; 
and Harvey E. Higbey, second lieutenant. Upon the disintegration of 
the Ninth Infantry, Regiment G. O. 17, A. G. O., December 7, 1895, 
Company G was assigned provisionally to the Third Battalion of Infantry 
of the First Brigade, N. G. C, and two days later, G. O. 18, A. G. O.. 
December 9th, was transferred to the First Battalion, Seventh Infantry, 
N. G. C, retaining its old letter. Company G rendezvoused at Redlands, 
May 5, 1898, and with the rest of the regiment was mustered into the 
Seventh California Infantry, U. S. V., Independent Division, Eighth 
Army Corps, U. S. A., May 9, 1898, at the Presidio of San Francisco. 
This company also saw service in the Philippines, and at all times con- 
ducted itself as a brave, willing and thoroughly disciplined organization. 

Rollins-Noble Camp, No. 15, United Spanish War Veterans, Depart- 
ment of California, was organized May 18, 1905, with a charter member- 
ship of twenty-six. The camp was named in honor of Sergt. Curtis S. 
Rollins, Company K, Seventh California Volunteer Infantry, who died 
at San Francisco, while awaiting orders to the front; and Corporal 
Don Laban Noble, Sixteenth United States Infantry, who died in the 
Philippines in active service. 

Object of organization: To unite in fraternal bonds those men who 
served in the military and naval establishments of the United States of 
America in the war with Spain and in the campaigns incidental to and 
growing out of that war. To honor the memory and preserve from 
neglect and oblivion the graves of the dead. To assist former comrades 
and shipmates, and their widows and orphans, and to inculcate the prin- 
ciples of universal liberty, equal rights and justice to all mankind, of 
loyalty to our country, reverence for its institutions, obedience to its 
laws, and to discountenance whatever tends to weaken these sentiments 
among our people. 

Due to the World war the present (1921) membership of the camp is 
less than the number of charter members. Officers, 1921 : 

Commander — G. L. Gregory. 
Senior commander — F. G. Booth. 
Junior vice commander — L. F. Harbauer. 
Adjutant and quartermaster — E. Davis. 
Officer of the day— J. W. Smith. 
Officer of the guard — R. A. Bright. 
Trustee — A. S. Gutherie. 


Sergeant major — O. P. Sloat. 
Sergeant major — S. G. Batchelor. 

Past camp commanders — Edward Davis, L. F. Harbauer, J. W. Smith, 
F. G. Booth, A. S. Gutherie, G. L. Gutherie 

American Legion. After the soldiers and sailors had returned home 
from the war, and the welcomes and reunions were over, they began to 
consider some kind of proposition for organization by which they could 
bf banded together for mutual benefit. 

Their first meeting was held at the Elks' Club, on February 28, 1919, 
at which time a Soldiers' and Sailors' League was organized with the 
following officers : 

Leo A. Stromee, commander ; Jerome Kavanaugh, first vice com- 
mander; J. O. Killian, second vice commander; C. E. Johnson, adjutant; 
R. E. Roberts, finance officer ; Mark B. Shaw, chaplain. 

Executive committee — A. S. Gutherie, P. M. Savage, H. C. Parker, 
L. M. Clickner, L. M. Ford. 

On August 31, 1919, the League voted to affiliate with the American 
Legion and so became Legion No 14, of California. The following 
officers were then elected : 

George H. Johnson, commander ; Louis Larsen, first vice commander ; 
Ed. Burrington, second vice commander ; E. P. Minner, adjutant ; R. E. 
Roberts, finance officer; Mark B. Shaw, chaplain; H. L. Didelow, 
sergeant-at-arms ; E. W. Meyers, historian. 

Executive committee — Byron W. Allen, C. C. Owen, B. W. Sharper, 
Fred B. Mack. L. M. Clickner. 

The principles and purposes of the Legion are best expressed by the 
preamble which is as follows: "For God and country we associate our- 
selves together for the following purposes : To uphold and defend the 
Constitution of the United States of America: to maintain law and order; 
to foster and perpetuate a 100 per cent Americanism ; to preserve the 
memories and incidents of our association in the Great war ; to inculcate 
a sense of individual obligation to the community, state and nation; to 
promote peace and good-will on earth ; to safeguard and transmit to pros- 
perity the principles of justice, freedom and democracy ; to consecrate 
and sanctify our comradeship in the Great War by our devotion to mutual 

Of course the objects and accomplishments of each individual post 
must to a certain extent differ from those of every other post. There 
always will be differences of opinion and difterent methods of accom- 
plishing those things which are deemed for the best interest. It is hoped, 
and doubtless will sometome develop, that the American Legion will be 
the one great ex-service men's organization growing out of the great war, 
just as the Grand Army of the Republic became the great ex-service 
men's organization following the Civil war. 

List of San Bernardino Soldiers Who Died in Action or in 
Service: Raymond Andelstedt, Leonard Armstrong, E. A. Chokas, 
Clarence Loburn, Kenneth E. Edmunds, F. J. Furlong, Bert Heap, W. H. 
Lawson. E. L. Pyers, Cornelius J- Scheppers, Jack Heken, Harry B. 
Lukins, Allen Shedden, Louis Bellotine, Lawrence A. Byers, Charles J. 
Gregson, H. Van Grenwalt, H. S. Lefler. 

American Legion Auxiliary. No. 14. On April 10, 1920. there was 
organized an American Legion auxiliary at the call of Mrs. R. F. Garner. 
who was appointed and instructed to take up the work by the Ber- 


nardino Legion. There had been a number of preliminary meetings at 
the home of Mrs. Garner; the first one about twenty women responded 
to the invitation. Then with something like forty charter members the 
auxiliary became an organization, with the following preamble : "For 
God and country we associate ourselves together for the following pur- 
poses: To uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States of 
America; to maintain law and order; to foster and perpetuate a 100 
per cent Americanism ; to preserve the memories and incidents of our 
association during the great World war ; to inculcate a sense of indi- 
vidual obligation to the community, state and nation ; to combat autocracy 
of both the classes and the masses ; to make right the master of 
might; to promote peace and good-will on earth; to safeguard and 
transmit to posterity the principles of justice, freedom and democracy; 
to participate in and to contribute to the accomplishment of the aims 
and purposes of the American Legion ; to consecrate and sanctify our 
association by our devotion to mutual helpfulness. 

The present membership numbers 158. Officers for 1921 : Mrs. 
Robert F. Garner, senior president ; Mrs. C. B. Winn, senior vice presi- 
dent; Mrs. Jas. W. Cole, senior secretary; Mrs. Carl Zaun, senior 

Red Cross. The first meeting with a view to organizing the San 
Bernardino, California Chapter, American Red Cross, was held on June 
29, 1916, in the home of Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Harbison, 515 D Street. 
The active spirits responsible for this meeting were Dr. H. W. Boone 
and Miss Anna J. Windall, a Red Cross nurse, who had talked and 
worked incessantly for several weeks, explaining the character, scope 
and need of Red Cross activities. 

Others present on this occasion were: G. H. Wixom, Judge J. W. 
Curtis, Carrol C. Davis, S. W. McNabb, W. S. Ingram, D. C. Strong, 
R. A. Goodcell, W. S. Conger, M. E. Dimmock, W. E. Leonard, O. P. 
Sloat, J. W. Smith, J. L. Oakey, Mrs. Marion L. Goodcell, Mrs. Frederick 
Doolittle, Mrs. J. W. Barton, Mrs. S. O. Ferguson, Mrs. W. S. Boggs. 
The meeting voted authority to Dr. Boone and Miss Windalle to tele- 
graph for authority to organize the chapter. 

On July 25 this was issued and a charter with the signature of John 
L. Clymer, manager. Pacific Division, A. R. C, San Francisco, California. 
On August 8th the formal organization of the chapter was efifected and 
temporary officers elected : Chairman, Judge J. W. Curtis, vice chairman, 
Ralph E. Swing, treasurer, Mrs. Marion L. Goodcell; secretary, Mrs. 
R. B. Strong. These officers served until the first annual meeting, which 
was fixed for October 31, 1916. This meeting elected the following 
officers and executive board: 

Officers — Chairman, D. H. W. Mills; vice chairman, Mrs. J. W. 
Barton ; treasurer, Mrs. Marion L. Goodcell ; secretary, Carroll C. Davis. 

Executive committee— Dr. H. W. Boone, Dr. A. M. Bennett, C. L. 
Dunn. Mrs. R. F. Garner, Mrs. J. W. Barton, Miss Julia Bradshaw. 

To effectively launch the work systematically, the executive commit- 
tee chairman of departments: Military Relief, afterwards changed to 
Chapter Production, Miss Anna Windalle. Membership: Dr. H. W. 
Boone. Christmas seals : Mrs. R. F. Garner. Nursing service : Miss 
Julia Bradshaw. Nurses' classes: Mrs. J. W. Barton. Life saving 
corps : C. L. Dunn. Educational classes : Dr. A. M. Bennett. 

A great amount of interest was awakened by these five enthusiastic 
workers, and the entrance of the United States in the World war in 
April, 1917, found many men. women and children ready to carry on 


Red Cross work to the end ; changes had to be made in the official per- 
sonnel of the chapter and the second annual election was held August 21, 

1917, electing: 

Chairman, Rev. David Todd Gilmor; vice chairman, Robert C. Har- 
bison; Treasurer, W. O. Harris; Secretary, Mrs. Helen S. Ell. 

Department chairmen — Civilian relief, Mrs. R. F. Garner; military 
relief. Miss Anna Windalle resigned November, 1918, Mrs. Gertrude 
Van Camp, elected; membership, Mrs. J. W. Barton; Company K, 
Mrs. Jonas S. Wood ; Press, Mrs. Geo. F. Tilton. resigned October, 1918, 
Miss Winifred Martin, elected; war fund, W. M. Parker; salvage shop, 
Mrs. R. D. Brown, Mrs. J. H. Mclnerny, and Miss Rebecca Caro; 
speakers. Miss Harriett Curtis ; finance, Z. T. Bell ; junior auxiliary, 
Mrs. Geo. Tilton, January, 1918; canteen, Mrs. Reetta V. Hadden, 
June, 1918. 

In April, 1918, a critical illness forced Mrs. Van Camp to resign 
as chairman of Chapter Production, and Mrs. O. C. Rogers was elected 
in her place, and as secretary of executive board, and as the work was 
increasing. Miss Iris Buszy was elected assistant secretary. 

On January 1, 1918, the R. C. membership was 6,000, and the 
chapter handled $50,000. Chairman Production Department. Mrs. O. C. 
Rogers. .Sub-chairmen in Production Department were : Sewing, Mrs. 
S. S. Turvey; knitting, Mrs. John Owen; surgical dressings. Dr. A. M. 
Bennette. The combined output was over 60,000 pieces. 

The canteen work was organized by Mrs. Reetta V. Hadden on June 1, 

1918, through the courtesy of the Katz Estate Company. Armory Hall 
was donated to Mrs. Hadden for canteen work and was splendidly fur- 
nished through the generosity of the people, singly and in groups, the 
Chamber of Commerce, and National Orange Show, and had the moral 
and financial support of the churches and Y. M. C. A. In fact, the 
entire city took great interest in the canteen, not only the city, but 
surrounding communities poured the wealth of orchard, grove and vine- 
yard into the coffers of the canteen on train service calls. Highland 
and Rialto were specially responsive. 

The canteen service, both at headquarters and at train, became the 
boast of the chapter, on account of this and splendid work at March 
Field. Mrs. Hadden resigned March 1, 1919, and Mrs. J. W. Evans 
was appointed in her place. 

The singing unit, directed by Mrs. Grover Cooley, was a unique 
and altogether delightful feature of the canteen service and was remem- 
bered wherever the "Boys" went. Mrs. Cooley was ablv assisted by 
Miss Olive Easton. 

The Junior Red Cross was organized in February. 1918. in the city 
schools by Mrs. George F. Tilton and Prof. R. B. Stover, and in the 
seventeen schools of the city, an enrollment of 3,108 members, and by 
February 1, 1919, there were forty auxiliaries and, to teachers and 
scholars belong unstinted jjraise. In May, 1918, Judge Rex B. Goodcell 
was elected chairman of the chapter to fill vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of Reverend Gillmor, who took up overseas service. Early in 
December, 1918. R. C. Harbison was elected chairman of the chapter and 
Judge Rex B. Goodcell, vice chairman, all other chairmen re-elected. 

Civilian relief has been the work of the chapter since .'\rmistice Day. 
October, 1919, the following officers were elected to hold office to 1922: 

Chairman, Mrs. George F. Tilton ; first vice chairman. Judge Rex B. 
Goodcell ; second vice chairman, Mrs. J. W. Barton ; secretary, Mrs. O. C. 
Rogers ; assistant secretary, Geo. H. Johnson ; treasurer, W. O. Harris. 


During the year 1921 much work has been done at the United States 
Pubhc Health Service Hospital at Arrowhead, and the chairman has 
appointed committees to provide entertainment for the many crippled and 
sick ex-soldiers there, and otherwise keep in touch with their needs. 
This Christmas (1921) beautiful, well-filled boxes were taken to the 
152 patients and $100 distributed among them. In the hospital service 
the Red Cross is ably assisted by their assistant secretary, Geo. H. 
Johnson, himself an ex-soldier. 

Directors for 1921 : Mrs. R. F. Garner, Mrs. O. C. Rogers, Mrs. J. W. 
Barton, Mrs. Geo. F. Tilton, W. M. Parker, R. C. Harbison, Judge Rex B. 
Goodcell, W. O. Harris, R. D. McCook, Mrs. J. S. Wood, Mrs. Henry 
Goodcell, L. A. Stromee, George H. Seager, Z. T. Bell, and George H. 

Arrowhead Hot Springs. When nature made the Arrowhead it 
created one of the wonders of the world, and while physically it belongs 

The Arrowhead Hot Springs, San Bernardino 

to San Bernardino Valley, it is shared by the world. At the present time 
— 1921 — the country has as honored guests 152 disabled men who returned 
from the war. Arrowhead Hotel and Hot Mineral Springs, with its 
mountain park and symbol of the arrowhead, was leased from Seth 
Marshall & Company early in 1920 by the United States Government for 
a public health service station. 

The sloping park extends upwards to the top of the mountains and 
contains 1,800 acres of land — an ideal place for such an institution. 

Arrowhead Springs. The boiling mineral waters that gush from rocks 
in recesses deep in the walls of the hills just below the point of the 
arrowhead symbol on the mountain slope, has always been a mecca for 
those who would try nature's cure, since white man came to the valley. 
From the Indians and Spaniards came wonderful stories of their healing 

Dr. D. N. Smith secured the property lying round about the springs 
early in the '60s. Doctor Smith built rude cabins for the accommoda- 
tion of his patients, and later on erected a long rambling hotel ; this and 
the cabins were generally filled. Here he brought his wife, and here his 
children were born, and a few hundred feet north of the present hotel. 


is his grave, also the grave of his young child. A simple stone marks the 
burial place of the first one to exploit the curative powers of the springs. 
The hot springs, the symbol of the Arrowhead, Cold Water Canyon to 
the east, the unmatched scenery from the sloping hillsides on the north, 
the efforts of man to heal himself at nature's fount, every place breathes 
forth wonderful stories of the past. After Doctor Smith's death, the 
property came into the hands of a company of which Seth Marshall was 
the leading spirit, and a hotel was built. This was burned and for several 
years only the charred embers remained. Then a beautiful hotel was 
erected, elaborately and expensively furnished, that became the scene 
of many brilliant social affairs. 

The government made a wise selection for its disabled soldiers when 
it decided on Arrowhead Hot Springs for their care, treatment, comfort 
and happiness. With their splendid commanding officer, excellent doctors, 
nurses, and aides in the Occupational Therapy Department, and teachers 
of the vocational schools, its beauty, climatic conditions, quietness and 
for natural curative resources, it is one of the nation's greatest health 


The general upheavals of human nature and of the elements which 
result in catastrophes, crimes and lawlessness, are a part of the history 
of every section. At the time they may seem to have little or no efTect 
upon the community in general, and perhaps the majority have no real or 
lasting influence. But there have been instances where what seemed at 
the time to be unimportant happenings have changed the entire life of a 

San Bernardino has had, as a county, comparatively few great dis- 
asters, and its criminal record is a singularly short one when the location 
of the county is taken into consideration. The flood which did the first 
serious damage in San Bernardino, as far as can be found from available 
records, was that of 1861-1862. This was not confined to the county 
but caused much destruction throughout the state. As before noted in 
these chronicles, the adobe church which was under construction by 
the New Mexican settlers of Agua Mansa and El Placita de Trujillo's 
was completly destroyed by the rains of this season, and the people took 
care to build their church of San Salvador on a hill. Thus this was the 
only building in the two settlements, with the exception of the residence 
of Cornelius Jansen, not swept away by the disastrous flood of 1862. 
Fifty inches of rain flooded the entire state during the winter of 1861-62, 
the prosperous colonies along the Santa Ana River being completely 
inundated and a barren waste of sand superseding the vineyards, orchards 
and grain fields. 

The flood of January, 1862, in San Bernardino County, is described 
by Mrs. Crafts, as follows:^ "The fall of 1861 was sunny, dry and 
warm until Christmas, which proved to be a rainy day. All through 
the holidays a gentle rain continued to fall. This much-needed moisture 
lasted until January 18, 1862, when there was a downpour for twenty-four 
hours or over. All the flat from the Santa Ana River to Pine's Hotel 
was under water — a perfect sea of water inundating the valley for miles 
up and down the stream. Lytle Creek came rushing down D Street, 
across Third and found an outlet through an open space into Warm 
Creek. Many families were compelled to flee in the night to higher 
ground and leave their homes to the flood. There were so many families 
homeless that every house in San Bernardino had two families and some 
three or four under shelter. The constant rain on the adobe houses 
turned them to mud and they fell in. Men were out in the drenching 
rain all day, trying to cover the adobe walls with lumber and thus save 
them. Everyone was ready to help his neighbor in their trouble — in fact, 
there was true brotherhood among those old pioneers of San Bernardino." 

There was no further year of heavy rainfall until that of 1867-68, 
when the winter proved rainy, but. while the precipitation was continuous, 
it was not as heavy as in 1862, and as a result less damage resulted. 
The year 1884 proved to be the great flood year of later times, and 37.50 
inches were reported during the season for San Bernardino, while over 
40 inches were registered at Los Angeles and more at other points. 
The year was particularly disastrous to the railroad companies, the 
Southern Pacific sufifering many washouts and much delay of traftic. 

' higersoll's Century Annals of San Bernardino County. 


while the California Southern Railway lost its newly-completed track 
between National City and San Diego, and some fifteen or twenty miles 
of the Temecula Canon division. A local newspaper^ describes the 
disastrous cloudburst which occurred in the Cajon Pass in July, 1884 -. 

"A most terrific cloudburst occurred in the Cajon yesterday afternoon. 
It commenced about two o'clock and for a short time the waters came 
down in solid masses. In a narrow gorge called the 'Railroad Canon.' 
the waters rose fifty feet in height in a short time. The torrent carried 
everything before it and the whole canon was inundated. At the narrows 
in the Cajon the waters stood above the railroad grade. An orchard 
above Tay & Lawrence's was swept away with the buildings and other 
property that were on the ground. The waters rose nearly to Tay & 
Lawrence's house and swept away a large portion of their property. 
The road in some places was cut out as much as ten feet in depth, and 
will be impassable for a week or more. The entire flat from here (San 
Bernardino) to the mouth of the Cajon was one vast sheet of water, 
and the crossing between this town and Colton, ordinarily only a few 
inches in depth, was raised six feet and spread for a long distance on 
either side of its usual channel, while a number of farms along its course 
were inundated. All this vast body of water fell in the course of two 
or three hours and in a comparatively limited area, only a few drops 
reaching to town. It is said to have been the severest storm known in 
the canon and to have done more damage in a few minutes than all the 
heavy rains of last winter, severe as they were." 

The heavy rains of 1886-87 were the cause of much inconvenience 
to the residents of the county, and the following from the Times gives 
an idea of the situation at San Bernardino in December, 1886: "The 
people west of town are nearly drowned out. A culvert through the 
railroad grade on I Street at the head of Fifth, pours the whole drain- 
age of the surrounding country into town and has swamped the blocks 
west of G Street, so that the people are unable to leave their homes." 
In January following, 11 inches of rain fell in a single night in the Cajon 
Pass, and the California Southern Railway was again a sufferer, its 
tracks being buried in a heavy coat of mud. What made the matter more 
discomforting and aggravating was the fact that this was the "boom" 
year and the traffic was exceedingly heavy. As a result of the rains 
hundreds of people were detained at San Bernardino, where, at the 
depot, even standing room was at a premium. .Another wet winter was 
that of 1888-89. since which time rainfall has caused but little loss in 
San Bernardino County. 

An Echo from the Past. A condition that can never a.gain exist 
was that of the three-year drouth, the most disastrous in the history of 
California, which exceeded in damage by far the preceding flood year of 
1862. In order to preserve pasturage for any cattle at all, thousands of 
animals were slauglitered merely for their hides, and in spite of such 
drastic action hundreds upon hundreds of cattle died of starvation. For 
three years the rainfall was not of sufficient volume to produce grain 
crops or start vegetation growing on the ranges, and the orchards and 
vineyards, which were already commencing to prove an important feature 
in the state's resources and wealth, were almost annihilated by the 
devastating dryness. 

This is one instance where the elements have worked notable changes 
in the history of a community, for from this period dated the beginnings 

= The San Be 


of irrigation upon a large scale. The agriculturists, who were settling 
in the country in large numbers, finding that they could not rely abso- 
lutely upon natural conditions to produce their crops, and the stock- 
men, who discovered that they could not depend entirely upon the natural 
range for grazing, came to a full realization of the value of irrigation. 
The seasons of 1898-99 and 1900 were also known as "dry" seasons, 
but these marked the change from ancient to modern methods, from 
reliance upon natural moisture to the present great systems of irrigating. 
During these two seasons, the "dry" ranches, which raised good crops 
under ordinary conditions, suffered greatly, whereas the agricultural and 
horticultural interests of the county as a whole, suflfered very little, 
owing to the irrigation streams. A few there were who harbored the 
fear that the storage supplies might fail, but their fears were found 
to be groundless, and much water previously undeveloped, or considered 
unavailable, was brought into use. The drouth, in reality, proved a 
beneficial factor in the development of the county, for such a large 
quantity of water was developed that a greatly increased acreage than 
formerly was put under cultivation. 

San Bernardino County's Earthquake Record. In 1812, known 
as the "earthquake year," the first phenomena of this nature occurred in 
San Bernardino County, and the church of San Juan Capistrano was 
shaken down, some thirty worshippers being crushed in the ruins. The 
Gauchama Indians, who lived in this locality, decided that the tremblers 
of this year and the sudden appearance of the Urbita springs, were 
caused by the displeasure of their gods, to propitiate v;hom they destroyed 
the Mission of Politana, established a year or two previous by the Fran- 
ciscans of San Gabriel, and massacred most of the converts. In 1855 
a severe shock was felt at San Bernardino, but without serious damage 
to property and no loss of life, and again in 1882 a heavy earthquake 
was recorded, but without serious consequences. On Christmas Day, 
1900, there occurred a quake, which, while causing no considerable 
damage in the vicinity of San Bernardino, created a good deal of destruc- 
tion in the San Jacinto Mountains, where a considerable area took a drop, 
the configuration of the country being materially changed, while at San 
Jacinto several Indian women were killed in the fall of an adobe house. 

The Norther of 1887. Owing to San Bernardino's position, cyclones, 
hurricanes or tornadoes are unknown to the people, and the only serious 
windstorm on record is that of 1887, a "norther" which caused great havoc. 
The following is a report from the San Bernardino "Times" of July, 1887 : 

"Although the wind had blown severely here for several days, and 
considerable damage had been done, happily it was attended, so far as 
known, with no personal injury or loss of life. Los Angeles County, 
however, was not so fortunate. At Crescenta Canyada the large hotel 
erected hardly more than a month ago was razed to the ground by the 
fierce gale, and Mrs. Edwin G. Arnold and her eleven-year-old daughter, 
Claudie, were instantly killed. A number of other guests of the hotel 
were badly bruised and escaped with their lives by a miracle. The 
disaster took place about midnight. A coroner's jury found that in their 
belief the building had been insufficiently braced and the foundations 
were not secure. 

"At Rialto three houses were destroyed. At Cucamonga. the depot 
was almost totally destroyed : also the new hotel and several stores and 
buildings ; loss, $50,000. Between Cucamonga and Colton the cab was 
blown oflf the engine of an east-bound freight train. The fine large 


hotel at North Cucamonga, costing $20,000, was completely demolished, 
the sleeping guests being awakened just in time to escape with their 
lives. A Chinaman is reported to have been killed, and another one 
missing — probably took to the brush. The bank building at Ontario was 
blown down. Several houses on the south side were also blown down, 
and it was reported that Rose's store was burned down." 

Human Deeds of Violence. Mention has been made before in this 
history of the strong feeling that began to assert itself between the 
Mormons and Independents of the days of 1856-57, and which resulted 
in a number of affrays in which blood was spilled. The peaceful and law- 
abiding element, always in the majority in the county, were not only 
disturbed by these conflicting interests, but likewise by outlaws who came 
in from Arizona and Utah, reckless bravados from the mining camps, 
parties of Apache and Pah-ute thieves and drunken Coahuillas. When 
the war between the states began to further inflame men's minds, and 
even before its outbreak, all of these elements came to a focus, and San 
Bernardino County became a community in which the law officers were 
kept busy. 

One of the notable events of these exciting days occurred in 1859, 
and has been known locally as "The Ainsworth-Gentry affair." As 
described by an eye-witness in Ingersoll's Century Annals of San Ber- 
nardino County, is occurred as follows : "San Bernardino County at 
this time had two physicians, one of whom was Union in sentiment, 
the other a Southerner. This fact, mingled with a feeling of professional 
rivalry and perhaps with other causes not made public, produced a 
rancor which finally led Doctor Gentry to attack Doctor Ainsworth with 
a horse-whip. Doctor Ainsworth seized the whip and struck his assailant 
in the face. The next day Gentry, on meeting his rival, fired his pistol 
at him. Ainsworth escaped the shot by dodging, and returned the fire — • 
but no one was hurt. Gentry collected his friends and they began to 
make serious threats against Ainsworth. The friends of the latter deter- 
mined to protect him and eight young men armed themselves, removed 
Ainsworth to an old adobe house on the corner west of the South Metho- 
dist Church and there kept guard over him for two or three days. The 
Gentry party sent word to El Monte that the Mormons had attacked 
them and about fifty men from that settlement armed themselves and rode 
over to San Bernardino. On learning that the Ainsworth party were 
simply protecting their man, the better class of these visitors returned 
home. But a few of the more lawless under the leadership of a desperado 
— one Green, remained and paraded the streets, firing their guns, terroriz- 
ing the citizens and defying the authorities. They loaded the old cannon 
which had looked so formidable in the Fort Benson affair and hauled 
it into place, announcing their intention of burning down the house where 
Ainsworth was in hiding and shooting his guard. One of the guards suc- 
ceeded in reaching the cannon unnoticed and spiked it with a rat-tail 
file. When the attacking party became too aggressive the guard prepared 
to fire. Word was passed to 'save fire and shoot low' — and most of the 
attacking mob suddenly vanished. A few shots were exchanged, how- 
ever, and one of the Ainsworth party. Bethel Coopwood, was wounded 
in the shoulder." The intruders were driven out when Sheriff \'. J. 
Herring called upon the citizens to aid him in restoring order. 

The Campaign of 1860. In the campaign of 1860, which was a 
bitterly-contested one, C. W. Piercy was nominated for member of the 
General Assembly by one party, and W. .\. Conn, a member of the House. 


by the other. Piercy was elected, but there was a strong claim of bare- 
faced fraud and what appears to be good authority has it that the polls 
at Temescal maintained open shop for three weeks, and that whenever 
candidate Piercy was in need of more votes, they were furnished from 
this precinct by his henchman, one Greenwade. The contest was taken 
into the courts, and it was natural that numerous animosities should be 
engendered by the wholesale recriminations bandied about. Two young 
lawyers, H. M. Willis and Bethel Coopwood, engaged in a lively 
encounter over the depositions in the case, one handling a revolver and 
the other a slung shot. Before the sheriff could interfere, Coopwood 
had sustained a slight wound. Of this trouble, the Los Angeles Star 
said: "Both the combatants were put under bonds, but the indications 
are that trouble is not over. Last night a rowdy gang took possession 
of the town. They smashed Jacob's bar and demolished signs of nearly 
every Jew store in town and broke into two stores. No arrests." 

The Duel Between Piercy and Showalter. The last of the 
political duels in the State of California occurred in 1861, and one of its 
contestants was the C. W. Piercy heretofore mentioned, assemblyman 
from San Bernardino County. In the opening year of the Civil war, a 
sharp contest arose over the election of United States Senator, in the 
course of which a quarrel arose between Piercy and Daniel Showalter, 
assemblyman from Mariposa County. According to the reports, Piercy, 
who was a Union democrat, had been a member of the caucus that had 
nominated John Nugent, but afterwards made the announcement that 
he would not give him his ballot because Nugent was not sound on the 
question of Unionism. Showalter, who although a Pennsylvanian by 
birth, was an adherent of secession and slavery, took exception to the 
declaration of Piercy, and the latter subsequently voted for the Union 
resolutions and objected to Showalter's being allowed to explain his 
vote against them. It was a time when men's passions ran high, and 
Showalter's insult to Piercy was followed by the latter's challenge to a 
duel. The meeting took place May 25, 1861, about three miles west of 
San Rafael, near the residence of Charles Fairfax, the seconds of Piercy 
being Henry P. Watkins and Samuel Smith and those of Showalter, 
Thomas Hayes and Thomas Lespeyre, the weapons being rifles at forty 
yards. The first fire was inefTective, and Showalter demanded another 
trial. His second shot struck Piercy in the mouth and killed him. 
Showalter became a fugitive from justice and was later concerned in a 
plot to organize a secessionist force in the vicinity of \\'arner's Ranch. 
He was captured by troops of the First California Volunteers and was a 
prisoner at Fort Yuma until exchanged, at which time he joined the 
Southern forces in Texas and later became an officer in the Confederate 

Trouble in Bear and Holcomb Valleys. When the news came 
forth that gold had been discovered in Bear and Holcomb valleys, there 
was a great influx of miners, prospectors, old-timers, camp riff-raff and 
gamblers which generally are drawn to the new camps, and many of these 
were out-and out secessionists. Likewise, a large number were lawless 
and the conditions surrounding the times encouraged them to give vent 
to their natural propensities for making trouble. Fights were a regular 
part of each daily program, fists, clubs, knives and revolvers being 
brought into use, and the respectable element had but little chance to 
stem the tide of lawlessness. At one time ten men. wounded in different 
affrays, were reported in these camps, and another report announces 


that four horse thieves were convicted and five more on trial. In July, 
1861, the court brought in ten convictions for grand larceny. It was 
claimed that the sheriff was powerless to handle the ruffian element and 
a call for United States troops was asked for. W. F. Holcomb, one of 
the discoverers of gold in this region and the man after whom Holcomb 
Valley was named, states : "There was also a rush of the very worst 
characters and the valley became a center of disorder. Night was made 
dreadful by the drunken yells and cursing; guns and pistols were fired 
off at all hours of night and day ; no one was safe ; the peaceful citizen 
was in almost as much danger as the rowdy. At the state election held 
September 4, 1861, there was great confusion, and a riot was only pre- 
vented by the prompt and determined action of a few law-abiding citi- 
zens. Belleville precinct cast a vote of 300 for governor. One desperado, 
known as "Hell Roaring Johnson,' attempted to kill a constable and was 
shot dead. An attempt was made to lynch the constable, but it was 
frustrated and the man was acquitted as only having discharged his 
duty. After this the lawless element quieted down somewhat. This 
reign of lawlessness was, of course, a great drawback to the successful 
working of the claims in the valley. The hardworking miner was in 
almost as much danger from accidental shooting as were the rowdies from 
intentional shots. Still, of the forty or fifty men who were shot at 
different times, not more than three or four innocent men were killed. 
The rest were of the tough element, generally strangers in the place, and 
their bodies now rest in unmarked graves." 

Criminal Acts. It would be inaccurate to state that San Bernardino's 
list of crimes is not a somewhat lengthy one. But as before noted, it is 
true that for a large county, only thinly settled, with the encouraging 
features of great desert stretches and mountains in which criminals 
could lose themselves from pursuit, a great transient population at all 
periods, and an ever-present element of half-breeds, desperados in hiding, 
Indians and Mexicans, its crime record could be much longer without 
occasioning much unfavorable attention or comment. 

Presumably with the purpose of robbery or escape from detection, 
a number of citizens met their deaths on the roads of San Bernardino 
County during the '60s. After Edward Newman had been found thus 
murdered, in 1864, about five miles from .San Bernardino, a posse was 
formed to punish his supposed assassins, and after a hot pursuit killed 
Celestino Alipaz at the Santa Ana River. Another of the murders was 
later executed by hanging at Los Angeles. It has always been supposed 
that Alexander Patterson was murdered in the same manner, but evi- 
dence supporting the theory could not be produced. Miller's Hotel was 
the scene of a cold-blooded murder in 1869, when the barkeeper, ^^'arne^, 
fired five shots at John C. Steadman, with whom he had quarreled over 
a board bill, wounding him so severely that he died within twenty-four 
hours. In 1871 one Rafael Buteres was found guilty in the first degree 
of murdering by shooting the girl with whom he lived at Agua Mansa, 
but before sentence could be executed dug his way out of jail, made 
good his escape, and was never recaptured. 

What has always remained a mystery was the death of A. Abadie, a 
Frenchman who had mined for a number of years at Lytle Creek and 
was reputed to have taken out large amounts of gold. \\'hile on the 
road between Cucamonga and his home in Lytle Creek, he was shot in 
his wagon, but the horses continued on the road until they reached the 
nearest house, where the occupant discovered his death. His body, 
apparently, had not been robbed, and the only cause for the murder was 


that of supposed malice. A criipe that because of its brutahty caused 
some excitement was the murder of one Brown, in 1874, who was killed 
with an axe wielded by a man named Bonner, at the latter's ranch in the 
Holcomb Valley. The murderer was given a life sentence in the 

The first white man hanged in the county was N. M. Peterson, who 
had murdered a boy, George Barrett, in the most cold-blooded manner 
while the two were riding along the road near Banning. Peterson was 
found guilty and executed August 16, 1878. An interesting case was 
that of one Mitchell, who, during a dispute with his wife, in 1879, blew 
out her brains, and was subsequently arrested and placed in the county 
jail, from which he made his escape. Later he was recaptured at San 
Diego and brought back to San Bernardino, but this resourceful criminal 
again made his escape by overpowering the warden. He was never 
caught again as far as is known. John Taylor, in 1881, after shooting 
and killing his partner, John Peterson, at Brinkmeyer's Corner, San 
Bernardino, turned his weapon on himself and commited suicide. The 
men were miners from Calico. 

One of the most atrocious murders on record in the crime annals 
of the county ended in the execution by law of William B. McDowell. 
At the trial it developed that McDowell and his wife had come to Colton 
and then induced a young girl, Maggie O'Brien, with whom he had been 
intimate, to come to Colton from Los Angeles. Mr. and Mrs. McDowell 
met her, took her into a buggy and carried her to a gulch at the foot 
of the mountains, where they killed her with some blunt instrument, 
afterward tied a rope about her neck, and hid the body in a hole in the 
side of a ravine. Nearly a month later, Mrs. McDowell, either because 
troubled by a guilty conscience and remorse, or because of a desire for 
revenge on her husband with whom she had quarreled, sent for an officer 
of the law and made a confession. McDowell was arrested and there 
was talk of lynching, but the man was speedily tried and as quickly 
sentenced, the date of his hanging being set for July 10, 1883. An 
appeal to the Supreme Court was taken by his lawyer, and while await- 
ing its session, McDowell made his escape. After an exciting chase he 
was recaptured, his sentence was sustained and he was duly hanged at 
San Bernardino by Sheriff Burkhart, March 28, 1884. In the following 
year one of the most terrible deeds ever perpetrated in the county was 
committed. While making preparations to cook his supper over a fire 
on the banks of Warm Creek, near San Bernardino, Thomas Stanton was 
attacked by four drunken Indians, held over his own fire, and so burned 
that he died the following day. 

George Farris was shot to death in 1887 by Edward Callahan, at a 
lodging house in Court Street. Callahan, acknowledging his guilt, gave 
himself up to the officers, but there were mitigating circumstances, and 
he was acquitted at the trial. In the same year, Katie HandorfT was 
murdered by her husband. Springer, at the Transcontinental Hotel at 
Colton, where the young married couple had taken a room the night 
before. In the morning Mrs. Handorff's body was found, with the 
throat cut from ear to ear and the head crushed in by some heavy instru- 
ment. Big rewards were offered and every effort was made to capture 
the criminal, but all to no avail. Some months afterward the body of a 
man was found at Little Mountain, and it developed under investigation 
that the remains, with the head pierced by a bullet, were all that remained 
of the wife murderer. 

One of the most lamentable affairs ever known at San Bernardino 
occured December 15, 1888, when E. C. Morse, cashier of the San 


Bernardino National Bank, and an old and well-known citizen, greatly 
respected and esteemed, was approached by one Oakley, an insane man, 
who claimed that he had $3,000 in the bank and wanted it. When Morse 
refused to deliver the money the man drew a gun and fired, but while 
Morse drew his own revolver and returned the fire, he was mortally 
wounded in the abdomen and expired within a short time. Oakley was 
captured after a wild chase through the streets of the city, and was sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment, his insanity saving him from a trip to the 

In 1890 William McConkey, a hotel keeper of Redlands, shot and 
killed Edward Gresham in the old Windsor House, and then committed 
suicide. Actuated by jealousy, in 1893. a Mexican, Jesue Furan, stabbed 
William Golfkoffer and a Mexican woman, Francesca Flores. to death, 
in the most brutal manner. A mob entered the jail April 17. took pos- 
session of the prisoner and lynched him. the first instance of lynch law 
in the county for many years. 


The earlier history of the City of San Bernardino, given in fore- 
going pages, demonstrated that the community was not lacking in any 
of the elements that make for the development of a prosperous center 
of trade and commerce, an abiding place for cultured and contented 
people and the home of the professions, arts and sciences. However, 
from the very nature of the contributing factors which assisted in its 
upbuilding and advancement, it was somewhat slow in its awakening, and 
it was not until about 1885 that there was noted a definite tendency on 
the part of the city to endeavor to take its rightful position among 
the leading municipalities of Southern California. From that year for- 
ward for the next decade the changes and advancements were startling. 
From a village which did not realize its own strength or importance, 
it grew, almost overnight, into an alert and energetic city. From a 
station on a stage line it emerged a full-grown railroad center, with an 
adequate water, sewage and lighting system, pavements, sidewalks, street 
cars and motor lines, big business houses, palatial residences, modern 
hotels and all the other improvements of a city of the first class. 

The history of the city from that time forward is largely one of 
dates and occurrences, beginning with November 15, 1885, when the 
citizens turned out en masse with fireworks to greet the first continental 
train over the newly-completed California Southern extension from San 
Bernardino to Waterman (now Barstow), which completed the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe line between Kansas City and San Diego, at that time 
the terminus of the road. After this, progress was rapid, for visitors 
began to arrive in large numbers and capital began to be put to work. 
During 1885-86 several street car franchises were let. R. \V. Button 
completed his steam motor line to Colton, and in February, 1887, the 
street cars began their service between the depot and the corner of 
Third and D streets. 

In the meantime, May 15, 1886, San Bernardino, through re-incor- 
poration, had become a city of the fifth class, and J. G. Burt, Smith Haile, 
I. R. Brunn, John Anderson, Fred T. Perris and B. B. Harris were 
elected trustees, with the last named as chairman of the board. A most 
important event in the history of the new town was the erection of 
the California Southern car shops and depot, at a cost of $200,000, which 
gave employment to a large force of men, and another forward step in 
the progress of the community occurred at the election of March 26, 
1887, when $100,000 in bonds was voted for the construction of a com- 
plete and very satisfactory sewer system, and $50,000 for general improve- 
ments in grading, graveling and macadamizing the streets, as a result 
of which a large amount of work was done in putting the streets in 
good order. 

With the end in view of bringing the city to the front and in order 
to secure needed capital, more settlers and consequent added improve- 
ments, a board of trade was organized in October, 1887, and this 
body went to work enthusiastically. The Stewart Hotel was erected in 
the same year, this structure, the finest of its kind then south of San 
Francisco, being completed at a cost of $150,000. A four-story structure 
containing 400 rooms, it was the most elaborate building put up in the 
city up to that time, with the exception of the courthouse, and was a 



source of great pride to the citizens. It was later destroyed by fire. 
Other new buildings erected about this time which added greatly to the 
appearance of the city and indicated a new era of growth and prosperity 
were the $52,000, three-story brick Anderson Block on Third Street ; the 
Katz, Ancker and Brinkmeyer & Waters blocks, the Richard Stewart 
Building, the additions to the Southern and St. Charles hotels, the Metho- 
dist Church, the Presbyterian parsonage, and the handsome and costly 
dwellings of James Waters, father and son, Mathew Byrne, Louis Ancker, 
Judge Willis, Judge Damron, and others. 

During 1888 the Otis and Van Dorin blocks were added to the busi- 
ness section, and that year also saw the erection of a new postoffice 
building, located at the corner of E and Court streets. The Redlands 
and San Bernardino motor line began its service June 5, and this was 
followed, August 17th, by the completion of the San Bernardino, Arrow- 

Third Street from D Looking East, San Bernardino, in 

head & W'aterman narrow-gauge line, and November 16th by the open- 
ing for traffic of the motor line to Riverside, by the same company which 
had previously built the motor line to Colton. The county seat was thus 
brought into direct communication with the surrounding towns by a 
regular and frequent service. 

An early event of the year 1889 was the first Citrus Fair at San 
Bernardino, held in the Van Dorin Block, at which the exhibits were 
large and numerous. The first steps in securing an efficient and abundant 
water service were taken November 2d, when the citizens voted bonds 
to the amount of $150,000 to be expended in installing a municipal water 
system. In the same year the Society of San Bernardino Pioneers took 
up the matter of a pavilion for public purposes to be built in the city 
park, and through their efforts the city trustees were induced to vote 
$10,000 for the purpose, the building being erected during 1890, and 
dedicated with appropriate ceremonies January 1, 1891. 


In 1888 a proposition for the city to take in a larger area had been 
voted down, and up to 1891 the city had retained its original limits of 
one mile square, but January 17, 1891, the people voted to enlarge the 
boundaries to include a surrounding thickly-populated and well built up 
district which had been a part of the city in all but name, and the city 
was thus authorized to include territory which increased the area to six 
and one-half miles, and the population from 4.500 to nearly 10.000 souls. 
In June of the same year, bonds were voted to the amount of $60,000 
for a high school building. This year the city was first lighted by elec- 
tricity, the San Antonio Electric Company putting in from 500 to 800 
incandescent lights. The Episcopal Church was also completed and 
occupied during this year. 

On January 1, 1892, the first City Library was opened, with Miss Ella 
Ames as librarian, and during the same year the Hall of Records was 
completed and work was commenced on the new courthouse. On Octo- 
ber 12th, one of the most unique events in the history of San Bernardino, 
or so it was considered at the time, occurred when the Woman's Non- 
partisan Political Convention met, with sixty-five delegates from various 
clubs and societies in attendance. After due deliberation the delegates 
nominated a complete county ticket for the next election and those of the 
sterner sex were requested to give their support, but the county apparently 
was not ready for suffrage, as all of these candidates met with defeat. 
It was on November 5th of this year (1892) that the Stewart Hotel 
was destroyed by fire, with all the stores and offices located in the block, 
in spite of the brave fight made by the San Bernardino Fire Department, 
aided by fire-fighters from Redlands and other towns. 

The Stewart Hotel was rebuilt in 1893, and while not as costly as 
the first structure, was substantial and handsome, and for years was 
accounted one of the most comfortable and best kept establishments in 
Southern California. On February 20th the annual state convention of 
Turners was held at San Bernardino, with a large and enthusiastic 
attendance. Other events of the same month were the passage of 
the Riverside County bill by the Legislature, creating Riverside County, 
and the opening of the Orphans' Home, when twenty children were 
brought from Los Angeles and placed as wards in the new institution. 

The principal event of the year 1894 which had direct connection 
with the interests of the people was the closing of the doors of the 
First National Bank, in one of the worst failures which the city has 
ever experienced. At the time of the crash, depositors were notified 
that they would be paid in full, but after a long court fight, they were 
reimbursed only to the extent of 62 per cent, in 1899. In 1895 La Fiesta 
de San Bernardino was celebrated with a bull fight, races, a civic proces- 
sion, a Spanish barbecue, the attendance of 200 Coahuilla Indians and 
other features, in September. August was made sensational by the 
occurrence of a disastrous fire which destroyed some half dozen build- 
ings at D and Court streets. Another serious conflagration occurred 
in 1897, when Whitney's Mill, St. John's Episcopal Church and a num- 
ber of other buildings were destroyed, the loss being $50,000. An 
occasion for a great demonstration by the citizens occurred May 9, 1898, 
when Company K, National Guard of California, started for San Fran- 
cisco. During this year the famous artesian "gusher" which flowed 
500 inches was struck and as a result many artesian wells were put 
down in the vicinity of the city. The courthouse was also completed in 
1898, and the pavilion at Urbita Springs was erected. Electric street 
car service was instituted in the city December 19, 1899. 


The old Board of Trade, established under such auspicious conditions 
and amid so much enthusiasm, in 1887, passed out of existence after a 
few years of activity. Feeling that such an organization for the promo- 
tion of the city's interests was greatly needed, the representative business 
men of the city reorganized the body in 1900, electing the following 
officers : J. B. Gill, president ; John Andreson, Sr., vice president ; F. D. 
Keller, secretary; C. Cohn, treasurer; and Thomas Hadden, James Flem- 
ing, J. W. Curtis, H. L. Drew and Joseph Jonas, board of directors. The 
board became at once an active factor in the advancement of the indus- 
trial and commercial interests of the city and community, and among 
the numerous valuable activities which it has contributed to the city's 
advancement have been assistance in securing the Salt Lake Road for 
San Bernardino, pushing street improvements, securing the new water 
system and obtaining a revision of the city charter. 

About 1910 the board of trade reorganized as a chamber of com- 
merce and continued to be an active force in all work that advanced the 
interests of the city. In 1911 it championed the Orange Show, in fact, 
the Orange Show is a child of the Chamber of Commerce and reports 
were audited and nominations for president had to be endorsed by that 
body, in executive session, to make them legal. 

in 1918 L. A. Murray was elected president and during that summer 
many demands were made on the Chamber for help — always cheerfully 
given. In 1920 Judge Rex B. Goodcell was elected president, and in 
1921 he was re-elected to that position with Fred M. Renfro, secretary, 
which place he had held for a number of years. On July 1, 1921, 
Mr. Renfro resigned and Royal H. Mack was elected to fill the vacancy. 
Then came an intense drive for membership, resulting in splendid returns 
of 1,200 names on the roll. 

During the summer of 1920, a movement was set on foot, by the 
Chamber, promoting a Motor Harbor in Meadowbrook Park, which in 
1921 was well established. 

The Chamber also espoused the cause of a new municipal auditorium 
to be built in Pioneer Park, and issuing bonds for new bridges, both 
necessities of the time and both carried, and during the year 1922 will be 
finished. It has just endorsed and set its seal of approval on a new hotel, 
and many proposed industrial propositions. 

The present officers are: Rex B. Goodcell, president; C. L. Cronk, 
first vice president; Joe E. King, second vice president; J. S. Wood, 
treasurer; R. H. Mack, secretary. Directors: B. L. Homes, H. C. 
McAlister, R. D. McCook, B. L. Morgan, F. E. Page, J. N. Baylis, 
H. L. Williamson, J. Harold Barnum, R. C. Harbison, Dwight Towne, 
Wilmot T. Smith, Grant Holcomb. 

A feature of the year 1901 was the holding of the first annual 
Street Fair, a most elaborate and enjoyable event, which drew visitors 
from towns all over this section of the country. The first service on 
the San Bernardino Valley Traction line was secured February 21, 1902. 
In December of that year, $231,000 bonds were voted for the acquire- 
ment of an adequate and modern water system for the city. In 1903 
Andrew Carnegie donated $20,000 to San Bernardino for a public 
library, and December 5th of that year an election was held to choose 
freeholders to frame a new city charter. 

The Carnegie Library was finished and put into use with appro- 
priate ceremonies early in 1904, in which year was also completed the 
new Masonic Temple, at a cost of about $35,000, which building was 
dedicated with fitting ceremonies. In 1903 the Southern Pacific Company 
had purchased land in the heart of the city for depot grounds and right- 


of-way, and in 1904 this company started the erection of a $30,000 depot 
and a broad Sfauge track. This was a big year in the building line, as 
nearly $500,000 was expended in the construction of modern structures. 
Among these were the Broadway Theater, the Dunn & Black Block, the 
Home Telephone Building, the Anderson Block, and the new Baptist 
Church. Work was also commenced on the installation of a new gas 

Municipal Government. On July 30. 1904, in pursuance of an 
order of the board of trustees of the City of San Bernardino, and under 
the provisions of the constitution of the state, a special election was 
held, by the qualified electors of the city, to choose fifteen freeholders, 
residents of the city, to prepare a city charter for submission to the 
voters of the city, for ratification or rejection. The freeholders so chosen 
were: John Andreson, Sr., H. M. Barton, I. R. Brunn, J. W. Cattic, 
M. L. "Cook, George M. Cooley. F. B. Daley, J- J. Hanford, W. S. 
Hooper, L. D. Houghton, Joseph Ingersoll, A. G. Kendall, James Murray, 
W. M. Parker and H. C. Rolfe. They assembled accordingly and organ- 
ized a board, and within the ninety days as prescribed by the constitution, 
prepared and submitted a city charter, and on the 6th of January follow- 
ing, it was ratified by a vote of nearly three to one at a special election 
by the people. January 30, 1905, being subsequently approved by con- 
current resolution of both houses of the Legislature, it became the 
organic law or charter of the city. This charter provided for a mayor 
and common council, as the legislative and executive departments of the 
city government, in place of the former board of trustees ; for a board 
of water commissioners as well as several other boards, and for a police 
department and a fire department. 

In the spring of 1905, San Bernardino came under the new form of 
government with a new charter'to try out ; naturally everyone was anxious 
to see results, long before time had a chance to send in a balance sheet. 
New offices were created, new methods tested, and those who were very 
much married to the old ways, finally agreed along with those who were 
espousing a change, that progress had come in to stay. There were 
lean years and fat years, as is wont the world over, but after a while 
the fat years had devoured the lean ones, and institutions thrived 
mightily, business increased, and prosperity marked the city as one of its 
favored holdings, and at the end of the year 1921, San Bernardino, 
the largest municipality and government seat of the largest county of 
the Union, was thrifty, happy, rich, with a population of 24,495. 

In 1905 the first mayor was elected, and from that time to the present 
year of 1921, splendid men have been at the head of the city government. 

