(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of San Bernardino and Riverside counties / with selected biography of actors and witnesses of the period of growth and achievement.."







'^^ 

^ 



'^V*. 



.•#■ 




COUNTY PUBLIC I 



3 1833 01149 4926 



JC 



/ 



^ .^mS 



^ 



%*^ 





\ * ^ *" % 



* 



X 






HISTORY OF 

SAN BERNARDINO 

AND 

RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 



JOHN BROWN, Jr. 

Editor for San Bernardino County 



JAMES BOYD 

Editor for Riverside County 



Selected Biography of Actors and Witnesses 

of the Period of Growth 

and Achievement 



VOLUME II 



THE WESTERN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 
1922 



Copyright, 1922 

THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Chicago. III. 



1783745 



CHAPTER XXXII 

NEWSPAPERS 

Riverside has probably had its full share of newspapers. The first 
newspaper was published in November, 1875, called the "Riverside 
News." It was published by two young men from San Bernardino, 
Jesse Buck and R. A. Davis, Jr. It was a small afifair, but it showed 
that Riverside was growing. It came quite unexpectedly, but was wel- 
come. As neither of the proprietors were horticulturists, or farming 
men, it was not of much service in that line. In our day a rapid machine 
operator (according to Robert Hornbeck, a practical printer and news- 
paper man who set a "stick" or two on the first issue) would set the 
type for all the reading matter contained in the News in four hours. The 
press was a hand press and by hard labor would print from 300 to 500 
impressions per hour. A bound file of it is now in a glass case in the 
public library. After a few months Buck left, and Mr. Davis ran the 
newspaper alone until about the beginning of 1877. It was enlarged 
after a time, using a patent outside printed in San Francisco, which gave 
a synopsis of the general news from the outside world. After a time 
Davis quit and it was run in a desultory fashion for a time by W. H. 
Gould, owner, who sent printers from the outside and from Los Angeles. 
The paper received but slight support and was finally leased to Henry J. 
Rudisill (brother-in-law to S. C. Evans, Sr.) who put his son Henry J. 
in charge of it. Mr. Rudisill himself was a bright man and a fluent 
speaker and sensible writer, who if he had been able to give his whole 
time to the paper, would have made a success of it from a literary stand- 
point. But Mr. Rudisill's duties as secretary of the Riverside Land and 
Irrigating Company took up about all of his time and an editor by the 
name of Satterfield, a patron of the saloon, did not help any, and after 
a time he left. 

In April, Robert Hornbeck, a Riverside boy was put in charge 
of the mechanical department with Jas. H. Roe, druggist, as edi- 
tor, under which management it was run for the summer. Dr. John 
Hall, a practical printer and proofreader, helped set type occasionally 
while Mr. Rudisill, Sr., was on a business trip East. E. \V. Holmes also 
contributed some editorial matter. The telegraph operator, a cultivated 
man also wrote an occasional editorial and the paper was by far the best 
it had ever been. It had a circulation of about three hundred copies 
with a subscription price of three dollars per year. The daily paper 
was not yet thought of. When Mr. Rudisill returned from the East he 
found it was a costly experiment, it having run behind $800 and he gave 
up the lease. It was run for a short time by others, but the bankruptcy 
of Mr. Gould, the owner, compelled the suspension of the paper, and the 
material sold under attachment for the benefit of the creditors. The 
press was afterward used by Scipio Craig on a newspaper he published 
at Colton. The News suspended publication in February, 1878. after a 
checkered existence of a little over two years. 

S. C. Evans of the Land and Irrigating Company, feeling the need 
of a newspaper as an advertising medium for the sale of lands, and 
to advertise Riverside, made overtures to Mr, Hornbeck to start a news- 
paper on his own responsibility. (Mr. Hornbeck, it must be understood 
was an old Riversider living with his father on the east side on a dry 
governmen*^ claim). This, Mr. Hornbeck declined to do as he thought 
603 



604 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

the field too small as yet for a newspaper, although Mr. Evans offered 
to raise $1,500 to be repaid in subscriptions and advertising in order to 
start a new paper. After repeated efforts James H. Roe agreed to start 
a newspaper if Mr. Hornbeck would agree to be the printer, to which he 
assented. His calculations were that it would take about two-thirds of 
his time. About $1,000 was raised by Mr. Evans in all from various 
parties, and the needed material was sent for, arriving about June 20, 
1878. The first office was on Main Street, south of the corner of Eighth, 
about one hundred feet in a shack of a building about ten by twenty feet, 
constructed of rough boards. The weight of the press on the floor made 
the whole building so wobbly that the floor joists had to be strengthened 
before the press could be used. There were just room enough in the 
building to hold the press and material. Dr. John Hall and E. W. 
Holmes helped set up the type for the first issue, which had a patent 
inside set up and printed in San Francisco with all the outside news. 
No telegraphic news as yet. The first issue was dated June 20, 1878, 
under the name of the Riverside Press. The press did not work right 
at first, but with the assistance of a threshing machine operator it was 
put in working order. It took a long time and hard work on the hand 
operated press to get out the first issue of 500 copies, Mr. Hornbeck 
turning the press and Mr. Roe doing the rolling or inking. 

Mr. Roe was a pleasant man, well educated and ran the paper very 
creditably and we had in Riverside at last a good paper. The work was 
very trying on Mr. Hornbeck during the hot summer months, the dust 
sifting in off the .street (this was before the sprinkler for the streets 
came in) making it very disagreeable. When a norther prevailed in the 
fall, with the accompanying dust, operations had to be suspended for 
the time being, causing a removal of the ofiice to another wooden build- 
ing, where the open seams of the upright boards were battened and the 
inside cloth lined with a cloth ceiling. Only those who lived through a 
sand storm in the early days can have any idea of their disagreeable 
nature, when sheep grazed on the open plains in the path of the wind, 
cutting the soil up into fine dust — it blew everywhere and on cloth 
ceilings they would sag down with the weight of dust. Now the dust 
is practically done away with since roads have been concreted and trees 
planted, and irrigation everywhere. The Press had a Chinese laundry for 
next door neighbor. This ofiice was on a lot afterwards given with 
others to the Citrus Fair Association, where a fine large commodious 
pavilion was erected for fair purposes opposite the Mission Inn. After- 
wards it burned down, and the present Loring Opera House was built 
on the site. 

Mr. Roe had a hard job on his hands while he had the Press, as 
he was on Government lands which were in a hot dispute with Mr. Evans 
and the Riverside Land and Irrigating Company as to paying for the 
right to water and buying stock corresponding to acreage. There were 
other unsettled questions among the fruit growers as to the relative 
merits of seedling or budded oranges, and as to whether raisins or 
oranges were going to be the most profitable crops. 

As to the water question, and the fact that Mr. Roe's interests were 
somewhat antagonistic to Mr. Evans, while the patronage and support 
of Mr. Evans was vital to the very existence of the paper. Mr. Roe was 
a mild mannered, agreeable and peaceable man. and while opinions were 
vigorous on each side, Mr. Evans never interfered with the policy of the 
paper, which was always open for a hearing on any side, and although 
the paper grew slowly it was a good paper and had an important influence 
on public affairs, and was an authority on horticultural matter and got 



SAN BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 605 

important aid editorially from outsiders. While the Press was thus 
quietly making its way there was got in the way of premiums on sub- 
scriptions, three hundred dollars that was applied in the purchase of books 
which in the end was the origin of our public library. 

On the first day of January, 1880, L. M. Holt who was Secretary of 
the Southern California Horticultural Society, and also running a paper 
in Los Angeles called the Horticulturist, bought the Press from Mr. Roe 
and the price paid — $1.500 — was an index that it had been a success for 
it paid Mr. Roe $1,200 clear of all indebtedness. As Mr. Roe had 
been conducting his drug business all this time it showed remarkable suc- 
cess. 

Mr. Holt was a rustler and a newspaper man for the most of his 
life and was the original Riverside boomer. Southern California, of 
which the outside of Los Angeles, Riverside, was the best known place 
horticulturally, began to fill up slowly with Eastern people and fruit 
began to turn in money and by persistent work the circulation of the 
Press soon doubled, which circulation was not only in Riverside but in 
all the surrounding new settlements. Soon the Press began to be a tri- 
weekly with a weekly Press and Horticulturist. 

Mr. Holt's brother, Kendall, a theatrical man, came to Riverside in 
a professional way, and liking Riverside remained and went in to help 
L. M. both in a business and editorial way. The tri-weekly was such a 
success that soon there was a Daily Press in 1886, with delivery of papers 
to subscribers, and the paper flourished. 

When L. M. Holt bought the paper from Mr. Roe it had 230 sub- 
scribers. The inside was patent, but in a short time after buying it it was 
all printed in Riverside. Five hundred dollars to start with was the 
original investment, putting the profits into the capital stock. It came, in 
good time, to represent the first citrus fair in 1879. During Air. Holt's 
ownership it was helped very much financially by large adverti.sements 
from new settlements that were founded and for which he did valiant 
work, generally getting a large slice of land in return for booming them 
in a legitimate way. Corona, or as it was called for several years. South 
Riverside ; East Riverside, now Highgrove ; Ontario, Etiwanda and Red- 
lands, and even places as far away as San Diego and the San Joaquin 
Valley, came in for a share of advertising, and when he sold out Septem- 
ber 1, 1880, to Sweezy & Tibbott, it was the most influential pa])er horti- 
culturally in Southern California and an authority on citrus fruits. In 
December of the same year Holmes Roe and Pierson became proprietors 
of the paper. On the death of Mr. Pierson, E. P. and A. F. Clarke 
bought out his interest on October 1, 1894 (Mr. Holmes sold his interest 
to his partners), and all the interests were transferred on May 26, 1897, 
to an incorporated company consisting of E. P. and A. F. Clarke, .A. A. 
Piddington. H. H. Monroe and J. P. Baumgartner. When ]Mr. Monroe 
transferred his interests to the Enterprise in 1899, H. W. Hammond 
bought in. The Press has always been on the side of prohibition and 
in favor of good government. Its history since has been the history of 
Riverside, and from Mr. Hornbeck turning the Press and Mr. Roe doing 
the inking is a long story of growth, and today the Press is represented 
by a large and commodious building on Eighth Street, Near Market, 
which was built in 1902 and been continuously occupied since. 

From the time that Mr. Hammond bought in there have been no 
changes in the management or ownership and it is rather remarkable 
that there have not been any and the pathway has been steadily up 
without any drawbacks. From a circulation of from two or three 
hundred, with only two men to run it and without any delivery of the 



606 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

paper to subscribers, the change has been great and from local and edi- 
torial that could be set up today by a good machine typesetter in four 
hours to four Mergenthaler machines seems marvelous, but so it is. 

The Press is now delivered to subscribers by thirty carriers, not only 
in Riverside, but in nearby towns like Corona, as promptly as in Riverside 
itself. The boy (in the outlying districts before street car accommoda- 
tions were introduced) on his pony has been superceded by the motor- 
cycle and the bicycle and at times by the automobile, thirty carriers being 
now employed delivering 4,200 papers daily, not to speak of the newsboy 
on the street. Fifty-four hundred copies daily, gradually increasing, shows 
Riverside people to be a reading people which keeps the seventy-five 
employes of the company busy in ofifice hours. In place of two men 
working l\v hand to get the two or three hundred copies off the press, 
electricity does the work of a great number of men by hand and in an 
hour and a half the whole issue is all turned out neatly folded and counted, 
all ready for the carrier. Five hundred dollars .represented the invest- 
ment of the first issue of the Press and a rental practically nominal to a 
$35,000 building with thousands of dollars in stock and material and a 
business representing well up to $200,000 per annum is a change beyond 
the wildest dreamer of the desert of fifty years ago, and the few pioneers 
that are left sometimes wonder whether it is all real, while the owners 
of the Press wonder where the rapidly increasing business is going to 
find opportunity and room for the constantly increasing circulation. 

The Daily Enterprise, the first daily in Riverside and printed on a job 
press, 1885. probably in May, although there is no preserved copy of 
the early issues. William Studebaker, still a resident of Riverside, how- 
ever, has in his possession a copy of The Daily Enterprise, which is listed 
as Volume IV, Number 16, and dated Thursday, June 23, 1887. It is 
printed on cloth, to be preserved, and is in excellent condition, having been 
shown to 175 guests at a dinner in honor of Frank A. ^Miller at the 
Glenwood Mission Inn recently. 

The paper was not published continuously during its early history. 
We find in 1885, in July, The Valley Echo, under the proprietorship of 
The Riverside Printing & Publishing Company, with J. A. Studebaker 
as manager and with D. L. Potts and J. A. Studebaker editors. This 
issue calls nttention to the fact that the Echo was established in August, 
1883, and in 1885 was consolidated with the Independent, which was 
established in July, 1884. These plants that used to publish the River- 
side Moon, were all a part of the equipment used in the permanent 
re-establishment of the Enterprise in 1891 by Mark Plaisted. 

The Riverside Enterprise has been published regularly and continu- 
ously since June 25, 1890. It was placed upon a permanent basis at that 
time by Mark Plaisted, who had received his training as a printer on the 
Riverside Press. In making his bow to Riverside he said : "The River- 
side Press does not launch its barque upon the journalistic sea of this city 
today to 'fill a long felt want.' Its predecessor, The Moon, accomplished 
that wonderful feat and expired some time ago." The new publication 
acknowledged its predecessors, however, by making its 1890 volume 
Number 10. 

The plant for the Enterprise was purchased by Plaisted from Brad- 
ford Morse, who had been defeated as a candidate for assessor. It was 
located at the southwest corner of Eighth and Orange streets, where 
Campell's news stand is now located (1922). It was a six-column quarto, 
published every Wednesday. On September 10th of the same year it 
was enlarged to a seven-quarto and on October 4th became a semi- 
weekly, being printed on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Early in the 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 607 

following year the Morning Enterprise, published every day in the year, 
with the exception of Mondays, was inaugurated, being a five-column 
quarto, with a subscription price estabHshed at $6.00. On Sundays it 
was enlarged to a seven-column quarto. The size soon increased to six 
columns on week days, and on October 11th it became a seven-column 
paper for each issue. On October 15, 1893, the Sunday issues were 
increased to eight columns, and by March 4th every day's issue was eight 
columns in size. 

The management of Plaisted continued until 1899. During April of 
that year the office was moved across the street to the building now occu- 
pied by Porter's Pharmacy. During the Spanish-American war the Asso- 
ciated Press service had been installed and proved to be a successful 
feature during those stirring times. It was at this time that H. H. Mon- 
roe and C. W. Barton organized a partnership and purchased the 
property. 

In October, 1901, the Enterprise Company was formed, the first issue 
under the company management being published on October 27, 1901. 
Monroe & Barton continued in control, but on October 27th a change 
was made when the democratic faith of the paper was discarded. P. S. 
Castleman, who had been employed on the Riverside Press as associate 
editor and business manager for a year and a half, became a member of 
the firm and the paper was used to further the candidacy of Capt. M. J. 
Daniels for Congress. It was not only changed to a republican paper, but 
entered the evening field. In December it became a seven-column quarto. 

The change in time of publication and politics proved to be an unsuc- 
cessful change. H. H. Alonroe again secured control of the paper, 
changed it back into the morning field and it resumed its healthy appear- 
ance with a fine advertising patronage, friendly relations being estab- 
lished with its competitor. 

The burden became rather strenuous and Mr. Monroe disposed of 
half of his holdings to Gorham L. Olds, an experienced newspaper man 
who came on from New York State with the recommendation of Gaylor 
Rouse. From the old quarters on Eighth Street it was moved to a 
building erected for the plant on Main Street, adjoining what is now 
the Hotel Reynolds Block, with a long term lease. In 1907 the news- 
paper was sold to a syndicate of business men. including George Frost, 
George N. Reynolds, F. A. Miller and others, with C. W. Barton returned 
to editorial control, one of the purposes being to defeat the new city 
charter, which was carried, however. Shortly after this change, the 
present home of the Enterprise was built for it at 580 Main Street. The 
change of the paper to the evening field at this time as the Evening Mis- 
sion was soon found to be impractical. 

On April 15th the present company, The Mission Publishing Com- 
pany, was formed, taking over the interests of the former Enterprise 
Company. On May 10, 1910, Edgar Johnson, editor of the Fullerton 
Tribune, purchased the interests of Mr. Barton and returned the paper 
to its maiden name and the morning field. A. R. Pelton became asso- 
ciated with John as business manager July 19, 1910. H. H. Monroe was 
a silent partner during this period and continued to hold more or less 
interest until 1912. 

On November 23, 1911, Frederick O'Brien, a brilliant writer and 
author, gained control of the Enterprise, with the financial backing of 
James Mills, and conducted it until October 1, 1912, at which time O'Brien 
exchanged his interests for the evening Courier at Oxnard, California, 
J. R. Gabbert, who was founder of the daily Courier, securing the Enter- 
prise control, which he has retained until this time. 



608 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

In 1913 Gabbert purchased the Wayside Press, a job printing plant, 
and installed it in connection with the newspaper plant. That depart- 
ment has grown as fast as the Enterprise in recent years and has spread 
into the second story of the Riverside Water Company's building as a 
result of the purchase of the Glass Book Binding Company's plant of 
Los Angeles for special ruling and book binding. 

In the spring of 1916 the Enterprise again resumed the morning 
field, where it has always been more successful than as an evening news- 
paper. On October 1, 1918, the Enterprise became the first seven-day 
newspaper in Riverside County, being published every day in the year 
at this time with Associated Press dispatches. 

California Citrograph Established in Riverside. A monthly 
citrus publication, which has developed into considerable prominence, is 
the California Citrograph, which was established by J. R. Gabbert, editor 
of the Riverside Enterprise, in August, 1914. It was printed for a num- 
ber of years in the office of the Riverside Enterprise, being incorporated 
as the California Citrograph Publishing Company in 1915. 

In 1918 the California Citrograph was made the official publication for 
the California Fruit Growers' Exchange and continues to be sent to all of 
its members. On account of this change, it was found necessary to move 
it to Los Angeles, E. A. Street, who had been its manager since 1915, 
taking over the editorial responsibility as well as the business management. 

D. C. Fessenden, a native son of Riverside, was editor of the Citro- 
graph from 1915 to 1917, when he took a position as secretary of the 
state horticultural commissioner, G. C. Hecke. In 1922 J. R. Gabbert is 
still president of the company and E. A. Street is secretary-treasurer. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 
FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Riverside is well provided with fraternal and secret organizations. 
The Odd Fellows were the first to make a move in the line of organiza- 
tion, but were prevented on account of the lack of any hall fitted for 
the purpose. Along in 1878 when Riverside began to have some decidu- 
ous fruit and some of the older orange trees to bear, the Southern 
California Horticultural Society had a fair and exhibit of general 
produce. It set the people of Riverside to thinking that it would be a 
good thing for Riverside to have it citrus fair in the spring of 1879, but 
there was no place big enough to hold one in, and so a Public Hall Asso- 
ciation was formed to build a hall to be ready in time to hold a citrus 
fair at a time when oranges were ripening, and in accordance with plans 
put forth, a lot was procured on the corner of Ninth and Main streets, 
and a brick building was proj^osed to be put up about 35 by 75 feet, 
to be in large part built by labor, for which stock in the hall was given 
in payment for that and other things. An arrangement was made with 
the Hall Association by which the Odd Fellows were to put one story on 
the hall, and build in conjunction with the fruit growers, the upper story 
to be owned by the Odd Fellows. E. J. Davis, one of the early pioneers 
and B. D. Burt, a somewhat later comer, were the prime leaders in this 
movement. The building was far enough advanced to be used for the 
first citrus fair in February, 1878. and was finished so that the Odd Fel- 
lows organized a lodge on April 26, 1879. 

B. D. Burt was elected N. G. E., W. Holmes. V. G. and E. Rosenthal. 
Sec. Of the original thirteen charter members, all but E. J. Davis and 
N. A. Stiffler have passed over to the great beyond, and these two do 
not now reside in Riverside. 

Seven years later as the hall, as built was not large enough, the Odd 
Fellows bought the whole building, and by taking in Public Hall stock 
from those who had it, by way of paying for membership fees in the 
Odd Fellows Society, they got a larger membership and by paying others 
money they got full ownership of the hall, but it took some years to get 
all of the stock, as some who had stock had moved away and could not 
be found. When they had full ownership, the Odd Fellows proceeded 
to enlarge the building by extending its length about double and putting 
another story on top at a cost of over $20,000, and now they have one 
of the best and most valuable properties in the city, and its present mem- 
bership of over 700 makes it about the largest in the State and the society 
is in a verv flourishing state. The lodge is known as Riverside Lodge 
No. 282. 

There are other organized bodies in connection as follows: 

"Star Encampment No. 7i." 

"Riverside Canton No. 25." 

"Poinsettia Rebekah Lodge No. 308." 

"Ramona Rebekah Lodge No. 156." 

Which all hold stated meetings at the Hall, 730 West Ninth Street. 

Masonic. Early in the history of Riverside, the Masons began to 
feel the need of an organization. Some of the early settlers affiliated 
with the lodge in San Bernardino which was the county seat. 

Evergreen Lodge No. 259, F. and A. M., was instituted under the dis- 
pensation from the Grand Lodge of California on the 12th of November, 
1879, and chartered in April, 1880. Wm. Craig was the first W. M. 
609 



610 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Under the charter there were 24 members all of whom are dead with 
the exception of E. J. Davis and B. F. Allen. The lodge is in a very 
flourishing condition with a membership of 400. 

For many years they met in the Odd Fellows building and then to 
the Castleman Building on the site of the present Citizens' National Bank 
Building, but on the 8th of December, 1908, they moved into a temple of 
their own on Eleventh Street near Main Street. It is a magnificant build- 
ing and commodious and cost about $28,000. 

Meeting in the same building are the Riverside Commandery No. 67, 
R. A. M., with a membership of 167, organized May 7, 1886. 

Riverside Commandery No. 28 Knights Templar with a membership 
of 140. 

Ungava Chapter No. 106 Eastern Star, membership 300 organized 
in 1890. 

There is also in connection, an order known as the Shriners, which 
appears to be more of a social institution, but stands high financially 
and otherwise, and is noted all over the country. 

The Knights of Pythias have also a strong and well drilled body, 
organized in 1885. The Riverside branch had the credit of being the best 
drilled in the State. 

Hardly any of the original members of these organizations are now 
alive, but their successors seem able to keep them up to a high state of 
efficiency. 

The Knights of Columbus have a very strong and flourishing society, 
but as they seem to be more strictly secret than some of the other secret 
orders it is difficult to get any reliable information about them. 

They took a prominent part in the great war, for which they had a 
very large appropriation from their funds. 

The Elks. The Elks is one of the later organizations among the 
secret and benevolent organizations of Riverside, and one of the three 
that owns its own lodge building. 

The lodge was instituted on February 4, 1901, and has a membership 
of 700, composed of some of the Best People of Riverside. 

Lodge No. 643 has a very fine building on the corner of Main and 
Eleventh streets, built originally by the Women's Club at a cost of over 
$20,000 and looks with its ivy covered walls a very venerable building. 

County Auditor Chas. O. Reid is present head of the organization 
which has had as its leaders some of the prominent society men of River- 
side. 

Socially the Elks occupy a prominent position in the daily life of 
Riverside, and while ministering to some of the necessities of its people, 
seem to derive a great deal out of life. 

Other Organizations. Prominent among the many benevolent 
orders in Riverside none seem to occupy a greater place than the Wood- 
men of the World, but possibly the Fraternal Brotherhood is fully as 
prominent, and as they admit women as well as men, they take perhaps 
a more useful place in the daily life of the community. How many deaths 
we hear of every day in which the only thing left for the support of those 
who are left is the insurance, and so from that standpoint if from no 
other, they are worthy of all praise, but the social brotherly, friendly 
features of all of them are beyond all praise, not only from their bene- 
ficiaries, but from the acquaintances formed and the brotherhood feeling 
that is spread throughout the community? 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 611 

Tbere are so many organizations that it would be impossible to enumer- 
ate them all, even if it was possible for an outsider to get exact and 
reliable information as to their inner workings. Some appear to be 
purely social, while others like the Sons of St. George and the Cale- 
donians, enjoy at times at their meetings a whiff, as it were, of the old 
country which makes them none the less loyal to their adopted country. 
Some of the clubs comprise more of the out-door and athletic, but all 
have the general idea running through them to promote good citizenship. 

Peter Milliken was born in the city of New York on February 
8, 1849, of Scotch parents, his father being a shipbuilder and a great 
traveler. He was educated in the public schools of New York, attended 
a business college, graduated from the grammar school, was admitted on 
examination to the college of the City of New York, took a five years' 
course including Latin, Greek and French and graduated in 1868 with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He delivered the third honorary oration 
in the Academy of Music on Commencement Day and was awarded first 
prize in deportment and second prize in mathematics. 

After spending the summer near Flushing, Long Island, as private 
tutor, he left for San Francisco, Calif., via Panama arriving October 
25, 1868. 

Mr. Milliken soon secured employment as tutor in mathematics in 
Union College (an Espicopal School) and also as principal teacher in 
the large evening school of the Presbyterian Chinese Mission, San Fran- 
cisco under charge of Rev. A. W. Loomis, D.D. 

Dr. Loomis and Mr. Milliken were authors of a book to teach the 
Chinese English. It was profusely illustrated with pictures, the Chinese 
and English texts being placed side by side. Mr. Milliken had a half 
interest in the book, which was duly published and used in the school. 
The American Tract Society of New York bought the manuscript, pub- 
lished the book and copyrighted it in 1872. 

While teaching the evening school Mr. Milliken had entered the 
employ of the L. P. Pisher Newspaper Advertising Agency as accountant, 
and later accepted an ofifer to enter the employ of the San Francisco 
Bulletin. After many years he left the Bulletin to become business man- 
ager of the Evening Post, having accepted the offer of Col. Jackson, 
agent of Senator Jones of Nevada, the owner. Until that time Henry 
George, the famous apostle of the Single Tax, had been the editor. 

In December, 1877, Mr. Milliken was married to Mary Julia Halsey, 
a native of San Francisco, and daughter of Judge Halsey of the Superior 
Court. No children have been born to them. 

All his hfe Air. Milliken has taken great interest in fraternal organiza- 
tions. He was Master of Oriental Lodge of Masons, San Francisco 
in 1885, and became member of the Grand Lodge. He was also Past 
Sachem of Pocahontas Tribe, Imp'd O. of Red Men, and member of the 
Great Council of the State and of Ivy Chapter O. E. S. 

In San Francisco Mr. Milliken had invested his savings in vacant town 
lots, which he sold to invest in farm land in NN'inchester and Diamond 
Valley, then in San Diego County. In 1889 he decided to retire from 
the newspaper business and remove to his home which he had erected on 
his farm at Winchester. He at once took an active interest in public 
afTairs and was urged to run for the legislature, but declined in favor of 
Mr. Casterline, who was duly elected. 

When the legislature met, the bill to organize Riverside County was 
introduced. Mr. Milliken entered heart and soul into the fight, canvassed 



612 SAN BEFNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

his district, spoke at public meetings, including a large mass meeting in 
the Loring Theatre, Riverside. 

He was elected justice of the peace of Diamond Township. Then 
he was Deputy County Assessor for Assessor Jarvis. .\t the next elec- 
tion he was urged to run for County Assessor which he declined. 

At Winchester he helped to organize the San Jacinto and Pleasant 
Valley Irrigation District, was offered the position of chairman of the 
Board of Directors, which he declined in favor of Hon. \Vm. Casterline. 
Later Mr. Milliken was appointed secretary of the succeeding board, the 
Hon. F. T. Lindenberger as secretary, and was also made superintend- 
ent of the Irrigation system. He was also director of the Florida Water 
Co. of Valla Vista, most of the water stock being owned by the irrigation 
district. 

Toward the close of 1899 Mr. Milliken decided to quit grain growing, 
which had been unprofitable, and reenter the newspaper field. He there- 
fore purchased the Hemet News from the owner, Mrs Emma Kerr, and 
moved his family and household goods to that town. The paper had a 
remarkable growth in advertising, circulation and prestige. Hemet grew 
rapidly in population and wealth. Mr. Milliken led a strenuous life. He 
was member of the Republi.can County Central Committee, also of the 
Executive Committee, presided at two Republican County Conventions 
in the Loring Opera House, Riverside, was secretary of the District Sena- 
torial Convention which met at Orange when Senator Caldwell was candi- 
date for re-election, was a member of the Congressional Convention at 
Hotel Coronado during Congressman Needle's time, a member of the 
Republican State Convention in San Francisco the year Cov. Johnson was 
nominated, etc. 

Mr. Milliken was foreman of two grand juries and secretary of 
another, and he wrote two grand jury reports. He delivered the oration 
to the public at the laying of the corner stone of the new county court 
house at Riverside by the Grand Lodge of Masons, having been appointed 
to that honor by the board of supervisors. 

When Imperial County was being formed by appointment of the 
board of supervisors, he went to San Diego with Pliny Evans to prevent 
the partition of Riverside County. 

He is charter member of the Royal Arch Chapter of Masons of San 
Jacinto — he became charter member. Past Noble Grand and delegate to 
the Grand Lodge of Hemet Odd Fellows. He also joined the Rebecca 
Lodge and served as chaplain of the Maccabees. 

Mr. Milliken helped to organize the Mission of the Good Shepherd 
(Episcopal) and to build the beautiful new church in Hemet. He also 
served as warden. 

While in Hemet he started the Ferris Progress and in course of time, 
H. M. Harford, a prominent citizen consented to become editor and busi- 
ness manager. The paper was a success, but the time came when Mr. 
Harford had too much other important business to attend to, and desired 
to retire from the management. Mr. Milliken had a good cash oiifer 
for the Hemet News from Mr. Wall, an experienced journalist. The 
offer was accepted and Mr. Milliken moved to Perris to edit and manage 
the Perris Progress. He soon joined the Perris Masonic Lodge and 
the Knights of Pythias. Of the latter lodges he became chancellor com- 
mander and delegate to the Grand Lodge, attending the annual meeting 
in Redding, Calif. 

He served two years as president of the Perris Chamber of Commerce. 
During the period of growth and optimism, Perris secured a new water 
.system and cement sidewalks, fine new grammar school, brick stores, 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 613 

numerous modern homes, etc. While in Perris, Mr. Milliken was urged 
by former Supervisor Crane to purchase the Lake Elsinore Valley Press. 
He did so and engaged Mr. Taylor, city treasurer of Hemet, a very cap- 
able and industrious printer and writer, and employe of the Hemet 
News, to run the paper, at the same time selling him a half interest. 
In about two years Mr. Taylor moved with his family to Orange, having 
purchased a paper there. Mr. Milliken moved his family and household 
goods to Elsinore and proceeded to edit and publish the paper. H. T. 
Bott, a capable, artistic and industrious printer of Riverside bought a 
small interest and moved to Elsinore to manage the mechanical depart- 
ment of the newspaper and job plant. 

In Elsinore Mr. Milliken was director of -the Chamber of Commerce, 
worked for the splendid new street improvements, was interested in the 
fraternal organizations, etc., and was elected a member of the Republican 
County Centra! Committee. He helped to organize the Episcopal Mis- 
sion at Elsinore and served as warden. Through State Senator, S. C. 
Evans, he had been appointed speaker for the U. S. Governinent for the 
war for Perris, but could not serve owing to his removal from Perris. 

After a busy life of over thirty years in Riverside County he wished 
to retire from the business, and the cash offer of W. J. Sergei (secretary 
of the Elsinore Chamber of Commerce) for the Lake Elsinore Valley 
Press, was accepted and the firm dissolved. The Perris Progress having 
been leased for a term of years, Mr. Milliken and wife proceeded to 
Pasadena to rebuild, enlarge and improve a city property he has owned 
for many years, but hopes to return to Riverside County, as he still has 
interests at Perris and Hemet. 

He greatly appreciates the good will and friendship of many prominent 
citizens of Hemet, Perris, San Jacinto and Elsinore, not forgetting the 
beautiful City of Riverside where so many good and prominent citizens 
have extended the glad hand and words of appreciation for the last thirty 
years. 

For many years Mr. Milliken has been member of the Riverside Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar, also of the lodge of the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks. He is still a member of the Southern Cali- 
fornia and State Editorial Associations of California of Malaikah 
Temple, Los Angeles, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine and of the Asso- 
ciated Alumni College of the City of New York. 

E. J- Davis. Among the early settlers whose name is now almost 
unknown, none were more enterprising than E. J. Davis. Coming in 
1872 he bought the block of two and a half acres, now occupied by the 
Reynolds Hotel, and built his home where he lived as long as he lived in 
Riverside. He also, through his partner (who died shortly after) suc- 
ceeded to, and bought the block between Main and Orange streets and 
Seventh and Eighth streets. From 1872 to 1886 Mr. Davis was one of 
the most active men in Riverside, being a contractor and builder, and 
doing lots of work on the older buildings long since replaced by modern 
' structures. 

In the absence of any very commodious hotel in Riverside in 1886 
he started, and put up what is now known as the Reynolds Hotel, between 
Main and Orange and Ninth and Tenth streets, fronting on Main. It 
had a frontage of 183 feet on Main Street and 100 feet on Ninth. It 
was a three story brick building, the lower story being devoted to stores. 
It was one of the best appointed hotels of its time. For some years it 
was rented, then Mr. and Mrs. Davis run it as a hotel themselves. The 



614 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

upper story contained eighty-four rooms. The kitchen was entirely sepa- 
rated from the hotel proper. 

Mr. Davis married in 1876, Miss Grace Cunningham, a native of Nova 
Scotia. There are two boys surviving the marriage. Mr. Davis was 
prominent among the Masons and Odd Fellows, and was one of the lead- 
ers in building the first part of the original Odd Fellows building. 

Mr. Davis was born in England in 1844 and grew to manhood there, 
coming to the United States in 1868. His wife died a good many years 
ago and now he makes his home with his sons. 

T. J. Wood was the first settler in Riverside (who did not belong 
to the founders) to come here and build a home. He was living in San 
Bernardino at the time of the founding of the colony, and on hearing of 
what was proposed to be done, he came over and was, in reality, the first 
outsider to come and bring his family which was October 28, 1870. He 
built his residence on the corner of Eighth and Vine streets. Mrs. Wood 
was the first white woman to reside in Riverside and her advent was met 
with a public reception and speeches of welcome, which in glowing terms, 
depicted the future of the colony. Rev. Mr. Higbie, one of the surveyors 
engaged in platting and laying out the colony said that "within fifteen 
years the iron horse will be plowing through the valley and Riverside 
will be furnishing the eastern states with oranges" a prophecy which 
was literally fulfilled. Mr. Wood took an early and active part in school 
matters, but as a citizen and as a school trustee bein^ first appointed 
by the board of supervisors and afterward by election. Being among the 
first carpenters, he took an active part in the erection of dwellings and 
also in the construction of the canal. 

He also acquired property on Orange Street, and on that erected a 
fine three-story brick apartment house between Seventh and Eighth streets 
During his residence in Riverside, he took an active part with the Odd 
Fellows. He was born in South Carolina in 1830 and at his death left 
a widow and three children. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

BUSINESS AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 

Riverside has never been as well served by live, well financed bank- 
ing institutions as now. There are two national banks, the Citizens' 
National and the National Bank of Riverside, and there are two state 
banks, the Security Savings Bank, which is owned by the stockholders 
of the Citizens' National,' and has a commercial department, and the 
Hellman Commercial Trust & Savings Bank, a branch of the Los 
Angeles bank of that name. 

All of these banks are officered by men of exceptional ability and 
standing, whose names mean much in the financial circles of Southern 
California and particularly in the upbuilding of the city and county of 
Riverside. 

The directing influence in the Citizens' National and the Security 
Savings Bank, including their branch in Arlington, is W. B. Clancy, 
who entered the Citizens' Bank when it was organized and has been one 
of its dominant personalities from that time through its remarkable 
history of growth and prosperity. 

The National Bank of Riverside has as its president a young business 
man who made a financial success of the contracting business in River- 
side and has stepped readily into this bank — William A. Johnson. 

It was with considerable interest that the people of Southern Cali- 
fornia heard less than a year ago of the entrance of the Hellman fam- 
ily, well known bankers, into this field by the purchase of the People's 
Trust & Savings Bank. The management of the institution Vv-as placed 
in the hands of R. L. Webster, who came here from Spokane, Wash- 
ington, where he had enjoyed a successful banking career of many years. 
He has fitted readily into Riverside financial and business life and is 
recognized as a banker of sound judgment and substantiality. The 
fact that the institution has behind it the great resources of the Hell- 
mans has resulted in a steady growth in its business. 

The banks are all officered by well known citizens and business men, 
the Citizens' National Bank and the Security Savings Bank being largely 
directed by S. L. Herrick, who has been a leading operator in connec- 
tion with the Citizens' National Bank, and, being a large orange grower, 
gives him the confidence of the patrons of the bank. 

W. G. Eraser, president of the Security Savings Bank, is well and 
favorably known from his lengthy connection with the trust company 
under the Gage Canal system. 

The National Bank is conducted by well known financiers and busi- 
ness men while the Hellman Commercial Trust & Savings Bank, which 
is one of the Hellman chain of banks of Southern California, with its 
great resources, gives the other banks greater confidence and support 
than ever. 

Riverside Chamber of Commerce. Riverside has had its Chamber 
of Commerce so long that it has existed almost beyond the memory of 
the "oldest inhabitants." At fir.st it took hold in a very modest way 
and the annual dues were comparatively low and those who took an 
active interest in its workings had but little time to devote to its inter- 
ests and duties. But it has grown in its activities in every direction 
until it is an every-day matter, and not only that, every little settlement 
615 



616 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

and town has its Chamber of Commerce looking to every thing that will 
promote local interests in every possible way and when occasion requires 
we have a grand county meeting of associated chambers of commerce 
or maybe action on extraordinary occasion of the whole of Southern 
California. 

When we read in the daily papers that on one train of three sections 
in one day 2,100 people arrive in Los Angeles and that 60 per cent of 
them came to make their homes in Southern California, we can see that 
there is work all over Southern California for all the chambers of 
commerce to place these people in such surroundings as may be con- 
genial to them, and, further, when we know that with these people we 
are getting the "cream of every State in the Union" and that it is the 
type of men and women that are here that are mainly instrumental in 
doing it we begin to see what is ahead of our chambers of commerce. 

But let our Chamber of Commerce speak for itself through its 
secretary : 

"The Riverside Chamber of Commerce is a voluntary association of 
men and women, interested in the development of Riverside in economics, 
civic and social ways. Its interests are not confined to the limits of 
Riverside but extend throughout the county. Primarily a business 
organization, it recognizes that today as never before civic and social 
matters are inextricably interwoven with business affairs and that in 
order to provide for a well balanced community all three phases of the 
city's life must be made to progress uniformly. 

"Aside from the usual routine of Chamber of Commterce work, 
which, while quietly and unobtrusively done, is of tremendous impor- 
tance to the community, the Riverside Chamber of Commerce has the 
following accomplishments to its credit : The locating of the Citrus 
Experiment Station and School of Sub-Tropical Agriculture, a branch 
of the University of CaHfornia, at Riverside; the establishment by the 
United States \\'ar Department of an army flying field at March Field, 
near Riverside ; the purchase of a site for a school of agriculture, a 
branch of the University of California at Riverside. The Chamber of 
Commerce assisted materially in the establishment and development of 
the Southern California Fair. 

"Consistently striving for those things which are in strict accordance 
with American ideals of government and business affairs, the Riverside 
Chamber of Commerce stands today as it has stood for thirty years, 
the leading organization in the City of Riverside, with the welfare of 
Riverside as its one great purpose. 

"Irwin Hayden, 

"Managing Secretary." 

Riverside Municipal Electric Light and Power System. (By 
Horace Porter, Ex-Mayor of Riverside.) The founders of Riverside 
were thoroughly progressive men and women. Tliey built tlie first city in 
history founded on horticulture alone in a desert. They first formulated 
the principle that in a desert country the land shall own the water that 
is used to irrigate it. Led by a woman, they pioneered the introduction 
and culture of the famous navel orange. 

This same progressive spirit led the people of Riverside to begin to 
Hght their then desert village by electricity, as early as 1886, or at least 
to take the first steps toward electric lighting. Mr. O. T. Dyer and 
others petitioned the authorities, in May, 1886, to co-operate with certain 
private individuals for electric lighting of Riverside. The use of elec- 
tricity for power, now so essential and so greatly used for irrigation and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 617 

all industrial purposes, was then not even thought of. But so rapidly was 
the use of electricity being developed, that it was only two years later, or 
on March 12 1888, that Ordinance No. 89, was adopted, granting a 
franchise to an "Electric Light and Power Company," to operate in 
Riverside. 

But the high cost of electrical service thus provided led the people 
of Riverside to move for a municipally owned light and power system 
of their own. In June, 1894, the Board of City Trustees appointed a 
committee to report on the advisability of a municipal electric plant. In 
March, 1895, City Engineer James W. Johnson reported in favor of such 
a plant and estimated its cost. An election was held June 5, 1895, the city 
voting by an overwhelming majority to bond the city for $40,000.00, for 
the establishment of an electric light and power plant. 

The first electrical engineer was appointed August 1, 1895, E. C. 
Sharpe being thus appointed. Immediately the electric plant at Mulberry 
and Ninth streets was erected, which has, of course, grown from the first 
small beginning, to the present large proportions. F. A. Worthley 
was made first superintendent, and Elmer Cutting, now and for many 
years superintendent, was "lineman and trimmer." The California Elec- 
trical Works of San Francisco, having furnished and set up the equip- 
ment, for $40,978.00, their contract price, a thirty days' trial was made, 
and on December 8, 1896, the plant was formally accepted and opened 
for business. 

The city purchased its power wholesale, from the Redlands Electric 
Light and Power Company. This by contract for "ten thousand volts." 

Here lies the weakness, it may be said, in Riverside's electric light 
and power system. We were content to contract for power, and did not 
proceed as we might so well have done in that early day, to generate our 
own electric current. The result has been that we have been placed to 
great disadvantage in all our history thus far, by having to purchase 
from private power companies, at cost far exceeding that of generating 
such power, had we done it ourselves. We tried to get away from this 
in 1899-1900, by erecting a steam generating plant at a cost of some $34,- 
000.00. But this has proved only moderately helpful. It did no doubt 
get us better rates from the companies from whom we purchased the 
most of our power. But it has proved to us that hydro-electric power can 
be generated at very much lower cost than that by steam. Indeed steam 
electric generation is almost inexcusable waste of money and energy in 
California where hydro-electric power generation is so easy and so cheap, 
on our public domain, in the great mountains and streams. 

Riverside having pioneered so many notable movements, it is worthy 
of record also that in municipal electrical development the city has done 
real pioneer work. Riverside was the first city in California to develop 
a municipal electric light and power plant, and one of the first cities in 
the United States to do .so. In this Riverside blazed the way for the long 
distance transmission of electricity, by building the first long distance, 
high voltage electrical transmission line in the United States and, it is 
believed, in the world. This action by the City of Riverside was watched 
with great interest by the electricians of the world, to see whether such 
long' distance transmission was to be found practicable. Riverside 
brought this electric power over her long distance lines from Mill Creek, 
in the San Bernardino Mountains, hardly thirty miles away. But the 
experiment was a success and was a notable step in the great development 
of long distance high voltage transmission lines, by which the great elec- 
tric power lines of the world are made possible. The great municipal 
hydro-electric power system of the Province of Ontario, Canada, is made 



618 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

possible by Riverside's pioneer work. Los Angeles' great municipal sys- 
tem is also thus made possible. The great power lines, such as the South- 
ern California Edison and the Southern Sierras systems follow in the line 
of the City of Riverside's pioneer work, in their vast systems of long dis- 
tance high voltage electric power transmission. The Southern Sierras 
Power Company of Riverside, has lines of six hundred miles and more 
of such long distance transmission. It is also worthy of note that the 
original pioneer transformers of the world, which made possible River- 
side's long distance line, are still preserved, and were exhibited at the 
Panama Exposition in San Francisco, as "the pioneer high voltage trans- 
formers of the world." 

In other respects Riverside has also made bold innovations in the 
history of municipal electric light and power development. The city re- 
news to its 5,000 customers, all electric light bulbs, after the initial pur- 
chase price of the first ones. This item of saving to the consumer is 
unmatched, so far as the writer knows, by any private power company, 
and by few, if any, municipal plants. 

Riverside has proved by her municipal electric light and power plant 
that by public ownership light and power can be supplied to citizens at 
great reduction of cost as compared with the service rendered by privately 
owned companies. 

When Riverside began its municipal ownership plan, it had been pay- 
ing a private company 20 cents K. W. H. for electric current and $10.00 a 
month per arc light for streets. Under municipal ownership electric 
current, is sold today for an average of 3 cents K. W. H. for light and 
power purposes. This is fully a third less than private companies sell 
current for, where they operate. 

And while operating at this low cost to her people. Riverside has not 
only saved her citizens scores of thousands of dollars in cost of light and 
power, but has made a handsome profit to the great advantage of the city 
and saving of taxes. This last year (1920-1921), the total revenue of 
the municipal electric light and power plant was $248,226.92. Total ex- 
pen,ses, $17,617.13. Net income. $68,609.79. 

The municipal light and power system has in these years made a 
splendid showing in service rendered the people, and in profits made by 
which the plant has grown to large proportions, and in addition, has trans- 
ferred to other city departments $184,807.31. This support to the other 
departments of the city has been incidental with the development of the 
plant from $40,000.00 value originally to now about $700,000.00, and to the 
saving of thousands of dollars annually in cost of light and power to 
our people. 

All this in spite of the fact that we do not generate our own power 
but buy it at very high wholesale cost from private companies. When 
Riverside and all California learns to generate electric light and power at 
cost to the people, a new industrial day will be upon us. 

Our Riverside plant is really a great industry in itself. It is 
well worth the time of any citizen to visit the power plant at Ninth and 
Mulberry streets, then go over the system realizing that from it radiate 
a hundred thousand lights, and power for industries and irrigation over 
the forty-one square miles of the City of Riverside. 

Riverside Municipal Water System, by Dr. Horace Porter, 
ex-mayor. Riverside has been a progressive city from the first beginnings, 
fifty years ago. Municipal ownership is unusually largely developed and 
is most successful. In Riverside we have municipal ownership of electric 
light and power, municipal fair grounds, municipal athletic field, two 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 619 

municipal sewer farms, municipal rock quarries, the municipal library, 
municipal parks and playgrounds, the usual municipal school system, 
and a municipal domestic water system. 

Our water system was not developed as early as the electric light 
system by many years, and to the great financial disadvantage of River- 
side. We purchased the water system from the Riverside Water Com- 
pany in 1913. The price was very high, as now universally known, the 
amount being $575,000.00 to the water company, $195,000.00 for the 
artesian system and $15,000.00 for the Keys system, or a total of $750,- 
000.00 for the three systems thus merged into one municipal plant. 

The city voted to bond itself for $1,115,000.00 for this purchase and 
for expenses and improvements. For these expenses and improvements 
there was a balance of $370,000.00 over and above the purchase price. 
About sixty-five miles of new pipe lines were laid over the forty-one 
square miles of the city, particularly extending the mains to Arlington 
Heights. This is fine for the Heights but expensive for the city, as it 
costs the city $11,000.00 more per year to pump the water to the Heights, 
than the people of the Heights pay for. 

Notwithstanding, the new lines laid in 1913-15, there are still many 
streets and sections of the city without domestic water, to their great 
disadvantage. The further laying of pipe lines for these sections is a 
serious need. 

The source of Riverside's water supply is the widely known natural 
underground basin in San Bernardino County, of which Riverside 
County was a part, when the water system of Riverside was developed. 
This great basin furnishes flowing wells which supply both our irrigation 
waters for our canals and our domestic water. 

Riverside appropriated these waters in the very earliest days begin- 
ning fifty years ago, long before the town of San Bernardino sought for 
water by other than the old well and town pump system. 

But some five years ago, San Bernardino challenged Riverside, and the 
Riverside Water Company, in their rights to the waters so long appro- 
priated. A trial lasting six months and costing both sides about $1,000.- 
000.00, produced the famous "Judge F. Inlayson decision," — a court rul- 
ing acceptable to neither side and by both sides regarded as too vague and 
intricate^ indeed impossible of being observed by either party to the suit. 
The decision was appealed to the State Supreme Court, which practically 
ruled in favor of Riverside, yet orders a new finding by the Superior 
Court of San Bernardino, on the evidence taken in the former six months' 
trial. For the past half year the mayor and Board of Public Utilities of 
Riverside, in the last half of the vear 1921, have held many conferences 
with the city authorities of San Bernardino, both sides seeking to settle 
the great water suit by mutual agreement out of court. These proceedings 
are at this writing, February, 1922, still under way. The belief is, as 
apparently shared by both parties to the suit that with proper conservation 
of water, as it comes from the Santa Ana River out of the mountains, 
and by proper economy of the uses of water, there is enough and to spare 
for both cities. There is a mutual desire to spend money in the future 
in sensible water saving instead of endless water suits that bring no 
satisfactory results, and can bring no such results. 

Notwithstanding the large cost to Riverside of her domestic water 
system, and the heavy expense of paying off bonds, water suits and up- 
keep, yet we fully believe that in the long run this water system, munici- 
pally owned, will amply justify itself. 

The total revenue, this past year, has been $138,672.00. Total expense, 
$105,352.00. Net income, $33^347.17. Net .surplus after paying bonds. 



620 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 



$4,347.17. Bonds redeemed of the original issue of $1,160,000.00 are 
52.^2,000.00. The cost of the law suits against us by San Bernardino has 
been paid by the Utilities Board out of the electric light surplus. Other- 
wise heavy borrowing or bonding would have been necessary to carry the 
extraordinary expenses of this unfortunate law suit, unfortunate both for 
Riverside and for San Bernardino. 

The following table gives a few random instances of the difference 
in cost of electric light and power as between Riverside's municipal plant 
and the Southern California Edison and the Southern Sierras power 
companies. These are carefully compiled figures based on the rates as 
in force in the year 1921. 

Riverside 
Fred Reed's 5 H. P. pump. .$ 120.55 
Riverside Press Printing Co.. . 261.90 
G. Rou.se Department Store.. 1,249.30 
Chase Nursery, 30 H. P. pump 409.65 
Alfred M. Lewis, grocery.... 568.25 
Arlington Heights Gratton 

Street Pumping Station... 2,117.80 2,614.84 



Edison Co. 


Southern Sierras 


$ 160.59 


$ 223.26 


379.70 


427.20 


1,687.15 


1,743.00 


622.15 


802.52 


782.80 


822.50 



3,196.98 



If Riverside were getting her power by public ownership, at six-tenths 
of a cent K. W. H. (which is more than a liberal allowance for cost 
production), Riverside could cut her present rates. As it is, paying these 
excessively high rates, to the private companies for wholesale power (as 
high as one and eighty-seven hundredths K. W. H.), Riverside still 
retails as shown by above tables, at a third lower price to the consumer, 
an yet makes $50,000.00 a year profit ! 



CHAPTER XXXV 
CHURCHES 

The Churches. A history of Riverside would not be complete with- 
out some notice of the churches, especially when we consider that there 
are forty or more religious organizations that hold religious services once 
a week, for not all of them hold their services on the day of the week 
called Sunday or the Lord's Day, the day on which our Lord is believed 
by all professing Christianity, to have risen from the dead. 

Without going further abroad than Riverside the question may well 
be asked, "Are the results commensurate with the great efforts put forth 
each week, not only on the Holy day, but during the week at the various 
services conducted?" Some of the secret societies have semi-religious 
sentiments in their ritual and it is claimed by many Masons that there is 
no better Christianity than in the life of a good Mason. Unquestionably 
the base of all religions is that embraced in the motto, "Be good and do 
good," whether the incentive be fear or love or a mixture of both. In 
this day and generation among all educated and thinking people it would 
be absurd, if not wicked, to say that all who have not heard of Christian- 
ity or embraced the doctrines and beliefs of professed Christians were 
going to hell where they would be kept in a state of punishment and 
misery for ever and forever. Even the Presbyterians in tlieir Confession 
of Faith have been obliged to modify their statements in regard to infant 
damnation. The Methodists, too, are seriously considering whether some 
modifications may not be desirable in their creed, while the Christian 
Scientists say it is not necessary to die in order to enter Heaven. Among 
all of the religious denominations there is the same Lord's prayer and 
practically the same creed, then wherefore the many dififerent organiza- 
tions? Would not results be better if all were united as is done in at 
least one progressive town on the Pacific Coast? All agree that it would, 
but each wants it to be his peculiar denomination. Nowhere are we led 
to infer that there was any other temple in Palestine, but one at Jerusalem, 
which it seems was sufficient for the Jews who are represented as being 
the specially favored people of God. 

They were, of course, the synagogues where they met on the Sabbath. 
The statement has been made recently by a leading minister that two- 
thirds of the people are not church goers. Then wherefore is this? Can 
you pick out church people by their daily life? Are they any happier 
than those who stay outside ? These are very pertinent, and indeed, serious 
questions when we consider that as reported in the newspapers the state- 
ment is that a member of Congress proposes to introduce a measure to 
compel everyone to attend church, — What church? This would certainly 
necessitate a radical change in our California State Constitution and also 
in the Constitution of the United States which says that no religious obli- 
gation be imposed on any citizen either for citizenship or for holding of 
office. It may well be asked the reverend gentleman who bewails the 
lack of attendance at church what he has to offer in church attendance 
that will attract the masses? Have we as a people outgrown that phase 
of our modern system of faith and religion, mere church attendance? 

California is almost alone in the list of states in having no Sunday 
laws, yet the statement is made authoritatively that church attendance 
and the general morality is as good as in other states where they have 
Sunday laws. May it not be that we have entered into a new and higher 
dispensation where religion will partake more of the daily life and less 
of the ceremonial, where every act shall partake of the religious. Where 
621 



622 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 



is all of the religion of our fathers, where the family prayer morning and 
evening and the religious ceremony gone over at every meal, both before 
and after, and where the minister in the country on his periodical visits 
when offered refreshments, part of which would be whisky, would ask 
God to bless them before he would partake? Gone they are almost wholly 
and nothing but the shadow remains. Whence this departure, may be a 
pertinent question ? 




First Church in Riverside 



It would in this short narrative be probably unwise, even if space 
permitted, to go in very extensively to the churches and the question of 
their religion. It is one of the axioms of all organized bodies that 
religion and politics must be barred from their deliberations and the rea- 
.son is plain enough to the outsider and that is, that opinion or dogma is 
the basis of most of their ethical propositions. Excluding politics as not 
being pertinent to a history of the churches their various creeds are more 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 623 

in the line of dogma than matters of fact. People do not usually differ 
on matters of fact, but when it comes to matters of opinion, opinions are 
as varied as individuals. 

Truth should be simple and appeal to the simplest understanding. For 
instance, no one seriously disputes the ethics of the Sermon on the Mount. 
The difficulties begin to arise whenever anyone arises and claims to be an 
authority in religious matters and when he can get the temporal power 
behind him, trouble arises, hence the assertion in our republic that all 
power lies within the people themselves. Then comes up the question in 
spiritual matters : Shall we have a spiritual head who may be looked to 
as an authority and whose dictum shall be followed blindly? Or shall 
we give the individual conscience full freedom of expression? Then 
comes the question of creed. Creeds always bind and prevent expansion 
and growth. Here is where the question of church attendance and Sab- 
bath observance come in. Those who are outside of the churches claim 
that those who are inside, a minority professedly, take undue and unwar- 
ranted powers to themselves and thereby interfere with the liberties of 
others without any just reason. Our government was founded to give 
freedom to all citizens, civil and religious, and nothing in the history of 
this country shows that where religious laws are in operation there is 
greater morality or happiness than where no religious enactments exist 
and churchmen must show before they ask others to join them that they 
are better and happier than those who do not attend or belong to the 
churches. Rather must we adopt a new rule of life where religion will be 
a vital, every day part of that life. 

The churches of Riverside may well be classed under a half dozen or 
so organizations and the main question should not be what do you be- 
lieve, but what are you doing to make the world better? Has the world 
been made better by your passing through it, if not, life has been a failure ? 

Riverside began by making this world more beautiful on the idea that 
if we could do away with the dark places, in a word, if we could make a 
Garden of Eden here we would have begun to make a new earth and if 
we could finally make a new earth, we would be well on the way to have 
a new heaven wherein would dwell righteousness. 

With the founders of Riverside the question of churches or religious 
organizations did not arise. With Judge North, himself, or Doctor Greves, 
who was in all probability closer associated with him than any other 
pioneer, the material side was about the only one that was considered 
as neither of them were connected with any church while in Riverside, 
nor did either of them ever express any opposition to, or preference for, 
any division of church organization. Doctor Shugart was pretty much in 
the same line of religious thought although he was an attendant and sup- 
l)orter of the Universalist Church and A. J. Twogood was a Baptist and 
E. G. Brown, an Episcopalian, so it may be said that in its foundation 
there was no distinct religious leaning. The Congregationalists were given 
a lot on which, several years after the colony was founded, a church was 
built. The first colonists were of various phases of religious belief and 
m.eetings were occasionally held mainly by the Congregationalists and 
Episcopalians. The little school which was the first building of a public 
character was used for religious services by all who cared to have them, 
but as population increased there came to be a desire for each denomina- 
tion to have a place of their own until there are about forty different 
religions represented every week. 

The Congregationalists were the first to think of an organization and 
accordingly they formed the first church in April, 1872, but it was some- 
time later when they were able to put up a building. At first they were 



624 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

liberal as they have been right along and gave every assistance to other 
church sects. All at first held services in the schoolhouse which was 
freely opened to all. 

Rev. I. W. Atherton was the first pastor and Riverside was carried 
on for a time as a missionary station and when they got ready to build a 
church it was accomplished largely by assistance from outside sources. 
Twice they have outgrown their building, first on the original site on the 
corner of Sixth and Mulberry streets. This church was traded in 1886 
with the Christian Church for lots on the corner of Seventh and Lemon 
streets where a large and commodious building was erected which was 
again outgrown and the building was torn down and a large and magnifi- 
cent cathedral-like structure of the Spanish Renaissance style of archi- 
tecture was erected. This building with its adjacent parsonage, grounas 
and equipment, have a full value of $125,000. Under the ministration of 
Dr. Horace Porter some innovations have been introduced likely to bring 
the church and people closer together. The first one is that the church 
shall be open every day. This gives an opportunity to those who are of a 
pious and meditative nature to enter the church and indulge in the sacred 
edifice in spiritual mediation. Then again it has always been a matter for 
serious contemplation that our churches should be closed all the time 
except for the few slender hours they are open for public worship. 

The parlors of the church are open for meetings at any time of a 
beneficial nature. The basement, which is large and spacious with ample 
kitchen requirements, is largely in use for public gatherings where ban- 
quets can be enjoyed. It was very largely used during the great war for 
meetings in connection with war demonstrations and has also been used for 
years for meetings of the Present Day Club. In this way the people and 
the churches are coming into closer contact when it is found that the 
churches are in favor rather than opposed to all rational amusements. 
In April, 1922, will occur the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the 
Congregational Church which will be celebrated when some specially 
interesting features will be introduced. Of the seven original members of 
this church all have passed away. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church. The Methodists were 
the second religious body to build an edifice of their own and so eager 
and earnest were they that the small brick building now occupied for, 
special meetings was built up almost wholly by materials contributed by 
friends and prospective members. A regular church organization was 
effected by Rev. M. M. Bovard in 1874, but the church was not built for 
a year or two later, meetings having been carried on in the interim in the 
schoolhouse. From a small beginning of seven members the congrega- 
tion has grown until it is one of the largest in the city. From the little 
24 by 36 brick chapel to the large edifice it grew bit by bit as the needs 
of the worshippers required. 

This church is open also daily for purposes of meditation and devotion 
or consultation with the pastor. The church grew much in numbers and 
in public favor by the ministrations of the Rev. B. S. Haywood, who twice 
was sent here in a ministerial way with lasting good. Dr. Haywood did 
not insist in a narrow way that all who went to heaven must go through 
the Methodist Church, for he recognized it as an accepted fact that all who 
were good were heirs to a heavenly mansion. How much more might the 
church endear itself to the world at large if it would recognize goodness 
everywhere and in place of placing itself in antagonism to the masses it 
would stand on their side, church attendance might be greatly increased. 



1783745 

SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 625 

By doing so we might get more common sense into our religion and more 
religion into our common sense. 

The First Baptist Church. The First Baptist Church was also 
early in the field as an organization, February, 1884, being the date of 
its founding by eight members. For several years they were without any 
church building, when they erected a large edifice for that time on the 
corner of Eighth and Lemon streets. This was used until 1912 when 
they occupied the present fine building on Ninth and Lemon streets. 
Before they owned a building of their own they united with the Method- 
ists in their building. 

The Presbyterians. The first Presbyterian Church was organized 
in 1879 at the head of Old Magnolia Avenue about four miles from the 
center of the town, but after awhile that location was found too far away 
and another organization was formed, really an ofifshoot from the original 
church, in 1887. For a time they met in various buildings in the city 
until they were able to build and occupy their present edifice and have met 
with success. Matthew Gage, assisted by his wife, were largely instru- 
mental in getting up the fine building now occupied. 

The other orthodox churches have all been reasonably successful, but 
it is being felt by church people that fewer churches better filled would 
leave more money for the spread of the gospel. 

SwEDENBORGiANS. The Ncw Jerusalem or Swedenborgian Church 
has been organized, from an early day the Rev. B. Edmiston having been 
the original pastor and organizer, having retained that position for many 
years and a son, L. W. Edmiston, is its present head. The first location 
near the head of old Magnolia Avenue being far from population centers 
a new one was sought and obtained on Locust Street between Sixth and 
Seventh streets, with a small but active membership. 

St. Francis de Sales Roman Catholic Church. The St. Francis 
de Sales Roman Catholic Church was at first a mission of the San Ber- 
nardino Church, but was finally erected into a parish by itself. The first 
congregation was started by Rev. Father Stockman and the church was 
built on Twelfth Street, but the church property occupies a whole block 
where they have now a parochial school with a large attendance with plans 
for a larger church in the future. The church is largely represented by 
Spanish speaking families. There is a church at Sherman Institute where 
Indian children and students are ministered unto. In addition, mission 
are maintained as Casa Blanca, Crestmore and Spanish Town. Of recent 
years the Catholic Church has popularized itself by the pastors taking an 
active part in public affairs and by mingling more among the common 
people. 

The Universalists. The Universalists have since 1881 maintained 
a church of their own organized by Rev. George H. Deere. They had at 
first a building extemporized from one of the original two building erected 
on Sixth Street for school purposes. This building was used on Market 
Street where it did good service. Doctor Deere was an able and educated 
man who had been seriously handicapped in his youth and all his life from 
weak eyes arising from constitutional causes as well as lack of the ap- 
pliances and discoveries of modern times. This weakness ended in total 
blindness for a few years of his latter life. 

Doctor Deere, like almost all of the early settlers of Riverside, was 
originally of New England stock. According to an autobiography written 
in his declining years, considering all his physical infirmities, he was a 



626 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

remarkable man who was able to overcome all of the troubles and adver- 
sities of his boyhood and youth and attain and hold the position he 
acquired. He was for many years at the head of the Board of Education 
in Riverside and was ever active in promoting the cause of education. 
He also took a great interest in the public library and was president of 
the board for many years and to him was left the selection of the religious 
and philosophical works. From early life he had a desire to enter into 
the ministry and although not reared in the Universalist Church that was 
the church of his choice. 

Shortly after his entry into the ministry he married and lived long 
enough with his companion to celebrate his golden wedding and died at a 
good ripe age having passed the psalmist's fourscore. He succeeded in 
not only building up a good congregation, but in getting up a fine building 
which was largely due to his efforts not only during his pastorate and after, 
for he never lost sight of the fact that he was always after retirement a 
part of the congregation and church. 

The Universalists accept the doctrine of ultimate salvation for all, a 
belief that today is not seriously controverted by the leading denomina- 
tions, total depravity not really being seriously entertained. 

The Christian Scientists. The Christian Scientists were early in 
the field of Riverside with an organization in 1889 and in 1900 they built 
a fine building in Mission style on the corner of Sixth and Lemon streets 
at a cost of over $15,000. As is customary in that body the church was 
all paid for before it could be dedicated. Under Mrs. Davis, the founder, 
they have had remarkable success and in their case at least, "to the poor 
the Gospel is preached" for although they have frequently noted lecturers 
from abroad in public meetings in the city, nothing is ever charged for 
admission nor is the hat passed round. 

They are probably the most earnest and steadfast body of worship- 
pers in Riverside, for almost to an individual they can be said to have been 
benefitted by the application of Christian Science. The claim that Mrs. 
Eddy was the discoverer of Christian Science is not well founded, for 
the principles of healing were well known and practiced long before Mrs. 
Eddy was heard of, but unquestionably she was the one who organized 
its devotees into a united and influential body. Not all of the followers of 
Mrs. Eddy are succesful healers, but undoubtedly many remarkable cures 
have been effected but not greater than that done by others outside the 
pale of their church as practiced by noted individuals. Sometimes Chris- 
tian Scientists are inclined to think that their methods are superior to all 
others and with greater authority behind them. 

Healing as a religious manifestation is not now confined exclusively 
to the Christian Scientists for other churches have taken the matter up 
with more or less success. The Scientists, however, were the first who 
made the direct claim that they were carrying out the injunction of Jesus 
where he says that one of the signs that would accompany them who be- 
lieved in him would be healing the sick and that they would do even 
greater things than he did and certainly his immediate followers carried 
out his injunctions in being accompanied by the signs that would follow 
them that believed in him. Perhaps the weak point in most of the healers 
both in and out of the Church of Christ Scientist lies in ascribing the gift 
of healing to a supernatural agency in place of natural law. 

The Scientists in Riverside had at one time two churches, owing to 
some personal differences in opinion or formula, but are again united 
into one body and their particular Shibboleth is pronounced in a uniform 
manner again. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 627 

The Christian Scientists perhaps have been the most remarkable suc- 
cess of modern times and liave compelled the world to acknowledge that 
there are invisible forces in the universe that our materialistic age not 
only ignored but denied. Edison has shown some material ones and the 
Scientists have gone further and asserted with success that in addition to 
material forces there are also spiritual ones that cannot always be demon- 
strated to the material eye. 

Perhaps and beyond peradventure when the great body of our 
churches will demonstrate in a material way the truth of these statements 
there will be more of spiritual life than is at present manifested. They 
will be able then to show to the great body of indifferent people who are 
on the outside that there is more in the church and in religion than ap- 
pears at first sight. 

All Christians assert a belief in the communion of saints, none prac- 
tice it except the Roman Catholic. The Catholic calls on the Saints and 
believes he is helped. Can anyone say that he has been caUing for ages 
without any result? Herein lies the strength of the Roman Catholic 
Church showing that it is a live faith and the Protestant bodies will have 
to come to something similar before they attain to the power and influ- 
ence they aspire to. 

Riverside might be termed a city of churches and possibly it has more 
than any other city of its size in California. The Protestant Episcopal 
Church, the Christian Church, the Seventh Day Adventists, the Seventh 
Day Baptists, the colored people have also their organizations, in addition 
to which the Methodists have several congregations in and around the 
city — Arlington and Highgrove being well represented. 

The Seventh Day Adventists have alwaj^s been very determined in 
opposition to Sunday laws and but for that opposition there might have 
been rigid Sunday laws enacted like there is in most of the states in the 
Union. However, the Adventists are so rigid and exclusive that out- 
siders are not drawn to them and fear appears to be to the outsider one of 
the main arguments used to draw people to their side. 

Riverside Y. M. C. A. The Riverside Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation had its inception in 1882, when a small group of young men from 
several churches formed the Young Men's Christian League. Meetings 
were held Sunday afternoons in a building on Eleventh Street, between 
Lime and Mulberry. In the fall of 1883 Frank Culver of Pasadena came 
to Riverside and met with about ten young men, including members of 
the Young Men's Christian League, and a Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation was formed, meeting in the old Baptist Church on the corner of 
Eighth and Lemon streets. 

Two rooms were rented in the building now known as the Central 
Block for headquarters, but they soon proved too small and a room at 
the corner of Eighth and Orange was rented. The association grew so 
rapidly that in 1886 there was agitation for a building in which to house 
the work. Frank Miller's offer of a lot at the corner of Main and Sixth 
streets was accepted and a canvass for funds was started. The building 
was completed in 1889, after a campaign to raise funds was conducted 
by Mr. G. C. Baldwin (later president of Pomona College of the State 
Committee of the Y. M. C. A.). 

This building served as the association headquarters for twenty years 
until the new building on the corner of Eighth and Lemon streets was 
completed in 1909. 

B. W. Handy was the first president of the Riverside Y. M. C. A., 
and is still active on the directorate. K. F. Hendry, B. B. Bush, A. A. 



628 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Adair, D. G. Mitchell, S. C. Evans, Thos. Stephenson and several other 
Riversiders still living were active in the early work of the association. 
The new building of the association was erected in 1909, under the lead- 
ership of the late C. E. Rumsey, who was active president of the organ- 
ization for many years. 

The organization is growing rapidly, having over 600 members on its 
rolls during 1921, and reaching over 300 additional boys and young men 
through extension activities. 

The building provides headquarters for the American Legion, Boy 
Scouts and American Red Cross, and serves a meeting place for several 
civic and religious bodies. 

Four hundred and twelve boys in its Boys' Department, 212 enrolled 
in gymnasium classes, forty-two boys and young men in Leader's Corps, 
309 boys in boys' clubs, seventy-two in Bible study groups, thirty-four in 
educational courses, 803 young men using dormitory accommodations, 
forty women in helpful auxiliary work — these acitivities indicate the 
growth of the work in Riverside and magnify the need for the completion 
of the building with the remodeling of some of the departmens for the 
modern program of activities promoted by over 9,000 organized Y. M. 
C. A.'s throughout the world, with a membership of over 1,500,000. 

Boy Scout Movement in Riverside County. (By C. J. Carlson, 
Boy Scout Executive for Riverside County.) The general interest of the 
citizens of Riverside County in the Boy Scout Program challenges the in- 
telligent interest of everyone having the welfare of the community at 
heart. Since October 1, 1920, the Riverside County Council has been 
laying the foundation in the way of organization for the boys of River- 
side County that they might partake of the spare time education which 
the Boy Scout Program ofifers. 

Riverside County has about 2,300 boys of scout age, that is, over 
twelve years of age, for whose general welfare the work of the Boy 
Scouts of America is being promoted in an intensive way by the Riverside 
City Council. It is well that people should understand the aims and 
general policies of an organization that appeals so vitally to boys. 

The organization is governed by the National body with headquar- 
ters in New York City, and is charted by Congress and incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New York. The purpose of the organization will 
be found in Section Three of the Constitution and By-Laws which read 
as follows: 

"That the purpose of this corporation shall be to promote, through 
organization, and co-operation with other agencies, the ability of boys to 
do things for themselves and others, to train them in scout craft, and to 
teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using 
the methods which are now in common use by Boy Scouts." 

And also from Article Three — Principles and Policies, Section One. 

"The Boy Scouts of American maintain that no boy can grow into the 
best kind of citizenship without recognizing his obligation to God. In the 
first part of the Boy Scout's oath or pledge the boy promises, 'On my 
honor I will do my best to do my duty to God and my country, and to 
obey the scout law.' The recognition of God as the ruling and leading 
power in the universe, and the grateful acknowledgement of His favors 
and blessings, is necessary to the best type of citizenship, and is a whole- 
some thing in the education of the growing boy. No matter what the 
boy may be — Catholic or Protestant or Jew — this fundamental need of 
good citizenship should be kept before him. The Boy Scouts of America 
therefore recognize the religious element in the training of a boy, but it 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 629 

is absolutely non-sectarian in its attitude toward that religious training. 
Its policy is that the organization or institution with which the boy scout 
is connected shall give definite attention to his religious life." 

It will be readily seen that an organization which operates under 
such principles and policies can make of itself a great power in the life 
of every boy who is given the opportunity to partake of the program. 
Scouting develops the power of initiative and makes a boy remarkably 
resourceful, in that the whole program teaches him to use every available 
means from without and from within to make of himself all that God 
intended him to be. 

Scouting includes, instruction in first aid, life saving, tracking, signal- 
ing, campcraft, woodcraft, nature study, chivalry, and all of the handi- 
crafts. No expensive equipment is required. All that is needed is a 
group of boys, a competent leader, a meeting place, and the great out-of- 
doors, for the promotion of the Boy Scout work. 

Dean Russell of Columbia University has said that the Boy Scout 
Program is "the most significant educational contribution of our time 
with a program that appeals to a boy's instincts and a method adapted 
to a boy's nature." The Boy Scout learns by doing. The movement pro- 
vides a host of interesting worth-while things for the boy to do at a 
time when he is extremely restless and looking for an outlet for his great 
activity. As someone has said, "It is learning made attractive and is 
literally educational in that it does not plaster something on from the out- 
side, but plants something within the heart of the boy or arouses some- 
thing that is already latent within his heart that makes for constructive 
habits and occupations in a way that provides an outlet for his unbounded 
energy." 

The need of such a program is obvious to anyone who is at all in touch 
with boys of the present day. It has been estimated that the average boy 
who is not working, but simply attending school, has on the average of 
3,000 hours spare time per year. As a rule this spare time period pro- 
vides a point of contact for the spirited and energetic boy with evil influ- 
ences and companions. This undirected or misdirected spare time period 
is utilized by the boy in a wav to suit his own characteristic fancies. Dur- 
ing this period the boy is guided by his natural tendencies and character- 
istics into ways of thinking and into the doing of things which tend to 
destroy whatever good work may have been done by the home, church 
or school. Boys have many characteristics, but perhaps they can be 
classified into four outstanding ones, viz : Unbounded energy, adventure, 
creative and inventive impulse, and the religious impulse. The program 
of the Boy Scouts of America is so constructed and builded as to appeal 
to all of these instincts in a way that receives immediate response from 
practically every boy twelve vears of age. 

Someone has said that "Character is the sum total of our emotions, 
instincts and attitudes as modified by experiences which govern the indi- 
vidual response to a situation." The building of a character or a life is a 
slow process, but if builded constructively it partakes of a permanency 
that is almost fixed, especially when character building habits have been 
formed between the ages of twelve and eighteen years. 

The energy in the life of a bov. if properly directed, is the propelling 
force that will make of him a clean-cut, upstanding, honorable citizen, 
equipped to do his full duty toward God, home and country. On the 
other hand, the boy's impulses and characteristics mav be utilized bv evil 
minds and environments that will build a life detrimental to the boy 
himself and to society. A boy's energy must be properly utilized, his 
spirit of adventure should be gratified, and creative impulse must find 



630 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

outlet, and his hero worship must be stimulated and directed, along with 
these other characteristics, by leadership in a program that will appeal to 
the boy's mind and heart. 

The program of the Boy Scouts of America does this very thing in 
that it adapts itself to the boy as he is, not as one might wish to find him, 
presenting a program of activities, which the boy not only accepts volun- 
tarily, but one which the boy takes into his very life and being. Every 
detail of the Boy Scout program is carried out in actual life, and the 
things learned by the boy actually become habits. He is taught to use 
his eyes, his ears, hands and feet to the best advantage, and he is also 
taught to use his head. 

Before a boy can become a Boy Scout he must meet certain require- 
ments. Here we will quote Article Six of the Constitution and By-Laws 
of Program, Section One and Section Two. 

"The program of the Boy Scouts of America shall be carried out 
throughout the organization of boys into groups, consisting of at least one 
and not more than four patrols of eight boys each, under the leadership 
of a man of clean, virile and high moral character, to be known as the 
scoutmaster. Only boys who have passed their twelfth birthday shall be 
eligible to membership. Authority for enrolling more than thirty-two 
boys in a troop may be secured from the chartered local council having 
jurisdiction, or in case the troop is not under the supervision of a council 
from the National Council." 

All scouts must know and subscribe to the Scout Oath and Law as 
follows : 

On my honor I will do my best — 

1. To do my duty to God and my country, and to obey tlie Scout 
law; 

2. To help other people at all times ; 

3. To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally 
straight. 

1. A scout is trustworthy. 

A scout's honor is to be trusted. If he were to violate his honor by 
telling a lie. or by cheating, or by not doing exactly a given task, when 
trusted on his honor, he may be directed to hand over his scout badge. 

2. A scout is loyal. 

He is loyal to all to whom loyalty is due ; his scout leader, his home, 
and parents and country. 

3. A scout is helpful. 

He must be prepared at any time to save life, help injured persons, 
and share the home duties. He must do at least one good turn to some- 
body every day. 

4. A scout is friendly. 

He is a friend to all and a brother to every other scout. 

5. A scout is courteous. 

He is polite to all, especially to women, children, old people, and the 
weak and helpless. He must not take pay for being helpful or courteous. 

6. A scout is kind. 

He is a friend to animals. He will not kill nor hurt any living 
creature needlessly, but will strive to save and protect all harmless life. 

7. A scout is obedient. 

He obeys his parents, scoutmaster, patrol leader, and all other duly 
constituted authorities. 

8. A scout is cheerful. 

He smiles whenever he can. His obedience to orders is prompt and 
cheery. He never shirks nor grumbles at hardships. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 631 

9. A scout is thrifty. 

He does not wantonly destroy property. He works faithfully, wastes 
nothing, and makes the best use of his opportunities. He saves his money 
so that he may pay his own way, be generous to those in need, and helpful 
to worthy objects. He may work for pay, but must not receive tips for 
courtesies or good turns. 

10. A scout is brave. 

He has the courage to face danger in spite of fear, and to stand up 
for the right against the coaxings of friends or the jeers and threats of 
enemies, and defeat does not down him. 

11. A scout is clean. 

He keeps clean in body and thought, stands for clean speech, clean 
sport, clean habits, and travels with a clean crowd. 

12. A scout is reverent. 

He is reverent toward God. He is faithful in his religious duties, 
and respects the convictions of others in matters of custom and religion. 

There are three principal steps in the Boy Scout Program ; tenderfoot, 
second class and first class scout. The requirements, in the main, for 
each class are as follows : 

Requirements for Tenderfoot 

1. Know the scout law, motto, sign, salute and significance of the 
badge. 

2. Know the competition and history of the national flag and the 
customary forms or respect due it. 

3. Tie all of the following knots : square or reef, sheet-bend, bowling, 
fisherman's, sheepshank, slip, cove hitch, timber hitch and two half- 
hitches. 

He then takes the scout oath, is enrolled as a tenderfoot, and is entitled 
to wear the tenderfoot badge. 

To Become a Second Class Scout 
A tenderfoot must pass to the satisfaction of the recognized local 
scout authorities, the following tests: 

1. At least one month's service as a tenderfoot. 

2. Elementary signaling: know the semaphore, or general service 
alphabet. 

3. Elementary first aid and bandaging. 

4. Track half a mile in twenty-five minutes. 

5. Go a mile in twelve minutes at scout's pace — about fifty steps 
running and fifty walking, alternately. 

6. Use properly knife or hatchet. 

7. Prove ability to build a fire in the open, using not more than two 
matches. 

8. Cook a quarter of a pound of meat and two potatoes in the open 
without cooking utensils. 

9. Earn and deposit at least one dollar in a public bank. 

10. Know the sixteen principal points of the compass. 

To Become a First Class Scout 
The second class scout must have served two months as a second class 
scout and pass the following tests : 

1. Swim fifty yards. 

2. Earn and deposit at least two dollars in a iniblic bank. 

3. Send and receive a message by semaphore, including conventional 
signs, thirty letters per minute, or by the general service code (Interna- 
tion Morse), sixteen letters per minute, including conventional signs. 



632 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

4. Make a round trip alone (or with another scout) to a point at 
least seven miles away ( fourteen miles in all going on foot, or rowing 
a boat, and write a satisfactory account of the trip and things observed. 

5. Advanced first aid. 

6. Preparation and cooking of food in the open. 

7. Read a map correctly, and draw, from field notes made on the 
spot, an intelligible rough sketch map. 

8. Use properly an axe for felling or trimming light timber ; or pro- 
duce an article of carpentry or cabinet-making or metal work made him- 
self. Explain the method followed. 

9. Judge distance, size, number, height and weight within twenty- 
five per cent. 

10. Describe fully from observation ten species of trees or plants or 
six species of animals, and describe three constellations of stars. 

11. Furnish satisfactory evidence that he has put into practice in his 
daily life the principles of the scout oath and law. 

12. Enlist a boy trained by himself in the requirements of a tender- 
foot. 

Riverside County has to date forty-two troops of Boy Scouts, scat- 
tered over every section of the county with an enrollment of over 600 
boys. The objective for the year is for fifty troops with an enrollment 
of 1,000 boys. The Riverside County Council is incorporated as a non- 
profit corporation and will promote the Boy Scout Program as provided 
by the Constitution and By-Laws of the Boy Scouts of America in every 
detail, including hikes and camps. 

A permanent camp site in the San Jacinto Mountains has been given 
to the Boy Scouts of Riverside County by C. L. Emerson of Idyll- 
wild, and a summer camp will be conducted this year along lines approved 
by the National Council. 

The county organization is operating under a charter of the first class 
and has made excellent progress in the Boy Scout movement because of 
the splendid co-operation of the citizens and scoutmasters who have 
generously given of their time and talents for the promotion of this excel- 
lent program for boys in building for Riverside County a citizenship of 
high quality. 

Prohibition. Riverside has always been known for its sobriety and 
hostility to the saloon, and possibly if all had been of the same habits as 
the pioneers there would never have been within its limits any saloon at 
all. Under the county government which prevailed at the time of settle- 
ment and for years after any one who chose could get a license to sell 
liquor on payment of five dollars per month. The class of labor that then 
was to be had on the outside, there being no other place to go, spent much 
of its spare time in the saloon and there being no regulation of the saloon 
as to hours and days they were kept open as late at night as was conven- 
ient and profitable, .Sunday and all. This was the case, too, with the 
stores which would be open until nine or ten o'clock at night and on 
Sunday they would be open for some hours in the forepart of the day. 
The saloon question was one of the leading topics that induced the people 
to move for incorporation as a city of the sixth class. San Bernardino 
itself had more or less worked antagonistic to the wishes of the people 
of Riverside in the fixing of water rates, regulation of liquor selling and 
in many other ways, but in any case the city was growing steadily and 
had now a population of 3,000 or more and it was felt that self govern- 
ment was the best thing for all concerned. Then there was always a 
population of irresponsibles consisting of Indians and the flotsam and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 633 

jetsam of a population corresponding somewhat to our modern tramp 
who were always on the move and who whenever they got any money 
spent it in the saloon. 

Now the Indian (although it was contrary to law to sell him liquor 
could always get it when he got money), has always been a peacable citi- 
zen when sober, was a different being when drunk and generally kept 
among his own people when he was drinking, still he was always a menace 
to sober people. He was not to be blamed, although for under Spanish 
customs wine and brandy, especially wine, was looked upon as one of the 
necessities, and was often paid as part of his wages in liquor by unthink- 
ing people. However, it is not to be said against the Californian that 
drunkenness was one of his sins, for as a rule the Californians were a 
sober race, even when their fiestas or merry makings were going on. It 
is not to be supposed that the Indian was naturally a drunkard either, 
but under American rule and American custom of drinking stronger 
liquor the Indian could not control himself when under the influence of 
liquor and then there was trouble. 

In 1883, when Riverside was incorporated as a city of the sixth class 
the second matter that came before the city council was a petition pre- 
sented by Mrs. N. P. Button (wife of Rev. Chas. Button, minister of the 
First Baptist Church), asking on behalf of the women of the city that the 
saloon business be compelled to pay a license tax of $100 per month. 
The petition was granted and thus the fight against the saloon was 
started. It was hoped that regulation by high license would be effective 
but although it cut down the number of saloons (at one time there were 
four in Riverside), it did but little to curb the liquor habit There were 
those who advocated a tax of $500 per month, F. A. Miller and L. M. 
Holt having appeared before the city trustees advocating a measure to 
that eff'ect. Thus the fight went on until the county was organized in 1893, 
when an ordinance was passed by the Board of Supervisors of the county 
prohibiting the sale of liquor within the county limits. The city itself 
being beyond the jurisdiction of the county went along on high license 
nf $2,000 per year until September 6, 1897, when an ordinance was 
passed prohibiting the saloon. This ordinance, however, permitted any 
hotel with forty rooms to supply wine and beer to guests at meals and 
this was tolerated for years in deference to tourist traffic which was said 
to demand such a provision. The Glenwood Mission Inn among the 
number furnishing liquor to their guests, Mr. Miller had to do as others 
did, in order as it was said to encourage tourist travel, but always under 
protest saying it was against his own wishes. On the whole this worked 
very well but there was always more or less drunkenness, more than under 
prohibition. When National prohibition became a law it was hailed with 
joy by everyone and liquor selling became a thing of the past. Riverside 
was always in the lead in the fight against the saloon and was the first 
city and countv to take active action against the sale of liquor and a 
drunken man is never seen on the street. The "bootlegger" is not known 
among our own people and the occasional one who is caught is either 
carrying it through the county from the Mexican border or a foreign 
born catering to some of his own countrymen. 

Should prohibition or the saloon be submitted to the voters of the 
county prohibition would carry with an overwhelming majority. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 
MILITARY HISTORY 

Riverside has always been loyal and maintained a consistent and 
patriotic position on all national questions. Although settled five years 
after the Civil war, early in her history many war heroes settled and 
became useful citizens. It is said that in the early days probably ten 
per cent of the voters were war veterans. A. J. Twogood. one of the 
party who looked up the location, was the first, it will not be necessary 
to give names. The first local G. A. R. Post organized comprised the 
names of thirty-one members and that was not by any means all of 
the army men. There was also a sprinkling of Confederate veterans who 
all made good citizens, and on Decoration day all were remembered 
alike. Some of them held responsible offices and there never was 
brought up any of the old issues of the war, but those who had worn 
the blue or the grey mingled together amicably. The issues were dead 
long before the heroes, who have sadly diminished, passed away. 

In December, 1888, a local company of the National Guard of 
California was organized in Riverside, known as the Riverside Rifles. 
Later it was reorganized and made into Company M of the Seventh 
Regiment. Upon the outbreak of the Spanish war the company enlisted 
for a two-year term in the United States service, and under command 
of C. F. Pann arrived at San Francisco with three commissioned officers 
and one hundred enlisted men. May 7, 1898. The company never got 
further than San Francisco and after months of weary waiting they 
finally returned to Riverside. 

In the World's war Riverside did her share in that conflict. There 
were in all 2,348 men drafted, many of whom went overseas. There 
were many more preparing to enter the lists, but the arniistice proclama- 
tion on November 11, 19i8, put a sudden stop to all proceedings. Out 
of the total number enlisted eighty-seven were killed or died of disease. 
All classes were represented and a good many languages spoken. Students 
from the Indian school did their share, some among their number being 
killed. 

All classes in Riverside, men and women, strove to do their full 
share in preparations where they were not eligible for service, and the 
Red Cross and Salvation Army did their share with others, both in the 
field and at home. Especially was there emulation and pride in taking 
up our full quota of bonds whenever it was necessary. Many, both 
soldiers and civilians, vyere disappointed that Berlin was not reached, 
as the cry "On to Berlin" was the popular refrain. The Riverside 
Military Band did yeoman service on all public occasions. However 
as it was, much life was preserved and property saved from destruction 
(even if the troops did not reach Berlin) by the armistice. 

John M. Davison, 273 Myers Street, this city, has received his hon- 
orable discharge from the United States Marine Corps, according to 
advices received here today which indicate that Lieut. Col. Giles Bishop, 
in charge of the San Francisco recruiting division, has fixed his signature 
to the official papers. 

Davison was among twenty-four marine reservists in Southern Califor- 
nia to receive their discharges. He was with the marines in France, and 
upon his discharge was awarded a good conduct medal "for faithful 
and meritorious service." It is only by the most careful attention to 
634 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 635 

duty, constant application and clear record that this honor, the awarding 
of a good conduct medal, can be obtained. 

To the uninitiated the awarding of this medal might not appear very 
important, but to those who know, it means much. It means for one 
thing that ex-Private Davison has left the service to mingle with his 
fellow men as an exceedingly worthy citizen. It means that at any time 
he would be welcomed back into the corps, but most of all it means the 
completion of a meritorious career in Uncle Sam's military branch. 

William C. Evans, son of P. T. Evans, born in Riverside, who while 
at Stanford at the age of nineteen, volunteered for the army, is a hov 
whose bravery in the World's war won for him a Congressional medal. 
"Bill," as he familiarly is known by his boy and girl friends, is at present 
at Stanford. 

What "Bill" did to earn a place in the book published by Harry R. 
Stringier, under the title of "Heroes All," was never told by "Bill" and 
his act of bravery never would have been known by his Riverside friends 
had it not been that a copy of this book reached the desk of his father, 
P. T. Evans. 

This is what the book says about the Riverside boy and explains his 
advance from the rank of private to second lieutenant during the 
progress of the war with Germany and her allies : 

"William C. Evans, Sanitary Detachment, 306th Infantry. For extra- 
ordinary heroism in action near Bazoches, France, August 27-28, 1918. 

"This soldier showed extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty by 
attending the wounded without rest or relief, under heavy shell fire, 
until he fell unconscious from exhaustion. He remained at work for 
two days under circumstances which called for the greatest determination 
and courage. Home address. Riverside, California." On the conclu- 
sion of the war Mr. Evans resumed his studies at Stanford and will 
graduate in June, 1922. 

John R. Webb. Some time ago the press published a story of 
John R. Webb, son of the late Holton Webb and Mrs. Theodore Crossley. 
This young man was honored by the government of France and received 
the famous Croix de Guerre medal for his bravery under fire. 

The Riverside boy never told his friends just how he earned this 
honor paid him by the French government, but in Mr. Stringer's book. 
"Heroes All." the act that won the medal is told to Riverside people for 
the first time. This is what it says : 

"John R. Webb, second lieutenant, 301st Battalion (tank corps). For 
extraordinary heroism in action near Bellicourt. France, September 29. 
1918. While his crew was engaged in digging out the tank which had 
become ditched in a shell hole in front of the main Hindenburg line, an 
enemy machine gun opened fire on them at a distance of 30 yards. 
Being unable to use his guns on account of his position, Lieutenant Webb 
crawled forward to the machine gim and killed the enemy gunners with 
his pistol. His act enabled the men to free the tank, which subsequently 
aided the advancing infantry." 

Besides the Croix de Guerre this Riverside boy was awarded the 
Distinguished Service Cross given by the United States Government and 
the Loyal Legion of Honor medal from the Government of France. 
Besides these three were two other citations. 

John R. Webb is a deputy sheriflf and with his brother he is conduct- 
ing the Crossley Garage for his mother at Tenth and Main streets. 



636 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Riverside County sent her share of nurses and Red Cross workers 
as well as soldiers to the World war. The record of one Red Cross 
worker would probably be much like any other. 

Miss Elizabeth Andrews, of Corona, was sent across with a unit 
chosen and financed by Stanford University. The unit was chosen for 
civilian relief, but when it had gone as far as London, the need of 
American girls in American hospitals was so great that they immediately 
changed to the army. Miss Andrews was sent to an evacuation hospital 
on the Meuse River close in back of the Argonne, where the lights of 
battle could be seen, and where the ground trembled from resounding 
guns. This was in July, 1918, just after the victory at Chateau Thierry. 

During the black days of the Argonne and St. Mihiel, Miss Andrews 
was the only Red Cross worker in a hospital with a capacity of 2. 500 and 
most of the time the beds were filled with boys who needed her help. 
Bandaging, interpreting for prisoners, hunting news about men missing 
in action, writing letters for the helpless, and distributing supplies and 
cheer, was the Red Cross workers job, until after the Armistice, often 
working with nurses and doctors forty-eight hours in wind and rain and 
horrors and dangers of war with few moments of rest at a time. 

After November 11, Miss Andrews received an appointment to 
Coblenz, Germany, with the Army of Occupation, but decided to go with 
her unit to the embarkation port of St. Nazairre, so after a few weeks in 
Nice and Southern France, she joined her unit in February, 1919, and 
began hunting information about the men missing in action, from men 
going home. This work was less interesting, but valuable to the govern- 
ment and consoling to the ones who had lost their sons and brothers in 
the war. 

In July, 1919, the camp broke up and Miss Andrews with another 
member of the unit went to Belgium and then down the Rhine, visiting 
the English soldiers at Cologne, the American soldiers at Coblenz and 
the French at Wiesbaden. After a short stay in Paris, they were sent 
to Italy and later in August sailed for the United States from Genoa, 
by way of Gibralter. 

Miss Ada L. Corkhill, of 611 East Sixth Street, Corona, California, 
was enrolled in the Red Cross Nursing Service in 1917. She was assigned 
to Camp Cody in Deming, New Mexico, where she began active service 
in the Base Hospital, January 15, 1918. After seven months' service 
she received orders to proceed to New York. Arrived in New York 
Augvist 5th where she was assigned to duty with Base Hospital No. 51. 
After three weeks preparation sailed for France. August 24th, on the 
LaFrance. Arrived in Brest, September 3rd, where four days were 
spent at the Pontenzen Barracks. On September 7th boarded a French 
train with her unit and after four days and nights arrived at Toul. 
where were situated the evacuation hospitals and were in time to care 
for the wounded from the St. Mihiel drive. February 13, 1919, left 
Toul for Brest, where a number of days were spent at the Pontenzen 
Barracks. Sailed for the United States on the Great Northern, arriving 
in New York, March 3d: arrived in Corona March 16, 1919, and relieved 
from active service, April 24, 1919. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 
OTHER SUBJECTS 

The Labor Question. The question of labor has always been a great 
one and is probably as settled as any problematical question possibly can 
be for Riverside. Naturally, in a settlement where all were workers, 
there could not arise the prejudice against labor that otherwise would 
where there were classes. There has never been in Riverside anything 
like what might be termed aristocracy as in a community where theiv 
were slaves and masters, or as under Spanish rule, where there was the 
grandees and more or less of peonage and where were granted large 
tracts of land to which required a large following to look after the 
interests of the owner. Apart from the South where slavery prevailed 
the nearest approach that has been in the United States to any of these 
systems were the large cattle ranges, but they, however, were on a 
different system and the cowboys from a different class and possessed of 
more or less education. The very existence of either peonage or slavery 
depends on ignorance. The peon had no opportunity and the slave was 
not given any and it was a crime under the law to educate the slave. 

Under a system of small holdings like Riverside, in the very nature 
of things, education is one of the essentials and when it is known that 
in Riverside 44 cents out of every dollar paid in for taxes goes for 
education and that Corona, one of the leading cities outside of the 
county seat pays $6,000 per annum for conveyance of pupils to her central 
schools, it will be seen just how much the matter of education occupies 
the attention of our people. Not only that — Spanish, Mexican, Indian 
and foreigner, who are unable to speak English, are all received in our 
public schools on the same footing and educated side by side with the 
native born American it will be seen how the matter of equality before 
the law prevails where everyone does their own labor. It is, however, 
found in practice that reasons of utility and convenience point to a better 
system by a separation of those who do not understand or speak English 
fluently for a time at least. 

Under the system of equality of education it would be almost an 
impossibility to make any very invidious distinction in the matter of 
labor and there is nothing to prevent anyone from getting the highest 
education they are capable of. The law again proclaims the equality of 
all, but it cannot create equality of individuality it gives equal oppor- 
tunity. But although opportunities are open to all in spite of educa- 
tional and other opportunities when it comes to actual life there arise 
inequalities and some are capable of one thing and some of another and 
so there need be no fear that all will be likely to select the most genteel 
or more renwnerative occupations. 

To meet the difficulty of getting labor in the necessary demand the 
great resort at first was to Chinese. There was in the late 70s and the 
early '80s a surplus of Chinamen who were brought into the country in 
great numbers to help build the Central and Union Pacific railroads 
and when the railroads were built, that labor was cheap and plenty and 
filled the emergency fairly well. But it was soon found that although 
they were all right on railroad work when they came into our settle- 
ments it was not a desirable element in our newer settlements nor in house- 
holds where they filled the places of domestics and when the Chinese 
exclusion act was passed by Congress they gradually disappeared. Then 
637 



638 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

came the Japanese in our fruit business to fill out the demand for a more 
skilled class of labor which demand they, on the whole, satisfied better 
than the Chinese, but in practice they were not so dependable, for they 
would take advantage of employers when more advantageous oppor- 
tunities arose and were ambitious of entering business for themselves. 
Now they in a large nieasure control the vegetable and small fruit market, 
not only here, but in the Imperial Valley. What may be the result of the 
present agitation against the Japanese on the Pacific can hardly be fore- 
seen in view of the fact that eastern people and politicians are not alive 
to the facts in the case or the future consequences. We here can only 
trust to the good sense of the American people to do in the end what is 
right and what ought to be the rights of nations as of individuals to 
say who may or may not be welcome to our homes or residents of our 
nation. 

On public works or as section men on our railways, the Mexican 
appears to be filling the demand for labor in which physical force is the 
main requisite, and the Mexican is fairly satisfactory in these depart- 
ments of labor. In more particular callings, such as orange and deciduous 
fruit picking and handling native born Mexicans who have been educated 
in our public schools, are coming to be used very largely and the women 
in cutting fuit in the canneries or in orange packing are taking their 
places largely alongside of American women and the large sums of money 
paid out in this way being kept at home is adding very much to the 
comfort of families and to building up Southern California. Recent 
state legislation in favor of women workers has made a great improve- 
ment in the situation causing much more contentment and enabling many 
to make comfortable homes. To all appearances now the labor situation 
is settled and there is not the strife and discord that appears to prevail 
where large bodies are unionized and determined to rule or ruin the 
country. Co-operation between employer and employee is more the rule 
in Southern California than it is anywhere else and is one of the factors 
that is making Southern California the land of promise for the weary 
ones of the nation. 

Ex-peons and the lower classes from Mexico have been brought over 
the border to help in the cotton fields and in other ways, but it is not 
so valuable as native born, educated in the public schools. Under present 
conditions no anxiety is felt on the labor situation. 

Roads. Riverside has always been noted for its good roads. The 
soil being a fine loam mixed with more or less clay on the bench lands, 
always packs well and remains so during the dry season. In the rainy 
season, however, in continued rains travel makes them very muddy. 

The old Mexican roads were usually followed, as they in general 
chose the locations of easiest travel and grades. Not much could be done 
at first on account of lack of means and appliances. Riverside was 
founded before the great discoveries in oil gave California the advantages 
she lacked in regard to fuel and lighting. This was, too, before Wizard 
Edison did so much with electricity, the telephone and the phonograph, 
and it was impossible to conceive of the changes that were going to be 
made on account of these discoveries and their application. Not only 
have they contributed to the people's necessities, but to their pleasures, and 
destroyed forever the inconveniences of isolation and distance from 
civilized centers. First came the oiled roads, and almost simultaneously 
the automobile. For a short time it looked as if the bicycle was going 
to supersede the horse in many ways as a convenience in getting around 
the neighborhood, but man-power was too expensive, when gasoline 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 639 

came into use. The bicycle, however, had its brief day and influence 
towards better roads. The railroad was supposed to be the last and final 
thing in long-distance travel as well as urban and interurban travel in 
Southern California, where little cities are so close together, but just 
when the railroad was being the accepted climax of everything in locomo- 
tion and lines of travel by vehicles were being neglected, along comes the 
automobile, demanding better roads, and owners of automobiles were 
having influence in civic and political centers and good roads became one 
of the necessities of the situation. Oil for surfacing and laying the dust 
came into general use and was admirable in its way and the street 
sprinkler went into oblivion and an expensive relic of the past. Oil with a 
coating of sand to give body to it was cheaper than water and much 
cleaner. No longer had the family carriage and later the automobile to 
be washed almost daily to remove the mud arising from street sprinkling 
or from rain, the oiled road was clean, rain or shine. 

It was but a step from the oiled surface to the macadam and con- 
crete. The oiled road was so much better for light travel, and soon 
the freighter found it out and the increased loads broke through the oiled 
surface and the macadam and concrete took the travel and the better 
road took again the heavier load to an almost unbelievable extent and 
again the roads would not stand the strain and the strife between the 
solid roads became almost a game as to which would prevail. The better 
the road the heavier the truck load, until nothing could be devised to meet 
it unless we got heavy steel or some such substitute, but the powers that 
be and that are ordained of men came to the rescue and made rules that 
the load must be restricted to a reasonable extent, and it looks now as 
if the new roads will stand the strain. At least that is the last word 
in travel. 

Incidentally the railroads have profited by the new application of 
oil, and with oil-burning locomotives and oiled roads travelers by rail 
can enjoy the best features of our Southern California and ride in com- 
fort with open doors and windows without the discomforts of smoke, 
cinders or dust. Verily we do not know what riches we have until we 
begin to count them up. 

One of the greatest arguments in favor of city incorporation and later 
on for county division was the crying need of better roads and streets, 
bridges included. The newer and more progressive settlers that were com- 
ing in were not satisfied with the way in which streets and roads were 
built and kept up, for nothing stamps the character of a settlement more 
than its roads unless it may be its schools. At any rate. Riverside has 
always been in the lead in those two things. For street purposes we have 
always had granite and other materials for road building. In earlier 
times a good coating of rotten granite made a substantial and good 
covering for common use. When oil came into use its application was a 
further improvement, until concrete and oil are the ultimate in city and 
country roads and streets. The first experiment that Riverside County 
undertook on a large scale was the Box Springs Road up a canyon four 
or five miles long leading to the Perris Valley and the eastern end of 
the county. 

The Perris Valley is some 400 feet higher than the Riverside Valley, 
with a rockv and in places steep canyon to climb. Five miles of a uniform 
grade was built not in any place to exceed five per 'cent rise. One deep 
but narrow wash had to be crossed by a fill with a concrete culvert of 
ample capacity for storm water underneath, all done without bonds at 
a cost of $12,000. This was such an improvement and possibly the best 
road and grade at the time in Southern California that it showed that 



640 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

good roads were not so unattainable as was at first thought. It has 
been improved since by concreting and planting of shade trees on the 
sides of the road so that it will in time be an attractive drive at all 
times of the year. 

Since that road has been built many more miles have been built on 
all the main roads, so that the traveler can hardly go anywhere without 
a good road to travel on and the good work still goes on and the roads 
are a great aid to the school, for the small country school is being done 
away with and the scholar is being carried by auto bus to educational 
centers, where the advantages are much better. No longer does the 
barefooted boy going to or coming from school loiter and play by the 
way, causing anxiety to the mother and throwing responsibility on the 
teacher, for the auto bus calls for him in the morning and delivers him 
fresh and sound at the schoolhouse, and when the studies are over he is 
whisked home again fresh to help with the chores or to pursue his studies 
further — and so the good road is contributing to the better education of 
the school children. 

The automobile and the auto truck are conquering the .desert. No 
longer does the horse team crawl over the sandy desert, say of ninety 
miles from Mecca to Blythe. at the rate of two miles per hour (resting 
in the heat of the day, traveling early and late and in the night), with the 
sun at 140 degrees, carrying water for four days. Already there is a 
half-way well. The automobile truck flies over the road now in four 
or five hours, traveling in the night time to escape the overpowering 
sun's rays in the summer months. Alacadam and oil will still further 
reduce the time to two or three hours and the desert will be finally 
overcome. It may be that the flying machine will supplant all other 
means of travel for passengers, and the great and almost impassable 
deserts where the early pioneers toiled and in many cases left their 
bones bleaching on the desert, will be held up for the heroes they were, 
for if they had not striven and concjuered later comers could not have 
reaped the reward. 

How I Made Adobes in the Early Days. (By F. A. Miller.) The 
word adobe is of very ancient origin, coming to us directly from the 
Spanish down through Arabic from the Egyptian hieroglyph, meaning 
"brick." Adobe is the Spanish-American word for the sun-dried clay 
used by the Indians for building in some of the Southwestern states of 
the American Union and was in use in Mexico and Peru 

This style of building is best suited for a dry, arid climate and one 
where timber is scarce unless protected in some way. Wooden houses 
are an invention of the American, worthy successors of the log cabin 
and only economical and possible under the modern machine, the saw mill. 
Previous to the saw mill the whip saw and the sawpit with the top sawyer 
and the under one laboring and sweating to turn out the few boards neces- 
sary for finishing a house. The stone and brick walls of the European 
style were pretty much of an afterthought in this country and took much 
time and preparation in their erection, but the American with his labor- 
saving devices could, if necessary, put up his rude habitation alone. 

It has been put down almost as an axiom by the modern American that 
those who came before us on this continent did not know very much and 
that modem invention was a necessity before we could enter into and 
enjoy our possessions to the fullest here. Experience, however, is teach- 
ing us that each people with the appliances at hand has been able to make 
the best of the situation as they found it. 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 641 

The old Padres with their vows of perpetual poverty and niortihcation 
of the flesh as a healthy religious exercise and never using an animal for 
riding purposes in their peregrinations from mission to mission in imita- 
tion of our Saviour, naturally choose the most severe in daily life, and, 
that comfort in our sense of the word would be a useless pandering to 
the lusts of the flesh, but such in actual practice is not really the case 
for the missions as built were models of adaptability to our California 
climate. It may be, however, looked at from the standpoint of their times 
that the mission buildings were really houses of God and so on the usage 
from time immemorial that nothing was too good in the service of God, 
therefore, in building his houses everything should be as grand as possible 
and everything in this connection should be of the very best. Therefore 
for purposes of use the mission buildings had everything of the best. 
Naturally the most readily available material would be in use — and so in 
the first place clay was the material used. Afterward if more durable 
material was desired brick and stone could be used. 

Modern science and experience are showing us that after all, clay is 
about as comfortable in use for modern dwellings in our time and after 
being tried for a time and partially abandoned, it is again coming into use. 
Reinforced concrete has been popular, durable and safe, but is not in 
reality as comfortable as adobe is a greater non-conductor of heat and cold. 

As made under modern conditions the process is very simple. The 
English method built the clay in the wails as often as one batch after 
another could be gotten ready so that the wall was in one solid piece when 
completed. The Spanish method, however, is the same as mentioned in 
the Book of Exodus where they were made with straw. Whatever may 
have been the situation in Egypt in ancient times and the conditions in 
regard to the use of straw in making adobes, no straw is required in 
making adobes in Riverside, for it is a drawback rather than an advan- 
tage to use straw. In some places, however, owing to the peculiar 
clay used they are apt to crack in drying and the use of straw, or some 
such material, may make it hold together better. 

With our ordinary loamy soil here no special preparation is needed 
for about one-half each of the top soil and of the sub-soil make a good 
admixture. If there is too much clay in the soil an admixture of sand 
is beneficial and will make harder bricks. The soil and sub-soil only 
need to be dug up and thoroughly mixed by turning over. When fully 
mixed water is added and the whole body made of a uniform wetness. 
Some people use horses or oxen in mixing while others keep turning 
over with the shovel until it gets of a uniform consistency. The good 
old way with the Mission Fathers was to get the Indians to turn in and 
mix it with the bare feet until it is well mixed up. In warm weather, 
which is always the best time, this was agreeable and beneficial exercise. 
Where any quantity was to be made Indians make the best of helpers. 
As only a small batch can be made at a time, owing to its getting too dry 
before moulding, the operation has to be repeated often. 