Past Mayors 

1905— H. M. Barton. 1915— G. H. Wixom. 

1907— J. J. Hanford. 1917— J. W. Cattic. 

1909— S. W. McNabb. 1919— J. A. Henderson. 

1911— J. S. Bright. 1921— S. W. McNabb. 
1913— J. W. Cattic. 

City officers in 1921 : S. W. McNabb, mayor. Councilmen : Hender- 
son Pitman, W. H. Rogers, C. A. Rouse, Leo A. Stromee, W. H. Adkins. 
John H. Osborn, city clerk ; S. C. Lawrence, city treasurer : Witham 
Gutherie, city attorney ; L. R. Lathrop, street superintendent ; C. E. John- 
son, city engineer; Dr. C. C. Owen, health officer; Harry M. Rouse, citv 


electrician; H. F. Wegnori, building inspector; Frank Jordan, sanitary 
inspector; A. A. Burcham, chief of police. Water commissioners: A. M. 
Ham, W. O. Harris, G. M. McGillvary. Superintendent water works: 
William Starke. 

The city purchased of the Farmers Exchange Bank its bank building 
for $40,000, to be paid for at the rate of $166.67 per month, for twenty 
years. The city hall, houses all general government officers, street depart- 
ment, police department included, also water department and United States 
Forest department. The city hall well answers the needs as an adminis- 
tration building, centrally located and convenient to the county offices. 

Possibly nothing in a city's record is so definite a barometer of its 
growth as clearing house totals, which at the end of the year 1921 
were $62,947,725.72. The combined resources of the banks of the citv 
show $11,298,183.20. The postoffice receipts were $75,059.74. 

Building permits reported by Building Inspector Henry F. Wegnori, 
are as follows : 

1913 $ 336,244 

1914 421,750 

1915 317,196 

1916 ■ 350,591 

1917 474,517 

1918 93,032 

1919 296,425 

1920 596,530 

1921 1,019,560 

Months of 1921 

January $ 94,165 

February 32,229 

March 94,638 

April 83,036 

May 148.188 

June 80,843 

July 42,660 

August 82,945 

September 71,860 

October 78,825 

November 128,525 

December 87,600 

Total $1,019,560 

L. R. Lathrop, superintendent of streets, reports: Approximately 
50 miles of paved streets, 50 miles of sewers, and over a hundred miles 
of sidewalks. 

Wm. Starke, of the water department : One hundred miles of water 
mains and eight drinking fountains. 

From Harry M. Rouse, city electrician: Globes — single and in 
groups — of electric lights along every block in the city. 

San Bernardino, the county seat of a county that extends eastward 
240 miles to Needles, and westward 24 miles. 

Financial Institutions of San Bernardino. The Bank of San 
Bernardino, which began business under the name of Meyerstein & Com- 
pany, in 1874, was the first bank to be opend in San Bernardino County. 


At the start, Lewis Jacobs was made manager, and soon became pro- 
prietor. During the early days the bank, which was conducted as a 
private institution, purchased bullion, gold bars and gold dust, financed 
most of the important business deals of the county, and always had the 
confidence of the people. It first occupied a brick building later used as 
Sturges Academy, on Fourth Street, but later moved into a building 
built for its special use on Third Street. Mr. Jacobs continued as its 
proprietor until his death in 1900. It then closed up the business and 
paid, in full, all obligations. 

The second bank of the county, the Farmers Exchange Bank, was 
organized in 1881, with Byron Waters, president; Richard Gird, vice 
president ; and E. H. Morse, cashier. H. L. Drew became president in 
1884 and occupied that office until his death in 1901. This was the first 
incorporated bank in the county. On the death of Mr. Drew John 
Andreson, Sr., became president, and when Mr. Andreson died, A. L. 
Drew was elected president, who was followed by A. G. Kendall. Then 
came E. Seifkin. On June 1, 1917, Wilmot T. Smith, becoming a large 
stockholder, was elected as president, which position he still holds. In 
1919 the bank sold its building to the city for a city hall, and moved to 
the corner of Third and E streets, where a most up-to-date and com- 
modious building was constructed. The bank enjoys the confidence of 
the public and is making an enviable and substantial growth. Resources 
in 1921, $2,222,533.58. Officers: Wilmot T. Smith, president; J. Dale 
Gentry, vice president ; S. E. Bagley, cashier ; Fred C. Drew, assistant 
cashier. Board of directors : A. G. Kendall, chairman ; Rex B. Goodcell, 
F. E. Page, John Andreson, Jr., C. A. Puffer, J. Dale Gentry, S. E. 
Bagley, Wilmot T. Smith, Edwin Wayte. 

The First National Bank of San Bernardino was founded in 1886 
with a paid-up capital of $100,000, its officials being: J. H. Smith, 
president; M. B. Garner, vice president; and W. N. Crandall, cashier. 
The bank experienced some trouble in 1887, when some differences 
between the stockholders caused a flurry and consequent run on the 
institution, but that storm was successfully weathered. Not so, how- 
ever, the trouble of 1894, when the bank closed its doors, with the 
announcement that the depositors would be paid in full. When the 
court battles were at an end, in 1899, the depositors received about 
62j^ per cent of their deposits. 

The San Bernardino National Bank had its inception in 1887, and 
opened its doors for business February 4, 1888, with J. G. Burt, presi- 
dent; A. H. Hart, vice president; E. H. Morse, cashier; and W. S. 
Hooper, teller. Its headquarters were in the original Stewart Hotel, in 
the burning of which structure, in 1892, the institution lost some of its 
records, but the bank was in no way hurt financially and resumed opera- 
tions in the new Stewart Hotel when that structure was completed. 
In 1891 J. W. Roberts became president of the institution and at the 
same time the capital stock was doubled. Upon his death in 1903, the 
presidency was filled by his son, E. D. Roberts. E. D. Roberts died 
August 4, 1920. J. B. Gill, his successor, took office October 7, 1920. 
Present officers: J. B. Gill, president: H. E. Harris, vice president; 
R. E. Roberts, vice president; J. S. Wood, Cashier; H. H. AV'eir, assistant 
cashier; V. J. Micallef, assistant cashier. Resources, December 30, 1921, 
$2,212,824.60. From the latest available figures the San Bernardino 
National Bank ranks second in the State of California, on the roll of 

The San Bernardino County Savings Bank was opened for business 
July 6, 1903, with a paid-up capital of $55,000, E. D. Roberts being 


president; Seth Marshall, vice president; A. C. Denman, second vice 
president; and A. G. Kendall, cashier. During the first year, deposits 
exceeded $200,000. The present officers: J. B. Gill, president; H. E. 
Harris, vice president ; A. M. Ham, second vice president ; J. H. Wilson, 
cashier; J. C. Ralph, Jr., assistant cashier. Resources, December 31. 
1921, $3,212,931.13. 

The California State Bank of San Bernardino was organized and 
incorporated August 2, 1901, beginning business August 15th. It was 
incorporated with a paid-up capital of $50,000, and organized under 
the banking laws of the state, being conducted under the board of 
bank commissioners for the State of California. Its officers were: 
John L. Oakey, president; H. H. Ham, vice president; W. S. Boggs, 
cashier. The resources of the bank on December 31, 1921 were 
$1,619,915.41. Directors: J. L. Oakey, president; H. H. Ham, vice 
president; C. B. Hansen, cashier; J. M. Oakey, assistant cashier; Dr. John 
N. Baylis, Grover Cooley, Dr. W. H. Stiles, R. W. McGilvery. During 
the year 1921 extensive alterations and improvements were made in the 
bank building and rearranged for the convenience and comfort of patrons 
which added materially to the attractiveness of the bank home. 

The Savings Bank of San Bernardino was organized December 2. 
1889, by men interested in the Farmers Exchange Bank, with a capital 
of $10,000. Officers elected at that time were: President. Frank 
Hinckley ; vice president, H. L. Drew ; secretary-treasurer, S. F. Zombro. 
Directors: H. L. Drew, John Andreson, Sr., James Fleming. C. Kurtz. 
M. Byrne. In 1891 W. S. Mc.A.bee was elected president, succeeding 
Frank Hinckley. He served until 1894, being succeeded at that time by 
John Andreson, Sr. In July, 1901, James Fleming was elected vice 
president, succeeding H. L. Drew, deceased. S. F. Zombro resigned as 
secretary and treasurer in January, 1906, being succeeded by John Andre- 
son, Jr. The capital stock of the bank was increased to $50,000, April, 
1908, and several years later again increased to $100,000, with $85,000 
paid in. In February, 1909, A. L. Drew was elected president, succeed- 
ing John Andreson, Sr. The bank was operated from the date of its 
organization up to'june, 1910, as a savings department of the Farmers 
Exchange Bank, at which time it was moved to the corner of Third and 
E streets and in October, 1910, C. E. \'ahey was elected secretary and 
treasurer, succeeding John Andreson, Jr. The bank was still connected 
through its officers and directors with the Farmers Exchange Bank, 
which bank, by the way, is now the Farmers Exchange National Bank. 

In October, 1917, N. L. Levering and associates bought into the 
bank, N. L. Levering being elected president, John Andreson, Jr., vice- 
president, and C. E. Vahey. secretary and treasurer. This bank was 
strictly a savings bank up to September 17, 1917, at which time a com- 
mercial department was added. C. E. Vahey resigned in January, 1919. 
and C. L. Cronk was elected to succeed him March 4. 1919, H. R. Scott, 
then a director, acting as secretary and treasurer in the interim. In 
August, 1919, the bank moved to its present location at 466-468 Third 
Street. In April. 1920, J. C. Smith purchased the Levering interests 
and became its president. Since this date the bank has been owned and 
operated by the present management, being as follows : President, J. C. 
Smith; vice president, \V. S. Shepardson ; secretary-treasurer, C. L 
Cronk ; assistant cashier, C. H. Shorev ; directors, T. C. Smith, W. S. 
Shephardson, C. L. Cronk, H. C. McAlister, J. E.' Rich, A. G. Arm- 
strong, J. C. Love, H. R. Scott. This bank has shown a steady growth, 
with resources at the present time approximately $800,000. On December 
6. 1Q20. the name was changed to .San Rernardino \'alley Rank. 


American National Bank 

In 1916 the American National Bank of San Bernardino was organ- 
ized. It opened for business on December 30th with a paid up capital 
of $100,000. The day's business of this bank was most unusual. 
When it opened at 9 :00 o'clock in the morning a line of depositors were 
at the front door and when it closed at 9:00 o'clock in the evening 813 
people had opened accounts, averaging more than one account per minute 
for the entire day. Nothing succeeds like success and the first day's 
was only the beginning of a steady, rapid growth. At the end of the 
fi,rst year its deposits were more than $500,000. "Useful service" might 
be said to be the watchword of this institution. Every facility of its 
organization has been brought to bear to promote the agricultural and 
business interests of the community. Its officers and entire force have 
always been willing and able to give a helpful, cooperative, personal 
service to its smallest as well as its largest depositors and the bank has 
always been a place where its customers could enter and feel at home. 
R. D. McCook, former president of the First National Bank of Sumner, 
Iowa, through whose personal efforts the American National was organ- 
ized, is its president ; W. S. Shepardson, widely known throughout the 
valley, is vice president; W. O. Harris, born and raised in San Bernar- 
dino, is cashier, and Mr. O. R. Ervin, assistant cashier. Its board of 
directors are all well known San Bernardino men — Joseph E. Rich, 
W. S. Shephardson, H. S. Wall, P. M. Savage. J. W! Cattick, Nelson 
McCook, R. D. McCook. At the close of business December 31, 1921, 
this bank had a capital and surplus of $150,099.99, deposits $1,284,515.42 
and total resources $1,619,915.41. 

The San Bernardino Water System. The little ditch brought 
into their stockade by the Mormons from Garner's Springs and the 
stream formed by their overflow formed the first water supply of the 
town of San Bernardino. In 1854, when the town was incorporated 
and platted, ditches were run along the streets for irrigation purposes, 
these being originally known as Town Ditch No. 1, No. 2, etc., but being 
later given the names of East Upper Dam, West Upper Dam, etc. The 
water for these ditches was originally brought from Town Creek, and 
in 1854, by special act of the Legislature, the waters of Twin Creeks 
were appropriated for municipal purposes, and an open ditch brought 
the waters of both creeks into the town. This supply proving uncer- 
tain, it was abandoned later on, and water was then supplied from Lytle 
Creek, from artesian wells both within and without the city limits, and 
by a water company. After the town developed into a city, bonds were 
voted for a water system, and in 1890 there was constructed a reservoir 
with a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons, located four miles northeast of the 
city and 250 feet above its level. The reservoir was supplied by water 
from Lytle Creek and from artesian wells located on land purchased by 
the city, this giving sufficient pressure to deliver water at any point. A 
complete system of water mains was put in during 1890 and 1891, and 
the system, owned by the city, was so well managed that for a time the 
water rents afforded the city an income. However, the old supply became 
inadequate with the growth of the city, and in December, 1902, bonds 
to the amount of $231,000 were voted by an overwhelming majority 
for the acquirement of a modern system. Steps were immediately taken 
for the acquirement of a 100-inch water right, commonly known as the 
Hubbard water right, applying to Lytle Creek waters : a 22-acrc tract 
of land about one mile east of the city and in the center of the artesian 


belt was secured, upon which a pumpint: T'lant was constructed: the 
capacity of the old storacjc reservoir was doubled by the building of 
an addition, and a complete system of water mains and distributing 
pipes was put in. The work was completed in December. 1904. under 
the supervision of the city enj^jineer, E. A. Rasor. giving the city a service 
of 300 inches of pure water for domestic purposes, an amount that could 
be doubled or tripled if necessary, from the water rights then owned by 
the municipality. 

With the new city charter laws in force, in 1905. the water system 
came under the control of the board of water commissioners consisting 
of A. G. Kendall, F. T. Ferris and M. D. Katz, appointed by the mayor. 
The commissioners were appointed and confirmed on the 8th day of 
May, 1905, took the oath of office and organized on the 16th of May, 
1905, by electing A. G. Kendall president of the board. About the first 
day of June they moved into quarters provided and were, so to speak, 
ready for business. 

The first )'ear was very much a twelve months of investigation, not 
in a sense of censure or criticism, but to lay foundations for a stable, 
substantial system having in view a rapidly growing city, with ever new 
demands upon its water supply. 

The board was led to believe that a further supply of water to main- 
tain the pumping capacity then installed was needed ; extension of such 
water mains as the growing necessities of the city required and the 
establishment of meters to prevent waste and misuse, yet yield an increase 
of revenue and leave them in a position to furnish water to those who 
need it in the suburbs. 

Near the close of the year 1905 seven meters were installed, for test- 
ing purposes, and three water fountains installed. These were placed 
at Southern Hotel, T. S. and A. Drug Store and H and Third streets. 

One of the first acts of the board during its first year's work was 
to transfer Wm. Starke from the Lytle Creek pumping plant, where he 
had been in charge since April, 1899, to oversee the active city water 
operations. He became fully clothed with authority on January 1, 1906, 
by receiving the title of superintendent of the water department. 

Before July 1, 1906. the board had purchased the Little Mountain 
reservoir site; paid into the city treasury the sum of $11,200, and had a 
balance on hand of $6,863.65. For the year ending June 30, 1906, the 
water rental was $37,121.03. For the year 1921, for the month of 
December alone, the rental amounted to $8,892.31, indicating the city's 
growth, with its 100 miles of water mains. 

The necessity for a permanent location for a pipe yard and store 
house as well as a corporation yard for the street department led to the 
passing of an ordinance, during the year 1907, for purchasing the lot 
at the southeast corner of D and Second streets. 

The city has the reputation of using more water per capita than 
any other of its size in the country and having as low a water rate to 
consumers as any in Southern California. The water supply during the 
few years just preceding 1912 had consisted in the flowing capacity of 
four wells on the Antil tract — 600 inches — and 100 inches of Lytle Creek 
water flowing into the Lytle Creek reservoir. Ferris Hill water, in com- 
pleted system, was delivered into the city in 1912. The famous gusher 
at Antil that flows 300 miners' inches was one of the permanent shows 
of the city. 

In the spring of 1913. a new mayor and common council were elected, 
necessitating a new water commission, consisting of C. A. Rouse, A. M. 
?Iam and J. F. Hambleton. Mr. Rouse was elected president of the 


board. In June, 1914, J- F- Hambleton was elected president of the 
board. In 1916 a new board was appointed, Ralph E. Swing, C. W. 
Smith and A. M. Ham, Mr. .Swing being elected president of the board. 
From the report of June 31, 1918, valuable information is gleaned. Prior 
to the year 1890 the inhabitants of the city and vicinity were supplied 
with water entirely from privately owned artesian wells. In the year 
1890 it was deemed advisable to install a municipal system and at that 
time voted a bond issue of $130,000 for this purpose. At that time arte- 
sian water could be obtained upon the MacKinsie tract, near what is 
now known as the Lytle Creek reservoir. The city purchased this tract, 
sunk a number of wells, constructed a receiving reservoir and installed 
a distributing system. The people were slow, however, to take advan- 
tage of the municipal system ; only ten service connections were made 
the first year and at the end of the fifth year but 145 connections had 
been made. The city, however, has gradually developed and has increased 
in both population and territory until today, June 31, 1918, we claim 
20,000 inhabitants and have an area of approximately 4600 acres and 
service connections of over 4,800. 

The city has a sewer system of approximately forty miles, which 
requires a daily average of more than 200 inches of water to keep it 
flushed and in good condition. There are many acres of lawns, flowers, 
trees, gardens, which require constant care and irrigation ; likewise many 
manufacturing establishments, depending on this department for water. 
Since the city embarked in the distribution of water as a municipal affair, 
this department has acquired and now possesses the following properties : 
A Lytle Creek plant, comprising ten acres, upon which there is a receiv- 
ing reservoir, with a capacity of 3,000,000 gallons, a pumping plant and 
well capable of producing approximatelv 200 inches of water under 
normal conditions ; 100 inches of the surface flow of Lytle Creek ; the 
Antil plant, comprising twenty-two acres upon which there are four 
artesian wells and an expensive steam pumping plant ; the Ferris Hill 
plant, comprising 100 acres, on which there are two wells and an auxil- 
iary electric pumping j)lant ; eighty miles of distributing mains and later- 
als ; the material yard, situated at Second and D streets, used for storing 
the surplus material required for this department ; lastly, the right to 
take water from these various tracts as the needs of the city require. 
The right is the most valuable asset the city possesses. The value of 
the properties and rights controlled by this department is considerably 
in excess of $1,000,000. 

Primarily the rights of this city to take water from the San Ber- 
nardino basins for municipal uses was paramount to the right of any 
person or corporation to take water for the purpose of transporting the 
same to lands outside the basin. 

In 1918 the board of water commissioners consisted of : C. W. Smith. 
])resident ; W. O. Harris, A. Ham, who continued the splendid work. 
In 1921 the commissioners were: A. M. Ham, ])resident ; W. O. Harris 
and R. W. McGilvary ; William Starke, superintendent of the water 

At the close of the year 1921, in addition to other properties already 
stated, the city bought 1,000 acres of the Severance Tract, in Devil's 
Canyon. In 1905 there were seven meters, in 1921, 5,600 water con- 
nections, and 100 per cent meter perfect. In 1901 the assets were noth- 
ing, in 1921 considerable over $1,000,000. 

The S.\n Bernardino Gas and Electric Comp.wv. The San Ber- 
nardino Gas and Electric Company was organized in 1892, with a capital 


stock of $50,000, its original officers being Peter Kohl, president ; Charles 
R. Lloyd, vice president ; and William Gird, secretary. The new enterprise 
purchased the old Davis Mill property on Mill Street and Waterman 
Avenue, formerly the old Mormon grist mill, thus securing ten acres 
of ground adjoining the mill property and 200 inches of water from 
Warm Creek and Mackenzie Ditch. A new flume was constructed, 
doubling the amount of water and securing a largely increased head. In 
1897 the company was reorganized with a capital stock of $100,000, 
W. S. Hooper becoming president ; Charles R. Lloyd, vice president ; and 
B. Roos, secretary and general manager. In the following year the 
company bought the stock of the San Antonio Light and Power Com- 
pany, and Arthur W. Burt was made secretary and manager, and in 
July, 1898. the concern purchased also the interests of the San Bernar- 
dino Gas Works, including its distributing mains. Until 1902 the plant 
was operated by the San Bernardino Electric Company, but in that year 
was organized the San Bernardino Gas and Electric Company, with 
W. S. Hooper, president; Charles R. Lloyd, vice president, and C. M. 
Grow, secretary and general manager. The capital stock at that time 
was placed at $200,000. In April. 1903, the plant and stock were absorbed 
by the Pacific Light and Power Company, of Los Angeles, although it 
continued to be operated as an independent concern with the absorbing 
company as principal stockholder. In 1910 the Pacific Light and Power 
Company took over the gas and electric business. In August, 1911, the 
company sold the gas plant and distributing system to the Southern Cal- 
ifornia Gas Company and Charles M. Grow was made manager of both 
companies. In July, 1917, the Pacific Light and Power Company sold 
its interest to the Southern California Edison Company; Mr. Grow 
remained with the gas company, and A. B. \\'allober was made district 
agent of the Edison companv. October 1, 1917, Mr. Grow was trans- 
ferred to Los Angeles as new manager of the Southern California Gas 
Company and H. C. McAlister was made manager of the San Bernardino 

The San Bern.\rdixo V.mxev Traction- Company. The history 
of the San Bernardino Valley Traction Company's interests dates back 
to May, 1901, when A. C. Denman, Jr., of Redlands, purchased the 
Urbita Hot Springs property, located ju^t outside of the south city 
limits of San Bernardino, from Messrs. Parazette and Beggs, of this 
city. In the following month, two Redlands business men, H. H. Sin- 
clair and Henry Fisher, became interested in the property and these 
gentlemen made the improvements and operated the place under the man- 
agement of Mr. Denman until it was sold, June 2. 1903, to the San 
Bernardino Valley Traction Company. Prior to this, in June, 1901, 
Messrs. Fisher, Sinclair and Denman, with J. H. Fisher. Edward S. 
Graham and Henry B. Ely. all of Redlands, and Seth Hartley, of Col- 
ton, had formed a company for the purchase of various franchises then 
granted, or pending, and the operation of electric street car lines over 
these franchises, the capital stock being $500,000. and the officers : Henry 
Fisher, president; A. C. Denman, Jr.. vice president and general man- 
ager; Edward S. Graham, treasurer; and J. H. Fisher, secretary. The 
directors of the company, August 6. 1901, completed the purchase of 
the following franchises: Campbell. Seventh and E streets, both of San 
Bernardino City ; Colton Avenue, San Bernardino County ; Colton City ; 
Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino County ; and Mount \'ernon 
Avenue. San Bernardino City. The company began operations six months 
after the purchase of these franchises, and the first car over the line. 


after its completion, was operated February 22, 1902. In December. 
1901, the traction company Durcliascd franchises along San Bernardino 
Avenue, Mountain View Avenue and Mill Street, for the purpose of 
constructing- and operating an electric car line between San Bernardino 
and Redlands. The first car between the two cities was operated March 
10, 1903. In February. 1903, the San Bernardino & Highland Electric 
Railway Company was organized and incorporated with a capital stock 
of $150,000. for the purpose of constructing and operating an electric 
line to the Township of Highland from San Bernardino, the officers of 
the company being: Henry Fisher, president: A. C. Denman, Jr.. vice 
president and general manager; George B. Ellis, secretary; and E. D. 
Roberts, treasurer. On March 4, 1903, the directors of this company 
purchased a franchise on Pacific Avenue, one on Base Line to Palm 
Avenue and one on Palm Avenue to the center of Highland. Work was 
about to commence when Mr. Kohl, of the San Bernardino. Arrowhead 
& Waterman Railway Company began negotiations with Mr. Denman 
for the purchase of the old motor line, and this transaction was con- 
summated, following which the old line was reconstructed, the gauge 
was widened and the line was put in first-class condition for the operation 
of electric cars. The first car was run over the line as far as Harlem 
Springs July 26. 1903, and August 13 the line to Patton and Highland 
was completed. 

The San Bernardino Valley Traction Company and the Highland 
Electric Company operated separately until June 2, 1903, when they 
consolidated with the Redlands Street Railway Company, under the 
name of the San Bernardino Valley Traction Company, the officers 
elected being: Henry Fisher, president; A. C. Denham, Jr., vice presi- 
dent and general manager ; C. W. A. Cartlidge, secretary and treasurer. 
Shortly after the consolidation the company purchased the Urbita 
Springs property and the Cole Race Track. 

Pacific Electric Company. Early in 1911 the Pacific Electric 
bought the traction company interests and became sole owner. Mr. A. B. 
Merrihew, who was assistant superintendent of the traction line, became 
assistant superintendent of the eastern division of the Pacific Electric, 
Following Mr. Merrihew, who took another position in Los Angeles, 
were O. P. Davis and A. C. Bradley, temporary supplies. These were 
followed by M. P. Groftholdt. T. W. Peachey became assistant super- 
intendent in November, 1917. The Pacific Electric occupies, jointly 
with the Southern Pacific, the commodious depot of Third Street. 

Then came a day when the company had completed its road through 
to Los Angeles and the whole Southland turned out to celebrate. On 
Saturday, July 11. 1914, the pageant of transportation wended its way 
through the streets to signalize, by contrast, the completion of an electric 
trail spanning the orange land from San Bernardino to Los Angeles— 
from the mountains to the sea. 

Electric railways have been called the nerves of cities. A new and 
great nerve of this character had been added unto Los Angeles and 
San Bernardino by the Pacific Electric Railway Company. At either 
end of this newly completed system are cities that have won fame — Los 
Angeles at one end, large and bountiful; San Bernardino at the other 
end, possesses beauty, charm, prosperity and romantic history. Lines 
of steel have joined the richest county to the largest. The Pacific Elec- 
tric is a tribute to the faith, energy, and work of President Paul Shoup 
and the officers of the company. 


It was a great day of rejoicing, not only by the people of San Ber- 
nardino, but by scores of inland cities, that were also benefited. A 
short open space had been left in the roadway near the corner of E and 
Third streets, to be closed, as part of the ceremony. The spike used was 
a solid silver one. the gift of the people of Alto Loma. It was driven 
into an orange wood tie presented by Fontana. and the two silver ham- 
mers were presented by Rialto and Etiwanda. Mayor Rose of Los Ange- 
les and Mayor Catick of San Bernardino, on the stroke of twelve, with 
alternate blows of the two hammers, linked the entire citrus belt by 
trolley line, and as every blow on the silver spike was struck, the tele- 
graph wires tapped the story to the world. Mrs. Shirley Bright's clear 
voice was heard in song. i3ells and whistles, all the way from moun- 
tains to the sea, were sounded, and vied with the voice of man in pro- 
claiming the event. After placing the silver spike came silver-tongued 
oratory ; then the pageant for which people, thousands and tens of 
thousands of them, had come out to see. To quote John S. McGroarty: 
"As actually as though we had been born 200 years ago, we strode 
beside the Indian savage : we saw the white man come ; the first of all 
his race, old Juan de Arza ; then the brown-robed brothers of St. Fran- 
cis, to found the mission of San Bernardino, in savage lands. In the 
footprints of the padre's sandals came all things else — the Spanish dons, 
the tutored Indian, the prairie schooner making deep ruts in the wild 
grass of the meadows : the patient ox, the slow-sure burro, the fleet- 
footed horse, the first crude wheel of iron, and at last the great red 
dragon of the trolley, annihilating time and distance across the tracks 
of steel." 

It was a few pages of our history made vibrant with life. The 
celebration recalled the romance and wonder of an epic period and 
directed thought to opportunities of the present and possibilities of the 

The pageant ended in Lugo Park, where speeches were made and the 
ceremony of "get-together" was celebrated. Paul Shoup, a former San 
Bernardino "boy," president of the Pacific Electric; J. T. McMillan, gen- 
eral manager, represented the company. Mayor H. H. Rose of Los 
Angeles and Mayor J. W. Catick and John S. McGroarty made speeches. 
Ralph E. Swing was chairman of the Lugo Park celebration and O. P. 
Sloat master of ceremonies. 

Plans for the celebration, begun on a small scale, assumed vast pro- 
portions ; it was a picture of the history of transportation from 1770 
to 1914. Mr. C. H. Burnett, manager outside operations, was director, 
for the Pacific Electric Company. Mr. John S. McGroarty, author of 
the Mission Play, directed the staging of the pageant. Mr. Frank Miller, 
of Mission Inn, Riverside, also assisted. Judge F. F. Oster was chair- 
man of the joint committee of Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' 
Association. Others were: George M. Cooley, invitation; J. B. Gill, 
entertainment; W. M. Parker, reception; J. A. Gutherie, publicity; C. M. 
Grow, finance ; S. W. McNabb, sports ; J. H. Hamilton, furnishings ; 
John Brown, Jr., pioneers ; Mrs. Reetta V. Hadden, historian ; Frederick 
M. Renbro, secretary. 

The Woman's Club served luncheon in the banquet room of the 
Y. M. C. A. Building to the guests of the city. The afternoon was spent 
at Urbita Springs Park, where the celebration took the form of sports. 

Following is a letter by Paul Shoup, president Pacific Electric Rail- 
way, (now vice president of the Southern Pacific) : "It is good to come 
home. The long lines of life have many turns and lead to many places. 
One is enshrined in the heart and one alone — 'the place where I was bom.' 


I come back to you today after twenty years with some part in your 
transportation triumphant; and this means something to me beyond that 
of an officer of the railway at your gates ; for I am native here and 
proud to be of you and yours. The faith that grew with boyhood in 
our town has never died. Its ascending star of twenty years ago is 
brighter now. Our mountains are but more noble, our valley yet more 
beautiful, and the charm of our city mellowed and enhanced with the 
lapse of time. 

"Our red cars this morning brought your friends and now new neigh- 
bors from the west; they named our line the rainbow route this morn- 
ing because it held a promise at either end. But there is more than 
promise, for today is the beginning of fulfillment — San Bernardino a great 
interurban center; gate city indeed, and with need to have its gates wide 
open, for hereafter seekers will not come in single file. San Bernardino 
and its neighbors to the west — Rialto, Fontana, Etiwanda, Alta Loma, 
Upland — have made this new line possible ; to them belongs the credit. 
I see about me faces of so many old-time friends that they have made 
the miracle and turned back time for 20 years for me. and memory 
becomes the bubbling spring of sweet recollection. I bring you no speech 
today — just a full heart and a railroad, and both are yours." 

Summing it up, James A. Gutherie says : "A new epoch dawned 
for San Bernardino yesterday as the last spike of an electric railway was 
driven. The clink of metal against metal as the spike went home was 
the sound of greater prosperity. And then the old began to unroll. 
Back 140 years we went as the pageant moved. Juan Batista de Anza 
followed the Indians into the scene. The gay Spaniards came. The 
Picos, the Lugos, the Dominguez, the Alvarados ruled the land. The 
miner, blazing the way over unknown trails, sought old gold. Their fam- 
ilies followed to brave the same perils. Across the prairies and the 
deserts, through homes of hostile Indians, came the ox teams. The 
stage coach coupled the then only two hamlets — Los Angeles and San 
Bernardino — and it was the opening of a great transportation epoch. 
So thought the pioneers, and it was. Years went on and the new gold 
of the orchards was found, and towns had streets in which to lay the 
rails of transportation. Greater wealth followed the tiny street rail- 
ways, and the iron arms spread out. The valley was circled and then 
other valleys encompassed and yesterday they were all joined by rib- 
bons of steel and a score of towns became closer neighbors. And now 
the new future stretches out, and in a near future are 50,000 people for 
our city. Our neighbors say it and they congratulate us. The present 
held as much for the past and the future holds the same for us." 

The San Bernardino Fire Department. The nucleus for the 
present splendid organization known as the San Bernardino Fire Depart- 
ment was a "Fire Protective Association," a meeting for the forming of 
which was held June 22, 1865, at Pine's Hotel. As a result, four days 
later the San Bernardino Fire Company came into existence, with Wil- 
liam McDonald, foreman ; Nathan Kinman, first assistant ; Aubry Wolff, 
second assistant ; and I. H. Levy, secretary and treasurer. The com- 
pany immediately started equipping itself and was soon in possession of 
four ladders, four axes, four hooks, twenty-four buckets, a fire bell and 
a speaking trumpet. A concert was given for the benefit of the company, 
which netted $103, and early in 1866 a fire hall was erected on Third 
Street, at the foot of C, a building that was purchased in 1869 by 
Doctor Peacock, who donated it to the Methodist church. The "fire 
laddies" took an active part in the social life of the community, as they 


did in all small cities in former years, and as they do to some extent 
even to this day in the little villages and hamlets of various parts of the 
country. No celebration was considered complete without an exhibition 
by the "fire boys" and the annual ball for their benefit was one of the 
social events of the year. The original company continued in active 
service until 1871, when it sold its property and effects to others and 
placed the amount realized in the hands of M. H. Suverkrup to be 
invested for the benefit of the company. This pioneer organization of 
its kind included some of San Bernardino's best citizens, as the fol- 
lowing list of active members of the year 1867 will attest : William 
McDonald, A. Wolfif, A. D. Rowell. Louis Caro, William A. Franklin, 
H. Goldsberg, N. Kinman, I. H. Levy, J. M. Wixon. H. Suverkrup, 
John Byas, W. R. Wozencraft, R. Woodward, George E. Moore, J. A. 
Kelting, M. Katz, Charles Roe, Doctor Peacock and W. Godfrey. 

Engine Company No. 1, a volunteer organization, was formed in 
October, 1878, at a meeting of the members of the old Fire Company. 
The funds of the old company were turned over to the new body, of 
which William McDonald was chosen foreman, Raymond Woodward, 
first assistant ; J. W. Morgan, second assistant ; A. D. Rowell, secretary ; 
and C. F. Roe, financial secretary. With the assistance of the citizens 
and the town trustees, a fire engine. No. 246, Piano Engine, throwing 
two streams, and a hose cart were purchased ; a hose company, with 
M. Hayden as foreman, was formed, and uniforms were adopted. 

This volunteer organization continued to act until December 3, 1889, 
when the department was reorganized by Chief D. H. Wixom, and 
became a partly paid department, which proved to be a shrewd and 
successful move. In February, 1889, the city trustees purchased a span 
of horses, which animals, "Frank" and "Sam," won a place in the affec- 
tions of not only the department but of the people. During the day they 
worked on the street, but at night were harnessed to the steamer formerly 
drawn by hand and kept in readiness for emergencies. On May 1. 1889, 
Albert Glatz took charge of the department horses and was chosen driver, 
a post which he held for many years. In July of the same year the city 
trustees purchased swinging harness, after which the horses were kept 
in comfortable stalls and used exclusively for department work. In 
September, 1889, a hook and ladder company was added to the depart- 
ment. When, in 1890, a water system with high gravity pressure was 
installed, the steamer was replaced by a substantial hose wagon, and in 
April, 1891, an electric system with a tower bell, house gong, indicator 
and six alarm boxes was added. In August, 1894, Chief Wixom resigned, 
and his former assistant, J. H. Tittle, was appointed chief. During his 
administration, in 1896, the hose wagon underwent a radical change, 
becoming the first ball-bearing piece of fire apparatus on the Pacific 
Coast. The first prize won by the San Bernardino Fire Department was 
on May Day, 1896, when they were awarded a handsome silver cup for 
the best decorated team. In April, 1897, Chief Tittle resigned, and his 
former assistant, O. M. Stevenson, was appointed chief. In August of 
that year the trustees purchased a splendid team of thoroughbred road- 
sters. "Dick" and "Prince." "Sam," one of the veteran horses, had died 
in May, 1896. In April, 1900, a street fair was held at Riverside, and 
several fire departments from different towns competed for prizes. The 
men from San Bernardino won two handsome trophies, the first prize in 
the ladder contest and the second prize in the hose contest. Again, in 
May, 1901, at a street fair held at San Bernardino, the home department 
won two more handsome cups, first i)rize in the ladder contest and second 
prize in the hose contest. On July 4, 1901, at a contest held at Santa 


Ana, the second prize was divided between San Bernardino and 
Santa Ana. 

The San Bernardino Fire Department has been called upon to fight a 
number of serious conflagrations, beginning with the great Hotel Stewart 
fire, and on every occasion has done itself proud. 

March 25, 1907, the cornerstone for the new fire hall was laid. Fire 
Chief George Stephens, Sr., and Secretary Glatz in charge. C. W. Mona- 
han, president of the Board of Trade, was master of ceremonies. An 
address was made by Mayor H. M. Barton accepting and placing the 
contents of the box. An address was also made by Benjamin F. Bledsoe, 
and a benediction by the Rev. Rennison. The San Bernardino Band 

The first full paid chief of the San Bernardino Fire Department was 
F. G. Starke, who was appointed in 1911 by Mayor Bright. In 1913 
Mayor Catick reappointed Mr. Starke, and in 1915 Mayor Wixom also 
reappointed him. Shortly after finishing his last term he died. Chief 
Starke had three paid men under him. and fifteen volunteers. In June, 
1917, L. M. Field was appointed chief by Mayor Catick. 

In June, 1919, Al. Glatz was appointed chief by Mayor Henderson. 
Mr. Glatz had been an employe of the Fire Department for many years, 
?nd shortly after finishing his term of office he died. 

In June, 1921, O. W. Newcombe was appointed by Mayor McNabb. 
Chief Newcombe has ten men, and one station beside the large fire house, 
but no volunteers. 

The San Bernardino Postoffice. The old Council House, at the 
northeast corner of Third and C streets, was the home of the first post- 
office at San Bernardino, established in 1853, the first postmaster being 
D. M. Thomas, who was also the first county judge. He held the office 
until 1857, when he returned with his fellow Mormons to Utah, and 
A. D. Boren, who succeeded to the county judgeship, likewise assumed 
the duties of postmaster, having the postoffice at his residence for a time. 
The second regularly appointed postmaster was Dr. Ben Barton, who 
located the office in his drug store at the corner of C and Fourth streets. 
Doctor Barton being a very busy man, the duties of the office were per- 
formed for the greater part by his brother, John P. Barton. The arrival 
of the mail, about once a week, was a town event of interest, and most 
of the inhabitants turned out to see the stage come in, the mailbags being 
then opened, the names on the communications called, and each claimant 
stepping forward to receive his mail, with the envious eyes of those less 
fortunate upon him. Such mail as was not claimed was thrown in a box, 
where it lay to be handled over by the people, who took whatever they 
thought belonged to them. In 1853 a contract was let by the Government 
for carrying the mail between San Bernardino and Salt Lake City, and 
Doctor Copeland, the contractor, sub-let the route to Capt. Jefferson 
Hunt, Daniel Taft and Daniel Rathburn. The first mail was carried from 
San Bernardino on horseback by James Williams, he being followed by 
Ed Hope and the latter by Sheldon Stoddard, who carried the mails 
during 1854 and took the last mail through in 1858. 

Doctor Barton was succeeded as postmaster by Thomas Dickey, who 
removed the office to the corner of D and Third streets, and he was 
followed by Dr. J. C. Peacock, who discharged the duties from early in 
the '60s to about 1880, with the postoffice in his drug store on the south 
side of Third, between C and D streets. The business having grown to 
pome extent, Doctor Peacock made some attempt at systemization, impro- 
vising a somewhat novel method for distribution of the mail. Mounting 


a barrel upon a stand in such a manner as to be easily turned, he cut 
holes in the side and put in shelves to form compartments, which were 
lettered. The mail was distributed into these pigeon holes and the public 
could revolve the barrel and secure its own mail. The first regular post- 
office facilities were also introduced during Doctor Peacock's adminis- 

W. R. Porter, appointed postmaster by President Hayes, succeeded 
Doctor Peacock, conducting the office in the old Masonic Temple build- 
ing, and in 1887 was succeeded by John T. Knox, who removed the office 
to new and well-equipped quarters in the Drew-.\ndreson block, at the 
corner of E and Court streets. Judge Knox resigned the office in 1889, 
and was succeeded by Nelson G. Gill, who completed Judge Knox's 
uncompleted term and was appointed for the four succeeding yeirs. On 
October 1, 1890, the free delivery system went into eflfect, with two 
carriers, who covered the old city plat. On April 1, 1894, James Boyd 
became ])ostmaster and continued in office until ]\Iay 4, 1898. when he was 
succeeded by Stephen J. Kelley. 

August i, 1914, Ernest Martin succeeded Stephen F. Kelley. who had 
served for sixteen years, as postmaster. In September, 1918, Mr. Martin 
was reappointed by President ^^'oodrow Wilson. In 1913, the year 
])revious to the beginning of Mr. Martin's administration, the postal 
receipts of the office totaled $42,617.49. The receipts grew steadily, 
year by year, and at the end of the calendar year of 1921, the total 
'was $75,048.66. 

In 1904 the postoffice was moved from the Monte Vista block at the 
northwest corner of Court and E streets to the building at the northwest 
corner of Fourth and D streets, known as the Swing block. The busi- 
ness of the postoffice had entirely outgrown the quarters in the Swing 
block for a number of years previous to 1920. In that year Postmaster 
Martin began to negotiate for larger and better quarters, with the result 
that R. C. Harbison and Victor C. Smith purchased the property at the 
northwest corner of Fourth and D streets, a part of which was then occu- 
pied by the postoffice, from the Lloyd estate. Plans for remodeling the 
building, installing new equipment and adding a great deal of additional 
floor space, were drawn and on January 29, 1921. the Postoffice Depart- 
ment accepted the proposal of the owners of the building. The result 
is that San Bernardino now has a modern office of metropolitan propor- 
tions and appearance, and which is pronounced as one of the best in the 

The S.\n Bernardino City Schools. In another chapter of this 
work, mention is made of the early schools of San Bernardino.' The first 
real attempt at giving the children of the city adequate educational facili- 
ties was the erection, in 1870-71, of the brick schoolhouse, a four-room 
building, on the lot formerly occupied by the old Washington and Jeffer- 
son school, south side Fourth Street, between C and D streets. This 
structure was erected by a special tax of $4,000, and it was thought at 
the time that it would be ample for the requirements of the children of 
the city for years to come. When the cornerstone was laid, March 20. 
1871, a box containing school records and other information, as well as 
newspapers of the date, etc., was put in a specially prepared vault, but 
when the structure was razed in 1902, to make way for a new school 
building, while the box was found its contents had crumbled to dust. 
Five years after the erection of this building the trustees came to a 

See Chapter XI, Education. 


realization of the fact that their vision had not been broad enough, that 
they had not forseen the great growth which the city was to attain, but 
it was not until 1884 that a new schoolhouse was erected. Largely 
through the efforts of H. C. Brooke, who fought adverse criticism 
vigorously, the sum of $25,000 was voted in bonds, and in June of that 
year the cornerstone for the Central Schoolhouse, on F Street, was laid. 
This was an eight-room building, with a seating capacity of 400, and was 
considered a model at the time. There were then but six departments 
in the school, with as many teachers. N. A. Richardson became principal 
of schools in 1884. The "boom" largely increased the school population, 
and the enlargement of the city in 1890 added a large number of pupils 
to the roll. 

When he took charge of the schools, in 1884, N. A. Richardson began 
preparing a class for high school work, which it began in 1885, this first 
class graduating four years later. The high school, however, was not 
regularly organized under the State law until April, 1891. and in that same 
year the city voted $60,000 bonds, for a high school building, which was 
completed in 1892 at a cost of $75,000, being at that time one of the finest 
buildings in Southern California. In 1893 the school was regularly 
accredited by the State University. 

Working hand in hand with the public school system, have been a 
number of private schools, the first of which was the San Bernardino 
Collegiate School, opened August 25, 1862, by Capt. J. P. C. Allsop and 
conducted under his instruction until 1867. In 1870 St. Catherine's 
Academy was established by the Catholic Sisters, and soon thereafter a 
brick building was erected for its use. This has since been enlarged and 
rebuilt, and is now one of the oldest institutions of the city. Paine's 
.Academy and Business Institute, which gave San Bernardino's youth its 
first opportunity to secure a business education, was opened in 1873 by 
Prof. C. R. Paine. In 1883 Prof. D. B. Sturges, who had been county 
superintendent in 1881, founded Sturges Academy, otherwise the San 
Bernardino Academy and Business College, offering courses in com- 
mercial, normal and literary studies. Other private schools were those 
of Mrs. Hicks, Mrs. Nisbet and Miss Bennett, all of which contributed 
to the advantages offered the children of their day in gaining educational 

Principals. The principals of San Bernardino's city schools have 
been as follows: 

1853 William Stout 

1854 Q. S. Sparks 

1856 J. B. Norris 

1857 A. A. St. Clair 

1858 Ellison Robbins 

1859-60 William R. Wozencraft 

1861-62 D. W. Davis 

1863 W. S. Clark 

1864 J. H. Skidmore 

1865 Harvey Green 

1866-68 W. R. Wozencraft 

1869-71 Henrv C. Brooke 

1872 John Fox 

1873 John Brown, Jr. 

1874-75 H. Goodcell, "jr. 

1876-78 Charles R. Paine 

1879 Mary A. Bennett 


1880 C. R. Paine 

1881-82 H. C. Brooke 

1883 Dr. T. H. Rose 

1884 J. N. Flint 

1884-90 N. A. Richardson 

1891-92 Alexis E. Frve 

1893-94 T. H. Kirk' 

1895-96 W. S. Thomas 

1896-99 N. A. Richardson 

1900-01 H. L. Lunt 

1902-03 Lulu Claire Bahr 

1903 F. W. Conrad 

1915 Dr. B. Stover Crandall 

(died Nov. 12. 1918) 

1919 Dr. B. R. Crandall 

1921 Percy R. Davis 

From the far off days of a few scattered scholars and one lone instruc- 
tor, with perhaps a log cabin as a schoolhouse, to the present year of 
1921, with its magnificent structures worth more than a million dollars, is 
a long leap. Not only as time counts, but accrued wealth of learning 
that has been felt in the great world of action that cannot be computed 
in cold dollars and cents. 

Some of the former school men of San Bernardino have become 
nationally and even world famous since leaving the city. When the old 
high school, on E Street, was first erected, one of the principals, who 
came to San Bernardino, was Mr. A. E. Frye, of Frye Geography fame. 
His geographies are used all over the United States in preference to any 
other in the market. In 1906, Louis M. Terman was principal of the 
high school. He is now at the head of the Department of Psychology in 
Stanford University and is a world famous authority on psychological 
matters. And of the students, they are scattered all over the globe, many 
in most responsible positions. 

The city school system of San Bernardino ranks with the best systems 
in the State. It comprises a polytechnic high school of five buildings, a 
junior high school, twelve elementary schools and seven kindergartens. 
The total educational investment represented by these schools, togther 
with their sites and equipments, is $1,026,980. 

The board of education is composed of five members prominent in 
civic as well as educational matters: M. E. Dimock, chairman; John 
Andreson, Jr., Dr. H. M. Hays, Mrs. F. B. Hoskyn, and Mrs. C. Fulton 
Jones. On January 1, 1920, there were 3,371 pupils — on January 1, 
1921, 4,413, an increase of 1,041. 

The Polytechnic High School with an enrollment of 891 students, is 
under the supervision of K. L. Stockton and Vice Principals R. M. 
Westover and Emma J. Kast. Mr. Westover also is the principal of the 
evening high school, which has an average nightly attendance of ninety- 
six students. Mr. L. L. Beeman. who was head of the history depart- 
ment for the year commencing 1908, in the fall of 1909 became principal 
of the high school, continuing until the close of the school year of 1920. 

The city school system, from a financial standpoint, is a splendid asset 
to San Bernardino. The system employs 205 people, teachers, clerical 
force, janitors, etc., with a combined monthly payroll of approximately 
$25,965, during the school vear. Mr. C. V. Kelty is business agent and 
secretary of the board, with office in the Junior High School Building, 
corner of Eighth and E streets. The Polytechnic High School group of 


buildings cost in the neighborhood of $250,000, but the present valuation 
is $450,000. 

The San Bernardino Union High School District comprises the follow- 
ing districts: San Bernardino, Arrowhead, City Creek. Clear Springs, 
Del Rosa, Highland, Keenbrook, Lytle, i\Iill, Summit, Warm Springs, 
Rialto, Cajon, with a total district valuation of $13,302,590. 

On October 1, 1921, Dr. B. R. Crandall resigned as superintendent to 
become associate professor of education and State supervisor of agricul- 
ture in the University of California. Mr. Percy R. Davis of National 
City was selected to assume the position of superintendent of the city 
schools and took charge October 1, 1921. IMr. Davis has under his juris- 
diction the combined schools of the city with a total enrollment of 5,574. 

Oh June 14, 1910, while in the midst of the farewell address to the 
senior class of the high school. Prof. David Brainard Sturges, vice prin- 
cipal of the institution, and for over thirty-three years prominent in the 
educational life of the city, was stricken with death. He was voicing the 
school's farewell to the young men and women, when he tottered and fell 

Polytechnic High .School, S.\n Bernardino 

backward into the arms of Principal L. L. Beeman. Superintendent 
Conrad, of the city schools, said of him : "The grand old man, the father 
of the educational system of the city." From the students came the follow- 
ing tribute : "To few educators has been given to command the reverence, 
loyalty, and deep-seated afl'ection entertained by all students privileged to 
come under his watch-care. For more than a decade the passing classes 
have regarded him as their particular heritage: his life a benediction: his 
class-work an inspiration ; his influence an uplift : the light from his kindly 
eye an incentive to better endeavor, and his going out and coming in, a 
mute invitation to follow in his steps. In the years to come that benign 
life will manifest itself in the life of every student who counted him as 

San Bernardino Public Library. The only provision for literary 
culture at San Bernardino prior to the organization of the Library Associ- 
ation in 1881, was a Young Men's Literary Society, which held regular 
meetings, debates and exercises. Among the speakers of this society were 
H. Goodcell, Jr., JohnBrown, Jr., William J. Curtis and numerous others. 


In 1881 was formed the San Bernardino Library Association, with five 
directors, of whom John Isaacs was president, Henry Goodcell, Jr., secre- 
tary and Hbrarian, and Lewis Jacobs, treasurer. Each member paid an 
admission fee of $3 and quarterly dues of 50 cents, entithng them to the 
free use of the Hbrary, while outsiders could secure books by making a 
deposit and paying a small fee. The membership soon approached 100, 
and 500 volumes, mostly standard works were secured. After three or 
four years interest in the library seems to have waned, and in 1885 the 
books were placed in the reading room of the Y. M. C. A., where they 
remained for several years, and when the Y. M. C. A. ceased to exist 
at San Bernardino, they were turned over to John Isaacs, who kept them 
in trust until they were turned over to the Public Library. 

A movement to secure a circulating library was started in 1891, the 
leading spirts being C. C. Haskell, F. W. Richardson, J. W. Stephenson 
and others, and a paper was circulated soliciting subscriptions. It was 
stipulated that the subscriptions should not take efifect until $1,500 had 
been subscribed, and when it was found that only $1,200 could bo secured, 
it was suggested that a Free Public Library be organized under the State 
law authorizing cities to levy a tax for this purpose. A petition signed 
by many of the heaviest taxpayers of the city caused the city trustees to 
take action, and in January, 1892, a free city library was opened, with 
Miss Ella Lawson as librarian. The library was established in the resi- 
dence of I. R. Brunn, on Fourth Street, and the first library board was 
a])pointed November 3. 1891. consisting of J. W. Stephenson, chairman. 
C. C. Haskell, Mrs. Henry Goodcell, H. L. Drew and John Andreson. 
During 1901 it was suggested that application be made to Andrew Car- 
negie for assistance in building a suitable library, and after corre- 
spondence between Mr. Carnegie and Judge Gregg and others, the city 
trustees, in January, 1902, made formal application for the funds. Mr. 
Carnegie accepted the application, and in July of that year a certified 
check for $20,000 was placed to the credit of the board of library trustees. 
The new building was completed and thrown open to the public August 
10, 1904. It is located at the corner of D and Fourth streets, and is a 
one-story building with basement, containing general reading room, 
librarian's room, children's reading room, workroom and directors' room, 
with a museum in the basement. 

Even though the library building was large and commodious, it became 
evident as the years passed, that it was too small for the growing needs 
of the community, and in 1920 bonds to the amount of $10,0C)0 were 
voted to build an addition; this amount with that of a second contribu- 
tion from Mr. Carnegie — this time of $7,500, the trustees used to erect 
a splendid addition to the already handsome strvicture. This addition 
was completed and opened to the public on November 1. 1921. 

The trustees are: Celia M. Hilke, president: Joseph E. Rich, secre- 
tary : A. S. Maloney, Marion L. Goodcell and Oscar A. Peterson. Miss 
Caroline S. Waters held the position of librarian to February 1, 1914, 
going from the City Library to install a County Library. On February 
1, 1914, IMiss Estelle Hadden, who had served as assistant for twelve 
years, was elected librarian. On February 15, 1916, Miss Hadden 
resigned, and Miss May Coddington was appointed librarian, and Miss 
Leah Waters, first assistant. There are on the shelves 21,600 books and 
the librarv hours are from 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. The circulation from 
July 1, 1920. to Tulv 1, 1921. was 113.771; with a card circulation of 

Record book of library patrons when the San Bernardino library was 
first founded was tmearthed by Dwight Towne lately, as he was 



soarcliing among a lot of old books and papers in Towne-Allison Store 
No. 1. On the firsr page of the ruled memorandum book there is a note to 
the effect that it is to be reported to the Board of Education that the 
library was founded December of 1883, that it is a free library, San Ber- 
nardino and the Y. M. C. A. library, and that it contains 500 volumes. 
Glancing through the pages, however, one sees that there are a number 
of books taken out in January of 1882, book No. 1 being drawn by 
H. Goodcell, Sr. At the top of each page is written the name of the 
patron, and underneath space for name of book drawn, when drawn 
and when returned. It seems that when anyone wanted to take a book 
out of the library in those days he paid down a deposit of $1.25 or $2, 
as the case might be, on the book and then a fee of 10 cents, probably 
what the librarian retained when the initial amount was returned. Date 
at the end of the book is some month of 1885. 

Names prominent in San Bernardino thirty-six and more years ago 
were noticed throughout the book, many of which are still well known 

Carnegie Public Libr.^^rv, San Bernardino 

citizens. Among them are : H. Goodcell, Sr., H. Goodcell, Jr., M. Katz, 
D. B. Sturges, John Brown, Jr., Mrs. H Goodcell, Sr., Mary H. Bennett, 
J. D. Bethune, J. Parazette, R. F. Garner, M. E. Coy, L. I. Cov. 
H. C. Rolfe, N. G. Gill, John Ward, R. E. Trask, Jennie Peacock, John 
M. Foy, John C. King, A. D. Boren, R. E. Bledsoe, H. K. Davidson, 
Miss C. Magoffin, John Isaac, Mrs. Ashbaugh, W. J. Curtis, Clarence M. 
Mylrea, John Anderson, Ida M. Bennette, Will A. Harris, Anna Boley, 
John Feudge, Lewis Jacobs. James A. Gibson, W. G. Wright, J. D. 
Boyer, M. M. Flory, John I. Connor, Elmer Rowell, E. M. Hadden. 
Other names which are partly erased or stricken out are Ed Daley, Jr., 
A. C. Champion, Guthrie, Grow, Rousseau, Dr. Wozencraft. The book 
has been turned over to the public library for preservation. 

The Press. The San Bernardino Herald, which made its appearance 
June 16, 1860, was the first paper ever published in San Bernardino 
County. It was managed by J. Judson Ames, a veteran newspaper man, 
who was succeeded in January, 1861, by J. S. Waite. E. A. Sherman 
rechristened it the Patriot, but in 1862 it went out of existence, and San 
Bernardino presumably had no newspaper until February 16, 1867, when 


there appeared the first issue of the Guardian, published by H. Hamilton. 
In 1868 F. J. C. Margetson and Sidney P. Waite managed this paper, 
and in 1869 E. A. Nisbet became a part owner, other later partners being 

E. G. Harper and Joseph Brown. In October, 1874, the paper was sold 
to Arthur Kearney, who made of it the first daily in the city, January 1, 
1875. The hard times of 1876 proved too much for its resources and it 
passed out of existence. Mr. Kearney later became editor of the San 
Bernardino Courier, which had its initial issue October 10, 1886, and of 
which J. H. Lightfoot became editor in 1892. 

The Gazette, an evening paper, made its appearance in 1887, with 
Messrs. Nash, Buck and Jones as proprietors. The Free Press was 
launched as a weekly, January 1, 1896, Henry Clay Warner being owner 
and editor, and the following year was made a daily evening paper, being 
a five-column folio. 

Succeeding the Courier came the Daily Sun, September 1, 1894, A. W. 
Selkirk and N. J. Levison being its promoters. Mr. Selkirk disposed of 
his interest in April, 1896, and August 1 of that year R. C. Harbison and 
R. E. Newton assumed responsibility. Mr. Harbison became sole owner 
in 1897, and in 1898 installed a linotype, to which he added another in 
1902. In 1900 a new brick structure had been erected for the Sun, and 
in 1903, when it was elected a member of the Associated Press it was 
found necessary to enlarge the building. From time to time Mr. Har- 
bison increased the equipment, making this one of the most complete 
printing plants in the county. 

In 1873, with Will D. Gould as publisher, there appeared the Argus, 
which had a brief career, and in the fall of 1878 W. R. Porter and F. F. 
Hopkins purchased the equipment of the defunct paper and began the 
publication of the San Bernardino Valley Index, an interest in which 
was sold in 1880 to Warren Wilson, later proprietor of the Los Angeles 
Journal. Mr. Wilson became sole owner in 1881 and changed the publi- 
cation to a daily. In 1888 E. W. Holmes became editor of the Index 
and in 1889 it was merged with the San Bernardino Times and became 
the Times-Index. 

In March, 1874, John Isaacs brought a press from Salt Lake and, with 

F. T. Perris, began the publication of a small sheet known as the Adver- 
tiser, supported entirely by its advertising patronage. On September 1, 
1875., this was changed to the San Bernardino Times, with Mr. Isaacs as 
editor and proprietor, it being a daily and weekly publication. In 1886 
it was leased to J. A. Studebacker, and in 1887 George F. Weeks was in 
the editorial chair, he being succeeded in 1888 by L. M. Holt, under whose 
editorship it was merged with the Index, as the Times-Index, which is 
today the oldest paper in the county. Mr. Holt was succeeded by C. C. 
Haskell, who was followed by Col. W. L. Vestal and J. A. Whitmore. 
In 1900 C. E. Dunscomb became the owner. 

On May 6, 1898, appeared the first issue of the Evening Transcript. 
edited by H. B. Martin, and owned by Mr. Martin and his sons. In 1902 
the Transcript was sold to Franklin Holbrook, who incorporated the 
Transcript Company with a capital of $25,000. On January 1, 1903, the 
Transcript Company bought out C. E. Dunscomb, who owned the Times- 
Index, and the enterprises were merged under the name of the older 
paper. On April 11, 1904, the Holbrook interests were purchased by 
L. S. Scott. 

San Bernardino Churches. The churches of San Bernardino 
number about twenty, all own valuable properties and have strong follow- 
ing.s — prosperous in all ways. They stand breast-forward with buildings 


and equipments for the task of the time, and are in present day evolution 
in their service rendered to the community — each church a center of 
Christian friendhness with no denominational barriers. The Catholic 
Church property comprises the three acres of the block, of which Pioneer 
Park is the other five acres. It is a very valuable holding, and when the 
buildings are completed, which for the past year or more the plans have 
been in the making and money contributed, the property will approximate 
more than half a million dollars. 

About as far back as anyone can remember. Father Stockman was 
resident priest, who was followed by Father John (Juan) Caballeria. 
Father Caballeria wrote a history of San Bernardino Valley from 1810 
to 1851. This history is recognized authority on everything pertaining to 
the early life of the valley, and even of the Southland. Father Cabelleria 
in his preface, says: "History may be compared to a skein of tangled 
threads, gathered here and there. After a time, often years, these strands 
are taken up, sraightened and woven into a fabric that may satisfy the 
weaver — for the story is not of his day. So, as the present weaves the 
story of the past, it prepares the web of its own story, for the future to 
weave. The shears of Atropos never rusts." Father Caballeria was 
transferred to Los Angeles, and Rev. Father Brady took charge of the 
parish, and it was during his pastorate that the new church was built, 
the cornerstone laying being part of the program of the city's centennial 
celebration in 1910, when the late Bishop Conaty officiated, assisted by 
all the priests of the Deanery. 

Father Nicholas Conneally, of Redondo Beach, was appointed by 
Bishop Cantwell to follow Father Brady. Father Conneally is the present 
incumbent, coming in November, 1918, and is assisted by Fathers Patrick 
Curren and Leopoldo Ferrandz. The church is handsome and substantial, 
built to stand for the ages and is of Moorish architecture. The parish 
rectory is of the same durable construction as the church and same in 
general style, and is pronounced the finest parish rectory in Southern 
California ; it is of colonial architecture. When Father Conneally came 
to the church, there were nine or ten buildings on their half block. All 
of these have been, or will be removed with the exception of the church, 
as not in keeping with the property, and in their stead will be f^rected up- 
to-date buildings ; the first, the parish rectory, has been completed. An 
architect of Los Angeles, Albert C. Martin, has been in charge of the 
plans, and will continue in that capacity. 

The Knights of Columbus is a strong organization, as is the Ladies' 
Altar Society. 

The first Catholic church in San Bernardino County was the little 
church of Agua Mansa, built during the '50s. Early in the '60s, a half 
block of land was secured at San Bernardino, upon which was erected 
a small chapel, which was destroyed by fire in 1867. This was replaced 
by another chapel in the same year, and in 1870-71 a new brick church 
was built at a cost of $9,000, which, at the time of its dedication, June 25, 
1871, was one of the finest church buildings in the State. The church has 
been greatly enlarged, has a large membership and is active in all good 
works. It includes a rectory, orphanage and an academy, the latter of 
which was established during the '60s and is under the charge of the 
Sisters of the Immaculate Conception. 

St. Paul's Methodist Church South began to hold services in 1858, 
and was regularly organized in 1863, two years after which it purchased 
a lot, upon which a church building was erected in 1866. This was later 
remodeled and refurnished, and was finally sold to the Christian church, 
when the present church was erected. This most attractive church is 


well situated, having had its home on the same lot for over forty years. 
It has every convenience for up-to-date demands and has a congenial, 
harmonious working force. The minister in charge from October. 1908, 
to October, 1912, was Rev. George H. Clark ; Rev. Clark was followed 
by Rev. W. J. Lee, who remained until October, 1916. The Rev. L. J. 
Milliken became the pastor in October, 1916, and in 1920 Rev. J. W. 
Campbell came, remaining one year. On October 15, 1921, Rev. George 
H Givan came to the church, was received with a hearty welcome, and 
was fast entering into the confidence and esteem of the church family, 
when on December 21, while making preparation for Christmas festivities, 
he suddenly passed on, leaving a gloom and a sadness for the Christ- 
mas season. 

At the annual Methodist conference of 1867, San Bernardino Mission 
Charge was organized, and in the same year a small congregation was 
formed. A presiding pastor was appointed at the first quarterly conference 
thereafter, and in the next year Dr. J. C. Peacock presented the church 
with a lot and a small building which had been erected for the old Fire 
Company, located on the west side of E, between Second and Third 
streets. During 1870 the church was reorganized and in 1876 Doctor 
Peacock and his wife deeded the building and lot to the church. About 
1887, purchase was made of the lot upon which stands the present edifice, 
corner Sixth and E streets, on which was erected a structure costing 
$30,000, at the time the most complete and handsome church building 
in the county. Later a pipe organ was installed and a parsonage was 

Following a disastrous fire, early in 1916, which seriously damaged 
the church building, the church was rebuilt and enlarged, by the addition 
of a commodious and modern Sunday school room. This was at the 
cost of $20,000. The reopening occurred on the fiftieth anniversary of 
the establishing of a Methodist church in the city and was celebrated with 
a jubilee that lasted from November 18 to December 23, 1917. It marked 
a decided forward movement. This was under the pastorate of Rev. 
^^^ C. Geyer. In the great centenary movement, in which Methodism 
gave one hundred and five million dollars to its missionary work, this 
church went beyond its quota of $32,000, and subscribed $37,000. Pro- 
vision was also made at the same time for the payment of $8,000 church 
debt. The membership of the church has advanced during this period 
from 415 to 660. making a net increase of 170 in the past two years. 

The following is a list of pastors of the First Methodist Church of 
San Bernardino : 1867, Tames M. Lerhy ; 1870, A. L. A. Bateman ; 1871, 
George O. Ash; 1872, William Knighten ; 1873. W. S. Corwin ; 1874, 
C. W. Tarr: 1875, J. M. Hawley : 1877. William Nixon; 1878, S. K. 
Rus.sell; 1879, George F. Bovard : 1880, James M. Campbell: 1881, 
George Elwood : 1883, William Nixon; 1885, C. W. Summers; 1886, 
]. A. Wachof ; 1888. George W. White; 1893, C. A. W^estenberg; 1895, 
E. O. McEntire ; 1897. F. V. Fisher ; 1898, Alford Inwood ; 1900. Isaac 
Tewell ; 1902, D. H. Gillen ; 1905, C. M. Crist ; 1913, Eli McClish ; 1913. 
Charles H. Scott; 1915, W. C. Geyer; 1918, John E. Hall; 1919-21. 
Charles B. Dalton. All of these pastors have been factors in the upbuild- 
ing of the citv bv advocating a high standard of citizenship. The church 
|)roperty— all'told— is about $70,000. 

First Union Sunday School in San Bernardino — taught by Mr. 
Ellison Robbins and his wife, Eliza P. Robbins. 

Sunday School — 1858. Ellison Robbins. superintendent ; Eliza P. 
Robbins, assistant superintendent. Class No. 1, Mrs. Robbins, teacher. 


Hanna Huston, Belle Huston, Lucy Dickson, Melinda Wallace, Celia 
Daley, Mary A. Seely, Margaret Wilson, Lucia Huntington, Linnona 
Boren, Ann Keir, Ellen Jackson, Marion Keir, Maryette Parrish, Robert 
Huston, Taney Woodward, John Brown, Jr., Loami Daley, Henry Good- 
cell. Jr., Harry Payne, E. R. Peacock, Will Goodcell, George H. Crafts, 
W. P. Cave, D. R. Payne, William Peacock, William L. Peacock, Leroy 

Class No. 2, Mrs. J. Judson Ames, teacher : Margaret Keir, Deborah 
Woodworth, Mary Keir, Margaret Payne, Carrie Craw, Jane Cadd, Mary 
Curtis, Jennet Woodworth, Henrietta Curtis, Orissa Thorn, Sarah More, 
-Susan Boren, Aurelia Stoddard, Louisa Brown, Annetta Daley, Miranda 
Blackburn, Emma Seely, Annette Ames, Mary Craw. 

Class No. 3, Mrs, R. A. Pearson, teacher: Evaline Stoddard, Mary 
Boren, Adaline Yager, Alice Ann Gregory, Hildah Wight, Susan Thorn, 
Sierra N. Clark, Emma Huston, Elizabeth Parrish. Emma Craw. 

Class No. 4, Mrs. Dickson, teacher: Laura McDonald, Myra Daley, 
Caroline Seely, Sylvia Brown. Teresa Cochrane, Annie Heap, Margaret 
Logsdon, Alice Blackburn, Mary Highmore, Olive Button, Caroline 
Bingham, Annie Henderson, Mary Keller. 

Class No. 5, Elizabeth Folks, teacher: Aurelia Curtis, Mary Brown, 
Laura Johnson, Adaline Yager. Althea Bottoms, Florence Wilson, Emma 
Ames, Frances Woodworth, Emily Blackburn, Isabel Heap, Licetta 
Rlackburn, Hattie Stoddard, Isabel Seely. 

Class No. 6. F. P. Bowland, teacher: James Peacock, Levi Black- 
burn, Wilford Boren, Charley Wixom, Joseph Brown, Augusta Yager. 
Randolph Seely, Roy Parrish, Alvah Downey, T,3muel Logsdon, David 
Wixom, Hyrum Clark, Lafayette Parrish, Phineas Daley, William Moke, 
George Fulgham, Edward Daley. 

Class No. 7, David Seely, teacher : Chauncev Wixom, Edwin Dick- 
son, Nelson Crandall, Edgar Wilson, John Blackburn, Samuel Mathews, 
Montague Whitlock, Henry Wilson, Matthew More, David Miller. 

Class No. 8, W. S. Clark, teacher: Moses Daley, George W. Dick- 
son, Frank Yager, Thomas Blackburn, John Huntington. John More, 
Charles Button, Thomas Harris, Eugene Whitlock. 

Class No. 9, J. W. Wilson, teacher : John Daley, John Stutchberry, 
John McDonald, S. Nickerson, Jesse Buck, B. Clark, Charles Blackburn, 
Edwin G. Baker, Jeffie Daley, William Curtis. 

Class No. 10, Mrs. Wilson, teacher: Thomas Peacock, Frank Well- 
man, Will Clark, James Clark, Lutie Crandall, John Bottoms, Robert 
Bingham, George Clark, George More, Eli Curtis. James Clark, Stephen 
Clark, Daniel Gilbert, Hvman Stone. Alfred Heap, John Stone, Willie 
McDonald, Osso C. Tripp. 

Class No. 11, Mrs. Blackburn, teacher: Perry Blackburn, John 
Mayer, Byron Blackburn, Charles Tripp, Dudley Yager, John .S. Baker, 
Shasta Tripp, Warren Wilson, John Cochrane, Joseph Baker, Henry T. 
Bingham, Robert W. Bingham. 

In 1865 M. H. Crafts induced the Congregational Missionary Society 
to send a minister to San Bernardino, and services were held in the old 
Court House until December, 1866. After several conferences and 
various delays, the First Congregational Church of San Bernardino was 
organized with ten members, February 17, 1867. In 1875 it was decided 
to build a home for the growing church, and M. H. Crafts donated a lot 
on the corner of D and Fifth streets. A plain, substantial building was 
erected and furnished, and was dedicated. ]\Iay 7, 1876, free of debt. In 
1894 the church was enlarged and renovated, and a furnace and large 
organ added. The Sunday school has been a prominent part of the work 


of this church, and the church hkewise maintains a Chinese mission. The 
Ladies' Aid Society was organized in 1871 and has been untiring in its 
good services. 

The old church building so closely identified with the early life of 
the city, with its site at the corner of Fifth and D streets, during the 
pastorate of Rev C. N. Queen (1911-1914) was sold to the FederafGov- 
ernment. A new selection was bought at the corner of Ninth and E 
streets from R. F. Garner, Sr. November 1, 1914, Rev. Henry Bucking- 
ham Nowbray of Cleveland, Ohio, accepted the unanimous call to the 
pastorate. He found a membership of 157 ready to build again and to 
serve the city in a larger way. From the sale there was $5,500, a goodly 
sum to start with. An additional $30,000 was subscribed by the members 
and friends. October 1, 1916, the move was made into the beautiful, 
commodious, durable new plant — a frank adaptation in architecture from 
the Franciscan missions. To magnify the new opportunities as well as 
to celebrate the Tercentenary of the Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth 
Rock, the church set as goals for 1920 — 500 church members, and 400 
Sunday school pupils, a pipe organ. At the close of 1921 both goals have 
been exceeded. Due to the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Harris, a 
Moller pipe organ, with 1,200 pipes and 40 stops was dedicated, October 
12, 1920, to the glory of God in the memory of Pearl Harris Swing. The 
parsonage was not built, principally on account of the church's identifica- 
tion with the great war. Forty young men of the club went into .service 
and every one spent himself or his nerves. The organ has helped by its 
ministry of music, and the organist, J. M. Spalding, often giving 
rehearsals by the vested choir, solo, quartet and chorus, leads the con- 
gregation in high grade music and oratorios. The use of motion pictures 
begun in 1916 has had much to do with evening increase in attendance. 
On Forefather's Day, December 18, 1921, sixty-five new members were 
welcomed to fellowship. The church is the oldest Congregational church 
in Southern California. 

Into the charming San Bernardino Valley came Rev. I. C. Curtis from 
Iowa, crossing the mountains and plains in an ox-wagon with his family — 
a wife and ten children. This was in 1864. They found here a few 
other Baptists, of whom Dr. Benjamin Barton and his wife were earnest 
for the upbuilding of the moral life of the community. A Methodist 
church had already been organized in a little union chapel which the 
community had erected for the center of their religious life. So the 
Baptists had a meeting for organizing their forces, and in the language 
of the records of that day : "According to previous arrangement, the 
church met at the Methodist meeting house at early candle lighting, and 
after preaching by Rev. I. C. Curtis, the church was organized." This 
was on May 10, 1866. Those present were : Rev. I. C. Curtis and 
Lucy M., his wife; Benjamin Barton; William F. Shackleford and Ruth, 
his wife ; Robert Long, Hilda Johnson ; Ezra Kerfoot and Mildred M.. 
his wife, and Sarah C. Kerfoot, their daughter (now Mrs. H. C. Rolph). 

The above persons were constituted a Baptist Church of San Ber- 
nardino — the first church of that denomination in all of the Southland. 
The Rev. I. C. Curtis and wife above referred to were the parents of 
W. J. Curtis of San Bernardino, and grandparents of Judge J. W. Curtis 
of the Superior Court. Holman Curtis and Miss Harriet Curtis, who 
have lived in this city all their lives. On December 15. 1866, the church 
called Rev. I. C. Curtis to become its pastor. It appears in the records: 
"Rev. Curtis was ordained to the ministry in Marion County. Iowa, 
February 22, 1851, in the Nassau schoolhouse." And the years came along 
bringing discouragements and trying times. In 1875 there was a member- 


ship of twenty-eight, and as $2 per Sabbath soon advanced to $15 per 
month rental, so they commenced to look about for a building lot, and 
bought one on Third street, between F and G. In the year 1874 a Baptist 
church had been organized in Los Angeles, with its 11,000 people and 
assessed valuation of $200,000; where lots in the center of the town could 
be purchased for $50, and farms at the city's edge for $5 per acre. About 
this time San Bernardino Church provided through a solociting committee 
the sum of $35 per month for all expenses. In 1881 a building was 
erected on the Third Street lot, again to quote records : "By the unselfish 
giving and toil of all the members." And the church grew and prospered 
greatly. On July 2, 1902, a committee was appointed to correspond 
about buying the lot on the corner of Fourth and G streets. This was 
finally bought for $2,500, turning in on the deal the old lot, thus reducing 
the net cost to $1,800. The work of raising funds to build went on slowly, 
finally the construction, under the superintendency of H. A. Reed, 
resulted in a beautiful building, costing about $18,000, and with the fur- 
nishings brought the total up to $22,000. The cornerstone was laid on 
May 9, 1905, and on October 8, 1905, the church came to the glad hour 
of its dedication. 

On November 9, 1916, came the jubilee celebration — the fiftieth year 
of life of the First Baptist Church of San Bernardino. The budget for 
the year 1920-21, makes interesting reading, by the side of that of 1866: 
Current expenses, $6,500; beneficiences, $6,500; total for all expenses, 
$13,000. Enrollment in Sunday school, 689; membership of church, 572; 
value of all propertv, $44,500. 

List of pastors : Rev. I. C. Curtis, November 10, 1866-April 5, 1868. 
Rev. John C. Freeman, July 17, 1869. Rev. D. G. Loveall, 1872-1875. 
Rev. John Francis, 1875. Rev. T. P. Ludlow. February 14, 1875-August 
2, 1877. Rev. S. S. Fisk, August 31, 1877, supply. Rev. C. C. Bateman, 
May 12, 1878, supply. Rev. Charles Button, October 9, 1880-July 1, 
1882. Rev. John Fulton. October 21, 1882-September 21, 1884. Rev. 
H. I. Parker, October 12, 1884, supply. Rev. Thomas Philhpps, July 12, 
1885-July 31, 1887. Rev. A. J. Frost, September 21, 1887-November 30, 
1898. Rev. S. C. Evans, supply, two months. Rev. Mark B. Shaw, 
March 18, 1899-October, 1909. ' Rev. H. E Wise, October 31, 1909, 
supply. Rev. Arthur Brown, March 1, 1910-March, 1917. Rev. Milton 
Fish, July 1, 1917-December 15, 1921. 

The San Bernardino Association of Spiritualists was originally a 
society known as The Brotherhood of Kindred Manifestations, but in 
1872 the former society changed its name and made transfer of its land 
and hall. The society has kept up regular weekly meetings and owns 
the building known as Liberty Hall, free of incumbrance. 

On November 1, 1874, the Presbyterian Church of San Bernardino 
was organized, being a branch of the Colton Church. Services were held 
in the Baptist church and Knights of Pythias Hall until December 5, 
1882, when the church was reorganized with twelve members. Soon 
afterward the members began to plan for a building of their own which 
was completed and dedicated free of debt in 1885, situated on the corner 
of E and Church streets. 

In 1910 the manse which had stood back of the two great palm trees 
for so many years, was moved up to a lot on the next block, 635 E Street, 
and the old church in which the people had worshiped for thirty years 
was moved to the rear of the lot and a new church built — a structure of 
churchly beauty and convenience, capable of accommodating an audi- 
ence of 700. 


In 1921 the old church which had served as a Sunday school and social 
quarters was wrecked and a most complete and modern Sunday school 
and social building, 70 by 70 feet, was erected. In this new building 
is a large auditorium, banquet and social hall, 60 by 60 feet, five large 
department and several smaller classrooms. A large and perfectly 
appointed kitchen also has been provided. The value of the whole church 
property is around $50,000. In December, 1921, a most beautiful 
memorial window was placed in the church auditorium by Mrs. D. B. 
.Sturges as a memorial to her husband, who for so many years was an 
honored educator in San Bernardino. 

The present membership of the church is 500, Sunday school 350. 
The pastors who have served the church are : Rev. Hiram Hill, who 
closed his pastorate in 1886; Rev. John Morrison, Rev. John Herron, 
Rev. J. M. S. Gardiner, Rev. R. B. Taylor, Rev. D. M. Gaudier, Rev. 
James H. Speer ; Rev. Ava Grant, who began his pastorate, February 
1, 1908. The present (1921) life elders are: N. W. Adams, W. C. Clark, 
T. N. Waddell. Ruling elders are: C. M. Marshall, R. P. Head, G. P. 
Skinner, D. S. Dickson, James Miller, R. P. Hinge, W. T. Wilson, Dr. 
V. M. Pinkley. Present deacons are : C. F. Jones, F. H. Cogswell, 

0. M. Ruckman. McNab Stewart, J. P. Colly. Ushers are: Victor 
Smith. Dr. W. H. Styles, W. S. Boggs. J. C. Smith, Dr. C. D. Strong, 
John M. Oakey, James Shedden, C. B. Winn, Fred Wilson. Superin- 
tendent of Sunday school, H. E. Lufkin. Treasurer of church, James 

In May, 1882, an Associated Mission, including San Bernardino. 
CoUon and Riverside, was organized by the members of the Episcopal 
denomination, and in 1885 San Bernardino became a separate mission, 
being shortly afterward organized into the independent parish of St. 
John's. A church building was erected in 1890, at the corner of Fourth 
and F streets, and after its destruction by fire in 1897, in the following 
year a new building was erected on the same site, being consecrated the 
first Sunday after Trinity, June 4, 1899. 

The fire of 1897 entailed the loss of all of the early records, which 
fact was greatly deplored, as but few of the first members were left, 
had either died or moved away. The font — a gift of the parish children, 
and the altar — a memorial of Dwight Fox, who had served as vestry- 
man — were saved from the old church when it was burned, and these 
were placed in the new church that was built in 1898, and consecrated 
in June, 1899. About this time the purchase was made of the home of 
Mrs. Bertha Rolph — just to the east — and converted into a beautiful 
rectory, pjeasingly furnished. 

The 1921 records show a membership of over 130, a good Sunday 
school, Woman's Guild, and other societies, with property valued at 
about $30,000. There have been numerous supplies in the pulpit, but the 
following is a list of regular rectors : Rev. S. Gregory Lines, Rev. 

1. D. H. Browne, who later was recalled to the church ; Rev. Charles 
Fritchett, Rev. W. J. O. Brien, Rev. Merlin Jones, Rev. E. M. Hill; 
Rev. H. A. Browne, who became chaplain of the Rough Riders and is 
reported as being in the Philippines at the present time ; Rev. P. H. 
Hickman, Rev. Robert Rennison, Rev. Milton Runkle, Rev. G. Taylor 
Grififith, Dr. Walter F. Prince, Dr. David Todd Gillmore, Rev. W. A. 
Cash, Rev. Charles Maiman, present incumbent. 

In June, 1864, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints was organized at San Bernardino. This branch of the church 
distinctly states in its creed that "we believe that the doctrines of plu- 
rality and a community of wives are heresies and are opposed to the law 
of God." In a short time the new society had a large membership and 


a location was purchased on the west side of D Street, between Third 
and Fourth, on which a hall was erected and used as a place of meeting, 
being free to all societies. This lot was sold in 1887 and the following 
year a new structure was erected on a lot on the corner of Fifth and 
G streets. 

The pastors of this denomination of church fellowship are called 
elders. Elder D. Amos Yates is at the head of the church in San Ber- 
nardino, with a strong following. They work under the budget system 
which is recommended by this denomination, and they have found it a 
very satisfactory method in carrying on the business department. The 
superintendent of the Sunday school is Miss Ella Harris ; superintendent 
of religion, Mrs. Fred Clapp. of Redlands ; superintendent of women's 
work, Airs. J. W. Aldridge, with Miss Lois Aldridge, musical director. 
The church has no indebtedness, but a surplus in the treasury and 172 
members enjoy its church membership privileges. In 1915, the pastor at 
that time, George H. Wixon — now in the field doing extension work — 
was elected mayor of the city and served two years. 

The Christian Church of San Bernardino was organized in 1869 
by Rev. Benjamin Sandifer, with about forty charter members. The 
church building, located at the northeast corner of Seventh and E streets, 
was erected in 1903, during the ministry of Rev. J. R. Shie, and was 
dedicated February 28, 1904. It is a frame structure, commodious and 
of pleasing appearance both on the outside and inside, and has a seating 
capacity of about 500. There are social, class and other rooms con- 
venient and well adapted for the work of the various departments, of 
which it has the usual quota of an up-to-date church, and the activities 
are especially thorough and far reaching. The church is so strong 
financially and in membership, that steps have already been taken towards 
building a more commodious church building. A parsonage at 579 
Seventh Street has recently been purchased, and a big celebration marked 
the moving into it by the congregation. 

Some twenty ministers have served since its organization, among 
tbem may be mentioned Rev. A. F. Roadhouse, who greatly revived the 
hfe from 1912 to 1916, followed by Rev. Paul E. Wright, under whose 
ministry in 1917, the church property was cleared of debt, and mortgage 
burned. Elder David Walk, a divine of national reputation among the 
people of this denomination, at one time was its pastor — 1895 to 1896. 
The present minister. Rev. R. M. Dungan, entered upon work in this 
church in January, 1919. During his pastorate the church has made rapid 
and substantial growth. 

The present church membership is about 400, with a large Sunday 
school and ladies' societies. Chairman of the official board is : W. E. 
Brown ; vice chairman, G. W. Painter ; secretary, Frank Reed ; church 
clerk, H. D. Holcomb. Board of trustees : Dr. P. M. Savage, L. D. 
Cleghorn, Frank Ferre ; financial secretary, William Stewart ; church 
treasurer, Mrs. G. W. Simmes. Chairman finance committee, B. H. Shock, 
Superintendent Bible school, W. H. Deardorff; assistant, I. O. Greere. 
Secretary and treasurer, O. R. Fairbrother; cradle roll, Mrs. L. B. 
Breeze ; primary, Mrs. G. P. Love. Aid Society, president, A. C. Keller ; 
vice, Mrs. Frank Ferre ; secretary, Mrs. G. W. Symmes ; treasurer, Mrs. 
J. W. McGinty. Board of deacons: W. J. McGinty, W. H. Shock, 
F. O. Jackson, G. W. Painter, W. L. Deardorff, G. W. Hancock, O. R. 
Fairbrother, R. W. Stockwell, Frank Reed, Joseph Bruckshaw, William 
E. Stewart, J. E. Williams, G. W. Symmes, J. G. Smith, W. I. Rice, 
Elmer Young. Deaconesses : Mesdames W. E. Mecham, W. B. Coombs, 


Virginia Breeze, Mary Cleghorn, Susie Ettlein, Mary W'ortliington, M. E. 

The Christian Science Church was organized December 31, 1893, 
under the name of First Church of Christ, Scientist, San Bernardino, 
California, and was duly incorporated under the State laws of California 
four years later. Prior to this time, those interested in Christian Science 
held Sunday service in private homes, until the increasing number made 
it necessary to rent a public hall. In February, 1904, property on E Street, 
between Seventh and Eighth, of 59 feet frontage was purchased for 
S2,500; in February, 1913, an additional 65 feet at $50 per foot was 
bought. On October 10, 1916, ground was broken for the erection of 
a church edifice. Owing to war conditions at that time many weeks were 
taken in assembling the many designs of art glass comprising the v.'indows. 
Over 200 pieces were required for the smallest window. The cornerstone 
containing the Bible and Christian Science literature, names of church 
members, officers and building committee, was laid at 6 o'clock on the 
morning of May 8, 1917, with brief services attended only by the building 
committee and church officers. The edifice is beautiful and complete in 
every detail, being in style of architecture, English Tudor, which is a 
late adaptation of the English Gothic of the latest phase of the perpendic- 
ular style of towers resembling those of a noted college in Oxford erected 
in the fifteenth century. The main auditorium seats 350, the balcony over 
the foyer seats 100, a Sunday school room 200, and parlor 75, with con- 
necting doors. The exterior of the building is of old gold brick to the 
height of 9 feet, above that, a plaster with waterproof finish and terra- 
cotta trimmings. Interior finish of walls is in delicate pastel shades, and 
old ivory woods. There are cloak and washrooms, also a literature, 
directors', ushers', readers' and organist rooms. 

On the west wall are two tablets of old ivory with inscriptions 
impressed in gold, one from the Psalms, "He sent his word and healed 
them and delivered them from their destruction." The other from Mary 
Baker Eddy : "Christianity is again demonstrating the Life that is 
Truth and the Truth that is Life." The cost of the entire building was 
$25,000. In accordance with the custom of Christian Science organiza- 
tions the number of church membership is not given for publication, pre- 
ferring to be known by their works. The activities of the church in all 
ways, for the past years, up to and including 1921, have greatly increased, 
embracing every department. 

The Jewish people, so closely identified with the business world of 
the city in the early days, and still with large interests in all departments 
of commercial life, realized the dream of the years, in the erection of 
a synagogue in the year of 1921. It is located on E Street, between 
Eighth and Ninth streets, and when the last touches are given, and com- 
pletely furnished, the property value will be close on to $30,000. The 
late Mrs. Louis Anker, whose given name was Henrietta, gave the society 
a lot on Arrowhead avenue, near Fourth Street — probably thirty or more 
years ago — with a church idea in view. This lot was sold, and the 
proceeds put into a fund for a new lot. A woman's organization, termed 
the Henrietta Hebrew Society, has been in existence for about thirty-five 
years, and has been one of the strong factors in benevolent work in the 
city, and its members are recognized as strong forces in many of tht- 
citv's activities 

'The ofificers of the society are: Mrs. Leon Harowitz, president; 
Mrs. David Hearsh, vice president : Mrs. Joseph E. Rich, treasurer. 
Trustees: Mrs. S. Rowicz, Mrs. David Caplin and Mrs. S. Freidman. 
The officers of the church are: Louis Wolf, president; Samuel Robin- 


son, vice president and secretary. Trustees : David Hearsh, Louis 
Caplin, J. S. Spears. 

Fraternal and Social Bodies 

San Bernardino has been reflected in the progress and development 
of its many fraternal organizations, which tend for the betterment and 
uplift of men and women who are part of this great center of activity. 
Probably every kind of organization is represented in the city, some with 
one object, and some with another. A few have built beautiful lodge 
homes in a park setting, others are of splendid business construction, and 
probably the properties all told would extend byond the quarter of a 
million dollars. 

The Masonic Order. On September 12, 1865, an application was 
made to the Grand Lodge of California for a dispensation to form a 
Masonic Lodge at San Bernardino, which was granted October 20, 1865. 
The first regular meeting was held November 2, 1865, in an adobe build- 
ing, since destroyed, which was situated very near the southwest corner 
of Third and D streets. On September 27. 1866, the name "Phoenix" 
was suggested for the new lodge, which was ultimately adopted, and the 
officers of Phoenix Lodge No. 178, F. & A. M., were duly installed 
October 25 of that year, when the lodge was legally constituted. In Feb- 
ruary, 1868, the lodge was presented with the three, five and seven steps, 
and in the same year, on St. John's Day, the brethren" met at the home 
of John Brown, Sr. for a picnic, at which the worshipful master deliv- 
ered an excellent address on Masonry, which was afterward published. 
A ball in the evening at J. W. Waters' hall concluded the ceremonies of 
the day. At this time it was decided by the brethren that they remove 
to more suitable quarters, and they accordingly rented the upper story 
in the Van Tassel Building, at the corner of Utah and Fourth streets, 
later the site of the Swing block, at the northwest corner of Fourth and 
D streets. The matter of building a new hall was agitated during 1869, 
and September 3, 1870, a committee was appointed to receive subscrip- 
tions for such an enterprise. From that time forward work in this direc- 
tion was pushed rapidly, and the Grand Lodge was called upon to lay 
the cornerstone of the new building. The Masonic Hall being completed, 
it was duly dedicated by the Grand Lodge, and this building was used 
until June, 1904, when Phoenix Lodge dedicated a new Masonic temple, 
which contains a lodge room, a chapel for the Knights Templar, ban- 
quet room, parlors and every possible convenience. The building is a 
beautiful one architecturally and is a credit to the order and the city. 

Independent Order Odd Fellows. San Bernardino Lodge No. 146, 
I. O. O. F., was instituted in San Bernardino July 29, 1868, by H. War- 
tenberg, district grand master, in the fiftieth year of the introduction of 
the Order of Odd Fellows into the United States of America. There 
were eleven charter members, to wit: John M. Foy, A. WolfY, Asa Todd, 
Jacob Rich, H. A. Cable. Louis Rosenbach C. F. Roe. M. WolfiF J. M.. 
Fears, A. L. Perdue, Louis Jacobs, Chas. F. Roe. The four highest 
officers were: John M. Fay, Noble Grand; A. WolfT, Vice Grand; 
Charles F. Roe, Recording Secretary, and A. L. Perdue, Treasurer. 

Token Lodge No. 290 was instituted in San Bernardino March 27, 
1880, by Oscar Newberg, Past Grand, in the sixty-first year of the intro- 
duction of the order in America, with twenty-three members, to wit: 
Joseph Craig, P. G. ; C. E. Latham. P. G. ; A. M. Kenneston, P. G. ; 
M. M. Flory, P. G ; L Van Doran, P. G. ; J. W. Spring, P. G. ; William 


Giffin, P. G. ; Henry Brinkmeyer, W. L. Lapraiz, John Andreson, Sr.. 
Charles Tyler, J. W. Moy, Truman Reeves, Laton Tipton, Paul Sanser 
vain, Wm. Hawley, William Banford, A. C. Golsli, G. Palmtafi. F, M. 
Johnson, E. P. Norwood, J. C. Wees, and John P. Highi. 

On May 25, 1911, both lodges, having unanimously voted so to du. 
the two lodges were consolidated, so that neither one should lose its 
identity. By unanimous consent the lodge was called San Bernardino 
Lodge No. 290, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of the State of 
California. Nearly $1,000,000 have been paid out since the institution 
of the first lodge until the present time in the care of its own members. 
One of the most highly esteemed fellow citizens and at present district 
attorney of San Bernardino County, Thomas Duckworth, was elected 
to and ably filled the office of Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., of the State of California, in 1910-1911, and at the conclu- 
sion of his term of oftice was sent as a Grand Representative to the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge, the highest tribunal of American Odd Fellow- 
ship, with its lodges located in almost every part of the civilized world. 

In 1909 the Odd Fellows Temple was erected, a commodious, sub- 
stantial building, finely furnished, and thoroughly equipped for lodge 
purposes. The building is valued at about $75,000. The present ofiicers 
(1921) are: N. C. B. Smith, Past Grand; Marion B. Gist. Noble Grand; 
Thomas W. Duckworth, Recording Secretary ; Thomas Hadden, Fian- 
cial Secretary; Wm. W. Holcomb, Treasurer. 

The Native Sons of the Golden West. The Order of the Native 
Sons of the Golden West owes its origin and progress to pride of nativ- 
ity and love of the place of birth. Its origin was patriotic and its object 
benevolent, and its purpose is to perpetuate the memories of the davs 
of " '49," to preserve the landmarks which gained significance through 
the advent of the Argonauts and to unite all native Californians in one 
harmonious body. The principles of Friendship, Loyalty and Charity 
are enlarged upon, with the endeavor to instill into the minds of the 
members the duty they owe to one another and to all worthy mankind. 
The order has had a remarkable growth and prosperity. Arrowhead 
Parlor No. 110 was organized at San Bernardino July 20, 1887, with 
the following roster: L W. Aldridge, T. M. Towne, G. L. Brvant, 
Dwight M. Fox, D. D.Rich, W. A. Nash, F. L. Holcomb, T- H. Tittle, 
F. S. Adams, E. B. Tyler, Alex S. Kier, J. E. Rich, .\. M. Starke. 
E. E. Meyerstein, B. B. Rich, H. A Keller, C." D. Dickev, R. L. Mathews,, 
H. L. Nash, Chas. A. Burcham, Will A. Johnson, Joe Folks, W. N. 
Crandall, E. E. Katz, A. A. Burcham, Ben Armer. J. W. Stevenson, 
H. M. Barton, J. D. McDonald, G. L. Adams, Byron Van Leuvan, Ben 
Livingston, Perry Tompkins, I. H. Curtis, G. L. Blake. The parlor at 
the close of 1921 has 510 members. On December 14, 1921, there was 
initiated into the order Lorenzo Snow Lyman, born in San Bernardino 
early in 1851, the first white male child in the county. The lodge is 
always alert to every call that means advancement and growth of the 
community and contributes generously to all promotion causes. The 
members constructed a memorial table at Camp Cajon and also assisted 
in the dedication of the Pioneer monument near Camp Cajon. A com- 
mittee has now been appointed to erect a monument at the head of 
"Mormon Trail," tabulated with a bronze plate, containing the names 
of the early builders and the fact, that the road was the first one used to 
haul lumber oft' the mountains into the valley in 1853. 

The name of the parlor was taken from the famous Arrowhead on 
the south slope of San Bernardino Mountains. The officers for 1921 


are: Charles E. McEIvaine, past president; Dwight L. Bryant, presi- 
dent ; Louis M. Coy, first vice president ; J. Loyal Huff, second vice 
president; J. W. Jasper, third vice president; R. W. Brazleton, recording 
secretary; M. G. Hale, financial secretary; John Andreson, Jr., treasurer; 
A. E. Hancock, marshal ; Ralph H. Logsdon, 

The charter members of the new parlor of Native Daughters, organ- 
ized in 1906, are as follows: Mesdames, F. M. Towne, W. S. Carson, 
Lena Carter, Ethel Dunham, Sherman Batchelor, John Mclnerny, F. I). 
Keller, W. G. Clute, W. G. Ross. A. W. Lunceford, Joseph Israel, Wal- 
ter Kohl, F. J. Esler. W. C. Seccombe. E. Whaley, Addie Burgess, 
Ethel Hancock, J. P. Majors, Dr. A. M. Bennett, and the Misses Celene 
Reitz, Tillie Wolf, Gertrude Gould, Marie Thompson. Margarette Wha- 
ley, Helen Porter, Lillian Webster, Hilda Bennett. Jeannette Davidson. 
Clara Keller, Rachel Keller, Ina Rolph. Elizabeth Hooper, Leah Wall. 
Jessie Thompson, Hazel Vale, Estelle Hadden, Ida Kier. Lottie Frith, 
Nell Sullivan, Anna Fine, Ida Easton, Emma Easton, Florence Easton, 
Emma Morgan, Nell Boyd, Edna Sayre, and Etta Van Luvan. About 
1915, for various reasons, the members gave up their charter and dis- 

Knights of Pythias. Valley Lodge No. 27, Knights of Pythias, 
was organized at San Bernardino, September 24, 1874, with a charter 
membership of twenty-six. For several years it had a struggle to hold 
its charter and in 1876 the hall was destroyed by fire with all the prop- 
erty belonging to the order. Later it was reorganized and has since had 
a steady growth both in prosperity and membership. Since its organ- 
ization it has expended over $40,000 for sick benefits and charity. It 
has a membership of 370, and its assets are valued at $25,000. Valley 
Lodge is planning the erection of a modern Pythian Home on the north- 
east comer of Sixth and F streets. Two of its members. Walter D. 
Wagner and Benjamin F. Bledsoe, have been Grand Chancellor and 
Supreme Representative. The session of the Grand Lodge of the State 
for the year 1916 was held in San Bernardino. The Ladies' Order of 
Pythian Sisters, an auxiliary body, organized in 1897, has a large and 
flourishing membership who attend to the social features. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. On February 26, 
1903, San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. Elks, was organized with 
104 members, and subsequently met in Masonic Temple and in various 
rooms until 1904. when lodge rooms were fitted up in the new Home 
Telephone Building. Bv that vear the lodge had grown to a member- 
ship of 185. 

The Arrowhead Club. The Arrowhead Club, a social organization 
composed of business and professional men of San Bernardino, was 
founded in 1892, when a suite of rooms were fitted up in the Postofifice 
block. Col. W. L. Vestal was chosen president, and S. S. Draper was 
the first secretary. The club was fitted with appurtenances for such 
games as pocket and carom billiards, bowling, chess, checkers, cribbage 
and card games, and it was a strict rule of the organization that no 
gambling or liquor be allowed within its portals. The club has been 
abandoned, other social clubs taking its place. 

San Bernardino Woman's Club. The San Bernardino Woman's 
Club was organized about 1892, with some ten or twelve members, Mrs. 
James Fleming being president, and Mrs. S. S. Draper secretary. It 


has always been conservative, devoting itself chiefly to study and read- 
ing, and has done effective work along various lines. It is affiliated with 
the National and State associations and takes an active and wholesome 
interest in all matters pertaining to club life. In 1921 the assessed val- 
uation of the woman's club house, a beautiful building facing Pioneer 
Park, on the north side of Sixth Street, is about $10,000 and is conve- 
niently arranged and well furnished. The officers for 1921 are: Mrs. 
R. B. Peters, president; Mrs. R. F. Garner, first vice president; Mrs. 
R. C. Harbin, second vice president ; Mrs. Lloyd Martin, recording sec- 
retary ; Mrs. A. Katz, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Harry S. Webster, 
treasurer; Mrs. Wilmot T. Smith, auditor; Mrs. O. D. Bussell, sen- 
tinel; Mrs. S. S. Draper, historian. Past presidents: 1899, Mrs. R. F. 
Garner; 1900, Mrs. James Fleming; 1901, Mrs. S. S. Draper; 1902, 
Mrs. \V. H. Stvles; 1903, Miss Mary E. Barton; 1904, Mrs. Fannie P. 
McGehee; 1906, Miss Harriet M. Curtis; 1907, Mrs. E. D. Roberts; 
1908, Mrs. R. P. Rice; 1909, Miss Georgiana V. Kendall; 1911, Mrs. 
J. W. Bishop; 1912, Mrs. H. C. Devening; 1914, Mrs. Clarence H. John- 
son; 1915, Mrs. Brooks W. MacCracken; 1916, Mrs. Henry Goodcell; 
1916, Miss Pauline Styles; 1920, Mrs. George F. Tilton. 

May 9, 1905, the Woman's Parliament convened in the M. E. Church. 
Mrs. Jefferson Gibbs of Los Angeles presiding. This was the second 
time the parliament had met in this city, the first time being April 17 
and 18, 1894, when Mrs. D. G. Stephens of Los Angeles was president 
and Mrs. R. V. Hadden, secretary, for San Bernardino County. Other 
ladies who served at that time were : Mesdames Smith Haile, W. L. G. 
Soule, R. F. Garner, H. L. Drew, L. P. Bidgood, E. R. Zombro, 
M. Byrne, D. A. Moulton, Kendall Hoh, F. M. Johnson, J. W. Curtis, 
M. B. Goodcell, E. C. Perkins, S. B. Colvin, D. A. Grovenor, C. D. 
Dickey, F. S. Vestal, and the Misses Minnie Riley. Marie Parker, Mae 
Lewis and Florence Gibson. Those on the platform with Mrs. Gibbs 
in 1905 were Mrs. F. P. McGehee, M. B. Goodcell, E. A. Brooks, county 
officers, and Mrs. R. V. Hadden, past president of the parliament, who 
presided at two sessions in 1899, one held in the Universalist Church, 
Pasadena, the other in Unity Church, corner of Third and Hill streets, 
Los Angeles. 

The Woman's Parliament was the forerunner of the Federation of 
Woman's Clubs, in the time when but few clubs were organized in the 
State. The State Federation of Clubs was organized on January 16, 17, 
18, 1900, in Los Angeles, with Mrs. Robert J. Burdette, first president, 
Mrs. R. V. Hadden of San Bernardino Club, being one of the organ- 
izers, on the Credential Committee. The Federated Clubs have become 
a power for good. 

During the '80s the members of the medical profession in San Ber- 
nardino Countv formed a society which for a time was an active force, 
with Drs. W."R. Fox, J. C. Peacock, C. D. Dickey and F. M. Price 
among its interested members. The society in time died out, but in 
1902, the physicians, feeling the need of a representative body, organized 
the San Bernardino County Medical Society, which came into existence 
January 17 of that year. At the same time the body became affiliated 
with the California State Medical Society, and membership in the body 
makes a member eligible for membership in the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. The society has a large membership at the present time (1921) 
and hold enthusiastic monthly meetings. The president is Dr. L. M. Coy 
of San Bernardino. 