A smooth, clean drying place has to be prepared in advance con- 
venient to the pit in which the material is prepared. Whatever the size 
of brick decided upon, according to the thickness of the wall, it cannot 
be much less in thickness than one foot as at best there cannot be much 
bond in the clay. A form the size of the brick required must be made. 
Four by eight by twelve inches makes a fair size, for if much larger 
than that, they are heavy to handle. The frame is then set out in the 
drying yard and the tempered clay is then carried in the hands or in a 
barrow, hand or wheel, and is then put in the mold. When full and well 
pressed in, the mold is lifted and the brick left to dry while the others are 



642 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

beiofj moulded. In this way the field of a size required is pjradually filled 
up until the required number is made. It takes a few days to dry them. 
As soon as dry enough to handle they are turned up on their side until 
quite dry and hard when they can be stacked in piles until ready for the 
building^. 

If rain should come while drying it is disastrous as it will melt and 
spoil the shape, rendering remoulding necessary. Aiter the bricks are 
fully dry they are used in the building the same as any other bricks, 
using clay for mortar in place of lime and cement. 

Modern methods of finish, use cement for plaster in various fancy 
rough forms of rustic. When finished and whitewashed or tinted the 
building is both durable and comfortable and is getting more popular. 

Cemeteries. Without any intention of joke it would appear to be a 
very grave subject to say something about our cemeteries. But there is 
not any reason in the world why we should look on them with sadness 
or grief. 

Evergreen Cemetery, one of two cemeteries in Riverside, is the oldest, 
having been reserved by the Southern California Colony Association for 
cemetery purposes at the time of laying of? of the colony grounds 
and consisted of one two and a half acre block and originally included in 
the mile square. As Riverside has outgrown the estimates of its founders 
so has the cemetery which now embraces seventeen and a half acres 
with a prospective need at a no very distant future of ten acres more. 

I cannot describe Evergreen Cemetery better than by quoting from the 
by-laws of tlie company, as follows : "Evergreen Cemetery is a beautiful 
burial ground, ideally located at the foot of the rugged Mount Rubidoux, 
convenient and easy of access by paved roads. 

"The grounds are laid out on the park and lawn system and all lots 
are sold on the perpetual care ]>lan. The association is non-dividend 
paying; the surplus cash available from year to year is deposited in a 
trust fund held by the association. This fund is constantly increasing and 
is invested in United States bonds, mortgage loans and other first class 
securities. 

"The revenue from these investments is used for the maintenance 
of the lots which absolutely guarantees perpetuity. The board of trustees 
receive no remuneration whatever for their services." 

The cemetery filled up very slowly for the first twenty years and was 
very much neglected when at a meeting of the trustees of the association 
consisting of Dr. K. D. Shugart, G. D. Carleton, P. S. Russell, D. C. 
Twogood and I. W. Atherton, there were elected Wm. McBean, D. A. 
Correll, J- M. Drake, J. C. Hardman, John A. Sinims, who immediately 
proceded to put the grounds in good shape and to straighten out other 
nmtters that were needing attention. They were able to obtain a complete 
record of all burials and at the first regular annual meeting the following 
members were elected : John A. Simms, president ; E. B. Culnan, vice 
president ; J. C. Hardman, secretary and treasurer ; John F. Backstrand, 
H. H. Hinde, S. L. Wright, members of the board of trustees. Mr. Hard- 
man has continued in office ever since and it is to his efforts, supported by 
the other members of the board, that we have what is today one of the 
most beautiful and well kept cemeteries in Southern California. The 
superintendent, Robert McFarlane, is also the right man for the place, 
for in addition to his regular duties he has annually one of the finest 
displays of chrysanthemums to be found in Southern California. At 
first there were no regulations in regard to burials and all the wonder 
is that any record was kept at all. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 643 

The trustees are very much hampered by state laws that prevent any 
sale or transfer of lots by individuals, which in case of families moving 
away or getting extinct leaves in many cases much unoccupied ground 
necessitating much more land for burial purposes. It is not like older 
countries where the same ground can be repeatedly used, for here in 
California the area of burying grounds is constantly increasing. How- 
ever, the trustees have power to regulate the matter of monuments and 
in one part of the cemetery there are no upstanding monuments. Look- 
ing back at the past, great efYorts were made by prominent men of their 
time to perpetuate their name and fame of whom now nothing remains. 
In the catacombs of. Rome and other places there still remain names, but 
when the modern sight-seer inquires who the parties were, or to whom 
the names belonged, no answer can be given except to a very few and 
even they are hardly known as benefactors of the race. Even more so 
is this the case in regard to the pyramids which are commonly classed as 
tombs, but may have had a significance apart from their use as tombs. 
But when we look back to the dim and unwritten past, and ask where 
are all those who lived before us and their place of burial when not cre- 
niated, we know no more about where yesterday's wind and force that 
carried it along is today. Even the Egyptian mummies preserved, but 
unknown in our time, have been used as fertilizer at times. While we 
like to preserve the remains of our loved ones who have been laid ten- 
derly and tearfully away, who knows when we are laid away there will 
be any to keep our memory green or whether oblivion may overtake us? 
Even if we are noted in our community where we have lived and died, 
who knows whether the name and fame we have built up will endure 
for "the fashion of this world passeth away?" 

There is also an expensive mausoleum where those who do not wish 
to have their remains mix with common clay may be interred. It is 
in use by some, but although owned by an outside association will ulti- 
mately fall to the cemetery authorities. 

Olivewood cemetery is some distance out from the city center, but 
has not been used for so long a time and not having as much of a reserve 
fund, is not in as high state of ornamentation and beauty as Evergreen 
Cemetery. It contains thirty or more acres and occupies a beautiful slope 
in amphitheatre fashion which will give it great beauty when fully 
improved. 

A Snowstorm in Riverside. The following account of a snow- 
storm in Riverside, written by Mrs. John J. Hewitt whose family were 
early settlers in Riverside after Riverside became known for orange 
growing, will give the humorous side of some of our weather experiences. 
There is no record of such a snowstorm before or since. Beyond break- 
ing a few limbs off our citrus trees, nothing of harm otherwise came of 
it. and it illustrates the saying among old Californians that you cannot 
judge the climate by anything that has passed. The only thing at all 
like it was in August, 1884, when there was a thunderstorm accompanied 
by hail, which lasted for two hours and the rainfall amounted in all to 
two inches. It was purely local, not extending very far in any direction. 

My husband, John J. Hewitt and myself with two little children left 
Freeport, Illinois, in a raging snowstorm, almost a blizzard, bound for 
the Golden State— California— on the 20th of December, 1881. On the 
24th of December we landed in Denver. Colo., where we spent the holi- 
days — leaving there on January 2nd, 1882, and arriving in Riverside on 
January 6, 1882, having left the cars at Colton and finished our trip in 
the old style Oxford stage coach drawn by four horses and driven by 



644 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

a Mr. Robinson. .\s we wheeled into tlie ^-ard in front of the Glenwood 
Tavern among the orange trees, my first thouglit was — we have dropped 
right into Paradise. Every turn we made our eyes beheld great large 
yellow oranges and flowers of every description. We were kindly wel- 
comed by the master of the tavern, Mr. Frank Miller and his efficient 
manageress, his sister, Miss Alice Miller, now Mrs. Richardson, who still 
holds the same position, and made to feel quite at home. 

In the evening after putting my little girls to bed, Mr. Hewitt and 
I wended our way downstairs to the parlor which then was the long 
middle room of the present abode, and was both parlor and office, to 
see and get acquainted with other guests of the tavern. As I was anxi- 
ous to obtain all the information possible concerning our new abode 
where we expected to live for the next three or four months, I com- 
menced asking questions of Miss Miller. 

Among other questions I asked her if they ever had any snow here 
— her reply was, "Oh ! no — there never has been any snow here within 
the recollection of the oldest inhabitant." I made answer that it seemed 
to me very strange with snow so near on the mountains which were in 
l>lain sight. She ciualified her answer by saying, "Oh, it never comes any 
nearer than the mountains." Pretty soon we retired for the night. 

The next morning when I looked out of the window snowflakes were 
falling so thick we could scarcely see out. I said to my husband, "Just 
see the snow — Miss Miller said it never snowed here, not within the 
recollection of the oldest inhabitant." He said, "Well, she certainly has 
made a mistake this time." We went downstairs to breakfast, and as we 
entered the dining room we met Miss Miller coming out. I said to her, 
"Miss Miller, what do you call that stuff falling down out there?" She 
said, "Oh, don't speak to me! I am so ashamed I don't want to speak to 
anyone." "Well, I said, it looks to me like a regular old-fashioned Illinois 
.snowstorm, but I didn't know but they had a different name for it out 
here." "No," she said, "it is snow, but I don't want to talk about it." 

"Well, we went to breakfast, sat down at a table and waited and 
waited for some one to come and take our order. The waitresses were 
all out snowballing and washing each others faces in the snow. After 
a time they came in and brought us some breakfast, then others came in 
and waited on the different tables, then out again they went and thev 
kept that up, alternately waiting on the tables and snowballing until 
finally the guests all had their breakfast. 

There were eight inches of snow fall — the branches of the trees were 
laden and in some parts of the valley several branches were broken off 
where they had the weight of both oranges and snow. It was such a 
novelty that even the business men and the clerks got out into the streets 
and went to snowballing and some improvised sleds cut of drygoods 
boxes, and when they went to take the horses out of the stables they 
wouldn't come out, stretched their heads out and seeing the ground so 
white they backed into their stalls and wouldn't venture out into the 
snow. Tiiev were actually afraid, but after a time they were coaxed to 
come out and they were hitched to these box sleds and the people went 
sleighriding. You never saw anything so funny, and never saw a more 
beautiful sight, than the snow piled up in the branches of the trees and 
intermingled with the beautiful glossy leaves and bright yellow fruit. 
Well that snow lasted three days and the most peculiar feature was that 
it didn't melt. It was not a wet snow, neither was it a very cold snow. 
The sun came out bright and warm, but the snow still clung to the trees 
and it never hurt the oranges on the trees a particle. It did kill the 
lemons and limes, they were so much more tender, but as for the oranges 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 645 

in a few days after that a Citrus Fair was held in what was called a 
pavilion which stood where the Loring now stands and long tables were 
filled with the fruit from these very same trees which held eight inches of 
snow in their branches for three days and this fruit was arranged in 
every conceivable style and geometrical figure you could imagine — pyra- 
mids — crosses — triangles — squares — crescents and all were so bright and 
beautiful, that they never seemed to have come in contact with any snow. 
But as I said before, it was not a cold snow, but a very peculiar thing 
happened, which I think no one has ever been able to account for, and 
that was that on the third day we looked and the snow was still there, 
then again we looked and it had disappeared. It didn't melt, for there 
was no water to show any melting, there was a litle wind blew, up and 
it just simply flew away — I suppose to the mountains where it belonged. 
There never has been a snowstorm quite like since or in the recollection 
of the oldest inhabitant. 

The snowstorm out on the Box Springs mountains came the nearest 
to it, and many people went out to see it and play in it, but it didn't 
reach the oranges and beautify the trees by settling in the branches. 
This was my first introduction to the land of the Sunshine and Flowers 
— the great and famous golden state where snow was never seen, only 
on the peaks of the highest mountains. 

Opium. It may be of interest in the history of Riverside to know 
that the growing of opium was tried as an experiment in 1871, the first 
season the water was available for irrigation early in the season. 

Dr. James P. Greves, secretary of the Southern California Colony 
Association procured and planted some of the seed of the opium poppy 
thinking the production of opium would tide over the period (financially) 
between planting and fruiting of the orange groves. So far as produc- 
tion was concerned, the experiment was a success and the opium of good 
quality. 

Tlie method employed is to slit the seed capsules on the stalk of the 
])oppy in several places so as to let the juice exude. When the juice is 
sufficiently dry it is then carefully scraped off with a knife and gathered. 
It is rather a slow process and under the labor conditions then and now 
prevailing, it was impossible to make it a paying success and it was never 
again tried. 

Riverside Military Band. The following address was given on 
the dedication of a new bandstand or shell by Harry Woodward. 

In the July number of the "Pacific Municipalities" are given nine tests 
of a town. The Riverside Chamber of Commerce in its September bulle- 
tin, on behalf of the City of Riverside, has answered each of the nine 
tests for the benefit of the prospective newcomer to our beautiful city. 

In the fifth test the following question is asked: "Does the town 
have a good band?" And the Chamber of Commerce has answered this 
question as follows: "The Riverside Military Band has more than a 
local reputation as an excellent organization," but this answer to me 
does not seem to do justice to the organization now known as the River- 
side Military Band, which after a struggle of over twenty years for its 
very existence, as it may seem, now bears the highest reputation in the 
State of California, as an excellent musical organization. 

In the fall of 1900 several music loving boys organized under the 
leadership of R. Miller, a band known as "Riverside Junior Band," in 
the round room under the old town clock in the Castleman Building at 
Eighth and Main streets. Each member of the first organization was 



646 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

an amateur, but under all adverse conditions and without any expectancy 
of reward, the band continued its existence. The trials of our first leader 
were mariy, but through hard and painstaking efforts, he kept the boys 
together and when he relinquished his leadership after a period of two 
years, our band was on a firmer basis. 

From its very inception, there has not been a lapse of organization, 
and through the entire period of twenty years, has acted as a unit with- 
out the lapse of a single week. The average life of an amateur band 
is about twenty weeks, and when you realize that our band has remained 
together for over 20 years you can then understand why we today are 
proud of our organization. 

It has the honor and distinction of being the oldest band in this com- 
munity, and although at times in past years, it seemed as if Riverside 
would lose its band, conscientious workers in its behalf kept the organi- 
zation intact. 

You may ask the reason for the success of our organization, and 
we can only say that every member of our band has always the best 
interests of Riverside at heart and dared to do different, and that while 
other organizations were forced to disband by reason of insufficient 
financial support or on account of internal dissention, our band steadily 
went ahead, although during the early years, and even up to the present 
time, the members of our band were required to expend their private 
funds for the purchase of instruments and give their time not only for 
rehearsals but for concerts for a very small reward. 

The first public concert attempted bv our band was given in the old 
bandstand located in this park and formerly located in White Park. 
No municipal aid was given to the boys and all the funds obtained for 
these concerts were contributed by private subscriptions, from the good 
merchants and citizens of our city. When you realize that the members 
of our organization received less than one dollar for each concert in the 
beginning and now receive but the sum of two dollars, and that each 
concert requires from four to five hours preparation and two hours 
more to present, you can readily see that the members of our band are 
not mercenary, but give their services gladly and freely for the benefit 
of our city and the citizens and with only a small remuneration for the 
services rendered. 

Shortly after the first concerts were given, considerable opposition 
to Sunday concerts arose through the efforts of various people in our 
city, and attempts were even made to refuse permission to our band to 
play in the parks of our city, even though there was no expense to the 
city or to the citizens thereof, but finally through the efforts of Mr. P. T. 
Evans and Mr. C. L. McFarland and others, permission was given to 
our band to use the parks for the purpose of playing our concerts, and 
I am pleased to say that at the present time any objection to our playing 
on Sunday in our parks has been overcome. 

Through the efforts of our leaders in the selections of the music 
given by us on Sunday, and from the fact that all numbers were very 
carefully selected, our audiences on Sunday have grown from less than 
one hundred to more than two thousand. 

For several years the merchants and citizens continued to support 
the band by popular subscriptions until finally we were able to obtain 
municipal aid from the city fathers. It has always been the purpose of 
our band to render music of the highest class and by doing so, we believe 
that we have made and kept many friends and in a measure have assisted 
in making Fairmount Park the pleasure spot it is. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 647 

The success of our band through the trying years of its early growth 
is due largely to the assistance and help given us by Frank A. Miller, 
P. T. Evans, S. C. Evans, C. L. McFarland, Ex-Mayor Ford, and our 
present Mayor Honorable Horace Porter. These men found time to 
listen to our troubles and many times they have helped us with their 
advice and with their work and even with their contributions. 

Our present leader, Mr. Hilverkus, deserves a great deal of credit 
for the hard and painstaking labor he has been compelled to undergo in 
perfecting our organization and keeping the men together, and giving to 
Riverside, the band which we are justly proud of. Although he is a 
strict director, he is more than patient and painstaking and strange though 
it may seem, is the poorest paid director in the State of California. A 
great deal of the work necessary to obtain financial assistance in order 
to carry the band through its many trials falls necessarily upon the 
manager of the band, and with the exception of Leonard Wilson, who 
has since passed away, and who was manager for a period of two years, 
and Mr. McDonald and Charles Darling, who each served one year, your 
.speaker and Mr. J. Wesley Shrimp have acted as managers of this, our 
band, for over sixteen years. 

It takes a good musician to play a bass drum, this may sound funny, 
but it is a fact nevertheless, Frank Clark our ex-President was our bass 
drummer for over eighteen years and the accuracy of his beat, the steadi- 
ness of his nerves and his unfailing loyalty has led us over many trying 
strains. 

During the great conflict across the seas, eight of our boys voluntarily 
ofTered their services to the United States Government and actually served 
under the Stars and Stripes. They were Geo. Combs, H. A. Bartee, 
C. L. Craig, C. L. McCrary, E. A. McCurdy, Rob Johnson, W. Kidder, 
N. Cresmer and one of them, Charles Craig, gave his life in the service 
of our country. 

It is not amiss to say that during the Liberty Loan campaigns, Red 
Cross drives and other war work, the Riverside Military Band freely and 
voluntarily gave its services in the aid of these good causes and at no 
time, was the organization found wanting when called upon. 

We wonder sometimes just how many people know what constitutes 
a well balanced band, and I will say that a band may be likened unto a 
large organ or piano, and the director as a player. You all know that 
the average piano has eighty-eight notes and likewise, a good band must 
be so constituted to take care of all of these notes. Every man has 
his part to play, and every part must be played correctly and each player 
must be in harmony with his fellowmen, and the brunt of bringing the 
players to perfection necessarily falls upon the director. Our band in 
the past several years through the excellent reputation it had obtained 
through hard and strenuous labor, has played and taken part in many 
noteworthy engagements and I will call attention only to a few of them 
as follows : McKinley Parade, Roosevelt Reception, San Diego Exposi- 
tion, Odd Fellows Encampment at San Francisco and San Francisco 
Exposition. We will always endeavor to keep the good reputation which 
we now have and will strive hard to please the citizens of our beautiful 
city and those who may come to it. 

In conclusion, I will say that our organization is deeply grateful to 
the citizens of our community in making it possible to have erected this 
wonderful new bandstand. iXe feel that our efforts have been appreci- 
ated by the citizens at large and if the same co-operation will be given to 
us in the future, Riverside will always be proud of its military band. 



648 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Dedicatory Resolutions: Music being the purest and most uncor- 
ruptible of all forms of public recreation and pastime. 

We, the people of Riverside, do present and dedicate this building 
to all forms of musical entertainment by voice or instrument ; and espe- 
cially to the use of the "Riverside Municipal Military Band." 

We dedicate this building to Drama and Pageantry. 

We dedicate this building to the uses of our Public Schools for music 
and play and commencement exercises. 

We dedicate this building to all non-partisan patriotic service, in the 
interest of the City, the State, the Nation ; and for the promotion of 
International good will. — Horace Porter, Mayor. 

At the dedication of the band shell in Fairmount Park, September 
26, 1920, as it has been named, owing to its shape, there was a very large 
attendance. On the program there was given some history of the band. 
Its first public appearance was in May, 1901, and its first out of town 
engagement was at Redlands, July 4, 1902. There was an interesting 
program throughout, in additon to the foregoing history. Riverside 
has always given its band a hearty support. There was voted for the 
construction of the shell $10,000, but in consequence of donations from 
private parties, of material, etc., and plans by Architect Arthur Benton 
and of engineering skill by City Surveyor Albert Braunsehweiger there 
was only used of the money voted about $5,000. It is the oldest organ- 
ized band in the State. The musical program at the dedication was very 
much appreciated. 

Of the charter members of the band consisting of the following names, 
F. Clark, Harley Johns, Perry Norris, Henry McDonald, Will Huntoon, 
Roland Miller (director), Will Brundige, Ralph Allum, Harve McMullen, 
Harry Woodward, J. A. Porter, only about two are now members. 

The band has been occasionally to other places during its existence, 
notably in the McKinley parade and the Roosevelt reception, both in 
Riverside: at the San Diego Exposition; the I. O. O. F. Encampment, 
San Francisco, 1915. and the San Francisco Exposition, 1915. 

The Sunday afternoon and week evening concerts in Fairmount Park, 
concerts in the sunimer time, are always listened to by thousands, and at 
our fairs and all public occasions the band fills a very necessary place. 
Much of the success of the band of late years has been due to the musi- 
cal abilities of the manager, Gustav Hilverkus. 

The city makes a liberal appropriation for the public concerts which 
are so well patronized, and the band is one of the most popular institu- 
tions of Riverside. 

The Peg Leg Mine, and the Strange Disappearance of Thomas 
Cover. The dry details of history are sometimes very barren subjects 
for the general reader, except for the nine day wonders" that are at 
times coming up among people which can be interwoven into them. Such 
is the story of Peg Leg Smith and the discovery of the rich Peg Leg mine, 
its loss through the death of Peg Leg himself, and the repeated attempts 
of Tom Cover and others towards its discovery and his final disappear- 
ance in his last attempt. 

Southern California witli its almost interminable and trackless, water- 
less deserts, is full of discoveries of rich mines and of their loss through 
inability or death of the discoverer. The tales of prospecting expeditons 
by hundreds of people and their adventures would fill a large book. The 
romance of the desert has never been told. 

It has a fascination for the average man or woman, too, that can 
never be overcome without a trip that is sure to uncover that coveted 
treasure to the particular individual undertaking the journey. The 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 649 

writer speaks from personal experience when he says that the fascina- 
tion of the prospector's trip can no more be overcome than the gambler's 
craze, but with the difference that if the prospector wins no one loses. 

To the lover of nature, a camping trip on the desert and in the moun- 
tains in and surrounding the desert is full of new and interesting things 
and experiences. It is on the mountains as a rule that precious metals 
are to be found and everything is new almost in the vegetable, animal 
and mineral kingdoms, and the wonder is that anything animal or vege- 
table can exist at all. The cactus as it is full of juice has as its sole pro- 
tection the spines with which it is covered or it would soon disappear. 
The yuccas, the junipers and the mesquite seem to be in their native ele- 
ments, for they are found only on the desert. The mesquite trees may 
possibly be hundreds of years old for anything any one knows to the 
contrary. They start and when they are in a location where the drift- 
ing sands may once take hold and accumulate as they grow, the sand 
keeps constantly accumulating around the base as they make growth until 
there are only a few green twigs to be seen, which as they grow keep 
constantly being filled up until there may be a large mound with no visible 
trunk above ground, all of it being covered up by the drifted sand and 
the tradition of the desert is, that if you are in search of wood you 
take a shovel along. Where there is no sand drift the mesquite produces 
a bright yellow flower, and in the fall a large crop of beans which is used 
as food by the Indians and their animals. 

How anv vegetation can maintain itself amid such dry surroundings, 
is one of the mvsteries that scientists so far have not ventured to explain. 
Nor how certain little desert squirrels manage to exist or the turtles that 
are occasionally met with, but rarely as the Indians use them as food. 
The mountain sheep, too, used to be plenty, but are now practically 
exterminated, but their old trails still are there to show they, too, could 
live under adverse conditions. They may have been able to live as do 
the cattle that are around the edge of the desert, that have heaquarters 
around a spring and lie around it for a day or two until they get hungry, 
when they wander out on the desert gathering the scanty feed they find 
there, and stay as long as they can stand it without water, when they come 
in to get water and lie around again until they get hungry to repeat the 
process. Occasionally a venturesome cattleman sinks a well and puts 
up a windmill in favorable locations where it is not too far down to 
water and ekes out a scanty living in this way and in favorable seasons 
when rains are more abundant then the stock thrives and gets fat. 

But it is not of the stockman who is settled in a way, but the prospec- 
tor who is always on the move, camping only in a favorable location 
where is water and moving along as soon as the available country has been 
looked over only to move on again, that we wish to write about and hear 
from. Men there are who have spent many years of their life going 
out and coming in as supplies give out, to go out again full of hope that 
the next move may bring them something worth while. Manv of these 
prospectors are what is called in desert phrase "grubs-staked." that is, 
they are furnished supplies by someone who has confidence in them, with 
the condition that they have an equal share in anything they find. Occa- 
sionally rich pros]5ects are found in this way and the prospector is 
generally honest enough to share with the party who pays for the pros- 
pecting. Occasionally these "finds" are lost and never found again. 
Most of these lost mines are found by someone who gets lost and in his 
wanderings picks up some specimens which are rich, but cannot find 
the exact spot ever after, or it may be that the prospector dies. Such 
was the Peg Leg mine that has been a tradition for many years. 



650 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

The story goes that Peg Leg Smith started out with a party of fifty 
men from St. Louis in 1830, for an extended trapping expedition in the 
Southwest. The party found themselves on the head waters of the 
Colorado River in 1836. They spent some time in this occupation, mov- 
ing down the river until they found themselves as far down as the mouth 
of the Gila River. Away down opposite Southern California they turned 
West. About the third day out they camped, when one of their num- 
ber climbed a little hill or butte about fifty feet high, to get a look at 
the surrounding country. He found the hill covered with loose pieces 
of black rock intermingled with pieces of yellow metal. This was before 
the days of forty-nine, with the remarkable results of the discovery of 
gold. It did not occur to them that this was gold, although the presence 
of gold was known to the Spaniards, and so for the time being nothing 
seems to have been done with the discovery, although it was finally sur- 
mised that the yellow substance in the rock was gold, and Peg Leg 
Smith's party all disappeared, and Smith seemed to be the only one left 
with any knowledge of the discovery. 

The next we hear of Smith was as a sort of horse thief and trader 
in the Sierras, seemingly indifferent whom he got his horses from, some- 
times helping one tribe of Indians steal from another, and again help- 
ing the Indians come down the Cajon Pass and drive bands of Spanish 
horses away out on the Mojave desert, to trade them off with needy 
travelers for jaded or wornout horses, or at Salt Lake. Salt Lake 
was a good market for horses. On one of these raids. Smith got woimded 
in the leg, making it necessary to cut off the leg, which he did with the 
assistance of an Indian, the surgical instruments being a hunting knife, 
and an Indian or keyhole saw. The loss of the leg did not incapacitate 
Smith for war raiding, for he was as active as ever. Horses were cheap 
in those davs, a bottle of whiskey or a pound of powder being the value 
of one. Uncle Sam coming in about this time to California, put a stop 
to Peg Leg's raids, for he would not steal from his own countrymen. 
The next we hear of Peg Leg was in connection with his rich specimens 
of which he never seemed to be without, and he was always about to dis- 
close the location of his find, and is stated to have started out with a 
party for that purpose, but after the start, for some reason he turned 
back and this is about the last we hear of him for he disappeared. Some 
say he purposely deceived others about the location. There can be no 
doubt about the specimens wherever Smith got them. Some say it was 
beyond Smith mountain, which took its name from him, out beyond 
Temecula. Ever since that time expeditions have been gotten up to 
hunt for the Peg Leg mine. Once in a while there comes a report that 
it has been found, but it is still hidden. 

The strange lure of the desert when once it gets hold of one can neve- 
be shaken off, it comes on again and again like the crave of the drink- 
ing man for a fresh bout, and indeed it is not so very strange that it 
should be so, the desert is so wonderful. You go out and away from 
civilization for weeks or even months knowing nothing of the great world. 
You have no care on your mind. Only at long intervals when perhaps 
you go to the nearest point of supply, load up with fresh supplies and 
away you go careless of how the world "wags." It is really a new world 
and you are healthy and happy, for no tradition exists of anyone getting 
sick on these expeditions. Mother earth takes care of that for as you 
lie down on her bosom night after night, all vour ills, physical and men- 
tal disappear and when you come back to civilization you are a new man. 
But the old lure of the desert comes back again and again and one's own 
insignificance is revealed, for the world and its vanities, its hopes and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 651 

aspirations, successes and disappointments goes on just the same in our 
absence. 

Such was the case of Thomas W. Cover, "Tom Cover" as he was 
familiarly known. An old miner from Montana where he had, so it is 
reported, made a find and a stake, pulling out and coming to Southern 
California about 1868. Originally his family was from Maryland, but 
their anti-slavery principles compelled a change of residence (about the 
time Tom was fourteen) to the State of Ohio. He was a wanderer and 
a typical prospector — Pike's Peak being one of his lures. Coming to 
Southern California in 1868 he was one of the leading promoters of the 
Silk Center Association that was the first effort towards colonizing the 
Riverside Valley, where arrangements were being made to settle several 
hundred families in silk culture. The death of Mr. Prevost put an end 
to the colony scheme and Mr. Cover was left with the disposal of the 
lands purchased, which he did by taking three of the founders of River- 
side to the lands where a sale was effected. Mr. Cover aided as surveyor 
on the canal that was built to bring water on the lands, finally settling 
with his family on an eighty acres of Government land, which he set 
out to vines, limes and oranges, selling a portion of it. Here he finshed 
up by setting it all to navels. When well settled and the land in bearing, 
the old prospecting craze took possession of him again and he went out 
on several occasions fortified with specimens, maps and all the informa- 
tion to be had in search of the fabulously rich, I had almost said 
mythical Peg Leg mine. On the last occasion he was accompanied by 
a neighbor, W. B. Russell with a team and light spring wagon. Mr. 
Cover was also fortified in his search by interviews with a Dr. DeCourcey 
of Yuma who was said to have been the physician who attended Peg 
Leg in his last illness. 

Mr. Cover set out on his last expedition on September 5, 1884, to 
prospect for the mine on the desert west of Indio, and from there over 
to the country near Julian and towards Warner's ranch in San Diego 
County. The country is partly on the bed of the old Gulf of California 
below sea level, part of it until it runs into the mountains, but easily 
accessible, being level, but with deep sand and short of water, but enough 
to those who know where to find it. On one side is a large tract called 
the bad lands, consisting of dry barren clay all wrinkled and cut up by 
gullies and dry washes, and looks like it might be an interminable maze, 
where if you once get into it you might get a labyrinth, but not a place 
where anyone would want to get into either, for curiosity or in search of 
gold. Some distance beyond the bad lands. Cover and Russell separated 
— Russell to go around a hill with the wagon and Mr. Cover to go over 
it, prospecting as he went, to meet at an agreed place. Russell's story 
was to the effect that he lost his way and got into trouble by bad roads, 
upsetting his wagon and being delayed in consequence for several hours, 
and when he got to the meeting place Mr. Cover was not there. Mr. 
Russell searched and waited for a day or two, and with no success he 
started for Indio, but leaving provisions and water in case Mr. Cover 
might turn up. On reaching Indio Mr. Russell engaged an Indian to 
trace up Mr. Cover's trail, but he returned after a time stating that after 
following the trail for a distance it was lost on high solid ground. Search- 
ing parties were sent out to see if any trace might be found. There was 
a reward of $1,000 offered by his family for discovery of the remains, 
for by this time it was not possible that Mr. Cover could be alive any- 
where there, the only theory being that Mr. Cover met with an accident, 
or that two brothers by the name of Helms who had known Mr. Cover 
in Montana (and whose brother it was said Mr. Cover had a hand in 



652 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

lynching), and who lived in the neighborhood caught Mr. Cover and put 
an end to him. Proof of that was said to have been found in the ashes 
of a big fire and half burnt bones found therein. However, that may be 
the reward was never claimed. There was an insurance on Mr. Cover's 
life of $2,500 which the insurance company refused to pay for years, 
but finally compromised by paying one-half and so the matter rested 
for some years, until evidence was adduced that Mr. Cover had never 
been lost, but that he had voluntarily disappeared, and that there were 
personal and private reasons involving no reflections or disgrace on any- 
one in particular. This evidence was found on a tramp who got drunk, 
and on being searched had a letter on his person from Wilson Russell 
to Tom Cover, which did not disclose the secret of Mr. Cover's residence, 
but asked Mr. Cover to send him some money on pain of exposure of the 
facts of the disappearance. This was and is the last phase of the Cover 
disappearance. Mr. and Mrs. Russell were killed in a railway accident 
at the crossing in Riverside and the Cover family has disappeared, and 
it is supposed there is nothing in the way of stating the facts at this late 
day. But the Peg Leg mine is not yet discovered, despite the fact that 
an item in the evening paper a few days ago said it had been discovered 
and the Peg Leg will still be one of the many unsolved myths of vast 
treasures lying hidden, to be found and make the discoverer fabulously 
rich. 

The Tramp. Whether the tramp question is just one of those tem- 
porary irregularities that arise in all countries from extraordinary causes, 
or one that has taken root so that it will be difficult to eradicate would 
be difficult to tell at the present time. It would appear to be more of an 
American question than one pertaining to Europe where they have con- 
ditions that have been settled for ages. There are several varieties of 
tramps, but the true type is the one who will not work and would rather 
move about from place to place, mostly begging for his living where he 
can and partly stealing it when conditions favor. 

Whether we can class the vagrant as a tramp who, when his numbers 
accumulate to such an extent that he can commandeer a freight train, as 
was done here lately and move towards whatever point he is going is a 
question. It is only in times of great dullness of trade when large num- 
bers of people are thrown out of employment that they seem to be a 
menace to society. Coxey's army during the Cleveland administration, 
when they marched to Washington to demand attention to their condition 
is a case in point, when about the only attention they received was an 
order to "keep off the grass." Such numbers as these demand the atten- 
tion of the political economist more than the plain individual. 

The one that is commonly classed as a tramp is one who travels 
around from year to year, never staying long in a place, coming South 
in the winter and going North in the summer with a chronic aversion to 
work and only working at light jobs such as fruit picking when forced 
to by necessity to get a little money. Many of them are professional 
beggars and make good wages by begging from the Mexicans who are lib- 
eral when in funds. Some of them have a few fancy articles to sell of 
paltry value, but which are showy. Some of tliem sell pictures of the 
saints to the lower classes of Catholics. Others of them who are more 
ambitious sell fancy articles made of wire, such as clothes hangers. 
Others again act as tinware menders, selling easy soldering tin for home 
use. All of them have about the same characteristics. A good part of 
the day is spent round the campfire. and in cold weather tliey spend most 
of the day sunning themselves to get warmed uji. The majority of them 



I 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 653 

do not carry any blankets, trusting to sleeping, in inclement weather, in 
barns and haystacks. Seldom is there any Mexicans or Negroes among 
them, but they may be of any nationality. The most of them are ardent 
socialists, but having no fixed habitation and no homes they have no vote. 
The woman tramp is practically not known. Among them there are 
cripples, one legged or one armed, but seldom or ever have lost limbs 
in the service of the United States Government. Many of them have 
traveled considerably and are fairly intelligent. As a rule they are harm- 
less. Criminals occasionally mix up with the tramps to hide and escape 
observation. The old tramp knows all the favorable camp locations, 
and at each camp where they are not disturbed or told to "move on" there 
is always a set of cooking utensils, such as coffee pot and frying pan. 
These utensils are always left in place for the next comer. One tramp 
who had just started out to be a "bad man" and did not know camp 
usages was caught destroying the camp equipage, and very roughly 
handled. It seemed to have done him good, for he afterward went back 
home, his wanderlust completely cured. It is the rule of the camp that 
each provides his pro rata of wood; if not, they do not share the camp- 
fire. They live off the country a good deal, stealing vegetables and fruit 
and when they want it, they have chicken. One rancher who was rather 
hard on the tramps suffered severely in many ways. Boards would 
be "borrowed" from his outhouses for firewood. His chickens were 
always locked up at night, but when a chicken was wanted a handy screw- 
driver was used to take the hinges off the door and replaced when the 
chicken was secured. The coyotes got the blame for the loss of the 
chicken. 

The writer's place was a noted resort for the tramps, because there 
was a large grove of eucalyptus for shade in summer and protection 
in winter. A noted character was there for one season off and on whom 
I will call Jones. Jones finally ended his tramping career by getting 
sent to prison for several years for burglary. Jones was rather fond of 
eggs, and occasionally bought a few at the writer's home. He always 
paid with a dollar. The eggs were kept in a screen porch. When Jones 
came for eggs he always came inside the porch, and when the woman 
went inside for change for the dollar he helped himself to one or two 
more eggs than he was entitled to. Being suspected he was watched and 
found out, which put a stop to his petty stealing. When he went down 
to the camp he was not at all backward in telling how he got caught and 
joined in the laugh. A few days later a lone man got into camp rather 
late with no wood, which meant no hot coffee or fire for him, but the 
newcomer said he would get some wood by going up to the "old man's" 
woodpile, mieaning the writer and get some. Jones told him he need 
not try that game for he would prevent him the result of which was that 
the woodpile remained intact. So Jones was willing to steal the "old 
man's" eggs, but he would not allow anyone to steal his wood. 

Another tramp who was a very deft wire worker, who worked in 
the summer in the orchard and on the farm, turned out to be very use- 
ful. He had been originally a miner, but met with an accident in the 
mine that incapacitated him from mining. He did not care for steady 
work, but took proportionate pay. He was very faithful, selling fruit to 
all who came and accounting for the proceeds faithfully. He would go 
away in the winter and come back in the summer for several seasons, 
always reliable where he was trusted. An occasional visit around the 
campfire was quite a treat and gave views of life from another standpoint 
to the writer. As a rule the tramp is deficient mentally, and without 
ambition above getting something to eat and some tobacco. He is happy 



654 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

as can be and faces the cold outside in a cold night unflinchingly. He 
will, when he is hungry, help himself to eatables when he cannot get any- 
thing to eat by begging. Sometimes he gets a little money by begging, 
then he will live well as long as his money lasts. Onions, potatoes, bread 
and meat is his usual bill of fare. He will stay for a day or two in a 
place, when if not too far he walks, but if the distance is great he gen- 
erally can get on the cars, usually the freight, and thus he travels and 
is happy in his way. 

The tramp is incurable and it is but little use trying to reform him, 
as the professional is usually about middle age or so. During the war 
they almost entirely disappeared, whether from being drafted or other- 
wise, rumor sayeth not. Those who were of army age were very much 
afraid of the draft. Some of them went and came back to their old 
game of tramping. California is the tramps' paradise, owing to the rmild 
climate and the abundance of fruits and nuts. Ripe fruit on the trees all 
the year round and an occasional light job of fruit picking to get a little 
spending money and what could any genuine tramp desire more? 

The Probation Officer. The probation officer is an innovation in 
local government. Punishment is a very old axiom in law. Some old 
statutes that were valid in their time and very active have gradually and 
quietly been discarded. Occasionally one of these old laws is brought up 
only to be laughed out of existence. The so-termed blue laws so far as 
tradition goes are still on the statute books, where if not repealed by 
later action have been entirely superceded and treated as dead letters by 
modern legislation. One of the great axioms in family upbringing was 
"spare the rod and spoil the child," and it is said in Proverbs : "He that 
spareth the rod hateth his son." 

It is beginning to be understood more and more and acted on that 
love is the great principle that overcometh all, that in law the "letter 
killeth while the spirit maketh alive." It is being seen more plainly 
day by day that there are better methods of treatment of the young than 
brute force. Judge Lindsay of Denver. Colorado, has been given national 
recognition for his wise judgment in juvenile courts, suffered a fine for 
contempt of court where he refused to betray the confidence of a boy. 
All courts now and those who have the enforcement of the law have their 
secret tribtinals where young people can be examined and admonished 
for their own good and the good of society. The axiom of law that 
ignorance of the law excuses no one is more often honored in the 
breach than in the observance, especially with minors. With the end in 
view that many young people who have been guilty of breaches of the 
law have been more sinned against than sinning and that punishment 
for infraction of the law would be an injustice, probation officers have 
been appointed whose duty is to examine into all cases of delinquency 
and see whether more good can be done by private efifort backed by 
sufficient authority than by letting the law take its course. There is 
always the certainty that passage through the jail or penitentiary confers 
a brand that is very hard in after life to get rid of. 

The probation officer's duties as a rule extend only, to minors, but 
cases frequently come under his observation and counsel where adults, 
especially women, can be reformed or benefitted without a due course of 
law. He is armed with full authority to enforce his decrees, therefore 
it is very necessary he be a man, or maybe a woman, who is wise and 
armed with judgment and good sense. In all cases where women are 
concerned, examinations are conducted in the presence of some other 
woman. The probation officer has jurisdiction in all matters referred by 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 655 

the court to him, and his duties extend all over the county and may with 
perfect propriety extend to other counties of the state and although a 
county official he is also in a semi-quasi manner a state official and his 
duties extend to cases where state and county aid is necessary and cases 
of destitution or necessity and his recommendation carry great weight 
in court proceedings. 

In many cases where criminals or those who, while not exactly 
criminals, are infringers of the law, the court may in its judgment after 
sentence has been pronounced put the individual on probation ; that is, 
that the offender may be set loose with the sentence still hanging over 
him on condition that he make reports at stated intervals to the probation 
officer. In such cases if the parole has been faithfully kept when the 
time for which the parole has been given the sentence is remitted. The 
probation officer is also usually the one to whom money is paid in case of 
alimony where separation or divorce has been granted by the court or 
where the support of minor children is concerned. But although the 
duties of the probation officer extend largely in adult cases, by far the 
most important part of his duties are concerned with children and minors. 
The saddest cases of all are often where separations occur with married 
people with children. Frequently parents are very much to blame and 
it is sometimes necessary to separate the children entirely from the parents 
and put them in the children's home. Again sometimes the children have 
to be taken away from the mother and given to the father, who is not in a 
position to care for them, when the probation officer again may place 
them in a good home, the husband in the meantime providing for their 
support and those who have no children may with the consent of the 
parents and in accordance with law adopt one or more of them. Where 
desertion happens or death of the father or sickness or disability, the 
mother will get the custody of the children with state aid to the extent of 
ten dollars per month for each child supplemented by as much more by 
the county. In families occasionally there may be an unruly member or 
even vicious they get older in life, and when such cases occur they may 
have to be sent to some reformatory. Milder cases can be treated suc- 
cessfully at the George Junior Republic, where the boys are put on their 
honor, which is rarely violated. Occasionally there are people of either 
sex who deliberately abandon their children, and these are perhaps on 
the whole the most difficult to manage. Cases of stepchildren again 
arise where children sometimes with and sometimes without the con- 
nivance of the other parent present almost at times insuperable difficulties, 
not only in the homes, but in the public schools, in girls especially, the 
counsels of and presence of women is always a feature of the case. The 
reform school as a last resort always looms up and if the parties are not 
too abandoned it serves a very useful purpose. Occasionally some parent 
who is somewhat indifferent will bring a refractory child to the probation 
officer with the idea that all he has to do is to take the child to the 
officer and leave him. But this cannot be done without an order of the 
court and if the parent is able he is required to contribute to the support 
of the child, which puts a different aspect on the proceedings. Perhaps 
the most pleasing phase of the case is w-here there are half orphans whom 
the father is willing to support who can be placed with good motherly 
women in their own homes and well cared for and given all the comforts 
and advantages of a good home. It may be said that the parents could 
do these things themselves, but this is not always so, for the parents 
may be comparative strangers and the probation officer is almost always 
in communication with suitable parties with whom they can be placed and 



656 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

the children are in a sense under the care and supervision of a pubHc 
officer. 

In cases of wayward children and where the parents are not fit persons 
to have care of their own children and where younger or older persons 
are put on probation by the courts and in cases that do not come under 
the supervision of the courts, the probation officer takes the sole action, 
the question may be asked, "What are the results?" The records kept 
show that in the great majority of cases success is complete where if the 
parties in question had been given the full penalty of the law the reform 
of the individual would not have taken place. It must be understood that 
the great majority of cases are never made known to the public and that 
publicity would be the worst thing that could have happened. 

Perhaps the most lamentable and unfortunate cases are with married 
people where the parents are not altogether as they should be and more 
especially where the "other woman," or more rarely the "other man," is 
concerned, drastic measures have to be taken, and here is where the 
integrity, uprightness and good judgment of the probation officer comes 
in and the unfortunate children may still be saved, especially if the mother 
is worthy, for then the state steps in and an allowance is made enabling 
the mother to keep the home together. So far Riverside has been fortu- 
nate in having a probation officer, C. W. Matthews, who is worthy of 
all praise and who, if he should consult his immediate personal comfort, 
■would rather retire to private life and be spared hearing the sad experi- 
ences of others who are not so fortunate in passing through this life. 
He is, however, strengthened by the success that is being accomplished 
through his efforts in relieving the unfortunate and in bringing happiness 
where otherwise there would be not only misery but crime. 

The Children's Home. Supplementary and a necessity to the efforts 
of the probation officer is the Children's Home, where again, in the per- 
son of Matron Mrs. Jennie A. Wilkins, there is a motherly woman who 
has been a successful mother herself and who is a true mother to those 
who are unfortunate enough to be motherless or have unworthy mothers. 
The Children's Home is not in any sense intended to be an orphan asylum 
'for all orphans, for experience has taught that in the first place the mother 
herself (other conditions being right) is the best one to take care of her 
own children. There are a great many half orphans and children of 
parents one or both of who have no parents or guardians willing or fit 
to care for them, and here is where the probation officer is armed with 
authority and the matron of the home has the opportunity and the means 
to give the children the upbringing that they need. And after all, the 
Children's Home is mainly a resting place and a stepping stone until 
opportunity can be given to place the children where they can be given 
the opportunity of guardianship with those who have no children of 
their own or can even be adopted by people who have a love of children. 
There are again some women who have large homes who take in one or 
more children and care for them and bring them up in such a way as 
to make them worthy citizens in all respects. Wherever children are 
cared for in this way they are at all times under the supervision of the 
probation officer and the state to insure that they are properly cared 
for anrl that their condition be as much as possible like the real family. 
The Children's Home, although adjacent to the hospital and hospital 
grounds, is distinct of itself. The home is located on seven acres, where 
there are suitable buildings and accommodations for about seventy-five 
children, with a present occupancy of forty-four children, as so many 
pass through the home temporarily until suitable homes can be provided 



SAN BERNARDIXO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 657 

for them. One thousand children have already passed through the home 
since it ha? been founded, some of whom have botli parents who may 
not be capable of taking care of children or in some cases where the 
parents through adverse conditions may not be in a situation to care for 
them and still able to pay for their care. Others may be half orphans, 
while as a matter of course orphans come until they may be fortunate 
enough to be adopted or cared for in suitable families. 

The home has its own surroundings where vegetables and fruit are 
grown, keeps its own cows and chickens for its own use and raises 
vegetables and fruit to the amount of $2,600 during the past year with 
the assistance of the inmates who may be all the way from two years 
up to fifteen or sixteen. The whole place is conducted as far as pos- 
sible like an ordinary home, the children go to school just as members of 
other families do and perform as far as possible the ordinary duties 
of children in families. The girls are taught to sew, cook, can fruit, etc., 
so that when they attain marriageable age they may be fit to care for a 
home and family of their own, and the boys are taught all necessary and 
possible labors belonging to the farm or home. Generally speaking, the 
sexes are segregated, but not entirely, for under proper surveillance 
they mingle freely like other children in families and at the public school. 
About thirty children can be taken care of to advantage 

At rare intervals a girl of more mature age who has become defiant 
and unmanageable as well, and occasionally diseased, comes under the 
guardianship of the matron until investigation can be had and the proper 
action taken. In this case as freedom would be impossible and imprison- 
ment unwise, the matron has a comfortable room where they can be taken 
care of but where they are confined. No matter how defiant they may 
be, a few days' restraint under such conditions generally succeeds in 
taming the proudest spirit until they find that after all society can pro- 
tect itself and curb the wildest subject. There is no idea of punish- 
ment in this isolated room, as good treatment in all respects is accorded, 
only the idea that society has a right and is able to protect itself and 
restrain those whose freedom would be detrimental to others. Then they 
may listen to reason and if not too far gone may be restored to useful- 
ness again. It is unfortunate that the probation officer and the matron 
of the Children's Home are necessary, but it is gratifying to know that 
the success attained is a justification for their existence. 

City Home League. Among the organizations of Riverside that are 
quietly working their way and which are to a large extent unknown but 
are active, useful and takinp; part among a people much in need of educa- 
tion and assistance, none are more worthy of notice than the City 
Home League. 

Although the league has had no assistance from the city and has 
depended entirely on support from private sources it is remarkable what 
has been done and the amount and value of the property already acquired. 
It has only been in operation for about two years, and the results are 
surprising. The Settlement House, as the buildings are known, or the 
House of Neighbors as they call themselves, is almost wholly a woman's 
movement and entirely supported by voluntary contributions. Last year 
there was contributed in that way $12,137.23 and expended $11,707.53, 
over $4,000 of which was used for increasing the capacity of the plant. 

The object of the league is to improve the condition mainly of the 
Spanish speaking population, including the more ignorant and destitute 
of the negro population, and being a woman's movement naturally the 
efforts are directed more to the enlightenment and benefit of the women 



658 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

and children, there are also classes for teaching the men carpentering 
and two evenings a week are devoted to teaching Spanish, j\lr. Coons 
of the Polytechnic High School being the teacher. Among the Mexican 
population those who have come from Mexico are the most ignorant, and 
the women not having the opportunity that the men have are naturally 
more so. Everything tending to make better citizenship is taught. There 
is a large assembly hall which is used not only for the purposes of the 
league, but for all neighborhood meetings of a beneficial nature. A work 
room, as its name implies, is used for teaching the ladies dressmaking 
and how to do their sewing in the family. They are paid for their labor 
in credit tickets which can be applied in purchase of clothing in the league 
store. The women are all eager to learn and are fairly apt pupils. Tlie 
children are also given attention and a boy scout movement is also in 
operation. Lessons in cooking and housework are also carried on. 

In connection with the main building, but detached in the rear, are 
playgrounds for the children which are planted to shade and ornamental 
plants and trees, with drinking fountain. There is also a laundry room 
with hot water and every convenience for laundry work, which can be 
used for a nominal sum. There is also a clinic room with appliances 
for patients with a maternity cottage. There is no suggestion of charity 
about the institution, for although the ladies who are conducting the 
Settlement House are giving their services free, only the nurses and 
attendant, three in number, get salaries. The movement has succeeded 
beyond the expectations of the founders and will contribute largely in 
doing away with undesirable spots in the city's humbler quarters. 

Riverside County Hospital and Home for the Unfortun.\tes. 
It would seem to be a matter for regret that in a land of bright sunshine 
and flowers where hardly a day comes in the whole year that the sun is 
not seen for some time of the day that anything could arise that would 
mar the brij^ht hopes that are born under these bright conditions, but it is 
unfortunately the case that there are always some who are needing 
assistance and many who in the vigor of youth were bright with hope and 
blessed with health and strength to batter with adverse conditions of life. 
There are others to whom accidents of various kinds may come who need 
the surgeon's care, and others who from various causes need the 
physician's care. 

In the early pioneer days, when almost everyone who came was in the 
vigor of manhood or womanhood and able to be out in the open air and 
exercise enough to vivify the life currents and overcome all unfavorable 
microbes that might gain access to the system. Our bright sunshine and 
pure air coming from the almost boundless ocean to the west of us could 
hardly by any means carry deleterious germs gathered up over the virgin 
lands over which they passed, and so among the vigorous pioneers sick- 
ness was an almost unknown thing. But as time went along and easier 
means of travel were made possible by the transatlantic railroads those 
who were less vigorous and in search of health began to arrive, many of 
whom prolonged their lives for years, but who finally by reason of 
less vigorous constitutions succumbed to their special form of frailty. 
These earlier ones all had loving friends who were not onlv able but 
willing to help those for whom in many cases in the first place the journey 
was undertaken. But as population increased others came to our genial 
clime in search of health (and the bulk of the earlier population was 
composed of the latter class, some of them physicians), and they became 
sick or needy and required the helping hand which was never withheld. 
In most cases those who were in need and incapable of work were sup- 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 659 

ported by weekly or monthly allowances which probably in the end was 
and is the best of all besides throwino- all such to a great extent on their 
own resources. But there still remained those who were decrepit, some- 
times in both body and mind and without friuiuls with means enough to 
support them, and their problem was one of the difficulties. Sickness 
overtook some and perhaps the most pressing need of all was for those 
who met with accident and had to have surgical assistance. Sometimes a 
very timely aid may save a life. For instance, by a peculiar accident a 
sawmill operator had his leg suddenly cut oi? below the knee by a circular 
saw. In this case a few minutes would be sufficient to end life away in 
the mountains beyond surgical aid, but a youth who had been taught first 
aid in emergencies was equal to the occasion by the application of a 
tourniquet. Another case of some high school students out hunting in 
the hills, one of them, member of a leading pioneer family, got a charge of 
shot in the calf of the leg, but for lack of first aid he bled to death. So 
we see the need of hospitals and of boy scouts who will be familiar with 
a knowledge of what to do in case of need. 

The first hospital was fitted up out of a small hotel on the block west 
of the Santa Fe passenger depot, between Seventh and Eighth streets. It 
was at best only a makeshift about the time of the formation of Riverside 
County, but it served its purpose until the county was in a position to 
do better. The next was an improvement and was made of brick, located 
in the neighborhood of San Jacinto, which was ample until destroyed by 
an earthquake. Then it was found that although the locality was good it 
was too far removed from the center of population and another move 
had to be made. This time, with a foresight commendable, a site was 
chosen near Arlington, about seven miles below Riverside, not far from 
the Santa Fe Railroad and close to Magnolia Avenue, with the electric 
street railway going past the hospital two or three times per hour. 

Seventy acres of the finest alluvial soil was bought, on which every- 
thing adapted to the country can be grown, both farming and garden 
products, with all kinds of fruits, deciduous or evergreen, including 
walnuts. Here has been built large and commodious buildings with 
endless screen porches for air and sunshine for the health and cheer of 
inmiates, in addition to the main two-story building situated in the midst 
of abundance of shade for the summer, with flowers of all kinds wherever 
a spot can be found for their growth. There are a multitude of buildings 
surrounding for various kinds of people and differing kinds of troubles 
with necessary surroundings. 

There are buildings for the tubercular, contagious diseases, quaran- 
tine, detention and old men, besides other buildings for outdoor assistants 
and for nurses who require quiet and unbroken rest, and buildings sepa- 
rate from the others for various purposes. 

The buildings have a present capacity of 100 for patients and inmates 
apart from the employes and is now nearly filled to its capacity and 
comprises about everything that could be thought of in all the various 
departments of a hospital or a home. Perhaps the most apparent feature 
at first sight is the absolute cleanliness of everything outside and in and 
contented and happy looks of everyone, even the sick and suffering. The 
officials and the resident physician, Doctor Wood, are on the most familiar 
terms with all, even the feeble and infirm, and his visits, professoinal and 
otherwise, are looked forward to with pleasure. The great amount of 
screen porch gives all the rooms a sunny aspect, while the walnut trees 
give an agreeable shade in summer. The institution is self-supporting as 
far as it is possible from the farm. Abundance of fresh vegetables in 
their season all the year round, and soon enough fruit of all kinds for 



660 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

present use and catniing. All the meat consumed on the place is raised 
and the sixteen cows kept on the farm furnish all the milk and butter and 
the large flock of poultry furnish eggs and chicken with the Thanksgiving 
turkey. An ice plant furnishes ice for all purposes, while the steam 
boilers furnish steam and heat for every purpose. All the laundry work 
is done on the place with the most modern appliances. The surplus fat 
is made into soap. The operating room is furnished with everything 
necessary and the X-ray and medical department are as complete as can 
be made, while analysis of everything needed can be carried on with study 
of germs with a view to overcoming everything in relation to the preven- 
tion or treatment of disease. 

The inmates consist of all who are in need of surgical aid and who 
are suffering from any kind of sickness. Then there are the old and 
infirm, some of whom are able to pay their own way, who are as well 
treated as if they were in their own home. There is a library and read- 
ing room for those who are able or wish to read. Many of the inmates 
are quite unable to help themselves, but all seem to be happy and content. 
No one can be admitted except on an order of the supervisors except in 
case of haste in accidents or such like. Where paying patients are 
admitted or infirm people who cannot take care of themselves charges are 
based on cost, which for board is only about one dollar and thirty cents 
per day since the war, but was considerably less before that time. 

Feed for stock, chickens, etc., and for fat animals is all grown on the 
place (with some hay for sale) and will explain why the relative cost per 
capita for food is so low. The farm buildings and the stock are about 
one-fourth of a mile away from the main buildings. All told, the whole 
place might be pronounced a model institution of its kind. The medical 
staff is composed of some of the best physicians and surgeons of River- 
side. 

To the housekeeper, Mrs. Margaret Carroll, many of the best fea- 
tures in the care of the inmates and patients are indebted, for her idea 
is that nothing is too good for the sick or unfortunate. 

Riverside Portland Cement Plant. Closely allied and in a great 
degree necessary to the orange industry is the manufacture of Port- 
land cement. None know this more than the orange grower himself. 
The first irrigation works were completed and operated without anything 
else than lumber and earth, and even if the orange grower could have 
known the uses that cement could have been put to, he could not have 
availed himself of the information for the lack of material to work with. 

The first cement to be used in California was what was brought round 
Cape Horn in sailing vessels as balast and in lieu of other things as cheap 
freight. In this way cement was obtained in a comparatively small way 
reasonably cheap. From small beginnings it has worked its way up until 
it is indispensible in Southern California. At first in the construction 
of irrigating ditches, headgates, bulkheads, etc. The small irrigating 
ditches from which the water was supplied to the trees were wholly 
constructed of earth, but this was very unsatisfactory on account of 
breaks and waste of water. Then was tried sinking a board in the banks 
of the ditch with openings which could be regulated by a wooden move- 
able cleat, or made of tin nailed to the board with a slide to regulate the 
water. This seemed at first to be the acme of perfection. There were 
other things to consider, the main one, that of doing away with an 
unsightly ditch which was a favorable place for weeds, necessitating fre- 
quent cleaning, besides being a harbor for gophers and other pests that 
made occasional breaks. Then the boards themselves would rot out and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 661 

get broken needing renewal at times. This suggested the idea of a small 
flume or a wooden ditch which, when painted with tar and asphaltum, 
was a most convenient improvement and apparently imperishable. 

Rut again when such a fiume got to be old the joints began to draw 
apart and the seams to open, and the nails to rust out and renewal had 
to be made in about ten or fifteen years. Again animals and work tools 
would make breaks which were hard to repair, then the idea was sug- 
gested to make them of cement, and when well done they were well nigh 
imperishable, but occasionally the flume would get broken, but a little fresh 
cement and it was as good as new. There was though the flume itself 
which was somewhat in the way. Again it was suggested to bury the 
flume in the ground deep enough in the form of pipe with only a stand 
pipe with openings for irrigation at every row of trees. This is about 
the last thing in irrigation, except in place of putting in jointed pipes, a 
machine was invented tiiat would make and lay continuous pipe for irri- 
gation without any joints at all, until the machine has done so much work 
that there is about nothing else to be done except in new settlements. 
And the headgates are laid and the distributing boxes all made of cement, 
and so are all the pipes and appliances until the source of supply is 
reached. If it is the river, the structure and its foundations are laid firm 
and strong, so that there shall be no break away in a busy time, but 
everything is cement, even the ordinary farm bridges and latterly the con- 
crete road on the farm and the foundation of the house, even the house 
itself with all outbuildings are cement, and if fences are used in many 
cases, the posts are made of the same material. Immense quantities of 
it are being used on the farm and everything in connection with running 
water and the disposal of sewage. This is the answer that the farmer 
and fruit grower is making to the advocate, for the conservation of 
forests. When he takes his fruit to market or the packing house it is 
over a concrete road, and to a strictly up-to-date packing house or ware- 
house it also is of reinforced concrete. Our obsolete and retired battle- 
ships in place of reinforcing our fleets on the high seas may be turned 
by a Ford to reinforcing materials for our building everywhere, and our 
war weapons in place of doing duty as plowshares or pruning hooks, will 
be used in reinforcing our homes and making them substantial. This has 
been called the "iron age" with this view of it may we not call it the 
"cement age" for verily the cement men are literally removing mountains 
in their efforts to minister to the necessities of the present age. This 
by way of an introduction to the Riverside Portland Cement works. 

The following is taken from the woman's edition of the Riverside 
Enterprise of July, 1913. 

"There are probably many people in Riverside who have but a faint 
conception, if any, of the magnitude that the cement industry has attained 
at the present day. 

In the vear 1912 there was produced in the United States some eighty- 
two million barrels of cement, over ten million barrels of this amount 
being manufactured on the Pacific Coast. 

Riverside can feel proud of the part it has taken in the production 
of this cement, for it has located within three miles of the city, one of 
the most modern up-to-date cement mills to be found anywhere in the 
country, with a capacity of 5,000 (now 7,000) barrels daily, giving 
employment to over six hundred men, with a payroll averaging between 
eighty and ninety thousand dollars monthly. 

This cement plant is known as tlie Riverside Portland Cement Com- 
pany, and it is producing a brand of cement so uniform in quality and 
giving such excellent results that it is becoming difficult for the manufac- 



662 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

turers to supply the demand. In the year 1912 nearly a million and a 
half of barrels of its product was shipped, or over 7,500 carloads. 

Portland cement is so called because the artificial stone first made 
from it resembled Portland stone much used in England as a building 
material. It is usually made from limestone and clay, the active elements 
in which are lime, silica, alumina and ferric oxide. The raw material 
is brought into the plant properly mixed and then ground to a fine 
powder. This powder is then run into a long tube called a kiln. This 
kiln is from 5 feet to 8 feet in diameter and from 80 feet to 125 feet in 
length. It lies almost horizontally and slowly revolves, the raw material 
being fed into the upper end and by gravity gradually carried through 
the kiln passing out at the lower end. The fire is applied directly into 
the tube at the lower end, the flames often reaching the whole length of 
the kiln. In the kiln the limestone and clay are burned to the point of 
incipient fusion, and then dropped out of the kiln in the form of a 
clinker. This clinker has all the properties of cement, and in order to 
make it available commercially it is only necessary to finely grind it so 
as to properly divide its particles and add about two per cent of gypsum, 
which acts as a retarder and regulator of the setting time of the cement. 

It is at this stage of the manufacture of cement where the troubles 
with "cement dust" (so-called) have to be reckoned with, for in the 
process of burning the raw material small particles of finely ground rock 
are carried ofif through the kiln stacks bv the gases from the kilns, these 
gases acquiring considerable velocity as they pass through the kiln stacks. 
The combination of extreme heat, the intense draft and these heavy gases 
tend to pick up and carrv up the stacks a portion of the most finely 
powdered limestone and clay dust as it is poured into the kiln at the 
upper end. 

This has caused severe complaint among the ranchers in the vicinity of 
the cement plant, they claiming the dust is harmful to surrounding crops 
and shrubbery. This still remains an open ouestion ; it is also yet an 
open question, in fact, whether it is any more harmful than road dust or 
any other kind of dust. 

The orange growers maintain that it is, while the companv maintains 
that the neighborhood troubles are due to other things besides cement 
dust. The region is a windy one, the frosts the last two winters have 
been severe and the growers' methods of fertilization and cultivation have 
also been criticized. Altogether it is a complex question. 

To overcome this difficulty, however, the company has for several 
years been making many experiments to discover a method of catching 
this dust as it was emitted from the kiln stacks. They went into this 
matter very thoroughlv and much time and monev was expended by them 
on the problem. They were really pioneers in this work, for no company 
had ever before gone into the matter with as much persistency and deter- 
mination to succeed as they did. After many experiments thev finally 
decided upon what is known as the electrostatic dust precipitation sys- 
tem, or lateral system. So confident were they of the success of this 
new system that they went to an additional expense of over a quarter 
of a million dollars to install ten dust treaters. These treaters are now 
in operation and give every promise of meeting fully every requirement 
expected of them, and the cement company already feels highly pleased 
with the results so far obtained. Considering the many uses to which 
cement is daily becoming adapted, it would seem the industry is only yet 
in its infancy. Modern skyscrapers, residences, bridges, culverts, piping, 
dams, reservoirs, canals, roadways, in fact, everything built these days 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 663 

is of cement and built to last. The da}' of permanent construction is 
here and good concrete is the one permanent structural material." 

There is but little further to report since the above was published. 
The company has continued to enlarge its plant until now it has a 
capacity of 7,000 barrels per day. A large rotary kiln for serving 
clinker storage has been installed, which is rather unique in the industry. 
During the war a highly successful process for extracting potash from 
cement flue dust was developed and operated for several years, but at 
the present time it is not operated owing to the low price of German 
l^otash, which has made the production of home potash unprofitable. 

The company now carries life insurance in favor of all its employees, 
free of expense to them, which becomes effective as soon as the employee 
has been six months in the employment of the company, gradually increas- 
ing as the term of service increases. 

Shipments of cement are made throughout all the southwestern states 
and also Mexico, Central America, the west coast of South America, 
and the Hawaiian Islands, and occasionally to Oregon, Washington and 
British Columbia. 

The ]\I.anuf.\cture of Ice. To an outsider it would look as if the 
manufacture of ice would occupy but an insignificant place in the fruit 
industry of Riverside and California, but when we take into consideration 
the fact that whenever the weather gets the least warm not a car of 
fruit leaves the packing house without being in a refrigerator car and 
iced from its initial start to its destination with at least five tons of ice 
in its bunkers. Out in the Imperial Valley, where it is much warmer, 
before a car ever starts for the packing house it has to be first cooled 
ofif before it can be used at all, and the ice has to be replenished at inter- 
vals during its long journey East. The one item of 10,600 cars of canta- 
lopes shipped from the Imperial Valley in 1921 in the short space of 
about two months will begin to give an idea of the importance of the 
ice business to Southern California. Ten thousand carloads of grapes 
were shipped out of the State in one month, all iced. It is currently 
reported thrt one railroad alone used one million tons of ice in its 
refrigrator business last year. The railroads in addition to furnishing 
refrigerating cars, also furnish the ice for the whole trip. 

The National Ice and Cold Storage Company has an ice manufactory 
in Riverside which has been in operation since 1893. The factory at 
that time was small with a capacity of but 12 tons per day. The growth 
of the citrus industry and the expansion of the city and surrounding 
country has increased the demand for ice so, that the company had to 
build a new factory in a more favorable location with a much increased 
capacity and storage room which was done in 1906. A few years later 
there was added to the plant a thoroughly modern cold storage ware- 
house. The present output of the factory is sixty tons per day, with an 
ice storage capacity of 5,000 tons. 

The retail delivery system covers more than fifty square miles, much 
of it by auto truck, Ijut in closely settled places, horses are used in con- 
siderable numbers as they are more convenient in these locations than 
auto truck-J. Besides local use many car loads of ice are shii^ped to 
smaller towns in the county, besides furnishing large supplies to the rail- 
roads for icing fruit and vegetable shipments. 

The storage department has been an unqualified success, large cpianti- 
ties of goods for the local produce dealers, principally apples and eggs, 
this being of great value to buyers in this section. 



664 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

George L. Roberts, manager of the company's interests at Riverside 
since 1898, has been with the company for thirty years. In emergencies 
ice has been shipped to almost every part of the State. 

The company has manufactories in all the leading shipping towns of 
the State from Red Bluflf to Los Angeles. The plant is situated on the 
Santa Fe railroad at the head of Twelfth Street. 

Citrus Fairs. The citrus fair is an institution peculiar to Riverside 
as such a thing was not ever heard of until Riverside became a producer 
of citrus fruits, and had its inception in the very early days of the settle- 
ment when the orange tree was first planted. But little could be got from 
what little planting there was. The old trees at the Mission San Gabriel 
had been growing for a good many years, and bearing fine oranges and 
private parties near San Gabriel and in Los Angeles, notably the Wolf- 
skill orchard of two thousand trees was flourishing and paying large 
returns. There were no works on the subject that were available and 
what few there were in the Spanish language. Old San Bernardino had 
a few growing trees in partial bearing, showing that the orange would 
grow and bear inland, beyond the bounds of Riverside. As to the time 
of planting and the care of the trees, but little was known and the gen- 
eral supposition was that the same care and method of treatment bestowed 
on deciduous trees would be proper for orange trees, but sad experience 
soon convinced us to the contrary. An orange tree, it was found, moved 
in winter, stood a poor chance of growing and they could be moved in 
the height of summer and do well. As the orange tree has two or three 
periods of growth, it can be moved any time between these growths. Prob- 
ably the best time to plant is just before the spring growth begins, or 
even later in the month of May in warm weather. 

Orange growing in the early days was a fruitful topic for discussion, 
and when we first heard of orange trees without thorns or without seeds 
it was a subject of interest. The first settlers, many of them at least, 
started in by saving all the orange seeds they could get hold of and many 
of them made partial failures because of letting the seed dry out before 
planting. Other tree seeds with which they were acquainted all being 
dry when planted. Here was a new problem in growing semi-tropical 
evergreen trees and experience gained in this way was costly, and so 
whenever two or three settlers met together, orange culture came up for 
a share of discussion. 

The weekly newspaper was not in evidence to give currency to the 
daily news, which at best were meagre. November, 1875, saw the first 
issue of a small weekly, which at best, was a poor apology for a paper, 
but at that it was welcome, but being conducted by two young men who 
knew nothing of agriculture or horticulture it had but a checkered exist- 
ence for a year or so, to be started up later on once or twice finally 
"petering out." The outlook for a paper seemed discouraging, imtil 
James H. Roe, in 1878, started the Riverside Press, which was a great 
improvement, but Mr. Roe was not a farmer in any sense previous to 
coming to Riverside, but he was a live man and bought some government 
land, and in that way became interested in the progress of the colony. 
His business was selling drugs, his business education having fitted him 
for that. Being before the public in that way the regular reporter not 
yet being evolved, he had an opportunity of getting the news, especially 
in orange growing, and time went on and fruit trees became nearer fruit- 
age. 

Deciduous fruits came first into bearing and Los Angeles and tlie 
Southern California Horticultural Society, being but newly formed, held 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 665 

a fair in Los Angeles, October 19, 1878. On one or two previous 
occasions there was an exhibit of fruit at an agricultural fair, which in 
reality was the nucleus of the Horticultural Society. J. De Barth Shorb 
was president and L. M. Holt secretary of the society. Mr. Holt was 
really the life of the society, as there was an appropriation from the 
State, and being a salaried officer he could devote the whole of his time 
to the work. A horticultural paper which he conducted was also a great 
help. The fair was favored by the leading citizens of Los Angeles and 
various proposals were made on behalf of buildings and building lots, 
among the rest, Newmark and Company who were the leading men in 
Los Angeles, in a commercial way offered a lot on a 99 year lease at 
a nominal rent. 

The result of it all was the donation of a large lot by P. Beaudry 
on the high ground half a mile or more up from the junction of Main 
and Spring streets, with a cable car line running past it. The lot was 
large and roomy with a frontage of 200 feet running back over 300 feet 
to another street. A large pavilion was planned, one section of which 
v/as built at a cost of $8,000 to be finished in time for the fair. The 
grading of the lot cost $1,100. Contributions were liberal and everything 
was in readiness for the fair, which was a success in every way, and was 
attended by the Governor of the State, General Stoneman, and other dig- 
nitaries as well as all the leading fruit growers of the four Southern 
counties. Riverside had a good representation, considering that it wa? 
a four days trip by wagon there and back to take an exhibit, as there 
was no other method of travel except by stage by way of San Bernardino. 
Everything from Riverside took a premium. James Boyd with the 
largest display took several premiums, mostly firsts, on sundried peeled 
peaches a diploma regardless of whether they were machine dried or sun- 
dried. Twogood and Russell had a display of fruit in glass which was 
commended, but as there was no premium offered none was given. 
Carleton and Brown (E. G.) took the premium on raisins with the remark 
of the judges that they had never seen better raisins, either California 
grown or Spanish. Premium of $15 was equally divided between them. 
Honey was also on exhibit from Riverside and San Diego. Riverside 
honey being characterized as "white as printing paper." The total receipts 
of the fair were $3,151 — compare that with the total receipts of the last 
Riverside fair of October, 1921, of $80,000, or the San Bernardino citrus 
fair of 1921 of about $60,000. 

Interesting discussions on various fruit questions were held, which were 
reported in the papers of the time. This was before the Los Angeles 
Times was established with its mammoth mid-winter edition of nearly 
300 pages. Los Angeles then had a population of about 10,000 with a 
valuation of less than some city blocks in 1921. The Los .Angeles fair 
suggested a citrus fair in Riverside with the proviso, that if it was to be 
held, a suitable building would be required. At the Los Angeles fair 
one of the questions asked was what and where is Riverside? That 
was in 1878, now no one in the United States needs to ask that question. 

When Riverside starts out to do anything, she generally succeeds, 
and by a strenuous exertion and contributions of labor and money ,_ the 
first public hall for citrus fruit exhibitions was ready for the first citrus 
fair ever held in the United States or elsewhere. This was held on 
February 12 and 13, 1879. Naturally the exhibit was small as com- 
pared with the modern citrus fair, and it was an exhibit on plates each 
exhibitor to bring his own plates. There were 275 separate plates, boxes 
or bunches in all. Some exhibitors had fifteen or twenty plates. There 
was also a local orchestra that furnished music for the occasion. There 



666 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

were a few exhibits other than citrus fruits. Messrs. De Barth Shorb 
of Los Angeles, and Elwood Cooper of Santa Barbara had oHve oil. 

The Kinibal brothers of National City had pickled olives. Ripe olives 
by Craft of Crafton and Beers and Boyd of Riverside. Prunes by 
Boyd and lemons by many growers in variety mostly seedlings. Next 
to irrigation the hall was prounounced the greatest convenience in River- 
side, but a year or two more and it was pronounced too small, and sold 
to the Odd Fellows. 

The discussion and investigations of fruit matters which today seem 
trivial, were of the utmost consequence at the time, and laid the founda- 
tion of coming things of more importance, such as farmers' clubs, farm- 
ers' institutes, finally culminating in our state experimental stations. 
Among the serious and important matters discussed was that of lemons, 
all of which were seedlings. It was a matter of great concern that all of 
the seedling lemons had a bitter pulp which was conveyed in the juice 
rendering it very objectionable for lemonade or pies. Committees were 
appointed to experiment with lemons and try the juice by letting stand 
over night, all with the same result. That report of the committee after 
experimenting with twenty-eight samples was that none of the seedlings 
could be recommended. It was fortunate at this juncture that the seed- 
ling lemon got gum disease in the root and in a short time most of the 
seedlings were dead from that disease. From that time on lemons have 
been budded on orange root and the Eureka and Lisbon lemons have 
taken the market, and are pronounced superior to the imported lemon 
in point of acid. 

There was quite a discussion on the relative merits of budded and 
seedling oranges, which was not finally settled for a year or two, but in 
a gathering of that kind where all the leading growers were represented 
there soon came to be some light thrown on the matter. However, the 
fact was established at the fair that the Washington navel was the "best 
orange in every respect." This was the first public exhibit of the Washing- 
ton navel, as the few trees that were budded were just beginning to bear. 
Only a year previous the first Washington navel was tested at the home 
of G. W. Gar.celon by a few growers and pronounced the best orange. 
At the fair there were a few specimens of the Malta blood and Mediter- 
ranean sweets, then known as the Du Roi, which were pronounced 
excellent. There were, too, a good many of good budded seedlings. 
There were no oranges on exhibit from north of the Tehachapi, although 
the fair committee requested exhibits and offered to pay express charges. 

James Boyd opened the discussion on planting, cultivation, transpor- 
tation, etc., which was partaken in by such men as Blanchard of Santa 
Paula, Higgins of San Diego, Dr. Shorb of San Gabriel, Van Leuven of 
old San Bernardino, Jas. Bettner and many others of that time, all since 
dead except Boyd, Waite and a very few others. 

That fair was such a success in everv way that it paved the way for 
others. Not the least of the benefits of the fair was the large amount 
of advertising it gave to Riverside itself, as all visitors to .Southern Cali- 
fornia at the time made it a special part of the visit to see the fair. Soon 
the public hall was too small for the annual fair, and the building was 
sold, and in two or three years a large pavilion was erected with com- 
modious rooms for meetings which v.'as ample for gatherings of all kinds, 
but it was burned, and the purpose of the fairs having been fairly 
well accomplished for some years they were suspended. .After the 
county was formed it was thought that a countv fair would be a good 
thing, and a forty acre tract was seciired about a mile from the city, and 
close to Fairmount Park, which has a very large equipment of buildings 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 667 

suitable for fair purposes, with a very fast half mile track with com- 
modious grandstand capable of seating a good many thousands, but the 
the fair committee requested exhibits and offered to pay express charges, 
is now too small, and it is going to be enlarged. From being at first a 
county fair and a good place for reunions of acquaintances from al! 
over the county, it has merged into what is now known as the Southern 
California Fair, with visitors and exhibits from all over the State south 
of San Francisco. In some respects it is equal to the State Fair. Some 
of the best exhibits of stock have been had for the last few vears. The 
exhibits of produce from various counties have been very extensive and 
varied and competition has been keen. As the name implies, the fair 
aims to take in and be recognized as serving the whole of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and to the South what the State Fair is to the North. A small 
appropriation of money has been given by the state to be expended 
in premiums solely. The county also contributes towards its success. 
The horse races are also an attractive feature For the season of 1921. 
tiie total receipts of the fair have been $80,000. This is the only fair in 
the State outside of the State Fair that makes a financial success. The 
grounds occupied by the fair are practically owned by the City of River- 
side, and ar? in close touch with the Pacific Electric and steam railways. 
When Riverside abandoned the citrus fair in favor of county fair 
with all the usual accompaniments of such a fair. San Bernardino 
County took up the citrus fair and for several years past has made a 
complete success of it, and in a great measure the two counties co-operate 
together, each helping the other's fair and thus making a greater success 
than would be alone. Exhibits come to these citrus fairs from all parts 
of the State where oranges are grown. At the fair of 1921 about $50,- 
000 was taken in from all sources. 

The Woman's Club. The Woman's Club may well be classed among 
the older organizations of Riverside, for it has been in existence for a 
period of over twenty-five years. 

At first when a Woman's Club was heard of, it was received as a 
wonder by the men folks and the question was asked, whatever could .the 
women want by organizing a club? We had been hearing of woman's 
right and woman suffrage away in the dim and misty past, and of bloomer 
costumes with a good deal of ridicule, and even of active opposition from 
certain quarters so long ago, in fact, that the name of Susan B. Anthony 
is not to the younger generation much more than a tradition, but for all 
that, universal suffrage is today a fact without creating a revolution. 
But a "\\^oman's Club," whoever heard of such nonsense? What is it 
anyway? No one seemed to be able to throw any light on the movement. 
Could not the women "ask their husbands at home" as had been written 
ages ago, and submitted to for just as long? 

At first Women's Clubs were looked on by men as something sort of 
mysterious, and as no men were admitted, there was all the more curiosity 
manifested by them. However, they came to be recognized as legitimate 
institutions as time went on. 

Mrs. M. E. Hewitt is the original suggestor of the idea in Riverside. 
and in conjunction with Mrs. Dr. Sarah E. Maloy, a recent comer from 
Chicago, a club was organized with 16 charter members at the oflfice 
rooms of Dr. Sarah E. Maloy on January. 1896, membership increasing 
immediately to about 35 members. 

There were four subdivisions almost from the start, viz., an Ar< 
Class, a Home Class, a Review Class and a Music Class. 



668 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Started with the design to make an organization where character, 
not social position or wealth, should be the basis of club aristocracy, the 
Woman's Club has grown until it is one of the permanent and most valued 
institutions of the city. The meetings were held at first in the homes of 
the members, later in leased public halls, but finally in the splendid 
Woman's Club house erected for their use. The club had some 200 
members to start with. While educational and social features have been 
its leading characteristics, the club has given its influence and material 
assistance in behalf of other organizations and for the beautifying of the 
city. The first building on the corner of Main and Eleventh streets was 
built by stock issued, which was bought up, not only by the members, 
but the citizens also, the organization that had charge of the building 
and building fund was incorporated under the title of the Woman's Club 
House Association, the board of directors being chosen from active mem- 
bers of the Woman's Club. In 1908 the building was completed and 
occupied, the building and contents representing an outlay of $25,000. 

1 he Wednesday Morning Club, with a charter membership of one 
hundred, was organized in 1902 primarily to study parliamentary usage 
and train its members in presenting orally their views on important cur- 
rent events, and also to stimulate a public spirit, which should induce 
improved sanitary conditions and the further beautifying of the city. 
Mrs. Mary E. Darling, former president of the State Federation of Clubs 
was the founder of the Wednesday Morning Club. They were very 
active during the war in all the various labors in connection with the 
soldiers welfare, both at home and abroad, and in providing for the com- 
fort and welfare of those who were called out. So also were they active 
in promoting the sale of all the various bond issues by the National 
Government and in seeing that Riverside did her full share in raising 
the money. Also working with the Red Cross and the Salvation Army 
in every useful and necessary work. 

In 1916 the club sold the fine building that had been occupied so use- 
fully and beneficially, to the Elks. Since that time being without any 
building the women have not been idle, but have been meeting in rented 
quarters. This was found to be inconvenient and another movement 
was made in 1921 looking towards a new building, the result of which 
has been that a large lot was secured on the corner of Walnut and Tenth 
streets, which is likely to be ample for the needs of the club for many 
years to come. Mrs. H. E. DeNyse president of the club was one of the 
active members in raising the funds for the new building, quite a large 
balance being held over from the former building sold. The total invest- 
ment in the new building will represent something like $25,000, part of 
which has been raised gradually by the active work of wiUing members. 
Not the least part of the useful work of the members has been in 
influencing legislation along special lines in which women have been 
especially interested. Membership in the club is gradually increasing. 
The new building was ready for occupation on January 31. 1922. 

Mission Inn 

The Mission Inn of Riverside it might be said is one of the wonders 
of the world and is a great reminder of the Arabian Nights and Aladdin 
and his wonderful lamp. The foundation was laid about 1877 and was 
an unpretentious two-story building made of adobes or unburned clay 
blocks which Mr. Miller, the "Master of the Inn," helped make by taking 
off his shoes and tramping the clay with his bare feet. The buildings 
today occupy a whole city block of two and a half acres, between Sixth 



SAN RERXARDIXO AND RIVRRSIDE COUNTIES cm 

aiul Seventh and Main and (^ranj^e streets, three stories hij^h witli a solid 
frontage of buildings on three streets, the main entrance being mainly 
occupied by the frontage and grounds on Seventh Street. In addition 
to this two and a half-acre block there are tvi'o large buildings adjoining 
on the opposite side of Sixth Street containing quarters for the employes, 
etc., as the original buildings are inadequate for the needs of the hotel 
proper. The open court in the center of the square is used as an open 
air dining room in the summer with a spacious awning to shut out the 
direct rays of the sun. It would be impossible in the space at command 
to give anything of a detailed description of the inn : there are so many 
features apart from an ordinary inn. The aim has been to build up and 
perpetuate all the best features of the Spanish colonization of both 
North and South America, and old Spain. 

It is an extensive museum for curiosities of all sorts of Spanish and 
Indian antiques, crosses, bells, pictures, etc. (as well as speciments of 
curios from other parts of the world), mainly illustrative of the religious 
life of the padre missionaries. The music room and chapel are in con- 
stant use for services and meetings and in connection with the Sunday 
evening song services which are a great attraction to guests of the Inn 
and specially invited guests from the outside and one has only to attend 
one of these musical evenings to be put in a frame of mind that would 
convince without any argument how easy it would be to be good while 
enjoying the harmonies of the occasion. Space will only permit the 
following: 

The Glenwood Mission Inn — Famous Tourist Hotel 
by j. r. g.xbbert of the riverside enterprise 

Story of Frank A. Miller's efforts to reproduce outstanding archi- 
tectural features of all old missions of California commemorating early 
Franciscan Fathers and their work : 

While at -Atlantic City last summer in attendance upon the sessions of 
an international organization, with about 8,000 delegates present. I wore 
a badge upon which was the name of Riverside. Some of the expressions 
from those who saw that name were as follows : 

"Riverside. California. How well I remember being there once at 
the Mission Inn." 

"Do you know Frank Miller? Well, when you get back to California, 
say 'Hello, Friend Miller,' for me." 

"Riverside ! Say. isn't that the place where they turned an old mission 
into a hotel ?" 

"Beautiful Riverside, the Mission City of California." 

These are fair paraphrases, written down shortly afterward, to be 
treasurer and printed sometime in Riverside and to record the impression 
that at least 90 per cent of the people met with during five weeks of travel 
about the East, immediately associated the Glenwood Mission Inn and 
its master, Frank A. Miller, with the name of Riverside. At least that 
large a percentage of the people who have ever heard of Riverside refer, 
casually or directly, to the most unique hotel of this country. Those who 
have never visited Riverside but have heard of it at all, have also heard of 
the Mission Inn and Mount Rubidoux. Some of them have fantastic ideas 
about both, but they do have ideas and that is a lot. 

Writing this story of the Glenwood Mission Inn and its dominant 
personality, I am not doing so from the point of view of a reporter, or 
space writer, but from the point of view of an observer of eight years 
standing. The impressions I am voicing will probably appear hackneyed 
and commonplace to most Riversiders, but they may appear to some of 



670 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

the hundreds who have never visited Riverside in such a hght as to create 
within their hearts a desire to come to Riverside and spend some of their 
days at the Inn and to become acquainted with its master in his own 
home, for the Inn is Hterally the home of Frank Miller and his family 
and has been for many years. What the Glenwood Mission Inn is today 
is an embodiment of a life's dream, nearing- completion, but not com- 
pleted, s^^rowing each year a little nearer to an ideal establishment in the 
mind of its great creator, many years ago. 

The building of the Inn was the first attempt in California to per- 
petuate California Mission traditions and the history of their influence 
upon West Coast civilization as the traditions of Plymouth Rock and 
the Old South Church have been preserved along the Atlantic Coast. 
Every village and hamlet of New England is treasuring the mementoes 
and keepsakes of the Colonial days and the stories of the heroes who make 
American independence a possibility. Everywhere is still felt the influence 
of the Pilgrim Fathers. The old burying groimds are preserved as sacred, 
even in the middle of great cities, where the property so dedicated is worth 
fabulous sums. 

But Frank Miller, son of a veteran of the Civil war, intensely patriotic 
and holding in greatest reverence the eastern traditions of his forebears, 
grew from boyhood in California and, being a poet by nature and a 
dreamer, siezed in his early youth upon the fact that the old California 
had a civilization antedating the American Revolution and began to 
wonder what it was that had made such a civilization possible. He learned 
of the Franciscan Fathers, who braved the dangers of the explorer and 
landed on the California coast, building, under the leadership of Father 
Junipero Serra, a chain of Missions from San Diego to San Francisco, 
established one full day's journey on foot apart, and connected by El 
Camino Real, the King's Highway, in reality little more than a winding 
trail among the foothills of which the California poet, John McGroarty. 
says in one of his stanzas : 

It's a long road and sunny, it's a long road and old. 
And the brown padres made it for the flocks of the fold, 
They made it for the sandals of the summer-folk that trod 
From the fields in the open to the shelter-house of God. 

It hurt Frank Miller's sense of the fitness of things that the work 
started so wonderfully well by the "Brown Padres" should have been 
allowed to be obscured by the onrush of Americans. Grasping greed of 
the money-makers and the rush of settlers, who came along with the gold- 
seekers, and before, resulted in the abandonement of some of the missions 
and their walls were alowed to fall into ruins. Some of them, around 
which towns and cities were builded, were preserved and others were 
rebuilt. The Riverside innkeeper had a vision of the possibility of creat- 
ing a great building which would preserve in solid masonry all of the 
outstanding architectural features of the missions of the padres. He 
realized that such a structure would be ideal for Southern California 
weather, delightfully cool in summer and warm and cozy in winter. It 
should be surrounded by pepper trees, introduced by the Mission Fathers, 
and handed down to California city builders as an ideal ornamental tree 
for street decoration. 

So this hotel man became the leading spirit in the revival of mission 
architecture in Southern California. He planned, fought for and built 
the hotel of his dreams, a Mission Hotel, with cool cloistered walks, 
shaded court, tower of the bells and the other wonderful mission features 
which have been imitated so often in recent pieces of architecture, but 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 671 

equalled by no other buildings in this country. He began the collection 
of the mementoes of the Spanish and Mexican occupation. He secured 
valuable Spanish paintings, which lead to the building of a Spanish art 
gallery in a new wing of the hotel, and he is still planning new features 
that it will take several years to complete. 

This brief story of the Glenwood Mission Inn is entirely inadequate, 
but gives some of the outstanding features of the hotel. No stranger to 
the community feels that he has seen Riverside until he has visited it. 
It has influenced the entire character of the community life. Instead of 
being an industrial center, the city has become an educational city, a city 
of happy, prosperous homes, of churches, parks and shaded streets. It 
has come to take on many of the characteristics of the Inn, being roomy, 
well shaded, comfortable and is constantly attracting more and more 
people to it who desire to live in it all of the remaining years of their 
lives. 

When the present Glenwood Inn grew into tangible form, it imme- 
diately attracted national attention and since has come to be known inter- 
nationally as a hotel unique among hotels. It breathes the spirit of the 
old mission days, the hospitality of the Mission Fathers and the holders 
of the old Spanish grants. There is a dignity about the place which 
develops an immediate feeling of quietness and repose. The gilded 
palaces that are commonly met with in the great hostelries, with their 
garish decorations and marble halls are conspicuous by contrast with the 
Glenwood Mission Inn. It is said at the Inn that you cannot be grand 
and comfortable at the same time and the Miller family prefers to be 
comfortable and it happens that the people who come to the Inn year 
after year to spend a few months of the winter, prefer the same thing. 

The demand on the part of the tourists for California keepsakes, has 
resulted in the Curio Room at the Inn and innumerable corridors and 
sequestered nooks in the basement, where there are Oriental curios, old 
Indian relics and all sorts of pioneer mementoes, which may be purchased 
for the collection of those to whom they appeal. Through all of these 
underground passages are reminders of the Missions, including a com- 
plete collection of the Ford paintings of all of the Missions, as they 
appeared in the early '80s, some of them showing a number of views. 
There are also many mammoth photographs of mission scenes, appearing 
as transparencies in the windows of the corridors. 

The most conspicuous feature of the Inn, and the one most loved by 
its friends, is the Cloister Music Room, fitted with a great pipe organ, 
where there are several programs of music each day and from where the 
ringing of bells of the bell tower is controlled. It is in the quiet, semi- 
religious atmosphere of this room, that a Sunday night hour of music, 
including the familiar old songs, is held. It has grown out of the family 
custom of years standing and is continued through the year. Those 
present participate in group singing and there are readings of some 
appropriate selections from the fund of literature selected by DeWitt 
Hutchings, son-in-law of Frank Miller. 

A few years ago, after returning from a European tour in quest of 
ideas for hotels in keeping with the Spanish architecture and ideas of 
the Inn, Mr. Miller established his famous court dining room, out under 
the blue sky, and shaded during the day from the sun by immense awnings, 
spread from one of the wings of the hotel to another. The larger part 
of the year, diners have their meals in this court, including breakfast, 
luncheon and dinner. It is a pleasant experience for the eastern tourist, 
fleeing a January storm at the old home, to have his first meal, after 
coming over the Cajon Pass and into Southern California, in this open 
air dining place. 



SAN BERXARDIXO AND R1\'ERS1DE COUNTIES 673 

!''r.ink Miller is a Icarlcr in the comniunitv life of River'ide aivl the 
hotel is the center of many social features. He has ])een in the forefront 
of the outstanding civic movements that have made Riverside distinctive 
among the cities of Southern California in a number of ways, in addition 
to mere attractiveness. It was his vision that made an annual event 
of the Easter Morning service on Mount Rubidoux. The first service 
came as a suggestion from Jacob Riis, the world famous philanthropist 
and philosopher. Its permanence has been the result of the perseverance 
of Frank. Miller. The service has grown steadily each year, until it has 
come to mean that from 15,000 to 20,000 people each Easter Sunday 
morning make their way to the summit of the mountain and partici])ate 
in a service that has become ritualistic in character. 

Many worthy community movements are given their inception in the 
Glenwood Mission Inn. The master of the Inn has been a leader in manv 
campaigns of the other days to secure such iniDrovements as Sherman 
Indian School, the United States Army aviation field and school at March 
Field, the University of California Citrus Experiment Station, the Uni- 
versity Farm School, putting over the war drives and many efforts in 
behalf of worthy local institutions, all of which have been successful 
as a result of the "luncheon plan," devised by Mr. Miller. In these elTorts, 
leaders, of difl'erent community activities were usually called to the Inn 
as the guests of the master of the Inn. There, following a delightful 
repast, there would be unfolded to them some fine communitv idea. 
Before the meeting would disperse there would be a substantial start 
made toward a permanent organization and the success of the venture 
was always assured from that time forward. 

The people of Riverside participate in the social life at the Inn and 
mingle with the guests. During the season there are dances given every 
Saturday night for guests and there are usually a large number of 
dinner parties made up of Riverside society folk who participate in the 
social affairs that follow. Every other week night dancing is enjoved 
in the ref rectory dining room between the hours of 9 and 11 o'clock. 

The true character of the Glenwood Mission Inn mav be tested by 
the condition that obtain behind the scenes as well as in the lobbv. The 
traveling tourists are as greatly interested in and really marvel more 
at the kitchen than thev do about the beauties of the rest of the hotel. 
The kitchen is as spotless as a perfectly appointed drug store. It has 
attractive Mission Day paintings on the ceilings and walls. The floor is 
of tile and the comfort of the operatives is carefully planned with perfect 
ventilation. The average temperature there is little higher than that of 
the rest of the hotel. It is in the management of this department and 
the household features of the entire hotel that Mrs. .'Mice Richardson, 
sister of Frank Miller, is an important personage. Mrs. Richardson 
is in reality the manager of the great hotel and efficiency expert in making 
things go. She is one of the dominant characters of the family group. 

Mrs. Frank A. Miller is an essential partner in the Inn. She has 
apparently always been essential for its success and welfare. She is 
the constant companion of Mr. Miller in all of his rest hours, many of 
which are spent at Arch Beach in the family cottage and she is also his 
constant confidant and advisor in all business matters relating to the 
operation of the great hotel. 

Mrs. Alice Hutchings, daughter of Mr. Miller, has grown up in the 
Inn froin girlhood. It is as much a part of her life as any home could be. 
She specializes in the purchasing department, particularly for the curio 
room. 

The employes of the Inn form a part of the Mission Inn family, also. 
They are intensely loyal to the institution and all of the executives have 



674 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

been there for many years. They participated during all the war period 
as a distinct group, always co-operating on a 100 per cent basis in all of 
these activities. Many members of the official family, including women 
as well as men, enlisted in different forms of war service, the service flag 
now including some golden stars. 

It would be impossible to do justice to the Mission Inn. To describe 
it is beyond the writer's powers, and nothing short of a complete catalogue 
of the almost innumerable curios, antiques, works of art, historical relics 
of not merely momentary but also of historical value, the like of which 
is probably not to be found in the museums and depositories of the whole 
world. There is probably the greatest collection of bells to be found 
anywhere collected from the whole world of belldom. The collection of 
crosses is also large, rare and invaluable. The whole inn is a museum 
of everything in connection. 

The wonder is how Mr. Miller coming here a comparatively poor 
boy, without anything more it might be said than the merest rudiments 
of education, has been able to do so much of what really requires a 
world wide experience. 

At a complimentary informal surprise dinner given to him on Febru- 
ary 3, 1922, Mr. Miller in giving an acknowledgement of the honor 
tendered him, whose whole knowledge of inn-keeping and building the 
most remarkable monument to the Mission Fathers and their labors in 
California, embracing all that is best and most valuable, not only in 
California but in Europe, Spain especially, a monument that will be 
lasting and which will perpetuate a feature of the Roman Catholic Mis- 
sion and the unselfish labors of a past devotion, enthusiasm, self-sacrifice 
( almost fanaticism ) thas has passed away and can never return. 

But the Mission Inn has another feature of the missions that is 
almost forgotten. They were the only inns of California and the traveler 
could travel the whole length and breadth of the land and fare on the 
best at the missions without money and without price. Almost the 
Mission Inn has reproduced the same features ecclesiastically, for if there 
is ever a poor preacher traveling for his health or otherwise he is always 
welcome at the Mission Inn and it would seem that the more Mr. Miller 
gives in this way the more he receives. And this is not given ostenta- 
tiously for "his right hand knoweth not what his left hand doeth" 
and it is only incidentally that these things are known at all. His minis- 
trations are not confined to religious objects for they are everywhere 
when you come to inquire and not confined to his friends but to his 
enemies, or detractors and the only question is, are you needy, not merely 
of the necessities but do you need sympathy or encouragement ? Are 
you unfortunate? For instance, the writer was burned out of house 
and home a few years ago, with a sick wife. When Mr. Miller heard 
of it he came out with the message : "Come to the Mission Inn for ten 
days. If your wife is sick she can have her meals in her room and every 
attention." Fortunately a loving daughter had responded and taken her 
mother to her own home. At a later period, when that loving companion, 
after fifty-three years of companionship, passed over the silent river and 
the home was solitary and silent, again the message came sympathetically. 
"I know how you feel, I have been through the troubled waters come 
to the Mission Inn for a time and new scenes will renew and revive your 
lonely and sad heart." The invitation was accepted and the good-will 
and prayer beneficial. Mr. Miller is the good Samaritan to many a down 
and out one who needs not only assistance but encouragement until the 
tide turns and employment elsewhere turns up, and the needy one goes 
rejoicing on his way. These are the things that make the Inn prosperous 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 675 

and that is the spirit tliat starting out without a penny, as it were, has 
drawn to itself a something that niilhons could not create. Mr. Miller 
has well said, that he does not know just how lie got the Mission Inn. 
It just "growed." It is indeed like a fairy tale from out the Arabian 
Nights. Mr. Miller got the magician's wand and he waved it and wished 
and we have the Mission Inn. and the end is not yet. "Blessed are the 
poor in spirit : for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." 

Mr. Miller's benefactions have been so great and helpful in making 
Riverside noted, not merely locally but throughout the United States 
and indeed through the world, not only by the Mission Inn but by making 
Mount Rubidoux a public shrine on Easter day and otherwise. It was 
felt that on the twentieth anniversary of opening what is in modern times 
called the Mission Inn, something of a public recognition of his personal 
worth and public services should be had. Accordingly a call was made 
by a few of the leading citizens and pioneers to give emphasis to what 
was in reality a public sentiment to take the form of an informal surprise 
dinner to Mr. Miller, the Master of the Inn, as he is usually termed. 
Invitations to the extent of two hundred were sent out to all of the old 
pioneers and others to assemble on February 3, 1922, to do honor to the 
man and the occasion and to present a simple memorial and testimonial 
which took the form of an album, signed by all present and an enlarged 
photograph taken of Mr. Miller when he was about twenty-one. About 
two hundred guests were present and it was a very happy occasion, 
reminding the pioneers that it was probably the last occasion on which 
so many of them would again be present. 

This surprise dinner was participated in not merely by Mr. Miller's 
friends but by his detractors and opponents of the past and was really 
a universal public tribute. 

My first acquaintance with Mr. Miller was as a pruner and budder 
working for me at one dollar and fifty cents per day. My next, when 
I was working on the block on which the Inn now stands putting the 
preliminary work with my team for his father, levelling and getting 
ready for what was to come, and his son, Frank, now the Master of the 
Inn, without his shoes treading clay to make bricks. More or less I 
have had dealings with him ever since, but never have I known him 
(saying it in common parlance) to "fall down." This from one who 
has known him in all his Riverside career of well on to fifty years. 

Toy Balloons. Among the industries of Riverside there is one that 
always brings pleasure to the boys and girls, and that is the manufacture 
of toy balloons. While it has not been established much more than two 
years it is in a flourishing condition. 

The Pacific Balloon Company of Riverside. It was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of California on November 14, 1919, with a 
capital of $100,000. The company is engaged in the manufacture of toy 
balloons and toys having balloons as a base or part. 

The factory which the company erected at 186 Blaine Street, River- 
side, has 10,000 square feet of floor space, and is capable of turning out 
20.000 balloons per day with thirty employes. This is the only factorv 
of its kind on the Pacific Coast and it is building up a large business in 
the territory west of the Mississippi River. 

The officers of the company are ; Harold A. Dodge, president and 
Donald Fullerton, secretary and treasurer. 

The customers of the company are largely in the ten cent stores, 
but many large stores in the cities draw a large patronage by giving 
balloons on purchases. 



BIOGRAPHICAL 

James W. Waters, a noted hunter, trapper and mountaineer of the 
Rocky Mountains, was born near Brainard's Bridge, in Renssellaer 
County, New York, June 20. 1813. 

In 1835 he started out, a young man. with his rifle in hand, bound for 
the Rocky Mountains and the great West to begin his career and fell in 
with those noted hunters, trappers and guides of the Rocky Mountains, 
Kit Carson, the Subletts, Major Fitzpatrick, the Bents, Bill Williams, 
John Brown, Sr., V. J. Herring. Joseph Bridger, Alexander Godey and 
others, famous in frontier life for deeds of valor with whom he hunted 
and trapped from the head waters of the Columbia and Yellowstone 
rivers along the mountain ranges as far south as Texas, through the 
country of the Arapahoes, Utes, Cheyennes, Sioux, Blackfeet, Coman- 
ches. Crows, Snakes and Apaches among whom he experienced many 
thrilling and hair-breadth escapes. On one occasion, when he and old 
Bill Williams were hunting on the Big Bottom, near the Rio Las Animas 
for three days and nights they were besieged by a band of Apaches. Mr. 
Waters was severely wounded by a rifle shot in his side. He cut the 
buttlet out on the other side of his body with his butcher knife; after 
holding the bloody savages at bay for three days without food, he and 
"Old Bill" escaped by riding their horses over a bluf? ten feet high and 
traveled forty miles before camping. Notwithstanding Mr. Waters' suf- 
fered greatly from his wound, his comrade bolstered him up with blan- 
kets around his saddle. They reached Bents' Fort in five days' ride. 
On another occasion over 800 Utes and Apaches surrounded him, ^Ir. 
Brown and sixteen other hunters who, by the most daring bravery, 
repulsed their assailants and made their escape, losing three of their 
men. 

These were among the numerous experiences of his adventurous life, 
which he followed until the year 1844 when he came across the plains 
with a pack train to Southern California, by way of the Santa Fe Trail 
and the Cajon Pass. At San Pedro he chartered a small sail boat and 
went down the coast to Lower California and returned with a cargo of 
abalone shells which he packed on mules, returning the way he came, 
back across the Rockies 2,000 miles and exchanged these beautiful she'ls 
with the Indians for beaver skins and buffalo robes. These he took to 
St. Louis by pack train and exchanged them so to obtain means to pur- 
chase supplies while hunting and trapping. 

About this time General Fremont desired him to act as guide for his 
expedition across the mountains to California. As winter was approach- 
ing and the snow on the mountains would most likely render the passes 
impassable, Mr. W'aters and his companions advised him not to under- 
take so perilous a journey at this time of the year. General Fremont 
did not heed this advice of these old mountaineers so familiar with the 
passes and trails, but ventured into an unknown region where he and his 
company nearly all perished in the deep snow, he barely escaping from 
his own folly. Had he taken the advice of the real pathfinders he would 
not have lost the lives of so many of his men nor suffered untold agonies 
in the snow banks of the Rockies. 

676 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 677 

For some time after the discovery of gold in California. 1848-49, Mr. 
Waters remained on Green River exchanging fresh horses for animals 
that had become exhausted in crossing the plains. In September, 1849, 
he came to California by the Southern route, through the Cajon Pass, to 
avoid the snows of the Sierra Nevadas, the most direct road then to the 
new gold discovery on the American River, near Sutter's Mill. . He 
served as guide for a company of 140 New Yorkers on this trip. 

He bought 900 head of sheep from Victor Prudonne and Col. Isaac 
^Villiams and drove them to the Merced River, where he sold them for 
$16 a head. He then purchased a herd of cattle and kept them at the 
Las Bolsas ranch. 

At San Juan Mission he was glad to meet his old friends, John Brown 
and Alexander Godey, and with them opened the St. John's Hotel and 
Livery Stable. 

In 1856 he came to San Bernardino and at Yucaipa married Miss 
Louisa Margetson, a most estimable ladv, who was born in England 
October 5, 1837, and died at Old San Bernardino February 28, 1879. His 
old Rocky Mountain friend, John Brown, being a justice of the peace, 
performed the marriage ceremony. 

The following year he purchased the Yucaipa from Mr. Brown and 
was a permanent resident of San Bernardino County from that time 
up to his death, which occurred September 20, 1889. 

He became the owner of a portion of the San Bernardino Rancho. 
He was a member of the Board of Supervisors of San Bernardino 
County during the years 1866-67, 1868-69, 1874-75, 1880-81. From the 
day of his settlement in this county he was loyal to his interests and 
exerted a wide influence in its aiifairs by his active energy and public 
spirit. The monuments he left behind to perpetuate his memory are the 
large brick building on the northeast corner of Third Street and Arrow- 
head Avenue, the brick building on Third Street, formerly used for 
the Court House ; his fine residence on Second and F streets, and, finally, 
the magnificent Opera House on D Street, in charge of his daughter, 
Mrs. Martha Waters Kiplinger, for many years. Mrs. Nettie Waters 
Cole still survives, also his son, Frederick. His son James W. Waters 
died some year ago. 

Don Cornelius Jensen was one of the supervisors of San Bernar- 
dino County, associated on the board with James W. Waters and John 
Garner during the years 1868-69. 

He was born on the Island of Sylt. off the coast of Denmark, in 1815. 
He went to sea at an early age, made several trips around Cape Horn, 
visiting South American porfs and Mexico and was in California as 
early as 1844. In 1854 he opened a store at Agua Mansa, on the hill 
ne&r the old church. He married Senorita Mercedes Alvarado, eldest 
daughter of Don Francisco Alvarado, one of the prominent Spanish 
families of San Bernardino County. The priests were frequently enter- 
tained at their home by Mr. and Mrs. Jenseit. They were highly 
esteemed by all who knew them. 

John Garner was a supervisor of San Bernardino County with 
James W. Waters and Don Cornelius Jensen during the years 1868-69. 

In 1850 he crossed the plains and arrived in San Bernardino in 1851. 
He became a successful farmer and one of the highly esteemed citizens 
of San Bernardino. 



678 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Dr. Ben Barton, an early settler of San Bernardino County, was 
born in South Carolina June 8, 1823. the son of Thomas Barton, a 
native of the same state and a descendant of a colonial family which has 
always been prominent, several members having served in the American 
armies during the Revolution, and one member, Major Barton, being 
famous for his deeds of bravery in the cause of freedom. 

Doctor Barton was brought up on the old family estate, which he 
left in 1843 to pursue his professional studies in Lexington, Kentucky. 
After completing his course in medicine, he practiced in Alabama and in 
Texas until 1854, when he came to California, locating first at El Monte, 
then went to the northern part of the state, but in 1857 came to San 
Bernardino and purchased from Messrs. Lyman and Rich the property 
known as the "Old San Bernardino Mission," including about 1,(XX) acres 
of land, later adding many acres to this princely domain which he sold 
in parcels at various times. 

In 1858 he built an adobe house at the southwest corner of C and 
Fourth streets, in the town of San Bernardino which he occupied as a drug 
store, and as the post office, having been appointed postmaster. The 
following year he disposed of this property, gave up his practice of 
medicine and devoted himself exclusively to the care of his ranch afTairs. 
In 1866 and 67 he built a large brick residence on a commanding site of 
his ranch and here for many years he enjoyed his new home extending 
generous hospitality to his many friends from all over California. 

In 1861 and '62 he was elected to the assembly of the state, and was 
one of the most highly respected citizens of San Bernardino County. He 
bought property on D Street, built a palatial residence on it, and passed 
his last days here quietly and happily with his old friends, among them 
George Lord, Judge John T. Knox, Uncle Jim Waters. He died Janu- 
ary 1, 1890. 

Doctor Barton was married at Bastrop, Texas, to Miss Eliza Brite, 
daughter of Henry Brite of Missouri, one of the most winsome daugh- 
ters of the South, and proved a happy and faithful help-meet to the 
doctor all the days of his life and a fond and confiding mother, enduring 
physical infirmity with Christian patience and resignation for several 
years, blest by the devotion of a faithful daughter, and kindness from 
all her kindred, a good neighbor — "None knew her but to love her, none 
named her but to praise her." Her saintly spirit took its flight to the 
mansions above on August 7, 1920. 

The following children were born to Doctor Barton and his wife : 
John H. Barton, born at El Monte, September, 1855; Hiram M. Bar- 
ton, born at San Gabriel, December, 1856; Lelia, born in San Bernard- 
ino in 1859. died in infancy; Mary Barton, born at the Mission, 1860, 
and Anne, born at Mission, 1864. 

Horace C. Rolfe, pioneer jurist, came into the new town of San 
Bernardino driving an ox team in 1851, made the shavings fly from his 
jack plane on the carpenter's bench in his carpenter shop on 4th Street 
just west of the adobe school rooms, helping to erect the first houses in 
San Bernardino. He spent some time mining in Nevada County, then 
did some Indian campaigning in Southern California. 

In 1858 he began the study of law with William Pickett, then 
recently established at San Bernardino with a good law library. With 
but a common school education he devoted his time to hard study, was 
admitted to the bar and in 1861 was elected district attorney of the 
county for a term of two years, and re-elected in 1863 for another term. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 679 

In February, 1872, he was appointed by Governor Booth judge of the 
eighteenth judicial district. In June, 1878, he was elected a delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention in which he served with Hon. Byron 
Waters and R. S. Swing, Esq. In 1879 Judge Rolfe was elected Superior 
Judge, which office he filled with distinction and honor. He was one of 
the most industrious, hard-working members of the bar and bench, and 
became one of the safest counselors in the state. He was specially 
attentive to the younger members of the bar, and to law students, who 
cherish his memory with gratitude, among them being Byron Waters, 
John Brown, Jr., and Frank B. Daley. He was the author of a historical 
paper entitled the Bench and Bar of San Bernardino, devoted mostly to 
the early members of the San Bernardino bar. He was also a contribu- 
tor of historical incidents in California to the San Bernardino Society 
of California Pioneers. He was always active in all measures calculated 
to promote the welfare and progress of the city in which he spent most 
of his life and in which he lies buried. His brother, Samuel Rolfe, was 
one who held the chain when H. G. Sherwood and Fred T. Ferris sur- 
veyed the Town of San Bernardino in acre lots, and eight-acre blocks 
in 1853. The Rolfe family were useful and important pioneers at the 
organization and development of the County of San Bernardino. 

Don Pablo Belarde, pioneer Indian fighter and trail blazer, was 
born near Abiquiu, New Mexico, in 1832, came to California with a 
lompany of New Mexican colonists when he was eleven years. He fol- 
lowed blazing the Santa Fe Trail his father, Baltazar Belarde, and large 
company had traversed the year before, crossing the Colorado River near 
what was afterwards known as Fort Mohave, now near Needles, contin- 
uing westward across the deserts, then up the Mohave River and down 
into Cajon Pass, where he remembers seeing a Pahute Indian rancheria 
ju.st south of where the San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers 
built their first monument to designate the junction of the Santa Fe 
and Salt Lake trails, and afterwards for the same purpose erected 
another monument north of this one, near the mouth of the narrow can- 
yon through which the noted Rocky Mountaineer, John Brown. Sr., 
built a toll road in 1861, and near where Camp Cajon is now located. 

Don Pablo settled on the frontier of the Bandini donation to these 
New Mexican colonists, so that they would fight the Indians committing 
depredations and thus protect the ranches all below them, which they 
did successfully and insured the safety and progress of the people living 
on the frontier of that remote period. All honor to such brave adven- 
turers. He still lives (1922) at Colton with his daughter, Mrs. Martinez, 
though quite feeble in his ninetieth year, the last survivor of those heroic 
New Mexican colonists of 1842 and 1843. who blazed the trails and 
drove the wild Indians back to the deserts where they came from so 
that Christian civilization could prosper. 

On Sunday. January 15. 1922. a committee from the Pioneer Society, 
Amos Bemis, Charley Mecham and John Brown. Jr.. called on this ven- 
erable patriarch for some historical information. Although he was in 
bed, he was pleased to see his old friends and in the brief visit he con- 
versed freely of olden times, going back to his trip to San Bernardino on 
horseback when quite a boy; then the Pahute Indian Village in Cajon 
Pass; the encounters had with them later in protecting the frontier; he 
remembers Politana where the mission Fathers had erected a "Capilla," 
or chapel for worship with a bell in front ; a large Indian \'illage of 
Mission Indians, "Coaliuillas." was along the ridge known as "Politana." 



680 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

At the west base of the hill where Byron Waters now lives, known as 
Bunker Hill, there was an adobe house in which Vicente Lugo lived, the 
youngest son of Don Antonio Maria Lugo, father of the Lugo boys who 
owned the San Bernardino Rancho, and sold it to Amasa Lyman and 
Charles C. Rich, pioneer colonists of 1851. 

Don Pablo visited Vicente Lugo and the rest of the Lugo family, all 
anxious to repel the incursions of the desert Indians from the North who 
wanted fresh ponies and fat beef. 

I remember the great feast and barbecue our good friend James W. 
Waters gave us at Politana in the year 1844. He invited all the New 
Mexican colonists, all the owners of ranches and the old chief of the 
Coahuilla Mission Indians, the big president, Juan Antonio, who came 
with his interpreters and body guard and all together enjoyed a council, 
smoked the pipe of peace, and established a lasting peace and friendship 
resolved by such a union to resist any assaults that might be made by 
tlie hostile Pahutes of the North. Seiior Waters, muy biicii hombr'c, 
said Don Pablo in his bed ; translated, "Mr. \\'aters very good man." 
Just the kind of a visitor to unite them all for their welfare under those 
exciting, dangerous frontier conditions. 

Don Pablo further stated that he knew Cristobal Slover very well ; 
was a neighbor of his where they lived with the New Mexican colonists 
just south of Slover Mountain in Agua Mansa ; this mountain took its 
name from him ; he was buried at its southern base, but no mark is 
there to show his grave. He killed the bear and the bear killed him was 
the brief summary of the last bear hunt this Rocky Mountain hunter 
and trapper was in ; he wounded the grizzly, then followed him into a 
dense brush thicket where the bear got him. 

Don Pablo was quite reminiscent on this visit of the pioneer com- 
mittee and recalled the name of the Indian sub-chief, Solano, whose vil- 
lage was at what is now known as Harlem Springs, near Highland. 
Here he held sway under the big chief, Juan Antonio, a dignified natural 
born ruler, whose word was law and was obeyed by all the Indians in the 
San Bernardino and Yucaipa valleys. 

On the committee withdrawing from this historical and impressive 
interview, this venerable patriarch thanked them for this pleasant visit, 
extended his hand to them from his bed, and invited them to come again. 

Noel Davenport, pioneer of Colton, was born in Mobile Alabama, 
December 19, 1847. the son of Gorham Davenport, a merchant of that 
city and member of an old Maine family. Noel was educated at St. 
Joseph College, near Mobile, and left school to enter the Confederate 
army. In 1868 he landed at San Francisco and for the first year acted 
as an accountant for the wholesale firm of Sanderson & Horn. In 1869 
he went to San Diego, where he was engaged in business. He aided in 
the survey of the San Diego and San Bernardino Railway made in 1870 
and later became interested in the Ivanpah and Panamtnt mines. In 
1876 he located in Colton and entered the firm of Hathaway & Daven- 
port, the first general store in the Town of Colton, and lived to see the 
town grow into a flourishing city known familiarly as "The Hub." For 
many years he served the city most efficiently as its city clerk. 

On December 25, 1874, in the Catholic Church at San Bernardino, 
he married Miss Svlvia Brown, daughter of the renowned Rocky Moun- 
taineer, John Brown, Sr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Davenport entertained at their hospitable Iionie in Col- 
ton the ,San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers on different occa- 
sions. The latch siring of their home was always out for their friends. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 681 

They were exceedingly proud of Colton when Mr. Fleming, president of 
the cement works gave a barbecue to over three thousand people, all 
peated at the table at the same time. That surely was some California 
hospitality, breaking all records. Then the Star Spangled Baimer flying 
on a flag pole on the highest point of Slover Mountain is another tri- 
umph for Mr. Fleming worth recording, inspiring Colton and all behold- 
ers with 100 per cent Americanism, and keeping Colton at the front. 

Cristobal Slover, the noted hunter and trapper of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, settled with his wife Dona Barbarita, at the south end of what is 
now known as Slover Mountain, near Colton, San Bernardino County, 
about the year 1842. He belonged to that class of adventurous pioneers 
who piloted the way blazing the trails, meeting the Indian, the grizzly, 
the swollen rivers, the vast deserts and precipitous mountains, all kinds 
of trials, privations and dangers in opening the way for others to follow 
and establish on these Western shores a civilization the nation can be 
proud of. 

In the book entitled "Medium of the Koekies," written by his old 
Rocky Mountain companion, John Brown, Sr.. may be found a brief 
and interesting historical reference to Mr. Slover in the simple and exact 
words of the author which are here given : "A party of fur trappers, 
of whom I was one, erected a fort on the Arkansas River in Colorado, 
for protection and as headquarters during the winter season. We called 
it 'Pueblo.' The City of Pueblo now stands upon that ground. Into this 
fort Cristobal Slover came one day with two mules loaded with beaver 
skins. He was engaged to help me supply the camp with game, and dur- 
ing the winter we hunted together, killing bufifalo, elk, antelope and deer, 
and found him a reliable and experienced hunter. He was a quiet, 
peaceable man, very reserved. He would heed no warning and accept 
no advice as to his methods of hunting. His great ambition was to kill 
grizzlies — he called them 'Cabibs.' He would leave our camp and be 
gone for weeks at a time without any one knowing his whereabouts, and 
at last he did not return at all, and I lost sight of him for several years. 

"When I came to San Bernardino in 1852 I heard of a man named 
Slover about six miles southwest from San Bernardino, at the south 
base of the mountain that now bears his name, so I went down to satisfy 
my mind who this Slover was and to my great surprise here I again met 
my old Rocky Mountain hunter, Cristobal Slover, and his faithful wife. 
Dona Barbarita. We visited one another often and talked about our 
experiences at Fort Pueblo, and of our other companions there James 
W. Waters, V. J. Herring, Alex. Qodey, Kit Carson. Bill Williams, 
Fitzpatrick, Bridger, Bill Bent, the Subletts and others, and where they 
had gone, and what had become of them. 

"Mr. Slover's head was now white, but his heart was full of affection. 
He took my family to his home and made us all welcome to what he had. 
His wife and mine became as intimate as two sisters, and frequently 
came to visit us. 

"He never forgot his chief enjoyment in pursuing the grizzly ; when 
no one else would go hunting with him he would go alone into the moun- 
tains, ahhough his friends warned him of the danger. 

"One day he went with his companion. Bill McMines, up the left 
fork of the Cajon Pass almost to the summit where he came across a 
large grizzly and Slover fired at close range. The bear fell but soon rose 
and crawled away and laid down in some oak brush. Slover after 
re-loading his rifle began approaching the monster in spite of the objec- 
tion of MclNIines. .\s the did experienced bear hunter reached the 



682 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

brush the bear gave a sudden spring and fell on Mr. Slover, tearing 
him almost to pieces. That ended his bear hunting. Frequently the most 
expert hunters take too many chances, as was the case this time. 
McMines came down the mountain and told the tale, and a party went 
back and cautiously approached the spot ; found the bear dead, but Slover 
still breathing but insensible. He was brought down to Sycamore Grove 
on a rude litter and there died. The scalp was torn from his head, his 
legs and one arm broken, the whole body bruised and torn. He was 
taken to his home and buried between his adobe house and the mountain ; 
the spot was not marked, or if so has rotted awav so that I have been 
unable to locate the grave after searching for it, so to place a stone to 
mark the resting place of my old Rocky Mountain associate, Cristobal 
Slover, as I have brought from Cajon Pass a granite rock and placed it 
at the grave of my other companion, V. J. Herring, more familiarly 
known as "Uncle Rube." My other Rocky Mountain companion, James 
W. Waters, more familiarly known as "Uncle Jim," has also passed on 
ahead of me and has a fine monument to mark his resting place adjom- 
ing my family lot, where I hope to be placed near him when I am called 
from earth, both of us near our kindred for whom we labored many 
years on earth." 

Don Ygnacio Reyes, last survivor of the "Vaqueros." or cowboys, 
of the Lugo family, was born in Los Angeles, California, on July 1, 
1816, and died at his ranch near the mouth of Reche Canyon, about 
eight miles south of the City of San Bernardino, December 16, 1914. 
having passed his ninety-eighth anniversary, most of his life having been 
spent in the saddle as one of the most experienced and skillful horsemen 
in all California. 

His father, Antonio, was the first Catholic child born in Monterey ; 
his mother, Clara Cota. was from Santa Barbara, the family being well 
known to Don Pio Pico, the governor of Alta California in those days. 
He was "major domo" for the Lugo family in driving their vast herds of 
cattle from Los Angeles County to the newly acquired San Bernardino 
rancho. He loved to relate how he and his vaquero companions, all 
expert riders, would enjoy themselves lassooing grizzly bears at the 
base of the mountains north of San Bernardino and around Little Moun- 
tain, where the bear had come down to feast on the wild plums so 
plentiful then. The grizzly would be lassoed by the feet, four or five 
lariats would secure all his feet. When fastened tightly and safely on 
the ground, the venturesome riders would turn old bruin over on one 
side, then on the other, until weai'y with such sport, would mount their 
horses and release the grizzly, glad to gallop ofif to the mountains. 

Don Ygnacio related a queer story as to how Devil Canyon, near by 
on the west, derived its name. While sporting with the grizzlies, as 
stated, a mysterious woman on a cream-colored horse came from that 
canyon to enjoy the sport; she appeared so often that they wished to 
know something of her, and rode with his vaqueros towards her, when 
she retreated and increased her speed on her fleet horse as they 
approached, going towards this canyon. She disappeared, vanished, and 
with diligent search could not be found, so Don Ygnacio and his vaqueros 
concluded that his satanic majesty had something to do with this mysteri- 
ous disappearance and called the canyon "Devil Canyon," which name 
it has borne to the present day. Daniel Sexton, the veteran pioneer, 
gives his version of the way this noted canyon derived its name, which 
may be found in his sketch. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 683 

Senor Reyes had several encounters with the Pahute Indians, who 
came from the northern deserts to steal horses and cattle. He states that 
fifteen of the redskins were killed by the ranch men near where San 
Bernardino was afterwards located. He owned an interest in the Mus- 
cupiabe Ranch, granted originally to Michel White, 1843, at the mouth 
of Cajon Pass, so that he would assist in preventing the Indians from 
committing further depredations. This barrier was of some help, but the 
noted old bandit. Chief Walker, continued his depredations, driving the 
Lugo stock up the west ridge of Devil Canyon. His trail may be seen 
on the mountain side to this day. 

In 1851 Don Ygnacio drove the cattle and horses back to Los Angeles 
County, as the Lugo family had sold the San Bernardino rancho to 
Lyman, Rich and Hanks, the pioneer colonists. No more picturesque 
character of the early days of pastoral California lived in Southern 
California. On May 16, 1906, when ninety years of age, he entered 
the law office of Hon. Byron Waters in San Bernardino to pay his 
respects to his old friend, having his lariat, spurs and bridle lying on the 
floor beside him. and presented a picture which even a Bierstadt would 
yearn to paint. He felt like a school boy just granted a holiday on his 
way with his old friend and chaperon, John Brown, Jr., to his birthplace, 
Los Angeles, to lead the municipal parade in a feast and barbecue, where 
he was accorded ovation after ovation, the recipient of such honors not 
excelled by those given to Generals Sheridan or Custer. 

Daniel Sexton, pioneer of 1841, states that he was born in Louisi- 
ana, March 24, 1818, arrived at Old San Bernardino in December, 1841. 
The Indians at that time had full and entire possession of all the coimtry. 
He hired a number of Indians to cut and saw timber in the San Gorgonio 
Pass, just north of Doctor Edgar's ranch, which was located in 1876. 
He furnished lumber to Col. Isaac Williams at Chino and to others. H^. 
paid the Indians 25 cents per day for labor. Horses and cattle could be 
bought for 50 cents each. One hide was worth two living animals. He 
acquired great influence over them and could have raised five hundred 
warriors in a few hours. In 1842 the Indians asked me. he says, if the 
Americans had any feast days. I told them they had and I made an 
American flag and hoisted it over the camp north of San Gorgonio Pass 
and with the Indians celebrated the Fourth of July, 1842. 

During this year the Lugos came in with their cattle and horses to 
stock their new ranch, which had been granted them by the Mexican 
governor. There were already 3,000 or 4,000 horses on this plain. I 
have seen hundreds of them in a drove going down to water at the river 
near Riverside. At Old San Bernardino Mission the Indians cultivated 
much land and raised large crops of corn, beans and potatoes. Mill 
Creek Zanja was then in good condition, kept so by the Indians under the 
supervision of the mission fathers. The Indian, Solano, who laid off this 
ditch in 1822, died at my house, he states, in 1858. He told me about 
the Temescal tin mines. I married his niece in 1847. In 1852 I built a 
saw mill near the foot of Mount San Bernardino, in Mill Creek Canyon. 
This is how Mill Creek got its name. I have been asked frequently how 
Devil Canyon got its scary name. I will tell it now. 

I was working for Colonel Williams at the Chino ranch. He 
stated to me one day that he was getting tired of eating meat and con- 
cluded he would have some vegetables, so he sent me and two of his 
favorite Indians to the low gap in the San Bernardino 
Mountains, about twenty miles to the northeast, to spy out 
a road to the top where the timber was, so he could build a road there 



684 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES' 

down which he would bring fencing material for his vegetable garden, as 
the cattle roamed at will in all directions. Daniel went with his two 
companions, taking provisions for a two days' trip. He had not gone 
far up the canyon when a rattlesnake bit one of the Indians, who died 
soon after. Continuing his way up the canyon, we reached the top, 
found a feasible route and grade for the proposed new road, he return- 
ing down the canyon, the second Indian being bitten by another rattler. 
As the Indian jumped, but too late, the venomous reptile had inserted 
his fang. This Indian had exclaimed, "El Diablo" — the first direful 
exclamation that came to his lips, "The Devil." Mr. Sexton heard this 
shriek, went to the Indian, but having no preventive application or 
antidote this second Indian soon became the victim of the poison. On 
reaching home Colonel Williams at once inquired for his two Indians. 
When Mr. Sexton informed him he was very sorrowful and asked if the 
Indians said anything before dying. Yes. Mr. Sexton said, the second 
one exclaimed as he was bitten, "El Diablo" — the devil — so that canyon 
took its name Devil Canyon and has borne it ever since. 

Uncle Joseph Hancock, the veteran patriarch of the pioneers, was 
born on the banks of Euclid Creek, near Cleveland, Ohio, May 7, 1822. 
where he lived until his thirteenth year, when his parents moved to 
Clay County, Missouri, where his mother died. He lived in Quincy. 
Illinois, and came to Iowa, where he became acquainted with Miss Nancy 
Hunt, who afterwards married the well-known and highly esteemed 
pioneer. Edward Daley. At Council Blufifs, Jo.seph Hancock married 
Nancy A. Bemis, August 31, 1848, and crossed the plains to Utah, where 
they arrived in 1851, and started for California in 1854, arriving that 
spring in San Bernardino, settling in the western portion of the town, 
where he has continued to live to the present time (February. 1922) 
as one of the successful farmers among a neighborhood of industrious 
tillers of the soil. Uncle Joseph Hancock is a descendant of patriotic 
and revolutionary ancestry. His grandfather. Henry Hancock, a shoe- 
maker by trade, was the brother of the immortal John Hancock, first 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, adopted by Congress Julv 4, 
1776, which honorable distinction Uncle Joe has lived and borne with 
becoming modesty. In celebrating Independence Day in the early days 
of San Bernardino he was leading member of the band to furnish music 
for the occasion on his fife, with Mother Highmore on the bass drum 
and Ben Van Leuven. with his two fingers in his mouth, whistling ener- 
getically "Yankee Doodle," "Hail Columbia," "America," "Star Spangled 
Banner," "Red, White and Blue," and other revolutionary and patriotic 
airs, always receiving vigorous hand clapping and generous applause 
from the enthusiastic Americans, not alone for the trio of musicians 
but for the thrilling sentiments aroused by the musical selections, after 
discoursing their music from the top of a wagon box, called a "prairie 
schooner" in those days, used as a platform. 

At a meeting of the Pioneer Society in San Bernardino when Uncle 
Joe was ninety-six years of age. he gave the very interesting history 
of Mount Vernon School District, in which he lived and raised his 
family. He stated that he was one of the school trustees of that district 
with John Garner and Joseph Thorn, and traded the lot and the small 
adobe building thereon, one room used for the first school, for the large 
lot on which was built a larger school room, used for many years, and 
then increased in size to acconmiodate the children of the growing dis- 
trict, giving the name "Mount Vernon" to this school in honor of the 
home and burial place of Washington. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 685 

On May 7, 1921, occurred a memorable family reunion at the home 
of his daughter, Mrs. Lucina Hancock Lord, 1073 Mount Vernon 
Avenue, on the occasion of Uncle Joseph Hancock reaching his ninety- 
ninth birthday. Mrs. Lord's sister, Mrs. Jerusha Hancock Tyler, fur- 
nished the large cake, 14 by 16 inches in dimension, on which ninety-nine 
candles were lighted, illuminating the face of this venerable patriarch, and 
all those around the table betokening the bright past and promising future. 
By his side sat is great-great-granddaughter, i\Iiss Lois Boesch (just cele- 
brated her fifth anniversary), who put her arms around grandpa's neck 
and kissed him to show the love of the fourth generation and of every 
generation. His heart was made glad. He thanked everybody, sang 
rongs, played on his old fife, told stories of the long ago. His eyesight 
is good, uses no spectacles, hearing a little defective, uses a cane and 
crutch around the house a little, but likes to ride out in the open air in 
his buggy and take his old friends for a little ride. In the morning he 
uses weak coffee, no tobacco, no liquor, but does like apple pie, and says 
he hopes to see one hundred years, which he is likely to do at this writing 
(February 22, 1922), being in his usual health, occupying himself around 
the house and yard. He was smoothing and fitting a new handle in his 
ax, which he had broken splitting wood recently. He does not worry 
and has a kind word for everybody. 

He loves to sing and talk of oiden times. From a journal kept by 
him he sang several verses on this, his ninety-ninth anniversary, of a 
song composed by Thomas and Amy Ward Hancock, put in verse by 
Levi Hancock and sung by Solomon Hancock and his two sons, Joseph 
and Charles, July 4, 1837, while standing on the cornerstone of the 
intended meeting place in Caldwell County, Missouri, now (1922) 
eighty-five years ago, the first and ninth verses being: 

"Come, lovers of freedom, and gather 

And hear what we have to say, 
For surely we. ought to remember 

The cause which produced this great day; 
O, may we remember while singing 

The pains and distresses once borne 
By those who have fought for our freedom. 

And oft times for friends called to mourn. 

"Go celebrate this birthday of freedom, 

Be sure and don't let it be lost. 
Remember the toils of your fathers 

And also the blood it has cost ; 
Yes, daughters, you, too, love your freedom. 

You, too, love your country most dear. 
You love well your own independence 

Your forefathers gained for you here." 

At the meeting in the log cabin in Pioneer Park, May 6, 1916, Wil- 
ford A. Boren being president of the Pioneer Society, selected Uncle 
Joe Hancock and Aunt Nancy Daley as his right and left supporters and 
places of honor. When Aunt Nancy moved that best congratulations 
be extended to Uncle Joseph Hancock on his ninety-fourth birthday, with 
whom she had been acquainted for the past eighty-two years, away back 
in Iowa when she was only seven years old when he came to her father's 
house one evening shouting, "Wolf ! Wolf ! Come out with your gun 
and shoot the wolf!" causing an excitement she never forgot, adding 



686 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

that Uncle Joe was the soul of honor in all his dealings with his fellow 
man. A vote of greetings and congratulations was extended to Aunt 
Nancy for the blessing she has been to San Bernardino ever since she 
arrived in June, 1851, the pioneers being highly honored by the presence 
of these two most worthy members. 

Grandfather Hancock is filled with patriotic pride to realize that 
seven of his grandsons responded to their country's call in the late World 
war, but very few can surpass this record, those brave .'\merican boys 
being James Hancock, Clyde Hancock, Earl Hancock, Beauford Han- 
cock, Solomon Hancock, Philip Hancock and Don Charles Joseph Tyler. 

Uncle Joseph Hancock, who married Nancy Augusta Bemis, August 
31, 1848, had seven children — four boys and three girls — born to them: 

Alvin Hancock, born in Council Bluflfs, Iowa, January 13, 1850. 

Elnorah Hancock, born in Council Blufifs, Iowa, March 19, 1851. 

Solomon Hancock, born in Great Salt Lake, Utah, November 11, 1852. 

Jerusha Hancock, born in San Bernardino, California, August 30, 
1854. 

Lucina Hancock, born in San Bernardino, California, April 29, 1856. 

Foster Hancock, born in San Bernardino, California, October 21, 
1857. 

Joseph Nephi Hancock, born in San Bernardino, California, Novem- 
ber 25, 1866. 

Uncle Joseph's father was named Solomon Hancock, and his mother's 
name was Alta Adams Hancock. His wife, Nancy Augusta Bemis, was 
born in the Town of Eliceburg, Jefferson County, State of New York. 

Henry Goodcell, Sr., pioneer farmer and builder, son of Thomas 
Goodcell, was born September 26, 1823, at Nonington, a county parish 
about ten miles north of Dover, England. At the age of sixteen he 
was apprenticed to a sea captain and the two years following served as a 
seaman before the mast and the next six as mate of the vessel on which 
he had served as an apprentice. His experience and knowledge of navi- 
gation was of use to him all through life. In 1853 he crossed the Atlantic 
and the American continent to Utah, where he remained till the spring 
of 1857, when he started with a train of ten wagons for California. On 
the way they stopped for a few days' rest at Mountain Meadows to 
recruit their stock, the last train that encamped on that ill-fated spot 
prior to the frightful massacre. Mr. Goodcell drove into San Bernardino 
in May, 1857, and became a permanent resident until his death. He 
purchased land and planted an orchard and vineyard and became one 
of the successful farmers of San Bernardino. 

In 1867 he established a brick yard and for many years furnished 
the brick for many of the business blocks and residences serving as 
monuments to his memory for activity and perseverance in building up 
the city of his choice. 

Mr. Goodcell married Miss Harriet Birch in 1847. His eldest son, 
Henry Goodcell, Jr., always of a studious disposition, became one of 
the prominent school teachers of the county, then served as county 
school superintendent, following the term of his old schoolmate, John 
Brown, Jr. He has the honor of being the first San Bernardino graduate 
of the State Normal School. By close application he qualified himself 
for the legal profession and at once gained and has retained the reputa- 
tion of being one of the leading members of the San Bernardino Bar. 
His son, Rex B. Goodcell, is following in the footsteps of his father, 
demonstrating his love for the science of jurisprudence. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 687 

Mr. Goodcell, St.. was an honored member of the Pioneer Society 
and frequently attended and participated in the meetings with his old 
friends. His wife died in San Bernardino in November, 1885, and he 
passed away March 11, 1902, aged seventy-nine years, honored and 
beloved by all who knew him. 

Mrs. Mary Bennett Goodcell, beloved wife of Henry Goodcell, Jr., 
was one of the leading women of San Bernardino, promoting the wel- 
fare of the city in various activities as public school teacher, in Teachers' 
Institutes, at the Woman's Club, at numicipal celebrations. Her latest 
achievement was her perseverance in transforming what was known as 
"Tin Can Alley" in the southeastern portion of the city to the beautiful 
"Meadowbrook Park" that now adorns the city. Justice requires the 
mention of Col. W. L. Vestal, veteran of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, who aided her in this commendable municipal enterprise. 

Amos W. Bemis, pioneer farmer, was born in Jefiferson County, 
New York, in 1828, son of Alvin Bemis. When Amos was eight years 
of age his parents removed westward to Ohio, and in 1844 to Lee County, 
Iowa, where his father died three vears later. The family lived in 
Iowa three years after the death of the head of the family, and in 1851 
the mother, with seven sons and three daughters, started for California 
overland. Amos being the eldest of the family, the greater responsibility 
rested on him. They did not come through direct to California, but 
spent two winters in Ogden, Utah, where Amos W. Bemis was married 
to Miss Julia McCullough, also a native of the Empire State, and started 
with his bride for California from Ogden, March 20, 1853, crossing the 
deserts and plains with team to San Bernardino, where they arrived 
June 5 the same year. He at first bought twenty acres of land, camping 
out all the first summer. Later he increased his holdings to 200 acres, 
which he developed into a fine home, devoting most of his time to farm- 
ing and stock raising. When Mr. Bemis came to San Bernardino it 
was little more than a fort and trading post. Frequent encounters with 
Indians and wild animals occurred and life was uncertain, being com- 
bined with hardships of which the present generation knows nothing. 
In fact, Mr. Bemis' brother, Samuel Bemis, met death from a bear near 
San Bernardino, while his brother, Nephi Bemis, had been killed in 
ambush by Indians. 

Amos W. Bemis has during all his life of more than half a century 
in the San Bernardino Valley been one of its most highly esteemed 
citizens, his name ever being a synonym for honesty and upright living. 
He believed in law and order. He was never excused from jury duty 
by the prosecution when it had a good case requiring the enforcement 
of the law. 

His wife preceded him to that undiscovered country, her death 
occurring June 3, 1902, he following her June 5, 1905. 

Seven children were born to them : George, Amos, Henry, 
Levi, Irvine, Wilson and Loran Bemis, highly respected citizens who 
honor mother and father. 

Edward Daley, pioneer of 1851, one of the founders of San Ber- 
nardino, road builder, was born in New York State, March 31, 1825, 
came to the new State of Ohio, then in 1844 moved westward, pioneering 
in the Middle West six years. July 24, 1846, he married Miss Nancy 
Hunt, daughter of Capt. Jefiferson Hunt. In 1849 they started overland 
to California, and arrived at Sycamore Grove in the month of June, 
1851, and moved down to San Bernardino in September on the purchase 



688 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

of the San Bernardino Rancho from the Lugo family and helped to build 
the fort in which the colonists entrenched themselves to repel the attacks 
of hostile Indians. Mr. Daley was active in all matters promoting the 
welfare of their new home. He opened the first restaurant to accom- 
modate the travelers through the new country near what is now Third 
and E streets, known by the pioneers as "Daley Inn,"' and being the 
birthplace of their son, C. J. Daley, the well-known pioneer. Mr. Daley 
was a successful farmer and served the county as supervisor for four 
years and guarded the interests of the people as he did his own with 
great care and circumspection. His home was the gathering place for 
his neighbors and friends, who were always made welcome. The girls 
and boys who were entertained by Aunt Nancy and Uncle Ed in their 
hospitable home are now grandmothers and grandfathers who look back 
to those childhood days with gratitude for the many happy hours and 
games enjoyed under the roof of Aunt Nancy and Uncle Ed Daley. 

The Daley road from San Bernardino to the mountain tops and then 
on to Little Bear Valley to the Talmadge and La Praix Saw Mills will 
always remain a monument of his resolution and determination to afford 
more convenience to those saw mills to enable them to supply the increas- 
ing demands for more material to continue the building of the city. 

He died at the old homestead, January 25, 1896, in his seventy-first 
year, his beloved wife following him January 4, 1921. 

To them were born eleven children — Loami, Celia, Edward, Jefiferson, 
John, Grace, Annetta, Frank, Lou, May and Kate Daley, all living (1922) 
except Loami, ■ Grace, Edward and John, who have passed on to their 
heavenly home, those living being among our most highly respected 
nnd honored citizens. 

George Cooley, pioneer farmer, county supervisor, was born in the 
Village of Eythorn, in the County of Kent, England, December 21, 1831, 
started from Dover, England, for California March 13, 1853, arrived in 
New Orleans June 5, 1853, came up the Mississippi to Keokuk, Iowa, 
then crossed the plains with an ox team by way of Salt Lake, Utah, then 
to San Bernardino, California, where he arrived May 11, 1857, and 
settled down permanently on his extensive farm about four miles south 
of San Bernardino, followed the honorable occupation of a farmer, being 
one of the successful tillers of the soil by reason of his industry and 
perseverance. 

For a number of years he consented to serve as a county supervisor. 
The Hall of Records and Court House are objects of his pride, as he 
saw to it that the money of the people was judiciously and economically 
used in their construction, thus establishing himself strongly in the con- 
fidence of the people. This excellent example has been followed by his 
children and grandchildren in the community where they live and trans- 
act business. His son, George M. Cooley, began his apprenticeship 
under the pioneer tinner and hardware merchant, Jack Ruften, gradually 
climbed the business ladder, until now (1922) he is doing an immense 
business, formed a company with his sons and takes time to attend to 
his valuable ranch of citrus and deciduous fruits, besides becoming a 
recognized authority on the culture of the potato. 

Uncle George Cooley was married to Mrs. Ellen Cooley, who was 
born in Charlton, Kent County, England, July 14, 1834, the romantic 
wedding taking place on the American ship Camillus of New York, 
Charles R. Day, commander, and who performed the marriage ceremony 
about eleven miles north of Monte Christo, West India Islands, and came 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 689 

to San Bernardino with her husband, Hved a long and a happy life and 
raised sixteen children. 

De La M. Woodward was one of the interesting pioneers of the 
San Bernardino Valley, active in the progress of the county in various 
capacities. First as a successful farmer, then as president of the Board 
of Trustees of the City of San Bernardino, he was leading star of the 
first theatrical troupe of San Bernardino, Harry T. Payne, Edward Pea- 
cock, J. A. Kelting, George Mattison, Mrs. Minerva O. Kelting. Mrs. 
John Miller being the other members of this histrionic aggregation. 
Ed Peacock was the painter of the scenes, the other members did the 
carpenter work, while the lady performers prepared the costumes. The 
complimentary tickets were distributed so generously that the treasurer 
was not able to meet the demands, so after a brief season the troupe 
suspended the circuit confined to San Bernardino. 

Taney Woodward was active in the literary societies of the city, 
exhibiting much natural ability in the debates on municipal, state, national 
and worldwide subjects. He was active in Alay Day and Fourth of July 
celebrations. He borrowed a yoke of oxen from John Stutchberry and 
with Harry T. Payne and George Mattison went up Devil Canyon and 
brought down the first Christmas tree and placed it in the old adobe 
school room on Fourth Street, when Mr. and Mrs. Robbins engineered 
the crowning of the Queen of May. On several Christmas tree festivities 
he made an ideal Santa Claus. He became one of the active members 
of the Pioneer Society, served on the various committees with his old 
friends and associates, filled the office of president two terms, assisted 
his companions in erecting the pioneer monuments in Cajon Pass to 
indicate the junction of the Santa Fe and Salt Lake Trails leading into 
.San Bernardino, thence to Southern California. 

He had the honor of sending the first telegraphic message from San 
Bernardino, a copy of which was as follows, with the reply : 

"San Bernardino, California, September 18, 187.^. 
"To A. E. Horton. 

"Founder of San Diego. 

"The telegraph line from Anaheim to this city has just been com- 
pleted. As the interests of San Diego and San Bernardino are mutual, 
we extend to your thriving city the hand of fellowship, hoping that the 
iron rail may soon connect our flourishing city with the rising metropolis 
of the Pacific Coast. 

"De La M. Woodward, 
"President of the Board of Town Trustees." 

The reply: 

"San Diego, California, .September 18, 187.3. 
"To De La M. Woodward, 

"President Board Town Trustees, 
"San Bernardino, California. 

"Your telegram just received. Allow us to congratulate you on being 
thus brought intimately into connection with the world. We appreciate 
your sentiments with regard to our mutual interests and earnestly await 
the day when we can return the compliment in person by the railroad. 
"Allow us to shake hands through the medium of the telegraph. Our 
little city by the sea extends to you and to the citizens of San Ber- 
nardino her best wishes for your success and future prosperity. 

"A. E. HoRTON." 

Mr. Woodward married one of San Bernardino's fair daughters. 
Miss Carrie Craw, daughter of Charles Craw, one of the well-known 



690 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

pioneer freighters of San Bernardino County. They had two daughters, 
Josephine and Lettie Woodward. The first moved to Pennsylvania years 
ago, the latter married Frank Keir, one of the popular employes of the 
Santa Fe Railroad Company, and at this time (1922) lives in Lol'. 
Angeles. Lettie, as she was familiarly called by her old associates, was 
one of the most popular young ladies of San Bernardino because of 
her training the children in elocution, and she herself entertained the 
Grand Army of the Republic, the Woman's Relief Corps, the Pioneer 
Society and on many patriotic and social occasions she endeared herself 
by her versatility of talents, ainiability and unselfish disposition to a 
large circle of friends, for whom mother and father entertained just 
pride. 

Richard Weir, one of the builders of San Bernardino, was born in 
London Township, Ontario, Canada, on July 17, 1856, the son of John 
and Jane Talbot Weir. His father was a native of Ireland, whose 
family immigrated to Canada in 1810. His mother was the daughter of 
Colonel Talbot of the British Army, a native of Ontario, Canada. Rich- 
ard lived on the home farm until thirteen, when he was apprenticed to 
the carpenter trade. After serving his term he was employed as a 
journeyman by a firm of contractors and finally went into business on 
his own acocunt. He lived in London, Ontario, until 1883, when he 
came to California and spent a year at Sacramento. He returned to 
Canada and in 1887 removed to San Bernardino, where he has followed 
his trade in building many residences all over the city. He has a fine 
residence on Birch and Olive streets. 

Mr. Weir is very fond of outdoor life and spends his summers with 
his family in the mountains hunting, fishing and camping. Among 
his most enjoyable camps was one at the J. B. Smithson mountain home 
near Strawberry Peak, then called the "Smithsonian," now known as 
Pine Crest, where Bart Smithson and his estimable wife, Jane, enter- 
tained the pioneers in whatever numbers they came to enjoy the beau- 
tiful surroundings and real California pioneer hospitality. Another joy- 
ful camp was the one known as "Pioneer Camp," on the stream flowing 
into James' Flat, where over three hundred pioneers had the time of 
rheir lives "in that lone, sequestered spot, the world forgetting, by the 
world forgot." Here Mr. Weir learned the worth of such men as Bart 
Smithson, Sheldon Stoddard, Sydney P. Waite, John Brown, Jr., George 
Miller, George M. Cooley, Jap Corbett, Silas Cox, Taney \\'oodward. 
Bill Holcomb, Joe Brown, Mark B. Shaw, with whom Mr. Weir cut 
down pine trees at Knapp's Ranch on the mountains and helped erect log 
cabins for the pioneers in San Bernardino to perpetuate their memory, 
and also pioneer monuments in Cajon Pass to show the present and 
coming generations where the Santa Fe and Salt Lake Trails joined. 
The second monument has its arrow pointing direct to San Bernardino, 
the most desirable place to settle in. With such builders, hunters, fisher- 
men, mountaineer campers and jolly good fellows Mr. Weir has enjoyed 
many happy outings. 

December 28. 1882, he was married to Miss Sarah Jane Heck, a native 
of Kingston, Canada, and a direct descendant of Barbara Heck, the 
founder of Canadian Methodism, who came to Canada from New York 
in 1776, and whose ancestors landed on Plymouth Rock in 1620. 

Mr. and Mrs. Weir have four children — Herbert Heck, Emma Edna, 
Alma Jane and John Wesley Weir. 

It may not be inappropriate to close this interesting sketch by relating 
a humorous story illustrating a commendable virtue in Mr. Weir, that 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 691 

of making fun and brightening up life a little as we journey along. It 
so happened one spring when the neighbors were planting out their 
vegetable gardens that his close neighbor, George Washington Suttenfield. 
planted a new variety of cucumber recommended for its large size and 
rapid growth, and called his neighbor. Richard, over to bis garden to 
see that new cucumber and bow be had fertilized and cultivated the 
soil, the cucumber vines looking healthy and the young cucumbers then 
being about two inches long. Sut, as Suttenfield was familiarly known, 
would go over to Weir's and look at the growing cucumbers that Richard 
had and boasted that bis looked better because he had a better variety 
and cultivated the soil more. Richard, hearing this boastful spirit of his 
neighbor, resolved on getting even, surpassing his neighbor if possible, 
so goes down to the city and on the racks of a vegetable store notices 
some cucumbers about a foot long, so buys half a dozen of these, takes 
them home and places them carefully among the leaves of his cucumber 
vine and removes the small cucumbers and lets three days pass and goes 
over to see Sut's cucumbers, about two inches long, and has a spirited 
conversation with him and invites him over to see the rapid growth at 
Weir's garden. On arriving there and beholding these cucumbers a 
foot long, growing on a vine from seed planted about the same time as 
his, he wondered at such marvelous growth, a foot long, when his cucum- 
bers were only two inches long, and after such great care in planting, 
fertilizing and cultivating he had done, he exclaimed, "By the heavens, 
Weir, you have beat me." Mr. Weir took out his pocketknife. stooped 
pver the cucumber vine and made believe that he cut the cucumber from 
the vine, handed the twelve-inch cucumber to Sut, telling him to take 
it to Sarah, his wife, and show her what kind of soil Weir had to raise 
cucumbers, which he did, and she was more surprised than he was. Mr. 
Weir kept the secret till next day, for it was too good to keep. Sut, 
acknowledging that the cucumber trick was well played on him, and only 
went to show that his neighbor, Dick Weir, has his funny spells, and a 
jolly good fellow. 

John Andreson, Sr., one of the active builders of San Bernardino, 
was born in Schleswig Holstein, Germany, near the borders of Den- 
mark and Germany, in 1834. He came to America sailing around Cape 
Horn in 1850 and returned to England in 1852. He again came to 
.America around Cape Horn and sailed up the Pacific coast, and after 
spending six months in the Argentine Republic, continued sailing his 
way up the coast to California. He continued his sea-faring life for a 
number of years along the coast being prominent as a ship owner. 

From 1861 to 1863 he carried on a grocery business in San Francisco 
and later went to Arizona, prospecting and mining at LaPaz. In 1870 
he visited his place of birth after an absence of twenty years. On his 
return be settled in San Bernardino where he had purchased an acre 
of land on the northwest corner of Third and E streets, on which stood 
a small brewery. This building was disposed of and he erected a large 
two-story building which is now the home of the Farmers Exchange 
Bank. 

Many of the finest buildings of the city were built by Mr. Andreson 
and his partner, H. L. Drew, and to their foresight the city has flourished 
wonderfully. They realized San Bernardino would grow and made it 
thrive by erecting substantial buildings. 

They were projectors of the D Street horse car line, and were two 
of the four far seeing men to whose personal efforts is due the securing 
of the depot and work shops of the Santa Fe Railroad Company. 



692 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Mr. Andreson served as supervisor of the county and as chairman 
of the board several terms with his old friends. James W. Waters, Lewis 
Cram, Don Cornelius Jensen, George Coole}', to look out for the inter- 
ests of the tax payers. 

He also served on the Board of City Trustees and was largely instru- 
mental in securing for the city its complete sewer system. He was a 
member of the Library Board for many years, was treasurer for Phoenix 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., a valued member of the Pioneer Society, and in the 
early days was among the first volunteer firemen of the city — in all of 
which capacities he performed his part well. He died at the residence 
of his daughter, Mrs. Walter Kohl, 633 Fourth Street, San Bernardino, 
January 13, 1912, one of the most highly respected citizens of the county. 
He left one brother, Jacob, who spends his summers at Skyland, where 
he has a mountain cottage. 

John Andreson had the following children, three sons, John Andre- 
son, Jr., William Andreson, Edmund .Vndreson, and two daughters, Mrs. 
O. H. Kohl and Mrs. Walter Kohl. 

Alfred Morgan Lewis came to Riverside in 1885. He was born 
in 1868 at Neponset, Illinois, of Welsh ancestry and Revolutionary stock. 
He was raised on a farm like so many of our sturdy pioneers. His 
education was gained mainly in Iowa and Illinois where he attended 
school and worked on the farm at the same time. 

Coming to California at the early age of seventeen, he worked his 
way in various lines, but the most of the time he was connected with the 
grocery business. He worked thirteen years with one finn and then with 
a partner went in business for himself. The business prospered and in 
1918 he bought out his partner. 

He has the largest retail grocery business in Southern California, 
outside of Los Angeles, with two branch stores at Arlington and West 
Riverside. He conducts a complete food store and uses every means to 
reduce the cost of merchandise by carload buying and modern trans- 
portation facilities. Purchased the three story block in 1921, known as 
the Pennsylvania Block. 100 by 157^4 feet. 

His early struggles and success has not led him to be completely 
absorbed in business matters as he is most active in Boy Scout work and 
is a director in the Chamber of Commerce, Business Men's Association, 
Present Day Club, and Rotary Club. He is a trustee of the First Baptist 
Church and Sunday school superintendent, is a member of the Pioneer 
Society and the Independent Order of Foresters and is a Knight Templar 
Mason. 

He was married in Riverside in 1891 to Miss Catherine Lee Todd, a 
native of Missouri, of Scotch ancestry and an old southern family. She 
too is most active in community work. Thev have two children. The 
daughter, Ruth, received her education at the Lhiiversity of California and 
the son, Paul, at the University of Southern California. Paul Lewis was 
the first man accepted by the Riverside Board of Service on the World's 
war and served eleven months on this side and eleven nionths overseas. 
On his return he became associated with his father in business. In 1920 
he married Miss Ruth Rougny. 

Mr. Lewis's residence, situated at the corner of Seventh and Rubidoux 
Drive, is considered one of the most attractive homes in Riverside. 

Mr. Lewis does not always confine himself to his every day labors, 
for often when he finds a "down and out" who is worthy and in need 
he is not backward in giving him or her, mostly her, employment in 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 693 

his store until better days arrive. In this matter he makes it a rule not 
to "let his left hand know what his right hand doeth." 

It is always a pleasure to the writer of history to chronicle the 
successes of those who can be classed among the pioneers and have 
"grown up with the country," such a one is Mr. Lewis, one of the 
leading grocerymen in Riverside. 

George N. Reynolds. Long in the hearts of his many friends and 
associates will live the memory of George N. Reynolds, a pioneer mer- 
chant and revered philanthropist of Riverside, who passed away Septem- 
ber 21, 1911, and whose life was an example well worthy of emulation. 
His characteristics of sterling integrity and keen executive ability united 
with broad and generous sympathies and a deep religious nature found 
adequate expression not only in the management of his own wide financial 
interests, but in countless benevolent enterprises as well. His career 
was remarkable not only for the wonderful success he achieved from an 
infinitely small beginning, but for the continued generosity displayed by 
him even throughout the years in which he laid the foundations of his 
future vast interests. 

Born November 24. 1860, at St. Catherine, Ontario, Canada, 
Mr. Reynolds was the only son of Robert and Catherine (Nicoll) 
Reynolds, the father's death occurring when the boy was quite young. 
Subsequently the mother married William Caldwell and taking charge 
of her daughters, Isabelle, now deceased, and Margaret Robinson, who 
now resides in Kingston, Canada, placed her boy in the hands of his 
uncle, Jt)sepii Nicoll, who conducted a nursery and greenhouse in 
Cataraque. During his residence with his uncle he attended the country 
school several winters, completing his education at Cataraque, Ontario, 
and in 1880 he came to Riverside, California, securing employment on 
a ranch which was later chosen for the site of Chemawa Park. After 
five years, during which time he had risen to the position of foreman 
of the Everest Rancho, he determined to engage in business with the 
small capital of $1,200, which he had saved from his earnings, and in 
1885 established a mercantile store in the room which now forms the 
south half of the Newberry grocery store. Nine years later, his trade 
having grown too large for his small quarters, he removed to the Castle- 
man Block, on the spot where the First National Bank now stands. In 
1896 he added to his store the north room now occupied by the Hinde 
Hardware Company, his stock comprising men's clothes, furni.shing 
goods and shoes. Shortly thereafter, however, having reached the limit 
of expansion along special lines, he decided to establish a department 
store, feeling sure that this field offered unlimited opportunities for a 
man of confidence and training. To that end was erected the building 
once occupied by Frankenheimer & Lightner, and in which the Reynolds 
Department Store located October 7, 1896. As new departments were 
added it became apparent that more room would be required and the 
venture appearing to justify his next move he erected in 1900 his present 
building, consisting of three stories and basement and covering 100 by 157 
feet. In 1903 he purchased the Casa Palma Hotel which he remodeled 
under the name of the Reynolds Hotel Building, his many real estate 
transactions being directed with a view to the development of Riverside 
in whose future he ever maintained unswerving faith. 

Mr. Reynolds enjoyed the distinction of operating the largest depart- 
ment store in Southern Caliiornia, with the exception of Los Angeles, 
and was the largest individual taxpayer in Riverside County, having 
erected a greater number of business blocks than any other person or 



694 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

corporation. Following is a list of business property owned by him. 
his residence holdings also having been considerable. The Reynolds Hotel 
Building on Main Street : the two-story brick block, 50 by 100 feet, 
adjoining; a building between this structure and the Pennsylvania Build- 
ing; 157 feet of a store building on Ninth Street, east of Main; one- 
fourth of a block on Ninth and Orange ; 175 feet of unimproved prop- 
erty on Orange between Ninth and Tenth ; and the College Building on 
Main Street between Seventh and Eighth, which he built for a store 
building and later sold. He was also active in the development of Halls 
Addition, a rapidly growing and desirable section of the city. An 
enthusiastic believer in civic improvements Mr. Reynolds lent much aid 
towards establishing and improving roads, schools, parks, in fact, every- 
thing that tends to beautify a city and its environs. His donations 
toward public improvements are a matter of special mention and include 
the fountain and lily pond presented to White Park in 1909, and Fair- 
mount Park improvements aggregating several thousands of dollars. 

During the past few years of his life Mr. Reynolds traveled exten- 
sively, having made three trips abroad, including a year's tour of the 
world, his keen observation and appreciatiative nature rendering his 
journeys not only pleasant but profitable. On June 1, 1911, owing to 
ill health, he was forced to relinquish the activities of his life, his son. 
Charles L., relieving him of all responsibility. Mr. Reynolds held 
active membership in the Riverside Chamber of Commerce from the 
time of its organization, having served several years on its directorate 
also. He was a valued worker in the Business Men's Association of 
the city and upon his death his fellow members tendered to the bereaved 
family a beautiful tribute to his memory in the form of a resolution 
setting forth the incalculable inspiration and encouragement his life 
has been to them. In truth, the entire city paused in mourning during 
his funeral services, for he was widely known and loved. A member 
of Evergreen Lodge, No. 259, Free and Accepted Masons, and River- 
side Lodge No. 643, Benovolent and Protective Order of Elks. He was 
affiliated, also, with the Victoria Club. A stanch republican, he was 
deeply interested in political developments, though never desirous of 
office. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church, his religious life 
being that of a consistent Christian whose personal success never for a 
momtent dulled his sympathies for those less fortunate than himself. 

Mr. Reynolds was united in marriage November 29, 1888, in River^ 
side, with Miss Laura T. Low, a daughter of J. D. Low, who, in 1883, 
brought his family to California from Chicago. 

Robert Hornbeck comes of pioneer stock ; ancestry on father's side, 
Holland Dutch ; settled in Ulster County, New York, where name is still 
common ; great-grandfather went to \'irginia and later to Kentucky with 
Daniel Boone ; heard of the battle of I.exington, returned to \'irginia 
and enlisted in Morgan's riflemen : at siege of Boston ; at end of war 
was a captain in Fifth Regiment New York Infantry, Colonel W'eis- 
senfels; returned to Kentucky. Mother's father soldier of 1812. Father 
served in Civil war in First Alabama (Union) Cavalry. Wife was 
youngest sister of Fred T. Perris, of San Bernardino. Her father in 
Civil war and was among the "missing." Father was an early settler on 
Puget Sound and went to Riverside about fifty years ago; left 1882 

Robert W. Hornbeck learned trade at Decatur, Illinois, and San 
Bernardino; was newspaper corres])nndent at fifteen: wrote letters for 
Toledo Blade after coming to California ; ])rinter of Riverside News, 1877 ; 
was hired by J. H. Roe as printer of Press in 1878 and printed first issue: 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 



695 



after paper was bought by Holt they were partners for a short time. 
Ran opposition paper to Holt but venture was financial failure and finally 
sold to Holt. Was in job printing business several years but burned 
out in 1883. Went to San Diego 1885 with Union; helped to establish 
a daily paper at Coronado Beach in 1887. 

Went to Santa Rosa and Petaluma in newspaper work. To San 
Francisco later on Pacific Rural Press and Chronicle. While in Arizona 
in 1890 took the editorship of Yuma Times and remained Chronicle 
correspondent. In 1901 went to Redlands with Scipio Craig on Citro- 
graph. Seven years later Craig died and paper was suspended. After 




Robert Hornbeck 



being with Redlands dailies for some time went to Sacramento as proof- 
reader in State Printing office, but lost his voice and ha? quit newspaper 
work entirely. Self and wife live with unmarried sons, twins born in 
Arizona. Both bovs were in World war. one in France, and one in navy. 
Another older son born at Riverside was a lieutenant and trained many 
hundred men at Camp Gordon, Ga. 

Robert W. Hornbeck was connected with the establishment of over 
twenty papers on the Pacific Coast and been employee of about twenty 
more. 

Mr, Hornbeck published several books, one on Social Topics quite 
successful. His book on Rubidoux Ranch exhaustive on that subject 
and looked to as an authority. He took an active part in the early news- 
papers of Riverside. 



696 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Rev. Wm. Frederick Taylor, D. D. Perhaps no one wlio had 
such a short time to live in Riverside as Rev. W. F. Taylor, will leave 
such a pleasant memory as he did. Not so much as being a preacher 
of the gospel as from being founder of the Present Day Club. In his 
previous life he saw more changes in his ministerial career than falls 
to most preachers outside of the Methodist Church. 

Born in London, England, December 25, 1844, and came to the United 
States when three years of age to Brooklyn, New York. His father 
died when he was eleven years of age, and at fourteen he was in business 
for himself with the art firm of Reynolds, Devoe & Pratt. However, 
art did not suit him and from there he went to the University of 
Rochester, where he graduated from the Theological Seminary in May, 
1875, and was ordained pastor at Medina, June 1, 1875. July, 1882, 
found him pastor at East Orange, New Jersey. From there to Indian- 
apolis, May, 1889, and in Seattle, Washington. May, 1894. From there 
to Dayton, Ohio, June, 1895. November 1899, he was installed in River- 
side where he ended his life work in Riverside on October 19, 1905. 
He received his D. D. from Dennison University in 1898. 

Doctor Taylor was a popular and talented preacher while in River- 
side, very active in every good work. It was, however, as founder of 
the Present Day Club that his greatest credit came from, of which he 
was president until the time of his death. This Present Day Club was 
founded to discuss everyday life questions and has grown in popularity 
and usefulness until it has a membership of over 700 who take a great 
interest in the proceedings. The club is often helped by outside talent 
presenting papers which are discussed by members present. The club 
never takes a vote on any question and in that way never settles anything. 
Doctor Taylor brought the nucleus of the club from Dayton. Ohio, but 
the Riverside club has far outgrown its origin and for that matter any- 
thing of similar character in the United States. 

Doctor Taylor married in July, 1877, Carrie Achiles, by whom he had 
two sons and a daughter. The oldest son, Wycliff, is in business in 
Los Angeles, the other son in Riverside is doing active Y. M. C. A. 
and Boy Scout work and the daughter, Mrs. Feris Moulton, is living in 
Los Angeles. Mrs. Taylor still resides in Riverside. 

Mrs. Mary A. Crandall, noted typical pioneer mother, was born in 
the little town of La Salle, La Salle County, Illinois, December 12, 1834. 
now (1922) nearing her eighty-eighth anniversary, was the daughter of 
Nathan and Bet.sey Wixom, pioneers of Illinois, who started westward 
to Utah and California in 1850, attracted by the wonderful excitement 
caused by the discovery of gold in California in 1849. The Wixom 
family joined a large caravan of prairie schooners for their better pro- 
tection from attacks of hostile Indians while crossing the Indian country 
through the Rocky Mountains and plains, crossing the Missouri River 
at Council Bluffs, the great rendezvous of the onrushing immigration. 
Miss Mary Wixom, although a child of fifteen years, helped her parents 
in crossing these mountains and vast plains and deserts, doing the work 
of a grown woman by driving an ox team, and when her shoes were 
worn out and could not be patched any more she drove the team bare- 
foot, as was generally the case with many others in the train. In her 
advancing years she loves to relate the thrilling stories of incidents hap- 
pening along this six months' experience crossing the American conti- 
nent from Illinois to San Bernardino, California, with an ox team in 1850. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 697 

At Salt Lake City, a much needed rest was taken especially to recruit 
the almost worn out oxen, and to replenish the almost exhausted supply 
of provisions for the remainder of the journey to California. 

While crossing the San Bernardino range of mountains into Cajon 
Pass, the wagons had to descend on a mountain ridge called the "Hog 
Back," owing to its narrow and steep condition, where one yoke of oxen 
was used to keep the wagons on the ridge, and the other oxen yoked 
behind to hold the wagon back, and keep it from turning somersaults on 
the forward oxen and roll down the precipitous sides hundreds of feet 
below. This was one of the experiences encountered by these brave and 
intrepid pioneers as they began entering California. Another and the 
last adventure that can be given here, owing to want of space, happened 
down below in the Cajon Pass Canyon, near where the pioneers have 
erected their monuments designating the junction of the Santa Fe and 
Salt Lake Trails. Mary was driving her ox team sitting on the wagon 
tongue between the two favorite oxen, her mother was up in the wagon 
hovering around the small wagon stove with the children, it being Decem- 
ber and cold, when all of a sudden a violent gust of wind came and 
lifted the wagon box ofif the running gear, blowing it to the side of the 
road with mother, the children, the stove and all the contents, when a 
fire started to burn the wagon cover, the bedding and all, which was 
extinguished by Mary grabbing the churn filled with buttermilk and 
pouring the contents quickly on the fire which providential act saved the 
life of mother and the children. The Wixom family had some loose 
stock oxen to replace those too weak to pull any more ; cows to provide 
milk that was poured in the churn which was placed over the hind part 
of the wagon which at the end of the day's journey, by the jolting over 
the rocky road, would be churned and the milk turned into butter, which 
made the slap jacks cooked over the camp fire more palatable with the 
coffee and bacon. 

In December. 1851, Mary, with her parents, entered the San Bernar- 
dino Valley, joining the pioneers in the old fort, who had preceded her 
in June, having camped at Sycamore Grove, at the mouth of Cajon Pass 
till September, when they moved down to the present site of San 
Bernardino, and renewed the acquaintance of Capt. Jefferson Hunt, and 
his family. Aunt Nancy, Aunt Jane, and Aunt Harriet, she had known 
in Illinois. 

Mary went with her parents to San Juan, Monterey County, and 
moved into the house vacated the same forenoon by our well-known 
pioneer hunter and trapper of the Rocky Mountains, John Brown, Sr.. 
who was starting down the coast to San Bernardino, who had been 
proprietor with James W. Waters of the St. John's Hotel and Livery 
Stable at San Juan. Here was her first acquaintance with the Brown 
family, and with John Brown, Jr., secretary of the San Bernardino 
Society of California Pioneers. 

Here at San Juan Mis.sion, on January 15, 1853, Monterey County, 
California, she married Lucian Crandall, the young gentleman who 
crossed the plains with them. In July, 1855, she returned to San 
Bernardino for good, becoming a permanent resident of this beautiful 
valley, grown up with the humble city from its beginning, all along until 
now she marvels at its wonderful growth and prosperity, always taking 
part in its civic, educational and spiritual development. 

She holds the key of the pioneer log cabin, witnesses the 134 log 
cabin weddings under the marriage bell, and is regarded as one of the 
typical pioneer mothers of California; attends all the Mav Day, Fourth 
of July, Admission Day, Washington and Lincoln anniversaries, besides 



698 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

all local birthdays of the pioneers and re-unions with the Grand Army 
of the Republic and Women's Relief Corps, and booster for the San 
Bernardino National Orange Show, and just loves to dance quadrilles, 
Virginia reels, the varsovienne, and other fancy dances of "ye olden 
time," and at the age of eighty-eight years young as she insists on being 
considered. 

She is proud of her nineteen grand-children, fourteen great-grand- 
children, her children, W. N. Crandall, L. D. Crandall, Nathan D. Cran- 
dall, Eliza Crandall, Laura E. Crandall, Myron Crandall, Rose Crandall 
Wilson and Chauncey Crandall. Rose married Mr. W. T. Wilson, one 
of the popular employees of the Santa Fe Railroad Company. They 
have three promising children, Nathan, Lowell, and Ariel, who are 
devoted to their parents and grandma, and with the other relations always 
join in celebrating Mother Crandall's birthday which is looked forward 
to every year with increasing interest. The log cabin of late years has 
been the gathering place for her many friends to meet and greet her for 
the happy life she is living, for the altruistic and cheerful disposition she 
inspires in others. The secret of her longevity is in keeping busy in 
making others happy, making the world better because she lives and 
loves to be in it. So her friends are drawn to her and enjoy the many 
happy occasions with her, not to forget the enjoyable quilting parties 
she loves to attend. Her special friend, a native daughter of San 
Bernardino, Mrs. R. F. Garner, never fails to bring a beautiful birthday 
cake in honor of this highly esteemed pioneer mother, who has been 
crowned Queen of May, and participated in the crowning of many of 
her pioneer sisters on May Day, the happiest day of all the glad new 
year, while they were here on earth, a most beautiful and inspiring cus- 
tom of the pioneers not to wait till they are gone to show, perhaps with 
a few flowers, some appreciation of them, but to cheer them while they 
are living and can enjoy these tokens of regard and afifection. 

Mother Crandall is rich in the memory of so many pioneer mothers 
in San Bernardino who deserve as much consideration as the pioneer 
fathers, if not more, for enduring the hardships, trials and dangers with 
them in crossing the plains and deserts and experiencing the privations 
of frontier life. 

Pioneer mothers, Daley, Stoddard, Mayfield, Brown, Rathbun, Rob- 
bins, McElvain, Kelting, Carter, Roberds, Bottoms, Wood, Glenn, Heap, 
f-Iolmes, Kissel, Alexander, Boley Curtis, Goodcell, Atwood, Swarthout, 
Holcomb, Hudson, Davidson, Seely, Barton, Highmore, and many others, 
are deserving of recognition with the pioneer husbands for their faithful 
devotion in planting civilization on these western shores for succeeding 
generations to enjoy. 

All honor to the brave, the heroic pioneer mothers and fathers. Mary 
A. Crandall surely being one of the genuine typical pioneer mothers, none 
name her but to praise her. none know her but to love her. 

George Lord, pioneer of 1849, was born in New York City in 1800 
and lived until February 8, 1898, passing his ninety-seventh anniversary 
Jis honorary past president of the San Bernardino Society of California 
Pioneers. 

When a young man he went to Kentucky where, in 18.33. he became 
a member of the Odd Fellows Lodge and at his death was one of its 
oldest members in the United States. He joined the Masons in 1828. In 
1849, he crossed the plains to Steep Hollow. California, and went into 
the gold fields. Returning to Iowa he married Miss Arabella Singleton. 
In 1851 crossed the plains again to California, arriving in San Bernar- 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 699 

dino in 1852, where he resided until his death. He was long engaged in 
ranching and was the first to produce marketable raisins, made from 
muscat grapes. 

He was the first president of the Pioneer Society and held the office 
several terms as long as the members could prevail on him to retain 
the office. When he finally insisted on a successor being elected, the 
office of honorary past president was created for him as long as he lived 
to cease at his death. He enjoyed this mark of respect for him by every- 
body. He guided the Pioneer Society with a steady and kindly hand, 
genial, kind-hearted, upright in all the relations of life. Intensely patri- 
otic, a champion of Abraham Lincoln, the Union and Freedom. Presi- 
dent of the Union League during the Rebellion ; with those other patriots, 
John Brown, Sr., William Heap, Moses Martin, J. D. Potter, Joseph 
Sawyer, J. W. Wilson, Mrs. Highmore and Mrs. IBlackburn, they cam- 
paigned the county and carried the day for Abraham Lincoln, an honor 
they and their children may well be proud of as loyal x"\merican citizens. 

George Arnold Atwood — Men are known by their deeds, and 
George Arnold Atwood, of San Bernardino, has etched his upon the 
face of nature, where they will remain for men to read for all time to 
come, for he was the pioneer farmer of the Yucaipa Valley and organ- 
izer of the forces which have poured the life giving waters upon its 
land. He has not made "two blades of grass to grow where there 
was but one," but millions where there was none. To such a man all 
mankind is indebted. 

Mr. Atwood, like many others, had the advantage of early resi- 
dence in California, but he was a man who could make himself mas- 
ter of circumstances and act on his own and who had the gift of or- 
ganization. He was capable of fully appreciating the potentialities 
lying in the union of arid lands and water, and he set himself to the 
arduous task of fostering and promoting that union. Today the beau- 
tiful, fruitful green valley testifies to his 100 per cent success. 

The life record of Mr. Atwood gives Iowa as his native state and 
his birthplace as Harrison County. He is the son of Danford and 
Jane (Garner) Atwood, his father being a native of Connecticut and 
his mother of Ilhnois. They are both of Revolutionary siock and 
English descent. They came to San Bernardino in 1860, with the 
customary ox teams, and followed the occupation of farming, acquir- 
ing a farm near San Bernardino. Mr. Atwood died there in 1803, but 
his widow is still living in San Bernardino, having at this writing 
(1922) reached the age of ninety years. 

George Arnold Atwood was educated in the public schools of San 
Bernardino and when through school life he worked on the home 
ranch with his father. Those were exciting days, and he soon left 
the ranch to commence life for himself. He went to Pioche, Nevada, 
where boom mining was going on. He took a contract to supply 
timbers for mining tunnels, cutting, trimming and then hauling twen- 
ty miles to the mines. He remained there through the summer of 
1872, but in winter went to Salt Lake. From there he went to San 
Francisco on the Union Pacific, thence by boat to Los Angeles, and 
to San Bernardino by stage. 

Mr. Atwood next took u]) the cattle business and went to Utah, 
where he purchased three hundred and fifty head of cattle which he 
brought down across the desert to San Bernardino. He sold these 
cattle, which were sent to Northern California. Mr. Atwood next 
purchased the first header ever brought into the valley and went out 



700 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

harvesting grain through the county during the season. He followed 
this occupation for some time, but when the Southern Pacific built 
its line here he went to Banning and Beaumont to go into the wood 
business, furnishing wood for the road builders for several months. 
It is worthy of note that he was always seeking new fields and al- 
ways pioneering in some line, and always his own master. 

In 1884 he went to Yucaipa Valley, taking with him twelve six- 
mule teams, and at once put in one thousand acres of wheat, the first 
farming ever done in the valley. The land he planted on was owned 
by the Houghton estate of San Francisco, which he kept on farming, 
there being in the entire holding of the estate five thousand acres. 
Mr. Atwood commenced handling the property in a general way, sub- 
letting to others until 1910. In this year the Redlands & Yucaipa 
Land Compan}- was organized as the result of his pioneer work. Of 
this company he was, of course, a member, and the company not only 
purchased the five thousand acres he had been handling but also the 
Dunlap ranch, consisting of three thousand, eight hundred and forty 
acres, the North Branch property of one thousand eight hundred and 
forty acres, together with other properties which brought the total 
acreage up to ten thousand five hundred acres. Mr. Atwood was 
then made a director in the company and its general manager, which 
position he has held ever since. 

Since that time, under his management, the company has laid 
eighty miles of steel riveted water pipe for irrigation purposes, it has 
built fifty miles of wagon road and has developed water by running 
tunnels, sinking wells and installing pumps. In this manner enough 
water has been secured to cover the entire tract with it. There is 
now planted in the valley about six thousand acres of deciduous 
fruits, mainly apples and pears. Those which have come into bear- 
ing have proven the value of their planting, for they are well sized, of 
delicious flavor and luxuriant growth. 

Mr. Atwood's company has built one reservoir with a capacity of 
forty million gallons of water, four cement reservoirs with a capacity 
of four million gallons of water, and a number of other smaller ones. 
In this way they have installed what is conceded by engineers to be 
one of the most complete water systems of the South. 

Mr. Atwood also owns the Casa Blancha ranch of two hundred 
and sixt}' acres, and has large interests in various places. 

He married in January, 1886, Miss Alice Frederick, a native of 
Ohio and a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Aaron Frederick, of San Ber- 
nardino. They have one child, Leon A. Atwood, of San Bernardino. 
G. A. Atwood is a republican in politics. He was appointed di- 
rector of the Sixth Agricultural District by Governor H. H. Mark- 
ham, and has been reappointed several times. He is a member of 
San Bernardino Lodge No. 290, I. O. O. F., having joined it in 1881. 
He was one of the charter members of the Tri-County Registration 
Committee, which was organized in January, 1906, and at that time 
was president of the San Bernardino Board of Trade. Mr. and Mrs. 
Atwood are members of the First Congregational Church of San 
Bernardino. 

Israel Coleman Curtis — The history of San Bernardino cannot be 
fully written without some mention of the spirit of lawlessness that 
pervaded a part of the community in the early days. There were many 
noble law abiding citizens, but there were also those who were wild, 
reckless and law-breaking. In the center of town every other place 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 701 

fif I)iisincss was a saloon, gambling was carried on openly day and 
night, fighting and other forms of vice were common and crimes 
were frequent. 

Into these scenes of immorality and crime came a man to rebuke 
vice and crime, to preach righteousness and obedience to law both 
civil and divine. This man was Israel Coleman Curtis. He and his 
family had taken the long perilous journey across the plains with ox 
and mule teams. They w^ere seven months and seven days spanning 
more than half the continent from Iowa to California. That was in 
1864, and ever since then Mr. Curtis or some of his descendants have 
been fighting vice and crime in San Bernardino and advocating mor- 
ality, justice, law and religion. 

Mr. Curtis was both a lawyer and a minister of the Gospel. He 
preached the scriptures in which he sincerely believed, yet he knew 
that many in the community never entered a church, and to these his 
message came by his example. On the street and in the court-room 
men and women felt the high principles and the moral influence of 
his daily life. Therefore a sketch of this man's life must prove in- 
teresting. 

Mr. Curtis was born near Fort Adams, W'ilkinson County, Missis- 
sippi, and lived in that state until he reached manhood. His father 
and paternal grandfather were both named William Curtis. His 
mother was Mary Barfield, to whom his father was united in marriage 
in 1797. They had six children, of whom the youngest was Israel. 
His father's uncle, Richard Curtis, was the first Baptist minister to 
preach the doctrines of that faith in the State of Mississippi. 

Religious influences surrounded the boy from his youth up, but 
it was not until 1843 that he became a member of the church in the 
doctrines of which he had been reared. He had the advantage of 
schools in common with children of other planters, but a fervent desire 
for a more extended course in education was early implanted. His 
father died in 1833, and after partly settling his estate Israel entered 
Miami University, Ohio, with a view of preparing for the law. Be- 
fore completing the course complications in his father's estate required 
him to leave college and return to Mississippi. 

In 1837 he was united in marriage with Lucy M. Holman, daughter 
of Jesse L. Holman, a judge of the Supreme Court of Indiana. Mr. 
Curtis was then living in Aurora, Indiana. He was a merchant, but 
lost the greatest part of his property in the financial crises that swept 
the country in 1837 and the next few years. It was then that he 
turned to the study of law, and was admitted to the bar in 1841. Be- 
lieving that a new country offered greater opportunities for rebuilding 
his fortune Mr. Curtis, in 1844, removed to Iowa and settled on the 
Des Moines River, near Pella. For several years he devoted himself 
to farming but in 1851 he was ordained as a minister of the Baptist 
Church, and by his talents and devotion soon became a leader in this 
denomination. He was the organizer of manj^ churches both in 
Iowa and subsequently in California. He w-as the moderator of the 
Oskaloosa Baptist Association for seven consecutive years, and held 
the same office in the Los Angeles Association four years. The First 
Baptist Church of San Bernardino was organized by him and he be- 
came its first pastor. Believing that the church could not attain 
the highest success unless aided by institutions of advanced learning, 
he was largely instrumental in the founding of Central University 
at Pella, Iowa. He drew its charter, became its agent for six years 
and gave liberally of his time and means to its advancement. 



702 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Mr. Curtis was equally successful in the law as in the ministry, 
lie was a good logical and persuasive speaker. Of Southern birth 
and breeding, he was courteous and hospitable. lie ever sought to be 
and to do right. He was a man of strong convictions and of resolute 
will. Once convinced of the justice of his cause he went forward 
with great firmness. He believed it the duty of every citizen to take 
an active interest in the government, and that particularly the reli- 
gious element should aid in purifying politics. With this end in view 
he was elected district attorney of Marion County, Iowa, and repre- 
sented the same county in the legislature from 1857 to 1860. He was 
a member of the legislative committee whose work culminated in the 
adoption of the state code of laws. 

In 1864 Mr. Curtis with a few friends resolved to migrate to Cali- 
fornia. No railway spanned the continent, the long wearisome journey 
must be made with teams. Innumerable dangers confronted the 
little caravan. It was attacked twice by Indians ; their stock died, their 
food became exhausted and starvation threatened them. But at last 
the travelers found rest in San Bernardino. Here Mr. Curtis lived 
until 1868, and then removed to Los Angeles Count)' where he died 
October 3, 1883. respected and loved by all who knew him. 

Lucy Mildred Curtis, wife of Israel Coleman Curtis, was born at 
Veraestau, near Aurora, Indiana, Maj' 4, 1819. Veraestau, the beauti- 
ful county seat of the family, was built on a high blufif overlooking 
the Ohio River. Across the stream is Kentucky, a few miles north and 
within sight of Veraestau is the State of Ohio. 

Her father and mother were natives of Kentucky. Her maternal 
grandfather, Richard M. Masterson, was a prominent lawyer and a 
distinguished judge. Her own father, Jesse L. Holman, was a student 
of law under Henry Clay. After removing to Indiana Mr. Holman 
was a judge of the Supreme Court fourteen years and later served 
as United States District judge by appointment of Andrew Jackson, 
whom he personally knew. Mrs. Curtis' brother, the late William S. 
Holman, was a member of Congress thirty-three years and served 
his nation more than half a century. 

In 1837 Mrs. Curtis was married to Israel C. Curtis, and from 
this union ten children were born, five sons and five daughters. All 
of these were of age before their father died. Two of the sons, the 
Hon. W. J. Curtis and R. H. Curtis, Esq., still reside in San Bernardino. 

Mrs. Curtis was a pioneer of two states, Iowa and California. Iowa 
was still a territory when, in 1844, she with her husband and their 
three children settled on the Des Moines River. The land was little 
more than a wilderness. We look back in wonder at the handicaps and 
the dangers confronting these lonely settlers. Fever attacked every 
member of the family. During their absence at church their house 
with all its contents burned to the ground. It was more than a hun- 
dred miles to the nearest flour-mill. Savage wolves abounded in the 
forests, and untamed Indians occasionally visited the little settle- 
ment. Yet over these dangers and difficulties, and many others, the 
family triumphed and to the splendid courage and devotion of Mrs. 
Curtis much of the credit must be attributed. 

After living in Iowa twenty years. Mrs. Curtis again turned her 
face to the great West, and with her husband and all their children 
then born set out for California. Some mention has been made in the 
sketch of the life of Israel C. Curtis of the dangers and difficulties 
they encountered on that journey and need not be repeated. Mrs. 



SAi\ BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 703 

Curtis in girlhood united with the Baptist Church and was a faithful 
and consistent member during the rest of her life. She attended divine 
services regularly. Even when age had dulled her sense of hearing 
she still went to church. She could hear the songs and now and then 
catch a word from the Bible, and from her well-stored memory she 
could complete the verse containing the word. 

Mrs. Curtis was a constant reader of good literature; her taste and 
reading were of a wide and varied character. In addition to the 
scriptures, history, biography, travels, the best fiction and poetry 
afforded her occupation and delight. Her splendid memory retained 
much that she read. Poetry was a source of the highest pleasure. 
After she had passed her ninetieth year she repeated poems of con- 
siderable length which she had learned in childhood. For months 
though very aged and not very strong she went regularly to read 
the Bible and other literature to a poor, lonely, blind woman, and 
so far as lay in her power Airs. Curtis visited the sick, relieved the 
needy and comforted the sorrowing. Her chief characteristic was a 
spirit of forgiveness. She ever sought to shield the erring from 
punishment ; to forgive though you erred seventy times seven. While 
her life was centered in her children and home, her love was not 
confined to her own household. All humanity with whom she came in con- 
tact interested and awakened her sympathy. Over all her accomplish- 
ments was thrown the mantle of a sincere love which made of every 
acquaintance a friend. The close of her long, beautiful life of more 
than ninety-three years on earth came painless and peaceful June 7, 
1912. She left surviving her seven children, sixteen grandchildren 
and thirteen great- grand children. 

W. J. Curtis is one of the men now living who helped to make San 
Bernardino the attractive and beautiful city and busy business center 
that it now is. He settled here in 1864. He has seen it grow from 
a struggling village of cheap and unattractive buildings and a few 
hundred inhabitants with but two small school houses, no churches 
or public buildings to a city of more than 20,000 people, with beauti- 
ful homes, large business houses, splendid school houses, fine churches, 
commodious public buildings and all the conveniences and luxuries 
of modern civilization. 

For more than fifty years Mr. Curtis has watched with interest and 
pride the growth and upbuilding of this city, and most of that time 
he was an active and busy worker in and about the city, first as a 
teacher in the public schools, second as a small farmer, third as a 
practicing lawyer, and fourth as an orange grower and shipper. He 
is the oldest son of Hon. Israel C. Curtis and Lucy M. Curtis. His 
father was a prominent member of the bar of Marion County, Iowa, 
for many years and represented that county in the State Legislature 
several terms. His mother was the daughter of Hon. Jesse L. Hol- 
man, one of the early justices of the Supreme Court of Indiana, and a 
sister of the late Hon. William S. Holman, who for more than thirty 
years was a member of Congress from that state. After Judge Hol- 
man had served as a justice of the Supreme Court, in 1834 President 
Jackson appointed him judge of the United States District Court 
of Indiana, in which he served until his death at Veraestau in 1842. 
He presided over the first Bankruptcy Court held in the United 
States. The court was held in the Baptist Church at Aurora, Indi- 
ana, and during its session was attended by insolvent debtors all 
over the (then) western country. 



704 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Mr. Curtis was born on a farm called Vcracstau, situated on a 
high hill on the Ohio River near Aurora, Indiana, on August 2, 
1838. Six years later he moved with his father's family to the 
territory of Iowa, settling near what is now the City of Pella. He 
lived on a farm until he was sixteen years old. He was educated 
in the public schools and Central College at Pella, Iowa, after which 
he taught school for a part of three years in Iowa, and then began 
the study of law in his father's office. He was admitted to the bar 
in Iowa in 1863 and immediately became a partner of his father. 
In 1864 he crossed the plains with oxen and mule teams, came to 
California and settled in San Bernardino, where he has lived ever 
since. 

Here he taught school for several years, and after reviewing his 
law studies, in January, 1872, began the practice of law as a partner 
of Judge A. D. Boren, who had been county judge fourteen years. 
In 1873 Mr. Curtis was elected district attorney and re-elected in 
1875. He was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of Cali- 
fornia in 1878 and to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1888. 
In 1890 he was nominated by the democratic party for Congress, but 
was defeated by Hon. W. W. Bowers, of San Diego. 

He served several years as president of the Board of Education 
of the City of San Bernadino, and more than twenty-five years as 
president of the San Bernardino County Bar Association. In 1915 
he resigned the presidency of the Bar Association, and the Los 
Angeles Daily Journal of December 15, 1915, published the following 
account of the action of the Bar Association accepting his resigna- 
tion. 

"A much-deserved compliment was recently paid W. J. Curtis, 
one of the leading attorneys of the city of San Bernardino and a man 
prominent and in high rank in the legal world of the state. Mr. 
Curtis has for over a quarter of a century been president of the San 
Bernardino Bar Association, an organization which has included and 
yet includes in its membership some of the ablest lawyers in the 
State of California. Having because of accumulating years retired 
from the active practice of the law and desiring still further to assure 
himself of the quietude of complete severance from the cares of pro- 
fessional life, Mr. Curtis recently resigned the presidency of the 
Association referred to and was succeeded in the position by the Hon. 
John L. Campbell, former judge of the Superior Court of San Ber- 
nardino County. A meeting of the San Bernardino Bar Association 
following the resignation of Mr. Curtis as its president was made the 
occasion for a demonstration of the deep respect and high esteem 
in which he is held by the Bench and Bar of his County. The fol- 
lowing resolutions were adopted : 

"Resolved : That the San Bernardino Bar Association do, and 
it hereby does, extend to W. J. Curtis, the president of this asso- 
ciation for 28 years, its thanks and appreciation for the able and 
impartial manner in which he has presided over this body. We love 
and respect him for his integrity and ability as a lawyer of more 
than 40 years' standing at the bar of this county and state, and in 
retiring from the presidency of this association we extend to him our 
best wishes for a long and pleasant life in his retirement and hope 
that he will honor us with his presence in all our future meetings. 
We emphatically insist that as in the past, he be present when we 
wine and dine to recount again in his inimitable manner the stories, 
pathetic or ludicrous, of his experiences as a member of this bar. 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 703 

We refuse to say farewell to him, and hope to profit by his counsel 
in the future as in the past." 

Commenting on the retirement of Mr. Curtis the San Bernardino 
Daily Sun of Dec. 12, feelingly and appro])riately says: 

"Touching scenes yesterday marked the formal retirement of W. J. 
Curtis from the presidency of the San Bernardino Bar Association, 
after 28 years as the head of the organization. He had requested 
several months ago that another and younger man be named to direct 
the association. 

"Mr. Curtis had not yet reached the meeting when the resolutions 
of love and respect, adopted in honor of the veteran attorney, were 
read and adopted amid deep feeling on the part of the assemblage. 

"Shortly after the resolutions had been read, Mr. Curtis entered 
the court room and the attorneys greeted his arrival with a burst of 
applause. 

"To become a permanent record of the county in which Mr. Curtis 
has been one of its most prominent and useful citizens for more than 
a half century, the resolution of the bar association on Monday, as 
the superior court sits en banc, will be presented in open court and 
ordered by the jurists spread upon the minutes of the court there 
to be ])erpetuated forever." 

Mr. Curtis was a delegate to the Democratic National Conven- 
tion that re-nominated Woodrow Wilson for President in 1916. 

In 1861 Mr. Curtis married Frances S. Cowles, of Delaware, Ohio. 
They had six children, three of whom, Holman C. Curtis, Judge 
Jesse W. Curtis and Harriet M. Curtis, are now living. In addition 
to being grandfather, he is a great-grandfather, the two little daughters 
of Captain Merritt Barton Curtis, U. S. Marines, now stationed at 
Port Au Prince, Haiti, being his great-grandchildren. 

He has been associated at different times in the practices of his 
profession in California with Judge A. D. Boren, Judge Horace C. 
Rolfe, John Brown, Jr., Esq., Hon. John W. Satterwhite, Judge 
George E. Otis, Henry Conner, Esq., Judge Frank F. Oster and 
Judge Jesse W. Curtis. 

In 1908 Mr. Curtis, being then seventy years of age, retired from 
the practice of his profession. He is and has been for almost twentv- 
five years a member of the San Bernardino Society of California 
Pioneers. He is, and has been a director of the San Bernardino 
County Savings Bank ever since its organization. 

Jesse William Curtis, judge of the Superior Court of San Ber- 
nardino County, was born in the City of San Bernardino on the 18th 
day of July, 1865. His father is W. J. Curtis, and his mother was 
Frances S. Cow-les Curtis. He was educated in the public schools 
of San Bernardino and the University of Southern California, from 
which he graduated in 1887, and in the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, from which he graduated in 1891. 

He comes from a long line of lawyers. His father, W. J. Curtis, 
and both of his grandfathers, I. C. Curtis and Leonard H. Cowles, 
were lawyers, and one of his great-grandfathers, Judge Jesse L. 
Holman, was on the Supreme Bench of Indiana for about fifteen 
years and thereafter was appointed by President Andrew Jackson, 
United States district judge, which position he held until his death 
in 1842. Judge Curtis was admitted to the bar in Michigan in 
1891 and in California the same year and become a member of the 
firm of Curtis, Oster and Curtis, and continued a member of this 



706 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

firm until 1896, when Mr. Oster was elected Superior Judge and 
withdrew from the firm, which was thereafter known as Curtis & 
Curtis. In 1908, W. J. Curtis retired from practice and J. W. Curtis 
and Hon. S. W. McNabb became partners under the firm name of 
Curtis & McNabb. This partnership continued until 1914, when Mr. 
Curtis was elected Superior Judge of the County of San Bernardino 
for the term of six years. In 1920 he was re-elected, having received 
the greatest number of votes of any candidate running for office at 
that election. From 1899 to 1903 Mr. Curtis served as district attorney 
of San Bernardino County. He also served one term as a member of 
the Board of Education of the City of San Bernardino. During the 
recent war with Germany he found time in addition to discharging 
his duties as judge of the Superior Court to serve as chairman of 
the' County Council for Defense until the close of the war. Judge 
Curtis is a democrat and a great admirer of Ex-President Wilson. 

Judge Curtis is deeply interested in everything connected with 
the city, takes an active part in business and social affairs, and for 
six years has been president of the Y. M. C. A. and for twenty-five 
years has been superintendent of the Sunday School of the Baptist 
Church. He is a director of the San Bernardino National Bank, 
president of the West Highland Citrus Association, president of the 
West Highland Water Company, and a trustee of the University of 
Redlands. He is a member of the San Bernardino County and State 
Bar Associations, is a Mason and a Native Son. Besides attending 
to his duties as judge of the Superior Court he is a successful orange 
grower. 

In 1892 Judge Curtis married Ida L. Seymour, daughter of Ex- 
Senator E. C. Seymour and Martha M. Seymour, of Highlands. 
Senator Seymour is a veteran of the Civil war and an orange grower. 

The Judge and Mrs. Curtis have three children: Margaret, now 
a chemist in the Boston City Hospital, Jesse W., a sophomore in 
the high school, and Helen Seymour, a student in the Junior High 
School. 

John Charles Ralphs is by birth an almost Calif ornian and by his 
life a real one, for he was born when his parents were on the way to 
California and he has spent his more than worth-while life in San 
Bernardino. Here he was reared, educated and married, and here 
he is now enjoying life in the beautiful home with his wife, a home 
now in the heart of the business district. Theirs is one of those happy 
unions so rare these days of stress and change, they were wedded 
when very young, the)' have reared a fine large family, and next 
year they will celebrate their golden wedding day, the milestone 
on life's journey so few, so very few, ever attained. Their friends 
and their children are waiting lovingly for that golden day to dawn 
and its celebration will be a joyous occasion, for those who have the 
happiness to be one of their large circle of friends and for the chil- 
dren and the grandchildren, nearly all of whom are living in San 
Bernardino. 

After the strenuous life of the pioneer days Mr. and Mrs. Ralphs 
went happily through all the long years of their wedded life, contented 
to be together, just as much the lovers as they were nearly fifty years 
ago. Such lives are like the hidden rose in the hedges throwing its 
sweet perfume on the air, influencing for good all who pass by, a 
fragrant memory ever afterward. Hand in hand they can look back 
over the years without a regret and look forward to many years of 



SAN BERXARDIXO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 707 

hap])incs,s together after that wonderful golden wedding da)-, for, 
des))ite, that, they are not old in years, just in experience, happiness 
and love. 

Mr. Ralphs is one self made man who can prove that such men are 
usually "the salt that keejjs civilization from decay." He was edu- 
cated entirely by private instruction, and he worked on his father's 
ranch and in his father's brick yard until he was married, which was 
before he was of age. Mr. Ralphs is a man of commanding physique 
and of corresponding strength and, like his wife, looks many years 
younger than he is. He was born in Utah, October 24, 1852, while 
his parents were crossing the plains on the way to the West. His 
father was Richard Ralphs, a native of England, who came to America 
about 1846. Here he met the girl who was to be his wife. Mary 
Newell, also a native of England. 

Richard Ralphs was a brick mason and a bricklayer by trade, and 
he settled in Missouri, but after several years decided to come out 
West. So he got together the ox teams and necessary ecjuipment 
and with his wife started out. They reached San Bernardino, and he 
at once bought land and went into farming, and also operated a 
brick yard. He made the first brick ever manufactured in that district, 
and he followed both occupations, \\ith a side line of contracting, 
until his death in 1878. They were the parents of five sons and three 
daughters, who lived to manhood and womanhood. 

John Charles Ralphs, as stated above, worked for his father until 
his marriage, and then he went into the cattle business, next in the 
sheep business and later he took up general farming, and these three 
lines have been his life occupations. He married in 1872 Eunice 
Samantha Roberts, a daughter of John Roberts and of Martha (Wal- 
pool) Roberts. Mrs. Ralphs is a "Native Daughter," and was born in 
Mendocino County, where her father was a farmer and stock raiser. 
He moved to San Bernardino when she was a child. The date of her 
birth was March 25, 1854. They were the parents of eight children : 
Mary Angeline, wife of Charles Hugglerath, of San Bernardino, who 
has one child ; Martha Eudora, wife of Charles Reber, of San Ber- 
nardino, who has one child ; Richard Albert, in business in San 
Bernardino, married and has two children ; George Edwin, a farmer 
in San Bernardino County; Eudora May, wife of Ralph Guy, of San 
Bernardino, has one child ; Charles Benjamin, a farmer in the Imperial 
Valley, married and has three children; John C, Jr., assistant cashier 
of the San Bernardino National Bank, married and has two children; 
Dennis Franklin, with the bank at Brawley, Imperial Valley, married 
and has one child. 

Mr. Ralphs is a strong republican and a dominant figure in politics. 
In 1893 he was elected city marshal, and he held the position for two 
years and then ran again but was defeated. He then returned to his 
farming operation. But he had made too good a record as marshal, 
and in 1903 he was elected sheriflf of San Bernardino County and 
served four years. He was then re-elected and served four years 
more. But he could not then retire for he was elected the third time 
for a term of four years, a record of service in this ofifice never before 
equaled. Mr. Ralphs made a wonderful record as sheriff, being abso- 
lutely without fear in the discharge of his duties, yet just as fair in all 
his actions,,intolerant of crime, yet with sympathies wide as the world, 
with a deep seated instinct for fair play, yet always the "iron hand 
in the velvet glove." His magnificent physique and wonderful con- 
stitution, built up by the outdoor life he had always led, made him 



708 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

with his strong personality, the ideal sheriff who figures in fiction 
and moving picture^s hut is seldom "met up with" in real life. Mr. Ralphs 
now owns tlie home ranch of 30 acres near San Bernardino and a 640 
acre ranch in the Imperial Valley. 

Samuel Gary Evans, second of the name, stands out among the people 
of the City and County of Riverside and the State of California as 
one of the best types of American manhood. Equipped with all 
social and business qualities, he was more than equal to the task 
of making a name and fortune for himself, but the fortune was 
his from the threshold of life and he added to it, the rest he also 
speedily won by his own sterling merit. 

A "worthy son of a worthy father," Samuel Cary Evans, the 
second, has more than justified the gifts of fortune and added prestige 
to the name so long identified with the history of the County of 
Riverside. There is scarcely an industry or enterprise of any mag- 
nitude with which Air. Evans has not been connected in either a 
business, civic or political way, and in all charity work he is in- 
defatigable, his purse ever open. By virtue of all these activities 
he wields an influence in the life of Riverside as great as it is unsolicited. 
By his life all have known him, for his watchword seems to be 
service, and yet more service. The record of his public spirited 
labors is a long one, worthy, but difficult of emulation. 

Mr. Evans was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, November 22, 1866, 
the son of Samuel Cary Evans. He was educated in the Jackson, 
Illinois, Business College and the public schools of Riverside until 
he entered the University of the Pacific at San Jose, whence he 
was graduated in 1889. He was also a student in a military school 
for a year and read law for a year, expecting to go to Harvard, but 
his father met with an accident and was unable to do much after- 
ward and the son had to take charge, and so he never realized that 
ambition, though he did manage to take a year's trip around the 
world. After his graduation from the University he returned to 
Riverside in 1889 and took up his life work, and with his brother, 
P. T. Evans, assumed entire charge of his father's business, a large 
acreage, three hundred in oranges and lemons, one hundred in 
raisin grapes, etc. 

Since then Mr. Evans has been doing general farming and has 
gone largely into cattle and general farming, having fifteen hundred acres 
in Riverside County devoted to the two enterprises. He has a natural 
inclination toward the handling of real estate, in which his success 
has been undeviating. He is also president of the Riverside Land 
& Irrigating Company, which his father organized and of which 
he was the first president. 

Mr. Evans has been the logical and popular choice of the republican 
party for various positions, a member of the State Legislature from 
the Thirty-ninth Senatorial District, Riverside and Imperial counties 
during 1916-21, the four year term. 

He was chosen as president of the Freeholders Charter Board, 
and after the City of Riverside adopted a city charter he was its 
first mayor, served for five years, and in that period Riverside made 
her greatest advance in real improvements. He was a member of 
the Riverside County Highway Commission when the concrete roads 
were built through the county, for which county bonds to the amount 
of $125,000 were issued, this work being commenced in 1914. He 
was a member of the Board of Education for twelve years, but has 



# 










SAMUEL GARY EVANS 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 709 

refused for lack of time many civic and political positions. He has 
spent time and money in the advancement of Riverside and its citizens, 
and among his varied interests is the Settlement House, and he 
donated the property used for that purpose to the city. He is a 
member of the California League of Municipalities and usually 
attends its meetings and in 1910 was its president. He is a republican, 
and has served the party as a delegate to county and state con- 
ventions. 

During the World war, Mr. Evans was chairman of the Four 
Minute Men Committee of Riverside County. He worked early and 
late on all activities pertaining to the war and accomplished much 
for the cause of humanity. He was also chairman of the Second 
District Exemption Board for California, with headquarters in Bakers- 
field. 

He married Miss Mary Southworth in Stockton, California. She 
is the daughter of H. O. Southworth, an early settler in Stockton. 
They have two sons : Errol S. Evans, a graduate of Stanford 
University, is now an electrical and mechanical engineer for the 
Standard Oil Company. He married Alva S. Greenwalt, of San 
Jose. Wayne, the younger son, is a student in the Riverside High 
School. The Evans family is identified with the Congregational 
Church and interested in all church matters. In college Mr. Evans 
became a member of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. He is a Mason 
and a Shriner. 

Samuel Cary Evans, the First, father of Samuel Cary Evans, the 
Second, was one of the early settlers in Riverside, coming to the city 
in 1874, and today his memory is loved and revered by its citizens. 
Special honor is given to the pioneers, but Mr. Evans was more than 
that — he embodied progression itself. He was large of soul and of 
action, and he had the vision to see what opportunities had been 
placed in his hands and the ability to use them rightly. He had the 
independence of spirit, thought and action admired by all true men, 
and as success is the prerogative of valiant souls he won it, fairly and 
squarely. He came to Riverside with a position in life attained upon 
which most men would have retired, but he at once purchased half 
an interest in 10,000 acres of land, much of which is now Arlington 
and Arlington Heights. It was then known as the Hartshorn tract, 
and Captain W. T. Sayward, of San Francisco, owned the other 
half. At once construction was commenced on what is now known 
as the Lower Canal, and to develop water for their acreage they had 
to pay out large sums of money. In 1875 Mr. Evans organized the 
Riverside Land & Irrigating Company, and was its president, hold- 
ing the position for many years, and it was this company which 
eventually purchased the land and water rights of the Colony Asso- 
ciation. It gave the company control of the water system of River- 
side, and they extended and expanded in every direction possible. 
Over 1000 acres were thus placed under irrigation, the irrigation 
which has literallj' given life to Riverside. 

Reading the record of his life it seems as if it must have re- 
quired a superman to accomplish all that he accomplished. Everything 
brought to his attention, which he deemed worth}^ was at once taken 
up and made successful. He was not only president of the Land 
Company but also of the Arlington Railway, of the Loring Opera 
House, director in the Riverside Water Company, a large stockholder 
in the Riverside Gas & Electric Light Company, etc. And with ii 
all he found time to engage largely in horticultural pursuits and in 



no SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

all manner of development work. He was among the first to put acreage 
in oranges and lemons and grapes. He did not confine his attention 
10 Riverside City alone but was interested throughout the county 
and many have cause to "Rise and call him blessed," for he brought 
them prosperity. There are many today who count no greater 
privilege than to have been his friend. Mr. Evans was an aggressive 
and progressive republican, a dominant figure in the councils of the 
party. He was a charter member of Riverside Lodge, Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, and was connected with the Presbyterian 
Church. 

He was born in Fort Defiance, Williams County, Ohio, in 1823, 
son of John Evans, a native of Kentucky and a well known merchant, 
who went with his parents to Fort Wayne in 1840. He died in 1845, 
and all the family and business cares came upon his son Samuel, 
and the son proved worthy of his father's faith and trust in him. 
When only nineteen he went into business with a brother, but 
three years later he disposed of his interests. In 1855 he organized 
the S. C. Evans & Company, himself as manager. And five years 
later he owned the business, disposing of it to purchase the con- 
trolling interest in the Merchant's National Bank of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. It took him only ten years to put this bank at the head 
of the banks of its kind in the state. He was a vigorous worker 
for the Fort Wayne project, and one of the organizers of the Fort 
Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw Railroad. When he decided to locate 
in Riverside Mr. Evans closed all his interests elsewhere and trans- 
ferred his capital to California, one of the best things which ever 
happened to Riverside. Mr. Evans had two sons, both residents of 
Riverside : Samuel Cary Evans, second, and Pliny T. Evans. 

Horace Porter, Riverside's popular mayor, is a very unusual type 
of public official. Up to the beginning of America's participation in the 
World war he was for many years identified with the ministry, and 
was pastor of a church at Riverside. In the profession of the ministry 
he laid special emphasis upon the constructive possibilities of direct and 
indirect service in solving the problems of the people, not only in the 
spiritual sense but in their social and moral relations. Thus Mr. Porter 
has always been deeply interested in civic aflfairs, and he possesses the 
fearlessness, the energy and the judgment required of an executive munici- 
pal official. 

His birth occurred in the historic city of Marietta, Ohio, November 
8, 1863. His ancestors were identified with the original colony that 
settled at Marietta in April, 1788, this being the first permanent settle- 
ment planted west and north of the Ohio River. His ancestors have 
lived in America from 1625. One of his Colonial forefathers was Moses 
Porter of the seventeenth century, who at the time of his death was 
said to be the largest individual land owner in America. He owned 
land covering what is now occupied by Salem, Danvers and many east- 
ern Massachusetts communities. Simon S. Porter, father of Horace 
Porter, was a native of Ohio, and for forty consecutive years until 
shortly before his death, was jirincipal of the Washington School at 
Marietta. During the Civil war in addition to his duties as an educator 
he engaged in special local service for the Government 

Reared and educated at Marietta, Horace Porter attended public 
schools and graduated from Marietta College in 1886 with the degree 
Master of Arts. For three years he attended Lane Theological Semi- 
nary at Cincinnati, and immediately after his graduation went into 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 711 

a portion of the new South, Alabama, where he organized several churches. 
For three years he was pastor of Westminster Presbyterian Church at 
Decatur. He organized that church, secured the land, superintended 
the building, collected money, and acted the part of janitor as well as 
preacher. 

On leaving Alabama in 1892 Mr. Porter removed to Brooklyn, New 
York, to become an associate of Dr. Lyman Abbott in Plymouth Church. 
For a time he had charge of the Bethel Mission and later of the May- 
flower Mission of that church, and then was associated with Dr. Abbott 
in the pastorate of Plymouth Church itself. Almost daily for nearly 
eight years he was co-worker with that distinguished American preacher 
and thinker. 

Following a severe accident on Brooklyn Bridge in 1900 Mr. Porter 
resigned from Plymouth Church and spent the following three years 
recuperating on a farm at Southington, Connecticut. Following that 
came a period of interesting and constructive service at Montclair, New 
Jersey, where he was associate pastor for Dr. Amory Bradford in the 
pastorate of the First Congregational Church, and then organized the 
Watchung Avenue Congregational Church of Montclair, and was its 
pastor six years. 

At that time, on account of the sudden and successive losses by death 
of his mother, father, wife and sister, Mr. Porter came to California 
with his small son, Horace Shepard Porter. For short periods he lived 
in Redlands and in Pasadena, and in May, 1909, came to Riverside 
to accept the pastorate of the First Congregational Church. The present 
handsome church edifice was erected during his pastorate, which con- 
tinued for eight years. He resigned soon after America entered the 
war to become the organizer and chairman of the Red Cross for Riverside 
County. He made a campaign through the county and organized Red 
Cross branches in practically every town, including Blythe in the extreme 
eastern end of the county. A portion of this work was performed during 
the famous hot spell of June, 1917. \\'hile he was in some of the 
Central and Eastern territory the mercury went as high as 127 degrees, 
with a fierce sandstorm blowing at the same time. In spite of such adverse 
climatic conditions several of the Red Cross Chapters were organized 
amidst the greatest public enthusiasm. One of the incidents of this 
campaign should be told, partly as an episode of war times and also 
as illustrating the determined and resourceful character of Mr. Porter. 
His meeting in one of the central towns was interrupted by a band of 
"I. W. W.'s" who cursed the country, the flag, and damned the President 
for letting the country get into the war. These intruders declared pub- 
licly at the meeting that if any attempt was made to "plant them in 
Europe" they would see to it that a number of American citizens were 
first "planted under American soil." On another occasion the "1. W. W.'s" 
attempted to break up Mr. Porter's meeting, saying they did not propose 
to have any Red Cross in the town. Mr. Porter bethought himself of a 
telegram he had in his pocket from Secretary Tumulty saying that 
President Wilson requested that all county chairmen of the Red Cross 
push the work of organization with the utmost expedition. Reading 
this telegram to the audience, Mr. Porter declared that the meeting was 
called by the President ot the United States and that any attempt to 
break it up would be dealt with by the United States Government. The 
"1. W. W.'s" promptly withdrew in a body, and the Red Cross was 
formally organized. 

It was in the fall of 1917 that Mr. Porter was elected mayor of 
Riverside. On taking office January I, 1918, he resigned as chairman 



712 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

of the Red Cross of Riverside County. He was re-elected for a second 
term as mayor in November, 1920. 

Mayor Porter is a republican. He has been deeply interested in 
civic administration from the time of his pastoral duties in Brooklyn, 
where he came to admire and appreciate the high-minded attitude and 
the practical idealism of Dr. Abbott, whose splendid Americanism might 
safely be copied at any and all times. While in Brooklyn his experience 
with the masses of the city poor gave Mr. Porter a clear vision of the 
relationship between civic government and the interests of the people. 
While there he organized the Brooklyn Civic Association for the study of 
civic affairs of Brooklyn. A large part of his active interest in politics 
has been directed to city administration. 

He was also one of the founders of the famous "Get Together Club" 
of New York City, a club very similar to the Present Day Club of River- 
side. This consisted of men of New York and Brooklyn who were inter- 
ested in social questions. Their interests led them on one occasion to hold 
a great meeting in "Little Hungary," in one of the great popular saloons 
of the metropolis, where they debated the temperance question with the 
saloon men themselves. While at Montclair, New Jersey, Mr. Porter 
was an active member of the Civic Society. At the close of the Spanish- 
American war he was one of the organizers of the Cuban Industrial 
Relief Commission and went to Cuba to help relieve the "Reconcentrado 
Population" which, it will be recalled by those familiar with the history 
of that time, was the agricultural people of Cuba whom Governor Weyler 
had impounded and reduced to starvation. 

During his ministerial work in Alabama Mr. Porter was appointed by 
President Clark of the National Chri.stian Endeavor Society as 
state superintendent of the society, and he organized the first Christian 
Endeavor in Alabama and its first State Convention at Montgomery. At 
one time he was a trustee of Marysville College in Tennessee. He was 
a member of the Boys Military organization in Marietta, belongs to 
the Phi Gamma Delta college society, the Knights of Pythias in Alabama 
and the Masons in Brooklyn. 

At Brooklyn in 1894 Mr. Porter married Miss Elizabeth Shepard, a 
native of that city. Her father was Dr. Charles H. Shepard, a well 
known Brooklyn physician. Miss Shepard was an active member of 
Plymouth Church while Mr. Porter was its associate pastor. She died 
at Montclair, New Jer.sey, in 1907. Their one child, Horace Shepard 
Porter, is now a student in the University of CaHfornia. At Riverside 
December 29, 1910, Mr. Porter married Miss Maude Chapman, daughter 
of D. P. Chapman. Miss Chapman was an active member of the First 
Congregational Church of Riverside while Mr. Porter was pastor and for 
many years preceding. 

During his two terms as mayor Mr. Porter has devoted his entire 
time to the administration of his office. In addition to the many general 
interests centering in such an office his work has been in close association 
with the departments of police, streets, parks and trees, legislative and 
executive work as presiding officer of the City Council, the administra- 
tion of city franchises and ordinances, the presidency of the Board of 
Health, and the presidency of the Board of Public Utilities. The Board 
of Public Utilities is the administrative head of the departments of 
municipally owned water and electric light and power. 

For thirty years interested in piiblic ownership of public utilities, 
Mr. Porter has been .specially interested in problems of public owner- 
ship of water and hydro-electric power for the City of Riverside, and 
as closely allied with the problems of such public ownership for the 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 713 

State of California, including all cities, towns and farm districts. As 
his term draws to a close in the winter of 1921-1922, Mr. Porter's special 
interest has been in helping to formulate and place before the people of 
the State the celebrated Amendment known as "California's Water and 
Power Act." For Mr. Porter holds as an absolute conviction that pub- 
lic ownership of public utilities is sound public policy, and the only right 
solution for the people. And this especially in California, where, as 
it lies in the public domain of the great mountains and river systems, 
the public owns these utilities in their sources, and the people ought also 
to own and control these utilities in their daily service to the people 
both in the cities and in the farming districts. 