County Hospital. The first attempt at a county hospital or caring 
for the sick or infirm was in the late 70s and early '80s, when Doctor 
Peacock and his wife boarded those needing help, at his home, on the 
corner of D and First streets. About 1885 the county erected a very 
much up-to-date — for those days — hospital on Third Street west of 
Mt. Vernon. The grounds were not only made beautiful, but productive. 
The county supervisors sold this property to the Santa Fe and bought 
a large farm on the east of the city and built a modern hospital with 
every convenience and comfort. A detention home was added in the 
fall of 1921 and plans are well under way for an old ladies' home on 
the farm. The grounds are attractive and also produce much that is 
needed for the inmates. 

The Young Men's Christi.\n Assoctation. The first movement 
in Young Men's Christian Association work in San Bernardino was in 
the year 1885 when a local organization was effected. The meetings 
were held in the Garner Hall, Garner Block, between Court and Fourth, 
on the west side of D Street. There was a woman's auxiliary branch 
and there were meetings held every Sunday afternoon. It was the social 
gathering place and enjoyable times were had rendering varied programs, 
of which singing was a prominent feature. Thomas Phillips, pastor of 
the Baptist Church at that time, was one of the secretaries who looked 
after the work. 

After this work was suspended there was no further movement until 
the year 1911, when the question of a permanent organization with a 
suitable building was agitated, W. A. Manson and others leading in 
bringing the matter before the people of the city. A campaign for funds 
was put under the direction of State Field Secretary J E. Sprunger, 
which resulted in the raising, by pledges and gifts, of $90,000. Many 
generous gifts were made by the business men and citizens of the city 
and the achievement was made possible by the special gifts of Mr. and 
Mrs. J. W. Barton of their home place, in memory of their son Paul 
Barton, at the northwest corner of F and Fifth streets as a site for the 
building, a valuable and extensive orange grove bv John Broadfield and 
$10,000 by R. F. Garner. 

The first board of directors, elected July 3. 1911, consisted of sev- 
enteen members, who were as follows: Benjamin F. Bledsoe, J. W. 
Curtis, J. L. Oakey, W. A. Manson, John Broadfield, R. F. Garner, 
J. Harold Barnum, C. M. Grow, T. W. Duckworth, Herman W. Knitter, 
R. S. Gibbs, Joseph Ost, H. E. Harris, Victor C. Smith, Joseph H. Ward, 
W. M. Parker, W. E. Leonard. 

The following officers of the board were elected : Benjamin F. 
Bledsoe, president : J. W. Curtis, vice president ; W. A. Manson, recording 
secretary ; J. L. Oakey, treasurer. 

Judge Frank B. Oster was elected as chairman of the building com- 
mittee and Eton T. Sams was called as building secretary. 

The service of the laying of the cornerstone was held June 29, 1912, 
with Judge Benjamin F. Bledsoe presiding. The address of the occasion 
was by Rev. Matthew S. Hughes, D.D., pastor of the First Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Pasadena. The laying of the stone was by William 
H. Wallace of Long Beach, treasurer of the State committee. 

The first general secretary of the organization was Milton A. Holla- 
baugh, who was called at a meeting of the board of directors, September 
12, 1912. C. L. Dunn was called as the first physical director at the 
regular meeting November 12, 1912. The growth of the institution was 


so rapid that it was necessary at once to employ a boys' work secretary 
and C. A. Wyman was called for this department. 

The followin.g; secretaries and physical directors have since been with 
the work: R. E. Rush, boys' work secretary: L. R. Burdge. general 
secretary; J. P. Colley, physical director; C. D. Eddy, boys' work secre- 
tary; A. H. Beisner, general secretary; A. E. \\'ake, bovs' work secretary. 

One of the forward steps of the' work was the "$10,000 in 10 Days" 
campaign in January. 1919. which was planned to free the institution 
from debt and place it on a business working basis. This campaign was 
enthusiastically supported by the .citizenry of the city and "went over 
the top." 

At this time (1921) the work is successfully and efficiently carried 
on by the following staflf of officers : D. P. Wyman. general secretary ; 
H. W. Eyer. boys' work secretary; F. W. Yake, physical director. 

The building is the community house of the city. Here gather all 
people in common. The churches of all sects and creeds, organizations, 
orders and committees on all social and civic affairs meet and are wel- 
come. The influence of the institution goes out into the homes through 
the physical and moral development of the men and boys of the city and 
the surrounding community and towns. 

The Young Woman's Christian Association. "To accomplish 
anything worth while a vision and a program are necessary. He who 
has only a vision is visionarv. He who has only a program is a drudge. 
He who has both vision and program is a conqueror." 

The Young Woman's Christian Association has both the vision and 
the program. It is a great national and international movement. It 
would be difficult to estimate the influence of the Y. W. C. A. in San 
Bernardino. Hundreds of women and girls are touched daily through 
its activities. 

Two centers are maintained : one in the residence at 494 Arrow- 
head Avenue, where clubs meet, young women are housed, and transients 
entertained. The Y. W. C. A. Hospitality Center at 396 E Street is 
all that the name implies. Here come girls and more girls, little children 
and tired mothers, those who need cheer, and those who need rest, and 
those who need help, and the stranger within the gates — all come to 
the Y. W. C. A. 

The local branch was established in the fall of 1915. Through the 
generous gift of Col. R. M. Baker, the newly formed organization was 
housed in the old Baker home on the southwest corner of Arrowhead 
Avenue and Fifth Street. At the organization meeting held October 
20. 1913, representative women of the city elected a board of directors 
as follows: Mrs. Victor Smith. Mrs. R. F. Garner. Mrs. |. W. Barton. 
Mrs. James Fleming. Miss Mary E. Barton. Mrs. J. W. Curtis and 
Mrs. Fred Doolittle. Later this number was increased through a board 
of managers, namely : Miss Endora Allen. Miss Harriet Curtis, Miss 
Helen Ham. Mrs. Gerald Milliken. Mrs. O. E. Bigelow, Mrs. M. A. 
Holabaugh. Mrs. W. S. Ingram and Mrs. James Miller. The board 
thus constituted elected as officers: President. Miss Harriet Curtis; 
vice president, Mrs. J. W. Barton; secretary. Miss Mary E. Barton; 
corresponding secretary. Mrs. R. F. Garner, and treasurer. Miss Endora 
Allen. A gift from a "friend" of $500 was the nucleus for the fund 
raised to support the movement the first year. Miss Etta Agee was 
called. January 12. 1914. as the first general secretary. Under Miss 
Agee's experienced direction the three-fold activities of the .Association 
for the development of the mind, spirit and body were well started. 


Following in succession as general secretaries were Miss Blanche Camp- 
bell, Miss Inez Crawford, called from here to a foreign field, and Miss 
Lela Gregory. In October, 1917. Mrs. Esther B. Ferguson came as a 
genera! secretary and continues in that position. In the fall of the same 
year Mrs. Fred Doolittle, then president of the board, secured the first 
girls' work secretary. Miss Edith F. Hockin. 

During the war period the Y. W. C. A. carried on and co-operated 
with all agencies doing welfare work. In 1918 the Girl Reserve move- 
ment for girls from twelve to twenty years of age started. This move- 
ment has a large enrollment of grade and high school girls in San Ber- 
nardino, with branches in Highland and Colton. Their motto is. "I 
will face life squarely." The outstanding feature of 1919 was the receipt 
of a gift of $2,800 from the War Work Coimcil, through the national 
board of the Y. W. C. A. This sum was asked for to establish the hos- 
pitality center owing to the city's proximity to March F"ield, with its 

The officers of the association at the close of 1921 are : Mrs. R. F. 
Garner, president ; vice president, Mrs. Wilmot T. Smith ; secretary, 
Mrs. George Simmes ; treasurer. Miss Endora Allen, and Mrs. J. W. 
Barton, treasurer of the hospital center fund. The present stafif is Miss 
Esther B. Ferguson, general secretary: Miss Elizabeth Burgess, asso- 
ciate secretary, and Miss Lena C. Thornton, house secretary. The 
Y. W. C. A. is a community agency. It has kept pace with the city's 
growth in its service for girls, and is well supported by the community. 

Welfare Commission. The first organized charity work in San 
Bernardino was begun in November, 1915, when there was formed an 
associated charities, with S. W. McNabb as president. There was a 
board of twenty-one directors, representing the dififerent churches, organ- 
izations and individuals interested in the welfare of the unfortunate. 
They were as follows : S. W. McNabb, Herman Harris, George H. 
Wixom, J. H. Wilson, Otto F. Heilbom, H. B. Mowbray, Howard 
Surr, F. E. Page, Roy B. Stover, E. P. Smith, T. W. Duckworth, Mark 
B. Shaw, Mrs. G. A. Atwood, Mrs. C. P. Smith, Mrs. O. D. Brizzell, 
Mrs. R. F. Garner, Mrs. J. W. Barton, Mrs. R. Mclnerny, Mrs. L. P. Coy. 
This organization was supported by public subscriptions, most of them 
at $1.00 per month Mrs. Maud S. Bell took the position as field secre- 
tary and continued until 1917, when the Associated Charities work was 
discontinued and Mrs. Bell went with the county. In February, 1917, 
a county relief and employment commission was organized upon a rec- 
ommendation of the Grand Jury and the State Board of Charities and 
Corrections and the county work was placed on a modern basis. The 
first secretary was R. E. Gilbert, who resigned after a brief service. The 
first county commission was composed of seven members from the county 
at large. They were as follows: J. M. Hartley, Upland; Chas. O. Goss, 
Ontario; Stewart Hotschkiss, Redlands ; H. B. Mowbray, San Bernar- 
dina: Mrs. B. A. Van de Carr, Redlands; Mrs. Maud S. Bell, San 
Bernardino. Mr. Hotschkiss soon resigned and Ralph P. Smith was 
appointed in his place. Mrs. J, W. Barton succeeded Mrs. Bell. The 
commission was reorganized in September, 1921, and is as follows: J. J. 
Atwood, Upland ; Isaac Jones, Ontario ; A. S. Maloney. San Bernardino ; 
Mrs. J. J. Sness, Redlands: Mrs. Mary E. Reed, Chino. and Supervisors 
A. G. Kendall and M. P. Cheney. Mrs. Maud S. Bell was made secre- 
tary at the time the commission was reorganized. 

Pioneer Park. As a result of an appeal of a delegation of pioneers 
composed of George Miller, John Brown, Jr., R. E. Bledsoe and Thomas 


McFarlane, the City Council on July Z, 1915, officially established the 
name of the city park as Pioneer Park instead of Lugo Park. 

The pioneer delegation went back into early history to show why the 
park name should be changed. They told how the pioneers purchased 
the ranch from the Lugo family for $77,500 and then set aside the pres- 
ent park for public use. The council adopted a resolution deciding its 
name should be Pioneer Park. 

The park was, in early days, called the "Public Square." then "City 
Park," and those desiring to keep some of the famous Spanish names 
called it Lugo Park for the Lugo family, first owners. 

The log cabin in Pioneer Park was originally erected, more as a 
curiosity, for the Festival of the Arrowhead, held in the city on May 
19, 20, 21, 1908, and in 1910 during the centennial celebration as a 
museum and headquarters for the pioneers, on Fourth Street just west 
of the city library. 

A petition was presented to the City Council by the Pioneer Society 
asking permission to move the cabin to Pioneer Park. Said petition was 
granted, and on Nov. 25, 1911, a place was selected in the southwest 
corner of the park and cornerstone set, with much ceremony. February 
10, 1912, the cabin was dedicated. It has been enlarged twice since that 
time and to the present time is the meeting place for the Pioneer Society. 
This is the fifth log cabin erected by the pioneers in San Bernardino, 
the first two on Court Street, the next one on Fourth Street, and the 
next two in Pioneer Park adjoining one another, all built by the pio- 
neers themselves, even if far advanced in years, who took si^ecial delight 
in this work, reminding them of their early struggles in frontier life. 
Pioneer William Knapp invited them to come to his ranch on the moun- 
tains and cut down from his ranch all the pine trees they wanted for 
their log cabin and for the clapboards for the roof, which they did, and 
brought the logs and boards to San Bernardino and were happy in erect- 
ing their rude structure that brought to them so many fond recollections. 
Uncle Sheldon Stoddard, Sydney P. Waite, Taney Woodward. George 
Miller. John Brown. Jr., George I. Burton. William F. Holcomb, Jasper 
N. Corbett, Bart Smithston, Richard Weir and M. B. Shaw were among 
those engaged in the enthusiastic labor of love. 

Municipal Memorial Hall. On Monday, April 11, 1921, an elec- 
tion was held in the city, and among the several questions to be voted 
upon, was the proposition of issuing bonds to the amount of $200,000, 
for the purpose of erecting, in Pioneer Park, a Municipal Memorial Hall. 
It carried by a large margin. 

One of the first acts of the new mavor, S. W. ^IcNabb. who was 
elected at that time, was the appointing of a committee, to carrv forward 
all arrangements of the new building, to serve until its completion, and 
had an official title of "Advisory Committee on Municipal Hall," the 
members of which are : 

At large — John A. Henderson, chairman. 

At large — John A. Hadaller. 

Chamber of Commerce — R. B. Goodcell. 

P. T. A.— Mrs. Charles Erthal. 

Central Labor Council — Frank McLain. 

Rotary Club— R. D. McCook. 

American Legion — Col. Byron .Mien. Mark B. Shaw. 

Woman's Club — Mrs. George Tilton. 

Ministerial Association — Rev. A. G. Fessenden. 


Pioneer Society — John Brown, Jr. 

Merchant's Protect. .'Kss'n. — Fred Ames. 

Better City Club — Leon Atwood. 

Press — R. C. Harbison, A. J. Brown and J. K. Tibbetts. 

Old Pavilion. The pavilion was completely burned on the night of 
September 19, 1913, and presented one of the most spectacular fires ever 
seen in the city. Tongues of flames reared 100 feet into the air, casting 
a noonday light over the city and radiated a heat that could be felt for 

The pavilion was built in 1890 and dedicated on January 1, 1891, 
at a cost of $12,000. The money was the residue of the $160,000 voted 
for a water system. Not all the money was used for that purpose, so 
the trustees voted $10,000 for the pavilion, subsequently increased it 
to $12,000. For twenty-two years it had been the city's gathering place 
on great occasions. During stirring political campaigns, demonstrations 
were held there, audiences estimated at 3,500 to 4.000 had filled every 
corner of the famous old building. 

In the old days it was the scene of many social affairs of importance, 
balls, parties, fairs and other great gatherings. On May 14, 1904, the 
reception and banquet to visiting railroad engineers and auxiliary, to the 
number of 1,000, met there. At that time the pavilion was more elab- 
orately decorated than ever before or after. Only during the last summer 
months the question of either razing it and build a new one, or renovate 
and make it more presentable was agitated. There really was so much 
sentiment about the old pavilion on account of its past associations that 
many people felt an old friend had died. Within its four walls scenes 
had been enacted, plans laid and work commenced that had wonderful 
bearings on the progress and growth of the city. 

When the ashes lay deep upon the ground where only a few hours 
before stood an old city landmark the one question that filled everyone's 
mind was "When will there be erected another to take its place?" 

The Centennial. The great centennial celebration of San Ber- 
nardino, held in the city on May 20, 1910 — that really lasted from May 
17 to 21 — was a success in all ways. The central idea "The pageant of 
San Bernardino," was well conceived — a splendid historical tableaux, 
beautiful with those romantic and picturesque scenes which have united 
to make up the history of San Bernardino Valley. Around this central 
picture were grouped a variety of features of interest. 

There are few more interesting studies than those having bearing on 
the progress people have made in the affairs of their community life. 
In this celebration was depicted, in songs, tableaux and parades, the story 
of San Bernardino since the brown-robed padres pronounced its name, 
on one bright May morning 100 years before, to the centennial chain 
of days that had been completed. It was a wonderful panorama cov- 
ering every phase of life — civic, industrial, educational, fraternal and 
religious — taxing the ingenuity of man to bring out in character pictures 
that pulsed with life, intensified by the spirit of the occasion. 

Closest observers frequently are mistaken as to measurement of 
events and their possible bearing on the future life of a community; it 
takes time to correct inadequate estimates and discover their true por- 
tions and vast imports. 

Future generations may appreciate the scope of the first centennial 
celebration of San Bernardino in the character of the subjects assigned 
to tiie many committees, of which only the chairmen are given in the 


following:: Ralph E. Swing was president; Joseph Ingersoll, vice presi- 
dent: S. H. Carson, treasurer; Frank M. Hill, secretary; J. W. Leonard, 
director general. The Woman's Department comprised: Mrs. E. D. 
Roberts, president; Mrs. Thomas Hadden, vice president; Miss Maud 
Cooley, secretary. Committee heads were: George M. Cooley. finance; 
J. E.'Rich, character and scope; S. W. McNabb, exploitation; E. E. 
katz, invitation; J. B. Gill, program; J. J. Hanford. architecture; E. D. 
Roberts, entertainment; I. H. Curtis, posters, badges; A. G. Kendall, 
decoration: 5dward Wall, publicity; W. W. Wilcox, reception; M. C. 
McKinney, attractions; John Anderson. Jr.. princess selection; W. M. 
Parker, balls; Al McRae, sports; John Poppett, parades; C. M. Grow, 
awards; James H. Boyd, tickets; G. M. Stephens, public safety; G. F. 
Feetham, information ; G. R. Owen, music ; W. A. McElvaine, conces- 
sions; John Brown, Jr., pioneers; O. P. Sloat, big chief; R. A. Brydolf, 
railway exhibits; James Waide, floats; N. Davenport, Indian features; 
A. B. Merrihew, transportation; J. H. Kelley, live stock; R. H. Ochs. 
cornerstone; George Seldner, relics exhibit. Santa Fe committee: I. C. 
Hicks, H. S. Wall, U. L. Voris, Chester Seay, E. C. Sisson, O. D. Bussell. 
Ladies' committee: Mrs. H. R. Scott, princess selection; Mrs. R. C. Har- 
bison, courts; Mrs. F. H. Magoffin, coronation; Mrs. J. S. Woods, 
pageants-tableaux; Mrs. D. W. Dunton, juvenile dancing; Mrs. A. L. 
Mespelt, cathedral; Mrs. R. F. Garner, El Camino real; Mrs. F. B. 
Daley, capilla; Mrs. W. M. Hoagland, art exhibit; Mrs. M. V. Donald- 
son, press ; Mrs. A. M. Ham, rest room; Mrs. R. A. Brydolf, reception; 
Mrs. J. H. Barton, floral parade ; Mrs. W. H. Stiles, princess reception ; 
Mrs. L. L. Beeman, schools. 

These have been carefully copied for the benefit of the second cen- 
tennial celebration participants. 

Motor Harbor. San Bernardino is the first "port of call' in Cali- 
fornia on the Ocean to Ocean Highway, and it is only in line with progress 
that the city should make some preparation for the accommodation of 
the thousands of motorists who annually visit this city, perhaps stopping 
for a day or two, then continuing to some other point in the Southland. 
San Bernardino now has one of the finest motor camp grounds in the 
United States. It has been arranged with a view to the future as well as 
present needs, and represents an investment of many thousands of dollars. 

The eastern portion of Meadowbrook Park, one of the most scenic 
spots in or around San Bernardino, has been set aside as a camp ground, 
and is laid out along lines of a modern city, there being seventy lots, 
divided by streets, shaded by trees peculiar to California, each lot being 
large enough for the parking of an automobile, and the erection of a 
tent and camp equipment. The camp is equipped with toilets, kitchen, 
laundry and city water piped to each of the seventy lots. Gas for cooking 
and electricity for hghting has been provided. A custodian is at the camp 
at all times to see that the rules of sanitation are obeyed A stream of 
living water flows through Meadowbrook Park, the camp site. The 
Chamber of Commerce has been active in this phase of the city's hos- 
pitality, and has become a sort of foster mother to the project. 

R. R. Engineers Reception. On May 14, 1904, a reception and 
banquet to 1,000 visiting railroad engineers and ladies' auxiliary was given 
in the Pavilion, the most pretentious affair ever carried through in the 
place — the most beautiful and complete in all ways. Over 200 men and 
women worked for days to bring about the desired effect, both in deco- 
ration and arrangement. 


The pavilion was transformed into a veritable hanging garden, baskets 
strung across the great auditorium filled with roses and vines, and every 
pillar garlanded with blooms and greenery. The magic wrought with 
flowers, transformed the vast room into a fairyland and no wonder the 
visitors stood amazed and breathless as they entered. From every 
quarter of the nation and from Canada had come these men and women 
only to return home with this story to narrate. The long tables covered 
in white, thickly strewn with roses, seated 1,060 persons. So large an 
undertaking was this for the city, that the cutlery was ordered from 
Christopher's, Los Angeles, the general chairman giving her personal 

Scenes in Meauowbrook Park, San Bernardino's Motor Harbok 

guarantee that it should be returned by 5 o'clock the same day. When 
seated at the table, the chairman, J. J. Hanford, who had been indefatig- 
able in his efforts to make it a success, called to order, and appointed 
Judge F. F. Oster, president of the day, who in turn, introduced Hon. 
H. M. Willis. Mr. Willis gave such a welcoming address as seldom had 
been given before in the city, and as he spoke the last words "We welcome 
you with flowers," from the thirteen pillars in the balcony, where the 
s:ime number of ladies had been stationed, waiting for the signal to 
complete the greeting, emptied the baskets with their contents of rose 
petals upon the. assemblage — where they were showered upon the guests 
like snowflakes falling from the sky. This last feature transformed the 
scene truly into a fairyland, one never to be forgotten. The entertain- 
ment, perfect in all arrangements and complete in execution, put San 
Bernardino fairly and squarely on the map as a hospitable city. 


John C. Ralphs was marshal of the day, getting all the guests to 
and from the pavilion in noticeably good order. Mrs. Thomas Hadden 
was general chairman, with over 150 willing workers. Mrs. R. C. Har- 
bison, chairman of decoration; Mrs. E. D. Roberts, reception, and Mrs. 
J. William Smith, refreshments ; Mr. Al. France, chairman on table 
snpplies. This splendid affair goes down in San Bernardino history 
a? truly worth while. 

Electric Service to Riverside. The beginning of |the Pacific 
electric service between San Bernardino and Riverside — connecting the 
two counties by trolley — was duly celebrated on December 13, 1913, on 
the county line, near Highgrove. A long string of small white boulders 
had been laid along the center of the highway to mark the boundary line. 

Here an immense table had been constructed in the form of a triangle, 
one wing of the triangle in Riverside County, the other in San Bernardino 
County, the base of the triangle extending to and across the boundary. 
A delegation, headed by President Parker of the Chamber of Commerce, 
as toastmaster, occupied the table on the San Bernardino side. The 
Riverside delegation, with Francis Cuttle as toastmaster, occupied the 
Riverside County side of the table. The Pacific electric officials sat 
where the two counties met. The banquet was served by the ladies of 
the Methodist Church at Highgrove. 

Those who spoke on the San Bernardino County side were : J- B. Gill, 
city councilman ; C. W. Boswell, county supervisor ; Samuel Pine, and 
John Brown, Jr. For Riverside, were : Mayor Peters, County Super- 
visor Carleton and Frank Miller ; those of the Pacific Electric Company 
who responded were : President Paul Shoup, Engineer Pillsburv, Super- 
intendent Annable. 

Thus the two counties celebrated the first day's "through trolley 
service" between the two county seats of the two counties. Just before 
the dinner, two lines were formed, the men from Riverside in one and 
the men from San Bernardino in another, and marched on either side of 
the row of white rocks, joining hands across the boundary county line, 
then the Pacific men marched between them, taking the hand of River- 
side with one hand and San Bernardino with the other, singing "Blest 
Be the Tie That Binds," and thus was wiped out all old grudges about 
county division. 

May Day in the early times was always celebrated with a great com- 
munity picnic. The first celebration occurred Mav 1, 1856, with Lois 
Pratt as queen, and was held at Tippecanoe, on the east side of town. 
All other picnics took place at Fabun's, Garner's and Jackson's groves, 
grounds now covered by the Santa Fe round houses. In 1858 Miss Laura 
Brown was crowned queen by a beautiful young girl by the name of 
?[elen Vice. 

These yearly events were hailed with delight, and heralded with joy 
and gladness, not only by the children, for whom it was planned, but 
by the grownups, as well. It was a day when the whole country "came 
to town." and there were flowers everywhere — flowers and wreaths and 
music. Joseph Hancock — now in his 99th year — was always there with 
his fife, and R. T. Roberts and M. W. Vale with their violins. There 
were maids of honor, flower girls with their pantalettes, full skirts, short 
sleeves, low necks and curls — girls had to have curls in those days. On 
May Day, 1870, the first steam whistle was heard — it was introduced 
into a lumber sawmill. That helped in the program — it was one of the 
"knocks" of progress on its arrival in town. 


When the schools gave up the custom the Pioneer Society took up the 
celebration, electing their queens — queens who in the years past had been 
flower girls. x\mong those who were schoolgirl queens are : Lois Pratt, 
Laura Brown, Hannah Huston, Cynthia Lunceford, Isabelle Rable, 
Deborah Woodworth, Susan Boren, Adaline Davidson, Eunice Whaley, 
Maggie Kier, Bettie Aldridge, Martha McCreary, Manette Parish, Bertha 
Johnson, Lucina Hancock. Sylvia Brown, Ella Grimes, May Manning, 
Myra Daley, Susan Clark and Beulah Kendall. 

These May Day celebrations, fifty and more years ago, were the 
picture shows, automobile rides, bridge parties of "the yesterday." In 
later years the pioneers adopted the custom of crowning as May queens 
al! those over seventy years of age as a marked tribute of admiration 
before they passed on to their heavenly home. Among those beloved 

Log Cabin, Lugo Park, San Bernardino 

numbers were mothers Crafts, Daley, Kelting, Glenn, Bottoms, Kissee, 
Crandall, Alexander, Hunter, Roberts, Rathbun, Mayfield, Case, Cox, 
Wood, Carter. 

An Historical Document. A docvmient of great historical value to 
this city and valley in possession of John Andreson, Jr.. in the shape of 
the deed to the Rancho San Bernardino, as confirmed by the Board of 
United States Land Commissioners in 1853, transferring the title of thou- 
sands of acres of the finest land in this valley and a portion of Yucaipa, 
from Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich and Ebenezer Hanks and his wife 
Jane, to William A. Conn, George L. Tucker and Richard G. Allen, in 

The deed is accompanied by two maps, one of the Rancho San Ber- 
nardino and the other of the original city of San Bernardino and laid out 
under the Lyman, Rich and Hanks ownership. The latter plat shows 
the square bounded by Fifth, Sixth, E and F streets as being a site for 
the Catholic church, with the sketch of a church in the center. Later 
the north five acres of this square was deeded to the city for park pur- 
poses, by the presiding bishop of the Catholic church. 

The most interesting documents were found by Mr. Andreson among 
the papers of the Steinbreuner estate, of which he is administrator. These 


documents will find place in the museum of the new Municipal Audi- 

It is interesting to note that the many thousands of acres included 
in this rancho and city of San Bernardino brought the sum of $18,000. 
The consideration is interesting in view of present-day values. The 
deed was received for record on February 15. 1858, by A. J. King, deputy 
to County Recorder E. K. Dunlap. The fourteen pages of the document 
are held together by silk ribbon of old rose color. The deed is carefully 
written on robin-egg blue foolscap paper, having been penned by D. W. 
Davis, who was one of the first school teachers to whom John Brown, 
Jr., and many others of that period went to school. Davis was a splendid 
penman and the deed is a work of art. Marcus Katz, father of M. D. and 
E. E. Katz, was the notary before whom the acknowledgements were 

Lyman, Rich and Hanks who sold the rancho, through this deed to 
Messrs. Conn, Tucker and Allen, were the purchasers of the land from 
the Lugos in 1852, at the time of the establishment of the IMormon Colony 
in the valley. 

Old Documents and Items. Once in a while some curious docu- 
ments are discovered in the archives of the county, where they have been 
allowed to moulder and turn yellow from age. Among the most interest- 
ing was one unearthed on December 17, 1904. 

It is an old auditor's warrant and a grand jury call. The warrant was 
issued in September, 1862, and directed the country treasurer, Hardin 
Yager, to pay the sum of $51.50 to F. C. McKinney for his month's 
service as clerk of the Board of Supervisors. Those were close times 
for the county, and money did not bulge from the vaults, and orobably 
for this reason Mr. McKinney had to wait nine years for his pay — that 
is the date of payment. 

The other paper is a call for jury duty and a return for the same, 
dated June 25, 1861. There were no blanks in those days. The judge 
presiding over the county court, called at that time "Court of Sessions," 
was A. D. Boren, and it is his signature that is attached to the call. The 
nineteen good men and true, who composed the jury that year — 1861 — 
were as follows : Charles Glaolt, Henry Garner, E. Snider, H. Hareman, 
John T. Case, William M. Bateford, J. S. Waite, John Brown, A. V. 
Parker, G. Ayers, John Little, Newton Case, Harry Green, H. B. Benson, 
Robert Baldwin. These men constituted San Bernardino County's second 
grand jury, summoned by Anson Van Leuvan, sherifif. 

The two acres on the southwest corner of Seventh and F streets has 
an interesting history. In the winter of '53 and '54, it was bought by a 
Southern man by the name of Bretton, who paid $250 for the quarter of 
a block (two acres). Thereon he built a three-room house with some of 
the first lumber brought from the mountains. There were three deaths 
in the house, one was that of Mr. Rollins, the first school teacher, who 
died May 2, 1864. He was called the "righteous man." Finally the 
property passed into the possession of the Aldridge family. The house 
was sold for $1,800, the lumber being so good the purchaser realized 
$100 on the deal. Late in 1902, part of the land was sold to Richard 
Mclndry for $2,000. At the time the first house was built, lumber from 
the mountains was worth $70 per 1,000 feet. 

An interesting letter has been handed in in regard to beginnings of 
printing of an early date. 


Office of Guardian 
Corner Fourth and Utah (E) Streets 

San Bernardino, November 16, 1875. 
Mr. A. Hunt, 

Dear Sir : I have had verv flattering oflfers to establish a branch office 
of the Guardian in Riverside. To do so, all that will be needed will 
be to move the little printing press, which is useless here, to Riverside. 
Of course your mortgage remains on it anywhere in the country. Besides 
the printers, whom I send there, hereby attest the same. 

Of course I would not move in the matter without informing you, 
although even if I had, your mortgage covered the little press in River- 
side, as well as here. 

Very truly, 

Arthur Kearney. 

From the San Bernardino Sun, May 17, 1914: Next Wednesday 
completes 104 years since the first Franciscans, gazing on the sky line 
that guards the valley, celebrated mass on the hills of Politana. The exact 
spot of that service, as the sun sank behind what we know as Cucamonga 
Peak, is now marked by a mission bell, on the knoll, southwest of Urbita. 
If we do nothing more, might not the city declare it a holiday at sunset 
a week hence, and with some ceremony repair to the spot where 104 years 
before the first word of Christian prayer rose from lips of that first 

An Old Vineyard. Mission grapes grown on the old vineyard, just 
west of Cucamonga, brought a very high price, probably the highest in 
the county. Five carloads at $152.50 a ton and three carloads at 
$160 per ton, when sold in October. This old vineyard was set out by 
the Spaniards in 1829, according to H. H. Thomas, the owner, who has 
been tracing its history. 

One of the most delightful reunions was held on March 1, 1906. 
at the home of Mrs. Samuel Rolph, on E Street, where a number of life- 
long friends and schoolmates met for the afternoon. They were all 
babies together, and have seen San Bernardino's gradual growth from 
its very commencement. Those present were: Mrs. Aurelia Stoddard 
Sleppy, Mrs. Hattie Stoddard Merritt, Mrs. Louisa Brown Waters, Mrs. 
Nettie Daley Bright, Mrs. Eunice Whaley Chenall, Mrs. Margaret Keir 
Corcoran, Mrs. Florence Woodman Rolph. The only member of the 
unique group absent was Mrs. Laura McDonald Haile. 

January 4, 5, 6, 7, 1913, were the cold days that went down in history 
as the coldest on record. Fear lay hold of orange growers' hearts as 
to the outcome, with a more or less general business depression prevailing 
among all classes of industry for the time. 

On July 16, 1904, the carpenters in making an addition to the school- 
house on Mount Vernon and Seventh, had to open the cornerstone and 
found papers and other records placed there in 1886 in good condition. 
The box contained the San Bernardino, Riverside and Colton papers, 
and a copy of the Calico Hour, a paper published at Daggett. But 
the most interesting was a list of the teachers from the time the school 
was opened in 1855 to 1886, which is as follows : 1855, John P. Lee ; 
1856, E. Burras; 1857, E. W. Pugh : 1859, A. Newman; 1861, D. W. 
Davis: 1863, Joseph Skidmore; 1864, Henry Green; 1865, Harriett Fuller; 
1866, Thomas T- Ellis; 1867, W. S. Ragsdale ; 1868, J. H. Wagner; 1870, 
Henry Goodcell ; 1871, Edith Martin; 1874, Mary Shoup; 1878, Henry C. 


Brook; 1881, R. H. Curtis; 1882, Maggie M. Mosean; 1886, Elida M. 

Sunday morning, January 8, 1911, San Bernardino saw its first airship. 
Out of the west it came and skimmed gracefully over the southern part 
of the town in the direction of Association Park. Five long blasts of 
the big siren of the San Bernardino Gas & Electric Company became an 
ally in record breaking aviation enterprise to tell the news of its near 
approach. Manager Merrihew, of the Valley Traction Company, notified 
C. M. Grow, of the gas company, when the ship left Pomona, and 
instantly the big siren filled the city and valley with its thrilling notes. 
The fact that this was the first time in the world's history that the airship 
had made a commercial venture gave the undertaking an historic impor- 
tance, and put San Bernardino on the world-map of aviation. Its cargo 
was a package of Los Angeles Times. A Frenchman, by the name of 
Masson, was the aviator and the actual flying time was one hour and 
twenty minutes. He was welcomed by Mayor S. W. McNabb in behalf of 
the city, and by W. W. Brison for the Chamber of Commerce, and 
J. Harold Barnum on behalf of the Merchant's Association. It was the 
first aerial newspaper undertaking. The airship carried a letter from 
Frank Wiggins, of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, to W. W. 
Brison, president of the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce, which 
read : "The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce sends greetings to 
your organization through the first aeroplane route." 


That truth is stranger than fiction has been demonstrated too many 
times to make the fact necessary of repetition, yet such a thought comes 
to mind when the historian considers the wonderful growth and devel- 
opment of Redlands. The history of this community, which is one of 
substantial fact, in some cases reads like the work of a highly imagina- 
tive mind. 

Along the foothills of the southern rise of the San Bernardino Range, 
sheltered by the mountains from the north winds of the passes and the 
heat of the desert, high enough to escape damaging frosts and beyond the 
reach of the fogs that roll inland from the coast, there lay in 1881 a 
stretch of bare, reddish mesa and upland. In 1880 Frank E. Brown and 
E. G. Judson, already somewhat familiar with the possibilities of the 
East San Bernardino Valley, had become impressed with the advantages 
of this particular area, if water could be secured. It had been neglected 
because there was a well-established idea that it was situated too high 
to be reached by water from the Santa Ana, while the Mill Creek waters, 
otherwise available, were being utilized to the last drop. Messrs. Brown 
and Judson, however, determined to test their theory that water could 
be put upon this ground, Mr. Judson taking a Government claim and 
the two together purchasing tracts from the Southern Pacific and from 
individual parties who owned land here. After they had secured some 
4,000 acres, they planned to establish a settlement, choosing the name of 
Redlands because, as pointed out by Mr. Judson. the name was suggestive 
of the character of the soil. Following this, they began the organization 
of the Redlands Water Company, with a capital of $1,500,000, which 
was incorporated October 27, 1881. This company purchased fifty shares 
of stock from the South Fork ditch owners and at once began work upon 
a canal six miles in length to carry water from the opening of the Santa 
Ana Canon to a small reservoir at the mouth of the Yucaipe Valley, 
and on a tunnel into the bed of the Santa Ana River to secure additional 
water. The land was divided into tracts of two and one-half, five and 
ten acres, with water rights ; wide avenues and cross streets were laid off, 
with shade trees planted along the thoroughfares, and a town site, with a 
plaza, was laid out in the center of the tract. Residence Tract, along 
the southern border, was divided into lots, the sale of which began in 
December, 1881, and the first deeds being made on the 6th to C. A. 
Smith and J. G. Cockshutt. The first contract was made December 17th. 
with R. B. Morton and F. F. Kious, Mr. Morton having already moved 
onto his property as the first resident of the new settlement. 

The first habitation within the present city limits was the hut of a 
sheep herder. In 1877 Orson Van Leuven moved a small house to a 
claim which he had located on the south side of the zanja and placed 
it at a point which later became West Olive Street. The first house 
built in the new colony was that of J. G. Cockshutt, located on the south 
side of Palm Avenue, near Cajon Street. The first deciduous orchard 
was set on what was later known as the L. Jacobs place, on Olive and 
Fern avenues, east of Cajon Street, while the first orange orchards were 
set out by E. J. Waite, one on the Sinclair property on the northeast 
corner of Cypress and Reservoir streets and one on Center Street and 
North Place. 



In April, 1882, Simeon Cook opened a boarding house in a building 
owned by Messrs. Judson and Brown, but this house, on the Heights, 
was later remodeled, and November 26th was opened by Mrs. E. B. 
Seymour, as the Prospect House, the first hotel in this part of the valley, 
to which it was necessary to haul water. In the same year the Redlands 
Telegraph & Telephone Company, a private corporation, had been com- 
pleted and service was established in the residence of F. E. Brown, the 
first plastered building of the community, located on the south side of 
West Cvpress Avenue, near Center Street, which was completed in June. 

While their capital had been small, Messrs. Judson and Brown had 
planned wisely and well, and had successfully carried out the settlement 
of Redlands and provided sufficient water .for the early needs. It imme- 
diately became evident, however, that owing to the rapidity with which 
the land was taken and the large acreage being put to fruit, the water 
supplv must be increased immediately, and in 1883 Mr. Brown became 
the prime mover in the construction of the Bear Valley dam and reservoir, 
annotated in another chapter of this work. In the fall of 1884 the dam 
was completed and in 1885 the water was first used for irrigation. Red- 
lands thus becoming assured of an abundant water supply. 

The Redlands school district was set ofif from Crafton and Lugonia 
February 5, 1884, and A. G. Saunders, Philo R. Brown and Orson Van 
Leuven were named as trustees. The school was opened May 14, in 
the Cockshutt House, and Miss Rosa Belle Robbins (later Mrs. Canter- 
bury) was the first teacher, her class being composed of fourteen pupils. 
The people were not satisfied with the school arrangements, however, 
and March 21, 1885, $1,000 bonds were voted for the erection of a school 
building. A lot at Cypress and Cajon streets was purchased and a school 
building was put up, but this was soon found inadequate, and September 
18, 1887, $15,000 was voted for another building, the front portion of 
the Kingsbury School, which was ready for occupancy in the fall of 1888. 

The first business building of Redlands was built in July, 1885, a 
brick structure put up by Robert Chestnut, a brick manufacturer, for 
the use of Tipton & Carter as a butcher shop, being first occupied 
July 28th. The brick used was made on Burns' ranch, at Crafton. It 
was razed in 1898. 

At this time, an important contributing factor to the growth of Red- 
lands was the location of what was known as the Chicago Colony, in 
the eastern part of the community. In February, 1886, the Chicago- 
California Colonization Company was formed at Chicago, and after 
investigating various settlements throughout Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, 
Ventura and Tulare counties, the committee appointed by this company 
reported favorably on Redlands, where the company purchased what was 
known as the Somers tract upon which water was then being piped from 
Bear Valley Reservoir. The Illinoisans thus brought to Redlands proved 
a most valuable acquisition to the population and at once took an active 
part in the life of the community. 

The rail rate war and the subsequent boom served to increase Red- 
land's population in 1886 and the new community decided that it must 
have a railway. Accordingly negotiations were opened with the Cali- 
fornia Southern road, which demanded, before making a move, that a 
clear right of way be provided between San Bernardino and Redlands. 
Unprecedented public spirit served to meet the railway's demands and 
the right of way was secured in 1887, but the company did not start 
its line immediately and it was not completed to Redlands until Feb- 
ruary, 1888. In the meantime, the Southern Pacific had put in a siding 
at Brookside, about three miles from the business part of the settlement. 


In January, 1887, the Redlands, Lugonia & Crafton Domestic Water 
Company was formed with a capital stock of $125,000, and at once began 
preparations to deliver water for domestic purposes. 

The Town of Redlands. On March 10, 1887, the plat of the Town 
of Redlands was filed and within a short time after the first auction of 
lots, March 30, 200 had been disposed of at $200 each and 200 more at 
$250 each. Realizing the value of newspaper publicity, one of the first 
steps of the promoters of the town had been the formation of a news- 
paper publishing company. The first issue of the Citrograph, the publi- 
cation of this company, edited by Scipio Craig, appeared July 16, 1887, 
and in this issue is found the following: "Today, three months after 
the town-site was a bare plain just as nature made it, there are two- 
story brick buildings erected and in course of construction as follows: 
The Union Bank of Redlands, northeast corner State and Orange ; the 
R. J. Waters Building, northwest corner State and Orange ; the Shepherd 
Building, southeast corner State and Orange; the J. F. Drake Building; 
the Shepherd Building on State Street ; the Solner & Darling Build- 
ing, corner State and Fifth ; the J. F. Welch Building, on State Street, 
west of Orange; the Y. M. C. A. Building, on State Street, east 
of Orange ; the Citrograph Building, southwest corner State and 
Fifth ; and the Stimmel & Lissenden Building, on State Street, west 
of Orange. This is what has been done in three months. It sounds like 
a page from Arabian Nights' entertainment, but it is not anything very 
strange in South California. The rush to this favored clime is something 
unprecedented and from all that can be learned, the rush will be quad- 
rupled this fall. This is no ephemeral boom, but simply a hegira of 
cyclone-stricken, frost-bitten denizens of the East who desire to spend the 
remainder of their days in peace, prosperity and quietude. They can 
get here what the balance of the world cannot offer : an incomparable 
climate, the purest of water, good society and schools, and all the elements 
of civilization, beside nothing ephemeral about our growth but a solid 
sub-stratum of producing prosperity. And it will be years before there 
will be any change except from good to better and from better to best. 
There have also been a number of frame buildings erected, not in, but 
adjoining the main business portion of the town. There is now in the 
hands of the architects and to be erected as soon as the material can 
be gotten together a three-story hotel on State Street, west of Orange, 
and we hear of several other business blocks soon to be erected." 

In December, the Citrograph states further: "There are five res- 
taurants in the town — all doing a rushing business. Doctor Sloan is 
putting up a $20,000 hotel. * * * The Masons have made plans for 
a handsome Masonic Hall. They have already bought the land and will 
rush their plans on to completion. In the residence portion of the town, 
seven new dwellings were completed last week and there are a number 
of others just completed. There are now two brickyards running to 
their fullest capacity to keep up with the demand." 

The foregoing will give some idea of how the town was growing, 
a growth that led in 1887 to the discussion of the question of incorpora- 
tion, for which many good reasons were urged, the question probably being 
precipitated by the discovery of scale in one orange grove. It was pro- 
posed that Redlands, Lugonia, Brookside and a part, at least, of Crafton 
should unite and form a city of the first class, but for a time it seemed 
that the proposition would fall through because of the seemingly incon- 
sequential argument over the choice of a name. However, January 18, 
1888, the first incorporation meeting was held and a committee of nine 


\\"as appointed to take the matter under advisement. In February this 
committee reported in favor of incorporation, but the matter dragged 
along until September, 1888, when a petition was prepared and sub- 
mitted to the board of supervisors for permission to call an election and 
vote upon the incorporation question. This was at once granted, and 
November 26th, by a vote of 218 to 68, the City of Redlands came into 

The City of Redlands. ^\'hile the increase of the city in population 
and wealth was not as rapid, proportionately, as in the boom years of 
1887 and 1888, still the municipality made marked advancement, as the 
following figures will show : In 1889 the amount expended in building 
and improvements was $224,000 : in 1891, $503,650: and in 1893. $613,687, 
which included $70,058 expended for public improvements. In 1898, 
$370,700 was expended, and in 1902 the cost of buildings and improve- 
ments, including the Mill Creek power house, exceeded $1,000,000, accord- 
ing to an estimate made by the Redlands Review. 

When the present town-site of Redlands was decided upon. B. S. 
Stephenson put up a small building before the survey, to be used as a 
jew-elry shop. This was the second business building of the settlement, 
the first being the butcher shop formerly noted. F. L. Ball, a dealer in 
groceries, hardware, agricultural implements, etc., advertised his estab- 
lishment on Citrus Avenue, April 13, 1887, in the San Bernardino Times. 
and in the same issue Judson & Brown had a card advertising Redlands, 
"The Pasadena of San Bernardino County." That year was marked by 
the openirtg of numerous business houses, including the livery stable of 
Chauncey L. Hayes, in a brick building on West State Street ; the pioneer 
tin shop and plumbing establishment of R. C. Shepherd, in a small build- 
ing on Citrus Avenue, later removed to his own building on State Street 
and enlarged to include hardware ; the hardware store of James F. Drake, 
in his new block on State Street, near Orange; the Pioneer Lumber 
Company, with E. A. Tuttle as manager ; the drug store of L. M. Johnston, 
subsequently sold to Doctor Riggs, later owned by Riggs & Spoor, and 
still later by W. L. Spoor ; the general store of B. O. Johnson, at State 
and Orange streets ; Pratt & Seymour's planing mill and agency for the 
West Coast Redwood Company ; the grocery of J. B. Glover, in the 
Wilson Block. Lugonia. and the book store of Mrs. Jennie L. Jones, in 
the Otis Building on West State Street. During the same year the 
Citrograph began publication July 16th, and was followed September 3d 
by the Southern Californian. The Citizens Stage Line, running a bus 
between Brookside Station. Redlands, Lugonia and Crafton, was put into 
operation, and in December an omnibus line was started between the 
business section and residence tract. The Terracina tract, the Barton 
Land & Water Company tract and the Mound City and Gladys tracts 
were placed upon the market. 

The year 1888 kept up with the rapid pace set by the previous year, 
and was featured January 1st by the granting of the first street car 
franchise, for the line on Cajon Street. The track of the California 
Southern, or "Valley" road was completed January 16th, on which date 
the first freight arrived, and regular train service began February 13th. 
After much discussion, the postofiice was opened January 26th, with 
J. B. Campbell as postmaster, and in the following September the Lugonia 
postoffice was discontinued. The Domestic Water Company began service 
February 1st. The first "down-town" hotel, the Sloan House, was opened 
February 20th, and the W^indsor, or Redlands House, built by the Red- 
lands Hotel Association, began business March 30th. In June the motor 


line began regular service. The year was also featured by the organiza- 
tion of the first hose company and of the Redlands Orchestra. 

In January, 1889, the Smiley Brothers, of whom more will be said 
later, arrived at Redlands and began making purchases of land on the 
hills. January 2d the Redlands Fruit Growers' Association was formed, 
and January 9th the Western Union service was started, although this 
company's early service was unsatisfactory, it being necessary to send 
messages from Redlands to the county seat by way of Los Angeles. 
The ladies of the Willing Workers' Improvement Association furnished 
the city with its first street signs in February, and these were put into 
place, giving the community quite a metropolitan appearance. In April 
the Redlands Orange Grove & Water Company was incorporated to plant 
some 200 acres of land to oranges, and orange shipments first became 
a feature during this year, the record being forty-one cars. In Decem- 
ber the Chamblin Warehouse, a large brick structure erected as a pack- 
ing house, was completed, and the same month the Haight Fruit Com- 
pany, the first Redlands fruit company in the field, began shipping. 

The city recorder's office was opened February 15, 1890, with J. P. 
Squires, judge, and March 5th an ordinance was passed fixing the liquor 
license at $50 per quarter, an act that opened up a lively campaign on 
the liquor question and brought to a formation, March 19th, the first 
Temperance League. The Eagle Dry Goods House, the first distinctive 
dry goods establishment of the town, was opened May 29th, with S. Lelean 
as proprietor. In June, the Bear Valley high-service line was first used, 
and in August the Alessandro Irrigation District was formed and work 
begun on the Alessandro pipe-line, while December 1.3th the Bear \'alley 
Irrigation Company was incorporated and took over all the property 
of the Bear Valley Land & Water Company. 

The first water was turned into the Alessandro pipe-line .\pril 27. 1891. 
and May 9th the Redland Heights Water Company was organized. 
According to the census of 1890, the city now had a population of 1,904, 
and was served by three banking institutions, when, June 15th, the 
Savings Bank of Redlands, a branch of the First National Bank, began 
business. The Bank of East San Bernardino Valley, which had been 
organized at Lugonia in 1887, was moved to the corner of State and 
Orange streets in June, 1888, and changed its title to First National 
Bank. The Union Bank of Redlands was founded May 1, 1887. and 
occupied its own brick building at the corner of Orange and State 
streets, which was enlarged as business grew. More ground was secured 
in 1898 and a three-story structure was built, and in 1904 this institution 
was converted into a national bank, taking over the Union Bank of 
Savings and becoming known as the Redlands National Bank. On 
November 1, 1891, the Star Grocery was purcliased by J. J. Suess. who 
later became mayor of Redlands. and in December the Enterprise Grocery 
Company was organized. Ort December 1st the steel pipe works began 
operations. Among the buildings erected during the year were the 
Smiley residences, the Academy of Music Block, the Otis and Edwards 
blocks and the Chamblin Block, while the Mentone Hotel was also com- 
pleted and opened. 

After having been closed for some time, the Terracina Hotel was 
re-opened January 15, 1892, and March 5th service began on the Terra- 
cina street car line, which ran out Olive Street. The first train service 
was put on the "belt line" of the Santa Fe System, January 17th, this 
later being made a part of the famous "kite-shape" track. Another new 
hostelry opened its doors when M. S. Lane inaugurated the Raker House. 
Regular service over a broad gauge track on the Southern Pacific into 


Redlands began March 14th. On July 27th the franchise was granted to 
the Electric Light & Power Company, which was incorporated October 
6th, and work was at once begun on the power house in Mill Creek 
Canon and on the plant for the Union Ice Company. Other improvements 
included the beginning of work on the storm drains, for which bonds 
to the amount of $100,000 had been voted ; the passage of the street 
paving ordinance and work commenced there under its provisions, and 
the building of the Y. M. C. A. home and the Union High School build- 
ing. Daily Facts, which succeeded a weekly paper of the same name, made 
its first appearance October 21st. 

Another publication made its appearance at Redlands, February ?i. 
1893, this being the Leader, proprietored by Doyle & Kasson. The 
Orange Growers' Association, which was later to become an important 
factor in the handling and marketing of fruit, was organized May 12th, 
and August 1st Gregory's Packing House was completed, to be followed 
December 1st by the completion of the Earl Fruit Company's packing 
house. By this time the orange shipments had become a recognized factor 
of importance in the wealth of the city. The city was first lighted by 
electricity August 5th, the Public Library Association was formed Novem- 
ber 23d, and December 12th a Chamber of Commerce was formed to take 
the place of the Board of Trade, which had lapsed. During this year 
much excitement was caused by the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. 
A few Chinese, mostly house servants, had remained at Redlands, and 
when an anti-Chinese riot was threatened in this city, the newly-formed 
National Guard was called out and patrolled the streets all night of 
August 30th. The matter was quieted down, and nothing came of it save 
the arrest of a few Chinese at a later date. 