Mr. Porter believes that the greatest single thing that can be achieved 
for the people of California is that the people shall own these utilities 
and have the benefit of them at cost of production. This the mayor con- 
tends will immensely minister to the prosperity and the happiness of the 
people of California. 

Mr. Porter has an abiding faith that the people of California will 
appreciate this great opportunity and stand for the great principles in- 
volved, notwithstanding the powerful interests that are arrayed against 
public ownership of public utilities. 

Frank P. Wilson. The genial and efficient sheriflf of Riverside 
County, Frank P. Wilson, has safeguarded the citizens for more than 
thirty years, and his has been an administration of the office that has 
demanded and received recognition, just as his filling of other offices 
of similar nature was recognized. At the polls his victory is assured 
before the election, and no higher endorsement could be given. 

It takes a man of peculiar ability to fill such offices, and an officer of 
the law fitted to hold such an office is almost as rare as a "blue moon." 
Mr. Wilson has the seventh sense, intuition, and an instinctive recognition 
of evil doers. He is just, gives every man his chance, but any breakers of 
the law find the Sheriff as inflexible as iron, the mailed fist very much 
in evidence. In the pursuit of criminals he is as untiring as a blood- 
hound, and they are prone to remember this, as the records of the county 
will show. Outside of his office he is a different man, genial, popular 
and takes a living, kind interest in his fellow men. It would be difficult 
to name a citizen of the county who is better liked and an official more 
highly respected and honored. 

Mr. Wilson was born in Barry County, Michigan, August 16, 1860, 
his father being the late James Wilson, and his mother, Hannah K. Wil- 
son. James Wilson was a native of Barry County also and a farmer by 
occupation. When the Civil war broke out he enlisted in 1861 as a 
private in Company I, Second Regiment, Missouri Cavalry. He was 
in many battles and actively engaged until he was killed by Morgan's 
Guerillas in 1862 near Memphis, Missouri. His widow took her family 
and went to Sterling, Illinois, to live among relatives in 1863. 

Frank P. Wilson went to school and remained until graduated, when 
he took an additional course in the Sterling Business College for a year. 
He then spent three years on the farm near his boyhood home. He 
decided to come out West, to California, and did so, settling in River- 
side November 19, 1886. For a period of two years he engaged in car- 
pentry work and then was elected constable and also served as deputy 
sheriff of San Bernardino County before the formation of Riverside 
County. He served in this office for five years, and so efficient was his 
work that he was elected chief of police. This office he filled to the 
satisfaction of everyone, for twelve years, his courage, impartiality and 

Vol. II— s 



714 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

fitness for the office giving him the position of Sheriff in 1906 and he 
took charge of the office January 7, 1907. The first term ended in 1910, 
but he was re-elected and has held it ever since, this being his fourth 
term. While he is a strong republican and active in the service of his 
party, serving it in county conventions as a delegate and as a member 
of the Central Committee, politics have played no part in the continued 
tenure of the office. It is the man, not the party. 

Mr. Wilson joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows January 
9, 1882, and has been through the chairs in the Subordinate Lodge, No. 
282, and also in the Encampment. His other fraternal relations are 
as a member of the Riverside Lodge No. 643, Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks, Evergreen Lodge No. 259, F. and A. M., and the Sons 
of Veterans. 

He is also a director in the National Bank of Riverside. 

Mr. Wilson married in Sterling, Illinois, December 19, 1883, to Miss 
Lydia Bressler. They became the parents of two children. Maude is 
the wife of A. W. Reynolds, an employe of the Gaylor Rouse Depart- 
ment Store of Riverside and they have one child, Robert, eleven years 
of age and attending school. James F. Wilson the second child of Mr. 
and Mrs. Wilson, was born in 1890, and died June 17, 1918. 

James F. Wilson was a graduate of the Riverside High School and 
attended the local business college. He was employed by the National 
Bank of Riverside for two years and a half and then for the same length 
of time by the Security Investment Company of Riverside. It was while 
he was at work at the latter institution that the W^orld war broke out, 
and he did not wait for the draft but enlisted in the regular army in 
June 1917. He was in the general infantry service at Fort McDowell and 
was one of the two sent from his company to the Reserve Officers Train- 
ing Camp at Camp Lewis. He was there about three months, being 
a sergeant, when he was taken ill and came home to Riverside on a 
furlough of a few days. He returned to Fort McDowell and was there 
ten days ; then was taken seriously ill with meningitis and taken to San 
Francisco. His father brought him back to Riverside, but he passed on 
in thirty days, to be remembered and honored as one of the brave boys 
of America who gave his life for his country, a hero and a patriot just 
as much as though he had died in the trenches. He gave to the utmost — 
his young life. 

William Grant Fraser — To name some of the out.standing fea- 
tures of constructive development and financial institutions of Riverside 
is to name the large affairs with which William Grant Fraser has been 
closely and actively identified since coming to this section of Southern 
California thirty years ago. 

Known to many as a banker, Mr. Fraser brought to California a wide 
and thorough experience in banking aiTairs gained during his residence 
in Canada. He was born near Inverness, Scotland, November 4, 1862. 
His father, Hugh Fraser, was a life-long resident of Scotland, a farmer 
by occupation, and a man of prominence in his community. He died 
at the advanced age of eighty-four. During his early life in Scotland 
William Grant Fraser attended the grammar and high schools of Inver- 
ness, and also had some of the routine duties of the home farm. Leaving 
Scotland, he went to Canada in 1882, and acquired his first experi- 
ence in the banking business at New Glasgow. Nova Scotia. He was 
connected with several branches of the bank, and finally was in the head 
offices of the Bank of Nova Scotia at Halifax. 







J^—r^ / i^^---^ 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 715 

When Mr. Eraser came to California in 1887 he acted as cashier of the 
bank at Elsinore until his removal to Riverside in 1890. Since then, while 
for many years actively identified with banking, perhaps the most interest- 
ing part of his career has been in development and constructive lines. He 
helped plant the first citrus trees on Arlington Heights. About January, 
1891, he became a factor in the affairs of the Riverside Trust Company, 
Ltd., which had acquired from the late Matthew Gage the Gage canal 
system together with the Arlington Heights land, consisting of about five 
thousand acres and another tract of about three thousand acres in the San 
Bernardino valley. For a number of years he was accountant for the 
Riverside Trust Company, Ltd., later was made assistant manager, and 
in 1900 became general manager of the company's business in California. 
From that office he retired, after nineteen years, on October 1, 1919. 
January 1, 1920, Mr. Fraser was elected president of the Security Savings 
Bank and vice president of the Citizens National Bank, after having been 
a director in both institutions for a number of years. 

Mr. Fraser has been president of the Arlington Heights Fruit Ex- 
change since its organization about eighteen years ago. The Riverside 
Fruit Exchange and the Arlington Heights Fruit Exchange recently con- 
solidated, under the new title of the Riverside-Arlington Heights Fruit 
Exchange, of which Mr. Fraser is still President. Since 1900 he has 
been president of the Gage Canal Company. For many years he was a 
director and one of the vice presidents of the California Fruit Growers 
Exchange and Fruit Growers Supply Company, resigning from that board 
after he severed his connection with the Riverside Orange Company, Ltd., 
which was the successor of the Riverside Trust Company, Ltd., and the 
Arlington Heights Fruit Company. Mr. Fraser is a director of the 
Riverside County Building and Loan Association. 

These brief facts suggest the highly important role he has played 
in Riverside County for many years. In politics he is a republican, but 
has had no active part aside from voting. In 1919 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Board of Education of Riverside City. He is a member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, the Pioneer Society, and is a trustee of the 
Calvary Presbyterian Church. 

November 21. 1893. Mr. Fraser married Miss Helen Maxwell. She 
is a native Canadian. Her father, Frank B. Maxwell, had been for thirty 
years manager of the Cook Brothers lumber interests at Toronto. Their 
two daughters were both born at Riverside. Misg Frances Maxwell 
Fraser is a graduate of the Riverside schools, is an A. B. graduate from 
Vassar College and Columbia University, and is now teacher of history 
and mathematics in the Westover School for Girls at Middlebury. Con- 
necticut. Miss Ruth Barbara Fraser. the younger daughter, is a graduate 
of the Riverside schools, of Vassar College with the class of 1920 and is 
now taking post graduate scientific studies at Columbia University. 

John T. Jarvis, a well known and well liked citizen of Riverside, is 
one of the up to date, live wires of real estate dealers, handling onlv 
the very best class of lands. He is equally well known as a citizen 
who is always to he found ready to join any movement tending toward 
civic improvement, public spirited to a high degree and wide-awake 
always to be the best interests of his adopted home. He almost ranks 
with the pioneers, and to pursue an account of his successful life is to 
be helped in a practical wav, for Mr. Jarvis commenced life without 
means or position, and the brilliant success he has gained financially, 
civically and .socially has been attained only by his own energy, in- 
dustry and wise judgment. There is not a better judge of real estate 
in the state than Mr. Jarvis, hence his clientele. 



716 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Mr. Jarvis was born March 10, 1847, in Ontario, Canada, and he 
is a descendant of old families prominent in many ways. He is the son 
of Jonathan and Eliza (Allen) Jarvis. The education he acquired 
inside the four walls of schoolhouses was very meager, comprising 
the period of his life from the age of six to thirteen, and then, owing 
to untoward circumstances, he had to engage in the battle of life, a 
battle that even at that age he had determined would be a victory for 
John T. Jarvis. 

He commenced that fight and his business career as an errand boy 
in a grocery store, and it was not long before he was behind the counter 
and very soon after that promotion he was appointed manager of the 
store. He remained in that position until 1869, when he decided that the 
future he intended to gain did not lie along mercantile lines. So he 
resigned and at once went into the dairy business with his father. 
They had a good business from the inception, adding the making of 
fine cheeses, but it was a case of hard manual labor and no rest day 
or night, and this in a climate which certainly left much to be desired. 
So with his customary quick decisiveness he disposed of his interests 
and sought the ideal home and came to California and, of course, to 
Riverside County. 

Once here he wasted no time in preHminaries bu_t got right down to 
the business of raising oranges, also running a nursery. Highly suc- 
cessful, he knew that he still had not attained his life work, and this he 
found when, in 1887, he left that business to engage in real estate, and 
here he found himself. Successful from the first, he found a further 
outlet for his energies in handling also life, fire and accident insurance 
for a time. But these he was forced to give up to devote his entire 
attention, as he is now doing, to high-grade real estate, in which he is 
in Class A. Mr. Jarvis is a republican in politics. In his fraternal rela- 
tions he is a member of the Odd Fellows, which he joined in 1884. He 
is also a Mason and a member of the Commandery. 

He was assessor four years, 1895-99. 

He organized the Peoples Abstract Company in 1895 and brought it 
through to success, being its president for ten or twelve years. The com- 
pany was later sold to the Riverside Title Company. 

He organized the Royal Steam Laundry, was its president for ten 
years and at the present writing is its vice-president. 

He was the means of organizing the Citizens Bank, securing the sub- 
scriptions for it, but never accepting any official position, although he was 
a stockholder for many years. 

At one time Mr. Jarvis was the largest realty operator in the city, 
being connected with a syndicate that dealt largely in San Diego lands and 
handled the 32,000 acre Lankersham ranch in the Cajon Valley. 

In the early days he ran a drygoods store under the name of J. T. 
Jarvis & Company, but sold out to Gaylor Rouse and for a time the two 
were partners. The Jarvis store was the foundation of the present big 
Rouse Department .Store of Riverside. 

When he first came to Riverside, Mr. Jarvis planted and handled 
more orchards than any other man in the valley. He was one of the 
leaders in Ihe raisin industry and packed and sold many thousand boxes. 

He also handled and dried apricots and jieaches for a Chicago firm, 
buying much of the fruit in this valley and elsewhere. 

He also handled a large jjart of the orange crop for several years, 
including much of the Riverside crop in 1885 and 1886. 

He also bought and shipped honey. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 717 

He was with the Griffin & Skelley Compan\' as one of the partners 
and buyer for the firm. 

He handled the San Bernardino and Highlands crop before Redlands 
was planted. 

Mr. Jarvis planted and cased for several hundred acres of outside 
orange groves and at one time, with others, had 700 acres. 

One year he and his brother dried apricots from 142 acres he owned, 
80 acres of which were on California Avenue, between Adams and 
Monroe, and the remainder in ten and 20-acre pieces in that neighbor- 
hood. 

He was one of the eight or ten Imperial County men who brought in 
the domestic water to Riverside in 1887-8. Mr. Jarvis has always lent a 
helping hand to others, etc., and there are many men in the city today 
who owe their start to his interest and help. 

Mr. Jarvis married in May, 1869, Miss Matilda A. Dundas in Ontario, 
Canada. She is a daughter of Robert and Harriett Ann Dundas, the 
former a native of the north of Ireland and the latter a native of New 
York state. They are the parents of eight children: John, a mining 
man; Lelia, wife of M. O. Pann, of Riverside; Con.stance, WiUiam and 
four children who are decea.sed. Mr. Jarvis and his family are members 
of the Episcopal Church. 

Hugh H. Craig, formerly judge of the Superior Court at River- 
side, came to California with the reputation of an able lawyer and man 
of power in his native city in Iowa, and during his connections with the 
bench and bar of Riverside has justified the expectations entertained 
by his older friends and associates. 

Judge Craig was born in the river town of Keokuk, Iowa, October 1, 
1874, son of John H. and Alice (Read) Craig. 

John H. Craig was one of the best known lawyers of the Middle West 
from 1857 until his death. His father was a member of the early Penn- 
sylvania Legislature, and was Scotch Irish descent. Judge Craig's mother 
was of English descent. 

Hugh H. Craig graduated from the Keokuk High School at the age 
of seventeen. Soon afterward he entered Parsons College at Fairfield, 
Iowa, graduating in 1896. An invaluable experience giving him active 
contact with men and affairs and broadening his mental horizon was his 
early service after leaving college as a newspaper man. For three years 
he was connected with the Keokuk Daily Gate City, which twenty-five 
years ago was paper of wide influence and much power in the central 
states. He began as a reporter, but eventually was city editor, and appar- 
ently had a big career before him in the newspaper field, since he had 
displayed unusual talents in news getting, diplomacy and as a versatile 
writer both in the editorial and reportorial fields. About that time, how- 
ever, he decided that he had a real "flair" for the law and gave up 
journalism to study with his cousin, John E. Craig, a brilliant lawyer of 
prominence and high standing. Under such direction he made careful 
preparation for his new vocation, and was admitted to the bar before the 
Supreme Court of Iowa. His undisputed talents and technical and theo- 
retical knowledge caused his progress to be rapid. The experience of his 
early years of practice matured him into the successful lawyer and rising 
man of power. From the time of his admission he practiced at Keokuk 
seven years, and while there was also city attorney for three years. The 
people of his native city came to regard him as a man of most unusual 
abilities and in many ways proved their faith in his judgment and charac- 
ter. While at Keokuk Judge Craig showed an active public spirit in 



718 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

public affairs and in educational matters particularly. He served four 
years on the Board of Education. 

In 1908 Judge Craig removed \o Riverside and became a partner in 
the law firm of Collier, Carnahan & Craig. This firm enjoyed a most 
extensive clientele and handled many important cases involving technical 
questions and large values. The partnership was dissolved in 1911, Judge 
Craig and Mr. Collier continuing their association as Collier & Craig. 
Judge Craig gave most unselfish devotion to the increasing tasks and re- 
sponsibilities of his private practice until he was elevated to the bench 
of the Superior Court. 

He was appointed to the position of Judge of the Superior Court of 
Riverside County by Governor Hiram W. Johnson on March 16, 1916. 
Thereafter he was elected to fill the unexpired term of his predecessor 
and again elected for a full term, being unopposed each time at the pri- 
mary and general elections. On September 1, 1921, he resigned, while 
more than three years yet remained of his term, to become general at- 
torney of the Southern Sierras Power Company, as he was desirous of 
again engaging in the practice of law. 

In politics Judge Craig is a democrat by principle, and has been a deep 
student of political questions and issues. A successful lawyer, he never 
regarded politics as an avenue to power and success, but always as a 
responsibility involving subordination of private advantages to the general 
good. It that spirit he exercised his duties on the bench. He was also 
appointed in 1911 a member of the Board of Education of Riverside, and 
subsequently was elected to the same position. 

During the great war he was Chairman of the County Council of 
Defense, latterly known as the Riverside Division, State Council of De- 
fense. He was Chairman of the Legal Advisory Board for Riverside 
County, was a member of the Executive Committee of the War Relief 
Council, which was in charge of raising war funds, and was a Four Minute 
Man. 

Judge Craig is a member of the Presbyterian Church and is affiliated 
with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Modern Woodmen of 
America, and the Masonic fraternity. November 29, 1905, at Chariton, 
Iowa, he married his college classmate. Miss Jessie McKlveen, a native 
of that Iowa town and a young woman of thorough education and social 
prominence. Mrs. Craig is a daughter of Dr. J. A. McKlveen, for a 
number of years president of the Iowa state Board of Health and a mem- 
ber of the state senate. The family is an old American one of Scotch- 
Irish descent. Mrs. Craig's grandfather, Daniel Read, was president of 
the Missouri State University at Columbus, Missouri. Judge and Mrs. 
Craig have one child, a daughter, Katharine. 

William B. Clancy — Of the movement that led to the creation and 
organization of Riverside County William B. Clancy is an authority 
by reason of the active participation he had in that historical move- 
ment. Mr. Clancy was auditor of the new county twelve years. He 
is most widely known, however, as a banker, and has been one of 
the active executives in the Citizens National Bank of Riverside from 
its inception. His record as a financier has earned him special pres- 
tige among California banking circles. 

Mr. Clancy was born at Yates City, Illinois, November 15, 1868. 
He grew up in Illinois, attended grammar and high schools, the 
Illinois State Normal School and Mussellman's Business Collegfe at 
Quincy. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 719 

lie was a youngj man just at his majority when he came to Cahfornia 
in 1889. For a number of years he was secretary of the Banning 
Land & Waiter Company, the interests of which company were located 
about half in what was San Bernardino and half in San Diego counties. 
The organization of a new county was a matter of direct business 
advantage to Mr. Clancy and his associates, afTording a better means 
of settling titles and transacting other public business. He, therefore, 
put himself in the lead in the popular movement to secure a new 
county, and out of that movement Riverside County was established 
in 1893. In 1894 he was elected county auditor, being the second 
to hold that office in the new county. He was re-elected and served 
three terms, being re-elected in 1898 and again in 1902. 

j\Ir. Clancy resigned this office at the time of the organization of the 
Citizens Bank of Riverside July 1, 1903. It was organized as a state 
bank with fifty thousand dollars capital, and its first home was on 
the southeast corner of Ninth and Alain streets. In May, 1904, it 
occupied the quarters of the Orange Growers National Bank, liquidat- 
ing the affairs of that institution. At that time the capital was 
increased to a hundred thousand dollars. In October, 1907, the Citizens 
National Bank was started, at which time the capitalization increased 
to a hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The original officers of the 
Citizens Bank were S. H. Herrick, president; Charles H. Low, vice 
president, and W. B. Clancy, cashier. Mr. Herrick continued as 
president when the bank was nationalized in 1907. In 1909 Mr. 
Clancy was promoted to vice president, and in 1916, when the 
Citizens National took over the affairs of the First National Bank, 
he was chosen president. In 1907 the Security Savings Bank and the 
Citizens Bank of Arlington were organized, the stock of these institu- 
tions being held by the Citizens National Bank. Mr. Clancy is now 
president of the Citizens National of Riverside, the Citizens Bank of 
Arlington, and is vice president of the Security Savings Bank. These 
are all notable institutions in the financial affairs of Riverside County. 
The Citizens National of Riverside has capital of a hundred fifty 
thousand dollars, surplus of a hundred fifty thousand dollars, un- 
divided profits of one hundred sixty-five thousand dollars, and deposits 
of three million dollars. The Security Savings Bank is capitalized at 
two hundred thousand dollars, has surplus of fifty-eight thousand 
dollars and undivided profits of sixty-five thousand dollars, with 
deposits aggregating three millions. The Citizens Bank of Arlington 
has a capital of twenty-five thousand dollars, surplus and undivided 
profits of twenty thousand dollars and over three hundred thousand 
dollars in deposits. In the remarkably successful record of these 
institutions Mr. Clancy takes the greatest satisfaction, and to him is 
due no small measure of that prosperity and the wise management 
that produced it. 

Mr. Clancy is also an orange grower on a small scale. He served 
as worshipful master of Riverside Lodge of Masons in 1901-02, and 
is affiliated with the Council and Knight Templar Commandery at 
Riverside, Al Malaikah Temple of the Shrine at Los Angeles, and the 
Elks. 

August 10, 1893, at Los Angeles, he married Miss Alice Hampson, 
who was born in Pennsylvania. The four children of Mr. and Mrs. 
Clancy are : Gertrude M., who is a graduate of Stanford University 
of California and Columbia University of New York ; Marian A., now 
in the fourth year of Stanford University ; Ellen G., who has completed 



720 SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

three years of high school work ; and Francis E., in the second year 
of high school. 

A. AiRD Adair — The name of A. Aird Adair is one which stands very 
high in the annals of the City of Riverside, of which he has been a resi- 
dent for thirty years, for he has been an important contributor to its 
progress and prosperity in a professional and business way. His career 
strikingly demonstrates the value of early discovering what one wants to 
do, and then doing it, even if alone and unaided. In his boyhood he de- 
termined to qualify as an attorney, and every move was made with that 
idea in mind, and he made his own way on his own resources from an 
early age. In after life his ability to organize and his keen aptitude for 
finances took him into the banking buisness in Riverside, and he has 
achieved the same success in this line as in his profession. He is a man 
of whom it may truthfullly be said, "he was a lawyer by early choice 
and training and a financier by predilection." 

Mr. Adair was born in London, Ontario, Canada, August 25, 1857, 
the son of John and Rose (Aird) Adair. He received his primary educa- 
tion in the grammar schools of St. Mary's, Canada, graduating from 
High School in the spring of 1873. He earned his own way in the world 
from an early age, devoting all his leisure time to the study of the law. 
He kept at this method for five years, and then he matriculated in the 
University of Toronto, Canada, and completed the regular course in the 
spring of 1887, with the degree of LL. B. 

He at once commenced the practice of his profession but in a year 
he was appointed to the office of county crown attorney for the district 
of Muskoka and Parry Sound, Canada, and this position he retained from 
1888 to 1890, when he resigned, for the purpose of finding some country 
where life could be enjoyed without so many discomforts as that some- 
what austere climate entailed. His attention was attracted to California, 
and he found in beautiful Riverside the ideal home he was seeking, and 
also a wide field for the practice of the law. He soon formed a partner- 
ship with W. A. Purington. which continued for over twenty-nine years 
and until the death of the latter in 1918. The firm was second to none 
in importance or legal requirements. Mr. Adair after the death of Mr. 
Purington, entered into a partnership with A. H. Winder, who had 
been associated with the firm for a number of years, the new firm taking 
the name of Adair & Winder. It has met with a continuation of the 
success and prominence of the first partnership. 

Mr. Adair entered the financial field of Riverside through the medium 
of the National Bank of Riverside, of which he was one of the main 
organizers and aided materially in its establishment. He was elected 
president of that institution, and carried it to enduring success and solid- 
ity of foundation. 

He married in Ontario on June 13, 1882, Miss Jennie E. Knieht. 
They are the parents of three daughters: Ada D., wife of Paul D. Wil- 
lard. residing in Hibbinsr, Minnesota ; Jean, wife of Shirley Houghton, 
residing at Oakland, California; Alexina, wife of Frank C. Nve, president 
of the Riverside Realty Company, residing in Riverside. Mr. Adair is 
a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Gaylor Rouse — The State of New York has contributed many highly 
valued citizens to Riverside, and one of the distinctive, outstanding figures 
in the mercantile and civic life of Riverside hailing from there is that of 
Gaylor Rouse. Gifted not only with practical foresight, but with ability 
as an organizer as well, he has made a thorough success of every under- 




cy<i^<X2t3^^^ i^tiTTyO^.^^^^ 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RI\-ERSIDE COUXTIES 721 

taking from the time when, yet a mere boy, he made a splendid record for 
efficiency in the Civil war up to the present time. Today he stands at 
the head of one of the foremost mercantile establishments in Riverside 
County, and one which he organized and made the success it is. 

Gaylor Rouse was born in Watertown, New York, January 1, 1842, the 
son of Collins and Dolly Rouse, both of whom were descendants from old 
eastern families. In 1858 he entered the academy at Belleville, Jeliferson 
County, New York, from which he was graduated in 1862. Immediately 
afterward he enlisted as a private in the Union Army, Company G, New 
York Heavy Artillery. He was sent at once to the front, where he saw 
what war was from the angle of most active service. His record was 
a brilliant one, for he was promoted to a lieutenantcy and served on the 
brigadier stafT as assistant inspector general until the close of the war, 
when he was honorably discharged. He immediately went to Washington, 
D. C, where he was needed as a clerk in the War Denartment. He 
served here until 1868, when he concluded that mercantile life would be a 
better outlet for his energies, now the war was over. So he resigned. 

He left Washington, going to Philadelphia, in New York State, 
where he opened a retail merchandise store and where he proved that he 
was in the right field. He remained there, highly successful, until 1878, 
when a desire for a more desirable scene of action brought him to 
California. He located first in Antioch, Contra Costa County, where he 
conducted another successful dry goods store. It was in that city, in 
August of the following year, that he was united in wedlock with Mrs. 
A. R. Jessup. By a marriage contracted in the State of New York, 
Mr. Rouse is the father of one son, Charles G. Rouse, who is connected 
with the Riverside firm as vice president. 

After spending eight productive years in the town of Antioch Mr. 
Rouse was attracted to Santa Barbara, where he opened an exclusive 
men's clothing store. This city held him just three years, when its beauty 
and charm (and a desire to have a permanent home and a permanent 
business) brought him to Riverside. With his keen perception it did 
not take him long to determine that here was the opportunity and the 
home he had been seeking. The second year of his advent here Mr. Rouse 
organized the stock company of which he is president and his son vice 
president. That he was more than justified in his faith in the possibilities 
lying dormant here, waiting for some one with the vision to understand 
and the self confidence to initiate, is evidenced by the concrete symbol, 
the department store of G. Rouse & Company. It is second to none in 
the county in its line, that of varied furnishings for women and men. 

Of the social side of his life it can truthfully be said that "Those 
who know him best, love and honor him most." He is often affectionately 
alluded to in public print and speech as "The grand old business man of 
Riverside." And such he is, for he is an upholder of the best traditions 
as applied to his daily life, and at the same time his progressive, live ideas 
for the civic good of the city have always been manifested in no uncertain 
way, his loyalty as a citizen always a factor to be counted upon as one 
absolutely dependable. 

Mr. Rouse is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, of the 
Loyal Legion and is a Knight Templar Mason. He is in religious faith 
an Episcopalian. 

Benjamin Sherwood Haywood, D. D. — Riverside feels a special 
degree of affection for the cultured and high-minded minister. Dr. 
Haywood, who has to his credit many years of service in the Southern 
California Conference and has been frequently marked for distinction 



722 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

and some of the largest responsilMlitics of the church abroad. He 
was recently appointed pastor of Nelshire Boulevard Methodist Episco- 
pal Church of Los Angeles. 

Dr. Haywood was born in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, and during 
his youth there acquired a common school education. He did his 
college work in Cornell College at Mount Vernon, Iowa, and in Purdue 
University at Lafayette, Indiana. Cornell College gave him his 
Doctor of Divinity degree at the semi-centennial of that staunch old 
Methodist institution in 1904. At Cornell College a fellow student 
was Miss Harriet Porter, and the romance of their college life ended 
in a most happy marriage. 

Dr. Haywood entered the Methodist ministry in 1890 and for two 
years was in missionary service in old Mexico, being presiding elder 
of Orizaba District and pastor at Pachuca. Then followed some years 
of congenial and useful labors in the Southern California Conference, 
and he was pastor of the first church at Riverside when in 1904 he 
was called by the Board of Bishops at the General Conference to the 
superintendency of Porto Rico Mission. Dr. Haywood was for eight 
years in charge of the Porto Rico Mission, during which time he 
directed the work of over two hundred Methodist Congregations in 
the West Indies. 

Following this, in June, 1912, he became general secretary of Hospital 
Work of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of the church, with 
headquarters at Washington. While there he came in close personal 
touch with national movements and broad world interests. His' 
knowledge of men and of the world has been diversified not only by 
his important duties but by engagements on the Chautauqua and 
lecture platforms and extensive travel at home and abioad. 

Dr. Haywood again accepted the pastorate of the First Methodist 
Church at Riverside in 1916, and after an absence of twelve years 
he returned to a post of duty that had manifold attractions for him. 
During the World war he was appointed by President Wilson a mem- 
ber of Exemption Board No. 1 in Riverside County, and served in that 
capacity throughout the war period. 

C.APT. W. B. JoHN'SON, whose home was in Riverside Countv from 
1892 until his death, is remembered for his business ability, his im- 
portant public service, and his character he always maintained as a 
highly patriotic and progressive citizen.. 

He represented a family of old American traditions and his great- 
grandfather. Col. Benjamin Johnson, came from Scotland to Amer- 
ica, becoming a Virginia planter and serving with distinction in the 
war for independence. The traditions of the family trace the descent 
from the Norse Vikings who settled in Scotland. Captain David 
Johnson, son of Col. Benjamin Johnson, was a native of Virginia 
and served as a soldier in the War of 1812. He was an Indiana 
pioneer and shared with Levi Beam the honor of being the first settler 
of Owen County, which then comprised the present counties of Owen, 
Greene, Putnam and Monroe. His son, Reuben Johnson, born in 
1812. was a farmer in Owen County until 1853, and then moved to 
the new State of Iowa and lived in Clarke County nearly forty years, 
until his death in 1892. Reuben Johnson married Elizabeth Barrick- 
man. whose father, John Barrickman, was a native of Germany, was a 
Virginia planter and lost his life while fording a river. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Johnson died when about fifty years of age. Her two daughters, 
Angeline and Sarah, both died in Iowa. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RI\'ERSIDE COUNTIES 723 

Of three sons Capt. W. 11. J()linsf)n was born Jnly 1, 1840, at 
Spencer in Owen County, Indiana, and was a boy of seven when his 
parents moved to Iowa. He and his two lirothers for part of the 
period of the Civil war were all members of Company D of the 39th 
Iowa Infantry. David H., the oldest, was a sergeant in the Company, 
and after the war was for two terms treasurer of Clarke County. The 
other brother, John C, was also a sergeant of Company D and died 
at Green Bay, Iowa. 

W. B. Johnson in June, 1861, shortly before his fifteenth birth- 
day, joined an Iowa Battalion and was on duty with that organization 
in Missouri for six months. He then enlisted in Company D, Thirty- 
ninth Iowa, with his brother, but after a period was transferred to 
Company G of the Seventh Iowa. He was not discharged until July 
12, 1865, so that his army record covers practically the entire war 
period. Among the major battles in which he participated were 
Parker's Cross Roads, Corinth, luka. Holly Springs, Chattanooga, 
Missionary Ridge, many of the engagements of the Atlantic campaign, 
and he was with General Sherman on the march to the sea and in the 
campaign through the Carolinas, ending with the battles of Goldsboro 
and Bentonville. At the battle of Altoona his brigade held Altoona 
Pass when General Sherman from Kenesaw Mountain, about twenty 
miles away, signalled the words "hold the fort for I am coming," 
words used as the first line and title of a popular religious song that 
has stirred the hearts and emotions of people for more than half a 
century. Captain Johnson went through the war with two slight 
wounds. His alertness, courage and resourcefulness made him valu- 
able in the scouting service. At the Grand Review in Washington he 
was barely nineteen when he marched at the capital in charge of the 
Division Forage Squad of Sherman's army. 

His military experience continued several years after the war, 
and he became identified with several interesting phases in the develop- 
ment of the great Middle West. He served as a scout and wagon 
master, fighting in the Black Hills against the Indians and assisting 
in protecting the builders of the Union Pacific Railroad. Later he 
was appointed captain of Campany B, Second Regiment of Nebraska, 
better known as the Cowboy Company, and commanded that company 
on the frontier, guarding the settlements from Indians. For two years 
he was a deputy United States marshal in Kansas and the old Indian 
Territory. He was for two years sheriff of Wheeler County, Nebraska, 
and held a similar position for Valley County, and while living at 
Osceola, Iowa, was city marshal and under sheriff four years. Besides 
discharging the duties of these official positions Captain Johnson was 
for a number of years identified with the cattle industry in Nebraska. 

It was in 1887 that he took up his residence in Southern California, 
locating at Los Angeles. Los Angeles was enjoying boom times, but 
the boom collapsed shortly afterward and he lost heavily through 
his real estate investments. For two years he remained there as a 
special detective, and in 1892 located at Riverside, where he conducted 
a livery and operated a stage line from San Jacinto to Strawberry 
Valley. He was elected sherifif in 1894 and filled that office four 
years. For eighteen months he was a general merchant at Winchester, 
and then returning to Riverside engaged in the real estate business 
and also had mining interests in Riverside and San Diego counties. 
Captain Johnson was finally elected chief of police of Riverside and 
was in that office when he died. 



724 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

He was a widely known and honored figure in Southern California 
for many j'ears, where he served as president of the Iowa Soldiers 
Association of California, was a past commander of Ord Post, Grand 
Army of the Republic, in Nebraska, past commander of Riverside 
Post No. 108 of the Grand Army, and was affiliated with the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. In politics he was a stanch republican 
and was its candidate for all the public offices he held except once 
when elected on a citizens' ticket. 

Captain Johnson met and married Miss S. S. Freeman in the 
vicinity of Osceola, Iowa. She was born in Illinois and is now a 
resident of Riverside. They were the parents of four children : 
Eugene, now deceased, who was a volunteer in the Spanish-American 
war; Laura J., wife of D. M. Hinkle, of Rock Island, Illinois; William 
A., a well known Riverside banker whose career is briefly sketched 
elsewhere; and Lois J., wife of H. H. Jenkins, who has charge of all 
orchard work for the Colony Association of Atascadero. 

William A. Johnson, president of the National Bank of Riverside, 
was for a number of years active as an engineer and contractor, and 
has been identified with a number of important business undertakings 
in the county. 

He is the only surviving son of the late Capt. W. B. Johnson, a 
well remembered figure of Riverside County whose story is told 
elsewhere. William A. Johnson was born while his parents lived at 
Ord, Nebraska, March 6, 1885, but has lived at Riverside since he 
was nine years of age. He attended the grammar and high schools 
of the county, and from public school his experiences quickly led him 
into the engineering and contracting business. For a number of years 
he was associated with R. T. Shea in the firm of the Johnson-Shea 
Company. Their working interests extended to many points in 
Central and Southern California and into Arizona. They handled some 
extensive municipal contracts, building water systems, paving and 
sewer construction, and performed a large amount of that class of 
work in Riverside and immediate vicinity. 

For a number of years Mr. Johnson has been identified with the 
National Bank of Riverside as a director, but since June, 1919, has 
been its president. This bank was organized in 1906 and still retains 
its original capitalization of a hundred thousand dollars, while the 
surplus is a hundred seventy-five thousand dollars and deposits aggre- 
gate a million seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Mr. Johnson 
is also one of the directors of the Security Investment Company of 
Riverside and is one of the owners and directors of the Liberty Ranch 
Company, operating a five hundred acre alfalfa farm at Winchester 
in Riverside County. 

During the World war he sought every opportunity to do his part 
as a patriotic citizen, co-operating with other workers in Riverside in 
behalf of the various financial drives and at the close of the war was 
made head of the local Red Cross. He is a republican and a member 
of the Republican County Central Committee, but his business and 
private interests have absorbed his time to the exclusion of politics 
so far as his personal candidacy is concerned. He is a member of 
Riverside Lodge, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, has been 
a Mason since he was twenty-one years of age, and is affiliated with 
the Lodge, Council and Commandery at Riverside and AI Malaikah 
Temple of the Shrine at Los Angeles. He is also a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce and the Present Day Club. 




X.^.2^^^^ 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 725 

June 11, 1908, at Riverside, Mr. Johnson married Miss Irene LaRue, 
a native of Riverside and daughter of the late Seneca LaRue, one 
of the prominent citizens of this section of Southern California. The 
two daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson are Frances, born in 1911, 
and Margaret, born in 1913, both attending the public schools of 
Riverside. 

Capt. Lyman C. Waite is not only the oldest resident of Riverside, 
but he has the distinction of being one of its most prominent citizens and 
has been connected with its growth and development from the beginning 
of its history. As he reviews the past from the days when he first located 
here, even then being imbued with an unwavering confidence with its 
future, the present marvelous development appears like a miracle, 
although no other man is better acquainted through personal experience 
with the actual progress, step by step. 

The birth of Captain Waite took place in Walworth County, Wiscon- 
sin, September 12, 1842. He i.< a son of Sidney and Parmelia (Barker) 
Waite, both of whom were born in Western New York, where Sidney 
Waite was engaged in farming until 1836, when he moved to \N'isconsin, 
arriving there during its pioneer period. He was located in different 
sections of the state, including those in the vicinity of Sheboygan Falls, 
Fond du Lac and Appleton, and there Lyman C. Waite grew to manhood 
and acquired first a common-school training and later one in the more 
advanced studies at Appleton University, which he entered in 1860. 

Like so many of the youths of that day his studies were interrupted 
by the call of patriotism, and he enlisted in 1862 and was assigned to 
Company D, Twenty-first Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. Those were 
the days which proved a man's mettle, and this young private, through 
his bravery and capability, rose very rapidly through all the stages to be 
captain of Company C of his regiment. Later his regiment was attached 
to the First Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, and had 
the honor of serving at different periods under Generals Grant, Buell, 
Rosecrans, and Sherman. During his service he participated in forty-two 
battles and skirmishes, and was with General Sherman on his historic 
March to the Sea and in the Grand Review at Washington. Among the 
notable engagements in which he took part were those of Chaplin Hills 
( Perryville), Nashville, Jefferson Pike, Stone River, Chickamauga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas. Kenesaw. Peach Tree Creek, Averysboro 
and Bentonville. The history of his regiment is most interesting. For 
one year and eight days after its organization there were but forty-two 
men able to report for duty, and it was commanded by a captain. Cap- 
tain Waite's own company could muster only five enlisted men and two 
officers, and it is likely that the latter were numbered among the living 
only because they had been serving on detached duty. 

Returning to his university after receiving his honorable discharge 
Captain Waite completed his courses in it and was graduated therefrom 
in 1868, and at once began teaching school. A year later he went to 
Belle Plaine, Iowa, and became principal of its graded .schools. It was 
not his intention to remain in the educational field, and in 1869 he began 
the study of law in the office of Clark & Tewksberry, and in October, 1870, 
was admitted to the bar at Toledo, Iowa. In January, 1871, he was 
admitted to the bar of California in San Bernardino County, and 
at once opened an office at Riverside. He was first justice of the 
peace and the first notary .public, and acted as both for four years. Had 
he cared to devote all of his energies to the law there is no doubt but 
that he would have become one of the leading lights of his profession, but 



726 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

fate ordered his life otherwise and bestowed upon him still greater 
honors. 

Upon very small circumstances oftentimes hinge a man's career, and 
this is the case with Captain Waite. Being on a visit to Chicago, he 
happened to attend the old Woods Museum, and saw a picture of 
Inspiration Point in the Yosemite which so attracted him that he resolved 
to push further westward, although it was not until 1877 that he was 
able to gratify his desire to gaze upon that marvel of natural beauty. 
Inspiration Point. In that year he visited the Point and other places in 
the Yosemite Valley staging from Merced City via Coulterville, making 
a stage trip of 200 miles. It was in 1907 he visited the Yellowstone Park 
and Salt Lake City, the headquarters of the Mormon Church, 

It was in 1870 that Captain Waite came to California, arriving on 
December 8, sole capital at time being $100 in money and the unlimited 
enthusiasm of youth and a well-balanced, highly-trained mind. During 
1872 and 1873 he returned to his first calling and taught the children of 
the first settlers at Riverside, and at the same time began his experiments 
in horticulture, which, although then were productive of but little profit, 
laid the foundation for his future wealth and opened up a new vista for 
thd people of his country. His first purchase was of ten acres of land, 
to which he later added fifteen acres, and he has lived in the same and 
adjoining block for 46 years. When he first came to California Los 
Angeles had a population of but 5,725, San Bernardino, 1,500 and San 
Diego, 3,000. He was with Judson Brown when Redlands was first 
surveyed, and there started two nurseries. He also established two 
nurseries at Highland, and with Stephen H. Herrick owned the first 
packing house of that community. 

His small holdings in realty were expanded until at one time he was 
one of the heaviest landowners in this vicinity. His early nursery 
operations in Riverside were carried on under the firm name of Waite 
& Simms, J. A. Simms being the junior member. As early as February, 
1871, Captain Waite volunteered to go to Los Angeles for supplies for 
the community at Riverside. Accompanied by T. J. Woods, he made the 
four day trip, arriving on the return trip March 1, 1877, bringing with 
him not only the required supplies, but also a number of lemon, orange 
and walnut seedlings, the latter two supposed to bear in eight years and 
yield a profit in twelve years. The lemons proved worthless, and the 
walnuts were the hard-.shell English nuts. In all of the earlier plant- 
ing Captain Waite and his associates were ignorant of the amount of 
water to use, and the best varieties for the soil and climate. Some of the 
trees proved to be utterly worthless, and the ground had to be re-planted 
several times. Out of these first experiments, disheartening as many of 
them were, has sprung the most important industry of the Golden State. 
By 1886 such favorable results had been obtained that Captain Waite 
with two associates took with them to the fair held at Chicago durinc; 
that year such an exhibit of orange-bearing trees and many other Cali- 
fornia products, including calla lilies, as to make a profound impression 
and to awaken enthusia.sm for this then not widely-exploited Southwest. 
As an orange grower Captain Waite met wilh remarkable success, 
producing some of the finest trees in the world, and became the owner 
of a model orange grove. In connection with his orange-growing Captain 
Waite has the distinction of having received the higest price jjaid up to 
that time for a forty-acre tract of oranges in Highland, from Alexander 
Fry who paid him $100,000 for it, and it was then conceded to be the 
finest grove in the stale. For many years Captain Waite maintained an 
interest at Highland, where he had owned the fir-^t fifteen acres of land 




'/^^,y^U^<^■^^^»'^^ (^ . y?^Ccc^:U^ 






SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 727 

laid out for town sites. He contributed the land for the freight and 
passenger stations of the Santa Fe railroad, and was connected with 
many of Highland's leading concerns. 

Captain Waite during his active years was a dominant factor in the 
life of Riverside. He was a director of the Citizens Water Company, 
which later became the Riverside Water Company, and for years was 
president of the Pioneer Society. Among other concerns which he served 
as official or stockholder were : La Mesa Packing Company, of which he 
was president ; was a director of the First National Bank of Riverside, 
which he assisted in organizing in 1885, and of which he served as vice 
president from 1885 to 1900, and president from 1900 until 1905; a 
director of the Artesia \\'ater Company, the Pacific Lumber Company 
and the Loring Opera House Company ; president and largest stockholder 
of the Highland Domestic \\'ater Company of San Bernardino ; a director 
and stockholder in the Coast Line of the Santa Fe Railroad ; and president 
and a director of the Riverside Savings & Trust Company, which he 
assisted in organizing. He was one of the organizers and was president 
of the bank of Banning. Owing to an injury. Captain Waite was forced 
to retire from all business activities, resigned from all his official positions, 
and took an extended trip to Honolulu. 

Captain Waite's activities were not confined solely to business affairs, 
for he was always foremost in securing advantages of all kinds for his 
home community and those in which he felt an interest. He organized 
the first school district at Riverside, in 1872, which was several miles 
square. When this property was assessed to secure funds for the erection 
of a schoolhouse it was discovered that the tax to be collected was not 
sufficient to complete a building 16x24 feet with the plaster. With 
customary energy Captain Waite went among the residents and urged 
upon them the importance of raising the necessary money among them- 
selves, and the building was completed that year. This building not only 
housed the first school, taught by the energetic Captain, but was useful 
for numerous community purposes. In it the first church of Riverside 
County had its home. Here the people gathered for social intercourse, 
and many pleasant memories are retained of this pioneer building by the 
older people. Captain Waite did not relinquish his connection with this 
first school even after his increasing cares made it impossible for him to 
continue its teacher, but for many years served as clerk of its School 
Board. The attendance on this first school increased so rapidly that 
before long a second building of the same size had to be erected to hold 
the pupils. This original school building was also used as the first Court 
House in the county. 

It was Captain Waite who organized the first judicial district, securing 
the signatures to take before the Board of Supervisors. This work took 
full two days on account of the difficulty in securing transportation. 
During the early history of Riverside there was a good deal of trouble 
from the Mexicans, who regarded the Americans as trespassers, and on 
several occasions it took a good deal of diplomacy on the part of Captain 
Waite and other prominent citizens to avoid serious conflict. The first 
justice of the peace. Captain Waite, was elected for a term of two years. 
The following election, the Mexicans, massing their forces, elected their 
own man. It was then that the new judicial district was created by 
cutting the old one in two, and Captain Waite was reelected. 

A pioneer in many undertakings. Captain Waite has the distinction 
of also being the first white man to be married at Riverside, the ceremony 
occurring April 5, 1872. when he and Miss Lillian M. Shugart were 
united in marriage by Rev. 1. W. Atherton. Mrs. Waite is the daughter 



728 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

of the late Doctor Shugart, who with his wife and family came to River- 
side among its pioneers. The following children were born to this 
marriage: A son who was accidentally drowned when two years and 
eight months old ; Marion P., who was graduated from Stanford Univer- 
sity, is a broker of Los Angeles, California, and married Miss Anna 
Chapman, a daughter of D. P. Chapman of that city; Charles E., who 
was also graduated from Stanford University, was for seventeen years 
connected with the Riverside Savings & Trust Company, is now a broker 
for the Dubiske holdings at Riverside ; Lillian Martha, who was gradu- 
ated from the Marlborough Institute, is at home; Leila M., who is the 
wife of John A. Robertson, of Phoenix, Arizona, has two sons and one 
daughter; and Mildred H., who is the wife of U. L. Voris, in charge of 
shipments on the 35,000-acre farm of the Gates Estate at Corcoran, 
California. 

Believing it to be the duty of every man to make personal sacrifices 
for the public welfare, Captain Waite has responded generously to calls 
made upon his time and capabilities and served in the City Council of 
Riverside for five years, being elected to it from the First Ward in 1906. 
He retired from the office in January, 1912. During the time he served 
as a member of that body he was one of its most active workers to secure 
lasting public improvements, many of which still stand as monuments 
to his foresight and public spirit. He is a member of Riverside Post No. 
118, G. A. R., and of the San Bernardino Valley Division of the Loyal 
Legion of the States of California and Nevada, which he served as 
vice commander. The distinctive character of Captain Waite, his broad 
and warmly human traits, and the unfailing and sincere attachment which 
he inspires in all those who have come within his influence are perhaps 
the secret of his remarkable success, quite as much as his unusual mental 
endowments and excellent business capabilities. 

Charles E. Watte, one of the efiterprising business men of River- 
side, was during the past few years the local representative of the H. W. 
Dubiske & Company concern, one of the largest industrial security houses 
in the world, with over 100,000 satisfied clients secured during its short 
business career of about four years. This company has its headquarters 
in the Consumers Building. Chicago, Illinois, and a branch office in New 
York' City, New York. Mr. Waite built up a satisfying clientele of his 
own, and was one of the most popular salesman in the district. 

Mr. Waite was born in the old home on Mulberry Street, Riverside, 
January 14, 1878. youngest son of Lyman C. Waite, whose sketch appears 
above. He received his educational training in the public and high 
schools of Riverside and Leland Stanford University, class 1903. 
On November 1, 1903, he went into the First National Bank of 
Riverside to learn the banking business, and filled various positions in 
it up to and including that of cashier, which position he resigned in 
1906 to become assistant cashier of the Riverside Savings Bank, and later 
was made assistant cashier of the Peoples Trust & Savings Bank, and 
remained with that institution until March 1, 1920. Recognizing a prof- 
itable and pleasing future in the selling end of business, he associated 
himself with the Dubiske Coni()any, with the result as above stated. On 
September 1, 1921, he was appointed Riverside County representative of 
the Super Test Products Company of Los Angeles, of w^hich his brother. 
Marion P. Waite. is one of the stockholders and directors. This company 
is the wholesale manufacturer of various paints ,-ind accessories, its prod 
nets being widely sold throughout this state. He was vice president and 
one of the directors of the Riverside Title Company, and for many yea-rs 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 729 

was secretary and one of the directors of the Riverside Hospital, but 
disposed of these interests so as to devote all of his time to his present 
work. 

During the late war he claimed no exemption, but was not allowed 
to enlist on account of the order issued by the administration that all 
banking officials must remain in their positions. He is a republican, and 
has been active in politics, although he has never sought office aside from 
membership on the county central committee for a year, and that of 
delegate to the county convention one year. He served as alternate for 
his father, who was unable to attend, to the State Senatorial Convention. 
Fraternally Mr. W'aite is a Shriner Mason, through the York Rite, 
and belongs to Riverside Lodge, B. P. O. E., which he has served for 
fourteen years as treasurer. He is a member of the Sons of Veterans, 
the Loyal Legion, Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen and Royal 
Arcanum. Until the parlor at Riverside of the Native Sons of the Golden 
West was discontinued he was active in that organization, and he takes 
pride in his membership in the college fraternity Phi Delta Theta. 

Mr. Waite married October 19, 1905, at Woodhull, Illinois, Gertrude 
Ferris, a native of Illinois, and a daughter of Robert O. Ferris, a farmer. 
Her great-great-grandfather Ferris was one of the founders of Galesburg, 
Illinois. The Ferris family is of Revolutionary stock and English descent. 
Mrs. Waite is a graduate of Knox College, Galesburg, and a very 
accomplished and cultured lady, and with her husband is numbered among 
the social leaders of Riverside. 

AsHBEL G. Lo\'E — Until he was about fifty years of age Ashbel G. 
Love was completely absorbed in a growing and profitable business as a 
merchant in the Middle \\'est. ^\'hen he disposed of his interest there 
and came to California it was for the purpose of retiring, but the pur- 
chase of an orange and alfalfa farm at Riverside has furnished him 
a great deal of occu])ation, pleasant and i)rofitable, and he has continued 
to enjoy an active life while here. He is one of Riverside's most 
esteemed citizens, a worker for everything good in the community. 

Mr. Love was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, November 
3, 1845. His parents were James and Martha (McNair) Love, both 
natives of Pennsylvania. His mother was born in Bucks County, of an 
old family of Scotch ancestry. James Love was of Scotch-English 
descent. To the task of farming James Love gave all his active years 
In 1856 he removed with his family to Galesburg, Illinois, and later to 
Altona in that state, and lived out his life on a farm. 

Ashbel G. Love was eleven years of age when the family went to 
Illinois, and he finished his education in the public schools of Knox 
County, of which Galesburg is the county seat. After school he went 
to work as clerk in a mercantile establishment at Altona, and the mer- 
cantile business opened for him a broad and successful career. In the 
fall of 1891 he removed to Holdredge. Nebraska, and for seven years 
had charge of one of the largest stores in that thriving community. 

When he came to California in 1906 Mr. Love and his sons pur- 
chased fifteen acres of oranges and alfalfa at 271 East Central Avenue 
He has had many opportunities to sell this property at an advantage, 
but is thoroughly attached to it and still makes it his permanent home. 
His son Waldo owns it with him, but Mr. Love gives it his personal 
attention while Waldo is engaged in other work. 

Mr. Love is a republican in politics. For many years while at 
Altona, Illinois, he took a leading part in politics. He was for several 
years postmaster at Altona and a representative party in county con- 



730 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

ventions and on the city and county central committees. He gave his 
first presidential vote to General Grant. Mr. Love has not been active 
in politics in California. His spare time is chiefly devoted to church 
work, and for the past six years he has been one of the trustees of the 
Magnolia Avenue Presbyterian Church. He is a member of the Arling- 
ton Heights Fruit Exchange No. 10. 

In November, 1879, at Altona, Illinois, he married Miss Abbie W. 
Waldo. She was born in that state and comes of an old New York 
family of English ancestry. Her father, M. B. Waldo, was for forty 
years an employe of the Burlington Railroad, most of his time being 
divided between his duties at Princeton and at Altona. Mr. Love lost 
his wife in Nebraska in 1899, after they had been married twenty years. 
She is survived by two sons, Waldo Love and Frank K. Love. Waldo 
Love, associated with his father in the ownership of the orange and 
alfalfa farm, gives most of his business hours to his duties as one of 
the employes of the Mission Garage of Riverside. He married Miss 
Anna C. Craven, a native of California and daughter of Dr. W^allace 
Craven, of Riverside. They have a daughter, Mary, member of the 
class of 1921 in the Riverside High School. The younger son, Frank 
Love, is an employe of the American National Bank of San Francisco. 
He married Miss Edna Barr, of Holdredge, Nebraska, and has a daugh- 
ter, Helen McNair Love. 

William T. Kirkpatrick, whose services as a contractor and build- 
er have been responsible for the erection of many beautiful homes in 
Riverside, came to this city sixteen years ago and was instantly con- 
verted into an enthusiastic admirer of the community, and all his work 
here has been permeated by the spirit of loyalty and regard for the best 
interests of the locality. No one stands higher in his profession than 
Mr. Kirkpatrick. 

He is a native of old Kentucky, born near Paducah, January 12, 
1859, son of Rev. J. D. and Mary Jane (Rudolph) Kirkpatrick. His 
parents were natives of Tennessee, his mother of German ancestry. 
His father was descended from Roger Kirkpatrick, whose name figures 
conspicuously in the early day politics of Scotland. Rev. J. D. Kirk- 
patrick gave his active life to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church. 
He was a Confederate soldier the last thirteen months of the Civil war, 
being in the cavalry under General Forrest and Colonel Holt. His 
service was along the Mississippi and at Nashville and Chattanooga. He 
died in December, 1912. 

William T. Kirkpatrick acquired his education in the public schools 
of Kentucky. His father also owned a farm, and to its duties he gave 
his time after leaving school until he was thirty. Having a strong in- 
clination for mechanical work, he then became a carpenter at Paducah, 
and from his trade developed a business as a contractor and builder 
During his active career at Paducah he constructed many buildings in 
that city. Mr. Kirkpatrick came to Riverside in 1905. His brother 
had been here for a year, and Mr. Kirkpatrick came out to investigate 
for himself the glowing reports sent back East. He found that the 
most enthusiastic statements were more than supported by fact, and 
nothing has occurred since then to mar his complete satisfaction with 
Riverside as a home and place of business. He resumed his career as 
a journeyman carpenter, but after a few years had accumulated the 
facilities for a general contracting and building business. Many houses 
in the city are the result of his work, including the Lewis and McDermott 
homes on West Seventh Street. He also did carpenter work for thf 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 731 

Masonic Temple and the Crossley Garage, under contract, and a few 
years ago he overhauled and improved the Desert Inn at Palm Springs. 
He also built an ice plant and several cottages there. 

Mr. Kirkpatrick is independent in politics, was quite active in local 
politics in Paducah but has concerned himself only as an intelligent 
voter since coming to California. He has been an elder in the Calvary 
Presbyterian Church for fourteen years, and believes that the church 
and its benevolent causes demand a proper share of his influence and 
energies. 

In Kentucky Mr. Kirkpatrick married Miss Mattie Dishman, who 
died in 1902. Mr. Kirkpatrick married at Los Angeles, November 14, 
1914, Miss Ada James, of Portland, Oregon, daughter of late Fred 
James, of Prince Edward Island, Canada. His children, all by his first 
marriage, are five daughters and one son : Pearl, who is the wife of 
Linus Roof, a resident of Paducah, Kentucky, and has four children, 
named Lucile, Raymond, Velma and Eloise. Miss Nina Kirkpatrick 
lives at home with her father. Velma is the wife of Floyd K. Brown, of 
Los Angeles, and has two children. Perry and Barbara Alline. Miss 
Beulah Kirkpatrick is in the office of the Aetna Insurance Company 
at Hartford, Connecticut. Alline, wife of Stanley Wimpress, con- 
nected with one of the oil companies at Tampico, Mexico, is the mother 
of one son, Norman. J. Ewing Kirkpatrick, the only son, was in the 
draft at the time of the World war, but the armistice was signed before 
he went overseas. He is now employed as a chemist by the Citrus By- 
products Company at Corona, California, but will continue his higher 
education in the University of California in 1922. 

Maxwell R. Whiffin — While Southern California may not be the 
"melting pot of civilization," it is the one portion of the globe any 
person not completely centered in his local surroundings hopes to see 
before he dies. Its citizenship has been naturally recruited from men 
of most diverse nationality and experience, but perhaps none can better 
appreciate its charms from the contrast of personal travel and experi- 
ence in most remote parts of the world than Maxwell R. Whiffin of 
Riverside. Mr. Whifiiin is a native of Scotland, represents a family 
of distinction in British military history, himself had an early training 
for the army, afterward entered the English Civil Service, and spent 
many years in the Orient and other British possessions. He finally 
came to California, and the impression made upon him by Riverside was 
such that as soon as possible he returned, and regards this as his 
home for the rest of his life. Mr. Whiffin has long been prominently 
identified with the fruit business, and is now general manager of the 
American Fruit Growers Packing House at Riverside. 

His father was General Henry Edward Whiffin. a native of Wales. 
General Whiffin. who retired from the army in 1881. was accountant 
general in the British service. He was on active duty through the 
Crimean war and the Indian Mutiny. General Whiffin married Jessie 
Cecelia Sceales, a native of Scotland, who is still living in England at 
the venerable age of eighty-five. Maxwell R. Whiffin has two brothers 
whose active lives have been largely given to the British military es- 
tablishment. Thev are Major General Henry Edward Whiffin and 
Colonel George Whiffin. Both were on the retired list when England 
entered the war with Germany, but immediately resumed service. Colonel 
George \\'hiffin had charge of the transportation of troops and munitions 
of the British Army over all the railroads of England, with twenty- 
five thousand men under his supervision. General Henry Edward Whif- 



732 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

fin was in charge of the engineering and road building of the allied 
armies in France. 

Maxwell R. Whiffin was born at Edinburg, Scotland, September 9, 
1871. He received his early education in the United Services Military 
College of Devonshire, at a place with many literary as well as historic 
associations, called Westward Ho. One of his classmates was Rudyard 
Kipling. He passed the examination for a lieutenancy in the army ir 
1886. Army life not appealing to him, he soon afterward went to the 
East Indies and became an indigo planter. Not long afterward the 
Germans discovered a dye which brought practical bankruptcy to the 
indigo industry. He was in India through the Bengal uprising, and also 
when the cholera plague destroyed twenty per cent of the inhabitants. 

In all the years until he came to Southern California Mr. Whiffin 
was possessed of an unconquerable desire to see more of the world, and 
his travels led him to Australia, New Zealand and Egypt, everywhere 
attended with interesting and sometimes weird incidents. He was in 
Ceylon in 1887, when he witnessed one of the great elephant drives of 
the British Government. He has seen one hundred and fifty bull ele- 
phants at work in the timber jungles. In the course of his travels he 
finally reached Manitoba, Canada, where he was in the cattle business 
as a buyer until 1900. 

In that year he came to California. After a few months he joined 
a party of five bound for Cape Nome, Alaska. Among other hard- 
ships of that expedition was surviving a tidal wave. Through dangers 
and difficulties he was buoyed up with the vision of Riverside, a gem 
in perfect setting, the most ideal place he had ever seen in all his 
travels. Throughout his struggles in the frozen North there was in 
him a profound conviction that he would be able to return and make 
Riverside his home. His adventures and eflforts there, in fact, pro- 
vided him with enough money to achieve this object. Reaching here, 
he made a payment on an orange orchard and eventually became 
owner of thirty acres of oranges in perfect bearing on Arlington 
Heights. 

For twenty years Mr. Whiffin was in the service of the Arlington 
Heights Fruit Exchange, and in practically every capacity. For the 
last five years he was superintendent of the packing houses. In all 
these twenty years his superior official was Mr. William Grant Frazer, 
whose career is sketched elsewhere in this publication, Mr. Whiffin 
has a high admiration for Mr. Frazer, and states that he never heard 
him give utterance to an unkind word. After the change in manage- 
ment Mr. Whiffin accepted the position of general manager of the 
Minnehaha Orchard Company in Tulare County, California, the holdings 
of this company comprising eight hundred and fifty acres of citrus and 
farm land. Mr. Whiffin is still a larsje stockholder in that business. Ow- 
ins: to the poor health of Mrs. Whiffin and her desire to be back in River- 
side, he resigned his work in Tulare and is now manager of the Riverside 
Packing House of the .'\merican Fruit Growers, Inc. Mrs. Whiffin ha,' 
absolutely regained her health and is happy and contented since her 
return to Riverside. 

Mr. Whiffin became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 
190,S. His sentiments are wholly American. He is a republican in 
politics, thoroughlv progressive, and was deeplv interested in the suc- 
cess of all drives during the war period. \N'hat is for the good of River- 
side is certain to enlist his heartiest co-operation. 

Besides his citrus and Tulare County interests Mr. Whiffin is a di- 
rector in the Keystone Drug Company. He owns a fine home at 245 




C^^^i^t^-T^T-^^^^2.*^-^ 



SAX BERXARDIXd AXD Uni'.RSIDE COUXTIES 7i^ 

Oakwood Place. He is afliliated with the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks Lodge at Visalia. he and Mrs. Whiffin are communicants 
of the All Saints Episcopal Church, and Mrs. \\'hiffin in addition to 
church and home interests undertook much work in the Red Cross during 
the war. She is a member of the Parents-Teachers Association. 

At Los Angeles, June 3, 1902, Mr. Whiffin married Miss Vyvyen 
Lovelock. She is a native of England. Her father, the late Samuel 
Lovelock, was a chartered accountant of London. The two daughters 
of Mr. and Mrs. ^^'hift^n, both natives of Riverside, are Maxine, a stu- 
dent in the Grant school, and Virginia, a student in the Xew Magnolis 
.-Kvenue .School. 

Hugh A. B.\in. A Scotch engineer and business executive with a 
record of fifty years of active and strenuous participation in business 
and industry, Hugh Bain when he retired selected what many besides 
himself would regard as the most beautiful and attractive place in the 
world. Riverside, and the people of this community have come to know 
him as a man of genial and sympathetic interests with local affairs and 
a man of the highest distinction and attainments. 

Mr. Bain, who resides at 1484 Orange Grove Avenue, was born at 
Xairn, near Edinburgh, Scotland, April 18, 1849. His father, Hugh 
Bain, Sr., was a Scotch capitalist with extensive business interests and 
in 1856 moved to Canada and for the rest of his life lived as a retired 
gentleman in Paisley County, Ontario. 

Hugh A. Bain when sixteen years of age walked ten miles every 
day to teach school. Later he secured the horses to drive, and these 
were the first brought into Paisley. His home was the first house ever 
built in Paisley, and there were more Indians than white people as 
neighbors. The Indians were friendly, and one memory that stands out 
clearly with Mr. Bain was their offerings of cooked venison, which he 
says was the finest he ever had. It was no uncommon sight to see large 
herds of deer pass the school window. 

After three or four years teaching at Paisley, Mr. Bain entered the 
Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario. During vacations he again 
taught and worked at other employment. While a student he was also at 
Brockville. After graduating from Queen's University he took a law 
course at McGill University in Montreal. 

About that time occurred a reversal of family fortunes, and to support 
himself and contribute something to the family he went to New York 
City. He reached the metropolis with ten cents in his pocket, and lost 
no time in connecting himself with employment. His first salary in New 
York City was eight dollars a week. After some varied experiences 
he became connected with the Lewisohn Brothers, a firm for many years 
distinguished by the extent and magnitude of their capitalistic enter- 
prises. By his resourcefulness and energy Hugh Bain rapidly acquired 
the confidence of this firm, and for a number of years looked after their 
ranch interests and later other general interests. 

Many of Mr. Bain's important achievements are associated with the 
Montana mineral district. He went to Butte as representative of 
Lewisohn Brothers. This firm contemplated the erection of smelters at 
Butte. Mr. Bain's investigations proved that the cost of coal as laid 
down in Butte made a general smelting project prohibitive. After con- 
sultations with the late j. J. Hill and others he commenced a systematic 
search for a location where conditions would be more favorable. Some 
of the property interests of Lewisohn Brothers were in the neighbor- 
hood of Great Falls, where coal could be recovered from the surface. 



734 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Various chemical analysis showed this coal was suitable for gas, and 
the firm of Ledoux & Rickett of New York reported that a perfect gas 
production could be secured from the coal samples. Thereupon Mr. 
Bain determined to .smelt by gas. although Mr. Klepetko said that it could 
not be done. Another reason for selection of (ireat Falls as a .site for 
ihe smelter was the forty-foot drop in the river, which made possible 
great power development. 

The smelter was blown in and ore was shipped from Butte for reduc- 
tion, the smelter expert selected by Mr. Bain being Frank Klepetko, well 
known in the mining world. After things were in order Mr. Bain went 
to England for the Lewisohn Brothers, to attend to some business with 
Baring Brothers. While there he received a telegram from Lewisohn 
to "stop all work and come back, as things were in bad shape." Respond- 
ing to the call and returning to Montana, he found that he had a big 
problem to solve through the inadequacy of the gas production. He 
finally solved it by putting the gas production on a level with the blast. 

He found that the gas supply was ten or twelve feet above the numer- 
ous smelting furnaces. When first blown in the furnace would operate 
perfectly for a short time, and then the pipes would choke up with refuse 
under the high pressure. He devoted a long time to the problem, work- 
ing until one and two o'clock every morning and seriously undermining 
his health, but continuing his experiments and studies until he satisfied 
himself that the fault would be remedied by putting the gas supply on, 
or below the level of the blast. The wisdom of this plan was assailed 
on the ground that it would not relieve the situation and that the installa- 
tion had already cost a million dollars. Mr. Bain replied that the change 
would save the company $12,000,000, and ordered the first unit brought 
down to the level. This was done and the test showed perfect smelting. 
The remainder of the furnaces were soon changed and it has resulted 
in the successful operation of the big plant ever since. Like all radical 
departures from accepted and established forms the work at the Great 
Falls smelter was watched with intense interest by the scientific world, 
and its successful outcome wrote a new page in the history of ore reduc- 
tion. 

Mr. Bain was the first to use electricity in the separation of gold, 
silver and copper from ores and superintended the installation of the 
first plant. Before this time, if under a certain percentage, it was sent 
to Europe for separation. This electrical process is now employed by 
all large mining companies in the United States. 

Seeking recuperation, Mr. Bain went to New York, but though very 
ill at the time, A. S. Bigelow wired him that he must return with him 
and others to Montana on a trip of inspection. A special car was pro- 
vided and the plant inspected and approved, but as a result of the etTort 
Mr. Bain was in bed for six months. 

Thus in many essential respects Mr. Bain should be credited with 
the building of the gigantic smelters at Great Falls, Montana, for it was 
his work that made the successful operation of the plant possible and 
the separation of metals by electricity. His achievements in the recovery 
of copper and other metals from base ores give him high rank as a mining 
engineer. After his recovery from the strain of overwork, concluding 
with a long vacation in Bermuda, he engaged in general business for the 
Lewisohns until his retirement. Mr. Bain had been coming to California 
for twenty years, and deciding upon Riverside for his winter home, 
built the commodious and handsome place on Orange Grove Avenue 
which he still occupies. He goes away every summer, particularly to 
Rockland, Maine, where he still has interests. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 735 

Mr. Bain has been in every state of the Union and most of the foreign 
countries. He is known as a philantliropist and has provided an endow- 
ment fund for the education of four children and has educated fifteen 
or twenty in the Staten Island Academy. He built the contagious wards 
in the Smith Infirmary, and has always been ready with his time and 
purse to assist those less fortunate than himself. Much of his time has 
been spent in travel, and he has crossed the Atlantic seventeen times. 
He is a life member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, is a 
director in the Riverside Hospital and a member of the Masonic Order. 
His wife was Miss Helen Snow, a native of Maine, daughter of Israel 
Snow, a shipbuilder of Rockland. Mrs. Bain is of Mayflower ancestry. 

David W. Lewis has the worth while distinction of being the oldest 
title man in Riverside County, and is president and manager of the 
Riverside County Title and Guaranty Company. He came to Riverside 
over thirty years ago, and as an incident of his work, involving practi- 
cally the writing of the title history of this district, furnished much of 
the data favoring the formation of Riverside and San Bernardino 
counties. One of the contentions set forth in behalf of Riverside was 
that this portion of the older county had not received its share of benefit 
from the taxation, though paying more than one-third of the total 
volume of taxes of San Bernardino County, of which it was then a part. 
Information supplied by Mr. Lewis had much to do with determining 
where the boundaries of the new county should run. From official 
records he supplied the data accounting for the jog made in the county 
line in order that that line might be kept a certain distance from the 
county seat. 

David W. Lewis was born in the little village of Eaton, Indiana. 
November 24, 1864, in the locality where the first petroleum oil dis- 
coveries were made in the Indiana field. His father, Isaac Lewis, was 
of Welsh ancestry and of old American stock and was also born ir 
Indiana. He served as a member of Company C, 84th Indiana Infantry, 
during the Civil war, and the hardships and exposure of that struggle 
brought on his death two years after he returned home. The mother 
of David W. Lewis was Jaretta Babb, a native of Indiana and now 
living at Portland, in that state. Her father was David Babb, a merchant 
and farmer, and of German ancestry. 

David W. Lewis supplemented his public school education with a 
college career in DePauw University at Greencastle, Indiana. He grad- 
uated Ph. B. in 1891, and subsequently received the Master of Arts 
degree. 

Mr. Lewis, soon after coming to Riverside in 1891, took the post 
of manager of the Riverside Abstract & Title Company. He was with 
that company until 1894, and part of the time he was also correspondent 
for the Los Angeles Express in Riversire and San Bernardino counties. 
During 1894-95 he was director of searches for the Riverside Abstract 
Company, and from 1896 to 1901 was secretarv of the Abstract & 
Title Guaranty Company of Santa Ana. From 1901 to 1911 he was 
manager of the Riverside Title & Trust Company, and part of the same 
time, from 1908 and continuing until 1913, was assistant secretary and 
then vice president of the People's Abstract & Trust Company of El 
Centro. This was the pioneer title company in the Imperial Valley. 
From 1914 to 1916 he was with the Title Insurance & Trust Company 
of Los Angeles, and in January, 1917, he and associates organized the 
Riverside County Title and Guaranty Company, of which he has been 
president and manager. This company was organized with a capital of 



lie SAN BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

a hundred thousand dollars, and its prestige and success from the be- 
ginning has been largely due to the fact that its president was able to 
give the company the benefit of his more than twenty-five years expe- 
rience in title work. 

While he was with the Title Insurance & Trust Company of Los 
Angeles an attack was made on the title of the Yorba estate, covering 
property extending from east of Corona to Newport Beach and in- 
cluding other property in Riverside, Orange, San Bernardino and Los 
Angeles counties. In connection with Walter L. Koethean, a former 
resident of Riverside, Mr. Lewis wrote a resume of the title to those 
properties, and an opinion recommending that the claim be ignored. 
He also assisted the attorneys in furnishing the records in regard to some 
of the Yorba heirs from 1858 down. The decision of the Supreme 
Court was made in accordance with their recommendations as to the 
invalidity of the claim. While in Santa Ana ]\Ir. Lewis helped straighten 
out one of the early Mexican claims. Mr. Lewis was also one of the 
leaders in ignoring the claim of the new Mexican colony to Riverside, 
a claim first presented in 1884. Most of these matters have since been 
adjusted. The company he was with furnished the abstract for the 
ground occupied by the Post Office building in Riverside. Incorporated 
in the abstract were the opinions of four dififerent attorneys, which 
were required before the U. S. District Attorney would pass the claims of 
the Mexicans as being invalid. The opinions of William Collier, W^ A. 
Purington and Judge J. G. North accompanied this abstract. 

While in the Imperial Valley Mr. Lewis straightened out many titles, 
including the titles of the townsite of Seeley. None of the township 
or the government maps or the Imperial County survey agreed. He had 
a record survey made with cross references enabling the various de- 
scriptions to be harmonized. 

From all this it is not difiicult to understand the authoritative posi- 
tion Mr. Lewis enjoys among the title men of Southern California. 
Besides the business of which he is president he is interested with others 
in a two hundred acre tract, highly suitable for deciduous fruits, known 
as Cabazon, near Banning. This property is now being developed. 
He is also interested in some oil development in this section. 

Without seeking office Mr. Lewis has worked for the success oi 
the republican party and is generally around the polls on election day. 
His support and encouragement can be readily depended upon when 
anything affecting the welfare of Riverside is concerned. One organiza- 
tion in which he has long been interested is the Sons of Veterans. He 
has been commander of the River.side Post of this order four different 
times, has been identified with the order itself more than thirty years 
and was a member of the Division Council of California and the Pacific 
one year and is a member of the Past Commanders Club of the Sons 
of Veterans of Southern California. In former years he was one of 
the directors of the Riverside Y. M. C. A., and is a member of the 
First Methodist Episcopal Church. 

April 18, 189,t. at Riverside. Mr. Lewis married Miss Edith M. 
Binks. She was born at San Jose, in the famous Santa Clara Valley 
of California. Her parents. Benjamin and Melissa Binks. the formei 
a native of England, and the latter of Canada, were early settlers ir 
the Golden State. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have four children. Gertrude, 
the oldest, is the wife of L. E. Bloodgood, in the insurance and real 
estate business at Santa Ana. and has two children, named L. E., 
Jr., and Ellison. Robert O. Lewis enlisted in the navy about the close 
of the war, and after his discharge entered the abstract business with 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES ly? 

his father. He married Miss Helen I.eiiardl, a native of Danville 
Illinois, and they have a daughter, Ruth. The third child, Clara Louise, 
is the wife of Brooks W. Lowentrout, with the Union Oil Company of 
Riverside, and has one son, Jack Lewis Lowentrout. The youngest of 
the family is Benjamin, a high school student, a young man of special 
talent whose studies are now concentrated on art in preparation for a 
career as a cartoonist. 

Mrs. Edith Binks Lewis through her great-great-grandfather. Chris- 
tian Schell, is a member of the D. A. R. Her great-grandfather, during 
the Revolutionary war, was carried away to Canada by the Indians. 

Henry A. \\'estbrook is one of the few survivors of those who 
established themselves permanently at Riverside in the centennial year. 
He is from Iowa, the fountainhead of the early colonization in this part 
of Southern California. He has contributed effort and cash to th( 
progressive development of the city. For many years he performed 
an essentially constructive service, since he was a contractor and builder. 
For a quarter of a century or more, though identified with banking and 
other enterprises, his principal time has been devoted to his twent\ 
acre orange grove at 150 Xorth Orange Street. 

Mr. Westbrook was born at LeRaysville, Bradford County, Penn- 
sylvania, June 20, 1848, son of Benjamin A. and Lucy (Nichols) West- 
brook. On both sides his family has been in America- since Colonial 
days. His father was a native of New Jersey and of a Connecticut 
fani'ly cf English descent, while his mother was born in Pennsylvania 
of Scotch ancestry. Henry A. Westbrook had a public school educa- 
tion. He lived and worked on a farm until he was seventeen. His 
father was also a contractor and builder, and after learning the car- 
penter's trade Henry Westbrook was associated with his father in the 
construction of houses for three years. It is not his fault that he had 
no military experience, since during the Civil war he tried to enlist, 
being rejected by the examiners because of his youth. 

Eor a year or so Mr. W'estbrook followed his trade in Northern lUi- 
nois. at Freeport. and at Lanark and Mount Carroll in Carroll County 
In September, 1869, he went to Clinton, Iowa, and thence to Belle 
Plaine. where he was in the contracting and building business until the 
great fire in Chicago in October, 1871. He reached Chicago ten days 
later, while the ruins were still smouldering, and for two years his time 
and energies were devoted to the tremendous task of rebuilding that 
city. While in Chicago he contracted tuberculosis. His physician gave 
him but a short time to live. In May, 1873. he returned to Belle 
Plaine, Iowa, and on the 10th of April, 1876. arrived at Riverside. 
Messrs. Waite, Tw^ogood, Rowe and others from Belle Plaine were among 
the first settlers from Riverside, and it was through them that he 
heard of the manv attractions of the locality. Chief among the benefits 
conferred upon him personally was a complete recovery from tubercu- 
losis, but many other things as well have contributed to the complete 
satisfaction he has enioyed durine his forty-five years of residence in 
this garden spot of the world. His father-in-law, Robert McDowell 
had started to build the house at 150 North Orange Street, and Mr 
Westbrook completed it and has lived in that one place ever since. The 
first year he largely rested, working around the home, and then actively 
resumed the contracting and building business. His first contract was 
the house on Fourteenth street now occupied by S. L. Herrick. Mr. 
Westbrook was a building contractor here until 1893, since which 
year he has looked after his private interests. A number of the pio- 



738 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

neer structures of Riverside bear testimony to his enterprise. These 
include the Evans business building, the Evans residence on Magnolia 
Avenue, the old Y. M. C. A., now part of the Glenwood Mission Inn, 
the Frederick building on Main Street across from the Inn, the Hayt 
and Masters buildings on Main Street, the J. S. Sims residence on Orange 
Street, remodeling the National Bank of Riverside from a one to a 
two story building, the one story brick building adjoining and its re- 
modeling to two stories, the George Cunningham block where the 
Gaylor Rouse store now is, and several frame blocks on Main Street 
that have since been burned. Four of these buildings were on Eighth 
and Main, owned by H. M. Beers. 

The twenty-acre' tract of land he took on North Orange Street was 
partially replanted, but he has since replanted all of it, and his con- 
tinuous management of the grove since 1893 has resulted in many 
profitable crops. Mr. W'estbrook was a stockholder and organizer 
of the National Bank of Riverside, and remained a director and vice 
president until 1920. \\'hen this bank was projected it was the inten- 
tion of Los Angeles men to control the stock. The plan was upset by Mr. 
W'estbrook, who placed all the capital among Riverside men. He is 
also a stockholder in the Citizens National Bank. For many years he 
has been a director in the Riverside Water Company and has been a 
director in the River.side Heights Orange Growers Association since its 
organization, and is also a director of the Fruit Growers Exchange. 

These facts indicate the substantial nature of his association with 
Riverside. At the same time he has throughout enjoyed the highest 
degree of civic esteem and is one of Riverside's most popular citizens. 
He has been interested in local elections as a republican, but has never 
sought office. 

January 4, 1871, at Belle Plaine, Iowa, Mr. Westbrook married 
Miss Jane Elizabeth McDowell. She was born in Ohio. Her first 
.•\merican ancestors were two brothers from Scotland, one settling ir. 
Pennsylvania and the other in Tennessee. Her grandfather was at 
Valley Forge with Washington. Her father, Robert McDowell, was 
a lumberman, farmer, and an extensive land owner and dealer in Iowa. 
Mrs. \\'estbrook is a member of the Presbyterian Church. Their two 
daughters are Lucy Ada and Lova Elda. Lucy Ada is the wife of 
George E. Morris, of Riverside. Lova Elda is the widow of Alexander 
Nielson, and has a daughter, Margaret Elizabeth. Alexander Nielson was 
a native of Glasgow, Scotland, and at the time of his death was asso- 
ciated with the Bank of Italy at Los Angeles. 

Captain John T. Lawler — A Southerner by birth and ancestry, one 
of the bravest and most intrepid soldiers and officers of the Confederacy. 
Captain John T. Lawler was always distinguished by the charm, address 
and perfect courtesy of the old Southern gentleman. He lived for 
many years at Riverside, where he was a prominent orange grower, 
and was equally active in church, fraternal and social circles. It was 
ill health brought on by hazardous undertakings and exposure during 
the war that caused him to come West, and ever afterward he was z 
loyal son of California and exemplified the generous nature of the old 
soldier who buries the dead past. It was perhaps typical of his tolerant 
spirit that he even voted with the republican party after coming to 
Riverside. 

The death of this gallant soldier, March 4, 1910, was an occasion foi 
mourning among his many friends. Captain Lawler is survived by his 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 739 

vs'idow, Mrs. Jennie B. Lawler, who occupies her old home at 472 
Fourteenth Street. 

When the war broke out between the North and the South Captain 
Lawler was hving in Mempliis, Tennessee. He at once joined the first 
cavalry regiment raised for action in the Confederate Army. Because 
Colonel Jackson for some reason failed to report it, the regiment was 
organized as the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry. Captain Lawler helped 
recruit Company A of the regiment, and was second sergeant, then 
orderly sergeant, and on the reorganization in 1862 was made second 
lieutenant, later rising from second lieutenant to the captaincy of a com- 
pany. On account of his brilliant personal record he was promoted in 
1864 to major of the Fifth Mississippi Cavalry, but he declined the pro- 
motion and refused to leave the men with whom he had shared .so 
many dangers on field of battle. The Seventh Tennessee was the crack 
regiment in General Forrest's Cavalry. While the regiment arrived too 
late to take part in the battle of Belmont, it afterward shared in the 
experiences of such battles as Lockridge Mill, Bolivar, Medon Station 
where Captain Lawler sustained a flesh wound, Briton's Lane, the fol- 
lowing day, where he was again wounded, Davis Bridge, second battle 
of Corinth, and Holly Springs, where he received the surrender of 
Colonel Murphy. Then followed a period of detailed duty watching the 
enemy at Memphis, and Captain Lawler took part in skirmishes at 
Matthew's Ferry on the Tallahatchie River, Walnut Lake, where with 
a very small company he kept in check a large force of the enemy and 
saved the Confederate wagon train of General Chalmers from capture 
At this time Captain Lawler was four times wounded while gallantly 
leading his devoted men into action. Toward the close of that phase 
of his duty he was captured by the Federals. Any one of his wounds 
was regarded as fatal, and for that reason he was paroled by Major 
General Sweeney of Sherman's Army Corps. Summoning all his resolu- 
tion Captain Lawler refused to die and after a nine months' fight was 
able to rejoin his regiment. His parole paper is still in the possessior 
of Mrs. Lawler. After reporting for duty he was in the battles of 
Athens, Sulphur Springs, Tre.stle, fighting all along the line of the rail- 
road from Pulaski, Tennessee, and October 30, 1864, at Paris Landing, 
was ordered by General Chambers to attack the steamer J. W. Cheese- 
man, which he did and compelled its surrender. During the last months 
of the war Captain Lawler was with Generals Head and Forrest in 
the constant fighting through Central and Southern Alabama. Part of 
the command pushed on to Selma under General Forrest, where they 
fought the entire column of Wilson's cavalry. At the end Captain 
Lawler surrendered with his regiment and came out of the army one 
of the best liked, most pojiular and daring of the South's gallant 
friends. He always led his men, put himself in the most dangerous 
place, and it was little less than a miracle that he escaped alive. The 
four serious wounds he received in one day came while leading his men 
against the breastworks of Colliersville. Tennessee, in October, 1862. 

The war over. Captain Lawler returned to Memphis and resumed 
his business career, first as a druggist, then in the grocery business, and 
later as a cotton commission merchant. He steadilv prospered, but in 
time his health failed completely. In 1886 he sought recovery at Col- 
orado Springs, but in the spring of 1887 came to California and bought 
a ten acre orange grove at Riverside. This property he later sold. He 
then occupied with Mrs. Lawler a beautiful home on Fourteenth Street 
a home which for years has been an attractive center for the large group 
of their admiring friends. Captain Lawler also owned a seven acre 



740 SAN BERNARDINO AND R1\-ERSIDE COUNTIES 

orange grove on Cypress Avenue. Though nol fond of poHtics or pubHc 
life, he served five years on the City Council in Riverside. Orange cul- 
ture was a subject that enlisted his greatest enthusiasm, and he was 
busy in his grove from the time he came to Riverside until shortly before 
his death. 

Captain Lawler was very actively identified with the F"irst Baptist 
Church of Riverside, was church collector, then assistant treasurer and 
for eleven years was head of its Finance Committee. The loyalty and 
service he gave to this church is happily expressed in a memorial of 
sympathy sent to Mrs. Lawler after his death and still greatly prized 
by her. Mr. Lawler was a member of the United Confederate Veterans 
Association in Tennessee and was affiliated with the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. 

Captain Lawler married at Memphis one of the South's most 
charming daughters, Miss Jennie B. Taylor. Her father, Colonel 
Washington Taylor, represented an old Southern family and at one 
time was a cotton operator on a large scale at Memphis. At the time 
of her marriage Mrs. Lawler was living near Meniphis, Tennessee. 
She shared with Captain Lawler in church and social activities of 
Riverside, and during the World war was one of the busiest members 
of the local Red Cross. 

Miguel Estudillo — Descended from a long line of illustrious 
families brilliantly prominent from the earliest period of the life of our 
Golden State, Miguel Estudillo can surely claim to have been "born in 
the Purple," a Native Son of Native. Sons. 

No man could ask for his life to commence under more auspicious 
circumstances, and that he has been worthy of his heritage is proven by 
the record of his life, in which he has honorably represented his ances- 
tors and has rewritten the names in the annals of the state and also in 
those of the nation. He has won political preferment because it was 
his due, not only for his forensic brilliancy but for the spirit born of 
honest purpose with which he always worked for the greatest good to 
the greatest number, seldom meeting with defeat, but when he did calmly 
marshalling all his energies for the success he ultimately won. 

Miguel Estudillo was born in San Bernardino, September 20, 1870, 
the .son of Jose A. Estudillo and Adelaide (Rubidoux) Estudillo. He 
was graduated from the public schools of San Diego and then entered 
Santa Clara College from which he graduated in 1890. He went to San 
Diego from there, but a little later returned to the family home. He 
served as deputy court clerk of San Diego County, which position he held 
until 1893. Here he was appointed clerk of the Board of County 
Supervisors, which position he held until 1895. at all spare moments 
diligently preparing for his career in the law. He was admitted to the 
bar and immediately opened an office and commenced his highly suc- 
cessful practice in the City of Los Angeles. In 1899 an important case 
which had to be fought in the courts of Mexico took him to the City 
of Mexico, and there he remained for nearly three years, when he 
returned to Riverside and his profession, to neither of which had his 
devotion ever lessened. 

But the public needed him and on November 8. 1904. he was elected 
to the As'^embly of the State from the Seventy-eighth District, where he 
began his work for the city of his adoption and for his state. In 1905 
he secured an appropriation of $35,000 for the establishment of an Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station at the foot of Mt. Roubidoux. At this ses- 
sion the bill was passed transferring the great Yosemite Park to the 
United States Government after a stormy session in which Mr. Estudillo 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 741 

was a predominant figure, having always favored the bill. By his skill 
in handling this bill he attracted the attention of the prominent solons 
and also much special personal attention. Of the latter he was greatly 
pleased by the letters from the famous John Muir, who presented him 
with copies of his two works, "Mountains of California" and "Our 
National Parks." 

In 1907 Mr. Estudillo was accorded the position of chairman of the 
ways and means committee of the Assembly, and in the same year was 
also made chairman of the California delegation to the Fifteenth Irriga- 
tion Congress at Sacramento. He also went as a delegate to the National 
Irrigation Congress at Boise City, Idaho, from Southern California. He 
was an ardent supporter of the Roosevelt-Pinchot Conservation policies, 
and won out in his fight with the Hon. W. R. King of Oregon, in which 
a resolution endorsing these policies was presented. 

November 3, 1908, Mr. Estudillo was honored by the people with an 
election to the State Senate. Here he made his famous fight for local 
option, but though the bill was for the nonce defeated, he was not defeated 
and in 1911 again took up the fight, this time the Wyllie local option 
measure, and he carried it through to success. The papers were very 
laudatory and the official organ of the Anti-Saloon party said among 
many other things : "We may, however, without invidious comparison, 
mention the name of Senator Miguel Estudillo, of Riverside Countv, who 
had charge of the measure in the Upper House. * * * Senator 
Estudillo introduced the local option bill in the Senate two years ago 
and did yoeman work in behalf of the measure. * * * jt ^as not 
only fitting but fortunate that the Wyllie Bill, after its approval by the 
Assembly, was in charge of the Riverside Senator. * * * ; without 
giving offence to those who opposed the measure. Senator Estudillo met 
and answered every argument against it, and, with unyielding tenacity, 
refused to accept amendments which were intended to impair its efficiency. 
* * *. The subsequent career of the bill was thick-set with peril and 
it required skillful management, unfaltering fidelity, courage and deter- 
mination to carry the measure safely through and win for it success." 
And all these qualities Mr. Estudillo had, and has today. 

In 1909 Senator Estudillo was chairman of the committee on election 
laws of the Senate, which recommended, by minority report, the passage 
of the direct primary law. creating a revolution in state politics and 
forever destroying machine rule. In 1911 this passed the Legislature. 
In 1911 Mr. Estudillo was appointed a member of the holdover com- 
mittee, which investigated the notorious school book trust of the state, 
and as a result of the findings of the committee the trust became a thing 
of the past. 

In 1911 Senator Estudillo secured another appropriation for his 
county, this time to establish the laboratory and make improvements at 
the Mt. Rubidoux Experimental Station. In his public life the Senator 
has always been a power to be carefully considered, and, withal, a most 
interesting figure of no slight distinction. 

Mr. Estudillo was admitted to practice in the United States Supreme- 
Court, and is one of the three attorneys of this district who are members 
of the National Bar Association of the United States. The other two are 
Judge H. H. Craig and H. L. Thompson. 

In Riverside, the city of his adoption, Mr. Estudillo is an honored 
citizen, always proving himself worthy of recognition, a true Californian. 
The grandson of Don Louis Rubidoux has many interesting documents 
relating to him, letters, books and pamphlets. Many books have been 
written of the proud old Don. a recent one being "The Story of the 
Rubidoux Rancho." A few years ago Mr. Estudillo received letters 



742 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

from a man named Hardy, at that time over eighty years of age. He 
had been a close companion of Don Louis and a teacher for him, receiving 
for the latter fifteen dollars per month and his board and room, the 
state also giving him fifty dollars per month. He wanted to marry one 
of Don Louis' daughters, and while the Don was willing, her mother 
was not, as, bt.ing English, he would take her away from her home and 
country. She later married a rancher. Mr. Hardy had money when 
he came to California, but lost it in mining for gold. He went to Aus- 
tralia later, having been with Don Louis from 1856 to 1862. The 
Rubidoux name, as everyone knows, is a part of the history of California. 

On the paternal side Mr. Estudillo is also linked with the history of 
California, for his grandfather, Don Jose A. Estudillo, was revenue col- 
lector and treasurer of San Diego County in 1823-30. In 1835 he was 
a member of the Territorial Legislative Deputation, the law-making body 
of California at that time. He was urged to accept the governorship of 
California at this time, but would not do so. In 1840 he was for two 
years justice of the Supreme Tribunal, and in the last year of this serv- 
ice he was granted the San Jacinto Rancho from the Mexican Govern- 
ment, grateful for his loyal, able service. 

In 1843 he was appointed administrator of the Mission San Luis 
Rey and two years later he was made judge of the Mission. In Septem- 
ber, 1849, Brigadier General Riley, of the United States Army, appointed 
Don Jose judge of the First Instance for the District of San Diego. 
Later he was elected assessor of San Diego, the first to hold that ofiicc 
under the American regime. Don Jose's ancestors were all fighting men, 
military to the core, a quality which has been transmitted down through 
the years to his descendants. His father, the great-grandfather of Miguel 
Estudillo, was a captain in the Spanish Army. He passed away in 1853, 
leaving his son, also Don Jose A. Estudillo, to carry on the name. His 
life work has been along the lines of a land owner principally. His 
wife, the mother of Miguel Estudillo. was a daughter of Don Louis 
Rubidoux, of whom extended notice will be found elsewhere in these 
volumes. One of Mr. Estudillo's uncles was state treasurer of Cali- 
fornia from 1876 to 1880, having proved his fitness for the office by the 
way he filled the office of treasurer of San Diego County for twelve 
years. 

Miguel Estudillo had had a great deal of military experience in State 
military affairs as captain of Company M, Seventh Regiment, California 
National Guards, so when the World War broke out he organized the 
Home Guards. Of this he was elected captain and received his com- 
mission from the governor of the state. He also organized the River- 
side Rifle Club, which is still in existence. He was appointed by Presi- 
dent Wilson a member of the Legal Advisory Board of the Selective 
Service System, his associates being W. A. Purington (now deceased) 
and Judge Hugh H. Craig. Before the United States entered the war 
Mr. Estudillo organized the Riverside Red Cross Ambulance Corps, col- 
lected $1,600 from the citizens and, at a largely attended public meeting 
held in the park, he presented the money to Hewitt Roblee, a son 
of Dr. Roblee, for the purpose of buying an ambulance for service in 
France. An up-to-the-minute vehicle was secured and did much serv- 
ice overseas. As a mark of appreciation for the part he had played 
in securing the ambulance, a picture of it in service, together with the 
ambulance plate, was sent to Mr. Estudillo after the signing of the 
armistice. During the war Mr. Estudillo spared neither liis time nor 
his finances and energies to be of service. He was at work early and 
late on the various war activities, without financial consideration, eager 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 743 

to do any service required of him, exemplifying in its truest, finest form 
that which we know under the name of "true patriotism." 

In addition to his other activities Mr. Estudillo has been city attorney 
since 1918. As an attorney his splendid professional talent is never 
questioned and his wide knowledge and fine intellectual powers are in 
constant demand. He has also the rare gift of oratory, a magnetic and 
forceful speaker and can always_"put across" any argument he is pre- 
senting. And he enthusiastically supports any and all things which are 
for the good of his city, county or state, is a valuable factor in all move- 
ments which are progressive and he is sure and resourceful in his han- 
dling of civic problems. 

Socially Mr. Estudillo is well known and fraternally he is a member of 
the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is a member of the 
Victoria Club of Riverside and of the Jonathan Club and the Union 
League Club of Los Angeles. Politically he is proud of his allegiance to 
the republican party. 

On February 22, 1903, Mr. Estudillo wedded Miss Minerva Cook, 
who is a direct descendant of James Cook, who came over in the May- 
flower and settled in Winchester, New Hampshire, where she was born. 
Mr. and Mrs. Estudillo have two sons, Reginald and Francis. 

Harold N. Dunbar — The Riverside community for years has been 
sensible of the fine quality of public service and public spirited 
activity of both Mr. and Mrs. Harold N. Dunbar. Mrs. Dunbar in 
particular might be regarded as a pioneer in that form of community 
work which involves the participation of all local citizens in social 
entertainment and city progress, a plan and idea that in recent years 
have taken hold of nearly every progressive town and city in the 
country. Mr. and Mrs. Dunbar were responsible for the first outdoor 
Christmas celebration in Southern California. This celebration has 
been observed for five consecutive years in White Park at Riverside. 

Mr. Dunbar, who gave a quarter of a century to public service in 
Riverside, as assistant postmaster, then as superintendent of parks 
and later as citv treasurer, was born at Brockton, Massachusetts, 
December 13, 1859, son of Heman and Mary (Howard) Dunbar, both 
natives of Massachusetts and now deceased. His father was of Scotch 
and his mother of English descent. Heman Dunbar was a non-com- 
missioned officer in the Union Army during the Civil war. 

Harold N. Dunbar acquired a public school education at Brockton, 
and was only fifteen years of age when he left New England for the 
Pacific Coast. He reached California in 1874, and for the first two 
years was employed in a drug store at Gilroy in Santa Clara County. 
He then became secretary and assistant manager of the San Joaquin 
and. Kings River Canal and Irrigation Company for the great land 
owning and ranching firm of Miller & Lux. Subsequently he took 
charge of one of this firm's stores in Merced County, and remained 
in business there for sixteen or seventeen years. For two years he 
was also engaged in ranching in Merced County and for three years 
was manager for the Carnell-Hopkins real estate firm in San Francisco. 

Mr. Dunbar moved to Riverside in 1890 to become assistant post- 
master under his brother, F. M. Dunbar. He remained in that office 
until 1906 under Postmasters Dunbar, II. M. Streeter, Frank .Abbott 
and George D. Cunningham. .After leaving the jjostoffice he was for 
six or seven years superintendent of parks in Riverside, and he was 
first appointed city treasurer by the council to fill an unexpired term. 



744 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

In the fall of 1919 he was elected to that office, beginning his four 
year term in January, 1920. Mrs. Dunbar is his chief deputy. 

Mr. Dunbar is a Knight Templar Mason, being affiliated with 
Pacific Commandery No. 3 of Sonora, California. He is a member 
of the Kiwanis Club, is a republican in politics, and he and Mrs. 
Dunbar are members of the Pioneer Society, the Historical Society 
and the City Home League. Mr. Dunbar owns a nursery on Prospect 
Avenue and Penrose Street, where plants and shrubs are propagated, 
the specialty being the Carob tree. In this work he is assisted by his 
son Fred J. 

Among other community activities in which she has been a leader 
at Riverside Mrs. Dunbar assisted in organizing the Red Cross during 
the war and devoted to that cause most of her time. She helped 
organize and became secretary of the Spanish Art Society, for nine 
years was a director of the Riverside Humane Society, and was a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce. 

Mrs. Dunbar before her marriage was Miss M. B. Boye. They 
were married June 10, 1885, in San Francisco, where she was born. 
Her father, O. H. Boye, was a San Francisco business man and with 
his wife came to California when they were young people. They 
were of French and German ancestry. Following is a brief record 
of the six children of Mr. and Mrs. Dunbar: Miss Ethel C, formerly 
connected with the Riverside Post Ofifice, now employed in the San 
Francisco Post Ofifice ; Fred J., his father's partner in the nursery 
business ; Mabel, wife of Edwin M. Daugherty, a Los Angeles business 
man, their two children being Virginia and Richard; Miss Gladys 
D., associated with her uncle in the Boye Photographic Studio of San 
Francisco; Miss Marion H.. a teacher at Oakland, California; and 
Miss Dorothy, a student in the Junior College of Riverside. Fred 
J. Dunbar for a number of years was a traveling salesman for the 
Eastern & Western Lumber Company of Portland, Oregon. When 
.America entered the war with Germany he enlisted with the Forestry 
Division of the 21st Engineers Corps and was in France until the. 
signing of the armistice. 

Philip Momrde S.wacjf, — Early in life Dr. Philip Monroe Savage 
determined to make his life work the healing of his fellowmen, and 
to secure the best education obtainable in order to realize his cherished 
ambition. He is a native son of California and his mother is a native 
daughter, and his primary education was gained in his home state. 
He has had more educational advantages than falls to the lot of the 
majority of surgeons, and it has been supplemented by wide and 
varied experiences, by long contact with and training by the masters 
of surgery in both the West and East. He is the natural surgeon 
whose work is a pleasure and his great aim in life to skillfully alleviate 
the sufTering of humanity. By every means open to the wide-awake 
surgeon he keeps in touch with every improvement, every new method 
and discovery in the line of his work, and so today he ministers with 
undisputed skill to the surgical necessities of the community which 
regard him with confidence based upon his successful work in the city 
of his adoption and the surrounding country. No surgeon stands 
higher both with the profession and the people. 

Dr. Savage enlisted early in the World war, and worked long 
months, in the camps, but at the last moment illness, contracted in 
the line of duty, held him hospital bound until the war was over. He 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 745 

served his country as truly as though he had worked overseas 
throughout the war. 

Dr. Savage has a keen interest in everything relating to his home 
city, and is always to the fore when anything comes up which will 
be for her good, and is a dependable factor in all civic matters. In 
banking, fraternal and social circles he holds the same high position 
he does in his profession. 

Dr. Savage was born in Tulare, Tulare County, July 17, 1880, the 
son of Philip and Flora (Darby) Savage, his father a native of Texas 
and his mother of California. His father came to California when a 
young man and located in Yolo County, where he followed the occu- 
pation of a wheat farmer. He died in 1913 in Sanger, Fresno County. 
His wife is now living in Berkeley, California. Her father at one time 
owned the old Arrowhead Hotel. They were the parents of twelve 
children, of whom six are now living: Genevieve, wife of George P. 
Manchester, of Berkeley ; Geraldine, wife of Charles Kavanaugh, of 
Napa; Dr. Philip M., of San Bernardino, the subject of this sketch; 
Lucille, wife of I. J. Maxon, of Berkeley ; William, a physician and 
specialist of San Bernardino; Harold, an attorney in Fresno. 

Dr. Philip M. Savage was educated in the public and high school 
of Tulare, and then, after a preliminary course in the University of 
California, he attended the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco 
and was graduated with the class of 1907. Where many would 
consider this the close of their medical education, it was the beginning 
for him, and he went East and took a post graduate course in the 
Chicago School of Surgical Technique. From there he went to the 
famous Mayo Clinic at Rochester, Minnesota. He now devotes him- 
self exclusively to surgery. 

Dr. Savage was one of the organizers and is a director of the 
American National Bank of San Bernardino. He makes his home on 
the beautiful place he owns, an orange grove of twenty-three acres 
in East Highland. He was elected president of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, in 1921, upon the retirement of Judge Curtis. 

Dr. Savage married, August 10, 1903, Bernice M. Roberts, a 
daughter of J. A. Roberts, of Sanger, California. They have four 
children: Philip Monroe, Jr., Meredyth, James and David. 

Fraternally Dr. Savage is identified with San Bernardino Lodge 
No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and with San 
Bernardino Lodge No. 348, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. He 
is also a member of the San Bernardino Post, American Legion, and 
of Arrowhead Parlor No. 110, Native Sons of the Golden West. He 
is a member of the San Bernardino County Medical Society, of the 
California State Medical Society and of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, and he is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. In 
political faith he is a voter in the republican ranks. In religious 
belief he is a member of the First Christian Church and is chairman 
of its Board of Trustees. 

He enlisted for the World war July 17, 1918, at Camp Kearney, 
and was ordered to San Francisco, where he took a special course 
in surgery at the University of California, lasting a month. He was 
then ordered back to Camj) Kearney, and was there two weeks, when 
he was ordered to join Base Hospital No. 108 at Fort Snelling, Minne- 
sota. Then the influenza broke out, and they were held there until 
November 25th, when he left there to go to Camp Upton, where he 
outfitted for overseas service. ?Ie contracted the disease just when 
he was readv to sail. He was on the transport George Washington, 



746 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

and he was taken off and sent to St. Mary's Hospital at Hoboken, 
and there he remained until after the armistice was signed, but 
eventually he recovered. He was held in New York for some time 
and then ordered to Allentown, Pennsylvania, where he received his 
discharge December 19th, following, and at once returned to his 
home in San Bernardino. 

Clarence D. Dickey, highly esteemed in San Bernardino as one of 
the older physicians of that city, which is his birthplace, is not only 
a Native Son, but the son of one of San Bernardino's pioneers, one of 
the first physicians to settle here, and he, in turn, is the father of a 
physician, the three generations having one and all achieved success 
in their profession. 

Dr. Dickey received his earlier education in the schools of San 
Bernardino and then entered the famous Jefferson Medical College 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from whence he was graduated with 
the class of 1886. He returned to San Bernardino and commenced 
practice and has continued in it ever since. He is in politics a republi- 
can, but has never felt any inclination to assume public office. 

Dr. Dickej' was born in San Bernardino July 26, 1860, the son of 
Dr. Dudley Rufus Dickey, who came to San Bernardino with ox teams 
in 1849. undergoing the usual experiences of the hardy pioneers of that 
day. He practiced in San Bernardino until his death. The mother 
of C. D. Dickey was Adelia (Crandall) Dickey, of Iowa, who died 
in San Bernardino. Dr. Dickey is a member of the Woodmen of the 
World and was formerly a member of the Knights of Pythias, the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. 

He married in 1888 Julia Carnes, a daughter of Lindsay Carnes, 
of Indiana. They are the parents of two children. Lindsay, an at- 
torney of Los Angeles, enlisted in the navy in the late war and was 
made an ensign. He served throughout the war in the aviation depart- 
ment and was regarded as one of the best aviators in the depart- 
ment. Clarence, a prominent physician and surgeon of Los Angeles, 
also enlisted in the war, but as a physician, and he served until the 
armistice. He is now devoting himself chiefly to surgery and is meet- 
ing with great success in that branch. Clarence Dickey married Miss 
Helen Reeves, a native of San Bernardino, and daughter of W. B. 
Reeves, the present constable of San Bernardino. They have one 
daughter, Emma Lou. 

Gaylord Brayton Norton — The late Gaylord Brayton Norton played 
an important part in the horticultural development of Riverside city 
and county, and is remembered here for his work along this line, but 
he also made a distinctive record as an able business man in the com- 
mercial field before he came to this locality. He was born in Herkimer 
County, New York, May 28, 1837, and died at Riverside in 1905. Mr. 
Norton was proud of his family record, and traced his lineage back 
to his great-grandfather, who fought in the American Revolution and 
was a native of Connecticut. His son, Russell Norton, the grand- 
father of Gaylord Brayton Norton, was born in Connecticut, but 
moved to Herkimer County, New York, and there was engaged in 
farming and wagonmaking. W. L. Norton, son of Russell Norton, 
was a native of Herkimer County, and was a farmer and contractor 
and builder of Litchfield Township, that county, until his death, which 
occurred at the age of sixty-eight years. He married Esther Gaylord, 




c^A^/6^^^ 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 747 

a native of Oneida County, New York, and a daughter of Dr. Chester 
Gaylord. who moved from Oneida County to Herkimer County and 
was engaged in an active practice in the latter locality for many years. 
Still later he moved to Illinois, where he died. Mrs. Norton died at 
the age of twenty-eight years, her only son, Gaylord Brayton, being 
then but three days old. 

Growing up in Herkimer County, Gaylord Brayton Norton attended 
its public schools and Whitestone Seminary, from which he was 
graduated. 

In 1858 he went to Portsmouth, Scioto County, Ohio, and was 
there engaged in clerking in a general merchandise store until he 
enlisted, in 1862, for service during the war between the states. He 
was assigned to Company E, Twenty-seventh Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, and was detailed as clerk at the headquarters of the Ohio 
Brigade. In the winter of that year he was located at Corinth, Miss- 
issippi, but in the spring of 1863 he was detailed to assist Chaplain 
Eaton in what was known as the Freedman's Department, and cared 
for the colored men who came to the Union troops for protection. 
They established a corral at Grand Junction, Tennessee, and another 
at Memphis. Tennessee. Mr. Norton was later sent to Vicksburg, 
where he was under the command of Gen. John Eaton, and he located 
a camp at Youngspoint, Louisana, twelve miles from Vicksburg. At 
one time there were 12,000 negroes at this camp. When the negroes 
became too numerous for the accommodations at Youngspoint they 
were transferred to Davis Bend, thirty miles south of Vicksburg, and 
placed on seven plantations, where they formed an industrial colony, 
being engaged in planting cotton and fortifying the place. While 
Mr. Norton was superintending these plantations he was an occupant 
of the house that was owned by JefTerson Davis. So well did he carry 
out the work of these plantations that he was commissioned a first 
lieutenant at Vicksburg, and at Davis Point was made a captain. He 
organized two colored regiments, the Sixty-fifth and Sixty-fourth 
United States Infantry, and only concluded his humane work for the 
refugees when he was mustered out of the service at Vicksburg 
in 1866. 

During the fall of 1866 Mr. Norton returned to Portsmouth, Ohio, 
but did not remain there, soon leaving that city for Waynesboro, 
Tennessee, where he became manager for the store, and assistant 
superintendent of the furnace of the Wayne Furnace Company. Four 
years later he returned to Portsmouth once more, but left it for Hang- 
ing Rock, Ohio, where he went into business with his brother-in-law, 
S. B. Hemstead, of the S. B. Hemstead & Company Stove Foundry. 
After a year he bought an interest in the mercantile department of 
the Ashland Coal & Iron Railroad Company, and took charge of it. 
The company conducted a general store at their Colton mine at the 
time he acquired his interest, and he soon opened three others, securing 
the patronage for them all not only of the miners, but also of the people 
of the surrounding country, so that he made them paying propositions, 
and for twenty years continued to direct their acivities, and then sold 
his interests. 

In 1891 Mr. Norton came to California for the winter, but was so 
pleased with conditions that he decided to make this state his perma- 
nent home. He had invested previously in a stock business in Labette 
County, Kansas, where he owned 600 acres, but he sold this property 
after settling in California. During the first winter here he bought 
a ranch of twenty-one and one-half acres, later adding fifteen acres. 



748 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

all of which are in alfalfa with the exception of five acres planted in 
oranges. This continued his home until his death, his widow in 1914 
erecting a handsome residence at 189 Magnolia Avenue, where she 
and her children still live. For some years his residence on his first 
acreage was one of the show places of Riverside County. Mr. Norton 
was greatly interested in all horticultural matters and assisted in 
organizing the Riverside Naval Orange Company, of which he was 
long the president. 

In 1868 Mr. Norton married Harriet E. Hemstead, a daughter of 
Dr. G. S. B. Hemstead, of Portsmouth, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Norton 
became the parents of five children, namely : Benjamin, who is a 
horticulturist of the vicinity of Artesia, California; Miss Mary E., 
who is at home; John, who was formerly in business at Lankersham, 
where he was a member of the Toluca Packing Company, and is now 
quartermaster of one of the merchant marine vessels plying between 
the Pacific Coast and Europe and Africa; Miss Helen G., who is at 
home; and Brayton, who is a veteran of the World war. He served 
on the Walter D. Munson as quartermaster, and made fourteen round 
trips across the sea. He had previously acquired considerable repu- 
tation as an author, his productions being published in the leading 
monthly magazines, the most popular one being "Sleeping Acres." 
He is now coast master at Laguna, California, and is still engaged in 
writing. 

Gaylord B. Norton was a republican, but never took any active part 
in politics. Early joining the Presbyterian Church, he gave it a faithful 
service, and was a trustee of the congregation at Riverside. The 
keynote of his character was faithfulness. When he undertook any- 
thing he gave to his duties his best efforts and never rested content 
until he brought everything into excellent shape. He possessed great 
excutive ability, knew how to direct others and obtain from them a 
whole-hearted co operation that was very effective. A devoted hus- 
band, kind and watchful father, sympathetic and helpful friend and 
conscientious citizen, Mr. Norton left his mark on the civilization of 
his times, and his memory is cherished by those who knew and appre- 
ciated his many virtures. 

Frank A. Leonard, attorney of San Bernardino, has been in active 
practice there almost long enough to make him eligible to membership 
in the pioneer class of attorneys of that city. The firm of which he is 
senior partner is a strong one, doing a general practice but handling 
so much corporation business it might almost be regarded as specializ- 
ing in that line. 

Mr. Leonard was born in Watertown, Wisconsin, December 7, 1864, 
the .son of Ira E. and Maria (Shepherd) Leonard. His father was an 
attorney of note, who was born in the State of New York, removing 
to Watertown about 1862. He was later judge of the District Court 
in Missouri, holding the position through the strenuous times of the 
Ku Klux troubles. He was nominated for supreme judge of Missouri, 
but being a republican was defeated, although he received the largest 
vote on the ticket. He moved to Missouri in 1866 and was an attorney 
for the St. Louis & Iron Moutain Railway for some years. On account 
of his health he decided to leave Missouri, resigning and moving to 
Boulder, Colorado. He ])racticed there but finally located in Socorro, 
New Mexico, where he practiced until his death in 1889. While in 
Boulder he was one of the regents of the University of Colorado. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 749 

His wife removed to San Bernardino where she lived until the age 
of ninet}', passing away in the fall of 1921. 

Mr. Leonard received his primary education in the public schools 
of Boulder, Colorado, and then spent one year and a half in the 
University of Colorado. He studied law at the St. Louis Law School, 
a department of Washington University, and was there one year. He 
entered his father's office and was admitted to the bar in Socorro, 
New Alexico. He remained with his father until 1888, when he came 
to San Bernardino, in November of that year entering into a partner- 
ship with Henry Goodcell. When Mr. Goodcell moved to Oakland 
Mr. Leonard practiced alone for a time and then entered into a 
partnership with E. R. Annabel. This partnership lasted only three 
weeks owing to the death of Mr. Annabel. Mr. Leonard again practiced 
alone until he formed a partnership with Howard Surr on July 15, 1907. 
This partnership has since continued. In January, 1915, George W. Hell- 
yer was admitted into the firm, which now is Leonard, Surr & Hellyer. 
They are attorneys for the Fontana Companies ; the Citizens Land & 
Water Company of Bloomington ; the Etiwanda Water Company ; the 
Rialto Irrigation District; the Muscoy Water Company; the South 
Mesa Water Company; the Western Heights Water Company; the 
Yucaipa Water Company No. 1 ; and the Arrowhead Reservoir & Power 
Company. Mr. Leonard is also the city attorney for Redlands. 

He married in 1890 Fannie E. Sawyer, a daughter of A. M. and 
S. A. Sawyer, of Boulder, Colorado. They are the parents of four 
children : James S., of Oak Glenn, an apple grower, who has one 
child; Marion, wife of Charles H. Dyke, of San Anselmo, California; 
.Albert at college ; and Helen, who is at home. Fraternally Mr. 
Leonard is a member of the San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevo- 
lent and Protective Order of Elks, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Woodmen of the World, and the Knights of Pythias. He is also a 
member of the San Bernardino County Bar Association and of the 
Phi Delta Phi. He is a republican. The family is affiliated with 
the Presbyterian Church of Redlands. 

E. R. Burt is the managing executive of the Riverside business known 
as the Riverside Tent & Awning Company at 393-395 Eighth Street. 
This is a manufacturing concern of important proportions, and has 
fully made good the claims of its motto "if it's made of canvas, we 
make it." Mr. Burt himself is an expert in every branch of the indus- 
try and has been rapidly extending the manufacturing processes and 
the trade demands so that the plant has complete facilities for the 
manufacture of such varied wares as tents, awnings,, bags, aprons, can- 
teens, camp furniture, and porch curtains, and an important feature of 
their business is the supply of the orange picking bags used through- 
out the Riverside district. The company's factory has a floor space 
of 10,800 square feet. 

Mr. Burt was born at Gadsden, Alabama, December 12, 1882, son 
of Arthur Chilton and Clara Bell (Gramling) Burt, his father a native 
of Macon, Mississippi, and his mother of South Carolina. His father 
was born in 1852, and died at San Diego in 1908. Most of his life 
was spent in clerical service in banking institutions. The mother is 
still living in Riverside, near her sons and daughters. Her six sons 
are : E. R., Lawrence, Walter, Clarence, Claud Chilson and Charles 
Avery Burt, and the three daughters are, Lena Cornelia, Maggie 
Riddle and Clara Willie Burt, all residents of Riverside. 



750 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

E. R. Burt acquired early education in the public schools of 
Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and after school days were ended took up 
the carpenter's trade. As a skilled mechanic he arrived in San Diego 
January 7, 1907, and for a short time did some work as a journeyman 
carpenter and subsequently was a contractor there until 1910. Since 
that year he has been a resident of Riverside, and soon after coming 
here entered the employ of the Riverside Tent & Awning Company. 
In 1918 he became co-partner and manager of the business, and in 
the past three years the volume of output and sale has more than doubled. 

Robert McFarlaxf. for the past eighteen years has been superin- 
tendent of the Riverside Cemetery Association, employing his expert 
skill as a landscape gardener in beautifying and maintaining Evergreen 
Cemetery. 

Mr. McFarlane was born at Killin.Perthshire, Scotland, April 3, 
1870, and was reared and educated there. After his formal schooling 
he devoted his attention to horticulture, which has been a life study 
with him. and for many years he has specialized in landscape gar- 
dening. 

Mr. McFarlane came to Riverside in 1896 and a few years later 
was made superintendent of Evergreen Cemetery. This beautiful 
burial ground, located at the foot of rugged Mount Rubidoux, has 
been the direct object of his professional skill and devoted care for 
so long a period that it is in an important sense a monument to his 
endeavors. 

Mr. McFarlane had a brother, John McFarlane, who was a well 
known resident of San Bernardino, where he died about two years 
ago. Another brother, Dr. William McFarlane, visited in Riverside 
in 1911, and left with the intention of making a permanent home here. 
The World war upset his plans, but since then he has been making 
preparations to carry out his original design as soon as he can settle 
his affairs in Scotland. 

Robert McFarlane owns a home in Riverside and has a fine orange 
grove near the new experiment station. For the last fifteen years 
his annual chrysanthemum show has been an event attended by all 
lovers of that wonderful flower. He has cultivated about a hundred 
different varieties of many colors. Mr. McFarlane is affiliated with 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Major Orin P. Sloat is the genial and well beloved secretary of 
San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks. He has been constantly the presiding genius of the Elks Club 
House. To his zeal, his love for the order, his devotion to the interests 
of each and every member is due the social atmosphere that prevails 
and the harmony and good taste that marked the service of this, one of 
the best appointed Elks Clubs in the country. When the building was 
planned Major Sloat was one of those working most unselfishly for 
its establishment. Not content to direct the work, his own hands laid 
out the beautiful gardens surrounding the Club House, planting the 
flowers, shrubs and trees and erecting the summer houses and the hot 
houses. It was a labor of love, and now Major Sloat has the reward of 
living in the beautiful surroundings he created. It is one of San 
Bernardino's show places, with velvety green lawns, lovely flowers 
and foliage, the building covered with graceful vines over thirteen 
years ago by Major Sloat. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 751 

Majur Sloat has been secretary since 1908. He was already a well 
known and popular citizen, soldier and business man, and outside of 
the community has warm friends among the Elks in every state of the 
Union. The Elks are preeminently American, and it is fitting that 
such a true American as Major Sloat should be their secretary. Much 
of the popularity, the comradeship of an Elks Lodge depends upon 
its secretary, and Major Sloat has been an official of ideal qualifications 
in this respect. He has a keen eye for detail, keeps the Club House in 
perfect repair, and it is the first object of his care every hour in the day. 
Major Sloat is one of California's most devoted adopted sons. He 
was born at Hobart, Delaware County, New York, October 22, 1860, 
son of William H. and Permelia (Peck) Sloat. His father was a 
skilled worker in wood, and some of the old friends of the family at 
San Bernardino have cherished specimens of his craft. The Sloat 
family is an old American line of Holland descent, three brothers 
having come to this country in Colonial days. One of the family was 
Commander Sloat, who raised the first flag on the Pacific at Monterey. 
When the monument to his memory was unveiled at Monterey Major 
Sloat represented the family at the ceremony, being sent from San 
Bernardino with Judge West by the Board of Supervisors. Photo- 
graphs of that event show Major Sloat, Judge West and the artist who 
created the monument just before the unveiling. Every county in 
California gave one piece of rock for the base of the monument, and 
it was twenty years in building. It occupies the exact site where 
Commander Sloat raised the flag. 

Still another ancestor was General Marcy, one of American's great 
soldiers. Some of that branch of the family were victims of the 
massacre in the Wyoming Valley in the Revolutionary struggle. The 
mother of Major Sloat was of strict Puritan ancestry, and many of that 
line were Presbyterian ministers. A complete record of the Sloat 
family has been compiled by John Drake Sloat, Jr., of Saint Louis, 
Missouri. 

William Henry Sloat, father of Major Sloat, was a valued citizen 
of San Bernardino, and his death was a loss to the community. He 
was for fifty years a Mason, and that order had charge of his burial 
services. Major Sloat is almost the last of his family. He has never 
married, and was the only son. Of his five sisters four are deceased, 
one is living in Chicago, and he has several nieces in New York and 
one in Maricopa. 

Major Sloat was educated at Oneonta, New York, and at the age of 
sixteen was working for a living in a shoe store there. At the age of 
twenty-one he went to Kansas, spent a year on a cattle ranch, and on 
coming to Los Angeles was connected with the W. C. Furry Hardware 
Company six years. Since then he has been an honored and useful 
and ever active citizen of San Bernardino. He was deputy county 
clerk in 1893-94 under Mr. Hamilton. He then became division store 
keeper for the Santa Fe Railroad, and held that post of duty for 
sixteen years, in full charge of all supplies issued in the Southern 
California Division. 

He resigned that office to become secretary of the Elks Club, and 
his old employes and associates with the Santa Fe presented him when 
he left with a handsome watch as a token of their regard. 

The military record of Major Sloat began with his active service 
in the National Guard of California. He was a first lieutenant in the 
San Bernardino Company when the Spanish-American war broke out. 
When its Captain, T. H. Goflf, resigned the lieutenant was ready to take 



752 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

command of the company, but he and his men were under orders to 
go to San Francisco before the commission arrived. Company K of 
the Seventh Infantry, of which Major Sloat was captain, was known in 
1887 as the Waterman Rifles, a name given in compliment to Governor 
Waterman. It was mustered in October 29, 1887, as Company E, 
Seventh Infantry, was later transferred to the Ninth Infantry, and 
when that command disintegrated was assigned to the Second Bat- 
talion, First Brigade. December 9, 1895, this was designated as 
Company K, transferred to the First Battalion, Seventh Infantry. It 
was mustered into the Seventh California Infantry, United States 
volunteers, Independent Division, Eighth Army Corps, May 9, 1898, at 
The Presidio in San Francisco, O. P. Sloat, Captain. 

In the meantime Major Sloat had worked hard early and late to 
raise the strength of the Company from fifty to the full quota of a 
hundred and fifty. He made a record as one of the best liked and most 
popular officers of the command, constantly looking for their comfort 
and welfare. The company on leaving San Bernardino received a 
wonderful farewell, and on their return the entire county welcomed 
them. After the war, when the Guard was reorganized, Captain Sloat 
was made major, an office he filled two years, until compelled to resign 
because of the exacting duties of his railroad work. Whether in the 
National Guard or out he has been devoted to the letter and spirit of 
Old Glory. When the Riverside Lodge of Elks new club house was 
dedicated he presented the beautiful flag to the new lodge as a gift from 
the San Bernardino Elks. He is an eloquent speaker and when occa- 
sion demands a most forceful one, and has been invited on numberless 
occasions to speak or serve in public affairs. He has often been 
written up by the press, and Dr. Owen made him the subject of a 
rarely beautiful story which he entitled "A Fable." Major Sloat has 
many interesting treasures in his rooms at the Club House, ranging 
from the medal presented on the return of the Company by the Native 
Sons to others received from all over the world. 

Major Sloat is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, is treasurer 
of the Salvation Army, member of the Spanish-American War Vet- 
erans, of San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, F. and A. M. has been for 
four years treasurer of the Elks State Outpost Association, and now 
secretary of the same organization and treasurer of the Elks Outpost 
Association, an idea that was first originated by him and Dr. H. M. 
Hayes and has spread to Elks lodges all over the United States. 

San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E. — This Lodge, repre- 
sentative largely of the fraternal life of San Bernardino, with nearly 
every prominent professional and business man and citizen in its mem- 
bership, was instituted February 26, 1903, in the old Armory Hall on 
Third Street, the ceremonies of installation being performed by Red- 
lands Lodge No. 583. Of the one hundred and six charter members 
forty-five are still on the active list, and thirteen have answered the last 
roll call. The first regular meeting of the Lodge was held March '3, 
1903, in the Masonic Hall and set a standard for good fellowship that 
has been characteristic of this Lodge ever since. The silver loving cup 
presented that evening by the San Luis Obispo Lodge stands on the 
table in the lobby of the present club today. At the third meeting 
Charles C. Cluske'r was granted a life membership as the oldest living 
Elk. The Lodge participated in the first Street Fair given in San 
Bernardino in May, 1903. Manv members attended the Elks reunion 
in San Diego May 29-30. 1903. From the first members of this Lodge 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 753 

have performed a leading part in the fraternal life of San Bernardino. 
On of their earliest activities was a minstrel show that was given with 
great acclaim and success during the Christmas holidays of 1903. In 
the meantime, after the thirteenth meeting the Lodge moved from the 
Masonic Hall to the Native Sons Hall and at the close of the first 
Lodge year twenty-three new members were added. Beginning with 
December 6, 1903, the first Sunday in December has been observed 
as Memorial Sunday. In April, 1904, the Lodge moved to its new 
quarters on the second floor of the Home Telephone Building. The 
only member who ever held the office of exalted ruler two successive 
terms was James Fleming, whose death, October 5, 1907, was one of 
the greatest losses the lodge ever suffered. He was the only member 
of this lodge selected for district deputy grand exalted ruler. 

In January. 1907, the membership voted to acquire the Rolfe 
property, part of the present site, and the Club House was built and 
the first meeting held in the present lodge room November 20, 1908. 
Later an additional lot was acquired, and on it a gymnasium con- 
structed, affording opportunities for all kinds of exercise and indoor 
games. The Elks Club, with its present facilities, particularly its lunch 
and dinner service daily, is the gathering point of the city for social 
and business affairs. Its membership embraces almost every business 
man, official, and man of prominence in the city. The Club has 
property valued at between eight thousand and a hundred thousand 
dollars, and the Lodge is second to none in the United States for the 
size of its membership, which now stands at fourteen hundred. During 
the World war this Lodge did more than its part, not only in the 
payment of the taxes ordered by the Grand Lodge but individually 
sending one hundred and fortj' of its members into the ranks, and 
several gold stars appear on their honor roll. 

One feature of the Lodge is the monthly paper. The Booster, edited 
by the beloved secretary of the Lodge, Major O. P. Sloat. During 
the war it contained many letters from service men, and at all times 
it has sustained a high quality of interest as well as affording all the 
essential news of the order. 

One of the things this Lodge as well as every one of the twenty 
Elks Lodges in Southern California is proud of is the Elks Outpost, 
built by these Lodges in the Cajon Pass at the point where the Old 
Trails Highway entered San Bernardino. It is for the use of every 
Elk coming that way. An Elk through his membership card has 
access to all the facilities provided by the Out Post, including stoves, 
ovens, broilers, wood, water, and cooking utensils. 

Z. T. Bell — The belief that character and force of will combined with 
good business acumen will bring to their fortunate possessor a fair 
degree of business and financial success finds a good illustration in 
the life and activities of Z. T. Bell, secretary-treasurer of the Home 
Gas Company of San Bernardino and representative citizen. No man 
stands higher in the business world of his home city than Mr. Bell, 
and he is an example of the opportunities offered to young men of 
ambition and the energy to realize that it lies with them whether 
life is a success or a failure. Mr. Bell is one of the city's most public 
spirited residents, and anything started for the furtherance of San 
Bernardino's growth and progress finds him right to the fore. 

Mr. Bell was born in Cherokee, Iowa, June 30, 1874, the son of 
Z. R. and Angeline (Cox) Bell, both natives of Philadelphia. Z. R. 
Bell was farmer and a carpenter, and he died in Calaveras County, Cali- 



754 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

fornia, in 1917, aged seventy-eight. He had been a resident of California 
sixteen years at the time of his passing. His wife died in 1885. 

Z. T. Bell was educated in the public schools of Iowa, and he was 
engaged in various occupations until coming to California in November, 
1885. He located first in Upland, and here he also followed different 
lines of work until 1890. He then moved to Los Angeles and learned 
the plumbing trade. He came to San Bernardino to do some work for 
the San Bernardino Gas Company. He was with them until February 
1, 1905. and was then engaged with the Home Gas Company. He 
steadily progressed with this company until in 1911 he was elected sec- 
retary-treasurer, which position he so ably holds today. 

Mr. Bell was united in marriage with Minnie Moore, a daughter of 
C. A. Moore, of San Bernardino, in 1903. By a former marriage she 
has one child. Mr. Bell has a number of fraternal affiliations, being a 
member of the San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E. ; of San 
Bernardino Lodge No. 348, A. F. and A. M. ; of Keystone Chapter No. 
56, R. A. M., San Bernardino ; of San Bernardino Commandery No. 23, 
Knights Templar ; and of San Bernardino Valley Council No. 27, R. 
and S. AI. He gives his political allegiance to the republican party. 

Home Gas and Lighting Company — The Home Gas and Lighting 
Company of San Bernardino, was incorporated in March, 1905, by H. 
E. Harris, president; H. M. Barton, vice president; W. D. Wagner, 
secretary-treasurer; and Seth Hartley and Z. T. Bell, directors. The 
company was organized for the purpose of manufacturing and supply- 
ing gas to the city of San Bernardino. The capital stock was $75,000 
and all the stock was owned by residents of the city. The gas was turned 
on July 1, 1905. The company was operated under the name first chosen 
until August 1, 1909, when it was sold to the San Bernardino Valley 
Gas Company, the officers being: J. M. Gardner, president; H. B. Dun- 
can, secretary-treasurer ; C. J. Hall, C. R. Harris, W. E. Alexander, 
directors. The company operated until May 29, 1911. On June 30, 
1909, it acquired the Colton Gas Company from C. H. Chestnut of Red- 
lands, and also the Home Gas & Electric Company of Redlands. On 
December 21st it also acquired the Corona Gas & Electric Company gas 
plant. On May 29, 1911, the company went into the hands of a receiver 
and was operated until August 1, 1912, by the receiver, the Los Angeles 
Trust & Savings Bank. It was then sold at a receiver's sale to the cred- 
itors, who bid it in on August 1, 1912. It was then operated by S. J. 
Dubell, who represented the creditors, until August 1, 1915. 

On this date it was turned over to the creditors' company the Citrus 
Belt Gas Company, which had been organized by the creditors on No- 
vember 28, 1911. At this organization the officers were: E. D. Moul- 
ton, of Riverside, president; A. M. Ham, vice president; Z. T. Bell, 
secretary-treasurer; and F. P. Morrison, of Redlands, director. 

The present officers are : H. E. Harris, president ; Z. T. Bell, secre- 
tary-treasurer ; and F. P. Morrison, Wilmot Smith, O. C. Evans, George 
E. Snedaker, directors. 

Colin Campbell Owen, physician of San Bernardino, while he has 
not been a resident many years, has already commenced building up a 
good practice. He had opened offices here and was well established 
when the ^\'orId war called him to the colors, and he served the country 
as an officer both in America and overseas. 

Dr. Owen was born in Detroit, Michigan, December 8, 1890, the 
son of John and Jeanie (Moderwell) Owen. The father was a native 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 755 

of England who came over to Canada in 1850 and located in Stratford, 
remaining there a time and then removing to Toronto. In 1879 he lo- 
cated in Detroit. He was an artist and died in 1895. His wife wa.s a 
native of Stratford, Ontario, and is now living in San Bernardino. 

Dr. Owen was educated in the public and high school of Detroit, 
then worked in the drafting room of an iron works for two years, after 
which he returned to high school to prepare for college. He attended 
the medical department of the University of Michigan, and was grad- 
uated with the class of 1915. To supplement this he took a post-graduate 
course in the Chicago Lying-in Hospital, and from there came directly 
to San Bernardino to establish a practice and make it his permanent 
home. He practices both medicine and surgery. 

He was a lieutenant in the 125th Field Artillery for one year and a 
half, being stationed at Camp Cody, Deming, New Mexico, from Oc- 
tober, 1917, to July, 1918. From there he went to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 
and then overseas. He was first stationed at Bordeaux for a short period 
and then at an artillery school at Claremont, Ferrand. About one 
month after the armistice was signed he returned to Camp Stewart, Vir- 
ginia, then to Camp Courchesne, El Paso, Texas, and was held there for 
ten months, receiving his discharge October 27, 1919, at San Francisco. 
He returned to San Bernardino and resumed his practice. 

In June, 1921, Dr. Owen was appointed health officer of San Ber- 
nardino, which position he still holds at the time of publication. He is 
a member of the San Bernardino County Medical Association and of 
the California State Medical Association. He is roentgenologist of the 
Ramona Hospital, a full description of which is given elsewhere in this 
work. He is a member of the El Paso Lodge No. 130, A. F. and A. 
M., and a life member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E., 
and of the San Bernardino Post No. 14, American Legion. 

Joseph E. Rich — One of San Bernardino's solid and substantial 
citizen who can claim ( to all Californians the one inestimable blessing) 
of being a native son is Joseph E. Rich, who is also a native of the city. 
The son of two of California's earlier pioneers, he is loyal as such sons 
are loyal and stands ready at all times and all places to aid in the wel- 
fare of state or city. It is said that the reason native Californians who 
are the offspring of her pioneers, so often make good by means of their 
own exertions is because they inherit the initiative, ambition and courage 
of their parents. 

It is the case with Mr. Rich, for his parents certainly possessed these 
qualities, and they also possessed the tenacity of purpose which their 
son Joseph has displayed. From early manhood he has been the maker 
of his own fortunes, and fidelity to duty has been the keynote of his 
life. And life has correspondingly rewarded him, financially, profes- 
sionally, socially and civicly. 

Mr. Rich was born in San Bernardino on December 22, 1867, the 
son of Jacob and Dora Rich. Both were born in Germany and came to 
America at an early age, locating in San Francisco in 1853. Mr. Rich 
died in San Bernardino in 1872 and Mrs. Rich in Chicago in 1913. 
They were the parents of eight children : Rebecca, deceased wife of 
Julius Meyerstein, of San Bernardino ; Daniel D., of Portland, Oregon ; 
Ray, wife of Louis Newman, of Chicago, Illinois; Simon S., of Port- 
land, Oregon, who is married and has two children, Jesse and Eugene ; 
Ben B., of San Francisco ; Leah L., deceased ; Abe L., of San Fran- 
cisco ; Joseph E., of Sati Bernardino. 



756 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

In his memoirs of "Sixty Years in Southern CaHfornia," Mr. New- 
mark speaks of Jacob Rich coming to Los Angeles in 1853 and forming 
a partnership with J. P. Newmark in the dry goods and clothing bus- 
iness on Main and Requina streets, and of the fact that Mrs. Rich was 
the first Jewess to settle in Los Angeles, {''rior to this time Mr. New- 
mark had lived at various restaurants and from all accounts the food 
and service must have been far from pleasing, for he particularly makes 
mention of the fact that he boarded with Mr. and Mrs. Rich and how 
glad he was that he had the opportunity. In 1855 the firm of Rich, New- 
mark & Company was formed, with Mr. Rich as the San Francisco rep- 
resentative. This continued until Mr. Rich withdrew and went into the 
dry goods business in San Francisco, where he remained until 1865, 
when he went back to Los Angeles, and after .staying there a short time 
located in San Bernardino, opening a general merchandise business which 
he conducted till his death in 1872. 

He was the first senior deacon of the old Masonic lodge, No. 42, 
chartered in Los Angeles. As comparing the difficulties of travel then 
and now it may be mentioned that when he brought the family down 
from San Francisco, by steamer, there were seven small children in 
the family, most of them having to sit on high stools at the table. They 
were nearly wrecked by a storm off San Pedro but after much diffi- 
culty arrived safely at their destination. Mr. Rich was very prominent 
in business affairs and had the respect and confidence of the entire com- 
munity. He often disagreed with his fellow citizens and was very out- 
spoken in his beliefs, but his sincerity was never doubted and he played 
a large part in the affairs of his chosen home. He was a strong abolition- 
ist and always maintained his stand on that vexed question. 

Joseph E. Rich was educated in the private school of Mrs. Hicks in 
San Bernardino until he was twelve years of age, when he attended 
high school in San Francisco for four years. He then worked in a 
chemical laboratory in San Francisco, and during this time studied short- 
hand. In 1885 he returned to San Bernardino and entered the office of 
I. Benjamin, the official court reporter, afterwards working for Chief 
Engineer Fred T. Paris as stenographer for about a year. In April, 1887, 
Department No. 2 of the Superior Court was established and he was ap- 
pointed official court reporter and has held that position continuously 
ever since. He was appointed by Judge Henry M. Willis, and he has 
served under five different judges, an enviable record in these days of 
stress and change. From the time he was appointed court reporter he 
was in partnership with I. Benjamin, and this continued until Mr. Ben- 
jamin went to Los Angeles in 1911. For a time, as a side issue, he was 
a partner with John Flagg in the jirinling business. 

Mr. Rich married in 1889 Sarah Samelson, a daughter of Lesser 
and Carrie Samelson, of Memphis, Tennessee. They are the parents 
of two children: Lester J., born in 1895 and now an electrical engineer 
in the employ of the Eastern Telegraph Company in England ; and Ly- 
man S., born in 1897, and now with the Chamber of Commerce and 
Orange Show organizations in San Bernardino. Mr. Rich is a director 
of the American National Bank of San Bernardino, of the San Ber- 
nardino Valley Bank and of the Santa Fe Building & Loan Association. 
He is one of the charter members of Arrowhead Parlor, No. 110, N. S. 
G. W., and a member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, F. and A. M., 
also a member of the Lion's Club. He was president of the California 
Shorthand Reporters Association in 1921 and is a member of the Na- 
tional Shorthand Reporters Association. He is a member of the Board 
of Library Trustees and is the secretary of the board. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 757 

Mr. Rich was a member of the Executive Committee of the First 
National Orange Show of San Bernardino, which was held in 1911, 
and he has been serving in that capacity ever since. He was the presi- 
dent of the Twelfth National Orange Show, which fact speaks for itself 
as to his executive and business ability, for it is the one project dear 
to the heart of every San Bernardinian. 

Frank T. Bates — One of the leaders in the group of younger 
attorneys of San Bernardino. Frank T. Bates has created confidence in 
himself during his years of practice in the city. He is to all intents 
and purposes a native son, for he was a very small boy when his parents 
brought him to California, and much of his thorough education was 
gained in the high school of San Bernardino, so it was natural he 
should decide to locate in his home city. His mastery of the law and 
his thorough legal acquirements, combined with his natural ability, 
made it easier for him to win to the top than it is for the majority of 
young men, vi'ho find that promotion in legal circles is very slow and 
all success is hardly won. 

He has been the popular choice for positions of trust legally, politically 
and fraternally, and he has more than justified the faith of his friends. 
He is a young man, and the future holds much in store for him, judging 
from the present. He is always on the alert for anything which will 
promote the welfare of his home city and always ready to help in any 
way. Politics have claimed his attention and he is a republican in the 
truest sense of the word. 

Mr. Bates was born in Green, Iowa, on March 1. 1883, the son of 
Nelson S. and Rebecca Bates, his father being a native of Pennsylvania 
and his mother of Illinois. Nelson Bates was a carpenter and contractor, 
and followed that occupation in the East, at the last devoting much 
time to building. He came with his family to San Bernardino in 1887, 
and he purchased an orange grove in Rialto and has retired, with his 
wife, to enjoy life. They were the parents of three children, of whom 
Frank T. was the eldest. The others are Daisy, who was assistant 
matron of the Seaside Hospital at Long Beach, and is the wife of Ira 
Worman, a druggist of Long Beach, and Charles H., of Los Angeles, 
who is with the Globe Mills as manager of the grain department. 

Frank T. Bates was educated in the public schools of Rialto and in 
the San Bernardino High School. From there he entered Stanford Uni- 
versity, legal department, and was graduated with the class of 1908, 
with the degree of A. B. He was admitted to practice in January, 1909. 
He started practicing with a partner in San Bernardino, Raymond Hodge, 
under the firm name of Bates & Hodge, and this continued until 1913, 
since when he has practiced alone. He handles both civil and criminal 
cases and has built up a large clientele. 

Mr. Bates until 1921 was secretary of the Flint Packing Company of 
San Bernardino. He is president of the San Bernardino Bar As'sociation 
and from 1911 to 1915 was assistant di.strict attorney. From 1915 to 
1919 he was referee in bankruptcy. 

He married, in 1911, Ida Rosenbeck, a daughter of George and Mary 
Rosenbeck, of San Bernardino. Her father is now dead, and her mother 
is living in Los Angeles. They are the parents of four children : Howard 
E. and Dorothy M., students in San Bernardino public schools ; Patricia 
and Frank T., Jr. Fraternallv Mr. Bates is connected with San Ber- 
nardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E., with Aerie No. 506, F. O. E., the 
latter of which he was ])resident in 1920. He is also a member of the 
Rotary Club, and, as stated, is a strong republican. 



758 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

S. B. W. McNabb — Among San Bernardino's most prominent attor- 
neys S. B. W. McNabb acquired a large fund of experience a"d knowl- 
edge in other lines of business and achieved success in them, as he has 
since in his real life work, the law. He is in the pioneer class of '87 and 
in thought, feeling and love for his chosen home is a Californian. He 
stands high in his profession and has built up a large clientele, one which 
is constantly increasing, doing a general law practice. 

Mr. McNabb was born in Jackson County, Iowa, December 18, 1868, 
the son of James and Mary (Hogg) McNabb. both of whom were 
natives of Pennsylvania. His father moved to Iowa in 1846 and located 
on a farm, and lived there until he was sixty years old, when he came to 
San Bernardino and lived with his son, S. B. W. McNabb until his 
death in January 27, 1913. His wife died when the subject of this 
sketch was a baby. 

Mr. McNabb was educated in the public schools of Jackson County, 
Iowa, and an academy at Maquoketa, Jackson County. He then learned 
the trade of printer from the ground up, and worked at the trade in 
Maquoketa and other Iowa towns for several years. He decided to come 
to Cahfornia, and 1887 saw him located in San Francisco, where he 
worked as a printer on the papers there. He soon left for Los Angeles, 
where he remained a short time, coming to San Bernardino soon and 
working there at his trade. 

He first worked on the San Bernardino Courier, and he remained with 
the printing trade for many years, including seven years as foreman of 
the San Bernardino Sun. He worked in all the departments of the 
papers and was also in Riverside for one year as foreman of the 
Enterprise. 

Mr. McNabb had studied law for two years in Iowa, and he now 
took up this study again, applying himself in the offices of Byron Waters 
and W. J. Curtis. He was admitted to the bar in January, 1909, and 
started practice by himself in the offices of Curtis & Curtis. At about 
this time W. J. Curtis retired from practice and Mr. McNabb went into 
partnership with Mr. Curtis, who is now superior judge. This partner- 
ship continued until Mr. Curtis was elected to the judgeship. Mr. 
McNabb practiced alone for a time, and then formed a partnership with 
Raymond E. Hodge, which has since continued. 

He was married in 1889 to Bertha Dunlap. of San Bernardino, and 
they were the parents of one child. Vera, now the wife of R. N. 
McCloskey, of San Mateo. They have one daughter. 

Mr. McNabb was united in marriage, July 16, 1916, with Alice L. 
Thompson, a daughter of Mrs. M. V. Thompson, of Los Angeles. They 
have one son, James W. Mr. McNabb holds membership in the San 
Bernardino Bar Association ; San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, A. F. 
and A. M. ; Keystone Chapter No. 56, R. A. M. ; St. Bernard Com- 
mandery No. 23, K. T. ; Kaaba Temple of Davenport, Iowa, A. A. O. N. 
M. S. ; San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E., and the Modern 
Woodmen of America. Mr. McNabb has the distinction of having been 
elected mayor of San Bernardino for the term of 1909-1911 without 
opposition, and again was elected to this office in 1921. In politics he is 
a republican, and in religious faith is affiliated with the Congregational 
Church. 

Daniel A. Wheeler — Although the period which the twentieth cen- 
tury calls western pioneer times has passed away, there are yet with 
us some who took an active and courageous part in the thrilling drama 
that resulted in the development of the vast expanse of country, the 




z! ^^V^Cd^.^^ 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 759 

frontiers of which eighty years ago seemed almost beyond reach. 
Many of these have long maintained homes in California and few of 
these hardy pioneers are better known or more highly esteemed than 
Daniel A. Wheeler, now living in comfortable retirement at Riverside. 

Daniel A. Wheeler crossed the plains to Colorado in 1860, and 
repeated that journey eight more times before a railroad penetrated 
this region. Mr. Wheeler was born in the State of New York, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1840. His parents were Daniel and Alvira (Morse) Wheeler, 
both of whom were born in Massachusetts, and, on the maternal side, 
of Mayflower stock. Members of both families took part in the Revo- 
lutionary war, and their descendants ever since have maintained and 
exemplified the highest ideals of Americanism. 

The parents of Mr. Wheeler moved to Wisconsin in his boyhood, 
and there he attended the public schools. His father was a blacksmith 
by trade, but as the youth showed no mechanical leaning it was 
decided that he be given additional educational advantages in order 
that he be prepared for another vocation. He completed the high 
school course with credit and then became a student in Lawrence 
University at Appleton, Wisconsin. Having some inclination toward 
the law, he then went to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he had two years 
of experience as a clerk in a law office. Previously, however, he had 
learned a good, steady, self-supporting trade, having served an appren- 
ticeship in a printing office in Wisconsin, a knowledge of which later 
on proved helpful. 

Mr. W^heeler was but twenty years old when he made his first trip 
across the plains, and reached Denver, Colorado, when it was little 
more than a mining town. He had gone into the West as a prospective 
miner, and during a number of years afterwards he engaged in mining. 
He returned then to Denver and soon found work at his trade in the 
ofifice of the Black Hawk Journal in Blackhawk and later on the 
Central City Register in Central City, becoming an important adjunct 
as outside man and also on the editorial staff. His newspaper connec- 
tion ended when he enlisted as one of a company of brave men, one 
hundred strong, organizing hurridly for the protection of Denver 
from an anticipated Indian raid. The savages, in all probability, 
learned of this resolute body, for they confined their brutal attacks 
to helpless wagon trains in the mountains, evidences of which were 
found in many desolute places before the company was finally dis- 
banded. 

Mr. Wheeler returned then to Wisconsin, and for about three 
years engaged in a mercantile business, removing then to Iowa, and 
there was interested in the lumber trade until 1888, when he embraced 
an opportunity to sell out to advantage and soon afterwards was on 
his way to California with the intention of locating permanently in 
this state. After considerable traveling about he reached Riverside, 
and very soon felt that his search for a home site was ended. He 
purchased property at 1590 Mulberry Street, on the corner of Prospect 
Street, where he erected his commodious residence, and has called 
Riverside his home ever since. 

After locating at Riverside Mr. Wheeler was engaged for a time 
in the furniture business under the name of \V. S. Sweat & Company. 
Later he disposed of his interest in this firm and purchased the Rose 
Mine in the San Bernardino Mountains. In company with his asso- 
ciates in the enterprise he erected a five-stamp mill, cleaning up what 
he got on the plate and shipping his concentrates to San Francisco and 
El Paso. He continued to work this mine for three or four years and 



760 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

then disposed of his interests. The mine is still being worked. He 
did own the Egyptian Mine in Colorado, which is being profitably 
worked, a long tunnel now being constructed which will tap the ledge 
at a depth of about 1500 feet. Mr. Wheeler sold his interest in this 
property when he left Colorado. 

After returning to Riverside, in 1903, he bought 680 acres of land 
in the Imperial Valley, which was soon afterwards put under water. 
He raised alfalfa, corn, wheat, barley and cattle for a number of years, 
but finally sold out when he felt like retiring and taking life a little 
easier. He has also made successful experiments in orange growing. 
He bought at one time sixty acres of land in High Grove, fifty acres 
of which he planted to oranges and brought into bearing. At one time 
he had 1500 stands of bees in and around Riverside, and his largest 
shipment of honey in one year was ninety tons. 

In 1871 Mr. Wheeler married Miss Josephine Packard, who was 
born in Ohio, and they have four children ; May, who is the wife of 
William Dunworth, a builder at Miami, Florida, and they have three 
sons; Frank, who is superintendent of the Globe Mills at Calexico, 
has a family of wife, two sons and two daughters ; Hattie, who is the 
wife of W. B. Richards, interested in the orange and lemon growing 
industry at Long Beach, California, and they have two children ; and 
Josiebelle, is the wife of Clarence Barton, of El Centro, who is treas- 
urer of Imperial County. They had two children, but one of whom is 
now living. 

Since disposing of his Imperial Valley property Mr. Wheeler has 
led a quiet life, although not an idle one. In addition to his handsome 
residence at Riverside he has other city property and owns the business 
block which is now occupied by the Daily Enterprise Publishing 
Company. This modern structure was built by his son-in-law, Clar- 
ence Barton. In political sentiment Mr. Wheeler is an ardent repub- 
lican, and while living in Iowa he was quite active in the political 
field, frequently serving in township offices and as a member of com- 
mittees and as delegate to party conventions. He has never united 
with anv fraternal organization except the Benevolent and Protective 
Order o'f Elks. 

Mr. Wheeler's sister (deceased) was Mrs. Hattie (Wheeler) Paine, 
wife of Colonel W. H. Paine, who was on the staff of the dififerent gen- 
erals of the Army of the Potomac. She died after presenting her hus- 
band with a daughter. He was a civil engineer and was commissioned 
a captain in the regular Army during the Civil war struggle and made 
a great name as a bridge builder. Later he was one of the engineers of 
the Brooklyn Bridge and when the cable was stretched across the river 
he and his daughter were the first to cross on it, prior to the completion 
of the bridge. 

James T. Barrett, Pn. D. — As professor of plant pathology and 
now dean of the Citrus Experiment Station of the University of Cali- 
fornia, Doctor Barrett stan'ds in very close and vital relation with the 
primary industry of Southern California. The Experiment Station at 
Riverside, more fully described on other pages of this publication, is 
the practical laboratory where nearly every technical problem involved in 
the growing of citrus fruits is worked out, and growers from all over 
this section of the state resort to Doctor Barrett's office for advice and 
coun.sel on determination of proper fertilizers, cultivation, irrigation and 
the control and eradication of diseases. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 761 

Doctor Barrett came to California from the University of Illinois. 
He was born at Butler, Illinois, November 14, 1876, son of Jesse C. 
and Emma (Hutchison) Barrett, the former born in Indiana and the 
latter in Illinois. They are now living retired in Riverside. They are 
of English descent and of old American families. Emma Hutchison 
represents an old Kentucky line, being related with the Henry Clay 
family. Jesse C. Barrett was for many years active as a farmer and 
teacher, and for twelve years was county superintendent of schools of 
Montgomery County, Illinois. 

James T. Barrett attended grammar and high school in Illinois, gradu- 
ating from high school in 1894 and finishing his preparatory course in 
1895. During 1898-1900 he taught in high school, and in 1903 received 
his A. B. degree from the University of Illinois. For five years he 
was on the research stafif of the University of Illinois Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. In 1907 he received his A. M. degree, and in 1910 
was granted the Ph. D. degree by Cornell University. On leaving Cornell 
he returned to the University of Illinois in the department of botany, 
and served as botanist of the Agricultural Experiment Station until 1913. 

Doctor Barrett in 1913 accepted the chair of plant pathology in the 
Graduate School of Tropical Agriculture and Citrus Experiment Station, 
a department of the University of California, and has since been actively 
identified with the Riverside community. Since July 1, 1919, he has 
been acting dean and director of the station, his titles being Professor 
of Plant Pathology, acting director of the Citrus Experiment Station 
and acting dean of the Graduate School of Tropical Agriculture. Doctor 
Barrett is serving his second year as pre.sident of the California Citrus 
Institute. 

He is a member of the Riverside City Planting Commission, the 
Board of Education, the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, the Botanical Society of America, American Phytological So- 
city and Western Society of Naturalists. In 1908 he was elected to 
membership in Sigma Xi, the national honorary scientific fraternity. He 
is an independent republican and once for a brief time was in local 
politics, being elected and serving a term as city clerk of Butler, Illinois. 
He is a member of the Official Board of the First Methodist Church 
and one of the .superintendents of the Sunday School. 

June 15, 1904, at Butler, Illinois, Dr. Barrett married Miss Anne 
Turner, a native of Illinois, daughter of William Turner, a farmer of 
that state, and granddaughter of a justly distinguished Illinois college 
professor and horticulturist, Jonathan B. Turner, who is known in the 
history of that state as the originator and strong supporter of the land 
grant idea for the establishment of agricultural colleges. The Morrill 
Land Grant Act. which resulted, was the first civil bill signed by 
Abraham Lincoln. Out of this Morrill Act came the provision result- 
ing in a large measure in the founding and establishment of nearly all 
state agricultural colleges. The four children of Dr. and Mrs. Barrett 
are all students in the Riverside schools, their names being, respectively, 
James Turner, Mary Helen, Martha Anne and Paul Hutchison Barrett. 

Lyman M. Jenkins is a former Iowa man who has found content- 
ment and happiness in the beautiful surroundings of Riverside. About 
twenty years ago he bought a place of eight acres on Palmyrita Avenue, 
and that, with its development and improvements, constitutes his home 
today. His father was a pioneer Californian, a gold seeker, and as a 
boy Lyman Jenkins heard many stories from his father's lips and thus 
came to know California and was attracted to its marvelous resources. 



762 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

When the health of Mr. Jenkins' wife began failing in the eastern climate 
it was only natural that he should select the sun-kissed valleys of this 
state to restore her. 

Mr. Jenkins was born in Illinois, August 17, 1858, son of Charles and 
Harriet (Thatcher) Jenkins, both natives of New York State and of 
English descent and "Revolutionary stock. His father while in Illinois 
was a successful farmer and very popular citizen, and was county super- 
visor for eight or ten years. In 1850 he went across the plains to 
California in search of gold, remaining about two years. He afterward 
made two other trips west. 

Lyman M. Jenkins had a public school education and attended the 
business college at Naperville, Illinois. From school he returned to the 
work of a farm in that section of the state, and in 1883 moved to Iowa, 
where for ten vears he followed farming and was then a merchant at 
VVinthrop until'lQOl. 

Largely on account of his wife's health he sold his interests in Iowa 
and came to Riverside. His purchase of eight acres Hes on Palmyrita 
Avenue and La Cadena Drive. He grows oranges, grain and alfalfa 
and has recently added chickens. The poultry is assuming an important 
place in his farm operation. His land is on a gentle anticline that 
commands an interesting view of the valley and the surrounding orange 
groves, with the mountains showing in the distance on all sides. He is 
a member of the Poultry Association and of the Riverside Farm Bureau. 

Mr. Jenkins throughout his manhood has been a staunch republican. 
He was a leader in his party in Iowa, serving on the City and County 
Central Committees and frequently as a delegate to conventions. For 
five years he v^as a trustee of the town of Winthrop. Politics has given 
him little concern since coming to California. Here he has devoted his 
time to the ranch, both for pleasure and profit. He is also interested 
in city property in Calipatria in the Imperial Valley. Mr. Jenkins 
was secretary of the Lodge of Masons at Winthrop until he came to 
California. He is a member of the First Methodist Church at Riverside. 

While in Illinois he married Miss Adela Baylis, who died, leaving 
three children. Charles, the oldest, is an electrical engineer with the 
Southern California Edison Company at Los Angeles, and by his mar- 
riage with Miss Ina Rudy, of Salt Lake, has a daughter, Betty. Rosa, 
the second child, is the wife of Baird Travers, a carpenter and contractor 
at Calipatria, California, and has a daughter, Adela. Howard, the 
youngest, associated with the Lewis Company at Atascadero, married 
Lois Johnson, of Riverside, a sister of W. A. Johnson, president of the 
First National Bank. Mr. and Mrs. Howard Jenkins have one daughter. 

At Winthrop, Iowa, November 27, 1895, Mr. Jenkins married Miss 
Jessie Fernald. She was born in Iowa, daughter of Charles Fernald. 
Her mother is now living with her in Riverside. Mr. Jenkins also has 
three children by his second marriage: Lucille, wife of Merrill Phinney, 
of Highgrove ; Fred F., with the Lewis Company at Atascadero, and 
Miss Doris, of the class of 1924, in the Riverside High School. 

William B. Ricker — The growing of tropical fruits and nuts and 
the packing and shipping of the same occupy the attention of many sub- 
stantial residents of Riverside County. The lavish bounty of nature has 
brought many a man with farming experience to this favored part of 
California. In all vocations in which climate and soil must be primarily 
taken into consideration the modern system of scientific training is a 
great and helpful factor in bringing about success, whether it is applied 
to growing grain in the East, corn in Illinois or oranges in California. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 763 

A prosperous fruit and nut grower, whose beautiful home is at River- 
side, is William B. Ricker, who spent all his early years on a New 
England farm. 

WiHiam B. Ricker was born at Turner. Androscoggin County, Maine. 
and is a son of J. W. and Betsy (Briggs) Ricker. Both the Ricker and 
Briggs ancestors came to New England in Colonial days and both were 
heroically represented in the Revolutionary war. J- W. Ricker and his 
wife spent their lives in Maine. He was a substantial farmer in Andros- 
coggin County, and was prominent in politics and influential in civic 
matters at Auburn, serving in such offices as school commissioner and 
councilman. He was a veteran of the Civil war. serving three years 
in Company C. Eighth Maine Volunteer Infantry. 

William' B. Ricker attended the public schools and completed the 
high school course at Auburn, Maine, following which he settled down on 
the home farm and assisted his father in its management and operation 
until he was twenty-nine years old. In 1903 he came to California, and 
shortly afterward bought five acres of land at the corner of Blaine 
Street and Chicago Avenue, Riverside, which he devoted to walnuts, 
oranges and other fruits. He has prospered greatlj^ in this undertaking, 
and it is generally acknowledged that no other property in this vicinity is 
better cared for. more attractive or more profitable. He brou.ght with 
him from the East well settled habits of industry, and during the winter 
seasons until recently he was usually to be found at work in the plant 
of the Riverside Heights. No. 10, packing house, of which he is a 
member, or the Monte Vista Citrus Association. 

On June 21. 1898, Mr. Ricker married Miss Mildred Lowell, who 
was born in Maine and is a daughter of James L. Lowell, a substantial 
farmer. Mr. and Mrs. Ricker have had two children : Verna Grace, 
whose lamented death occurred on March 19, 1921. when aged but six- 
teen years; and Wesley L., who is a student in the Riverside Junior 
College. 

In politics Mr. Ricker is a republican, but he has contented himself 
with being an earnest and loyal citizen rather than a seeker for public 
office. He belongs to the Sons of Veterans and also to the Present Day 
Club. He has never regretted coming to California, and no resident 
of Riverside could be more appreciative or more anxious to advance 
its welfare in every way. 

Herman H. Monroe, of Riverside, has had a wide newspaper expe- 
rience covering nearly a half century both in California and the Middle 
West, is a scholar, a writer, and has had residence in Riverside for 
thirty-five years. He was born at Knoxville. Tioga County, Pennsyl- 
vania, May 22, 1852. His father, Augustus J. Monroe, was a native 
of Massachusetts, of Scotch-English ancestry and of the stock that 
produced President Monroe. He was a criminal lawyer of some note, 
served as a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature in the fifties, and 
in 1860 became a pioneer citizen of Iowa, where he served the Gov- 
ernment as assistant assessor of internal revenue, was city attorney 
and otherwise prominent in his home town of Monticello. He prac- 
ticed law in the courts of Cedar Rapids and Des Moines until he was 
past eighty and lived to the ri]5e age of ninety-six years. His wife 
was Adelia Wood, a native of New York State and of Revolutionary 
ancestry. They had three volunteer sons in the Civil war. 

Herman H. Monroe attended the grammar and high schools of 
Monticello, and in 1868, at the age of sixteen, entered the local printing 
office and learned the "Art Preservative." In 1875 he became an 



764 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

employe in the Government printing office at Washington. Later for 
some five years he had charge of the Record-Union at Rochester, 
Minnesota, an establishment that handled all of the printing for the 
great grain firm of G. W. Van Dusen & Company, then operating 140 
elevators throughout Minnesota and the Dakotas. 

Mr. Monroe came to Riverside in the autumn of 1886 and soon after 
assumed foremanship of the Daily Press, then owned by L. M. 
Holt. Later, when the Clarke Brothers came over from Ontario and 
succeeded to the ownership of the paper, it was soon after incorporated 
and Mr. Monroe became first vice-president of the Press Printing 
Company. In 1889 he sold his stock to H. W. Hammond and pur- 
chased the Morning Enterprise, creating the firm of Monroe & 
Barton. This plant he owned wholly or in part four different times, 
but in 1913 finally disposed of interests in Riverside and became half- 
owner in the Hemet News with John E. King, another veteran news- 
paper man, who is also postmaster at Hemet. 

When Mr. Monroe withdrew from the Press Printing Company 
the Daily Press said of him: "Mr. Monroe has been connected with 
the Press since 1886, and has won the fullest respect and kindest re- 
gard of all his associates. He is a well-equipped newspaper man with 
wide and varied training, and should make a success of his new 
venture. His former partners on the Press bespeak for him a cordial 
reception from the people of Riverside and the newspaper fraternity. 
The work of dramatic critic, which for years has been so acceptably 
done by Mr. Monroe, will be handled by some other member of the 
Press staff in a manner, we trust, to maintain the high reputation of 
that department of this paper." 

The Hemet News is one of the live papers of the county and is 
generally regarded by newspaper people as one of the best weekly 
journals on the Pacific Coast. While conducting the Enterprise Mr. 
Monroe was a director of the local Chamber of Commerce and was 
active in the business life of Riverside. He served as city censor 
during five consecutiyc mayoralty terms. He is affiliated with Sunny- 
side Lodge, Knights of Pythias, of which he is one of its oldest 
members. 

It may not be improper to note that during his connection with the 
Riverside papers Mr. Monroe, as dramatic critic, had full charge of the 
department of amusements, and through his kindly efforts some of 
Riverside's young musicians were given publicity and encouragement 
to what subsequently led to successful careers. Among these might 
be named Isobel Curl (Mme. Piana), Norma Rockhold (Mile. Rocca), 
Marcia Craft (Marcella Craft), Henry Ohlmeyer, the bandmaster, and 
other musicians and readers who have honored Riverside before the 
footlights. 

At Monticello, Iowa, January 17, 1874, Mr. Monroe was united in 
marriage to Miss Lydia A. Austin, a native of New York State, and 
of English-Irish descent. Her father was N. W^ Austin, a contractor 
and builder who operated in Chicago after the great fire. Mrs. Monroe 
is possessor of a beautiful lyric soprano voice and cultivated her 
musical talent as a pupil of Mme. Sarah Hershey-Eddy in Chicago. 
From childhood she was prominent in musical circles and always 
gave freely of her services. In 1891 she became interested in the order 
of Pythian Sisters, and by rapid advancement occupied the presiding 
chairs in Subordinate, Grand, and finally, the higest office that the 
order has to bestow, in the Supreme Temple. She has also for many 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 765 

years been an active member of other prominent fraternal organi- 
zations. 

Frank D. Troth was a Pittsburgh merchant for a score of years 
before coming to California, and his business activities have been suc- 
cessfully continued in Riverside, where he is well known as a financier, 
is president of the Title Insurance Company and is also head of one 
of the leading drug firms of the city. 

Mr. Troth was born February 28, 1861, son of William J. and Mar- 
garet (Scott) Troth. His mother was a native of Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
His father was born in Vienna, Dorchester County, Maryland, and was 
a well known citizen of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for many years. He 
was in the internal revenue service in that city, and later, when Pitts- 
burgh Safe Deposit Company was organized, the first deposit company 
ever started in Pittsburgh and now one of the big financial institutions 
of that city, he became custodian, and filled that post of duty for twenty- 
four years, until his death. 

Frank D. Troth grew up and received his early education in 
Pittsburgh, attending grammar and high school. As a boy he went 
to work in a drug store and gained a thorough and practical knowledge 
of the drug business and was also granted a license as a pharmacist 
by the state. For twenty years he conducted his own store at 
Pittsburgh. 

On coming to Riverside in 1908 Mr. Troth took up an entirely 
new line of business, as an associate of the Union Title and Abstract 
Company. He was elected president of this company in 1912. Later 
the company bought the oldest abstract business in Riverside County, 
known as the Riverside Abstract Company, and continued under the 
name of the old organization, with Mr. Troth as president. In 1919 
the business was reincorporated as the Title Insurance Company of 
Riverside, of which Mr. Troth is president. 

August 5, 1919, Mr. Troth became a partner in a drug business 
which for ten years had been conducted by George A. McCarty. The 
new firm name is Troth & McCarty, and they have a splendid store, 
with a trade from all over the country and a rapidly increasing 
business. 

Mr. Troth both in Pennsylvania and in California has been active 
in republican politics. While in Pennsylvania he was secretary 
of the School Board at Knoxville. He is the present park commis- 
sioner of Riverside. He is a member of the Business Men's Associa- 
tion, the Present Day Club, and is affiliated with the Masonic Lodge 
at Pittsburgh, Al Malaikah Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Los 
Angeles, Riverside Lodge of Elks and the Maccabees. He is a deacon 
in the First Congregational Church and a member of the Choir 
Committee. 

Mr. Troth married Elizabeth Jahn, a native of Pittsburgh, daughter 
of John Jahn, of Pittsburgh. Mr. and Mrs. Troth were married in 
Castle Shannon in Pittsburgh. They are the parents of a daughter 
and twin sons. The daughter, Margaret, is the wife of W. H. Davis, 
chemist for the Standard Oil Company at Oakland, California. Frank 
D., Jr., is a student in Pomona College, and Fred B., formerly 
connected with the George Reynolds Company of Riverside, is now 
with the Owl Drug Company of Los Angeles. 

S. Leonard Herrick — It sometimes happens that what at the 
time was regarded as a serious calamity is, in reality, a "blessing 



766 SAN BERXARDIXO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

in disguise," for through it and the resultant changes in plans of living 
and jilace of residence men ofttimes enter into a sphere of usefulness 
for which their talents sjiecially fit Uiem, and in this way succeed 
beyond their expectations and attain to a degree of prosperity which 
would not have been possible under other conditions. Such, without 
doubt, has been the experience of S. Leonard Herrick, one of the most 
successful orange growers of Riverside, who came to this city because 
of ill health which forbade his pursuing the course he had laid out 
for himself. 

S. Leonard Herrick was born at Grinnell, Iowa, September I, 
1873, a son of Stephen Henderson and Hattie E. (Fellows) Herrick, 
the former of whom is a banker of Riverside, whose sketch appears 
elsewhere in this work. He came to California in 1882, on an expedi- 
tion to collect specimens for an Eastern museum, stopping during 
his trip with his family in Oakland. He was so pleased with whpt he 
saw of Riverside that he. located there with his family in 1886, and 
became at once identified with the citrus culture of this region. 
Growing up in Riverside, S. Leonard Herrick attended its public 
schools, and then became a student of Pomona College at Claremont, 
California in 1889, the year the college was opened at Claremont, 
and was graduated from its preparatory department in 1892. He 
then went to Iowa College, now Grinnell College, at Grinnell, Iowa, 
from which he was graduated in 1895 with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. His father had graduated from the same institution with 
the same degree just thirty years previously. After graduation he 
acted as private secretary to the president of the college until an 
opportunity presented itself by which he was enabled to attend the 
university of Chicago to study for another degree. He studied there 
twelve months and then he continued his studies abroad in company 
with an instructor in sociology at Grinnell College. 

After his return from abroad he took the Degree of Master of 
.\rts at Grinnell College. A position was offered him at Pomona 
College, which he accepted, and was engaged in teaching there during 
1898-1899. He proposed to devote his life to educational work, 
specializing on the subjects to which he had devoted so much thought 
and study, bvit his health did not warrant the close confinement 
necessary for this work, and he was forced to entirely change his 
mode of living and turn his attention to some occupation which 
would insure his being in the open. His father's important holdings 
in ranch property afforded his son ample opportunity for developing 
his own interests and recovering his health, and the younger man 
has since 1900, looked after the outside interests of his father as well 
as his own, which have steadily increased in volume, and he is now 
numbered among the prominent orange growers of this part of the 
state. S. Leonard Herrick is secretary of the East Riverside Water 
Company, manager for the East Riverside Land Company ; 
treasurer and general manager for the Herrick Estates, Incorporated; 
and treasurer for the Lemona Heights Company. He is a director 
of the Monte Vista Citrus Association, and for several years was 
president of the Highgrove Fruit Exchange and has been very 
closely identified with the citrus industry since he left the educational 
field. At Riverside and its vicinity he owns with his father two 
hundred acres of citrus groves, and a one-fourth interest in the Lemona 
Heights Company, which owns one hundred and eighty-six acres of 
oranges and lemons. 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 767 

During 1918 and 1919 Mr. Herrick worked for the United States 
Government as a real-estate expert on a Board of Claims at Camp 
Fremont, Palo Alto. California. He also appraised the ground where 
March Aviation Field is now situated, and had the Realty Board 
make a second appraisment. and from these the valuation was de- 
termined and the purchase made by the Government. 

He is a member of the First Congregational Church of Riverside, 
and active in that body. A republican, he takes a deep interest in 
local elections. 

In 1901 Mr. Herrick erected his comfortable residence at 1437 
Lemon Street. On x\ugust 24, 1899, he was united in marriage with 
Margaret Stuart, of Park Ridge, which is a suburb of Chicago, Illinois, 
Mrs. Herrick was born in Chicago, and is a daughter of the late Colonel 
O. Stuart. Mrs. Stuart survives her husband and is now residing in 
Riverside. Colonel Stuart was colonel of the Ninetieth Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry, and was one of the few men who had the doubtful pleas- 
ure of reading his own obituary. At Missionery Ridge he was shot 
through the abdomen, and the bullet dropped into one of his boots. He 
was reported dead, and his wife secured a permit from General Grant 
to recover his body and take it home which permit Mrs. Stuart still 
preserves. Not only was this report, fortunately, untrue but Colonel 
Stuart recovered and later marched with Sherman to the sea. After 
the war he was in the emplov of the United States Government at 
Chicago, Illinois, until his death. 

Mr. and Mrs. Herrick have one son, Stuart H. Herrick, who was 
educated at the Claremont School for Boys at Claremont, California, 
and the Riverside High School. He was connected with the Corn 
Exchange National Bank of Chicago for several months and is now 
associate manager of the Herrick Estates, Incorporated. 

Mr. Herrick is an only son, but he has a sister, Lida, who is the 
wife of J. Lansing Lane, of Santa Cruz where he has large property 
interests. Mrs. Lane is a graduate of Mills Seminary, and was iden- 
tified with the social life of Riverside during its early period, and 
was very popular. Mr. and Mrs. Lane have a son. Derick, and a 
daughter, Elizabeth. Derick Lane was in active service during the 
World war, as a member of the aviation branch in France, and was on 
the J:ransport Tuscania which was sunk near the coast of Scotland. 

Mr. Herrick has never lost his interest in the subjects to which 
in early life he devoted so much thought. He has a broad outlook 
on life, and is a capable business man and a great booster for River- 
side and its citrus industry. 

George Tyler Bigelow, of Riverside, is a native Californian, though 
for a number of years he lived in the East and practiced law. 

He was born at San Francisco February 19, 1882, son of George 
Tyler and Elizabeth V. (Waters) Bigelow. LTntil he was eight years 
of age he was in a private school at San Francisco, and from 1890 to 
1898 had the advantage of private schools at Detroit, Michigan. Mr. 
Bigelow is an A. B. graduate of the University of Wisconsin with 
the class of 1903, and in 1906 received his law degree from Harvard 
University. On the conclusion of his education he practiced law in 
Boston and later in Oklahoma, and in 1910 removed to Riverside, 
where he bought an orange grove and up to 1916 devoted himself to 
orange culture. In 1917 he was made secretary of the Chamber of 
Commerce, and in 1918 became special agent of the Southern Sierra 
Power Company and is now assistant general agent of that corpora- 



768 SAX BERKARDIKO AXD RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

tion. He was campaign manager of all Liberty Loan drives and all 
other drives for Riverside City and County. 

Mr. Bigelow has served as a director and was president in 1920 
of the Chamber of Commerce. He organized the Rotary Club in 1920 
and was its first president. He has been a director of the Present 
Day Club for three years and is a member of the Elks Lodge. 

Februrary 27, 1908, at Madison, Wisconsin, he married Miss Ada 
M. Welsh, daughter of George W. and Mary S. (Carpenter) Welsh. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bigelow have two children, Mary E., born in Madison, 
Wisconsin, and Eunice M.. born in Riverside, California. 

Judge E. G. Brown, well remembered and loved. E. G. Brown, bet- 
ter known to everyone in Riverside as Judge Brown, was one of the 
most determined and foresighted of that original colony which fifty 
years ago set in motion the activities that redeemed waste places in 
Southern California and transformed them into the foundations of the 
present City of Riverside and of Riverside County. 

He possessed the sturdiness of a native son of the Pine Tree State 
of Maine, having been born in Franklin County of that common- 
wealth in 1821, and reared on a farm. He graduated in 1842 from the 
Wesleyan Seminary at Readfield. For several years following he 
clerked in mercantile houses at Rochester and Elmira, New York, 
and for three years did a successful independent business at Elmira. 
His next stage of progress took him half way to the final goal of his 
career. At Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he became one of the pioneer business 
men, engaging in the warehouse and grain business under the firm 
name of S. C. Bearer & Company. This interest he sold in the fall 
of 1863 and at Belle Plaine, Iowa, started a general mercantile business 
and continued it successfully until he came to California. 

It was as one of the original promoters of the Riverside Colony 
Association that Judge Brown came to California and with late Dr. 
Greves visited the Riverside site in June, 1870. They were among 
the first members of the association on the ground. At once Mr. 
Brown insisted the association purchase the land. His views were 
not shared by other influential members of the association. Unable 
to persuade Judge North, president of the company, to complete the 
transaction, Judge Brown returned to Iowa and began the organization 
of another company for the express and well advertised purpose of 
buying the Riverside land. Doubtless he would have persisted in 
his new course, though essentially it was a strategic move, and effected 
its purpose, since the original company put an end to delays and in 
September of the same year closed the deal and secured the land. 
Judge Brown had correctly estimated the temper and good judgment 
of his associates, and as soon as they accepted what he had persistently 
urged he abandoned his new company project and settling up all his 
aflfairs in Iowa in May, 1871, returned with his family to Riverside and 
thus joined actively in the colony project at the very beginning. 

Judge Brown located on Government land in sections 13 and 14, 
getting a hundred and four acres half a mile north and east of the 
town site on Colton avenue, now La Cadena Drive. While not pos- 
sessed of large financial resources, he had the invaluable pioneer traits 
of courage and perseverance. Though just t,urned fifty, he set about 
his task of making a home in the West with all the vigor and enthu- 
siasm of a younger man. His first task was the building of a cabin 
12x16 feet. He cleared the ground and put out a great variety of 
trees, vines, shrubs and plants. This was purely experimental on 




E. G. Brown 



SAX BERXARniXO AXD RI\'ERSIDE COUXTIES 76Q 

his part, since neither he nor anyone else knew what would grow and 
he of service and what would not. A small nursery for citrus fruits 
was another feature of his early enterprise. From the first he pros- 
pered, his orange grove grew rapidly and was soon a source of revenue. 
He added to his home until he had a beautiful ornamental residence 
known as "The Anchorage." His horticultural as well as other under- 
takings seemed destined to invariable success, and his home and ranch 
came to be known as one of the show places of the district. 

A general esteem was paid him by every resident of Riverside not 
only for his enterprise but for his upright character. He got out of 
life what he put in it, loyalty, faith, energy, belief in his God and his 
fellowman. His time and money were used to further the upbuilding 
of Riverside and he lived to enjoy many years in the city he helped 
found. He was a member and for many years senior warden of the 
Episcopal Church, and in politics a republican. While he avoided 
public ofifice, he consented to serve as justice of the peace through 
appointment, and afterward was elected and reelected, continuing 
in that ofifice until 1880. 

In 1850 he married Miss Sarah Van Wickle, a native of New York, 
whose family, of Holland-Dutch ancestry, was planted in New York at 
an early period in the European settlement of the continent. Mrs. 
Brown was a young woman of Eastern education, social ideals and ac- 
customed to the comforts of Eastern life, yet she bravely and cheerfully 
accepted the tasks and responsibilities of pioneering both in Iowa and 
in Cahfornia. Judge and Mrs. Brown had three children: Sara C. ; 
Lyman V. W., of Riverside ; and Catherine, who died at Belle Plaine, 
Iowa, in 1872, the wife of S. S. Sweet. 

To the adventuresome spirit of Judge Brown, Riverside today owes 
an unforgettable debt. As long as the town endures and her history 
is known, so long will his name, his memory and influence be esteemed 
by its inhabitants. Beyond any other heritage his children appreciate 
what he was and what he stood for, a character unsullied by mean- 
ness, and constantly expressive of kindness and consideration for 
others. He was a strong man who seized the hour of opportunity. 

George Robert Freem.vn has been practicing law in Southern Cali- 
fornia the greater part of thirty years. His home is at Corona, where 
he has directed a large and important practice, involving participation 
in the city's alTairs as city attorney. 

Mr. Freeman was born at Galesville, Wisconsin, March 18, 1867, 
son of George Young and Ann (Stroud) Freeman. His father was a 
native of New York State and of Knickerbocker stock, the family 
having been identified with the dedication of the famous Trinity 
Church, The great-great-grandfather of the Corona lawyer received 
a grant of land from King George of England. Ann Stroud was of 
Pennsylvania Quaker and Dutch stock and a member of the family 
for whom the town of Stroudsburg in Pennsylvania was named. 
George Y. Freeman and wife moved to Elkhorn, Wisconsin, during 
the fifties, and were among the first to establish their homes in the 
new town of Galesville in 1858. George Y, Freeman was a brilliant 
and talented lawyer and one of the leading democrats in the State 
of Wisconsin, President Cleveland appointed him a commissioner 
of contested land cases under Secretary Vilas in the General Land 
Office in Washington, D, C, where he rendered efficient service. For 
a number of years he was district attorney of Trempealeau County, 
and was once democratic candidate for Congress. While the Chicago 



770 SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

& Northwestern Railway was being constructed through Wisconsin 
he used all his influence to bring the route to Galesville, and during the 
construction and afterwards was attorney for the Northwestern Rail- 
way Company. His three sons all became prominent in professional 
affairs. Charles E. Freeman is a Presbyterian minister at Galesville, 
Wisconsin. His twin brother, E. W. Freeman, was one of the success- 
ful lawyers of Los Angeles, where he died in September, 1919. 

George R. Freeman was educated in the public schools and college 
at Galesville, Wisconsin, and began the study of law with his father 
in 1888. In 1889 he entered the law department of Columbia Univer- 
sity at Washington, D. C, and while there attended lectures delivered 
by Chief Justice Fuller and Justice John AI. Harlan of the Supreme 
Court and by other distinguished jurists. During 1891-92 he con- 
tinued his studies in the Chicago Law College, graduating in 1892. 

Mr. Freeman came to California soon after graduating and until 
1894 he was deputy county clerk of San Bernardino County under 
George Hisom. He was an associate deputy with Frank W. Richard- 
son, present state treasurer of California. About the time Corona 
was established he moved to that community and formed a partnership 
with his brother E. W. Freeman. In 1896, at the death of his mother, 
he returned to Galesville, Wisconsin, and took up his father's law 
practice. In 1899, his brother Edwin having moved to Los Angeles, 
he returned to Corona and took over the practice established by Edwin 
Freeman there. He has served for about twenty years as city attorney 
for Corona, and in addition has a large general practice before all the 
courts and is attorney for a number of local corporations in the state. 
He is vice president of the El Cerrito Ranch Company of Corona, 
has been a director in the Corona National Bank and stockholder in 
the three banks at Corona. Judge Freeman was a member of the 
Public Library Board at Corona when the present library building 
was constructed. In 1910 he was elected on the republican ticket 
to represent Riverside County in the State Legislature of 191L 
Recently, in 1921, when the Legislature provided for an additional 
judge of the Superior Court of Riverside County, Mr. Freeman was 
selected by Governor Stephens for this judicial honor. He is now 
residing in Riverside and serving efficiently as a judge of the Superior 
Court. 

As a boy in Wisconsin Judge Freeman attended a military school 
under the supervision of the War Department and had as his instructor 
the famous Lieutenant John L. Clem, "the drummer boy of Chick- 
amauga." Judge Freeman is identified with the fraternal organizations 
of the Masons, Odd Fellows and Fraternal Brotherhood, and is a 
member of the Corona Country Club. At Chicago, Illinois, in 1896 
he married Miss Mabel A. Miller, formerly of Auburn, New York. Her 
parents were Andrew C. and Elizabeth Miller. Her father was the 
inventor employed by the D. M. Osborn & Company manufacturing 
establishment of Auburn, New York. Mr. Miller perfected the original 
knotting device used in the first twine binder harvesting machinery. 
Judge and Mrs. Freeman have two sons, Edwin R., born November 
18, 1898, graduated from Stanford University June 20, 1921. Lorraine 
M., born August 9, 1900, attended as a sophomore in Stanford Univer- 
sity but is now attending the Riverside Junior College of Riverside 
County. Both are graduates of the Corona High School. 

BoN O. Adams, M. D. — While a graduate in medicine, Dr. Adams 
throughout most of his experience of twenty years has been primarily 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 771 

a surgeon, and his practice at Riverside is limited to that field. He 
has been a resident of Riverside only five or six years, but his reputa- 
tion as a surgeon is well established throughout this part of the state. 

Dr. Adams comes of a family of physicians. Both his father and 
mother were graduates in medicine and both of their fathers were 
practicing old time physicians. Bon O. Adams was born at Marion, 
Kansas, September 17, 1872. His father was Dr. G. D. Adams, who 
for many years had an extensive general medical practice in Indiana. 
His mother was Dr. Mary Elizabeth (Lowe) Adams. Both were 
born in Ohio, and traced their geneological records through the 
American Revolution to England. 

Dr. Bon O. Adams was educated in the grammar and high schools 
of Eaton, Indiana, his parents having located there when he was 
four years of age. In 1898 he graduated Bachelor of Science from 
the National Normal University at Lebanon, Ohio, and received his 
M. D. degree in 1901 from the Medical College of Indiana. In the 
meantime, partly as a means to an end, he had been an active teacher 
and educator, and was superintendent of the schools of Eaton, Indiana, 
before he received either of his degrees. Like all thoroughgoing 
surgeons. Dr. Adams has kept in close touch with the great surgical 
centers. For several years he made it a rule to spend at least a 
month each year either in the Mayo Brothers Hospital at Rochester, 
Minnesota, or the Murphy clinics in Chicago. 

Dr. Adams after graduating remained in Indianapolis as an interne 
in the City Hospital during 1901-02. During 1902-03 he was on the 
staff of the Homestake Gold Mining Company's hospital in South 
Dakota. From 1912 to 1916 he had charge of the surgical service of 
the Minnequa Hospital for the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company at 
Pueblo, Colorado. 

After fifteen years of heavy labor in his profession Dr. Adams took 
a well deserved vacation in 1916, and with headquarters at San Diego 
spent the larger part of a year looking over California for an ideal 
home locality. His investigations were thorough, and the fact that 
they finally led to the choice of Riverside is a significant testimonial 
to the unique beauties and attractions of this city. Nothing in his 
subsequent experience has caused Dr. Adams ever to regret or 
question the wisdom of his choice. 

A month after America declared war on Germany Dr. Adams 
volunteered for service in the Medical Corps and received a captain's 
commission and was on duty at The Presidio at San Francisco. He 
is a member of the American Legion. Professionally he has the 
honor of being a regular elected Fellow of the American College of 
Surgeons, is a member and a past president of the Riverside County 
Medical Association, former president of the Pueblo Medical Society 
of Colorado, and a member of the California State and American 
Medical Associations. He was president of the Present Day Club of 
Riverside in 1920-21, is a director of the Chamber of Commerce, is 
a Knight Templar Mason at Riverside, also a thirty-second degree 
Scottish Rite Mason and a member of El Jebel Shrine of Denver, 
Colorado. Dr. Adams is a member of the Official Board of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

In October, 1902, at Topeka, Kansas, he married Miss Jean An- 
drews, a native of Wisconsin. Their two children are Donald, of the 
class of 1922 in the Riverside High School, and Betty, attending 
grammar school. Besides keeping up his high school work Donald 
is employed by the Southern Sierra Power Company. His present 



772 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

plans are such that he will be the first in four generations of the 
lamily to depart from the practice of medicine and surgery. He 
IS preparing for a career as an electro-hydraulic engineer, and from 
high school will enroll in Stanford University. 

Frederick B. Blannin- — While his activities have been those of a 
commercial artist, Frederick B. Blannin by much of his work has 
earned the unstinted praise of critics who appreciate the best per- 
formances in painting as a fine art. Mr. Blannin has lived in Southern 
California for many years, and is at the head of an organization 
complete in personnel and facilities for handling every class of com- 
mercial painting. 

He was born at Manchester. England, October 13, 1871. His 
father, Josephus Robert Hugh Blannin. was a native of England and 
a mathematician and school master. His mother, Mary (Hale) 
Blannin, was of French-English descent. 

Reared and educated in the schools and colleges of Manchester, 
Frederick B. Blannin when fifteen left his native country and went 
to Manitoba, Canada, in 1886. He worked at farming and also 
learned architecture in Winnipeg, where he remained a year and a 
half. He also acquired his early training as a painter at Winnipeg, 
and followed his trade in that city for three years. 

His first location on coming to the United States was at Min- 
neapolis, where he was a painter three years. In 1892 he moved to 
Vancouver, British Columbia, and in 1897 to Los Angeles. He also 
spent several years at Girard, Kansas, and in 1900 located at Riverside. 

He was at first associated with Howard Manchester, and for fifteen 
years handled the fine painting and commercial art work for Joe W\ 
Cornwell. He also conducted a shop of his own three months, until 
Boyer and Godfrey bought him out, and he remained with that firm. 
He was also in Los Angeles again for a year, working for Ed Her- 
wick. In November, 1919, Mr. Blannin and his son bought out the 
art business of Mr. Cornwell. 

While he is the busy executive of a firm handling all classes of com- 
mercial sign work, Mr. Blannin in former years executed many 
notable pieces that have measured up to all the standards of real art. 
His subjects have been chiefly landscapes, marine, animal and still 
life, and a number of his pictures were sold at good prices. He painted 
the handsome mural friezes reproducing the old California Missions 
and surroundings. These friezes are the chief decorative effects in 
the Underwood's Mission Confectionery. Thousands of visitors have 
expressed their appreciation of this work, and no less an authority 
that John S. McGroarty, author of the Mission Play, has commended 
Mr. Blannin for the fidelity of his execution. He also did much 
painting for the Riverside Fair. The first year he exhibited his paint- 
ings he took three first and four second prizes. 

Mr. Blannin while living in Canada served three years as a member 
of the 90th Scotch Regiment at Winnipeg. He was in service while 
the troops on both sides of the international boundary were cam- 
paigning against Sitting Bull. As an American citizen he is an active 
republican. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
has filled all the chairs in the Independent Order of Foresters and for 
four years was chief ranger, and is a member of the Fraternal Brother- 
hood. 

At Los Angeles in 1896 Mr. Blannin married Miss Carrie E. 
Morgan. She was born at Girard, Kansas. Her father, James 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES yii 

Morgan, was a Union soldier, was a farmer in Kansas, and also held 
the office of police judge. Mr. and Mrs. Blannin have two children. 
The daughter, Josephine, is the wife of Frank Smitheram, of Santa 
Barbara. The son. Laurel de Berg Blannin, left the Riverside High 
School three months before graduation to enlist in the Hospital Corps 
on July 2, 1918, and was a pharmacist mate, second class, making 
four round trips in the transport service. He was honorably discharged 
September 19, 1919. He is a member of the American Legion. After 
returning home he engaged in business with his father, and the firm 
is know as F. B. Blannin & Son. 

Frank A. Tetlev, well known as one of the most representative men 
of Riverside and a capitalist of many interests, is responsible for 
much of the development of this part of the state. His reputation 
is based not only on his extensive realty operations, but on his success- 
ful experiments in the growing of citrus fruits and the expansion of the 
fruit-growing industry in Los Angeles County and the Imperial Val- 
ley. His activities have not been confined to these lines by any manner 
of means. His genius for water development and the securing and 
exchanging of water rights has earned for him the sobriquet "water 
wizard." He has invested generously of his time and money in 
numerous enterprises of Riverside city and county, and his connection 
with any concern has been sufficient to make it acceptable to the pub- 
lic, for his good judgment and foresight are universally recognized. 
Frank A. Tetlev was born at Moscow, Russia, June 20, 1866, a son 
of Joseph and Nancy Alice Tetley, both natives of Bradford, England, 
members of old English families prominent in manufacturing circles. 
Joseph Tetley was extensively engaged in business as a wool merchant 
at Bradford, England, and Moscow, Russia, and was the foreign buyer 
of wools and camels hair for the large carpet firm of John Crossley 
& Son of Halifax, England, which was at the time probably the 
largest concern manufacturing carpets in the world. The Tetley 
warehouses at Bradford were on the site now occupied by the Great 
Northern Railroad Depot. When his son Frank A. was but two 
years old Joseph Tetley came to the United States, closing out his 
wool business and taking up the management of the Hotel Springside, 
which was in those days a very fine and popular summer resort for 
New York and Brooklyn people. He carried on the hotel business 
there for about twenty years, when he retired, passing the remaining 
years of his life at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 

Frank A. Tetley attended the public schools of Pittsfield, and when 
he was fourteen years old entered the office of the Pittsfield Journal as 
"printer's devil." Before leaving the employ of the Journal he became 
known as one of the fastest compositors in the business. At the age of 
sixteen years Mr. Tetley entered the Chickering Business College at 
Pittsfield, and secured his diploma in six week.s. breaking all previous 
records in mathematics for the rapidity in which he completed the 
regular course. He assisted his father in the hotel business for a time, 
and then, in 1887, came to California. His decision to locate at 
Riverside was made after meeting Frank W. Richardson, father of 
the late Frank W. Richardson, Jr.. then manager of the Glenwood 
Tavern, whose story of the beauty of the place and perfection of the 
climate so fascinated the young man that he could not be content in 
his old home. Upon his arrival he secured the position of bookkeeper 
at the tavern, and held it very acceptably for three years, also discharg- 
ing the duties of clerk. 



774 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

So popular did the young clerk become at the tavern that Mr. Frank 

A. Miller, the owner, was very loath to part with him. Believing he 
was too good a man for such a position, Mr. Miller promoted him to 
the real estate office of White & Miller as clerk, and within eighteen 
months Mr. Tetley, with Mr. George F. Seger, bought out the old firm 
and formed the new one of Seger & Tetley. This association continued 
for three years, and then Mr. James Goodhue purchased Mr. Seger's 
interest and the new firm continued the business one year. Upon the 
retirement of Mr. Goodhue Mr. Frank A. Miller became Mr. Tetley's 
partner for a year, and then for ten years Mr. Tetley conducted the 
business alone. Branching out to include the raising of citrus nursery 
stock, Mr. Tetley took E. F. Kingman as an insurance partner, but 
within three years once more bought the business and handled it 
alone. During the period he was a realtor he handled many large 
properties and managed important deals so successfully that he was 
known as "Frank A. Tetley, the Half-Billion-Dollar Insurance Agent." 
As a real-estate agent he sold probably one-half of the business proper- 
ties on Main Street, and at different times owned, himself, a number 
of pieces. 

In 1902 Mr. Tetley engaged in the nursery business with John W. 

B. Merriman, the firm being known as Tetley & Merriman, and later 
sold his insurance business to Mr. Pember Castleman. The nursery 
business prospered and an immense trade was built up. Later Mr. 
William A. Childs was taken into the firm, which became Tetley, Mer- 
riman & Childs, growers of orange and lemon nursery stock and own- 
ers of the Monte Vista nurseries, located at Riverside and Puente. The 
oranges grown on the Monte Vista Ranch won first prize at the Na- 
tional Orange Show in San Bernardino in 1913, and have always been 
noted for their superior excellence in every particular. The firm 
contmued in existence for seven or eight years, when Mr. Merriman 
died, and Mr. Tetley in the re-organization became sole owner. In 
December. 1918. he added walnut trees to the nursery stock, and they, 
too, have become famous. The firm is now known as Frank A. Tetley 
& Son, the junior member being F"rank A. Tetley, Jr. Glenn Blackman 
has a small interest in the firm, although his name does not appear. 

In all Mr. Tetley has planted between 900 and 1000 acres to citrus 
and deciduous fruits and alfalfa, all of which he has developed and sold. 
Approximately he has planted in Riverside County 325 acres, in Los 
Angeles County 325 acres, in San Bernardino County 125 acres and in 
Imperial County 200 acres. He has put in his own wells and has 
developed six or seven pumping plants to supply water. About 100 
acres still remain unsold. The Monte Vista Ranch, south of the State 
Citrus Experiment Station, is one of the most beautiful of its kind in 
the country. It comprises 200 acres of land, through which is a wind- 
ing driveway, making it resemble an English park. All kinds of roses 
and other flowers and Montere}' pines add to the attractiveness of the 
place. It has seven building sites, five of which have been improved 
with residences. The profusion of oranges, lemons and grape fruit 
make of the tract a veritable paradise. 

Mr. Tetley was a pioneer in the Imperial Valley, where he owned 
a dairy ranch and had 200 acres of alfalfa and four acres of oranges. 
He also owns the Marine Heights Ranch at Puente, consisting of 
seventy acres of oranges, lemons and grape fruit. An authority on 
orange culture, Mr. Tetley states that in the thirty- four years he has 
resided in Riverside he has seen ice every year except three, and that 
the idea that oranges can only be grown in a frostless section is an 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 775 

erroneous one. In a certain district he developed citrus groves that 
during the big freeze of 1913 left onU- three trees out of the 4000 
planted, and that, after having been replanted, this district is today 
one of the best in the state, some of the acreage having sold as high 
as $4000 per acre. 

When Mr. Tetley first came to Riverside the people were convinced 
that there was not enough water to cover the land, and that the proj- 
ect of pumping water from a well or the canal was not practicable. 
A few men were convinced that this could be done successfully, and 
one of the pioneers in the business was Mr. Harry W. Hammond, 
now business manager of the Riverside Daily Press, who developed 
one of the first producing wells to be pumped for practical irrigation. 
It was located seven miles west of Corona. Such remarkable results 
followed this first supply of water artificially obtained that other 
developments of an adequate water supply through wells and turbine 
pumps followed until, as Mr. Tetley aptly says, it now looks as though 
there were not enough land for the water. Mr. Tetley is partly if 
not wholly responsible for the project of switching the water from 
the Meeks & Daly Canal into the Gage Canal, which brought about 
1200 acres of the choicest orange land under water and into production 
on Arlington Heights. The water was being used in the vicinity of 
Colton, California, and as he had a nursery on Arlington Heights Mr. 
Tetley conceived the idea of transferring the water as described. 
He bought up a lot of the Meeks & Daly water, but could not handle 
it alone. He enlisted the help of Mr. W. Grant Eraser, who, acting in 
behalf of an English company, bought 250 inches, which, together 
with that owned by Mr. Tetley, constituted the control. With the 
installation of pumps the project was brought to complete fruition. 

It was Mr. Tetley's knowledge of water development and of water 
rights, and more particularly the transferring of such rights from 
lower to higher levels in Riverside and vincinity, that proved one of 
the potent factors in securing the location of the State Farm School 
at Riverside. It is recalled that Mr. George Roeding, a member of the 
Board of Regents of the University of California and chairman of the 
agricultural activities of that body, stated on one of his visits to 
Riverside that unless water could be secured from the artesian basin 
in the San Bernardino Valley he would not favor locating the Farm 
School in Riverside. This seemed like an insurmountable difficulty. 
Senator S. C. Evans put the matter up to Mr. Tetley, who immediately 
attacked the problem. He found a solution by purchasing land and 
wells on Palm Avenue in San Bernardino County and installing large 
pumping plants there and exchanging with the Gage Canal Company 
some of the water thus produced for carrying capacity in the Gage 
Canal. He next arranged to purchase from the estate of the late 
Ambrose Hunt in the San Bernardino Valley all of the Hunt land and 
water rights. Through a combination effected with the widow, Mable 
E. Hunt, involving a part of these water rights, Mr. Tetley was able 
to furnish the State of California with the remaining one-third of the 
artesian flow from the Hunt tract, the other two-thirds being owned 
by the City of Riverside, and to convey to the state carrying capacity 
for this water in the Gage Canal. Mr. Tetley states tjiat no less than 
fourteen distinct transactions and more than $100,000.00 in total con- 
siderations were involved in this transfer. 

While he has been eminently successful in the above mentioned 
lines, Mr. Tetley has also made his influence felt in banking circles, 
and for the past twenty years has exerted himself in the development 



776 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

of the finances of the city and county. He was one of the organizers 
of the Union Savings Bank, which later was consolidated into the 
Riverside Savings Bank. To Mr. Tetley and the late C. E. Rumsey 
is due the credit for keeping the Union Savings Bank alive following 
the disastrous failure of the Orange Growers Bank. At present Mr. 
Tetley is a director of the Citizens National Bank, the Citizens Bank 
of Arlington, and is director and vice-president of the Security Savings 
Bank of Riverside. While he helped to organize the First National 
Bank of Calexico, he later sold his interest in that institution. 

Recognizing the desirability of securing for Riverside business 
buildings of a character to fitly represent the importance and dignity 
of its interests, he erected the Tetley Block, on Main Street between 
Seventh and Eighth Streets, the east half of the Victoria Block on 
Seventh Street between Main and Orange Street and occupied the 
.'^ame as an office for about five year.s. At one time he owned the 
stores now occupied by the Franzen Hardware Compao)' and the north 
half of the \\'ooIworth five and ten cent store and the Branch building 
adjoining the Odd Fellows Building on the South, between Ninth and 
Tenth streets. He also owned a tenth interest in the Rubidoux 
Building at Seventh and Main streets. He is the owner of the Tetley 
Hotel at Eight and Lime streets, which he rebuilt in 1912. It is now 
under lease to Mr. J. D. Goehringer. This building is a four-story 
brick structure with a ground area of 146x180 feet. It is well equipped 
and modern, and comfortable in every respect. 

Mr. Tetley is a member of the Monte Vista Fruit Association, the 
Kiwanis Club, the Chamber of Commerce, the Pioneer Club, and the 
Los Angeles Athletic Club. In politics a republican, he has repre- 
sented his party as a delegate to county conventions and served on 
the Republican County Central Committee. At the present time he 
is a member of the Board of Public Utilities of Riverside. While 
not a member of any religious body, he attends the Episcopal Church. 
He has contributed freely to the building up of the city. He had an 
important part in raising the bonus which made possible the building 
of the Glenwood Mission Inn, and subscribed liberally to the funds 
raised for the Y. M. C. A. Building and the First Congregational 
Church, to say nothing of generous gifts to other religious and civic 
enterprises. 

In June of 1885 Mr. Tetley married Marion Davison Oddy, a native 
of England and a daughter of John Davison Oddy, who belonged to 
an old English family. Mr. and Mrs. Tetley have three children, 
namely : Gordon O., who is engaged in the real-estate and insurance 
business at Riverside ; Frances, who is his secretary and office girl : 
and Frank A., who while attending the Boys' Polytechnic High School 
at Riverside, is assisting his father in the nursery business. 

Mr. Tetley is a man who has a strong hold upon the hearts and 
confidence of the people of Riverside. He is admired for his manly 
qualities, his political sagacity, his knowledge of business, and for his 
fidelity to every trust imposed upon him. He is full of pride for his 
city, his state and his nation, and believes that the indomitable spirit of 
the Southwest will prevail and that this is the garden spot of the 
entire country. To his multiplicity of interests he brings a ripened 
judgment, mental vigor, a large heart and unfailing kindness. He 
represents the Southwest with hospitality, grace and tact in all his 
public acts, and his work will never be forgotten by the people whom 
he has led to such unexampled prosperity. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 717 

Mrs. Bertie Mae Buster — The ability to stand firmly on one's own 
resources and to depend entirely on one's own capacities is a con- 
tributing factor to the happiness and self respect of any individual. 
The necessity of calling upon others for support is something that 
is distasteful to any man or woman who has even a spark of independ- 
ent spirit, and when such a person has worked out his own in- 
dependence, surmounting difficulties in so doings the success is all 
the sweeter. In the building up and development of the Anderson 
House, the only hotel in the City of Colton, Mrs. Bertie Mae Buster 
has accomplished the achievement referred to. Through her own 
spirit, resource and enterprise she has won her way to a position of 
substantiality, where she can not only consider herself with a pardon- 
able degree of pride, but can command the esteem and respect of her 
fellow-citizens. 

Mrs. Buster was born October 30, 1886, at Macon City, Missouri, 
a daughter of Alonzo A. and Isabella Robbins. On both sides of the 
family she is descended from old and honored families of this country, 
and can trace both the paternal and maternal lines back to participants 
in the War of the Revolution. It may be that she inherits her spirit 
of independence from these distant ancestors, who felt firmly that 
they were able to govern themselves and to arrange their own lives. 
After attending the public schools she entered the University of 
Missouri at Columbus, from which she was duly graduated. She had 
been married at the early age of seventeen years, and less than three 
years later, April 6, 1906, the day of the great San Francisco earthquake 
and fire, came to California. Finding herself thrown on her own 
resources, she rose brilliantly to the occasion, and as manager of the 
Anderson House, the only hotel at Colton, has built this house up 
from a very inferior establishment to one of the largest and most 
finely appointed inland hotels in Southern California. This house is 
now a general favorite with the traveling public, who find the cuisine 
excellent, all comforts extended and a homelike air that is so often 
lacking in the larger hostelries. Mrs. Buster is a courteous and oblig- 
ing hostess, always at the service of her guests. 

Mrs. Buster, while an excellent manager and possessed of splendid 
business qualities, is by no means a "new woman" in the general 
acceptance of that term. She does not allow herself to be bothered 
about politics, and her chief interests are her hotel, her religion, which 
is that of the Presbyterian Church, and her only child, a charming and 
attractive daughter, Dorothy, who is twelve years of age. 

William M. Roberts — Among the citizens of Redlands in whose 
careers are joined the California of the early pioneer days and the 
times of modern civilization, one who has passed through the entire 
range of experiences and has won his way to success and position 
through his sheer, indomitable spirit and perserverance is William 
M. Roberts, now the possessor of extensive interests. Mr. Roberts 
was born at San Bernardino, California, April 25, 1858, a son of Berry 
and Frances (Thomas) Roberts. 

Berry Roberts was born September 18, 1836, in Conway County, 
Arkansas, a son of Jesse and Mary (Aplin) Roberts. The youngest 
in the famil3^ he was still an infant when his father, an Arkansas 
farmer, died, and he resided in Arkansas until he was something 
more than fifteen years of age, when, with his mother and others, he 
started across the plains, driving four yoke of oxen. This party started 
for the West April 10, 1852, and arrived in Mariposa County, Call- 



778 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

fornia, October 1. His mother later removed to Texas, where her 
death occurred. She was a native of Tennessee. After mining for 
five years Berry Roberts moved to San Bernardino County, in Decem- 
ber, 1857, and located on a ranch, embarking in the cattle business 
in San Timoteo Canon, Riverside County. On his ranch of two 
hundred acres he was one of the breeders of fine livestock in this 
section, and was one of the men to introduce good blooded stock into 
the state. While he started life in a new community without means, 
at a time when money was scarce, this hardy old frontiersman made a 
success of his undertakings and through hard and earnest effort be- 
came not only the owner of a good ranch, but also the possessor of 
the esteem and respect of those who appreciated the strength of his 
character and the many qualities of heart and mind which were 
included in his makeup. His death occurred at the home of his son 
William M. at Redlands. In Mariposa County Berry Roberts married 
Miss Frances Thomas, a native of Missouri, and they became the 
parents of twelve children : William M., Ozrow, Mary, Ella, Emma 
Beach, Nettie, Berry Lee, Sterling, Ida, Early, Archie Milton and 
Edward. 

William M. Roberts attended the public school in San Timoteo 
Canon, and when about seventeen years of age left home to make his 
own way in the world. -He was first employed by the civil engineers 
who were surveying the right-of-way for the Southern Pacific Railway 
from Beaumont to the junction of the Salt and Gila rivers, Arizona. 
This was desert work and hardships were countless, but young 
Roberts was made of strong fibre and stuck to the job, later being 
made track-walker for the railroad in the same locality, a position 
which he held for two years. Subsequently he secured employment 
with Judson & Brown at Redlands, then engaged in the construction 
of the first canal for Redlands, and superintended the building of the 
reservoir now located on Roosevelt Avenue. By this time Mr. Roberts 
had saved $1,200, and this he invested in eight horses and two wagons, 
with which he began freighting across the desert to points in Arizona, 
a business in which he was engaged for two years. His next work 
was the construction of the old rock ditch from Crafton through the 
ranch of M. H. Craft, and in 1885 he homesteaded one hundred sixty 
acres at the mouth of Mill Creek Canon. He filed on the water, and, 
developing his ranch, had a thirty-five-acre orchard as well as prop- 
erty which grew alfalfa and general crops, but which he was compelled 
to sell in 1907. Mr. Roberts became involved in law suits over the 
water rights with the Edison Electric Company, and, although he 
carried the case to the highest tribunal and finally won his fight in 
eight years, the litigation cost him such a sum in the courts that he 
was forced to dispose of this valuable tract. Mr. Roberts lived at 
Green Spot for several years and later on Eleventh Street, Redlands, 
for five years, but later bought forty acres on Victoria Avenue, near 
Loma Linda, which has been his home for years. He also owns other 
city properties and is a man of substantial means. During his career 
he has worked hard and faithfully and the prosperity that has come 
to him has been entirely of his own making. During the early days 
he operated pack trains extensively to the various mountain resorts, 
including Seven Oaks and Bear Valley, continuing in that line for 
seven consecutive years. It was his custom to carry building material, 
doors, windows, sash, etc.. on pack burros, and also heavy kitchen 
ranges, which were packed in pieces and assembled at Clark's. While 
this was hard work, it was a profitable task, bringing in a profit of 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 779 

$1,500, which was a paying venture during a year's work in those 
days. Mr. Roberts has a number of good business, civic and fraternal 
connections, and is looked upon as a man of sound integrity and of 
public-spirited citizenship. 

At the age of eighteen years Mr. Roberts married Miss Kate F. 
Manner, a native of Mexico, who died at Redlands, leaving three 
children: Ethel, now the wife of W. W. Newman, of Holbrook, 
Arizona, with one son, Theodore; Grace, who is the wife of Raynor 
Ilubbell, of Louisville, Kentucky ; and Roy C, who married, November 
20, 1916, Izella Bennett, and has one child, Leonard Lewis, born in 
1917. William M. Roberts' second marriage was with Miss Gertrude 
Dennis, of Kansas, and they had three sons: Walter Arthur. William 
Harold and Oscar Ralph. Walter Arthur Roberts was born September 
14, 1891, in Mill Creek Canon, and he was educated at the Green Spot 
school. In 1908, at the age of seventeen years, he enlisted in the 
United States Navy as an apprentice seaman aboard the U. S. S. 
Pennsylvania, under Admiral Robley D. Evans, in command of the 
fleet in its voage around the world. He advanced to able-bodied 
seaman, then to third-class fireman, to first-class fireman, and at the 
end of four years' service was acting oiler (now steam engineer). His 
captain was Charles F. Pond, now a retired admiral. Mr. Roberts 
was honorably discharged at San Pedro March 8, 1912, and returned 
to his California home. At Blackfoot, Idaho, September 17, 1917, 
he enlisted in the 347th Machine Gun Battalion, and after training 
at Camp Lewis left for overseas June 26, 1918, and arrived in France 
just one month later. His battalion was sent at once to the front 
and got into action September 13, 1918, in the St. Mihiel offensive. 
Later he was in the Meuse and Argonne defensive, where his brigade, 
the 181st, was in a continuous fight for nineteen days and nights with 
no relief. After six days relief the brigade was sent to the Belgium 
front lines, twenty-three kilometers from Ypres (at Rolers), and this 
ofifensive was pressed until the armistice was eflfected, at which time 
his corps was at Aaudenard on the River Schildt. He was then com- 
missioned ofificer of .Signal Corps 347, Machine Gun Battalion. His 
was a hazardous undertaking, and he was wounded four times, on one 
occasion being sent to the hospital, where he remained from November 
3 to 9, then hurrying back to his corps. He received his honorable 
discharge at Fort D. A. Russell, Cheyenne, Wyoming, May 8, 1919. Mr. 
Roberts is by profession a steam engineer, the vocation which he learned 
in the LTnited States Navy. 

William Harold Roberts was born at Redlands, California, April 28, 
1894, and was educated at the Green Spot School. For service during 
the World war he enlisted in the Regular Army, joining Company G, 
Third Ammunition Train, and was trained at Camp Pike, Arkansas. He 
went overseas in May, 1918, and took part in five heavy engagements, 
including the Marne, Chateau Thierry, St. Mihiel and Argonne Forest. 
While his services were of an extraordinarily dangerous and important 
character, consisting of bringing up ammunition at night under shell- 
fire, with no lights and no guiding roads, he escaped wounds, and after 
serving with the .^rmy of Occupation in Germany was honorably dis- 
charged in October, 1919. In 1920 he re-enlisted for three years, and 
is again with the Army of Occupation, near Coblenz, Germany. 

Oscar Ralph Roberts was born at Redlands, California, September 
12, 1898, and was educated at the Green Spot School. He enlisted in 
the U^nited States Navy in 1913, serving his term of service aboard the 
U. S. S. Raleigh, a torpedo-boat destroyer. He received his honorable 



780 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

discharge about the time the United States entered the World war, and 
was not called to the colors, being placed in Class C because of his 
former service. He is now a passenger conductor on a railroad running 
out of Redlands. On June 28, 1919, he married Miss Anna Swanson, 
of Yucaipa, this state, and they have one son, Ralph Oscar, born Jan- 
uary 12, 1921. 

William M. Roberts married for his third wife Miss Amelia Van- 
deventer. His fourth wife bore the maiden name of Miss Pearl Davis, 
and after her death he married Mrs. Fannie Jamison. The present Mrs. 
Roberts bore the maiden name of Miss Flora Ida Stevens, and was 
both at Porter, Wisconsin. February 6, 1882, a daughter of Albert S. 
and Ida Stevens. In 1891 she married Charles E. Garnett, and they 
had one child; Ethel Alice, born March 6, 1910, at Wausau, Wisconsin. 
In 1914 they moved to California, where Mr. Garnett died later in the 
year. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Roberts occurred December 8, 1916. 

John Suvekkrup, a well known and highly esteemed business man 
of San Bernardino, has long been indentified with the city, for he is one 
of the pioneers to whom .so much is owing for their early work in the 
development of the city and state. He is also a pioneer business man 
and now owns and conducts a lumber business which is second to none 
in the county. He has always maintained a keen interest in civic move- 
ments of worth, and has contributed much to the progress of his home 
city. 

Mr. Suverkrup is well known throughout the district, and his honor- 
able business methods and personality have made him many friends. 
Square dealing has been the keynote of his life, and he fully merits his 
prosperity and high standing. He was born in Schleswig-Holstein, near 
Kiel, Germany, April 26. 1851. the son of Frederick and Dorothy (Bowk) 
Suverkrup, both of whom were born in the same place as their son, and 
both of whom died at their birthplace. 

Mr. Suverkrup was educated in the public schools of his native place 
and was then apprenticed to a flour miller and learned the milling trade. 
He worked at this until he was twenty years old and then, in 1871, came 
to the United States, landing in New York. Here he worked in a sugar 
refinery for two years, at which time he determined to come West. This 
he did. locating in San Francisco in 1873. He worked there in a grist 
mill for six months and then went to Sacramento, where he purchased 
a partnership in a grocery store, and was there for a year and six months 
when he sold out. He came then to San Bernardino. 

Upon his arrival he at once rented a ranch, on which he started a 
dairy, which he conducted with success for nine years. In 1884 he 
bought a ranch, but later sold it. 

He commenced his real life work by buying an interest with John 
Hook in two sections of timber land in 1887, and the following year, 
with Mr. Hook, he started in the retail lumber business in San Bernardino. 
In about 1910 he bought his partner's interest and since then has con- 
ducted the business by himself, building up a big trade and firmly estab- 
lishing himself as an able, conscientious business man. 

Mr. Suverkrup was united in marriage in 1884 with Emma William- 
son, a daughter of William Williamson, of San Francisco. They have 
three children : Herbert, who is married and has one child and is employed 
by his father; Edwin and Fred. Mr. Suverkrup is a member of the 
Fraternal Aid Society and of the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce. 
In politics he is affiliated with the republican party. 




DAN RATHBUN 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 781 

Dan Rathbun — To write a history of San Bernardino County would 
be impossible without using the name of Dan Rathbun, for his name 
is associated with it from early pioneer days and memories of the 
county's growth brings to all old inhabitants thoughts of his virile 
personality. The details of his life from early boyhood belong to the 
history of San Bernardino and the record of his fearless, adventurous 
pioneering, his plucky, unyielding struggle with adversity, his final 
triumph, should prove a shining beacon to all posterity. The time 
to which his boyhood belonged is to this generation already history 
and will soon be too remote for reminiscence, but however swift the 
march of events the name of Dan Rathbun will remain long in the 
memory of his friends, for his sterling qualities of character left an 
indelible impress upon all with whom he came in contact. 

By a very narrow margin San Bernardino secured him for its own, 
and it reads like a romance, for the disarrangement of cherished plans 
led him to his future wife and a permanent home. The treachery of 
one he trusted changed his destiny and left him penniless in a strange 
wild land, but he had the fighting heart and red blood in his youthful 
veins and he made failure change to success. It was a hard school 
for a boy, but he had the priceless gifts of energy and endurance and 
he graduated from the University of Difficulties a victor with the 
diploma of success. He has passed beyond the vale, but his memory 
lives and will be as a benediction to bless the many who loved him. 

Dan Rathbun was born in Otianda, New York, May 13, 1830, and 
the genealogy shows that he descended from very fine old families 
on both the paternal and maternal sides dating back in America to 
Revolutionary days. He was educated in the schools of his birth place, 
but when he reached the age of twenty-one he went to Ohio, remaining 
there about two years. At the end of that time he with two other 
boys in Ohio decided to go out to California. Accordingly they hired 
a man to take them to Sacramento, but on the way he decided he 
preferred taking the Southern route. He told the boys he would 
pay their fares from Southern California to Sacramento if they would 
agree to change their route to oblige him. They agreed to do this, 
and all went well until they reached San Bernardino, when the man 
had another change of heart and refused to give them their fares to 
Sacramento. He would go on but they must remain there, stranded. 

While the boys were sitting on a wagon tongue, whittling and 
dejectedly discussing the situation, George Garner, father of Mr. 
Rathbun's future wife, overheard their conversation and asked them 
what was the difficulty. When he heard their story he took the mat- 
ter up with other citizens and a meeting was held in the church to 
see if any way could be found to make the man carry out his contract 
with the boys. They could do nothing, however, as the man was 
utterly worthless. Mr. Garner took the boys home with him and 
fed and lodged them for a few days. 