The Library Association having purchased $1,000 worth of books, 
on February 22, 1894, a public presentation and reception was held, and 
March 1st the Public Library was first opened to the public. During 
March some excitement and bitterness was caused when it was dis- 
covered that certain communities which had suffered from the "freeze" 
were labeling their oranges "Redlands." In June the first graduating 
class received their diplomas from the high school. In July the Cycle 
Club was organized, and in the fall a Merchants' Carnival, which attracted 
a good deal of attention, was held in the Academy of Music for the 
benefit of the club. On July 7th the Leader became a daily paper, the 
second to be issued in the city, and September 19th, the Cricket appeared, 
but both of these papers had short lives. 

Events of local importance during 1895 included the completion 
of arrangements for the building of the Casa Loma and the practical 
con.struction of that building during the j'ear; the completion of the 
Y. M. C. A. Building and the holding of its first exercises March 4th; 
the winning of the Redlands Band of first prize in the contest of the 
bands of Southern California at Redondo, and the raising of a liberty pole, 
140 feet high, in the Triangle, by the Junior Order of United American 

The Casa Loma was opened to guests January 7, 1896, this being the 
occasion for an elaborate banquet. In April Albert K. Smiley pur- 
chased sixteen acres in the heart of the city for a public park, which 
is now Smiley Park, and at the same time laid out Fredalba Park. The 
year was featured by considerable oil excitement, for "our Oil Fields" 
were believed to be located in San Timoteo Canon, and at least sixteen 
different companies were formed to prospect for oil. In December, the 
Southern California Power Company was formed. 


As the result of long planning and working on the part of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce and the public-spirited citizens of Redlands, the Red- 
lands Presenting Company was incorporated in 1897, a large bonus was 
raised for the purpose of securing a cannery and the work on the build- 
ings was commenced. The Redlands-Highland Road was completed at a 
cost of $3,500, raised by the county supervisors, the city and by sub- 
scription. The first issue of the Redlands Daily Record was issued 
December 9th. 

The fifteenth session of the Woman's Parliament of Southern Cali- 
fornia was opened at Redlands. April 25, 1898, and during the same 
month the Smiley Library was presented to the city. Much excitement 
was caused May 5th, when Company G was mustered into the service 
for the Spanish-American war and started for San Francisco, and May 
14th a branch of the Red Cross Society was formed. The home company 
was mustered out of the service December 2d and returned to Redlands. 
In April, the Redlands Electric Light & Power Company and the Southern 
California Power Company, were sold to and consolidated with the Edison 
Electric Company, of Los Angeles, and in December the Santa Ana 
Canon Power House was completed. 

An innovation was inaugurated July 1, 1899, when the city began 
sprinkling its streets with oil. The erection of the Redlands Electric 
Light & Power Company Building was begun in August, and in Decem- 
ber street cars were first operated by electricity. Various new buildings 
and improvements marked 1899, as they had the previous year. 

The Redlands Gas Company was organized June 2, 1900, and work 
was at once commenced on the plant on West Central Street. Service 
of gas was begun in 1901 and in 1903 the capacity of the plant was 
nearly doubled. During 1901, 297 buildings were erected at Redlands 
and the value of improvements reached the figure of $957,237. 

On April 12, 1902, a special election was held to vote for bonds, 
$50,000 for street improvements, and $20,000 for a city hall, the former 
being carried. Among the new buildings of the year were the new fire 
house, the Creighton, Abbey and Lombard blocks, the Hornby Block, 
the Christian Church and a large addition to the Catholic Church. Power 
House No. 3 of the Edison Electric Company was completed at a cost of 
$200,000, and the same company made city line extensions to the amount 
of $9,000 and county extensions to the amount of $17,000. 

The first car over the San Bernardino Valley Traction line was 
operated between San Bernardino and Redlands, March 10, 1903, and 
regular service commenced soon thereafter. The Home Telephone Com- 
pany, which had obtained a franchise the previous year, began active 
operations and erected a handsome two-story brick office building. A 
large sum of public money was spent in civic improvements and the year 
was another in which building operations were extensive. 

The season closing in June, 1904, was the banner orange shipping 
year, as over 3,000 cars of citrus fruit were shipped out from the Red- 
lands district, more than 500 cars in excess of any previous year's ship- 
ment. A feature of the year was the materialization of the long talked of 
Opera House. Through the efforts of the Chamber of Commerce and 
prominent citizens, H. C. Wyatt, of Los Angeles, proposed to furnish 
$15,000 and build a suitable theater if the citizens would raise $20,000 
to put into the building. As a result a handsome mission style structure 
was erected on the corner of Colton Avenue and Orange Street, an 
entertainment palace seating 1,200 people. 


Education. In 1885 the little board schoolhouse at Lugonia replaced 
by the four lower rooms of the later Lugonia school building, and these 
supplied the needs of the community until 1894, when four upper rooms 
were added. Continued increasing growth of the community necessitated 
further facilities, and the Longfellow School was erected, a structure of 
eight rooms, as well as the Stillman Building, containing four well- 
equipped rooms. Lugonia employed two teachers in 1889, at which 
time there were fifty-nine pupils. Charles E. Taylor was made super- 
vising principal in 1892, and held that office until 1895. when he was 
succeeded by Allan B. Morton, the latter serving during 1895 and 1896. 
D. C. Reed then took charge of the Lugonia schools. By 1903 twelve 
teachers were employed and the attendance of pupils had grown to 600. 

In 1885 there had been erected at Redlands a one-room school house, 
but in 1887 this was found inadequate, and bonds of $15,000 were accord- 
ingly voted for the erection of a two-story brick building of four rooms. 
The school was opened in 1888, on the same site as the old building, with 
three teachers and an attendance of 140 pupils. In 1891 it was found 
necessary to add the southern extension of the building, $15,000 more 
being voted to add four rooms, and the school was named the Kingsbury, 
in honor of the Rev. C. A. Kingsbury, who was one of the early trustees 
of the district. In 1896 more rooms were required and $4,000 was voted 
for the two-room building at the corner of Citrus Avenue and Church 
Street. In 1898 the first four rooms of the Lowell school building were 
erected at a cost of $6,000, and in 1900 the building was completed by 
the putting up of four additional rooms. During the summer of 1902 
the manual training building of two rooms was erected on the Kings- 
bury grounds, but when the schools opened in the fall, it was found neces- 
sary to house two departments in this building and still confine the bench 
work to the old and limited quarters of the "old" schoolhouse. On 
March 20, 1903, the citizens of Redlands voted $25,000 for another 
school building, to be known as the McKinley, and to be located on 
the corner of Olive Avenue and Center Street. The principals who have 
had charge of the Redlands schools liave been: H. Patten. 1888-94; 
H. Corleton, 1894-95; F. A. Wagner, 1895-1902; A. Harvey Collins, 
1902-05. In 1903 there were 1,877 census children, and the value of the 
school property was placed at $106,300. 

In 1886, the people of the San Bernardino Valley, feeling that some 
arrangement should be made for the higher education of their children, 
entered into an agreement with Rev. J. G. Hale, stipulating that he 
should erect buildings suitable for a school and maintain a school four 
years, in consideration of the payment of the interest, at the rate of 
9 per cent, on the sum of $4,000 by the subscribers. In compliance with 
this agreement, in the fall of that year there was opened on Lugonia 
Terrace, a school for the higher education of pupils of both sexes. Later 
the school was removed to the Wilson Block, where it was under the 
tuition of Prof. Horace Brown. For the purpose of forming a LInion 
high school district, a meeting of citizens of Redland", Lugonia and 
Grafton was held May 26, 1891, and at an election held July 28th, the 
district was duly formed. The high school was opened October 1, 1891. 
in the W^ilson and Berry Block, corner of Colton Avenue and Orange 
Street, with Prof. W. F. Wegener as principal, forty-five pupils being 
in attendance. 

After on unsuccessful election, June 3. 1892, the present site of the 
high school was secured, and July 16, 1892, bonds of $17,000 were voted 
for the erection of a high school building which was duly constructed. 
In 1903 the school was pressed for room and an additional $60,000 was 
expended in its reconstructing and remodeling. It is a handsome and 


well-equipped structure. In 1895 Prof. Lewi.^; B. Avery took charge of 
the high school and assisted materially in its success. In 1903 the school 
had an enrollment of 280 pupils, taught by ten teachers. 

The Redlands Postoffice. On September 5. 1882. a postoffice was 
established at Lugonia, in the newly-completed store of George A. Cook, 
who acted as postmaster for five years, when he was succeeded by C. H. 
Lathrop. The office was abolished September 27, 1888. The new settlers 
of the Redlands community, finding themselves inconveniently situated 
as regarded the postoffice, petitioned \\'ashington to establish a new office 
at Redlands, and while awaiting the ofificial decision took matters tempo- 
rarily into their own hands by appointing a mail carrier, to be paid by 
subscription, and by the establishment of an office in a small building 
at Chestnut Avenue and Central Street. In January, 1888, the depart- 
ment took official action, and J- B. Campbell was appointed postmaster. 
When ordered, later, to vacate the building. Postmaster Campbell removed 
to a small frame building just back of the later site of the Academy of 
Music, which building was later removed to State Street, the office 
remaining there until September, 1888, when it was located in the 
Union Bank Building. 

The train service caused the business of the office to grow extensively, 
and in January, 1889, it was raised to the rank of a presidential office, 
with a "salary of about $1,400. On April 1, 1891. I. C. Haight was 
appointed postmaster, and during his term the office was enlarged and 
removed to a building on the corner of Orange Street. W. C. Phillips 
became postmaster November 7, 1894, and was succeeded by I. N. 
Hoag, in March. 1898, but the latter lived only about one month after 
assuming his duties, and was succeeded temporarily by Halsey ^^'. Allen. 
He was confirmed June 23d, and acted as postmaster until July 19, 1902. 
when he was succeeded by William M. Tisdale. Mail carrier service was 
inaugurated April 1, 1898, and in 1902 a handsome three-story brick 
postoffice was especially constructed. 

Fraternities and Societies. On March 17, 1890, with nineteen 
charter members, Redlands Lodge No. 300, F. & A. M., was founded, and 
since that time the lodge has increased steadily in strength and numbers. 

Redlands Lodge of the Knights of Pythias was founded January 5, 
1895, with a charter membership of fifty-seven, which had grown by 
1904 to 170 members. The Pythians occupy their own hall and the 
order has taken part in a number of civic and other activities. 

Redlands Lodge No. 583, B. P. O. E., was formed May 20, 1900, 
at which time a large number of Elks from Los Angeles assisted in 
the installation ceremonies. There were 100 charter members, and the 
lodge has prospered greatlv. 

On December 5, 1891,' Bear Valley Post No. 162, Grand Army of 
the Republic, was formed, with G. F. Crafts as first commander. 

The Country Club of Redlands was first organized as a golf club, 
in 1897, when it had a membership of about twenty-five. A tract of 
about eighty acres of land was purchased, on which was erected an 
attractive club house, and golf links, tennis courts and roque grounds 
were installed, the grounds being otherwise improved. In the years that 
have followed the club has grown and flourished and the club house 
and grounds are kept hospitably open to transient visitors as well as 
permanent residents. 

At a meeting of the representative college men of Redlands, held 
at Casa Loma Hotel, Janu.ary 10, 1902, the University Club of forty- 


eig:ht members was formed, quarters being secured in the Union Bank 
Building in March of that year. The club now occupies a handsome 
building of its own. which was completed in November, 1903. 

The Redlands Medical Society was organized in August, 1898, with 
the following officers : Dr. Charles C. Browning, president ; Dr. Wil- 
liam H. Wilmot, vice president ; Dr. H. Tyler, secretary and treasurer. 
These men, with Dr. S. Y. Wynne, were the charter members of the 
society, which has since grown to large proportions. The society holds 
a regular monthly meeting. 

The Redlands Orchestra was formed in May, 1888, by a number of 
music lovers of Redlands. and at the start had the benefit of instruc- 
tion under H. L. Sloan, then proprietor of the Sloan House, a musician 
of rare ability, and a former member of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra 
of Chicago and of other first-class musical organizations. After his 
death Professors Gunther and Ohlmeyer acted as directors. The society 
has always maintained a high standing, and its services have been much 
in demand on public occasions. On December 21, 1888. an organization 
of women of Redlands formed the association known as the United 
Workers for Public Improvement, the first work of which body was the 
placing of street signs on Redlands' thoroughfares. Later they beauti- 
fied and improved the grounds at the Southern California Railway 
station, and this was followed by the placing of a public fountain in the 
"Triangle." The women of this society formed a branch of the Chicago 
Colony Women, out of which grew the Woman's Exchange. Redlands 
ladies also formed an auxiliary to the Y. M. C. A., and Februarv 12. 
1889. formed a branch of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. 

Another organization of Redlands women which has had a large 
growth and much success is the Contemporary Club, organized in 1893, 
as a "parlor club" with a membership of twenty-five. Later it was 
decided to throw open the membership rolls of the organization to all 
women of Redlands. and the membership then increased rapidly, the 
meetings thereafter being held in churches or public halls. The club 
became affiliated with the General Federation of Clubs in 1896, and in 
1901 purchased the old Presbyterian Chapel and converted it into a 
meeting place. In 1902 the club was incorporated and in May, 1904, 
laid the cornerstone for its new clubhouse, a structure costing $30,000. 

The following is the list of officers of the Contemporary Club for the 
year 1921: Mrs. M. M. F. Allen, president: Mrs. Thomas M. Blythe. 
vice president: Mrs. U. F. Lewis, second vice president: Mrs. Charles L. 
Curtiss, recording secretary ; Mrs. G. E. Mullen, corresponding secre- 
tary; Mrs. Charles A. Dibble, treasurer; Mrs. Thomas Jeffery, auditor. 

The Spinet Club, an organization of music lovers, was founded 
October 15. 1894, at the home of Mrs. Margaret Howard White, at 
Casabianca Ranch. At the start only pianists were members, while 
vocalists, violinists and players of other instruments were associate mem- 
bers. The associate members were admitted to active membership in 
1898. This has been a flourishing organization from the start and one 
the work of which has been appreciated greatly by the people of 
Redlands, who have been the beneficiaries in the way of splendid musi- 
cal entertainment. Officers of the Spinet Club for 1921 are : Miss Annette 
Cartlidge, president ; Mrs. E. D. Patterson, first vice president : Mrs. S. 
Guy Jones, second vice president; Miss Joybelle Hatcher, secretary; 
Miss H. Grace Eaton, treasurer ; Mrs. Paul W. Moore, business manager ; 
Miss Nellie H. Ruggles, assistant business manager: Mrs. C. M. Brown, 


Churches. The first Protestant religious services were held in 
Eastberne Valley in 1873, at the residence of H. M. Crafts, at Crafton. 
In April, 1876, the first prayer meeting in Lugonia was held at the 
residence of Colonel Tolles. During the summer of 1877 C. E. Brink, 
a Baptist, was influential in starting a Union Sunday school at Lugonia. 
At a meeting held at the Lugonia schoolhouse, April 17, 1880, a com- 
mittee was appointed to effect an organization of church members, and 
the churches of San Bernardino and Riverside, were invited to hold a 
council, April 17, 1880. This meeting resulted, April 18, 1880, in the 
organization of a congregation known as the Second Congregational 
Church of San Bernardino. A church structure was duly erected, the 
dedication being January 7, 1883, and the meeting of the Southern 
California Association of Congregational churches was held in this struc- 
ture in May. 1885. In 1887 the name of the church was changed to the 
First Congregational Church of Lugonia. In June, 1888, noting that 
the tide of settlement was drifting away from Lugonia, the people of 
this church purchased a lot at the corner of Olive Avenue and Cajon 
Street, where a chapel was erected the following year, and in January. 
1889, the name of the church was changed to the First Congregational 
Church of Redlands. The new church was dedicated March 9, 1890. 
and in the summer of 1894 a considerable addition was made to the 
church which increased its seating capacity to 400. In 1898 the mem- 
bers of the Lugonia Terrace Church, who had withdrawn from the 
Redlands congregation, united again with the latter church, and in 
January, 1899. it was found necessary to seek larger accommodations. 
Accordingly a new structure, modern and commodious, was erected, 
being dedicated April 1, 1900. The church maintains a Sunday school. 
a Christian Endeavor Society, a Ladies' Union (including Church Aid 
and Missionary), a young women's free-will offering society, a Junior 
Society, a Young Men's League and a Cradle Roll. 

In 1886, accepting the offer of Messrs. Judson and Brown to give 
substantial aid to the building of an Episcopal chapel for the new settle- 
ment of Redlands, Rev. .\. Fletcher, the Episcopal missionary at Colton 
went to work on subscriptions, and on June 6. 1887, the cornerstone of 
the building was laid in Residence Tract. It was formally dedicated 
July 17, 1887, as Trinity Church of Redlands, of the mission of Lugonia 
and Redlands. In 1896 the building was placed on the southeast corner 
of Cajon Street and Olive Avenue, which had become known as Trinity 
Episcopal Church, and occupied this site until Easter Sunday, when the 
new church was dedicated on the southeast corner of Fourth Street and 
Fern Avenue. 

The growth of Crafton and the new town of Mentone demanded a 
religious organization to care for the .spiritual interests of the new 
settlers, and in 1889 a Sabbath school was first organized at the Crafton 
schoolhouse. This grew into a church organization, formed at Mentone 
May 20, 1892, twenty-seven charter members being received. In the 
same year a church building was erected at a cost of $2,000, known as 
the Mentone Congregational Church, and a neat parish house ha'^ since 
been added. 

In the winter of 1886-87 Rev. James S. McDonald, a synodical min- 
ister of the First Presbyterian Church, began preaching at Redlands. 
After a meeting it was decided to organize a congregation to be known 
as the Presbyterian Church of East San Bernardino \'alley. The first 
chapel building was completed January 23, 1890, located at the corner 
of Orange and \'ine streets. On April 25, 1904, the church purcha'^ed 
the lot which is the site of the present church edifice, but building was 


deferred and it was not until January 22, 1899, that the new structure 
was occupied. Numerous improvements and enlargements have since 
been made and this is now one of the attractive and valuable church 
properties of the city. 

The First Baptist Church of Redlands was first called the Central 
Baptist Church of Redlands and Lugonia and was organized at the 
Lugonia schoolhouse, November 13, 1887. The early services were held 
in a tent, but March 31, 1889, the dedicatory services in the new chapel 
were held. In March, 1894, the congregation having outgrown the 
chapel, removal was made to the Y. M. C. A. Building, which was 
used by the church for its Sunday services for over two years. During 
the winter of 1894-95 a new parsonage was erected, and early in 1896 
the church entered upon the erection of a new edifice, which was com- 
pleted before the close of the year. The church building was enlarged 
during the summer of 1900, and during 1903 a new stone Sunday school 
building was added to the church property. 

The first Methodist service at Redlands was preached at the old 
Y. M. C. A. Hall, October 16, 1887, and the First Methodist Church 
was organized November 15th of the same year. On March 25, 1890, 
two lots were purchased at the southwest corner of Cajon Street and 
Citrus Avenue, on which site a church building was erected. The next 
year a lot was purchased at 115 East Olive Avenue, on which was 
erected a parsonage. Early in 1895 the church was remodeled, and in 
March, 1906, two additional lots were purchased to the west. In 1901 
seven lots at Cajon Street and Olive Avenue were purchased, the old lots 
and church were sold, and the cornerstone of the new building was 
laid November 5, 1902. The beautiful new church, with its handsome 
and appropriate furnishings, was dedicated June 7. 1903. 

On May 2, 1887, the first meeting for the organization of a Young 
Men's Christian Association at Redlands was followed by a public session 
the same evening in the Lugonia Congregational Church, when the organ- 
ization of the society was completed. A two-story brick structure was 
erected on West Street, and the first service held October 8, 1887, this 
being followed November 1st by the first social. In 1892 the association 
entertained the Ninth Annual District Convention ; July 29, 1892, it 
became an incorporated association. In 1893 the old building was sold, 
and in November, 1894, the cornerstone was laid for the present building, 
the first services being held therein in March, 1895. Improvements and 
additions have since been made. The association is a strong one and 
has always carried on a vigorous and successful fight among the young 
men of the city. 

The Smiley Brothers.* Redlands is indebted to many contributing 
forces for its growth and development, but to none more than to Alfred H. 
and Albert K. Smiley, twin brothers, natives of Vassalboro, Maine, where 
they were born March 17, 1828. Coming to Redlands in 1889, they pur- 
chased what later became known as Canon Crest Park, where they subse- 
quently developed one of the most beautiful spots in California. This 
property was described as follows by William M. Tisdale. in the Out 
West magazine : "Everywhere shrubs and trees have been disposed 
with an eye to the most striking and artistic effects of color and foliage. 
Everywhere the flowering plants have been so placed as to provide an 
increasing variety of bloom from one year's end to another — a limitless 
wealth of color, fragrance and beauty. And some of the beauty is made 
to serve distinctly utilitarian purposes as well, for there are about fiftv 
acres of thrifty orange trees and many lemons and olives." Ingersoll, 


in his Century Annals of San Bernardino County, says : "The location 
of Alfred H. and Albert K. Smiley in Redlands was one of the Key- 
stone events in her history. Through their business relations, as pro- 
prietors of some of the most popular resorts in the State of New York, 
and through their wide social prominence as educators, philanthropists 
and public men, the brothers exerted unusual influence. The deep interest 
which they manifested in their homes here, and in the welfare of the 
town, their generous expenditures, not only of money, but of thought 
and of personal attentions, helped to build up Redlands in many direc- 
tions. The Smiley brothers were heartily in accord with the Young 
Men's Christian Association enterprise, and it was largely due to their 
generosity that this organization was planted on so firm a basis in 
Redlands and that they were enabled to complete the fine building which 
they erected in 1894. The brothers and their families assisted largely 
in the support and the building of the Congregational Church. They 
gave flowers, shrubbery and trees, and aided in their proper planting and 
arrangement on the grounds of the Kingsbury and the Union High 
schools, and also about the various churches. In the spring of 1896 
Alfred K. Smiley announced that he would give $200 in prizes to those 
persons, 'who during the ensuing year, beginning Alay 1st, should main- 
tain their grounds with neatness, and show good taste in the selection 
and arrangement of decorative plants.' * * * The results were so 
satisfactory that Mr. Smiley made a similar offer for another year 
Not content with having accomplished all this for the city of his adop- 
tion, in addition to the magnificent park which he and his brother had 
so generously opened to the public for their use and enjoyment. A. K. 
Smiley, thought that a city park near the business center was desirable, 
even in this garden city, and in the autumn of 1895 he determined that 
Redlands should have such a tract of land set aside forever as a public 
park, for the use and enjoyment of the citizens of Redlands. and their 
guests. * * * First was bought six acres lying north of Olive 
Avenue, and between Eureka and Grant streets. Next nine acres lying 
just west of this, and across Grant Street. Then followed purchase 
after purchase of lots adjacent, until sufficient ground was secured for 
a public park leading to the business portion of the city up to the site 
of the library building, and extending beyond it to the main park on 
Grant Street. In the acquiring of this property a large sum of money 
was expended and many difficulties encountered. * * * Jiig library 
building as it now stands is the result of much study on the part of 
Mr. Smiley. The style of architecture is Moorish, popularly called 
'Mission.' The walls are of solid brick, relieved by stone trimmings, and 
the roof is of the best quality of heavy tilii)^. The main building is in 
the shape of a cross, 100 feet each wav, and the structure and grounds 
cost between $50,000 and $60,000." 

The Smiley Library was dedicated and presented to the City of 
Redlands, April 29, 1898, and thus Redlands came into possession of one 
of the most perfectly appointed library buildings in the State of Cali- 
fornia. The history of this library dates back to December 5, 1891. 
at which time the Messrs. Smiley, J. B. Breed, and others, interested 
in the establishment of a public library and reading room called a 
meeting to discuss the matter. As a result of this interest a Coffee 
parlor and reading room were opened in the old Y. M. C. A. Building 
in March, 1892. In the winter of 1893, the Redlands Library Associa- 
tion was formed, with F. P. Meserve as president and Mrs. White, 
secretary, and by January 1, 1894, had accumulated funds sufficient to 
purchase $1,000 worth of books. On the completion of the new 

z s 
o " 





Y. M. C. A. Building, in 1895, the library was established therein, 
remaining until removed to the Smiley Library. 

The Press of Redlaxds. One of the first steps of the promoters 
of Redlands was the formation of the Redlands News Company, which 
immediately selected Scipio Craig as the editor and manager of a new 
enterprise, which Mr. Craig straightforward named the Citrograph. The 
first issue appeared Saturday, July 16, 1887. from the office then located 
in the building at the southwest corner of State and Fifth streets, where 
it continued to be published until its own building was completed 
August 1, 1889. The paper, by its make-up, its devotion to and its 
faith in Redlands and its original and energetic editorials, attracted wide 
attention, and, naturally, gained success. It was enlarged three times 
within the first six months and at the end of that time had a subscrip- 
tion list of 1.200 names, in a town only six months old. In 1903 the 
Citrograph moved to a larger establishment of its own. It has con- 
tinued to be a warm supporter of the interests of Redlands, its insti- 
tutions and its people and has been a large contributor to the move- 
ments which have made for advancement. 

On October 23, 1890, there was founded a weekly news sheet, known 
as The Facts, S. F. Howe being the publisher. It was prohibition in 
politics, as was a later paper, the Daily Facts, founded by Mr. Howe 
October 31, 1892. The weekly was discontinued February 17. 1893. 
and in April of the same vear the dailv was sold to A. S. Sheahan, who 
sold out to E. F. Howe and J. P. Durbin. in October, 1894. On April 1. 
1895, the size of the paper was enlarged and the name changed to Red- 
lands Facts, and .\ugust 1, 1895, Capt. William S. Moore, a health- 
seeker from Pennsylvania, purchased the paper and changed its policy 
to that of independent republican. The paper was again enlarged in 
size in November, 1896. and -August 2. 1897. adopted its present heading 
of Redlands Daily Facts. Captain Moore died May 7. 1899, and was suc- 
ceeded in ownership by his heirs. The Moore Company. W. M. Newton at 
that time becoming editor and manager. Lyman King is the present 
editor. The paper has since been enlarged on several occasions, and 
now has Associated Press service and all the conconimitants of a first- 
class newspaper. 

In 1895 a weekly called The Hour was started by A. H. Corman. it 
being a prohibition sheet. Later it passed into the hands of \\'. E. Willis, 
who changed it into a general weekly local newspaper, and named it the 
Redlands Review. In November. 1901. the daily edition was started, 
Mr. Willis having in the meanwhile formed a business connection with 
A. E. Brock. On February 1, 1902. the paper was purchased by the 
Review Publishing Company, with Lyman M. King, as the managing 
editor, and was made republican in politics. The paper has been increased 
on a number of occasions, and has Associated Press service. 

The Redl.\nds Board of Trade. In February, 1888. with L. \\'. 
Clark as secretary, tlie first Redlands Board of Trade was organized 
and at once began a vigorous compaign for the advancement of the new 
town. One of the first achievements of the body was the issuance of a 
folder setting forth the advantages and attractions of Redlands and the 
engagement of a publicity agent, an agency through which the Smiley 
brothers were brought to the town. They likewise gave their attention 
to Redlands fruit displays, and in other ways showed their progressive- 
ness, but after several years the interest of the members seems to have 
lapsed and the body died out. On December 12. 1893, to succeed the 
former body, there was organized a Chamber of Commerce, with A. B. 


jles as president; J. Lee Burton as vice president; and E. G. Judson, 
secretary. The Chamber of Commerce worked effectively, accomplishing 
among other things the establishment of the Casa Loma and the building 
of the cannery. Like the other body, however, its efforts died out. 
On December 28, 1898, at Woodman's Hall, there was effected the 
organization of the Redlands Board of Trade, which has since done 
much good work and has been a most important factor in the unprece- 
dented growth made by Redlands. Its exhibition rooms are an attractive 
spot for visitors and tourists, and no other city of equal size in the state 
a more active and influential commercial organization. 

Modern Redlands. The years have passed by until 1921 comes and 
goes. The threads of the narrative will now be gathered into a story, 
although the Romance of Redlands cannot be told in a brief page, nor its 
beauties and things accomplished, explained in cold type. The story is 
entwined with the far-seeing vision of men who could look beyond mere 
semi-arid cattle range and picture a garden of loveliness, made possible 
by the hardihood of courageous pioneers who were not afraid to do, to 
dare, to wait. So it comes that today Redlands sits like a jewel at the 
head of the valley crowning an achievement truly Californian. 

Redlands is at the extreme upper end of the valley on the east, and 
is sixty-seven miles from Los Angeles, with railroad, electric line and 
paved boulevard connections. Those who study the deep workings of the 
human mind, readily understand that the dreamers of the world play a 
big part in its development, and "What dreamest thou?" is answered, as 
the years roll by, in things very much "worth while." The twin brothers, 
Alfred K. and Albert K. Smiley, had a vision, and to this vision they 
attached a program, and through the vision and program these two 
master spirits wrought a wonderland — Smiley Heights, a park of exquisite 
rugged gardens. This beautiful park belongs to Redlands — and the world. 
And then another dream realized, the splendid library set in a wooded, 
green park, four blocks in extent, Moorish in architecture, substantially 
and beautifully furnished, with 38,000 books on the shelves. This mag- 
nificent A. K. Smiley Library, approximately valued at over $100,000. 
belongs to Redlands and also to the world. The library with its air of 
peace and refinement has attracted writers world famous, and a little 
niche is given over to a collection of their autograph productions. Many 
of the plaques, pictures and statues were selected by the curator of 
the Metropolitan Art Museum, New York City. There is a special col- 
lection embracing Egyptian archeologic objects of very great value, some 
being 4,000 to 6,000 years old. The only Carnegie contribution was money 
to start a collection of books on the Indians west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. There is a memorial collection of Junius W. Hill's books on 
music, given by his wife, who still retains her home in Redlands. Of a 
population of 10,000, there are nearly 6,000 book borrowers, and from 
the American Library Association came the word that on record this was 
the highest per capita circulation in the L'nited States. All these book 
borrowers have been registered since reorganization of the library in 1920. 

Mrs. Frederick (Elizabeth Lowry) Sanborn is librarian. The trustees 
of the A. K. Smiley Library are : Kirke H. Field, president ; Stewart R. 
Hotchkiss, Lyman M. King, J. J. Prendergast, Willard A. Nichols. 

Redlands has two other beautiful parks. Prospect and Sylvan. There 
are many active agencies that contribute greatly to the upbuilding of the 
city — a day nursery, supported by the community ; a strong Y .M. C. A. 
and Y. W. C. A. The Fortnightly and LT^niversity clubs are powers along 
intellectual lines, and the Country and Rifle clubs have a large member- 


ship. Fraternal organizations are many, among them being the Rotary 
and Elks. 

Churches of all leading denominations are found; many have hand- 
some, imposing buildings. Over the Congregational Church is Rev. Her- 
bert C. Ide; and the pastor of the Christian Church is Rev. L. M. Meyers. 
Mrs. R. B. Reader is first reader of the Christian Science, and Rev. 
N. D. H. Hynson pastor of the Presbyterian. The rector of Trinity 
Episcopal Church is Rev. Ralph P. Smith. The House of Neighborly 
Service is in the charge of Miss Margaret Walker ; the work is along 
lines of Americanization. The Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart 
has been wonderfully fortunate in having Father T. J. Fitzgerald at its 
head for a period covering many years, almost during the lifetime of the 
city. He has been faithfully interested in the life of the community and 
has been a power of good. 

The Redlands Community Players' Association has for its object help- 
ing home talent. Every year there is a spring pageant given by the city. 
In the spring of 1921 the play, "Spirit of the Town," written and directed 
by Garnet Holme, was carried out, depicting an allegorical story of 

The University of Redlands, under the auspices of the Baptist 
denomination of the state, has an enrollment of 375 students. The school 
comprises a group of buildings, commodious and imposing looking, and 
in appearance very much resemble a little city. The president of the 
University is Dr. Victor L. Dukes, and general secretary, Judge J. W. 
Curtis of San Bernardino. 

Another institution is Loma Linda, a hospital and sanitarium and 
medical and nurses' training school of the Seventh Day Adventist faith, a 
branch of Battle Creek, Mich. 

Redlands has an assessed valuation of $9,000,000.00; school enroll- 
ment, 2,310. 

City officers are : Board of Trustees — A. F. Brock, president ; C. A. 
Tripp, W. L. Fowler, Jesse Simpson, Rev. Wade Hamilton. Clinton P. 
Hok, city clerk, assessor, auditor ; C. J. Tripp, treasurer ; Peter C. Mclver, 
recorder; G. S. Hinckley, engineer; G. E. Larmore, marshal; Frank 
Leonard, attorney ; G. S. Hinckley, street superintendent ; Dr. Kenneth L. 
Dole, health officer; H. G. Clemment, superintendent of schools; J. A. 
Revera, constable; M. E. Armstrong, building inspector; J. C. Tripp, tax 
collector; G. S. Hinckley, park superintendent and water supervisor. 

The Redlands National Bank and the Union Savings Bank of Red- 
lands have combined with resources of $3,103,230.51, and officered as 
follows: H. H. Ford, president; E. M. Lyon, vice president; G. E. 
Soucher, cashier; F. K. Grassle, assistant cashier. Directors: E. M. 
Lyon, C. A. Tripp, E. Cohen, R. E. Bell, A. Wheaton, F. C. Hornby, 
H. H. Ford, M. W. Hill, L. M. King. 

The Savings Bank of Redlands on September 6, 1921, had resources 
of $1,305,804.36, with the following officers: AI. J. Sweeney, president; 
W. L. Pile, vice president ; John P. Fisk, vice president ; Silas Williams, 
secretary ; M. Lombard, cashier ; L. S. Morrison, assistant cashier. 
Directors: M. J. Sweeney, John P. Fisk, Herbert L. Hubbard. Edward M. 
Cope, Charles H. Clock, W. L. Pile, Silas Williams, H. H. Garston and 
H. W. Seager. 

The First National Bank of Redlands on September 6, 1921, had 
resources of $2,272,270.53. and is officered as follows: M. J. Sweeney, 
president ; Edward M. Cope, vice president ; John P. Fisk, vice president ; 
Austin T. Park, cashier ; S. R. Hemingway, assistant cashier ; A. M. Sar- 
gent, assistant cashier. Directors: H. H. Garstin, A. Gregory, Edward 


M. Cope, W. W. Seager, John P. Fisk M. J. Sweeney, Herbert L. Hub- 
bard, \V. L. Pile, C. H. Clock. , " 

The Chamber of Commerce is a power for usefulness and in its 
loyalty to the community has strengthened all endeavors. The Redlands 
Chamber of Commerce is splendidly officered : H. A. Cherrier, president ; 
K. H. Field, vice-president; A. E. Isham, secretary-treasurer; Philip Har- 
ris, comptroller. 

There is a little scrap of history connected with Smiley Heights and 
its trees not generally known. Mr. Smiley contracted with a San Ber- 
nardino nurseryman for 500 cedar Deora trees for the park at $5.00 a 
tree. In the spring of 1888 or 1889 the trees arrived. The 500 trees 
were set in tin cans — found on any rubbish heap — and were from ten to 
fifteen inches high. In counting them over, there was found one very 
inferior tree, and this one 'Mr. Smiley did not care to pay $5.00 for, and 
suggested that it be "thrown in." But the nurseryman did not see it in 
that light, and so ]Mr. Smiley left with his 499 trees just as a lady cus- 
tomer entered the door, and to her the nurseryman gave the one tree. 
Today Smiley Heights has those 499 magnificent trees, the pride and joy 
of everyone, and over in Seventh Street. San Bernardino, is that cull 
of the bunch, a truly splendid specimen of the tree kingdom, the delight 
of the whole city. It is also interesting to know that the early trees were 
from seeds gathered on the Himalaya Mountains, India, propagated in 
France, shipped to wholesale dealers in Los Angeles and from there sup- 
plied to the retailers. Forty years ago they were just coming into favor, 
today they are planted in plenty. 

Cr.^fton. Included with the history of Redlands should be that of 
Crafton. which now forms a part of the former, and which is one of the 
oldest and most beautiful of the fruit settlements of San Bernardino 
County. Lying twelve miles east of the City of San Bernardino, at 
the mouth of the Santa Ana Canon and the base of the San Bernardino 
Range, through its settlement flows the beautiful Mill Creek zanja. About 
1857 Lewis Cram and his brothers, already the owners of a chair factory 
at old San Bernardino, moved several miles further up the zanja in 
order to secure better water power, this being the first occupation of what 
is now known as Crafton. There were several other settlers shortly 
thereafter, and during the early '60s various parties located in this vicinity. 
The soil of the neighborhood was a rich loam and in the earlier years of 
settlement large crops of barley and wheat were raised and vineyards and 
orchards of apples, peaches and other deciduous fruits had begim to bear 
by 1865. In 1870 M. H. Crafts planted about an acre and a half of 
seedling orange trees, the first orange orchard in Crafton. and a few- 
years later Dr. William Craig. Prof. Charles R. Paine and others put out 
quite extensive orange orchards of both seedlings and budded fruit. 
.Sheep and stock were also kept during the early period, the work on 
the ranclies being done largely by the Coahuila Indians. In 1872 Doctor 
Peacock of .San Bernardino persuaded ]\Ir. Crafts to take an invalid to 
board at his home. The sick man improved so rapidly that soon other 
invalids were sent to "Altoona" and in time the house was enlarged and 
made into a hotel and sanitarium. One of the visitors gave it the name 
of Crafton and another that of Retreat, and in time the place became 
generally known as Crafton Retreat. 

On August 7. 1882. there was organized the Crafton School District, 
and the school was opened the same year. In 1887 bonds were voted for 
$6,500 and a new schoolhouse was put in use in 1888. Early in the '80s 
Mr. Crafts erected a two-story frame store building and opened a store 
for trade with the Indians, the second floor of this establishment being 


used for Sunday school and church services. About 1885 a postoffice 
was established at Crafton, with M. H. Crafts as the first postmaster, 
but since that time the name of the office has been changed to Craftonville, 
in order to avoid confusion with Grafton. l\Ir. Crafts having accumu- 
lated some 1,800 acres of land, in 1882 he organized the Crafton Land 
& Water Company and subdivided his land. A town site was laid out, 
forty acres was donated as a site for a Congregational college, which was 
the nucleus for Claremont College, and a reservoir for the storage of 
Mill Creek waters was constructed in the hills east of Crafton Retreat. 
In 1886 there was formed a syndicate with I. N. Hoag as controlling 
spirit for the sale of Crafton lands, and a number of eastern settlers 
came in, bought lands and established homes, making this a beautiful 
and prosperous settlement. \\'hen the Citv of Redlands was incor- 
porated, a portion of Crafton was included in the City of Redlands. but the 
Crafton School District continued to be maintained, supporting a gram- 
mar school. 

LuG0Xi.\. What was formerly Lugonia. and now is a part of the 
City of Redlands, lies in a gently rising valley west of the City of San 

Redlands .\nd Lugoni.\ from "The Heights," 1890 

Bernardino. It was in this neighborhood that the old padres first settled, 
and here in 1856 that the Cram brothers started the first settlement at 
Crafton. In February, 1870, George A. Craw took up a government 
claim between these two settlements and thus became the first settler 
of what afterward became Lugonia. He was followed IMarch 3d of 
the same year by James B. Glover, who located a claim on what later 
became Pioneer Street, and later by A. A. Carter, in whose family 
occurred the birth in 1871 and the first death in 1874. Other settlers 
followed more or less rapidlv, including Colonel Tolles, who planted the 
first orange orchard, which began to bear in seven vears. In February, 
1877, a new school district was taken off from Mission District, and 
at the suggestion of Prof. C. R. Paine, then county superintendent of 
schools, was named Lugonia, a word formed bv the addition of a syllable 
to Lugo, the name of the original owner of the San Bernardino grant. 
The first schoolhouse was located at the corner of Church Street and 
Lugonia Avenue and later became a part of the residence of Truman 
Reeves, Esq. In March, 1877, Frank E. Brown, Georee A. Cook and 
A. H. Alverson of New Haven, Connecticut, visited this .section, with 
which thev were so delighted that they decided to establish a New Haven 
colony. While this failed to materialize, Messrs. Cook and Brown became 
permanent settlers, and the first vear the latter purchased ten acres of the 


Tolles place, while in 1879 Mr. Cook returned with his bride from the 
East and bought land adjoining that of the Brown place. In 1877, E. G. 
Judson of New York City arrived and purchased land on Pioneer Street. 

Gradually Lugonia. lying above the "danger" line of frost, surrounded 
by beautiful mountain scenery, and possessed of fertile soil and a good 
supply of water, became an attractive and productive settlement, and by 
1885 a large acreage of orange trees had been set. Dr. J. D. B. Stillman, 
a scholar, physician and author, located in 1879 at Lugonia, where he 
bought a tract of land north of the zanja and began the planting of a 
vineyard of 100 acres, setting out 120.000 vines of the choicest varieties. 
In 1885 he erected a completely equipped settlement and began the manu- 
facture of the finest wines. During the summer of 1881 G. A. Cook 
opened a store in a small building located near the fruit dryer of Judson 
& Brown, but in the fall moved to the Gernich place on Lugonia Avenue, 
and two years later sold this building and built another on a lot opposite 
the present site of Casa Loma, Opened for business July 28, 1882, so 
rapidly did trade grow that Mr. Cook was forced to enlarge four times 
in the next three years, being patronized by ranchers for miles about, 
miners and Indians. On September 5, 1882, the postofflce was estab- 
lished at Lugonia. with Mr. Cook as postmaster, and the telegraph and 
telephone station were also located in this store. In 1885 Mr. Cook sold 
out to F. E. Brown, and the building was occupied by the B. O. John- 
son Company until the removal of that firm to Redlands. In 1887 the 
Bank of East San Bernardino Valley, which later became the First 
National Bank of Redlands, was organized and was at first located in 
the store mentioned, but with the completion of the \\'ilson Block 
was removed to the corner office therein. The Terrace Congregational 
Church was completed and occupied in January. 1883, in November of 
which year the Lugonia Water Company was organized. 

In 1884 the Lugonia School District voted bonds to the amount of 
$6,000 to build a schoolhouse, which was readv for occupancy in January, 
1885, being at that time one of the largest and best schools in the county. 
What was known to the old settlers as the "hogback," the high ground 
north of Mill Creek zanja, was now transformed into the "terrace." 
where some of the finest homes of Lugonia were built, and also the loca- 
tion of the Terrace Villa Hotel. In 1886 Messrs. Berry and Wilson 
erected a two-story business block on the latter site of the Casa Loma, 
the lower story being divided into floors and the upper floor containing 
a hall with a seating capacity of 500, known as the Opera House. The 
opening of this house of entertainment brought forth a long article in 
the San Bernardino Times, the "story" being crowded with fulsome praise 
and numerous encomiums. The growing little community, like others, 
was afifected by the boom period, and March 31, 1887, a town plat was 
filed. At a regulation excursion and land sale which was held not long 
thereafter, it was reported that nearly every lot had been sold and that 
good prices were the rule rather than the exception. In September, 1887, 
the newspaper was started known as the Southern Californian, with H. E. 
Boothby as editor, but it had only a short career, expiring in 1888. 

Right at a time when Lugonia's prospects seemed the brightest, the 
later community of Redlands began to attract settlement, and this soon 
brought about the question of incorporation. While it was generally 
conceded that the amalgamation of the two towns was the sensible thing 
to do, the matter of a name was an obstacle that was hard to surmount. 
However, after the matter had been discussed and thoroughly thrashed 
out for more than a year, the name of Redlands was finally agreed upon, 
and this ended in the incorporation of the latter city, November 26. 1888. 



The formation of the Slover Mountain Colony Association, in 1873, 
marked the begfinning of the history of the community of Colton. This 
organization, which was composed of William H. Mintzner, president ; 
J. C. Peacock, Ambrose Hunt. W. R. Fox and P. A. Raynor, bought 
2,000 acres of land lying on the sandy place to the south of San Bernar- 
dino and bordering on the Santa Ana River, from William A. Conn. 
This property had been considered worthless for farming, but the asso- 
ciation platted the property and began to offer inducements to settlers. 
A tract of land with a well was offered the first settler, and in 1874 
Dr. W. R. Fox selected forty acres, built a house and moyed in with his 
family, thus becoming the first resident of Colton. He was soon followed 
by others who settled on Colton Terrace, these including Rev. James 
Cameron and the Gregory brothers. 

At this time the Western Development Company was constructing 
the track of the Southern Pacific Railroad eastward from Spadra, and 
as the tract of the Slover Mountain Company lay directly in line between 
Spadra, the terminal of the Southern Pacific at the time, and the San 
Gorgonio Pass, through which the road was to cross the mountains, 
negotiations were opened with the construction company and the railroad. 
It is not unlikely that the promoters had received an inkling that the 
railroad must take this course, for while San Bernardino was not on the 
track, there must be some point through which its goods could be handled. 
At any rate an agreement was entered into with the railroad's representa- 
tives whereby the association was to deed to the Western Development 
Company, which was but another name for the Southern Pacific, one 
mile square of land, the railroad to make this its headquarters for the 
San Bernardino valley, to lay out and improve a town site and to share 
in the proceeds of the sale of lots. Out of this agreement grew the law 
suit of Raynor vs. Mintzner, which was one of the longest and hardest 
fought in the annals of San Bernardino County, and which was finally 
adjusted by awarding Raynor an undivided four-sevenths interest in the 
original holdings of the Slover Mountain Association. 

The contract referred to was signed April 17, 1875, and tanks and a 
station were built at once. On August 11, 1875. the first train that ever 
entered San Bernardino Valley reached Colton. This station had been 
named in honor of one of the officials of the railroad, D. R. Colton, and 
for a year or more was the terminus of the line. The first station and 
express agent at this point was L. E. Mosher, whose later career as a 
writer and newspaper man and his sad death are well known throughout 
the state. One of the first settlers in the new town was M. A. Murphy, 
representing the Pioneer Lumber Company, whose office and yards Vv-ere 
among the first improvements made. One Callahan was another early 
business man, conducting a restaurant, while the next place of business 
to open its doors was a buffet. Even before there was a residence in 
town, A. M. Hathaway and N. E. Davenport contracted with Jacob Pol- 
hemus & Son of San Bernardino for the erection of a store building, in 
which they installed some $20,000 worth of goods and began at once to 
do a rushing business. In this store was located the first postoffice, and 


Mr. Hathaway acted as postmaster. Jacob Lairs was the first hotel- 
keeper of Colton, opening his house, which was built right after the store 
building, May 20, 1876, in which month the Riverside Press credits 
Colton with nine buildings, these probably including the residences on 
Colton Terrace. The first residence within the town proper was a three- 
room house built for N. Davenport. 

The Transcontinental Hotel, a frame structure, was erected by the 
railroad company in the fall of 1876, and when burned in what was 
suspected to be an incendiary fire, a year or so later, was replaced with 
a brick building, known as the Capitol Hotel, fitted up in what was then 
considered remarkable style and under the management of Dr. Albert 
Thompson. In 1876 the Presbyterian Church was organized by Rev. 
James Cameron. The first meetings were held in the hotel, but the next 
year subscriptions were raised for the erection of a church building, and 
after a trip to the East Mrs. Cameron returned with sufficient funds so 
that the edifice was dedicated free of debt. 

The Colton Advocate, Colton's first newspaper, made its appearance 
in 1877, under the ownership of Dr. Gofrey and Mr. Franklin, from 
whom it was purchased in 1878 by Scipio Craig, who changed the name 
to the Semi-Tropic. Through its columns, and personally, he did much 
to advance the interests of the new town. However, although Colton was 
the railway point and received the support of the Southern Pacific Com- 
panv, the town had much to contend with. That a town could grow 
up at Colton was an idea scorned at first by the surrounding communities, 
as noted in the editorials of the day, which fairly bristled with sarcasm. 
Not unnaturally there was much bitterness for some years, yet, while 
receiving no encouragement from its neighbors, Colton continued to grow 
and prosper 

In June, 1877, the Colton Land & Water Company was formed and 
absorbed the original association. The new concern acquired the rights 
to Raynor's Springs and also put down a number of artesian wells and 
piped water into Colton for irrigation and for domestic purposes. About 
1879 the Colton Terrace Company was organized and by securing water 
from Garner's Springs and from the old Rancheria ditch, and also by 
sinking artesian wells, was able to put water upon a considerable tract 
of the higher lands. 

The village had grown to be a communitv of some 300 inhabitants 
by 1880, in which year the San Jose Packing Company ])ut up a cannery 
and beean handling fresh and dried fruits in large quantities. The 
Colton Marble & Lime Company was formed in 1881 and began the 
erection of a plant at Slover Mountain, and. when the Santa Fe system 
cnme into Southern California, Colton shared in the prosperity that struck 
the entire part of the state. When work was commenced on the Southern 
California Railway, there was much discussion as to what route it would 
take to reqch San Bernardino, and at one time it seemed that it would 
sidetrack Colton entirely, but after the citizens had secured a right-of- 
wav and donated land for the erection of the shops, the road entered 
Colton August 21. 1882, and regular train service commenced between 
this city and San Diego, although the legal fight between the California 
Southern and the Southern Pacific roads prevented San Bernardino from 
securing such service for more than a year. When matters were finally 
settled. Colton, as the junction point, received additional business. 

During the "boom" years Colton. like its sister cities, grew rapidly, 
.^00 a-res just north of the original town were platted and placed on 


the market and the- streets were graded and water brought to the tract. 
In 1886 the daily Semi-Tropic made its appearance. In 1887 the South- 
ern Pacific purchased the unsold lots of the original town site of Colton 
and the Colton Land & Water Company passed practically out of exist- 
ence. In July, 1887, the town of Colton was incorporated as a city of 
the sixth class, and in November of the same year the city trustees 
granted a franchise for the motor road, this being operated between 
Colton and San Bernardino and Riversity by the Southern California 
Motor Company, and later by a receiver, until July 25, 1896, when it 
went into the hands of the Southern Pacific Company. The first street 
pavements were put down in 1888 and a franchise was granted the 
Electric Light & Power Company of San Bernardino, this company 
securing its power from the Riverside Canal near Colton. In 1889 the 
Fire Company was formed and an engine purchased, and October 16, 
1889, the town voted $12,000 in bonds for the erection of a City Hall, 
which was erected during the following year. 

Keeping pace with its municipal advancement were the city's business 
interests. The canning company experiment of the San Jose concern 
had not proven a success, and in 1886 the Colton Fruit Packing Company 
was organized and" began canning and drying fruit. Jacob Polhemus 
erected the first brick building in the town, a two-story structure, in 
1886, where he had originally settled in 1877, and the First National Bank 
was established in the same year, this being a business growing out of a 
private banking enterprise which had been carried on for several years 
by S. M. Goddard and James Lee, who were at the same time doing a 
large business as wholesale flour and provision dealers. In 1889 Colton 
shipped more citrus fruit than any other point in the state, 581 cars 
being billed out of the place over the Southern Pacific alone, while in 
the following year the same company sent out 811 cars of fruit. During 
the season of 1889 the Colton Canning Company put up 1,000,000 cans 
of fruit and packed forty tons of dried fruit and 40,000 boxes of raisins. 
In 1889 R. M. McKie purchased the Colton Semi-Tropic and renamed 
it the Chronicle, and about the same time the Colton Enterprise was 
started and was followed by the Colton News. 