Mr. Rathbun was not idle long, for he secured employment in a 
small dairy owned by George Day and located next to the home of 
Mr. Garner. He remained on this place for some time and then 
went with Mr. Day to a homestead the latter possessed on Lytle 
Creek. Here he stayed for two years and then commenced driving 
stage, taking down the first stage ever driven to Los Angeles. He 
continued in this employment until 1856, not only driving stage, but 
also carrying mail to Utah. He was married in this year. 

From 1857 he worked for seven years on seven acres of land on 
Lytle Creek which had been given to his wife by her father. This 



782 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

piece was then sold and thirty acres purchased, which was later in- 
creased to one hundred and ten acres. The freighting business next 
claimed his attention and he remained in it for twelve years and 
bought and sold cattle in Utah. He made the long, arduous trips to 
Utah, Montana, and other distant places year in and year out, but he 
had a phenomenal capacity for pegging away, and he drove over the 
weary trails for twelve long years, when he secured promotion to the 
position of superintendent of construction for the Union Pacific in 
Utah, which was the first line built into that state. While he was 
still freighting he had moved his family from Lytle Creek to a ranch 
he had purchased on City Creek, near San Bernardino. He engaged 
actively on this after leaving the railroad position, raising fine stock 
and farm products. Alany of his cows and horses took prizes in the 
Los Angeles shows. 

Mr. Rathbun's next move was into the City of San Bernardino, 
where he commenced a successful business life by opening a grocery 
store with Oscar Newberg as a partner. He conducted this for some 
time, and then he opened another store, this time with Smith Hale. 
While he was engaged in mercantile business Mrs. Rathbun was suc- 
cessfully running the ranch. 

Mr. Rathbun was first, last and all the time a booster for San 
Bernardino, for he dearly loved and appreciated his chosen home. 
He erected business buildings, among them the St. Charles Hotel, 
and he was always active in the most ambitious efforts for the im- 
provement of the city or county. He was also one of the builders 
of the Arrowhead Road and the motor road to Redlands. He was 
never enamoured with political honors although he served one term 
as a supervisor. He was a republican and a member of the Inde- 
pendent C)rder of Odd Fellows. 

Mr. Rathbun married September 4, 1856 to Miss Sarah Ann Garner, 
born in Adams County, Illinois, April 2, 1837, a daughter of George 
and Elizabeth (Hedrick) Garner. Her father was a native of North 
Carolina, a pioneer of California, coming here in 1851. He was a 
rancher and stock raiser nearly all his life. 

George Garner came across the plains from Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
in 1850. and encountered many hardships during the trip. There were 
many deaths from smallpox and cholera in the wagon train which 
he had joined, and the going was very slow. When part of the trip 
was accomplished, he said he would rather take the chance of having 
his family killed by Indians, than sickness, and with ten other teams 
started on ahead of the main train. Terrific storms were encountered 
along the Platte River, and there was constant danger from the Indi- 
ans, but they did not molest the little caravan, as they were given to 
understand that it was afflicted with smallpox. Mr. Garner took the 
first thresher into Salt Lake City, and became quite a favorite with 
Brigham Young, who would not let him continue the trip to California. 
He later sold his thresher, which made him possessor of an extra team 
and because Jefferson Hunt wanted the use of the animals Mr. Garner 
Was permitted to make the trip across the desert with his family. 
Mrs. Rathbun was fourteen years of age when she arrived in Cal- 
ifornia, and she says that the trip across the desert was an enjoyable 
one for her, as she was at an age that the novelty of the situation 
appealed to her. Mrs. Rathbun was one of the six children, namely: 
Henry, a rancher who died in San Bernardino County ; Elizabeth 
Jane, who married Sanford Atwood, of Iowa, and is now living in San 
Bernardino; Frank, a rancher and stock raiser who died in San Ber- 




s 




SARAH A. KATlllMX 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIXERSIDE COUNTIES 783 

nardino County, Sarah Ann who married Dan Rathbun ; Andrew 
Jackson, a rancher and stock raiser in Utah ; Freeman, a rancher and 
stock raiser who died in San Bernardino County. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dan Rathbun were the parents of eight children, four 
of whom are living. Ann Elizabeth died at the age of two months; 
Dan is deceased ; Sabrina became the wife of Homer Whitlock, who is 
now dead, and she lives in Los Angeles ; George, of San Bernardino, 
who is the father of one daughter, Georgiana, who is married and 
has two children ; Minnie, who married Will Talmadge and is now 
dead ; William Fay is also deceased ; Frank is living in San Bernar- 
dino ; Gertrude is the wife of John McPhereson, of Los Angeles, who 
has one child, Sarah. 

Robert Edson Lee, of San Bernardino, is one of the city's most 
prominent osteopaths and is very thoroughly equipped for the practice 
of his profession. In the field of osteopathy more than any other school 
of the healing art the demand for the latest results of research and 
tenets of the profession is most stringent. Dr. Lee has a thorough 
knowledge of his branch of work, and it is his aim to keep abreast with 
all developments in osteopathy. He has built up a large clientele, which 
is constantly increasing. 

Dr. Lee is a Westerner, having been born in Pomeroy, Garfield 
County, Washington. He is the son of Andrew E. and MoUie B. (Oriifutt) 
Lee, his father having been a farmer until fifteen years ago, when he 
retired. He was a native of Wisconsin and his wife of Kentucky. Both 
are living. They were the parents of three children : Dr. R. E. Lee ; 
Mary Ellen, wife of H. B. Frazier, of San Francisco ; and Dr. Andrew 
B., practicing osteopathy in Redlands. 

Dr. Lee was educated in the public and high schools of Pomeroy 
and afterward was for two years employed as a bookkeeper. At the 
end of that time he entered the Los Angeles College of Osteopathy and 
graduated in June, 1912. In September of the same year he located in 
San Bernardino, where he has practiced continuously. Being satisfied 
with nothing less than the best, he supplemented his osteopathical and 
medical education by a post-graduate course in the San Francisco Col- 
lege of Medicine and also a post-graduate course in the Osteopathic 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Los Angeles. The practice he 
has established is a speaking tribute to his knowledge and skill. 

Dr. Lee married in June, 1913, Grace Houston, a daughter of Frank 
Houston, of Missouri. They have one child, Robert Edson, Jr. 

Dr. Lee was president of the San Bernardino Valley Osteopathic 
.A.ssociation for 1918-19-20, and filled the position ably. He is a member 
of the San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E. and of the Rotary 
Club. In poHtics he is a republican, and he is affiliated with the First 
Christian Church. 

Richard H. Willi.\mson. A visit from North Dakota, where he 
was a substantial and prosperous business man, gave Richard H. \\'illiam- 
son an impression of Riverside and love for a Riverside girl that soon 
resulted in a permanent transfer of all his interests and aflfections to 
this locality. Mr. Williamson is operating a profitable ranch for poultry 
and dairy purposes, and has a host of friends in the community. 

He was born in Ontario, Canada, July 28, 1880. His father, Joseph 
Williamson, was a native of Ireland and at the age of eighteen moved 
to Canada and connected himself with pioneer phases in the development 
of the land and the farms in Ontario. He began when it was necessary 



784 SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

to deforest the land in order to put in a crop. All the early hardships 
of the pioneer were encountered by him, but he persevered and eventu- 
ally became one of the substantial farmers of that section. One of his 
sons is still living on his old homestead of a hundred acres. Joseph 
Williamson married Mary Donaghy, who was born in Quebec, Canada, 
daughter of an Irishman who went there as a pioneer. 

Richard H. Williamson acquired a public school education, in the 
schools of Ontario, Canada, also attended the Woodsteck College at 
Woodstock, Ontario, and as a young man he came to the United States 
and took up a homestead in North Dakota. He remained with it for ten 
years, improving it as a farm, and when he sold that property he invested 
his funds in a telephone company and took charge of the exchange at 
Mohall, North Dakota. 

While his brother, William Williamson, now a retired farmer living 
at Long Beach, was a resident of Riverside, Richard Williamson visited 
him and fell in love with the country as well as with one of the daughters 
of the city. He lost no time in returning to North Dakota and dis- 
posing of his interests there, and in the following year located at River- 
side and bought his present place at 462 East Date Street. Here he 
has had some interesting success in the poultry business. In 1918 he 
added dairying, and now has a herd of registered Jerseys. 

Mr. Williamson is a democrat. He has not been active in politics in 
California, as his private affairs keep him busy. He is one of the regular 
worshipers in the First Baptist Church and was one of the guarantors 
for the 1921 season of the Riverside Chautauqua. 

Mr. Williamson married at Riverside in 1910 Miss Mary M. Fabb. 
She was born in the State of Maine and came to Riverside with her 
parents when she was a girl. The greater part of her school life was 
spent in Riverside, attending grammar grades and high school. Mrs. 
Williamson's parents, Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Fabb, were old residents of 
Riverside. Mr. and Mrs. Williamson have a daughter, Marcia Adelaide, 
a student in the Riverside public schools. 

Clinton H. Lewis is one of the citizens of extensive interests in 
Riverside County, a man of affairs, has lived here for a third of a century, 
and his individual success has been turned in many ways to the advantage 
of the public. 

Mr. Lewis was born in Eastern Ohio, at Lewis's Mills in Belmont 
County, April 18, 1863. The old farm on which he was born and 
reared has been in the hands of the Lewis family for a hundred and 
ten years. This branch of the Lewis family is of Welsh descent, and 
its members were numbered among the early settlers of Massachusetts. 
The grandfather of Clinton H. Lewis was a Quaker in religion, and was 
the founder of the farm and mills in Belmont County. He acquired 
and developed two hundred acres of land. When the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, the pioneer railway line west of the Alleghenies, was con- 
structed through that portion of Ohio he was instrumental in getting 
the right of way for the railroad located through Lewis Mills. At 
one time he also held the position of county commissioner, and was a 
citizen of fine integrity and great influence. Thomas E. Lewis, father 
of Clinton H., was born in Eastern Ohio and followed in his father's 
footsteps as a miller and farmer. His only brother was a soldier in the 
Civil war. 

Clinton H. Lewis attended the public schools and finished his edu- 
cation in Mount Union College at Alliance, Ohio. August 22, 1887, when 
twenty-four years of age, he left home with a boy friend and started 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 79,5 

for California. On the first of September, 1887, he reached the home 
of his uncle and aimt at Carpenteria and on the 8th of the same month 
went to Wildomar and bought a merchandise store from William Collier. 
Mr. Lewis was a merchant and postmaster for thirteen years, selling 
out and in 1901 transferred his interests and home to Riverside. For 
the past twenty years he has been engaged to a greater or less extent 
in the real estate business and practically all the time alone. He has 
bought and sold property on his own account in addition to performing 
the general service of a real estate agent, and has been responsible for 
some of the large deals recorded in this vicinity. He owns large inter- 
ests in the city and county of Riverside. He was formerly vice president 
of the Elsinore Bank. 

Mr. Lewis was one of the organizers of the Riverside County Fair. 
He and J. F. Backstrand raised sixty-five hundred dollars and started 
the Fair in 1912. It has had a splendid and record growth each successive 
year, and while the essential features of the old time County Fair have 
been maintained, it has other improvements and attractions besides. 
It is one of the big events for Southern California, with magnificent 
displays of fruit, stock, special events and concessions. In the year 1920, 
eighty thousand visitors paid admission through the gates. The paid 
attendance for 1921 was about 92,000. Mr. Lewis was president of the 
Fair in 1917-18 and in 1921. 

He has been a member of the Republican County Central Committee, 
is a member of the Riverside Chamber of Commerce and is interested in 
the advancement and growth of the city and county. 

September 17, 1890, Mr. Lewis married Miss Emma Kinney, also 
a native of Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have a son and daughter. The 
son, Walter Kinney Lewis, graduated from the law department of Stan- 
ford University in 1916, and during the war was in the navy with the 
commission of ensign, on duty at San Francisco most of the time. He 
is now connected with the advertising firm of the Foster and Kleiser 
Company at San Francisco. The daughter. Miss Georgia B. Lewis, is 
also a graduate of Stanford University, and in 1921 graduated from the 
New York School of Fine and Applied Arts. Following this she spent 
five months in Europe continuing her art work in Paris. 

Albert Glenn Kendall — The chairman of the Board of Super- 
visors of San Bernardino County, Albert Glenn Kendall, is one of the 
strong men of the state and well and favorably known to every citizen 
of the city and county. He is of the type of men some one has named 
"The noblest work of God, a self-made man." One often feels like 
changing that term to the noblest work of the man himself. Left 
fatherless when four years of age, he was without the guidance of 
his mother, and at a very young age started out to play the game of 
life singlehanded. He certainly must have thought the cards had 
been stacked against him at the outset, but he went on playing the 
game with the self-confidence which has always characterized him, 
and one by one solved the problems presented, gaining an education 
by most arduous methods and a wealth of experience in all lines, 
which has not only benefited him but his fellow citizens. 

Mr. Kendall was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, April 2, 1849, the 
son of William and Matilda (Bickford) Kendall, the father a native 
of Vermont, who moved to Wisconsin in early days and was a farmer 
by occupation until his death. The mother was also a native of 
Vermont and in about 1891 she passed away in California. Mrs. 
Kendall and her eight children, two of whom were younger than 



786 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Albert, returned to Vermont after the death of the father, where 
the children were placed among friends. When Albert was fourteen 
years of age, he ran away from home, and has since worked out his 
own destiny. 

Without relatives or friends to aid him he worked out on farms 
and in winters he attended the district schools, determined to secure 
all the education they could give. When he was eighteen years old 
he decided to come out West and did so, locating at Omaha, Nebraska, 
where he worked as a clerk in a drygoods store. After a time the 
proprietor sold out, or rather traded the entire stock in the store for 
cattle which he put on the range, and young Kendall went with him, 
herding cattle and afterward assisted in the butchering of the ani- 
mals. His next work was as a train boy on the railroad. In 1871 he 
made his real start in life, going with his brother to the Loup River, 
where he took up a homestead and proved up on it, by purchase after- 
ward acquiring about one thousand acres of land. In 1873 he was 
elected county clerk of Howard County, and he held that office until 
1880. 

In the meantime, in 1875, he was member of the Constitutional 
Convention, representing not only Howard County, but also Merrick 
County, of which he was the youngest member. A remarkable inci- 
dent of that election was that in his entire home county he had only 
three votes cast against him, which speaks volumes for his record 
as a citizen there. 

In 1919 he received an invitation from the State Bar Association 
of Nebraska to be present at their annual convention and banquet, 
the four or five surviving members of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention to be the guests of honor. Since that time two of the mem- 
bers of the Constitutional Convention have passed away, and but 
two or three survivors remain out of the original eighty. 

In 1880 Mr. Kendall was elected commissioner of public land and 
buildings of the state, and had charge of all the public lands and 
buildings of the state for four years. In January, 1885, he returned 
to his former home, St. Paul, Nebraska, to fill the position of cashier 
of the new bank there, the St. Paul National Bank. In the fall of 1887 he 
resigned this position and came out to the real West, California, locat- 
ing at Ontario. He purchased a ten-acre orange grove and proceeded 
to enjoy life, but not for long, for in four years, in 1891, he was 
elected tax collector for the county, then re-elected and was after- 
ward county assessor for eight years. 

Mr. Kendall helped to organize the San Bernardino County Sav- 
ings Bank and was the cashier and active manager for many years. 
About this time the great tariff fight was coming on in Congress, 
and the California Citrus Protective League was organized to help 
protect the citrus interests. Mr. Kendall was elected its secretary 
and manager. They had to have a man of exceptional gifts to repre- 
sent them, so of course Mr. Kendall was sent to Washington, D. C. 
Of his work in that capacity much was said and much was printed, 
all of a most commendatory and appreciative strain. His work there 
resulted in the greatest of benefits to the citrus industry at large. 

He was then elected president of the Farmer's Exchange Bank 
and Savings Bank of San Bernardino, and he occupied these positions 
for eight years, when he resigned. He is now chairman of the Board 
of Directors of the Farmers Exchange National Bank. 

In 1918 they got him back into public service again by electing 
him supervisor to fill the unexpired term of Mark B. Shaw. He was 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RI\'ERSIDE COUNTIES 787 

elected in the fall of 1920 as supervisor for the Fifth District including 
the city of San Bernardino, without oiiposition, and succeeded J. B. 
Glover as chairman of the board. 

It would be difficult to name a more popular and prominent man 
in the county than Albert Glenn Kendall is in all circles — official, 
political, professional, fraternal or social. His successes in the East 
have been followed by greater ones in the West. He is a real Calif- 
fornian, loving his city, county and state with quiet devotion but 
never o\'erlooking an opportunity to further the interests of one and 
all. 

He married in 1877, Fannie R. (Morse) Kendall, a daughter of 
Samuel Morse, of South Newfane, Vermont. They had three chil- 
dren : Beulah, wife of S. G. Reed, of Nehalem, Oregon, who has 
three daughters — Marian E., wife of George D. Brackett, of Marys- 
ville, California, who has two boys ; Georgiana V., deceased wife of 
Clinton E. Miller of Los Angeles, but she died in January, 1919, leaving 
four boys. Mr. Kendall is a member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 
348, A. F. and A. M.; of Keystone Chapter No. 56, R. A. M.; of St. 
Bernard Commandery No. 23, of which he was eminent commander 
for two terms; and a member of Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O. N. 
M. S. His other fraternal affiliation is as a member of San Bernardino 
Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E. Mr. Kendall supports the republican 
party in politics. In the World War he was very active, working 
unceasingly. He was made chairman of the Liberty Loan Committee, 
which accomplished much during the war. 

John B. Smith is the enterprising proprietor of the Arlington Times, 
and has given that old established journal in Riverside County a new 
vitality and influence. His success here is what might be expected of a 
newspaper man who has followed that profession almost steadily since 
boyhood. 

Mr. Smith was born at Clarksburg, West Virginia, March 17, 1873, 
son of James H. and Martha (Darnold) Smith, both natives of Virginia, 
the former of English and the latter of Scotch descent. James H. Smith, 
though representing a southern family, was a Union soldier during the 
Civil war. For seventeen years he was city treasurer of Clarksburg. 

John B. Smith was educated in the grammar and high schools of 
Clarksburg, and soon afterward began his apprenticeship in the office 
of the Clarksburg Telegram. He learned the newspaper business there 
and for ten years was business manager of the Telegram. 

After leaving West Virginia and prior to coming to California, Mr. 
Smith had an extensive experience as a newspaper man on the Gulf 
coast. He was for three years business manager of the Gulfport Daily 
Herald in Mississippi, then for six months was connected with the Daily 
Post of Mobile. Alabama, and for fourteen months had charge of a 
weekly paper at Greenwood, Mississippi. On starting for the Far West 
Mr. Smith stopped at Columbus, New Mexico, where he leased a news- 
paper from the owner, who expected to be called to the colors. Failing 
to pass the medical examination he resumed the business and after four 
months Mr. Smith returned the lease. 

It was on January 5, 1918, that Mr. Smith became a citizen of Arling- 
ton. He soon afterward bought the Arlington Times from J. E. Cassell. 
The Times has been published for about fourteen years, and enjoys a 
particularly high standing in the county. Mr. Smith changed the paper 
from a six to seven column publication, and has more than doubled its 
business. Besides publishing the Times he established a small stationery 



788 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

store, and now has a prosperous business in handling commercial and 
general stationery. 

Always an active factor in community work, he is one of the directors 
and secretary of the Arlington Chamber of Commerce. While a resident 
of West Virginia he served seven years in the National Guard, and 
played the tuba in the regimental band. He was a member of the Clarks- 
burg City Council four years and has been a representative of the repub- 
lican party in county and state conventions. His affiliations with the 
Lodge, Chapter and Commandery of Masonry are in Clarksburg, and 
he is a member of Osiris Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Wheeling. 
He is also a member of Clarksburg Lodge, Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks. Mrs. Smith is a member of the Presbyterian Church, 

August 12, 1902, he married Miss Valeria Heenan, a native of Penn- 
sylvania, daughter of R. M. Heenan. Mrs. Smith is an accomplished 
educator and formerly taught in the schools of Mississippi and Alabama 
and is now connected with the Arlington School. Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
have two children : Mrs. Genevieve Martha Shepherd, wife of Thomas E. 
Shepherd, of Los Angeles, and John B., Jr., a grammar school boy. 

Arthur Winfield McDavitt. a well known and popular dentist of 
San Bernardino, has during his residence of over twenty years built 
up a deservedly large clientele, one that is ever on the increase. A dentist 
occupies a peculiar position in a community when he first settles there, 
for he is at once the best friend and yet the bete noir of the citizens 
seeking his aid, until he has proved his worth. But once he has fully 
demonstrated that he is truly skillful, keeps abreast of all modern improve- 
ments, he is firmly established. This Dr. McDavitt has accomplished, 
and he is kept busy relieving the physical woes of his patients. 

Dr. McDavitt was born in Stanhope, New Jersey, July 19, 1876, the 
son of George W. McDavitt and Julian D. (King) McDavitt. His father 
and mother were both natives of New Jersey and his mother died in 1897. 
His father is also a dentist, and is now practicing in Dover, New Jersey. 
They had three children born to them, of whom Dr. McDavitt was the 
eldest. 

Dr. McDavitt was educated in the public schools of Dover, New Jersey, 
and the business college of that city. Afterward he went into his father's 
office and there he studied dentistry in all its branches, gaining a thorough 
and comprehensive knowledge. When he considered himself thoroughly 
equipped for his profession he located in Butler, New Jersey, and there he 
built up a good practice, remaining there for four years. At the end 
of that time he decided to move to California and did so, locating in San 
Bernardino, where he has since been in continuous practice and meeting 
with unvarying success. 

Dr. McDavitt is the father of seven children, all of whom are living 
in San Bernardino. His eldest son, Arthur G. McDavitt, is a mechanical 
dentist in the office with his father. He married Florence Pugh, of 
Long Beach, and is the father of one daughter, Dorothy Doris. George 
Winfield McDavitt is a student of the high school, preparing to enter 
the State University, Dental course. James E., Orville ^^'. and Julia 
Doris are all students of San Bernardino schools and Helen Betty and 
John William are not yet of school age. 

In politics Dr. McDavitt is a republican. 

Charles E. Johnson. The career of Charles E. Johnson proves 
that anything is possible to the alert, hard-working young man of today, 
especially if he selects as the scene of his operations one of the thriving 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 789 

cities of the great Southwest. Beginning at the very bottom of the ladder 
of fortune, Mr. Johnson has steadily mounted until today he is manager 
and treasurer of the Riverside Title Company with which he commenced 
in the humble capacity of janitor, but as one of the substantial citizens 
of Riverside. 

Charles E. Johnson was born at Streator, Illinois, January 30, 1885, 
a son of WilHam N. and Ella M. (Bullock) Johnson. William N. John- 
son, now deceased, was born in the Empire State, from which his duties 
as a railroad man took him to Streator, Illinois. Later he came to River- 
side, California, and died at San Bernardino, California. The Johnson 
family is of Revolutionary stock and Scotch-English descent. Mrs. 
Johnson survives her husband and is now residing at Riverside. Her 
family is an old one of the Keystone State. 

Attending the graded schools of Streator and the Riverside High 
School, Charles E. Johnson was graduated from the latter in 1901, when 
he was sixteen years of age, and one year after his arrival in the city 
with his parents. For the .subsequent year he was in charge of his father's 
orange grove at 567 Jurupa Avenue, and then he went to San Bernardino 
and worked for the contracting firm of Stevenson Brothers, and at the 
same time attended the night sessions of the San Bernardino Business 
College. For several months he was engaged as a driver for the grocery 
firm of L. V. Bean Company, and for a couple of weeks kept books in 
the second-hand store of Schaeffer Brothers. 

Returning to Riverside, Mr. Johnson was employed by the Orange 
Growers Bank until it closed its doors. During the following year he 
worked faithfully at whatever he could find to do, from picking oranges 
to working in the grocery store of the Newberry-Parker Company, and 
in the fall entered the employ of a furniture store as salesman. After 
a year with this concern he returned to the Newberry-Parker Company 
as a solicitor. 

In all of these connections, however, Mr. Johnson realized that there 
was no future for him, and so when the opening came on February 
26, 1907, for him to enter what was then the Riverside Title & Trust 
Company, now the Riverside Title Company, he did so, although the 
position was that of janitor, and subsequent events have proved the 
wisdom of his decision. At that time the company was located at 72>2) 
Ninth Street, but removal was later made to the present commodious 
quarters at 908 Main Street. Mr. Johnson was determined from the 
start to secure a footing with this concern, and never ceased working 
to acquire an exhaustive knowledge of the duties of the position above 
him so that when a vacancy occurred he was ready to fill it, and in this 
way he rose steadily and surely through all of the positions to his present 
ones of manager and treasurer, to which he was elected in May, 1911. 
Prior to that he was made a director of the company. His associates 
in the company are as follows : J. W. Covert, president ; Emerson L! 
Holt, vice president ; John L. Prince, vice president ; and L. B. Scranton, 
secretary. The company now carries on a straight title and escrow 
business. When Mr. Johnson first went to work for this company there 
were four others employed, but the volume of business now requires 
an ofifice force of seventeen. 

A man of many ideas and high enthusiasms, Mr. Johnson has con- 
nected himself with various organizations and is a past chancellor of 
the Knights of Pythias; is a member of the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks ; belongs to the Rotary Club, the Chamber of Commerce, 
the Business Men's Club, the Realty Board and the Present Day Club. 
He is treasurer of the Riverside County Council of the Boy Scouts of 



790 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

America and intensely interested in this movement. Long an earnest 
member of the First Methodist Church of Riverside, he is one of its 
stewards and chairman of the Board of Ushers. While he has always 
voted the republican ticket he has not been active in politics. 

On October 15, 1907, Mr. Johnson was united in marriage with Mae 
E. Andrews, a native of Iowa and a daughter of H. A. Andrews, a con- 
tractor of Riverside. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have one son, Charles W'., 
who is a student of the Grant School of Riverside. In his life and work 
Mr. Johnson sets an excellent example, and his influence, especially over 
the growing boys under his charge, is of the highest character, and his 
community work has always belonged to the constructive class. A man of 
unquestioned business ability, he has not allowed his cares in this line 
to absorb all of his time, but has broadened his outlook and widened the 
scope of his influence by interesting himself in many things. 

Warren W. Van Pelt. Men with newspaper training have decided 
qualifications for a service that every community needs and requires. 
Warren W. Van Pelt, of Riverside, was a newspaper man from boyhood 
until recent years, and along with the duties and responsibilities of con- 
ducting a newspaper plant there has seldom been a time when he has not 
been burdened with some outside official responsibility. He is widely 
known over Riverside and adjoining counties as secretary of the Southern 
California Fair Association and the Associated Chambers of Commerce. 
He has long appreciated the unrivalled opportunities of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and through his pen and other active connections he has found 
a means of communicating this appreciation to others and. in a way to 
affect favorably the development and welfare of ^his section of the state. 

Mr. Van Pelt was born at McMinnville, Tennessee, August 12, 
1868, but his people were natives of the Ohio Valley. His father. 
Dr. W. R. Van Pelt, was born in Ohio, and was of Dutch ancestry, 
though his family had been in America from Revolutionary times. 
The mother was born at Wheeling, West Virgina, of Irish descent, 
and her father was an early settler of West Virginia. Her maiden 
name was Maria Warren. Dr. W. R. Van Pelt spent the greater 
part of his active life as a practicing physician in Eastern Ohio. 
He was also a civil engineer by profession, and in the early days 
of Belmont County surveyed many township lines and was a mine 
surveyor as well. In 1879 he removed to Kansas, where he followed 
civil engineering, and later came to Arlington, California, where he 
and his wife died. 

Warren W. Van Pelt acquired a public school education, attended 
Baker University in Kansas and the Southwestern Kansas College. 
Before completing his education he was working as a printer's devil 
on the Walnut Valley Times at Eldorado, Kansas. For several years 
Vvhile attending college he earned his living by working as a printer 
with the Winfield Courier. After his apprenticeship and early serv- 
ice he bought and conducted for four years the Enquirer at Arkansas 
City, Kansas, on the .southern line of the state. For four years he 
was also in the newspaper business at Ripley. Oklahoma. 

Mr. Van Pelt came to California in 1906, first locating at Santa 
.-Xnna, and then removing to Coachella, where he conducted the 
Coachella Valley News until the health of his wife made a move 
imperative. In 1908 he went to Arlington, where he founded the 
-Arlington Times and was publisher of that jiaper until 1917. In 
1917 he and Dr. George E. Henry built the Arlington Cannery, but 
he sold his interest in that establishment two years later. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 791 

During all these years he was an active worker in the Arlington 
Chamber of Commerce and the Count}- Chamber of Commerce. 
He was one of the organizers of the Associated Chambers of Com- 
merce eight years ago, and with the exception of a short time 
has been its secretary. He is a member and for three years has 
been secretary of the Southern California Fair Association, a full 
account of which is found in the historical writing by the author, Mr. 
James Boyd. 

Mr. Van Pelt has given a yeoman's service to the republican 
party. He represented that party in state and county conventions 
in Kansas, and continued his convention work until recently, and 
for many years was a member of the County Central Committee of 
Riverside. He has also acted for three sessions as engrossing and 
enrolling clerk for the California Senate. Mr. Van Pelt is a member 
of the Masonic Lodge at Riverside, the Knights and Ladies of Se- 
curity and the Present Day Club. 

He married Miss Ida Johnson, of Neodesha, Kansas, a native of 
that state. The change of residence from Coachella to Arlington did 
not permanently benefit her health, and she died at Arlington in 1909. 
She is survived by two daughters, Lois and Katherine, both now 
students in the Riverside High School. 

Theodore Crossley — The handsome and complete salesroom and 
garage at Main and Eleventh streets in Riverside are an appreciated 
institution by all motorists and motor car owners. Among permanent 
residents of Riverside that appreciation was the greater because 
the business reflects to some extent the interesting life story of its 
founder and owner, the late Theodore Crossley. Mr. Crossley was 
enjoying the climax of his successful business career when, engaged 
in a public service, the performance of his duty as a deputy sheriff, he 
and a companion deputy were shot down, he being instantly killed 
on September 22, 1921. Mr. Crossley and another deputy had gone 
to arrest some Mexicans at Belleville, charged with theft. Going 
to the home of the two Mexicans, one of the deputies got out of their 
car and aproached the men, who without warning opened fire, Mr. 
Crossley being the second victim of their bullets, while still seated 
in the auto. Mr. Crossley along with his other interests had been 
a deputy sheriff for a number of years, and had frequently been called 
upon for special work requiring courage and resourcefulness. 

Theodore Crossley was born in New York City, July 20, 1877. His 
parents, Thomas and Mary (Holmes) Crossley, were natives of Eng- 
land and were living temporarily in New York City when their son 
was born. Thomas Crossley at that time was representing an Eng- 
lish machinery house in America. Theodore Crossley- spent his youth 
in England. He was eight years old when his father died and six- 
teen at the death of his mother. He was educated in the Parochial 
schools, but for the most part his education was the product of work 
and active contact with the world. At the age of ten he entered a 
shop at jManchester. England, to learn the trades of toolmaker and 
die sinker. When he was seventeen, a year after the death of his 
mother, he came to America and worked at his trade in different 
places. He had an ambition to make something of his time and 
talents, and his desire for travel also led him to accept opportunities 
that took him to different localities. When he was about twenty- 
one he opened a shop in New York City, his total capital consisting 
of a hundred and twenty-five dollars. Gradually he built up business 



792 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

for the repair of machinery and the making of tools and dies and other 
mechanical lines. 

About this time the Locomobile Company was building a little 
steam car, and from his first glimpse of the machine Mr. Crossley 
could see the future of the horseless carriage, and thereafter was an 
enthusiast on the subject. He came in contact with various pioneer 
automobiles and secured several of the experimental cars manu- 
factured by Haynes, Apperson and Columbia. In his shop he also 
experimented with a steam car. He had a promising invention well 
on the way to perfection, but he failed to carry insurance and when 
the machine took fire the destruction extended to the entire plant, 
and after meeting his obligations he had practically no capital left. 

Very much discouraged and seeking some immediate change, 
while going down Barclay Street Mr. Crossley noticed a sign "Cheap 
Rates to California." He had a very vague knowledge of the United 
States west of Chicago. He went in and bought a ticket, and when 
the agent questioned him as to destination he had no answer ready. 
The agent said "City of Angels" or San Francisco. He liked the 
former title and thus it was he arrived in California in 1904, getting 
off the train at San Bernardino, the first city he saw after a long 
and tiresome ride. With San Bernardino as his headquarters he 
bought a bicycle and rode all over the surrounding territory. Two 
of the first points brought to his observation were Magnolia Avenue 
and the Mission Inn at Riverside. His investigating trips extended 
to Los Angeles. Pasadena and San Diego, but he decided to locate 
at Riverside, believing the city had a real future for him in his chosen 
line. With small capital but a thorough knowledge of the automobile 
business, he determined to open a garage, though there were one or 
two small places doing repair work. A site for his new venture he 
discovered in an empty lot next to the Reynolds Hotel. He inter- 
viewed Reynolds, telling him all his circumstances, and explaining 
his plan to put all the automobiles in the city in a garage and work 
shop covering the vacant lot 42x150 feet. The first year was anything 
but successful, and at the end of two years he was not much better 
off. Then followed two or three years of gradual progress, and at the 
end of five years he was out of debt and owned some property and a 
small margin of capital besides. His best years were from 1911 to 
1916. Mr. Crossley remained in the place adjoining the Reynolds 
Hotel five years, until rental became burdensome, and then moved 
to Tenth and Market, where he was in business until January 1, 1920, 
when he moved into the fine new building at Main and Eleventh 
streets. He had bought a lot on Main Street five years previously, 
since his business was being crowded off that thoroughfare. He pur- 
chased a shop building at 1063 Main Street with the idea of locating 
there, but later realized the building was a good investment and as 
the corner of Eleventh and Main streets was vacant he bought the 
ground, 57x158 feet, from the Odd Fellows Association. On this 
he built a structure completely covering the ground, and one of the 
most beautiful salesrooms in Southern California. The front and 
sides are in Italian Renaissance style, the stone work and the lighting 
effects were made by Italians, and it contains cathedral opalescent 
glass windows and mosaic floor. It is a light and cheerful building, 
free from grease or dirt. Mr. Crossley was the only man in the busi 
ness at Riverside who owned his own building, his own capital. He 
had sold several makes of automobiles, but finally settled on the 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 793 

Mitchell car as the best offering for the money. One of his associates 
for a time was C. A. Dundas, who later went for himself. 

Mr. Crossley was very active in all patriotic movements, assisting 
in the drives for funds, and though past military age did his best to 
get into active service and probably would have done so but for 
the signing of the armistice. He was a loyal knight of the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, a ])ast grand of Riverside Independent 
Order of Odd Fellow.s. the largest lodge of the order in the state, a past 
chief patriarch of the Encampment, a member of the committee on 
petitions in the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows of the state. He was 
especially interested in the I. O. O. F. Orphans Home at Gilroy, 
California, for which he gave much of his time and money and did a 
world of good for the children many of whom looked forward to his 
visits with greater interest than for any one else. Mr. Crossley was 
instrumental in getting the new building at Gilroy established and 
assisted in many ways. He devoted a large part of his life to help- 
ing needy and unfortunate people, and those who knew him best 
say that a kinder man never lived. He was also affiliated with the 
Woodmen of the World and was one of the leading republicans of 
the county. Mr. Crossley was a member of the Episcopal Church. 

He is survived by his widow, who he married at Riverside, June 
6, 1917. She was then Mrs. Idella Webb, widow of Justice Holton 
Webb of Riverside, who was likewise a victim of violence, having 
been killed by an Italian in resentment for a decision handed down 
by Justice Webb. Mrs. Crossley is a native of Eureka, Humbolt 
County, California, the daughter of John Rudolph, one of the pioneers 
of 1849. He came across the plains to California in 1849 with ox- 
teams and became an associate of Flood, Crocker, Lucky Baldwin, 
Badger and other well known factors in the early California life. 
He was one of the prominent figures in the state and became a large 
property owner in Santa Barbara County, particularly in Lompoc, 
where he was a merchant and large stock owner. His two sons, 
F. M. and H. S. Rudolph, are today two of the largest stock holders 
in that county. 

Mrs. Crossley had three children by her former marriage: Mirian, 
wife of Edgar Craig, an oil superintendent in the Santa Maria fields, 
and John Rudolph Webb and Elvin Elbridge Webb, both graduates 
of the Riverside High School and now in charge for their mother, 
of the garage built by Mr. Crossley. 

Theodore Crossley drove the first automobile in the streets of 
New York and created a sensation. The authorities raised many 
objections, claiming that it disturbed the peace, blocked traffic, caused 
congestion, etc. He was followed by more men and children than 
any circus that ever came to town. When he was three miles out 
of town the engine quit and he hired horses to tow him back. 

Legare Allen has been a resident of California since 1856 and of 
San Bernardino since 1875. That he is one of the best known men in 
the county is due not only to this long residence but to the im])ortant 
role he has taken in commercial affairs and politics. 

Mr. Allen was thirteen years of age when brought to California. 
He was born in Michigan October 22, 1843, son of Dr. Jacob and 
.Abigail (Olmstead) Allen, both parents being of Revolutionary stock 
and of English descent. His mother was horn in Cayuga County, 
New York, and died at Riverside. Dr. Jacob .Mien, a native of New 
York State, was a pioneer in Michigan, but on July 6, 1856, left New 

VoL II— 1.3 



794 SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

York with his family, bound for California. He took the Isthmus 
route, and from the Isthmus traveled to San Francisco in one of the 
old side wheel steamers whose normal schedule was thirteen days. 
In California he practiced medicine at Santa Clara until 1868, then 
became a pioneer physician in San Diego, and in 1875 removed to 
Riverside where he was active in his profession until his death. At 
one time he owned a city block in Riverside, now the site of the 
Baptist Church, and he held the office of coroner while in Santa 
Clara County. 

Legare Allen, after finishing a public school education, entered the 
University of the Pacific at Santa Clara and graduated with the 
Bachelor of Science degree in 1864. During the following year he 
was a student of medicine at Toland's Medical College in San Fran- 
cisco. His father's vocation did not appeal to him after he had made 
this degree of progress in his studies, and he abandoned the study. 
After teaching school in Gilroy a year he joined his father in the 
drug business in San Diego in 1868. In 1875, the year his parents 
located at Riverside, he moved to San Bernardino and bought a drug 
store. He was the leading local druggist until 1883, following which 
for a number of years he held a number of prominent offices. For 
two years he was deputy sherifif under John B. Burkhard, then became 
candidate for county recorder, and was elected for two years and 
reelected, filling his second term. He was deputy marshal under L. 
Van Doren two years, and for the next six years was city clerk of 
San Bernardino. After making this extended record of public service 
Mr. Allen engaged in different lines of business, chiefly insurance, 
was also an employe of the Santa Fe Railroad Company, and for a 
time was a merchant handling groceries, poultry and fish. The 
property requiring his active attention he sold in 1917, and has since 
been retired. 

Mr. Allen was for fourteen years a school trustee and part of the 
time chairman of the board. He was chiefly responsible for the 
erection of the schoolhouse on F and Fifth streets. This achievement 
represented a long continued advocacy on his part, the voting of the 
twenty thousand dollars of bonds necessary for its erection failing 
the first time. In his official capacity he bought the land and put up 
the schoolhouse and had three dollars and seventy-eight cents left 
in the fund. Mr. Allen and his wife are members of the Pioneer Society 
of San Bernardino and he is president of that organization. He is a 
past grand of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and a past 
chancellor commander of the Knights of Pythias, while Mrs. Allen 
is affiliated with the Eastern Star, the Ladies of Woodcraft and the 
Knights and Ladies of Security. 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen have occupied their home at F and Eight 
streets since 1911. He married Miss Emma Allen December 10, 
1876. She was born in Ohio. The father. Rev. G. W. Allen, was 
a Baptist minister who came to San Bernardino in 1875 and was 
pastor of the Baptist Church here for a number of years. He was 
a native of England. Mrs. Allen has two sisters and one brother 
living: Nettie, wife of W. A. Harris, an attorney of Los Angeles; 
Adelphi, who owns an apartment house on Griffith and East Adams 
streets in Los Angeles, is the widow of A. A. Arthur; and Lucius G., 
a real estate man at Venice, California. Mr. Allen, by a previous marriage, 
had two children: Lena, wife of N. D. Powell, of Long Beach, and thev 
have a son and daughter, and Lula, deceased wife of A. O. Harwood, 
superintendent of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company of San 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 795 

Francisco. Mr. and Mrs. Allen are the parents of Leola, wife of 
Lionel L. Jackson, superintendent of street railways at Eureka, Cali- 
fornia. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson have two daughters, Frances and 
Dorothy. Legare Allen, Jr., the only son, is connected with the Santa 
Fe Railway Company. By his marriage to Orphie Sedgwick he has 
two children. 

George M. Hancock — While the natural resources of any city play 
an important part in its development and prosperity, very little can 
be accomplished without the constructive labors of enterprising and 
progressive men in all lines of endeavor, who through their personal 
efforts build up flourishing concerns that give prestige to the com- 
munity and financial standing to its institutions. It was not until 
more recent years that San Bernardino took its place among the 
important municipalities of the Golden State, although it is one of 
the old cities of the Coast, and its wonderful natural advantages 
have existed since a period long ante-dating the advent of the white 
man in this hemisphere. It was left for the aggressive business men 
of the latter part of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth 
century to give to San Bernardino the impetus which has resulted 
so marvelously, and while they received a large material reward, they 
also deserve the credit for altruistic efforts as well. One of these 
men who had, and still has, strong faith in this part of the state and 
is doing his full part in maintaining the prestige already gained, is 
George M. Hancock member of the firm of Hancock & Wade, pro- 
prietors of the Home Furnishing Company, one of the largest and 
best furniture houses in Southern California. 

George M. Hancock was born at Albany, Kentucky, September 
10, 1868, a son of Benjamin and Rachel (Wynn) Hancock, both being 
members of old honored Kentucky families, of Revolutionary stock 
and distinguished ancestry, reaching back into the annals of England 
and Whales. Both parents are now deceased. 

Benjamin Hancock was a Federal soldier, serving with the Thir- 
teenth Kentucky Cavalry during the war between the states. By 
occupation he was a miller, and built the first flour mill to be operated 
by steam in Clinton County. He was prominent in his community, 
and served as magistrate in Clinton County, Kentucky. His father, 
Ben Hancock, established the family in Kentucky, where he was a 
pioneer, coming to the state from Virginia, and he belonged to the 
same branch of the Hancock family as did John Hancock, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. George M. Hancock is 
very proud of his connection with this famous leader for American 
independence, and has tried to live up to the standards raised by his 
illustrious relative. 

George M. Hancock was educated in the public schools of Ken- 
tucky, and was reared on his father's plantation. His first work was 
that of assisting his father in the mill, and later he went into a mercan- 
tile business at Albany, Kentucky. At the age of nineteen years he 
left home, and, going to Joplin, Missouri, went into the furniture 
business with his uncle, J. C. Hancock, this association being main- 
tained for twelve years. In 1903 Mr. Hancock sold his interests, 
came to San Bernardino, and opened a similar establishment in this 
city to the one at Joplin, the stand being on D Street, and he had E. L. 
Ward as his partner. The firm was known as Ward & Hancock, and 
continued for three and one-half years, and then Mr. Hancock founded 
the Home Furnishing Company, with Grant Mclntyro as his partner. 



796 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

who was later bought out by Charles Wade, the firm of Hancock & Wade 
having continued for the past decade. In May, 1916, removal was 
made to the present location on F Street, where they had erected a 
substantial two story building solely for store purposes. It occupies 
a ground area of 48 x 130 feet, and is one of the largest furniture 
stores in this part of the state. Business has steadily increased, and 
the firm are in a flourishing condition. 

Mr. Hancock belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks of San Bernardino ; is a trustee of the Knights of Pythias of 
San Bernardino ; is past dictator of the Loyal Order of Moose ; was 
banker of the Modern ^^'oodmen of America for sixteen years, and is 
very much interested in fraternal matters. A consistent member of 
the Christian Church, he has served as treasurer of the local congre- 
gation for six years. While he votes the republican ticket and is 
interested in the success of his party, he is not active in politics. 

On November 22, 1895, Mr. Hancock married, at Bentonville, 
Arkansas, ]\liss Minnie Crowell, a native of Arkansas and a daughter 
of H. C. Crowell, a merchant of Bentonville. The Crowell family is an 
old one of America, of Pennsylvania-Dutch stock. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hancock have two children, namely: Pansy and Eugene. Pansy is 
the wife of W. J. Ham, an employe of the Santa Fe Railroad Company 
at San Bernardino. Eugene is with his father in the furniture business. 
He married Miss Josephine Arner, of Rialto, California. During 
the World war Eugene Hancock volunteered for service, and was 
placed in Company K which went from San Bernardino. He was 
trained at Camp Kearney, and was sent overseas to France with the 
Fortieth Division. After the signing of the armistice he was returned 
home and honorably discharged. He belongs to the local post of the 
American Legion, and is a fine young man, who stands very well in 
his community. 

George M. Hancock possesses the characteristics which result in 
successful business operation. His funiture house has been a success 
from the start because he has known how to so conduct it as to meet 
the requirements of his trade as to quality and price, and at the same 
time to render a service that is second to none in the city. He also 
i.s possessed of social qualities which make him a welcome guest in 
the best circles and win for him warm friendships which are onl}' 
terminated by death. Both he and Mrs. Hancock are very hospitable 
and entertain considerably as well as accept numerous invitations to 
the different functions of their set. Their children are a credit to 
them and their rearing, and they all occupy the place in their com- 
munity to which their abilities and standing entitle them. 

J.. Morgan Davisox is a progressive citizen and business man who 
has been an influential figure in connection with the development of 
the Arlington district of Riverside County, where he is the owner 
of a finely improved property and has developed an extensive en- 
terprise in the raising of poultry in a commercial way, and where he 
also raises grain, peaches and walnuts. 

Mr. Davison w^as born in Clayton Township, Woodford County, 
Illinois, on the 24th of October, 1864, and is a son of P. H. and Jane 
Caroline (File) Davison, both natives of the State of New York and 
both representatives of sterling families (hat gave patriot soldiers to the 
nation in the War nf the Revolulinn : the File family, of Holland Dutch 
origin, having early been established in Rensselaer County, New York. 
The lineage of the Davison family traces back to staunch Scotch origin. 



SAX BKRXARDIXT) AXn RI\-1':RS1DK COUXTIES 797 

|. Milldii J)avisun, srandfatliiT of liiin wiuisc name initiates this review, 
was given, in 1838, a commission as lieutenant of riflemen in the State 
.Militia of Xew York, and this commission, bearing the signature of 
Ciovernor William L. Marcey, is now in tlie possession of the grandson. 
J. Morgan Davison, who likewise treasures a woodcut picture published 
manv years ago in Frank Leslie's Weekly and showing Mr. Davison's 
great-great-grandfather in the paternal line, who was a fife major both in 
the Revolution and in the War of 1812, and who is depicted, with a drum- 
mer beside him, as playing "Yankee Doodle" while standing on the breast- 
works on the morning of the battle of Bunker Hill. 

P. H. Davison became a prosperous farmer in Woodford County, 
Illinois, and there served twenty years as treasurer of Clayton Township, 
besides which he held for some time the office of county treasurer. He 
was an honored and influential citizen who was active in both political 
and religious activities in his comniunity. Both he and his wife continued 
their residence in Illinois until the time of their deaths. 

J. Morgan Davison gained his youthful education in the public schools 
of his native county and in the Illinois W'esleyan University, in which 
he was graduated as a member of the class of 1887 and with the degree 
of Bachelor of Science. Thereafter he was his father's assistant in the 
office of county treasurer, and while thus engaged he took the required 
examination and obtained admission to the Illinois bar. He has, however, 
never found it expedient to engage in the active practice of the law. In 
1891 he went to Kansas City, Missouri, and there he continued to be 
actively engaged in the mercantile business until 1910, when he came to 
Riverside, California, and purchased twenty acres of land in the beautiful 
suburban district of Arlington, where he has continued to reside and 
where he has developed a valuable property. Here he conducts an exten- 
sive commercial poultry ranch, with special preference given to the White 
Leghorn type of poultry, of which he has at the time of this writing 
in 1921, about 3,000 on his ranch. He is a leader in the poultry industry 
in this section of the state, and in his enterprise has achieved distinctive 
success and prestige. In the autumn of 1916 he was one of the organizers 
of the Poultry Producers' Association of Southern California, of which he 
has served continuously as a director and which has proved a valuable co- 
operative marketing organization working in conjunction with the Cali- 
fornia Market Association. The Poultry Producers' .Association owns a 
well equipped warehouse in the City of Los Angeles, where the eggs are 
collected and where an efficient manager has supervision of the sale of the 
products. In 1912 Mr. Davi.-^on became one of the organizers of the 
Poultrymen's Co-operative Milling Association, of which he has served 
continuously as secretary and treasurer, as well as a director, and to the 
affairs of which he gives the major part of his time and attention. The 
directorate of this organization is largely interlocking with that of the pre- 
viously mentioned Poultry Producers' Association, and the warehouses of 
the two, in Los Angeles, adjoin each other. 

As a staunch and vigorous advocate of the principles of the democratic 
party Mr. Davison has been active and influential in local political affairs. 
He has served since 1913 as a member of the Board of Education of the 
Riverside city school district, which includes -Arlington, and has been 
Ijresident of the board since 1915. Within his connection with educational 
afTairs in this important district several modern school buildings have 
been erected in the same. 

Mr. Davison is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution. He has been long and actively 
identified with the work of the Young Men's Christian Association, and 



798 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

has been president of its local organization in Riverside since 1912, besides 
which he has served since 1918 as a director of the California State 
Board of the Young Men's Christian Association. He is one of the influ- 
ential members of the Arlington Chamber of Commerce, of which he has 
served as president, and held similar office in the Arlington Poultry Asso- 
ciation, of which he was one of the organizers and which has been a 
resourceful factor in the building up of the poultry industry in Riverside 
and Arlington, the association having recently been merged with the 
Riverside County Farm Bureau. While a resident of Kansas City, Mr. 
Davison was one of the organizers of the Mercantile National Bank of 
that city, of which he became a director. At Riverside he is a member of 
the Present Day Club, and both he and his wife are zealous members of 
the First Baptist Church of this city. For a number of years he was 
moderator of the Santa Ana Valley Baptist Association, and during the 
year 1916 he was president of the California Baptist Convention. He has 
been active in the various departments of church work and has given 
effective and prolonged service as Sunday School superintendent. 

At Eureka, Illinois, on the 12th of June, 1890, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Davison with Miss Annie S. Murray, who was born and 
reared in that state and whose father, John M. Murray, was a representa- 
tive grain dealer at Eureka. Mr. and Mrs. Davison have four children. 
Bertha, eldest of the number, is the wife of H. H. House, chemist for 
the Exchange Byproducts Company at Corona, Riverside County, and they 
have two children — Gordon Davison and William Murray. John Murray 
Davison, who has active charge of his father's poultry ranch at Arling- 
ton, was graduated from the Riverside High School and was a college 
sophomore at the time when the nation became involved in the World 
war. He enlisted in the Marine Corps and went into active service with 
the American Expeditionary Forces overseas, his service with the allied 
Army of Occupation in Germany having continued for a protracted period 
after the signing of the historic armistice. P. H. Davison, the younger 
son, is associated in the management of the poultry ranch at Arlington. 
He is a graduate of the Riverside High School and of the Junior College 
in that city. When xA.merica entered the World war he became a member 
of the Coast Artillery and was stationed at The Presidio, San Francisco. 
After the receiving of his honorable discharge he entered the University 
of California, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 
1921 and with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Miss Martha Ellen 
Davison, the younger daughter, was graduated from the high school at 
Riverside, where she is, in 1921, a student in the Junior College. 

Louis M. Coy, M. D. — A native of San Bernardino County, a young 
physician and surgeon whose qualifications and experience have met 
every test of service, Dr. Coy until recently was superintendent of the 
County Hospital, and did much to make this institution realize the 
reputation it now enjoys as one of the best conducted in California. 

He was born at Highland, in San Bernardino County, January 6, 
1890. His father, Louis I. Coy, always known as L. I. Coy, was a native 
of Illinois and his great-grandfather's wife was a Peirce, a direct de- 
scendant of the Captain Peirce w^ho was the pilot of the Mayflower in 
her second voyage. L. I. Coy came to California in 1887, and was a 
pioneer orange grower at Highland until his death. He was serving 
his third term as tax collector of the county when he was accidentally 
killed in December, 1908. L. I. Coy married Mary J. McFarland, who 
was born in Kansas and is now living in San Diego. Her father was 
a native of Ireland. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 799 

The first twenty-five years of his life Dr. Coy was getting the 
preparation and training for his chosen profession. He graduated 
from the San Bernardino High School in 1908, and for a year and a 
half attended Pomona College. He graduated from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of the University of Southern California 
in 1915. Practically his entire professional career has been in con- 
nection with hospital duties. He was an interne at the old County 
Hospital and was then assistant superintendent, later superintendent. 
When America entered the war he resigned as superintendent to accept 
active duty in the Medical Corps. He enlisted in the orthopedic section of 
the Medical Corps and was assigned to the base hospital at Camp Kearney, 
where he was in service from March, 1918, until June 11, 1919. He 
received his honorable discharge as a lieutenant of the Medical Corps, 
and at once resumed his former duties as superintendent of the County 
Hospital. On July 1, 1921, Dr. Coy severed his connection with 
the hospital and has since been engaged in private practice. 

Dr. Coy is a member of the County, California State and American 
Medical Associations. He has filled various offices in the Native Sons 
of the Golden West, and is now second vice president. His fraternities 
are the Phi Chi and Elks. His public service has been limited to the 
important duties he performed as county hospital superintendent. 
He votes as a republican. He and his wife are members of the First 
Congregational Church. 

June 15, 1915, Dr. Coy married Miss Arline Donaldson, who was 
born in San Jose. Her father, M. V. Donaldson, is one of the promi- 
nent newspaper men of California, was for several years, until 1910, 
city editor of the San Bernardino Sun, and is now engaged in publicity 
work in charge of the advertising for the Clarkadota fig plantations 
and several other companies. Dr. and Mrs. Coy have one son, Louis 
Peirce Coy. 

Hans H. Paulson was an infant at the time of his parents' immi- 
gration to America from their native Denmark, and he was a youth of 
eighteen at the time of the family removal to California, and here, through 
his own ability and well ordered efforts, he has won substantial success 
and developed a prosperous ranch enterprise in Riverside County. While 
he honors the sturdy traditions and customs of his native land, he has 
known no other country than the United States and stands representative 
of the deepest and most loyal Americanism. 

Mr. Paulson was born in Denmark on the 27th of July, 1872, and 
in the same year his parents came with their children to the United 
States. He is a son of John and Hancine Paulson, both representatives 
of sterling old Danish ancestry. John Paulson was born in October, 
1839, received the advantages of excellent schools in his native land, and 
prior to leaving Denmark he had been for some time the incumbent of a 
position in a military school. His desire to afford to his children better 
advantages than were promised in his native land led him to sever the 
ties which bound him to the fair Norseland, and after arriving in the 
United States he made his way to Iowa, where he purchased a tract 
of land near Waterloo and instituted the reclamation and development 
of a farm. His energy and good management brought to him a goodly 
measure of success within the passing years, and he gained in the Hawk- 
eye State the financial independence for which he had hoped when he 
set forth for this land of promise. In 1890 Mr. Paulson sold his prop- 
erty in Iowa and came with his family to California. He acquired a 
small tract of land near Riverside, and in caring for his orange grove ' 



800 SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 

and gardens he found ample demand fur h\s lime and attention, besides 
finding his fruit-growing and horticuhin-al arlivities a medium of finanrial 
jirofit. He remained in iiis pleasant suburban home until his dealh 
in 1902, and his venerable widow still survives him. 

Hans H. Paulson passed the period of his childhood and early youth 
on the old home farm in Iowa. He came to California with his parents, 
and shortly afterwards began to work by the day on ranches in this 
district of the state, and for thirteen years he was employed by the 
firm of Pattie & Letts, in connection with the care of their many citrus- 
fruit groves in Riverside County. Notwithstanding the fact that his 
wages were far from being large, Mr. Paulson was frugal and economical 
and gradually added to his savings until he was able to purchase a tract 
of land at the corner of North Monroe and Colorado streets. Riverside, 
where he has developed a fine property and won substantial success in 
the growing of grain and alfalfa and the conducting of a dairy business 
with a herd of fine cows. He has made excellent imi^rovements on his 
place, and here has one of the attractive homes of the beautiful Riverside 
district. The gum and pepper trees which he planted about his house 
have grown to splendid proportions and add materially to the beauty of 
the home. 

In politics Mr. Paulson maintains an independent attitude, and he has 
ever shown loyal interest in community affairs of a public order. He 
served eight years as deputy assessor of Riverside County, under the 
administration of W. F. Montague. He has indentified himself actively 
with the local Farm Bureau and its work, is aftiliated with the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and the Fraternal Brotherhood, and both he and 
his wife are earnest communicants of the Lutheran Church. 

At Riverside, on the 8th of January, 1894, Mr. Paulson wedded Miss 
Ellen Ringsburg, and of their four children three are living: Paul A., 
who was born in 1897, is now employed as a tractor operator in River- 
side County ; Walter, born in 1899, is employed in the shops of the Santa 
Fe Railroad Company at San Bernardino ; and Mildred is a student in 
the public schools of Riverside. Dorothy, who was born in 1903, died 
at the age of nine years. 

Henry A. Guernsey. The hfe story of Henry A. Guernsey is a most 
unusual one and full of interest, for he assisted in making history of 
the United States when he was a young boy. The account of his life 
in the East reads like romance, and he served his country well and long 
and he took up the burdens of life as a child, becoming acquainted with 
the painful problems of existence at an age when boys usually are play- 
ing marbles. But he had a definite object in view and was determined to 
make his life a success, and he never lost sight of his objective all through 
the stress and storms of his early boyhood. He made a success of his 
first position, of his fighting in the wars, not only in material things 
but in the higher success not measured by figures. And since his resi- 
dence in San Bernardino Mr. Guernsey has achieved a like success, 
financially and in all ways. He has met with los.ses but has never suffered 
atrophy of that strong will power of his, and he seems to make each 
disaster the stepping stone to greater success. 

As the pioneer box manufacturer of the state, as one of the pioneer 
lumbermen, in his forty-three years of life in San Bernardino, Mr. Guern- 
sey has shown himself a man of dauntless purpose and energy, with a 
quiet determination to do his part in the business and civic affairs of 
his home city. No man stands higher in the opinion of his associates, 
for his unalterable principles of rectitude were early established with 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 801 

tlic'iii and ill liis ^irclnl relations lie i> i<no\vn as a most trustworlliy friend, 
in fact, an all around 100 per cent man. 

Mr. Guernsey was born in Tioga Comity, rciiiisylvania, June 1'*, 
1844, Ihe son of a native of Pennsylvania, ilis fallicr was killed in a 
railroad accident and was sujierintendcnt at the time of his death. Henry 
A. Guernsey had attended school only two years at that time. His older 
brother was a baggageman on the railroad, and lived at home with his 
mother. The wife of an engineer on the railroad was a very finely edu- 
cated woman and a great friend of Mrs. Guernsey and she persuaded 
her to allow Henry to become an inmate of her home, where she could 
give him an education. This was finally agreed to and the boy thus 
secured an education. 

By way of recreation the engineer used to take Henry on round trips 
on the engine. He was then, as always, a keen observer and he soon 
learned to run the engine as well as the engineer. The latter was killed 
in an accident ; the road was very short of engineers ; and, accordingly, 
they had to have some. So Mr. Guernsey was given a position as one, 
but in a peculiar way. The fireman was the ostensible engineer, in charge 
of the engine, with half the pay of an engineer, but the boy ran the engine 
and received the ])av of a fireman. He was far too young to be listed 
as an engineer, so he had to be camouflaged this way. 

He remained in this position until 1857, when he moved with his 
mother to Mitchell County, Iowa, and located on a claim of 160 acres 
which Mrs. Guernsey had purchased. Hard work and lots of it con- 
fronted the boy, but he was not even then afraid to tackle the seemingly 
impossible, and he soon had fifty acres, which had been broken on the 
ranch, put into corn. This was all hand work, sowed by hand, with no 
machinery of any kind. The next year he ploughed this land and hand 
sowed it to grain. It was a big job for a young boy. He kept right on 
improving the place, but in 1861 the Sioux Indian troubles broke out 
and he, with manv others, droppd all work to participate, as they were 
all enlisted in the state service. They went north to fight the Indians, 
and Mr. Guernsey had to leave 100 acres of grain in shock when he 
answered the call to arms. 

As history records, the Indians were all either killed or captured and 
c«/ the latter every one was hanged. After this the expedition returned 
home, but as Mr. Guernsey was also enlisted in the national service he 
was at once sent to the South as a member of Company K, 27th Iowa 
Regiment, under Captain C. T. Granger. He .saw active service until 
the end of the war and he was at Fort Donalson at the time of capture 
and in many of the nc^ed battles of the Civil war. His company belonged 
to the Smith Guerillas of the 16th Army Corps, and was kept for rein- 
forcements, and as they were always in demand he served under many 
of the famous generals of the war. He was wounded four times bv 
bullets and once by a bayonet wound through his leg. It is almost need- 
less to say that a little thing like that did not stop him, for he never 
applied for relief or to go to the hospital but just kept right on fighting. 
That is the keynote to his character, the fearless mind and the fighting 
heart, the fidelity to duty no matter what the cost to himself. 

After the war was over he returned to Iowa and farmed there until 
the year 1869, and that winter he started West by stage, his goal, the 
Puget Sound country. Rut fate took a hand, for the stage could not get 
through owing to the high water in the Willamette River, so he stopped 
at Eugene,' Oregon, where he lived for some years. In 1874 he moved 
opposite Astoria, Oregon, and ran a sawmill for three years. But in 
1877 the health of his wife began to fail and he decided to come to South- 



802 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

ern California and he did so, locating iy San Bernardino. But it was too 
late to help her much, and she passed on in the following year. 

Mr. Guernsey at first went to work in the lumbering business, but 
very soon purcha.sed the plant. He also established the first box factory 
in the district. He made the first 20,000 boxes for orange shipments in 
the state. He has been burned out several limes, but it is unnecessary to 
state that he has always rebuilt and started over again. 

Mr. Guernsey married October 3, 1876, Theisa McFarland, a 
daughter of John McFarland. They had two sons : Peter B., married 
and living at Herinosa Beach, where he has served as mayor ; and Roy 
T., a millwright living in San Bernardino, married and has one child, 
a son. 

Mrs. Guernsey died in 1878, and he married Linna Bailey, a daughter 
of John Bailey, of Pennsylvania. They have one daughter, Ruth L. 
Guernsey. 

Mr. Guernsey is a republican in politics but has never desired any 
public ofifice. He is a member of the Methodist Church. He was a 
charter member of the ^\■oodmen of the World Camp in San Bernardino 
and was also a charter member of the National Union. 

Henry Goodcell, Jr., attorney of San Bernardino, is a son of one 
of the real pioneers of the city, a man who suffered many unexpected 
and adverse strokes of fortune but, inflexible in purpose, made his own 
hour of opportunity. His sterling qualities were transmitted to his 
descendants. 

Henry Goodcell, Jr., was born in Dover, England, November 23, 1848, 
the son of Henry and Harriet (Birch) Goodcell. Henry Goodcell, Sr., 
was born September 26, 1823, at Nonenglon, a county parish about ten 
miles north of Dover. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to a sea 
captain, serving before the mast and afterward for six years was mate. 

In 1853 he came to the United States, locating in Utah. In England 
he had accepted the Mormon faith from Mormon missionaries, but when 
he arrived in Utah he found the practices were not in conformity with 
what he had been led to believe, so he refused to join the church here. 
He started farming in Utah, and of course had a hard time. The first 
two years his crops failed, but the third year was a little better, and by 
the most rigid economy he was enabled to save enough produce to trade 
for a team of horses, and in 1857, with a train of ten wagons, started 
for California. 

He reached San Bernardino in May, 1857, and purchased and improved 
a farm, but ill luck still followed him and floods destroyed all of his im- 
provements in 1861. Other misfortunes followed, and it seemed none 
of his ventures were to be successful. One son, Hiram, was accidentally 
killed. But he never lost his grip and, undismayed, he stuck to his guns 
and eventually developed a fine property. In 1867 he established a brick 
yard and built up a large business. 

In 1847 he married Miss Harriet Birch, and their children were: 
Henry, Jr.; Harriet, deceased; Hiram, deceased; Mary, the widow of 
Edward H. Dunford, of San Bernardino; William and Margaret, both 
deceased. 

Henry Goodcell, Jr., came with his parents to San Bernardino and 
attended the public school, and also the private school of J. C. P. Allsop. 
In 1866 he started teaching in the public schools, and then attended the 
State Normal School of San Jose, whence he was graduated in the spring 
of 1873, the first Normal School graduate from San Bernardino County. 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 803 

III the fall of 1873 he was electcfl county school superintendent, and held 
the position for two years, at the same time acting as principal of the San 
Bernardino city schools. 

During this time he had hccn studying law, and he was admitted to the 
bar in 1875. He formed a partnership with A. B. Paris and also served 
as clerk of the County Court, was assistant in the district attorney's 
oi^ce one year and later was appointed district attorney, serving the 
remainder of the term. In the meantime his partnership with Mr. Paris 
was dissolved, but was resumed and continued until 1888. He afterward 
was in partnership with F. A. Leonard until 1896, when he moved to 
Oakland, California. In 1901 he returned to San Bernardino, and has 
since been in practice here. His practice is entirely civil. 

He married in 1875 Minnie A. Bennett, of El Dorado County, Cali- 
fornia, a schoolmate at the Normal School. She died in 1886, leaving 
three sons : Roscoe A., of Los Angeles, secretary of the educational 
department of the Y. \\'. C. A. ; Rex B., superior judge of San Bernardino 
County ; Fred, who was news editor of the San Francisco Bulletin, and 
until recently, editor of the Salt Lake Telegram. In 1889 Mr. Goodcell 
married Mary H. Bennett, a sister of his former wife, and also a teacher 
by profession. 

Mr. Goodcell is attorney for several water companies and specializes 
in irrigation law. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and of San Bernardino Lodge 836, B. P. O. E. 

He is aifiliated with the Unitarian Church. In politics he is a repub- 
lican. 

Rex B. Goodcell. According to the firm belief of every Californian, 
whether adopted or born here. Judge Rex B. Goodcell, of San Bernardino, 
could not have asked for a life commenced under happier auspices. A 
native son, born in the city, he has always made his home here. His 
father and his grandfather were both pioneers of the early days. What 
more could a man ask ? Many might say that it is inherited talents which 
so admirably qualify him for his position on the bench, for his father 
and grandfather ranked with the finest minds. His father occupied a 
prominent position as an attorney from his first appearance as such, and 
today is second to none in the profession. Thoroughly grounded in the 
law, Judge Goodcell by constant study of legal lore, participation in liti- 
gation where intricate questions were involved, won swift recognition 
in the profession where promotion is slowly gained, so hardly won. 

Rex B. Goodcell was born in San Bernardino, September 15, 1880, the 
son of Henry Goodcell, Jr.. and Minnie A. ( Bennett ) Goodcell. He at- 
tended the public school and then started his study of the law in his 
father's office and was admitted to the bar October 15, 1901. He went to 
Oakland, California, and practiced there until 1903, when he returned to 
his birthplace and practiced, forming a partnership with his father and 
continuing in this until December, 1908. He next entered the district 
attorney's ofiice as deputy under W. E. Byrne. 

In 1910 he was elected district attorney, and served until January, 
1915, when he returned to practice with his father. In 1918 he was elected 
superior judge of San Bernardino County for the six year term, and is 
now occupying that position to the satisfaction of everyone. He is con- 
ceded to be fair, impartial and wise in his decisions, his findings always 
according to the law and the evidence. 

Judge Goodcell took a prominent part in political affairs on behalf 
of the republican party, serving on the County and State Central com- 
mittees and campaigning in all the western states for the party. 



R04 SAN BERXARDIXO AND R1\'ERSIDE COUXTIES 

.]iulj.;c (ioodccll is a most s^cnial character, (lilTusin;:; the Ejospel of 
kindliness as well as the eternal principles of justice. He has hosts of 
friends and is popular with all "classes and conditions" of men. His 
bouyant optimism is a characteristic and as a camjiaigner he is noted. 
Clean cut. he carries conviction and has the faculty o{ lousing the thoutrht 
of others to his own. He was twice head of the San Bernardino Chamber 
of Commerce and materially assisted in building up the membership from 
300 to more than 1,000. 

He was married January 10, 1905, to Helen Harmon Knappe, also 
a native of San Bernardino and a daughter of Dexter and Fannie Knappe. 
They have one child, Rex Harmon Goodcell. 

In 1916 Judge Goodcell was elected grand worthy president of the 
Fraternal Order of l-"agles. His other fraternal associations are as a 
member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. F. ; Knights of 
Pythias; San Bernardino Parlor No. 110, Native Sons of the Golden 
West, Phoenix Lodge No. 178, .A.. F. and .\. M. ; Los Angeles Consistorv 
No. 3, A. and A. S. R. 

MiCH.\EL xA. Murphy, who now resides in a most attractive home 
on his tine orange ranch in the Highgrove district of Riverside County, 
has been a resident of California nearly half a century, has been con- 
cerned with enterprises of broad scope and importance, has done his 
part in the advancement of the civic and material development of the 
state, and has been a citizen of prominence and influence. That there 
are many interesting incidents in his long and vigorous career as one 
of the world's constructive workers needs no further voucher than 
the data that shall appear in this all to brief review, which, it is hoped, 
may offer a consistent tribute to a man of thought and action, a citizen 
of sterling worth and a constructive genius of much initiative ability. 
Mr. Murphy is a big man and has proved himself capable of achieving 
big things. 

Michael A. Murphy was born at Waukegan, now one of the beauti- 
ful suburbs of the City of Chicago, Illinois, on the 15th of April, 1847, 
and is a son of John and Bridget (Rogers) Murphy, both of whom 
were born in Ireland, though their acquaintanceship was formed and 
their marriage solemnized in Chicago. John Murphy was a pioneer 
of the present great metropolis at the foot of Lake Michigan. He 
made his appearance in Chicago in the year 1829, when the future 
city was little more than a frontier trading post, and he obtained a tract 
of land and engaged in farm enterprise in Waukegan, where he reared 
his children, of whom Michael A. was the seventh in order of birth. 
John Murphy was a man of fine mental equipment, righteous and 
sincere in all of the relations of life, and was long an influential figure 
in the community which represented his home and the stage of his 
productive activities. He was nearly ninety years of age at the time 
of his death, his wife having preceded him to the life eternal, and 
she likewise having attained to advanced age. Both were devout 
communicants of the Catholic Church. 

Michael A. Murphy was afforded the advantage of the common 
schools of Illinois and' also those of the College of St. Mary's of the 
Lake, after leaving which he completed a course and was graduated 
in the Eastern national Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York. 
In 1866 he became bookkeeper for John McEwen, who was then one 
of the leading contractors and builders in the City of Chicago and he 
continued in this service until the great Chicago fire of 1871, the 
fiftieth anniversary of which is being celebrated in elaborate memorial 




"-^.^ez/?^ 




SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 805 

ceremonials in the great metropolis at the time this sketch is in prep- 
aration, in the autumn of 1921. Mr. Murphy gained from personal 
experience full comprehension of the havoc wrought by the historic 
fire, and did his part in the material and business rehabilitation of the 
city. He formed a partnership with Owen Laubach and they con- 
ducted a successful hardwood-lumber business in Chicago during the 
early reconstruction period, about two years having represented the 
duration of this partnership alliance in Chicago. In 1873 Mr. Murphy 
sold his interest in the business and went to Silver City, New Mexico, 
where he became a pioneer in the silver-mining industry and where 
he erected the first reverberatory smelting works established in that 
territory. It was necessary to use sandstone instead of fire brick in 
the construction of these great smelting furnaces, but the material 
proved unequal to the heat test and Mr. Murphy lost the money which 
he had put into the project. His financial resources were thus reduced 
to the minimum, and in the autumn of 1874 he came to San Diego, 
California, and found employment as a miner. For three months he 
worked in the Ready Relief Mine at Julian, San Diego County, whence 
he went to San Bernardino, and finally he made his way to Los 
Angeles, where he entered the employ of Perry, Woodworth & Com- 
pany and was assigned to the tallying of lumber at San Pedro. Later 
he became a salesman in the lumber yards of the firm, and on the 10th 
of October, 1875, he was sent by the concern to Colton, San Bernardino 
county, to open the first redwood and Oregon pine lumber yards in 
the county. Upon the death of Wallace Woodworth in 1882 Mr. Perry, 
the surviving principal of the firm, incorporated the W. H. Perry 
Lumber & Mill Company, of which Mr. Murphy became a stockholder, 
his association with the company having thus continued until its 
corporate charter was resigned many years later, in 1903. 

In 1886 Mr. Murphy efTected the organization and incorporation 
of the Pioneer Lumber' & Mill Company, of which he became presi- 
dent and general manager, this company having conducted substantial 
operations in San Bernardino and Riverside counties and also in a 
part of Los Angeles County. Mr. Murphy continued as the executive 
head of this company until its charter of incorporation was resigned 
likewise in the year 1903. 

During all of these years of constructive activity Mr. Murphy was 
extensively engaged also in real-estate and agricultural operations in 
Riverside and San Bernardino counties, and he thus made large and 
valuable contribution to the civic and industrial advancement of this 
section of the state. In 1896 he purchased a substantial block of the 
California Portland Cement Company at Colton, reorganized the coni- 
pany and assumed charge of the business. He was the first man in 
California to manufacture Portland cement and place it on the market 
in a commercial way. In this enterprise he had to face the vigorous 
commercial opposition of strong and well established companies 
that were importing foreign cements, the only kind used in California 
up to that time. Mr. Murphy instituted a vigorous and well ordered 
campaign, and his enterprise was made .successful from the start, the 
cement products of the company finding sale throughout all parts 
of Southern CaTTfornia. In 1900 "Mr. Murphy sold his interest in this 
large and prosperous business and allied himself with the Treadwells, 
of the Treadwell Associated Mining Company of Alaska, and their 
associates, W. J- Rartnett and J. Delzell Brown, in the California Safe 
Deposit & Trust Company of San Francisco, in the project of erecting 
a large cement manufacturing plant on the Telsa Coal Company's land 



806 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

in Alameda County. After a careful and diligent survey of the proper- 
ties Mr. Murphy discovered that the requisite materials were not 
present in sufficient volume to justify the establishing of a cement 
plant, but found on the lands very large deposits of kaolin and clays 
well adapted for the manufacture of architectural terra cotta, fire brick, 
face brick, sewer pipe, etc. As a result of the investigation the Carne- 
gie Brick & Pottery Company was organized and incorporated with a 
capital stock of $2,500,000. The plant was erected and its operation was 
continued successfully during a period of five years, with Mr. Murphy 
as president and general manager of the company. During the year 
of the great earthquake and fire in San Francisco, and also during 
the following year, the factory of this company, the largest on the 
Pacific Coast at that time, did a business of $1,250,000 a year. While 
San Francisco was still burning Mr. Murphy was called upon by the 
relief committee to construct barracks and refugee houses for sufferers 
who were homeless. Ife proceeded at once, under the instructions of 
General Funston and Major Mclvor, to commandeer all the lumber 
that was still to be had and all vessels arriving in port, and with 5000 
carpenters, teamsters and laborers completed m eleven days the 
barracks to house 23,000 homeless in Golden Gate Park, and for which 
he was complimented both by General Funston and Major Mclvor 
for the magnificent manner with which he accomplished this work. 

During the period of successful commercial activity on the part 
of the Carnegie Brick & Pottery Company, the managers of the Cali- 
fornia Safe Deposit & Trust Company were likewise interested principals 
in the Carnegie Company, and were successful in bringing the Western 
Pacific Railroad to the Coast and selling all of the terminals and rails 
of the Alameda & San Joaquin Railroad, which gave the Western 
Pacific entrance to Oakland and Alameda estuary, and thence to San 
Francisco. Mr. Murphy became largely interested as a stockholder 
in the banking institution mentioned, and in 1906-7, through manipu- 
lations that are now a part of California financial history and that con- 
stitute a dark chapter in that history, the bank was looted of the 
assets of all depositors, its failure in 1907 entailing a gigantic loss, 
fully $16,000,000. In this crash Mr. Murphy lost the major portion 
of his fortune. 

In 1911 Mr. Murphy returned to Los Angeles, where he had long 
maintained a home and where he still owns his fine residence property 
on Figuerora Street. He continued to reside in Los Angeles until 
1916, when he returned to his orange grove in Riverside County, in 
the Highgrove section, where he is now living in semi-retirement, con- 
tent to live quietly after the rush and manifold cares of former years 
of splendid activity, and taking satisfaction in having his home in the 
section of California which he had previously helped to develop and 
build. His idyllic orchard estate at Highgrove comprises sixty acres, 
all planted to navel oranges, and the products of the place he ships 
through the Alta Cresta packing house. 

While a resident of Colton Mr. Murphy was a stockholder and 
director of the First National Bank of that place and served as city 
trustee from its incorporation until he took up his residence in San 
Francisco. In earlier years of residence at Riverside he was one of 
the organizers of the Riverside Highland Water Company and he 
served as president of the same until his removal to San Francisco. 

The political allegiance of Mr. Murphy was given to the democratic 
party, and he was active in its councils and campaign work, served 
as a member of county and state central committees and repeatedly was 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 807 

a delegate to county and state conventions of the party in California 
until the first election of Grover Cleveland to the presidency, when 
he transferred his allegiance to the republican party, in the ranks of 
which he has since continued to be aligned. He was one of the first 
directors of the Southern California Hospital for the Insane, and re- 
tained this ofifice eight years, under the administrations of Governors 
Waterman and Alarkham. Mr. Murphy as a young man became a 
lieutenant in the San Bernardino cavalry regiment of the California 
National Guard, unattached, and later he was commissioned a major 
by Governor Stoneman. It is worthy of record that Mr. Murphy 
raised, on the Agua Mansa stock farm, near the cement plant at Colton, 
some of the fastest standard-bred horses ever produced in California, 
he having been president of the cement company at this time. 

In Solano County, on the 15th of April, 1879, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Murphy with Miss Elizabeth A. Young, who was 
born and reared in California, a daughter of Dr. Edmund Young, who 
was a leading physician in the City of Oakland. 

William Hale Reed, of San Bernardino, has been an integral part 
of the civic and social life of the city for a number of years, both com- 
mercially and professionally. While the World war was going on he was 
one of the most active workers in every way, giving time and money and 
neglecting his own affairs for the great cause. As a business man he is 
well known not only here but over the state and in the East, and he 
is without doubt the best known and most popular notary public in San 
Bernardino County. 

Mr. Reed was born in the town of Crystal Lake, Illinois, May 8, 
1878, the son of Eliphaz and Mary Jennie (Rinehart) Reed. His father 
was a native of Illinois and his mother of Pennsylvania. His father 
was a farmer while in the East, but he retired in 1900 and came to San 
Bernardino. After a life full of activity he was not contented to live 
in idleness, so he entered the employ of the Sante Fe, retiring in 1915. 
With his wife he is now living in San Bernardino, enjoying life. 

William Hale Reed was educated in the public schools until eleven 
years of age and then at Alma, Harlan County, Illinois, where he com- 
pleted his education in the grade and High School. Upon the completion 
of his studies he went into the grain business and for four years and a 
half continued in it in Alma, Greeley Center, David City and other places. 

In the spring of 1901 he came to San Bernardino, where his parents 
were living. For a short tiine he was employed by the Santa Fe Rail- 
road Company, but he soon went into the hardware and plumbing business 
under the name of W. G. Ross & Company. In 1908 he sold out and 
started in the real estate business, in which he has continued ever since. 
In addition to this he also handles insurance and acts as resident agent 
for non-resident owners. He is also a notary public, probably the best 
known in the county. 

Mr. Reed is secretary and treasurer of the National Farm Loan Asso- 
ciation. He was one of the framers of the city charter of San Bernardino. 

He assisted in organizing the San Bernardino Realty Board, and was 
one of the most active members in that organization, serving as its first 
president in 1920-21. 

During the war he was very active in every way and was the official 
registrar for all the laboring men that were sent from the district. He 
gave most liberally of both time and money to all activities and now holds 
a certificate of honor for his work in the liberty loan campaigns. Mr. 
Reed married June 12, 1912, Annie L. Williams, of Virginia, a daughter 



808 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

of Washington Bailey Williams, a jjioneer of that state. During the 
Civil war Mr. Williams was a soldier in the Confederate Army. He 
and one daughter, Mrs. Alice Martha Hayes, are residing at Bristol, 
Tennes.see. 

Mr. Reed is a member of San Bernardino Lodge, No. 290, I. O. O. F. 
He is a democrat in his politics, and while living in Greeley, Nebraska, 
was appointed city clerk. Mr. Reed is aftiliated with the Christian Science 
Church. 

Geor(7e W. Hor,BROOK. One of San Bernardino's progressive business 
men and live wire real estate men is George W. Holbrook. W'hile he 
handles more than his share almost of the real estate business in the city, 
he does not by any means confine his attention to either city or county, but 
has built up a clientele ail over the state. 

Mr. Holbrook is essentially a self-made man, one of the class honored 
by all for his attainments and for the success he has made unaided. When 
he was a mere boy he left the home farm to make his own way, in too 
often a way which invites disaster, with no trade or accomplishment, as 
he was too young to have achieved either, vet he manfully set to work to 
make a man of himself. And he is one man who can be proud of the 
job he made of it. It is true that the child of hard circumstances usually 
is sensitive to a fault, few have that happy combination and will power 
which enables them to graduate with honors from the school of difficulties 
and, above all, gives them the "understanding mind." Mr. Holbrook 
possesses these qualities, hence his success. 

When he first began to work he had, of course, to take any jobs such 
as a young boy could fill, but he tackled any and everything and always got 
away with it. He had to try many vocations before he found his rightful 
niche, as he had no one to advise him or aid him, to tell him the require- 
ments and rewards of the various trades and professions. So he naturally 
drifted from one thing to another, finding final anchorage in beautiful 
San Bernardino. 

Mr. Holbrook was born in Warren County. Iowa, September 20, 1873, 
the son of Qeorge W. and Jennie (Young) Holbrook. his father a native 
of Appanoose County. Iowa, and his mother a native of Ohio, who came 
to Iowa before the Civil war. She died in 1907. George Holbrook. Sr.. 
was an abolitionist and went through most of the Civil war. He enlisted 
when he was only seventeen years of age and he fought until he was 
taken pri.'^oner at the end of three years. He was taken at Marks Mills, 
.Arkansas, and was sent to Tyler, Texas, and there confined in a log prison. 
He was exchanged a short time before the close of the war. He is still 
living on the home farm in Iowa. They were the parents of nine chil- 
dren, only one of whom is dead. 

Mr. Holbrook was educated in the public schools of Warren County 
until he was fourteen years old, when he struck out for himself, going tn 
Oklahoma, where he worked at various things and managed to attend 
business college at night. He then learned the printer's trade and followed 
that for some time. He started a grocery business, built up a fine trade 
and then sold out and went to Kansas City. There for some years he 
was in the employ of the railroads, but he was not satisfied here and 
determined to come West. 

In 1907 Mr. Holbrook located in Redlands, where he was engaged 
by the county in fumigating, and he also worked for the street car com- 
pany. He was also the county jailer under Sherifif McMahon for two 
years and a half. During the war he worked for a copper company in 
Miami, .Arizona. In 1919 he located permanently in San Bernardino 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 809 

and opened a real estate and insurance office, and has been in that business 
since. He handles real estate all over the state as well as in San Ber- 
nardino city and county, and is doing a big business. Mr. Holbrook is a 
director in the San Bernardino — Colton Oil Company. 

On June 4, 1913, Mr. Holbrook was united in marriage with Rachael 
Keller, a daughter of F. M. Keller, of San Bernardino. Mrs. Holbrook 
is a native daughter. They have one child, Margery. Mr. Holbrook is a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of Redlands and of 
San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, B. P. O. E. He is also a charter member 
of the Loyal Order of Moose. In politics he is an upholder of republican 
principles, and when in Oklahoma, represented the party in a county con- 
vention. 

J. Dale Gentry. The man who builds up a sound and reliable busi- 
ness, no matter in what line, is rendering a valuable service to his com- 
munity, for in so doing he is adding to its prestige as a commercial and 
industrial center, is setting an example which stimulates others to like 
action, and affords employment to some of his fellow citizens, thus en- 
abling them to become producers. Every man does not succeed in his 
own business, although he may make a good employe under another's 
direction. All men are not executives or money getters. Certain definite 
characteristics are required in order that man forge ahead, distancing com- 
petitors and building up a name for his special line of endeavor. Faith 
in himself and a natural liking for his work must come first, and closely 
allied with them in importance is a persistence, a far-sightedness and a 
knowledge of human nature. \\'hen the owner of a business is brought 
into direct touch with his trade it is necessary for him to have a pleasing 
manner, an accommodating spirit and a sincerity of word and action in or- 
der to win and hold his customers. Some of these salient characteristics 
are possessed in marked degree by J. Dale Gentry, proprietor of the large 
automobile agency for the Ford cars and tractors, with a fully equipped 
repair department attached, at 437 East Street, San Bernardino. 

J. Dale Gentry was born at Sedalia, Missouri, April 12, 1884, a son of 
Clark and Emma ( Parker ) Gentry, natives of Sedalia. Missouri. The 
family came to San Bernardino about 1890, and from then on J. Dale 
Gentry was reared in this city. After he was graduated from High School 
he took a two-year special course in banking at the University of South- 
ern California at Los Angeles. For a short time after completing this 
course he worked at steamfitting, and then was employed by the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company on construction work, having charge for two 
years as superintendent of the construction on the Colorado River irriga- 
tion dam project, and then for two years more was engaged in railroad 
construction work in Mexico. 

While engaged in construction work Mr. Gentry traveled from Mexico 
to Alaska, but finally decided to return to San Bernardino, and in 1906 
established his present business of buying, selling and delivering auto- 
mobiles. In 1910 he secured the Ford agency, starting with a contract 
for not less than six cars. His business has so increased that today he 
is selling 1,200 cars annually. Mr. Gentry also handles the Fordson 
tractors, carries a full line of accessories, and has a fully-equipped repair 
department in which he is doing a thriving business. All the year round 
he employs fifty persons, and his establishment is second to the Santa 
Fe Railroad in San Bernardino in the number of men employed. 

Mr. Gentry is not married. Fraternallv he maintains membership with 
the Masons aiid Elks, and is inipnlar in linlh nrders. In addition to his 
auto business he has other interests and among them i> his connection wi h 



810 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

the Farmers Exchange National Bank of San Bernardino, of which he is 
vice president. He also maintains membership with the San Bernardino 
Chamber of Commerce, and is one of the active forces in that body. 
Mr. Gentry is enthusiastic about his home city, has faith in its future, 
and is proud of the part he has played in its past. 

George D. Parker — Not a community or state merely, but an entire 
nation, can take pride in the achievements of such an inventor as 
George D. Parker, the man of genius at the head of the Parker Ma- 
chine Works at Riverside. This is the only firm in the United States 
specializing in automatic box machines and box handling devices. 
Mr. Parker stands out first and foremost among all who have had 
any thing to do with box making machinery. To his genius is due 
the credit for some of the most essential features of fruit packing 
houses of the present day, and especially the citrus industry. He has 
between fifty-five and sixty patents, is engaged in working out others, 
and has taken out thirteen patents in nine foreign countries. 

A native son of California, George D. Parker was born at Mariposa, 
February 2, 1870. His father, Robert Parker was of English ancestry, 
a native of Canada, and came to California in 1868. The mother, also 
deceased, was born in Canada and was Henrietta Patterson. Her 
father's cousin, Sir John Patterson, was an official of the Bank of 
England and one of the original promoters of the Panama Canal. 

When George D. Parker was two years old his parents moved 
to Orange County, and he grew up there and received a public school 
education. After school he was employed in farm and orchard work 
until he was twenty-five, and he therefore knows the fruit industry 
of California from other practical standpoints than that of an inventor 
of packing house equipment. At the age of twenty-five he began and 
completed a thorough apprenticeship as a mechanic and machinist in 
shops at Los Angeles. He remained there until 1900. 

About that time he developed his first box making machine. After 
working four years to develop this machine he came to Riverside with 
the idea that all his troubles were at an end. He found that he had 
only made a start, and then ensued another period of four years in 
which he was studying and contriving means of perfecting the machine 
to meet the most exacting tests that could be imposed. His first 
machine was sold to the Riverside Heights Packing House No. 10 
seventeen years ago, and that machine is still in good running order. 
Without recounting all the details in the growth and broadening ap- 
preciation of Mr. Parker's box making machine it is sufficient to say 
that there is not a carload of fruit shipped from California or Florida 
which does not pay tribute to Mr. Parker through the agency of his 
devices. 

For a number of years he did his experimenting and some of his 
manufacturing in the Stoner Iron Works, then the only machine shop 
in Riverside. It was afterward sold to Mr. Landwehr and became the 
Riverside Foundry and Machine Works. Mr. Parker bought in 1909 
all other interests in the plant, and gave it the name Parker Machine 
Works, which manufactured all the varied lines of packing house ma- 
chinery covered by his patents and became the controlling factor in 
the citrus packing house equipment. 

In December, 1920, Mr. Parker consolidated the citrus packing 
house business with the Fred Stebler interests. The consolidation was 
considered beneficial to the industry as a whole, as it eliminated com- 
petition, the purchaser now being able to buy the best of the machines 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 81 1 

furnished by the two companies. The present Stebler-Parker Com- 
pany is a close corporation with Fred Stebler and Mr. Parker as 
principals. At the time of the consolidation Mr. Parker was employing 
a hundred and twenty-five mechanics and manufacturing citrus pack- 
ing house machiner}- exclusively. His plant is still manufacturing and 
developing box making machines and box handling devices, and is the 
only firm in the United States specializing in automatic box making 
machinery. 

The basic patents of Mr. Parker are all established and settled 
by court examination and decision. His were the first machines placed 
on the market. He has many patents on automatic nailing machines 
four on a fruit separator, eight on fruit sizers, three on fruit sorters, 
seven on fruit dryers used largely in the citrus trade and demonstrated 
as the only practical ones in use. Other patents are on box presses, 
fruit weighers, conveying systems, box emptying and elevating, com- 
bined box elevator and conveyor and pasting machines. His auto- 
matic machines have a normal capacity of twenty-five boxes per 
minute, and Mr. Parker expects to increase this efficiency to an output 
of thirty per minute. Machines manufactured under the Parker 
patents make seventy-five per cent of all fruit boxes in California. 
The business involves a tremendous amount of material. 

Mr. Parker is a member of the Riverside Chamber of Commerce 
and the Business Men's Association, is a republican, and is affiliated 
with the First Methodist Church. He is one of the public spirited 
citizens of Riverside, and his own work is an important source of 
Riverside's prestige both in California and abroad. Mr. Parker married 
in Washington. June 6, 1900. Miss Clara Barr. She was born in 
Oregon, of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, and is a daughter of George 
Barr, now deceased. 

Horace McDonald Hays, D. D. S., whose professional work as a 
dentist covers a period of eighteen years equally divided between Colton 
and San Bernardino, is a native son of California and, while a compara- 
tively young man, has been an interested witness of the changing develop- 
ments in the San Bernardino Valley, where he has lived since boyhood. 

He was born at San Jose, November 28. 1879, son of Wilson and 
Tacie (McDonald) Hays. His parents were natives of Pennsylvania, 
where his father was born in 1839 and his mother in 1837. They were 
married in 1872, and the same year started for California, crossing the 
Isthmus on the Panama Canal Railroad and settled at San Jose. They 
lived at San Jose until their son Horace was five years of age, when 
they moved to Banning, where Wilson Hays helped organize the town 
and develop its water supply. Then, in 1885, when Dr. Hays was six 
years old, the family moved to Colton, where his father for many years 
was engaged in the fruit canning business. Thus Horace McDonald Hays 
has lived in the San Bernardino Valley thirty-five years. His father 
died in 1912, at the age of .seventy-three, and his mother is still living 
at Colton. aged eighty-four. 

Horace McDonald Hays grew up at Colton, acquired a grammar and 
high school education, and as a youth he was employed in the fruit 
farming industry at Colton and later was assistant postmaster under 
his father, who was Colton's postmaster for sixteen years. 

Dr. Hays recalls that when he was a boy he and his mother accom- 
panied his father to Crafton to see a lone orange tree reported to have 
at least eleven boxes of oranges on it, and they were among the many 
visitors to that marvel marking a pioneer step in the progress of the 



812 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

great horticultural development of Southern California. Dr. Hays recalls 
a time when Redland was a wilderness site of red hills and sage brush, 
while a practical desert intervened to the west as far as Pomona Valley. 
As a boy he rode many times on the old Concord stage between San 
Bernardino and Colton, with the late James Cole as the driver. For 
years Colton was the nearest railroad point to San Bernardino. He was 
a member in 1894 of the first party that camped at Rogers Camp, now 
Skyland, on the Rim of the World, and all supplies and provisions had to 
be hauled up with teams, while the members of the party walked. Dr. 
Hays with his parents spent ])art of one simimer at Flemings Mill in 
Little Bear Valley, the mill standing on ground that is now the middle 
of the lake. 

After his early business experiences Horace Hays entered the dental 
department of the University of California and graduated with the Doctor 
of Dental Surgery degree in 1903. He immediately returned to Colton 
and practiced there nine years, and since then at San Bernardino. At 
the time of the Spanish-American war in 1898 he enlisted, but was not 
called for service. During the World w?r he was dental examiner for the 
United States Draft Board, and is dental examiner and dentist for the 
United States Public Health Service. Dr. Hays is a member of the San 
Bernardino Board of Education for the term 1921-25, and he was a 
member of the Colton Fire Department from 1903 to 1912. He has 
always voted as a republican and is a prominent member of San Bernardino 
Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, serving as 
exalted ruler for 1920-21. He has been a member of the Modern Wood- 
men of America since 1907, and is president of the Horseshoe Band Club 
in the San Bernardino Mountains. 

At Los Angeles May 11, 1910, he married Daisy Groves, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Groves, of San Bernardino. Mrs. Hays was born 
in England, was brought to California when an infant, and has twice 
been back to her native country. She has three living sisters. Dr. and 
Mrs. Hays have one daughter, Florence Kathryne, born in 1911, and 
he also has a stepchild, Audrey B. Hale, aged fifteen. 

James E. Russell is one of the men who has been connected with 
the orange indu.stry for a number of years, as was his father before him, 
and he is also connected with much of the development of Riverside during 
the past few years, especially in connection with the operations of the 
reliable firm of E. V. Bean & Company. He was born in Newton County, 
Indiana. March 27, 1877, a son of Zadock Hiram and Jane (Roberts) 
Russell, both of whom were born in Indiana. Zadock H. Russell was a 
farmer by occupation, who came to Riverside in January, 1888, and here 
became a horticulturalist. .\\ ditl'erent times he owned four orange 
groves, two of which he planted and brought into bearing. One of these 
was on Sedgwick Street and the other on Massachusetts Street. Until 
within a short time of his death, which occurred in April. 1917, he con- 
tinued in the orange industry, and was recognized as one of the leading 
business men and prominent citizens of the city. He was "a Mason and 
a consistent member of the Methodist Fjiiscopal Church. The Russell 
family is of Revolutionary slock and English descent, while the Roberts 
family orginated in A\'ales, hut was fnundod in this country during the 
Colonial period. 

Coming to Riverside in his l,.,ylio.id. James \l. Russell attended its 
public .schools and made himself useful under his father's instruction, 
in this way learning the orange industry in all of its phases in a practical 
manner, and he has alwavs been interested in it. He now owns a seven 



SAX BERXARDINO AXD RI\'ERSIDE COUXTIES 813 

and (iiic-half acre orange grove on La Cadena Drive, and a twenty-acre 
alfalfa ranch on North Orange Street, which is a part of the Bandini 
Donation and is under the Trujillo water system. 

In addition to his horticultural work Mr. Russell is engaged with the 
real estate tirm of E. V. Bean & Company, and has heen one of its 
salesmen since July, 1920. Eor the two years prior to that date he was 
field foreman for the Riverside Heights Number 10 Fruit Packing As- 
sociation, of which he is still a member. 

In politics Mr. Russell is a democrat, but has never taken an active 
part in his party's labors, as his personal affairs have so fully claimed 
his attention. Fraternally he belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America. 
Grace Methodist Episcopal Church of Riverside holds his allegiance and 
affords him an expression for his religious faith. 

On February 15, 1902, Mr. Russell married Miss Stella Van Fleet, 
a native of Riverside and a daughter of M. B. Van Fleet, who for twenty- 
five years was agent for Wells, Fargo & Company at Riverside and is 
now living in comfortable retirement at Huntington Beach, California. 
Mr. and Mrs. Russell have three children, namely : Cecil, who is a student 
in the Riverside High School, class of 1921 ; Muriel, who is also a student 
in the Riverside High School, class of 1923 ; and Adele, who is the 
youngest. 

Mr. Russell has one sister, Clara, who is the wife of Dr. C. O. Water- 
man, a practicing physician and surgeon of Long Beach, California. 

Newman Jones is a California lawyer with a wide experience in 
general practice in a number of counties. For the last nine years his 
time has been fully taken up in corporation law as attorney for the 
Southern Sierras Company, and his duties and character make him one 
of the citizens of high standing at Riverside. 

Mr. Jones by an interval of eighteen months only escaped being a 
native son of California. His father, Lewis F. Jones, was a California 
forty-niner. He was born in Petersburg, New York, and sailed around 
Cape Horn in 1849 in search of golden treasure. After some adventures 
in the mining regions he returned East and married, and in the fall of 
1854 brought his little family to California. His son Newman Jones 
was born at Pawlett in Rutland County, Vermont, May 8, 1853. The 
wife of Lewis F. Jones was Sarah Allen, a native of Vermont and of an 
old American family, like her husband. She died in 1909. 

Lewis F. Jones on returning to California continued his active mining 
interests until 1861, when he was elected County Judge of Mariposa 
County, and at the expiration of his term as such he entered upon the 
practice of the law and practiced in Mariposa County, and achieved some- 
thing more than local prominence there and over the state. He was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1879. 

Newman Jones acquired his early education in the public schools of 
Mariposa County. His law studies were pursued in his father's office, 
and when he reached the age of twenty-one he was admitted to the bar 
and took up the practice of the law in Mariposa County, where he 
resided until 1889, after which he practiced at Fresno and Los Angeles 
and elsewhere in this state. 

In 1912 Mr. Jones was appointed attorney for the Southern Sierras 
Company, and since 1913 has been performing his duties for the company 
at Riverside. He is a republican in politics and served two terms as 
district attorney in Mariposa County. 

September 21, 1895, at Hanford, California, Mr. Jones married Miss 
Lelia Park. She was born in Tennessee, her father, Rev. Andrew G. 



814 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Park, being a Methodist minister. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have three children, 
Vera, Laura and James Carlton Chase Jones. 

Glenn Arthur Schaefer — It has been said that "Land is the basis 
of all Wealth." It must therefore be apparent that any business which 
deals with this commodity is one of utmost importance in the develop- 
ment of the community. 

Satisfying investors that the title to the lands situated in Riverside 
County are perfect is the important work performed by Glenn A. Schae- 
fer, active vice-president and general manager of the Title Insurance 
Company of Riverside and the Riverside Abstract Company. That this 
is a work of magnitude is made clear when it is considered that River- 
side County is an empire of nearly eight thousand square miles — larger 
than any one of several Eastern states, and that the yearly real estate 
transactions mount to millions of dollars. 

Glenn A. Schaefer was born in Ord Valley County, Nebraska, July 
8, 1880, the only son of Arthur Henry Schaefer and Florence Ferguson 
Schaefer. Mr. Schaefer's parents were identified with the first efforts 
at settlement in the central part of Nebraska. Mr. Schaefer's father 
served as county clerk of Valley County several years following its organ- 
ization. Previous to that time, and following his arrival in this country 
from Germany, he enlisted in the Regular Army of the United States, 
and was stationed at frontier posts in the states of Montana, Wyoming 
and Nebraska, assisting in holding in check the activities of hostile 
Indians. Moving to Salem, Oregon, in the year 1893, he was engaged 
in the abstract of title business in that city for more than ten years, or 
until the date of his death in 1905, and it was in the office of his father 
that Glenn A. Schaefer gained his first experience as a title man, work- 
ing in his father's abstract office after school hours and during the 
vacation season. 

Mr. Schaefer's mother married M. E. Getter, a business man of 
Long Beach in the year 1913, and now resides at that city. 

Mr. Schaefer moved to Riveside in the year 1906, and became iden- 
tified with a local title company. After serving as a title searcher for 
about one year he accepted an important position with the Union Title 
Company of San Diego. 

The lure of Riverside, however, could not be resisted, and after 
arriving at San Diego he began to devise ways and means of returning 
to Riverside, and finally conceived the idea of organizing a new title 
company. W^ith the assistance of W. H. Robinson of Riverside and 
L. O. Harvuot, a former resident of this city, this dream was realized 
in the organization in the fall of 1908 of the Union Title and 
Abstract Company, with an authorized capital of $50,000.00. Probably 
no business of this nature has ever been launched under less favorable 
conditions. To quote Mr. Schaefer : "I had less than $100.00 in my 
pocket when I arrived at Riverside to take up this work, and Capital 
proved exceedingly reluctant {o assist in the organization of the new 
venture." Nevertheless, by dint of hard work and many sacrifices the 
company grew year by year, and soon numbered among its patrons 
many of the most influential residents of the county. In the year 1917 
the Union Title and Abstract Company purchased a controlling interest 
in the Riverside Abstract Company and a merger was effected, which 
placed Mr. Schaefer in the active management of the consolidated 
company. 

The rapid development of property interests in Riverside County and 
the influx of many homeseekers brought to Mr. Schaefer and his asso- 
ciates a realization that the old methods of transacting title business must 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 815 

yield to the march of progress, and during the latter part of 1919 the 
Title Insurance Company of Riverside was organized, with an additional 
capital of $100,000.00 and it is significant to note that this entire capital 
was subscribed for and paid up in cash in less than ten days after it 
was offered for sale. Mr. Schaefer was selected as active vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the new af^liated company, the two insti- 
tutions having nearly 100 representative stockholders, and employing a 
paid-up capital and surplus in excess of $265,000.00 of which $100,000.00 
is deposited with the state treasurer of California, as a guarantee fund 
for the protection of clients. 

The successful organization of this company is one of Riverside's 
noteworthy business achievements placing Riverside on a par with the 
larger communities of the state and nation in the matter of safeguarding 
land titles, thereby encouraging the investment of capital for develop- 
ment purposes by creating confidence in titles. 

Mr. Schaefer's ability as a title man has been recognized all over 
the State of California. He was elected president of the California 
Land Title Association at the Thirteenth Annual Convention of its mem- 
bers, held at San Francisco in the year 1919, and has been twice sent 
East as the California delegate to the convention of the American Asso- 
ciation of Title Men. Mr. Schaefer is now a member of the executive 
committee of the American Association of Title Men. He has twice 
addressed the members of the California Association on pertinent topics 
relating to the title business, and made a noteworthy address at the 
National Convention held at Des Moines in September, 1921. 

Mr. Schaefer is a director of the Riverside Chamber of Commerce, 
and has served two terms as president of the Riverside Realty Board, 
and is an enthusiastic member of the Kiwanis Club of Riverside and a 
member of the Victoria Club and the Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks. 

In October, 1914, he was joined in marriage with Miss Marie Esther 
McLean, a native of California and a daughter of John McLean, form- 
erly of Seattle, Washington. Mr. and Mrs. Schaefer have two sons, 
Glenn A., Jr., born in 1916, and Robert A., born in 1919. 

James and Alexander Stewart constitute a firm of notably success- 
ful orange growers in the Highgrove district of Riverside County. The 
older of the brothers, James Stewart, has been an orange grower in 
Southern California for a third of a century. He was joined by his 
younger brother nine years later, and their operations at Highgrove have 
shown them to be men of most thorough efificiency in this branch of 
horticulture. They have proved equally good citizens, and both are 
bachelors. 

Their parents were Alexander and Maggie (Stewart) Stewart. The 
father, now deceased, was born in Scotland, while the mother is a native 
of Ontario and of Scotch descent, and is still living at the old home in 
Canada. 

James Stewart was born in Ontario June 30, 1865, and acquired a 
public school education there. He was twenty-two when he came to 
California in 1887, and first located near San Bernardino. There he 
bought ten acres of oranges and cultivated this tract for ten years. 
After selling he bought six acres at Highgrove, and has been tending 
that property ever since. The year after his purchase at Highgrove he 
was joined by his brother Alexander, and together they purchased ten 
acres of oranges on Center Street at Highgrove, and have handled this in 
partnership. 



816 SAX BEKXARDIXU AXU KIX'ERSIUE COL'XTIES 

James Stewart is a member of the Chamber of Commerce in Highgrove 
and a director in the Highgrove Fruit Exchange, is interested in the 
Painted Hills Oil Association at Whitewater in Riverside County, and 
also in the Chino-Corona Oil Company. He is a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows and the Independent Order of Foresters 
at Riverside. 

Alexander Stewart was born in Ontario January 17. 1868. He also 
attended the public schools during his youth and saw much of the practical 
side of farming in Ontario until 1896, when he came out to Riverside. 
He learned the horticultural business by working experience in orange 
groves, and for some time was also a railroad employe. After a time he 
began to take care of orange groves, and to some extent still follows that 
business. After he joined his brother in the purchase of the ten acres 
on Center Street he devoted nearly all his time to its cultivation, and has 
been responsible for bringing this tract into a high state of production. 

Alexander Stewart is affiliated with the Odd Fellows and Foresters. 
He is a leaseholder in the Painted Hills Oil Association at Whitewater, 
a property that is now highly promising as a source of petroleum. 

Charles B. Clark — The first settlers in Riverside were loud in their 
praise of the scenic attractiveness, though they recognized that a great 
work had to be done in order to supplement the beauty and grandeur 
of the landscape before the country would be available for homes and 
the sustaining of a large population. This work has in a large and im- 
portant measure been carried out since then. Every house built and every 
acre brought under cultivation has been a factor in the progress and de- 
velopment of this garden spot of Southern California. One of the men 
of the later class of pioneers who performed a notable service in this 
material development was Charles B. Clark, who labored here with 
purposeful energy and success for nearly twenty years. 

Charles B. Clark was born in Illinois, April 8, 1847, son of John C. 
and Mary (Meacham) Clark. Through the Meacham family he is a 
direct descendant of Miles Standish and the earliest settlements in New 
England. Charles B. Clark had a good education in the public schools 
of Illinois, and for about twenty years his energies were completely 
bestowed upon his vocation as an Illinois farmer. 