During the '90s Colton's growth was sure but slow. The citizens 
did not lose their faith or enthusiasm, and when the question of the new 
Courthouse came up they made earnest efforts to secure the county seat 
for their town, offering to donate a block of land and to build a suitable 
courthouse, not to cost less than $200,000. The proposal might have 
been accepted, also, but for the fact that the town was within the pro- 
hibited distance from the county line after the division of the county. 
During these years a number of substantial business blocks were erected, 
as well as the Marlborough Hotel and the Baptist Church ; the streets 
were graded and macadamized and the railway park was improved and 
beautified. The electric service, installed between Colton and San Ber- 
nardino in 1902, added greatly to the transportation facilities. 

In 1881 a company of Riverside men began to quarry marble from 
Slover Mountain, lying three-fourths of a mile southwest of Colton, under 
the style of the Colton Marble & Lime Company, a concern that was 
succeeded in 1887 by the California Marble Company. In December, 
1891, there was organized the California Portland Cement Company, which 
completed its plant at Slover Mountain and began the production of 
cement in April, 1894. This is one of the big industries of Colton. and 
its product, of the finest kind, is shipped all over the surrounding country. 


In addition to the i)ip; railroad shops, Colton lias several other industries 
of importance. One of these is the Globe Flour Mills, which, in 1902, 
erected one of the largest milling establishments in the state, located at 
the junction of the Southern Pacific Railway and the Santa Fe. 

The Colton Fruit Exchange. In 1892 there was organized the 
Colton Fruit Exchange, an association of fruit growers organized for the 
purpose of packing and shipping their own fruit at actual cost. This 
exchange used the old pavilion, which was erected for the State Fair, 
as a packing house, giving them a space of 200 square feet, formerly 
the largest building used for this purpose in Southern California. The 
growers in this corporation receive all money over and above the actual 
cost of packing and shipping their fruit, there being no other profits paid 
to anyone whatever. 

There are a number of other packing houses at Colton and a large 
amount of fruit is handled every year. In 1886 Colton held its first 
Citrus Fair in the old cannery building, and a second fair held here, in 
1891, proved a great success. Such enthusiasm was raised that the 
citizens took steps toward providing the city with a suitable building for 
fairs and expositions, and $12,000 was donated. The Southern Pacific 
offered to donate lots, providing only that the building should be erected 
by January 1, 1893. and the committee in charge erected a handsome 
stadium, 80x192 feet, the most complete and comprehensive building of 
its kind then in Southern California. On March 16, 1893, the State Fair 
was held at this pavilion with the finest exhibit of fruit ever seen in the 
state up to that time. 

Colton's Water Facilities. Colton's first water supply was brought 
to the new community by the railroad company for their tanks and for 
town purposes from Mathew's or Meek's Mill, which had been established 
about one-fourth mile southeast of the Citv Hall for many years. Later 
the Colton Land & Water Company piped water from Raynor's Springs 
and from artesian wells in the vicinity thereof, but it was not until 
July 2, 1888, that the people made a movement calculated to give the 
community an adequate water service. On that date they voted $60,000 
to purchase land 'with water now or hereafter to be developed, and for 
constructing a system of reservoirs and pipes." .Accordingly the water 
supply of the Colton Terrace Company was purchased. That further 
development was made is shown in an article which appeared in the 
Colton Chronicle of 1897: "The supply of water owned and available 
by the city is abundant and of the finest quality." During the dry season 
of 1899-1900 Colton put in four pumping plants, operated by electricity, 
and in 1902 two of these plants were in operation, yielding 175 inches 
of water. 

The first electric light and power of Colton was furnished by a San 
Bernardino company, power being obtained from the Riverside Canal. 
Later a contract was made with the Redlands Electric Light & Power 
Company, who furnished the town with 50 horsepower, twelve arc lights 
and over 800 domestic lights. The Edison Company later furnished the 
town with more than 100 horsepower. 

Education. In 1876, when Colton School District was organized, a 
small frame schoolhouse was erected. In 1883 a two-story brick building, 
containing four rooms, was erected, to which was donated a school bell 
bv Mrs. D. R. Colton. widow of the man in whose honor the town was 


named. In 1886 bonds of $10,000 were voted and in the following year 
the North Side Grammar School was built, a brick structure of eight 
rooms. This was followed in 1903 by the South Side Primary School, 
which cost $4,000, and in the same year bonds were voted for a high 
school building. This was completed in 1904, being a handsome cement 
and brick structure, containing a large assembly hall, recitation rooms, 
laboratories and full equipment for a modem high school. The Colton 
High School was organized in 1896 with Prof. W. F. Bliss as principal. 
The approximate value of school property is $100,000. 

Colton's Churches. The first church at Colton was the Presby- 
terian Church, which was organized in 1876 and has always remained 
a strong religious factor in the life of the city. Its pastor is Rev. 
Harry Leeds. 

In June, 1884, the first Methodist service was held at Colton, the 
service being preached from the platform of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
way station. A class was organized and the conference of the following 
year sent a minister. During 1886 and 1887 a church was organized, 
a lot purchased and a church and parsonage erected at a cost of more 
than $4,000. The church maintains a Sunday school, as well as several 
societies. The pastor is Rev. John Gabreilson. Rev. J. J. Roach is pastor 
of the Baptist Church. 

The Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary was built 
about 1893, and is a neat frame structure located at South Colton. In its 
belfry hangs the old bell made in the '60s at Agua Mansa for use in the 
"little church." The old "campo santo" at Agua Mansa is still used in 
connection with this church. 

As years go, it was a long time since 1876, when Colton became a 
town by virtue of its being a railroad station, to the present year of 1921, 
with its buzz of industry and homes of upwards of 6,000 people. It 
was in 1887 that a company organized in Colton built the first street car 
line into San Bernardino — stages were charging fifty cents one-way trip, 
but when the street cars ran the fare was reduced to thirty-five cents. 
Today a fifteen-cent round trip gives evidence of much increased patron- 
age to warrant the reduction. 

Colton is a city of industry and of enterprise. Its canneries and 
dried fruit packing houses, the Globe Mills Grain & Milling Company, 
pre-cooling plant, citrus fruit packing houses, two national banks, with 
city-owned water and electric companies, speak for prosperity. 

Colton has a wideawake Chamber of Commerce, active in all things 
that means for its advancement. The officers are: President, I. M. 
Knopsnyder : First Vice President, M. P. Cheney; Second Vice Presi- 
dent, J. V. Rea ; Treasurer. F. A. Amundson ; Assistant Secretaries, 
R. P. Head, James King. \\'ilson C. Hanna, E. T. McNeill and Fred O. 
Lewis. Directors: M. P. Cheney, F. A. Amundson, J. V. Rea, I. AI. 
Knopsnyder, James King, Dr. C. F. \\'hitmer, R. P. Head, B A Dixon, 
F O. Lewis 

The Colton Woman's Club is a splendid organization of 140 mem- 
bers. It was organized in 1900 by Mrs. E. D. Roberts, who was elected 
its first president. The club owns its clubhouse, with plans well laid for a 
new one. Officers for the year 1921 are as follows : President, Mrs. 
E. T. McNeill ; First Vice President, Mrs. D. G. Thomas ; Second Vice 
President, Mrs. E. E. Helsby ; Recording Secretary, Mrs. G .H. Jantzen ; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Ralph Emery ; Federation Secretary, Mrs. 
C. F. "\\'hitmer : Treasurer, Mrs. L. C. Newcomer. 


There is a beautiful Carnegie Library, costing upawrds of $25,000. 
Mrs. M. E. Spragins is librarian. 

One of the specially beautiful things accomplished in the last year is a 
Municipal Memorial Park. The sentiment that goes with it — that of 
being a memorial institution — brings added value to the enterprise and 
clothes it round about with that which speaks of the "worth while."' 

During the late war the Red Cross organization received great praise 
for its most excellent work and high honors were bestowed upon the 
members, individually and collectively, for their faithful services, and 
their fame is one of the rich legacies of which Colton is justly proud. 

Colton is a city of orange groves and beautiful homes and takes special 
pride in not only being known as the "Hub City," but as a "well-balanced 


Lying to the west of the "red hills" of Cucamonga is found Ontario, 
the town and colony that in 1882 consisted of only a barren waste extend- 
ing from the San Antonio Canon on the north to the Rancho Santa Ana 
del Chino on the south and from Cucamonga on the east to Rancho San 
Jose on the west. The early history of the colony is that of a part of 
the original Cucamonga Rancho, which, after passing through many 
hands, finally came into the possession. April 15. 1882, of Capt. J. S. 
Garcia and .Surveyor J. S. Dunlap. through "an option for the purchase 
of that part of the grant known as the "San Antonio lands" at the 
net sum of $60,000. This property comprised 6,216 acres, together with 
the water, water rights and privileges of San Antonio Creek, and the 
waste water of Cucamonga Creek. 

Prior to this there had located at Riverside, for the purpose of engag- 
ing in the real estate business, the Chaffey brothers, George B., Jr., and 
William B., and these progressive business men soon formed the acquaint- 
ance of Captain Garcia, who was then residing at Etiwanda, where he 
owned a ranch and one-half of the water in Dry Canon and all the 
water in Smith Canon. He sold his 1,000-acre property to the Chaffey 
Brothers. "Not long afterwards," says Captain Garcia, "I went to San 
Francisco and interviewed the Cucamonga Company and bonded their 
Cucamonga lands with one-half the water flowing from the San Antonio 
Creek for $60,000. I took John C. Dunlap as a partner and he was to 
have one-half the commission over and above the price fixed by the 
company. M. L. Wicks of Los Angeles and Professor Mills of Mills' 
Seminary, Oakland, were then operating largely at Pomona. As soon as 
my option was put on record in San Francisco, Mr. Wicks interviewed 
Mr. Dunlap and offered quite a sum for it. Chaflfey brothers then 
offered Mr. Dunlap and myself the same price as the other parties for 
the option. We consented to let them have it and George Chaffey and 
myself went to San Francisco to make arrangements with the Cucamonga 
Company. Our contract having been surrendered, N. W. Stowell was 
set to work to make cement pipe and also put up the first house in 
Ontario, between Eighth and Ninth. Soon afterward the Chaffey 
brothers built a barn and a boarding house for their men. Andrew 
Rubio was put in supervision of the work." Not long thereafter there 
was laid the cornerstone of Chaffey College. It is said that the plan 
of the Chaffey brothers for their new colony of Ontario, named for their 
former home in Canada, was the most perfect ever formulated for 
colonization. They distributed the water for irrigation over the whole 
tract and delivered it on each lot in iron and concrete pipes, this alone 
requiring some forty miles of piping. In October. 1882, they oragnized 
the San Antonio Water Company and entered into an agreement whereby 
the water was to become ultimately the property of the users. They 
likewise planned to lay out and improve a main thoroughfare through 
the colony. Euclid Avenue being extended from the depot due seven 
miles north, and in addition the brothers donated twenty acres for a 
college and made provisions for an endowment. 

During the next several years work was pushed rapidly and the 
settlers began to come in in goodly numbers. The original colony lands 
had been augmented by the purchase of railroad and government sections 


and by purchase from private individuals, until they now extended as far 
south as the tracks of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The land now 
occupied by the town of Ontario was purchased from Maj. Henry Han- 
cock. The laying of the cornerstone of the college referred to was the 
occasion for a large excursion, and the tourists who made the journey 
were not backward in spreading the fame of the "Model Colony" among 
their friends in other sections. Naturally this brought in an influx of 
settlers from various parts of the country and even from Canada, and 
by March, 1883, the community was ready for its first postoffice, which 
was established with L. Alexander as postmaster. The postoffice was 
installed in June in the new building of the company, and was also the 
railway station, and in the following month the Ontario Hotel was erected 
and opened under the management of O. Sweet, who donated a number of 
books as the nucleus for a public library. In 1883, also, a school district 
was formed, and the public school was established ]\Iarch 8, 1884, in the 
attic of Mclntyre's carpenter shop. The second term it was removed 
to the "adobe" which had been erected for a printing office but never 

Date Palms 

used for that purpose, and in the following year it was removed to the 
college building, where two east rooms on the first floor had been granted 
for its use, pending the erection of a suitable school building. Improve- 
ments went rapidly forward in 1884, and with the appearance of a 
number of skilled mechanics and the establishment of a planing mill and 
lumber yard an impetus was given to building operations. In writing of 
the first edition of the Ontario Record, owned and published by the 
Clarke Brothers, which made its appearance in December, 1885, E. I'. 
Clarke says : "My most vivid recollection of the night we ran of? the 
first edition on a hand press is of the howling of the coyotes — that pretty 
well illustrates the primitive conditions that prevailed in Ontario at 
that time." 

Ontario's first telegraphic message was sent December 11, 1885, a 
year in which the building up and development of the little community 
progressed more rapidly even than in the previous year. The closing of 
the year witnessed the opening of the college, the nucleus of a library and 
reading room, the establishment of the Methodist Church and of Con- 
gregational services and the organizing of the lodge of the A. O. U. W. 
Almost every branch of business was represented at this time. 


An important change took place at Ontario in the spring of 1886, this 
being caused by the Chaffey brothers disposing of their interests to the 
Ontario Land & Improvement Company in order to accept the offer of 
the Australian Government to establish a similar colony in that country. 
Land sales were numerous in 1886, as Ontario had been recognized as 
being in the true citrus belt. The Ontario Land & Improvement Com- 
pany made several important purchases of land, plans were made for the 
subdivision of all the lands south of the railroad, and contracts were let 
for the bank building on Euclid Avenue. The end of 1886 and the 
beginning of 1887 saw the completion of the second school building of 
Ontario and a large addition to the Ontario Hotel. 

Another impetus to the development of the central part of the colony 
was given by the passage of the first Santa Fe train through the Cajon 
Pass. The Bedford Brothers, at their first sale, in May, 1887, disposed 
of $50,000 worth of lots in what is known as Upland, then called Mag- 
nolia, the home of the Magnolia Villa Hotel. The South Side tract 
was put on the market at this time, and various other improvements 
made the year one of marked advancement. An event of the year that 
was not so satisfactory was the furious wind and sand storm of December 
14th, which caused much loss in oranges and fruits and destruction of 
unstable buildings. A lesson was taught, however, and the structures 
that were erected thereafter were firm and sound, while the loss to the 
fruit was instrumental in bringing about a different and improved system 
of pruning. 

Improvements of various kinds continued in 1888, in which sidewalks 
were being laid, streets graded, etc. The narrow gauge road was already 
running to Chino and the rails were laid for the electric road to San 
Antonio Heights, a lot for a cemetery was donated and a cemetery asso- 
ciation was formed. A new paper, known as the Observer, was started 
and assisted greatly in the way of securing new settlers and added capital. 
In 1889 the Citizens' Bank opened its doors, the Ontario Fruit Company 
began business at North Ontario and other enterprises began to flourish 
In 1890 the Southern Pacific Hotel was opened, the People's Building & 
Loan Association was organized and Harwood Brothers, to whom the 
interests of the Ontario Land & Development Company had been assigned, 
purchased what is now Upland. 

Ontario was incorporated as a city of the sixth class in November, 
1891, but a mistake was made in taking in only a half mile square, a 
mistake which was attempted to be rectified some years later by the 
inclusion of all the colony lands. Finally, in 1900, a tract of twelve 
square miles was incorporated. The San Antonio Electric Light & 
Power Company was organized in 1891 for the purpose of furnishing 
electric light to Ontario, Pomona and Redlands, and to this company 
belongs the credit of being the first plant for long-distance transmission 
of electricity in the United States. During 1892 the cannery, established 
by the Ontario Fruit & Produce Company, was running full blast in the 
summer and met with great success in the handling of deciduous fruits. 
Unfortunately, with no experience, it began packing oranges, paying 
high prices and selling at a loss, with the result that the company failed 
and the cannery was closed, a great loss to the community, as a cannery 
is almost a vital necessity to a town of this kind. 

In 1893 Ontario entertained the Editorial Association of Southern 
California. The Ontario Fruit Exchange filed its papers of incorporation 
and the Lemon Growers' Exchange of Ontario was organized. During 
the years 1894 and 1895 the town experienced a healthy building boom, 
and a system of sewers was established, electric lights were furnished the 


town and cars were operated by electricity for the first time. What was 
known as Blackburn's Addition, a tract of 1,100 acres of Chino Rancho, 
was placed on the market in 1896 by R. E. Blackburn, and lots sold 
rapidly. Serious loss to the town was caused by the destruction, in 
December, 1897, of the Brooks Block, which contained the Southern 
Pacific Hotel, the postoffice, a stationery store and various offices. Dur- 
ing 1899 and 1900 building operations continued and new industries were 
attracted. For some years the amount of deciduous fruit produced in this 
district emphasized the fact that a cannery at Ontario was a necessity. 
Accordingly, in the spring of 1901 a number of citizens organized the 
Ontario Fruit Company. As a result of this organization there was 
established what was the most complete cannery plant in California, which 
was ready for business in the summer of the same year. 

Ontario's Water Supply. Like many other Southern California 
communities, and particularly those of the San Bernardino locality, 
Ontario could never have flourished without an adequate water supply, 
and this was the principal factor in the calculations of the founders, the 
capable and energetic Chafifey brothers. For the purpose of supplying 
the tract, the San Antonio \Vater Company was organized in 1882, the 
point of diversion for San Antonio Creek, the water rights including 
the overflow and underflow of which had been purchased, being in the 
San Antonio Canon, about two miles to the northwest of the colony tract. 
For the first one-half mile, the water is conveyed in a cemented ditch 
to the main pipe line at the base of the mountain, where the water enters 
the largest main. The system of distribution over the entire tract con- 
sists of pipe lines, about sixty miles or more in extent, varying in size 
from six to twenty-two inches in diameter. Considerable water has been 
developed by a tunnel extending up the canon more than a half mile and 
tapping the underflow. When the colony was started, it was thought 
the San Antonio Creek in connection with its underflow would furnish 
abundant water for irrigation, and the San Antonio Water Company 
had a right to one-half the water that flowed in the bed of the creek. 
It was demonstrated for years that an average rainfall insured Ontario 
an ample supply of water during the irrigating system. But there came 
a series of years remarkable in the history of California for light rainfall, 
and it was deemed advisable that precautionary measures be taken by 
the water company, which accordingly purchased additional water rights 
and land and proceeded to make developments. By these purchases and 
developments the San Antonio Water Company became the possessor of 
four sources of water supply : first, from the San .Antonio Creek ; second, 
from the tunnels ; third, artesian water, and fourth, that pumped from 
numerous wells. 

Ontario's Fruit Industry. Under the excellent system of irriga- 
tion prevailing, Ontario's soil produces lemons, oranges and pomelos, as 
well as fruits of other kinds. This fact made the matter of marketing 
one of vital importance. At the start the marketing of citrus fruits was 
largely experimental, while a cannery and various drying establishments 
took care of the deciduous fruit which could not be marketed fresh. Out 
of many organizations and experiments the present co-operating system 
of marketing has come forth, and the packing and handling of citrus 
fruit has become a great industry, requiring good judgment, knowledge 
and skill, as well as the best modern appliances for every department 
identified with the business. 


The Ontario-Cucamonga Fruit Exchange is an enterprise which 
includes in its membership all of the citrus handling houses in western 
San Bernardino County, and at present has the following members: 
Lemon Growers' Association, Upland; Cucamonga Citrus Fruit Associa- 
tion, Cucamonga ; Mountain View Orange & Lemon Association. Upland ; 
Stewart Citrus Association, Upland ; West Ontario Association, Narod ; 
Upland Citrus Association, North Ontario ; Etiwanda Citrus Association, 
Etiwanda, and Citrus Fruit Association, Ontario. 

The Ontario Fruit Exchange was organized June 3, 1893, and Sep- 
tember 25th became an association of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange. 
Two years later it withdrew therefrom and entered the Southern Cali- 
fornia Fruit Exchange, as a separate district exchange, a position which 
it occupied for two years. In 1897 it became one of the associations com- 
prised in the Ontario-Cucamonga Fruit Exchange. This association, the 
principal packing house of which is located at Narod, handles oranges 
and grape fruit only, and its brands are "Nucleus Bear," "Nucleus Owl" 
and "Nucleus Quail." 

The Citrus Fruit Association of Ontario was founded in 1898, and 
its progress having been rapid, it is now one of the largest associations, 
in point of numbers, in Southern California. The packing house is 
located on the eastern side of the City of Ontario, and the association's 
brands include "Special Bear" and "Special Quail." 

The Upland Citrus Association, while one of the younger affiliated 
bodies, is one of the largest in the district of the Ontario-Cucamonga 
Fruit Exchange, and its name arises from the fact that it handles the 
oranges grown by its members on the highest lands cultivated in the 
Ontario colony — the foothill territory which extends from the base of 
the mountains on the north to a short distance below the Santa Fe 
Railway on the south. Its brands include "Upland Bear" and "Upland 

The Lemon Growers' Exchange of Ontario was formed in the fall 
of 1893 and is the oldest organization for the marketing of lemons in 
California. From its foundation it has been sustained loyally by the 
growers at Cucamonga and Ontario. It handles a very superior quality 
of lemons, the soil being peculiarly adapted to the perfection of that fruit. 

Education. The first school at Ontario was opened in Alarch, 1884, 
the school district having been formed in January of that year. Classes 
were held in various private buildings and in rooms of the college build- 
ing until January. 1887, when the Central School building was completed 
and occupied. This structure cost about $6,000. In 1889 the Seventh 
Street and South Side buildings were erected, each at a cost of about 
$2,500, and since that time the West Side School has also been erected 
at about the same cost, and a building of one story erected on Euclid 
Avenue. The San Antonio district, practically a part of the Ontario 
district, has a commodious building, employing two teachers, and the 
Upland School employs four teachers. For the season of 1903-4 Ontario 
employed fifteen teachers in its graded schools and had an average attend- 
ance of 519. In 1901 a high school was established in the city, the build- 
ing formerly occupied by the Chaflfey brothers being utilized as a high 
school building. In 1903 the school had an enrollment of 134 pupils and 
a faculty of six teachers. 


Ontario's Churches. Although there was at that time no church 
edifice at Ontario, religious services were held as early as 1883 in the 
little colony, Methodist services being held in the parlors of the hotel 


during the autumn of that year, with persons of all denominations attend- 
ing. When the "adobe" was finished services were held therein until the 
completion of the chapel in the college, where the services of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church were held. Eventually the present church 
edifice was built at G Street and Euclid Avenue. Several additions have 
since been added to this place of worship. It now has a large member- 
ship and maintains a Sunday school, an Epworth League, a Ladies' Aid 
and a Mission Society. 

The North Ontario Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
October 1, 1899, being the outgrowth of a class which had been formed 
in 1890 by former members of the First Methodist Episcopal Church 
residing at North Ontario. This congregation now has a church and 
parsonage .and maintain a Sunday school and several societies. 

The Bethel Congregational Church was organized March 22, 1885, 
and services were first held in a private residence and later in an "adobe." 
Later services were held in the Ohio Block, and then in Rose's Hall, and 
when the latter structure was destroyed in a windstorm, the Ohio Block 
was again used. .\ church edifice was erected in 1888 at the corner of 
Palm Avenue and A Street. 

The Church of Christ of Ontario was organized October 11, 1891. 
with fifteen members. It held services in various places and had a hard 
struggle for existence until 1897, when the congregation began holding 
services in the Unitarian chapel on Euclid Avenue. This building was 
later presented to the church by James Young. 

Christ Church. Episcopal, was founded in 1884-1885, when occasional 
services were held, and in 1886 the upper story of the Rose Block was 
secured, a mission of the Episcopal diocese of Los .\ngeles being estab- 
lished at that time, known as Christ Church JMission. This mission was 
formally received as a parish in 1896. When the Episcopalians secured a 
lot of their own, they bought the one-story building which they had 
previously occupied as the upper story of the Rose Block and removed it 
to their lot, but in the winter of 1893-94 lots were purchased for the 
present site, to which the old building was removed. It was enalrged 
and made into a most fitting and attractive chapel, and in 1901 a lot 
adjoining was purchased and a large and well-appointed rectory was built. 

During the spring of 1894 several of the Baptist families of Ontario 
held prayer meetings at their various homes, and September 16th of that 
vear a business meeting was held, at which the First Baptist Church of 
Ontario was organized. In 1899 the church was incorporated and in 
1901 a modern church edifice seating several hundred people was erected. 
The usual societies are connected with the church, which is in a pros- 
perous condition. 

The first Presbyterian Church services were held in 1887, and the 
church was organized in the following year with twenty-four members. 
A church building was erected in the same year at the corner of Ninth 
Street and Euclid .Avenue, but this was destroyed by wind in 1890 and 
in 1891 a new church was erected. Since that date a manse has been 
erected. The regular church societies are well sustained. 

The \\'estminster Presbyterian Church was organized in April, 1895, 
by the members of the North Ontario Church, who found it inconvenient 
to go so far to their place of worship and who first erected a small 
building on the corner of C Street and Euclid .X venue. The membership 
increased so rapidly that it was found necessary to build a large addition, 
which made the edifice one of the finest churches in the settlement. The 
adjuncts of the church are well organized and doing effective service. 


Fraternities. Ontario Lodge No. 345, Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, wa-; instituted July 14, 1888, and has been a successful institu- 
tion which has paid largely out of its treasury for the sick and for other 
benevolent purposes. The lodge owns its own hall on Euclid Avenue, 
between A and B Streets, where its weekly meetings are held. 

Euclid Lodge No. 68, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of North 
Ontario, was instituted November 28, 1898, and meets weekly. Its 
features are identical with those of the lodge mentioned above, being 
both charitable and beneficiary, and its affairs are in a flourishing 

Ontario Lodge No. 222, Knights of Pythias, was instituted April 1, 
1901. It meets weekly in the I. O. O. F. Hall, and is a greatly popular 

The Fraternal Aid Association was organized in 1892. This is a 
beneficiary organization which has grown rapidly and has been one of 
the strongest in the colony. 

Ontario Lodge No. 301, F. & A. M., was organized in 1890, and has 
enjoyed a steady and wholesome growth, having always been a strong 
and active organization. Euclid Chapter No. 179, Order of the Eastern 
Star, was organized May 3, 1900, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge 
of California and Nevada. 

In 1887 a meeting was called to organize the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union, at which time about thirty ladies gave their names as 
members. A society was organized, but this was later allowed to lapse. 
On October 7, 1890. the Union was reorganized, and while it has never 
been large in membership it has been a force for righteousness in the 

Recent Developments. Beginnings give way to accomplished under- 
takings, and at the close of the year 1921 Ontario's growth is found to be 
one worthy of a big volume of history all its own. 

Within its boundaries are 7,250 homes, a woman's club, churches of 
all leading denominations, a Chamber of Commerce, with five hundred 
wideawake members; of the latter. Wells F. Ross is president; C. E. 
Mead, vice president ; H. E. Swan, treasurer ; B. W. Spencer, secretary. 

There are hotels, a theater, public auditorium, packing houses, banks, 
canneries, nurseries and factories. It is the center of a great citrus 
industry and many hundreds find employment in the various lines of 

Euclid x^venue, 200 feet wide and ten miles long, double driveway, 
lined with trees and flowers and extending to the foothills, is the pride 
of Ontario and other localities adjacent. It reaches out towards the 
shadows of Old Baldy (Mt. San Antonio), where is a beautiful resort. 

But Ontario's greatest pride is the Chafifey Union High School, 
composed of Alta Loma, Central, Cucamonga. Etiwanda, Fontana, Moun- 
tain View, Ontario, Piedmont, Rochester and Upland Elementary School 
Districts, with a grand total valuation of $12,631,825.00. The founders of 
Ontario colony were desirous that the colony should rank as an educa- 
tional center. They accordingly set aside twenty acres of land at the 
corner of Fourth and Euclid Avenue and in 1883 established on this site 
the institution known as Chafi'ey College. 

The college fulfilled the purpose of its creation by afTording proper 
educational advantages to the community until the year 1901, when the 
Ontario High School District organized. From that year until 1909 the 
High School occupied the Chaffey building by arrangements with the 
trustees of the property. In 1909 the Board of Trustees of the Ontario 


High School purchased from the trustees of the Chaffey property a tract 
of five acres, upon which was erected a new high school building. In 
May, 1911, the citizens of Ontario and Upland voted by a large majority 
to form a union high school district to be named Chafifey Union High 
School District. 

Recognizing in this important educational movement the fulfillment 
of the desires of the colony, the trustees of ChaiYey College transferred 
to the Chafifey Union High School District the remaining eight acres of 
the Chafifey College campus, an endowment fund of $80,000.00 and a per- 
petual lease upon an orange grove to be used as an experimental orchard 
in the Agricultural Department. August 25, 1911, the sum of $200,000.00 
was voted for the erection of new buildings. In June, 1920, the district 
voted $275,000.00 in bonds. Chafifey High School now occupies a group 
of buildings composed of the Liberal Arts Building, the Science Building, 
the Auditorium and Library Building, the Manual Training Shops, the 
Greenhouse and Lathe House, the Plunge and Gymnasium. 

The Chafifey School exists through the generosity of the citizens and 
covets the opportunity to show its helpfulness to the district, and through 
the cordial co-operation of school and people it has come to be a social 
center for the entire community. Chafifey is accredited by the University 
of California. 

Chaff'ey Library, for which the school is greatly indebted to the gen- 
erosity of George Chafifey and his son, A. M. Chafifey, now contains 
fifteen thousand volumes; the reading room is open to the use of the 
community. The Library has an endowment of $80,000.00. 

The Department of Agriculture was organized in September, 1911, 
and now has several hundred students. The school owns 110 acres of 
land and cultivates 92 acres. There are 12 acres of citrus, 60 acres of 
deciduous and 20 acres devoted to dairying. Three years ago there were 
purchased for school use 20 acres on Euclid Avenue. The farm is stocked 
with purebred Holstein dairy cows, with purebred Poland China, Duroc 
Jerseys and Berkshire hogs, which will be used in connection with the 
dairy and animal industry work of the department. The poultry plant has 
a capacity for 1,000 fowls. The Agricultural Department several years 
ago undertook the beautification of the campus grounds ; this has assumed 
the nature of a project department and has been the basis for instruction 
in landscape gardening. 

At a regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of ChafYey High School 
District, held Friday, August 11, 1916, a resolution was passed which 
definitely established a junior college for the district. This was in 
accordance with an act of the California Legislature, which states: 

"The high school of any school district may prescribe post-graduate 
courses of study for graduates of high schools, which courses of study 
shall approximate the studies prescribed in the first two years of uni- 
versity courses." The junior college has been a success from the very 

The actual number of students in both schools is 2,700. Valuation 
of properties: Sites, $85,000.00; buildings, $448,500.00; equipments, 
$72,200.00; Librarv, $18,000.00; text books, $10,000.00. Total, $633,- 
700.00. Total income, $229,708.62. Total expenditures, $191,324.72. 
Board of trustees : Edward C. Harwood, president, of Upland ; Howard 
R. Berg, clerk, Ontario; C. C. Graber, Ontario; T. \V. Nisbet, LTpland ; 
J. C. Jones, Etiwanda. Merton E. Hill, B.S., A.M., principal, and a 
faculty of seventy-four, all working in co-operation with the trustees. 

The country around Ontario is devoted to general farming, alfalfa, 
stock raising, dairies, etc., on a large scale. There is an acreage of some 


12,000 in grapes, which are profitable. Ontario is the home of the Hot- 
point electric appliances manufactured by the Edison Electric Appliance 
Company and is employing 700 people and is doubling its present size 
and capacity. 

On January 12, 1910, the following item appeared in the San Ber- 
nardino Sun: "On January 12, 1883, the first residence was built in 
Ontario. It was put up by I. W. Whitaker, who now resides at No. 125 
West D Street. Mr. Whitaker was troubled with asthma and in looking 
about for a desirable place to live, one morning met John W. Calkins, who 
told him of Ontario. It was Calkins' nurseries which furnished the trees 
that now grace beautiful Euclid Avenue and other streets of the city. 
Ontario had been much advertised by the Chafifeys, but there was no 
one living in the place, and so Calkins advised Mr. Whitaker to see 
Ontario and gave him directions how to reach the Chafifey camp. There 
being no railroad station at Ontario, visitors had to take the trains at 
Pomona or Cucamonga ; Mr. Whitaker chose the latter. This was on 
December 27, 1882. 

"He reached the Chafifey office and camp, where he met William 
Chafifey, who took him for a ride over the place and finally selected a 
strip of land on Fifth Street, then returned to Los Angeles, where he 
purchased a team and tools. On January 11 Mr. Whitaker arrived in 
Ontario, equipped for building on his ten-acre lot, but it was no easy 
matter for Mr. Chafifey to find the stakes on account of the sage brush, 
but finally succeeded in locating the Whitaker place. The first domicile 
was in the shape of a tent, but at the end of two months lumber was 
secured and a house erected. Thus began the settlement of Ontario, the 
'City That Charms.' " 


In a former chapter of this work the earlier history of the Chino 
Rancho has been outlined. Following the death of Col. Isaac \\'illiams, 
the rancho became the property of his daughter, Francesca, the wife of 
Robert Carlisle. After Carlisle met his death at Los Angeles, in 1865, 
the estate was managed for several years by Joseph Bridger, son-in-law 
of Colonel Williams, who was guardian of the Carlisle heirs, and about 
1874 was mortgaged to Los Angeles parties, into whose hands it eventu- 
ally passed. 

The Rancho del Santa Ana del Chino, and "Addition to Santa Ana del 
Chino," were purchased in 1881 by Richard Gird, who at once took pos- 
session and began making improvements. Mr. Gird purchased additional 
lands, until his holdings included 47,000 acres, and for a number of years 
devoted the rancho to the raising of stock. In 1887, 23,000 acres of this 
rancho were surveyed into ten-acre tracts and a town site one mile square 
was laid out. Mr. Gird at once built a narrow-gauge road from Ontario 
and erected a large store building of brick. He likewise established a 
newspaper plant, and the Chino Valley Champion made its first appear- 
ance November 11. 1887, subsequently becoming a strong force in the 
upbuilding of the town. Colonel W'asson, its first editor, was succeeded 
in 1901 by Edwin Rhodes. During 1888 the Pomona & Elsinore Railroad 
was incorporated, and, as it was surveyed through Chino, it was con- 
fidently expected that it would be built immediately and would ultimately 
become the main belt of the Southern Pacific to San Diego. In the same 
year the Chino Valley Manufacturing Company was incorporated and 
proposed to erect extensive rolling mills, the iron to be supplied from the 
newly discovered beds at Daggett. The prospects for the company seemed 
bright, but the collapse of the boom carried it under. By 1889 Chino, 
including both town and colony, was being supplied with abundant water 
from artesian wells. The town had about sixty children of school age. 
with a daily average attendance of about forty, in a new and well-equipped 
school building. The Congregationalists and Baptists were holding regular 
weekly services, with a well-attended Sunday school, and the town like- 
wise had a daily mail and Wells Fargo Express service, a good news- 
paper, a hotel, up-to-date stores and three daily trains over the Chino 
Valley Railroad between Chino and Ontario. 

It was about this time that Mr. Gird began experimenting with beet 
growing for sugar and so successful were his efforts that in 1890 the 
Oxnard Brothers decided to build the Chino Beet Sugar Factory. Build- 
ing operations were at once started, and despite the fact that the earlier 
construction was demolished in a terrific windstorm, beet sugar making 
was started August 21, 1891, in this plant. The building of the factory 
gave new life to Chino and the vicinity, as the raising of beets and the 
factory itself gave employment to a large number of men and distributed 
large sums of monev among the settlers. 

In 1891 the Southern Pacific put in a track from Ontario, and about 
1896 purchased the narrow gauge road to Pomona, in 1898 changing its 
main line so that through traffic passed through Chino. Mr. Gird erected 
the Opera House Block in 1892 at a cost of $11,000, and other buildings 
followed rapidly. When the county seat fight was staged. Chino took 
an active part, and was a strong supporter of the jiroposed San Antonio 


County, with its eastern limit including Etiwanda and the western line 
extending to Azusa, and with "either Pomona, Ontario or Chino as the 
county seat." 

Although a considerable acreage of the rancho had been sold off, a 
large area was still being used at this time as a stock range, the fine 
pasturage and the beet pulp from the factory giving unusual facilities for 
the fattening of stock for the market. Much of this live stock was 
brought from Arizona, and in this way was gained the interest of Vail & 
Bates, cattlemen, who in 1895 established a dairy and creamery, where 
was made an excellent grade of butter. In 1896 the Puente Oil Com- 
pany, which had contracted to supply the sugar plant with fuel, estab- 
lished a refinery at Chino, the oil being piped from the company's 
wells at Puente. Tanks with a capacity of 15,000, stills, coolers and 
a complete plant, were installed, these furnishing 250 barrels of crude 
oil daily. The refuse was used by the engines of the factory. 

It would be an impossibility to follow all the changes in ownership 
and the litigation concerning the Chino Rancho property that have occurred 
On November 25, 1894, the newspapers announced the largest land deal 
ever consummated in the County of San Bernardino, this being the 
transfer of 41,000 acres of Chino Rancho to Charles H. Phillips of San 
Luis Obispo County for a consideration named as $1,600,000, which 
included the narrow-gauge road and the water rights. In April, 1896, 
the rancho was again sold, this time to an English syndicate, who placed 
the land upon the market in small tracts. Since that time changes, trans- 
fers, mortgages and foreclosures have followed one another, but the 
Town of Chino and the surrounding country have continued to develop. 

Education. The New Chino School District was set off from Chino 
District in August, 1888, and since that time the latter has been renamed 
the Pioneer District. Mr. Gird erected a neat schoolhouse, which was 
opened in September, 1888, with eighty pupils enrolled, but by 1891 the 
accommodations were found to be inadequate, and an enlargement was 
made of the school, the district at that time having 169 census children. 
By 1894 the census children had increased to 373 and the employment of 
eight teachers was necessary, and in that year Mr. and Mrs. Gird, with 
the Sugar Company, erected the Central School building, a brick struc- 
ture with four rooms, a library, halls and all arrangements necessary 
for a modern institution of learning. In 1895 Chino District voted bonds 
for $2,000 to build two additional schoolhouses, one to be located in East 
Chino and the other in West Chino. The Chino High .School District 
was organized in 1897, $20,000 being voted for a building, and accord- 
ingly an addition was made to the Central School building, which gave 
the district six grammar rooms and two high school rooms, all well 
arranged and furnished. The school was opened in the fall of the same 
year, under the name of the Richard Gird High School, and has since 
been duly accredited by the State University. 

Churches. On May 11, 1888, a Swedish Baptist Church was organ- 
ized at Chino and for several years held regular services in the school- 
house, but later secured a building of its own. 

The first English service was held at Chino in November, 1888, and 
later arrangements were made for the Congregational minister to preach 
twice a month. 

A Methodist Church was organized at Chino in 1892, and now holds 
regular services in its own place of worship. 


The Beet Sugar Factory. In spite of the fact that tlie Alvarado 
factory, the pioneer beet sugar factory in the United States, had been 
in successful operation in the northern part of Cahfornia for twenty years, 
it had been believed that the climate of Southern California was too mild 
to bring out the saccharine qualities of the beet sufficiently to make beet 
raising for sugar a profitable industry. However, Richard Gird of the 
Chino Rancho, after studying the subject and conducting a number of 
experiments, believed that the matter warranted a thorough trial, and 
accordingly, about 1887, brought Henry T. Oxnard to California to 
investigate the possibilities. Mr. Oxnard, in turn, brought Augustin 
Desprez, an expert, from France, and these gentlemen became satisfied 
not only that the beets could be raised, but that they possessed an unusu- 
ally high percentage of sugar. Mr. Gird made the most liberal conces- 
sions and as a result a contract was signed, December 18, 1890, for the 
erection of the Chino Beet Sugar Factory. By the terms of this con- 
tract Mr. Gird granted the comopany 2,500 acres of land, agreed to supply 
water, contracted to furnish 2,250 acres of beets the first year, 4,000 
acres the second year and 5,000 acres the three succeeding years, and 
stipulated that the company was to have the factory ready for operation 
for the beet crop of 1891. and that it operate for at least five years. 

The work of construction was commenced immediately, and August 
20, 1891, Mrs. Gird touched the button that set the machinery in motion. 
The plant was equipped with the latest and most complete machinery, 
twenty-eight carloads of which had been imported from abroad, and 
August 22d, ?t 4 P.M.. was sacked the first granulated and refined sugar 
ever made in Southern California. From the start the enterprise was a 
great success, and by 1897 the factory was running 151 days on 97,197 
net tons of beets, that contained an average of 15>^ per cent sugar and 
yielded 24,303,000 pounds of standard granulated sugar. There were 
harvested for the mill 9,628 acres out of the 10,000 contracted for, and 
$420,000 was paid to the farmers for their beets. 

So successful was the Chino factory that the Alamitos plant in Orange 
County and the Oxnard factory in Ventura County followed afterward. 

The original cost of the Chino plant was put at about $600,000, but 
various additions and changes have been made since, which brings the 
outlay up to a greatly increased figure. The plant was later taken over 
by the American Beet Sugar Company, which also owns various other 
factories, including those at Oxnard, California; Rocky Ford, Colorado, 
and Grand Island and Norfolk, Nebraska. 


The fertile table lands forming the northeast boundary of the San 
Bernardino Valley, and situated several hundred feet above the valley 
basin in the thermal, or frostless belt, comprise the section known as 
Highland, a narrow belt of foothill slopes skirting the southern base 
of the San Bernardino Range and extending westward over ten miles 
from the gorge of the Santa Ana. The Highland district is divided into 
topographical lines into what is known locally as Highland. West High- 
lands, and East Highlands, of which the first is the most important, 
occupying about four square miles of the central portion. This is an 
unbroken plateau inclining to the southwest and varying in altitude 
from 1.300 to 1,600 feet, and its appropriate name was conferred upon it 
in 1883, when the school district was formed by W. T. Noyes, W. H. 
Randall, and others. 

Probably the first white man to occupy this territory was Walter A. 
Shay, Sr., who came to California in 1846, and who in 1856 built a 
small house near the mouth of City Creek Canon, where he resided for 
several years. A later settler was Goodcell Cram, who during the early 
'60s took up a Government claim west of City Creek and north of what 
is now Highland Avenue. Later John E. Small bought the east half 
of this property, and it later passed into the hands of C. Allen, W. H. 
Randall and W. T. Noyes. In addition to those mentioned, other early 
settlers were George Miller, J. S. Loveland, Mathew Cleghorn, C. D. 
Haven, David Seeley and W. R. Ingham. As in other communities, the 
first improvements made by the early settlers were primitive in char- 
acter. The pioneers, as a rule, had little capital, and their prospects 
for making a living on these dry lands were not of a very encouraging 
nature. In spite of this, during the decade between 1870 and 1880, 
water commenced to be utilized on the plateau and there began to per- 
meate the minds of the settlers that the combination of water and alluvial 
soil might be worth looking into as to possibilities. 

In January, 1872, W. R. Ingham, who had come from New York 
State in 1870, bought a tract of 120 acres which he set out to citrus trees, 
the first planted on this side of the valley. He later sold this land to 
David Seeley and others and it developed into one of the finest orange- 
producing properties in the locality. In 1874 Mr. Ingham bought a ten- 
acre tract on which he resided for a quarter of a century, and planted 
about six acres of it to orange trees. For the first year or two he hauled 
water from Harlem Springs, two miles away, to keep his young grove 
alive, but then hit upon the plan of digging an earth ditch to bring the 
waters of City Creek upon his land, and was the first to so utilize the 
v^faters of this stream. During the next few years several tracts were 
set out to seedling oranges, but there was never a very large acreage 
devoted to seedlings at Highland. The first Nave! trees in the com- 
munity were also planted by Mr. Ingham, who, in 1878, secured the buds 
from the original Washington Navel trees at Riverside. A year or two 
later he purchased some of the Australian trees from a Los Angeles 
nurseryman at $5 each. These pioneer orchards having proven that 
oranges could be cultivated profitably at Highland, and the facilities for 
irrigation having been greatly increased, the community enjoyed a boom 
in citrus fruit planting between 1880 and 1890, and when it was fully 


demonstrated that the citrus fruit raised here was of an especially fine 
quality, the deciduous orchards and vineyards of former years began to 
be gradually displaced by orange groves. With the passage of the years 
this has become almost entirely an orange and lemon-growing community. 

Irrigation. Irrigation in the Highland district may be traced back 
as far as 1858 when Louis and Henry Cram constructed an earth ditch 
three miles in length from the mouth of the Santa .■\na Canon to their 
homestead in what is now East Highlands, this ditch being known as the 
Cram-Van Leuven ditch because Frederick \'an Leuven. another early 
settler, was interested therein. This ditch was later allowed one-sixth 
of the flow of the Santa Ana River after much litigation, this being 
the starting point of the various suits which later caused so much legal 
business in the courts of the county and state. 

At various times water was taken out by other settlers on the north 
side of the river, and in 1885 there was formed the North Fork Ditch 
Company, which built a stone cement ditch extending to Palm Avenue, 
in Highland, a distance of eight and one-third miles, and this consol- 
idation gave to the North I'^ork and Cram-Van Leuven interests the 
ownership of one-half of the flow of tiie Santa Ana. In 1884, when the 
Bear \'alley Dam was built, it intercepted a part of the flow of the Santa 
.\na River, and as the bed of that stream is the only available channel 
by which the water could be brought from the reservoir into the .San 
Bernardino Valley, a contract wa.s signed between the Bear \'alley Com- 
pany and the North Fork Company, whereby the former were granted 
the right to store water in the reservoir and to use the right of way of 
the North Fork owners in exchange for a stipulated amount of water 
to be delivered to the stockholders of the district. 

A stone and cement canal was constructed by the Highland Ditch 
Company in 1887-88 from a point on the Cook homestead in East High- 
lands around the foothills through Highland, to which was added a 
pipe-line extension through West Highland to North San Bernardino, 
and this property later passed into the hands of the Bear Valley Com- 
pany. During 1883-84 W. T. Noyes and W. H. Randall built a ditch 
from City Creek to their properties and these ditches, a main and two 
branch canals, are nearly three miles in length. At East Highlands the 
water of Plunge Creek is utilized and is conveyed and distributed 
through open ditches to the lands of the owners ; while the orchards of 
West Highland are partly supplied by the waters of East and West 
Twin creeks, mainly through pipe-lines. 

The Town of Highland. The necessity for railroad facilities in 
the marketing of its citrus fruit becoming evident to the citizens of 
Highland district, several meetings were held and after a conference 
the officials of the Santa Fe Railway agreed to bring their line through 
this section provided they were given a free right-of-way. The sum 
of $10,000 was raised by voluntary subscriptions on the part of the citi- 
zens, and in July, 1891, the branch of the Santa Fe, which completed 
the "kite-shaped" track, was constructed between Redlands and San 
Bernardino through Highland, thus giving direct transportation facil- 
ities and connecting flighland with East and West Highlands, .\round 
the Highland station a townsitc was laid out, and within a short time 
there were in the course of erection packing houses and other business 
structures, including all of the appurtenances of a thriving town. 

The need for adequate domestic water service resulted in the form- 
ing, September 28, 1898. of the Highland Domestic \\'ater Conipanv. 


which purchased water-bearing land at the junction of City Creek and 
Coon Canon on the north side of Highland Avenue, where wells were 
sunk to a depht of 100 feet in a gravel bed, from which the water was 
pumped into a stone and cement reservoir, the water being then distrib- 
uted through more than nine miles of dipped steel and iron pipe to 
the consumers. 

In July, 1903, the San Bernardino Valley Traction Company com- 
pleted an electric line to Highland, connecting the town by trolley with 
San Bernardino, Redlands and Colton. 

The Highland Postoffice. For the accommodation of the resi- 
dents of Highland and vicinity, the Messina postoffice was established 
in 1887 at the junction of Base Line and Palm Avenue, and the mail 
was carried by private conveyance to and from San Bernardino for five 
years, the postoffice being located for the most part of that time in the 
store at that point, where the proprietor acted as postmaster. When the 
railroad was completed, the mail service was transferred to the road, 
and June 1, 1899, the office was removed to the corner of Palm and 
Pacific avenues, the site of the new town. The name had been changed, 
January 1 of that year, upon petition of the citizens, from Messina to 
Highland. On July 1, 1901, free rural delivery was established with two 
routes through territory tributary to the town, and the service has been 
improved each year since that time. The office was advanced to third 
class July 1, 1902. 

The First Bank of Highland. Chartered as a State bank, with 
a capital stock of $30,000, the First Bank of Highland opened its doors 
for business April 19, 1904, its officials being: Herbert W. Johnstone, 
president ; Charles C. Browning, vice president ; and Wakefield Phinney, 
cashier, these gentlemen, with K. C. Wells, L. C. Waite, W. C. Pat- 
terson, A. G. Stearns, L. A. Desmond and W. B. Brookings, forming 
the first board of directors. 

Education In 1883 a petition was circulated by W. T. Noyes for 
the establishment of a new school district, and after some contention 
the name of Highland was adopted. The first school was held that year 
in a squatter's cabin north of Harlem Springs, but the following year a 
one-room school was erected, and this was later followed by the con- 
struction of a two-room school building. In November, 1892, the res- 
idents voted bonds for $10,000 for a new school building, and the fol- 
lowing year a handsome and commodious building was erected, which 
prepared the pupils for the high school course. 

Highland Library Club. On December 21, 1897, a meeting of 
the citizens was called with the view of organizing a literary club, and 
at a subsequent meeting the organization was completed by the election 
of officers. The organization was named the Highland Library Club 
and the original installment of twenty-five volumes, secured through the 
expenditure of the annual dues of the members, were kept for a time at 
the home of one of the members who acted as librarian. In January, 
1900, there \\as held the first of a series of lectures, musical recitals, 
etc., and since that time a course of from five to seven high-class enter- 
tainments has been given each year. On November 14, 1901, a com- 
mittee was appointed to solicit subscriptions for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a lot and erecting a building, and January 23, 1902, the Highland 
Library Club incorporated. The erection of the building was started in 


August, 1902, and the library was opened to tlie public January 6, 1903. 
The cost was $2,100, the entire sum being raised by voluntary subscrip- 
tions, and at present the institution contains numerous volumes, cata- 
logued, in addition to newspapers, magazines, etc. 

Press. The first number of the Highland Citrus Belt, a weekly 
eight-page paper devoted chiefly to local and county news, made its 
appearance October 6, 1892, with J. M. Martin as publisher. In March, 
1902. the subscription list and good will of the paper were purchased by 
Opie L. Warner and Edward Wall, who changed the name to the High- 
land Messenger, and enlarged it to a five-column quarto, materially 
increasing its advertising patronage. The new owners lii<ewise installed 
a modern job printing plant. 