Mr. Clark arrived at Riverside December 19, 1891. He soon after- 
ward bought fifteen acres of land in the arroyo and side hills on Victoria 
Avenue, lying north and west of Victoria Hill. To the time of his death, 
which occurred nearly twenty years later, March 9, 1911, he with his sons 
gave their studious attention to the improvement and cultivation of this 
tract. It had been partly planted to vineyard. His line of development 
was in oranges and deciduous fruits, and long before his death he saw the 
profits of his labors. He built a comfortable home at 2193 Victoria 
Avenue. He had Woodbine Street cut through his property to a connec- 
tion with Victoria Avenue. That section was practically uninhabited when 
he came to Riverside. Before his death it was well built up and developed, 
and is regarded as one of the most attractive sections in the city. In all 
his work Mr. Clark was aided by his sons, and Mrs. Clark continued 
the activa supervision of the property until 1920, when she turned over 
the management to her son Frank. 

The late Charles B. Clark was a man of high standing in the com- 
munity and respected by all who knew him. He was a republican, but 
not active in politics. 

Mr. Clark married Miss Hannah J. Pew, of Minnesota, but a native 
of Indiana and daughter of James F. Pew. Mrs. Clark is a mother of 



SAX BERXAR1)1X( ) AX I) KlX'IiRSIDE COUXTIES 817 

seven childrini; John Standi^h Clark, a Xew York business man, 
during the World war furnished an amliulance to the forces in France, 
married Josephine Preterre, a native of France, who came to this country 
when an infant. The second child, Florence Dewitt Clark, is deceased. 
Jessie Burrett, is the wife of Harry Meenahan, of Riverside, and is the 
mother of three daughters, Alice, Violet and Lucile. The fourth child, 
Charles Freeland Clark, is also deceased. The son Frank, who manages 
iiis father's old orange grove on Victoria Avenue, married Miss Annie 
Knight, of Riverside, and has a daughter, Elizabeth Jane. Marion 
Louise is the wife of Frank A. Miller, owner of the Glenwood Mission 
Inn. Benjamin Clark, the youngest of the family, was trained as a 
soldier in the 89th Division under General Woods and spent a year 
overseas, being discharged as a sergeant. He is now a trainer of polo 
ponies at Kansas City, Missouri. 

Mrs. Clark is a member of the F^irst Congregational Church. In 
1920 her son-in-law, Frank A Miller, sent her on a visit to the eastern 
states. When she returned she was ushered into a palatial new concrete 
house on her land at 2191 Victoria Avenue. This house Mr. Miller, 
as a characteristic act of his generosity, had caused to be constructed 
during her absence and presented it to her as a token of his affection 
and esteem. 

Georce J. Oberschmidt put his energy and ability into effective play 
in the development of one of the fine fruit orchards of the Riverside 
district, gained a high place in popular confidence and esteem in the 
state and county of his adoption, and was one of the representative 
citizens and fruit-growers of Riverside County at the time of his death, 
in 1907. His fine personality was the expression of a noble and loyal 
nature, and his stewardship extended beyond mere individual advancement 
to express itself eft'ectively in connection with community affairs. 

Mr. Oberschmidt was born in Washtenaw County, Michigan, in the 
\ear 1865, and thus was forty-two years of age at the time of his death. 
His parents, Christian and Agnes (Bohnett) Oberschmidt, continued 
their residence in Michigan until their deaths, and were sterling 
pioneers of that state. George J. Oberschmidt was reared to the 
sturdy discipline of the home farm and acquired his early education in 
the public schools of his native state. There he continued his active 
association with agricultural industry until the early '90s, when he came 
to Riverside County, California, and purchased a ten-acre orange grove 
in the Highgrove district and ten acres of land in the Ferris Valley, near 
the old Indian School. He brought the orchard up to the best standard 
and continued to give it his personal supervision until the close of his 
life. He was one of the organizers of the Highgrove Fruit Exchange, 
and continued as a director of the same until his death. At the inception 
of the Spanish- American war Mr. Oberschmidt promptly manifested his 
jiatriotism by enlisting in Company K of a regiment? of infantry at San 
Bernardino, and with his command he proceeded to San Francisco, where 
the regiment remained during its period of service, without having been 
called to the stage of active conflict. Mr. Oberschmidt was a member 
of the Spanish-American War Veterans and was affiliated with the 
Indeiiendent Order of Foresters. 

At Highgrove, on the 22nd of August, 1900, was recorded the marriage 
of Mr. Oberschmidt with Miss Iva Morena Mumper, who was born in 
the State of Illinois and who is a daughter of Jacob H. Mumper. Mr. 
Mumper was a scion of an old Pennsylvania family of German lineage 
and became a prosperous farmer in Illinois, besides which he was a skilled 



818 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

cabinetmaker. As a young man he was a successful teacher in the public 
schools, and lasting honor attaches to his name by reason of the gallant 
service which he gave as a soldier in the Civil war, he having been a 
member of the Fifth Illinois Cavalry and having participated in many 
important battles, besides having been with the forces of General Sherman 
on the historic march from Atlanta to the sea. In later years Mr. Mumper 
vitalized his interest in his old comrades by means of appreciative affilia- 
tion with the Grand Army of the Republic. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Hester Ann Bennett, was born at Newcastle, Indiana, her 
father, John Bennett, having been a valiant soldier of the Union in the 
Civil war, and representatives of the Bennett family, which is of English 
ancestry, were patriotic American soldiers in the War of the Revolution. 
The mother of Mrs. Mumper was a Carroll, a lineal descendant of 
Charles Carroll of CarroUton of Colonial times. Mr. and Mrs. Ober- 
schmidt became the parents of two children, who remain with their 
widowed mother in the attractive home at Highgrove. Eleanor Aileen 
was graduated from the Riverside High School as a member of 
the class of 1919, and now holds the position of stenographer 
and bookkeeper in the office of the Motor Supply Company 
of Riverside. Ernest Jefferson Oberschmidt is a member of 
the class of 1923 in the Riverside High School, and his purpose is to 
prepare himself for the legal profession. He is at this writing a corporal 
in the military branch of the school. He is a valued assistant to his mother 
in the care and management of the productive operations of the home 
property. Mrs. Oberschmidt is a zealous member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of Highgrove, is affiliated with the Woman's Relief 
Corps at Riverside and the Ladies of the Maccabees, is treasurer of the 
Home Farm Department at Highgrove, and is a popular figure in the 
social life of the home community. Since the death of her husband she 
has largely increased her property holdings, which includes a ten acre 
peach and walnut grove, which she acquired by purchase and which she 
has planted and brought into a high state of cultivation 

Robert J. Lutz — Riverside as a beautiful home city has attracted 
Robert J. Lutz to its citizenship twice, and as a man of means, public 
spirit and original ideas he has contributed to the further advantages of 
the community in a most substantial measure. 

Mr. Lutz is widely and favorably known in business and civic circles 
of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he was born November 28, 1864, 
son of Frank J. and Eva (Neblett) Lutz. His parents are now deceased. 
His mother was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania, of German an- 
cestry. His father was a native of Munich, Germany, came to the 
United States when five or six years of age, joined a Pittsburgh com- 
pany for service in the Union Army during the Civil war, and after- 
ward remained in Pittsburgh and was prominent in the hotel business 
there until his death in 1902. He also served as a school director and 
was otherwise prominent in local affairs. 

Robert J. Lutz attended public schools in Pittsburgh, finishing his high 
school course in 1884. For a time he was a foreman of bridge building, 
but soon took up the vocation of his father. He had the proper courage 
required for commercial success, an evidence of which fact is that he 
borrowed twenty thousand dollars to go into the hotel business, assuring 
his wife that he intended to retire in ten years. In fact, he retired after 
nine years, had paid off his indebtedness in fourteen months and doubled 
his business. The Lutz Hotel, of which he was then proprietor, was 
one of the old landmarks in Pittsburgh, but changed its name when Mr. 
Lutz sold it. 




/f^T^/ 




SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 819 

As a hotel man he heard repeated stories of the Golden West, and 
as soon as his business affairs could be arranged he lost no time in visit- 
ing here and investigating for himself. While still retaining the owner- 
ship of the hotel building and grounds he came to California in 1905 and 
traveled over the state Irom one end to the other, seeing and consider- 
ing all the advantages of the best towns. The search ended when he and 
Mrs. Lutz reached Riverside. He bought the land on the southeast 
corner of Pepper and Seventh streets, believing it would be part of the 
finest residence district, though at the time no building had been done in 
this immediate section. He built the house now occupied by A. K. 
White and lived there until 1912, when business obliged him to return 
to Pittsburgh. He sold his residence and in the fall after his return to 
Pittsburgh erected a new hotel under the name of the Lutz House, a 
property he still owns. He was its manager for about fifteen months, 
and states that there was hardly a minute in the day when he was not 
thinking of and longing for California. After leasing the management 
of his hotel he returned with the idea of making Hollywood or Pasadena 
his home. Another investigation following, but with no discoveries suf- 
ficient to wean their hearts from Riverside. This time Mr. Lutz bought 
the northeast corner of Seventh and Pepper streets, and constructed there 
one of the handsomest architectural adornments of the city. It is typ- 
ically Californian but also embodies features from the Mission, Italian 
and Gothic styles blended into a harmonious whole. The same treatment 
was made of his garage and grounds, and one of the features is an 
outside lighting system that it is his custom to keep in full blaze through- 
out Easter Eve until dawn and combines with the beautiful view afforded 
the crowds that gather on the top of Rubidoux awaiting the famous 
Easter services. Mr. Lutz was also instrumental in securing the street 
lighting system in that district, a plan soon followed by the remainder 
of the city. Besides his home he is owner of business property on 
Eighth Street between Orange and Main streets. 

During his residence in Riverside Mr. Lutz has taken a deep interest 
in all civic affairs. He was active in the Liberty Bond drives during 
the war, and has worked with different charitable organizations. He is 
a leading member of the Home League, also of the Knights of Columbus, 
whose great increase in membership in recent years he has eagerly pro- 
moted and is at present advocate for the Knights of Columbus Lodge. 
He has also been an effectiye worker in increasing the membership and 
influence of the local Elks' Club. He is a member of the St. Francis 
de Sales Catholic Church and was a liberal contributor to the building 
of the present church edifice. W'hile in Pittsburgh Mr. Lutz had an 
active part in politics, serving on the Republican City and County Cen- 
tral Committees, representing the party at County and State Conven- 
tions, and was at one time a member of the City Council and Board of 
Education. 

At Steubenville, Ohio, November 6, 1894, Mr. Lutz married Miss 
Sarah McBride, who was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and came to the 
United States when a girl. Her father was the late Mease McBride, a 
Pittsburgh contractor. 

John L. Gwinnup has played a prominent part in the development of 
Riverside County as a center of the orange-growing industry, and is con- 
sistently to be termed a pioneer in the poultry industry in this favored 
section of the state. He has achieved marked success as a commercial 
breeder of poultry. When he came to Riverside in 1892 the present 
beautiful city was little more than a village, and here he engaged in 
orchard and team work. He has the distinction of hauling the first 



820 SAN BERXARDIXO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

orange shook-gradcr and cquipmciu into Corona, this county, the half- 
carload of oranges thus graded having been packed by S. M. Butler m the 
freight depot of the Santa Fe Railroarl. Thereafter Mr. (jwinnup hauled 
the grader to the Butler ranch on Brocton Avenue. Mr. Gwinnup came to 
Riverside early enough to assist in picking the first crop of oranges from 
the new groves, the yield having been twenty to forty boxes an acre. 
In the early days he hauled coal from the Elsinore Mine in Riverside 
County to Riverside, the round trip requiring two days and the coal 
having cost five dollars a ton. He has kept pace with progressive move- 
ments that have marked the splendid civic and material development of 
Riverside city and county, and is a sterling citizen who well merits recog- 
nition in this publication. 

Mr. Gwinnup was born in Rush County, Indiana, February 14, 1867, 
and in that state were born also his parents. Job and Elizabeth (Smith) 
Gwinnup. The Gwinnup family was founded in x\merica in the Colonial 
days, and its original representatives in this country came from Wales. 
The father of Job Gwinnup was born in New Jersey and became a 
pioneer settler in Indiana. He bought Government land for $1.25 an acre, 
and this land is now owned by John L. Gwinnup's brother Sylvester. 
The mother of the subject of this review was of Scotch lineage and a 
representative of a family that gave patriot soldiers to the Continental 
Line in the War of the Revolution. 

John L. Gwinnup was reared on the old home farm and gained his 
early education in the public schools of the old Hoosier State. He was 
actively identified with farm work in Indiana from his boyhood until he 
was twenty-six years of age, and he was about eight years old at the 
time of the death of his father, with the result that he was early called 
upon to do a man's work on the home farm. For four summers he 
applied himself vigorously in caring for the farm of his widowed mother, 
and in the meanwile his activities seem to have been closely watched by 
a neighbor, who owned one hunderd and sixty acres of land adjoining the 
Gwinnup farm and whose somewhat distrustful and irascible nature 
was shown in his refusal to rent his land. Thus young Gwinnup had 
reason to be somewhat astonished when this neighbor approached him 
and offered to rent the land to him. The ambitious youth accepted the 
])roposals and for a term of years thereafter, while still in his teens, he 
successfully carried on agriculture on this land. 

In 1892, at the age of twenty-five years, Air. Gwinnup came to 
Riverside County, California, and found employment at orchard and 
teaming work. He cared for the orchards of many of the pioneer orange- 
growers of the Riverside district, including Samuel Ames, Aldrich, Chap- 
man & Rogers, H. P. Snow, H. A. Puis and many others. He thus 
continued his service five years, and then turned his attention to inde- 
pendent grain and hay farming on Colton Avenue. After having been 
thus engaged about five years he purchased his present homestead place 
of six and one-half acres on Santa Ana Avenue, between Colton Avenue 
and North Orange Street, and here he devoted his attention principally 
to the raising of strawberries for seven years. This enterprise proved 
very profitable, and he received a representative demand for his product 
and at one period his production was so great that he was able to fix the 
market price. From 1901 until November 1, 1919, Mr. Gwinnup was 
carrier on one of the rural mail routes from Riverside, and while thus 
engaged he started in the poultry business, in the development of which 
he applied himself actively after having finished his day's work in the 
mail service. He has been in the commercial poultry business for the 
past seven years, and is running 2,800 hens and pullets on his poultry 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 821 

farm at the time of this writing, in 1921. He is the owner of six and 
three-tenths acres on North Main Street, and there he raises peaches. 
He is a charter member of the Southern California Poultry Association, 
is a member of the Farm Bureau, the California Mutual Benefit Life 
Insurance Association and the Woodmen of the \\'orId, and his political 
support is given to the democratic party. His family hold membership 
in the Seventh Day Adventist Church. 

In November, 1898, Mr. Gwinnup married IMiss Frances Brewer, a 
native of Missouri, and she is survived by one child, Anita May, who 
is now the wife of Clarence D. Carr, a farmer in the Cul du Sac district 
of Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. Carr have two children, John Edward and 
Dorothy. 

July 5, 1906, recorded the marriage of Mr. Gwinnup with Mrs. Annie 
F. Holmes, who was born in Iowa, a daughter of John Vollniar. Mrs 
Gwinnup has one child by her first marriage, a daughter, Juanita Ruth, 
who is the wife of Dale B. A\'ithers of Kentucky, a mechanic engaged 
with the Parker Alachine Company of Riverside. Mr. and Mrs. Gwinnup 
have three children. Mildred, Clara F. and Esther. 

Joseph F. Hook — The force of initiative and enterprise and the in- 
tegrity that are essential to all business undertakings have been supplied 
in the Perris Valley of Riverside County and over extensive portions of 
the Imperial Valley in a notable measure by the firm of Hook Brothers, 
who have been extensive operators there for over thirty years, merchants, 
land owners, developers of land and business and men to whose dealings 
attaches the most scrupulous reputation for fairness and honor. 

Of this firm, Joseph F. Hook was born in Maine September 15, 1850, 
son of Joseph and Mary Jane (Corson) Hook, natives of Maine and of 
Revolutionary stock and English descent. The mother died in 1857. 
Joseph Hook, Sr., was a millwright by occupation. He went across the 
Isthmus of Panama to California in 1850. Later he returned East, but in 
1861 permanently identified himself with the Pacific Coast. When he 
reached San Francisco, it is reiwrted, he addressed the crowd around him 
saying: "The Lord forgive me going away from California, for I will 
never do so again." His family joined him in 1868. He continued to he 
prominently identified with the earh- life of California and Nevada until 
his death in 1881, and among other business relations was engineer of con- 
struction of the famous Virginia Citv, Nevada, mills. 

Joseph F. Hook acquired a public school education in Maine and also 
the liberal advantages of the Skowhegan .Acadenn' and the Wesleyan 
Seminary. For two years he worked in a store at Portland, Maine, and 
he and his brother Albert were in Portland during the big fire of July 
4, 1866. In 1876 they engaged in business as partners at San Francisco, 
conducting the Sixth Street Bazaar under the name of Hook Brothers for 
eleven years. 

.^bout 1887 the Hook Brothers transferred the scene of their operations 
to Perris. Riverside County. A detailed story of their business history 
would reflect nearly every important phase of development in this section. 
.A.t Perris they erected a large store building and warehouse, conducting 
a general merchandise store, dealt in implements and seed, operated a 
barley mill and lumber yards in connection, anrl for venrs sunnlii-d mo-f 
of the fodder used in the mining operations of that district. These active 
commcrrinl interests thev sold in 1919. and since then Josenh Hook 
has been looking after his projiertv and ]iersonal interests. Mr. Hook 
<levoted much capital and his personal enter]irise to the development of 
the Imperial Valley. At one time he had an interest in eight hundred 



822 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

acres under water there, six hundred forty acres of it being a vast 
alfalfa field. Nearly all of this land has since been sold, though the 
brothers still have interests there. 

Joseph Hook is a Royal Arch Mason, is a past master of Ferris 
Lodge, F. and A. M., a member of the Ferris Chamber of Commerce, and 
as a republican has represented his party in Riverside County Conventions. 
During the Civil war, though a boy, he drilled with a local company in 
Maine so as to be ready and fit should the call for active duty come. 

In Lake County, California, December 1, 1880, Mr. Hook married 
Miss Emma L. Burtnett, of a French Huguenot family. She was a 
native of Illinois, where her father, Feter Burtnett, was a mill owner. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hook have six children : Joseph S., an economic geologist 
and expert in oils, who during the war had charge of the refining of the 
oil for the aviation field at Dayton, Ohio, and is now geologist for the 
Sinclair Oil Company of New York; Chestina A., wife of J. F. Seymour, 
an attorney at El Centro, California ; Miss Edith L.. an osteopath physician 
at El Centro ; Esther E., wife of H. E. Lane, of Van Nuys and the mother 
of three children; Carroll A., wife of Leslie H. Brigham. a farmer of 
Lakeside, California, and the mother of one child ; and Miss Gladys J., 
wife of George Woodburn, of San Luis Obispo. California. 

Albert W. Hook has been the junior partner of Hook Brothers, and 
practically all his business life has been closely associated with his brother 
Joseph, also an honored resident of Ferris in Riverside County. Hook 
Brothers were in business at San Francisco, and some thirty-five years 
ago transferred their interests to Ferris, where until recently they figured 
prominently as merchants, handling most of the grain crops of the valley, 
men of large capital themselves and controlling capital that has developed 
and enriched this country for the benefit of future generations. 

Albert \\'. Hook was born at Skowhegan, Maine, December 11, 1855, 
son of Joseph and Mary Jane (Corson) Hook, also natives of Maine. 
His father came out to California as early as 1850, via Panama, and in 
1861 identified himself permanently with California, expressing regret 
that he had ever left the state. He was a millwright, an engineer in the 
construction of many mills in the West, and was closely identified with 
the pioneer fortunes of both California and Nevada. He died in 1881. 

Albert W. Hook was thirteen years of age when he joined his father 
at San Francisco. He finished his education in the public schools of 
Oakland and San Francisco, and served an apprenticeship as a machinist 
at San Francisco. Mr. Hook confesses that he never could get used to 
the whistle, and as soon as he had served his time he joined his brother 
Joseph, in 1876, in the firm of Hook Brothers, conducting the Sixth 
Street Bazaar at San Francisco. Some eleven years later they came to 
Ferris, and until 1919 were in business as general merchants, feed and 
implement dealers, grain buyers and shippers and lumbermen. Hook 
Brothers at one time had as high as eight hundred acres under irrigation, 
growing alfalfa in the Imperial Valley. 

Albert \\'. Hook is a republican. In Lake County, California, April 
25, 1885, he married Miss Mabel E. Merritt, a native daughter. Her father, 
Rufus D. Merritt, conducted a feed store in Alameda County and later in 
the Santa Clara Valley, ller brother, Fred Merritt. is now county clerk 
of Lake County. Mr. and Mrs. Hook have two sons. Rufus N., the 
older, has the Riverside agency for the ^^'allis tractor. He is a master 
of the Lodge of Masons at Ferris. He married Fet Ellis, a native of 
North Dakota, daughter of Judge William Ellis, of Riverside. Their 
two children, Rufus, Jr., and Elizabeth, are botli attending school. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 823 

Rolla Edwin, the second son, now an orchardist in Lake County, 
enlisted in the Aviation Corps during the war and was in the field at 
San Francisco, San Diego and Marshfield until after the armistice. He 
married Miss Eileen Allen, daughter of Joseph Allen, of Riverside. 
They have one son, Kenneth Allen Hook. 

Frank Augustus Miller — From the fundamental plans and con- 
structive developments to the modern forms of beauty and atmosphere 
that are the distinctive features of Riverside, a lasting debt is due the 
enterprise and practical idealism of the Miller family, which through two 
generations and for almost half a century have lived their lives and 
expressed their ideals in this community. 

The history of Riverside dates from 1870, when the Southern Cali- 
fornia Colony Association bought the mesa land from Louis Rubidoux. 
This land was a waste and the first efforts of the enterprising colonists 
from the North Central and the Eastern States were to construct an 
irrigating ditch and plant thousands of fruit and shade trees. In 1874 
the two original navel orange trees from Washington were planted 
at Riverside, being the foundation of the citrus industry- of California. 
Another influential group of men joined the Riverside Colony that 
year. 

One of them was Captain C. C. Miller, chief engineer for the 
company. Christopher Columbus Miller, who from that date until 
his death was closely identified with the growth and development of 
Riverside, was born in Oneida County, New York, in 1824, son of 
Chauncey and Alice (Rimey) Miller, and grandson of Grant Miller. 
who as a pioneer built the first house in that section of New York. 
C. C. Miller was four years of age when his father died but acquired 
a good education in the public schools of New York, and when 
about twenty- one joined his mother and stepfather in Ohio, where 
he entered Oberlin College. Two years later he entered Cleve- 
land University, graduating in the Civil Engineering Department in 
1852. For about two years he was employed in construction work on 
the Illinois Central and Atlantic & Ohio Railroads and then estab- 
lished a home at Tomah, Wisconsin. During the following decade he 
was identified with the building of many railroads in Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, and also did much surveying in the newer sections of those 
states. At the beginning of the Civil war he was commissioned captain 
of Company M, 49th Wisconsin Infantry. He was in Missouri under 
General Dodge and, his engineering skill being recognized, he was 
appointed chief engineer for the Federal forces in that district. He 
served until his honorable discharge in 1865. Subsequently he was 
assistant chief engineer in the building of the West Wisconsin & St. 
Paul Railway and was chief engineer of the Wabash & Lake Superior 
Railway. 

It was on account of the ill health of his wife that he sought the 
milder climate of California, and in 1872 removed to Los Angeles. He 
began his duties as chief engineer and superintendent of the El Sob- 
ante de San Jacinto Rancho at Riverside in June of that year, and in 
October of the following year nu)\'ed his family to Riverside frcmi their 
home in Wisconsin. He planned the main irrigation ditch and had 
supervision of many other important works, such as the plotting, con- 
struction and tree planting on Magnolia Avenue. He was the chief 
engineer in the construction of the Gage Canal system, properly re- 
ferred to as one of the most important constructive enterprises in the 



824 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

early development of Riverside County. As a civil engineer his 
services were also called to other projects in California and Arizona. 

In 1852 Captain Miller married Miss Mary Clark, whose father 
was a physician in Lorain County, Ohio. She was of Quaker ancestry, 
and though for about twenty years after her marriage her home was 
in new and undeveloped countries, she never failed to exemplify the 
culture and refinement that was a matter of both inheri-tance and 
training. She was a splendid horne maker, and her children remember 
her as one in whose gentle nature were found mingled the elements 
of sweetness and light and a quiet fondness based on an unfaltering 
trust in the eternal goodness of God. In a record of the notable 
constructive influences flowing from the Miller family in Riverside 
appropriate credit should not be withheld from this good and noble 
character. Captain and Mrs. Miller had four children: Emma, who 
became the wife of G. O. Newman; Frank A.; Alice, who became the 
wife of F. W. Richardson and who has always been associated with 
her brother as manager of the hotel ; and Edward E., who married Miss 
Emma C. Tompkins. 

In lieu of three hundred and seventy-five dollars hack salary owine 
to Captain ]Miller for his services to the Land Company there was 
granted him in 1874 the block bordered by Main and Orange and 
Sixth and Seventh streets, and on that site was built the original adobe 
home of the family. Frank Miller, a barefoot boy under the instruc 
tion of an Indian, made the adobe brick which his father laid into 
the walls. The house when finished in the summer of 1876 was the 
largest in Riverside. In 1877 the little hotel on an adjoining block 
was burned, and the Miller family began taking boarders in their 
commodious home. Those chiefly responsible for the service, which 
became justly popular from the start, were the wife of Captain Miller 
and her son Frank and daughter Alice. It was first called the Glen- 
wood Tavern. When other buildings were added for additional 
accommodation the name was changed to Glenwood Cottages, and still 
later to the Glenwood Hotel. In 1881 Captain Miller sold his interests 
in the Glenwood Hotel to his son Frank, who has been the owner for 
the past forty years. 

Frank Augustus Miller was born at Tomah, Wisconsin, June 30. 
1858, and up to the age of fourteen his home was in that state. He 
had only a limited opportunity to attend public school and most of 
his instruction was imparted to him by his mother. Indians wer^his 
playmates and the outdoor life of the forest country was a splendid 
practical school for the acquisition of a varied knowledge. He fre- 
quently accompanied his father on surveying trips through the woods 
and the wilderness country. 

During the first few years of his residence at Riverside he worked 
at any honorable labor to assist the family, herded sheep, drove mules, 
budded trees, clerked and acted as zanjero. For a time he conducted a 
successful grocery business under the name "Blue Front." 

The institution with which Mr. Miller's interests have been longest 
identified and which is in itself a sjjlendid monument to his ])ublic 
enterprise and public spirit, is the Mission Inn of Riverside, regarded 
by many as the most distinctive hostelry in California and starred by 
Baedeker as one of the world's greatest hotels. Historically it is the 
outgrowth of the simple comforts furnished by the Miller family forty- 
five vcars ago in Glenwood Tavern. The essential features of the 
iirigiiial mission construction, admirably adajded to the climate of 
C'aliturnia. have always prevailed in the successive groujis oi buildings, 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 825 

and there has likewise been maintained the spirit of hospitality of the 
old Missions. The Spanish motto at Mission Inn door is "Enter friend, 
this is your house." A part of the old adobe home of the Millers is 
retained in the present structure, used as a tea room. The old Glenwood 
Hotel finally became the Mis.sion Inn of today. The present mission 
building was erected in 1901, to replace a number of buildings dating 
from the three previous decades. In 1907 Mr. Miller made his first 
iuiropean tour, and the result of that was the building of the Cloister 
and the great Music Room in 1909, exemplifying more of the distinctive 
features of the California Missions. Mr. Miller made a special trip to 
.Spain to secure old time furniture for the Cloister. Then followed, in 
1914, the building of the two Spanish wings and Art Gallery and the new 
Patio of the Fountain, in which were incorporated characteristic features 
of Spanish architecture. Even in its modern form Mission Inn emphasizes 
restful simpHcity, expressed in a motto in the lobby : "Ye canna expec' 
to be baith gran and comf'table." 

The Mission Inn has been repeatedly described in travel books and 
magazines, and its charm has been permanently impressed upon everyone 
who shared the hospitable comforts. The Inn covers an entire block, 
comprising the original tract granted to the late Captain Miller. It is 
four stories high, built in the style of a Franciscan Mission, furnished, 
decorated and filled with carvings, paintings and curios from the Missions 
of Mexico and Spain and with art treasures from all over the world. 
Therefore it is not only a luxurious hotel but has been well described as 
a library of information, a museum of antiquities, a palace of fine arts. 
and a place of delight in which to dwell and dream of the romance of 
the past. 

Some of the features which have been greatly admired and written 
about are the Cloister Music Room (of which Mr. A. B. Benton was the 
architect), with its cathedral organ; the Cloister Walk and El Camino 
Real, the Refectorio or dinning room, the Carmel Room and the adjoining 
Carmel Tower, the St. Cecelia Wedding Chapel, the Garden of the Bells, 
the Spanish Art Gallery, and the Spanish Patio ; also one of the greatest 
collections of Bells and Crosses in the world, and a beautiful altar of 
exquisite workmanship and covered with gold leaf, recently brought from 
Mexico. 

The impressive list of distinguished guests at Mission Inn includes 
four presidents — Harrison, McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft. While a 
guest at the Inn May 7, 1903, President Roosevelt, referring to the 
building, expressed himself characteristically: "I like it. It is strong, 
simple and genuine — and strong, simple and genuine things are beauti- 
ful. I am delighted with the whole thing." On the same day Mr. Roose- 
velt replanted the original navel orange tree in front of the old Adobe 
and Campanareo at Mission Inn, Mrs. Frank Miller handing the Pres- 
ident the spade with which he executed the formality. Besides the 
great interest attached to the occasion by the presence of Mr. Roose- 
velt there is .some valuable history connected with the tree itself. In his 
address to Mr. Roosevelt, John G. North, president of the Historical 
Society, said : "This little tree is of importance and historic value far 
beyond anything indicated by its size or appearance. It is the pro- 
genitor of that great industry which has done most to make Southern 
California famous. The two trees of which this is one, were brought 
from Bahia in Brazil and sent to Riverside by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington in the year 1874. From these two trees by the 
process of budding into seedling stock, all of the navel orange trees of 
California have sprung. We feel justified in asking you to plant it in 
its new home in order that we may cherish and care for it here and that 



826 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

in our thoughts it may ever be linked with the President who planted 
it for us." 

David Starr Jordan, while president of Stanford University, and 
during a visit to the Mission Inn, said ; "It has been left for you, Frank 
Miller, a genuine Calif ornian, to dream of the hotel that ought to be, to 
turn your ideals into plaster and stone and to give us in mountain-belted 
Riverside the hotel which a Californian can recognize as his own." 

A symbol and a replica of the beauty and history of the past. Mission 
Inn is rapidly accumulating special historic associations of its own. It 
has been the inspiration for at least one beautiful musical composition. 
Carrie Jacobs Bond, America's great song writer, was driving up Mount 
Rubidoux when her machine stalled on the mountain grade. She 
walked down the mountain to the Inn, arriving while the chimes were 
heralding the close of day. The cross on the mountain, the Riverside 
environment and the chimes, were the inspiration for the words and 
the music which she composed into "The End of a Perfect Day." 

"The New Alhambra" 

The cherished volume of my youth was one 

That held the legends of a Moorish King, 

Who built a palace in the hills of Spain. 

It stood, when battlements and towers were done, 

Protected and environed by a ring 

Of vast Sierra and wide verdant plains. 

It was a pleasure house, for regal state ; 

Splendid with courtiers, brilliant with the gleam 

Of woman's jewels, and of warriors' arms. 

Unfading summer lit its bannered gates. 

Ringing with song of bird and mountain stream. 

And hid by magic spells from war's alarms. 

It seems so strange, in this far Western Land, 

To find my childhood's palace of delight ; 

The mountains glistening in the summer air, 

The fragrant orange groves the valleys fanned 

By cooling breezes from the snowy heights. 

With roses upon roses everywhere. 

It is the same, the terraced roofs, the towers. 

The arched portal and the massive walls. 

The overhanging balconies and courts. 

The gay crowds idling through the happy hours, 

In open gallery and pillared halls. 

The music, and the revels, and the sports. 

What flash of genius caught the grace and charm 

Of those enchanting stories of the Past, 

And wrought them in the Glenwood of today, 

\\'hich stands a living picture, clear and warm. 

Of that far time, and on its walls are cast 

The splendors of an age long passed away ? 

M. L. E. 
Reminiscent of President Taft's visit is the great chair known as the 
Taft Chair, occupying an honored position in the lobby of the Inn. It 
was made especially for the occasion, though the President, when in- 
troduced to it at the banquet following the historic dedicatory services 
on Mount Rubidoux, offered the good-humored criticism that "you didn't 
need to make it so big." 

Of the men chiefly responsible for Mission Inn in its present state 
his friends unite in pronouncing him a rare combination of the business 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 827 

executive with tlie practical idealist, one who has been able to translate 
deeply consideied plans and projects into the realm of reality. Only in 
recent years has he been considered one of the men of large capital in 
Southern California. The success of his achievements has been due in 
large part to his ability to impart his enthusiasm to others and secure 
the co-operation of moneyed men in his plans. Almost without excep- 
tion these enterprises have contributed directly to the general welfare 
of Riverside. One of the first public movements in which he engaged, 
and to which he gave strenuous devotion for a period of four years, was 
the project securing county division and the establishment of River- 
side as the county seat. He went from one end of the state to the other 
to secure political co-operation and went into politics himself largely to 
achieve a result of which he was the only man from Riverside to 
realize and understand the eventual good that would be derived there- 
from. 

Probably because of the Quaker strain in his ancestry Mr. Miller 
was always fond of the Indians, due also to his boyhood association with 
thcni in \\'isconsin. and the noted Indian school near Riverside, known 
as the Sherman Institute, is the product of his personal interest, enthu- 
siasm and political work. He was active in securing the influence of 
Vice President Sherman through the co-operation of CoUis P. Huntington 
and Albert K. Smiley. 

Wr. Miller was one of the twenty-two men who subscribed to the build- 
ing of the first horse-car line to Arlington. Later he consolidated the three 
car lines, \\'hile's Addition, Hall's Addition and the Arlington line, and 
built what was known as the Riverside and .\rlington Electric Railway, 
extending it to the city parks and to all depots. It was not financially 
profitable, and after carrying the heavy burden for several years he 
induced Henry E. Huntington, then the controlling factor of the 
Southern Pacific, to take over the system, and as a result it is now 
incorporated in the great Pacific Electric System of Southern California. 

The first two modern business blocks of Riverside are also credited to 
the enterprise and initiative of Mr; Miller. Through the co-operation of 
C. M. Loring and a few local residents of Riverside he built the 
Loring Ojiera House, at the time the finest theater in Southern California. 
Later he built the Rubidoux Block on the opposite corner, that being the 
first three-story business block on the street. 

Through the generosity and co-operation of Henry E. Huntington and 
C. M. Loring, after the Citv of Riverside had refused to co-operate, Mr. 
Miller engineered and handled the practical details in the building of the 
Rubidoux Mountain Drive and the establishment of Huntington Park. 
The culmination of this project was the dedication of the Father Serra 
Cross on the mountain. This service was conducted by Bishop Conaty 
and fourteen of his clergy. The inscription on the tablet on the mountain 
reads: "Fray Junipero Serra, 171,1-1884. Dedicated April 26, 1907. by 
Rt. Rev. Thomas James Conaty, Bishop of Monterev and Los Angeles, 
in the presence of many people." On this occasion it is said more dis- 
tinguished men of the state were assembled than at any other time. 
Besides the Catholic dignitaries there were bishops of the Episcopal 
and Methodist churches, the governor of California and private trains 
with the parties of Henry E. Huntington, K. P. Ripley of the Santa Fe 
and United States Senator William A. Clark. Later President Taft un- 
veiled the tablet on the mountain in honor of Fray Junipero Serra. This 
tablet reads : "The beginning of civilization in California. Fray 
Junipero Serra, Apostle, Legislator, Builder. To commemorate his 
good works this tablet is here placed. Unveiled by William Howard 



828 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Taft, Twenty-seventh President of the United States, October 12, 
A. D. 1909." 

Reference has already been made to the banquet that followed the 
services on Mount Rubidoux. While it was understood the President 
would make no speech on the occasion, the peace and beauty of his 
environment impelled him to say : "I think it is fitting that the journey 
should end in a building like this, constructed to commemorate the Mis- 
sions that form so important a part in the history of this region which 
we have been privileged to visit today. I fully sympathize with the 
desire to preserve as historical memorials, worthy of preservation, these 
Missions and the style of architecture that the Missions represent. I 
sympathize with the people of Riverside in desiring their Government 
building constructed on the Mission plan. If we have any past of an 
historical character, we ought not to destroy it, and California is one of 
the few state? that reach back far enough into the past to have memorials 
to which you can make the architecture accord. I am glad to go out of 
California with the sweet and pleasant memory of this function held in 
such a beautiful mansion and suggestive of all the sweet romance of the 
early history of the State." 

Upon the suggestion of Jacob Riis, on the Easter following the dedi- 
cation of the cross, the first Easter Sunrise Service was held on Rubidoux, 
attended by about two hundred people. This has since become an annual 
event, attended by twenty thousand people. 

Later still, on November 11, 1918, was started the annual celebration 
of the World's Peace. This service is held at Sunset and should become 
as great as the Easter Sunrise Service. 

Ever since coming to Riverside Mr. Miller has been a member of the 
First Congregational Church, and for a number of years urged among 
his fellow members the importance of a permanent edifice whose archi- 
tecture should be fitting the environment. The result is the third building 
of the Church, one of the finest examples of church architecture on the 
Coast, in the Spanish Renaissance-Gothic style. 

June 1. 1880, Frank A. Miller married Miss Isabella Demarest Hard- 
enberg. She died in July, 1908. For thirty years or more she had been 
one of the very useful influences in Riverside educational and social affairs, 
having been the first school principal in Riverside and one of the first 
women teachers in the district, and was closely associated with Mr. 
Miller in the execution of many of his plans, particularly those relating 
to the Mission Inn. One daughter survives her. Alice Hardenberg 
Miller, now wife of DeWitt Hutchings, who is assistant manager of the 
Mission Inn. December 8, 1910, Mr. Miller married Miss Marian L. 
Clark, of Riverside. 

Benjamin Stone has been a resident of Highgrove, Riverside County, 
for the past several years, within which he has marked for him.self secure 
vantage-place as one of the successful orange-growers of this section 
of the state. In his yigorous business activities he has bought and sold 
much real estate in California, a? well as in other states of the Union, and 
his investments have brought to him substantial financial returns. He has 
been in the most positive sense one of the world's constructive workers, 
and he has found it difficult to abate his energetic business activities. About 
twelve years ago he purchased a fine home in the City of Los Angeles, 
with the intention of retiring from active business and, with his wife, 
enjoying the quiet life and many attractions of this home. Within a 
short time, however, both rebelled against the inactivity, and sought the 
open spaces, where, as he has said, he could find opportunity once more 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 829 

for imlliiig liis iiiu.^les into pla}- atu] where Mi>. Stmie could breathe 
freely. Mr. Stone was lormcrly an active worker and official in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, but of later years he has had revelations 
which, he says, have made him a seeker after truth for its own sake, and 
he is using his mental powers in an attempt to find truth and to know its 
proper application to human destinies. In his search, with no thought 
of founding a so-called "cult," he has gained an appreciable following on 
the part of others seeking for light, and he finds his attractive ranch 
home at Highgrove an ideal place for study, self-communion and psy- 
chological and philosophical research. 

Mr. Stone was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, April 26, 1858, and is 
a son of Edward and Mary (Phillips) Stone both natives of England. 
The father became a prosperous framer in Nova Scotia, and was also 
a successful contractor in connection with railway construction under 
the direct supervision and control of the Government of Nova Scotia, 
where he and his wife continued to reside until the close of their lives, 
both having been nearly eighty years of age at death. 

■ The schools of his native city and province afforded to Benjamin 
Stone his youthful education, and after leaving school he was identified 
with farm work near Halifax during a period of one year. He then 
went to the City of Boston, Massachusetts, where he served the practical 
apprenticeship that made him a skilled mason in both brick and stone 
work. He followed his trade in Boston until he came westward, and 
was similarly engaged in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, where 
he remained about thirteen years. He then became a mason contractor 
at Lewiston, Idaho, where he remained nine years and built up a pros- 
perous business. He passed the following two years in similar enterprise 
in the City of Spokane, Washington, and he then bought a tract of land 
near Clarkston, that state, a place which lies on the opposite side of the 
Snake River from Lewiston, Idaho. There he gave his attention for 
five years to the development and care of an orchard of peaches and 
apples, and during the major part of this period he was president of the 
Asotin County Fruit Growers Association, besides which he served 
three years as a member of the School Board of his district. He finally 
left his fruit ranch and returned to Spokane, where he remained four 
years and where he is still the owner of a residence property and other 
realty. 

In 1909 Mr. Stone came to California and purchased a home property 
in Los Angeles, but he soon wearied of the inactivity of a so-called retired 
life, with the result that he sold this property and purchased thirty acres 
of land near Ontario, San Bernardino County, where he gave his attention 
to the raising of apricots, .peaches and grapes. After the expiration of 
two years he sold this fruit ranch and bought a residence property at 
Inglewood, one of the surburbs of Los Angeles, but six months later 
he sold this place and purchased an apartment house, the ownership of 
which he retained one year. Upon selling this latter property he bought 
a ten-acre orange grove at Highgrove, Riverside County, and here he and 
his wife have since maintained their home. He is owner al.so of the old 
Coleman fruit grove of ten acres on Pennsylvania and Ottawa Avenues. 
He is one of the members of the Highgrove fruit-exchange, and is a 
member of the Sierra Vista Fruit Growers Association. Mr. Stone says 
that he has been identified with manifold lines of business enterprises, but 
that he found the growing of oranges the most attractive of all, even as 
it proves the most remunerative, as gauged by the labor and attention 
involved. He and his wiie, whose maiden name was Sarah Davenport, 



830 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

have a wide circle of loyal and valued friends in the community which 
ri-presents their permanent home. Mrs. Stone is a native of Canada. 

William E. V\"hite, one of the successful orange-growers of River- 
side County, has no small measure of pioneer distinction in connection 
with the civic and industrial development of this favored section of 
California, for here he established his residence fully thirty-five years 
ago, when the now beautiful City of Riverside was little more than a 
straggling village. In the early period of his residence here he found 
employment to a large extent in the picking of grapes that were to be 
dried into raisins, and he recalls that entire blocks of land now in the 
business district of Riverside were then devoted to grape culture, the 
while a brick house, in the center of an orange grove, occupied a site on 
the block where the county Court House now stands. The opera house 
of the town was thus designated by a name that belied its primitive 
construction, for the building was made of ten-foot boards that were 
placed on end and in series to constitute the walls of the structure, which 
was then provided with a roof of similarly rude construction. He finds 
satisfaction in having witnessed and taken part in the splendid march of 
development and progress in what is now one of the most beautiful 
districts of one of the most wonderful states in the Union. 

Mr. White was born in Tippecanoe, Indiana, Agust 12, 1860, and in 
the following year his parents removed to a farm in Newton County, 
that state, where he was reared to adult age, his educational advantages 
having been those of the public schools of the locality and period. His 
parents, Samuel 1. and Mary Ann (Best) White, were born and reared in 
the old Hoosier State, both being representatives of families, of English 
origin, that were founded in America in the Colonial days and both of 
which gave patriot soldiers to the nation in the War of the Revolution. 
Samuel I. White was a prosperous farmer in Indiana at the inception of 
the Civil war, and though he was called into military service he was 
rejected by reason of the fact that a missing tooth incapacitated him for 
biting the rifle cartridges, a necessary action on the part of the soldiers, 
who thus prepared the missiles for the weapons. Samuel I. White and 
his wife came to Riverside County, California, in 1887, about one year 
later than their son William, and on what is now Kansas Avenue, River- 
side, Samuel I. White purchased five acres of unimproved land, which 
he planted to orange trees and upon which he erected the house which 
continued to be the abiding place of him and his wife during the remainder 
of their lives. He gave his attention to the care of his orange grove 
until the clone of his life, and both he and his wife were honored pioneer 
citizens at the time of their deaths, their remains being laid to rest in 
Olivewood Cemetery. 

William E. \\'hite continued to be associated with the work of his 
father's Indiana farm until 1883, when he took unto himself a wnfe and 
also initiated his independent career as a farmer. In 1886 he and his wife 
came to California and established their residence in Riverside, where 
he purchased a home property on Orange Grove Avenue. This he later 
sold, and he then purchased thirty acres on the boulevard in W'est River- 
side, where he remained eleven years, within which he made excellent 
improvements on the place. After selling this property he returned to 
Indiana, in company with his family, and there they remained from March 
until the following October, when they came again to Riverside. He 
purchased ten acres of land in Redlands, but subsequently sold this 
place. He next bought the Gallagher place of thirty-five acres, just 
across the bridge in West Riverside, and there he gave his attention to the 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 831 

raising of alfalfa and the conducting of a dairy. lie continued tlie 
dairy business eighteen months, with a herd of eighty-five cows, from 
which he supplied the local patrons with eight hundred quarts of milk 
daily. Thereafter he was for a number of years foreman of the Bradley 
Ranch on Arlington Heights. A home property which he purchased at 
230 East Sixth Street he later exchanged for a ten-acre orange grove 
at the junction of Iowa and Indianapolis Avenues, and here the family 
home has since been established. When the property came into his posses- 
sion the grove was badly run down, but by proper cultivation and fertiliz- 
ing he has rejuvenated the same and brought it into a high state of pro- 
ductiveness, the fruit here produced being shipped through the medium of 
Riverside Exchange No. 10. In addition to caring for his own grove 
JMr. NN'hite has charge also of forty additional acres of orange-producing 
land for the owners, and when his eldest son is at home they jointly care 
for about one hundred acres of orange groves. Mr. White is a liberal 
and progressive citizen, is a stalwart republican and has been active in 
connection with local political atTairs, as he has served on the republican 
committee of his home county and that of the City of Riverside, and has 
been a delegate to state and county conventions of the party. He and his 
family attend the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Riverside. 

October 14, 1883, recorded the marriage of Mr. White with Miss 
Melvina Nelson, who likewise was born and reared in Indiana, and they 
have four sons : Frank E., who is now a prosperous farmer in the State 
of Indiana, is married and has one daughter, Melvina ; Charles Walter, 
who is engaged in the wholesale meat business at Riverside, married 
Sarah, a daughter of Thomas Moore, and they have two daughters, 
Dorothy and Margaret ; Arthur E. is engaged in the automobile business 
in the City of Parkersburg, \\'est Virginia ; Leonard, now an employe of 
the Riverside Title Company, entered the nation's military service at the 
time of the World war, was assigned to an artillery regiment, but was 
at San Diego at the time when the armistice brought the war to a close, 
his discharge being given him shortly afterward. 

William A. Hart has been a resident of California since 1897 and 
that he has profited by the advantages ofTered in Riverside County is 
shown in his ownership of three well improved and finely productive 
orange groves of the Highgrove district. His appreciation has been 
shown in loyal and progressive citizenship, and he is one of the substantial 
and representative fruit-growers and popular citizens of Riverside 
County. 

Mr. Hart was born near Maryville, Blount County, Tennessee, on 
the 14th of May, 1869, and is a son of the late John and Sarah J. (Mc- 
Campbell) Hart, both of whom passed their entire lives in Tennessee. 
The lineage of the Hart family traces back to staunch Welsh origin, 
and the grandfather of John Hart was a patriot soldier of the Continental 
Line in the War of the Revolution, after the close of which he became 
a pioneer settler in Eastern Tennessee. John Hart became one of the 
prosperous farmers of his native state, and both he and his wife were 
honored citizens of Blount County, Tennessee, at the time of their deaths. 
Mrs. Hart likewise was of Revolutionary ancestry and was of Scotch 
descent. 

The activities of the home farm early began to enlist the attention 
of William A. Hart, and he gained his youthful education in the public 
schools of his native county. He initiated his independent career as a 
farmer in Tennessee, where he continued his activities as such until 
1897, when, at the age of twenty-eight years, he came to Southern 



832 SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RI\ERS1DK COUXTIES 

California. After here being in the employ of others for two and one-half 
years he purchased an orange grove of seven and one-half acres near 
Highgrove, and to this he later added until he now has an excellent place 
of fifteen acres, devoted to the propagation of navel oranges. He gives 
his close attention to the management of this valuable property, and sub- 
stantial success has attended his activities as one of the representative 
orange-growers of Riverside County. He is a republican in politics, and 
while still a resident of Tennessee he served two terms as constable. 
Walter S., the only child of Mr. Hart's first marriage, resides in the 
City of Los Angeles. 

On the 27th of April, 1920, at Los Angeles, was solemnized the 
marriage of Mr. Hart with Mrs. Ida Taylor, of Highgrove, and she 
is the popular chatelaine of their pleasant home. 

Ben Loan Holmes recently completed forty years of service with 
the Santa Fe Railroad and affiliated lines. It was a notable service, 
marked by faithfulness, usefulness and an ability measured by steady 
promotion up the grades of responsibility. San Bernardino has a special 
appreciation of Mr. Holmes, since for the past twelve years he has had 
charge of the terminal interests here as local freight and passenger agent. 
Mr. Holmes was born at Lexington, Missouri, son of Edward Christian 
and Jane (Hughes) Holmes and has a complete American inheritance 
running back into the Colonial period of history. 

Ben Loan Holmes attended public school at Lexington, Missouri, until 
1876, when his father moved to Kansas. He continued his education in 
public schools of Hutchinson, Kansas, having one year in High School, 
and then accompanied his father-to a farm in Rice Countv, Kansas, where 
he lived and worked from 1879 until 1881. 

In August, 1881, leaving the farm, Mr. Holmes secured his first 
work with the Santa Fe Railroad Company. The only important inter- 
ruption to his continuous service was from February to June, 1882, when 
he was employed in the hardware store of the W. C. Edwards Lumber 
Company of Little River, Kansas. In June, 1882, he again joined the 
Santa Fe Railroad Company, as clerk in the local freight office at Santa 
Fe, New Mexico. Two years later he was transferred to the local freight 
office at Wallace, New Mexico, remaining there a year, and in March. 
1885, went to Gallup, New Mexico, as an employe of the Atlantic and 
Pacific, now part of the Santa Fe system. For three years he was at 
work in diiTerent departments, chiefly in train and vard service, and also 
as a telegraph operator and clerk. In March. 1888. he was appointed 
agent for the Atlantic & Pacific at Coolidge, New Mexico, one hundred 
thirty-six miles west of Albuquerque. This was then a freight division, 
but subsequently the division headquarters were removed to Gallup, and in 
March, 1890. Mr. Holmes was appointed agent at Peach Springs, Arizona, 
a freight division point. In December, 1891, he was transferred to 
Needles, San Bernardino County, California, where he remained until 
November, 1897. In the meantime the Atlantic and Pacific had been 
changed to the Santa Fe Pacific and was operated under lease by the 
Santa Fe Companv. While at Needles Mr. Holmes was station agent. 
In November, 1897, he again returned to Gallup, and remained on duty 
at that freight terminal until March, 1903. Then followed a six months, 
rest and vacation, which he spent in California, and in November of that 
year, when he reported for dutv, he was sent as agent for a short period 
to Ash Fork, and in May, 1904, was put in charge of the freight and 
oassenger terminal at Winslow. Then, in November, 1909, he came to 
San Bernardino as local freight and passenger agent and in charge of 
the terminal, with jurisdiction over operations and jointly in charge of 



SAX BEKXAKI)IX( ) AXi) RI\'ERSIDE COUXTIES 833 

the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railways and the Los Angeles & Salt 
Lake Railroads business under this title. Those are the important 
responsibilities he continues as his present duties. 

In San Bernardino Mr. Holmes has at all limes, consistent with 
his business, related himself to conmiunity activities, directing his influence 
where it would be most effective in the public welfare. He has for several 
years been a director of the Chamber of Commerce, and for eight years 
was on the executive board of the National Orange Show. He is a Knight 
Templar and thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner and 
member of San Bernardino Lodge of Elks. 

On October 20, 1886, he married, Miss Mary Louise Lawrence, a 
native of Illinois. 

Fred Alden Briggs, who is numbered among the representative 
orange-growers of Riverside County and who is an enthusiast in all that 
is expressed in climate, advantages and attractions of Southern California, 
claims the old Pine Tree State as the place of his nativity and is a scion 
of families that were founded in New England, that cradle of much of 
our national history, in the early Colonial era. He was born at Auburn, 
Maine, October 2, 1864, and is a son of Alden G. and Louise (Hutchins) 
Briggs, both of whom passed their entire lives as residents of Maine, the 
lineage of each of the fainilies tracing back to English origin and 
representatives of each having been patriot American soldiers in the 
War of the Revolution, the mother of Alden G. Briggs having been a 
member of the historic Alden family and a lineal descendant of John 
Alden. 

In the public schools of his native state Fred A. Briggs gained hi$ 
earlier education, which was supplemented by his there attending Hebron 
Academy. On account of the impaired health of his father he early 
assumed much responsibility in connection with the work of the home 
farm, and he continued his active association with farm industry in 
Maine until 1898, when he came to California and made Riverside 
County his objective point, one of his brothers having passed two winters 
at Riverside by reason of ill health, and Fred A. having come for a 
visit during one winter. Mr. Briggs was so deeply impressed with the 
wonderful attractions of Southern California, in contradistinction to 
austeric climatic conditions in New England, that he hurried back home 
to dispose of his property interests in the Pine Tree State, with the view 
to establishing a permanent residence in California. Two years elapsed ere 
he was able to make the desired adjustment in his affairs in Maine, and 
within this period he married one of the charming daughters of his 
native state, she having accompanied him to the new home in California. 
On Iowa Avenue, Riverside, Mr. Briggs purchased a ten-acre orange 
grove, and on the tract he erected his modern house, which has since 
represented the family home. He has since acquired another orange 
grove of ten acres, near the corner of Iowa and Indianapolis avenues, 
and also a grove of eight acres in the Highgrove district of Riverside, 
this place being bounded by Central, Colton and Iowa avenues. All of 
the groves are on paved highways, and the one last mentioned is sur- 
rounded by three concrete highways of the most modern type. Mr. 
Briggs is known as one of the progressive and successful exponents of 
orange culture in this section of the state and ships his products through 
the medium of the Riverside Heights Exchange No. 10, of which he 
is a director. He is an active member of the Highgrove Chamber of 
Commerce, is aligned in the ranks of the republican party and is affiliated 



834 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

with Evergreen Lodge No. 259, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, 
at Riverside. 

At North Auburn, Maine, on the 4th of December, 1896, Mr. Briggs 
wedded Miss Jennie E. Edmunds, a daughter of Joseph Edmunds, who 
Hkewise was born in Maine, of English hneage and of fine old American 
Colonial stock, he having served as a gallant soldier of the Union in the 
Civil war. Mr. and Mrs. Briggs have three children : Ernest E., who 
was graduated from the Riverside High School in 1917, is associated 
with his father in the management of the orange groves, and though 
he became a member of the artillery service of the United States Army 
at the time of the World war he was not called overseas, the armistice 
having been signed before his command could be thus requisitioned. 
Dwight L. likewise assists in the work and management of his father's 
orange groves, and Fred Alden, Jr., is the youngest of the children, not 
yet of school age at the time of this writing, in 1921. One son, Ralph, 
was eight years of age when he met a tragic death in an automobile 
accident. 

Frederick Hutchins, M. D., an uncle of Mr. Briggs, is one of the 
venerable pioneer citizens of California, he having come to this state 
in 1851, at the height of the excitement incidental to the discovery of 
gold, and his home being now at Woodbridge, San Joaquin County. The 
Doctor is about eighty-six years of age. 

Harry C. Crf.f. grew to manhood in Riverside County and had ex- 
tensive experience in newspaper work before he was first inducted into 
the office of city clerk of Riverside, a post of duty he has held now for 
nearly ten years. 

Mr. Cree was born at Des Moines, Iowa, September 2, 1872. His 
family on his father's side settled in Virginia in Colonial times, his grand- 
father, Hamilton Cree, having been born in what is now West Virginia. 
His father, the late John Martin Cree, was an Iowa farmer and manu- 
facturer. He brought his family to California in 1885. John Martin Cree 
married Lenora Nagle, a native of Ohio, who is now living in Fresno 
County with her son Chester. 

Harry C. Cree was twelve years of age when the family came to 
what is now Riverside County, completing his grammar and high school 
education under Edward Hyatt and doing some academic work at ChafTey 
College, Ontario. He became interested in the printing trade while 
a student in high school, and his first experience in newspaper work was 
in 1895, when he became associated with Mr. Hyatt in the publication 
of the San Jacinto Searchlight during the memorable county campaign 
of that year. Mr. Hyatt had up to that time been principal of the San 
Jacinto schools. In 1895 he was elected county superintendent of schools, 
and subsequently state superintendent of public instruction. After Mr. 
Hyatt had entered upon the duties of county superintendent Mr. Cree 
entered the University of the Pacific to continue his study of the classics, 
begun in the academy. 

After leaving college Mr. Cree assumed charge of the mechanical 
department of the Ontario Record under R. C. P. Smith, and later had 
editorial charge of the Pomona Beacon. Returning to Riverside, he 
was employed by the Riverside Daily Press until 1903, when he accepted 
a position in the Preston School of Industry under William T. Randall, 
formerly dean of ChafTey College. For two years Mr. Cree was in charge 
of the printing department of the Preston School at lone, and was also 
made captain of one of the newly created school companies, over which 
he had general supervision. While at Chaflfey College, where Mr. Randall 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 835 

was d(.aii, Mr. Crc-c helped to establish and edited the Chaffey Argus, a 
college iiiagaziiic. and at lone, at Air. Randall's request, he assumed 
charge of the publication of the Preston School Outlook. 

In 1906, acting for the Riverside Daily Press, Mr. Cree established 
and took active charge of a weekly paper at Corona, which in 1907 
became the Corona Independent, after having been taken over by a 
stock company. In the fall of that year he accepted a reportorial position 
with the Riverside Daily Press under E. P. Clarke, filling the position of 
assistant city editor until August, 1912, when he resigned to fill a vacancy 
in the ofiice of city clerk. At the next general election he was chosen 
for the remainder of the unexpired term and by reelection has been 
retained in the service of the city to date. 

In politics Mr. Cree has been a republican. He is affiliated with the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Brotherhood of American 
Veoiuen, and is secretary of the Kiwanis Club. As one of the officers 
of the First Baptist Church his newspaper experience naturally resulted in 
his selection as chairman of its publicity committee. He married Miss 
Ethel Baldwin at Riverside June 30, 1903. She was born in Illinois. Her 
mother, Mrs. M. C. Baldwin, is a resident of Riverside. The four children 
of their union are : Meredith, a junior in the Boys' Polytechnic High 
School ; Pauline, a student in the Girls' High School ; and Genevieve and 
Clarence, who are in the gramiuar school. 

George H. Seager is now on the full tide of activities as a young 
business man of San Bernardino, is a partner in the Independent Feed 
and Fuel Company of that city, and is the type of citizen frequently 
selected and importuned for public service, and has responded to such 
calls so far as is consistent with his other obligations. 

Air. Seager has spent most of his life in Southern California, but was 
born at Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 23, 1889. son of Herbert W. and 
Harriet ( Barstow ) Seager, both residents of Redlands, where his father 
is manager of the Redlands-Highland Fruit Exchange. They are mem- 
bers of old American families and his father was born in New York 
State and his mother in Ohio. 

George H. Seager attended public school at Minneapolis until he 
was thirteen, when, in 1902, his parents moved to Redlands, where he 
continued in school until graduating from high school in 1908. The 
following year he spent on his father's ranch in the Imperial Valley. 
and in 1909 removed to San Bernardino. For three years he was manager 
of the Independent Ice Company and then bought the feed and fuel 
business of that corporation and has continued it under the naiue of the 
Independent Feed & Fuel Company. Since 1915 his partner has been 
Oscar A. Peterson. The company has developed a splendid service 
and a large and appreciative patronage, doing a retail business in seeds, 
grain, feed, poultry supplies and fuel. 

Mr. Seager is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Mer- 
chants Association. He has taken the part of a leader in local republican 
politics, has served on the City Central Committee, and in former days 
represented the party in county and city conventions. At the special 
election in 1918 he was chosen city councilman from the Fourth \\'ard 
for a period of three years. Recently he was nominated by the Better 
City Club for re-election, but owing to the pressure of his private business 
declined the honor. He has been on the Board of Directors of the 
Young Men's Christian Association for five years, and Mayor Henderson 
appointed him a iriember of the Cemetery Commission, where he is 
still serving. He is superintendent of the Sunday School of the First 



836 SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 

Congregational Church. Mr. Seager is one of the Deacons of Phoenix 
Lodge Xo. 178, Free and Accepted Masons, a member of the Royal Arch 
Chapter and Council, is a past council commander of the Woodmen of 
the World and a member of San Bernardino Lodge Xo. 836, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. 

April 29, 1912, at Sierra Madre, he married Miss Helen H. Peterson, 
daughter of his partner in business, Oscar A. Peterson. Their two children 
are Jane Harriet, born in 1913, and Donald Barstow, born in 1920. 

Roy Struble Gibbs, physician of San Bernardino, has firmly estab- 
lished himself in the front ranks of the practitioners of that city where 
practically his entire professional life has been spent. He came to San 
Bernardino February 3, 1903, and has since built up a fine practice and 
drawn to himself hosts of friends appreciative not only of his ministrations 
to their physical ills but of his many sterling quaHties. 

Dr. Gibbs was born in Ithaca, Xew York, February 15, 1870. son of 
Wesley Davidson and Xettie Struble (Learn) Gibbs. Both father and 
mother were natives of Xew York State. His father was a musician and 
engaged in the music business. In the year 1879 he moved with his 
family to California, sojourning for a few months in San Francisco 
but early in 1880 moving on to Los Angeles. Early in 1881 he decided 
to try the wilds of pioneering life in San Diego County. He remained here 
until 1892, when he returned to Los Angeles on account of higher educa- 
tional advantages. He finely moved to Pasadena, where he died in 1908. 
Dr. Gibb's mother is now living in San Bernardino. 

The early education of Dr. Gibbs was secured in the pubhc schools 
of Los Angeles and San Diego, with a two year course in the Los Angeles 
Baptist Academy. He graduated from the Los Angeles High School and 
then studied in the medical department of the University of Southern 
California. He was graduated from this with the class of 1901, with the 
degree M. D. 

His initiatory practice was obtained in Shasta County, but he stayed 
there only a year and a half, coming directly from there to San Bernar- 
dino, where he has since been in active and successful practice. Dr. Gibbs 
also took a post graduate course in the Chicago Polyclinic. 

He married in 1902 Florence Owen, a daughter of W^ H. Owen, of 
War.saw, X'^ew York. They are the parents of four children : Elma, 
Leila, Vera and Owen. The first three are students in the San Bernardino 
High School, in classes, respectively, 1922, 1923 and 1925. Owen will 
enter high school in 1924. 

Dr. Gibbs is a member of the San Bernardino County Medical Society, 
the California State Medical Society, the Southern California Medical 
Association and the American Medical Association. He was a member 
of the staiT of the County Hospital after the completion of the present 
building until the management went into the hands of a superintendent. 
He is a member of the Fraternal Brotherhood, the Knights and Ladies of 
Security and the Yoeman, and is a director of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Dr. Gibbs is a deacon of the First Baptist Church. In 
politics he is independent. 

William H. Polkinghorn, a Riverside business man with extensive 
interests, i^ doubless better known for his active relationshio with num- 
erous movements and enterprises aflfecting the general welfare of insti- 
tutional life of this city. 

He has been a resident of Riverside over twenty years. He was 
born in Cornwall, England, September 10, 1870, son of William H. and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 837 

Elizabeth Polkinghorn. Until he was eleven years of age he attended 
public school in his native country. After that he lived with an uncle, 
a veterinary surgeon, who taught him the handling of horses and the 
breaking of colts, and he acquired an expert skill in this work. When 
he left his uncle's employ at the age of fifteen he came to Canada and 
for eighteen months was employed in breaking colts at Moncton. He 
then moved to Holbrook, Massachusetts, served an apprenticeship as a 
shoe cutter, and for a number of years worked as a journeyman. 

Mr. Polkinghorn came with his family to Riverside in 1900. He 
began with the Boston Shoe Company as a clerk, and was vice president 
of the company when he left to join the firm of Backstrand iK: Grout, 
and was manager of its shoe department from May, 1907, until January, 
1911. Mr. Polkinghorn resigned his business office to take up his duties 
as public administrator, an office he filled until 1917, and altogether 
performed the duties of that position for eight years. All familiar with 
the record of his office unite in commending him for the special care and 
fidelity with which he handled probate and guardian matters. Mr. Polk- 
inghorn is honest, capable and enjoys the highest esteem both in public 
and private life. 

He is one of the prominent members of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, the two largest branches of that order in California being 
located at Riverside. He is a past noble grand of Lodge No. 282, he 
is a member of the Grand Lodge, past chief patriarch of Encampment 
No. 7i. and has filled all the chairs of the Encampment, and for a num- 
ber of years has been on one of the committees and at present is a member 
of the Committee State of the order. He is secretary of the Local Sons 
of St. George and a past grand president of the Pacific Coast Jurisdiction, 
comprising California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, and 
a member of the Supreme Lodge of the order. Other fraternal can- 
nections are with the Masonic Lodge, and Woodmen of the World. 

Mr. Polkinghorn is a member of the Orange Growers Exchange. 
He is a republican who has worked for the best interests of the county 
and has attended state and county conventions as a delegate. He has 
served on various committees of the Chamber of Commerce and was 
a member of the Business Men's Association. His life in every respect 
has proved worthy of emulation and has been a source of leadership 
and effective influence to the people of Riverside. One important avenue 
through which he has done good was as secretary and treasurer of the 
Brotherhood Congregation. He is a member of the Christian Church 
and vice president of the Bassett Bible Class of that church. 

Mr. Polkinghorn is the elected delegate from the Sons of St. George 
to the newly created "Town Council" of Riverside, which held its first 
meeting September 30, 1921. This is an organization composed of dele- 
gates from all fraternal organizations, which takes up and discusses all 
questions of civic importance presented by its members. The "Council" 
is an advisory organization to the proper authorities, which presents 
to city or county any matter affirmatively acted on by the "Town Council." 

At Holbrook, Massachusetts, February 22. 1892, Mr. Polkinghorn 
married Miss Amy F. Blanchard. They have seven children. The oldest 
is Harold, with an interesting record as a soldier. He was trained at 
Camp Lewis, Washington, went overseas with the 91st Division as Ser- 
geant of Company M in the 364th Regiment, participated in some of 
the battles of the Argonne, was on the Belgium front, and after being 
badly gas.sed was taken to a British hospital in France and returned home 
with his company to St. Mary's Plospital at Hoboken, and later was 
transferred to Letterman's Hospital at San Francisco. He was finally 



838 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

discharged. He married Hazel Balyntine, a native of Indiana and 
daughter of the late John Balyntine. The younger children of Mr. and 
Mrs. Polkinghom are : Frank, member of the class of 1922 of the Uni- 
versity of California : Florence, leaching domestic science and art at the 
Wasco High School, Kern County ; Grace, a student in missionary work 
at the Los Angeles P.;l)le Institute : Rhoda, a graduate nf 1921 from 
the Riverside High School, now, at the Southern Branch University, Los 
Angeles; Elizabeth, a student in the Girls High School, class of 1924; 
and Margaret, Lowell School student. 

Captain John A. Hadaller. Like all men who experienced active 
service with the American Expeditionary Forces in France, Captain 
Hadaller, now a practicing attorney at San Bernardino, had many exciting 
experiences but welcomed the day when he could once more resume his 
home life and pick up broken threads of his business career. His service 
as a .soldier is properly credited to San Bernardino County, since he had 
been practicing law here for several years before the war. But he has 
to his credit also, a previous record as a soldier in the Philippines with 
the Regular Army. 

Captain Hadaller began the real battle of life in his boyhood days 
when he had to oppose the wish of an uncle who desired him to engage 
in the carpenter's trade after he had finished his primary education. The 
boy, to make his desire effective for a better education, ran away from 
home, worked his way through college, and earned every dollar needed 
for college expenses. The determination and self reliance thus acquired 
has served him well at every subsequent issue of his life. 

Captain Hadaller was born near Sigel, in Shelby County, Illinois, 
October 19, 1880, son of Joseph E. and Catherine ( Neumeyer) Hadaller. 
His mother was born at Leroy, Dodge County, Wisconsin, of Bavarian 
ancestry, and died soon after the birth of her son John. Joseph E. Hadal- 
ler was born in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, son of Mathias Hadaller, 
a Bavarian who settled in Pennsylvania on coming to America, in 1848. 
Joseph E. Hadaller was a farmer and mechanic for many years, enjoyed 
much prominence during his residence at the little town of Sigel, serving 
as president of the Board of Trustees and mayor. He is now leading a 
retired life at Granite City, Illinois. 

John A. Hadaller acquired his primary education in the parochial 
school at Sigel. The college course he earned was in St. Joseph College 
at Teutopolis, Effingham County. Illinois, where he graduated in 1902 
with the A. B. degree. Soon after leaving college he enlisted in the United 
States Cavalry, Troop B, Fourth Cavalry, and served an enlistment of 
three years. Two and a half years, from 1905 *o 1908, he was in the 
Philippine Islands. During his second year in the army he qualified as 
an expert rifleman and expert horseman. His army record was practi- 
cally free from demerits and contained a number of marks of special 
proficiency and faithfulness. 

When he left the army he took immediate steps to qualify himself for 
the law, attending the law school of the University of Missouri, where he 
was graduated with the LL.B. degree in 1911. The following year he 
taught school at Portland, Oregon, was i)rincipal of schools at LeGrande 
in that state during an interim semester, and also engaged in journalism, 
being a member of the editorial staff of the LeGrande Evening Observer 
for a year and a half. 

Captain Hadaller located at San Bernardino in the fall of 1914, and 
soon had gained recognition as an able counsellor. In the early months 
of the war with Germany he offered his services, attended the Second 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 839 

Officers Training Camp at The Presidio in San Francisco from August 
24 to November 27, 1917, and was commissioned a first lieutenant of 
Field Artillery. January 15, 1918, he sailed for France, landing in Liver- 
pool and crossing the channel from Southampton to LaHavre. He was 
given special instruction in the French Artillery School at Saumur from 
February 2 to April 29th. His first active duty was on the French front, 
northeast of Nancy, with the 58th French Division, where for seventeen 
days he was in the fighting zone. He was next transferred to the Rail- 
road Artillery Division at Haussimont Meurthey Moselle, then transferred 
to the motor tractor school at Vincennes. and again returned to the rail- 
road artillery at Haussimont, where he was employed in training troops. 
While at Haussimont he had the novel and exciting privilege of going 
up with a British aviator and witnessing as an aerial spectator the battle 
of Chateau Thierry. From Haussimont he was transferred to Saint 
Sulpice near Libourne in the Province of Giroude. where he became com- 
mander of Company B, 54th Ammunition Train of the American Expedi- 
tionary Forces. During the San Mihiel drive, owing to his fluent com- 
mand of the German language, he was transferred to the Intelligence 
Bureau of the General Staff, receiving training as an intelligence officer 
at the American Military University at Langres. On completing the 
course he was transferred as an intelHgence officer to the Seventh Division, 
with headquarters at Thiaucourt. 

Following the armistice Captain Hadaller lived at a place called 
Villers-en-haye, and was treated for chronic appendicitis in the hospital at 
Toul. Thence he was removed to Bordeaux, thence to East View. New 
York, and finally to the Letterman General Hospital at The Presidio. San 
Francisco. His commission as captain dates from November 13, 1919. 
He was honorably discharged June 29, 1919. 

Since returning to San Bernardino Captain Hadaller has been employed 
in a growing general practice as a lawyer, and has been associated more 
or less actively with C. C. Haskell. He is a democrat in politics and 
has been party candidate for superior judge and was defeated by a 
small majority for the office of mayor. Captain Hadaller owns some 
interests in the California oil fields. 

He is a member of the American Legion, is a Catholic and is affiliated 
with the Knights of Columbus and the Benevolent Protective Order of 
Elks. March 1, 1916, at San Bernardino, he married Miss Emma Bern- 
hardt Pattee, a native of Ohio. They have a daughter Ruth Catherine, 
born October 19, 1916. Captain Hallader was also born on October l*^th. 
in the year 1880. 

Henry F. Ahnefelut conducts a prosperous dairy business and is 
also a successful alfalfa grower at Riverside. He was born in Michigan. 
December 11, 1862, a .son of August and Faith (Elston) Ahnefeldt, the 
former a native of Germany and the latter of England. August Ahnefeldt 
was fifteen years old when he came to America, and first located in 
Canada. He came to Michigan while the Civil war was in progress, 
and eventually became superintendent of a saw mill at Muskegon, that 
state. He was long numbered among the substantial citizens of Muskegon 
and served as a member of the City Council. After his death his widow 
finally came to California, and here she died in the year 1908. 

After his graduation from the high school at Muskegon Henry F. 
Ahnefeldt entered the LTniversity of Michigan, where he continued his 
studies until he was called home by the death of his sister. For five 
vears thereafter he was bookkeeper for the lumber firm of Hackley & 
Hume of Muskegon, and the next fifteen years found him in similar 



840 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

service in the employ of Delos A. Blodgett, of Grand Rapids, who was 
at that time the largest lumber operator in Michigan. Mr. Ahnefeldt 
was connected with the lumber industry the greater part of his life until 
coming to California, and for eight years he operated a saw mill owned 
by Ira Carley at Ingalls, Michigan. In 1908 he came to California, and 
after passing a few months in Los Angeles he purchased a fifteen-acre 
alfalfa ranch on Jurpa Avenue, Riverside. Within a short time he dis- 
posed of this property and purchased his present attractive and well 
improved little dairy and alfalfa ranch of 12 ;4 acres at 382 Santa Ana 
Street. In his prosperous dairy enterprise he keeps about twenty-nine 
milch cows and, in Riverside he finds ready demand for his dairy products. 
•Mr. Ahnefeldt succeeded in 1920 Reese Powell as president of the 
Alma \\'ater Company. He is a member of the Riverside Chamber of 
Commerce, is liberal and progressive as a citizen, and gives his political 
support to the republican party. 

At Muskegon, Michigan, December 23, 1890, Mr. Ahnefeldt wedded 
Rena A. Cook, a native of that city and a daughter of the late George 
H. Cook, who was there engaged in the harness and saddlery business. 
The Cook family is of Revolutionary prestige and English origin, and 
the paternal grandfather, Mr. Ahnefeldt, as well as a great-grandfather 
in the same line, were clergymen of the Univer.salist Church. Of the 
two children of Mr. and Mrs. Ahnefeldt the daughter, Elizabeth, is a 
member of the class of 1924 in the Riverside High School. The son, 
Ray C, who died October 9, 1918, at the age of twenty-six years, 
was at the time in service as a lieutenant in the Engineering Corps at 
Camp A. A. Humphreys, he having died just about the time that his com- 
pany received orders to go forth for active service overseas in the great 
World war. Ray C. Ahnefeldt was graduated from the Riverside High 
School, class of 1911, and for three years was associated with his father's 
dairy business. He then entered the School of Mines at Socorro, New 
Mexico, where he completed a five-year course, defrayed his own 
expenses in the meantime, and made a record in mathematics that has had 
only one equal in the history of that institution, from which he received 
the degrees of Civil Engineer and Mining Engineer. He enlisted for 
service in the ^^'orld war at Fort Worth, Texas, five months before the 
close of his school work, but was permitted to finish and receive his 
degrees, after which he was called to Camjj Lee, Virginia, O. T. C. The 
death of this ambitious and popular young man was a severe blow not 
only to his immediate family but also to many friends whom he had 
drawn about him by his bouyant and generous nature and sterling attri- 
butes of character. 

E. P. Ci-ARKE, editor of the Daily Press of Riverside, is one of the 
most representative men of Southern California, and in addition to holding 
his responsible position on the Daily Press, has discharged the duties of 
a number of important offices, and has proved himself in every way 
worthy of the confidence placed in him and his capabilities. He was 
born at Alna, Maine, in 1859, and educated at Kents Hill Seminary in 
Maine and the Wesleyan Universitv at Middletown, Connecticut. 

Immediately following his graduation from the latter institution, in 
1885, he secured employment on the United States geological survey. 
After a few months, late in that same year, he, with his brother, A. F. 
Clarke, came to California and founded the Ontario Record, and while 
editing that f)a[)er he also tauglit for one year in Chaffcv College, Ontario. 
California, and served for three years as a member of the P>oard of 
lulucation of San Bernardino County. In 1894 he acquired an interest in 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 841 

the Riverside Daily Press and moved to this city, which has continued 
to be his home ever since. From 1896 to the present day he has been 
the editor of the Daily Press, and his broad-minded policies and clear, 
convincing English have made his organ one of influence in Riverside 
and San Bernardino counties. 

Mr. Clarke has not confined his efforts to his paper, important as 
that work has been, but has been ready and willing to do his part as a 
public-spirited citizen whenever the occasion arose. From 1897 to 1913 
he served on the Board of Managers of the Southern California Hospital, 
and the greater part of that time was its chairman, but resigned in 1913 
to accept the appointment to membership on the State Board of Edu- 
cation, and since 1915 has been its president. For some years he was 
president of the Riverside Chamber of Commerce and the Riverside 
Young Men's Christian Association. In 1912 he was a delegate to the 
Methodist General Conference held at Minneapolis, Minnesota. His 
influence in newspaper circles has been felt all over the state, and he was 
instrumental in securing the organization of the dailies of Southern Cali- 
fornia into an association, and has served as its president. In 1920 he 
was honored by Governor Stephens, who appointed him to represent 
California at the citizens educational conference at Washington City. 
During the late war he served as a member of the executive committee 
of the Riverside War Relief Council, and gave a number of travel talks 
for the Young Men's Christian Association at March Field and Camp 
Kearney. For a number of years Mr. Clarke has been a contributor 
to the Sunset Magazine and the Pacific Monthly, and is in demand as a 
speaker before educational gatherings. Since 1918 he has been a trustee 
of the Southern California University, and is very much interested in 
the progress of this institution. The above gives in brief some of his work 
in behalf of the interests of his home city, county and state, but it 
in no measure tells the whole story. His conception of service is so 
high and is so closely interwoven with his every action that his entire 
life is a series of good and constructive deeds which result in lasting 
benefit to a wide circle. 

The Riverside Daily Press was established June 29, 1878, and the 
first copy was issued from a little wooden building on the east side of 
Main Street, between Eighth and Ninth streets. The paper carried 150 
subscriptions on its list, and James H. Roe wrote the first copy, being 
assisted by E. W. Holmes and Dr. John Hall. Mr. Roe had his editorial 
desk in a drug store, but he was interested in ranching, he and his wife 
having come to Riverside County in 1873 and located on their ranch in 
its vicinity. 

L. C. Waite, Dr. Shugurt, Mr. Bixler, the Burt brothers, and Lyon & 
Rosenthal all urged Mr. Roe to start a weekly, desiring to have an organ 
in which to make known the possibilities of this region. Riverside was 
then only a frontier village of 1,200. The census of 1880 gives this 
territory, including Riverside, a population of 1,358. The people were 
then experimenting with grapes and apricots, and discussing varieties 
of oranges. All of these matters were taken up by the Press, and a 
beet sugar factory was one of the improvements most strongly urged. 
The paper grew, and June 9, 1885, was changed to a tri-weekly, and to 
a daily on June 10, 1896. The wekly under the name of the Press and 
Horticulturist, was continued to the end of 1904. Among the earlier 
editors of the Press were James H. Roe, L. M. Holt, E. W. Holmes, 
and E. P. Clarke was president for twenty-five years of the Press Printing 
Company, and is still in office. H. W. Hammond is vice president ; 



842 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

A. A. Piddington, secretary ; A. F. Clarke, treasurer ; and Mrs. Maude 
T. Hammond, director. 

The pioneer editor, as above stated, was James H. Roe, and he was 
also the proprietor. His successors, M. V. Sweesey and Robert Horn- 
beck, had possession for but a short time. In the meanwhile, in 1883, 
J. A. and William Studebaker had started a weekly paper known as 
the Valley Echo. This was consolidated with the Riverside Independent 
in 1884 and in 1886 purchased by James H. Roe, and later he associated 
with himself in its management R. H. Pierson. In 1888 these gentlemen 
invited E. W. Holmes to enter into partnership with them in the pur- 
chase of the Daily Press, and after the consoHdation of these papers 
the editorship was given over to Mr. Holmes. Still later they purchased 
the Globe, another publication, and the following year Mr. Roe sold his 
interests to his partners, who continued to conduct the business £or seven 
years. Upon the death of Mr. Pierson his interest was purchased by 
E. P. Clarke and A. F. Clarke who, in the following year bought out 
Mr. Holmes and organized the Press Printing Company, composed of 
themselves, J. P. Baumgartner, H. H. Monroe and A. A. Piddington. 
The Reflex, a society and local weekly, published for some two or three 
years by Mr. Baumgartner was absorbed, and the new corps built up 
a business in keeping with the growth of the city and county. Mr. 
Monroe and Mr. Baumgartner sold their interests later on, and their places 
were filled by H. W. Hammond and Mrs. E. P. Clarke. This is easily 
the leading newspaper of Riverside County, as it is also the oldest, and 
it is very representative of this region. The officials are numbered among 
the leading people of the city and county, and not only are efficient but 
imbued with local pride and enthusiasm for what they properly regard 
as the Garden Spot of the World, to which they are constantly attracting 
attention and bringing in outside capital and permanent residents. 

Frank H. Wells— Among the younger business men of Riverside 
some of the heaviest burdens are carried by Frank H. Wells, who came 
West fresh from his college career and is one of the leading executive 
officials of the Riverside Abstract Company and the Title Insurance 
Company of Riverside, and other financial and business organizations. 

Mr. Wells was born in Downs, Osborn County, Kansas, March 27, 
1890, son of John Calvin and Virginia (Jesse) Wells. His father is 
living retired at Sunset, Arizona. His mother passed away in the month 
of February, 1920. Both represented old Southern families. 

Frank H. Wells was educated in the public schools of Ohio, and 
graduated A. B. from the Ohio State University in 1908. Immediately 
following his graduation he came to California. In April, 1911, he 
bought an interest in the Union Title and Abstract Company, which had 
just been organized, and was its secretary and later its vice president. 
In 1917 he and his associates bought the interest of Raymond Best in the 
Riverside Abstract Company, and with the consolidation of the two 
companies under the name of the Riverside Abstract Company he was 
elected vice president. He also became vice president of the Title In- 
surance Company of Riverside when it was organized in 1920. He is 
vice president of the Riverside Mortgage Company, and vice president 
of the Union Securities Company. 

Mr. Wells is a member and treasurer of the Kiwanis Club, and a 
member of the Present Day Club and the Chamber of Commerce. He 
is affiliated with the Royal .Arch Masons, the Benevolent and Protective 
(^rdcr of Elks, Junior Order United American Mechanics, Phi Delta 
Theta, and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 




^9/QJ. 



'ji£I^ 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 843 

October 3, 1912, at Riverside, he married Katherine Anna Hansen, 
a native daughter of California. Her father and mother, Hans and 
Mary Hansen, are pioneers of Riverside County, engaged in ranching in 
the Glen Avon section. The two children of Mr. and Mrs. Wells are 
John Calvin and Virginia Mary Wells. 

R. W. MacGii.livray. A resident of San Bernardino since 1886, 
R. W. MacGillivray has made himself known throughout the district 
as a buisness man of progressive ideas and honorable principles, and 
be more than merits the high esteem in which he is held by his friends 
and associates. His personal popularity is as great as his business 
rating is sound, and his friends are of the "stick fast" variety. On 
several occasions business has taken Mr. MacGillivray to other cities, 
but he has always returned as .soon as possible and for twenty years he 
has conducted his business in San Bernardino continuously. 

He is by birth a Canadian, and was born at Smith Falls. Ontario, 
November 1, 1866. the son of Alexander MacGillivray. who was a native 
of Scotland and came to Canada when a boy, locating at Smith Falls. 
From this ]»int he went to the gold mines in Australia, but after a few 
years there returned to Smith Falls and purchased a farm. He followed 
the occupation of farming until just before his death. He had just sold 
out all his holdings and was preparing to come to California when he 
died suddenly, in 1889. His wife was Elizabeth Brown, a native of 
Scotland, who went to Smiths Falls with her parents when a child. 
She died in Riverside November 22, 1918. They were the parents of 
five children : E. A., of Los Angeles, who is a contractor and builder of 
gas plants and has built the majority of the gas plants in the district 
for the past twenty years ; G. B., in the hardware business in Riverside ; 
Minnie, wife of J. T. Connerty. of Smiths Falls, Ontario; one brother 
deceased ; and R. W^ 

R. W. MacGillivray was educated in the public schools of Smiths 
Falls and then learned the trade of harness maker, following 'that 
occupation as a journeyman in Ontario for five years. In 1886 he came 
to California and located at San Bernardino. Here he went to work 
as a journeyman and also worked in Stockton, San Jose and Pasadena 
at various times until 1900. In that year he opened his present industry 
of harness making, agricultural implements, wagons and buggies, and has 
continued in it ever since that time, and while the auto has made serious 
inroads upon the business in some places he manages to get all the trade 
in his line that could be expected. He has a fine orange grove of ten 
acres in the Rialto district. He takes great interest in all civic atifairs 
and is a director in the California State Bank of San Bernardino. 

He was united in marriage in 1907 with May Haws, a daughter 
of Marion Haws, of San Bernardino. Mr. MacGillivra}' participates 
in the activities of the prominent fraternal associations and is a member 
of San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons ; 
Keystone Chapter No. 56, Royal .A.rch Ma.son ; St. Bernard Commanderv 
No. 23, Knight Templars; Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S.'; 
of the Knights of Pythias ; and the Rotary Club. Politically he adheres 
to the principals of the reiniblican party. He at present occuiiies the 
position of city water commissioner. 

.Vrtiu'k I'.\r.MKi<, jjioneei- citizen of San Bernardino and the son of 
a ])i(incer. was a young bo\' when Jiniugbt to California b\- his jiarents. 
but considers himself a Californian. which he is by virtue of his lo\-alty 
and love for his adopted home. He has served the peojile in public 



844 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

office faithfully and in fraternal circles no one stands higher, for he 
has occupied for many years high positions in various secret orders. 

In his younger days, Mr. Palmer pursued successfully different lines 
of business but for many years he lias been in the insurance business 
and is regarded as second to none in that line of business in the county. 
He has lent aid to the development of the city, and his well directed 
enterprises and great faith in the future of the city has been an encourage- 
ment to others. 

Mr. Palmer was born near Ridgeway, Kansas, July 27, 1858, the son 
of; S. E. A. and Ann J. (Gilpatrick) Palmer. His father was a native 
of Pennsylvania, who moved to Kansas in 1855 and was married there, 
he was a farmer and stockraiser by occupation. He located later in 
Auburn, where he went into the merchadising business. At this time 
the subject of this sketch was a baby. Later Mr. Palmer came to 
California, landing first in San Francisco, but he only stayed there 
a short time, moving down to San Diego. That was not what he 
was looking for, however, and he only remained there six weeks, coming 
to San Bernardino in July, 1873. The city owes him a debt of gratitude, 
for he established the first deciduous fruit nursery in the county and of it 
he made a complete success. At the same time he engaged in the raising 
of fruit about three miles northwest of San Bernardino. He died in 
1911 and his wife in 1910. They were the parents of six sons; James 
R., a pump manufacturer of Los Angeles; E. D., a rancher of San 
Bernardino ; L. D., who has been a mail carrier in San Bernardino for 
twenty-five years; C. E., of San Bernardino; F. F., a rancher of San 
Bernardino, and Arthur, the subject of this sketch. 

Arthur Palmer attended public school in .Auburn, Kansas, and after 
coming to California was on his father's ranch for two years and then 
was engaged in driving cattle on the plains for seven years. For twelve 
years he was in the lumber business in San Bernardino and for the 
ensuing twelve years he acted as deputy assessor. For the past twenty- 
five years he has been engaged in the insurance business, carrying this 
on in connection with his other occupations, but for the past twelve 
years he has been engaged exclusively in this line and has built up a 
very fine business. 

The marriage of Mr. Palmer took place in 1889, and it united him 
with Jennie Avery, a daughter of D. S. Avery, of Allen, Kansas. She 
died in 1910, leaving one daughter, Helen, now at home. 

Mr. Palmer is an active member of many fraternal organizations, 
affiliating with Phoenix Lodge No. 178, .A.ncient Free and Accepted 
Masons of San Bernardino ; and San Bernardino Lodge No. 290, Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows; Morse Encampment No. 51; Valley 
Lodge No. 27, Knights of Pythias, and has been its secretary for thirty 
years and has also filled all the offices in the lodge. He is a member of Al 
Tir Sar Temple, D. O. K. K.. and has been its secretarv since its 
organization in 1916. He is a republican in politics. 

Claude H.\rmon L.\snLi:n;, M. D.. of San Bernardino, is one of 
the citizens who nu's.scd by a small fraction of lime being a native 
Californian, but to all intents and jjurposes he is one. He spent his 
childhood not far from the scene of his ))resciU environment, and acquired 
his extensive and complete medical education under the tutelage of 
California's most skilled instructors. His general preparation for his 
life work was most comprehensive and his years of practice have added 
much to his mental equipment. He neglects no opportunity for advance- 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 845 

ment and inipiovemcnt through tlie various avenues always open to the 
receptive physician. 

Dr. Lashlee was born in Palmyra, Nebraska, February 29, 1880. 
He is the son of Horace and Nellie (Harmon) Lashlee, the former a 
native of Tennessee and the latter of Nebraska. Horace Lashlee was 
a physician and practiced in Nebraska until he came to California and 
located in Murrietta, Riverside County. He continued his practice in 
that place until 1910, when he retired. They were the parents of three 
children : Blanche, wife of Roy Hoagland, of Los Angeles ; Ralph, 
manager of the Sunset Phone Company in Santa Barbara ; and Claude 
Harmon, of San Bernardino. 

Dr. Lahslee early determined to follow in his father's professional 
footsteps, and no doubt much of his success is due to the knowledge 
with which he was unconsciously imbued all his young life. He was 
educated in the public schools of Murrietta and the high school in Red- 
lands. He went from there to the University of California and was 
graduated in the class of 1902 with the degree of A. B. He at once 
entered the Hahnemann Medical College of the Pacific (now affiliated 
with the University of California), and he graduated from there with 
the class of 1904. To supplement his comprehensive theoretical and 
general preparation for his life work he acted as interne in that city and 
county hospital of San Francisco for eighteen months. 

In 1905 Dr. Lashlee returned to his home district and started the 
practice of his profession, in which he was thoroughly successful; but 
in 1912 he moved to San Bernardino and has been in continuous practice 
there ever since. While he does a general practice he has made a specialty 
of anesthetics, in which he is equalled by few. 

Dr. Lashlee was united in wedlock in December, 1915, with Norah 
S. McCall, of Oakland, California, and they have two children: Nellie 
May and Neal Albert. In his fraternal relations Dr. Lashlee is a 
member of the Masonic orders, the Blue Lodge and Chapter of Redlands 
and is also a life member and a past exalted ruler of the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks. He is a life member and past worthy president 
of the Fraternal Order of Eagles. Professionally he is a member of the 
American Institute of Homeopathy, the Southern California State Hom- 
eopathy Society and the California State Homeopathy Society. In 
politics he is a democrat. 

Howard Surr, attorney of San Bernardino, has made a place for 
himself in the life of the city, both as an exponent of the law and as a 
citizen, which is an enviable one. While he was born in England, he 
came to this state when a boy and is a real California enthusiast. 

The parents of Mr. Surr were Joseph and Elizabeth (Grabham) 
Surr, and he was born in London, England, April 10, 1869. His father 
was a native of England, also born in London, while his mother was a 
native of Rochford, a town near London. Joseph Surr was a silk 
manufacturer and merchant who retired from business in 1884 and 
came to the United States. He located in San Diego May 21 of the 
same year. He again entered business, this time as a commission mer- 
chant, but after a few years retired again, remaining in San Diego until 
his death in October, 1905. His wife died in San Diego in 1901. 

Mr. Surr was educated in the schools of London until he came to 
America, when he went on ranches his father had purchased near Witch 
Creek and Miramar. He remained on them until March, 1892, when 
he went to Chicago to the World's Fair, staying there until October, 
1895. While there he worked in the office of a large manufacturer. 



846 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Returning to San Diegu, Mr. Surr entered the office of the Coronado 
Beach Company and afterward was head hookkeeper of the Coronada 
Beach Hotel. This position he resigned in 1899 and went to San 
Francisco, wliere he studied law in the office of Bigelow & Titus. Judge 
J. A. Gibson, formerly of San Bernardino, had moved to Los Angeles and 
he invited Mr. Surr to come to that city and finish his reading with his 
firm, Bicknell, Gibson & Trask. Mr. Surr accepted the oflfer and was 
admitted to the bar in Los Angeles in October, 1900. After his admittance 
he came to San Bernardino, where he started in the practice of law with 
Otis & Gregg, but he was soon oft'ered a place in Judge Gibson's office. 
Immediately Otis & Gregg otTered him a partnership which he decided 
to accept, and on January 1, 1903, the firm name changed to Otis, 
Gregg &. Surr. In 1906 Mr. Otis died and the firm was Gregg & Surr 
until July 13, 1907, when Mr. Gregg retired and moved to Los Angeles. 
Mr. Surr then formed a partnership with F. A. Lebnard, which firm 
subsequently became Leonard, Surr and Hellyer, and this association 
has since continued. 

The firm is second to none in importance and has built up a large 
and ever increasing clientele. Among the companies for which they 
are attorneys are : The Citizens Land & Water Company of Blooniington ; 
the Etiwanda Water Company ; The Rialto Irrigation District ; The 
Muscoy Water Company ; The South Mesa Water Company ; The 
Western Heights Water Company ; The Yucaipa Water Company No. 1 ; 
The Arrowhead Reservoir & Power Company ; and of various banks 
and numerous other corporations. 

Mr. Surr married in July. 1903, Jennie Drew, a daughter of Edred 
Drew, of Ontario. She died in March, 1906, leaving one child, Elizabeth. 
In April, 1918, Mr. Surr married Elizabeth Munroe, a native of England 
and a daughter of an English clergyman. Mrs. Surr was for many 
years a resident of San Bernardino prior to her marriage. Mr. Surr 
is a member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 348 Ancient Free and Accepted 
Masons, and of San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks. He is a republican in political faith, and is a 
member of the Episcopal Church. 

Aaron Asbury Cox — One of San Bernardino's early settlers, Aaron 
Asbury Cox was also one of the leading practical horticulturists of the 
county, for although he was born and educated in the East and saw 
quite a little of the pioneering in farming in Colorado, he was not in 
his adopted home long before he took up the growing of oranges. In 
this he was more than successful, and later he added the packing of 
the golden fruit, building a packing plant of his own first, then being 
the chief promotor and stockholder in the Rialto Packing House and 
having many hundreds of acres of fruit under his jurisdiction in packing 
and shipping. When he passed away he was the president of the com- 
pany. 

Mr. Cox was born on a farm, reared on one and naturally his plans 
and ambitions were all in that direction from early boyhood. His birth 
took place on September 11, 1860, at Vernon, Illinois. His father, John 
Cox, was a native of Ohio and while he was a farmer he was also the 
very capable sheriff of Fayette County at one time. 

Mr. Cox was educated in the public schools of Vernon, Illinois, 
afterward assisting his father on the home farm. When he went out 
in the world to make his own future he located in Central Illinois and 
followed farming for a few years, but, deciding to come West, he 
located in Burlington, Colorado, during the early settlement of that 
country. He took up a claim and started farming, proving up on it and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 847 

living there for a time. In 1888 he determined to move to California 
and make his home there if conditions were favorable, and this he did, 
locating in San Bernardino in 1888. He came here primarily to see a 
brother and uncle who had located there, but he lost no time adopting 
it for a permanent home. 

For a year he followed various occupations and then went on the 
Judge Curtis place and worked this ranch for a time and then he pur- 
chased a home place of over twenty acres. He started in to actively 
develop it and soon had apricots, peaches and alfalfa planted. Later he 
put fifteen acres in oranges and made his home ranch a beautiful place, 
a producing home. He sold this place in 1903. He then bought the 
old Morris place, tearing down the old building in 1916 and building 
the present beautiful home on Mt. Vernon Avenue. It is one of the 
most attractive residence homes in the city. 

Mr. Cox owned other orange groves in the Mt. Vernon district which 
are still in the possession of the family. He turned his attention to the 
packing business, and was a director of the Rialto Packing House, hav- 
ing previously built a packing house of his own. When he passed away 
on January 23, 1920, he was president of the Rialto Packing House. He 
was always deeply interested in experimental research in the citrus indus- 
try and he was always successful in his growing and in his packing. 
He did not allow his horticultural pursuits to lesson his interest in his 
adopted city, for, while a man of worth and ability, he never became 
actively identified with its business interests, yet he was a more than 
loyal citizen and always eager to do his part in its advancement, public 
spirited always. He filled a niche in the civic, fraternal, social life of 
San Bernardino which will be hard indeed to fill. 

Mr. Cox was a member of the Woodmen of the World and of the 
Independent Order of Odd P^ellows. In political belief he was a demo- 
crat. He married in 1886 Rosa Dunham, a native of Lincoln, Illinois, 
and a daughter of William Dunham, a farmer of that state. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cox were the parents of five boys and two girls. Miss Mabel 
Lucille Cox, a graduate of Stanford University, residing at home. Har- 
old Dunham Cox, a rancher of San Bernardino. He married Hattie 
Brown. They have four children. Rose Elizabeth, Roy Aaron, Phillis 
Adele and Jean Louise. \\'illiara Lawrence Cox, a horticulturist of San 
Bernardino, married Esther Evelyn Pearson. They have two children, 
Dorothy Evelyn and Katherine Doris. Roy, an orchardist of San Ber- 
nardino, married Florence Woodhouse. They have two children, Roy 
Darnell and Glen Wilgus. Clififord Bryan Cox is the manager of the 
packing houses. Donald Aaron Cox is the sixth child. Doris Geraldine 
is the wife of James S. Willits, of Roseville. They have one daughter, 
Doris. Three of the sons, Roy, Clififord and Donald, took part in the 
World War. Roy trained at Camp Lewis, was made a corporal and went 
overseas with the 71st Division. He lost a leg in the battle of the 
.Argonne. Clififord trained in Camp Kearney, was a corporal and went 
overseas with the 40th Division. He was in France with his Company 
until the signing of the armistice. Donald enlisted in the navy, trained 
at San Pedro and was assigned to San Francisco. 

Madison T. Amos, senior member of the live wire real estate firm 
of Amos Brothers in San Bernardino, while he has not been a bona 
fide resident of the city for very many years, for a long period of time 
previous to actually locating in the city made it his headquarters. He 
transacted considerable business there, and, intending always to make it 
his home, purchased diflferent properties. Ever since he entered the 
business world he has made his presence distinctly felt. With his 



848 SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

brother James C. Amos he has estabhshed a firm which maintains a 
Class A reputation as a brace of "go getters" not only in the handling 
of real estate but in that infintely harder proposition, mining. There 
seems to be no limiting the firm's activities, and Mr. Amos seems to 
pos.sess the real Midas touch. The firm is a distinct asset to the business, 
social and fraternal circles of San Bernardino. They have been pioneers 
in many lines of mining and real estate, and are continually surprising 
the stand patters with their forays into new fields, but they always, in 
popular parlance, "bring home the bacon." 

Madison T. Amos was born in Randolph County, Alabama, April 
18, 1868, the son of Able L. and Narcisse (Alorgan) Amos, both natives 
of Alabama. The family is an old one in that district, the grandfather 
having had a trading post with the Creek Indians, and they came from 
Revolutionary stock of Scotch-English descent. Able L. Amos was 
born in 1837 and was a planter all his life. He served throughout the 
war of the states, and at one time was badly wounded, pierced through 
by a minie ball. He died in 1894 in Waco, Texas. He was a democrat 
in politics. 

The family moved to Waco, Texas, and there Madison T. Amos 
was educated in the public schools and afterward attended Hill's Business 
College. After that he assisted his father in running the family ranch 
of six hundred and forty acres, which was well stocked with cattle. 

In March, 1902, he came to California, landing first in San Bernardino. 
He started mining in Death Valley, making his headquarters in Sandy. 
Nevada. He mined there and at Silver Lake for six years, and moved 
to San Bernardino in July, 1911. Prior to that year, however, he had 
done considerable business in San Bernardino and had purchased various 
properties. 

Mr. Amos started in the real estate business and also handled mining 
interests, and has continued in that line ever since, with his brother, 
James C. Amos forming the now well known firm of Amos Brothers, 
one of the most active and prominent in Southern California. They 
discovered the first talc property at Tecopa, which was made a com- 
mercial success and shipped the first talc out of there. This marks an 
era in mining in that district. They still own a valuable and large talc 
property there. 

Mr. Amos married December 27, 1900, May Buchanan Clark, a 
daughter of James Clark, of Scotland. They are the parents of four 
children: Avirilia, Winnifred, Donald and Geraldine. Mr. Amos is 
a member of San Bernardino Castle, Knights of Pythias, and a member 
of the Trinity Baptist Church. In political faith he adhered to the 
democratic party. 

James Casper Amos — The junior member of the firm of Amos 
Brothers, expert handlers of real estate and mining interests in San 
Bernardino County and city, in fact in the entire state, has been so 
closely identified with his brother M. T. Amos that to give the life 
record of one is to give also the other. They have always been insepar- 
able, and when the elder brother came to Calif omnia the younger 
followed soon. They worked together on the farm of their parents 
in Texas, and all their business life has been together. Together they 
have met and conquered old Dame Fortune, and the thought of the one 
is the thought of the other. 

James Casper Amos was born in Randolph County, Alabama, August 
20, 1870, and was educated in the public schools of West Texas, where 
his parents located in 1882. He went from there to the West Texas 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 849 

College in the norllieni part of McClellaii County, Texas. I'ollowing 
that he worked on his father's ranch, caring for the cattle, and continued 
in this until he came to California in 1905. He joined his brother where 
the latter was mining in Sandy, Nevada, and since that time all their 
operations have been conducted dually. A more detailed record of 
their business and also of their family is given in the sketch of Madison 
T. Amos. 

James Casper Amos married, December 12, 1912, Susie Inman, a 
native of Nova Scotia who came to this country when very young and 
was reared by her grandparents in Boston, Massachusetts. They have 
two children, James Bryson Amos and Marjory Amos. Mr. Amos is a 
member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, Ancient Free and Accepted 
Masons, Keystone Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, St. Bernard Command- 
ery, Knights Templar, the Knights of Pythias, the Fraternal Order of 
Eagles, and the Elks. He is a democrat in politics and in rehgious faith 
is affiliated with the Christian Church. Mr. Amos, with his family, as 
has been a valued addition to the social and fraternal circles of San Ber- 
nardino, while in business circles the firm is rated one hundred per cent. 

Walter A. Shay, sheriff of San Bernardino, is not only a native 
son of California but also of the county he so capably safeguards. He 
is an integral part of both city and county, for he has been so interwoven 
with their life and progress that he is a vital part of them. In both 
his official and private lifei he has made friends of people in all classes, 
and he deserves everyone of them. It is not only his wonderful gift for 
making staunch friends which has won Mr. Shay his popularity, it is 
also his devotion to duty, his entire trustworthiness in the administration 
of his duties in the public offices he has held and to which he has given 
himself without stint. 

Mr. Shay has a deep seated instinct for fair play and a strong and 
never put aside belief in justice and right, yet when it is necessary to 
use the "mailed fist" he is never found stalling. He is as much feared 
by the evil doers as he is loved by the well doers, and yet, while he 
is intolerant of any breaking of the laws, he still is full of the spirit of 
brotherly kindness and concord. In fact Mr. Shay is getting out of 
life and its duties just what he puts in to it, and his fellow citizens 
know he is a man to be depended upon, as officer, citizen and friend. 

Mr. Shay was born in San Bernardino County June 29, 1866, the 
son of Walter A. and Eliza (Goshen) Shay. His father was a real 
pioneer of California, a forty-niner, coming here by way of the Isthmus 
route. In his boyhood he learned the trade of cooper, and worked in that 
line in Nova Scotia. He never liked the trade and at the first opportunity 
he gave it up. His first work in California was, as was usual with the 
men of '49, mining. He did not remain with this long, however, but 
came to San Bernardino and went into stock raising and general 
ranching. He purchased what is known as the Shay Ranch, and on 
this he continued the raising of stock and ranching until he met with 
an accident. He was thrown from a horse and on December 2, 1899, a 
week afterwards, he passed away. His wife died in September, 1869. 
She was a native of Arkansas. 

Walter A. Shay was educated in the public schools of San Bernardino, 
after which he went into ranching and freighting, devoting more time to 
the latter, in which occupation he continued for a number of years. He 
freighted between San Bernardino and various desert points, and also 
hauled lumber for many purposes from the mountains of San Bernardino. 
In 1898 he left this somewhat strenuous line of work and a year later 



850 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

went into the sheritT's office as a deputy. He was there four years in 
the same capacity. In 1903, after he left the sheriff's office, he was 
elected city marshal of the City of San Bernardino, and he held that 
office for two years. At that time he was appointed chief of police by 
Mayor H. M. Barton, and served for two years, when he decided to 
leave the employ of the city and did so, immediately connecting with the 
office of special agent for the Pacific Electric Railroad in its east branch. 
He kept this for two years, then took the office of chief of police of San 
Bernardino again, appointed by Mayor S. W. McNabb. He served 
another two years then went back to railroad work, this time as division 
special agent for the Arizona Division of the A. T. & S. F. Railroad of 
the Coast Line. He was there for four years, when he was again 
appointed again chief of police of San Bernardino, this time by Mayor 
George W. W'axon, and he served two years. Three appointments as 
chief of police by three different mayors is in its self some indication 
as to the character of his work in the position. Mr. Shay was then 
appointed chief special investigator to the district attorney of San Ber- 
nardino County and was in that position a year and six months. In 
1918 he ran for sheriff and was, of course, elected, and is now filling 
that office to the peace and satisfaction of that commonwealth. 

He married in March, 1892, Matilda McCoy, a native of San 
Bernardino County, California,, and a daughter of W. W. and Elizabeth 
McCoy of San Bernardino. They have had five children, one of whom 
is deceased. Those living are : Weston W., a dentist living in Los 
Angeles; Emmett .L., living in San Bernardino, as are the other two. 
George VV. and Nellie. Weston W. was a lieutenant in the dental corps 
of the Army during the \\orld war and Emmett L. served in the Navy, 
being assigned to the naval base at San Pedro. Weston married Helen 
Mewhart, and have one son, Robert. Emmett married Violet Wixom, 
and they also have one son, William. 

In politics Mr. Shay is a member of the republican party. Fraternally 
he is affiliated with San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, Ancient Free and 
Accepted Ma.sons, with San Bernardino Lodge No. 290 Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, with Moose Encampment No. 51. The family 
is identified with the Baptist Church. 

George Dimock Cunningh.xm needed only a few months more of 
life to round out forty-five years of continuous residence and active asso- 
ciation with the business and civic affairs of Riverside. He came to the 
town when it was five years old, and his business enterprise was exhibited 
in several important lines, and always in a constructive manner, so that 
the city owes much to him. 

Mr. Cunningham, who died at his home, 386 West Ninth Street, 
January 22, 1921, was born in Nova Scotia, Canada, April 30, 1852. 
Cunningham is an old Scotch name, and when it first appears in records 
in 1023 the spelling was "Koningshame." The old coat of arms bore 
the "Shakeforth" motto, meaning, as is interpreted by Van Barsen's 
History "Kings of Scotland." "over, fork over." During the Colonial 
period in the eighteenth century three Cunningham brothers set out 
from the north of Ireland with Pennsylvania as their destination. Being 
wrecked on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, in 1769, they landed at Halifax 
and were induced to remain in that Province. 

Herbert Robie Cunningham, father of the late George Cunningham, 
was a native of Nova Scotia, was a merchant and at the time of his 
death was serving as county treasurer, being succeeded in that office 
by his son, William H. The mother of the late Riverside citizen was 
Ellen McGregor, also a native of Nova Scotia. 




<^;;^yO^^^^^^*-^--c^ 




j/(/^a-<i^ 



cJ^o/n/H, ^i^z^^'z^'i'oo;^^;^^^ 






SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 851 

tjeorge D. Cunningham acquirt-d a coninKjn school education in liis 
native province. As a young man he set up in business at Merrimack, 
Massachusetts, as a manufacturer of carriages. He became a very 
skilled and expert worker in this line, and continued in merchandising 
until 1876. Through correspondence with relatives he knew something 
of the advantages to be foui;d at Riverside, and arrived here April 22, 
1876. For six months he was clerk in his cousin's general mercliandise 
store, and then bought a wagon sho)) and continued the manufacture 
of wagons and carriages until 1883, when his plant was destroyed by 
tire. He soon afterward became a furniture merchant, but from 1889 
to 1903 was in the crockery and hardware business^ his principal part- 
ner during that time being A. A. W ood, under the firm name of Wood 
& Cunningham, He had great faith in Riverside's future and freely 
invested his surplus funds in the improvement of real estate. In 1883 
he acquired the land and built a brick business block at Eighth and Main 
streets, where the Security Savings Bank is now located. He also owned 
and built the G. Rouse department store building. He was also the 
owner of (and which Mrs. Cunningham still retains) the business block 
on the northwest corner of Eighth and Main which is occupied by the 
Keystone Drug Store. \\ hile he was in the hardware business he took 
some part in the construction of nearly all the big blocks in the city. 

Mr. Cunningham was not a politician, but was the type of citizen in 
whom people place implicit confidence, and he was frequently honored 
in the republican party, serving in county and state conventions and on 
committees, and during 1916-18 was a member of the State Central 
Committee. In 1903 President Roosevelt appointed him postmaster of 
Riverside. He took charge of the office April 1, 1903, and served 
throughout Roosevelt's administration and was reappointed by Presi- 
dent Taft. \\'hile he was postmaster the new Federal Building was 
completed, and he was postmaster there one year. In 1916 Governor 
Hiram Johnson appointed him a member of the Board of Managers of 
the Southern California State Hospital at Patton, and he was chosen 
vice president of the board. He was reappointed by Governor Stephens 
in 1920, and held that post at the time of his death. 

Mr. Cunningham had been a director of the National Bank of 
Riverside from the time it was organized. He was a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, the Pioneer Society, and Riverside Lodge No. 
643. Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He was prominent in 
Masonry, having joined that order in Nova Scotia and demitting to become 
a charter member of and assisting in organizing Lodge No. 259, F. and 
A. M. at Riverside. He was past high priest of the Ro3'al .\rch and 
a past commander of the Knights Templar and a member of Al Malaikah 
Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Los Angeles. His funeral was conducted 
under Masonic auspices. 

Mr. Cunningham is survived by Mrs. Cunningham and three mar- 
ried daughters, who have seven children, while the child of his only son 
makes eight grandchildren. At Riverside, February 20, 1879, Mr. Cun- 
ningham married Miss Susan Elizabeth Handy. She was born in 
Massachusetts. Her father. Captain B. B. Handy, was a sea captain, 
and Mrs. Cunningham as a girl once accompanied her father on a 
whaling voyage. She was liberally educated, being given opportunity 
to train her artistic talents. She is an artist of exceptional ability and 
the walls of her home are graced with a number of fine water color 
paintings, prominent among which might be mentioned one study "Mis- 
sion Arches," which has attracted much favorable attention. She spent 
the summer of 1921 at Lake Tahoe sketching the lake, mountains and 
trees. She loves the outdoor life and most of her studies are from na- 



852 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

ture. She is a incmhcr uf llic DaujjlUcrs of the AiiK-rican Revolution 
and has taken an active part in chib \vorl< at Riverside. The only son 
of their union was Jonathan Dexter, who died in 189.^, his widow being 
a resident of Ocean Park. His daughter, Lucile Cunningham, is in 
school. The three surviving daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham 
are: Bessie, wife of Harry B. Sewart, of Riverside, their sons being 
Clarence and Byrl ; Marjory, wife of Jules H. Covey, deputy county 
recorder, with children Jules Hailand, Jr., Elizabeth and George Dexter, 
and Dorothy Katherine, wife of Earl L. McDonald, of Prescott, Arizona, 
mother of a son, John Cunningham, and a daughter, Barbara. 

Major Leo Albin Strom ee, a veteran of the World war, is one of 
the progressive business men of San Bernardino, where he owns and 
operates one of the finest shoe stores in this part of California. He is 
a native son of the Golden State, as he was born at Los Angeles, April 
3, 1890, a son of Gustaf Stromee, who was born in Sweden, August 9, 
i 1845, and died at San Bernardino in 1911. 

In 1867 Gustav Stromee came to the United States, and after landing 
in New York City, left it in July of that year for Chicago, Illinois. He 
had only $3.50 in his pocket when he reached Chicago, was friendless 
and could neither speak or understand the language. Because of this 
it Vfc'as almost impossible for him to make himself understood when 
he applied for work, but finally he met a painter who could speak to 
him in his own language, and from him he obtained employment. How- 
ever, this employer took advantage of his helplessness and cheated him 
out of two-thirds of his pay. Further misfortune followed him, for 
he was taken sick, had his trunks, and even his clothing, stolen, but with 
the sturdiness which seems inherent with the Swedish people he managed 
to accumulate a little hoard of money, and then this, too, was taken from 
him by a dishonest land shark. 

In the course of his work he journeyed westward, and in 1868 joined 
General Custer's army, participating in one engagement on December 24th 
of that year when Custer's men met 2,000 buck Indians, in which the 
soldiers killed 1,500 and took eighty squaws and papooses prisoners. 
During the time he was in the army he had many exciting experiences, 
saw murder committed, suffered for lack of food and water, but escaped 
the final fate of so many of General Custer's soldiers. Receiving his 
six-months' pay, he went back in 1871 to Chicago, and subsequently 
returned to the West, locating at Los Angeles. He was married at 
Highland, Illinois, November 6, 1875, to Matilda Seline, who was born 
at Brooklyn, New York, July 21, 1854. Mr. and Mrs. Stromee became 
the parents of the following children : Karl Otto, who was born October 
27, 1876, at Highland, Illinois, married Elsa Hovander, born in Sweden 
July 10, 1883, and they have one daughter, Eloise, born September 2, 
1918; William Frederick, who died in infancy; and Major Stromee, 
whose name heads this review. 

Major Stromee attended the public schools of Los Angeles and the 
Los Angeles Military Academy, from which he was graduated in 1903. 
For one year thereafter he was associated with his father in his building 
and painting contracting business, and then entered the employ of Wells, 
Fargo & Company at Los Angeles, and in February, 1907, was transferred 
to the San Bernardino office of that company, with which he remained 
until 1908, when he left it to assume the management of a shoe store, 
and this position he held until in 1917, when he resigned to enter the 
United States military service. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 853 

In 1908 Major Stromee enlisted in Company K, Seventh Infantry, 
California National Guard, and the following year was commissioned a 
second lieutenant. In June, 1915, he was commissioned a first lieutenant, 
and during 1916 served on the Mexican border during the troubles there, 
being stationed at Nogales, Arizona, from July to November. 1916. He 
resigned his commission in January, 1917. 

On March 6, 1917, he enlisted as a private, and was called into the 
service March 25, 1917, and commissioned captain of Company K, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Infantry. He received his training at Camp 
Kearney, California, and sailed with the Fortieth Division for France in 
July, 1918. Transferred from the One Hundred and Sixtieth Infantry 
to Company C, Three Hundred and lughth Infantry, Seventy-seventh 
Division, he participated in the Argonne offensive, and as a member of 
the "Lost Batallion" was wounded. October 3, 1918. and sent to a 
hospital in France. SufTering from a di.sability, he was invalided home, 
and in 1919 was honorably discharged at Camp Kearney, California. 
He had been promoted to the rank of major, and was commissioned as 
such in the Reserve Corps, Infantry Section, United States Army. 

At the time he was wounded Major Stromee held the rank of captain, 
but was second in command of the regiment. His wound, which was in 
the shoulder, was aggravated because it was not properly attended to for 
three days, and he was suffering because of the fact that for six days he 
and his men had been without food. When they were rescued they 
were subsisting on a little chewing tobacco and the leaves from surround- 
ing bushes. Their ammunition was almost exhausted, although they had 
kept a sufficient amount to insure their escaping capture by the enemy, 
they having agreed that rather than submit to that they, would kill each 
other. While he was in the hospital recovering from his wounds Major 
Stromee contributed to the "Stars and Stripes" an account relating in 
thrilling language the sufferings of the "Lost Battalion," and the relief 
and rescue of the command, one of the greatest incidents of the war. 
They had repulsed, in spite of their weakness and insufficient ammunition, 
three attacks, and were gamely making ready to repulse a fourth when 
succor arrived. 

Upon his return to San Bernardino Major Stromee established his 
pre.sent business at 521 Third Street, and here he is carrying on an 
up-to-date shoe store with gratifying resuhs. During his long connection 
with the shoe business he became thoroughly acquainted with all of its 
details, and his success proves that he knows his trade and how to meet 
its demand. 

He has served twice as commander of his post of the American 
Legion; is past exalted ruler of the Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks ; belongs to the Masonic fraternity, the Native Sons of the Golden 
West, and the Disabled Veterans of the World war. A young man of 
public spirit, he belongs to the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce 
and is a member of the City Council from the Fourth Ward. 

On January 1, 1913, Major Stromee married at San Bernardino 
Miss Ella Scott, and they have two children, Karl Gustaf, who was 
born at San Bernardino December 5, 1913 ; and Mary Jane, who was 
born March 31, 1920. 

Frank F. Corrington has been a Riverside resident for twenty 
years, has taken up and developed some active business interests in 
Southern California, and has also devoted his abihty and his leisure 
to the active welfare of the city. 



854 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

Mr. Corrington was born at Carrollton, Illinois, son of Stephen 
Fletcher and Susan (Francis) Corrington, both natives of that state. 
His mother is now living at Riverside. The Corrington family is of 
English ancestry and runs back to the Revolutionary period in America. 
Stephen Fletcher Corrington was a man of scholarship and long identified 
with school work in Illinois, and for sixsteen years held the position of 
county superintendent of schools at Carrollton. He was also at one 
lime master in chancery. He was prominent in the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. 

Frank F. Corrington acquired a grammar and high school education 
at Carrollton, and as a young man took up the insurance business and later 
became an Illinois farmer. He followed farming in Illinois until 1902, 
when he came \\'est, seeking a milder climate and other business opportuni- 
ties. His quest ended at Riverside, and at the present time he is associated 
in business with his son, Kent L. Corringlon, operating an automobile 
transfer line. Frank F. Corrington was a pioneer in the auto transfer 
business in Riverside. He organized the Orange Belt Draymens Associa- 
tion in 1919, and has been its head and its president ever since. This 
includes the draymen in Riverside and San Bernardino counties and 
part of Los Angeles County. 

When he came to Riverside in 1892 and for a number of years 
afterwards he was foreman of the Abies Transfer Company. He 
started in business for himself with one truck and now has five. He 
has always opposed the abusing of the highways by the overloading of 
trucks, and at the invitation of the Riverside County and Orange County 
supervisors, drafted the ordinances on this subject that are in force now. 

Mr. Corrington is public s])irited and, though not active in politics, 
was honored with the office of chief of police of Riverside, and per- 
formed those duties most acce]nably under the administrations of Mayors 
William L. Peters and Oscar Ford. Mr. Corrington is a member of the 
Kiwanis Club and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of which he 
is a past grand, having gone through the chairs while in Illinois. He is 
on the Official Board of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, in which 
both he and his wife are active workers. 

In Illinois he married Miss Margaret Maberry. She Avas born in 
that state, and her father, W^ M. Maberry, lived for many years in Illi- 
nois and at one time was county supervisor. The only child of Mr. 
and Mrs. Carrollton is their .son Kent I... born in Carrollton, Illinois, 
in 1890. He is engaged in business with his father. 

Redmond A. Lill.\rd, one of the aggressive young business men 
of Riverside, has been identified with this community of Southern Cali- 
fornia for the past six years. 

He was born in Sevier County, Tennessee, in January, 1884, son of 
William and Angelette Lillard. His father died when the son was 
two years of age. Mrs. Angelette Lillard is still living and is of Irish 
ancestry. 

Redmond Lillard made the best of his early advantages in the country 
schools, and as a voung man he worked for a time as a salesman for the 
.Singer Sewing Machine Company in the i.\tlanta, deorgia, district. 
Following that he did construction work at ditTerent points in the United 
States and Canada, and when he came to California in 191.^ he wa'^ 
engaged in the cattle industry in the northern part of the state. 

In 101.^ Mr. Lillard came to Riverside, and soon afterward established 
the Bell Cleaning Comjwny, which is now a flourishing industry, with 
modern facilities and with branch offices in Corona, Ferris, Hemet and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 855 

Beaumont. Mr. Lillard is affiliated with the Masonic Order and the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

James Harrington, who died in San Bernardino some years ago, 
was regarded as one of the state's pioneers, for he came here when a 
young man, and while he did not live many years in San Bernardino 
he was there long enough to draw around him a circle of warm, true 
friends, to whom he is an everlasting memory. As he devoted his life 
lo railroad work in positions of authority he was thrown in contact with 
all kinds and conditions of men, not only those who worked under him 
but many others, and with all he was popular, for with him it was once 
a friend, always a friend. 

Mr. Harrington was born in Brantford, Canada, and was educated in 
the public schools, afterward being apprenticed to a tool maker, with 
whom he served eight years. When he was twenty-five years old he 
went to Port Huron, Michigan, where he followed the trade of machinist, 
being appointed foreman of the Grand Trunk Railway shops. In 1889 
he came out to San Bernardino as general foreman of the California 
Southern Railway shops, and was so engaged until a year before his 
death, which occurred on March 28, 1895. He went into Eternity 
loved by his family and friends. He was a member of the Catholic 
Church, and politically, he was a member of the democratic party. 

On May 27, 1868, Mr. Harrington married Isabel McArron, a native 
of Port Huron, a daughter of Michael McArron and Mary (Kinney) 
McArron, her father being a native of Scotland and her mother of 
Ireland. Mr. McArron came to Port Huron in early days and conducted 
a hotel. Mrs. McArron was also a pioneer of that place. Mrs. Harring- 
ton was educated in the public schools of Port Huron. Mr. and Mrs. 
Harrington became the parents of the following children : Mary Josephine, 
wife of A. D. Griffith, of San Bernardino, who has two girls and one 
boy; Kate, deceased wife of Clarence Rasor, and left two boys and one 
girl ; and Gail and Lillian Harrington. 

In 1895 Mrs. Harrington started an art shop in the old Opera House 
Building, and ran that for three years and then went into the millinery 
business at 441 Third Street. She successfully conducted this establish- 
ment for twenty-two years, and then opened her present place, December 
15, 1919, located at third and F streets. Mrs. Harrington has by her 
own skill and talent made this into the leading establishment of its 
kind in the county. Her business acumen and personality have united 
to make her one of the city's most progressive citizens, and also one of 
the most popular. She is always more than willing to take an active 
part in anything which will be for the good of the community. Mrs. 
Harrington has made herself by her own unaided exertions an influence 
in the life of the city, and her reputation for rectitude and integrity is 
second to none. 

John G. Eikelman — With the business and civic interests of San 
Bernardino the late John G. Eikelman was identified a number of years 
and was one of the substantial citizens, prominently interested in all 
movements looking to the advancement and progress of the city. 

He was born at Quincy, Illinois, in 18M. His father, Henry lukel- 
man, was a California forty-niner, having been a participant in the excit- 
ing days of the original discovery of gold. John G. Eikelman grew up 
in Quincy, had a public school education, and for a number of years was 
in the general mercantile business at Wichita, Kansas. In that city, 
October 22. 1891. he married Miss Viola T. Stewart. She was born 



856 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

in Indiana, of Scotch ancestry. Her father, John L. Stewart, was a 
graduate of De Pauw University at Greencastle, Indiana, and in early 
life was a well known educator. 

On coming to San Bernardino Mr. Eikelman entered the wholesale 
and retail grain and feed business, and was still active as a merchant 
in that line when he died in 1909. His first home in the city was on 
the site of the old fort, at 357 C, now Arrowhead avenue. In this home 
all the children were born. The present handsome home occupied by 
Mrs. Eikelman and children, at 345 Sixth Street, was built in 1909. 
The late Mr. Eikelman voted as a democrat, but never put himself in 
line for political honors, though his interest was unfailing in matters of 
local welfare. He belonged to the Chamber of Commerce and was 
affiliated with the Masonic Order and the Elks. 

Mrs. Eikelman is the mother of four children. All of their birth- 
days fell in the same month. The oldest, Miss Frances, during the period 
of the World war was a chemist in a munition factory in Amitol, New 
Jersey, and then resumed the work for which she was especially trained, 
the welfare work in the Glenn Mill School at Slayton Farm in Phila- 
delphia. Miss Nell Eikelman, the second daughter, graduated in 1921 
from Columbia University with the Master of Arts degree, her major 
subject being English. The son, J. Albert Eikelman, finished his four- 
year college course in the Oregon Agricultural College. While there 
he distinguished himself as an athlete, and is now athletic coach for the 
high school at Hoquiam, Washington. He married Miss Eva Wheeler 
of Tillamook, Oregon. They have one son, John Albert Eikelman, Jr. 
E. Carlyle Eikelman, the younger son, is a member of the class of 1924 
in the commercial course of the Agricultural College at Corvallis. 

Edgar T. Ham, county surveyor of San Bernardino and a citizen of 
San Bernardino City, just missed by one short year being a native son 
of California. He has spent his life since school days in surveying and 
associate activities, and he was the popular choice of the residents for 
the position he so adequately fills. He is a real Calif ornian and a most 
loyal one, having spent his entire life, save for that one little year, in 
the state, and most of it in and around San Bernardino. 

He was born in Waco, Texas, January 25, 1886, the son of W. H. 
Ham and Elizabeth (Tennant) Ham. His father was a native of Maine 
and his mother was born in Ontario, Canada. W. H. Ham was a jeweler 
in Texas, but in 1887 he came out to San Bernardino and bought an 
orange grove of ten acres near Highland. He has since added to his 
holdings until he has a fine property of thirty acres. With his wife he 
now lives at this home. They were the parents of two children, Mamie, 
wife of William Gutherie, city attorney of San Bernardino, and Edgar 
T. Ham. 

Edgar T. Ham was educated in the public and High Schools of San 
Bernardino, and then worked for the Arrowhead Reservoir and Power 
Company until September, 1906. .After that he was selected assistant 
engineer for the Rasor Brothers, mining engineers, and until February, 
1907, was with them. From that time until January, 1909, he was an 
assistant in the county surveyor's office. He next went to the hydrographic 
department of the Arrowhead Reservoir Power Company, where he 
remained until May, 1909. Then, until January, 1911, was assistant 
city engineer of San Bernardino. In January, 1918, he was appointed 
deputy county surveyor, and in 1919 was elected county surveyor, which 
position he now holds to the satisfaction of all. 

Mr. Ham was united in marriage on October 20. 1909, with -Xudrey 
D. Dresser, a daughter of Nathaniel .\. Dresser, of San Bernardino. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 857 

They are the parents of two children, Margaret and Audrey E. Dresser. 
Mr. Ham is a member of San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, and of the American Association of 
Engineers. In politics he is a republican, and in religious faith he is affil- 
iated with the Presbyterian Church. 

Georc.e Kingston Sherlock, Jr. — The importance of all cuniniunitics 
are measured by the value of its different business houses and the men 
owning and controlling them. If a locality does not possess any sound 
commercial and industrial interests its rating is low, no matter how 
desirable may me its natural advantages. Therefore it is a matter of 
moment to secure and hold those concerns whose operations will add 
to the prestige and enhance the value of its realty. San Bernardino 
owes much of its recent remarkable expansion to the fact that it has 
become the home for some of the largest and most dependable establish- 
ments in Southern California, one of which is conducted by George 
Kingston Sherlock, Jr., at 529 Court Street, where he operates an autn 
top, tent and awning business with very gratifying results not only to 
himself but to all parties concerned. 

George Kingston Sherlock, Jr., was born at Radersburg, Montana, 
November 14. 1895, a son of George Kingston and Hattie L. (McKay) 
Sherlock, grandson of Wigmore Sherlock, and great-grandson of Gover- 
nor Sherlock, who was a man of great importance at Bandon, Ireland, and 
proprietor of the landed estate of The Green. He was the father of four- 
teen children, one of whom, George Sherlock, although now ninety 
years of age, is still serving as Queen's Counsel in England. Another 
.son, Wigmore Sherlock, married beneath his social station in life, was 
con.sequently disinherited, and went with his bride to New Zealand, 
where they resided for many years, and where their ten children were 
born. They then came to the United States, landing in California, from 
whence they went to Montana, driving a flock of sheep and homesteaded 
at Radersberg. and there he died two years later. 

C;eorge Kingston Sherlock, Sr.. one of the sons of Wigmore Sherlock 
and his wife, was reared and educated at Rader.sburg. and there he 
was married, his wife being of Scotch parentage. They lived at Raders- 
burg until after the birth of their son George Kingston Sherlock. Jr., 
and then moved to San Bernardino, and a daughter. Nellie, was born 
soon thereafter. Subsequently twin daughters. Elsie and Ethel, were 
born, and ten years thereafter their fifth child, Helen, was born. George 
Kingston Sherlock, Sr., establi.shed himself in business as a manufacturer 
of tents and awnings, and also carried on a carpet cleaning department, 
becoming one of the substantial men of his day and locality. 

Growing up at San Bernardino, George Kingston Sherlock, Jr., at- 
tended its excellent public schools, and was graduated from its high 
school course in 1914. Immediately thereafter he entered his fathers' es- 
tablishment, and after he had acquired a full knowledge of it, the manage- 
ment was turned over to him. In 1915 Mr. Sherlock branched out to in- 
clude automobile trimming and upholstering, which rapidly grew until it 
became the most important part of the business. In the meanwhile there 
was such an expansion in all of the departments as to necessitate the 
securing of larger quarters, and in 1920 the plant was moved to the 
present new and commodious building, which is the largest establishment 
of its kind in Southern California. Mr. Sherlock has a model plant, for 
he has installed many new and valuable machines and devices for 
carrying on his business efficiently and expeditiously. He gives em- 



858 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

ployment to fifteen skilled mechanics, and has the surrounding territory, 
including the desert, covered by experienced salesmen. 

In addition to carrying on his own enterprise with commendable 
success Mr. Sherlock finds time and interest for different organizations 
which are engaged in promoting the welfare of the business life of the 
city, and served for two terms as president and a director of the Auto 
Trades Association ; is a director of the Merchants Association ; and 
belongs to the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce and similar 
associations. Fraternally he maintains membership with San Bernardino 
Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and socially 
with the Rotary Club and the Mutual Dancing Club. He is non-partisan 
in his political activities. 

On September 19, 1914, occurred the marriage of George Kingston 
Sherlock, Jr., and Miss Daisy C. Peters, at San Bernardino, the young 
people eloping. They have a little daughter, Virginia Lois Sherlock, 
aged six years. In every particular Mr. Sherlock measures up to a high 
standard of citizenship, and stands as well socially as he does in business 
circles. 

Rev. Richard Ainslie Kirch hoffer is rector of All Saints Episcopal 
Church of Riverside. This is one of the large and prosperous Episcopal 
Churches of the county, with over five hundred baptized members and 
three hundred communicants, and is an organization with great power 
and influence for good throughout the city. 

Members of the Episcopal Church were represented in the pioneer 
colony that founded Riverside, and the services of an Episcopal minister 
were held there as early as June, 1871. Thereafter at occasional intervals 
the community was attended as a mission until October 5, 1884, when All 
Saints parish was organized from All Saints Mission, under the approval 
of Bishop Kip. Among the prominent members of the parish at that 
time were E. C. Brown, J. D. Brownlee, E. J. Davis, W. H. Hayt, John 
Jarvis, W. P. Lett, Ottley Papineau,, Dr. Woodill, B. B. Wright, L. M. 
Holt and Dr. Jenkins. The first resident rector was Rev B. W. R. 
Tayler, who in January, 1887, came from New Brunswick, Canada, to 
his new duties. The parish was greatly prospered during his adminis- 
tration, and the cornerstone of the present church was laid June 24, 1887. 
Rev. Mr. Tayler resigned in 1891, and early in the following year was 
succeeded by Dr. Milton C. Dotten, who served the parish as rector for 
twenty-six years, until May, 1918. His successor is Rev. Mr. Kirch- 
hofl'er. 

Richard Ainslie Kirchhoffer was born at Souris, Manitoba, Canada, 
June 28. 1890. His name is Dutch in origin, though his paternal ances- 
tors for generations lived in Ireland, which was also the home of his 
mother's people. The Kirc^ihoffers went to Ireland from Holland with 
William of Orange. Rev. Mr. Kirchhoffer's parents were Richard 
Beresford and Mary Elizabeth (Young) Kirchhoffer. His father was 
born in Ballyvourney, County Cork, Ireland, was educated in England, 
and immigrated to Canada in 1880, being one of the pioneers in what was 
then the Canadian Northwest, now the Province of IManitoba. He was 
also a pioneer of the California settlement of Canadians known as Ontario, 
and is remembered in that city as one of the men responsible for the 
laying out of the ornamental and shade tree system. From 1904 until 
1919 he was a member of the Los Angeles Stock Exchange, and his 
death occurred in December of the latter year. 

Richard A. Kirchhoffer was educated in the Los Angeles grammar 
schools, graduated from the Polytechnic High School of that city in 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 859 

1909, and received his A. B. degree from the University of Southern 
California in 1913. He then went East to New York City and in 1916 
graduated from the General Theological Seminary and took his Orders in 
the Episcopal Church the same year. From 1916 to 1918 he served as 
assistant minister at All Saints Episcopal Church at Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts. In the interval following his duties at Worcester and the 
beginning of his rectorship at Riverside he was an army chaplain. From 
August 23, to September 26, 1918, he attended the training school for 
chaplains at Camp Zachary Taylor, Kentucky, and from September 26 
until January 29, 1919, was chaplain of Headquarters Train and Military 
Police, 12th Division, Camp Devons, Massachusetts. 

Rev. Mr. KirchhofTer was formally installed as rector of All Saints 
Church at Riverside February 12, 1919. He has been chaplain since 
organization of Riverside Post No. 79, American Legion, is a mem- 
ber of the International Rotary Club of Riverside, and a republican 
in politics. 

September 7, 1918, at St. Luke's Church at Anchorage. Kentucky, 
he married Arline Leicester Wagner, daughter of James R. H. and 
Mabel Monahan Wagner, now of Santa Barbara. Rev. Mr. Kirchhoffer 
and wife have one son, Richard Ainslie, Jr., born August 5, 1919. 

Matthew Gage was a man to whom all California may well pay a 
lasting tribute of honor, for he it was whose initiative and enterprise 
made possible the cultivation and development of the navel orange in the 
Riverside district, and incidentally led to the upbuilding of one of the most 
important productive industries of the state. A man of sterling char- 
acter, of marked civic loyalty and public spirit, his influence was ever 
one of helpfulness, and he commanded unqualified popular esteem. His 
work and service widened in beneficent angle, and made possible the 
winning of substantial fortunes by many other citizens of California. 
His supreme material interest in life was in the development and prog- 
ress of Riverside, and the canal which he constructed and which still 
bears his name is the main artery of the irrigation system that give? 
life to the magnificent orange groves of this favored section of Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. Gage was born in Coleraine, Ireland. January 11. 1844, and 
was a son of James and Margaret Jane (Orr) Gage. His father was a 
man of large business interests in his native land. He died shortly aftei 
his return to Ireland with his family after a year's visit to Canada. His 
mother died at Riverside, California, in January, 1892, at the age of 
eighty-two. 

Matthew Gage was reared and educated in Kingston, Canada, and 
was there actively engaged in business until the year 1881. In that year 
he came to Riverside, which became his permanent residence. 

Prior to his coming to Riverside he had purchased twenty acres of 
orange and deciduous groves on the corner of California Avenue and 
Jackson Street. Despite his earnest efforts this venture proved unprof- 
itable. Regardless of that fact, his faith in the possibilities of Riverside 
was not weakened, and he immediately directed his energies to other 
fields of development. On March 6. 1882. he filed a Desert Land entry 
in the office of the United States Land office, covering section thirtv, 
lying east of the City of Riverside, and on the 20th of March, 1882, 
purchased 160 acres of land from W. F. Green in section thirty-two with 
the hope of developing water thereon by means of wells for the reclama- 
tion of section thirty. On the same date he also purchased Lot One of the 
Southern California Colony Association Lands from Hettie A. Green, 



860 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

where he established his residence, and where he thereafter continuously 
resided until his death in 1916. 

Failing to find water in sufficient amount on section thirty-two, he 
began negotiations with J. Alphonso Carit for the purchase of the Carit 
Tract (now known as Victoria) in 1885, and consummated the purchase 
of 1,000 acres of the same on March 1, 1886, for the sum of 
$175,000.00. Upon this tract he caused to be bored many artesian 
wells, some of which now constitute a part of the water supplv of the 
Cage Canal. 

On July 27, 1885, Mr. Gage purchased six-sevenths of the Hunt and 
Cooley Ditch from George Cooley, Ambrose Hunt, James Stewart and 
Peter Filaux, which carried with it the right to take all the water flowing 
in the Santa Ana River at the point of the intake. 

It was with this water that Mr. Gage intended to reclaim section 
thirty. To convey this water to his lands it was necessary to construct a 
canal twelve miles in length. This required the boring of more than a 
mile of tunnels through the bluffs to the south of the Santa Ana River 
and the acquisition of rights of way over the lands of others. These 
rights of way were largely acquired by conveying to the owners wafer 
rights in the canal to be built and necessitated the development of water 
in amounts not only sufficient to reclaim section thirty, but also to irri- 
gate what was then known as East Riverside, but now called Highgrove. 
The Gage Canal was thereafter constructed and water therefrom supplied 
to the three thousand acres of land on the Highgrove Mesa, and con- 
veyed to and upon section thirty. Unfortunately the time within which 
the law provides that desert land should be reclaimed expired before water 
was actuallv placed upon section thirty. The dav after the expiration 
of this period four persons filed Homestead and Timber Culture entries 
unon each quarter section of section thirtv, and thereby precipitated 
litigation in the United States Land Office and in the courts, which ulti- 
matelv was determined in Mr. Gage's favor by the issuance of a patent 
to him on April 1, 1896. 

In his eflForts to obtain water for the reclamation of section thirty 
the vision of Mr. Gage grew until in his mind's eye he could see not only 
Highgrove flourishing with groves, but also the six thousand acres lying 
south of the Terquisquito Arroyo, now known as Arlington Heights. On 
June 1.^. 1887, he secured an option from S. C. Evans. Sr.. for the pur- 
cha<;e of this tract, and enlarged the plans of the Gage Canal so as to 
permit the carrying of sufficient water not only for the irrigation of 
Highgrove and section thirty, but also for the thousands of acres of 
.Arlington Heights. Unable to secure financial assistance to carry out 
this protect, he proceeded to England in 1889. and there enlisted the 
aid of British capital. .As a result of his efforts there the Riverside 
Trust Company, Limited, was incorporated December 1,^, 1889. which 
company purchased from Mr. Gage Arlington Heights and all of the 
stock of the Gage Canal Company, the latter company beine organized 
in California for the purpo<?e of managing and operating the Gage Canal 
and its water sources. Mr. Gage reserved a large block of stock in the 
Trust Company for his interests, and became its managing director. 
The Gage Canal, which had been in 1888 extended to cover Arlington 
Heights, was thereupon put into commission, and the lands planted under 
Mr. Gage's management; streets opened and graded: and this develop- 
ment continued under his supervision until 1894, at which time he resigned 
as an oflicer of the company, being succeeded as manager by William 
Irving, his brother-in-law, who theretofore had been the engineer for 
the company. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 861 

I'or a considcralilc pcricul after 1804 iinich of Mr. Gage's time was 
taken up with litigation connected with liis varied interests and in the 
(leveloimient of section thirty, tliree Inmched acres of which were still 
owned by him at the time of his death. 

Mr. Gage was an earnest member of the Calvary Presbyterian Church, 
which he was instrumental in organizing and which in its early years 
was largely supported by him. In 1892 liis wife presented to the church 
the beautiful organ which is at the present time in use, and which was 
given in memory of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Gage who had passed 
away at that time. 

He was interested in all things that touched the civic and material 
welfare and progress of his home city and county. 

In subdividing the lands of Arlington Heights, which prior to the 
construction of the (jage Canal were covered with sage brush and 
cactus, and having in mind the future development and beautification 
of the community, he caused to be laid out \'ictoria Avenue, a double 
road leading from Victoria Hill on the north to the lands of the San 
Jacinto Land Company, eight miles below. As managing director of 
the Riverside Trust Company he caused to be constructed the Victoria 
Bridge, which spans the Terquisquito Arroyo, and presented it to the 
city. He spared neither time nor efTort to beautify the properties under 
his control. Widely traveled and deeply read in all forms of literature, 
with a deep appreciation and love of music, and with a keen and sparkling 
wit, Mr. Gage was both a delightful companion and a constant inspiration 
to all those who enjoyed his friendship. 

Mr. Gage married on June 30. 1869, Jane Gibson, of Kingston, 
Canada, a daughter of James and Jane Gibson, both of whom were born 
in Belfast, Ireland. Mr. Gibson was the owner of many acres of farming 
lands in Ontario, Canada. 

Mr. Gage left surviving him three children and one grandson, Gage, 
so named after his grandfather, the son of his second daughter, Maude 
Louise, now Mrs. W. G. Irving. The eldest daughter, Margaret Jane 
Gage, resides with her mother. His third daughter, Anna Stewart, is the 
wife of H. S. Montgomery, a mining engineer residing at Lompoc. 
California. Five children were lost to Mr. and Mrs. Gage. Katherine 
MacKenzie, Horace James, Robert Condit, Edith Anna and Francis 
Gibson. 

Mr. Gage died January 22, 1916, and was interred in the family bmial 
ground in Olivewood cemetery. 

William Irvixc. Among the men whose efforts aided in the rapid 
development of Riverside during the late eighties and early nineties of 
the last century was the late William Irving. Mr. Irving was born near 
Annandale, Dumfries, Scotland, in 1833, the son of William and Eliz- 
abeth ( Brow ) Irving. At the age of twelve he came to Kingston, Canada, 
where he received his education as an architect and engineer. Until his 
father's death in 1874 he was associated with him in the designing and 
erection of many of the public and collegiate buildings, which distin- 
guish the City of Kingston among Canadian cities. In 1881 he organ- 
ized and became president and manager of the Kingston Car Works. 

In 1887, on the invitation of Matthew Gage. Mr. Irving came to 
Riverside to act as engineer of the Gage Canal System. Under his direc- 
tion the Gage Canal was constructed from the Terquisquite Arroyo to 
its present terminus and Arlington Heights was laid out in its present 
form. Later, upon the organization of the Riverside Trust Company, 
Limited, in 1890, which company acquired Mr. Gage's interest in Arling- 
ton Heights, and in the Gage Canal he became the engineer of that com- 



862 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

jiany. Immediately followiiif^ tlie orjjaiiizalion of the Trust t'omiiany 
tlie planting of Arlington Heights was begun and continued until upwards 
of five thousand acres of desert were converted into prolific citrus groves. 
Mr. Irving in 1894 became manager of the company and continued to 
act as such until the year 1901 ; and thereafter as consulting manager 
until his death. 

In 1901 Mr. Irving was re((uested by the United States Government 
to make an investigation and report upon irrigation practice in Southern 
California. Upon this work he was engaged at the time of his death, 
which occurred September 23, 1904. 

Mr. Irving was widely read in all branches of literature. His chief 
]:)leasure, however, was found in philosophical and scientific studies, and 
in the discussion of such subjects. Of a clear and logical mind he fol- 
lowed the course of reason with relentless precision, regardless of the 
results to generally accepted dogma. The solution of the problems of life 
in the light of truth was everything to him, and no demand of expediency 
could cause him to hesitate in putting his decisions into action. 

In 1867 Mr. Irving married Eliza Gage at Kingston, Canada, who 
still survives him. Mrs. Irving was born in Coleraine, Ireland, in 1839, 
the daughter of James and Margaret Orr Gage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Irving had a family of six children, all of whom are 
still living. In 1897 their eldest daughter, Elizabeth Brow, married John 
M. Mylne. who succeeded Mr. Irving as engineer of the Gage Canal 
System. His second daughter. Margaret Eva, married Stewart E. Mal- 
locb of Hamilton, Canada, in 1901 ; and the youngest, Kathleen, married 
Edward W. Trevelyan. 

Of his three sons, William G. is a lawyer practicing in Riverside; 
Robert M. is engaged in horticulture ; and J. Norman is a civil engineer 
of Los Angeles, California. 

^^'ILLIAM G. Irving has been active in his practice as an attorney- 
at-law at Riverside for a number of years. His father was closely identi- 
fied with the constructive enterprises that developed the rich horticul- 
tural area around Riverside. 

Mr. Irving was born at Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 16, 1870, 
son of \\'illiam and Eliza Irving. His father, William Irving, Sr., was 
born in Dumfries, Scotland, in 1833. He was a civil engineer, and for 
many years was president and manager of the Kingston Car Works 
Company. He also held the office of alderman in Kingston. In 1887 
he came to California and thereafter continued his business and pro- 
fessional career as engineer and manager of the Riverside Trust Coni- 
])any, Limited. He died in 1904. His wife was born in Coleraine, 
Ireland, in 1839. 

William G. Irving was reared and educated in Kingston, Canada, 
attending the Collegiate Institute, and is a graduate Bachelor of Arts of 
the University of Queens College in that city. After finishing his uni- 
versity career he came to California and has practiced law in Riverside 
for nearly twenty-three years Mr. Irving was for five years by federal 
appointment referee in bankruptcy ; and for seven years was city attorney 
of Riverside. 

During the World war Mr. Irving turned over his office force and 
his entire time to the Red Cross chapter of Riverside, of which he was 
chairman, and to the Food Administration, which he represented in 
Riverside County. 

During his earjy youth he served as a private in C Company, Princess 
of Wales Own Rifles, in Canada. He is a democrat in politics, and a 
member of the Victoria Country Club of Riverside. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 863 

February 19, 1913, at Los Angeles, Mr. Irving married Maude Louise 
Gage, daughter of Matthew Gage, of Riverside. 

John Alexander Henderson, the popular and efficient mayor of 
San Bernardino, from May, 1919, to May, 1921, is not only a native 
son, his birthplace the city of which he was mayor, and the son of a 
pioneer, but he is a man who experienced as many vicissitudes and led 
as strenuous a life in many ways as the earliest of pioneers. He took a 
man's part at a very young age and when he reached manhood he essayed 
various lines of work, generally ending by being placed in charge of the 
work, but at the same time he had many adventures and made many 
changes of occupation and of scenes. He ma-naged to extract plenty 
of the joy of life as he went along, and always made friends. Mr. 
Henderson is of the West, a genuine westerner, and typical Californian. 
He is of the "salt that keeps civilization from decay." He can relate 
many tales of the early pioneer days which are more fascinating than 
any romance. 

Mr. Henderson was, as stated above, born in San Bernardino, on 
May 29, 1857. His father was David Henderson, a native of Scotland, 
who came to San Bernardino in 1856. He was a merchant in the old 
country, and a stock raiser as soon as he located in California. His 
wife was Margaret Adam, also a native of Scotland. She died in 1900. 
They were the parents of ten children, of whom John A. was the young- 
est. Seven of them reached maturity. 

Mr. Henderson was educated in the public schools of San Bernardino, 
and worked on his mother's stock ranch as soon as he was able to ride a 
horse, which was when he was nine years of age. He continued in this 
work until he was seventeen years old, at which period his mother moved 
to Juappa, which at that time was supposed to be Government land, but 
which later proved to be a part of the Stearns grant. The stock was 
moved to this district, as it was growing so fast the ranch near San 
Bernardino was getting overcrowded. They were notified to move 
off the property, but Mrs. Henderson had a will of her own and paid 
no attention to the notice. Later, however, she sold out all the stock and 
moved back to San Bernardino. 

At this juncture Mr. Henderson, Jr., decided to work in a saw- 
mill, and did so, starting in one owned by Tyler Brothers, where he 
remained until the fall of 1875, when he went to one owned by Van 
Slack & Summers, where he worked several years. Real money was 
so scarce it was a curiosity, and he had to take his pay in lumber, 
which he managed to trade for his necessities. And, true to form, 
the necessities were — a six shooter and a watch. After two years' 
work at the last named place he was made head sawyer, and was 
so employed for two years. His original job at the mill was wheeling 
sawdust, and his promotions were won by sheer hard work and appli- 
cation. His keen eve made him an expert at settings the logs on 
the head blocks, and this was what decided the firm to give him the 
job of being in charge of the sawing. 

In 1877 he decided on a change and went to Santa Maria, to an 
uncle, W. L. Adam, who had purchased eleven leagues of land and 
who also conducted a large general store. He worked for a time in 
the store and then engaged in driving a team, as he did not like the 
indoor confinement. He varied this by working also on the big Suey 
ranch for a man named Fields, who was in charge of the property. 
In 1878 Mr. Henderson returned to San Bernardino and drove team 
for Van Slack in the mountains of the district until 1880, when the 



864 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIX'Ei^iSlDJ-. COUNTIES 

big Bodie boom started. With seven others he procured teams and 
started for Bodie, but on tlie way up they met crowds of men return- 
ing from Bodie who told them the boom was "busted," so they 
decided not to go on. When the party reached Bishop Creek, Mr. 
Henderson decided to get a job there. At that point lived a man 
named Gillette, who had an old grist mill. Mr. Henderson talked 
with him about the chances of getting a job, and Gillette went to a 
man named Mallory and secured him work the next day. Mallory 
had 320 acres of land and raised grain, cattle, hogs and chickens, sell- 
ing to the miners around Bellville. He went to work for him in May 
and worked all summer.. After the first month he was made fore- 
man. Among the men he had to oversee were a number of Piute 
Indians. In the fall Mr. Henderson started hauling grain to Bell- 
ville, and it sold for five cents per pound. At other times he would 
take out hogs, chickens and sometimes a bunch of cattle. He worked 
for Mallory until 1882, and then went to work again for Tyler Broth- 
ers, and was engaged as lumberman there for two years. 

He then started in business for himself, buying a team and haul- 
ing freight up to the mountains and hauling down lumber on the return 
trip. He kept this up about seven years, and in 1889 was elected 
city marshal of San Bernardino, and ex officio tax collector. He held 
these offices until 1901, and then ran again for the position, but was 
defeated. He then worked for Walter Shay in the police department 
for four years, after which he was special officer for the Santa Fe for 
seven years. He resigned from this position then in order to be at 
home with his wife, who was in poor health, and his duties in that 
position kept him away from home most of the time. He was elected 
councilman from the Fifth Ward, and while holding this position he 
was elected mayor of San Bernardino, in 1919, serving until May, 
1921. After leaving the mayor's office Mr. Henderson was appointed 
administrator and has been looking after the estate of his deceased 
sister, Mrs. Margaret Yeager. This estate consists principally of 
orange groves in the Rialto district. Mr. Henderson owns a pretty 
home of five acres in San Bernardino. 

In 1889 he married Asenia Wilson, a daughter of James Wilson, 
of El Monte, California. He is a member of San Bernardino Lodge 
No. 348, A. F. and A. M., and of Arrowhead Parlor No. 110, Native 
Sons of the Golden West. Politically he gives his allegiance to the 
democratic party. 

Charles P. Hayt. — The enterprises originating in and directed by 
him and others, with which he has been prominently associated, give 
Charles P. Hayt a notable place in the history of Riverside and 
Riverside County. An early recognition of the possibilities in the 
building line and unlimited faith in the city has brought him enviable 
prosperity. Always public spirited, he has given time, money and 
energy to the work of the community as a whole. This interest has 
been thoroughly progressive and constructive. 

The history of local transportation in particular involves repeated 
reference to Charles P. Hayt and his father. He had the distinction 
of establishing the first star passenger and mail route between River- 
side, Colton and Temecula. It was not only his capital that provided 
the facilities for this transportation route, but his brawn and muscle 
were availed in driving one of the old Concord coaches between the 
points named. Mr. Hayt was the first man to put up a thousand 



SAX BERXARDIXO AXD RIVERSIDE COUXTIES 865 

dollars for the franchise and the first steel laid in Riverside for the 
Street Railway, which afterward merged into the Arlington Company 
and has since been developed as part of the great system of the 
Pacific Electric Railroad. The first local line ran on Seventh, Park 
and Eighth streets to Mount Rubidoux, and the passengers were car- 
ried in little cars built by the St. Louis Car Company. 

Charles P. Havt was horn in Patterson, Putnam County, New York, 
October 15, 1854, 'son of William A. and Mary E. ( Pugsley ) Hayt. His 
great-grandfather, Stephen Hayt, was a drummer boy in Washing- 
ton's Army during the Revolution. Later he engaged in farming in 
Putnam County, New York, where his son, Harry, his grandson, 
William A., and his great grandson, Charles P., were all born, and 
where in different generations they were identified with farming and 
merchandising. 

William A. Hayt made his first trip across the plains to California 
in 1859. He again came West by way of the Isthmus of Panama ten 
years later. He had a part in various enterprises in Riverside and 
vicinity, and he lived there for many years, until his death on De- 
cember 4, 1915. 

Charles P. Hayt acquired his early education in the public schools 
of Putnam County, New York. For eight years he was in business 
in New York State. He knows intimately many phases of pioneer 
times in the far West. During the exciting days of the Comstock 
lode, during the seventies, he was at Virginia City, Nevada, and came 
in touch with many of the old time miners and the mining conditions 
of that period. Mr. Hayt altogether has made five trips across the 
Isthmus of Panama. His observations of the Isthmus caused him 
to believe that a mistake was made when the United States started 
the construction of its great canal. He has always favored the con- 
struction of a tide-water canal instead of the lock system. 

Mr. Hayt came to Riverside in September, 1882, and with his 
father engaged in the livery and transfer business and also as dealers 
in meat. It was a very small scale enterprise, and two horses com- 
prised the livery equipment. They built a stable 55x150 feet, and 
soon the business outgrew even these facilities and they purchased 
adjoining property and built upon it. Soon after this C. P. Hayt 
purchased all his father's interests. Charles P. Hayt was a born 
veterinarian, and for years he personally cared for the health of his 
horses. In former years he conducted one of the best stables in 
Southern California, and had probably the largest livery business, 
and was also a large dealer in hay and grain. During the time he 
and his father were associated they operated the first mail stage line. 
This line boasted one of the old six-horse Concord stages, and later 
that coach was sold to Cave & Reeves of Redlands to be used in the 
desert runs. 

Mr. Hayt's personality and his willingness to assist in all matters 
of public importance made his business a most popular and profitable 
one. He finally gave up the livery business to enter larger fields of 
endeavor. Building construction appealed to him, and he and his 
father erected a number of buildings in Riverside. They jointly 
erected the three-story brick building known as the Hayt Block on 
the southwest corner of Seventh and Main streets, Charles P. Hayt 
later purchasing his father's interest. It was constructed in 1887 on 
ground 55x155 feet. In November, 1892, Mr. Hayt built his present 
handsome residence at 484 Orange Street. He constructed other build- 



866 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

ings, and his faith in the rapid advancement of Riverside has been com- 
pletely justified. 

Mr. Hayt in 1888 took an active part in the formation of the River- 
side Gas & Electric Company, and was the second to fill the office of 
secretary. This public utility was successful from the start, and is still 
giving Riverside as fine a service as is enjoyed by any other city on the 
coast. In politics Mr. Hayt is a republican, but has concerned himself 
with politics only so far as the interests of the local community were 
concerned. He was a member of the Odd Fellows Lodge in the old 
home town. 

May 22, 1884, at Riverside, Mr. Hayt married Miss Minnie Myrtle 
Morey, of an old American family of English ancestry. She was born 
in Naperville, Illinois, and her parents, Amos Benjamin and Mary 
Amanda Morey, are both natives of New York. Mr. Morey was a Union 
soldier, serving throughout the Civil War. Mr. and Mrs. Hayt have 
two sons. William Augustus, the elder, is in the implement business at 
Los Angeles, while Arthur Pugsley Hayt is engaged in the automobile 
business in Los Angeles. Mrs. Hayt came to Riverside May 10, 1883, 
in the interests of Aliss Irene Lamb. Mrs. Hayt was a buyer for small 
mercantile houses and was instrumental in establishing the first Riverside 
store dealing exclusively in ladies' goods and art work. It was a very 
successful enterprise, but after a year they moved to Los Angeles and 
established the business there. Mrs. Hayt joined the Riverside Woman's 
Club when it was three weeks old, and took an active part therein until 
1917, and is still a member of the organization. 

Phil G. Rimell, special agent for the Union Oil Company at River- 
side, California, is one of the successful men of this region, and one 
whose career has been marked by earnest endeavor, hard work and good 
business management. He was born at London,- England, September 
23, 1874, a son of George James and Ellen (Carter) Rimell, both of 
whom are still living, although over eighty yeaps old. They were natives 
of London, and here he has been engaged in handling a store for old 
books and engravings which was established over seventy-five years ago. 
They are in excellent health, and in spite of their years are still active. 
Both belong to old English families. 

It was intended by his parents that Phil G. Rimell be given a thor- 
ough training and fitted for the calling of a mining engineer in both 
London, England, and Madrid, Spain, and to this end he was sent to an 
excellent private school to acquire the fundamentals of a solid education. 
These plans were entirely upset, however, by the discovery that he would 
not be able to complete his studies on account of his weak eyes, and so, 
when only fifteen and a half years old, the courageous lad crossed the 
ocean to the L^nited States, and reached Helena, Montana, May 8, 1890, 
determined to learn the stock business in all its details. Young men were 
then in great demand by the large cattle growers to ride the range, and 
in spite of his youth he had no difficulty in securing work. From the 
beginning he earned enough to pay his own way, and liked the business 
in spite of the hardships incident to it, for Montana was then on the 
outskirts of civilization and the cowboys of that period had to rough it 
in true pioneer fashion. 

At the termination of a five-year experience Mr. Rimell returned to 
England, and after proving to his father's satisfaction that he could make 
a success of it if he went into the cattle business for himself, secured 
the older man's financial backing and, returning to Montana in 1896, 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 867 

purcliased his own herds and operated in the vicinity of Choteau until 
1906 with marked success. In the latter year his wife's health failed, 
necessitating a change to a less vigorous climate, and after some search 
Mr. Rimell decided upon locating at Riverside, California, moved here, 
and has since made it his home. 

Soon after locating at Riverside he sold his Montana interests and 
turned his energies to orange culture. He was succeeding beyond his 
expectations when, in 1912, together with other growers of this region, 
he sulifered heavy financial losses, and felt that he could not afTord to 
continue in a line of business, to the exclusion of everything else, which 
was subject to such periods of depression. Therefore he began handling 
real estate, having already had considerable experience in this line through 
his successful colonization of 10,000 acres of land on the Great Northern 
Railroad in Montana for Eastern capitalists. The colonists were Hol- 
landers, and the project proved satisfactory to all parties concerned. 
In July, 1914, the Union Oil Company opened its local plant at Riverside, 
and Mr. Rimell was made its manager. So capable did he prove that 
within six months this company appointed him special agent of this 
territory, which position he has since held, and during the time he has 
been occupied with these duties the business of the company in his terri- 
tory has increased more than 3,000 percent. During all of the time he 
has resided at Riverside Mr. Rimell has given some attention to orange 
growing, but owing to the fact that the expansion of the city has so 
increased the value of his property on Cridge Street he has sub-divided 
a portion of it and sold it for residential purposes, but still retains seven 
and one-half acres at 575 Cridge Street, where he maintains his home. 

Since coming to Riverside Mr. Rimell has been very active in all 
of the community interests, and is now president and a director of the 
Rotary Club, and was accredited delegate to represent it at the Inter- 
national Convention at Edinburgh, Scotland, which he attended in June, 
1921. He is a member and stockholder of the Victoria Golf Club, and 
was a director of it and its secretary from 1911 to 1913. As a director 
of the Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Business Men's Asso- 
ciation and the Present Day Club he renders an efficient service in a 
commercial way. He is a member of Riverside Lodge, A. F. and A. M., 
the Woodmen of the World and the Modern Woodmen of America. 
After securing his papers of citizenship he espoused the cause of the 
republican party, and has continued one of its active workers ever since. 
While in Montana he was a member of the City and County Central 
Committees, and since coming to Riverside has been a member of the 
City Central Committee for one term. A communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, he is very active in All Saints parish, serving it as vestryman, 
and is vice president of the All Saints Men's Club. 

On April 26, 1899, Mr. Rimell married at Choteau, Montana, Jennie 
McDonald, a native of Missouri, and a daughter of Sterling McDonald. 
The latter was a soldier of the Union Army during the war between the 
states, and after its close served Scotland County, Alissouri, for many 
years as county clerk. Mrs. Rimell's health was greatly improved by her 
change of residence, and she was spared to her family until May, 1920, 
when she passed away. She bore her husband two daughters, namely: 
Ellen, who died in infancy ; and Elizabeth, affectionately known as Betty, 
who is a student in the National Cathedral School at Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, class of 1923. In whatever he has undertaken Mr. 
Rimell has displayed a whole-hearted interest and an enthusiasm which 
has enabled him to attain to an unusual success. While advancing his 



868 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIX'ERSIDE COUNTIES 

own iiUercst.s, however, lie has never forgoUeii his ohhgations as a good 
citizen, hut has contriljuled freely and generously of his time and means 
to forwarding those projects which in his judgment would work out for 
the good of the majority. His wide and varied experience have given 
him a broad outlook on life, and ripened his judgment, clarified his vision, 
and enabled him to weigh carefully and concisely the merits of any mat- 
ter. These characteristics are recognized and appreciated by his asso- 
ciates, who are glad to accord to him a leadership he is so capable of sus- 
taining, and his advice is sought and taken on numerous occasions. 

Nelson H. Twogood, who has become one of the successful expon- 
ents of the citrus-fruit industry in Riverside County, was born at 
Pecatonica, Winnebago County, Illinois, September 25, 1851, a son of 
James D. and Amanda (Cable) Twogood, the former a native of the 
State of New York and the lattter of Ohio, the lineage of both tracing 
back to English origin and the respective families having been founded 
in America in the Colonial days. The father of James D. Twogood 
became a pioneer settler in Iowa, where he passed the remainder of his 
life. James D. Twogood continued his association with farm enter- 
prise in Illinois until 1886, when he came to Riverside County, Cali- 
fornia, where he developed a tine orange grove of thirty-two acres at 
Highgrove, besides becoming the owner of 200 acres of land in Ferris 
Valley, this county. His home at Riverside was at the corner of Orange 
Grove Avenue and Fourteenth Street, and he was one of the honored 
and influential citizens of the county at the time of his death, in July, 
1895. His widow passed away in 1905. 

Nelson H. Twogood was reared and educated in Illinois, and as a 
young man became a successful teacher in the rural schools. He con- 
tinued his connection with farm enterprise in that state until 1883, when 
he took up a homestead of Government land in what is now the State 
of South Dakota. He improved this property and continued as a pro- 
gressive farmer in South Dakota until 1901, when he came to Riverside 
County, California, where he has since given his attention to the pro- 
duction of citrus fruit, his homestead place of thirty-nine acres at River- 
side being devoted to oranges, .and his place of thirty acres in Ferris 
valley being devoted to dry farming. He was one of the organizers of 
the Highgrove Sugarloaf Fruit Association, but Later severed his con- 
nection with the same. He is now a director and the .secretary of the 
Sierra Vista Fruit Association, and was formerly a director of the bank 
at Highgrove. He takes deep and loyal interest in community affairs, 
is a republican in politics and for several years has been president of the 
Highgrove Board of Education. He is an active member of the High- 
grove Chamber of Commerce and of the Riverside Farm Bureau. He 
and his wife are zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal Church at 
Highgrove, both being teachers in its Sunday School, besides which he 
is serving as a trustee of the church, while Mrs. Twogood is secretary 
of its Home Missionary Society. 

January 1, 1880, recorded the marriage, at Andover, Ohio, of Mr. 
Twogood with Miss Mary H. Wight, who was born and reared in 
that state, a daughter of Benjamin P. Wight, a representative of the 
English family that resided on and gave title to the Isle of Wight, whence 
came the first American representatives, who settled at Dedham, Massa- 
chusetts, long prior to the Revolution. Mrs. Twogood is chairman of 
the woman's department of the local Farm Bureau and is popular in 
the representative social activities of her home community. In con- 
clusion is given brief record concerning the children of Mr. and Mrs 
Twogood : 




(^.££i.^^W,<Jic>iT^^^i^ 



jhi cui^ TiA ■ d ux-v 



^f-D-rcL 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 869 

Blanch Wight Twogood, the eldest, was a graduate of Mitchell Uni- 
versity of South Dakota and became the wife of E. Elmer Haas, of 
Highgrove, She was a graduate of the Riverside Business College and 
taught in the public schools of South Dakota and Riverside County prior 
to her marriage. She passed away October 16, 1916, leaving three chil- 
dren, two of whom are now living. The living children are Lawrence 
Nelson Haas and Edward L. Haas, both students of the Yarba Luida, 
(California) school. Olive Haas died in infancy. Ernest, born in 
South Dakota, is a graduate of the Riverside High School and of the 
University of California, from which he received the degree of Bachelor 
of Science. He is now in the employ of the General Electric Company 
at Schenectady, New York. He married Margaret Reims, and they 
have one son, Robert Reims Twogood. Captain Ralph S. Twogood 
received from the University of California the degree of Bachelor of 
Science and is now employed in the engineering department of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad. He married Grace Moore, of Berkeley, California, 
who likewise is a graduate of the University of California, and their 
two children are Ruth Mary and Ronald. In the World war period 
Captain Twogood entered the nation's service, and at Camp Lee, Virginia. 
he gained his commission as captain. Thereafter he was stationed at 
Washington, D. C, as inspector of railway equipment. Archibald J. 
Twogood received from the University of California the degrees of 
Bachelor of Science and Electrical Engineer, and he is now in charge 
of the electrical engineering department of the Oregon Institute of 
Technology that is maintained under the auspices of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. He married Dorothy Pierce, of Berkeley, this 
state, and their two daughters are Shireen and Margaret. Ruth Laura, 
youngest of the children and the light and life of the parental home, 
passed to the life eternal September 9, 1903, at the age of nine years. 

David C. Bo\'T), one of the pioneer orange growers of Riverside, 
belongs to a family of three brothers, all of whom attained to distinction, 
although each one followed out his own bent in the choice of a calling. 
One of the brothers was a talented musician ; another had great inventive 
genius and followed that lure in connection with patent attorney work : 
but David C. Boyd loved the soil and has found both pleasure and profit 
in its cultivation. Although over seventy years of age, he is hale and 
hearty, and still delights in following the furrow of the plow. He is 
very much of an authority on orange culture, and has one of the finest 
groves in Southern California, comprising eighteen and one-half acres. 
While others were diverted from citrus culture, he has continued faith- 
ful to his oranges, and they have paid him well for his care. In their 
declining years Mr. and Mrs. Boyd have a most cheerful home, which 
is cared for by their charming daughters. His has been a well-spent 
life, full of action and well worth living. 

The birth of David C. Boyd occurred at Bethany, Butler County, 
Ohio. July 22, 1850. He is the youngest and only survivor of three 
children, namely : W. S., a patent attorney, formerly of Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, but now deceased, was the inventor and patentee of 
many useful articles which were in common use ; and Squire Brown 
Boyd, a natural-born musician who found his pleasure, as well as Hving, 
in harmony He was a young man of magnetic personality, made friends 
with all who came into contact with him, and was also a salesman of rare 
talent. He drove out of Cincinnati, Ohio, with the first wagon equipped 
with an organ, and demonstrated by means of his superior playing on 
it and his singing the importance of having a musical instrument in the 



870 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

home. He devoted much of his life work to mastering the violin and 
brass instruments, playing all at different times in concerts. The life 
of this brilliant, lovable young man was terminated by death when he 
was in the very flower of his young manhood, at the early age of twenty- 
seven years. Nearly half a century has passed since finis was written in 
his life volume, but ihe memory of this rare nature remains as fresh 
with his devoted brother as though it had happened but yesterday. 

The father of these three brothers was William H. Boyd, who was 
a son of John Boyd and a native of Ohio and by trade a cooper. Wil- 
liam H. Boyd married Harriet Crane, also a native of Ohio, who died 
in California, July 5, 1896, at the age of seventy-two years. Her father, 
Stephen Crane, a farmer of large landed interests, gave to each of his 
children sufficient land to make a farm. After the death of her first 
husband Mrs. Boyd married his brother, and David C. Boyd remained 
with his mother and step-father until he was ready to start out in life 
for himself, at which time he bought a farm, and upon it raised stock 
and general farm products, and at the same time maintained a superin- 
tendence of his mother's farm. 

His aunt, Mrs. Eliza Sarber, came to California in 1882 and settled 
at Riverside, and her reports of the region were so favorable that Mr. 
Boyd, through her, purchased nine and a quarter acres of land at River- 
side, which he still owns, and to which he has added since he arrived 
in this city. He made several trips of inspection to California, and then, 
as soon as he could dispose of his Eastern interests, he took up his resi- 
dence here. Mrs. Boyd still owns forty acres of land in Butler County, 
Ohio, but no Eastern interests have been permitted to interfere with the 
development of the California property. When Mr. Boyd picked his first 
crop of oranges, which were navels, the entire product could have been 
shipped in two boxes. He now picks more than twelve carloads from 
the same grove. Generally speaking, this grove is of navels, although 
he has a few seedlings and a few valencias. 

At one time Mr. Boyd was a member of the Riverside Farm Bureau, 
but no longer maintains that connection, although he does belong to the 
Riverside Heights Orange Growers Association. In politics he is an 
independent, but has taken but little part in public matters since coming 
to California, although in the East he was an interested worker, especially 
during the campaign of James G. Blaine for the presidency. 

On April 2, 1887, Mr. Boyd married in Butler County, Ohio, Miss 
Lizzie Magie, a native of that state, and a member of an old American 
family of Pennsylvania-Dutch descent. Mr. and Mrs. Boyd are the 
parents of three children, namely : Shirley B., who is an orange grower, 
living at 179 Riverside Avenue, Riverside, who married, April 19, 1919, 
Miss Helen Hazel Smith, a native of Wisconsin, and a daughter of 
Edwin R. Smith, one of the esteemed retired residents of Riverside ; 
Mary Alice, who was born in Ohio, was graduated from the Riverside 
High School, and is now living with her parents ; and Harriet Mildred, 
who was born in California, was also graduated from the Riverside 
High School, and is now a student in the University of California, 
Southern Branch. 

Mr. Boyd is a delightful gentleman to meet, genial and courteous, 
and glad to relate entertaining reminiscences of the earlier days at River- 
side and in the orange growing industry. He is enthusiastic about the 
city and state, and feels that only a beginning has been made in orange 
growing, .so great does he believe the possibilities to be. Fully realizing 
the dignity and importance of the closely allied callings of agriculture and 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 871 

horticulture, both of which have had in him an earnest and efficient sup- 
porter, he is anxious to enlist in them the younger men of the country, 
and feels that thisi can be accomplished through a campaign of education 
which will teach the desirability of entering an occupation which not 
only makes excellent returns for all investments of time and money, but 
also bestows good health and gives an independence none other can. His 
own example proves the truth of his many arguments in favor of his 
beloved work, and his enthusiasm is an inspiration. He is one of the 
best types of the successful citrus growers of the Southwest, and to him 
and his associates is due in large part the credit for the remarkable de- 
velopment of this great region, and the advent in it of a fine class of 
citizens, who, coming here from more Eastern homes, appreciate the ad- 
vantages of climate and location, and exert themselves to become partici- 
pators in its many opportunities. 

Frank W. Parsons — The energy, the enthusiasm, the steadfast per- 
sistence that Frank W. Parsons, owner of the garage that bears his name 
at Riverside, throws into his business not only are characteristic of the 
man, but would bring him success in any line he might enter. In the 
garage business, however, he has the work he likes, and in it he has 
made a name for himself for reliability and excellence of work. He was 
born at Mount Victory, Ohio, November 22, 1860, a son of Watson and 
Mary Ann Eliza (Chamberlayne) Parsons. Watson Parsons was a 
native of New York State, and his family was of Revolutionary stock 
and English descent. During the war between the states he enlisted in 
the Buell Division of Light Artillery, of which Gen. John C. Fremont 
was the commander. For two and one-half years he was in the service 
up and down the banks of the Mississippi River, and died at Keokuk, 
Iowa, from the effects of the hardships he endured in the army. He was 
buried with honors in the soldiers' cemetary at Keokuk. His wife also 
belonged to an old American family that orginated in this country in the 
persons of four brothers of the name of Chamberlin, who came here 
from England. After their arrival they agreed to change the spelling 
of their name from the old method to that of Chamberlayne, which is 
still used. The grandfathers of Frank W. Parsons on both sides were 
ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and members of the 
General Conference of Western New York during their active years. 

Frank W. Parsons attended the public schools and the Lima Seminary 
of Lima, New York. Entering the employ of the Delaware & Hudson 
Railroad as a telegrapher, he remained with that road for thirty-two 
years, rising to be a fireman, and then, in 1881, to be locomotive engineer, 
his run being principally between Binghamton and Albany, Ne^v York- 
He resigned in 1906, and early in the following year came West to 
California and located at Riverside. 

Having decided to enter a new field, he built the Central Garage, 
ran it for three years, and then sold it. Erecting the old Mission Garage 
on Main Street, he conducted it for six years. In 1915 he put up the 
Parsons Garage on Fifth and Main streets, one of the most modern in 
the city, covering a large floor space and thoroughly equipped to handle 
all work in this line. His wife is his business partner. In addition to 
his garage interests Mr. Parsons owns fourteen acres of fine Valencia 
orange trees in the Bullis subdivision in San Bernardino County under 
the Vista Grande Water Company. 

On September 26, 1883, he married at Binghamton, New York, Miss 
Cora Millet, a native of Malone, New York. Her father was engaged 



872 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

for years in the manufacture of stoves at Montreal, Canada. Mr. and 
Mrs. Parsons are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
belongs to Evergreen Lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons ; to the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers; the Auto Dealers Association, of 
which he is president ; and to the Present Day Club and the Business 
Men's Association. While he has always been a democrat, he has con- 
fined his participation in politics to the exercising of his right of suffrage. 
Mr. Parsons is a man to whom home, friends, the public weal, good 
government, the larger interests of humanity, education, charity, morality 
and religion, all find a generous welcome in his heart and life. He is by 
nature a friendly man. a man who makes friends, who holds them, is 
loyal to them at whatever cost. His is a genial personality, whole-souled, 
generous to a fault. His friendships are marked by no boundaries of party 
or creed. He honors manhood, fidelity, courage, high principle, and 
when he finds men to his liking he gives them his confidence, his aflfection, 
his steadfast loyalty. 

D.^VTD Charles Strong, M. D., surgeon and physician of San Ber- 
nardino, has established a practice that is in itself a just tribute to his 
professional skill. When he was graduated he did not consider his 
medical education was completed, and by means of hospital experience 
he added much to his already thorough knowledge of surgery and 
medicine. To these he by practical experience in all branches of his 
profession has added a masterly understanding of each. 

Dr. Strong is thoroughly imbued with the progressive spirit of these 
times and he neglects no opportunity for research and improvement, and 
he keeps thoroughly posted in all new methods and in discoveries in sur- 
gery and the science and treatment of disease. 

In surgical cases he takes a very special interest, and he has per- 
formed many exceedingly delicate and difiicult operations, in fact he is 
the born, not made, surgeon, with the keen eye that seems to see unerr- 
ingly into the heart of things, the insight and delicate discernment which, 
combined with his sure knowledge, makes him a surgeon second to few 
in his chosen sphere. 

Dr. Strong was born in Paxton. Illinois, the son of Robert and Mar- 
tha (Miller) Strong, his father being a farmer and a pioneer of that 
state. His mother was a native of Indiana. Both died in Illinois. 
Dr. Strong was educated in the public schools of Paxton, Illinois, and 
from them went to the Rice Collegiate Institute of the same city, 
from whence he was graduated in 1898. He then studied medicine in 
the Medical Department of the LTniversity of Illinois, graduating in 
1902. He took up the duties of house surgeon in the Wichita Hospital 
of Wichita, Kansas, remaining there for a year and a half. 

Dr. Strong came to California in 1903, locating first in Redlands, 
where he practiced for two years, in November, 1905. removing to San 
Bernardino, where he has been in constant practice since. He special- 
izes in surgery and is the owner of the .Sequoia Hospital, located on the 
corner of Fifth and D streets. It is an up to date, thoroughly modern, 
well equipped hospital, containing twenty-five beds. 

As superintendent of the County Hospital from 1905 to 1911, he made 
such a record one would have to think long to name one who has done 
more valuable work in that position. 

Dr. Strong first married in Chicago, Illinois, December 25, 1901, to 
Miss Mary Alice Glenn, a native of Chicago and a daughter of \\'. T. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 873 

Glenn, a business man of that city who served in the Union army dur- 
ing the Civil war as captain of an Indiana Company. He was of old 
American stock of English descent. Mrs. Strong passed away in 1910. 
They had one child, Robert Glenn Strong, a student of the California 
State University, Class of 1925. 

Dr. Strong contracted a second marriage in 1916, with Alice Bixby, 
a daughter of Charles Bixby, of Pasadena. Dr. Strong is a Fellow of 
the American College of Surgeons and a member of the California State 
Medical Association, the American Medical Association and the San 
Bernardino County Medical Association. Fraternally he is affiliated 
with the San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks; San Bernardino Lodge No. 348, A. F. and A. M. ; Keystone 
Chapter No. 56, R. A. M., and San Bernardino Commandery, Knights 
Templar. Politically he gives his allegiance to the republican party. 
In religious faith he is a Presbyterian. 

Benjamin W. Handy is one of the ])ioneers of Riverside, having 
come here in 1876, so that today he is one of the oldest living citizens, and 
is held in the highest respect by all who know him. He has been identified 
principally with the orange culture of this region. His efforts have not, 
however, been confined to the material things of this world, for to him 
belongs in large measure the credit for the organization of the Young 
Men's Christian Association in this city. In 1883 Frank Culver, of 
Pasadena, came to Riverside and with Mr. Handy and a group of earnest 
young men discussed the advisability of organizing the association here. 
The result of the conference was the establishment of the organization 
of which Mr. Handy was the first president. Since then he has continued 
to do much in its behalf, and has continued one of its directorate since 
its establishment. 

Born at Marion, Massachusetts, August 12, 1853, Benjamin W. Handy 
is the son of Capt. Benjamin B. and Bet.sy C. (Small) Handy, the former 
a native of Marion, Massachusetts, and the latter of Provincetown, Massa- 
chusetts. Captain Handy, who died in 1898, came from a family of 
Revolutionary stock and French descent. He was a son of Caleb Handy, 
a captain of militia during the War of 1812, and a man who saw active 
service in that conflict. Mrs. Handy, who died in 1901, belonged to a 
family of French descent, which was established in this country during 
its Colonial epoch. 

Capt. B. B. Handy commanded a whaling vessel out of New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, and before he was twenty-one years old had a new ship 
built for him, of which he was made the captain. He followed the sea 
with gratifying success until 1869, when he took the post of station agent 
at Marion Massachusetts, and held it until the fall of 1876, in which 
year he brought his family to Riverside. After his arrival here he pro- 
ceeded at once to become a property owner, buying fifteen acres of land 
on Broughton Avenue, five acres of which were under cultivation, and he 
planted the other ten with orange trees. In the fall of 1878 his sterling 
character received proper recognition in his election as supervisor of 
San Bernardino County, and he sold his ranch and moved into town. 
When the City of Riverside was incorporated he was elected as one of the 
first of the city's trustees, and he lived up to the best expectations of his 
constituents in both offices, to which he was elected on the republican 
ticket. 

Captain Handy was a man of much executive ability, and was one of 
the promoters and stockholders, with a group of his fellow citizens, to 
erect the first pavilion for orange shows, which initial undertaking has 



874 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

developed into such an important feature for both Riverside and San 
Bernardino counties. This first pavilion was later destroyed by fire. 
He was one of a company of six who bought the Mound City tract and 
built the hotel there, now known as the Loma Linda. The Masonic 
fraternity had in him a zealous member. 

Benjamin W. Handy attended the public schools of Marion, Massachu- 
setts, and went to sea with his father on his last two voyages, coming home 
a harpooner. During these trips he had a wonderful experience he has 
never forgotten, and during them visited the Azore Islands, the coast of 
Africa, the West Indies, the Bermudas, and other places. During those 
days before the introduction of kerosene, whaling was a most remunerative 
occupation, but with the discovery of the various uses to which the coal 
oil could be put, and the fact that it could be produced so much more 
cheaply, the demand for whale oil fell off very materially, although 
there will always be a sale for the products from this great mammal. 

The Handy family made the trip to California by steamer and the 
Isthmus of Panama and Aspinwall, and after their arrival at Riverside 
Benjamin W. Handy assisted his father in his orange growing business 
until 1882, when he secured property in his own name on Broughton 
Avenue. He later sold that property and bought another near Little 
Rubidoux Mountain, and continued in the orange industry for thirty years, 
shipping through Riverside Heights Association Number 10. About 1912 
he sold his interests and since then has lived in comfortable retirement. 
He has always voted the republican ticket, but aside from serving as 
the first probation officer Riverside ever elected he has not come before the 
public for political honors. 

When Mr. Handy first arrived at Riverside it was but a small com- 
munity, and he has had the privilege of witnessing its remarkable growth, 
and during that period has been a consistent and constructive booster 
for everything he honestly believed would be beneficial to the city and 
its people, and has eagerly supported what would secure its welfare. 

For many years he has been an honored member of the First Con- 
gregational Church of Riverside, and has served as one of its doacons. 
Both he and his sister. Miss Elizabeth J. Handy, have been active in the 
work of this church. Miss Elizabeth J. Handy was a professional nurse 
for seven or eight years in Los Angeles. She was called home by the 
illness of her mother, and remained with her until the latter's death. 
Since that time she and Mr. Handy have been living at the old home 
place. Mr. Handy has never married. Another sister, Mrs. Thomas 
Stephenson, passed away in 1919, and one brother, John Handy, died 
two years after the family located in the city. A third sister is Mrs. 
George D. Cunningham, reference to whom is made elsewhere in this 
volume. 

Mr. Handy's influence in his community has always been of the 
highest character. In his business life he has carried out his religious 
creed, and always has taken great interest in the welfare of the young 
men of the city, not only through the usual channels of the Association, 
but has evinced a personal care for them, and many have received assistance 
from him at a critical period in their career. While he no longer takes 
an active part in the strenuous life of Riverside, he is still regarded as 
one of the important factors in the welfare work of the city, and his 
advice is sought and taken on many subjects. 

William M. Huls — While his early life back in his native state of 
Ohio included service as a teacher and railroad man, William M. Huls 
since coming to San Bernardino has had his time and energies fully taken 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 875 

up with his printing business, which he established here on a small scale 
and has developed into one of the best commercial printing shops in the 
two counties. 

Mr. Huls was born at Logan, Ohio, May 24, 1873, son of William 
H. and Elizabeth R. (Weltner) Huls, both natives of Ohio and of 
Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. The parents are now deceased. William 
H. Huls entered the Union Army at the beginning of the Civil war, in 
Company H of the 58th Ohio Infantry, served four years, going in as 
a first lieutenant and coming out as a captain of his company. He was 
in many battles, including the great engagement at Shiloh. After the 
war he followed the business of contractor and builder, and was a man 
of prominence in his home community of Rockbridge, serving as a 
member of the Board of Education. 

William M. Huls acquired a public school education in Ohio, and for 
four terms taught in the district schools of Rockbridge. The next ten 
years he devoted to railroad work as operator and ticket agent at Cheshire, 
Ohio, for the Hocking Valley Railroad. He then joined his brother, 
A. E. Huls. at Logan, owner of a newspaper and printing plant there, 
and under his brother learned the printer's trade and remained associated 
with the business five years. Mr. Huls in the meantime had determined 
that the best energies of his life should be expended in Southern Cali- 
fornia, and when he came to the state he brought his wife and two 
children, leaving them at Los Angeles while he looked over the country 
for a suitable location. San Bernardino ofifered the most attractions, and 
here he established a job printing plant. He has continued the business 
without interruption, and now has what is regarded as the best equipped 
one-man shop in the two counties. It is fitted with automatic presses 
and all the facilities for a general commercial job printing business, and 
is operated on a capacity schedule. 

Mr. Huls is a member of Typographical Union No. 84 of San Bernar- 
dino, and is also president of the Orange Belt Employing Printers Asso- 
ciation, embracing all the printers in San Bernardino and Riverside 
counties. This is an organization for mutual good and interchange of 
information afifecting the welfare of the printing trade. Mr. Huls is 
affiliated with the Fraternal Order of Eagles, and has always cast his 
vote as a republican. 

At Lancaster, Ohio, May 24, 1898, he married Miss Elizabeth L: 
Deeds, who was born in Ohio, daughter of William J. and Sarah Ann 
Deeds. Her father was a merchant. Mr. and Mrs. Huls have two 
children. Trenton D.. who graduated from the San Bernardino High 
School in 1919, was during the World war in the service of the navy at 
San Pedro and is now studying for the profession of dentistry at Los 
Angeles. The daughter. Nellie Marie Huls, is a member of the class of 
1922 at the San Bernardino High School. She is unusually gifted in 
music and is studying with the purpose of following a musical career. 

Lewis C. Hunsaker was a man whose sterling attributes of character 
gained to him a wide circle of friends in Riverside County, where he 
established the family home in 1902. at Riverside, and where he lived 
virtually retired until his death in 1909. 

Mr. Hunsaker was born in Adams County, Wisconsin, June 29. 1840, 
his father, Abraham Hunsaker, gained pioneer honors in both Iowa and 
Wisconsin, in which latter state he conducted farming the remainder of 
his life, his death occurring in Kentucky while on a visit to his daughter. 
He was of a representative family that was founded in America prior to 



876 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

the War of the Revolution, and his wife, whose maiden name was Mary 
Dodd, was of remote English ancestry. 

Lewis C. Hunsaker received the advantages of the common schools 
of Wisconsin, and his entire active career was marked by close and 
successful association with farm industry. He continued his residence 
in Wisconsin until 1865, when he removed to Iowa. He continued as 
one of the representative farmers of the Hawkeye State until 1902, when 
he came with his wife to Riverside, California, where he lived virtually 
retired until his death. His f>rst marriage occurred in the early '60s, 
and his first wife was survived by two children, Frank, who was a 
successful merchant in Iowa at the time of his death, and Viola, who is 
the wife of John Perry, a farmer near Chadron, Nebraska. 

On the 9th of December, 1872, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. 
Hunsaker and Miss Ella Cone, who was born in Linn County, Iowa, and 
who knew no other other father than her stepfather, A. B. Mason, of 
whom more definite mention is made on other pages of this work, in 
the personal sketch of his son, M. S. Mason. Another son, D. B. Ma.son, 
was one of the prominent and honored citizens of Riverside at the time 
of his death. Mrs. Hunsaker received excellent educational advantages 
and had been a successful school teacher in Iowa prior to her marriage, 
her active interest in and as.sociation with educational work having con- 
tinued many years. Both she and her daughter are zealous members of 
the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Riverside and are teachers 
in its Sunday School. While still residing in Iowa Mrs. Hunsaker was 
specially active in church work, and served both as secretary of its Home 
Missionary Society and as president of its Foreign Missionary Society. 
She resides at 329 Beverly Court, Riverside, and is popular in the 
representative social activities of the community. Mrs. Hunsaker 
has four children and seven grandchildren. Charles Hunsaker, the 
eldest, is proprietor of a well equipped grocery store on Brocton 
Avenue, Riverside. He married Alice Fable, a native of Pennsylvania. 
Burton C. Hunsaker is the employ of the Pacific Balloon Works at 
Riverside. Bertha is the wife of George E. Palmer, who is employed by 
the California Iron Works of Riverside, and they have two children, 
Ruth and Ernest. Walter Scott Hunsaker, who is now a progressive 
and successful farmer in the State of Arizona, married Miss Ethel Perry, 
of Iowa, and they have five children : Helen and Walter, who were 
born in Iowa; Perry, who was born at Riverside. California; Robert 
Harold, who was born in Arizona ; and Harold, an infant, who is a 
native of Riverside. 

Myron S. Mason, for a quarter of a century lived the strenuous life 
of an Iowa and Minnesota farmer. During a brief interlude in his 
responsibilities he paid a visit to California, and that visit became a 
permanent association with the Riverside community. He is one of 
many original Iowa men who make up the progressive element in the 
town and country, and has been a successful orange grower here for 
many years. 

Mr. Mason was born in Iowa March 15, 1853. He is a de.scendant 
of Sir Tohn Mason, privy counsellor of England in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The family record reads that two brothers. Sir Hugh Mason and 
John Mason, came to America in early Colonial days and identified 
themselves with the colonv of Massachusetts. Both were old Indian 
fiehters. Myron Mason is a descendant of the faniilv of Sir Hugh. 
His father. A. B. Mason, was born at Spencer, Massachusetts, in 1801. 
In early life he moved west to Illinois and later to Iowa, locating close 




1^ 


^^^■HI||^^^^H 


s^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^IHh^^^h 











SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 877 

to the town of Marion, where his sgn, Myron, was born. He was a 
farmer, contractor and builder, and his business and personal character 
made him prominent in the community. He was always called Squire 
Mason, having served as justice of the peace of Toledo, Iowa. He died 
in 1862. His wife was Harriet Green, a native of New York State and 
also of English ancestry. 

Myron S. Mason was well educated, attending the public schools of 
Toledo, Iowa, and also Grinnell College. From farm worker he began 
the operation of a farm in Iowa, but in 1884 removed to Rock County, 
in the southwestern part of Minnesota, where he bought a tract of 
unimproved land. His labors there over a period of years developed 
a productive farm, and as one of the pioneers he was otherwise prom- 
inent in that district. He continued his farming in that county until 
1894, and did not sell his land there mitil 1919. 

His brother, Dwight B. Mason, had been a resident of Riverside 
since 1886. Myron Mason paid this brother a visit in 1899. Imme- 
diately he was transformed into an enthusiastic Californian, and as a 
preliminary to establishing his permanent home here purchased ten acres 
of unimproved land on La Cadena Drive. This land he has graded, 
and he personally planted every tree and shrub and built the house at 
381 La Cadena, which he has occupied for the past twenty years. He 
has brought his grove into a high state of bearing, and the entire tract 
is one of the beautiful and sightly places in that portion of the city. 
Ever since the trees came into bearing he has been shipping the fruit 
through Riverside Heights Packing House No. 10. During his resi- 
dence in Minnesota Mr. Mason served for some time as secretary of 
the School Board. He has never been in politics, though interested in 
the election of republican candidates. 

In 1891 he married Miss Alvira Irish, a native of Iowa. She died 
on the old farm in Minnesota. Mrs. Ma.son possessed much literary 
ability, was devoted to church and home, and frequently wrote for 
religious papers. December 16, 1908, at Tecumseh, Nebraska, Mr. Ma- 
son married Miss Laura E. Ma.son, a second cousin. She was born at 
Fairbury, Illinois, of the same early ancestry as her husband. Her 
father, Otis S. Mason, was a native of New York State and served in 
the 129th Illinois Regiment of Infantry during the Civil war. Mrs. 
Mason has long been identified with the work of the Methodist Church, 
and has served as an officer in the Daughters of the Rebekah. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mason have no children, but have taken a niece, Miss Gwendolyn 
Virginia Ma.son, as their own. She is now a student in the Riverside 
schools. 

Mary Elizabeth (Knox) Rouse — One of the most distinctive 
features of the twentieth century has been the opening of almost all doors 
to women, which once were closed in their faces, so that today the sex 
is well represented in practically every profession and line of business. 
This advance was not secured easily, for many were prejudiced against 
a woman in any kind of work outside the home or the schoolroom, but 
once the opening wedge was entered it was not long until the forceful 
women who were aggressive enough to take the lead proved that not 
only were they capable of performing any duties hitherto assigned to 
men, hut that in many instances they were more efficient, and fully as 
trustworthy, so that today a number of the employers prefer them to 
men. Women are also proving themselves worthy aspirants for public 
office, and are receiving election and appointments to some of the most 
responsible of them. The West has taken the lead in the recognition of 
women's worth in the business world, as it has in so many other ways, 



878 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

and San Bernardino, like other California cities, has some very remarkable 
instances of women in office. One of these alert, experienced and wide- 
awake women in public affairs who is making a splendid record and 
giving her city expert service is Mrs. Mary Elizabeth (Knox) Rouse, 
auditor of the San Bernardino municipal water department, deputy 
city clerk and deputy city treasurer, and one of the most highly specialized 
accountants in the county. 

Mrs. Rouse was born in Illinois, September 11, 1891, a daughter of 
Joseph Knox, a native of Baden-Baden, Germany, whose father was of 
German birth and his mother of Scotch. Joseph Knox came to the 
United States when he was sixteen years of age, with his brothers and 
sisters, and they located in Sangamon County, Illinois, where in the 
process of time they became landowners, Joseph Kpox owning a valuable 
farm near Springfield. Later in life he sold his farm and became a 
resident of Springfield. During the war between the United States and 
Spain he enlisted and served until he was honorably discharged after 
the termination of the war. Mrs. Rouse's mother came of Irish and 
English ancestry. 

Growing up in her native county, Mrs. Rouse attended the public 
schools and a convent, and then acquired a business training in a com- 
mercial college. Coming to California, she spent one year in a stock- 
broker's office at Los Angeles and another year as an executive in a 
motion picture exchange business in the same city, and then, in 1911, 
came to San Bernardino. In 1914 her connection with the municipality 
began when she took a position as stenographer in the municipal water 
department. So capable did she prove to be that she was rapidly advanced 
to be cashier, then secretary and, finally, auditor. At one time she also 
was a copyist and deputy county recorder. Her present duties include 
acting as secretary for the Board of Water Commissioners, and, as above 
stated, she is deputy city clerk and deputy city treasurer, and she is a 
registered notary public. 

On July 4, 1911, Mary Elizabeth Knox was married at San Bernardino' 
to George H. Rouse, of Michigan, who died May 8, 1915. Mrs. Rouse 
is a Catholic, and has held minor offices with Catholic societies. 

Henry F. Wegnori, the present building and plumbing inspector for 
the City of San Bernardino, is one of the most enterprising citizens of 
San Bernardino County, and has been the incumbent of his present office 
ever since the adoption of the new charter. As he is also a builder and 
general contractor, he understands his duties thoroughly and has a practi- 
cal knowledge of all the problems which arise for his settlement, including 
those relating to the state housing department, which is under his charge. 

Mr. Wegnori is of French descent, his grandfather, H. F. Wegnori, 
having been a native of Lyons, France. He immigrated to New Orleans, 
Louisiana, when a young man, and for some years was a captain on a 
Mississippi River steamboat. His son John Wegnori, father of Henry 
F. Wegnori, was born in New Orleans, and he, too, was a Mississippi 
River captain, but later was sent by a company of boatbuilders to Geneva, 
Switzerland, to build and operate a pleasure boat on Lake Geneva. His 
wife, Annie Walther, was born in New Orleans, and there she died. Their 
children were four in number, and Henry F. was the youngest. He was 
only three years old when he was taken to Geneva, Switzerland, his birth 
having taken place in New Orleans November 1, 1846. 

From 1849 to 1864 Henry F. Wegnori continued to live at Geneva, 
where his father operated the pleasure boat until his death in 1865, and 
the lad attended the schools of that city, and in addition to the regular 
studies he took up French, German and Italian, becoming very proficient 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES ' 879 

in these languages, learning to speak, read and write them fluently. At 
the same time lie learned the carpenter and cabinetmaking trades. 

In 1864 he returned to the United States, and worked at his trade 
at New Orleans. In 1866 he left his birthplace, having satisfied his 
natural desire to see it, and went to Omaha, Nebraska, and worked as a 
bridge builder for the Union Pacific road to Ogden, Utah, and went 
through to California in 1869, when the Union Pacific and Central Pacific 
came together. He had the satisfaction of being present when the historic 
golden spike was driven at Promontary Point, Utah, which event marked 
a great epoch in railroad construction history. 

Still looking for a permanent place of residence, in 1869 Mr. Wegnori 
left Ogden for San Francisco, California, and worked at his trade for 
a time, but left it for Virginia City, Nevada, where he alternated mining 
during the winter and building and contracting in the summer. At the 
expiration of five years he made another change, going to Truckee, 
California, and was foreman of a planing mill until 1886. 

Mr. Wegnori went to France in 1870 and joined the French army as 
a civil engineer in the Sudan war. In 1872 he, with the rest of the 
French army, was forced to lay down his arms to the Prussians. He 
retreated with the French army from Metz. When the World war started 
he urged his adopted son, John U. Wegnori, to give his services. The 
young man joined the Canadian army and fought in the same battlefields 
as did his father. When the United States entered the war John Wegnori 
was transferred to the army of his own country. He was wounded in 
action. 

During all of his travels Mr. Wegnori, while interested in the different 
places in which he stopped, was not entirely satisfied, and it was not until 
1886, when he reached San Bernardino, that he found conditions to suit 
him, and he has since made this city his home. For the first three years 
he was foreman of the West Coast Lumber Company, but since then has 
been extensively interested in building and contracting, and has executed 
some of the most important contracts in and about San Bernardino. 
Among other buildings which stand as a monument to his skill and reliabil- 
ity may be mentioned the Harbison and Levy buildings. 

His marriage to Miss Hattie Dill, a native of Ohio, occurred in Los 
Angeles. California. They own a beautiful residence at San Bernardino, 
one of the finest in the city. His long retention in his present office is 
proof positive of his proficiency in his calling and his honesty in serving 
the people of his home city. In politics Mr. Wegnori is a republican. 
Fraternally he maintains membership with the Masons, Knights of 
Pythias and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

Ivan Lewis Finkelberg, M. D. — Before the estabhshment of in- 
stitutions in which the ambitious young man could secure a practical 
knowledge at first hand of the treatment of disease it was not until a 
medical practitioner had been engaged in the calling he had adopted for 
his life work a number of years that he was admitted to be a dependable 
man. Now, however, the physician and surgeon enters upon his practice 
more fully qualified than was his predecessor of half a century ago at 
the close of his career, and youth in this learned calling is now an addi- 
tional characteristic to be added to the sum total in his favor. Dr. Ivan 
Lewis Finkelberg. of San Bernardino, is recognized as one of the most 
brilliant young medical men of this part of Southern California, and is 
making a remarkable record in his profession. His advent into Southern 
California is of recent date, but already he has won the place in his 



880 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

community to which his talents entitle him, and has formed connections 
which are very valuable. 

Doctor Finkelberg was born in Chicago, lUinoi^^, November 18, 1891. 
After completing the high school course in his native city he further con- 
tinued his studies at the Young Men's Christian Association, and was 
graduated therefrom with honors. He was a successful participant in all 
the athletic sports and events during the time he was a student, both of 
the high school and association, was frequently the victor in the various 
games, and made good in his studies as he did in sports. A close student. 
Doctor Finkelberg has associated himself with the scientific Research 
Society, of which he is a valued and active member. His fraternal affilia- 
tions are with the Knights of Pythias and the college fraternity Zeta Mu 
Phi. During his senior year he was a member of the entertainment 
committee at College, and in that capacity made many friendships. 
Following the completion of his classical education the young man became 
a student of Loyola University School of Medicine, and was graduated 
therefrom in 1919 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. During his 
junior year in this school the Scrap Book contained an interesting sketch 
of him and a striking portrait. 

Since coming to California Dr. Finkelberg has made it his pleasure to 
acquaint himself with the conditions in San Bernardino, and is prepared 
to give his unqualified support to those measures which will bring about 
reforms, especially in sanitation, and to maintain the many excellent public 
improvements already installed. Having decided to make this his per- 
manent home, he is anxious to keep everything in prime condition. 

Jonathan Tibbet, a native son of the Golden West, was born on 
one of the first American ranches in the vicinity of old San Gabriel, had 
a strenuously active and successful commercial career both in California 
and Arizona, and from boyhood to the present time has been deeply 
interested in the problems and welfare of the Indians of Southern Cali- 
fornia, and regards perhaps as the greatest distinction of his life, even 
more than his material achievements, the official title and responsibilities 
he now enjoys as grand chief counselor of the Mission Indian Federa- 
tion, of which he was one of the founders. 

He was born near the San Gabriel Mission January 5, 1856. His 
father, Jonathan Tibbet, was a native of Michigan. In 1848, accom- 
panied by his mother and older brother, he journeyed to California across 
the plains with an ox team. He was in Los Angeles County for a 
time, thence went to Hangtown, now known as Placerville. Two years 
of arduous labor in the mines gave him the money which he took back 
East to buy a farm long coveted by him and his wife. They settled down 
with the purpose of remaining there in peace and contentment the rest 
of their days. However, the lure of the Golden Coast was strong upon 
them, and after enduring the bleak climate of the East for one year they 
sold out and once more headed West, coming across the plains with 
some of the first herds of American cattle, sheep and horses ever 
brought to the coast. Jonathan Tibbet, Sr., bought the interests of the 
heirs to a Spanish grant of many thousands of acres near the San 
Gabriel Mission. This land he used for a stock ranch, breeding and sell- 
ing stock, and getting fabulous prices for some of his cows in 1853. 
With the aid of his Indian neighbors he went into the mountains above 
the present site of Monrovia, cut trees, hauled them down and whip- 
sawed all the lumber that went into the ranch house. In the dimension 
commodity there was not a timber less than 6x6 and the joists were 





JMc^ 



SAX BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 881 

12x12. It \\as in this sturdy pioneer house than Jonathan Tibbet was 
born. 

On the Tibbet lands at San Gabriel in the early days were seven 
Indian villages. All the servants in the Tibbets house were Indians. 
The regular pay for the Indians was twenty-five cents a day, but Jona- 
than Tibbet, Sr., gave them double that amount, and the result was 
that both father and son became "blood brothers" to the red men. 
Through this intimate contact Jonathan Tibbet, Jr., developed a full 
command of Indian language, learning to speak eleven of the old Indian 
dialects, and is as fluent with Spanish as a native. He not only learned 
the language but also the Indian point of view, and through the Indian 
ceremonies he was made chief a number of times and to the Indians is 
known as "Chief ButYalo Heart." Jonathan Tibbet, Sr., in addition to 
conducting his ranch bought and drove cattle north to the mines. There 
being no banks to transmit money, he had to carry it with him and many 
times was called upon to defend his money and his life from the high- 
waymen who infested the roads. 

Later the United States Government sent out a commissioner to adjust 
the Spanish grant titles to California land, and the Tibbet's holdings 
were adjudged as a grazing permit and not as a grant. After litigation 
extending over several years Mr. Tibbet lost the grant with the excep- 
tion of the old home place. Subsequently this was sold, and he then bought 
acreage near Santa Monica, where he established his home and with 
his pioneer wife spent the declining years of his life. This place is now 
owned by his younger sister, Mrs. P. N. Arnold, who with her husband 
uses the ground as a lima bean plantation. 

Jonathan Tibbet was educated in the public schools and in the Episco- 
pal College just above San Gabriel Mission. Boyhood experiences had 
inured him to the customs and duties of the frontier, and when only 
twelve years of age he stood guard with his father against an impend- 
ing Indian attack. His early activities were those of a stockman and 
trader and merchant in Arizona and elsewhere, and his business was 
centered in Arizona until 1891. In that year he came to Riverside, estab- 
lishing a broker's office for buying, developing and selling real estate 
and mines. In 1912, twenty years later, he abandoned this office, since 
he had sufficient business and personal property to demand his whole 
attention. Mr. Tibbet owns three ranches in Riverside County, two 
consisting of a hundred and sixty acres each and one of twenty acres. 
These are leased. He owns a bee ranch in the white sage country, where 
the finest honey is produced. His capital is also enlisted in commercial 
enterprises and banks, and he owns forty or more lots and a number 
of houses in Riverside, considerable acreage and city property in Los 
Angeles and the county, and has some valuable ground and his summer 
home in Orange County. 

In an active life he has achieved large means and undoubted suc- 
cess, which good fortune he attributes in part to the steadfast habit of 
his life in never taking a drink of liquor, never winning or losing a 
cent in any kind of gambling game, and never signing a note. 

Mr. Tibbet is a scholarly authority on local history. He has a won- 
derful collection of pioneer relics, Indian relics, souvenirs and curios, 
sufficient to make a respectable foundation for any museum. Included 
in this collection are many articles from the home of George and Martha 
Washington. He also has many knives, guns and pistols of bandits 
of the earlier day, including the knife of Joaquin Murrietta and the 
knife, spurs, bridle and quirt of Tiburcio Vasquez, a notable bandit. 
Mr. Tibbet took part in the hunt for the latter. 



882 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

During all the years of his active business career his interest in the 
Indian never waned. While in Arizona he spent many years as civilian 
Indian scout, Chief of Scouts and U. S. deputy marshal, and was respon- 
sible for saving many Indian lives on account of his friendly attitude. He 
has been Indian commissioner for the Riverside and San Bernardino 
Pioneer Society and also the Los Angeles Pioneer Society. Countless 
opportunities have been given him to understand the relations of the 
Indian to the white man, and the burdens and disabilities placed upon 
them, and he has keenly felt the injustice involved in the management 
of Indians and Indian affairs. After his return to California and settle- 
ment at Riverside his and his father's old Indian friends among tlo 
tribes sought him out, and through him they gave expression to their 
long cherished desires, which, when officially formulated in petition, called 
for — "Justice; to be free citizens of America; the friendly co-operation 
of the white races ; to govern and develop themselves under the pro- 
tection of Congress ; the right of arrest by warrant ; the right of trial, 
and political and civil protection ; the right to mingle with the white 
races, not as an inferior people, afraid of laws they do not understand, 
but with the proud knowledge that they are free, welcomed and pro- 
tected ; the restoration of their rights and privileges, not merely those 
God-given, but those vouchsafed and promised by the Government." 

Mr. Tibbet helped these Mission Indians organize the Mis- 
sion Indian Federation, and he was in turn honored with 
election as grand chief counselor. He has never voted with 
the tribes, but has acted as counselor on ideas they advanced them- 
selves. Over fifty tribes are represented in the Federation, with a 
total membership of about twenty thousand. This is the greatest and 
strongest Indian organization in the country, and it is believed that the 
organization is permanent and will persist until at least the fundamental 
purposes are accomplished. Mr. Tibbet is the only white man permitted 
to be a member. Many proofs might be cited to show how the Indians 
are rapidly acquiring white civilization. Their love of country and the 
Government is shown by the fact that in the late war the Indians of 
the nation sent over seventeen thousand men into the armies, and con- 
tributed approximately twenty million dollars in money, indubitable 
proof of their loyalty and patriotism. Of the Mission Indians from 
pioneer times to the present they have been peaceful, home loving, and 
never engaged in any organized hostility to the white man. In fact, 
they supplied a large share of the essential labor not only in the old 
Spanish regime but after Americans took possession of the country, and, 
as noted above, Mr. Tibbet's father employed them in the mines as early 
as 1848. At each semi-annual convention of the Mission Indians they 
conduct their affairs in a business like manner, and an expert accountant 
is employed to go over their books, and a certified statement is filed with 
the county recorder to protect them against unjust criticism. The mem- 
bers of this Indian Federation almost altogether earn their living outside 
the Reservation, since conditions in the Reservation do not permit of 
productive work or business. At a large semi-annual convention of the 
Federation, when between twelve, hundred and fifteen hundred delegates 
were present, the question was asked directly as to how many of the 
delegates present left their homes on the Reservation to secure em- 
ployment from their white friends. In reply every Indian delegate sig- 
nified that this was the case. Mr. Tibbet served as chief of the vigilantes 
for a number of years while a resident of Arizona. From the decision 
of the Judge Lynch Court there was no appeal. 

Jonathan Tibbet is a member of Arrowhead Parlor No. 110, 
Native Sons of the Golden West, of Elsinore Lodge No. 289, F. and A. 



SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 883 

M., is a member of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, and is an 
honorary member of Los Angeles County Pioneers, and a member of San 
Bernardino and Riverside Pioneers. In 1892 at Riverside, he married 
Miss Emma H. Baumann, a native of Wisconsin. Her father, Gustave 
Baumann, was at one time a leading wholesale and retail meat packer 
and merchant at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. 

Napoleon Bonapart Hale, pioneer business man and citizen of San 
Bernardino, was often alluded to as San Bernardino's "grand old business 
man," for he possessed the sterling qualities, the progressive spirit, the 
etiticient social citizenship entitling him to the loving appellation. For 
over forty years he was a potent factor in the business circles of his 
adopted home, and in all he spent over fifty years in the jewelry business 
and every year added to his reputation as one of the most highly respected 
residents of San Bernardino. 

Mr. Hale had a rather eventful life in its commencement. He saw 
the pioneer days in the East and then in the West, for he was born in a 
tiny corner crossroads in what is now a part of the City of Milwaukee. 
In Montana it was all in the making and when he came to California this 
state was far from being a quiet, staid, settled commonwealth. San 
Bernardino was in embryo, and he lived to see a live, modern city replace 
the small country village, heartily entering into every enterprise tending 
to build up and advance the interests of San Bernardino. In his passing 
the city lost one of its most valued citizens, and those who knew and loved 
him, a staunch friend. He was a kind and loving father and husband, 
and if he had a fault it was his loyalty to his friends and neighbors. 
He went into Eternity loved by his family and friends and respected and 
honored by the city in which he had spent the most of his life. 

Mr. Hale was born in Hale's Corners, near Milwaukee February 27, 
1838, the place being named after his father, who had a ranch there and 
kept the hotel for many years, and a man of high repute. Mr. Hale was 
educated in the public schools of Hale's Corners, now a part of Milwaukee. 
From there he went to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he followed mining for 
awhile and then came out West, locating in Helena, Montana. He followed 
mining there for some time, but decided to learn some good trade or 
profession. The jewlery business possessed the greatest attraction and 
he learned the business thoroughly under a Mr. Lewis in Helena. He 
pursued this occupation there for some time, but he went back to Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, where he worked in the jewelry line for two years. 
He had married a native daughter of Grand Rapids, Miss French, and 
when her father returned to Grand Rapids he followed him back, although 
he liked what he had seen of the West. Soon afterwards Mr. French came 
out to California, and, of course, was delighted with it especially San Ber- 
nardino. He purchased land in the city, some of it at Mt. Vernon and 
Fifth streets. He then returned to Michigan, having decided to bring 
his family out here to live and to persuade his son-in-law, Mr. Hale, to 
locate in San Bernardino also. Mr. Hale agreed to this, and he came out 
with furniture, fruit trees, etc. 

Mr. Hale at once, in 1874, bought out a man named Franklin, who 
had a jewelry store near the corner of Third and Arrowhead streets, and 
he at once embarked in business. In 1876 he sold to Truman Reavis a 
half interest in the business, and this partnership continued until 1884, 
when Mr. Hale sold out to his partner, Mr. Reavis. He soon opened 
another store, on D Street, south of the Opera House, and this business he 
continued until his death in March, 1915, on the 17th of the month, with the 
exception of the last three years of his life. Over thirty-one years he 



884 SAN BERNARDINO AND RIVERSIDE COUNTIES 

was in the jewelry business in the same location and ten years before 
that in his first location. In all he spent over fifty years of his life in the 
jewelry business. 

Mr. Hale married Cicilia Adelia French, a native of Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, and they were the parents of four children : Willard H., born 
in Helena, P'ebruary 27 , 1868, was educated in the San Bernardino public 
schools and then entered the jewelry business in 1886, and continued in 
it until 1892. He is a republican in politics ; Desdemona H. was born in 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, and died in 1905 ; Millard Guy was born in San 
Bernardino December 9, 1878; Edward Arthur was killed in a street car 
accident in 1907. Alillard Guy was also educated in the pubhc schools 
of San Bernardino, and then went into the jewelry business, which he 
has followed since 1895, making a success of it in every way. He married 
in 1903 Elsie A. \'aughan a native of Colton and a daughter of James 
Vaughan, of Colton. They have one child, Leanore C. Mr. Hale is a 
member of Arrowhead Parlor No. 110, Native Sons of the Golden West, 
and of San Bernardino Lodge No. 836, Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks. He is a republican in politics. 

N. B. Hale was a member of the A. O. U. W'., and was its finan- 
cial secretary for many years. 

John Fl.\ck — Many of the enthusiastic boosters for San Bernardino, 
while dwelling at length upon its greatness as a railroad center and the 
opportunities here afi^orded for industrial and commercial expansion, for- 
get another and important claim it has to favorable consideration for resi- 
dential purposes, for the Gate City is second to none in this part of the 
country as a home city the year around. This feature is recognized by a 
number of men who have already earned the right to step aside from the 
deeply trodden path of business endeavor and during the remainder of 
the years allotted them enjoy amid delightful surroundings the peace and 
plenty their own industry has provided. One of these representative 
retired residents of the city is John Flack, who for thirty-two years was a 
railroad man before coming to San Bernardino, and for some years there- 
after, a merchant. For the past four or five years, however, he has 
belonged to the leisure class, although he still maintains his interest in 
the city and its further progress. 

John Flack was born at Atlanta, Georgia, August 17, 1850, a son 
of John and Mary Flack, natives of Germany, both of whom are now 
deceased. The father was a contracting carpenter, and well known in 
his day. 

Although only a child when war was declared between the North and 
the South, the younger John Flack was in thorough sympathy with the 
Confederacy, and in spite of opposition from his parents, who naturally 
felt that the battlefield was no place for one of his tender years, he 
managed to join the famous guerilla leader General John Morgan, and 
participated in many of the noted expeditions of his command, and re- 
mained in the service until the close of th