Knights of Pythias. Highland Lodge No. 211, Knights of Pythias, 
which was promoted and organized in the fall of 1897, is a local organ- 
ization of whose record the members feel pardonably proud. Its influ- 
ence on the community has been wholesome socially and morally and its 
charitable work was been productive of much good. It was instituted 
January 28, 1898, with charter members, all well-known 
property holders and residents. It has commodious and well-equipped 
quarters and the lodge is in good financial condition with a large cash 
reserve and sound investments. 

East Highlands. Comprising that portion of the Highland citrus 
belt lying east of City Creek, the superficial contour of the land of East 
Highlands is more undulating than that of Highland and the soil con- 
tains a larger percentage of clay. It is admirably adapted to the pro- 
duction of oranges of the highest grade and the fruit of the "East 
Bench" is generally recognized as having no superior anywhere. Louis 
Cram, who set out two seedling orange trees on his place in 1864. bought 
100 trees from a Los Angeles nursery in 1873 and planted an orchard 
of one acre. Mr. Cram, who had no idea of making a profit, but placed 
these trees merely as an investment, was agreeably surprised to realize 
a profit of $1,800. Following the Cram brothers, who were the first 
settlers, came Frederick Van Leuven. In 1865 E. A. Ball located on 
the place later owned by T. T. Cook. Andrew Wakefield came in 1866 
and bought the homestead of Goodcell Cram, which he later sold to 
Mr. Reeves. 

Early in the 70s the first school at East Highlands was opened in a 
little house under the blufif, near the Cook place, and after one or two 
changes the school was permanently located on a lot donated by Joshua 
Hartzel, where in 1902 a fine structure was erected at a cost of $10,000. 
Soon after the building of the railroad through the district a general 
merchandise store was opened near the East Highlands station, and 
since that time a postoffice has been built, packing houses have been 
erected, business houses have been established, and a flourishing town 
has been developed. 

West Highlands. The community known as \\'est Highlands 
embraces several square miles of the mesa lands that constitute the 
Highland citrus belt, where a decomposed soil, a semi-tropic temper- 
ature and a southwestern slope combine to produce very favorable con- 
ditions for fruit growing. The early settlers whose jiioneer homes nestled 
along the foothills of this neighborhood included C. Reivell, G. I. Bur- 
ton, A. Harrison, James Kennedy, Jacob Huff and brother and Zanon. 


Zimmerman. There was little substantial growth in the community until 
the completion of the Bear Valley Canal in 1888, but, when once sup- 
plied with water, the settlers began the work of grading and planting, 
and since that time the orchard industry has been an important one. 
Other improvements kept pace with orchard planting. Large sums of 
money were expended in constructing ditches and pipe-lines, streets were 
laid out and lined with ornamental trees, and other improvements fol- 
lowed in quick succession. To accommodate the children of the growing 
settlement, a two-story building was erected, and a graded school was 
established, this building also serving for church and Sunday School 
purposes. Afer the advent of the railroad, a postoffice, bearing the 
name of Del Rosa, was established at the West Highlands station and 
a store opened. Later came rural free delivery and the gradual building 
up of a flourishing village around the station. One of West Highlands' 
leading industries is the Brookings Lumber & Box Company, which was 
incorporated in 1898. 

Recent Developments. Highland, the "Gateway to the Rim of 
the World," as it is pleasantly termed by friends who delight in honor- 
ing this thrifty community near the foothills, has reached the end of 
the year 1921 with a wonderful record for progress. This section of San 
Bernardino County is one of Southern California's richest in orange 
groves, with many packing houses — in Highland alone there are seven — 
employing many hundred people during the packing season. 

One of the strongest factors in the development of Highland has 
been its Chamber of Conmierce, organized in 1906, in a largely attended 
meeting, held in the Congregational Church. Dr. W. P. Burke pre- 
sided and Alexis E. Frye was secretary. The following directors were 
elected by ballot: W. P. Burke, M. M. Randall, C. W. Payne, H. H. 
Linville, C. A. Sherrod, Frank L. Cram, S. H. Barrett, J. Hartzwell, 
D. H. Richardson, F. W. Wood, E. C. Seymour, A. E. Sterling, James 
Watson and J. D. Carpenter. From this list it is shown that the whole 
Highland district on the east and on the west had representatives, but 
in later years lack of outside memberships narrowed the organization 
mostly to Highland proper. 

The Chamber of Commerce is Highland's stronghold, and as the 
district is unincorporated, this organization becomes mayor, town clerk, 
and common council, and is, therefore, the organized entity, capable of 
instantly setting in motion machinery to meet any emergency. The offi- 
cers are : President, D. H. Roddick ; vice president, G. E. Goldie ; treas- 
urer, J. M. Spaulding; secretary, C. D. Pennock ; directors: J. C. Smith, 
M. M. Randall, W. F. Grow, A. E. Ming, f. L. Yarnell, Z. Zimmerman, 
H. H. Williams, C. N. Hill, F. L. Cram, I E. Williams, G. S. Thomp- 
son, G. W. Loring, A. H. Maddux, F. C. Hambly, G. T. Hensley. 

Closely allied with the Chamber of Commerce is a real working part- 
ner in community work, the \\'oman's Club, an outgrowth of the "Pleas- 
ant Hour Club," that was organized at the home of Mrs. Stearns on 
Jan. 14, 1898, which in a measure was a branch of the Library Club at 
that time. In 1901 it became affiliated with the State Federation of 
Clubs, but in 1910, by unanimous vote, the name of Pleasant Hour Club 
was changed to that of the Woman's Club of Highland. 

Mrs. Cora B. Linville, whose husband, the late H. H. Linville, had 
the first citrus nursery in Highland, poetically referred to the club as 
"an orange tree club set in a federated grove," consequently the club 
colors became orange and green, and it adopted a club song, composed 
by Miss Mary F. Parker, in keeping with the theme. This club tree has 


been thrifty since it took root in the ricli soil of Highland, owns its club 
home, finely furnished, with plans well laid for a more pretentious 
building. Officers for the year 1921 arc: President. Mrs. W. F. Grow; 
first vice president. Mrs. John Cleghorn ; second vice president. Miss 
Maud Evans ; recording secretary. Mrs. G. T. Henslee ; corresponding 
secretary, Mrs. R. S. Roddick; treasurer. Mrs. F. A. Brown. The 
club has a membership of 140. Past presidents of the club are : 1898. 
Mrs. Frances Travilli Paine; 1899. Mrs. M. H. Evans; 1900. Mrs. W. F. 
Grow; 1901. Mrs. F. C. LaFolIette ; 1902. Mrs. W. F. Grow; 1903, Miss 
Mary E. Parker; 1906, Mrs. Helen \V. Wood; 1907, Miss Helena 
Frazier; 1909, Mrs. T. A. Ewing; 1911, Mrs. Frances Allen; 1913, Mrs. 
Josephine True; 1914, Mrs. E. E. Corwin; 1915, Mrs. Proctor Coy; 
1916; Mrs. .\. R. Wilcox; 1917, Mrs. Cora B. Linville ; 1919, Mrs. David 

In a little hill enclosed valley — a strip of Government land — there may 
be found a remnant of a once large band of native Indians. To the 
needs of this fast disappearing tribe. Highland delights in being a sort 
of Guardian Angel. In years past, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Yocum, led in 
this most worthy cause, and when Mrs. Yocum died, they mourned a true 
friend gone. In recent years Mrs. E. E. Barnes, a student of Indian lore, 
and an acceptable writer of Indian stories, a resident of Highland, has 
taken the lead, with Mrs. Cora B. Linville, also closely associated in 
the work. 

The Young People's Community Club, an organization embracing the 
younger citizens, is one of the forces, and a recognized factor — be the 
question one of cleaner streets or cleaner morals. Howard Roddick is 
president and Gertrude Hidden, secretary of the club. 

The Congregational Church of Highland has a most interesting 
history. It was organized on April 21, 1884, and called the Church of 
Christ; at the time of its organization there were nine initial members: 
A. M. Aplin, Mrs. A. M. Aplin, S. H. Barrett, Mrs. D. F. Barrett, Miss 
C. C. Barrett, Mrs. C. J. Hartzell, G. W. Beattie, Mrs. T. T. Cook and 
Mrs. S. P. Fessenden. Of these only one was originally a Congrega- 
tionalist, but all recognized the adaptability of the Congregational polity 
to the Christian work of the community, and called for an ecclesiastical 
church council for advice, under the guidance of General Missionary 
of Southern California Rev. James T. Ford. Those in the council were: 
Rev. J. D. Foster and W. .\. Brouse of First Congregational Church. 
San Bernardino ; Rev. J. G. Hale and M. H. Craft, Lugonia Terrace ; 
Rev. J. L. Smith, pastor of Riverside ; Rev. J. T. Ford was moderator and 
W. A. Brouse, scribe of the council. 

After reviewing the proceedings of the church, its constitution and 
confessions of faith, it was voted to recognize it as a Congregational 
church. The first officers of the church were : Deacon, S. H. Barrett ; 
clerk, G. W. Beattie; directors, A. M. Aplin. B. Fowler. G. W. Beattie. 
The acting pastors of the church have been : 1884, Rev. J D. Hale ; 1886, 
Rev. J. D. Foster; 1889, Rev. A. W. Thompson; 1892, Rev. S. A. 
Norton; 1894, Rev. M. S. Phillips; 1895, Rev. E. Russell King; 1896. 
Rev. S. G. Lamb ; 1904. Rev. H. E. Banhani. 

The first church was built on Base Line in 1886. The church was 
moved to Palm Avenue in 1898. and in 1905 a new building, beautiful 
and modern and free of debt, replaced the old. The present pastor is 
Rev. Charles H. Davis. Officers of the church are: Treasurer, David 
Roddick; clerk, James Jililler; Sunday school, G. T. Hensley ; primary. 
Ella Parmalee. Trustees: M. M. Randall, J. N. Yarnell, Frank L. 
Cram. R. S. Thompson, D. G. Aplin. Others on church committees: 


Thomas A. Ewing, Mrs. Aiitonia Robinson, Bruce Zimmerman, Will 
Roddick, Mrs. J. H. Evans, Mrs. Thomas Eiving, Miss Ruth Lamb, Mrs. 
D. D. Yarnell, Mrs. J. D. Boley, Mrs. Charles La Follette. 

The Highland Methodist Episcopal Church was organized on Decem- 
ber 20, 1890, with Rev. J. C. Gowan, first pastor and S. L. Grow, W. T. 
^Teyers and H. E. Parker first stewards. In 1891 a church was erected 
on Pacific, on a lot donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Jones, and a parsonage 
was built in 1894. Rev. Z. T. Bancroft is the present (1921) pastor; 
the trustees are, E. E. Barnes, F. A. Brown, F. C. Hambly, Jesse Watson, 
J. J. Henslee, Philip Nickel, G. U. Codivalloder, M. H. Evans and Lee 
Clark. The chorister, M. H. Evans, has served for eighteen years. 

Highland is the business center of a cultured, progressive commu- 
nity of upwards of 2,500 people, whose entire units of activity — Chamber 
of Commerce, Woman's Club, churches, orange distributors, fraternal 
organizations. Community Club, join in one common cause, that of gain- 
ing the best there is to be secured. 

Harlem Hot Springs, near Base Line, in the southern portion of the 
Highland district, serve as a popular bathing place and resort for health 
seekers. On the premises, which comprise twenty-two acres, are located 
a modern natatorium, finely appointed bath houses, a large refectory, 
an entertainment hall and well-kept picnic grounds for the use and recre- 
ation of pleasure seekers. 


Following the death of John Rains, his widow, IMaria Williams Rains, 
asked that the Cucamonga Rancho (the earlier history of which has 
already been given in this history) be declared her separate property, 
a request which was granted after some litigation. In 1870 a part of 
the western lands of the rancho were purchased from Mrs. Rains by the 
Cucamonga Land Company, which acquired by its purchase the water 
rights to San Antonio Creek, and a half interest in the waters of the 
cinega lands. The company sold its lands in tracts of from 10 to 80 
acres, conveying with each piece an altogether indefinite amount of water. 
With the Hellman brothers as principal stockholders, the Cucamonga 
Homestead Association was organized about the same time, and this 
organization constructed a large flume and ditch, about a mile in length, 
out to the northern hmit of the homestead lands, but failed to provide 
for any distribution of water to the 10 and 20-acre tracts into ..vhich the 
land, was subdivided. Another company organized in the early days was 
the Cucamonga Vineyard Company, formed by the owners of the rancho, 
to irrigate the old vineyard property, and on the townsite which was 
laid out around the old winery, a settlement has grown up. Later the 
works of this company were merged into those of the Cucamonga Fruit 
Land Company, which was organized in 1887, and the same year the 
Cucamonga Water Company was formed.. 

The conflicting water rights of the numerous organizations, with the 
indefinite terms upon which water was sold to land purchasers, led to 
trouble from the start, yet the productiveness of the land has caused the 
settlers to cling desperately to it even when their rights have had to be 
protected by the use of firearms. The mesa and "red hills" have always 
yielded grapes of an especially fine quality, but in recent years there has 
been an "inclination to turn to citrus fruits, the soil being particularly well 
adapted to oranges. The Cucamonga Citrus Fruit Growers' Association 
was formed a number of years ago and belongs to the Ontario-Cucamonga 
Exchange. Cucamonga has a postofifice, school and several stores, located 
between the stations of the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe railways, 
and at the latter station the little town of North Cucamonga has 
sprung up. 

Etiwanda. The Chafifey brothers, of Ontario. Canada, founders of 
the "model colony" of Ontario, California, completed in Januarv, 1882, 
the purchase of the Garcia property, a tract of 7,600 acres of land on 
the Cucamonga Plains, with the water rights of that property and of the 
Day and Young canons. In the following May they organized the- 
Etiwanda Water Company, and subdivided their tract, agreeing to con- 
struct a reservoir at the head of the colony lands and to construct flumes 
and ditches for delivery to each 10-acre tract. Pushing the work vigor- 
ously, spreading broadcast their advertisements of the region, and prom- 
ising to install electric lights, a telephone system, a hotel and a public 
school, by July they were able to announce that they had sold 810 acres 
of their tract, one of the first fruit colony settlements of San Bernardino 
County. The hotel was duly opened to the public in 1883 and the school- 
house was completed at about the same time. 


In the meantime, in June, 1882, the Chaffey brothers had organized 
the California Land Improvement Company, to which they deeded their 
lands, and this company constructed the flumes and installed the dis- 
tributing system. The Etiwanda Water Company was reorganized in 
1893. The colony has made a steady growth. At first the land was 
largely set to grapes and great quantities of raisins were made, but of 
more recent years citrus fruits have found increasing favor. A good 
many orange and lemon orchards are now flourishing, and Etiwanda has 
a Citrus Association, a packing establishment and a number of successful 
business houses. A Congregational church was established in 1893, and 
for some years held its services in the schoolhouse, but at present has its 
own place of worship. 

Hermosa (Ioamosa). During 1880 Adolph Petsch spent several 
months in traveling over the southern counties of California and on one 
of his trips bought an interest in the Day Canon water and made filings 
under the desert land act on some Government land, which he soon after 
sold to the Chaflfey brothers. In November of the same year, while 
traveling along the old Cajon road, he came to a patch of trees in the 
chaparral, and upon investigation discovered that they were peach trees, 
ir. full foliage. He found this to be the pre-emption claim of Henry 
Reed, a 160-acre tract in section 35, range 7 W, township 1 N. S. B. M., 
between the Cucamonga Red Hills and Martin's Station, and subsequently 
purchased the land with all water rights from Deer and Alder canons. 
Thus was taken the first step toward the founding of Hermosa. In 1881, 
with Judge Benjamin S. Eaton (the pioneer of Pasadena), A. A. Porter, 
P. M. Green and Kildorf Almind, Mr. Petsch formed the Hermosa Land 
and Water Company, the name Hermosa ("the beautiful") being sug- 
gested by Judge Eaton. To the original purchase were added some 400 
acres of the old Cucamonga Homestead Tract and 165 acres of railroad 
land, but the water rights were only applied to 480 acres by the first 
company. These 480 undivided interests in all the water were later on 
turned by the settlers into the Hermosa Water Company, which company 
also acquired 1,200 acres of mountain land, completely covering all 
sources of the water in Deer Canon. One of the early features of Her- 
mosa was a concrete wall fencing in 240 acres, to protect the first planta- 
tions against the innumerable rabbits that infested the country. Mr. 
Petsch says : "I got the idea of this wall from Brigham Young, during a 
stay at Salt Lake. As a rabbit fence the wall proved to be a complete 
failure, but it proved to be a first-class advertisement for the enclosed 
land." The success of the Hermosa settlement led, in 1883, to the estab- 
lishment of the Iowa Tract, which included 5(X) acres of the old Cuca- 
monga Homestead Tract. This later led to the amalgamation of the 
names Hermosa and Iowa into the latter appellation of Ioamosa. The 
Hermosa Water Company was incorporated in October, 1887, with a 
capital stock of $192,000. This was an incorporation of the land owners, 
the stock of the company being issued to the holders of the original rights. 
The colony has continued to prosper and is now one of the thrifty settle- 
ments of Western San Bernardino County. It maintains a schoolhouse 
and postoffice, and a number of thriving business establishments are in 

RiALTO. In 1887 the Semi-Tropic Land and Water Company, with a 
stock of $3,000,(XX), was formed and purchased some 28,500 acres of land 
and the water rights to approximately 800 inches of water from Lytle 
Creek. The company then constructed the Rialto Canal, an open, 


cemented ditch, six miles in length, and began the construction of an 
elaborate distribution system. The townsites of Rialto, Fontana, San- 
sevaine and Bloomington were laid out and the balance of the land was 
subdivided, mostly into 20-acre tracts, which were sold and were largely 
set out to deciduous and citrus fruits. In order to carry through its irriga- 
tion projects the company had been forced to mortgage its holdings to 
the San Francisco Savings Union, and when it was unable to meet its 
responsibilities, the latter company, after litigation, took over more than 
20,000 acres of land and a large portion of the waters of Lytle Creek. 
These holdings in the same year, 1896, the San Francisco Savings Union 
disposed of to two corporations, the Chicala Water Company, of Iowa, 
which acquired the water, and the Anglo-American Canaigre Company, 
which secured a large share of the landed interests. These two companies 
controlled the property from 1897 to 1901, when a new company, the 
Fontana Development Company, obtained the interests of both concerns 
and such other rights as were vested in the Savings Union 

Two other companies also operated in the vicinity, in the manage- 
ment and distribution of the waters of Lytle Creek — the Lytle Creek 
Water and Improvement Company and the Lytle Creek Water Company. 

On the Santa Fe Railroad, on lands which were included in the original 
iioldings of the Semi-Tropic Land and \\'ater Company, is the town of 
Rialto. In 1887 a company of people came to this vicinity from Southern 
Kansas and founded what was known as the "Kansas Colony," purchasing 
16,000 acres of land from the Semi-Tropic Company. The colony was 
unable to pay for the lands purchased and soon lost their interests, 
although a number of individuals were able to retain their holdings and 
were among the early settlers of Rialto. The townsite of Rialto was 
laid out during 1887-88 and a syndicate built one of the "boom" hotels 
of the time. In 1892 the school district was set off and the <-own now 
boasts of good educational facilities. Rialto is one of the attractive "fruit 
colonies" of San Bernardino County, and while the greater part of its 
population centers its activities in the conduct of orchards, the commu- 
nity boasts of good shops and other facilities of a growing and enter- 
prising town. It has the First Methodist Church, founded in 1887, and 
the First Congregational Church, organized in 1891, each having houses 
of worship of their own. The fraternal societies represented include 
Fraternal Brotherhood. Lodge No. 179. instituted June 27, 1901; and 
Rialto Hive No. 22, Ladies of the Maccabees, formed April 24. 1902, 
which is largely the outgrowth of San Bernardino Hive 

Upland. Formerly known as North Ontario until 1902, when the 
county board of supervisors in answer to a petition from the people 
changed its name, the town of Upland was originally the Magnolia tract, 
laid out by the Bedford brothers during the '80s, and also the Stowell 
tract. A station of the Southern California Railway was located at this 
point and a settlement grew up about the station, where the Bedford 
brothers erected the Magnolia Villa Hotel about 1887. Upland has 
enjoyed a prosperous growth, and now has well-graded and oiled streets, 
the majority with cement or gravel sidewalks ; an electric street railway, 
electric lights, numerous brick business blocks, a flourishing banking 
house, and six packing houses. 

The postoffice enjoys the privileges of the presidential rank, third class, 
and free rural delivery is maintained, having been established in 1901. 
Lapland has four church organizations, the Methodist. Presbyterian, Epis- 
copalian and Mennonite. Excellent educational facilities are given the 
children of the community. The city likewise supports a successful 


newspaper, and the Upland's Library Association is a body which has been 
developed to a high standard of perfection and service. The fraternal 
bodies represented are the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the 
Fraternal Brotherhood, the Modern Woodmen of America and the 
Daughters of Rebekah. 

Needles. In 1883 when the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad crossed 
the Colorado River, there was established a little way station, which, 
because of its proximity to the mountains of the same name, was given 
the name of Needles. At that time no one saw any future for the com- 
munity save the shrewd railroad men who knew the value of the water 
supply so easily and advantageously to be utilized. The Southern Pacific 
Railroad had graded from Alojave, California, across the desert and at 
Needles joined tracks with the Atlantic & Pacific, to whom it later leased 
its lines, and the latter road in time was absorbed by the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe. The first white settlers of Needles were the employes of 
the railroad company, for whose convenience Halsey Brothers conducted 
a small store and Monaghan & Murphy started a business establishment. 
The senior member of this concern, Frank Monaghan. was the first 
justice of the peace, and Dan IMurphy was the first constable and deputy 
sherifif. The first school at Needles was founded in 1886, and was held 
in a small pole and dirt house, but was later removed to a railroad tool 
house. About 1890 a school building was erected, which, with its ground, 
cost the district about $20,000. This was destroyed by fire in 1899, and 
v/as subsequently rebuilt. In 1903 a high school course was added. In 
1888 a Catholic church was erected at Needles, and since then a parochial 
residence has been added to the church property. The church of the 
Congregationalists was built in 1893, at the corner of C and Second 
streets. The Episcopalians likewise have their own structure, located 
on Second Street. 

In 1888 Dr. J. P. Booth and F. H. Harberd founded the first Needles 
newspaper. Our Bazoo, and in 1890 E. E. Booth, of the Winslow News, 
purchased Mr. Harberd's interest and moved his plant to the desert town. 
The paper at that time was enlarged and the name changed to Booth's 
Bazoo. In 1891 the name was converted to The Needle's Eye, being 
named for the hole which nature has placed through the apex of one of 
the pinnacles of the Needles mountains. The climate of Needles is equable 
and mild except about two months in summer, when the thermometer 
reaches above the 100 mark, but by reason of the absolute absence of 
moisture in the atmosphere, the heat fails to create anything but excessive 

Needles at the present time — 1921 — has a Chamber of Commerce, 
Dr. C. E. Stanter, president ; also Methodist, Episcopal, Christian and 
Catholic churches, with an Indian manse. In the winter time the families 
return and the activities of community life take on much of social life. 
The population is about 4,000. The "Needles' Nugget," a splendid paper, 
is publi.shed every Friday. The newspaper company consists of F. B. 
Gabbert, president; L. \'. Root, vice president; W. T. Henderson, secre- 
tary-treasurer. The Santa Fe has a large complement of men engaged 
in its mechanical and train service. 

ViCTORViLLE AND \'icTOR \'.\LLEV. Victor Valley lies on the north 
side of San Bernardino and Sierra Madre Mountains, just north of 
Cnjon Pass, in San Bernardino County. The higher portions of the 
valley have an elevation of nearly 4,0(X) feet and it slopes gradually 
towards the north until at Daggett, 65 miles north of Caion Summit, the 


elevation is approximately 2,000 feet. The various valleys known by the 
general name of Victor Valley are : Lucerne, 25 miles east of Victorville ; 
Apple Valley, a few miles east and south of Victorville ; Mojave Valley, 
on both sides of the Mojave River, below Victorville; Summit Valley, 
on the headwaters of the West Fork of the Mojave River; Baldy Mesa, 
12 to 25 miles southwest from Victorville; Sunrise Valley, directly west 
of Victorville. These valleys have a combined acreage of arable land 
of more than 350,000 acres. 

The Mojave River heads in the San Bernardino Mountains and runs 
due north for more than 50 miles, then swings in an easterly direction. 
The Mojave River is the only one in the State that flows due north, and 
the only river in the State without an outlet into some other river or 
ocean — it sinks out on the Mojave desert. 

Victorville is a town of about 750 people, and is not incorporated. It 
lies about in the center of Victor Valley, on the Mojave River, 44 miles 
north of San Bernardino. The main lines of the Santa Fe and Salt 
Lake railroads pass through it. The town has good schools, with eleven 
teachers ; an M. E. church ; a weekly newspaper, the Victor-Valley-News- 
Herald ; one drug store, ice manufacturing plant, three hotels, and one 
bank, the officers of which are: C. M. Moon, president; George R. 
Searls, vice president; John Christenson, secretary; S. A. Hedding, 
treasurer. There is in Victorville a plant which manufactures fibre from 
a desert plant commonly called Spanish dagger. This fibre is used for 
binding twine and rope. Near the town is the Southwestern Portland 
Cement Company's plant, manufacturing 2,500 barrels of cement per 
day. At Oro Grande, five miles north, is located the Golden Gate Cement 
Co.'s plant, with a capacity of 1,000 bbls. per day. The former company 
employs 125 men; monthly payroll is $20,000; the latter employs 80 men 
with a monthly payroll of $12,000. 

The elevation of Victorville is 2,710 feet. There are about 2,500 
acres planted to deciduous fruits in Victor Valley and 1,500 acres of 
alfalfa and about 8,000 tons were grown in 1920. Victor Valley Union 
High School District consists of the following elementary districts : Apple 
Valley, Baldy Messa, Big Bear Lake, Hesperia, Lucerne, Midway, Mirage 
Valley, Oro Grande, Sheep Creek, Sunrise, Victor. The district has a 
valuation of $2,644,450. 

YucAiPA. Yucaipa Valley is 8 miles from Redlands and 72 miles 
from Los Angeles, with paved highways topping the valley, and con- 
necting with Southern California's famous system of good roads. It is 
a mountain locked mesa, varying in altitude from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. To 
the northeast rises Mount San Bernardino, at a distance of only eight 
miles ; to the east is San Gorgonia, to the southeast is San Jacinto. 

The valley embraces 15,000 acres of tillable land, about 5,000 acres 
are planted to trees, and bearing. Included in this acreage is the old-time 
Dunlap ranch, familiar to all old Southern Californians. Yucaipa Valley 
is known and recognized as one of the proven apple districts of Cali- 

It is to California, what Hood River Valley is to Oregon, what Grand 
River Valley is to Colorado, and what Yakima Valley is to Washington. 
In 1920, eleven million pounds of apples were shipped out. Yucaipa 
apples are known in every principal market in the United States. 

Cherrycroft, the largest cherrv orchard in Southern California, is in 
Yucaipa, and in 1920. 10,000 people visited this famous orchard and show 

There is an active Chamber of Commerce at Yucaipa, with S. H. 
Smith, as president ; J. L. Messenger, vice president, and Chester Ferris, 


secretary-treasurer. The executive committee, in addition to the presi- 
dent and vice president, are: E. Carter, R. F. Gill and P. B. Hassbrouck. 
The Congregational church is the pioneer in the Valley, emphasizing 
community features ; Rev. Chester Ferris, minister ; Methodist, with the 
Rev. Nelson Hoffpauir, pastor. Both of these churches own quite well 
equipped modern buildings. There is a Baptist church, with Rev. Harold 
Doty, pastor. A Farm Bureau, with F. N. Henny. secretary, fills many 
needs. The Woman's Club, erected a very creditable new building the 
past year, valued at about $15,000. The president is Mrs. M. A. Dunham, 
the secretary, Mrs. L. P. Black, and treasurer is Mrs. F. H. Henny. 

Devore Heights. When the late John A. Devore twenty years or 
more ago purchased about 1,800 acres of the now productive bench land 
on the main line of the Santa Fe Railroad, the company promptly adopted 
the name "Devore," thus honoring the public-spirited man who. by his 
liberal investments, demonstrated his faith in Devore Heights. The com- 
pany has expended nearly $7,000 in the construction of a handsome and 
substantial station, and it has become an important shipping point on the 
line of the Santa Fe. The prosperous settlement estabHshed by Mr. 
Devore is marked by the erection of many beautiful buildings, enhanced 
in charm by the creation of stone walls, which border the winding drives 
that lead to one of the most beautiful parks found anywhere. Before 
Mr. Devore became the owner of ranch, now known as "Devore Heights," 
the acreage was scarcely more than a runway for rabbits — a 
wilderness. Now the fertile fields stretch awav to the edge of the moun- 
tains. Mr. Devore, the founder, passed away in February, 1907. 

Big Bear Valley is a land of romance, the land of an old-time gold 
excitement (with a gold mine still in operation), its cattle grazing and its 
resorts. It is a high plateau, nearly 7,000 feet above sea level, guarded 
by giant peaks of San Goreonia, towering 11.485 feet, San Bernardino 
and Sugar Loaf, each over 10,000 feet high. Cradled on its bosom is this 
pleasant valley, wooded with giant pines which surround the waters of 
a lake twelve miles long and from three to four miles wide. Big Bear 
Lake is artificial, being formed bv the construction of an immense dam ; 
to the northeast is a natural lake. "Baldwin Lake." named for "Lucky 
Baldwin," of old-time racinsr fame. The Rim of the World Highway 
nnsses around the lake, making the turn as it drops from an altitude of 
8.000 feet, on the crest, down to the shimmering waters. 

Away back in the '60s and '70s Gus Knight. Sr.. commenced to lay 
the foundations of the valley's present-day fame, with his cattle ranch, 
and Gus Knight. Jr.. hurried up the glories with the first mountain resort. 
The completion of the Rim of the World Hisrhwav along the mountain 
crest stimulated efforts of all who were making improvements on the 

William Talmage went into the valley in 1892 and has been there ever 
since. He bought the I. S. Ranch and the I. S. Brand : and with the 
famous "brand" goes a story. A man by the name of James Smai-t owned 
the ranch and desiring a "brand" for branding his cattle, made the form 
with the letters T. S. and went to Los Angeles to have it cast and returned 
to Big Bear Valley, rounded up his herds of cattle and commenced opera- 
tions of branding; then it was discovered that the little crook of the letter 
"J" had been lost on the way to Los Angeles — the only place in those days 
where castings were made — leaving an "I" — "T. S." Forty years ago it 
was a long, long way from Bie Bear Valley to Los .Angeles — a week then, 
n' against four hours in 1921. There was nothing else to do but use 


the abbreviated brand with the "I. S." Today that brand is kept locked 
in a safe, and is worth a mint of money. So Mr. Talmage came into pos- 
session of the 1640-acre ranch and the "Brand." In 1913 his brothers 
John and Frank became associated with him in the cattle business. In 
the year 1921 the Talmage Brothers' returns from their cattle sales were 
200,000 pounds. That of the Shay and Barker Company the same amount 
and the Grimes-Hitchcock (Holcomb Valley), 150,000 pounds. 

In 1913 there were two resorts; in the fall of 1921, fifty-two, some 
with a half dozen cabins, others with a hundred. At that time less than 
a hundred homes were owned : at this time over a thousand. It has grown 
into quite a city, with all advantages and comforts that may he found 
in the valleys. Community spirit is expressed in thorough organization, 
and the Chamber of Commerce of Big Bear Valley with its 300 members 
is actively concerned in all that means advancement. 

During the winter a small percentage of the people remain there, but 
in the height of the summer season well on to 20,000 people enjoy its 
delights. The winter of 1921 has been the first time that a concentrated 
effort was made to keep open the roads during the cold weather. In this 
\rork the Chamber of Commerce is busy, although most of its members 
are in the valley. The officers of the Chamber of Commerce are : Presi- 
dent, William Talmage ; secretary, S. A. Skinner ; treasurer, Mr. Garber. 
Mrs. Margaret Betterly, chairman of hospitality committee, is a big factor 
in the progress going on up there in the green valley on the hilltops. 

Mr. F. C. (Dad) Skinner and a large number of capitalists of Red- 
lands and Los Angeles exploit every natural feature of Big Bear Valley, 
with a vision before them of a wonderful city above the clouds. In the 
fall of 1921 the Chamber of Commerce of Big Bear Valley, the Forest 
Reserve and the Rim of the World — all so closely connected in mutual 
interests — arranged for a beautiful feature for the National Orange 
Show, held in San Bernardino — typical of mountain activities in all its 
various phases. 

Camp Cajon. On the north and east of San Bernardino Valley are 
the San Bernardino Mountains and beyond them the vast Mojave Desert. 
Through this high mountain range is a natural gap — a parting of the 
heights — a winding, tortuous passage, dividing the mountains and uniting 
the white sands on the north with the green lands of the south. 

This is Cajon Pass. Cajon — pronounced cah-hone with the second 
syllable strongly accented — is the Spanish word for "box." Because a 
portion of the defile is walled by high cliffs, the early Spaniards chris- 
tened a portion of it "Paso del Cajon" — Box Pass. Through this pass 
comes the National Old Trails Highway, now paved from San Bernardino 
to Summit, a distance of 26 miles. It parallels the long abandoned and 
almost obliterated Santa Fe Trail over which, in 1849, and in the early 
'50s, the Pioneers came to lay the foundations for a Southland empire. 

At the point in the Pass where the old trail from Salt Lake joined the 
one from the Santa Fe there stands a tall monument, erected in honor of 
those hardy adventurers. It was built in 1917 by the survivors of the 
forty-niners and their descendants and was dedicated on December 23 
of the same year. 

A short distance northward from the monument, and just 20 miles 
from San Bernardino, is Camp Cajon, a welcome station for the incoming 
motor traveler, which an eastern writer has termed "California's Granite 
Gate." It, too, is a monument dedicated to the present and the future 
as the pioneers' monument is to the past. Camp Cajon is the conception 
of William M. Bristol, orange grower, poet and dreamer of Highland. 25 



miles southeastward. Mr. Bristol first dreamed his dream of Camp Cajon 
at the dedication of the Pioneers' Monument. 

Thirty years before, Mrs. J. C. Davis, a Wisconsin woman, who had 
spent a winter in California and had returned home, wrote and published 
a poem entitled "The Overland Trail," a graphic pen picture of the old 
trail as seen from the windows of a modern Pullman car. Mr. Bristol 
\vas present at the dedication of the monument for the purpose of read- 
ing this poem as a part of the formal program. It is an interesting fact 
that Mrs. Davis had returned to California and was residing at Devore, 


H^^BBBBaiSSwIi^B^^^B^^B^B^MK.'^^^.wMHy ■ 

V ■ ■ 

"^' r;>ig^ypii^| 


Scenes at C-\mp C.\jon 

at the southern portal of the Pass. Without knowing that she was to 
contribute in any way to the ceremonies of the day, she was taken into 
the Bristol family car and was present to hear her poem, unexpectedly 
read nearly a third of a century after it was written. 

At the close of the ceremonies the throng adjourned to the willow 
grove, where Camp Cajon now stands, and, sitting on the sandy ground, 
at a picnic dinner. It was then and there that the need of permanent 
conveniences for such an occasion occurred to Mr. Bristol, and on that 
day he began the formulation of the plans for making his dream come 
true. In Alay. 1919, he pitched his tent in the willow grove, then a 
jungle, intending to take a two months' vacation from his orange grove, 
and build a dozen concrete dining tables, each with benches of the same 





HHIH^^^^^^I^^^^^hI - 


massive and indestructible type. That was the extent of his original 
dream. But so enthusiastically was his innovation received by the world 
at large, and especially by Southern California, that his vacation was 
stretched to two years ; and when he finally resigned as director and 
returned to his home, there were fifty-five tables instead of the dozen, 
besides numerous other structures not contemplated in the original plans. 
He was not only architect, but artisan, much of the actual work of con- 
struction being done by himself, personally, the ornamental mosaics of 
dark and white stone and the hundred or more metal tablets on the tables 
and buildings being his own handiwork. A wealth of beautiful blue 
granite boulders near at hand inspired and aided in the building of various 
structures which promise to stand for all time. 

Perhaps the most elaborate structure at the camp is the Elks' outpost 
clubhouse, erected by all the Elks' lodges of Southern California at a 
cost of several thousand dollars and dedicated to loyal Elks of the world. 
It affords conveniences for serving a meal to half a hundred people, and, 
standing and facing upon California's most popular transcontinental high- 
way, it also proclaims that the order stands ready to meet and greet all 
comers to the Southland. Across its face, in beautiful mosaic of dark 
and white stone are the initials, "B. P. O. E.," and above this in the same 
artistic stonework, is the Elks' clock, with its hands pointing to the mystic 
hour of eleven. Below is a metal tablet carrying the entire text of 
-Arthur Chapman's poem, "Out Where the West Begins." Elsewhere 
is a double tablet carrying John S. McGroarty's favorite poem, "Just 
California." And on the camp flag column are four stanzas of Charles 
L. Frazer's poem. "The Flag." Each table and stove, each broiler and 
br.rbecue pit carries a tablet with an inscription, and the name of the 
donor. Perhaps the spirit of Camp Cajon is best and most briefly 
expressed in two tablets which read. "To the desert-weary traveler," and 
"To the stranger within our gates." The following is the list of tables, 
stoves and so on, with donors and main part of inscriptions : Twenty 
miles to San Bernardino, the Gate Citv and home of the National Orange 
Show. Thirty miles to Redlands and famous Smily Heights. Twenty- 
three miles to Colton, the Hub City, where industry reigns. Twenty-five 
miles to East Highlands, the Buckle of the Citrus Belt. Twenty-three 
miles to Highland, gateway to City Creek and Rim of the World. Thirty- 
five miles to Mirage Valley, where things grow without irrigation. 
Twelve miles to Sheepcreek, watered and fertile valley. Ten miles to 
Baldy Mesa, where things grow without irrigation. Forty-five miles to 
Chino, where evervthing grows. Twenty-three miles north of Adalanto, 
the transformed desert. Twenty miles to Apple Valley, where apples 
keep the doctor away. Twenty-three miles to Lucerne Valley, land of 
fibundant shallow water. Sixty-one miles to Barstow, metropolis of 
Mojave Vallev. Twenty-four miles to Victorville, center of ^' ictor Valley. 
Fourteen miles to Hesperia, gateway to Big Bear Valley. Seventv miles 
to Santa Ana. county seat of Orange County. At the south portal of 
Caion Pass, Devore, the home of the muscat grape. Twenty miles to 
Del Rosa, beneath the Arrowhead. Twentv miles to Arrowhead Hot 
Springs, hottest springs known. Twenty miles to Rialto',<-. orange grove. 
Twenty-three miles to Fontana, largest orange grove in the world. 
Twentv-five miles to Bloomington, orange and lemon empire. Thirty- 
five miles to beautiful Etiwanda, home of the grape and the lemon. 
Thi?tv-five miles to Cucamonga. with its peaches, grapes and "welcomes." 
Forty miles to Ontario, model citv. offers opportunity. Thirty-five miles 
oceanward to Upland, and Euclid Avenue. To all nature lovers, by the 
employees of the State Hospital at Patten. Dedicated to checker players 


by the family of John Andreson, Sr., pioneer of 1850. To the "Stranger 
within our gates," by the family of David H. Wixom. The "West to the 
East ever calls," Hiram Clark and family. Dedicated to the people of 
Needles by George E. Butler. Dedicated to the people of Cloverdale, 
Michigan, by Mrs. Chas. H. SchafFer of ^Marquette, Mich. To commemo- 
rate the visit of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, dedication tour, April 28, 
1920. In honor of Fred T. Perris, who, in 1884, led the iron horse 
through Cajon Pass. To the Pioneers of San Bernardino Valley, by 
Native Sons who have gone afield. (Judge B. F. Bledsoe, Paul Shoup 
and others). To our Pioneers, by Arrowhead Parlor, Native Sons. To 
the Trailmakers, by officers and men of Santa Fe. To Highway Builders, 
by officers and men of Santa Fe. Redlands Rotary Club, with Rotary 
emblem. Riverside Rotary Club, with Rotary emblem. San Bernardino 
Rotary Club, with double table, and international Rotary emblem. "The 
groves were God's first temples," by W. M. Parker. "Now good diges- 
tion wait on appetite, and health on both," by A. C. Denman. Jr. "To 
the desert-weary traveler," by W. J. Hanford. A bake-oven, dedicated 
to the baking public, by W. j. Hanford. A family broiler, dedicated to 
the broiling public, by C. G. Lundholm. A pump, dedicated to the "drink- 
ing public," by W. D. Anderson. A community broiler, "Max Aron bids 
you broil your steak." A big range. Orange County. One barbecue pit. 
dedicated to the "barbecuing public." by W. J. Curtis, J. W. Curtis, Henry 
Goodcell, Rex B. Goodcell, Herman Harris, John Andreson, Jr.. Joseph 
E. Rich, W. E. Leonard, E. E. Katz and Mrs. F. ^I. Towne. Flag 
column, erected by the Native Sons of Illinois, as tribute to the State 
of their adoption. "I love you, California." Column, its mosaics and 
tablets, the handiwork of \Y. M. Bristol, contributed by him. Flag pole, 
gift of J. B. Gill, formerly Lieutenant-governor of Illinois. Large tablet 
carrying four stanzas, Chas. L. Frazer's poem, "The Flag." 
Elevation 3,002 feet. 

The Arrowhead — and Legends. A million men have wondered 
concerning the formation of the marvelous prehistoric landmark known 
a~ the Arrowhead, so clearly pictured upon the mountainside, six miles 
northeast of San Bernardino. Although the exact origin of the Arrow- 
head is apparently still undetermined, numerous legends, dealing with its 
stipernatural creation, combining the fancy of superstition with the 
romance of fiction, have been extant among the Indian tribes and early 
settlers for many generations. 

By actual measurement, the Arrowhead is 1,375 feet long and 449 
feet wide, comprising an area of 7^ acres. The material of which it is 
composed is different in formation from adjacent parts of the mountain, 
consisting chiefly of disintegrated white quartz, and light grav granite, 
and supporting a growth of short white sas;e and weeds This lighter 
vegetation shows in sharp contrast to the dark green growth of surround- 
ing chapparal and greasewood. Not a few believe that this natural mark 
was made bv a mountain cloudburst. This wonderfuUv formed symbol 
is a distinctive feature of the locality : it mav be seen as far as the side 
of the mountain is in sight and is used as a display mark by many busi- 
ness concerns as well as some organizations. 

Doctor D. N. Smith, who about 1860. sought to improve the boiling 
sulphurous springs at the base of the mountain, had a unique arrowhead 
storv to tell, .'\ccordins: to him. when a voung lad. at a time when his 
fnrher. who was a sufferer from consumption, lay sick unto death, an 
;ingel appeared to him in a vision, and pictured a place at the foot of a 
mountainside designated by a pointing arrowhead, where his father might 


be cured. Some jcars later, when Dr. Smith, coming to the San Ber- 
nardino Valley, saw the sign upon the mountain which he then named 
Arrowhead, he recalled the vision. Visiting the foot of the mountain, he 
found the springs which he discovered to be possessed of valuable medi- 
cinal properties and great curative powers. 

CoAHUiLLA Legend. Generations ago, when the Evil Spirit dwelt in 
the mountains, the Coahuillas were a race of giants. Now the Evil Spirit 
took supreme delight in making life miserable for them. His favorite 
form of amusement was to roll down from the mountains huge boulders 
upon their rancheria and to pour drenching floods of water over the 
valley. The Indians naturally enough became weary of these mischievous 
attentions and wishing to arrange some sort of truce, one autumn day, 
after the evil one had been especially active, decided to seek council 
with him. 

So the giant Indian chief called the "Sacred Eagle," after first placing 
the white feather of a dove in his beak, sent him aloft to the abode of 
the evil one. The bird returned with the feather, and a score of the most 
powerful Indians scaled the mountainside, and the council occurred. 
After some discussion, it was decided to play a game of cards for the 
possession of the valley. The Indians chanting a good luck gambling 
song, were fast winning, when the evil one, becoming enraged, siezed an 
ace of spades and dashed it against the mountainside with sucli angry 
force that the mountain opened, receiving him spluttering in its depths 
and the sulphurous hot springs at the mountain's base bear evidence of 
his continued presence beneath the rocks. 

Here is another legend from the Coahuillas : In the days of long 
ago, the Coahuillas dwelt across the mountains to the eastward, near 
San Luis Rey Mission. Now, although of a peace-loving disposition, they 
were constantly harassed by their warlike neighbors, who stole their 
ponies, devastated their fields and burned their jacales. At last the perse- 
cutions could no longer be endured and at command of their chief the 
tribesmen gathered in council for the purpose of calling upon the God 
of Peace to assist and direct them to another country where they might 
acquire a quiet homeland. 

Now being a gentle people, so the tale runs, they found special favor 
with the great Spirit, by whom they were directed to travel westward, 
and instructed that they would be guided to their new home by a fiery 
rrrow, for which they must be constantly watching. The tribe started 
upon the journey, and one moonless night there appeared across the 
heavens a blazing arrow, which took its course westward, settling upon 
the mountain, where the shaft was consumed by fire, but the head 
embedded itself, clear cut, in the mountainside. The catrp was aroused, 
and resumed their journey, and located in the shadow of the mountain 
whereon was the arrowhead, and lived happily. 

It is related that when in the year 1851 Brigham Young desired to 
found^ii colony which was to be a resting place to the saints coming to 
this City of Zion from Europe and Australia, he sent out a party to select 
a location. Before his band of disciples started on their quest, however, 
he told the two leading elders of a vision that had appeared to him He 
had beheld upon the side of a mountain the head of an arrow pointing 
down to a rich and fertile vallev. When the party should come to this 
sign of the arrowhead, there in the valley to which it pointed, he enjoined 
them to stop, and found a new branch of Zion. After long, wearisome 
plodding through L^tah and Nevada, the travelers came to the dreary 
St vetch of Mojave Desert. 


Nearly perishing from lack of water, thoroughly discouraged, they 
were on the point of turning back, when an angel appearing, admonished 
them to be of good cheer, continue their journey, and soon they would 
reach the land of their reward. 

The following day they came to Cajon Pass, and from there viewed 
the beautiful San Bernardino Valley. The elders, beholding the great 
white arrowhead, defined against the dark green background, recognized 
this as the valley of their leader's vision. So here they settled, founding 
in San Bernardino one of the most healthy, prosperous offshoots Mor- 
nionism ever put forth, until 1857, when Brigham Young recalled them, 
most of them obeying the command. 

Anotiter Legend of the Arrowhead 

Captain Manuel Santos, of the San Manuel Mission Indian Reserva- 
tion, gave to his lifelong friend John Brown. Jr., well known pioneer of 
1849, the following romantic Indian legend of the Arrowhead, which 
story the Indians believe as true, coming down to them in tradition from 
their ancesors for many generations. 

This wonderful freak of nature, containing in area about twenty 
acres, lies about eight miles north of the City of San Bernardino on the 
side of a mountain, a portion of the San Bernardino range of mountains 
plainly visible for miles around. Its shape as a perfect arrowhead, gigan- 
tic in proportion, at once attracts the attention of all beholders. Tourists 
entering the San Bernardino Valley are eager to learn something of this 
wonderful phenonenon of nature. 

Among the first inhabitants, the Mexicans and Americans, there are 
various mysterious legends, but none compare with the Indians for love 
and romance. 

A great many years ago the San Bernardino \^alley was inhabited 
by the Cahuilla, the Serrano and the Guachama tribes of Indians, the 
Guachamas occupying the center of the valley. \'illages. or "Rancherias." 
were scattered in various directions. Here the Indians lived in peace 
and happiness and had plenty to eat. Guachama means, in Indian, a 
place where there is plenty to eat. In the valley the hare, the rabbit, the 
quail, the duck and the goose abounded : along the foothills and moun- 
tains the deer and bear were numerous ; the acorns, the juniper berries, 
the pinones (pine nuts), choke cherries, mescal and tunies (prickly pear), 
furnished varieties of food, provided bountifully by nature, justifying the 
Indians in calling the valley as the place of plenty to eat. 

While enjoying this happiness these Indians discovered the curative 
qualities of the hot water near the base of this mountain, so gathered 
there, partook of this hot water, bathed in it, and covered themselves 
with the warm mud. 

In the course of time a village grew up, governed by one their chiefs. 
Among the family of this famous chief was a most beautiful dusky 
maiden, perfect in physical stature, with bewitching eyes and long, black 
hair over her shoulders. Two Indian braves fell in love with this charm- 
ing beauty and pressed their devotions so earnestly that she found it 
difficult in preserving harmony between them. The observing old chief 
realizing the situation summoned the two lovers to appear before him, 
and announced their fate to them, that they must forthwith settle this 
love affair according to Indian custom, must fight a duel with bows and 
arrows, the victor to have the hand of his daughter in marriage. He 
commanded one of these lovers to go along the mountain range west 
and hunt for the hardest flint rock among the crags and peaks to make 


arrowheads for the points of his arrows, and further directed him to 
have his quiver full and ready and in two weeks' time be prepared for 
his antagonist ; the same orders the old chief gave to the other lover, 
bidding him to go eastward along the mountain range. 

During these two weeks the old chief sent couriers to all the surround- 
ing villages, Yucipa, Potrero. Indio, Malki, Soboba, Coahuilla, Agua 
Caliente. Temescal, Temecula, Juapa, Guachama and Cucamunyo, inviting 
the Indians from these rancherias to come to his village and witness the 
great duel that was to take place between two Indian braves, the con- 
queror to have his daughter in marriage. The momentous day arrived. 
Hundreds of Indians arrived eager to witness the tragedy. Just before 
the noon hour, the dignified old chief comes out of his wigwam; 
his squaw follows holding her daughter's hand. The two lovers are 
called and appear before the chief with their bows and quivers filled 
with arrows pointed with arrowheads made of the hardest flint rock to 
be found on the mountain side. The chief makes an opening among the 
assembled Indians, and measures off forty paces and orders the braves 
to take their places and prepare for the mortal comT)at. Death-like 
silence prevails. With deep, penetrating voice the old chief asks the 
braves if they are ready — both signifying by a nod of the head they 
are — and at the command to fire, did so with lightning rapidity, when 
one of the braves falls with an arrow piercing his heart. The conqueror 
realizing the danger he had just escaped, and the prize he had won, in 
this his moment of triumph, approaches his victim, draws the arrow from 
his heart, the arrowhead saturated and dripping with blood, places it 
in his bow and fires it away up on the mountain side, where the winter's 
rains and the summer's suns have caused the arrowhead to grow and 
grow until it attained the size as you now see it on the mountain side, 
exciting the wonder and admiration of all beholders. 

Pioneer Monument at Cajon Pass. Most impressive were the cere- 
monies at the unveiling and dedication of the pioneer monument on 
December 23, 1917, erected near the edge of the old Trails National 
Highway, at the juncture of the Santa Fe and Salt Lake Trails. 

It is the first ocean-to-ocean highway monument constructed on the 

The monument is twelve feet high and seven feet square at the base, 
built of cement and rock, having a granite slab bearing the following 

"Santa Fe and Salt Lake trail, 1849. Erected in 1917 to honor the 
brave pioneers of California, by Pioneers Sheldon Stoddard, Sidney P. 
Waite, John Brown, Jr., George Miller, George M. Cooley, Silax Cox, 
Richard Wier and Jasper N. Corbett." 

These pioneers were appointed by the San Bernardino Society of 
California Pioneers to build this monument and they constructed it 
themselves without any outside assistance. 

Little Hattie Irene Knight, great-granddaughter of Sheldon Stoddard, 
unveiled the monument. 

Mrs. Sheldon Stoddard was a daughter of Capt. Hunt (Jane Hunt), 
who came through the Pass in 1851. 

Then followed the presentation of the monument to the Native 
Daughters. Native Sons and Board of Supervisors by John Brown, Jr. 

Mrs. Lettie Woodward Kier accepted for the Native Daughters ; 
Edward Wall, great-grandson of Capt. Jefferson Hunt, for the Native 
Sons, and Supervisor Mark B. Shaw for the Board of Supervisors. 

The ceremony was not only interesting but historical, for seated near 



in places of honor were some of those who came with the first group 
in 1851. Mrs. Nancy Daley, Sarah A. Rathbun and Justis Morse were of 
that first caravan, and Mrs. Mary A. Crandall, who followed in the fall. 

At the base of the monument were placed by Mrs. Byron Waters, oil, 
corn and wine, emblematic of the hope that the Pioneers might live to 
see days of comfort in California — and that day had arrived. 

The most ancient history related at the time was that of Don Pablo 
Belarde, 84 years old, who came through the Pass in 1843 with a mule 
pack train packed with Navajo blankets, which were traded for wild 
horses on the Lugo ranch and driven over this Santa Fe trail back to 
New Mexico. 

Monument Builders 

J. N. CoRBETT, De L.\ M. Woodward (Deceased), Uncle Sheldon 

Stoddard (Deceased), Richard Wer, Sidney P. Watte, 

John Brown, Jr. 

Capt. Jefferson Hunt made three trips over this trail in 1847, 1849 
and 1851. 

James W. Waters passed over the trail in 1844 with a mule back train 
loaded with blankets and returning with abalone .shells for the Navajo 

Henry Willis, John Brown and George L. Tucker were, in 1861, 
granted by the California Legislature a charter for a toll road through 
the Pass, which road was opened and operated for twenty years, most 
of the time by John Brown, Sr. 

Fred T. Perris, constructing engineer of the Santa Fe, and who sur- 
veyed for that railroad early in the '80s, was asked for a speech ; just at 
that time a very long train passed by, and pointing to it he said : "There's 
my speech." 



Sheldon Stoddard, 83 years of age, was present. Sixty years before 
he had passed over the Santa Fe Trail through the Pass. 

But one of the most touching bits of history was that of an aged pio- 
neer mother, who was one of the members of the first caravan to enter 
San Bernardino Valley on June 20, 1851, through the Pass. Her name 
was Mrs. (Nancy) Edward Daley, daughter of Capt. Hunt, who had 
charge of the caravan. She, with her family, had been on the way for a 
year. They were tired, weary and longed for the sight of something 
besides the dry sands of the desert. She took her baby — born on the 
way — in her arms and hurried on ahead of the rest of the party. Coming 
down the hills and into Cajon Pass, she came to the little stream of 

Pioneer Monumeni 

water running near where the monument now stands, and laying her 
baby down on the green grass stopped and raised some cool water to her 
lips, fell on her knees and exclaimed : "This is heaven." 

There were present at this dedication several hundred old pioneers 
and men of prominence from other cities. It really proved to be a monu- 
ment to sentiment and old memories. 

Federal Judge B. F. Bledsoe, a Native Son, gave the address. Others 
who spoke were: Judge J. W. Curtis, a grandson of Rev. I. C. Curtis, 
who came through the Pass in the early '60s ; Judge Rex B. Goodceli, 
whose grandfather came through the Pass in 1857 and who is a son of 
the first San Bernardino County graduate of the State Normal School ; 
Attorneys R. E. Swing and Grant Holcomb, the latter a grandson of 
W. F. Holcomb, who came to San Bernardino in 1860 and discovered 
gold in Big Bear and Holcomb Valley, and Pioneer William Stephen. 

This monument was built and dedicated when W'oodrow Wilson was 
President of the United States ; Hon. Hiram Johnson, United States 
senator ; Hon. James Phelan, United States senator ; Hon. W. D. Stephens, 


Governor of California ; J. W. Curtis and H. T. Dewhirst, judges of the 
Superior Court ; James B. Glover, Mark B. Shaw, R. L. Riley, Jeff Kin- 
caid and A. B. Mulvane were members of the Board of Supervisors. 

Joseph W. Catick was mayor of San Bernardino. 

VV. E. Leonard, Clyde Pierson, Fred Martin, Frank Giles and R. R. 
Davis were members of the Common Council. 

Native Sons who cared for the old pioneers that day were : John 
.\ndreson, Jr., Guy Haile, Thomas Shay, Roy Burcham, Charles Vail, 
Tony Preciado, Dr. F. M. Gardner, A. A. Garner, Guy Dunlap, Rubert 
Easton, Dr. L. M. Coy, Bert Gibson, A. H. Bemis, Edward Poppett, 
Lester King, J. McGinnis, Wilson Bemis, Ross Crandall and C. J. Daley. 


The pioneer settlers of a new county, or community, or city, inde- 
pendently of any intrinsic qualities which they may possess, are objects 
of peculiar interest in succeeding generations. We delight to read their 
names and treasure in memory the slightest incident connected with their 
persons and their settlement. The Pilgrims of New England and the 
Colonists of Virginia, as the years go by, are gradually raised from the 
level of common humanity and placed before our contemplation on ped- 
estals, challenging the admiration and respect of posterity. Each suc- 
cessive step in the settlement of the country, as adventurous pioneers 
pushed out from the populous centers into the rapidly receding wilder- 
ness, has brought to notice courageous, enterprising men, who have con- 
nected their names indissolubly with rising States and embryo cities. 

If we of the present generation are to honor the pioneers of all times 
and localities, how great a meed of praise must we give the hardy argo- 
nauts of the State of California! Perhaps we are too prone to think of 
the Golden State as a land of everlasting sunshine, a land of plenty, of 
treasure and of comfort. Perhaps we do not fully realize in this day 
the men who blazed the trails over this country were forced 
to meet and overcome obstacles the like of which were not to be found 
elsewhere within the boundaries of the nation. True, the American 
pioneers journeyed into a country that needed civilization. The natives 
were not the ruthless, murderous hostiles of the plains. The soil was 
ready for tilling without the heart-breaking labor of clearing the land 
of mighty forests. But, despite these advantages there were labors that 
tried the fiber of the hardiest. The country was not for the weakling. 
The journey across the trackless plains and prairies, with the constantly 
attending dangers to be encountered, was alone a task to be faced only 
by the bravest. Unlimited faith, energy and self-reliance were needed to 
glean over millions of golden metal from the mines of California between 
1848 and 1860. The possession of the most splendid ability and per- 
severance was necessary for the work of transforming the vast stretch 
of stock ranges into an inhabited country of prosperous cities, productive 
orchards and vineyards, comfortable and happy homes and a habitation 
of law-abiding people of high principles, constructive citizenship and 
honorable laws of living. 

In San Bernardino County, the pioneers found awaiting them many 
trials, and their faith had to be great. The marauding Indians were 
always a danger ; the traversing of almost impassable mountains and 
scorching desert sweeps was the cause of untold privations ; wild animals, 
pests, drouths, cholera, fevers and floods all combined to make their labors 
difficult. Over all they triumphed, and through their faith and valor 
have left us not only a heritage of material wealth and happiness, but 
the example of strength and endurance that can do no less than to 
encourage us in the continuation of the great work which they inaugu- 

No history of this county is complete which fails to make account of 
its pioneer women. Leaving homes of comfort and refinement in the 
East, they braved the dangers and endured the privations of pioneer 
life, animated by the devoted love of woman for the man of her heart, 
and full of enthusiasm for rearing in the new land of the West the insti- 


tutions of religion, education and charity which should transform that 
country into a land of refinement, and cover the wild prairies with the 
bloom and beauty and fragrance of peaceful and happy homes. While 
our minds are thrilled by the stirring narratives of the enterprise and 
deeds of the pioneer in trade, in manufactures, in the professions and 
politics, our hearts swell with emotion at the mention of the names and 
works of their companions in courage and in toil. 

The earliest settlers of San Bernardino County were in the main 
native Californians of Spanish descent, men of honor, fearless and 
upright. Prominent among this class of pioneers, who helped to make 
California history as a Mexican territory, and did their share in the rapid 
changes of Government, were: Antonio Yorba, grantee of Santa Ana 
de Santiago, 1801 ; Bernardo, Tomas and Teodosio, sons of Antonio 
Yorba; Leandro Serrano, claimant of Temescal Grant, 1828; Juan Ban- 
dini, to whom Jurupa Grant was made in 1838; Tiburcio Tapia, grantee 
of Cucamonga, 1839; Antonio Maria Lugo, Jose M., Jose C. and Vicente, 
his sons, who were granted the San Bernardino Rancho in 1842; Diego 
.Sepulveda, one of the grantees of San Bernardino Rancho; Jose M. 
Valdez, mayor-domo of Cucamonga Rancho ; and Francisco Alvadado 
and Jose Bermuda of San Bernardino. 

The early American and foreign pioneers of the county were men 
possessed of great physical endurance and indomitable will. For the 
most part they became naturalized citizens of the new country which they 
entered, and, being of a shrewder and more provident type than the native 
Californians, they infused new spirit and enterprise into the politics and 
social conditions of the day and locality. Among them were such men 
as : Col. Isaac Williams, an American, owner of the Chino Rancho ; B. D. 
Wilson, an American, who at one time owned a large interest in Jurupa 
Grant; Michael \\'hite, born in England, the grantee of Musciabe Rancho; 
Louis Robidoux, a native of St. Louis, of French descent, owner of 
Jurupa ; Cornelius Jansen, born in Denmark, who purchased a part of the 
Jurupa Grant and resided at Agua Mansa ; Cristobel Slover, who came in 
with the New Mexican colonists in 1842, and for whom Slover Mountain 
was named ; Daniel Sexton, of Louisiana, who entered San Bernardino 
County in 1841 ; Pauline Weaver, a member of Ewin Young's party, who 
came in from New Mexico in 1831; Louis Vignes, a Frenchman; and 
Don Abel Stearns, one of the ablest and earliest of the American settlers 
of the state, who owned various property rights in the county. 

Among the first of the colonists to come in from New Mexico were 
Lorenzo Trujillo and family; Manuel Espinosa and family; and Gregorio 
Atencion and Hipolito Espinosa and their families. These colonists 
arrived in 1842 under the leadership of Lorenzo Trujillo and accom- 
panying what was known as the Workman-Rowland party, led by William 
Workman and John Rowland. Following them in 1843 and 1844, came 
the following, who located at Agua Mansa : Ignacio MoIIa, Jose Antonio 
Martinez, Juan Jamarillo, Pablo Belarde, Esquipelo Garcia, Bernardo 
Bjillo, Nestor Espinosa, Doroteo Trujillo and Miguel Bustamente. 

The story of the Mormon pioneers has been written, and with them 
started the history of San Bernardino County and city. They were men 
of spirit, of faith and of courage, and accomplished great achievements 
under the leadership of such men as Ainasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich, 
who were in charge of the 1851 colonists; Bishop Nathan C. Tenny, 
Bishop Crosby, Captains Hunt, .\ndrew Lytle and Jesse Hunter, David 
Seely, H. G. Sherwood and others. 


The San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers 

Opening Ode 

(Composed by Hon. B. F. Whittemore, secretary of the Society of 
California Pioneers of New England, on board the excursion train while 
entering the San Bernardino Valley, April 17, 1890.) 

The Golden Land 

Tune — Beulah Land. 

We've entered now the Golden State, 
Where warmest welcomes for us wait. 
The land where corn and oil and wine, 
Are full and plenty as sunshine. 

Oh! golden land, proud golden land, 
We hail our welcome, and our hand 
Is given now, with right good will. 
To those who greet us for we still 
Remember that in '49 
We had no oil, nor corn, nor wine. 

San Bernardino leads the van, 
With fruits delicious, and we can 
But tell them what our hearts now feel, 
And wish them joy, long life and weal. 

The ladies and the children sweet. 
Who gladden us with smiles, and greet 
The veterans of '49, 
For them we ask for bliss divine. 

God bless the ties that henceforth bind 
Old Argonauts, and may we find 
This happy hour in all our years. 
The pleasantest for pioneers. 

So let us all while gathered here 
Each Saturday throughout the year. 
In memory our friends enshrine. 
Who gave us corn, and oil, and wine. 


The San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers was organized 
January 21. 1888, in the west courtroom of the old courthouse on Court 
Street, in San Bernardino, pursuant to a call in the newspapers signed 
by Major B. B. Harris. Sydney P. Waite and George W. Suttenfield. 

The constitution adopted by the society declares the objects to be 
attained are : 

First — To cultivate the social virtues of its members and to unite 
them in the bonds of friendship. 

Second — To create a fund for benevolent purposes in behalf of its 


Third — To collect and present information and facts connected with 
the early settlement of California, and especially of the County of San 
Bernardino, and with the history thereof. 

Fourth — To form libraries and cabinets and by all other appropriate 
means to advance the interests and increase the prosperity of the society. 

Fifth — To create a fund for the purpose of a suitable lot and the 
building thereon, a memorial hall in which to perpetuate the memory of 
the Pioneers whose heroism, energy and sagacity induced them to settle 
in this county, and thus be among the founders of the Golden State. 

The following persons are entitled to membership : All persons who 
are citizens of the United States, or capable of becoming such and who 
were residents of California prior to the 31st day of December, 1850, 
and those who were residents of San Bernardino County at the time of its 
organization, April 26, 1853, and the male descendants of such persons 
are eligible for active membership. Life members may be elected who 
contribute the sum of $50 to the pioneer treasury. Honorary members 
may be elected by unanimous vote of the society. The first amendment 
abolished all distinction as to sex. 

At the first election the following officers were chosen : 

George Lord, president; John Brown, Sr., James W. Waters, David 
Seely, William F. Holcomb and N. P. Earp. vice presidents ; Henry M. 
Willis, corresponding secretary ; John Brown, Jr., secretary ; B. B. Harris, 
treasurer, and N. G. Gill, marshal. 

The new society met with hearty support, most of the citizens who 
were eligible becoming members. Thus it was made up of men who have 
borne their share of the stirring events of early California history, and 
who had been largely instrumental in building up the city and county of 
San Bernardino. 

These men proved themselves not only Pioneers of the past, but 
Pioneers of the present and Pioneers of the future, taking an active part 
in all public affairs and often led the way along the paths of progress. 

Among their first activities was their prompt and persistent opposition 
to the tearing down of Sutter's Fort so that a street could be opened 
where that valued landmark was situated. The mayor of Sacramento 
addressed a message of thanks to the Pioneer Society for their vigorous 
and successful opposition. Then the Pioneer Society turned its atten- 
tion to the necessity of having a free county road to our mountains, which 
in time was accomplished by the county supervisors purchasing the 
.Arrowhead Toll Road from the Arrowhead and Reservoir Company 
for the sum of $20,000. They were among the first to urge the building 
of a new courthouse : they joined with the Native Sons of the Golden 
West in moving for a holiday on Admission Day, September 9. so that 
California history could be studied more : the old Pavilion in Pioneer 
Park was the result of effective work of the Pioneer Society; they 
secured a change in the laws regarding the burial of the indigent poor. 

From its organization the society has taken an active part in all 
patriotic celebrations — Fourth of July, Admission Day, Memorial Day, 
Washington's and Lincoln's Anniversaries, Reunions with the Native 
Sons, and Native Daughters of the Golden West; flag raisings with the 
veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic and Women's Relief Corps ; 
receptions on the return of our brave boys of Company K from the 
Spanish war, and of our heroes of the American Legion from the late 
World war, all of whom added glory to the American name ; the pioneers 
were active in campaigning for the new auditorium, which will always 
remain a tribute in their honor. 


The spirit of good feeling, active sympathy and wide charity which 
has bound the members together has been most remarkable. The mem- 
bers of the Pioneer Society have been brothers and sisters in the highest 
sense, a bond cemented by fifty, sixty, seventy and eighty years of uninter- 
rupted friendship has kept them together now (1922) for thirty-four 
years. Their regular weekly meetings which have been maintained these 
many years, the happy observance of birthdays, wedding anniversaries, 
silver and golden, the annual picnics and camping parties, the dedication 
of pioneer monuments, the barbecues with the Native Sons and Native 
Daughters, the pioneer camps in our mountains ; all have brightened the 
last days of many a patriarch. 

But they shared all the vicissitudes of life bravely, their sorrows as 
well as their joys ; they have been most faithful in their visitations to the 
sick and feeble, and ready with practical aid for all members in need. 
The active interest and regular visitation of members in the County 
Hospital has been the one bright spot in many a sad and broken life 
and many an old pioneer, otherwise friendless and forgotten, has received 
not only these cheering visits, but a fitting burial at the hands of this 
society. This organization deserves the highest credit for its faithful 
attendance at all funerals, serving as pallbearers, and relieving the distress 
of the old pioneers who have fallen by the wayside. 

On April 17, 1890, the society entertained with elaborate ceremonies 
the Society of California Pioneers of New England, when all of San 
Bernardino turned out to meet and greet them with genuine California 
hospitality. The tragic death of Gen. Samuel Chapin, one of their mem- 
bers, just after finishing an eloquent address at the Opera House, will 
be remembered as one of the most dramatic incidents in local history, 
and it seemed to bind the two societies in a peculiarly strong fraternal 
feeling which remained as long as that society existed, but is now no 
more, because it did not provide for its perpetuity by the admission of 
members arriving since the days of '49. 

Since the organization of the Pioneer Society more than three hun- 
dred members have been enrolled, many of the older members have 
passed on from the activities of this world. Many of their sons and 
daughters have taken their places, to forever keep in memory the sterling 
spirit and character of their heroic ancestors. 

Three honorary members have been elected by the society — Gen. John 
C. Fremont, the Pathfinder ; Alexander Godey, who showed Fremont the 
paths, and Major Horace C. Bell, the historian ; and two life members, 
Calvin L. Thomas and Jane E. Hunter. 

The venerable George Lord served as president from the birth of 
the Pioneer Society until at his own request he resigned in 1896, being 
then 96 years of age. Upon his withdrawal from active service, the ofifice 
of Honorary Past President was created for him to end at his death. 
To the executive ability, wise and kindly spirit of this beloved patriarch 
much of the good fellowship and success of the Pioneer Society must be 

Those who have filled the office of president since Honorable Past 
President George Lord have been : John Brown, Sr.. R. J. Roberts, 
De La M. Woodward, N. P. Earp, W. F. Holcomb, George Miller, C. L. 
Thomas, Sheldon Stoddard, Bart Smithson, S. C. Cox, Robert E. Bledsoe, 
Amos Bemis, Legare Allen, all deceased except George Miller, C. L. 
Thomas, Silas C. Cox, Robert E. Bledsoe and Amos Bemis, at this time 

Regarding the secretary of the Pioneer Society, Historian Ingersoll 


"John Brown. Jr., has acted continuously since the organization came 
into existence as secretary, and has kept a faithful record of all meetings, 
members and matters of interest connected with the society, and also of 
many matters of historical interest concerning San Bernardino. The 
Pioneer Society and the citizens of the county certainly owe Mr. Brown 
much for the preservation of a large amount of material which is of 
increasing value to all who care for the things and data of the past. 

"When the project and outline of the 'Annals of San Bernardino 
County' were presented to the Pioneer Society, they passed a resolution 
most heartily endorsing the work. They have been of the greatest 
assistance to the editors, freely giving the use of their valuable archives, 
and aiding in every way possible in the collection of material. The facts 
and reminiscences furnished by members of the Pioneer Society have 
been a most important factor in the completion of the history of San 
Bernardino County. 

History of Bear and Holcomb Valley by Their Discoverer 
William F. Holcomb 

Note — This thrilling history is highly recommended by my advisory 
board as it relates to two of our mountain resorts now flourishing and 
booming with people who will be anxious to read their history written by 
the well known Indian fighter and bear slayer. "Bill Holcomb," the 
original manuscript in his own hand-writing being in my possession as 
secretary of the San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers. I 
approve and recommend it earnestly. — John Brown, Jr.] 

San Bernardino, California, January 27, 1900. 
Mr. President, R. T. Roberts, Sisters and Brothers of the San Bernardino 

Society of California Pioneers: 

It may be remembered that at a meeting of the society held Saturday. 
December 2. 1899. a resolution was unnanimously passed requesting 
pioneer Wiliani F. Holcomb to write up a brief account of the discovery 
of Holcomb X'alley and incidents relating to the development of its mines 
and effect on the county and country at large. Therefore, in obedience to 
this expressed wish I will endeavor to comply, however much I may 
fall short of your expectations. But, however that may be. you can at 
least rely on a truthful statement of the facts presented, and this con- 
nection will be pardoned for giving a brief sketch of myself and family, 
at the introduction of this narrative. 

William F. Holcomb was born in Tippecanoe County. Indiana. Janu- 
ary 27th. 1831. His parents moved to Illinois when he was but a few 
months old and settled near Chicago, where they remained for eight 
years. About 1840 they removed to Iowa and located in Van Buren 
County. Here, in 1843. his father died. In 1845. his mother removed 
to what was then known as "The New Purchase" in Wapello County, 
and here he began supporting his mother by clearing land, making 
rails, fencing, breaking land and general farm work. A\'hen the gold 
excitement spread through the country he determined to seek his for- 
tune in California. He left Ottunnva. Iowa, in May. 1850. outfitted 
with a wagon and three yoke of oxen and provisions. At the Green 
River crossing on the Cublette cut-off he lost his wagon and entire outfit, 
the teams drowned and floated down the mad stream. He continued the 
journey on foot and met with great destitution on the plains before he 
reached "Hangtown" in California, now known as Placer\'ille. in August 
"dead broke." He spent about a year in mining at various points with 


varying success and then went to Oregon and looked over the' country, 
and returned to California, coming down to the southern part of the state. 

"On our arrival at Los Angeles in 1859, we found everything quiet, 
no work to be had, what to do, we. Jack Martin, my old hunting and 
mining companion, and I did not know. 

"While in our most gloomy mood, by chance who should I meet but 
my friend from the Kern River Diggings, Enoch M. Hidden, of the 
firm of Childs & Hidden, merchant.s of Los Angeles. Soon he found 
an old house for Jack Martin's family and we felt happy again. It was 
here I first heard from some old mountaineers of a place about a hundred 
(100) miles eastward called Bear Valley (named, as he said, on account 
of the great number of bear seen there), so Jack Martin and I at once 
determined to go there if we could possibly find the place. So leaving 
his family. Martin and I mounted our horses and taking a very small 
supply of flour, bacon and salt, struck out eastward, depending mostly on 
our guns. On our journey that day we could not hear a word about 
Bear Valley, but the next day we came to a ranch on Lytle Creek, owned 
by one George Lord, and camped nearby and got directions how to go 
to San Bernardino, where we were told an old settler, named Fred Van 
Leuven, lived near the mouth of Santa Ana Canyon, who could tell 
us how to reach Bear Valley. Accordingly we made our way as directed 
and got the information desired from this hospitable old pioneer. Next 
day we pursued our journey, following the tracks of a few burros, and 
camped at a place now called the 'Converse Ranch,' where the trail 
leaves the Santa Ana River northward. Next morning we began to climb 
the great rough, steep and snowy range of mountains. On the summit 
we encountered deep snow and experienced great difficulty in getting our 
horses through, and found a party of men camped who were surprised 
at our crossing the deep snow to where they were, who received us 
in real pioneer style. They were about out of provisions and so were we. 
Deer was about the only meat we could get as the bear had not yet come 
out of their dens. This party had found a little gold in a gulch. Among 
them were Joe Caldwell, Josiah Jones, Jack Almore, Jim Ware and 
Madison Chaney. Martin and I located camp near them and began 
prospecting for gold. Sydney P. Waite and partner were also in the 
valley (Bear \'alley) at the same time, prospecting for quartz and 
operating arastras not very far away. 

"Time was fleeting, the old year, 1859, had drawn to a close, and the 
new year. 1860, had come. Success had not crowned our eflforts. Our 
provisions, except venison, were exhausted and the outlook for us was 
gloomy, indeed. Jack Martin was now determined on the morrow to 
abandon Bear Valley and return to his family in Los Angeles for I was 
determined to stay, at least until the bear should come out of their 
hiding places. Before separating we concluded to prospect a little more, 
so we both strolled up to the top of the hill nearby where there was 
a small quartz ledge. On our way up I .said to Martin : '\Ye have 
prospected every likely place we have seen in the valley, now let us 
try this hillside where the snow is melted away and where we are sure 
there is no gold,' to which Martin objected at first, but I insisted and 
shoveled up a pan of dirt ofT the naked hill. rock, pine leaves and all, 
and Martin took it back down to the foot of the hill to pan out, which 
he did and run up the hill to show me the fine gold dust, about ten 
cents, he had panned out, repeating the operation we found more gold 
to our great joy. Our courage and hopes now renewed for by night we 
were convinced that we had struck paying diggins. Next day we began 
the work with rocker and found we could make about $5.00 each per day. 


"In a few days Martin left for Los Angeles to bring up his family and 
also lot of provisions, taking our gold dust to pay for these articles. 
I stayed and worked on. Passing through San Bernardino. Martin impru- 
dently exhibited some of the gold dust ; this raised a great excitement, 
but when he arrived in Los .\ngeles and showed the gold dust there, and 
paid for a considerable bill of goods with our gold dust, there was quite 
a stir there. By this time people began to rush into San Bernardino. 

"By this time the bear began to make their appearance in the valley 
and having no other meat but venison I determined to get some bear meat 
for a change. Doctor Whitlock was anxious to go with me. so taking our 
guns we went down the valley about two miles and there in the midst of 
the open valley we saw two monster grizzlies. I immediately prepared 
to slip up on them. The doctor objected as it was too dangerous, but 
I had been waiting too long for such an opportunity which I could 
not let pass, so leaving him, I crawled out into the open valley to within 
thirty-five or forty yards of them, took deliberate aim and brought one 
down. The other hearing his dying groans and seeing him struggling, 
at once fell upon him fighting him as if to drive him away ; being quick 
at reloading my muzzle loading rifle, I was ready just as he raised his 
head to look at me. fired, laying him out along side of his companion. 
Going up to those monsters I must confess that I felt a little proud of 
this achievement, for it meant a change of diet for all in camp. I now 
motioned to the doctor to come up. which he did cautiously and expressed 
wonder and astonishment at their enormous size. On returning to camp 
there was great rejoicing, but the doctor reprimanded nie in the presence 
of all, saying I was too venturesome and that I would be killed surely 
by the bear some day and would never accompany me again on so 
hazardous an undertaking. Next day those bear were brought to camp, 
a smoke house built, and they were soon converted into bear bacon 
free to all. I will say now that this smoke house was never clear of 
bear bacon while I remained in Bear Valley. 

"Soon after this I took my gun and strolled out northward to view 
the country, and ascending to the summit of the ridge that divides the 
waters of the Santa Ana River from the waters of the Mohave River, 
and looking down from this eminence in a northerly direction, a dis- 
tance of about two miles, there I discovered a most beautiful little valley. 
I gazed with wonder and delight at the beauty and grandeur of the 
scenery spread out to my view. But it was late in the day and after a 
few moments more of observation and inspiration I retraced my steps 
to camp highly pleased with what I believed to be an important dis- 
covery. At camp that night I related to my companions what I had dis- 
covered, whereupon one of the party. Jim Ware, offered to go with me 
and see the new valley, the Holcomb's Valley, as they began to call it. 
A short time after this, in company with this same Jim Ware. I led the 
way over to this newly discovered valley and found four bear out in 
the center of it. At once I began to creep up on them, and when in 
good range, I shot one, while the rest rushed up past and within twenty 
steps of me and began fighting each other ; this excited me as I thought 
Ware was right among them. In great haste I had reloaded my muzzle 
loading rifle, which I threw to my shoulder, my eye caught sight of ^^'are 
up a tree. I fired, killing one at the root of the tree \\'are was up in. 
the other two bears got away. I was vexed at the actions of my com- 
panion, but he looked so meek and so frightened that I could not 
upbraid him. After disemboweling our two bear, we had no time to 
spare to look over the valley, as it was late in the day and we had 
five miles to travel to camp. When we returned and told the miners 


about our trip, the valley, etc., there was a general jollification that night 
and allusions were frequently made to that valley of Holcomb's. 

"Next day several of the party took donkeys and went with nie 
around up the Van Dusen Canyon to pack in the bear. It took us all 
day to get back to camp. There was more talk of Holcomb's Valley. 

"I now proposed to prospect this new valley. One of the party, my 
old friend, Ben Choteau, desired to go with me, so in a few days we 
took our guns, blankets, a little grub, pick, shovel and pan on our backs 
and struck out to prospect that new valley of Holcomb's as our com- 
panions continued to call it. We arrived there about sun down and 
found a monster grizzly out in the valley, which I shot but did not bring 
down and as he ran close by us. Ben's gun missed fire, we followed him a 
short distance, but darkness ended our pursuit. Next morning early 
we took the track and followed to where he had crossed a quartz ledge 
which we stopped to examine and found gold in it. We now abandoned 
the hunt and taking some dirt in a handkerchief to prospect, we returned 
to where we had left our outfit and digging out a hole in the main 
gulch, found water and washed our handkerchief of dirt, and behold, 
we had found a good prospect. We panned dirt from other gulches and 
found fair prospects. We were not greatly elated at our success in this 
new valley of Holcomb's and did not look any further for that wounded 
bear, which was afterwards found dead, close by, but spoiled. We 
now returned to camp with great joy. Evidently we had struck new 
diggins in that new valley of Holcomb's, as the boys now called it. 
That night there was a bonfire and great rejoicing in camp over the 
new discovery of gold in Holcomb Valley, and we resolved to return 
next day to stake out and locate our claims, so we did return next day. 
May 5th, 1860, just ten years to a day from the time I left home for 

"Soon this discovery of gold spread like wild fire and the rush 
began. At Bear Valley log cabins began to appear like mas:ic, a store 
opened by Sam Kelley. a blacksmith shop erected by John M. Stewart, 
whose daughter, Nancy Stewart, became my wife, November 8th, 1860. 
I was now ready to move over to the new valley from Bear Valley and 
open up the mines there, so I gave all of my interest in the Bear Valley 
mines to my old partner. Jack Martin, with whom I had crossed the 
plains to California on foot in 1850, and departed for the new gold 
diggins in Holcomb Valley, now generally so called, ^^'^e got moved 
over and camped on the main gulcli, between what is now called Upper 
and Lower Holcomb Valley, arriving there about May 10th, 1860, 
unpacked, and got dinner, eight of us in all. We had left all of our 
bear meat in Bear Valley, and now, if you will pardon me, I will relate 
just one more incident with bear. 

"Joe Caldwell, a big, good natured fellow, and a kind of leader in 
our company, said to me while eating dinner, 'Bill ! Take your gun and 
go and see if you can't get us some fresh bear meat.' 'Well,' said I, 'sup- 
pose you go and try your luck.' I knew he wouldn't go for a bear had 
previously knocked him down and ran over him. He only laughed and 
told me to go on. So after dinner I took my old trusty rifle, walked 
briskly down to Lower Holcomb, about four hundred yards, and there 
in the open valley were four bears busily engaged in digging for mice or 
gophers. I had but little difficulty in approaching them. \\'ith steady 
aim I brought down one when the others gathered around him in great 
rage, fighting among themselves. Three more shots as quickly as I 
could reload and shoot, and all was over. The four bears lay dead within 
a few feet of each other. Returning to camp within half an hour from 


the time I left it, I met Joe Caldwell, who called out, 'Well, Bill! what 
did you kill?' He had heard the four shots. 'O, nothing,' I repHed, 
'but four bears.' 'Is that all,' he exclaimed. 'I can do better than that 
with a club.' 

"The next day we started in to using rockers to wash out our gold 
with. We were quite successful right from the start. W'e had not 
worked long till some of our gold dust from Holcomb Valley began 
to be scattered about in the different avenues of trade, and another 
rush was now on. excitement became great, and prospectors gathered 
from all directions, some on horseback, some with pack mules and burros 
and many on foot with their outfits on their backs. By the 1st of July 
Holcomb Valley was swarming with prospectors. Every day strangers 
would call on us, and watch us taking out the gold and ask us many 
questions which we answered truthfully. \\'e were making from $5.00 
to $10.00 a day to the man. Many buildings were now going up of some 
kind, some temporary concerns, mere brush sheds and some pretty sub- 
stantial structures. '\\'e continued our mining operations, conveying our 
pay dirt to our rockers with horses and cart and in sacks on the backs 
of burros. 

"Some new developments were made in Upper Holcomb. both of 
water and mines, and a new town sprung up in a very short time, as is 
often the case in the mines and here we held our first 4th of Julv celebra- 
tion in 1860 ; Mrs. Van Dusen furnished the flag for the occasion and 
for her patriotic favors we named the place 'Belleville,' in honor of her 
little daughter, 'Belle.' 

"About all the lumber used in building was cut with a whip saw, 
and sold as high as $10.00 a hundred. Split clapboards were also used 
in building as well as to cover the houses. 

"Provisions and all kinds of goods were brought in on pack animals 
so freight was high, so the miners decided to have a waeon road built 
to lower prices, started a subscription and raised $1,500, for which 
Mr. Van Dusen built us a wagon road leading from Holcomb \'alley 
westerly along the mountain range passing close by the Green Lead 
Mine, on by Cox's Ranch, thence by Rock House, westerly down the 
mountain side by Rock Springs, westerly over a desert to the Mohave 
River, on southwesterly near where Hesperia is now, thence through 
the cedars to the head or summit of Cajon Pass, where the road was 
already made by that brave old pioneer of pioneers, John Brown. Sr.. 
leading to San Bernardino, and all Southern California. This pioneer 
Holcomb Valley wagon road was scarcely comi>leted when teams began 
to haul freight of all kinds, goods, wares, merchandise, machinery, lum- 
ber, etc.. practically doing awav with the use of pack animal trains. 
Other roads were built. The first wagon road was constructed from 
Holcomb Valley to Bear Valley by way of \'an Dusen Canyon but was 
a long wav around. A shorter road was built afterwards from Lower 
Holcomb south through Holcomb's Pass to Bear \'alley. These roads 
were all constructed by the pioneers of Bear and Holcomb valleys, 
and caused the population to increase rapidly. In the state election held 
Tuesdav. September 4th. 1861, nine hundred and fifty-nine (959) votes 
were cast in San Bernardino County, over three hundred (300> of these 
votes were cast in Holcomb \*alley. known as Belleville Township. 

"Mining has been carried on every year in Holcomb \'alley since its 
discovery, and the miners have added large sums to the world's supply 
of gold. 

"As already stated, I married Miss Nancy Stewart. November 8th. 
1860, and have been blessed with the following children : Charles 


Holcomb, William W. Holcomb, father of Grant Holcomb, one of the 
promising young attorneys of the San Bernardino bar ; Frank L. Holcomb, 
Minnie Holcomb Swarthout, George V. Holcomb and Mamie Holcomb 
Robertson. During my residence in San Bernardino I served the people 
of the county as county clerk and county assessor, and have been an 
active member of the San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers. 

"And now pioneers, and friends, if the perusal of these pages shall 
be found of any historic interest to you or should give you any desired 
information or afford you any pleasure or satisfaction, then is my highest 
object consummated. 

"In conclusion, now let us look back over the history of this county 
and see what great changes for the better have been wrought within 
the last forty years, what effect the providential discovery of the Bear 
Valley and Holcomb Valley mines has had on our county, on our citizens, 
individually and collectively, who can tell? In thus looking back, it 
seems to me that this county lias been especially favored by Divine 
Providence and for the many blessings, both temporal and divine, bestowed 
on us, we ought to be grateful to our Heavenly Father who alone can 
grant us such great and bountiful blessings. 

"William F. Holcomb." 

Sheldon Stoddard — Monument Builder, Mail Carrier, 
Trail Blazer 

Sheldon Stoddard, of San Bernardino, was born near Toronto, Can- 
ada, February 8, 1830, the son of Nathaniel and Jane MacManigal Stod- 
dard. His father was a carpenter by trade and a native of Massachusetts ; 
the mother was born in Glasgow, Scotland. The father died at Toronto 
and the mother came to the United States about 1838 with her four 
sons and after a year in Ohio located at Warsaw. Illinois. She crossed 
the plains to Salt Lake and then to San Bernardino with the colonists of 
1851, returning to Utah about 1875. Of the sons. Arvin and Albert 
came to California in 1849. Rufus died in Utah in 1904. Sheldon Stod- 
dard started for California in 1848, coming by way of Council Bluffs 
and the North Platte route to Salt Lake. Here a party of about thirty 
men, under the guidance of Captain Flake, started for the placer diggings 
in 1849. Among the members of this party were Charles C. Rich, 
George Q. Cannon, William Lay, and Sheldon Stoddard. They rode pack 
animals and followed a trail as far as Mountain Meadows, intending to 
take a northern route via Walker's Lake to the placer diggings. They 
traveled westward for eighteen days without guides, compass or maps. 
They found no water, and were saved from perishing by a providential 
shower that seemed to come from heaven to restore and save them from 
a terrible death, famishing for the want of water, a miraculous escape 
for which blessing they all returned gratitude to their Heavenlv Father. 

The water they caught by spreading their rubber blankets and drank 
it with a spoon. Being thus refreshed they turned eastward and struck 
the head of the Muddy River which they followed down until they found 
a trail and soon afterward came up to Captain Hunt in camp with seven 
wagons that had remained with him when the rest of his party had 
taken the route that led them into Death Valley, where so many perished 
for the want of water. They came on southerly up the Mohave River, 
through the Cajon Pass, and reached Chino Ranch, where they remained 
for a month recruiting their stock and were hospitably treated by 
Col. Isaac Williams. They went on to the Mariposa mines, where the 
company disbanded, and Mr. Stoddard established a trading post in the 


Carson Valley to supply incoming immigrants. Flour and bacon sold 
for one dollar a pound, and other articles in proportion. Finally he and 
his party bought about sixty horses and twenty head of mules and returned 
with these to Salt Lake. 

In March, 1851, Mr. Stoddard married Miss Jane, the second daughter 
of Captain Hunt, and in April they started for California with the San 
Bernardino colonists under Captain Hunt, Amasa Lyman. Charles C. 
Rich. At Bitter Springs Lyman, Rich, Hopkins, Rollins and Captain 
Hunt started on ahead of the company on horseback, Stoddard accom- 
panying them with a mule team, arriving and camping at Sycamore 
Grove, the remaining wagons reaching this location soon afterwards, 
where all remained until September, 1851, when all moved down to the 
valley as the leaders had completed the purchase of the San Bernardino 
Rancho from the Lugo family. Mr. Stoddard at once built the first 
log cabin out of willow logs on what was known as the Mary Carter 
place, on First Street, west of I Street. This cabin was later taken 
down and moved down and erected on the west line of the fort that 
was being constructed as a protection from hostile Indians. In May. 
1852, he brought John Brown and family from San Pedro and located 
them as his neighbor on the west side of this fort. Mr. Brown purchasing 
the cabin from Marshall Hunt for fifty dollars. In 1853 Mr. Stoddard 
built a small adobe house on the northwest comer of D and Fourth 
streets, where the postoffice is now located. For many years he was 
engaged in freighting and carrying the United States mail between San 
Bernardino and Salt Lake City, crossing the desert twenty-four times, 
in 1865 he made the trip to Nevada and Montana, a distance of 1,300 miles, 
requiring six months for the journey, with his mule team. In 1882 he 
entered the employ of the California Southern Railway, and the Santa Fe 
Railroad Company, under their chief engineer, Fred T. Ferris, taking 
charge of their teaming and quarry work, retiring in 1899 from active 
work to enjoy a well-earned rest. His beloved wife died in San Ber- 
nardino, December 26, 1899, since which time he continued to live at 
the old home. Tenth and D streets with his daughter, Hattie Stoddard 
Merritt, who cared for him as only a loving daughter knows how until 
his death, which occurred in 1903. He was elected president of the 
Pioneer Society to which he was strongly attached as it kept him in 
touch with many of his old friends. He was active in building log 
cabins and monuments with the pioneers and loved to go camping and 
fishing with them. Among these companions in later years were Sydney 
P. Waite, John Brown, Jr., Bill Holcomb, George Miller, George M. 
Cooley, Taney, Woodward, Richard Weir, Silas Cox, Jap Corbett, 
G. W. Suttenfield, Charley Clusker, and others. 

His children were Mary Aurelia, who married Nelson Sleppy, now 
deceased; Eva, who married Albert Rousseau, now deceased; Bell, now 
deceased, and Hattie, wife of S. P. Merritt, now (1922) living. 

C.\PT. David Seely, One of the Founders of 
San Bernardino County 

David Seely was one of the historical characters of San Bernardino 
County. He was born October 12, 1819. in the Township of Whitby, 
Ontario, Canada, one mile from Port Whitby. Up to his eighteenth year 
he was reared on a farm miaking occasional trips with his father who 
was the owner of three sailing vessels. At the breaking out of the 
Patriot war in Canada in 1837, his father being known as a sympathizer 
with the Patriot or Reform party, the Canadian authorities fearing that 


he might convey McKenzie, the Partiot leader, across the lake to the 
United States, dismantled one of his vessels. This action caused him 
to remove to the Far West. He settled in Iowa, then a territory, near 
Bur^ngton. From there he removed to Nashville. About this time he 
built two 100-ton lighters to be used in transferring the freight from 
steamers and conveying it over the Des Moines Rapids, he being the 
pilot for three years. 

In July, 1846, he started for California and wintered at Council 
Bluffs, at a place called Seely's Grove. In the following spring he 
started for Salt Lake City, which he reached in September of the same 
year. Here he remained until November, 1849, when he left with Pom- 
eroy's train by the southern route for California for the purpose of 
mining, being affected with the memorable gold fever of that exciting 
year. On the way the company picked up nine men who formed a part 
of the ill-fated Death \'alley party, who were barefoot and starving. 
Mr. Seeley reached San Bernardino in the month of February, 1850, 

Capt. David Seely 

where he remained two months, going then to Los Angeles, where he 
sold out his effects and took passage on a brig bound for "Frisco," 
going direct to Coloma, where he arrived April 6th and engaged in 
mining for gold in company with his brother and brother-in-law and 
was reasonably successful. 

On August 14. 1850, he started for his home at Salt Lake with others 
by the way of Humbolt. After wintering in Salt Lake, he was a cap- 
tain of fifty wagons bound for California. Other wagon trains in charge 
of Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich and Andrew Lytle, 100 wagons all 
told, under the direction of Capt. Jefferson Hunt as the guide, he having 
been over the road. Mr. Seely arrived at Sycamore Grove, now known 
as Glen Helen Ranch, in the mouth of Cajon Pass, June 11, 1851. The 
other portions of the train arrived a few days later and remained 
encamped here and on the bank of the creek, about three miles over the 
ridge south, where Capt. Andrew Lytle camped, and the stream took 
his name it bears to this day — Lytle Creek. On the way through the 
deserts the wagon train had to be divided up into small numbers on 
account of the scarcity of water. 


Messrs. Lyman and Rich having purchased the San Bernardino Rancho 
from the Luga family, the colonists moved from Sycamore Grove down 
into the Valley of San Bernardino in September, 1851, where these pio- 
neers went to farming, raising wheat to apply on the payment iof the 
ranch. The Piute Indians threatened hostility so a fort was built for 
protection. Needing building material for houses and fences, these pio- 
neers all joined in building a wagon road up to the top of the mountains, 
following up West Twin Creek, down which the lumber for the first 
houses in San Bernardino was brought down, having a pine tree drag- 
ging by the little end behind the load of timber to serve as a brake to 
keep the wagon from running on to the oxen, this being before the inven- 
tion of brakes. In company with his brother, Mr. Seely built a saw 
mill with a water wheel as the motive power ; and furnished lumber for 
the new settlement. The place where his mill was built became known 
as Seely Flat. Pioneer Silas C. Cox states that his father, Uncle Jack 
Cox, had a saw mill on this same stream. 

Captain Hunt built a steam .saw mill on the flat about three miles east 
of Seely Flat, having, with the assistance of (jeorge Crisman, procured 
the machinery out near Salt Springs on the way to Utah and began sup- 
plying lumber and posts and clap boards for the new town. This flat took 
the name of James Flat, because Mr. John M. James was the sawyer 
in the mill, when the name should have been Hunt's Flat, as the mill 
belonged to Captain Hunt. 

On April 26, 1853, the Legislature of California passed the act cre- 
ating the County of San Bernardino from Los Angeles County and in 
said act David Seely, John Brown, Isaac Williams and H. G. Sher- 
wood were appointed a board of commissioners to designate election pre- 
cincts, appoint inspectors of election, receive returns and to issue cer- 
tificates of election. This first election was held under this act and 
certificates of election were issued to these, the first officers of San Ber- 
nardino County: Capt. Jefferson Hunt, Legislature; D. N. Thomas, 
county judge; Ellis .\mes, county attorney; Richard R. Hopkins, county 
clerk; Robert Clift, sheriff; David Seely, treasurer; William Stout, 
county assessor; H. G. Sherwood, surveyor; John Brown and Andrew 
Lytle. justices of the peace. 

At the next election Mr. Seely was again chosen to take care of the 
treasury of the county, showing the confidence already acc|uired by him 
among the first settlers. Since then he has been elected county super- 
visor several times and was alwavs a strong advocate of progress. In 
the construction of the old court house and the pavilion and the organ- 
ization of the San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers, the free 
public road to our mountains and other public improvements he always 
took a leading part. 

In 1891 he took a trip to Illinois and Iowa to view the scenes of 
his childhood and for the benefit of his health. On May 24, 1892. he 
passed on to his heavenly home, surrounded by his family, at the old 
homestead. Sixth and C streets, San Bernardino, one of the pioneers 
and founders of San Bernardino County, loved and respected by all. 
leaving his widow, Mrs. Mary Seely (since deceased), and four 
daughters, Mrs. Mary x\brillia Satterwhite, Mrs. Emma E. Baker (since 
deceased), Mrs. Caroline Barton, wife of John H. Barton, and Mrs. 
Maria Isabella Corbett (since deceased), and two sons, David Randolph 
Seely and Walter Edwin Seely (since deceased). 

George Miller, Indian fighter, bear slayer, one of the brave pio- 
neers entitled to great credit for risking his life in clearing the forests 
and mountains from hostile Indians and grizzly bear so that the county 


could be settled and enjoyed in safety. Teddy Roosevelt had in mind 
just such men when he stated to the people of San Bernardino on his 
memorable trip through California that to the rifle and axe in the 
hands of the trusty pioneers we owe this western civilization. George 
Miller not only used his rifle but also wielded the axe in chopping down 
pines for lumber to build cities, cedar to make posts so to fence land 
for the cultivation of the soil. As a hunter, not only of small game 
such as rabbits, quail, ducks and geese, but the larger variety — deer, 
mountain sheejj and grizzly bear — he is regarded among the most suc- 
cessful. When the large game became scarce in the San Bernardino 
Mountains he went to the northern portion of the state and returned with 
bear meat which he distributed among his numerous friends. Then 
as a fisherman he was a worthy disciple of Isaac Walton. Fishing on 
horseback on the Santa Ana River was one of his favorite pastimes, 
having his rifle hanging from the pommel of his saddle ready for large 

He was born February 11, 1850, in Indian Territory (now Okla- 
homa), the son of George Miller, a pioneer of Illinois, a millwright by 
trade, who died in 1856, the boy going with an uncle and accompanying 
him to California, driving an ox team and helping guard the stock, doing 
the work of a man although he was a mere child. He reached San Ber- 
nardino in 1862 and began his life's work. He worked at Yucipa for 
that noted Rocky Mountain hunter and trapper, James W. Waters, doing 
all kinds of farm work, including putting a roof on a barn, with clap- 
boards. After his work on the mountains supplying the saw mills of 
David Seely, Captain Hunt, D. T. Huston, Tyler Brothers, Caley, Tal- 
madge & Co. and Billy La Praix, he settled down at Highland and 
since then has been devoting his attention to farming and orange growing. 

He early joined the San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers 
and has been one of its most active members. In cutting the logs and 
helping to build the log cabins of the pioneers, he rendered valuable 
assistance. With his wife he brings the grandmothers in his auto to 
the meetings of the pioneers and returns them. When a pioneer passes 
away he leaves his work on his farm and comes to San Bernardino and 
assists in the last tribute of respect at the funerals, nearly always as one 
of the pallbearers. He served as president of the Pioneer Society two 
terms very acceptably. 

He married Miss Elnorah Hancock, daughter of Uncle Joseph Han- 
cock, who was born in Iowa in 1851, and came to San Bernardino in 
1854. On the way crossing the plains she became very sick and the 
father, thinking his child had passed away, selected the fiddle box as 
the only cofiin to be had, there being no lumber available, but the child 
revived and recovered, reached San Bernardino, grew to womanhood 
and married George Miller and retains that fiddle box as a reminder 
of her narrow escape while crossing the plains to California. 

George and Elnorah have had six children : George E. Miller, 
deceased; Elnorah, now Mrs. Roswell Crandall : Ida Ann; Marv C, 
William T. and Charles B. Miller. 

Jasper Newton Cordett, more famiHarlv known among his old 
friends as Jap Corbett, was a pioneer prospector and monument builder, 
boni in 1843 in Jackson County. Indiana, and came to California in 
1856. crossing the plains with an ox team and walking most of the 
way. The Corbett family first stopped at Sacramento, then came down 
to San Jose, where they ranched in the mountains nearby for a num- 
ber of years. In 1871 Mr. Corbett came to Riverside, where he went 
to work on the old Moses Daley ranch, wliere he became acquainted 


with Miss Adelaide Daley, and married her and came to San Bernardino 
to live. He bought all the property between K Street and Mt. Vernon 
Avenue south of Rialto Avenue to Lytle Creek, and platted a subdivision 
to the city. 

He devoted some of his time to farming the land near his fine home. 
His wife was a great lover of flowers and had one of the most attractive 
gardens of roses in all the county. She died in the year 1908, beloved 
by a large circle of friends. They had four children, Mrs. Estelle Cor- 
bett Wilkins; Newell Corbett, and Leslie Corbett of San Bernardino, 
and Mrs. Ida Corbett Castor of Colton, California. 

Jap Corbett was an active member of the Pioneer Society, always 
ready to promote its welfare. He joined his pioneer companions in the 
mountains, Sheldon Stoddard, Sydney P. Waite. John Brown, Jr., George 
Miller, Richard Weir, Bill Holcomb, George M. Cooley, Dick Cox, 
Taney Woodward, Bart Smithson, Joe Brown, M. B. Shaw and George 
Burton, in chopping down logs for the log cabins of the pioneers. He 
joined them in th